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Sample records for subgenus agrodiaetus lepidoptera

  1. Principles of the highly ordered arrangement of metaphase I bivalents in spermatocytes of Agrodiaetus (Insecta, Lepidoptera).

    PubMed

    Lukhtanov, Vladimir A; Dantchenko, Alexander V

    2002-01-01

    We have investigated the nature of highly ordered bivalent arrangement in lepidopteran spermatocytes by analysing and comparing the patterns of bivalent distribution in intact metaphase I plates of 24 closely related species of the genus Agrodiaetus (Lycaenidae). The studied species greatly differed in haploid chromosome numbers (from n = 13 to n = 90) and in the structure of their karyotypes. We found that the larger the bivalent, the closer to the centre of the metaphase plate it was situated. In species with a high chromosome number and asymmetrical karyotype structure, the largest bivalent was located in the centre of the circular metaphase plate. Bivalents of equal size were approximately equidistant from the centre of the metaphase plate and formed concentric circles around the largest bivalent. These principles are diametrically different from those known in the majority of other animals and plants, in which the smallest elements of the chromosome set are situated in the centre of metaphase plate. The only exception from the above principles was observed in spermatocytes of A. surakovi which were heterozygous for reciprocal translocation involving two or three chromosome pairs. In addition to one large bivalent, the heterozygous cells had a multivalent, the size of which was comparable to or even exceeded that of the largest bivalentin the karyotype. In spite of thelarge size, the multivalent was always situated at the periphery of metaphase plate. This indicated that the chromosome size itself is not the only factor determining the bivalent position. We also found that the structure of the metaphase plate is fundamentally different in mitotic and meiotic cells of Agrodiaetus. In spermatogonial metaphase, chromosomes were tightly brought together, forming a dense compact disk, whereas during metaphase I of spermatocytes, all bivalents were clearly separated from each other, and the distance between adjacent bivalents varied from 0.4 to 1.5 microm. Based on

  2. [Dynamics of chromosome number evolution in the Agrodiaetus phyllis species complex (Insecta: Lepidoptera)].

    PubMed

    Vershinina, A O; Lukhtanov, V A

    2013-01-01

    We employed phylogenetic comparative method to study karyotype evolution in the Agrodiaetus phyllis species complex in which haploid chromosome numbers vary greatly ranging from 10 to 134. We have found that different phylogenetic lineages of the group have different rates of chromosome number changes. Chromosome numbers in the complex posses phylogenetic signal, and their evolutionary transformation is difficult to explain in terms of punctual and gradual evolution. PMID:23875457

  3. Intragenomic variations of multicopy ITS2 marker in Agrodiaetus blue butterflies (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae)

    PubMed Central

    Shapoval, Nazar A.; Lukhtanov, Vladimir A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The eukaryotic ribosomal DNA cluster consists of multiple copies of three genes, 18S, 5. 8S and 28S rRNAs, separated by multiple copies of two internal transcribed spacers, ITS1 and ITS2. It is an important, frequently used marker in both molecular cytogenetic and molecular phylogenetic studies. Despite this, little is known about intragenomic variations within the copies of eukaryotic ribosomal DNA genes and spacers. Here we present data on intraindividual variations of ITS2 spacer in three species of Agrodiaetus Hübner, 1822 blue butterflies revealed by cloning technique. We demonstrate that a distinctly different intragenomic ITS2 pattern exists for every individual analysed. ITS2 sequences of these species show significant intragenomic variation (up to 3.68% divergence), setting them apart from each other on inferred phylogenetic tree. This variation is enough to obscure phylogenetic relationships at the species level. PMID:26753069

  4. Taxonomic interpretation of chromosomal and mitochondrial DNA variability in the species complex close to Polyommatus (Agrodiaetus) dama (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae)

    PubMed Central

    Shapoval, Nazar A.; Lukhtanov, Vladimir A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In this paper, by using combination of molecular and chromosomal markers, populations of Polyommatus (Agrodiaetus) karindus (Riley, 1921) from north-west and central Iran are analyzed. It has been found that taxon usually identified as Polyommatus (Agrodiaetus) karindus is represented in Iran by two geographically separated groups of individuals, strongly differentiated by their karyotypes and mitochondrial haplotypes. It is demonstrated that populations from NW Iran have the haploid chromosome number n = 68, while the haploid chromosome number of Polyommatus (Agrodiaetus) karindus from central Iran is found to be n = 73. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these groups also differ by at least eight nucleotide substitutions in a 690 bp fragment of the mitochondrial COI gene and form separated groups of clusters in Bayesian inference tree. Thus, population entities from central Iran are described here as a new subspecies Polyommatus (Agrodiaetus) karindus saravandi ssp. n. Strong chromosomal and molecular differentiation are confirmed between Polyommatus (Agrodiaetus) karindus and its sister species, Polyommatus (Agrodiaetus) dama (Staudinger, 1892). PMID:26807033

  5. Floral Evolution of Philodendron Subgenus Meconostigma (Araceae)

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Letícia Loss; Calazans, Luana Silva Braucks; de Morais, Érica Barroso; Mayo, Simon Joseph; Schrago, Carlos Guerra; Sakuragui, Cassia Mônica

    2014-01-01

    Elucidating the evolutionary patterns of flower and inflorescence structure is pivotal to understanding the phylogenetic relationships of Angiosperms as a whole. The inflorescence morphology and anatomy of Philodendron subgenus Meconostigma, belonging to the monocot family Araceae, has been widely studied but the evolutionary relationships of subgenus Meconostigma and the evolution of its flower characters have hitherto remained unclear. This study examines gynoecium evolution in subgenus Meconostigma in the context of an estimated molecular phylogeny for all extant species of subgenus Meconostigma and analysis of ancestral character reconstructions of some gynoecial structures. The phylogenetic reconstructions of all extant Meconostigma species were conducted under a maximum likelihood approach based on the sequences of two chloroplast (trnk and matK) and two nuclear (ETS and 18S) markers. This topology was used to reconstruct the ancestral states of seven floral characters and to elucidate their evolutionary pattern in the Meconostigma lineage. Our phylogeny shows that Meconostigma is composed of two major clades, one comprising two Amazonian species and the other all the species from the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado biomes with one Amazonian species. The common ancestor of the species of subgenus Meconostigma probably possessed short stylar lobes, long stylar canals, a stylar body, a vascular plexus in the gynoecium and druses in the stylar parenchyma but it is uncertain whether raphide inclusions were present in the parenchyma. The ancestral lineage also probably possessed up to 10 ovary locules. The evolution of these characters seems to have occurred independently in some lineages. We propose that the morphological and anatomical diversity observed in the gynoecial structures of subgenus Meconostigma is the result of an ongoing process of fusion of floral structures leading to a reduction of energy wastage and increase in stigmatic surface. PMID:24586972

  6. A review of the North and Central American Megachile subgenus Argyropile subgenus Argyropile mitchell (Hymenoptera: Megachilidas)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A synopsis of the North and Central American subgenus Megachile (Argyropile) and an illustrated key to the species in Spanish and English are provided, Megachile longuisetosa Gonzalez & Griswold, new species, from Mexico and Guatemala, and the previously unknown males of M. sabinensis and M. rossi a...

  7. Late Eocene white pines (Pinus subgenus Strobus) from southern China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qingqing; Zhou, Wenjun; Kodrul, Tatiana M.; Naugolnykh, Serge V.; Jin, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Fossil records indicate that the genus Pinus L. split into two subgenera by the Late Cretaceous, although subgenus Strobus (D. Don) Lemmon is less well documented than subgenus Pinus L., especially in eastern Asia. In this paper, Pinus maomingensis sp. nov. is established based on a compressed seed cone from the upper Eocene of the Maoming Basin of southern China. This species is attributed to genus Pinus, subgenus Strobus, section Quinquefoliae Duhamel, subsection Strobus Loudon based on the combination of morphological characters obtained from the cone scales, specifically from the terminal umbo, rhombic apophysis, and cuticle structure. Associated fascicles of needle leaves with deciduous sheaths and bulbous bases are recognized as Pinus sp. and also represent Pinus subgenus Strobus. This new discovery from the Maoming Basin constitutes the first megafossil record of subgenus Strobus from southern China and implies that the members of this subgenus arrived in the southern region of China by the late Eocene. The extant species of subgenus Strobus are mainly distributed in northern temperate and tropical to subtropical mountainous regions. We propose that the Maoming Basin was adjacent to a mountainous region during the late Eocene. PMID:26548658

  8. Triploidy in Equisetum subgenus Hippochaete (Equisetaceae, Pteridophyta)

    PubMed Central

    BENNERT, WILFRIED; LUBIENSKI, MARCUS; KÖRNER, SIMONE; STEINBERG, MATTHIAS

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims The genus Equisetum is cytologically uniform, having a base chromosome number of x = 108. All previously known species and hybrids that have been counted represent diploids with a sporophytic chromosome number of 2n = 216. Biosystematic studies on Equisetum subgenus Hippochaete revealed evidence that triploids occur in nature. The objective of this study was to confirm that triploid plants exist in the natural environment. • Methods Flow cytometry was used to establish nuclear DNA values and cytological investigations of meiosis were carried out to obtain information on chromosome number and pairing behaviour. • Key Results Triploidy exists in three morphologically different hybrid taxa. Two of these are morphologically intermediate between a primary diploid hybrid and a parent, while the third apparently combines genomes from all three Central European Hippochaete species. Nuclear 1C DNA values for the four European Hippochaete species range from 21·4–31·6 pg. For the hybrids, the 1C DNA values not only occupy the same range as the species, but their total DNA amounts agree closely with values predicted by adding the 1C DNA values of each parental genome. Chromosome counts confirm diploidy in the species E. hyemale and E. variegatum and in the hybrid E. ×trachyodon (= E. hyemale × E. variegatum). For the triploids (2n ≈ 324), cytological information is presented for the first time. • Conclusions Triploid taxa may have originated by backcrossing or by crossing of a diploid hybrid with an unrelated diploid species. As tetraploid plants are unknown, these crossings probably involve diploid gametophytes that developed from unreduced diplospores. By repeated crossing events or backcrossing, reticulate evolution patterns arise that are similar to those known for a number of ferns and fern allies. PMID:15710647

  9. Revision of the green lacewing subgenus Ankylopteryx (Sencera) (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae)

    PubMed Central

    Breitkreuz, Laura C.V.; Winterton, Shaun L.; Engel, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Australasian and Oriental green lacewing subgenus Ankylopteryx (Sencera) Navás (Chrysopinae: Ankylopterygini) is examined and its diversity and placement among other members of the tribe Ankylopterygini is discussed. After study of specimens spanning the full distribution and anatomical range of variation for the subgenus, all prior putative species, resulting in the sole valid species are newly synonymized, Ankylopteryx (Sencera) anomala (Brauer). Accordingly, the following new synonymies are established: Sencera scioneura Navás, syn. n., Sencera feae Navás, syn. n., and Sencera exquisita Nakahara, syn. n. [all under the name Ankylopteryx (Sencera) anomala]. A lectotype is newly designated for Ankylopteryx (Sencera) anomala so as to stabilize the application of the name. To support our hypotheses, the wing and general body coloration as well as the male genitalia are reviewed. We elaborate on the possibility of Ankylopteryx (Sencera) anomala being nothing more than an autapomorphic species of Ankylopteryx Brauer, as it was originally described. The species is not sufficiently distinct to warrant recognition as a separate subgenus within the group, and most certainly not as its own genus as has been advocated by past authors. Nonetheless, we do not for now go so far as to synonymize the subgenus until a more extensive phylogenetic analysis is undertaken with multiple representative species from across Ankylopteryx and other ankylopterygine genera. Lastly, we comment on the biology of Ankylopteryx (Sencera) anomala in terms of the attraction of males to methyl eugenol and on the widespread practice of splitting within Chrysopidae. PMID:26798287

  10. A revision of Eleodes subgenus Litheleodes (Coleoptera:Tenebrionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Litheleodes Blaisdell, a subgenus of Eleodes Eschscholtz, is reviewed with diagnoses, distributions, and nomenclatural notes for the nine included species. A type species, Blaps extricata Say, is herein designated, and the subgeneric definition is updated to differentiate it from related subgenera. ...

  11. Order Lepidoptera Linnaeus, 1758.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Based on two recent molecular analyses, augmented by the discovery of several published or unpublished novel morphological synapomorphies, a new classification is proposed for the order Lepidoptera. The new classification is more consistent with our growing knowledge of the phylogeny of the group an...

  12. Leishmania (Viannia) subgenus kDNA amplification for the diagnosis of mucosal leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Disch, Jolande; Pedras, Mariana Junqueira; Orsini, Marcela; Pirmez, Claude; de Oliveira, Maria Cláudia; Castro, Marcelo; Rabello, Ana

    2005-03-01

    The utility of 2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assays amplifying genus or Viannia subgenus Leishmania minicircle kDNA for the diagnostics of ML was assessed. The Viannia subgenus product was yielded after PCR from isolates of L. (Viannia) braziliensis, L. (Viannia) colombiensis, and L. (Viannia) guyanensis, whereas no product was obtained with the non-Viannia-pertaining species: L. (Leishmania) amazonensis, L. (Leishmania) donovani, and L. (Leishmania) chagasi. With both assays, 11 of 13 (86.4%) patients with confirmed ML could be identified, whereas only 2 (16.7%) of these patients were positive by microscopy. All amplified genus-specific products gave a positive signal by hybridization with a Leishmania (Viannia) subgenus-specific radioactive probe. The Viannia subgenus-specific kDNA PCR represents a sensitive and specific tool for the diagnosis of ML, remarkably improving the sensitivity of parasitological methods and offering an alternative for the radioactive-dependent assays for subgenus characterization. PMID:15766604

  13. A New Subgenus and Species of Neotropical Hylaeus from Costa Rica (Hymenoptera: Colletidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new Neotropical subgenus of Hylaeus, Snellingella, is described, with Hylaeus amplus new species from Costa Rica as the type species. Characteristics to separate the new species from other Costa Rican Hylaeus are provided....

  14. Three new species of the subgenus Leipopleura Seidlitz from Tibet, China (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae, Bioramix Bates).

    PubMed

    Li, Yun-Chun; Egorov, L V; Shi, Ai-Min

    2016-01-01

    Three new species of darkling beetles (Tenebrionidae) belonging to the subgenus Leipopleura of the genus Bioramix Bates, 1879, Bioramix (Leipopleura) baqenensis Li & Egorov, sp. n., Bioramix (Leipopleura) nyainrongensis Li & Egorov, sp. n., and Bioramix (Leipopleura) banbarensis Li & Egorov, sp. n. are described from the Tibet Autonomous Region in China. Additionally, a new identification key is provided to all known Chinese representatives of the subgenus Leipopleura. PMID:27563270

  15. Three new species of the subgenus Leipopleura Seidlitz from Tibet, China (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae, Bioramix Bates)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yun-Chun; Egorov, L.V.; Shi, Ai-Min

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Three new species of darkling beetles (Tenebrionidae) belonging to the subgenus Leipopleura of the genus Bioramix Bates, 1879, Bioramix (Leipopleura) baqenensis Li & Egorov, sp. n., Bioramix (Leipopleura) nyainrongensis Li & Egorov, sp. n., and Bioramix (Leipopleura) banbarensis Li & Egorov, sp. n. are described from the Tibet Autonomous Region in China. Additionally, a new identification key is provided to all known Chinese representatives of the subgenus Leipopleura. PMID:27563270

  16. [Polymorphism of KPI-A genes from plants of the subgenus Potatoe (sect. Petota, Estolonifera and Lycopersicum) and subgenus Solanum].

    PubMed

    Krinitsyna, A A; Mel'nikova, N V; Belenikin, M S; Poltronieri, P; Santino, A; Kudriavtseva, A V; Savilova, A M; Speranskaia, A S

    2013-01-01

    Kunitz-type proteinase inhibitor proteins of group A (KPI-A) are involved in the protection of potato plants from pathogens and pests. Although sequences of large number of the KPI-A genes from different species of cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum) and a few genes from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) are known to date, information about the allelic diversity of these genes in other species of the genus Solanum is lacking. In our work, the consensus sequences of the KPI-A genes were established in two species of subgenus Potatoe sect. Petota (Solanum tuberosum subsp. andigenum--5 genes and Solanum stoloniferum--2 genes) and in the subgenus Solanum (Solanum nigrum--5 genes) by amplification, cloning, sequencing and subsequent analysis. The determined sequences of KPI-A genes were 97-100% identical to known sequences of the cultivated potato of sect. Petota (cultivated potato Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum) and sect. Etuberosum (S. palustre). The interspecific variability of these genes did not exceed the intraspecific variability for all studied species except Solanum lycopersicum. The distribution of highly variable and conserved sequences in the mature protein-encoding regions was uniform for all investigated KPI-A genes. However, our attempts to amplify the homologous genes using the same primers and the genomes of Solanum dulcamarum, Solanum lycopersicum and Mandragora officinarum resulted in no product formation. Phylogenetic analysis of KPI-A diversity showed that the sequences of the S. lycopersicum form independent cluster, whereas KPI-A of S. nigrum and species of sect. Etuberosum and sect. Petota are closely related and do not form species-specific subclasters. Although Solanum nigrum is resistant to all known races of economically one of the most important diseases of solanaceous plants oomycete Phytophthora infestans aminoacid sequences encoding by KPI-A genes from its genome have nearly or absolutely no differences to the same from

  17. Paraphyly of the Subgenus Sintonius (Diptera, Psychodidae, Sergentomyia): Status of the Malagasy Species. Creation of a New Subgenus and Description of a New Species

    PubMed Central

    Randrianambinintsoa, Fano José; Léger, Nicole; Robert, Vincent; Depaquit, Jérôme

    2014-01-01

    During an inventory of Phlebotomine sand flies carried out in Madagascar, we have identified some specimens showing morphological characters related to the subgenus Sintonius of the genus Sergentomyia. We started a molecular study based on cytochrome b mtDNA and on D1–D2 and D8 domains of the rDNA. The sampling includes all the Sergentomyia species available and also S. (Sergentomyia) schwetzi, S. (Parrotomyia) magna, and the following species belonging to the subgenus Sintonius: S. clydei, S. christophersi, S. affinis vorax, S. adleri and S. meilloni. The Sintonius subgenus (sensu Theodor) is paraphyletic. The Malagasy specimens morphologically Sintonius-like are never clustered with the continental Sintonius. We propose a new subgenus to include them: Trouilletomyia subg. nov. Due to the lack of mesanepisternal setae, the species huberti is removed from the genus Phlebotomus and we propose here a new combination: Sergentomyia huberti comb. nov. The male of S. huberti is pinpointed and described for the first time. Lastly, a new species for Science is described on one female: Sergentomyia (Trouilletomyia) boironis n. sp. PMID:24893009

  18. Studies in the genus Eleodes Eschscholtz with a revision of the subgenus Melaneleodes Blaisdell and Omegeleodes, new subgenus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae: Eleodin)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The taxonomic history of the genus Eleodes Eschscholtz is reviewed and the subgenus Melaneleodes Blaisdell redefined based on characters of the female terminalia with Blaps carbonaria Say herein designated as type-species. Eleodes debilis LeConte is removed from Melaneleodes to a new monotypic subg...

  19. Diversification of Bromelioideae (Bromeliaceae) in the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest: A case study in Aechmea subgenus Ortgiesia.

    PubMed

    Goetze, Márcia; Schulte, Katharina; Palma-Silva, Clarisse; Zanella, Camila M; Büttow, Miriam V; Capra, Fernanda; Bered, Fernanda

    2016-05-01

    Aechmea subgenus Ortgiesia comprises ca. 20 species distributed in Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, and Uruguay, with a center of diversity in the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest. We examined interspecific relationships of Ortgiesia based on Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLP). Ninety-six accessions belonging to 14 species of Ortgiesia were sampled, and genotyped with 11 AFLP primer combinations. The neighbor joining (NJ) tree depicted two main genetic groups within Aechmea subgenus Ortgiesia, and four subgroups. The NJ tree showed short internal branches, indicating an overall shallow genetic divergence among Ortgiesia species as expected for the recently radiated subfamily Bromelioideae. Our results suggest that hybridization and/or incomplete lineage sorting may have hampered the reconstruction of interspecific relationships in Aechmea subgenus Ortgiesia. The mapping of petal color (yellow, blue, pink, or white), inflorescence type (simple or compound), and inflorescence shape (ellipsoid, subcylindric, cylindric, or pyramidal) against the NJ tree indicated that these characters are of limited taxonomic use in Aechmea subgenus Ortgiesia due to homoplasy. An analysis of the current distribution of Ortgiesia identified the southern region of the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest, between latitudes of 26° and 27°S, as the center of diversity for the subgenus. PMID:26957015

  20. Morphological and Genotypic Variations among the Species of the Subgenus Adlerius (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotomus) in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Zahraei-Ramazani, Alireza; Kumar, Dinesh; Mirhendi, Hossein; Sundar, Shyam; Mishra, Rajnikan; Moin-Vaziri, Vahideh; Soleimani, Hassan; Shirzadi, Mohammad Reza; Jafari, Reza; Hanafi-Bojd, Ahmad Ali; Shahraky, Sodabe Hamedi; Yaghoobi-Ershadi, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Female sand flies of subgenus Adlerius are considered as probable vectors of visceral leishmaniasis in Iran. The objective of this study was to determine the morphological and genotypic variations in the populations of this subgenus in the country. Methods: Sand flies collected using sticky traps from 17 provinces during 2008–2010. The morphometric measurements were conducted with an Ocular Micrometer. Data was analyzed by SPSS. The Cytb gene was used to estimate population genetic diversity and identify the female specimens. UPGMA phenetic tree was used for DNA haplotypes of Cytb gene. Results: Six species of subgenus Adlerius identified from which one species, P. (Adlerius) kabulensis, is new record. The identification key is provided for males. Results revealed the molecular systematic in the species of subgenus Adlerius and determine the relationship of three females of P. comatus, P. balcanicus and P. halepensis. Conclusion: The positions of three females and the males in the UPGMA tree are correct and the similarities among them confirm our results. The branches of each species are not genetically distinct which justify the overlapping morphological characters among them. Molecular sequencing of Cytb-mtDNA haplotypes can be used for female identification for different species of subgenus Adlerius in Iran. PMID:26114146

  1. Review of the Asian species of the subgenus Neocheilosia Barkalov (Diptera, Syrphidae), with description of new species.

    PubMed

    Barkalov, Anatolij V; Ichige, Katsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    The Asian species of the subgenus Neocheilosia are reviewed. A new species Cheilosia (Neocheilosia) shiranesana Barkalov & Ichige sp. n. is described, and Cheilosia mutini Barkalov is synonymized with Cheilosia komabaensis Shiraki syn. n. A listing of the five Asian species of the subgenus,information on their distribution and an illustrated identification key is provided. PMID:27615815

  2. Alocanthedon, a new subgenus of Chalicodoma from Southeast Asia (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae).

    PubMed

    Engel, Michael S; Gonzalez, Victor H

    2011-01-01

    A new subgenus, Alocanthedon Engel and Gonzalez subgen. n., is described for five species of unusual Southeast Asian bees in the genus Chalicodoma Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau (Megachilinae: Megachilini). The subgenus is most noteworthy for the deep postgenal depression or furrow in males (bordered outwardly near the base of the mandible by a protuberant, thick lamella) and the presence of a dense patch of black setae posteriorly in the forewing medial cell (except in one species) [resembling the dense patch of setae among the submarginal cells of Thrinchostoma Saussure (Halictidae: Halictinae: Halictini)]. The subgenus is characterized and distinguished from the related Callomegachile Michener. A key to the following five species presently included in the subgenus is provided: Chalicodoma aterrimum (Smith), Chalicodoma atratiforme (Meade-Waldo) comb. n., Chalicodoma memecylonae Engel sp. n., Chalicodoma odontophorum Engel sp. n., and Chalicodoma apoicola Engel sp. n.Chalicodoma (Callomegachile) atratiforme sininsulae (Cockerell) is newly placed in synonymy with C. (C.) fulvipenne (Smith). Species have been collected from Memecylaceae (Myrtales) and Fabaceae (Fabales). The phylogenetic relationships of Alocanthedon among other Megachilini are briefly elaborated upon. PMID:21747670

  3. Alocanthedon, a new subgenus of Chalicodoma from Southeast Asia (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae)

    PubMed Central

    Engel, Michael S.; Gonzalez, Victor H.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A new subgenus, Alocanthedon Engel and Gonzalez subgen. n., is described for five species of unusual Southeast Asian bees in the genus Chalicodoma Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau (Megachilinae: Megachilini). The subgenus is most noteworthy for the deep postgenal depression or furrow in males (bordered outwardly near the base of the mandible by a protuberant, thick lamella) and the presence of a dense patch of black setae posteriorly in the forewing medial cell (except in one species) [resembling the dense patch of setae among the submarginal cells of Thrinchostoma Saussure (Halictidae: Halictinae: Halictini)]. The subgenus is characterized and distinguished from the related Callomegachile Michener. A key to the following five species presently included in the subgenus is provided: Chalicodoma aterrimum (Smith), Chalicodoma atratiforme (Meade-Waldo) comb. n., Chalicodoma memecylonae Engel sp. n., Chalicodoma odontophorum Engel sp. n., and Chalicodoma apoicola Engel sp. n. Chalicodoma (Callomegachile) atratiforme sininsulae (Cockerell) is newly placed in synonymy with C. (C.) fulvipenne (Smith). Species have been collected from Memecylaceae (Myrtales) and Fabaceae (Fabales). The phylogenetic relationships of Alocanthedon among other Megachilini are briefly elaborated upon. PMID:21747670

  4. A new species and subgenus of Elseya (Testudines: Pleurodira: Chelidae) from New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Scott; Amepou, Yolarnie; Anamiato, Jim; Georges, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    The New Guinea freshwater turtle, Elseya novaeguineae (senu lato) is a long-term, widespread resident of New Guinea and has been subject to substantial vicariance in one of the most geologically dynamic regions on earth. Thus, it should come as no surprise that the taxonomy of this turtle is poorly resolved. Elseya novaeguineae has long been recognized as a species complex, though which elements of this taxon warrant recognition as separate species has been debated. In this paper, we restrict Elseya novaeguineae to the Birds Head region of New Guinea, west of the Langguru Thrust and Fold Belt; we resurrect from synonymy Elseya schultzei for the populations north of the Central Ranges; and we describe a new species for the populations to the south of the Central Ranges. We revisit the classification of the genus Elseya throughout its range in the light of our work and recently published reports, and erect three subgenera that recognize the three major clades within this genus. Subgenus Elseya is the nominate subgenus, to which we assign Elseya dentata, E. branderhorsti and undescribed E. sp. aff. dentata [Sth Alligator]. Elseya novaeguineae, E. schultzei and our new species are assigned to a new subgenus, Hanwarachelys. Species of northern and eastern Queensland, E. albagula, E. irwini, E. lavarackorum and the fossil taxa E. uberrima and E. nadibajagu, are assigned to subgenus Pelocomastes, resurrected from synonymy. PMID:26623758

  5. The flower fly genus Allograpta: Classification with description of a new subgenus and species (Diptera: Syrphidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new subgenus and one species of flower flies are described from the Neotropical biotic region (Allograpta (Costarica Mengual, Rojo, Ruiz, Ståhls & Thompson), type Allograpta zumbadoi Thompson & Allograpta (Costarica) nishida Thompson, type-locality: Costa Rica, type-depository: Instituto Nacional ...

  6. Delimitation of Russula Subgenus Amoenula in Korea Using Three Molecular Markers

    PubMed Central

    Park, Myung Soo; Fong, Jonathan J.; Lee, Hyun; Oh, Seung-Yoon; Jung, Paul Eunil; Min, Young Ju; Seok, Soon Ja

    2013-01-01

    Distinguishing individual Russula species has been difficult due to extensive phenotypic plasticity and obscure morphological and anatomical discontinuities. Due to highly similar macroscopic features, such as the presence of a red-cap, species identification within the Russula subgenus Amoenula is particularly difficult. Three species of the subgenus Amoneula have been reported in Korea. We used a combination of morphology and three molecular markers, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS), 28S nuclear ribosomal large subunit (LSU), and RNA polymerase II gene (RPB2), for identification and study of the genetic diversity of Russula subgenus Amoenula in Korea. We identified only two species in Korea (R. mariae and R. violeipes); these two species were indistinguishable according to morphology and LSU, but were found to be reciprocally monophyletic species using ITS and RPB2. The markers, ITS, LSU, and RPB2, have been tested in the past for use as DNA barcoding markers, and findings of our study suggest that ITS and RPB2 had the best performance for the Russula subgenus Amoneula. PMID:24493939

  7. New bee species of Protosmia subgenus Nanosmia (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) described from the Palaearctic

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Among osmiine bees, Protosmia of the subgenus Nanosmia are not well known. Three new species are described and figured for both sexes: P. hamulifera n. sp. from the Arabian Peninsula, P. schwarzi n. sp. from Morocco and Tunisia, and P. trifida n. sp. from Turkey. For the recently described P. monta...

  8. A new subgenus and species of Oxaea from Ecuador (Hymenoptera: Andrenidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new subgenus and species of Oxaea KLUG (Andrenidae: Oxaeinae) is described and figured from western Ecuador. Oxaea (Alloxaea) brevipalpis subg. n. et sp. n., is noteworthy for the retention of maxillary palpi (3-segmented), absence of metallic integumental coloration, and contrasting notal pubesce...

  9. Two new species of the leafhopper subgenus Empoasca (Empoasca) Walsh (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae, Typhlocybinae, Empoascini) from China

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiaofei; Yang, Maofa

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of the leafhopper subgenus Empoasca (Empoasca) namely, E. (E.) dorsodenticulata Yu & Yang, sp. n. and E. (E.) spiculata Yu & Yang, sp. n. from China are described and illustrated and a key provided for Chinese subgenera of Empoasca. PMID:25197210

  10. Taxonomic notes on the small resin bees Hypanthidioides subgenus Michanthidium (Hyumenoptera: Megachilidae)(Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As part of ongoing investigations on anthidiine bees, the type of Anthidium albitarse Friese was found to be conspecific with one of the two species of the small resin bees Hypanthidioides subgenus Michanthidium. The new combination, H. (Michanthidium) albitarse, is the oldest name resulting in Gnat...

  11. Five new species of subgenus Plesiominettia (Diptera, Lauxaniidae, Minettia) in southern China, with a key to known species

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Li; Gaimari, Stephen D.; Yang, Ding

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Five species of the subgenus Plesiominettia Shatalkin from the southern China are described as new to science: Minettia (Plesiominettia) flavoscutellata sp. n., Minettia (Plesiominettia) longaciculiformis sp. n., Minettia (Plesiominettia) nigrantennata sp. n., Minettia (Plesiominettia) tridentata sp. n. and Minettia (Plesiominettia) zhejiangica sp. n. One species, Minettia longistylis Sasakawa, is transferred to the subgenus Plesiominettia from Minettia s. str. A key to separate the known species of the subgenus is presented, along with a taxonomic list of species. The type materials of the new species are deposited in the China Agricultural University, Beijing, China (CAUC). PMID:26448714

  12. The Ambrysus Stål (Heteroptera: Naucoridae: Cryphocricinae) of Mexico:
    Revision of the subgenus Syncollus La Rivers.

    PubMed

    Reynoso-Velasco, Daniel; Sites, Robert W; Novelo-Gutiérrez, Rodolfo

    2016-01-01

    The subgenus Ambrysus (Syncollus) La Rivers is mostly Neotropical and includes nine described species. Features uniting species in this subgenus are related to the position of the propleura with respect to the prosternum in males and females, as well as characteristics of tergum V and the genitalia of males. Three species of Syncollus are known from Mexico including Ambrysus baeus Polhemus & Polhemus, A. circumcinctus Montandon, and A. pygmaeus La Rivers. The remaining six species in the subgenus are distributed in Central and South America. Herein we review Syncollus and revise the Mexican fauna. More specifically, three new species from Mexico are described: A. chiapanecus n. sp., A. totonacus n. sp., and A. xico n. sp. The subspecies A. circumcinctus caliginosus Usinger, A. c. concavus La Rivers, and A. c. extremus La Rivers are proposed as junior synonyms of A. c. circumcinctus Montandon. Ambrysus partridgei De Carlo is transferred from Syncollus to the subgenus Ambrysus. PMID:27395572

  13. Sphincterochilidae from Tunisia, with a note on the subgenus Rima Pallary, 1910 (Gastropoda, Pulmonata)

    PubMed Central

    Abbes, Intidhar; Nouira, Said; Neubert, Eike

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In order to establish an updated checklist of terrestrial gastropod from Tunisia, a revision of the species of Sphincterochilidae is presented, using bibliographic and museum records and the results of our own field work. As a result, only two species, Sphincterochila candidissima and Sphincterochila tunetana, are accepted to occur in Tunisia, and their type specimens are illustrated. The study of the morphological characters of the genital organs of both species clarified their subgeneric affiliation. Comparison of Sphincterochila tunetana with Sphincterochila cariosa from Lebanonshowed that the first has to be classified within the subgenus Albea, and the latter within Sphincterochila s. str.; the subgenus Rima Pallary, 1910 remains in the synonymy of Sphincterochila s. str. Bibliographic records of Sphincterochila baetica and Sphincterochila otthiana from Tunisia could not be confirmed, the latter probably lives close to the border with Algeria. PMID:22368450

  14. Development of primers to amplify mitochondrial DNA control region of Old World porcupines (subgenus Hystrix).

    PubMed

    Trucchi, E; Gentile, G; Sbordoni, V

    2008-09-01

    Eight primers were developed for the amplification of mitochondrial DNA control region of Old world porcupines (subgenus Hystrix). Successful amplifications of low-quality DNA extracted from old (12 years old) and recent quills were performed, thus facilitating field sampling. Successful cross-species amplifications were obtained for Hystrix africaeaustralis, H. cristata and H. indica. Length and structure of mitochondrial DNA control region were analysed and its usefulness as genetic marker for interspecific and population investigation was discussed. PMID:21585995

  15. Additions to the leafhopper subgenus Pediopsoides (Pediopsoides) Matsumura, 1912 (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Macropsinae) from Southern China.

    PubMed

    Li, Hu; Li, Zi-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Three new species of the leafhopper subgenus Pediopsoides (Pediopsoides) Matsumura, 1912, P. (P.) alba Li, Dai & Li sp. nov. from Yunnan Province, Southwestern China, P. (P.) amplificata Li, Dai & Li sp. nov. and P. (P.) longiapophysis Li, Dai & Li sp. nov. from Guangdong Province, Southern China, are described and illustrated. A key and an updated checklist with distribution to the Pediopsoides (Pediopsoides) species along with geographical distribution maps of the new species are given. PMID:27515660

  16. A new Mylabris species from south-eastern Iran and a key to the Iranian species of the nominate subgenus (Coleoptera, Meloidae).

    PubMed

    Serri, Sayeh; Pan, Zhao; Bologna, Marco A

    2012-01-01

    A new species of Mylabris of the nominate subgenus is described and figured. This species is apparently endemic to the south-eastern Iranian province of Kerman and seems to be phenetically very distinct from all other species of this subgenus, primarily because of the unique elytral pattern. A key to the species of the nominate subgenus distributed in Iran is also presented. PMID:22977351

  17. A new Mylabris species from south-eastern Iran and a key to the Iranian species of the nominate subgenus (Coleoptera, Meloidae)

    PubMed Central

    Serri, Sayeh; Pan, Zhao; Bologna, Marco A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Mylabris of the nominate subgenus is described and figured. This species is apparently endemic to the south-eastern Iranian province of Kerman and seems to be phenetically very distinct from all other species of this subgenus, primarily because of the unique elytral pattern. A key to the species of the nominate subgenus distributed in Iran is also presented. PMID:22977351

  18. New brachypterous species of Dichotomius (Selenocopris) Burmeister (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) with the definition of species groups and taxonomic notes in the subgenus.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Rafael V; Vaz-de-Mello, Fernando Z

    2016-01-01

    Five species groups of Dichotomius (Selenocopris) are defined and separated in an illustrated key in the first effective attempt of systematization of the subgenus. Four new brachypterous species of Selenocopris are described and the also brachypterous Dichotomius ingens (Luederwaldt) is redescribed. These species are diagnosed, illustrated and assigned to the quadraticeps species group. Taxonomic issues on the subgenus are discussed. PMID:27470786

  19. Rapid speciation and the evolution of hummingbird pollination in neotropical Costus subgenus Costus (Costaceae): Evidence from NRDNA ITS and STA sequences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We estimate phylogenetic relationships and the biogeographic and pollination history of Costus subgenus Costus (Costaceae) using sequence data from the internal and external transcribed spacer (ITS and ETS) regions of 18S–26S nuclear ribosomal DNA. The African members of the subgenus form a series o...

  20. New species of subgenus Tipula (Sivatipula) from China, with redescription of T. (S.) parvauricula and a key to all known species of the Oriental Region (Diptera, Tipulidae, Tipula)

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Guo-Xi; Men, Qiu-Lei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Species of Tipula (Sivatipula) biprocessa sp. n. from Guangxi, China is described and illustrated as new in the subgenus Tipula (Sivatipula) Alexander, 1964. Tipula (Sivatipula) parvauricula Alexander, 1941 is redescribed and illustrated based on additional morphological characters. Semen pump of this subgenus is discussed. A key to all described species in this group is compiled. PMID:27047238

  1. New species of subgenus Tipula (Sivatipula) from China, with redescription of T. (S.) parvauricula and a key to all known species of the Oriental Region (Diptera, Tipulidae, Tipula).

    PubMed

    Xue, Guo-Xi; Men, Qiu-Lei

    2016-01-01

    Species of Tipula (Sivatipula) biprocessa sp. n. from Guangxi, China is described and illustrated as new in the subgenus Tipula (Sivatipula) Alexander, 1964. Tipula (Sivatipula) parvauricula Alexander, 1941 is redescribed and illustrated based on additional morphological characters. Semen pump of this subgenus is discussed. A key to all described species in this group is compiled. PMID:27047238

  2. Taxonomy of 'Euconnus complex'. Part IV. Review of Euconnus subgenus Rhomboconnus (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Scydmaeninae).

    PubMed

    Jałoszyński, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Morphological structures of the type species of Euconnus (Rhomboconnus Franz) are described and illustrated, and compared with those of Euconnus s. str. Rhomboconnus, although showing several peculiar character states (e.g., rudimentary or lacking basal elytral foveae) is maintained as a subgenus of Euconnus, and its revised diagnosis is given. Two species currently placed in Rhomboconnus, E. perplexus Franz (Venezuela) and E. trianguliceps Franz (Ecuador) are redescribed. A surprising and striking similarity of the aedeagus of Rhomboconnus to that of Plaumanniola Costa Lima (Plaumanniolini) is discussed as yet another structural evidence supporting a previously postulated close relationship between the enigmatic Plaumanniolini and the 'Euconnus complex'. PMID:26623739

  3. Hygrophoraceae (Agaricales) of the Greater Antilles: Hygrocybe subgenus Pseudohygrocybe sections Coccineae and Neohygrocybe.

    PubMed

    Cantrell, Sharon A; Lodge, D Jean

    2004-11-01

    A key to 17 species in the genus Hygrocybe, subgenus Pseudohygrocybe, sections Coccineae and Neohygrocybe sensu Boertmann is provided for the Greater Antilles. Five new species and five taxa that are new reports for the region are described. The new species in section Coccineae are H. pseudoadonis, H. viridiphylla, and H. zonata. The new species in section Neohygrocybe are H. albomarginata and H. ovinoides. The new reports are H. caespitosa, H. coccinea, H. cf. miniata, H. papillata, and H. subovina. Three new combinations are proposed: Hygrocybe mycenoides, H. papillata and H. subovina. PMID:15587063

  4. The oribatid mite subgenus Galumna (Galumna) (Acari, Oribatida, Galumnidae) in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Ermilov, Sergey G.; Corpuz-Raros, Leonila; Tolstikov, Andrei V.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Five species of the subgenus Galumna (Galumna) (Acari, Oribatida, Galumnidae) are registered in the Philippine oribatid mite fauna. A new species, Galumna (Galumna) makilingensis sp. n., is described; it is most similar morphologically to Galumna (Galumna) tokyoensis Aoki, 1966, but differs from the latter by the morphology of porose areas Aa and Ap, rostral setae, and length of interlamellar setae. Three species, Galumna (Galumna) crenata Deb & Raychaudhuri, 1975, Galumna (Galumna) cf. exigua Sellnick, 1925 and Galumna (Galumna) khoii Mahunka, 1989, are recorded in the Philippines for the first time. The species Galumna (Galumna) crenata is redescribed. An identification key to the Philippine species of Galumna (Galumna) is given. PMID:25493051

  5. A synopsis of the subgenus Centris (Hemisiella) Moure, 1945 (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Centridini) in Colombia, with description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Vivallo, Felipe; Vélez, Danny

    2016-01-01

    A synopsis of the species of Centris subgenus Hemisiella Moure in Colombia is presented. The species included are Centris dichrootricha (Moure), C. facialis Mocsáry, C. merrillae Cockerell, C. tarsata Smith, C. trigonoides Lepeletier and C. vittata Lepeletier. In addition, C. nebulosa new species from northwestern Colombia is described, as well as the male of C. merrillae. Diagnoses for both sexes, occurrence records, and an identification key for the seven species of the subgenus that occur in the country are provided. PMID:27615961

  6. Revision of the subgenus Orthoscymnus Canepari of Scymnus Kugelann (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae), with descriptions of four new species

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaosheng; Canepari, Claudio; Wang, Xingmin; Ren, Shunxiang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The subgenus Orthoscymnus Canepari, 1997 of Scymnus Kugelann, 1794 is herein revised. Seven species of the Orthoscymnus fauna are recognized, of which four species, Scymnus (Orthoscymnus) jilongicus sp. n., Scymnus (Orthoscymnus) paradoxus sp. n., Scymnus (Orthoscymnus) crispatus sp. n. and Scymnus (Orthoscymnus) duomaculatus sp. n., are described as new to science. Scymnus (Orthoscymnus) rhododendri Canepari is recorded from China for the first time. Scymnus (Pullus) robustibasalis Yu is transferred to the subgenus Orthoscymnus (comb. n.). All species are diagnosed, described and illustrated, and distributions are provided for each species. A key to the species is included. PMID:26865817

  7. Taxonomy and species-groups of the subgenus Crematogaster ( Orthocrema) in the Malagasy region (Hymenoptera, Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Blaimer, Bonnie B

    2012-01-01

    The species-level taxonomy of the subgenus Crematogaster (Orthocrema) in the Malagasy region is evaluated with both morphological data from worker and queen ants, and genetic data from three nuclear markers (long wavelength rhodopsin, arginine kinase and carbamoylphosphate synthase). These two types of data support the existence of six Orthocrema species: Crematogaster madecassa Emery, Crematogaster rasoherinae Forel, Crematogaster telolafysp. n., Crematogaster razanasp. n., Crematogaster volamenasp. n. and Crematogaster mpanjonosp. n.. Two new synonyms of Crematogaster rasoherinae Forel are recognized, Crematogaster rasoherinae brunneola Emery, syn.n. and Crematogaster voeltzkowi Forel, syn. n., as these were not supported as distinct taxa by the data. A neotype is designated for Crematogaster rasoherinae; lectotypes are designated for Crematogaster madecassa, Crematogaster rasoherinae brunneola and Crematogaster voeltzkowi. Species descriptions, images, distribution maps and identification keys based on worker and queen ants are given for all six species. A diagnosis of the subgenus Orthocrema in the Malagasy region is presented for both workers and queens. Within the Malagasy Orthocrema, three distinct phylogenetic lineages are suggested by molecular and morphological data. Newly defined monophyletic species-groups are thus the Crematogaster madecassa-group (Crematogaster madecassa, Crematogaster telolafy and Crematogaster razana) and the Crematogaster volamena-group (Crematogaster volamena and Crematogaster mpanjono); Crematogaster rasoherinae represents an isolated lineage in the Malagasy region and its closest relatives remain unclear. Other interesting biological findings are the presence of an intermediate caste between workers and queens in Crematogaster rasoherinae and Crematogaster madecassa, and unusually large workers in Crematogaster volamena resembling a major caste. PMID:22711995

  8. Molecular phylogeny of Crematogaster subgenus Decacrema ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and the colonization of Macaranga (Euphorbiaceae) trees.

    PubMed

    Feldhaar, Heike; Fiala, Brigitte; Gadau, Jürgen; Mohamed, Maryati; Maschwitz, Ulrich

    2003-06-01

    To elucidate the evolution of one of the most species-rich ant-plant symbiotic systems, the association between Crematogaster (Myrmicinae) and Macaranga (Euphorbiaceae) in South-East Asia, we conducted a phylogenetic analysis of the ant partners. For the phylogenetic analysis partial mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I and II were sequenced and Maximum Parsimony analysis was performed. The analyzed Crematogaster of the subgenus Decacrema fell into three distinct clades which are also characterized by specific morphological and ecological traits (queen morphology, host-plants, and colony structure). Our results supported the validity of our currently used morphospecies concept for Peninsula Malaysia. However, on a wider geographic range (including North and North-East Borneo) some morphospecies turned out to be species complexes with genetically quite distinct taxa. Our phylogenetic analysis and host association studies do not indicate strict cocladogenesis between the subgenus Decacrema and their Macaranga host-plants because multiple ant taxa occur on quite distinct host-plants belonging to different clades within in the genus Macaranga. These results support the view that host-shifting or host-expansion is common in the ants colonizing Macaranga. Additionally, the considerable geographic substructuring found in the phylogenetic trees of the ants suggests that allopatric speciation has also played a role in the diversification and the current distribution of the Decacrema ants. PMID:12742749

  9. Lichenometric dating using Rhizocarpon subgenus Rhizocarpon in the Patagonian Andes, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garibotti, Irene Adriana; Villalba, Ricardo

    2009-05-01

    This study represents the first attempt to develop and apply lichenometric dating curves of Rhizocarpon subgenus Rhizocarpon for dating glacier fluctuations in the Patagonian Andes. Six glaciers were studied along the Patagonian Andes. Surfaces of known ages (historical evidences and tree-ring analyses) were used as control sites to develop indirect lichenometric dating curves. Dating curves developed for the studied glaciers show the same general logarithmic form, indicating that growth rate of subgenus Rhizocarpon decreases over time. The strong west-east precipitation gradient across the Andean Cordillera introduces statistically significant differences in the growth curves, with faster growth rates in the moist west sites than the drier eastern sites. Latitudinal difference among the studied glaciers does not appear to be a major factor regulating lichen growth rates. Therefore, we developed two lichenometric curves for dating glacier fluctuations in wetter and drier sites in the Patagonian Andes during the past 450 yrs. Application of the developed curves to moraine dating allowed us to complement glacial chronologies previously obtained by tree-ring analyses. A first chronosequence for moraine formation in the Torrecillas Glacier (42°S) is presented. Our findings confirm the utility of lichenometry to date deglaciated surfaces in the Patagonian Andes.

  10. Molecular evolution and adaptation of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene in the subgenus Martes.

    PubMed

    Li, B; Malyarchuk, B; He, X B; Derenko, M

    2013-01-01

    Martes species represent a typical example of rapid evolutionary radiation and a recent speciation event. To identify regions of the genome that experienced adaptive evolution, which might provide clues to their functional importance and may be informative about the features that make each species unique, we sought evidence of molecular adaptation in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome b gene in the subgenus Martes. Complete sequences of the cytochrome b gene were obtained from 87 samples, including 49 sables, 28 pine martens, and 10 stone martens, and were combined with mtDNA sequences of other true martens, such as M. melampus and M. americana. Analysis of the cytochrome b gene variation in true martens has shown that the evolution of this gene is under negative selection. In contrast, positive selection on the cytochrome b protein has been detected by means of the software TreeSAAP using a phylogenetic reconstruction of Martes taxa. Signatures of adaptive variation in cytochrome b were restricted to the transmembrane domains, which likely function as proton pumps. We compared results of different methods for testing selection and molecular adaptation, and we supposed that the radical changes of the cytochrome b amino acid residues in the subgenus Martes may be the result of molecular adaptation to specific environmental conditions coupled with species dispersals. PMID:24085456

  11. Phylogeny and nomenclature of the genus Talaromyces and taxa accommodated in Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium

    PubMed Central

    Samson, R.A.; Yilmaz, N.; Houbraken, J.; Spierenburg, H.; Seifert, K.A.; Peterson, S.W.; Varga, J.; Frisvad, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    The taxonomic history of anamorphic species attributed to Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium is reviewed, along with evidence supporting their relationship with teleomorphic species classified in Talaromyces. To supplement previous conclusions based on ITS, SSU and/or LSU sequencing that Talaromyces and subgenus Biverticillium comprise a monophyletic group that is distinct from Penicillium at the generic level, the phylogenetic relationships of these two groups with other genera of Trichocomaceae was further studied by sequencing a part of the RPB1 (RNA polymerase II largest subunit) gene. Talaromyces species and most species of Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium sensu Pitt reside in a monophyletic clade distant from species of other subgenera of Penicillium. For detailed phylogenetic analysis of species relationships, the ITS region (incl. 5.8S nrDNA) was sequenced for the available type strains and/or representative isolates of Talaromyces and related biverticillate anamorphic species. Extrolite profiles were compiled for all type strains and many supplementary cultures. All evidence supports our conclusions that Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium is distinct from other subgenera in Penicillium and should be taxonomically unified with the Talaromyces species that reside in the same clade. Following the concepts of nomenclatural priority and single name nomenclature, we transfer all accepted species of Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium to Talaromyces. A holomorphic generic diagnosis for the expanded concept of Talaromyces, including teleomorph and anamorph characters, is provided. A list of accepted Talaromyces names and newly combined Penicillium names is given. Species of biotechnological and medical importance, such as P. funiculosum and P. marneffei, are now combined in Talaromyces. Excluded species and taxa that need further taxonomic study are discussed. An appendix lists other generic names, usually considered synonyms of Penicillium sensu lato that

  12. Phylogeography of the Subgenus Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae): Evolutionary History of Faunal Divergence between the Old and the New Worlds.

    PubMed

    Izumitani, Hiroyuki F; Kusaka, Yohei; Koshikawa, Shigeyuki; Toda, Masanori J; Katoh, Toru

    2016-01-01

    The current subgenus Drosophila (the traditional immigrans-tripunctata radiation) includes major elements of temperate drosophilid faunas in the northern hemisphere. Despite previous molecular phylogenetic analyses, the phylogeny of the subgenus Drosophila has not fully been resolved: the resulting trees have more or less varied in topology. One possible factor for such ambiguous results is taxon-sampling that has been biased towards New World species in previous studies. In this study, taxon sampling was balanced between Old and New World species, and phylogenetic relationships among 45 ingroup species selected from ten core species groups of the subgenus Drosophila were analyzed using nucleotide sequences of three nuclear and two mitochondrial genes. Based on the resulting phylogenetic tree, ancestral distributions and divergence times were estimated for each clade to test Throckmorton's hypothesis that there was a primary, early-Oligocene disjunction of tropical faunas and a subsequent mid-Miocene disjunction of temperate faunas between the Old and the New Worlds that occurred in parallel in separate lineages of the Drosophilidae. Our results substantially support Throckmorton's hypothesis of ancestral migrations via the Bering Land Bridge mainly from the Old to the New World, and subsequent vicariant divergence of descendants between the two Worlds occurred in parallel among different lineages of the subgenus Drosophila. However, our results also indicate that these events took place multiple times over a wider time range than Throckmorton proposed, from the late Oligocene to the Pliocene. PMID:27462734

  13. Nuclear and plastid DNA sequences reveal complex evolutionary patterns in Australian water-lilies (Nymphaea subgenus Anecphya, Nymphaeaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study represents the first comprehensive analysis of phylogenetic relationships within the Australian water-lilies, Nymphaea subg. Anecphya. Our 52-taxa dataset covers all species of the subgenus except the newly described N. alexii and includes information from the nuclear ITS as well as from ...

  14. New species and additional records of the subgenus Termidonia Motschulsky of the genus Zyras Stephens in China (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Aleocharinae).

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhu-Qi; Li, Li-Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Two new species are described from Yunnan: Zyras (Termidonia) baihuamontis sp. nov., and Z. (T.) nabanensis sp. nov. Additional records of two species of subgenus Termidonia Motschulsky, 1860 are reported. Adults of the four species are illustrated, and identification key is provided for Chinese species. PMID:26624301

  15. Phylogeography of the Subgenus Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae): Evolutionary History of Faunal Divergence between the Old and the New Worlds

    PubMed Central

    Izumitani, Hiroyuki F.; Kusaka, Yohei; Koshikawa, Shigeyuki; Toda, Masanori J.; Katoh, Toru

    2016-01-01

    The current subgenus Drosophila (the traditional immigrans-tripunctata radiation) includes major elements of temperate drosophilid faunas in the northern hemisphere. Despite previous molecular phylogenetic analyses, the phylogeny of the subgenus Drosophila has not fully been resolved: the resulting trees have more or less varied in topology. One possible factor for such ambiguous results is taxon-sampling that has been biased towards New World species in previous studies. In this study, taxon sampling was balanced between Old and New World species, and phylogenetic relationships among 45 ingroup species selected from ten core species groups of the subgenus Drosophila were analyzed using nucleotide sequences of three nuclear and two mitochondrial genes. Based on the resulting phylogenetic tree, ancestral distributions and divergence times were estimated for each clade to test Throckmorton’s hypothesis that there was a primary, early-Oligocene disjunction of tropical faunas and a subsequent mid-Miocene disjunction of temperate faunas between the Old and the New Worlds that occurred in parallel in separate lineages of the Drosophilidae. Our results substantially support Throckmorton’s hypothesis of ancestral migrations via the Bering Land Bridge mainly from the Old to the New World, and subsequent vicariant divergence of descendants between the two Worlds occurred in parallel among different lineages of the subgenus Drosophila. However, our results also indicate that these events took place multiple times over a wider time range than Throckmorton proposed, from the late Oligocene to the Pliocene. PMID:27462734

  16. Two new species of the ground beetle subgenus Sadonebria Ledoux & Roux, 2005 (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Nebria) from Japan and first description of larvae of the subgenus

    PubMed Central

    Sasakawa, Kôji

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Sadonebria Ledoux & Roux, 2005 is one of the more diverse subgenera of the genus Nebria Latreille, 1802 in East Asia, and its taxonomy remains unrevised at the subgeneric and specific levels. In this paper, two new species of this subgenus are described from Japan. Nebria quinquelobata sp. n. is described from Mt. Myôkô and is externally similar to Nebria saeviens Bates, 1883, to which specimens of this new species previously had been assigned. Nebria yatsugatakensis sp. n. is described from the Yatsugatake Mountains and is externally similar to locally adjacent species that had been recognized as Nebria sadona Bates, 1883 and were recently revealed as separate species. Both new species are distinguished by morphological (the shape of the endophallus) and morphometric (geometric morphometrics of the pronotum and aedeagus) features. For Nebria yatsugatakensis, the morphology of all larval instars is described based on specimens reared from eggs laid by collected adults. These results, together with previous studies of the species-level taxonomy of Sadonebria and larval morphology of other Nebria subgenera, suggest (i) the utility of geometric morphometrics in species-level taxonomy; (ii) the importance of larval secondary setae in the subgeneric taxonomy of the genus Nebria; and (iii) the presence of further cryptic species in Sadonebria. PMID:27110197

  17. Karyotype Variation, Evolution and Phylogeny in Borago (Boraginaceae), with Emphasis on Subgenus Buglossites in the Corso-Sardinian System

    PubMed Central

    SELVI, FEDERICO; COPPI, ANDREA; BIGAZZI, MASSIMO

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Karyological variation in the Mediterranean genus Borago and cytogeography of subgenus Buglossites in Corsica, Sardinia and the Tuscan Archipelago were investigated in combination with a molecular phylogenetic analysis aimed at elucidating relationships between subgenera and taxa with different chromosome features. • Methods Karyotype analysis was performed on population samples of B. pygmaea, B. morisiana, B. trabutii and B. officinalis. Phylogenetic analyses were based on ITS1 nrDNA and matK cpDNA sequences. • Key Results Four base numbers were found, x = 6, 8, 9 and 15, and three ploidy levels based on x = 8. In subgenus Buglossites the Sardinian endemic B. morisiana is diploid with 2n = 18, while B. pygmaea includes three allopatric cytotypes with 2n = 30 (Sardinia), 2n = 32 (southern Corsica) and 2n = 48 (central northern Corsica and Capraia). In subgenus Borago, the Moroccan endemic B. trabutii and the widespread B. officinalis have 2n = 12 and 2n = 16, respectively. Molecular data support the monophyly of Borago, while relationships in subgenus Borago remain unclear. Borago trabutii appears as the earliest divergent lineage and is sister to a clade with B. officinalis, B. morisiana and B. pygmaea. Subgenus Buglossites is also monophyletic, but no correspondence between ITS1 phylogeny and B. pygmaea cytotypes occurs. • Conclusions Chromosome variation in Borago is wider than previously known. Two base numbers may represent the ancestral condition in this small genus, x = 6 or x = 8. An increase in chromosome number and karyotype asymmetry, a decrease in chromosome size and heterochromatin content, and the appearance of polyploidy are the most significant karyological changes associated with the divergence of the Buglossites clade. High ITS1 variation in the tetra- and hypotetraploid races of B. pygmaea suggests a multiple origin, while the lower polymorphism of the hexaploid race and its allopatric distribution in the

  18. Disseminated Leishmaniasis by Leishmania viannia Subgenus: A Series of 18 Cases in Southeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Vernal, Sebastian; De Paula, Natalia A.; Gomes, Ciro M.; Roselino, Ana Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background. Disseminated leishmaniasis (DL) is an emerging clinical form of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) that occurs mainly in Northeastern Brazil. This study describes 18 cases where DL has not yet been reported. Methods. Disseminated leishmaniasis cases were extracted from ATL recorded cases between 1987 and March 2015. Disseminated leishmaniasis identification was based on ≥10 mixed-type lesions, located in ≥2 body parts. Results. Eighteen (5.4%) patients were identified as DL. Polymerase chain reaction followed by enzymatic digestion confirmed Leishmania viannia subgenus in 17 patients; amastigotes forms were identified in another one. Conclusions. Considering that DL diagnosis and management is challenging, clinicians must be aware of this emerging clinical form of the disease. PMID:26848483

  19. Growth and differentiation on a trypanosome of the subgenus Schizotrypanum from the bat Phyllostomus hastatus.

    PubMed

    Hamanaka, S I; Pinto, A da S

    1993-01-01

    The effects of temperature, pH, osmolarity and aeration on the growth and differentiation of a trypanosome of the subgenus Schizotrypanum isolated from the bat Phyllostomus hastatus were studied. In general, the growth characteristics of the flagellate were similar to those of Trypanosoma (Schizotrypanum) cruzi. However, the parasite did not growth at 33 or 37 C. Increase in the osmolarity and aeration promoted growth at 33 C. Significant metacyclogenesis was detected only in the growth condition where maximal growth occurred (28 C, pH 7.3, 380 mOs/kg, in tissue culture flasks), at the end of the exponential growth phase. The beginning of the metacyclogenesis process was coincident with most glucose utilization and lowest pH. During metacyclogenesis both culture medium pH and osmolarity increased steadily. PMID:8159823

  20. Cell surface analysis of trypanosomes of the subgenus Schizotrypanum isolated from bats.

    PubMed

    Pinto, A S; Teixeira, L F; Souto-Padrón, T; Andrade, A F

    1996-06-01

    Two stocks (M5, M29) of trypanosomes of the subgenus Schizotrypanum were isolated from the bat Phyllostomus hastatus and analyzed for cell electrophoretic mobility (EPM) and lectin binding surface sites. Epimastigotes from the M5 and M29 stocks presented a mean EPM of around -0.57 and -0.56 microns. s-1.V-1.cm respectively. Differences in the agglutination profiles were detected between epimastigotes or trypomastigotes from the two parasite populations using lectins with specificity for D-GlcNAc, D-GalNAc, D-Gal and D-Man as probe. Major variation was observed between epimastigote forms. Additionally, the D-GlcNAc binding lectins WGA and BS II strongly interacted with the trypomastigote from both M5 and M29 stocks; this fact is evidence that these trypanosomes are distinct from Trypanosoma (Schizotrypanum) cruzi. PMID:8758552

  1. Schizodeme and zymodeme analysis of trypanosomes of the subgenus Schizotrypanum from the bat.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, L F; Gonçalves, A M; Romanha, A J; Steindel, M; Pinto, A S

    1993-01-01

    Two stocks and nine clones of trypanosomes of the subgenus Schizotrypanum were analyzed based on their electrophoretic pattern of EcoR1 digestion products of kinetoplast DNA (k-DNA) minicircles (schizodeme) and isoenzymes (zymodeme). The trypanosome stocks were isolated from Phyllostomus hastatus bats collected in different locations in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The k-DNA pattern showed major variations between stocks and microvariations among the clones. Furthermore, in one of several cloning attempts, two different populations could be isolated. Among the six enzymes studied, glucose phosphate isomerase presented different patterns for stocks and clones. No similarity was found among bat trypanosomes and Trypanosoma (Schizotrypanum) cruzi standard zymodemes. This shows that bat trypanosomes are distinct from T. (S.) cruzi. PMID:8415566

  2. Leaf anatomy and its contribution to the systematics of Aechmea subgenus Macrochordion (de Vriese) Baker (Bromeliaceae).

    PubMed

    Faria, Ana Paula G de; Vieira, Ana Claudia M; Wendt, Tânia

    2012-12-01

    The leaf anatomy of the species Aechmea subgenus Macrochordion was analyzed to obtain valuable data on their taxonomic delimitation and to identify anatomical adaptations to their respective habitats and habits. All leaves of these species are hypostomatic, and present: peltate trichomes on both surfaces; stomata sunk in epidermal depressions; small epidermal cells with thick walls and inclusions of silica bodies; a mechanical hypodermis; an aquiferous parenchyma; chlorenchyma with fibrous clusters and air channels; and vascular bundles surrounded by a parenchymatic sheath and a cap of fibers. The results are evaluated within an adaptive and taxonomic context. Variations in hypodermic thickening, amount of water parenchyma, position of the air channels and shape of the cells filling the air channels are useful for delimiting groups of species, strengthening the relationships suggested by their external morphology. PMID:22935923

  3. A revision of the subgenus Bessobates of the genus Netelia from Japan (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Tryphoninae).

    PubMed

    Konishi, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Japanese species of the genus Netelia of the subgenus Bessobates are revised. Fourteen species are recognized. Four new species, N. (B.) longipad, N. (B.) nigridorsalis, N. (B.) nodai and N. (B.) yakushimensis, are described. Six species, N. (B.) comitor Tolkanitz, 1974, N. (B.) frenata Tolkanitz, 1981, N. (B.) gansuana (Kokujev, 1906), N. (B.) kiuhabona (Uchida, 1928), N. (B.) nanaki Kaur & Jonathan, 1979 and N. (B.) pallescens (Schmiedeknecht, 1910) are recorded from Japan for the first time and redescribed based on Japanese specimens. Male genitalia of N. (B.) yamatoensis (Uchida, 1934) are figured and described for the first time. Netelia (Bessobates) odaiensis (Uchida, 1934) is removed from synonym with virgata and treated as species incertae sedis. Three species, N. (B.) cristata (Thomson, 1888), N. (B.) latungula (Thomson, 1888) and N. (B.) virgata (Geoffroy, 1785) are redescribed based on Japanese specimens. A key to 14 Japanese species is given. PMID:24869824

  4. Taxonomy and species-groups of the subgenus Crematogaster ( Orthocrema) in the Malagasy region (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Blaimer, Bonnie B.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The species-level taxonomy of the subgenus Crematogaster (Orthocrema) in the Malagasy region is evaluated with both morphological data from worker and queen ants, and genetic data from three nuclear markers (long wavelength rhodopsin, arginine kinase and carbamoylphosphate synthase). These two types of data support the existence of six Orthocrema species: Crematogaster madecassa Emery, Crematogaster rasoherinae Forel, Crematogaster telolafy sp. n., Crematogaster razana sp. n., Crematogaster volamena sp. n. and Crematogaster mpanjono sp. n.. Two new synonyms of Crematogaster rasoherinae Forel are recognized, Crematogaster rasoherinae brunneola Emery, syn. n. and Crematogaster voeltzkowi Forel, syn. n., as these were not supported as distinct taxa by the data. A neotype is designated for Crematogaster rasoherinae; lectotypes are designated for Crematogaster madecassa, Crematogaster rasoherinae brunneola and Crematogaster voeltzkowi. Species descriptions, images, distribution maps and identification keys based on worker and queen ants are given for all six species. A diagnosis of the subgenus Orthocrema in the Malagasy region is presented for both workers and queens. Within the Malagasy Orthocrema, three distinct phylogenetic lineages are suggested by molecular and morphological data. Newly defined monophyletic species-groups are thus the Crematogaster madecassa-group (Crematogaster madecassa, Crematogaster telolafy and Crematogaster razana) and the Crematogaster volamena-group (Crematogaster volamena and Crematogaster mpanjono); Crematogaster rasoherinae represents an isolated lineage in the Malagasy region and its closest relatives remain unclear. Other interesting biological findings are the presence of an intermediate caste between workers and queens in Crematogaster rasoherinae and Crematogaster madecassa, and unusually large workers in Crematogaster volamena resembling a major caste. PMID:22711995

  5. Phylogenetic Patterns of Geographical and Ecological Diversification in the Subgenus Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Hojas, Ramiro; Vieira, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Colonisation of new geographic regions and/or of new ecological resources can result in rapid species diversification into the new ecological niches available. Members of the subgenus Drosophila are distributed across the globe and show a large diversity of ecological niches. Furthermore, taxonomic classification of Drosophila includes the rank radiation, which refers to closely related species groups. Nevertheless, it has never been tested if these taxonomic radiations correspond to evolutionary radiations. Here we present a study of the patterns of diversification of Drosophila to test for increased diversification rates in relation to the geographic and ecological diversification processes. For this, we have estimated and dated a phylogeny of 218 species belonging to the major species groups of the subgenus. The obtained phylogenies are largely consistent with previous studies and indicate that the major groups appeared during the Oligocene/Miocene transition or early Miocene, characterized by a trend of climate warming with brief periods of glaciation. Ancestral reconstruction of geographic ranges and ecological resource use suggest at least two dispersals to the Neotropics from the ancestral Asiatic tropical disribution, and several transitions to specialized ecological resource use (mycophagous and cactophilic). Colonisation of new geographic regions and/or of new ecological resources can result in rapid species diversification into the new ecological niches available. However, diversification analyses show no significant support for adaptive radiations as a result of geographic dispersal or ecological resource shift. Also, cactophily has not resulted in an increase in the diversification rate of the repleta and related groups. It is thus concluded that the taxonomic radiations do not correspond to adaptive radiations. PMID:23152919

  6. A new species of the genus Quedius Stephens, 1829, subgenus Microsaurus Dejean, 1833, from northeastern North America (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Staphylinini, Quediina)

    PubMed Central

    Smetana, Aleš; Webster, Reginald P.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The paper contains a description of a new species of the subgenus Microsaurus Dejean, 1833, of the genus Quedius Stephens, 1829, based on specimens from northeastern North America (Canada: Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick; USA: New Hampshire). PMID:21998540

  7. Uca (Xeruca), a new subgenus for the Taiwanese fiddler crab Uca formosensis Rathbun, 1921 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Ocypodidae), based on morphological and molecular evidence.

    PubMed

    Shih, Hsi-Te

    2015-01-01

    The fiddler crab Uca formosensis Rathbun, 1921 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Ocypodidae), restricted to the western part of Taiwan and the offshore Penghu (Pescadores) Islands in the Taiwan Strait, has been placed under the subgenus Uca (Gelasimus) Latreille, 1817 (= Uca (Thalassuca) Crane, 1975) based on only less than a dozen specimens, but later suggested under the subgenus Tubuca Bott, 1973 because the similarity of external morphology. A suite of characters of carapace, major cheliped, gastric mill, male first gonopod, and chela handedness, as well as the phylogenic relationships (mitochondrial 16S rDNA and cytochrome oxidase subunit I, and nuclear 28S rDNA), nevertheless support this species belongs to its own subgenus. A new subgenus Uca (Xeruca) subgen. nov. is herein established for U. formosensis. PMID:26249894

  8. Taxonomy, bionomics and faunistics of the nominate subgenus of Mylabris Fabricius, 1775, with the description of five new species (Coleoptera: Meloidae: Mylabrini).

    PubMed

    Pan, Zhao; Bologna, Marco A

    2014-01-01

    The nominate subgenus of the mylabrine genus Mylabris is revised: five new species, M. (M.) alpicola sp.n., M. (M.) cernyi sp.n., M. (M.) mediorientalis sp.n., and M. (M.) pseudoemiliae sp.n., are described and figured; M. (M.) apiceguttata sp.n., is provisionally refered to the nominate subgenus. M. (M.) rishwani Makhan, 2012 is synonymized with M. (M.) quadripunctata (Linnaeus, 1767). The other 20 species are characterized by short descriptions and figures, and a key to the species is provided. Tentatively, M. barezensis  and M. batnensis are placed in the nominate subgenus. The bionomics of the species is summarized in tables including information on phenology, elevation, habitat preference, host plants, larval biology, and host insects. Zoogeographic analysis of the subgenus was carried out on the basis of all available faunistic records from literature and collections which are summarized in Appendix. PMID:24871153

  9. One new species of the subgenus Hexatoma (Eriocera) Macquart (Diptera, Limoniidae) from China with a key to Chinese species

    PubMed Central

    Men, Qiu-Lei; Yu, Dao-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Abstract One new species of the subgenus Eriocera Macquart, 1838, Hexatoma (Eriocera) cleopatroides Men, sp. n. (Southern China: Anhui) is described and illustrated. A key to all of 78 known species from China in the subgenus is provided, which was solely based on literatures. The new species is similar to Hexatoma (Eriocera) cleopatra Alexander, 1933, but distinguishes from the latter by the prescutum entirely black with two ill-defined gray stripes, by the legs with fore and middle femora brown in basal half, black in apical half, with hind femora brown in basal one-fourth, and by the wings with cells c and sc more yellowish brown than the ground color. PMID:25685007

  10. One new species of the subgenus Hexatoma (Eriocera) Macquart (Diptera, Limoniidae) from China with a key to Chinese species.

    PubMed

    Men, Qiu-Lei; Yu, Dao-Ping

    2015-01-01

    One new species of the subgenus Eriocera Macquart, 1838, Hexatoma (Eriocera) cleopatroides Men, sp. n. (Southern China: Anhui) is described and illustrated. A key to all of 78 known species from China in the subgenus is provided, which was solely based on literatures. The new species is similar to Hexatoma (Eriocera) cleopatra Alexander, 1933, but distinguishes from the latter by the prescutum entirely black with two ill-defined gray stripes, by the legs with fore and middle femora brown in basal half, black in apical half, with hind femora brown in basal one-fourth, and by the wings with cells c and sc more yellowish brown than the ground color. PMID:25685007

  11. Minibrachium, a new subgenus of Rhamphobrachium (Annelida: Onuphidae) from Australia with the description of three new species.

    PubMed

    Paxton, Hannelore; Budaeva, Nataliya

    2015-01-01

    This study describes a new subgenus of miniature, progenetic Rhamphobrachium species from eastern Australia. Minibrachium, n. subg. is characterised by such paedomorphic features as lack of peristomial cirri and branchiae, possession of only two pairs of modified parapodia with spiny recurved hooks and very early onset of subacicular hooks. Three new species are described, of which at least R. (Minibrachium) nutrix n. sp., the type species (from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef), is a fully grown adult, brooding several 16- to 20-chaetiger juveniles in the parental tubes. Rhamphobrachium (M.) talboti n. sp. (from off Sydney) and R. (M.) fractum n. sp. (from Bass Strait), although twice as large as the type species, have only partially developed frontal lips, indicating either incomplete growth or presenting an additional paedomorphic character. We discuss the position of the new subgenus in the Rhamphobrachium complex and present a key to the subgenera of Rhamphobrachium and species of R. (Minibrachium). PMID:26624081

  12. Living on the mountains: patterns and causes of diversification in the springsnail subgenus Pseudamnicola (Corrosella) (Mollusca: Caenogastropoda: Hydrobiidae).

    PubMed

    Delicado, Diana; Machordom, Annie; Ramos, Marian A

    2013-09-01

    Hydrobiidae is one of the largest families of freshwater gastropods comprised of approximately 400 genera and 1000 species. Despite this high level of diversity, most hydrobiid species inhabit fragile ecosystems in restricted distribution areas. In this work, we analyze modes of speciation and causes of diversification in the hydrobiid springsnail subgenus Pseudamnicola (Corrosella). Species of this group typically live in nutrient poor springs and streams and are restricted to mountainous regions of the Iberian Peninsula (Spain) and Southern France. Previous morphological and molecular (based only on the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene) studies revealed 11 nominal Corrosella species. In this study, we enhance published molecular results by generating new data from mitochondrial (16S rRNA and COI) and nuclear ribosomal regions (18S and 28S rRNA) from 50 Corrosella populations. As a result of this study we have identified one new species, making a total of twelve recognized species in the subgenus Corrosella. Our phylogenetic results also reveal the existence of three lineages within the subgenus, and the estimation of time divergence indicates the occurrence of three main speciation events during the upper Miocene to Pleistocene. We test the influence of several geographical and ecological variables and observe that diversification patterns are related to habitat fragmentation rather than environmental conditions. This result suggests that the high level of diversity observed within the subgenus may have resulted from a non-adaptive radiation. The formation of the Iberian Peninsula mountain ranges (the Pyrenees in the north and the Betic Cordillera in the south) and the configuration of the Iberian current hydrographic system played important roles in Corrosella speciation. Additionally, during the Miocene the Iberian Peninsula experienced a gradient of increasing temperature and dryness from north to south, which together with a high level of tectonic

  13. New source of genetic polymorphisms in Lepidoptera?

    PubMed

    Hundsdoerfer, Anna K; Wink, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The variability level of the ISSR (inter-simple sequences repeat) primer (GACA)4 was examined in the three Lepidoptera families Pyralidae, Sphingidae and Pieridae. Our study shows that the tetra-repeat (GACA)n is evidently present in sufficient numbers in these butterflies to provide informative DNA fingerprints. The variability is mostly rather high, but within a comparable range to other ISSR studies. Although less polymorphisms may be encountered in some butterfly families, this study indicates that high variability of this marker may be a common characteristic of Lepidoptera genomes. An appeal for a minimal level of standardization of ISSR-PCR data analysis is formulated to enable an exact comparison between the groups of organisms studied with this fingerprint technique. PMID:16163839

  14. Revision of the subgenus Aleochara Gravenhorst of the parasitoid rove beetle genus Aleochara Gravenhorst of Japan (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Aleocharinae).

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Shûhei; Maruyama, Munetoshi

    2016-01-01

    The Japanese members of the subgenus Aleochara Gravenhorst, 1802 of the genus Aleochara Gravenhorst, 1802 are revised. Six species are recognized: Aleochara (Aleochara) coreana Bernhauer, 1926; A. (A.) curtula (Goeze, 1777); A. (A.) lata Gravenhorst, 1802; A. (A.) parens Sharp, 1874; A. (A.) postica Walker, 1858 [= A. (A.) clavigera Sharp, 1874, n. syn.; A. (A.) nitouensis Bernhauer, 1935, n. syn.; A. (A.) marginicollis Cameron, 1942, n. syn.], and; A. (A.) yaeyamensis n. sp. (Yaeyama Islands, the Ryûkyûs). We recognize A. niponensis Sharp, 1888, sp. rev., currently synonymized under A. clavigera, as a valid species and transfer it to the subgenus Xenochara Mulsant & Rey, 1874. "A. (A.)" kochi Bernhauer, 1941 [="A. (A.)" globus Pace, 1999, n. syn.] is excluded from Aleochara and re-assigned instead to Paraleochara Cameron, 1920. Paraleochara is new to the Palearctic region, and Paraleochara kochi (Bernhauer, 1941), n. comb. represents the second species of the genus. Lectotypes of A. niponensis, A. parens, and A.discoidea are designated. All species are described, keyed, and figured, with habitus photographs. Line drawings of the adult mouth parts of A. (A.) curtula (Goeze, 1777) are shown. The diversity, distribution, and phylogenetic relationships of the subgenus in Japan are also discussed. PMID:27394607

  15. Phylogenetic relationships of the South American ground beetle subgenus Chilioperyphus Jeannel (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Trechinae: Bembidiini: Bembidion Latreille).

    PubMed

    Maddison, David R; Toledano, Luca; Sallenave, Soledad; Roig-Juñent, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    The boundaries and relationships of the ground beetle group Chilioperyphus Jeannel (a subgenus of the cosmopolitan genus Bembidion Latreille) are examined using DNA and morphological data. DNA sequence data from seven genes (six nuclear and one mitochondrial) indicates that Chiliopeiyphus (as newly defined) is monophyletic, and is related to the subgenera Antipetyphanes Jeannel and Plocanoperyphus Jeannel, within the South American Antiperyphanes Complex. Chilioperyphus includes two described species, B. iendocinum Jensen-Haarup and B. orregoi Germain. Beinbidion cassinense Roig-Juñent and Gianuca as well as Bembidion cuyanum Roig-Juñent and Scheibler, formerly placed in subgenus Chilioperyphus, are transferred to subgenus Antipetyphanes. Bembidion cuyanum is considered a junior synonym of B. hirtipes Jeannel. The male genitalia of Chilioperyphus is unique in having a very long flagellum that is folded twice, allowing it to fit much of its length within the walls of the median lobe. However, the brush sclerite and basal part of the flagellum are not contained within the median lobe, as they extend anterior to its base. PMID:26042310

  16. Revision of New World Species of the Shore-fly Subgenus Allotrichoma Becker of the Genus Allotrichoma with Description of the Subgenus Neotrichoma (Diptera, Ephydridae, Hecamedini)

    PubMed Central

    Mathis, Wayne N.; Zatwarnicki, Tadeusz

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The New World species of the subgenera Allotrichoma Becker and Neotrichoma (new subgenus) are revised, including a phylogenetic analysis of the species groups and subgenera within the genus Allotrichoma. For phylogenetic perspective and to document the monophyly of the genus Allotrichoma and its included subgenera and species groups, we also provide a cladistic analysis of genera within the tribe Hecamedini. The ingroup included seven exemplar congeners from within Allotrichoma. Outgroup sampling included exemplars of other genera within Hecamedini and from the putative sister group, Lipochaetini, and to root the analysis, we used an exemplar of the tribe Discocerinini. Analyses with successive weighting and implied weighting recovered a monophyletic Allotrichoma and indicated clades within the genus. Eight new species are described (type locality in parenthesis): Allotrichoma bifurcatum (Utah. Utah: Lake Shore (40°06.9'N, 111°41.8'W; 1370 m)), Allotrichoma dynatum (Oregon. Benton: Finley National Wildlife Refuge (44°24.6'N, 123°19.5'W)), Allotrichoma occidentale (Oregon. Lake: Lakeview (44 km E; Drake Creek; 42°11'N, 119°59.3'W)), Allotrichoma robustum (California. Kern: Kern River (35°16.1'N, 119°18.4'W)), Allotrichoma sabroskyi (New Mexico. Sandoval: La Cueva (Junction of Highways 126 and 4; 35°52'N, 106°38.4'W; 2342 m)), Allotrichoma wallowa (Oregon Baker: Goose Creek (35 km E Baker City; 44°49.2'N, 117°27.79'W; 825 m)), Allotrichoma baliops (Florida. Monroe: Key West (Willie Ward Park; 24°32.9'N, 81°47.9'W)), and Allotrichoma insulare (Dominica. Cabrits Swamp (15°35'N, 61°29'W)). Within Allotrichoma, we recognize three subgenera of which one, Neotrichoma (type species: Allotrichoma atrilabre), is newly described. All known species from the New World are described with an emphasis on structures of the male terminalia, which are fully illustrated. Detailed locality data and distribution maps for the New World species are provided. A

  17. Chromosome number evolution in skippers (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae).

    PubMed

    Lukhtanov, Vladimir A

    2014-01-01

    Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths), as many other groups of animals and plants, simultaneously represent preservation of ancestral karyotype in the majority of families with a high degree of chromosome number instability in numerous independently evolved phylogenetic lineages. However, the pattern and trends of karyotype evolution in some Lepidoptera families are poorly studied. Here I provide a survey of chromosome numbers in skippers (family Hesperiidae) based on intensive search and analysis of published data. I demonstrate that the majority of skippers preserve the haploid chromosome number n=31 that seems to be an ancestral number for the Hesperiidae and the order Lepidoptera at whole. However, in the tribe Baorini the derived number n=16 is the most typical state which can be used as a (syn)apomorphic character in further phylogenetic investigations. Several groups of skippers display extreme chromosome number variations on within-species (e.g. the representatives of the genus Carcharodus Hübner, [1819]) and between-species (e.g. the genus Agathymus Freeman, 1959) levels. Thus, these groups can be used as model systems for future analysis of the phenomenon of chromosome instability. Interspecific chromosomal differences are also shown to be useful for discovering and describing new cryptic species of Hesperiidae representing in such a way a powerful tool in biodiversity research. Generally, the skipper butterflies promise to be an exciting group that will significantly contribute to the growing knowledge of patterns and processes of chromosome evolution. PMID:25610542

  18. Patterns of postzygotic isolation in Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Presgraves, Daven C

    2002-06-01

    I present patterns characterizing the evolution of intrinsic postzygotic isolation in Lepidoptera by analyzing data from the literature on genetic distance, strength of hybrid sterility and inviability, biogeography, and natural hybridization. Using genetic distance as a proxy for time, I investigate the time-course of the evolution of postzygotic isolation and the waiting times to particular hybrid fitness problems. The results show that postzygotic isolation increases gradually as species diverge, but that hybrid sterility evolves faster than hybrid inviability. The overwhelming preponderance of female-specific hybrid problems in Lepidoptera shows that Haldane's rule (the preferential sterility or inviability of the heterogametic sex) is well obeyed. Together the rates and patterns characterizing the accumulation of postzygotic isolation allow several tests of the composite theory of Haldane's rule. Interestingly, comparing these data with those from Drosophila reveals that Haldane's rule for sterility evolves as fast (if not faster) in Lepidoptera. Finally, I show that a substantial fraction of sympatric species hybridizes in nature and that the majority of these suffer some level of hybrid sterility or inviability. PMID:12144018

  19. Chromosome number evolution in skippers (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae)

    PubMed Central

    Lukhtanov, Vladimir A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths), as many other groups of animals and plants, simultaneously represent preservation of ancestral karyotype in the majority of families with a high degree of chromosome number instability in numerous independently evolved phylogenetic lineages. However, the pattern and trends of karyotype evolution in some Lepidoptera families are poorly studied. Here I provide a survey of chromosome numbers in skippers (family Hesperiidae) based on intensive search and analysis of published data. I demonstrate that the majority of skippers preserve the haploid chromosome number n=31 that seems to be an ancestral number for the Hesperiidae and the order Lepidoptera at whole. However, in the tribe Baorini the derived number n=16 is the most typical state which can be used as a (syn)apomorphic character in further phylogenetic investigations. Several groups of skippers display extreme chromosome number variations on within-species (e.g. the representatives of the genus Carcharodus Hübner, [1819]) and between-species (e.g. the genus Agathymus Freeman, 1959) levels. Thus, these groups can be used as model systems for future analysis of the phenomenon of chromosome instability. Interspecific chromosomal differences are also shown to be useful for discovering and describing new cryptic species of Hesperiidae representing in such a way a powerful tool in biodiversity research. Generally, the skipper butterflies promise to be an exciting group that will significantly contribute to the growing knowledge of patterns and processes of chromosome evolution. PMID:25610542

  20. Revision of the orchid bee subgenus Euglossella (Hymenoptera, Apidae), Part I, The decorata species group

    PubMed Central

    Hinojosa-Díaz, Ismael A.; Engel, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Euglossella, one of the most distinctive subgenera of orchid bees of the genus Euglossa, is composed of two characteristic assemblages of species, one of them comprising bees bearing the strongly metallic integument trademark of the genus (viridis species group), and the other consisting of bees with a brown integument shaded with metallic iridescence (decorata species group). Here we provide the first of two parts of a revision of Euglossella, providing diagnostic definitions for the subgenus, the decorata species group, and all the species included therein. Six species are included in the decorata group, one new: Euglossa (Euglossella) aurantia, sp. n.; Euglossa (Euglossella) apiformis Schrottky, resurrected status; Euglossa (Euglossella) decorata Smith, revised status; Euglossa (Euglossella) singularis Mocsáry, revised status; Euglossa (Euglossella) cosmodora Hinojosa-Díaz and Engel; and Euglossa (Euglossella) perpulchra Moure and Schlindwein. Euglossa meliponoides Ducke and Euglossa urarina Hinojosa-Díaz and Engel are newly synonymized under Euglossa decorata, Euglossa decorata ruficauda Cockerell is synonymized under Euglossa singularis, and a neotype is designated for Euglossa apiformis. PMID:22144858

  1. Multigenomic Delineation of Plasmodium Species of the Laverania Subgenus Infecting Wild-Living Chimpanzees and Gorillas.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weimin; Sundararaman, Sesh A; Loy, Dorothy E; Learn, Gerald H; Li, Yingying; Plenderleith, Lindsey J; Ndjango, Jean-Bosco N; Speede, Sheri; Atencia, Rebeca; Cox, Debby; Shaw, George M; Ayouba, Ahidjo; Peeters, Martine; Rayner, Julian C; Hahn, Beatrice H; Sharp, Paul M

    2016-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum, the major cause of malaria morbidity and mortality worldwide, is only distantly related to other human malaria parasites and has thus been placed in a separate subgenus, termed Laverania Parasites morphologically similar to P. falciparum have been identified in African apes, but only one other Laverania species, Plasmodium reichenowi from chimpanzees, has been formally described. Although recent studies have pointed to the existence of additional Laverania species, their precise number and host associations remain uncertain, primarily because of limited sampling and a paucity of parasite sequences other than from mitochondrial DNA. To address this, we used limiting dilution polymerase chain reaction to amplify additional parasite sequences from a large number of chimpanzee and gorilla blood and fecal samples collected at two sanctuaries and 30 field sites across equatorial Africa. Phylogenetic analyses of more than 2,000 new sequences derived from the mitochondrial, nuclear, and apicoplast genomes revealed six divergent and well-supported clades within the Laverania parasite group. Although two of these clades exhibited deep subdivisions in phylogenies estimated from organelle gene sequences, these sublineages were geographically defined and not present in trees from four unlinked nuclear loci. This greatly expanded sequence data set thus confirms six, and not seven or more, ape Laverania species, of which P. reichenowi, Plasmodium gaboni, and Plasmodium billcollinsi only infect chimpanzees, whereas Plasmodium praefalciparum, Plasmodium adleri, and Pladmodium blacklocki only infect gorillas. The new sequence data also confirm the P. praefalciparum origin of human P. falciparum. PMID:27289102

  2. Amyrel, a paralogous gene of the amylase gene family in Drosophila melanogaster and the Sophophora subgenus

    PubMed Central

    Da Lage, Jean-Luc; Renard, Emmanuelle; Chartois, Frédérique; Lemeunier, Françoise; Cariou, Marie-Louise

    1998-01-01

    We describe a gene from Drosophila melanogaster related to the alpha-amylase gene Amy. This gene, which exists as a single copy, was named Amyrel. It is strikingly divergent from Amy because the amino acid divergence is 40%. The coding sequence is interrupted by a short intron at position 655, which is unusual in amylase genes. Amyrel has also been cloned in Drosophila ananassae, Drosophila pseudoobscura, and Drosophila subobscura and is likely to be present throughout the Sophophora subgenus, but, to our knowledge, it has not been detected outside. Unexpectedly, there is a strong conservation of 5′ and 3′ flanking regions between Amyrel genes from different species, which is not the case for Amy and which suggests that selection acts on these regions. In contrast to the Amy genes, Amyrel is transcribed in larvae of D. melanogaster but not in adults. However, the protein has not been detected yet. Amyrel evolves about twice as fast as Amy in the several species studied. We suggest that this gene could result from a duplication of Amy followed by accelerated and selected divergence toward a new adaptation. PMID:9618501

  3. A review of the orientalis group of the Otostigmus subgenus Otostigmus Porat, 1876 (Chilopoda: Scolopendromorpha: Scolopendridae).

    PubMed

    Lewis, John G E

    2014-01-01

    The Otostigmus subgenus Otostigmus, which currently comprises 58 species, was subdivided by Lewis (2010a) into nine species groups based on Attems' (1930a) monograph. The orientalis group comprising 19 species and two subspecies is the subject of this paper. In most cases, the type material is redescribed and variation discussed. The following species are valid: O. ateles Chamberlin, 1920, O. australianus Attems, 1930, O. brevidentatus Verhoeff, 1937, O. foveolatus Verhoeff, 1937, O. kashmiranus Lewis, 1992, O. metallicus Haase, 1887, O. multidens multidens Haase, 1887, O. oatesi Kraepelin, 1903, O. orientalis Porat, 1876, O. ruficeps Pocock, 1890, and O. striolatus Verhoeff, 1937. O. seychellarum Attems, 1900, is reinstated as a valid species and O. niasensis Silvestri, 1895, and O. sucki Krae-pelin, 1903 which may be O. metallicus are regarded as valid pro tem. O. greggi Chamberlin, 1944, is a junior subjective synonym of O. astenus (Kohlrausch, 1881), and O. loriae Silvestri, 1895, and O. multidens carens Attems, 1938, junior subjective synonyms of O. multidens. O. loriae nordicus Schileyko, 1995, becomes O. multidens nordicus comb. nov. O. nemorensis Silvestri, 1895, O. poonamae Khanna & Tripathi, 1986, and O. telus Chamberlin, 1939, are nomina dubia. A key to the species is provided. PMID:25544275

  4. Systematics and evolution of the African pygmy mice, subgenus Nannomys: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britton-Davidian, J.; Robinson, T. J.; Veyrunes, F.

    2012-07-01

    African pygmy mice (subgenus Nannomys) are a group of small murine rodents that are widespread throughout Sub-Saharan Africa. Although this group has long been recognized for its extensive chromosomal diversity, the highly conserved morphology of its members has made taxonomic assignments problematic. Renewed interest resulting from a series of cytogenetic and molecular investigations has led to the identification of novel patterns of diversification in these rodents that are reviewed herein. These approaches have considerably improved species delimitation and provide tentative diagnostic criteria as well as preliminary phylogenetic relationships that will be refined as more taxa are investigated. Although sparse, ecological data suggest that pygmy mice may exhibit original reproductive traits that deserve further investigation. Chromosomal diversity undoubtedly remains one of the most interesting features of African pygmy mouse biology. They display several karyotypic traits that are rare in mammals: (i) their genomes tolerate the recurrent formation of tandem fusions and sex-autosome translocations, both of which are rare in other mammals due to their highly deleterious effects on fertility; (ii) they exhibit the first case of a whole arm exchange involving an X chromosome, and (iii) two species show novel means of sex chromosome determination - one exhibits XY females, whereas the other harbors populations in which males have no Y chromosome. The diversity of African pygmy mice offers a unique opportunity to study the processes involved in their radiation, and in a broader context, the evolution of sex chromosome determination in mammals.

  5. Multigenomic Delineation of Plasmodium Species of the Laverania Subgenus Infecting Wild-Living Chimpanzees and Gorillas

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Weimin; Sundararaman, Sesh A.; Loy, Dorothy E.; Learn, Gerald H.; Li, Yingying; Plenderleith, Lindsey J.; Ndjango, Jean-Bosco N.; Speede, Sheri; Atencia, Rebeca; Cox, Debby; Shaw, George M.; Ayouba, Ahidjo; Peeters, Martine; Rayner, Julian C.; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Sharp, Paul M.

    2016-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum, the major cause of malaria morbidity and mortality worldwide, is only distantly related to other human malaria parasites and has thus been placed in a separate subgenus, termed Laverania. Parasites morphologically similar to P. falciparum have been identified in African apes, but only one other Laverania species, Plasmodium reichenowi from chimpanzees, has been formally described. Although recent studies have pointed to the existence of additional Laverania species, their precise number and host associations remain uncertain, primarily because of limited sampling and a paucity of parasite sequences other than from mitochondrial DNA. To address this, we used limiting dilution polymerase chain reaction to amplify additional parasite sequences from a large number of chimpanzee and gorilla blood and fecal samples collected at two sanctuaries and 30 field sites across equatorial Africa. Phylogenetic analyses of more than 2,000 new sequences derived from the mitochondrial, nuclear, and apicoplast genomes revealed six divergent and well-supported clades within the Laverania parasite group. Although two of these clades exhibited deep subdivisions in phylogenies estimated from organelle gene sequences, these sublineages were geographically defined and not present in trees from four unlinked nuclear loci. This greatly expanded sequence data set thus confirms six, and not seven or more, ape Laverania species, of which P. reichenowi, Plasmodium gaboni, and Plasmodium billcollinsi only infect chimpanzees, whereas Plasmodium praefalciparum, Plasmodium adleri, and Pladmodium blacklocki only infect gorillas. The new sequence data also confirm the P. praefalciparum origin of human P. falciparum. PMID:27289102

  6. Systematics and biology of Xylocopa subgenus Schonnherria (Hymenoptera, Apidae) in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Lucia, Mariano; Gonzalez, Victor H.; Abrahamovich, Alberto H.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Biological information on the species of the large carpenter bee Xylocopa subgenus Schonnherria occurring in Argentina is revised. Based on the appraisal of museum specimens, the study of type material, and field surveys conducted across 15 provinces between 2007 and 2011, the following seven species are recognized for the country: Xylocopa bambusae Schrottky, Xylocopa chrysopoda Schrottky, Xylocopa macrops Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau, Xylocopa simillima Smith Xylocopa splendidula Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau, Xylocopa pulchra Smith, and Xylocopa viridis Smith. Previous literature records of Xylocopa dimidiata Latreille, Xylocopa subcyanea Pérez, and Xylocopa varians Smith for the province of Misiones appear to have been misidentified specimens, although the presence of these species in Argentina cannot be entirely ruled out given the proximity of this province to Brazil and Paraguay where they occur; Xylocopa boops Maidl was described from a male specimen with unusually enlarged eyes and is newly synonymized under Xylocopa macrops. Males and females of all species are diagnosed, described, and figured, including details of the male genitalia. Taxonomic comments, data on the geographical distribution and nesting substrates, and identification keys to all Argentinean species of Schonnherria are provided. The nesting biologies of Xylocopa splendidula and Xylocopa viridis are documented. PMID:26798288

  7. Migration Patterns of Subgenus Alnus in Europe since the Last Glacial Maximum: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Douda, Jan; Doudová, Jana; Drašnarová, Alena; Kuneš, Petr; Hadincová, Věroslava; Krak, Karol; Zákravský, Petr; Mandák, Bohumil

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Recently, new palaeoecological records supported by molecular analyses and palaeodistributional modelling have provided more comprehensive insights into plant behaviour during the last Quaternary cycle. We reviewed the migration history of species of subgenus Alnus during the last 50,000 years in Europe with a focus on (1) a general revision of Alnus history since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), (2) evidence of northern refugia of Alnus populations during the LGM and (3) the specific history of Alnus in particular European regions. Methodology We determined changes in Alnus distribution on the basis of 811 and 68 radiocarbon-dated pollen and macrofossil sites, respectively. We compiled data from the European Pollen Database, the Czech Quaternary Palynological Database, the Eurasian Macrofossil Database and additional literature. Pollen percentage thresholds indicating expansions or retreats were used to describe patterns of past Alnus occurrence. Principal Findings An expansion of Alnus during the Late Glacial and early Holocene periods supports the presence of alders during the LGM in southern peninsulas and northerly areas in western Europe, the foothills of the Alps, the Carpathians and northeastern Europe. After glaciers withdrew, the ice-free area of Europe was likely colonized from several regional refugia; the deglaciated area of Scandinavia was likely colonized from a single refugium in northeastern Europe. In the more northerly parts of Europe, we found a scale-dependent pattern of Alnus expansion characterised by a synchronous increase of Alnus within individual regions, though with regional differences in the times of the expansion. In southern peninsulas, the Alps and the Carpathians, by contrast, it seems that Alnus expanded differently at individual sites rather than synchronously in whole regions. Conclusions Our synthesis supports the idea that northern LGM populations were important sources of postglacial Alnus expansion. The

  8. Mayflies of the Caucasus Mountains. III. A new representative of the subgenus Rhodobaetis Jacob, 2003 (Baetidae: Baetis) from the South-Western Caucasus.

    PubMed

    Godunko, Roman J; Palatov, Dmitry M; Martynov, Alexander V

    2015-01-01

    A new species of the subgenus Rhodobaetis Jacob, 2003, namely Baetis (Rhodobaetis) vadimi sp. nov., is described based on immature larvae from several localities in Georgia and Turkey. It is the ninth species of the subgenus for Transcaucasia, following six species formally recorded from Turkey and two endemic species described from the Central Caucasus. Larval characters are investigated and illustrated by means of scanning electron microscopy, and discussed in details. The differential diagnosis of this species is provided with regard to other representatives of the subgenus considering the feature set common for Rhodobaetis. The new species can be distinguished from its relatives (species which lack stout setae on the gills' margins), mainly by some characters of mouthparts (particularly labium), the shape and arrangement of stout setae and scales on the body surface, as well as the lack of subapical tiny setae on tarsal claw, and presence of numerous marginal spines and semilunar scale bases on the paraproct plate. PMID:25947771

  9. From introduced American weed to Cape Verde Islands endemic: the case of Solanum rigidum Lam. (Solanaceae, Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum).

    PubMed

    Knapp, Sandra; Vorontsova, Maria S

    2013-01-01

    A Solanum species long considered an American introduction to the Cape Verde Islands off the west coast of Africa is identified as Solanum rigidum, a member of the Eggplant clade of Old World spiny solanums (Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum) and is probably endemic to the Cape Verde Islands. Collections of this species from the Caribbean are likely to have been introduced from the Cape Verde Islands on slave ships. We discuss the complex nomenclatural history of this plant and provide a detailed description, illustration and distribution map. The preliminary conservation status of Solanum rigidum is Least Concern, but needs to be reassessed in light of its endemic rather than introduced status. PMID:24198710

  10. From introduced American weed to Cape Verde Islands endemic: the case of Solanum rigidum Lam. (Solanaceae, Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum)

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Sandra; Vorontsova, Maria S.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A Solanum species long considered an American introduction to the Cape Verde Islands off the west coast of Africa is identified as Solanum rigidum, a member of the Eggplant clade of Old World spiny solanums (Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum) and is probably endemic to the Cape Verde Islands. Collections of this species from the Caribbean are likely to have been introduced from the Cape Verde Islands on slave ships. We discuss the complex nomenclatural history of this plant and provide a detailed description, illustration and distribution map. The preliminary conservation status of Solanum rigidum is Least Concern, but needs to be reassessed in light of its endemic rather than introduced status. PMID:24198710

  11. Description of male, pupa and larva of Simulium (Asiosimulium) wanchaii (Diptera: Simuliidae) from Thailand, with keys to identify four species of the subgenus Asiosimulium.

    PubMed

    Srisuka, W; Takaoka, H; Saeung, A

    2015-09-01

    The male, pupa and mature larva of Simulium (Asiosimulium) wanchaii Takaoka & Choochote, one of the four species of the small Oriental black fly subgenus Asiosimulium, are described for the first time based on samples collected from Thailand. The male S. (A.) wanchaii is characterized based on the enlarged hind basitarsus and the ventral plate which is much wider than long. The pupa and larva are characterized by the gill with 19 filaments and the deep postgenal cleft, respectively. Keys are provided to identify all the four species of the subgenus Asiosimulium for females, males, pupae and mature larvae. PMID:26695212

  12. A Global Phylogeny of Leafmining Ectoedemia Moths (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae): Exploring Host Plant Family Shifts and Allopatry as Drivers of Speciation

    PubMed Central

    Doorenweerd, Camiel; van Nieukerken, Erik J.; Menken, Steph B. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Host association patterns in Ectoedemia (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae) are also encountered in other insect groups with intimate plant relationships, including a high degree of monophagy, a preference for ecologically dominant plant families (e.g. Fagaceae, Rosaceae, Salicaceae, and Betulaceae) and a tendency for related insect species to feed on related host plant species. The evolutionary processes underlying these patterns are only partly understood, we therefore assessed the role of allopatry and host plant family shifts in speciation within Ectoedemia. Methodology Six nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers with a total aligned length of 3692 base pairs were used to infer phylogenetic relationships among 92 species belonging to the subgenus Ectoedemia of the genus Ectoedemia, representing a thorough taxon sampling with a global coverage. The results support monophyletic species groups that are congruent with published findings based on morphology. We used the obtained phylogeny to explore host plant family association and geographical distribution to investigate if host shifts and allopatry have been instrumental in the speciation of these leafmining insects. Significance We found that, even though most species within species groups commonly feed on plants from one family, shifts to a distantly related host family have occasionally occurred throughout the phylogeny and such shifts are most commonly observed towards Betulaceae. The largest radiations have occurred within species groups that feed on Fagaceae, Rosaceae, and Salicaceae. Most species are restricted to one of the seven global biogeographic regions, but within species groups representatives are commonly found in different biogeographic regions. Although we find general patterns with regard to host use and biogeography, there are differences between clades that suggest that different drivers of speciation, and perhaps drivers that we did not examine, have shaped diversity patterns in different

  13. Gustatory receptors in Lepidoptera: chemosensation and beyond.

    PubMed

    Agnihotri, A R; Roy, A A; Joshi, R S

    2016-10-01

    Lepidoptera is one of the most widespread insect orders and includes several agriculturally important insect species. Ecological success of the lepidopteran insects partly depends on their adaptive chemoreception tactics, which play an important role in the selection of hosts, egg-laying sites and mates. Members of the G-protein coupled receptor family, gustatory receptors (GRs), are an integral part of the Lepidoptera chemosensory machinery. They are expressed in chemosensory neurones and are known to detect different environmental stimuli. Here, we discuss various aspects of the lepidopteran GRs with an emphasis on their roles in different processes such as chemosensation, host selection and adaptation. Phylogenetic analyses have shown that the large diversity of GR genes may have been generated through gene duplication and positive selection events, which also show lineage- and tissue-specific expression. Moreover, lepidopteran GR proteins are diverse and demonstrate broad ligand selectivity for several molecules including sugars, deterrents, salts and CO2 . Binding of ligands to GRs generates multiple downstream changes at the cellular level, which are followed by changes in behaviour. GRs play a critical role in chemosensation and influence the insect's behaviour. Overall, insect GRs are potential targets in the design of effective insect control strategies. PMID:27228010

  14. Gut microbiota of Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Snyman, Maxi; Gupta, Arvind Kumar; Bezuidenhout, Cornelius Carlos; Claassens, Sarina; van den Berg, Johnnie

    2016-07-01

    Busseola fusca (Fuller) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a stemborer pest that attacks maize (Zea mays) throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Genetically modified maize has been shown to be effective against B. fusca. However, resistance of B. fusca against Bt-maize has developed and spread throughout South Africa. Previous studies suggested that gut microbiota contribute to mortality across a range of Lepidoptera. To fully assess the role of microbiota within the gut, it is essential to understand the microbiota harboured by natural B. fusca populations. This study aimed to identify the gut-associated bacteria by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. A total of 78 bacterial strains were characterised from the midgut of B. fusca larvae that were collected from 30 sites across the maize producing region of South Africa. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed bacteria affiliated to Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes. Taxonomic distribution placed these isolates into 15 different genera representing 20 species. The majority of bacteria identified belong to the genera Bacillus, Enterococcus, and Klebsiella. The B. fusca gut represents an intriguing and unexplored niche for analysing microbial ecology. The study could provide opportunities for developing new targets for pest management and contribute to understanding the phenomenon of resistance evolution of this species. PMID:27263010

  15. Identification of Sand flies of the Subgenus Larroussius based on Molecular and Morphological Characters in North Western Iran

    PubMed Central

    Absavaran, A; Rassi, Y; Parvizi, P; Oshaghi, MA; Abaie, MR; Rafizadeh, S; Mohebali, M; Zarea, Z; Javadian, E

    2009-01-01

    Background: The adult female sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) of the subgenus Larroussius are important vectors of Leishmania infantum (Kinetoplastida: Tripanosomatidae) in Meshkinshahr district, Northwest of Iran. Four Phlebotomus (Larroussius) species are present in this area, i.e. Phlebotomus (Larroussius) kandelakii, P. (La.) major, P. (La.) perfiliewi and P. (La.) tobbi. The objective of the present study was to identify and distinguish the females of P. perfiliewi, P. major and P. tobbi, in this district. Methods: Adult sand flies were collected with sticky papers, CDC light traps, and aspirator in 2006. Individual sand flies of this four species from thirty different locations were characterized morphologically and by comparative DNA sequences analyses of a fragment of mitochondrial gene Cytochrome b (Cyt b) and nuclear gene Elongation Factor 1-alpha (EF-1α). PCR amplification was carried out for all three species P. major, P. perfiliewi and P. tobbi in the subgenus Larroussius. Results: Phylogenetic analyses of P. major populations in this study displayed two different populations and genetic diversity. Spermathecal segment number, pharyngeal armature and other morphological characters of these three species were examined and found to present consistent interspecific differences. Conclusion: According to our findings, the phylogeny of Cyt b and EF-1α haplotypes confirms the relationships between P. major, P. tobbi and P. perfiliewi as already defined by their morphological similarities. PMID:22808379

  16. Evolution of a soldier caste specialized to lay unfertilized eggs in the ant genus Crematogaster (subgenus Orthocrema).

    PubMed

    Peeters, Christian; Lin, Chung-Chi; Quinet, Yves; Martins Segundo, Glauco; Billen, Johan

    2013-05-01

    Among social Hymenoptera, only some ant genera have more than one morphological kind of non-reproductive adults. Individuals that are bigger than ordinary workers can function for defence and/or food storage. In Crematogaster (Orthocrema) smithi from Arizona, a third caste exists in addition to winged queens and workers; it is intermediate in size, weight and morphology, and individuals lay many unfertilized eggs that are mostly eaten by larvae (Heinze et al., 1995, 1999). We studied another three species belonging to the subgenus Orthocrema: Crematogaster pygmaea from Brazil, Crematogaster biroi and Crematogaster schimmeri from Taiwan. Using scanning electron microscopy and ovarian dissections, we show that 'intermediates' are a patchwork of queen-like and worker-like traits, just as in C. smithi; importantly the combinations differ across species. 'Intermediates' are numerically few in the colonies, and in C. pygmaea they are produced seasonally. Using histology we confirmed the lack of a spermatheca, thus they are not ergatoid queens. Based on the similarity of their mosaic phenotypes with those in other ant lineages, we suggest that Orthocrema 'intermediates' are a soldier caste with a specialized trophic function. This soldier caste has been reported in other Orthocrema species from Madagascar, Guinea and Costa Rica, suggesting that it is widespread in this subgenus. PMID:23459016

  17. Environmental effects of solar-thermal-power systems. Systematic status of the Mojave ground squirrel, Spermophilus mohavensis (subgenus Xerospermophilus)

    SciTech Connect

    Hafner, D.J.; Yates, T.L.

    1982-06-01

    The Mojave ground squirrel, Spermophilus mohavensis, is listed as a rare species by the California Fish and Game Commission. Its well-being has emerged as an environmental concern associated with deployment of solar thermal power systems in western parts of the Mojave Desert. The more common round-tailed ground squirrel, Spermophilus tereticaudus, also occurs in the Mojave Desert, and this species closely resembles S. mohavensis. In some areas it may be extremely difficult, on the basis of external characters, to identify the species present. The systematic status of the sibling species Spermophilus mohavensis and S. tereticaudus (subgenus Xerosphermophilus) was investigated throughout the range of the subgenus, based on allozymic and chromosomal data. Hybridization of the two species was detected only at a single disturbed site, while allelic introgression was confined to an estimated 60 km reach of the Mojave River wash. In the absence of an analysis of a zone of natural sympatry, the two taxa are retained as full biological species. The population of ground squirrels just east of Solar One, the 10 MWe pilot solar thermal power plant, is composed of individuals referable to S. tereticaudus based on both allozymic and chromosomal criteria.

  18. Genome size in Hieracium subgenus Hieracium (Asteraceae) is strongly correlated with major phylogenetic groups

    PubMed Central

    Chrtek, Jindřich; Zahradníček, Jaroslav; Krak, Karol; Fehrer, Judith

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Hieracium subgenus Hieracium is one of the taxonomically most intricate groups of vascular plants, due to polyploidy and a diversity of breeeding systems (sexuality vs. apomixis). The aim of the present study was to analyse nuclear genome size in a phylogenetic framework and to assess relationships between genome size and ploidy, breeding system and selected ecogeographic features. Methods Holoploid and monoploid genome sizes (C- and Cx-values) of 215 cultivated plants from 89 field populations of 42 so-called ‘basic’ Hieracium species were determined using propidium iodide flow cytometry. Chromosome counts were available for all analysed plants, and all plants were tested experimentally for their mode of reproduction (sexuality vs. apomixis). For constructing molecular phylogenetic trees, the external transcribed spacer region of nuclear ribosomal DNA was used. Key Results The mean 2C values differed up to 2·37-fold among different species (from 7·03 pg in diploid to 16·67 in tetraploid accessions). The 1Cx values varied 1·22-fold (between 3·51 and 4·34 pg). Variation in 1Cx values between conspecific (species in a broad sense) accessions ranged from 0·24% to 7·2%. Little variation (not exceeding the approximate measurement inaccurracy threshold of 3·5%) was found in 33 species, whereas variation higher than 3·5% was detected in seven species. Most of the latter may have a polytopic origin. Mean 1Cx values of the three cytotypes (2n, 3n and 4n) differed significantly (average of 3·93 pg in diploids, 3·82 pg in triploids and 3·78 pg in tetraploids) indicating downsizing of genomes in polyploids. The pattern of genome size variation correlated well with two major phylogenetic clades which were composed of species with western or eastern European origin. The monoploid genome size in the ‘western’ species was significantly lower than in the ‘eastern’ ones. Correlation of genome size with latitude, altitude and selected

  19. Phylogenetic analyses of the subgenus Mollienesia (Poecilia, Poeciliidae, Teleostei) reveal taxonomic inconsistencies, cryptic biodiversity, and spatio-temporal aspects of diversification in Middle America.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Maura; Voelker, Gary; Arias Rodriguez, Lenin; Mateos, Mariana; Tobler, Michael

    2016-10-01

    The subgenus Mollienesia is a diverse group of freshwater fishes, including species that have served as important models across multiple biological disciplines. Nonetheless, the taxonomic history of this group has been conflictive and convoluted, in part because the evolutionary relationships have not been rigorously resolved. We conducted a comprehensive molecular phylogenetic analysis of the subgenus Mollienesia to identify taxonomic discrepancies and potentially identify undescribed species, estimate ancestral areas of origin and estimate dates of divergence, as well as explore biogeographical patterns. Our findings confirm the presence of three main clades composed of the P. latipinna, P. sphenops, and P. mexicana species complexes. Unlike previously hypothesized morphology-based analyses, species found on the Caribbean Islands are not part of Mollienesia, but are more closely related to species of the subgenus Limia. Our study also revealed several taxonomic inconsistencies and distinct lineages in the P. mexicana species complex that may represent undescribed species. The diversity in the subgenus Mollienesia is a result of dynamic geologic activity leading to vicariant events, dispersal across geologic blocks, and ecological speciation. PMID:27472959

  20. A revision of Chilicola (Heteroediscelis), a subgenus of xeromelissine bees (Hymenoptera, Colletidae) endemic to Chile: taxonomy, phylogeny, and biogeography, with descriptions of eight new species.

    PubMed

    Monckton, Spencer K

    2016-01-01

    The bee subgenus Chilicola (Heteroediscelis) Toro & Moldenke, 1979 (Hymenoptera, Colletidae, Xeromelissinae) is revised. The subgenus is considered endemic to Chile and occurs across a broad range of habitats. Eight new species are described: Chilicola (Heteroediscelis) charizard Monckton, sp. n., Chilicola (Heteroediscelis) curvapeligrosa Monckton, sp. n., Chilicola (Heteroediscelis) guanicoe Monckton, sp. n., Chilicola (Heteroediscelis) katherinae Monckton, sp. n., Chilicola (Heteroediscelis) lickana Monckton, sp. n., Chilicola (Heteroediscelis) mayu Monckton, sp. n., Chilicola (Heteroediscelis) packeri Monckton, sp. n., and Chilicola (Heteroediscelis) randolphi Monckton, sp. n. One of the existing species, Chilicola (Heteroediscelis) valparaiso Toro & Moldenke, 1979, syn. n., is treated as a junior synonym of Chilicola (Heteroediscelis) mantagua Toro & Moldenke, 1979, and the nine remaining valid species are redescribed. Thoroughly illustrated keys to species for males and females are provided, along with habitus images, images of male terminalia, distribution maps for each species, and a map of relevant Chilean biogeographic regions. Results of phylogenetic analyses are presented, based upon 74 morphological characters and on CO1 barcode sequences, analyzed both separately and as a combined dataset. Monophyly of the subgenus is supported, and groupings within the subgenus are discussed in light of a biogeographic analysis of their species distributions (spatial analysis of vicariance), whereby divergence between taxa is found to occur primarily via north-south disjunctions. PMID:27408541

  1. A revision of Chilicola (Heteroediscelis), a subgenus of xeromelissine bees (Hymenoptera, Colletidae) endemic to Chile: taxonomy, phylogeny, and biogeography, with descriptions of eight new species

    PubMed Central

    Monckton, Spencer K.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The bee subgenus Chilicola (Heteroediscelis) Toro & Moldenke, 1979 (Hymenoptera, Colletidae, Xeromelissinae) is revised. The subgenus is considered endemic to Chile and occurs across a broad range of habitats. Eight new species are described: Chilicola (Heteroediscelis) charizard Monckton, sp. n., Chilicola (Heteroediscelis) curvapeligrosa Monckton, sp. n., Chilicola (Heteroediscelis) guanicoe Monckton, sp. n., Chilicola (Heteroediscelis) katherinae Monckton, sp. n., Chilicola (Heteroediscelis) lickana Monckton, sp. n., Chilicola (Heteroediscelis) mayu Monckton, sp. n., Chilicola (Heteroediscelis) packeri Monckton, sp. n., and Chilicola (Heteroediscelis) randolphi Monckton, sp. n. One of the existing species, Chilicola (Heteroediscelis) valparaiso Toro & Moldenke, 1979, syn. n., is treated as a junior synonym of Chilicola (Heteroediscelis) mantagua Toro & Moldenke, 1979, and the nine remaining valid species are redescribed. Thoroughly illustrated keys to species for males and females are provided, along with habitus images, images of male terminalia, distribution maps for each species, and a map of relevant Chilean biogeographic regions. Results of phylogenetic analyses are presented, based upon 74 morphological characters and on CO1 barcode sequences, analyzed both separately and as a combined dataset. Monophyly of the subgenus is supported, and groupings within the subgenus are discussed in light of a biogeographic analysis of their species distributions (spatial analysis of vicariance), whereby divergence between taxa is found to occur primarily via north-south disjunctions. PMID:27408541

  2. Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Three Bactrocera Fruit Flies of Subgenus Bactrocera (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Their Phylogenetic Implications.

    PubMed

    Yong, Hoi-Sen; Song, Sze-Looi; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Suana, I Wayan

    2016-01-01

    Bactrocera latifrons is a serious pest of solanaceous fruits and Bactrocera umbrosa is a pest of Artocarpus fruits, while Bactrocera melastomatos infests the fruit of Melastomataceae. They are members of the subgenus Bactrocera. We report here the complete mitochondrial genome of these fruit flies determined by next-generation sequencing and their phylogeny with other taxa of the subgenus Bactrocera. The whole mitogenomes of these three species possessed 37 genes namely, 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 rRNA and 22 tRNA genes. The mitogenome of B. latifrons (15,977 bp) was longer than those of B. melastomatos (15,954 bp) and B. umbrosa (15,898 bp). This difference can be attributed to the size of the intergenic spacers (283 bp in B. latifrons, 261 bp in B. melastomatos, and 211 bp in B. umbrosa). Most of the PCGs in the three species have an identical start codon, except for atp8 (adenosine triphosphate synthase protein 8), which had an ATG instead of GTG in B. umbrosa, whilst the nad3 (NADH dehydrogenase subunit 3) and nad6 (NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6) genes were characterized by an ATC instead of ATT in B. melastomatos. The three species had identical stop codon for the respective PCGs. In B. latifrons and B. melastomatos, the TΨC (thymidine-pseudouridine-cytidine)-loop was absent in trnF (phenylalanine) and DHU (dihydrouracil)-loop was absent in trnS1 (serine S1). In B. umbrosa, trnN (asparagine), trnC (cysteine) and trnF lacked the TψC-loop, while trnS1 lacked the DHU-stem. Molecular phylogeny based on 13 PCGs was in general concordant with 15 mitochondrial genes (13 PCGs and 2 rRNA genes), with B. latifrons and B. umbrosa forming a sister group basal to the other species of the subgenus Bactrocera which was monophyletic. The whole mitogenomes will serve as a useful dataset for studying the genetics, systematics and phylogenetic relationships of the many species of Bactrocera genus in particular, and tephritid fruit flies in general. PMID:26840430

  3. The genus Pterostichus in China II: the subgenus Circinatus Sciaky, a species revision and phylogeny (Carabidae, Pterostichini)

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Hongliang; Liang, Hongbin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract All of the known species of the Chinese endemic subgenus Pterostichus (Circinatus) are revised, keyed, and illustrated. Eleven new species and one new subspecies are described: Pterostichus adelphus sp. n. (Sichuan: Meigu, N28.66°, E103.06°); Pterostichus ailaoicus sp. n. (Yunnan: Xinping, N23.94°, E101.50°); Pterostichus camelus sp. n. (Sichuan: Mianning, N28.97°, E102.16°); Pterostichus dimorphus sp. n. (Yunnan: Dayao, N26.08°, E101.03°); Pterostichus maitreya sp. n. (Guizhou: Fanjingshan, N27.90°, E108.70°); Pterostichus miao sp. n. (Guangxi: Maoershan, N25.87°, E110.41°); Pterostichus tumulus sp. n. (Guizhou: Fanjingshan, N27.90°, E108.70°); Pterostichus wangjiani sp. n. (Yunnan: Dongchuan, N26.08°, E102.87°); Pterostichus yan sp. n. (Hubei: Shennongjia, N31.47°, E110.39°); Pterostichus yuxiaodongi sp. n. (Sichuan: Wolong, N30.99°, E103.15°); Pterostichus zhygealu sp. n. (Sichuan: Meigu, N28.67°, E103.05°); and Pterostichus cavazzutianus mianningensis subsp. n. (Sichuan: Mianning, N28.97°, E102.16°). Pterostichus cavazzutianus is proposed as a replacement name for Pterostichus cavazuttii Allegro and Sciaky 2010, preoccupied by Pterostichus (Sinosteropus) barbarae cavazuttii Sciaky and Facchini 2003. A lectotype is designated for Pterostichus baenningeri Jedlička 1931. Two species, Pterostichus schuelkei Sciaky & Wrase and Pterostichus wenxianensis Allegro & Sciaky, are moved from the subgenus Circinatus to Morphohaptoderus. An infra-subgeneric taxonomy is proposed for the subgenus Circinatus with four species groups. The male endophallus characters for most species of Circinatus were well studied, with three types of endophallus defined. A phylogenetic analysis based on adult morphological characters confirmed the infra-subgeneric classification and clarified some of the relationships among species. Two main lineages within Circinatus were identified from the phylogenetic analyses. Three of the four species groups were

  4. Genome Size Variation and Species Relationships in Hieracium Sub-genus Pilosella (Asteraceae) as Inferred by Flow Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Suda, Jan; Krahulcová, Anna; Trávníček, Pavel; Rosenbaumová, Radka; Peckert, Tomáš; Krahulec, František

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Hieracium sub-genus Pilosella (hawkweeds) is a taxonomically complicated group of vascular plants, the structure of which is substantially influenced by frequent interspecific hybridization and polyploidization. Two kinds of species, ‘basic’ and ‘intermediate’ (i.e. hybridogenous), are usually recognized. In this study, genome size variation was investigated in a representative set of Central European hawkweeds in order to assess the value of such a data set for species delineation and inference of evolutionary relationships. Methods Holoploid and monoploid genome sizes (C- and Cx-values) were determined using propidium iodide flow cytometry for 376 homogeneously cultivated individuals of Hieracium sub-genus Pilosella, including 24 species (271 individuals), five recent natural hybrids (seven individuals) and experimental F1 hybrids from four parental combinations (98 individuals). Chromosome counts were available for more than half of the plant accessions. Base composition (proportion of AT/GC bases) was cytometrically estimated in 73 individuals. Key Results Seven different ploidy levels (2x–8x) were detected, with intraspecific ploidy polymorphism (up to four different cytotypes) occurring in 11 wild species. Mean 2C-values varied approx. 4·3-fold from 3·53 pg in diploid H. hoppeanum to 15·30 pg in octoploid H. brachiatum. 1Cx-values ranged from 1·72 pg in H. pilosella to 2·16 pg in H. echioides (1·26-fold). The DNA content of (high) polyploids was usually proportional to the DNA values of their diploid/low polyploid counterparts, indicating lack of processes altering genome size (i.e. genome down-sizing). Most species showed constant nuclear DNA amounts, exceptions being three hybridogenous taxa, in which introgressive hybridization was suggested as a presumable trigger for genome size variation. Monoploid genome sizes of hybridogenous species were always between the corresponding values of their putative parents. In addition

  5. Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Three Bactrocera Fruit Flies of Subgenus Bactrocera (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Their Phylogenetic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Hoi-Sen; Song, Sze-Looi; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Suana, I. Wayan

    2016-01-01

    Bactrocera latifrons is a serious pest of solanaceous fruits and Bactrocera umbrosa is a pest of Artocarpus fruits, while Bactrocera melastomatos infests the fruit of Melastomataceae. They are members of the subgenus Bactrocera. We report here the complete mitochondrial genome of these fruit flies determined by next-generation sequencing and their phylogeny with other taxa of the subgenus Bactrocera. The whole mitogenomes of these three species possessed 37 genes namely, 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 rRNA and 22 tRNA genes. The mitogenome of B. latifrons (15,977 bp) was longer than those of B. melastomatos (15,954 bp) and B. umbrosa (15,898 bp). This difference can be attributed to the size of the intergenic spacers (283 bp in B. latifrons, 261 bp in B. melastomatos, and 211 bp in B. umbrosa). Most of the PCGs in the three species have an identical start codon, except for atp8 (adenosine triphosphate synthase protein 8), which had an ATG instead of GTG in B. umbrosa, whilst the nad3 (NADH dehydrogenase subunit 3) and nad6 (NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6) genes were characterized by an ATC instead of ATT in B. melastomatos. The three species had identical stop codon for the respective PCGs. In B. latifrons and B. melastomatos, the TΨC (thymidine-pseudouridine-cytidine)-loop was absent in trnF (phenylalanine) and DHU (dihydrouracil)-loop was absent in trnS1 (serine S1). In B. umbrosa, trnN (asparagine), trnC (cysteine) and trnF lacked the TψC-loop, while trnS1 lacked the DHU-stem. Molecular phylogeny based on 13 PCGs was in general concordant with 15 mitochondrial genes (13 PCGs and 2 rRNA genes), with B. latifrons and B. umbrosa forming a sister group basal to the other species of the subgenus Bactrocera which was monophyletic. The whole mitogenomes will serve as a useful dataset for studying the genetics, systematics and phylogenetic relationships of the many species of Bactrocera genus in particular, and tephritid fruit flies in general. PMID:26840430

  6. Population Structure and Evidence for Both Clonality and Recombination among Brazilian Strains of the Subgenus Leishmania (Viannia)

    PubMed Central

    Kuhls, Katrin; Cupolillo, Elisa; Silva, Soraia O.; Schweynoch, Carola; Côrtes Boité, Mariana; Mello, Maria N.; Mauricio, Isabel; Miles, Michael; Wirth, Thierry; Schönian, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Parasites of the subgenus Leishmania (Viannia) cause varying clinical symptoms ranging from cutaneous leishmaniases (CL) with single or few lesions, disseminated CL (DL) with multiple lesions to disfiguring forms of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL). In this population genetics study, 37 strains of L. (V.) guyanensis, 63 of L. (V.) braziliensis, four of L. (V.) shawi, six of L. (V.) lainsoni, seven of L. (V.) naiffi, one each of L. (V.) utingensis and L. (V.) lindenbergi, and one L. (V.) lainsoni/L. naiffi hybrid from different endemic foci in Brazil were examined for variation at 15 hyper-variable microsatellite markers. Methodology/Principal findings: The multilocus microsatellite profiles obtained for the 120 strains were analysed using both model- and distance-based methods. Significant genetic diversity was observed for all L. (Viannia) strains studied. The two cluster analysis approaches identified two principal genetic groups or populations, one consisting of strains of L. (V.) guyanensis from the Amazon region and the other of strains of L. (V.) braziliensis isolated along the Atlantic coast of Brazil. A third group comprised a heterogeneous assembly of species, including other strains of L. braziliensis isolated from the north of Brazil, which were extremely polymorphic. The latter strains seemed to be more closely related to those of L. (V.) shawi, L. (V.) naiffi, and L. (V.) lainsoni, also isolated in northern Brazilian foci. The MLMT approach identified an epidemic clone consisting of 13 strains of L. braziliensis from Minas Gerais, but evidence for recombination was obtained for the populations of L. (V.) braziliensis from the Atlantic coast and for L. (V.) guyanensis. Conclusions/Significance: Different levels of recombination versus clonality seem to occur within the subgenus L. (Viannia). Though clearly departing from panmixia, sporadic, but long-term sustained recombination might explain the tremendous genetic diversity and

  7. Chromosomes carrying meiotic avoidance loci in three apomictic eudicot Hieracium subgenus Pilosella species share structural features with two monocot apomicts.

    PubMed

    Okada, Takashi; Ito, Kanae; Johnson, Susan D; Oelkers, Karsten; Suzuki, Go; Houben, Andreas; Mukai, Yasuhiko; Koltunow, Anna M

    2011-11-01

    The LOSS OF APOMEIOSIS (LOA) locus is one of two dominant loci known to control apomixis in the eudicot Hieracium praealtum. LOA stimulates the differentiation of somatic aposporous initial cells after the initiation of meiosis in ovules. Aposporous initial cells undergo nuclear proliferation close to sexual megaspores, forming unreduced aposporous embryo sacs, and the sexual program ceases. LOA-linked genetic markers were used to isolate 1.2 Mb of LOA-associated DNAs from H. praealtum. Physical mapping defined the genomic region essential for LOA function between two markers, flanking 400 kb of identified sequence and central unknown sequences. Cytogenetic and sequence analyses revealed that the LOA locus is located on a single chromosome near the tip of the long arm and surrounded by extensive, abundant complex repeat and transposon sequences. Chromosomal features and LOA-linked markers are conserved in aposporous Hieracium caespitosum and Hieracium piloselloides but absent in sexual Hieracium pilosella. Their absence in apomictic Hieracium aurantiacum suggests that meiotic avoidance may have evolved independently in aposporous subgenus Pilosella species. The structure of the hemizygous chromosomal region containing the LOA locus in the three Hieracium subgenus Pilosella species resembles that of the hemizygous apospory-specific genomic regions in monocot Pennisetum squamulatum and Cenchrus ciliaris. Analyses of partial DNA sequences at these loci show no obvious conservation, indicating that they are unlikely to share a common ancestral origin. This suggests convergent evolution of repeat-rich hemizygous chromosomal regions containing apospory loci in these monocot and eudicot species, which may be required for the function and maintenance of the trait. PMID:21896890

  8. Towards a revision of the South American genus Praocis Eschscholtz (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae), with estimation of the diversity of each subgenus.

    PubMed

    Flores, Gustavo E; Pizarro-Araya, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    A review of the subgenera of the South American genus Praocis Eschscholtz (Pimeliinae: Praociini) is presented. Praocis comprises 77 species and 8 subspecies arranged in nine subgenera distributed in arid lands from Central Peru and Bolivia to the Southern part of Patagonia in Chile and Argentina. For each subgenus of Praocis: Praocis Eschscholtz, Mesopraocis Flores & Pizarro-Araya, subgen. n., Anthrasomus Guérin-Méneville, Filotarsus Gay & Solier, Postpraocis Flores & Pizarro-Araya, subgen. n., Hemipraocis Flores & Pizarro-Araya, subgen. n., Orthogonoderes Gay & Solier, Praonoda Flores & Pizarro-Araya, subgen. n., and Praocida Flores & Pizarro-Araya, subgen. n., we present a diagnosis using new and constant characters of adult morphology such as clypeal configuration, length and proportion of antennomeres 9, 10 and 11, arrangement of apical tomentose sensory patches on antennomeres 10 and 11, anterior margin of prosternum, lateral margin of elytron, ventral surface of profemora, and shape of protibiae. An identification key for the nine subgenera of Praocis is presented. Type species are designated for the five new subgenera; for Mesopraocis: Praocis calderana Kulzer, for Postpraocis: Praocis pentachorda Burmeister, for Hemipraocis: Praocis sellata Berg, for Praonoda: Praocis bicarinata Burmeister, for Praocida: Praocis zischkai Kulzer, and for the previously described subgenus Orthogonoderes: Praocis subreticulata Gay & Solier. The current number of species and the estimated number of species to be described are presented. The distribution ranges of the subgenera, including new records from collections and recent expeditions, are given. Habitat preferences and a discussion of the biogeography of the genus are also presented. PMID:25009424

  9. Towards a revision of the South American genus Praocis Eschscholtz (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae), with estimation of the diversity of each subgenus

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Gustavo E.; Pizarro-Araya, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A review of the subgenera of the South American genus Praocis Eschscholtz (Pimeliinae: Praociini) is presented. Praocis comprises 77 species and 8 subspecies arranged in nine subgenera distributed in arid lands from Central Peru and Bolivia to the Southern part of Patagonia in Chile and Argentina. For each subgenus of Praocis: Praocis Eschscholtz, Mesopraocis Flores & Pizarro-Araya, subgen. n., Anthrasomus Guérin-Méneville, Filotarsus Gay & Solier, Postpraocis Flores & Pizarro-Araya, subgen. n., Hemipraocis Flores & Pizarro-Araya, subgen. n., Orthogonoderes Gay & Solier, Praonoda Flores & Pizarro-Araya, subgen. n., and Praocida Flores & Pizarro-Araya, subgen. n., we present a diagnosis using new and constant characters of adult morphology such as clypeal configuration, length and proportion of antennomeres 9, 10 and 11, arrangement of apical tomentose sensory patches on antennomeres 10 and 11, anterior margin of prosternum, lateral margin of elytron, ventral surface of profemora, and shape of protibiae. An identification key for the nine subgenera of Praocis is presented. Type species are designated for the five new subgenera; for Mesopraocis: Praocis calderana Kulzer, for Postpraocis: Praocis pentachorda Burmeister, for Hemipraocis: Praocis sellata Berg, for Praonoda: Praocis bicarinata Burmeister, for Praocida: Praocis zischkai Kulzer, and for the previously described subgenus Orthogonoderes: Praocis subreticulata Gay & Solier. The current number of species and the estimated number of species to be described are presented. The distribution ranges of the subgenera, including new records from collections and recent expeditions, are given. Habitat preferences and a discussion of the biogeography of the genus are also presented. PMID:25009424

  10. Determining thermotolerance of fifth-instar Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) by three different methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thermotolerance of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), were studied using two water immersion methods and one dry heat method. The two water immersion methods were: 1) directly immersing in hot w...

  11. A provisional annotated list of the Lepidoptera of Honduras

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A biodiversity inventory of the Lepidoptera of Pico Bonito National Park and vicinity, in the Department of Atlantida of northern Honduras, has been initiated and will be conducted to obtain baseline data. We present a revised checklist of Honduran butterfly species (updated from the initial 1967 l...

  12. Lesser peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) oviposition on Prunus germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Synanthedon pictipes (Grote and Robinson) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) was used as an oviposition surrogate for the congeneric S. exitiosa (Say) to examine possible preference for Prunus germplasm. We assayed limbs of a peach cultivar (Prunus persica), peach rootstocks, plum-peach hybrid rootstocks, the...

  13. Phenology of blue cactus moth Melitara prodenialis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Native cactus plants (Opuntia stricta Haw. [Cactaceae]) were sampled weekly at St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge, St. Marks, Florida (30.16 - 30° 1' N, -84.21 - 84° 1' W) from September 2006 to September 2007 for the native blue cactus moth, Melitara prodenialis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) Meli...

  14. COMPARISON OF SAMPLING TECHNIQUES USED IN STUDYING LEPIDOPTERA POPULATION DYNAMICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Four methods (light traps, foliage samples, canvas bands, and gypsy moth egg mass surveys) that are used to study the population dynamics of foliage-feeding Lepidoptera were compared for 10 species, including gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L. Samples were collected weekly at 12 sit...

  15. Molecular analysis of the muscle protein projectin in Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Ayme-Southgate, A J; Turner, L; Southgate, R J

    2013-01-01

    Striated muscles of both vertebrates and insects contain a third filament composed of the giant proteins, namely kettin and projectin (insects) and titin (vertebrates). All three proteins have been shown to contain several domains implicated in conferring elasticity, in particular a PEVK segment. In this study, the characterization of the projectin protein in the silkmoth, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), and the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus L. (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae), as well as a partial characterization in the Carolina sphinx, Manduca sexta L. (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae), are presented. This study showed that, similar to other insects, projectin's overall modular organization was conserved, but in contrast, the PEVK region had a highly divergent sequence. The analysis of alternative splicing in the PEVK region revealed a small number of possible isoforms and the lack of a flight-muscle specific variant, both characteristics being in sharp contrast with findings from other insects. The possible correlation with difference in flight muscle stiffness and physiology between Lepidoptera and other insect orders is discussed. PMID:24206568

  16. Phylogenetic Studies and Modern Classification of the Pyraloidea (Lepidoptera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pyraloidea, the third largest superfamily of the Lepidoptera, is comprised of two families - Pyralidae and Crambidae. The history of families previously placed in the Pyraloidea is discussed. The group now includes about 16,000 species worldwide. Morphologically, the superfamily is defined by a b...

  17. Taxonomic study of the genus Kapsa Dworakowska with a new subgenus, and new combinations and records for Tautoneura Anufriev (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae: Erythroneurini).

    PubMed

    Yang, Meixia; Cao, Yanghui; Zhang, Yalin

    2013-01-01

    The genus Kapsa Dworakowska is redescribed and a new subgenus Kapsa (Rigida) Cao & Zhang is established to include thirteen species, a key to males of the subgenus is provided, and eight new species from China are described and illustrated: Kapsa aculeiformis, K. apicispina, K. brevis, K. explanata, K. furcata, K. imminuta, K. mnegaprocessa and K. serrata spp. nov.. Based on detailed study of previously described species, Kapsa yanheensis Song & Li, 2012 is considered a synonym of Tautoneura albida (Dworakowska, 1970). Four species previously placed in Kapsa are transferred to Tautoneura Anufriev: Tautoneura decorata (Dworakowska, 1981), T. diasonica (Chiang & Knight, 1990), T. elscinta (Chiang & Knight, 1990) and T. puerensis (Song & Li, 2012). K. alba Dworakowska, 1981 and T. ahmedi Dworakowska, 1977 are reported for the first time from China. PMID:26131501

  18. A taxonomic review of Korean species of the Atheta Thomson subgenus Microdota Mulsant & Rey, with descriptions of two new species (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Aleocharinae)

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung-Gyu; Ahn, Kee-Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A taxonomic review of the Atheta Thomson subgenus Microdota Mulsant & Rey in Korea is presented. The subgenus is represented in Korea by 15 species including two new species, Atheta (Microdota) jangtaesanensis Lee & Ahn, sp. n. and Atheta (Microdota) pasniki Lee & Ahn, sp. n. Four species [Atheta (Microdota) kawachiensis Cameron, Atheta (Microdota) muris Sawada, Atheta (Microdota) spiniventris Bernhauer, and Atheta (Microdota) spinula (Sawada)] are new to the Korean Peninsula and two [Atheta (Microdota) formicetorum Bernhauer and Atheta (Microdota) subcrenulata Bernhauer] to South Korea. Two other species [Atheta (Microdota) kobensis Cameron and Atheta (Microdota) scrobicollis (Kraatz)] previously recorded in North Korea had been identified incorrectly. A key, descriptions, habitus photographs and illustrations of the diagnostic features are provided. Species distributions and diversity in East Asia are discussed. PMID:26019664

  19. Taxonomic review on the subgenus Tripodura Townes (Diptera: Chironomidae: Polypedilum) from China with eleven new species and a supplementary world checklist.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruilei; Song, Chao; Qi, Xin; Wang, Xinhua

    2016-01-01

    The subgenus Tripodura Townes of Polypedilum Kieffer from China including 26 species is reviewed. Eleven new species, named P. (T.) absensilobum Zhang & Wang sp. n., P. (T.) apiculusetosum Zhang & Wang sp. n., P. (T.) arcuatum Zhang & Wang sp. n., P. (T.) bilamella Zhang & Wang sp. n., P. (T.) conghuaense Zhang & Wang sp. n., P. (T.) dengae Zhang & Wang sp. n., P. (T.) mengmanense Zhang & Wang sp. n., P. (T.) napahaiense Zhang & Wang sp. n., P. (T.) parallelum Zhang & Wang sp. n., P. (T.) pollicium Zhang & Wang sp. n. and P. (T.) trapezium Zhang & Wang sp. n. are described and illustrated based on male imagines. Three species, P. (T.) quadriguttatum Kieffer, P. (T.) unifascia (Tokunaga) and P. (T.) udominutum Niitsuma are firstly recorded in China. A key to known male imagines of Chinese species and an updated world checklist of subgenus Tripodura are presented. PMID:27395703

  20. A revision of the subgenus Eurycercus (Teretifrons) Frey, 1975 (Crustacea: Cladocera) in the Holarctic with description of a new species from Russian Arctic.

    PubMed

    Bekker, Eugeniya I; Kotov, Alexey A

    2016-01-01

    Our study is aimed at a taxonomic revision of the subgenus Eurycercus (Teretifrons) Frey, 1975 (Crustacea: Cladocera: Eurycercidae) in the Holarctic based on the morphology of parthenogenetic females. Three species were revealed and described: (1) E. glacialis Lilljeborg, 1887 which is relatively widely distributed in the north portion of Atlantic and Pacific regions; (2) E. nigracanthus Hann, 1990 which is apparently present in Labrador and Newfoundland, Cape Breton Island and Nova Scotia and (3) Eurycercus chernovi sp. nov. from Taimyr Peninsula in Siberia, Russia. Main differences of the latter taxon from other species are: (1) more proximal position of sensory seta on the antenna I and (2) surface of cuticle of major head pore forms a low projection in middle. A revision of this subgenus in Arctic Siberia and Canada needs to be continued. PMID:27515623

  1. Lonomia obliqua Walker (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae): hemostasis implications.

    PubMed

    Maggi, Silviane; Faulhaber, Gustavo Adolpho Moreira

    2015-01-01

    In southern Brazil, since 1989, several cases of accidents produced by unwilling contact with the body of poisonous caterpillars of the moth species Lonomia obliqua Walker, 1855 (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae), were described. L. obliqua caterpillars have gregarious behavior and feed on leaves of host trees during the night, staying grouped in the trunk during the day, which favors the occurrence of accidents with the species. This caterpillar has the body covered with bristles that on contact with the skin of individuals, breaks and release their contents, inoculating the venom into the victim. The basic constitution of the venom is protein and its components produce physiological changes in the victim, which include disturbances in hemostasis. Hemorrhagic syndrome associated with consumption coagulopathy, intravascular hemolysis and acute renal failure are some of the possible clinical manifestations related to poisoning by L. obliqua. Specific laboratory tests for diagnosis of poisoning have not been described previously. The diagnosis of poisoning is made based on the patient's medical history, clinical manifestations, erythrocyte levels, and, primarily, parameters that evaluate blood coagulation. Treatment is performed with the use of supportive care and the administration of specific hyperimmune antivenom. Poisoning can be serious and even fatal. PMID:26248250

  2. A revision of the Megachile subgenus Litomegachile Mitchell with an illustrated key and description of a new species (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae, Megachilini)

    PubMed Central

    Bzdyk, Emily L.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The species of Megachile subgenus Litomegachile are revised with a review of the species morphology, biology, and plant associations. A new species, Megachile pankus, is described and illustrated. Megachile mendica snowi Mitchell is elevated to species. Megachile var. nupta Cresson and Megachile texana var. cleomis Cockerell are synonymized with Megachile brevis and Megachile texana, respectively. An illustrated key for Litomegachile is also provided. PMID:23129980

  3. A review of Canadian and Alaskan species of the genera Clusiota Casey and Atheta Thomson, subgenus Microdota Mulsant & Rey (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Aleocharinae)

    PubMed Central

    Klimaszewski, Jan; Webster, Reginald P.; Sikes, Derek; Bourdon, Caroline; Labrecque, Myriam

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This paper treats 13 species of the subgenus Microdota Mulsant & Rey of Atheta Thomson and 3 species of the genus Clusiota Casey in Canada and Alaska. We report here 4 species new to science, and 3 new provincial records. The following species are new to science: Atheta (Microdota) curtipenis Klimaszewski & Webster, sp. n., Atheta (Microdota) formicaensis Klimaszewski & Webster, sp. n., Atheta (Microdota) macesi Klimaszewski & Webster, sp. n., and Clusiota grandipenis Klimaszewski & Webster, sp. n. The new provincial records are: Atheta (Microdota) pseudosubtilis Klimaszewski & Langor, new to AB, and Atheta (Microdota) subtilis (Scriba), an adventive Palaearctic species new to North America, first reported in LB and NB. The two Clusiota Casey species are reviewed, and their distribution is revised. A female Clusiota impressicollis was discovered in Ontario and is illustrated here for the first time. A key to all Canadian species of the subgenus Microdota and genus Clusiota are provided. Atheta (Microdota) holmbergi Bernhauer and Atheta (Microdota) alesi Klimaszewski & Brunke are transferred here to the subgenus Dimetrota Mulsant & Rey. PMID:26478708

  4. Record of two species of Culicoides (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae) new for Madagascar and molecular study showing the paraphylies of the subgenus Oecacta and the Schultzei group.

    PubMed

    Augot, D; Randrianambinintsoa, F J; Gasser, A; Depaquit, J

    2013-08-01

    Culicoides are vectors of diseases of Veterinary Medicine importance (bluetongue, African horse sickness, Schmallenberg virus) all over the world. In the present study, we report two species new for Madagascar: C. nevilli and C. enderleini. They belong to the Schultzei group which is sometimes classified in the subgenus Oecacta and sometimes in the subgenus Remmia, depending on authors. Consequently, we carried out a molecular cladistics of these groups based on cytochrome C oxidase subunit I mtDNA sequences. We processed the Malagasy specimens and some C. furens (the Oecacta type-species) caught in Florida and we analyzed their sequences and those available in Genbank: C. schultzei, C. oxystoma, C. festivipennis, C. brunnicans, C. kibunensis, C. truncorum and C. vexans. C. (Avaritia) imicola have been selected as an outgroup. The maximum parsimony analysis showed the paraphylies of the Schultzei group (=Remmia) and of the subgenus Oecacta if the first group is excluded from the latter. Our results underline the doubtful current classification and need to be validated by other molecular markers in the future. PMID:23893801

  5. Microencapsulated Pear Ester Enhances Insecticide Efficacy in Walnuts for Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and Navel Orangeworm (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficacy of combining insecticides with a microencapsulated formulation of ethyl (2E, 4Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester, PE-MEC) was evaluated in walnuts, Juglans regia L., for codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella Walker (Lepido...

  6. The complete mitochondrial genome of Choristoneura longicellana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and phylogenetic analysis of Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yu-Peng; Zhao, Jin-Liang; Su, Tian-Juan; Luo, A-Rong; Zhu, Chao-Dong

    2016-10-10

    To better understand the diversity and phylogeny of Lepidoptera, the complete mitochondrial genome of Choristoneura longicellana (=Hoshinoa longicellana) was determined. It is a typical circular duplex molecule with 15,759bp in length, containing the standard metazoan set of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and an A+T-rich region. All of the inferred tRNA secondary structures show the common cloverleaf pattern, with the exception of trnS1(AGN), which lacks the DHU arm. The rrnL of C. Longicellana is the longest in sequenced lepidopterans. C. Longicellana has the same gene order as all lepidopteran species currently available in GenBank. There are 5 overlapping regions ranging from 1bp to 8bp and 14 intergenic spacers ranging from 1bp to 48bp. In addition, there are four similar tandem macro-satellite regions with the lengths of 101bp, 98bp, 92bp, and 92bp respectively in the A+T-rich regions of C. longicellana. We sampled 89 species representing 13 superfamilies, and reconstructed their relationship among Lepidoptera by Bayesian Inference and Maximum Likelihood analysis. The topology of the two phylogenetic analysis trees is identical roughly, except for Cossoidea in different locations, the positions of Cossoidea, Copromorphoidea, Gelechioidea, Zygaenoidea were not determined based the limited sampling. (Geometroidea+(Noctuoidea+Bombycoidea)) form the Macrolepidoptera "core". Pyraloidea group with the "core" Macrolepidoptera. Papilionoidea are not Macrolepidoptera. The Hesperiidae (represent Hesperioidea) is nested in the Papilionoidea, and closely related to Pieridae and Papilionidae. The well-known relationship of (Nymphalidae+(Riodinidae+Lycaenidae)) is recovered in this paper. PMID:27390085

  7. The origin of chromosomal inversions as a source of segmental duplications in the Sophophora subgenus of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Puerma, Eva; Orengo, Dorcas J.; Aguadé, Montserrat

    2016-01-01

    Chromosomal inversions can contribute to the adaptation of organisms to their environment by capturing particular advantageous allelic combinations of a set of genes included in the inverted fragment and also by advantageous functional changes due to the inversion process itself that might affect not only the expression of flanking genes but also their dose and structure. Of the two mechanisms originating inversions —ectopic recombination, and staggered double-strand breaks and subsequent repair— only the latter confers the inversion the potential to have dosage effects and/or to generate advantageous chimeric genes. In Drosophila subobscura, there is ample evidence for the adaptive character of its chromosomal polymorphism, with an important contribution of some warm-climate arrangements such as E1+2+9+12. Here, we have characterized the breakpoints of inversion E12 and established that it originated through the staggered-break mechanism like four of the five inversions of D. subobscura previously studied. This mechanism that also predominates in the D. melanogaster lineage might be prevalent in the Sophophora subgenus and contribute to the adaptive character of the polymorphic and fixed inversions of its species. Finally, we have shown that the D. subobscura inversion breakpoint regions have generally been disrupted by additional structural changes occurred at different time scales. PMID:27470196

  8. Phylogeny and biogeography of pacific Rubus subgenus Idaeobatus (Rosaceae) species: Investigating the origin of the endemic Hawaiian raspberry R. macraei

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morden, C.W.; Gardner, D.E.; Weniger, D.A.

    2003-01-01

    The endemic Hawaiian raspberries Rubus hawaiensis and R. macraei (both subgenus Idaeobatus) had been thought to be closely related species until recent molecular studies demonstrated otherwise. These studies suggest that they are the products of separate colonizations to the Hawaiian Islands. Affinities of R. hawaiensis to R. spectabilis of western North America were clearly confirmed. However, no clear relation to R. macraei has been published. This study was initiated to examine species of subg. Idaeobatus from the surrounding Pacific region as well as species from other subgenera to better evaluate biogeographic and phylogenetic affinities of R. macraei by means of chromosome analysis and molecular data using the chloroplast gene ndbF. Results show that R. macraei clusters in a clade with species of blackberries, subg. Rubus, and of these it is most closely linked to R. ursinus. Chromosomally, R. macraei is 2n = 6x = 42, a number that would be a new report for subg. Idaeobatus. However, polyploidy is common in subg. Rubus. Analyses indicate that R. macraei and R. hawaiensis are derived from separate colonizations from North America and that similarities between them are due to convergent evolution in the Hawaiian environment.

  9. Congruence of Microsatellite and Mitochondrial DNA Variation in Acrobat Ants (Crematogaster Subgenus Decacrema, Formicidae: Myrmicinae) Inhabiting Macaranga (Euphorbiaceae) Myrmecophytes

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, Shouhei; Nagano, Yusuke; Kataoka, Yowsuke; Komatsu, Takashi; Itioka, Takao; Shimizu-kaya, Usun; Inui, Yoko; Itino, Takao

    2015-01-01

    A previously reported mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) phylogeny of Crematogaster (subgenus Decacrema) ants inhabiting Macaranga myrmecophytes indicated that the partners diversified synchronously and their specific association has been maintained for 20 million years. However, the mtDNA clades did not exactly match morphological species, probably owing to introgressive hybridization among younger species. In this study, we determined the congruence between nuclear simple sequence repeat (SSR, also called microsatellite) genotyping and mtDNA phylogeny to confirm the suitability of the mtDNA phylogeny for inferring the evolutionary history of Decacrema ants. Analyses of ant samples from Lambir Hills National park, northeastern Borneo, showed overall congruence between the SSR and mtDNA groupings, indicating that mtDNA markers are useful for delimiting species, at least at the local level. We also found overall high host-plant specificity of the SSR genotypes of Decacrema ants, consistent with the specificity based on the mtDNA phylogeny. Further, we detected cryptic genetic assemblages exhibiting high specificity toward particular plant species within a single mtDNA clade. This finding, which may be evidence for rapid ecological and genetic differentiation following a host shift, is a new insight into the previously suggested long-term codiversification of Decacrema ants and Macaranga plants. PMID:25692953

  10. The origin of chromosomal inversions as a source of segmental duplications in the Sophophora subgenus of Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Puerma, Eva; Orengo, Dorcas J; Aguadé, Montserrat

    2016-01-01

    Chromosomal inversions can contribute to the adaptation of organisms to their environment by capturing particular advantageous allelic combinations of a set of genes included in the inverted fragment and also by advantageous functional changes due to the inversion process itself that might affect not only the expression of flanking genes but also their dose and structure. Of the two mechanisms originating inversions -ectopic recombination, and staggered double-strand breaks and subsequent repair- only the latter confers the inversion the potential to have dosage effects and/or to generate advantageous chimeric genes. In Drosophila subobscura, there is ample evidence for the adaptive character of its chromosomal polymorphism, with an important contribution of some warm-climate arrangements such as E1+2+9+12. Here, we have characterized the breakpoints of inversion E12 and established that it originated through the staggered-break mechanism like four of the five inversions of D. subobscura previously studied. This mechanism that also predominates in the D. melanogaster lineage might be prevalent in the Sophophora subgenus and contribute to the adaptive character of the polymorphic and fixed inversions of its species. Finally, we have shown that the D. subobscura inversion breakpoint regions have generally been disrupted by additional structural changes occurred at different time scales. PMID:27470196

  11. Congruence of microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA variation in acrobat ants (Crematogaster subgenus Decacrema, Formicidae: Myrmicinae) inhabiting Macaranga (Euphorbiaceae) myrmecophytes.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Shouhei; Nagano, Yusuke; Kataoka, Yowsuke; Komatsu, Takashi; Itioka, Takao; Shimizu-Kaya, Usun; Inui, Yoko; Itino, Takao

    2015-01-01

    A previously reported mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) phylogeny of Crematogaster (subgenus Decacrema) ants inhabiting Macaranga myrmecophytes indicated that the partners diversified synchronously and their specific association has been maintained for 20 million years. However, the mtDNA clades did not exactly match morphological species, probably owing to introgressive hybridization among younger species. In this study, we determined the congruence between nuclear simple sequence repeat (SSR, also called microsatellite) genotyping and mtDNA phylogeny to confirm the suitability of the mtDNA phylogeny for inferring the evolutionary history of Decacrema ants. Analyses of ant samples from Lambir Hills National park, northeastern Borneo, showed overall congruence between the SSR and mtDNA groupings, indicating that mtDNA markers are useful for delimiting species, at least at the local level. We also found overall high host-plant specificity of the SSR genotypes of Decacrema ants, consistent with the specificity based on the mtDNA phylogeny. Further, we detected cryptic genetic assemblages exhibiting high specificity toward particular plant species within a single mtDNA clade. This finding, which may be evidence for rapid ecological and genetic differentiation following a host shift, is a new insight into the previously suggested long-term codiversification of Decacrema ants and Macaranga plants. PMID:25692953

  12. Evolution of fruit traits in ficus subgenus Sycomorus (Moraceae): to what extent do frugivores determine seed dispersal mode?

    PubMed

    Harrison, Rhett D; Rønsted, Nina; Xu, Lei; Rasplus, Jean-Yves; Cruaud, Astrid

    2012-01-01

    Fig trees are a ubiquitous component of tropical rain forests and exhibit an enormous diversity of ecologies. Focusing on Ficus subgenus Sycomorus, a phenotypically diverse and ecologically important Old World lineage, we examined the evolution of fruit traits using a molecular phylogeny constructed using 5 kilobases of DNA sequence data from 63 species (50% of global diversity). In particular, we ask whether patterns of trait correlations are consistent with dispersal agents as the primary selective force shaping morphological diversity or if other ecological factors may provide a better explanation? Fig colour, size and placement (axial, cauliflorous, or geocarpic) were all highly evolutionarily liable, and the same fruit traits have evolved in different biogeographic regions with substantially different dispersal agents. After controlling for phylogenetic autocorrelation, we found that fig colour and size were significantly associated with fig placement and plant-life history traits (maximum plant height and leaf area, respectively). However, contrary to prevailing assumptions, fig placement correlated poorly with known dispersal agents and appears more likely determined by other factors, such as flowering phenology, nutrient economy, and habitat preference. Thus, plant life-history, both directly and through its influence on fig placement, appears to have played a prominent role in determining fruit traits in these figs. PMID:22679505

  13. Rhynchelmis subgenus Sutroa Eisen new rank, with two new species from western North America (Annelida, Clitellata, Lumbriculidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fend, Steven V.; Carter, James L.

    2014-01-01

    The lumbriculid Rhynchelmis subgenus Sutroa Eisen, 1888 new rank is defined for a group of Nearctic species having multiple diverticula originating at the spermathecal ducts and eversible penial bulbs. Characters are confirmed in specimens of the type species, Rhynchelmis (Sutroa) rostrata (Eisen, 1888), collected from the type locality. Rhynchelmis (Sutroa) klamathensis Fend n. sp. is described from open water benthic habitats in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, USA. It resembles other R. (Sutroa) species in the paired spermathecal diverticula, the spermathecal and penial bulbs, the histological structure of the atria, the nonfunctional anterior male funnels, and the arrangement of blood vessels. Rhynchelmis klamathensis differs from all Nearctic Rhynchelmis in lacking a filiform proboscis. The combination of large body size, the elongate spermathecal ducts with paired and usually unbranched diverticula, the highly contorted atria, and the complex male pores with conical penes also distinguish typical R. klamathensis from other Rhynchelmis species. Smaller specimens with otherwise similar morphology, from the Sacramento River Delta, California, are also assigned to this species. Rhynchelmis (Sutroa) diespluviae Fend n. sp. is described from several stream sites, mostly in northern Idaho, USA. Rhynchelmis diespluviae differs from closely related species in morphology of the conical penes, and in the structure and anterolateral position of the paired spermathecae.

  14. Sexual reproduction is the default mode in apomictic Hieracium subgenus Pilosella, in which two dominant loci function to enable apomixis.

    PubMed

    Koltunow, Anna M G; Johnson, Susan D; Rodrigues, Julio C M; Okada, Takashi; Hu, Yingkao; Tsuchiya, Tohru; Wilson, Saira; Fletcher, Pam; Ito, Kanae; Suzuki, Go; Mukai, Yasuhiko; Fehrer, Judith; Bicknell, Ross A

    2011-06-01

    Asexual seed formation, or apomixis, in the Hieracium subgenus Pilosella is controlled by two dominant independent genetic loci, LOSS OF APOMEIOSIS (LOA) and LOSS OF PARTHENOGENESIS (LOP). We examined apomixis mutants that had lost function in one or both loci to establish their developmental roles during seed formation. In apomicts, sexual reproduction is initiated first. Somatic aposporous initial (AI) cells differentiate near meiotic cells, and the sexual pathway is terminated as AI cells undergo mitotic embryo sac formation. Seed initiation is fertilization-independent. Using a partially penetrant cytotoxic reporter to inhibit meioisis, we showed that developmental events leading to the completion of meiotic tetrad formation are required for AI cell formation. Sexual initiation may therefore stimulate activity of the LOA locus, which was found to be required for AI cell formation and subsequent suppression of the sexual pathway. AI cells undergo nuclear division to form embryo sacs, in which LOP functions gametophytically to stimulate fertilization-independent embryo and endosperm formation. Loss of function in either locus results in partial reversion to sexual reproduction, and loss of function in both loci results in total reversion to sexual reproduction. Therefore, in these apomicts, sexual reproduction is the default reproductive mode upon which apomixis is superimposed. These loci are unlikely to encode genes essential for sexual reproduction, but may function to recruit the sexual machinery at specific time points to enable apomixis. PMID:21418351

  15. Genetic Variation and Structure in Contrasting Geographic Distributions: Widespread Versus Restricted Black-Tailed Prairie Dogs (Subgenus Cynomys).

    PubMed

    Castellanos-Morales, Gabriela; Ortega, Jorge; Castillo-Gámez, Reyna A; Sackett, Loren C; Eguiarte, Luis E

    2015-01-01

    Species of restricted distribution are considered more vulnerable to extinction because of low levels of genetic variation relative to widespread taxa. Species of the subgenus Cynomys are an excellent system to compare genetic variation and degree of genetic structure in contrasting geographic distributions. We assessed levels of genetic variation, genetic structure, and genetic differentiation in widespread Cynomys ludovicianus and restricted C. mexicanus using 1997bp from the cytochrome b and control region (n = 223 C. ludovicianus; 77 C. mexicanus), and 10 nuclear microsatellite loci (n = 207 and 78, respectively). Genetic variation for both species was high, and genetic structure in the widespread species was higher than in the restricted species. C. mexicanus showed values of genetic variation, genetic structure, and genetic differentiation similar to C. ludovicianus at smaller geographic scales. Results suggest the presence of at least 2 historical refuges for C. ludovicianus and that the Sierra Madre Occidental represents a barrier to gene flow. Chihuahua and New Mexico possess high levels of genetic diversity and should be protected, while Sonora should be treated as an independent management unit. For C. mexicanus, connectivity among colonies is very important and habitat fragmentation and habitat loss should be mitigated to maintain gene flow. PMID:26245783

  16. Ithomiini butterflies (Lepidoptera: Hymphalidae) of Antioquia, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Giraldo, C E; Willmott, K R; Vila, R; Uribe, S I

    2013-04-01

    Colombia is one of the most biodiverse countries on the planet. However, economic and scientific investment in completing inventories of its biodiversity has been relatively poor in comparison with other Neotropical countries. Butterflies are the best studied group of invertebrates, with the highest proportion of known to expected species. More than 3,200 species of butterflies have been recorded in Colombia, although the study of the still many unexplored areas will presumably increase this number. This work provides a list of Ithomiini butterflies collected in the department of Antioquia and estimates the total number of species present, based on revision of entomological collections, records in the literature and field work performed between 2003 and 2011. The list includes 99 species and 32 genera, representing 27% of all Ithomiini species. We report 50 species of Ithomiini not formerly listed from Antioquia, and found the highest diversity of ithomiine species to be at middle elevations (900-1,800 m). The mean value of the Chao2 estimator for number of species in Antioquia is 115 species, which is close to a predicted total of 109 based on known distributions of other Ithomiini not yet recorded from the department. Nine species are potentially of particular conservation importance because of their restricted distributions, and we present range maps for each species. We also highlight areas in Antioquia with a lack of biodiversity knowledge to be targeted in future studies. This paper contributes to mapping the distribution of the Lepidoptera of Antioquia department in particular and of Colombia in general. PMID:23949748

  17. The complete mitochondrial genome of Gynaephora alpherakii (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae).

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ming-Long; Zhang, Qi-Lin; Guo, Zhong-Long; Wang, Juan

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Gynaephora alpherakii (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) has been sequenced and annotated in this study. This mitogenome is 15,755 bp in length with an A + T content of 81.44%, and contains 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes that are arranged in the same order as that of other lepidopteran species. All protein-coding genes (PCGs) start with a typical ATN codon, with the exception of cox1 which uses CGA as the initial codon. All of the 22 transfer RNA genes present the typical clover leaf secondary structure. The A + T-rich region is located between rrnS and trnM with a length of 449 bp, and contains a 19 bp poly-T stretch as found in other lepidopteran mitogenomes. This is the third completely sequenced mitogenome from the family Lymantriidae of Lepidoptera. PMID:25469814

  18. Hawk moths (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) of Turkey and their zoogeographical distribution.

    PubMed

    Akkuzu, E; Ayberk, H; Inac, S

    2007-10-01

    The family Sphingidae (Lepidoptera) has 63 species in the western Palaearctic Region of the world. Thirty-four out of 63 species present in Turkey either permanently or temporarily. The subfamilies Smerinthinae, Sphinginae and Macroglossinae are consisted of 7, 4, and 23 species respectively Ten out of 34 species were captured in the field. Available knowledge of Sphingidae of Turkey was evaluated and summarized with this study as well. PMID:18405103

  19. The mitochondrial genome of Cethosia biblis (Drury) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae).

    PubMed

    Xin, Tianrong; Li, Lei; Yao, Chengyi; Wang, Yayu; Zou, Zhiwen; Wang, Jing; Xia, Bin

    2016-07-01

    We present the complete mitogenome of Cethosia biblis (Drury) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in this article. The mitogenome was a circle molecular consisting of 15,286 nucleotides, 37 genes, and an A + T-rich region. The order of 37 genes was typical of insect mitochondrial DNA sequences described to date. The overall base composition of the genome is A (37.41%), T (42.80%), C (11.87%), and G (7.91%) with an A + T-rich hallmark as that of other invertebrate mitochondrial genomes. The start codon was mainly ATA in most of the mitochondrial protein-coding genes such as ND2, COI, ATP8, ND3, ND5, ND4, ND6, and ND1, but COII, ATP6, COIII, ND4L, and Cob genes employing ATG. The stop codon was TAA in all the protein-coding genes. The A + T region is located between 12S rRNA and tRNA(M)(et). The phylogenetic relationships of Lepidoptera species were constructed based on the nucleotides sequences of 13 PCGs of mitogenomes using the neighbor-joining method. The molecular-based phylogeny supported the traditional morphological classification on relationships within Lepidoptera species. PMID:26029877

  20. Engineered female-specific lethality for control of pest Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Jin, Li; Walker, Adam S; Fu, Guoliang; Harvey-Samuel, Timothy; Dafa'alla, Tarig; Miles, Andrea; Marubbi, Thea; Granville, Deborah; Humphrey-Jones, Nerys; O'Connell, Sinead; Morrison, Neil I; Alphey, Luke

    2013-03-15

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a pest control strategy involving the mass release of radiation-sterilized insects, which reduce the target population through nonviable matings. In Lepidoptera, SIT could be more broadly applicable if the deleterious effects of sterilization by irradiation could be avoided. Moreover, male-only release can improve the efficacy of SIT. Adequate methods of male-only production in Lepidoptera are currently lacking, in contrast to some Diptera. We describe a synthetic genetic system that allows male-only moth production for SIT and also replaces radiation sterilization with inherited female-specific lethality. We sequenced and characterized the doublesex (dsx) gene from the pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella). Sex-alternate splicing from dsx was used to develop a conditional lethal genetic sexing system in two pest moths: the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) and pink bollworm. This system shows promise for enhancing existing pink bollworm SIT, as well as broadening SIT-type control to diamondback moth and other Lepidoptera. PMID:23802263

  1. A revision of Passiflora L. subgenus Decaloba (DC.) Rchb. supersection Cieca (Medik.) J. M. MacDougal & Feuillet (Passifloraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Porter-Utley, Kristen

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Passiflora subgenus Decaloba supersection Cieca is a monophyletic group of herbaceous to woody climbers found in subtropical and tropical regions of the world. The 19 species recognized here are primarily distributed in the southern United States, Mexico, Central America, South America, and the Caribbean. Two species, Passiflora suberosa and Passiflora pallida, are also naturalized in various regions of the Old World. The species of the supersection are recognized by their small, apetalous, usually greenish flowers with the filaments of the corona mostly in two series. The plants commonly lack c-glycosylflavones but possess flavonol 3-O-glycosides. The supersection contains two problematic species complexes, Passiflora suberosa and Passiflora coriacea. Phylogenetic relationships within supersection Cieca are investigated by means of phenetic and cladistic analyses of morphological and molecular (ITS 1 & 2) characters. The morphological and molecular data sets were analyzed separately because of incongruity due to taxon sampling and the complicated evolutionary history of entities within the Passiflora suberosa complex. All analyses confirm the monophyly of the supersection. They also show that the Passiflora suberosa complex is a non-monophyletic group of cryptic species, and inter-taxic hybridization and polyploidy have contributed to the confusing and complex pattern of variation evident within the group. Four taxa that were formerly included in this complex are recognized: Passiflora pallida, Passiflora suberosa subsp. suberosa, Passiflora suberosa subsp. litoralis, and Passiflora tridactylites. On the basis of molecular and morphological data, three species from the Passiflora coriacea complex are recognized: Passiflora coriacea, Passiflora sexocellata, and Passiflora megacoriacea. A key, detailed descriptions, distribution maps, and illustrations are included in the revision. Pollination, dispersal, and herbivory of the group are reviewed. The

  2. A high density COX1 barcode oligonucleotide array for identification and detection of species of Penicillium subgenus Penicillium.

    PubMed

    Chen, W; Seifert, K A; Lévesque, C A

    2009-05-01

    We developed a COX1 barcode oligonucleotide array based on 358 sequences, including 58 known and two new species of Penicillium subgenus Penicillium, and 12 allied species. The array was robotically spotted at near microarray density on membranes. Species and clade-specific oligonucleotides were selected using the computer programs SigOli and Array Designer. Robotic spotting allowed 768 spots with duplicate sets of perfect match and the corresponding mismatch and positive control oligonucleotides, to be printed on 2 × 6 cm(2) nylon membranes. The array was validated with hybridizations between the array and digoxigenin (DIG)-labelled COX1 polymerase chain reaction amplicons from 70 pure DNA samples, and directly from environmental samples (cheese and plants) without culturing. DNA hybridization conditions were optimized, but undesired cross-reactions were detected frequently, reflecting the relatively high sequence similarity of the COX1 gene among Penicillium species. Approximately 60% of the perfect match oligonucleotides were rejected because of low specificity and 76 delivered useful group-specific or species-specific reactions and could be used for detecting certain species of Penicillium in environmental samples. In practice, the presence of weak signals on arrays exposed to amplicons from environmental samples, which could have represented weak detections or weak cross reactions, made interpretation difficult for over half of the oligonucleotides. DNA regions with very few single nucleotide polymorphisms or lacking insertions/deletions among closely related species are not ideal for oligonucleotide-based diagnostics, and supplementing the COX1-based array with oligonucleotides derived from additional genes would result in a more robust hierarchical identification system. PMID:21564971

  3. Foliar Essential Oil Glands of Eucalyptus Subgenus Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae) Are a Rich Source of Flavonoids and Related Non-Volatile Constituents

    PubMed Central

    Nicolle, Dean; Woodrow, Ian E.

    2016-01-01

    The sub-dermal secretory cavities (glands) embedded within the leaves of Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae) were once thought to be the exclusive repositories of monoterpene and sesquiterpene oils. Recent research has debunked this theory and shown that abundant non-volatile compounds also occur within foliar glands. In particular, glands of four species in subgenus Eucalyptus contain the biologically active flavanone pinocembrin. Pinocembrin shows great promise as a pharmaceutical and is predominantly plant-sourced, so Eucalyptus could be a potential commercial source of such compounds. To explore this we quantified and assessed the purity of pinocembrin in glands of 11 species of E. subg. Eucalyptus using Electro-Spray Ionisation Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry of acetonitrile extracts and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry analyses of hexane extracts of isolated glands which were free from other leaf tissues. Our results showed that the glands of subgenus Eucalyptus contain numerous flavanones that are structurally related to pinocembrin and often present in much greater abundance. The maximum concentration of pinocembrin was 2 mg g-1 dry leaf found in E. stellulata, whereas that of dimethylpinocembrin (5,7-dimethoxyflavanone) was 10 mg g-1 in E. oreades and that of pinostrobin (5-hydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone) was 12 mg g-1 in E. nitida. We also found that the flavanones are exclusively located within the foliar glands rather than distributed throughout leaf tissues. The flavanones differ from the non-methylated pinocembrin in the degree and positions of methylation. This finding is particularly important given the attractiveness of methylated flavonoids as pharmaceuticals and therapeutics. Another important finding was that glands of some members of the subgenus also contain flavanone O-glucosides and flavanone-β-triketone conjugates. In addition, glands contain free β-triketones, β-triketone heterodimers and chromone C-glucosides. Therefore, the foliar glands

  4. Foliar Essential Oil Glands of Eucalyptus Subgenus Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae) Are a Rich Source of Flavonoids and Related Non-Volatile Constituents.

    PubMed

    Goodger, Jason Q D; Seneratne, Samiddhi L; Nicolle, Dean; Woodrow, Ian E

    2016-01-01

    The sub-dermal secretory cavities (glands) embedded within the leaves of Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae) were once thought to be the exclusive repositories of monoterpene and sesquiterpene oils. Recent research has debunked this theory and shown that abundant non-volatile compounds also occur within foliar glands. In particular, glands of four species in subgenus Eucalyptus contain the biologically active flavanone pinocembrin. Pinocembrin shows great promise as a pharmaceutical and is predominantly plant-sourced, so Eucalyptus could be a potential commercial source of such compounds. To explore this we quantified and assessed the purity of pinocembrin in glands of 11 species of E. subg. Eucalyptus using Electro-Spray Ionisation Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry of acetonitrile extracts and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry analyses of hexane extracts of isolated glands which were free from other leaf tissues. Our results showed that the glands of subgenus Eucalyptus contain numerous flavanones that are structurally related to pinocembrin and often present in much greater abundance. The maximum concentration of pinocembrin was 2 mg g-1 dry leaf found in E. stellulata, whereas that of dimethylpinocembrin (5,7-dimethoxyflavanone) was 10 mg g-1 in E. oreades and that of pinostrobin (5-hydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone) was 12 mg g-1 in E. nitida. We also found that the flavanones are exclusively located within the foliar glands rather than distributed throughout leaf tissues. The flavanones differ from the non-methylated pinocembrin in the degree and positions of methylation. This finding is particularly important given the attractiveness of methylated flavonoids as pharmaceuticals and therapeutics. Another important finding was that glands of some members of the subgenus also contain flavanone O-glucosides and flavanone-β-triketone conjugates. In addition, glands contain free β-triketones, β-triketone heterodimers and chromone C-glucosides. Therefore, the foliar glands

  5. The phylogeny of acetic acid bacteria based on the partial sequences of 16S ribosomal RNA: the elevation of the subgenus Gluconoacetobacter to the generic level.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Y; Hoshino, K; Ishikawa, T

    1997-08-01

    Thirty-six strains of acetic acid bacteria classified in the genera Acetobacter, Gluconobacter, and Acidomonas were examined for their partial base sequences in positions 1220 through 1375, 156 bases, of 16S rRNA. The strains of the Q10-equipped Gluconobacter species examined were divided into two subgroups, which included the type strains of Gluconobacter oxydans, the type species of the genus Gluconobacter, and of a second species, Gluconobacter cerinus, respectively. The base differences numbered four between the two type strains. The strains of the Q9-equipped species examined classified in the type subgenus Acetobacter of the genus Acetobacter were not very distant phylogenetically from those of the genus Gluconobacter. The calculated number of base differences was 9-6 between the type strains of G. oxydans and G. cerinus and the type strains of Acetobacter aceti and Acetobacter pasteurianus. In contrast, the strains of the Q10-equipped species examined classified in the subgenus Gluconoacetobacter of the genus Acetobacter were very distant phylogenetically from those of the Acetobacter and Gluconobacter species mentioned above. The number of base differences was calculated to be 14-8. Furthermore, the strains of the methanol-assimilating, Q10-equipped species of the genus Acidomonas examined were located in phylogenetically isolated positions. The type strain of Acidomonas methanolica (identical to Acetobacter methanolicus), the type species of the genus Acidomonas, had 16-9 base differences. The data obtained here indicated that the members of the subgenus Gluconoacetobacter of the genus Acetobacter can be distinguished at the generic level. The new genus Gluconoacetobacter was proposed with the type species, Gluconoacetobacter liquefaciens, in recognition of the genus Acidomonas along with the genera Acetobacter and Gluconobacter in the classification of the acetic acid bacteria. PMID:9301103

  6. Timing Spring Insecticide Applications to Target both Amyelois transitella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and Anarsia lineatella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in Almond Orchards.

    PubMed

    Hamby, Kelly A; Nicola, Nicole L; Niederholzer, Franz J A; Zalom, Frank G

    2015-04-01

    Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and Anarsia lineatella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) are key Lepidoptera pests of almonds in California. Spring insecticide applications (early to mid-May) targeting either insect were not usually recommended because of the potential to disrupt natural enemies when broad-spectrum organophosphates and pyrethroids were applied. The registration of reduced risk compounds such as chlorantraniliprole, methoxyfenozide, and spinetoram, which have a higher margin of safety for natural enemies, makes spring (early to mid-May) application an acceptable control approach. We examined the efficacy of methoxyfenozide, spinetoram, and chlorantraniliprole at three spring application timings including the optimum spring timing for both A. lineatella and A. transitella in California almonds. Our study also examined the possibility of reducing larval populations of A. lineatella and A. transitella simultaneously with a single spring insecticide application. There were no significant differences in the field efficacy of insecticides targeting either A. lineatella or A. transitella, depending on application timing for the three spring timings examined in this study. In most years (2009-2011), all three timings for each compound resulted in significantly less A. transitella and A. lineatella damage when compared with an untreated control, though there was some variation in efficacy between the two species. Early to mid-May applications of the reduced-risk insecticides chlorantraniliprole and spinetoram can be used to simultaneously target A. transitella and A. lineatella with similar results across the potential timings. PMID:26470179

  7. Contributions to the knowledge of oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida) of Indonesia. 3. The genus Galumna (Galumnidae) with description of a new subgenus and seven new species

    PubMed Central

    Ermilov, Sergey G.; Sandmann, Dorothee; Klarner, Bernhard; Widyastuti, Rahaju; Scheu, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Seven new species of oribatid mites of the genus Galumna are described from litter and soil materials of Sumatra, Indonesia. A new subgenus, Galumna (Atypicogalumna) subgen. n., is proposed; it differs from all galumnid genera and subgenera by the simultaneous presence of porose areas and sacculi on the notogaster (vs. either porose areas or sacculi present). Galumna (Galumna) calva Starý, 1997 is recorded for the first time in the Oriental region, and Galumna (Galumna) sabahna Mahunka, 1995 is recorded for the first time in the Indonesian fauna. PMID:26798244

  8. Contributions to the knowledge of oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida) of Indonesia. 3. The genus Galumna (Galumnidae) with description of a new subgenus and seven new species.

    PubMed

    Ermilov, Sergey G; Sandmann, Dorothee; Klarner, Bernhard; Widyastuti, Rahaju; Scheu, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Seven new species of oribatid mites of the genus Galumna are described from litter and soil materials of Sumatra, Indonesia. A new subgenus, Galumna (Atypicogalumna) subgen. n., is proposed; it differs from all galumnid genera and subgenera by the simultaneous presence of porose areas and sacculi on the notogaster (vs. either porose areas or sacculi present). Galumna (Galumna) calva Starý, 1997 is recorded for the first time in the Oriental region, and Galumna (Galumna) sabahna Mahunka, 1995 is recorded for the first time in the Indonesian fauna. PMID:26798244

  9. Two new species of Centris (Aphemisia) Ayala, 2002 from Colombia with a synopsis of the subgenus for the country (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Centridini).

    PubMed

    Vivallo, Felipe; Vélez, Danny; Fernández, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    A synopsis of the species of Centris subgenus Aphemisia Ayala in Colombia is presented. A total of six species were recognized: C. lilacina Cockerell, C. mocsaryi Friese, C. plumipes Smith and C. quadrimaculata Packard, including C. celadonia n. sp. and C. vallecaucensis n. sp., two new species described from the Departments of Huila and Valle del Cauca, respectively. Diagnoses, descriptions, information on geographical distribution and an identification key to all species are provided. The previously unknown male of C. plumipes is described for the first time. PMID:27394490

  10. Exploitation of mitochondrial nad6 as a complementary marker for studying population variability in Lepidoptera

    PubMed Central

    Silva-Brandão, Karina L.; Lyra, Mariana L.; Santos, Thiago V.; Seraphim, Noemy; Albernaz, Karina C.; Pavinato, Vitor A.C.; Martinelli, Samuel; Cônsoli, Fernando L.; Omoto, Celso

    2011-01-01

    The applicability of mitochondrial nad6 sequences to studies of DNA and population variability in Lepidoptera was tested in four species of economically important moths and one of wild butterflies. The genetic information so obtained was compared to that of cox1 sequences for two species of Lepidoptera. nad6 primers appropriately amplified all the tested DNA targets, the generated data proving to be as informative and suitable in recovering population structures as that of cox1. The proposal is that, to obtain more robust results, this mitochondrial region can be complementarily used with other molecular sequences in studies of low level phylogeny and population genetics in Lepidoptera. PMID:22215980

  11. Three new species of genus Sinophorus Förster (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) parasitizing twig and defoliating Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Mao-Ling; Li, Tao; Cao, Jiang-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Three new wasp species are described from the subfamily Campopleginae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), Sinophorus bazariae Sheng, sp. n., reared from Bazaria turensis Ragonot (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) in Dulan County, Qinghai Province, China, S. nigrus Sheng, sp. n., reared from Epinotia rubiginosana rubiginosana (Herrich-Schäffer) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) in Weichang, Hebei Province, and S. zeirapherae Sheng, sp. n., reared from Zeiraphera grisecana (Hübner) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) in Liupanshan, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region. A key to the species of Chinese Sinophorus is provided. PMID:25947806

  12. Colorful patterns indicate common ancestry in diverged tiger beetle taxa: Molecular phylogeny, biogeography, and evolution of elytral coloration of the genus Cicindela subgenus Sophiodela and its allies.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Kaoru; Hori, Michio; Phyu, Moe Hnin; Liang, Hongbin; Sota, Teiji

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the phylogenetic relationships among tiger beetles of the subtribe Cicindelina (=Cicindela s. lat.; Coleoptera: Cicindelidae) mainly from the Oriental and Sino-Japanese zoogeographic regions using one mitochondrial and three nuclear gene sequences to examine the position of the subgenus Sophiodela, currently classified in the genus Cicindela s. str., their biogeography, and the evolution of their brilliant coloration. The subgenus Sophiodela was not related to the other subgenera of Cicindela s. str. but was closely related to the genus Cosmodela. In addition, the Oriental genus Calochroa was polyphyletic with three lineages, one of which was closely related to Sophiodela and Cosmodela. The clade comprising Sophiodela, Cosmodela and two Calochroa species, referred to here as the Sophiodela group, was strongly supported, and most species in this clade had similar brilliant coloration. The Sophiodela group was related to the genera Calomera, Cicindela (excluding Sophiodela) and Cicindelidia, and these were related to Lophyra, Hipparidium and Calochroa, except species in the Sophiodela group. Divergence time estimation suggested that these worldwide Cicindelina groups diverged in the early Oligocene, and the Sophiodela group, which is found in the Oriental and Sino-Japanese zoogeographic regions, in the mid Miocene. Some components of the elytral pattern related to maculation and coloration in the Cicindelina taxa studied contained weak, but significant, phylogenetic signals and were partly associated with habitat types. Therefore, the brilliant coloration of the Sophiodela was related to both phylogeny and habitat adaptation, although the function of coloration needs to be studied. PMID:26578441

  13. Morphological and molecular characterization of Raphidascaris (Ichthyascaris) lophii (Wu, 1949) (Nematoda, Anisakidae) from marine fishes from China, with a key to the species of the subgenus Ichthyascaris.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhen; Zhang, Lu-Ping; Liu, Bao-Chen; Li, Liang

    2012-09-01

    The little known ascaridoid nematode Raphidascaris (Ichthyascaris) lophii (Wu, 1949) is redescribed and illustrated based on newly collected specimens from the five different marine fishes: Lophius litulon (Jordan) (Lophiiformes: Lophiidae), Lophiomus setigerus (Vahl) (Lophiiformes: Lophiidae), Antennarius hispidus (Bloch et Schneider) (Lophiiformes: Antennaridae), Zeus faber Linnaeus (Zeiformes: Zeidae) and Ostichthys japonicus (Cuvier) (Beryciformes: Holocentridae) from the East and South China Sea. This species differs from all congeners in the subgenus Ichthyascaris by the length of the ventricular appendix (0.52-0.98 mm long), the number and arrangement of caudal papillae (26-32 pairs of precloacal, 3-4 pairs of paracloacal and 8-11 pairs of postcloacal) and the length of the spicules (0.49-0.88 mm long, representing 3.08-4.70% of body length). In addition, nematodes collected from these five different fishes have been characterized using molecular methods by sequencing and analysing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of ribosomal DNA. No variation in size and nucleotide polymorphisms is detected within the target sequence among all samples analysed. These data contribute to facilitate an accurate diagnosis of this poorly known nematode. An identification key to the species of the subgenus Ichthyascaris is also provided. PMID:22875681

  14. Revision of Palearctic and Oriental Necrophila Kirby et Spence, part 3: subgenus Calosilpha Portevin (Coleoptera: Silphidae: Silphinae).

    PubMed

    Růžička, Jan; Qubaiová, Jarin; Nishikawa, Masaaki; Schneider, Jan

    2015-01-01

    A taxonomic revision of the subgenus Calosilpha Portevin, 1920 (of the genus Necrophila Kirby & Spence, 1828) through Asia is presented. Four valid species are recognized: (1) Necrophila (C.) brunnicollis (Kraatz, 1877), widely distributed from Bhutan and China: Yunnan province to Far East of Russia and Japan (including Ryukyu Islands); (2) N. (C.) cyaneocephala (Portevin, 1914), endemic to Taiwan; (3) N. (C.) cyaniventris (Motschulsky, 1870), widely distributed from northern India to Vietnam and southern China (east to Hainan Island); and (4) N. (C.) ioptera (Kollar & Redtenbacher, 1844), comb. nov. (ex Calosilpha), widely distributed in Pakistan, India (Himachal Pradesh to Assam) and Nepal. Eusilpha (Calosilpha) bicolor imasakai Nishikawa, 1986 and Eusilpha (Calosilpha) kurosawai Nishikawa, 1986 are confirmed as junior subjective synonyms (sensu Cho & Lee 1995, Ji 2012) of Silpha brunnicollis Kraatz, 1877. Description of important adult taxonomic characters (including male genitalia) and a key to species is included. Georeferenced records for all four species are mapped. First reliable records of Necrophila (Calosilpha) brunnicollis from China: Hong Kong and Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Hubei, Jiangxi, Jilin, Qinghai and Zheijiang provinces and Guangxi autonomous region; N. (C.) cyaniventris from India: Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland and Manipur; and N. (C.) ioptera from Pakistan, India: Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Sikkim, West Bengal and Assam are given (only imprecise records from "Himalaya" had been published for the last two species). First records of N. (C.) brunnicollis from Bhutan, and of N. (C.) cyaniventris from China: Hainan and Yunnan provinces, Myanmar, Laos and Cambodia are given. Parsimony analysis supports the monophyly of Calosilpha, with two clades, one formed by N. (C.) brunnicollis and N. (C.) cyaneocephala and the other by N. (C.) cyaniventris and N. (C.) ioptera. Geometric morphometrics discriminated

  15. Two species of Gelechioidea (Lepidoptera) from Southeast Asia associated with downy rose myrtle, Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Myrtaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two species of Gelechioidea (Lepidoptera), Metharmostis multilineata Adamski, n. sp. (Cosmopterigidae), and Idiophantis soreuta Meyrick, 1906 (Gelechiidae), were collected in southeastern Asia for evaluation as potential biocontrol agents against downy rose myrtle, Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hass...

  16. A new species of the genus Arcoptilia Arenberger (Lepidoptera, Pterophoridae) from Angola.

    PubMed

    Ustjuzhanin, P; Kovtunovich, V

    2015-01-01

    The new species Arcoptilia naumanni sp. nov. (Lepidoptera, Pterophoridae) is described and illustrated from males found in Angola. Platyptilia rufamaculata Gielis, 2011, syn. nov. is established as a junior synonym of Arcoptilia pongola Ustjuzhanin & Kovtunovich, 2010. PMID:26623765

  17. Susceptibility of Apple Clearwing Moth Larvae, Synanthedon myopaeformis (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) to Beauveria basiana and Metarhizium brunneum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple clearwing moth larvae, Synanthedon myopaeformis (Lepidoptera: Sessidae) collected from orchards in British Columbia, Canada, were naturally infected with the entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium brunneum (Petch). In laboratory bioassays, larvae were susceptible to infection and dose related mo...

  18. Oviposition preference of Oriental fruit moth [Grapholita molesta (Busck), Lepidoptera: Tortricidae] for apple cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oviposition preferences and apple cultivar selection by fruit pests may impact integrated pest management in apple orchards. Experiments were conducted to study oviposition preferences of Oriental fruit moth ( Grapholita molesta [Busck], Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) on ten commercially important apple ...

  19. Susceptibility of the Strawberry Crown Moth Synanthedon bibionipennis (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) to Entomopathogenic Nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the susceptibility of the strawberry crown moth, Synanthedon bibionipennis (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) larvae to two species of entomopathogenic nematodes(Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) Agriotos and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Steiner) Oswego). Nematodes...

  20. POPULATION SYNCHRONY WITHIN AND AMONG LEPIDOPTERA SPECIES IN RELATION TO WEATHER, PHYLOGENY, AND LARVEL PHENOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    1. The population dynamics of native herbivore species in central Appalachian deciduous forests were studied by analysing patterns of synchrony among intra- and interspecific populations and weather. 2. Spatial synchrony of 10 Lepidoptera species and three weather variables (min...

  1. First microsatellites from Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and their potential use for population genetics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is the first report of sequence-specific microsatellite markers (SSRs) of Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), an economically important pest of the American continent. We developed 178 microsatellite markers using pyrosequencing, and screened 15 individuals from 8 isofamili...

  2. A new parasitoid of Bazariaturensis (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae): Campoplexbazariae sp. n. (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yu-Xiang; Sheng, Mao-Ling

    2014-01-01

    A new solitary endoparasitoid of the larva of Bazariaturensis Ragonot, 1887 (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) in Qinghai province, China, Campoplexbazariae Sheng, sp. n., belonging to the subfamily Campopleginae (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae), is reported. Illustrations of the new species are provided. PMID:25610335

  3. PCR primers for 30 novel gene regions in the nuclear genomes of Lepidoptera

    PubMed Central

    Wahlberg, Niklas; Peña, Carlos; Ahola, Milla; Wheat, Christopher W.; Rota, Jadranka

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We report primer pairs for 30 new gene regions in the nuclear genomes of Lepidoptera that can be amplified using a standard PCR protocol. The new primers were tested across diverse Lepidoptera, including nonditrysians and a wide selection of ditrysians. These new gene regions give a total of 11,043 bp of DNA sequence data and they show similar variability to traditionally used nuclear gene regions in studies of Lepidoptera. We feel that a PCR-based approach still has its place in molecular systematic studies of Lepidoptera, particularly at the intrafamilial level, and our new set of primers now provides a route to generating phylogenomic datasets using traditional methods. PMID:27408580

  4. Geraldocossus gen. nov. (Lepidoptera, Cossidae) from Mount Cameroon (West Africa).

    PubMed

    Yakovlev, Roman V; Sáfián, Szabolcs

    2016-01-01

    The cossid or the Carpenter Moths (Lepidoptera, Cossidae) include about 1000 species worldwide (van Nieukerken et al., 2011), of which 750 species belong to five subfamilies that occur in the Old World (Yakovlev 2011). The Cossidae are still relatively poorly known from vast areas of the African continent, despite recent reports on the fauna of Malawi (Yakovlev & Murphey 2014), Zimbabwe (Yakovlev & Lenz 2014), and Zambia (Yakovlev 2014). The first results of an ongoing revision of the South African Cossidae have also been published (Mey 2015). PMID:27395152

  5. Resistance to insecticides in Heliothine Lepidoptera: a global view

    PubMed Central

    McCaffery, A. R.

    1998-01-01

    The status of resistance to organophosphate, carbamate, cyclodiene and pyrethroid insecticides in the heliothine Lepidoptera is reviewed. In particular, resistance in the tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens, and the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, from the New World, and the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, from the Old World, are considered in detail. Particular emphasis has been placed on resistance to the most widely used of these insecticide groups, the pyrethroids. In each case, the incidence and current status of resistance are considered before a detailed view of the mechanisms of resistance is given. Controversial issues regarding the nature of mechanisms of resistance to pyrethroid insecticides are discussed. The implications for resistance management are considered.

  6. Cyanogenesis-a general phenomenon in the lepidoptera?

    PubMed

    Witthohn, K; Naumann, C M

    1987-08-01

    There are two different pathways known to be used for the detoxification of hydrocyanic acid in insects, viz., rhodanese and β-cyano-L-ala-nine synthase. We consider the latter to be indicative for cyanogenesis, while rhodanese might, in general, play a more important role in sulfur transfer for protein synthesis. This paper reports on the distribution of β-cyano-L-alanine (BCA) in the Lepidoptera. First reports of cyanogenesis are presented for the following families: Papilionidae, Pieridae, Lycaenidae, Hesperiidae, Lymantriidae, Arctiidae, Notodontidae, Megalopygidae, Limacodidae, Cymatophoridae, Noctuidae, Geometridae, and Yponomeutidae. New and old records for three other families, the Nymphalidae, Zygaenidae, and Heterogynidae, are included to complete the present state of knowledge. Special emphasis has been laid on the Nymphalidae, where BCA has been detected in eight subfamilies. Taxonomic, geographic, and seasonal variation has been found in a number of cases. In all cases observed so far, the source of cyanogenesis in the Lepidoptera is most probably the cyanoglucosides linamarin and lotaustralin, although cyanogenesis based on mustard oil glucosides and cyclopentenoid glucosides might occur as well. BCA has been found in both cryptic and aposematic species, including taxa such as the Pieridae, Danainae, Ithomiinae, and Arctiidae, where the defensive biology is believed to be linked with other compounds, like mustard oil glucosides, cardenolides, or pyrrolizidine alkaloids. The ecological interaction and significance of such secondary compounds is not yet understood. PMID:24302389

  7. Description of a new species of Ectinorus (E. spiculatus) (Siphonaptera, Rhopalopsyllidae) from Argentina and a review of the subgenus Ichyonus Smit, 1987

    PubMed Central

    Hastriter, Michael W.; Sage, Richard D.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A new species, Ectinorus spiculatus, is described from Phyllotis xanthopygus (Waterhouse) and Akodon iniscatus Thomas from Neuquén Province, Argentina. Habitat characteristics are presented for the type locality. A change in status of four additional subspecies of the Ectinorus subgenus Ichyonus Smit is provided. Ectinorus onychius onychius Jordan and Rothschild, Ectinorus onychius deplexus Smit and Ectinorus onychius angularis Smit & Rosický were elevated to specific status. Ectinorus (Ichyonus) onychius fueginus was relegated as a junior synonym of the nominate species. Phyllotis xanthopygus, Abrothrix olivaceus xanthorhinus, Loxodontomys micropus Waterhouse, and Euneomys chinchilloides (Waterhouse) are new host records for Ectinorus onychius. A key to the three species of Ichyonus is included. PMID:21998530

  8. Revision of the subgenus Tinotus Sharp, stat. n., of the parasitoid rove-beetle genus Aleochara Gravenhorst (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Aleocharinae) from Japan, Taiwan, and the Russian Far East

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Shûhei; Maruyama, Munetoshi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The subgenus Tinotus Sharp, 1833, stat. n., of the genus Aleochara Gravenhorst, 1802 (Aleocharini: Aleocharina) from Japan, Taiwan, and the Russian Far East is revised. Tinotus is a new record from the latter two regions. Three species are recognized: Aleochara (Tinotus) morion Gravenhorst, 1802, comb. n. [Japan (new record), the Russian Far East (new record)], Aleochara (Tinotus) eoa nom. n. [replacement name for Tinotus japonicus Cameron, 1933; Japan, Taiwan (new record)], and Aleochara (Tinotus) takashii sp. n. (central Honshû, Japan). The systematic position of Tinotus is discussed. All species are (re-)described, keyed, and figured. A world checklist of Tinotus species, comprising 40 valid species, is provided in an appendix. Additional taxonomic changes are proposed, including a new synonymy, a revalidation, 13 new replacement names, and 27 new combinations. PMID:27006606

  9. Taxonomic status of the subgenus Conoblasta Förster 1869 of the genus Glypta Gravenhorst 1829 with revision of Japanese species (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Banchinae).

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kyohei; Maeto, Kaoru

    2014-01-01

    The Japanese species of subgenus Conoblasta Förster 1869 sensu Aubert (1978) and Kuslitzky (1974, 2007) of the genus Glypta Gravenhorst 1829 are reviewed. No reliable synapomorphies are found for the species of Conoblasta after all and thus we conclude that they should be treated as a tentative species group. Eighteen species of the Conoblasta species group, including 11 new species (G. cognata sp. nov., G. daisetsuzana sp. nov., G. densepunctata sp. nov., G. flavitarsus sp. nov., G. ichitai sp. nov., G. karasawensis sp. nov., G. nipponica sp. nov., G. shigaensis sp. nov., G. suwai sp. nov., G. touyaensis sp. nov., G. zenibakoensis sp. nov.) and two newly recorded species (G. chinensis (Uchida 1956) and G. extincta Ratzeberg 1852), are recognized from Japan. A key to the Japanese species is provided. PMID:24869807

  10. Traceability of Marketable Japanese Shoro in New Zealand: Using Multiplex PCR To Exploit Phylogeographic Variation among Taxa in the Rhizopogon Subgenus Roseoli ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Visnovsky, Sandra B.; Guerin-Laguette, Alexis; Wang, Yun; Pitman, Andrew R.

    2010-01-01

    Rhizopogon roseolus Corda (synonym Rhizopogon rubescens Tul.), an economically important edible mushroom associated with the Pinaceae (mostly Pinus sp.), has a global distribution resulting from the introduction of exotic trees into the Southern Hemisphere for plantation forestry. However, the marketability of R. roseolus varies with the place of origin. R. roseolus strains cultivated in New Zealand from local carpophores for the Japanese market are morphologically and biologically distinct from those produced in Japan and are consequently considered less valuable. In this study, the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rRNA (internal transcribed spacer [ITS]) region was used to examine the phylogenetic relationships of R. roseolus and other closely related fungi belonging to Rhizopogon subgenus Roseoli to determine the genetic basis for phenotypic differences among R. roseolus isolates from different geographic regions. Phylogenetic comparison revealed phylogeographic variation within Rhizopogon subgenus Roseoli. Collections from the United States and Europe grouped into four distinct clades. Rhizopogon roseolus isolates found in New Zealand were closely related to those from the United States, likely due to introduction of Pinus radiata from its native California in the United States. In contrast, Japanese R. roseolus isolates clustered closely with European collections. Phylogenetic differences between Japanese and New Zealand R. roseolus isolates may explain the morphological and biological properties attributed to these geographical variants. The ITS region was subsequently used to design a multiplex PCR for the simultaneous identification of Japanese and New Zealand R. roseolus isolates to track the establishment of ectomycorrhiza on P. radiata seedlings inoculated with commercially valuable R. roseolus. This diagnostic demonstrated the first fruiting of Japanese shoro cultivated on P. radiata in the Southern Hemisphere. PMID:19915040

  11. Phylogenetic diversity of bat trypanosomes of subgenus Schizotrypanum based on multilocus enzyme electrophoresis, random amplified polymorphic DNA, and cytochrome b nucleotide sequence analyses.

    PubMed

    Barnabe, C; Brisse, S; Tibayrenc, M

    2003-02-01

    Trypanosome stocks isolated from bats (Chiroptera) and belonging to the subgenus Schizotrypanum were analyzed by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE) at 22 loci, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) with 14 primers and/or cytochrome b nucleotide sequence. Bat trypanosomes belonged to the species Trypanosoma cruzi marinkellei (10 stocks), Trypanosoma dionisii (four stocks) and Trypanosoma vespertilionis (three stocks). One T. rangeli stock and seven stocks of T. cruzi sensu stricto, the agent of Chagas disease, were included for comparison. The homology of several RAPD fragments shared by distinct species was verified by hybridization. The sequence of a 516-nucleotide portion of the maxicircle-encoded cytochrome b (CYb) coding region was determined in representative stocks of the species under study. Phylogenetic analysis of the data confirmed the previous taxonomic attribution of these bat trypanosomes based on biological, epidemiological and ecological features. However, a new finding was that within T. cruzi marinkellei two major subdivisions could be distinguished, T.c.m. I, found in the spear-nose bats Phyllostomus discolor and Phyllostomus hastatus, and T.c.m. II, from P. discolor. In addition, the T. c. marinkellei 'Z' stock from a short-tailed bat (Carollia perspicillata) was distantly related to these two subdivisions, and the monophyly of T. c. marinkellei is unclear based on the present data. Based on the present sample, the European species T. dionisii and T. vespertilionis appeared to be more homogeneous. RAPD and CYb data both suggested the monophyly of a group composed of T. cruzi and the two major subdivisions of T. cruzi marinkellei. This study shows that MLEE, RAPD and CYb can be used for taxonomic assignment and provide valuable phylogenetic information for strains and taxa within the subgenus Schizotrypanum. An evolutionary scenario in which the broad host-range parasite T. cruzi would be derived from a bat-restricted trypanosome ancestor

  12. Traceability of marketable Japanese shoro in New Zealand: using multiplex PCR to exploit phylogeographic variation among taxa in the Rhizopogon subgenus Roseoli.

    PubMed

    Visnovsky, Sandra B; Guerin-Laguette, Alexis; Wang, Yun; Pitman, Andrew R

    2010-01-01

    Rhizopogon roseolus Corda (synonym Rhizopogon rubescens Tul.), an economically important edible mushroom associated with the Pinaceae (mostly Pinus sp.), has a global distribution resulting from the introduction of exotic trees into the Southern Hemisphere for plantation forestry. However, the marketability of R. roseolus varies with the place of origin. R. roseolus strains cultivated in New Zealand from local carpophores for the Japanese market are morphologically and biologically distinct from those produced in Japan and are consequently considered less valuable. In this study, the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rRNA (internal transcribed spacer [ITS]) region was used to examine the phylogenetic relationships of R. roseolus and other closely related fungi belonging to Rhizopogon subgenus Roseoli to determine the genetic basis for phenotypic differences among R. roseolus isolates from different geographic regions. Phylogenetic comparison revealed phylogeographic variation within Rhizopogon subgenus Roseoli. Collections from the United States and Europe grouped into four distinct clades. Rhizopogon roseolus isolates found in New Zealand were closely related to those from the United States, likely due to introduction of Pinus radiata from its native California in the United States. In contrast, Japanese R. roseolus isolates clustered closely with European collections. Phylogenetic differences between Japanese and New Zealand R. roseolus isolates may explain the morphological and biological properties attributed to these geographical variants. The ITS region was subsequently used to design a multiplex PCR for the simultaneous identification of Japanese and New Zealand R. roseolus isolates to track the establishment of ectomycorrhiza on P. radiata seedlings inoculated with commercially valuable R. roseolus. This diagnostic demonstrated the first fruiting of Japanese shoro cultivated on P. radiata in the Southern Hemisphere. PMID:19915040

  13. Mortality Dynamics of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Immatures in Maize

    PubMed Central

    Varella, Andrea Corrêa; Menezes-Netto, Alexandre Carlos; Alonso, Juliana Duarte de Souza; Caixeta, Daniel Ferreira; Peterson, Robert K. D.; Fernandes, Odair Aparecido

    2015-01-01

    We characterized the dynamics of mortality factors affecting immature developmental stages of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Multiple decrement life tables for egg and early larval stages of S. frugiperda in maize (Zea mays L.) fields were developed with and without augmentative releases of Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) from 2009 to 2011. Total egg mortality ranged from 73 to 81% and the greatest egg mortality was due to inviability, dislodgement, and predation. Parasitoids did not cause significant mortality in egg or early larval stages and the releases of T. remus did not increase egg mortality. Greater than 95% of early larvae died from predation, drowning, and dislodgment by rainfall. Total mortality due to these factors was largely irreplaceable. Results indicate that a greater effect in reducing generational survival may be achieved by adding mortality to the early larval stage of S. frugiperda. PMID:26098422

  14. Complete mitochondrial DNA genome of Polytremis nascens (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Weibin; Zhu, Jianqing; Yang, Qichang; Zhao, Huidong; Chen, Minghan; He, Haiyan; Yu, Weidong

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence of Polytremis nascens (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) was determined. The 15,392 bp mitogenome with GenBank accession number KM981865 contained 13 protein genes, 22 tRNAs, 2 rRNAs, and a non-coding control region (D-loop). All the 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes were found. The overall base composition was 39.7% A, 40.7% T, 7.7% G and 11.9% C, with a high A + T content (80.4%). This complete mitogenome of P. nascens provides a basic data for studies on species identification, molecular systematics and conservation genetics. PMID:25690054

  15. Mortality Dynamics of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Immatures in Maize.

    PubMed

    Varella, Andrea Corrêa; Menezes-Netto, Alexandre Carlos; Alonso, Juliana Duarte de Souza; Caixeta, Daniel Ferreira; Peterson, Robert K D; Fernandes, Odair Aparecido

    2015-01-01

    We characterized the dynamics of mortality factors affecting immature developmental stages of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Multiple decrement life tables for egg and early larval stages of S. frugiperda in maize (Zea mays L.) fields were developed with and without augmentative releases of Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) from 2009 to 2011. Total egg mortality ranged from 73 to 81% and the greatest egg mortality was due to inviability, dislodgement, and predation. Parasitoids did not cause significant mortality in egg or early larval stages and the releases of T. remus did not increase egg mortality. Greater than 95% of early larvae died from predation, drowning, and dislodgment by rainfall. Total mortality due to these factors was largely irreplaceable. Results indicate that a greater effect in reducing generational survival may be achieved by adding mortality to the early larval stage of S. frugiperda. PMID:26098422

  16. The Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Leucoptera malifoliella Costa (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae)

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yu-Peng; Zhao, Jin-Liang; Su, Tian-Juan; Li, Jie; Yu, Fang; Chesters, Douglas; Fan, Ren-Jun; Chen, Ming-Chang; Wu, Chun-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    The mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Leucoptera malifoliella (=L. scitella) (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae) was sequenced. The size was 15,646 bp with gene content and order the same as those of other lepidopterans. The nucleotide composition of L. malifoliella mitogenome is highly A+T biased (82.57%), ranked just below Coreana raphaelis (82.66%) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). All protein-coding genes (PCGs) start with the typical ATN codon except for the cox1 gene, which uses CGA as the initiation codon. Nine PCGs have the common stop codon TAA, four PCGs have the common stop codon T as incomplete stop codons, and nad4l and nad6 have TAG as the stop codon. Cloverleaf secondary structures were inferred for 22 tRNA genes, but trnS1(AGN) was found to lack the DHU stem. The secondary structure of rrnL and rrnS is generally similar to other lepidopterans but with some minor differences. The A+T-rich region includes the motif ATAGA, but the poly (T) stretch is replaced by a stem-loop structure, which may have a similar function to the poly (T) stretch. Finally, there are three long repeat (154 bp) sequences followed by one short repeat (56 bp) with four (TA)n intervals, and a 10-bp poly-A is present upstream of trnM. Phylogenetic analysis shows that the position of Yponomeutoidea, as represented by L. malifoliella, is the same as traditional classifications. Yponomeutoidea is the sister to the other lepidopteran superfamilies covered in the present study. PMID:22856872

  17. Does the DNA barcoding gap exist? – a case study in blue butterflies (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae)

    PubMed Central

    Wiemers, Martin; Fiedler, Konrad

    2007-01-01

    Background DNA barcoding, i.e. the use of a 648 bp section of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase I, has recently been promoted as useful for the rapid identification and discovery of species. Its success is dependent either on the strength of the claim that interspecific variation exceeds intraspecific variation by one order of magnitude, thus establishing a "barcoding gap", or on the reciprocal monophyly of species. Results We present an analysis of intra- and interspecific variation in the butterfly family Lycaenidae which includes a well-sampled clade (genus Agrodiaetus) with a peculiar characteristic: most of its members are karyologically differentiated from each other which facilitates the recognition of species as reproductively isolated units even in allopatric populations. The analysis shows that there is an 18% overlap in the range of intra- and interspecific COI sequence divergence due to low interspecific divergence between many closely related species. In a Neighbour-Joining tree profile approach which does not depend on a barcoding gap, but on comprehensive sampling of taxa and the reciprocal monophyly of species, at least 16% of specimens with conspecific sequences in the profile were misidentified. This is due to paraphyly or polyphyly of conspecific DNA sequences probably caused by incomplete lineage sorting. Conclusion Our results indicate that the "barcoding gap" is an artifact of insufficient sampling across taxa. Although DNA barcodes can help to identify and distinguish species, we advocate using them in combination with other data, since otherwise there would be a high probability that sequences are misidentified. Although high differences in DNA sequences can help to identify cryptic species, a high percentage of well-differentiated species has similar or even identical COI sequences and would be overlooked in an isolated DNA barcoding approach. PMID:17343734

  18. [Occurrence of Salmonella in healthy snakes and snake cadavers- isolation of a new Salmonella species belonging to the sub-genus IV (S. IV 18:Z36, Z38:-) (AUTHOR'S TRANSL)].

    PubMed

    Pagon, S; Rohde, R; Schweizer, R

    1976-12-01

    Forty-seven isolation attempts performed with 20 fecal samples of exotic snakes yielded 27 Salmonella species belonging to the sub-genus I-IV. The majority of isolates (78.7%), however, was identified as sub-genus III (Arizona). The snakes under study were hold captured for less than one year (one part) or for longer than one year. Bacteriological investigations of the 7 snakes studied, repeated 7 to 21 months thereafter, revealed uniformly other Salmonella species in comparison to those found at primary examination. Necropsy investigations were performed with materials from 3 snakes. One Salmonella species (Arizona) was isolated from the colon of one snake presenting with massive necrotic enteritis. The results with blood, bile and other colon sections were negative. Several Salmonella species were found in the colon of two other snakes presenting with infiltrative and necrotic changes in the organs, but without any pathologic finding in the intestinal tract. A new Salmonella species belonging to the sub-genus IV (S. IV 18:Z36, Z38:-) was recovered from fecal sample of a Black Mamba (Dendroaspis polylepis) and another Cascabel snake (Crotalus durissus terrificus). PMID:1015030

  19. A new species of Reithrodontomys, subgenus Aporodon (Cricetidae: Neotominae), from the highlands of Costa Rica, with comments on Costa Rican and Panamanian Reithrodontomys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, Alfred L.; Carleton, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    A new species of the rodent genus Reithrodontomys (Cricetidae: Neotominae) is described from Cerro Asuncion in the western Cordillera de Talamanca, Costa Rica. The long tail, elongate rostrum, bulbous braincase, and complex molars of the new species associate it with members of the subgenus Aporodon, tenuirostris species group. In its diminutive size and aspects of cranial shape, the new species (Reithrodontomys musseri, sp. nov.) most closely resembles R. microdon, a form known from highlands in Guatemala and Chiapas, Mexico. In the course of differentially diagnosing the new species, we necessarily reviewed the Costa Rican and Panamanian subspecies of R. mexicanus based on morphological comparisons, study of paratypes and vouchers used in recent molecular studies, and morphometric analyses. We recognize Reithrodontomys cherrii (Allen, 1891) and R. garichensis finders and Pearson, 1940, as valid species, and allocate R. mexicanus potrerograndei Goodwin, 1945, as a subjective synonym of R. brevirostris Goodwin, 1943. Critical review of museum specimens collected subsequent to Hooper's (1952) revision is needed and would do much to improve understanding of Reithrodontomys taxonomy and distribution in Middle America.

  20. Two new species of Pterostichus Bonelli subgenus Pseudoferonina Ball (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Pterostichini) from the mountains of central Idaho, U.S.A.

    PubMed Central

    Bergdahl, James C.; Kavanaugh, David H.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of Pterostichus Bonelli subgenus Pseudoferonina Ball, are described from the mountains of central Idaho: Pterostichus bousqueti Bergdahl [type locality = small tributaries of South Fork of Payette River watershed, ca. 1170 m (3840 ft), 44.0675°; -115.6822°, near Lowman, Salmon River Mountains, Boise County, Idaho, U.S.A.] and Pterostichus lolo Bergdahl [type locality = Cottonwood/Orogrande Creek, ca. 870 m (2850 ft), 46.5528°; -115.5522°, North Fork of Clearwater River watershed, Clearwater Mountains, near Bungalow, Clearwater County, Idaho, U.S.A.]. Males of Pterostichus bousqueti and Pterostichus lolo are easily distinguished from each other and the seven previously described Pseudoferonina species by the form of the median lobe of the aedeagus, and from most individuals of the other species of Pseudoferonina in Idaho by features of pronotal shape and macrosculpture. Both species appear to be obligate ripicolous hygrophiles, restricted in distribution primarily to the margins of small montane streams in forested areas. Widespread intensive stream surveys for Pseudoferonina over many years indicate the geographic ranges of both species are highly localized, and additional undescribed species may occur in Idaho. PMID:21852918

  1. Patterns of flight behavior and capacity of unmated navel orangeworm adults (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) related to age, gender, and wing size

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a key pest of almond, pistachio, and walnut tree crops in California. Understanding dispersal of adults between orchards is important to improving management options. Laboratory flight behavior of unmated navel orangewor...

  2. Notes on the ovipositional behavior of Trichogramma fuentesi (Hymenoptera:Trichogrammatidae), an egg parasitoid of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trichogramma fuentesi Torre (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) is an arrhenotokous egg parasitoid of Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). The parasitoid was identified attacking C. cactorum eggs at several north Florida locations in 2010 (Paraiso et al. 2011). Low incidence of this...

  3. Effect of piperonyl butoxide on the toxicity of four classes of insecticides to navel orangeworm (Amyelois transitella)(Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a highly polyphagous economic pest of almond, pistachio, and walnut crops in California orchards. Although management of this pest has typically been through a combination of cultural control and insecticide sprays, increas...

  4. A Life History of the Squash Vine Borer, Melittia Cucurbitae (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) in South Carolina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The life history of the squash vine borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) was investigated in South Carolina. Duration of life stages, numbers of progeny, and mortality rates for SVB were determined in cages held at 25 plus minus 2C, 65-70% humidity and a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h in a rearing room, and ...

  5. Post-mating behavior of female dogwood borer (lepidoptera: sesiidae) in apple orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The post-mating behavior of female dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), was examined in a young apple orchard planted on size-controlling rootstock in Virginia. All female dogwood borers captured while exhibiting casting flight near the base of trees were mated, base...

  6. Mitochondrial genome sequence and expression profiling for the legume pod borer Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report on the assembly of the 14,146 base pairs (bp) near complete mitochondrial sequencing of the legume pod borer (LPB), Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), which was used to estimate divergence and relationships within the lepidopteran lineage. Arrangement and orientation of 13 protein c...

  7. Integrated pest management of the Pyralid stalkborers, Eoreuma loftini and Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane represents an important commodity crop in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas. The primary insect pest of sugarcane is the Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini followed by the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera) which cause substantial economic damage. We quantified the re...

  8. The mitochondrial genome of the western bean cutworm, Striacosta albicosta (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The complete 15,553 bp mitochondrial genome of the western bean cutworm, Stricosta albicosta, (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) was assembled from next generation sequencing data. Annotation showed that 13 predicted protein coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNAs, and 2 rRNAs have an order and orientation typical of ...

  9. Reproduction, longevity and survival of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Screened potted cactus plants (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.) containing pairs of adult male and female cactus moths, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), were placed in a cactus field in St. Marks, Florida to measure oviposition patterns under field-realistic conditions. Results...

  10. Biology, Distribution And Control Of The Cactus Moth, Cactoblastis Cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralide)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) became a textbook example of successful classical biological control after it was imported from Argentina into Australia in 1926 to control invasive Opuntia cacti. To date, the moth continues to play an active role in controlling...

  11. Tree height influences flight of lesser peachtree borer and peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) males

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Capture of males of the lesser peachtree borer, Synanthedon pictipes (Grote & Robinson), and the peachtree borer, S. exitiosa (Say) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), in pheromone traps positioned at 0, 1.8, 3.6, and 5.5 m above ground was affected by tree height in different habitats. In a peach orchard wit...

  12. Development of a rearing methodology for the dogwood borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A continuous rearing method for dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), was devised using standardized procedures at each developmental stage. The mating success of pairs of moths in 30 and 60 cm(3) cages and exposed to natural daylight or artificial light did not diffe...

  13. Re-evaluation of sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) bioeconomics in Louisiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is the key insect pest of sugarcane, Saccharum spp., grown in Louisiana. For more than 40 years Louisiana sugarcane farmers have used a value of 10% internodes bored at harvest as the Economic Damage level (ED) because damage l...

  14. Elachista saccharella (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae), a leafminer infesting sugarcane in Louisiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The leafminer, Elachista saccharella (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) was found in Louisiana on 12 July 2006 and documented as a new distribution record for Louisiana and the south-central United States and represents a significant range extension for the species. Elachista saccharella was first ...

  15. Seasonal response of Noctua pronuba L. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to traps in Washington state

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blacklight traps at multiple sites in eastern Washington state yielded numbers of yellow underwing moths, Noctua pronuba L. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Noctua pronumba is recently introduced into western North America. Summaries of the seasonal patterns of N. pronumba moths captured in those blackligh...

  16. Regional Assessment of Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Populations on Cotton and Non-Cotton Crop Hosts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selection pressure on bollworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), by cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (L.) (Malvaceae), that produces one or more Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Berliner proteins is reduced by plantings of non-Bt refuge cotton that produce non-selected individuals. However, ...

  17. Lespesia melloi sp. nov. (Diptera: Tachinidae) from Brazil, a Parasitoid of Xanthopastis timais (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    PubMed Central

    Gil-Santana, Hélcio R.; Nihei, Silvio Shigueo; Nunez, Enio

    2014-01-01

    A new species of the New World genus Lespesia, Lespesia melloi sp. nov. (Diptera: Tachinidae), is described from southeastern Brazil. The species is reported here as a parasitoid of Xanthopastis timais (Cramer, 1782) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). The caterpillars of this noctuid feed on leaves and bulbs of amaryllis (Amaryllidaceae) in Brazil. PMID:25368065

  18. Lespesia melloi sp. nov. (Diptera: Tachinidae) from Brazil, a parasitoid of Xanthopastis timais(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Gil-Santana, Hélcio R; Nihei, Silvio Shigueo; Nunez, Enio

    2014-01-01

    A new species of the New World genus Lespesia, Lespesia melloi SP NOV: (Diptera: Tachinidae), is described from southeastern Brazil. The species is reported here as a parasitoid of Xanthopastis timais (Cramer, 1782) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). The caterpillars of this noctuid feed on leaves and bulbs of amaryllis (Amaryllidaceae) in Brazil. PMID:25368065

  19. New home for the Lepidoptera collection at the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article describes the newly refurbished facilities into which the Lepidoptera collection recently moved at the National Museum of Natural History. The goals of the "announcement" are to demonstrate the progress being made by lepidopterists at the National Museum in regards to collection improve...

  20. Laboratory virulence and orchard efficacy of entomopathogenic nematodes against the lesser peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The lesser peachtree borer, Synanthedon pictipes (Grote & Robinson) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) is indigenous to eastern North America where it is a pest of commercially grown Prunus spp., especially to southeastern peach orchards where earlier regulatory changes affected pesticide usage on peach and fa...

  1. Before harvest survival of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in artificially infested sweet cherries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prior to the 2009 season, sweet cherries, Prunus avium (L.) L., from North America were required to be fumigated with methyl bromide before being exported to Japan to eliminate possible infestation by codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). However, based on recent biological...

  2. RNA interference in Lepidoptera: an overview of successful and unsuccessful studies and implications for experimental design

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gene silencing through RNA interference (RNAi) has revolutionized the study of gene function, particularly in non-model insects. However, in Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) RNAi has many times proven to be difficult to achieve. Most of the negative results have been anecdotal and the positive ex...

  3. Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Guenée)(Lepidoptera: Crambidae), an insect pest of Neotropical solanaceous fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The tomato fruit borer, Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is one of the most important pests of solanaceous crops in South America. The larva of this insect develops inside the fruit, feeding on the mesocarp and the endosperm; therefore, chemical control is inefficient, yet...

  4. Impact of Plant Resistance on Southwestern Corn Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Biology and Plant Damage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Southwestern corn borer, Diatraea grandiosella Dyar (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is a major insect pest of corn in the southern United States. Germplasm lines with resistance to southwestern corn borer have been developed and released by USDA-ARS. Two single-cross hybrids produced by crossing germplasm...

  5. First record of Ectomyelois muriscis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) on physic nut (Jatropha curcas), a biofuel plant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The natural infestation of fruits and stems of Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae) by larvae of the pyralid moth Ectomyelois muriscis (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is reported for the first time. Populations of E. muriscis on J. curcas were observed in various parts of the state of Chiapas, souther...

  6. Electrophysiological responses of the rice leaffolder, cnaphalocrocis medinalis (lepidoptera: pyralidae), to rice plant volatiles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The electrophysiological activities of 38 synthetic volatiles that were known to be released from the rice plants (Poaceae: Oryza spp.) were studied using electroantennogram (EAG) recording technique on male and female antennae of the rice leaffolder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: ...

  7. Seasonal infestations of two stem borers (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in noncrop grasses of Gulf Coast rice agroecosystems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infestations of two stem borers, the Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) and the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), were compared in non-crop grasses adjacent to rice, Oryza sativa L., fields. Three farms in the Texas Gulf Coast rice production area were sur...

  8. Inbreeding Effects in Families of Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae): Larval Development in Laboratory Bioassays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inbreeding depression of laboratory-reared insects has the potential to affect their larval performance and reproductive output. Two studies of laboratory-reared colonies of Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) were conducted to assess whether inbreeding affected a laboratory bioass...

  9. Population genetics of ecological communities with DNA barcodes: An example from New Guinea Lepidoptera

    PubMed Central

    Craft, Kathleen J.; Pauls, Steffen U.; Darrow, Karolyn; Miller, Scott E.; Hebert, Paul D. N.; Helgen, Lauren E.; Novotny, Vojtech; Weiblen, George D.

    2010-01-01

    Comparative population genetics of ecological guilds can reveal generalities in patterns of differentiation bearing on hypotheses regarding the origin and maintenance of community diversity. Contradictory estimates of host specificity and beta diversity in tropical Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) from New Guinea and the Americas have sparked debate on the role of host-associated divergence and geographic isolation in explaining latitudinal diversity gradients. We sampled haplotypes of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I from 28 Lepidoptera species and 1,359 individuals across four host plant genera and eight sites in New Guinea to estimate population divergence in relation to host specificity and geography. Analyses of molecular variance and haplotype networks indicate varying patterns of genetic structure among ecologically similar sympatric species. One-quarter lacked evidence of isolation by distance or host-associated differentiation, whereas 21% exhibited both. Fourteen percent of the species exhibited host-associated differentiation without geographic isolation, 18% showed the opposite, and 21% were equivocal, insofar as analyses of molecular variance and haplotype networks yielded incongruent patterns. Variation in dietary breadth among community members suggests that speciation by specialization is an important, but not universal, mechanism for diversification of tropical Lepidoptera. Geographically widespread haplotypes challenge predictions of vicariance biogeography. Dispersal is important, and Lepidoptera communities appear to be highly dynamic according to the various phylogeographic histories of component species. Population genetic comparisons among herbivores of major tropical and temperate regions are needed to test predictions of ecological theory and evaluate global patterns of biodiversity. PMID:20202924

  10. Host range of Caloptilia triadicae (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae): an adventive herbivore of Chinese tallowtree (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In its native range the invasive weed, Rhodomyrtus tomentosa is host to a suite of herbivores. One, Strepsicrates sp. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) was collected in China in 2014, introduced under quarantine in Florida, USA and tested against related species to determine its host range and suitability ...

  11. Effect of Hexaflumuron on feeding response and reproduction of bollworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hexaflumuron (Consult® 100 EC, Dow AgroSciences) is an insect growth regulator that inhibits chitin synthesis. The efficacy of hexaflumuron mixed with 2.5 M sucrose (ppm) was evaluated in the laboratory against bollworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) for toxicity, proboscis exten...

  12. A new species of Alveoplectrus Wijesekara & Schauff (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Eulophidae) parasitic on Limacodidae (Lepidoptera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alveoplectrus lilli Gates, new species, is described and illustrated. This species was reared from five genera of field-collected slug caterpillars (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae) in eastern North America. It is compared to closely related New World species. We report on new host records and summarize th...

  13. Disruption of Darna pallivitta (Lepidoptera:Limacodidae) by conventional and mobile pheromone deployment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nettle caterpillar, Darna pallivitta (Moore) (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae), is an invasive pest with established populations on three Hawai’ian islands. Indigenous to Southeast Asia, D. pallivitta caterpillars defoliate ornamentals and pose a human health hazard due to urticating hairs that can cause p...

  14. Development of the cursorial spider, Cheiracanthium inclusum (Araneae: Miturgidae), on eggs of Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of the cursorial spider Cheiricanthium inclusum (Hentz) (Araneae: Miturgidae) from emergence to maturity on a diet of eggs of the lepidopteran pest Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) was characterized. C. inclusum developed to adulthood with no mortality while feeding on ...

  15. Resistance in Cultivated Sunflower to the Sunflower Moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in the Central Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 5-year field study evaluated 42 sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) accessions, 25 breeding lines, and 40 interspecific crosses for resistance to infestation by naturally occurring populations of the sunflower moth, Homeosoma electellum (Hulst) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Germplasm with resistance to i...

  16. Aggregation and foraging behavior of imported cabbageworm (Lepidoptera: pieridae) adults on blue vervain flowers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The imported cabbageworm [Pieris rapae (L.) (Lepidoptera: Pieridae)], also known as the cabbage white butterfly, is an important specialized pest on cruciferous plants (Brassicales: Brassicaceae) worldwide. an unusual aggregation of the cabbage white butterflies was observed on a patch of flowering...

  17. Evaluation of traps and lures for codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in apple orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted to evaluate the use of several trap – lure combinations to improve monitoring of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in apple, Malus domestica Bordk. Treatments included the use of clear, orange and white traps baited with one or more of the followin...

  18. A computer model for simulating population development of the Indianmeal Moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in stored corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a common pest of stored corn, Zea mays L. We developed a computer model to simulate population development of the Indianmeal moth in stored corn using previously published data describing immature development times and ...

  19. Impact of temperature and relative humidity on life history parameters of adult Sitotroga cerealella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a pest of stored corn, Zea mays L., and other grains throughout the world. S. cerealella are routinely exposed to temperatures below 20°C in regions of the U.S. where corn is grown, yet there are no data describi...

  20. Effect of irradiation on Mexican leafroller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) development and reproduction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of irradiation on egg, larval, and pupal development, and adult reproduction in Mexican leafroller, Amorbia emigratella Busck (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), were examined. Eggs, neonates, early instars, late instars, early pupae and late pupae were irradiated at target doses of 60, 90, 120,...

  1. Activity of Bacillus thuringiensis against Pryeria sinica(Lepidoptera: Zygaenidae), an invasive pest of Euonymus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pryeria sinica Moore (Lepidoptera: Zygaenidae), an invasive pest of Euonymus, is susceptible in the second instar to the Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner product Thuricide®, and to several strains isolated from other B. thuringiensis products. Third instars are also susceptible, while susceptibility...

  2. Complete mitochondrial genome of the wild eri silkworm, Samia canningi (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae).

    PubMed

    Shantibala, T; Victor, Th; Luikham, Reeta; Arunkumar, K P; Sharma, H Debaraj; Lokeshwari, R K; Kim, Iksoo

    2016-01-01

    The saturniid silkworm species of the genus Samia are potential silk producing insects. Thus, Samia canningi (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) is a potential candidate to introduce for silk production. The complete mitochondrial genome of S. canningi was 15,384 bp long that contained 37 genes along with a control region. The arrangement of the PCGs was same as the majority of Lepidoptera, presenting the order, trnM/trnI/trnQ between nad2 and control region. Twelve of 13 PCGs started with ATN codons, but cox2 with GTG, which is often found in insects. Genes overlapped in a total of 29 bp, 221 bp of intergenic spacer sequences was found in seventeen regions and the longest 54 bp one was found between trnQ and nad2 as typical in Lepidoptera. In lrRNA, the 21-bp long, tandemly duplicated repeat was characteristically found (TAAAATTATTTATAATATAAA) between 13,663 and 13,706. AT rich region has the motif "ATAGA" and 18 bp poly T stretch, typically conserved in Lepidoptera. PMID:24893878

  3. The complete mitochondrial genome of Eurema hecabe (Lepidoptera: Pieridae: Coliadinae).

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoyan; Shao, Lili; Peng, Chaomin; Hao, Jiasheng; Yang, Qun

    2015-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Linnaeus Eurema hecabe (Lepidoptera: Pieridae: Coliadinae) is determined to be 15,160 bp in length, including 37 typical mitochondrial genes and an AT-rich region. Its gene order and orientation are identical to those of other butterfly species. All PCGs are initiated by typical ATN codons, except for CO1 gene which is started by CAG codon. Nine genes use complete termination codon (TAA), whereas the CO1, CO2, ND4 and ND5 genes end with single T. The two rRNA genes (rrnL and rrnS) are 1322 and 832 bp respectively; except for trnS1(AGN), all tRNA genes display typical secondary cloverleaf structures as those of other insects. The 315 bp long AT-rich region contains several features common to the other lepidopterans, such as the ATAGA motif followed by a 19 bp poly-T stretch, two microsatellite-like (TAA)5 and (AT)6 elements, a 9 bp poly-A stretch immediately upstream of trnM gene. PMID:24409905

  4. The complete mitochondrial genome of Danaus chrysippus (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Danainae).

    PubMed

    Gan, Shan-Shan; Sun, Xiao-Yan; Gai, Yong-Hua; Hao, Jia-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Danaus chrysippus (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Danainae) was determined. The 15,236 bp long genome encodes 13 putative proteins, two ribosomal RNAs, 22 tRNAs and a non-coding AT-rich region. Its gene arrangement pattern is identical to most of other lepidopteran species. All protein-coding genes start with a typical ATN codon with the exception of COI gene which uses CGA as its initial codon; all PCGs terminate in the common stop TAA or TAG, except COI, COII, ND5 and ND4 which use single T as their stop codons. A total of 102 bp intergenic spacers and a total of 33 bp overlapping sequences are interspersed throughout the whole genome. The mitogenome harbors 22 txRNAs as those of most insect species and all tRNA genes evidence the typical clover leaf secondary structures with the exception of tRNAser (AGN) who loses its dihydrouridine (DHU) arm. The lrRNA and srRNA genes are 1339 and 783 bp, with the AT contents of 84.1 and 84.8%, respectively. The non-coding AT-rich region is 418 bp long, and contains the motif ATAGA followed by a 21-bp poly-T stretch and a microsatellite-like (AT)9 element preceded by the ATTTA motif. PMID:24409860

  5. Semiautomated Identification of European Corn Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    PubMed

    Przybyłowicz, Łukasz; Pniak, Michał; Tofilski, Adam

    2016-02-01

    The European corn borer Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner, 1796) is a serious and widely studied pest of corn. The most common method of its control is by means of insecticides. However, biological control is becoming more and more popular. The hymenopteran parasitoid Trichogramma sp. is the most promising and effective one among the biological agents and is now widely used in North America and Europe. Its application should occur at the time when the European corn borer is at the beginning of the eggs laying period. However, the discrimination between the European corn borer and some other species occurring in agricultural landscapes at the same time can be difficult, especially for farmers which are neither familiar with the morphological nor molecular methods of identification. The scope of this study is to test the ability of the automatic computer equipment to determine the European corn borer and to separate it from the most common Lepidoptera pests found in corn plantations. The experiment showed that the 97.0% of the 247 specimens belonging to four common pestlepidopterans were correctly classified by the use of a personal computer, desktop scanner, and the special software. The obtained results showed that this technique based on wing measurements can be an effective tool for monitoring of the European corn borer. In the future, this method can be used by farmers to identify this pest and apply control measures at optimal time. PMID:26487742

  6. [Origin of Lepidoptera fauna of the Southern Transural region].

    PubMed

    Utkin, N A

    2000-01-01

    The butterfly fauna of the Southern Transural region began mainly through the migration of insects from the Urals and Kazakhstan, since the end of the Cretaceous Period to the end of Paleogen, the Transural region was covered by an epiplatform sea. As this sea was retreating, the first regions of dry land appeared, which had boundaries with Kazakhstan and the Urals. They were the first to be populated by Lepidoptera. During the Pleocene and then after the Pleistocene cooling events, insects settled generally along the valley of the Tobol River and the Turgai depression, because these territories belong to intrazonal elements. At the present time, the greatest species diversity among insects in the southern Transural area is observed specifically in the Turgai depression and in areas directly adjacent to it. This territory is mainly occupied by populations unique to the Transural regions and belonging to the following species: Mantis religiosa (praying mantis), Saga pedo, Parnassius apollo (apollo), Neolycaena rhymnus, Hyponephele lupina (oriental meadow brown), Chazara persephone (dark rockbrown), Epicallia villica (cream-spot tiger), etc. PMID:11042964

  7. The complete mitochondrial genome of Callerebia suroia (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae).

    PubMed

    Shi, Qinghui; Zhang, Wei; Hao, Jiasheng

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Callerebia suroia (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae) was determined and analyzed in this paper. The circular genome is 15,208 bp long, including 37 typical mitochondrial genes and one non-coding AT-rich region. All protein-coding genes (PCGs) started with ATN, except for COI gene with CGA(R), which is often found in other butterflies; nine PCGs harbor the typical stop codon TAA, whereas COI, COII, ND5 and ND4 end with a single T. All tRNA genes display typical secondary clover-leaf structures, except for tRNA(Ser)(AGN), whose dihydrouridine (DHU) arm is replaced by a simple loop. The lrRNA and srRNA genes are 1,347 bp and 753 bp in length, with their AT contents of 84.4% and 85.4%, respectively. The 417 bp AT-rich region contains non repetitive sequences, but harbor several features common to the lepidopterans, including the motif ATAGA followed by a 19-bp poly-T stretch and a microsatellite-like (TA)8 element preceded by the ATTTA motif. PMID:25162732

  8. The complete mitochondrial genome of Tyspanodes hypsalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia; Li, Pengfei; You, Ping

    2016-05-01

    The size of Tyspanodes hypsalis (Warren, 1891) mitogenome was 15,329 bp in which the base composition of mitogenome was 40.0% A, 41.4% T, 11.9% G and 7.7% C. All protein-coding genes (PCGs) utilized the standard ATN, while COI used CGA as the initial codon. In addition, all PCGs had the common stop codon (TAN), except COI and ND5 respectively used incomplete termination codon T and TA. All tRNAs had the typical cloverleaf structure of mitochondrial tRNAs, with the exception of tRNASer(AGN), the dihydrouridine (DHU) arm of which forms a simple loop. The A + T-rich region of 350 bp contains several features common to the Lepidoptera insects. Including the motif "ATAGA" followed by a 17-bp poly-T stretch, a microsatellite-like (AT)8 element preceded by the ATTTA motif, and a 12 bp polyA-like stretch (AAATAAAAAAAAA) present immediately upstream tRNAMet. PMID:25317636

  9. Biology and control of the raspberry crown borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae).

    PubMed

    McKern, Jacquelyn A; Johnson, Donn T; Lewis, Barbara A

    2007-04-01

    This study explored the biology of raspberry crown borer, Pennisetia marginata (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), in Arkansas and the optimum timing for insecticide and nematode applications. The duration of P. marginata's life cycle was observed to be 1 yr in Arkansas. Insecticide trials revealed that bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos, imidacloprid, metaflumizone, and metofluthrin efficacy were comparable with that of azinphosmethyl, the only labeled insecticide for P. marginata in brambles until 2005. Applications on 23 October 2003 for plots treated with bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos, and azinphosmethyl resulted in >88% reduction in larvae per crown. Applications on 3 November 2004 of metaflumizone, metofluthrin, and bifenthrin resulted in >89% reduction in larvae per crown. Applications on 7 April 2005 for metofluthrin, imidacloprid, bifenthrin, metaflumizone, and benzoylphenyl urea resulted in >64% reduction in the number of larvae per crown. Applications on 6 May 2004 did not reduce larval numbers. The optimum timing for treatments was found to be between October and early April, before the larvae tunneled into the crowns of plants. Applying bifenthrin with as little as 468 liters water/ha (50 gal/acre) was found to be as effective against larvae as higher volumes of spray. Nematode applications were less successful than insecticides. Nematode applications of Steinernemafeltiae, Steinernema carpocapsae, and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora reduced larvae counts per plant by 46, 53, and 33%, respectively. PMID:17461064

  10. Evolution of extreme proboscis lengths in Neotropical Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Bauder, J. A.-S.; Warren, A. D.; Krenn, H. W.

    2015-01-01

    Exaggerated morphologies have evolved in insects as adaptations to nectar feeding by natural selection. For example, the suctorial mouthparts of butterflies enable these insects to gain access to floral nectar concealed inside deep floral tubes. Proboscis length in Lepidoptera is known to scale with body size, but whether extreme absolute proboscis lengths of nectar feeding butterflies result from a proportional or disproportional increase with body size that differs between phylogenetic lineages remains unknown. We surveyed the range of variation that occurs in scaling relationships between proboscis length and body size against a phylogenetic background among Costa Rican Hesperiidae. We obtained a new record holder for the longest proboscis in butterflies and showed that extremely long proboscides evolved at least three times independently within Neotropical Hesperiidae. We conclude that the evolution of extremely long proboscides results from allometric scaling with body size, as demonstrated in hawk moths. We hypothesize that constraints on the evolution of increasingly long butterfly proboscides may come from (1) the underlying scaling relationships, i.e., relative proboscis length, combined with the butterfly’s flight style and flower-visiting behaviour and/or (2) developmental constraints during the pupal phase. Lastly, we discuss why butterflies did not evolve similar scaling relationships as hawk moths. PMID:25937673

  11. Influence of killing method on Lepidoptera DNA barcode recovery.

    PubMed

    Willows-Munro, Sandi; Schoeman, M Corrie

    2015-05-01

    The global DNA barcoding initiative has revolutionized the field of biodiversity research. Such large-scale sequencing projects require the collection of large numbers of specimens, which need to be killed and preserved in a way that is both DNA-friendly and which will keep voucher specimens in good condition for later study. Factors such as time since collection, correct storage (exposure to free water and heat) and DNA extraction protocol are known to play a role in the success of downstream molecular applications. Limited data are available on the most efficient, DNA-friendly protocol for killing. In this study, we evaluate the quality of DNA barcode (cytochrome oxidase I) sequences amplified from DNA extracted from specimens collected using three different killing methods (ethyl acetate, cyanide and freezing). Previous studies have suggested that chemicals, such as ethyl acetate and formaldehyde, degraded DNA and as such may not be appropriate for the collection of insects for DNA-based research. All Lepidoptera collected produced DNA barcodes of good quality, and our study found no clear difference in nucleotide signal strength, probability of incorrect base calling and phylogenetic utility among the three different treatment groups. Our findings suggest that ethyl acetate, cyanide and freezing can all be used to collect specimens for DNA analysis. PMID:25229871

  12. Chemical ecology and management of Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Ioriatti, C; Anfora, G; Tasin, M; De Cristofaro, A; Witzgall, P; Lucchi, A

    2011-08-01

    The moth Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) feeds on grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), reducing yield and increasing susceptibility to fungal infections. L. botrana is among the most economically important insects in Europe and has recently been found in vineyards in Chile, Argentina, and California. Here, we review L. botrana biology and behavior in relation to its larval host (the grapevine) and its natural enemies. We also discuss current and future control strategies in light of our knowledge of chemical ecology, with an emphasis on the use of the sex pheromone-based strategies as an environmentally safe management approach. Pheromone-mediated mating disruption is the most promising technique available on grapes and is currently implemented on approximately 140,000 ha in Europe. Experience from several growing areas confirms the importance of collaboration between research, extension, growers, and pheromone-supply companies for the successful implementation of the mating disruption technique. In the vineyards where mating disruption has been successfully applied as an areawide strategy, the reduction in insecticide use has improved the quality of life for growers, consumers, as well as the public living near wine-growing areas and has thereby reduced the conflict between agricultural and urban communities. PMID:21882674

  13. Insecticide susceptibility of Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in China.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xuesong; Ren, Xiubei; Su, Jianya

    2011-04-01

    Insecticide control is the major measure for suppression of Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) damage, and a few insecticides used for long time have proved to fail to control this pest in China. Several new chemicals have been introduced for control of C. medinalis. However, there was no baseline susceptibility data of C. medinalis to insecticides used or will be in use. In this study, a seedling dipping method was developed for bioassay of insecticide susceptibility of C. medinalis. Dose responses of C. medinalis to 11 insecticides were tested. Interpopulation sensitivity to insecticides was compared. Based on LC50 values, C. medinalis was most susceptible to antibiotic insecticides (abamectin, emamectin benzoate, and spinosad) and least sensitive to monosultap and a Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) product. Chlorantraniliprole and insect growth regulator (IGR) insecticides (tebufenozide and hexaflumuron) exhibited great efficacy against C. medinalis. No susceptibility difference was observed for antibiotic insecticide and IGR insecticides among three populations. Narrow variation in tolerant level was detected for organophosphates insecticides, chlorantraniliprole, monosultap, and Bt. The results in this study provided baseline susceptibility data of C. medinalis to 11 insecticides and also offered useful information for choice of alternative insecticide and for integrated resistance management of C. medinalis. PMID:21510218

  14. The complete mitochondrial genome of Rondotia menciana (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Weiqing; Yang, Jinhong

    2015-01-01

    The mulberry white caterpillar, Rondotia menciana Moore (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) is a species with closest relationship with Bombyx mori and Bombyx mandarina, and the genetic information of R. menciana is important for understanding the diversity of the Bombycidae. In this study, the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of R. menciana was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and sequenced. The mitogenome of R. menciana was determined to be 15,301 bp, including 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and an AT-rich region. The A+T content (78.87%) was lower than that observed for other Bombycidae insects. All PCGs were initiated by ATN codons and terminated with the canonical stop codons, except for coxII, which was terminated by a single T. All the tRNA genes displayed a typical clover-leaf structure of mitochondrial tRNA. The length of AT-rich region (360 bp) of R. menciana mitogenome is shorter than that of other Bombycidae species. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the R. menciana was clustered on one branch with B. mori and B. mandarina from Bombycidae. PMID:25888706

  15. Ionizing irradiation of adults of Angoumois grain moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) and Indianmeal moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) to prevent reproduction, and implications for a generic irradiation treatment for insects.

    PubMed

    Hallman, Guy J; Phillips, Thomas W

    2008-08-01

    Ionizing irradiation is used as a phytosanitary treatment against quarantine pests. A generic treatment of 400 Gy has been approved for commodities entering the United States against all insects except pupae and adults of Lepidoptera because some literature citations indicate that a few insects, namely, the Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), and the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), are not completely controlled at that dose. Radiotolerance in insects increases as the insects develop, so the minimum absorbed dose to prevent F1 egg hatch for these two species when irradiated as adults was examined. Also, because hypoxia is known to increase radiotolerance in insects, Angoumois grain moth radiotolerance was tested in a hypoxic atmosphere. A dose range of 336-388 Gy prevented F1 egg hatch from a total of 22,083 adult Indianmeal moths. Dose ranges of 443-505 and 590-674 Gy, respectively, prevented F1 egg hatch from a total of 15,264 and 13,677 adult Angoumois grain moths irradiated in ambient and hypoxic atmospheres. A generic dose of 600 Gy for all insects in ambient atmospheres might be efficacious, although many fresh commodities may not tolerate it when applied on a commercial scale. PMID:18767708

  16. Species richness and host associations of lepidoptera-attacking Tachinidae in the northeast Ecuadorian Andes.

    PubMed

    Stireman, John O; Greeney, Harold F; Dyer, Lee A

    2009-01-01

    Most of the unknown biological diversity of macro-organisms remaining to be discovered and described lies in the tropical regions of the world and consists primarily of insects. Those insects with parasitoid lifestyles constitute a significant portion of insect diversity, yet parasitoids are among the most poorly known of major insect guilds in the humid tropics. Here we describe and analyze the richness of one diverse taxon of parasitoids, flies in the family Tachinidae, reared from Lepidoptera as part of a biological survey of Lepidoptera and their parasitoids in one mid-elevation (2000 m) area in the northeast Ecuadorian Andes. One hundred fifty-seven separable tachinid "morpho-species" were reared from approximately 160 species of Lepidoptera in 16 families. These tachinid flies were recovered from a sample of over 12,800 successful caterpillar rearing events that resulted in either adult Lepidoptera or parasitoids. Tachinid species accumulation and rarefaction curves exhibit no sign of reaching an asymptote and richness estimators indicate that the community likely consists of nearly twice this number of species (at minimum). Most tachinid species were reared infrequently, with 50% being represented by a single individual. The majority of species appeared to be relatively specialized on one or a few related hosts, but sampling was insufficient to make strong inferences regarding host range. The tribes Blondeliini and Goniini were the best represented, but some tribes that were expected to be common such as Tachinini and Winthemiini were poorly represented. The estimates of tachinid species richness derived here are suggestive of a far more diverse tachinid community than in temperate localities in North America. Additional rearing of Lepidoptera, as well as other herbivorous insect taxa, along with the use of additional collecting methods will be necessary to achieve a more accurate understanding of the richness of tropical Tachinidae and their contribution to

  17. Species Richness and Host Associations of Lepidoptera-Attacking Tachinidae in the Northeast Ecuadorian Andes

    PubMed Central

    Stireman, John O.; Greeney, Harold F.; Dyer, Lee A.

    2009-01-01

    Most of the unknown biological diversity of macro-organisms remaining to be discovered and described lies in the tropical regions of the world and consists primarily of insects. Those insects with parasitoid lifestyles constitute a significant portion of insect diversity, yet parasitoids are among the most poorly known of major insect guilds in the humid tropics. Here we describe and analyze the richness of one diverse taxon of parasitoids, flies in the family Tachinidae, reared from Lepidoptera as part of a biological survey of Lepidoptera and their parasitoids in one mid-elevation (2000 m) area in the northeast Ecuadorian Andes. One hundred fifty-seven separable tachinid “morpho-species” were reared from approximately 160 species of Lepidoptera in 16 families. These tachinid flies were recovered from a sample of over 12,800 successful caterpillar rearing events that resulted in either adult Lepidoptera or parasitoids. Tachinid species accumulation and rarefaction curves exhibit no sign of reaching an asymptote and richness estimators indicate that the community likely consists of nearly twice this number of species (at minimum). Most tachinid species were reared infrequently, with 50% being represented by a single individual. The majority of species appeared to be relatively specialized on one or a few related hosts, but sampling was insufficient to make strong inferences regarding host range. The tribes Blondeliini and Goniini were the best represented, but some tribes that were expected to be common such as Tachinini and Winthemiini were poorly represented. The estimates of tachinid species richness derived here are suggestive of a far more diverse tachinid community than in temperate localities in North America. Additional rearing of Lepidoptera, as well as other herbivorous insect taxa, along with the use of additional collecting methods will be necessary to achieve a more accurate understanding of the richness of tropical Tachinidae and their

  18. Population genetic structure, genetic diversity, and natural history of the South American species of Nothofagus subgenus Lophozonia (Nothofagaceae) inferred from nuclear microsatellite data

    PubMed Central

    Vergara, Rodrigo; Gitzendanner, Matthew A; Soltis, Douglas E; Soltis, Pamela S

    2014-01-01

    The effect of glaciation on the levels and patterns of genetic variation has been well studied in the Northern Hemisphere. However, although glaciation has undoubtedly shaped the genetic structure of plants in the Southern Hemisphere, fewer studies have characterized the effect, and almost none of them using microsatellites. Particularly, complex patterns of genetic structure might be expected in areas such as the Andes, where both latitudinal and altitudinal glacial advance and retreat have molded modern plant communities. We therefore studied the population genetics of three closely related, hybridizing species of Nothofagus (N. obliqua, N. alpina, and N. glauca, all of subgenus Lophozonia; Nothofagaceae) from Chile. To estimate population genetic parameters and infer the influence of the last ice age on the spatial and genetic distribution of these species, we examined and analyzed genetic variability at seven polymorphic microsatellite DNA loci in 640 individuals from 40 populations covering most of the ranges of these species in Chile. Populations showed no significant inbreeding and exhibited relatively high levels of genetic diversity (HE = 0.502–0.662) and slight, but significant, genetic structure (RST = 8.7–16.0%). However, in N. obliqua, the small amount of genetic structure was spatially organized into three well-defined latitudinal groups. Our data may also suggest some introgression of N. alpina genes into N. obliqua in the northern populations. These results allowed us to reconstruct the influence of the last ice age on the genetic structure of these species, suggesting several centers of genetic diversity for N. obliqua and N. alpina, in agreement with the multiple refugia hypothesis. PMID:25360279

  19. A new species of limestone karst inhabiting forest frog, genus Platymantis (Amphibia: Anura: Ceratobatrachidae: subgenus Lupacolus) from southern Luzon Island, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Brown, Rafe M; De Layola, Louise Abigail; Lorenzo, Antonio; Diesmos, Mae Lowe L; Diesmos, Arvin C

    2015-01-01

    We describe a new species of limestone karst dwelling forest frog of the genus Platymantis from the Quezon Protected Landscape in southeastern Luzon Island, Philippines. We assign Platymantis quezoni, sp. nov., to the diverse assemblage of terrestrial species in the Platymantis dorsalis Group, subgenus Lupacolus on the basis of its body size and proportions, only slightly expanded terminal discs of the fingers and toes, and its terrestrial microhabitat. The new species is distinguished from these and all other Philippine congeners by features of its external morphology, its restriction to a distinctive limestone karst microhabitat, and its advertisement call, which is unique among frogs of the family Ceratobatrachidae. Several distinguishing morphological characters include its moderate body size (22.1-33.9 mm SVL for 16 adult males and 32.4-39.7 mm SVL for five adult females), slightly expanded terminal discs of the fingers and toes, smooth skin with limited dermal tuberculation, and a dorsal color pattern of mottled tan to dark brown with black blotches. The new species is the sixth Philippine Platymantis known to occur exclusively on limestone karst substrates (previously known karst-obligate species include: P. bayani, P. biak, P. insulatus, P. paengi, and P. speleaus). Recently accelerated discovery of limestone karst anurans across the Philippines suggests that numerous additional species may await discovery on the hundreds of scattered karst formations throughout the archipelago. This possibility suggests that a major conservation priority in coming years will be to study, characterize, describe, and preserve the endemic species supported by this patchy, unique and imperiled type of forest ecosystem in the Philippines. PMID:26624745

  20. Two new species and a new subgenus of toothed Brachyhypopomus electric knifefishes (Gymnotiformes, Hypopomidae) from the central Amazon and considerations pertaining to the evolution of a monophasic electric organ discharge

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, John P.; Zuanon, Jansen; Cox Fernandes, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We describe two new, closely related species of toothed Brachyhypopomus (Hypopomidae: Gymnotiformes: Teleostei) from the central Amazon basin and create a new subgenus for them. Odontohypopomus, new subgenus of Brachyhypopomus, is diagnosed by (1) small teeth present on premaxillae; (2) medialmost two branchiostegal rays thin with blades oriented more vertically than remaining three rays; (3) background color in life (and to lesser extent in preservation) distinctly yellowish with head and sides peppered with small, widely spaced, very dark brown stellate chromatophores that greatly contrast with light background coloration; (4) a dark blotch or bar of subcutaneous pigment below the eye; (5) electric organ discharge waveform of very long duration (head-positive phase approx. 2 milliseconds or longer, head-negative phase shorter or absent) and slow pulse repetition rate (3–16 Hz). The type species of the new subgenus, Brachyhypopomus (Odontohypopomus) walteri sp. n., is diagnosed by the following additional character states: (1) subcutaneous dark pigment at base of orbit particularly prominent, (2) body semi-translucent and nearly bright yellow background coloration in life, (3) a biphasic electric organ discharge (EOD) waveform of very long duration (between 3.5 and 4 milliseconds at 25° C) with head-positive first phase significantly longer than second head-negative phase in both sexes. Brachyhypopomus (Odontohypopomus) bennetti sp. n. is diagnosed by two character states in addition to those used to diagnose the subgenus Odontohypopomus: (1) a deep electric organ, visible as large semi-transparent area, occupying approximately 14–17% body depth directly posterior to the abdominal cavity in combination with a short, but deep, caudal filament, and (2) a monophasic, head-positive EOD waveform, approximately 2.1 milliseconds in duration in both sexes. These are the only described rhamphichthyoid gymnotiforms with oral teeth, and Brachyhypopomus bennetti

  1. Eye-spots in Lepidoptera attract attention in humans

    PubMed Central

    Yorzinski, Jessica L.; Platt, Michael L.; Adams, Geoffrey K.

    2015-01-01

    Many prey species exhibit defensive traits to decrease their chances of predation. Conspicuous eye-spots, concentric rings of contrasting colours, are one type of defensive trait that some species exhibit to deter predators. We examined the function of eye-spots in Lepidoptera to determine whether they are effective at deterring predators because they resemble eyes (‘eye mimicry hypothesis’) or are highly salient (‘conspicuous signal hypothesis’). We recorded the gaze behaviour of men and women as they viewed natural images of butterflies and moths as well as images in which the eye-spots of these insects were modified. The eye-spots were modified by removing them, scrambling their colours, or replacing them with elliptical or triangular shapes that had either dark or light centres. Participants were generally more likely to look at, spend more time looking at and be faster to first fixate the eye-spots of butterflies and moths that were natural compared with ones that were modified, including the elliptical eye-spots with dark centres that most resembled eyes as well as the scrambled eye-spots that had the same contrast as the natural eye-spots. Participants were most likely to look at eye-spots that were numerous, had a large surface area and were located close to the insects' heads. Participants' pupils were larger when viewing eye-spots compared with the rest of the insects' body, suggesting a greater arousal when viewing eye-spots. Our results provide some support for the conspicuous signal hypothesis (and minimal support for the eye mimicry hypothesis) and suggest that eye-spots may be effective at deterring predators because they are highly conspicuous signals that draw attention. PMID:26543589

  2. Review of the Blastobasinae of Costa Rica (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea: Blastobasidae).

    PubMed

    Adamski, David

    2013-01-01

    The Blastobasinae (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea: Blastobasidae) of Costa Rica are reviewed. Five new genera, Barbaloba, Hallicis, Koleps, Pheos, and Pseudokoleps, and 101 new species are described. They include: Barbaloba jubae, B. meleagrisellae, Hallicis bisetosellus, H. calvicula, Koleps angulatus, Pheos aculeatus, Pseudokoleps akainae, Blastobasis abollae, B. achaea, B. aedes, B. babae, B. balucis, B. beo, B. caetrae, B. chanes, B. custodis, B. dapis, B. deae, B. deliciolarum, B. dicionis, B. echus, B. erae, B. fax, B. furtivus, B. iuanae, B. lex, B. litis, B. lygdi, B. manto, B. neniae, B. nivis, B. orithyia, B. paludis, B. phaedra, B. rotae, B. rotullae, B. tapetae, B. thyone, B. usurae, B. vesta, B. xiphiae, Hypatopa actes, H. acus, H. agnae, H. arxcis, H. bilobata, H. caedis, H. caepae, H. cladis, H. cotis, H. cotytto, H. crux, H. cyane, H. dicax, H. dolo, H. dux, H. edax, H. eos, H. erato, H. fio, H. gena, H. hecate, H. hera, H. hora, H. io, H. ira, H. leda, H. limae, H. lucina, H. joniella, H. juno, H. manus, H. mora, H. musa, H. nex, H. nox, H. phoebe, H. pica, H. plebis, H. rabio, H. rea, H. rego, H. rudis, H. sais, H. scobis, H. semela, H. solea, H. styga, H. texla, H. texo, H. umbra, H. verax, H. vitis, H. vox, Pigritia dido, P. faux, P. gruis, P. haha, P. sedis, P. stips, and P. ululae. Diagnoses, descriptions, and type data are provided for each species. Photographs of imagos, illustrations of wing venation for selected species, male and female genitalia, and distribution maps are furnished. Keys to all genera in Blastobasinae and keys to all species within each genus are provided to assist with identifications. In addition, scanning electron micrographs of the inner surface of the dilated first antennal flagellomere and associated sex scales for all Blastobasis are provided. Blastobasis coffeaella (Busck, 1925), B. graminea Adamski, 1999, Hypatopa tapadulcea Adamski, 1999, and Pigritia marjoriella Adamski, 1998 are redescribed. PMID:25136727

  3. Pathology and Epizootiology of Entomophaga maimaiga Infections in Forest Lepidoptera

    PubMed Central

    Hajek, Ann E.

    1999-01-01

    The insect-pathogenic fungal pathogen Entomophaga maimaiga is endemic to northeastern Asia and was first found in North America in 1989. Due to repeated epizootics and spread within populations of the major forest defoliator in northeastern North America, the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar), this pathogen has gained much notoriety. Although this pathogen was purposely introduced to North America for biological control of L. dispar in 1910 to 1911, it is questionable whether it became established at the time of release and then remained at innocuous levels until relatively recently. Alternatively, the fungal strain present in North America today could be a more recent accidental introduction. DNA analysis demonstrates that this pathogen differs significantly from North American members of the same species complex (the Lepidoptera-specific Entomophaga aulicae species complex), and, to date, isolates of this introduced pathogen display little heterogeneity in North America. Nonsusceptible lepidopteran larvae have been identified, and either E. maimaiga is unable to penetrate the cuticle or the fungus cannot survive within the hemocoel. In the latter case, although E. maimaiga grows as protoplasts lacking cell walls in the host hemolymph, glycoproteins on plasma membranes of the protoplasts could lead to host recognition. Epizootiological studies demonstrate a clear association between fungal activity and environmental moisture but little association with host density under hypothesized conditions of high fungal density. Prediction of the occurrence of epizootics is not yet possible. E. maimaiga is easily established in new areas by releasing azygospores, but the ability to use this pathogen further for biological control will depend, in large part, on the development of mass production systems. PMID:10585966

  4. Hymenopteran parasitoids of diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Ypeunomutidae) in northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Rowell, Brent; Bunsong, Nittayaporn; Satthaporn, Kosin; Phithamma, Sompian; Doungsa-Ard, Charnnarong

    2005-04-01

    Larvae of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Ypeunomutidae), cause severe economic damage to cabbage, Brassica oleracea L. variety capitata (Brassicaceae) and related vegetables in Thailand. Overuse of broad-spectrum insecticides for diamondback moth control is a serious problem and has obscured the contributions of indigenous parasitoids. Our objectives were to identify indigenous diamondback moth parasitoids in northern Thailand and to assess their potential for natural control. Six parasitoid species were reared from diamondback moth larvae and pupae collected in 1990 and in 2003-2004. These included the larval parasitoid Cotesia plutellae Kurdjumov (Braconidae), a larval-pupal parasitoid Macromalon orientale Kerrich (Ichneumonidae), and pupal parasitoids Diadromus collaris Gravenhorst (Ichneumonidae) and Brachymeria excarinata Gahan (Chalcididae). Single specimens of Isotima sp. Forster (Ichneumonidae) and Brachymeria lasus Walker (Chalcididae) also were reared from diamondback moth hosts. C. plutellae was the dominant larval parasitoid and was often reared from host larvae collected from fields sprayed regularly with insecticides; parasitism ranged from 14 to 78%. Average parasitism by M. orientale was only 0.5-6%. Parasitism of host pupae by D. collaris ranged from 9 to 31%, whereas B. excarinata pupal parasitism ranged from 9 to 25%. An integrated pest management (IPM) protocol using simple presence-absence sampling for lepidopterous larvae and the exclusive use of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) or neem resulted in the highest yields of undamaged cabbage compared with a control or weekly sprays of cypermethrin (local farmer practice). IPM programs focused on conservation of local diamondback moth parasitoids and on greater implementation of biological control will help alleviate growing public concerns regarding the effects of pesticides on vegetable growers and consumers. PMID:15889737

  5. Evaluating trap crops for diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Badenes-Perez, Francisco R; Shelton, Anthony M; Nault, Brian A

    2004-08-01

    Potential trap crops for the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), were evaluated through a series of ovipositional preference and larval survival experiments in outdoor screenhouses in 2002 and 2003. Hosts examined as trap crops were glossy and waxy collards, Brassica oleracea L. variety acephala; Indian mustard, Brassica juncea (L.) Czern; and yellow rocket, Barbarea vulgaris (R. Br.) variety arcuata. More eggs were laid on the potential trap crops, with the exception of waxy collards, than on cabbage. When P. xylostella was offered multiple hosts at the same time, numbers of eggs laid on glossy collards, Indian mustard, and yellow rocket were 3, 18, and 12 times greater than on cabbage, respectively. Similarly, when P. xylostella was offered a single trap crop host and cabbage, numbers of eggs laid on glossy collards, Indian mustard, and yellow rocket were 300, 19, and 110 times greater than on cabbage, respectively. Our studies suggest differences in oviposition between the potential trap crops and cabbage were likely due to host volatiles, leaf morphology and color, or a combination of these factors, rather than to total leaf areas, leaf shape, or plant architecture. Two-choice tests with a Y-tube olfactometer indicated that plant volatiles were major factors in P. xylostella host preference. The percentage larval survival from egg to pupation was 22.2% on cabbage, 18.9% on waxy collards, and 24.4% on Indian mustard, whereas survival was significantly lower on glossy collards (6.7%) and yellow rocket (0%). Based on our tests, it seems that yellow rocket may be the best candidate for use as a trap crop for P. xylostella because it is highly attractive for oviposition, but larvae do not survive on it. PMID:15384349

  6. Sex Pheromone of the Baldcypress Leafroller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Brian T; Allison, Jeremy D; Goyer, Richard A; Shepherd, William P

    2015-02-01

    The baldcypress leafroller, Archips goyerana Kruse (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a specialist on Taxodium distichum (L.) Richard and has caused serious defoliation in swamps of southeastern Louisiana, accelerating decline of baldcypress forests concurrently suffering from nutrient depletion, prolonged flooding, and saltwater intrusion. We investigated the composition of the sex pheromone of this species. Coupled gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) analyses indicated that male antennae were sensitive to four compounds [(Z)-11-tetradecenyl acetate (Z11-14:OAc), (E)-11-tetradecenyl acetate (E11-14:OAc), (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate (Z9-14:OAc), and (Z)-11-tetradecen-1-ol (Z11-14:OH)] present in female abdominal tip extracts in an approximately 100:1.5:0.6:10 ratio. In trapping trials performed in a cypress-tupelo swamp in southeastern Louisiana, moths were attracted to blends of these four components presented in approximately the female-produced ratios. Elimination of Z11-14:OH had no impact on moth response, whereas elimination of any of the three acetates strongly reduced or eliminated attraction. A blend in which the E11:Z11 ratio of 14:OAc was 5:100 was much less attractive than the same blend with the female produced ratio of 1.5:100. A. goyerana is closely related to the sympatric species Archips argyrospilus (Walker) with which it was previously synonymous. Our data revealed differences between the pheromone composition of A. goyerana and that reported for A. argyrospilus, which could account for the apparent absence of cross-attraction between these species. We conclude that a lure containing a 100:1.5:0.6 ratio of Z11-14:OAc, E11-14:OAc, and Z9-14:OAc has the potential to be used in traps to detect and measure A. goyerana populations and thereby monitor an important biotic factor contributing to the loss of coastal baldcypress forests. PMID:26470117

  7. A new pheromone race of Acrobasis nuxvorella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Harris, Marvin K; Fu, A A Agustin; Nunez, Humberto; Aranda-Herrera, Enrique; Moreira, Jardel A; McElfresh, J Steven; Millar, Jocelyn G

    2008-06-01

    The sex pheromone of the monophagous Acrobasis nuxvorella Neunzig (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) was reported as (9E,11Z)-hexadecadienal (9E,11Z-16:Ald) (Biorg. Med. Chem. 4: 331-339, 1996), and it has since been an effective integrated pest management (IPM) tool for monitoring this pest in the United States, but not in Mexico. Field and laboratory studies were conducted to confirm that the species in Mexico was indeed A. nuxvorella and to investigate the pheromone chemistry of the Mexican populations of this species. Initial field trials testing compounds structurally related to the known pheromone component, and blends thereof, indicated that a 100 microg:100 microg blend of (9E,11Z)-hexadecadien-1-yl acetate (9E,11Z-16:Ac):9E,11Z-16:Ald in rubber septa was effective in attracting male moths in Mexico. Coupled gas chromatography-electroantennogram analyses confirmed the presence of these compounds in extracts of pheromone glands of females, and antennae of male moths also responded to the alcohol analog (9E,11Z)-hexadecadien-1-ol (9E,11Z-16:OH). Subsequent field trials of various blends of these three compounds in Mexico showed that 1) both the acetate and aldehyde components were required for optimal attraction of male moths of the Mexican populations, and 2) addition of the alcohol suppressed attraction of males in a dose-dependent manner. Tests with the 1:1 9E,11Z-16:Ac:9E,11Z-16:Ald blend at various sites in the United States showed that this blend attracted some moths, but that moths attracted to 9E,11Z-16:Ald alone were predominant in the population. Furthermore, in preliminary studies the latter seemed not to respond to the blend. These findings indicate that there are two pheromone types of the pecan nut casebearer, and they have major implications for the direct use of these pheromones in pecan IPM. PMID:18613577

  8. Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Responses to Sorghum bicolor (Poales: Poaceae) Tissues From Lowered Lignin Lines.

    PubMed

    Dowd, Patrick F; Sattler, Scott E

    2015-01-01

    The presence of lignin within biomass impedes the production of liquid fuels. Plants with altered lignin content and composition are more amenable to lignocellulosic conversion to ethanol and other biofuels but may be more susceptible to insect damage where lignin is an important resistance factor. However, reduced lignin lines of switchgrasses still retained insect resistance in prior studies. Therefore, we hypothesized that sorghum lines with lowered lignin content will also retain insect resistance. Sorghum excised leaves and stalk pith Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench (Poales: Poaceae) from near isogenic brown midrib (bmr) 6 and 12 mutants lines, which have lowered lignin content and increased lignocellulosic ethanol conversion efficiency, were examined for insect resistance relative to wild-type (normal BTx623). Greenhouse and growth chamber grown plant tissues were fed to first-instar larvae of corn earworms, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and fall armyworms Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), two sorghum major pests. Younger bmr leaves had significantly greater feeding damage in some assays than wild-type leaves, but older bmr6 leaves generally had significantly less damage than wild-type leaves. Caterpillars feeding on the bmr6 leaves often weighed significantly less than those feeding on wild-type leaves, especially in the S. frugiperda assays. Larvae fed the pith from bmr stalks had significantly higher mortality compared with those larvae fed on wild-type pith, which suggested that bmr pith was more toxic. Thus, reducing lignin content or changing subunit composition of bioenergy grasses does not necessarily increase their susceptibility to insects and may result in increased resistance, which would contribute to sustainable production. PMID:25601946

  9. Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Responses to Sorghum bicolor (Poales: Poaceae) Tissues From Lowered Lignin Lines

    PubMed Central

    Dowd, Patrick F.; Sattler, Scott E.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of lignin within biomass impedes the production of liquid fuels. Plants with altered lignin content and composition are more amenable to lignocellulosic conversion to ethanol and other biofuels but may be more susceptible to insect damage where lignin is an important resistance factor. However, reduced lignin lines of switchgrasses still retained insect resistance in prior studies. Therefore, we hypothesized that sorghum lines with lowered lignin content will also retain insect resistance. Sorghum excised leaves and stalk pith Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench (Poales: Poaceae) from near isogenic brown midrib (bmr) 6 and 12 mutants lines, which have lowered lignin content and increased lignocellulosic ethanol conversion efficiency, were examined for insect resistance relative to wild-type (normal BTx623). Greenhouse and growth chamber grown plant tissues were fed to first-instar larvae of corn earworms, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and fall armyworms Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), two sorghum major pests. Younger bmr leaves had significantly greater feeding damage in some assays than wild-type leaves, but older bmr6 leaves generally had significantly less damage than wild-type leaves. Caterpillars feeding on the bmr6 leaves often weighed significantly less than those feeding on wild-type leaves, especially in the S. frugiperda assays. Larvae fed the pith from bmr stalks had significantly higher mortality compared with those larvae fed on wild-type pith, which suggested that bmr pith was more toxic. Thus, reducing lignin content or changing subunit composition of bioenergy grasses does not necessarily increase their susceptibility to insects and may result in increased resistance, which would contribute to sustainable production. PMID:25601946

  10. The Glanville fritillary genome retains an ancient karyotype and reveals selective chromosomal fusions in Lepidoptera

    PubMed Central

    Ahola, Virpi; Lehtonen, Rainer; Somervuo, Panu; Salmela, Leena; Koskinen, Patrik; Rastas, Pasi; Välimäki, Niko; Paulin, Lars; Kvist, Jouni; Wahlberg, Niklas; Tanskanen, Jaakko; Hornett, Emily A.; Ferguson, Laura C.; Luo, Shiqi; Cao, Zijuan; de Jong, Maaike A.; Duplouy, Anne; Smolander, Olli-Pekka; Vogel, Heiko; McCoy, Rajiv C.; Qian, Kui; Chong, Wong Swee; Zhang, Qin; Ahmad, Freed; Haukka, Jani K.; Joshi, Aruj; Salojärvi, Jarkko; Wheat, Christopher W.; Grosse-Wilde, Ewald; Hughes, Daniel; Katainen, Riku; Pitkänen, Esa; Ylinen, Johannes; Waterhouse, Robert M.; Turunen, Mikko; Vähärautio, Anna; Ojanen, Sami P.; Schulman, Alan H.; Taipale, Minna; Lawson, Daniel; Ukkonen, Esko; Mäkinen, Veli; Goldsmith, Marian R.; Holm, Liisa; Auvinen, Petri; Frilander, Mikko J.; Hanski, Ilkka

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that chromosome synteny in Lepidoptera has been well conserved, yet the number of haploid chromosomes varies widely from 5 to 223. Here we report the genome (393 Mb) of the Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia; Nymphalidae), a widely recognized model species in metapopulation biology and eco-evolutionary research, which has the putative ancestral karyotype of n=31. Using a phylogenetic analyses of Nymphalidae and of other Lepidoptera, combined with orthologue-level comparisons of chromosomes, we conclude that the ancestral lepidopteran karyotype has been n=31 for at least 140 My. We show that fusion chromosomes have retained the ancestral chromosome segments and very few rearrangements have occurred across the fusion sites. The same, shortest ancestral chromosomes have independently participated in fusion events in species with smaller karyotypes. The short chromosomes have higher rearrangement rate than long ones. These characteristics highlight distinctive features of the evolutionary dynamics of butterflies and moths. PMID:25189940

  11. Complete mitochondrial genome of the common cutworm Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Feng-Bo; Zhang, Hui-Xian; Shen, Wei-Feng; Xu, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Wei; Chen, Jin-E; He, Li-Hua; Meng, Zhi-Qi

    2015-01-01

    We determined the complete mitochondrial genome of the common cutworm Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), which is one of the most destructive polyphagous insect pests worldwide. The genome is 15,383 bp in length (GenBank accession number: KF701043) with an A+T content of 81.08%, and contains 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes (13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes and 22 tRNA genes) with the typical arrangement found in Lepidoptera. All the protein-coding genes (PCGs) start with ATN start codon except for cox1, which begins with CGA. Eight PCGs stop with complete termination codons (TAA or TAG), whereas five PCGs use incomplete stop codon T. The A+T-rich region is located between rrnS and trnM with a length of 326 bp and an A+T content of 93.87%, and harbors three tandem repeat elements. PMID:24409845

  12. The complete mitochondrial genomes of two ghost moths, Thitarodes renzhiensis and Thitarodes yunnanensis: the ancestral gene arrangement in Lepidoptera

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Lepidoptera encompasses more than 160,000 described species that have been classified into 45–48 superfamilies. The previously determined Lepidoptera mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) are limited to six superfamilies of the lineage Ditrysia. Compared with the ancestral insect gene order, these mitogenomes all contain a tRNA rearrangement. To gain new insights into Lepidoptera mitogenome evolution, we sequenced the mitogenomes of two ghost moths that belong to the non-ditrysian lineage Hepialoidea and conducted a comparative mitogenomic analysis across Lepidoptera. Results The mitogenomes of Thitarodes renzhiensis and T. yunnanensis are 16,173 bp and 15,816 bp long with an A + T content of 81.28 % and 82.34 %, respectively. Both mitogenomes include 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and the A + T-rich region. Different tandem repeats in the A + T-rich region mainly account for the size difference between the two mitogenomes. All the protein-coding genes start with typical mitochondrial initiation codons, except for cox1 (CGA) and nad1 (TTG) in both mitogenomes. The anticodon of trnS(AGN) in T. renzhiensis and T. yunnanensis is UCU instead of the mostly used GCU in other sequenced Lepidoptera mitogenomes. The 1,584-bp sequence from rrnS to nad2 was also determined for an unspecified ghost moth (Thitarodes sp.), which has no repetitive sequence in the A + T-rich region. All three Thitarodes species possess the ancestral gene order with trnI-trnQ-trnM located between the A + T-rich region and nad2, which is different from the gene order trnM-trnI-trnQ in all previously sequenced Lepidoptera species. The formerly identified conserved elements of Lepidoptera mitogenomes (i.e. the motif ‘ATAGA’ and poly-T stretch in the A + T-rich region and the long intergenic spacer upstream of nad2) are absent in the Thitarodes mitogenomes. Conclusion The mitogenomes of T. renzhiensis and T

  13. Phylogeographical, ecological and biological patterns shown by nuclear (ssrRNA and gGAPDH) and mitochondrial (Cyt b) genes of trypanosomes of the subgenus Schizotrypanum parasitic in Brazilian bats.

    PubMed

    Cavazzana, Manzelio; Marcili, Arlei; Lima, Luciana; da Silva, Flávia Maia; Junqueira, Angela C V; Veludo, Heloisa H; Viola, Laerte B; Campaner, Marta; Nunes, Vânia L B; Paiva, Fernando; Coura, José R; Camargo, Erney P; Teixeira, Marta M G

    2010-03-01

    The genetic diversity and phylogeographical patterns of Trypanosoma species that infect Brazilian bats were evaluated by examining 1043 bats from 63 species of seven families captured in Amazonia, the Pantanal, Cerrado and the Atlantic Forest biomes of Brazil. The prevalence of trypanosome-infected bats, as estimated by haemoculture, was 12.9%, resulting in 77 cultures of isolates, most morphologically identified as Trypanosoma cf. cruzi, classified by barcoding using partial sequences from ssrRNA gene into the subgenus Schizotrypanum and identified as T. cruzi (15), T. cruzi marinkellei (37) or T. cf. dionisii (25). Phylogenetic analyses using nuclear ssrRNA, glycosomal glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gGAPDH) and mitochondrial cytochrome b (Cyt b) gene sequences generated three clades, which clustered together forming the subgenus Schizotrypanum. In addition to vector association, bat trypanosomes were related by the evolutionary history, ecology and phylogeography of the bats. Trypanosoma cf. dionisii trypanosomes (32.4%) infected 12 species from four bat families captured in all biomes, from North to South Brazil, and clustered with T. dionisii from Europe despite being separated by some genetic distance. Trypanosoma cruzi marinkellei (49.3%) was restricted to phyllostomid bats from Amazonia to the Pantanal (North to Central). Trypanosoma cruzi (18.2%) was found mainly in vespertilionid and phyllostomid bats from the Pantanal/Cerrado and the Atlantic Forest (Central to Southeast), with a few isolates from Amazonia. PMID:19766649

  14. Uca (Petruca), a new subgenus for the rock fiddler crab Uca panamensis (Stimpson, 1859) from Central America, with comments on some species of the American broad-fronted subgenera.

    PubMed

    Shih, Hsi-Te; Ng, Peter K L; Christy, John H

    2015-01-01

    Among the fiddler crabs from the Americas, Uca panamensis (Stimpson, 1859) (Crustacea: Decapoda: Ocypodidae) is unusual in its behavior and ecology, living in stony habitats rather than sandy or muddy substrates. This species also has several unusual morphological characters of the carapace and major and minor chelae, and had been placed in either the subgenera Minuca Bott, 1954, or Leptuca Bott, 1973. The armature at the inner corner of the orbital floor, as well as the morphology of the urocardiac ossicles of the gastric mill of U. panamensis, are, however, plesiomorphic characters, and are closer to the condition in species belonging the subgenera Uca and Afruca. Phylogenetic relationships, based on mitochondrial 16S rDNA and cytochrome oxidase subunit I, and nuclear 28S rDNA, supported by its unusual morphological features indicate that this species belongs to its own subgenus. A new subgenus Uca (Petruca) subgen. nov. is herein established for U. panamensis. In addition, the status of Uca thayeri Rathbun, 1900, U. umbratila Crane, 1941, U. virens Salmon & Atsaides, 1968, and U. longisignalis Salmon & Atsaides, 1968, are revised and discussed based on a reappraisal of their phylogenetic relationships. PMID:26624453

  15. Two new and one newly recorded species of Gracillariidae from China (Lepidoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Haiyan; Xu, Jiasheng; Dai, Xiaohua

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The paper presents four Chinese species belonging to the genera Metriochroa Busck, Eumetriochroa Kumata, and Gibbovalva Kumata & Kuroko (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae), including two new species: Metriochroa alboannulata Bai, sp. n. and Gibbovalva clavata Bai, sp. n. Eumetriochroa hiranoi Kumata, 1998, is newly recorded from China. Photographs of adults and figures of the genital structures are provided, along with keys to the Chinese species of Metriochroa, Eumetriochroa, and Gibbovalva. PMID:27006609

  16. Lepidoptera and associated parasitoids attacking Hass and non-Hass avocados in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Hoddle, Mark S; Hoddle, Christina D

    2008-08-01

    A 5-mo survey for fruit feeding Lepidoptera attacking Hass and non-Hass avocados (Persea americana Miller [Lauraceae]) was conducted in Guatemala from 1 November 2006 to 1 April 2007. In total, 6,740 fruit were collected from 22 different areas in Guatemala. Eight species of Lepidoptera, of which at least two are species new to science, were reared from avocado fruit. Reared Lepidoptera were Amorbia santamaria Phillips and Powell, Cryptaspasma sp. nr. lugubris, Euxoa sorella Schaus, Histura n. sp., Holcocera n. sp., Micrathetis triplex Walker, Netechma pyrrhodelta (Meyrick), and Stenoma catenifer Walsingham. Hymenopteran parasitoids were reared from larvae of C. sp. nr. lugubris and S. catenifer. One species of parasitoid, Pseudophanerotoma sp., was reared from field collected C. sp. nr. lugubris larvae. The dominant parasitoid reared from S. catenifer was a gregarious Apanteles sp. Other parasitoid species reared from S. catenifer larvae were Brachycyrtus sp., Macrocentrus sp., and Pristomerus sp. The oviposition preference of C. sp. nr. lugubris for avocado fruit hanging in trees, dropped fruit on the ground, or exposed avocado seeds was investigated by studying the oviposition preferences of adult female moths and determining egg hatch times in the laboratory, and by investigating the longevity of avocado fruit on the ground under prevailing field conditions. Together, data from these studies suggested that C. sp. nr. lugubris may be an unrecognized pest of avocados that causes hanging fruit to drop to the ground prematurely. The influence of season and altitude on the phenology and distribution of avocado feeding Lepidoptera in Guatemala is discussed. PMID:18767741

  17. Identification and synthesis of some fatty acid derivatives from larvae of Chilecomadia valdiviana (Lepidoptera: Cossidae).

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Jan; Lopez, Katya; Buono-Core, Gonzalo

    2007-05-01

    Larvae of Chilecomadia valdiviana (Lepidoptera: Cossidae) were extracted and the extract was fractionated by chromatography on silica. As shown by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, the major fraction contained saturated and unsaturated straight-chain acetates, with (Z )-5,13-tetradecadienyl acetate and dodecyl acetate as the main components, while in a minor fraction the corresponding alcohols were detected. The identification of the compounds and the synthesis of some reference material are presented. PMID:17487622

  18. The "Taygetis ypthima species group" (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae): taxonomy, variation and description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Siewert, Ricardo Russo; Zacca, Thamara; Dias, Fernando Maia Silva; Freitas, André Victor Lucci; Mielke, Olaf Hermann Hendrik; Casagrande, Mirna Martins

    2013-01-01

    A new species of Taygetis Hübner, [1819] (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae) from southeastern Brazil is described: Taygetis drogoni sp. n. In addition, T. servius Weymer, 1910 and T. fulginia d'Almeida, 1922 are resurrected from synonymy and a taxonomic discussion on the species T. ypthima Hübner, [1821] and T. rectifascia Weymer, 1907 is provided. A dichotomous key for the species is also provided. PMID:24363572

  19. Recurrent Domestication by Lepidoptera of Genes from Their Parasites Mediated by Bracoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Gasmi, Laila; Boulain, Helene; Gauthier, Jeremy; Hua-Van, Aurelie; Musset, Karine; Jakubowska, Agata K.; Aury, Jean-Marc; Volkoff, Anne-Nathalie; Huguet, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Bracoviruses are symbiotic viruses associated with tens of thousands of species of parasitic wasps that develop within the body of lepidopteran hosts and that collectively parasitize caterpillars of virtually every lepidopteran species. Viral particles are produced in the wasp ovaries and injected into host larvae with the wasp eggs. Once in the host body, the viral DNA circles enclosed in the particles integrate into lepidopteran host cell DNA. Here we show that bracovirus DNA sequences have been inserted repeatedly into lepidopteran genomes, indicating this viral DNA can also enter germline cells. The original mode of Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT) unveiled here is based on the integrative properties of an endogenous virus that has evolved as a gene transfer agent within parasitic wasp genomes for ≈100 million years. Among the bracovirus genes thus transferred, a phylogenetic analysis indicated that those encoding C-type-lectins most likely originated from the wasp gene set, showing that a bracovirus-mediated gene flux exists between the 2 insect orders Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera. Furthermore, the acquisition of bracovirus sequences that can be expressed by Lepidoptera has resulted in the domestication of several genes that could result in adaptive advantages for the host. Indeed, functional analyses suggest that two of the acquired genes could have a protective role against a common pathogen in the field, baculovirus. From these results, we hypothesize that bracovirus-mediated HGT has played an important role in the evolutionary arms race between Lepidoptera and their pathogens. PMID:26379286

  20. The case for a generic phytosanitary irradiation dose of 250 Gy for Lepidoptera eggs and larvae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallman, Guy J.; Arthur, Valter; Blackburn, Carl M.; Parker, Andrew G.

    2013-08-01

    The literature on ionizing irradiation of Lepidoptera is critically examined for a dose that could serve as a generic phytosanitary treatment for all eggs and larvae of that order, which contains many quarantine pests that inhibit trade in fresh agricultural commodities. The measure of efficacy used in deriving this dose is the prevention of emergence of normal-looking adults that are assumed not able to fly. A dose of 250 Gy is supported by many studies comprising 34 species in 11 lepidopteran families, including those of significant quarantine importance. Two studies with two different species found that doses >250 Gy were necessary, but both of these are contradicted by other studies showing that <250 Gy is adequate. There is a lack of large-scale (>10,000 individuals) testing for families other than Tortricidae (the most important quarantine family in the Lepidoptera). Because several large-scale studies have been done with tortricids a dose of 250 Gy could be justifiable for Tortricidae if it is not acceptable for the entire Lepidoptera at this time.

  1. Recurrent Domestication by Lepidoptera of Genes from Their Parasites Mediated by Bracoviruses.

    PubMed

    Gasmi, Laila; Boulain, Helene; Gauthier, Jeremy; Hua-Van, Aurelie; Musset, Karine; Jakubowska, Agata K; Aury, Jean-Marc; Volkoff, Anne-Nathalie; Huguet, Elisabeth; Herrero, Salvador; Drezen, Jean-Michel

    2015-09-01

    Bracoviruses are symbiotic viruses associated with tens of thousands of species of parasitic wasps that develop within the body of lepidopteran hosts and that collectively parasitize caterpillars of virtually every lepidopteran species. Viral particles are produced in the wasp ovaries and injected into host larvae with the wasp eggs. Once in the host body, the viral DNA circles enclosed in the particles integrate into lepidopteran host cell DNA. Here we show that bracovirus DNA sequences have been inserted repeatedly into lepidopteran genomes, indicating this viral DNA can also enter germline cells. The original mode of Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT) unveiled here is based on the integrative properties of an endogenous virus that has evolved as a gene transfer agent within parasitic wasp genomes for ≈100 million years. Among the bracovirus genes thus transferred, a phylogenetic analysis indicated that those encoding C-type-lectins most likely originated from the wasp gene set, showing that a bracovirus-mediated gene flux exists between the 2 insect orders Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera. Furthermore, the acquisition of bracovirus sequences that can be expressed by Lepidoptera has resulted in the domestication of several genes that could result in adaptive advantages for the host. Indeed, functional analyses suggest that two of the acquired genes could have a protective role against a common pathogen in the field, baculovirus. From these results, we hypothesize that bracovirus-mediated HGT has played an important role in the evolutionary arms race between Lepidoptera and their pathogens. PMID:26379286

  2. Risk Assessment Studies: Detailed Host Range Testing of Wild-Type Cabbage Moth, Mamestra brassicae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Cathy J.; Hirst, Mark L.; Cory, Jenny S.; Entwistle, Philip F.

    1990-01-01

    The host range of a multiply enveloped nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV) (Baculoviridae) isolated from the cabbage moth, Mamestra brassicae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), was determined by challenging a wide range of insect species with high (106 polyhedral inclusion bodies) and low (103 polyhedral inclusion bodies) doses of the virus. The identity of the progeny virus was confirmed by dot blotting. Analysis of 50% lethal dose was carried out on selected species, and the progeny virus was identified by using restriction enzyme analysis and Southern blotting. Other than the Lepidoptera, none of the species tested was susceptible to M. brassicae NPV. Within the Lepidoptera, M. brassicae NPV was infective to members of four families (Noctuidae, Geometridae, Yponomeutidae, and Nymphalidae). Of 66 lepidopterous species tested, M. brassicae NPV was cross-infective to 32 of them; however, 91% of the susceptible species were in the Noctuidae. The relevance of host range data in risk assessment studies is discussed. Images PMID:16348279

  3. Alpha taxonomy of the genus Kessleria Nowicki, 1864, revisited in light of DNA-barcoding (Lepidoptera, Yponomeutidae)

    PubMed Central

    Huemer, Peter; Mutanen, Marko

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The taxonomy of Kessleria, a highly specialized montane genus of Yponomeutidae with larval host restriction to Saxifragaceae and Celastraceae (Saxifraga spp. – subgenus Kessleria; Saxifraga spp. and Parnassia spp. – subgenus Hofmannia), is revised based on external morphology, genitalia and DNA barcodes. An integrative taxonomic approach supports the existence of 29 species in Europe (the two known species from Asia and North America are not treated herein). A full 658 bp fragment of COI was obtained from 135 specimens representing 24 species, a further seven sequences are >560 bp. Five new species are described: Kessleria cottiensis sp. n. (Prov. Torino, Italy; Dep. Hautes Alpes, France), Kessleria dimorpha sp. n. (Dep. Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, France), Kessleria alpmaritimae sp. n. (Dep. Alpes-Maritimes, France), Kessleria apenninica sp. n. (Prov. Rieti, Prov. L´Aquila, Italy), and Kessleria orobiae sp. n. (Prov. Bergamo, Italy). PMID:26019672

  4. Did the genus Parandrocephalus Heller, 1916 (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Callichromatini) cross the Wallace line? The taxonomic status of Parandrocephalus blairi Bentanachs & Vives 2009 and a new subgenus of Hexamitodera Heller, 1896, with notes on convergent evolution and secondary sexual characters

    PubMed Central

    Perger, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The genera Parandrocephalus Heller, 1916 and Hexamitodera Heller, 1896 are reviewed and redescribed. Based on the combination of chromatic sexual dimorphism, velvety pubescence on the whole dorsal body and distinctly developed carina on the elytra, Parandrocephalus blairi Bentanachs & Vives, 2009 is transferred to Hexamitodera. A new subgenus, Sulcognatha Perger, is instituted to accommodate mandible, head and metasternal modifications in Hexamitodera blairi comb. n. that are lacking in the type species of Hexamitodera, Hexamitodera semivelutina. As indicated by fundamental structural differences in the mandibles of Parandrocephalus and Hexamitodera (Sulcognatha) blairi comb. n., the exaggerated secondary sexual traits and open procoxal cavities in both taxa are presumably the result of convergent evolution. Contrary to Bentanachs & Vives (2009), the presence of the two Parandrocephalus species in Sundaland and the endemism of Hexamitodera on Sulawesi agree well with the zoogeographical separation of both areas by the Wallace line. PMID:23794868

  5. Identification and initial characterization of the 3' end of gene transcripts encoding putative members of the pheromone receptor sub-family in Lepidoptera

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Semiochemicals, including pheromones and kairomones, used in pest management programs reduce the need for chemical insecticides, and understanding their interactions with their membrane receptor will help make them more effective in the field. Identification of odorant receptors in the Lepidoptera ...

  6. First report of an egg parasitoid reared from Neomusotima conspurcatalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) a biological control agent of Lygodium microphyllum (Schizaeales: Lygodiaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neomusotima conspurcatalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) was first released in Florida as a biological control agent of Lygodium microphyllum (Polypodiales: Lygodiaceae), Old World climbing fern, in 2008. The first egg parasitoid, a Trichogramma sp. (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), was reared from N. co...

  7. Comparative embryogenesis of Mecoptera and Lepidoptera with special reference to the abdominal prolegs.

    PubMed

    Kou, Li-Xuan; Hua, Bao-Zhen

    2016-05-01

    The eruciform larvae of holometabolous insects are primarily characterized by bearing a varying number of abdominal prolegs in addition to three pairs of thoracic legs. However, whether the prolegs are evolutionarily homologous among different insect orders is still a disputable issue. We examined the embryonic features and histological structure of the prolegs of the scorpionfly Panorpa byersi Hua and Huang (Mecoptera: Panorpidae) and the Oriental armyworm Mythimna separata (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to investigate whether the prolegs are homologous between these two holometabolous insect orders. In the scorpionfly, paired lateral process primordia arise on abdominal segments I-VIII (A1-A8) in line with the thoracic legs in early embryonic stages, but degenerate into triangular protuberances in later stages, and paired medial processes appear along the midventral line before dorsal closure and eventually develop into unjointed, cone-shaped prolegs. Histological observation showed that the lumina of the prolegs are not continuous with the hemocoel, differing distinctly from that of the basic appendicular plan of thoracic legs. These results suggest that the prolegs are likely secondary outgrowths in Mecoptera. In the armyworm, lateral process primordia appear on A1-A10 in alignment with the thoracic legs in the early embryonic stages, although only the rudiments on A3-A6 and A10 develop into segmented prolegs with the lumina continuous with the hemocoel and others degenerate eventually, suggesting that the prolegs are true segmental appendages serially homologous with the thoracic legs in Lepidoptera. Therefore, we conclude that the larval prolegs are likely not evolutionarily homologous between Mecoptera and Lepidoptera. J. Morphol. 277:585-593, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26891764

  8. Flavin-dependent monooxygenases as a detoxification mechanism in insects: new insights from the arctiids (lepidoptera).

    PubMed

    Sehlmeyer, Sven; Wang, Linzhu; Langel, Dorothee; Heckel, David G; Mohagheghi, Hoda; Petschenka, Georg; Ober, Dietrich

    2010-01-01

    Insects experience a wide array of chemical pressures from plant allelochemicals and pesticides and have developed several effective counterstrategies to cope with such toxins. Among these, cytochrome P450 monooxygenases are crucial in plant-insect interactions. Flavin-dependent monooxygenases (FMOs) seem not to play a central role in xenobiotic detoxification in insects, in contrast to mammals. However, the previously identified senecionine N-oxygenase of the arctiid moth Tyria jacobaeae (Lepidoptera) indicates that FMOs have been recruited during the adaptation of this insect to plants that accumulate toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Identification of related FMO-like sequences of various arctiids and other Lepidoptera and their combination with expressed sequence tag (EST) data and sequences emerging from the Bombyx mori genome project show that FMOs in Lepidoptera form a gene family with three members (FMO1 to FMO3). Phylogenetic analyses suggest that FMO3 is only distantly related to lepidopteran FMO1 and FMO2 that originated from a more recent gene duplication event. Within the FMO1 gene cluster, an additional gene duplication early in the arctiid lineage provided the basis for the evolution of the highly specific biochemical, physiological, and behavioral adaptations of these butterflies to pyrrolizidine-alkaloid-producing plants. The genes encoding pyrrolizidine-alkaloid-N-oxygenizing enzymes (PNOs) are transcribed in the fat body and the head of the larvae. An N-terminal signal peptide mediates the transport of the soluble proteins into the hemolymph where PNOs efficiently convert pro-toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids into their non-toxic N-oxide derivatives. Heterologous expression of a PNO of the generalist arctiid Grammia geneura produced an N-oxygenizing enzyme that shows noticeably expanded substrate specificity compared with the related enzyme of the specialist Tyria jacobaeae. The data about the evolution of FMOs within lepidopteran insects and the

  9. Cytological attributes of sperm bundles unique to F1 progeny of irradiated male lepidoptera: Relevance to sterile insect technique programs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The unique genetic phenomena responsible for inherited F1 sterility in Lepidoptera and some other arthropods also provide advantages for the use of inherited sterility instead of full sterility in a sterile insect technique (SIT) program. Lepidopteran females generally can be completely sterilized ...

  10. Influence of trap design on capture of female grape berry moth (lepidoptera: tortricidae) with a kairomone Lure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oil-coated clear panel traps baited with a host plant-based kairomone lure are effective in monitoring female grape berry moth (GBM), Paralobesia viteana (Clemens) (Lepidoptera:Tortricidae), but servicing these traps in a vineyard is cumbersome. In this study, we compared the performance of six diff...

  11. Ionizing radiation as a phytosanitary treatment against European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in ambient, low oxygen, and cold conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is a quarantine pest for several fresh commodities, including corn-on-the-cob, bell peppers, and green beans. Methyl bromide fumigation is the usual phytosanitary treatment, but the chemical is under increasing regulat...

  12. Host specificity and risk assessment of Trichogramma fuentesi (Hymenoptera:Trichogrammatidae), a potential biological agent of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a non-native moth attacking prickly pear cactus, Opuntia spp., in southeastern U.S. The insect is also an important threat to ecological systems and to native and endangered Opuntia spp. in southwestern USA. The egg parasitoid Trichogramma f...

  13. Revealing the elusive sex pheromone of the renowned cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae): A tribute to Robert Heath

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The South American cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg.) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), became famous as a biocontrol agent during campaigns in Australia and South Africa to control exotic weedy Opuntia spp. During these campaigns, monitoring the impact and success of the cactus moth did not requir...

  14. Transcriptome sequencing, and rapid development and application of SNP markers for the legume pod borer Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is an insect pest species that is destructive to crops grown by subsistence farmers in tropical regions of West Africa. We present the de novo assembly of 3729 contigs from 454- and Sanger-derived sequencing reads for midgut, salivary, ...

  15. Mobilizing the genome of Lepidoptera through novel sequence gains and end creation by non-autonomous Lep1 Helitrons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The integration of transposable elements within gene coding regions can affect expression levels and transcript splicing patterns. The repetitive element, Lep1, is comprised of a conserved 134 base pairs (bp) consensus core region among species of Lepidoptera, and was defined as a short intersperse...

  16. Performance improvement through quality evaluation of sterile Argentine cactus moths, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), mass-reared at two insectaries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A bi-national program was established by Mexico and the United States to mitigate the threat of Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), an invasive herbivore from South America, to native Opuntia spp. biodiversity and Opuntia-based industries. Mass-rearing, sterilization, and transpo...

  17. Field-level validation of a CLIMEX model for the Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) using estimated larval growth rates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A CLIMEX was developed for the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Model validation was attempted at the global scale by comparing worldwide distribution against known occurrence records, and at the field scale by comparing CLIMEX “growth indices” against field measur...

  18. Evaluation of whorl damage by fall armyworm (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) on field and greenhouse grown sweet sorghum plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fall armyworm [Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)] is an economically important pest of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L) Moench]. However, resistance to fall armyworm in sweet sorghum has not been extensively studied. A collection of primarily sweet sorghum accessions were evaluated in t...

  19. Spatial genetic variation among Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) sampled from the United States, Puerto Rico, Panama, and Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a migratory and polyphagous pest of both cultivated and uncultivated plant species in the Western Hemisphere. Understanding the genetic diversity and gene flow of this economically important pest can help to de...

  20. Performance improvement through quality evaluations of sterile cactus moths, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), mass-reared at two insectaries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A bi-national program was established by Mexico and the United States to mitigate the threat of Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), an invasive herbivore from South America, to native Opuntia spp. biodiversity and Opuntia-based industries. Mass-rearing, sterilization, and transpo...

  1. A large-scale, higher-level, molecular phylogenetic study of the insect order Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Higher-level relationships within the Lepidoptera, and particularly within the species-rich subclade Ditrysia, are generally not well understood, although recent studies have yielded progress. 483 taxa spanning 115 of 124 families were sampled for 19 protein-coding nuclear genes. Their aligned nucle...

  2. Preliminary list of the leaf-roller moths (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) of Virginia with comments on spatial and temporal distribution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Based on the examination of 3,457 pinned specimens, we document 263 species of leaf-roller moths (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) from the Commonwealth of Virginia. The vast majority of specimens examined are from five unrelated efforts: a survey of George Washington Memorial Parkway National Park, Fairfa...

  3. Resistance Among Cultivated Sunflower Germplasm to the Banded Sunflower Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in the Northern Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A five year field trial evaluated 71 oilseed sunflower, Helianthus annuus L., accessions, 32 breeding lines, and 25 interspecific crosses for resistance to infestation by naturally occurring populations of the banded sunflower moth, Cochylis hospes Walsingham (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in North Dak...

  4. Putative nicotinic acetylchloline receptor subunits express differentially through life cycle of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are the targets of neonicotinoids and spinosads, two insecticides used in orchards to effectively control codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.)(Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). The nAChRs mediate the fast actions of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in synaptic tr...

  5. Controlled atmosphere and temperature treatment system to disinfest fruit moth, Carposina sasakii (Lepidoptera:Carposinidae) on apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carposina sasakii Matsumura (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae) is a serious pest of apples and peaches in Korea and Japan. Due to its limited distribution, C. sasakii has been identified as a quarantine pest in several countries. The Controlled Atmosphere/Temperature Treatment System (CATTS) was tested as ...

  6. Using haplotypes to monitor the migration of fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) corn-strain populations from Texas and Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith; Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) or fall armyworm is an important agricultural pest of a number of crops in the western hemisphere. Two morphologically identical host strains of fall armyworm exist, the rice-strain and corn-strain, with the latter inflicting substantial eco...

  7. Using stable isotope analysis to examine the fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) host strains in a cotton habitat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith; Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) or fall armyworm is an important agricultural pest of a number of crops in the western hemisphere, including cotton. Two genetically distinct but morphologically identical strains (R-strain and C-strain) exist that differ physiologically and...

  8. Stress Responses of Small Heat Shock Protein Genes in Lepidoptera Point to Limited Conservation of Function across Phylogeny

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bo; Zheng, Jincheng; Peng, Yu; Liu, Xiaoxia; Hoffmann, Ary A.; Ma, Chun-Sen

    2015-01-01

    The small heat shock protein (sHsp) family is thought to play an important role in protein refolding and signal transduction, and thereby protect organisms from stress. However little is known about sHsp function and conservation across phylogenies. In the current study, we provide a comprehensive assessment of small Hsp genes and their stress responses in the oriental fruit moth (OFM), Grapholita molesta. Fourteen small heat shock proteins of OFM clustered with related Hsps in other Lepidoptera despite a high level of variability among them, and in contrast to the highly conserved Hsp11.1. The only known lepidopteran sHsp ortholog (Hsp21.3) was consistently unaffected under thermal stress in Lepidoptera where it has been characterized. However the phylogenetic position of the sHsps within the Lepidoptera was not associated with conservation of induction patterns under thermal extremes or diapause. These findings suggest that the sHsps have evolved rapidly to develop new functions within the Lepidoptera. PMID:26196395

  9. Mitochondrial DNA Variation and Range Expansion in Western Bean Cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): No Evidence for a Recent Population Bottleneck

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The western bean cutworm, Striacosta albicosta (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a pest of both corn and dry bean crops. At the beginning of the 21st century, the species began to extend its range out of the Great Plains, eastward through the Corn Belt. This rapid range expansion is remarkable bec...

  10. Dogwood Borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) Abundance and Seasonal Flight Activity in Apple Orchards, Urban Landscapes and Woodlands in Five Eastern States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The relative abundance and seasonal flight activity of dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula Harris (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) was measured using weekly records from traps baited with its sex pheromone and deployed in apple orchards, urban landscapes and native woodland sites in New York, West Virginia, V...

  11. Review of parasitic wasps and flies (Hymenoptera, Diptera) attacking Limacodidae (Lepidoptera) in North America, with a key to genera

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hymenopteran and dipteran parasitoids of slug caterpillars (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae) from North America are reviewed and an illustrated key to 17 genera is presented. Limacodid surveys and rearing were conducted by the Lill lab (JTL, SMM, TMS) during the summer months of 2004–2009 as part of their...

  12. Use of benzimidazole agar plates to assess fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) feeding on excised maize and sorghum leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is an economically significant pest of sorghum and maize. To screen sorghum and maize germplasm for resistance to fall armyworm feeding, field, greenhouse, or lab bioassays are often utilized individually or in combinatio...

  13. Effect of bait formulation and number of traps on detection of navel orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) oviposition using egg traps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Egg traps are the primary tool for monitoring egg deposition of the navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), and for timing treatments for this pest in almonds and pistachios. We compared, in almond and pistachio orchards, the number of eggs per trap in traps baited ...

  14. Physiological, nutritional and biochemical bases of corn resistance to foliage-feeding fall armyworm (Lepidoptera:noctuidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three corn (Zea mays) germplasm lines, Ab24E (susceptible control), Mp708 (resistant control), and a locally selected partial inbred line FAW7050 (resistant), were examined for Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) resistance. Nutritional [i.e., total protein, amino acids, gl...

  15. Influence of Prunus spp., peach cultivars and bark damage on oviposition choices by the lesser peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An examination of oviposition choices by the lesser peachtree borer, Synanthedon pictipes (Grote & Robinson) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) revealed that wounded peach, Prunus persica (L.) bark was attractive to females for oviposition. Females responded to bark that was injured mechanically (e.g., hammer...

  16. Egg hatch and survival and development of beet webworm (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) larvae at different combinations of temperature and relative humidity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To understand the role that temperature and humidity play in the population dynamics of the beet webworm, Loxostege sticticalis L. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), egg hatchability, survival of 1st - 5th instars, survival of the complete larval stage, survival curves, and larval development rates were inve...

  17. The case for a generic phytosanitary irradiation dose of 400 Gy for Lepidoptera that infest shipped commodities as pupae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A generic phytosanitary irradiation (PI) dose of 350 Gy is proposed for all Lepidoptera on all commodities. The measure of efficacy for this dose is prevention of egg hatch when late pupae are irradiated. Although the literature was thoroughly examined for relevant studies only those that could reas...

  18. Behavior of Over-wintering Filbertworm (Cydia latiferreana) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Larvae and Their Control with Steinernema carpocapsae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Filbertworm, Cydia latiferreana (Walsingham) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is a key insect pest associated with hazelnuts in North America. The effect of nematode rate, water volume, and orchard floor cover on nematode efficacy was determined in field trials in fall and spring (October 2007 and May 200...

  19. Within-tree distribution of Ecdytolopha torticornis (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) oviposition on macadamia nuts.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Metzler, H; Watt, A D; Cosens, D

    2001-06-01

    Vertical distribution of eggs of the macadamia nutborer Ecdytolopha torticornis Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and its preference of oviposition sites within and between macadamia cultivars were studied in Turrialba, Cartago, Costa Rica, in 1992 (N = 6,939). E. torticornis eggs were found throughout the foliar parts of the tree, but fewer eggs were laid in the crown top than in the mid or lower crown. Differences in the horizontal distribution of the eggs were not significant, albeit more eggs were found in the outer positions. The numbers of eggs found within the crowns of different clones were similar, implying that the nutborer has no preference for a particular cultivar. PMID:11935924

  20. Description of the female of Catocala toropovi Saldaitis et al. 2014 (Lepidoptera, Erebidae).

    PubMed

    Volynkin, Anton V; Saldaitis, Aidas; Chen, Liusheng

    2016-01-01

    Catocala toropovi Saldaitis, Kons & Borth, 2014 was recently described from the valleys of the Ili and Charyn rivers in southeast Kazakhstan. This species is similar to C. repudiata Staudinger, 1888 and C. optima Staudinger, 1888, but differs on morphological as well as genetic characters (Saldaitis et al. 2014). Catocala toropovi was described based on male specimens, as females were unknown at the time. During studies of Lepidoptera in Xinjiang Province, China, two females of C. toropovi were collected, and this paper provides a brief description and analysis of the female of this species. PMID:27470813

  1. Three new cecidogenous species of Palaeomystella Fletcher (Lepidoptera, Momphidae) from the Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest.

    PubMed

    Luz, Fernando A; Gonçalves, Gislene L; Moreira, Gilson R P; Becker, Vitor O

    2014-01-01

    Three new cecidogenous species of Palaeomystella Fletcher (Lepidoptera, Momphidae) from the Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest are described. Larvae of P. fernandesi Moreira & Becker, sp. n., P. rosaemariae Moreira & Becker, sp. n. and P. tavaresi Becker & Moreira, sp. n. induce galls, respectively, on Tibouchina sellowiana (Cham.) Cogn., T. asperior (Cham.) Cogn. and T. fissinervia (Schrank & Mart. ex DC.) Cogn. (Melastomataceae). Adults, immature stages and galls are illustrated, and data on life history and a preliminary analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequences, including related species, are also provided. PMID:25152676

  2. Edible Lepidoptera in Mexico: Geographic distribution, ethnicity, economic and nutritional importance for rural people

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we reported the butterflies and moths that are consumed in Mexico. We identified 67 species of Lepidoptera that are eaten principally in their larval stage in 17 states of Mexico. These species belong to 16 families: Arctiidae, Bombycidae, Castniidae, Cossidae, Geometridae, Hepialidae, Hesperiidae, Lasiocampidae, Noctuidae, Nymphalidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae, Pyralidae, Saturniidae, Sesiidae, and Sphingidae. Saturniidae, Pieridae, Noctuidae and Nymphalidae were the more species consumed with 16, 11, 9, and 8 species, respectively. The genera with the largest numbers of species were: Phassus, Phoebis, Hylesia and Spodoptera, with three species. Their local distribution, corresponding to each state of Mexico, is also presented. PMID:21211040

  3. Managing the forest for more than the trees: effects of experimental timber harvest on forest Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Summerville, Keith S

    2011-04-01

    Studies of the effects of timber harvest on forest insect communities have rarely considered how disturbance from a range of harvest levels interacts with temporal variation in species diversity to affect community resistance to change. Here I report the results of a landscape-scale, before-and-after, treatment-control experiment designed to test how communities of forest Lepidoptera experience (1) changes in species richness and composition and (2) shifts in species dominance one year after logging. I sampled Lepidoptera from 20 forest stands allocated to three harvest treatments (control, even-aged shelterwood or clearcuts, and uneven-aged group selection cuts) within three watersheds at Morgan-Monroe State Forest, Indiana, USA. Moths were sampled from all forest stands one year prior to harvest in 2007 and immediately post-harvest in 2009. Species composition was most significantly affected by temporal variation between years, although uneven-aged management also caused significant changes in lepidopteran community structure. Furthermore, species richness of Lepidoptera was higher in 2007 compared to 2009 across all watersheds and forest stands. The decrease in species richness between years, however, was much larger in even-aged and uneven-aged management units compared to the control. Furthermore, matrix stands within the even-aged management unit demonstrated the highest resistance to species loss within any management unit. Species dominance was highly resistant to effects of timber harvest, with pre- and post-harvest values for Simpson diversity nearly invariant. Counter to prediction, however, the suite of dominant taxa differed dramatically among the three management units post-harvest. My results suggest that temporal variation may have strong interactions with timber harvest, precipitating loss of nearly 50% species richness from managed stands regardless of harvest level. Even-aged management, however, appeared to leave the smallest "footprint" on moth

  4. Three new cecidogenous species of Palaeomystella Fletcher (Lepidoptera, Momphidae) from the Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest

    PubMed Central

    Luz, Fernando A.; Gonçalves, Gislene L.; Moreira, Gilson R. P.; Becker, Vitor O.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Three new cecidogenous species of Palaeomystella Fletcher (Lepidoptera, Momphidae) from the Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest are described. Larvae of P. fernandesi Moreira & Becker, sp. n., P. rosaemariae Moreira & Becker, sp. n. and P. tavaresi Becker & Moreira, sp. n. induce galls, respectively, on Tibouchina sellowiana (Cham.) Cogn., T. asperior (Cham.) Cogn. and T. fissinervia (Schrank & Mart. ex DC.) Cogn. (Melastomataceae). Adults, immature stages and galls are illustrated, and data on life history and a preliminary analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequences, including related species, are also provided. PMID:25152676

  5. Feeding stimulants for larvae of Graphium sarpedon nipponum (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) from Cinnamomum camphora.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Zhan, Zhi-Hui; Tebayashi, Shin-Ichi; Kim, Chul-Sa; Li, Jing

    2015-01-01

    The feeding response of larvae of the swallowtail butterfly, Graphium sarpedon nipponum (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae), is elicited by a methanolic extract from camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora) leaves. Based on bioassay-guided fractionation, three compounds, isolated from the methanolic extract of fresh leaves of the camphor tree, were revealed to be involved in a multi-component system of feeding stimulants. Structures of these feeding stimulants were identified as sucrose, 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid and quercetin 3-O-β-glucopyranoside by NMR and LC-MS. PMID:26181048

  6. Two new species of the genus Deltophora Janse, 1950 (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Houhun; Wang, Zhibo; Sattler, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Two Chinese species of the genus Deltophora Janse (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), both in obligate mutualism with the plant genus Phyllanthus L. (Phyllanthaceae), are newly described: Deltophora phyllanthicella Li et Sattler sp. n., from Hainan, a pollinator of its larval host Phyllanthus rheophyticus Gilbert et Li; Deltophora polliniferens Li et Sattler sp. n., from Guangdong, a pollinator of its larval host Phyllanthus cochinchinensis (Lour.) Spreng. The adults and the male and female genital structures of both species are described and illustrated. The presence of a fully developed 1st instar larva in the female abdomen of Deltophora phyllanthicella is recorded as the first such case in Gelechiidae. PMID:27395482

  7. Edible Lepidoptera in Mexico: Geographic distribution, ethnicity, economic and nutritional importance for rural people.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Elorduy, Julieta; Moreno, José M P; Vázquez, Adolfo I; Landero, Ivonne; Oliva-Rivera, Héctor; Camacho, Víctor H M

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we reported the butterflies and moths that are consumed in Mexico. We identified 67 species of Lepidoptera that are eaten principally in their larval stage in 17 states of Mexico. These species belong to 16 families: Arctiidae, Bombycidae, Castniidae, Cossidae, Geometridae, Hepialidae, Hesperiidae, Lasiocampidae, Noctuidae, Nymphalidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae, Pyralidae, Saturniidae, Sesiidae, and Sphingidae.Saturniidae, Pieridae, Noctuidae and Nymphalidae were the more species consumed with 16, 11, 9, and 8 species, respectively. The genera with the largest numbers of species were: Phassus, Phoebis, Hylesia and Spodoptera, with three species.Their local distribution, corresponding to each state of Mexico, is also presented. PMID:21211040

  8. Larval food plants of Australian Larentiinae (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) - a review of available data

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background In Australia, the subfamily Larentiinae (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) comprises over 45 genera with about 270 species described so far. However, life histories of the Australian larentiine moths have barely been studied. New information The current paper presents a list of larval food plants of 51 Australian larentiine species based on literature references, data from specimen labels and own observations. Some Australian habitats are shown. Possible relationships among the taxa based on food preference of the larvae are discussed. Additionally, a list of Australasian larentiine species from the genera occurring in Australia and their food plants is presented. PMID:27099558

  9. Lepidoptera Larvae as an Indicator of Multi-trophic Level Responses to Changing Seasonality in an Arctic Tundra Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, K. M.; Steltzer, H.; Boelman, N.; Weintraub, M. N.; Darrouzet-Nardi, A.; Wallenstein, M. D.; Sullivan, P.; Gough, L.; Rich, M.; Hendrix, C.; Kielland, K.; Philip, K.; Doak, P.; Ferris, C.; Sikes, D.

    2011-12-01

    Earlier snowmelt and warming temperatures in the Arctic will impact multiple trophic levels through the timing and availability of food resources. Lepidoptera are a vital link within the ecosystem; their roles include pollinator, parasitized host for other pollinating insects, and essential food source for migrating birds and their fledglings. Multiple environmental cues including temperature initiate plant growth, and in turn, trigger the emergence of Lepidoptera and the migrations of birds. If snowmelt is accelerated and temperature is increased, it is expected that the Lepidoptera larvae will respond to early plant growth by increasing their abundance within areas that have accelerated snowmelt and warmer conditions. In May of 2011 in a moist acidic tussock tundra system, we accelerated snowmelt by 15 days through the use of radiation-absorbing fabric and warmed air and soil temperatures using open-top chambers, individually and in combination. Every 1-2 days from May 27th to July 8th, 2 minute searches were performed for Lepidoptera larvae in all treatments; when an animal was found, their micro-habitat, surface temperature, behavior, food source, and time of day were noted. The length, body and head width were measured, and the animals were examined for braconid wasp and tachinid fly parasites. Lepidoptera larvae collected in pitfall traps from May 26th to July 7th were also examined and measured. Total density of parasitized larvae accounted for 54% of observed specimens and 50% of pitfall specimens, indicating that Lepidoptera larvae serve an integral role as a host for other pollinators. Total larvae density was highest within the accelerated snowmelt plots compared to the control plots; 66% of observed live specimens and 63% of pitfall specimens were found within the accelerated snowmelt plots. Ninety percent of the total observed animals were found within the open-top warming chambers. Peak density of animals occurred at Solar Noon between 14:00 -15

  10. Redescription of Thalassodes antithetica Herbulot, 1962, an endemic moth from Inner Seychelles (Lepidoptera: Geometridae: Geometrinae).

    PubMed

    Bolotov, Ivan N; Matyot, Pat; Bippus, Maik; Spitsyn, Vitaly M; Kolosova, Yulia S; Kondakov, Alexander V

    2016-01-01

    The Seychelles archipelago is characterized by an exceptionally high level of endemism in certain taxa, including at least 275 endemic species of Lepidoptera (Legrand 1966; Gerlach & Matyot 2006; De Prins & De Prins 2015). Despite the fact that endemics are the main objects of conservation efforts, information regarding endemic Seychelles Lepidoptera is very poor, because the majority of them are known from a single or a few specimens (Legrand 1966; Gerlach and Matyot 2006; Bolotov et al. 2014, 2015). The emerald moth specimens are lacking in extensive samples obtained by earlier collectors (Fletcher 1910; Scott 1910; Fryer 1912). Further, two emerald moth species in the genus Thalassodes Guenée, 1858 have been reported from Seychelles, i.e., the widespread T. quadraria Guenée, 1858 (Legrand 1966; Gerlach & Matyot 2006; De Prins & De Prins 2015) and the endemic T. antithetica Herbulot, 1962. The latter species is known from eight specimens, collected between 1959 and 1963 (Legrand 1966; Gerlach & Matyot 2006). Herbulot (1962) provided a very short description of this species without any illustration. The protologue consists of a description of some external characters, i.e., antennae, palpi and legs, as well as the pattern of markings, but the male and female genitalia are not described. As the main diagnostic features, Herbulot (1962) noted two specific characters in the male morphology, namely the hind tibia with a single pair of spurs and an exceptional development of the lateral processes (octavals) on the posterior margin of the eighth sternite. PMID:27470792

  11. Baseline Susceptibility of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) to the Novel Insecticide Spinetoram in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Weidi; Zhang, Jingming; Zhang, Pengjun; Lin, Wencai; Lin, Qingsheng; Li, Zhenyu; Hang, Fang; Zhang, Zhijun; Lu, Yaobin

    2015-04-01

    Spinetoram is a spinosyn, which is a unique class of natural insecticide. Because of its novel mode of action, spinetoram is more potent and faster acting than other insecticides, even the older spinosyn product, spinosad. On account of being efficient on insect order Lepidoptera, spinetoram provides a new alternative for control of Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), which are resistant to other chemicals. To determine the current situation of resistance of P. xylostella to spinetoram, the susceptibility of 16 P. xylostella populations from different regions of China or different time in addition to the population from laboratory was assessed using a leaf dip bioassay. The variation in spinetoram susceptibility among the 16 field populations was narrow, with median lethal concentrations (LC50 values) ranging from 0.131 to 1.001 mg/liter. Toxicity ratios (TRs) ranged from 1.5 to 7.6 and were 5.6 and 7.6 for populations SY-2 and FX-1, respectively, indicating some low level of tolerance in these populations. A discriminating concentration (a concentration that can detect the occurrence of resistance in a population) of 10 mg/liter, which was identified based on the pooled toxicological data, caused 100% mortality in all nine tested populations. The baseline susceptibility data reflect the natural variation of the P. xylostella populations to spinetoram rather than variation caused by previous exposure. PMID:26470185

  12. Complete mitochondrial genome of the grass moth Glyphodes quadrimaculalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    PubMed

    Park, Jeong Sun; Kim, Min Jee; Ahn, Seung-Joon; Kim, Iksoo

    2015-04-01

    Glyphodes quadrimaculalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) feed on a root tuber of Cynanchum wilfordii (Asclepiadaceae), which is one of the most famous traditional medicines in Korea. The genus Glyphodes includes ∼ 130 species distributed worldwide, so the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) would be helpful for bio-identification, biogeographic studies and multigene-based phylogeny. The 15,255 bp long G. quadrimaculalis genome comprises 37 typical genes and 1 large non-coding region, with the typical arrangement found in Lepidoptera. Of the 13 protein coding genes (PCGs), 12 begin with typical start codons found in insect mitochondrial PCGs, but the COI gene starts with atypical CGA. One of the noteworthy features of the genome includes the presence of a 51-bp long non-coding space sequence located between tRNA(Gln) and ND2 that reveals high-sequence homology (71.4%) to the neighboring ND2 gene, indicating the origin of the region by partial duplication of the ND2 gene. PMID:24021007

  13. Adaptation of indigenous larval parasitoids to Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in Italy.

    PubMed

    Ferracini, Chiara; Ingegno, Barbara Letizia; Navone, Paolo; Ferrari, Ester; Mosti, Marco; Tavella, Luciana; Alma, Alberto

    2012-08-01

    Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is a serious threat to tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) crops in South America. In Europe, after its first detection in Spain in 2006, it rapidly spread through the Mediterranean basin, reaching Italy 2 yr later. The aim of our work was to find indigenous effective biological control agents and to evaluate their potential role in the control of larval populations of T. absoluta in controlled conditions. Nine species of larval parasitoids emerged from field-collected tomato leaves infested by T. absoluta. The most abundant, Necremnus near artynes (Walker) and Necremnus near tidius (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), were tested in laboratory parasitism trials. Furthermore, because the species N. artynes and N. tidius are each reported in literature as an ectoparasitoid of Cosmopterix pulchrimella Chambers (Lepidoptera: Cosmopterigidae) on upright pellitory plants, olfactometer bioassays were performed to assess the response of our parasitoids to the odors of tomato and pellitory leaves infested by T absoluta and C. pulchrimella, respectively, compared with healthy ones. Both Necremnus species showed good adaptation to the invasive pest, and we observed a high larval mortality of T. absoluta because of host feeding and parasitism. Even olfactory responses highlighted a preference of both wasps for tomato plants infested by the exotic pest. These preliminary results demonstrated a high suitability of these indigenous natural enemies for controlling T. absoluta. Further investigations are needed to confirm their role as potential biological agents in commercial tomato plantations. PMID:22928311

  14. Complete mitochondrial genome of the larch hawk moth, Sphinx morio (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae).

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Jee; Choi, Sei-Woong; Kim, Iksoo

    2013-12-01

    The larch hawk moth, Sphinx morio, belongs to the lepidopteran family Sphingidae that has long been studied as a family of model insects in a diverse field. In this study, we describe the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequences of the species in terms of general genomic features and characteristic short repetitive sequences found in the A + T-rich region. The 15,299-bp-long genome consisted of a typical set of genes (13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 22 tRNA genes) and one major non-coding A + T-rich region, with the typical arrangement found in Lepidoptera. The 316-bp-long A + T-rich region located between srRNA and tRNA(Met) harbored the conserved sequence blocks that are typically found in lepidopteran insects. Additionally, the A + T-rich region of S. morio contained three characteristic repeat sequences that are rarely found in Lepidoptera: two identical 12-bp repeat, three identical 5-bp-long tandem repeat, and six nearly identical 5-6 bp long repeat sequences. PMID:23452242

  15. Evidence of Male Hair Pencil Pheromone in Choristoneura fumiferana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    PubMed Central

    Roscoe, Lucas E.; Silk, P.; Eveleigh, E. S.

    2016-01-01

    Male Lepidoptera often possess specialized scales, called hair pencils that emit volatiles that are critical to mating success. Spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Clemens) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), males will display hair pencils to females before attempting copulation. The importance of volatiles on these hair pencils is, however, not clear. We compared the proportion of successful copulations in unmanipulated mating pairs to pairs where males had their hair pencils either removed or chemically washed, and to pairs where females were antennectomized. Mean proportions of successful matings were significantly lower in pairs where hair pencils had been manipulated or where females had been antennectomized compared with unmanipulated mating pairs. There was no significant difference in mating success between treatments where hair pencils had been manipulated; however, mating success was significantly lower in hair pencil treatments than in antennectomized treatments. Mean copulation proportions in hair pencil/antennectomized treatments were also significantly less than in respective sham-operated treatments. Our results suggest that volatiles are associated with hair pencils, and they may be required for mating success in C. fumiferana. PMID:26945090

  16. Identification and localization of two sensory neuron membrane proteins from Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin; Liu, Yang; Walker, William B; Dong, Shuang-Lin; Wang, Gui-Rong

    2015-03-01

    Sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs), which are located on the dendritic membrane of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), are proposed to be associated with odor reception in insects. Recent studies have demonstrated that SNMP1 is essential for electrophysiological responses of OSNs to the sex pheromone, cis-vaccenyl acetate (cVA) in Drosophila melanogaster. To investigate the function of Lepidoptera SNMPs, we cloned two SNMP genes, SlituSNMP1 and SltiuSNMP2, from Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis showed that both genes bear the general characteristics of SNMPs, including six conserved cysteine residues and two transmembrane domains. Further expression profile experiments showed that SlituSNMP1 is mainly expressed in the antenna, while SlituSNMP2 is broadly expressed in various tissues. By in situ hybridization experiments, it was found that SlituSNMP1 expressing cells are surrounded by the SlituSNMP2 expressing cells in the pheromone sensitive sensilla, suggesting different functions of the two SNMPs in insect olfaction. PMID:24757100

  17. Records of larentiine moths (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) collected at the Station Linné in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The island of Öland, at the southeast of Sweden, has unique geological and environmental features. The Station Linné is a well-known Öland research station which provides facilities for effective studies and attracts researchers from all over the world. Moreover, the station remains a center for ecotourism due to extraordinary biodiversity of the area. The present paper is aimed to support popular science activities carried out on the island and to shed light on diverse geometrid moth fauna of the Station Linné. New information As an outcome of several research projects, including the Swedish Malaise Trap Project (SMTP) and the Swedish Taxonomy Initiative (STI) conducted at the Station Linné, a list of larentiine moths (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) collected on the territory of the station is presented. Images of moths from above and underside are shown. Of the totally 192 species registered for Sweden, 41 species (more than 21%) were collected in close proximity to the main building of the Station Linné. Malaise trap sampling of Lepidoptera is discussed. PMID:26929714

  18. The Application and Performance of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Markers for Population Genetic Analyses of Lepidoptera

    PubMed Central

    Coates, Brad Steven; Bayles, Darrell O.; Wanner, Kevin W.; Robertson, Hugh M.; Hellmich, Richard L.; Sappington, Thomas W.

    2011-01-01

    Microsatellite markers are difficult to apply within lepidopteran studies due to the lack of locus-specific PCR amplification and the high proportion of “null” alleles, such that erroneous estimations of population genetic parameters often result. Herein single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers are developed from Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) using next generation expressed sequence tag (EST) data. A total of 2742 SNPs were predicted within a reference assembly of 7414 EST contigs, and a subset of 763 were incorporated into 24 multiplex PCR reactions. To validate this pipeline, 5 European and North American sample sites were genotyped at 178 SNP loci, which indicated 84 (47.2%) were in Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium. Locus-by-locus FST, analysis of molecular variance, and STRUCTURE analyses indicate significant genetic differentiation may exist between European and North American O. nubilalis. The observed genetic diversity was significantly lower among European sites, which may result from genetic drift, natural selection, a genetic bottleneck, or ascertainment bias due to North American origin of EST sequence data. SNPs are an abundant source of mutation data for molecular genetic marker development in non-model species, with shared ancestral SNPs showing application within closely related species. These markers offer advantages over microsatellite markers for genetic and genomic analyses of Lepidoptera, but the source of mutation data may affect the estimation of population parameters and likely need to be considered in the interpretation of empirical data. PMID:22303334

  19. The complete mitochondrial genome of the bag-shelter moth Ochrogaster lunifer (Lepidoptera, Notodontidae)

    PubMed Central

    Salvato, Paola; Simonato, Mauro; Battisti, Andrea; Negrisolo, Enrico

    2008-01-01

    Background Knowledge of animal mitochondrial genomes is very important to understand their molecular evolution as well as for phylogenetic and population genetic studies. The Lepidoptera encompasses more than 160,000 described species and is one of the largest insect orders. To date only nine lepidopteran mitochondrial DNAs have been fully and two others partly sequenced. Furthermore the taxon sampling is very scant. Thus advance of lepidopteran mitogenomics deeply requires new genomes derived from a broad taxon sampling. In present work we describe the mitochondrial genome of the moth Ochrogaster lunifer. Results The mitochondrial genome of O. lunifer is a circular molecule 15593 bp long. It includes the entire set of 37 genes usually present in animal mitochondrial genomes. It contains also 7 intergenic spacers. The gene order of the newly sequenced genome is that typical for Lepidoptera and differs from the insect ancestral type for the placement of trnM. The 77.84% A+T content of its α strand is the lowest among known lepidopteran genomes. The mitochondrial genome of O. lunifer exhibits one of the most marked C-skew among available insect Pterygota genomes. The protein-coding genes have typical mitochondrial start codons except for cox1 that present an unusual CGA. The O. lunifer genome exhibits the less biased synonymous codon usage among lepidopterans. Comparative genomics analysis study identified atp6, cox1, cox2 as cox3, cob, nad1, nad2, nad4, and nad5 as potential markers for population genetics/phylogenetics studies. A peculiar feature of O. lunifer mitochondrial genome it that the intergenic spacers are mostly made by repetitive sequences. Conclusion The mitochondrial genome of O. lunifer is the first representative of superfamily Noctuoidea that account for about 40% of all described Lepidoptera. New genome shares many features with other known lepidopteran genomes. It differs however for its low A+T content and marked C-skew. Compared to other

  20. The “Taygetis ypthima species group” (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae): taxonomy, variation and description of a new species

    PubMed Central

    Siewert, Ricardo Russo; Zacca, Thamara; Dias, Fernando Maia Silva; Freitas, André Victor Lucci; Mielke, Olaf Hermann Hendrik; Casagrande, Mirna Martins

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Taygetis Hübner, [1819] (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae) from southeastern Brazil is described: Taygetis drogoni sp. n. In addition, T. servius Weymer, 1910 and T. fulginia d’Almeida, 1922 are resurrected from synonymy and a taxonomic discussion on the species T. ypthima Hübner, [1821] and T. rectifascia Weymer, 1907 is provided. A dichotomous key for the species is also provided. PMID:24363572

  1. Revisiting the evolutionary events in Allium subgenus Cyathophora (Amaryllidaceae): Insights into the effect of the Hengduan Mountains Region (HMR) uplift and Quaternary climatic fluctuations to the environmental changes in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

    PubMed

    Li, Min-Jie; Tan, Jin-Bo; Xie, Deng-Feng; Huang, De-Qing; Gao, Yun-Dong; He, Xing-Jin

    2016-01-01

    The respective roles that the Hengduan Mountains Region (HMR) uplift around 4-3 Ma and Quaternary climatic oscillations played in causing the environmental changes in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) remain unknown. Here, we reconstruct the evolutionary history of two varieties of Allium cyathophorum and A. spicatum of subgenus Cyathophora, restricted to the HMR and the western QTP, respectively. Forty-five populations were surveyed for chloroplast and nuclear sequence variation to evaluate phylogenetic relationships, dates of divergence and ancestral area/inflorescence reconstructions. In addition, analyses were conducted on discernable micromorphologies, cytotypes and seed size variation. Our results indicated that two varieties of A. cyathophorum are separate species, i.e. A. farreri and A. cyathophorum, and the initial split of Cyathophora was triggered by the HMR uplift around 4-3 Ma. Subsequently, A. spicatum originated through the strengthened aridification in the western QTP induced vicariance of the ancestral populations in the HMR during the early Pleistocene. A self-sustaining allotetraploid species from A. farreri and A. cyathophorum was established during an interglacial period of penultimate glaciation of the QTP. Seed size variation also supports these by the colonization-competition tradeoff among small and large seeds. Our findings appear to suggest that the HMR uplift could have strengthened the development of the Asian monsoon regimes in this region and aridification in the western QTP, while the Quaternary climatic oscillations spurred the allopatric species' range shifts and created new open microhabitat for the alloploid species. PMID:26458759

  2. The complete mitochondrial genome of Bombyx mori strain Baiyun (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huixian; Li, Fengbo; Zhu, Xinrong; Meng, Zhiqi

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Bombyx mori strain Baiyun (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) was determined in this study. The genome was 15,629 bp long with 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes and 1 non-coding A + T-rich region. Its gene content and order were identical to those of other lepidopteran mitochondrial genomes. All protein-coding genes (PCGs) were initiated by ATN codons except for the COI gene, which began with CGA codon. Eleven PCGs stopped with termination codon TAA, whereas the COI and COII genes ended with single T. All the tRNA genes showed typical secondary cloverleaf structures. The 496 bp AT-rich region contains several features common to other lepidopterans, such as the motif ATAGA followed by an 18-bp poly-T stretch and two microsatellite-like (TA)8 and (AT)9 elements preceded by the ATTTA motif. PMID:25211086

  3. The complete mitochondrial genome of Bombyx mori strain Huayu (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong-Liang; Zhou, Qi-Ming

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Bombyx mori strain Huayu (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) is determined in this study. The genome was 15,666 bp long, with 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes and 1 non-coding A + T-rich region. Its gene content and order were identical to those of other lepidopteran mitochondrial genomes. All protein-coding genes (PCGs) were initiated by ATN codons except for the COI gene, which began with uncertained codon. Eleven PCGs stopped with termination codon TAA, whereas the COI and COII genes ended with single T. All tRNAs have typical structures of insect mitochondrial tRNAs. The 494 bp AT-rich region contains several features common to other lepidopterans, such as the motif ATAGA followed by an 18 bp poly-T stretch and an 11 bp poly-A element upstream of transfer RNA M (trnM) gene. PMID:25431820

  4. Origin of Ecdysosteroid UDP-glycosyltransferases of Baculoviruses through Horizontal Gene Transfer from Lepidoptera

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Austin L.

    2014-01-01

    Baculoviruses infecting Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) encodes an enzyme known as ecdysosteroid UDP-glycosyltransferase (EGT), which inactivates insect host ecdysosteroid hormones, thereby preventing molt and pupation and permitting a build-up of the viral population within the host. Baculovirus EGT shows evidence of homology to insect UDP-glycosyltransferases, and a phylogenetic analysis supported the closest relative of baculovirus EGT are the UGT33 and UGT34 families of lepidopteran UDP-glycosyltransferases. The phylogenetic analysis thus supported that baculovirus EGT arose by horizontal gene transfer of a UDP-glycosyltransferase from a lepidopteran host, an event that occurred 70 million years ago at the earliest but possibly much more recently. Three amino acid replacements unique to baculovirus EGTs and conserved in all available baculovirus sequences were identified in the N-terminal region of the molecule. Because of their conservation, these amino acids are candidates for playing an important functional role in baculovirus EGT function. PMID:24834437

  5. Behaviorally plastic host-plant use by larval Lepidoptera in tri-trophic food webs.

    PubMed

    Singer, Michael S

    2016-04-01

    Plant-insect interactions research emphasizes adaptive plasticity of plants and carnivores, such as parasitoids, implying a relatively passive role of herbivores. Current work is addressing this deficit, with exciting studies of behavioral plasticity of larval Lepidoptera (caterpillars). Here I use select examples to illustrate the diversity of behaviorally plastic host-plant use by caterpillars, including anti-predator tactics, self-medication, and evasion of dynamic plant defenses, as proof of the agency of caterpillar behavior in plant-insect interactions. I emphasize the significance of adaptive behavioral plasticity of caterpillars in the context of tri-trophic interactions. Recent research on trait-mediated indirect interactions places adaptive behavioral plasticity of herbivores at the center of community and food web dynamics, with far-reaching consequences of issues such as community stability. PMID:27436647

  6. The complete mitochondrial genome of Bombyx mori strain Yu39 (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong-Liang; Zhao, Jin-Hui; Zhou, Qi-Ming

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Bombyx mori strain Yu39 (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) is a circular molecule of 15,652 bp in length, containing 37 typical mitochondrial genes: 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNAs, 2 ribosomal RNAs and a non-coding AT-rich region. Its gene order and arrangement are identical to the common type found in most insect mitogenomes. All PCGs start with a typical ATN codon, except for the cox1 gene, which begins with uncertained codon. All PCGs terminate in the common stop codon TAA, except for the cox1 and cox2, which use single T as their stop codons. The non-coding AT-rich region is 494-bp long, located between rrnS and trnM genes. It contains some structures of repeated motifs and microsatellite-like elements characteristic of the other lepidopterons. PMID:25676361

  7. Establishment and characterization of a new cell line of Chilo suppressalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralididae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Guangfu; Xu, Yipeng; Yu, Xiaoping

    2015-03-01

    A new cell line, designated as ZJBIQ-Chsu-I, was initiated from the fat body of larval Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralididae) in TNM-FH insect medium containing 15% fetal bovine serum. The polygonal cells (65.6%) were predominant among various cell types, and the diameter range was from 12.63 to 22.50 μm. The cell line showed a typical lepidopteran chromosome pattern ranging from 108 to 136 chromosomes in the majority of the cells. The population doubling time (PDT) of the cell line at the 15th passage was 62 h. This cell line was found to be susceptible to Spodoptera exigua nuclear polyhedrosis virus (SeNPV). By the DNA amplification fingerprinting polymerase chain reaction (DAF-PCR) technique, it was confirmed that cell line ZJBIQ-Chsu-I really originated from C. suppressalis. PMID:25381037

  8. Ecological and morphological characteristics of parasitoids in Phauda flammans (Lepidoptera, Zygaenidae).

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xia-Lin; Li, Jun; Su, Li; Liu, Jun-Yan; Meng, Ling-Yu; Lin, Min-Yi; Zhang, Jing; Lu, Wen

    2015-01-01

    Phauda flammans Walker (Lepidoptera, Zygaenidae) is one of the notorious defoliators on Ficus spp. trees. In order to avoid environmental pollution, potential biological control agents for P. flammans need to be investigated instead of chemical control. Four species of insect parasitoids were identified from P. flammans, including three hymenopteran species (i.e., Gotra octocinctus, Apanteles sp. and Eurytoma verticillata) and one dipteran species (i.e., Exorista yunnanica). Parasitoid ratios of G. octocinctus, Apanteles sp., Eu. verticillata and Ex. yunnanica were 7.2%, 4.2%, 1.6% and 0.9%. The four species were all larval endoparasitoids of P. flammans larvae. Time of cocoon (pupa) to adult, life span, major axis of cocoon and body length of females were all longer compared to males for G. octocinctus, Apanteles sp. and Ex. yunnanica. Based on the parasitoid ratios, the most abundant parasitoid species was G. octocinctus. PMID:26651181

  9. Evaluation of Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) neonate preferences for corn and weeds in corn.

    PubMed

    Tate, Colothdian D; Hellmich, Richard L; Lewis, Leslie C

    2006-12-01

    Choice tests were conducted to determine feeding preferences of European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), neonates for 15 species of plants. Percentage of neonates accepting (found on) each leaf disc after 24 h was measured using choice tests. Initially, nine species of plants were evaluated. The following year, 10 plant species were evaluated during O. nubilalis first generation and 11 species during the second generation. Pennsylvania smartweed, Polygonum pennsylvanicum (L.), had the highest percentage of neonates accepting leaf discs in both years. Other plants with high acceptance rates included swamp smartweed, Polygonum amphibium L.; velvetleaf, Abutilon theophrasti Medicus; cocklebur, Xanthium strumarium L.; and yellow foxtail, Setaria glauca (L.). Corn, Zea mays L., consistently had low percentages of neonates accepting leaf discs along with common waterhemp, Amaranthus rudis Sauer. Implications these results may have on O. nubilalis host plant selection in central Iowa's corn dominated landscape are considered. PMID:17195664

  10. Identification of the Female Sex Pheromone of the Leafroller Proeulia triquetra Obraztsov (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Bergmann, J; Reyes-Garcia, L; Ballesteros, C; Cuevas, Y; Flores, M F; Curkovic, T

    2016-08-01

    Proeulia triquetra Obraztsov (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is an occasional pest in fruit orchards in central-southern Chile. In order to develop species-specific lures for detection and monitoring of this species, we identified the female-produced sex pheromone. (Z)-11-Tetradecenyl acetate (Z11-14:OAc), (E)-9-dodecenyl acetate (E9-12:OAc), and (E)-11-Tetradecenyl acetate (E11-14:OAc) were identified as biologically active compounds present in female pheromone glands by solvent extraction of the gland and analysis of the extracts by gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In field tests, lures baited with synthetic Z11-14:OAc and E9-12:OAc in a 10:1 ratio were highly attractive to males of the species. PMID:26868654

  11. Effects of Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki on Malpighian tubule cells of Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Lepidoptera: Thaumetopoeidae) larvae.

    PubMed

    Ogutchu, Ayşe; Suludere, Zekiye; Uzunhisarcikli, Meltem; Kalender, Yusuf

    2005-01-01

    In this study effects of Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki (Btk) on Malpighian tubule cells of Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Lepidoptera: Thaumetopoeidae) larvae was investigated by electron microscopy. 3 mg/l Btk was given with food. After Btk administration, the Malpighian tubule cells were investigated and compared with a control group. 3 and 6 hrs after Btk administration swelling in Malpighian tubule cells was observed. Swelling of mitochondria and separation of their cristae was seen after 12 hrs. After 24 hrs dissolution of the basal cytoplasm, swelling and vacuolization of all mitochondria, partial dissolution of the nucleoplasm, and swelling and separation ofmicrovilli was documented. A membrane-body in the nucleus was seen after 48 hrs. The nucleoplasm was completely dissolved after 72 hrs and after 96 hrs large vacuoles appeared in the cytoplasm and shortening of microvilli was observed. PMID:16212102

  12. Assessment of insecticide resistance of Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Emilia-Romagna region.

    PubMed

    Civolani, Stefano; Boselli, Mauro; Butturini, Alda; Chicca, Milvia; Fano, Elisa Anna; Cassanelli, Stefano

    2014-06-01

    The European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is the key pest of vineyard, Vitis vinifera L. In Italy, failures in field chemical pest control have been recently reported. The susceptibility to insecticides indoxacarb, methoxyfenozide, and emamectin benzoate was then evaluated in a L. botrana population collected from a vineyard in Emilia-Romagna (northeastern Italy) where pest management programs achieved unsatisfactory results. The field trial showed that the indoxacarb efficacy toward L. botrana was very low in the two timings of application (7.9 and -1.5%) in comparison with untreated control, while the efficacy of methoxyfenozide (76.1%) and emamectin benzoate (88.8%) was high. The decreased efficacy of indoxacarb was also supported by the results of the laboratory bioassay on neonate L. botrana larvae, in which the resistance ratio was 72-fold in comparison with that of the susceptible strain. PMID:25026689

  13. Eremonidiopsis aggregata, gen. n., sp. n. from Cuba, the third West Indian Dioptinae (Lepidoptera, Notodontidae)

    PubMed Central

    Aguila, Rayner Núñez

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new genus and species of Dioptinae (Lepidoptera, Noctuoidea, Notodontidae) is described from Cuba, this being the third taxon of the subfamily known from the West Indies. Eremonidiopsis aggregata, gen. n., sp. n., appears to be closely related to Eremonidia mirifica Rawlins & Miller from Hispaniola among members of the tribe Dioptini. Eremonidiopsis aggregata is known from two localities in the middle and western portions of the northeastern Cuban mountain range, Nipe–Sagua–Baracoa. The species inhabits low elevations (300–400 m) covered by lowland rainforest and sclerophyll rainforest. The six known specimens, all males, were part of small swarms flying near the top of an unidentified tree during the day at both collecting sites. These localities are included within protected areas, the “Pico Cristal” National Park in the West and the “Alexander von Humbolt” National Park in the East. PMID:24146561

  14. Population genetic structure of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) from apple orchards in central Chile.

    PubMed

    Fuentes-Contreras, Eduardo; Espinoza, Juan L; Lavandero, Blas; Ramírez, Claudio C

    2008-02-01

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is the main pest of pome fruits worldwide. Despite its economic importance, little is known about the genetic structure and patterns of dispersal at the local and regional scale, which are important aspects for establishing a control strategy for this pest. An analysis of genetic variability using microsatellites was performed for 11 codling moth populations in the two major apple (Malus domestica Borkh) cropping regions in central Chile. Despite the geographical distances between some populations (approximately 185 km), there was low genetic differentiation among populations (F(ST) = 0.002176), with only slight isolation by distance. Only approximately 0.2% of the genetic variability was found among the populations. Geographically structured genetic variation was independent of apple orchard management (production or abandoned). These results suggest a high genetic exchange of codling moth between orchards, possibly mediated by human activities related to fruit production. PMID:18330135

  15. Parasitoid complex associated with the overwintering generation of Swammerdamia pyrella (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae) in Poland.

    PubMed

    Górska-Drabik, Edyta; Kot, Izabela; Golan, Katarzyna; Kmieć, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    The study was conducted on fruit trees where bands of corrugated cardboard were attached around the trunks of the trees, which were used to catch the larvae of overwintering generation of the rufous-tipped swammerdamia moth, Swammerdamia pyrella (Villers) (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae). Twenty-five species of parasitic Hymenoptera have been described from S. pyrella in Poland including the report in this article of seven species belonging to the family of Ichneumonidae (three species) and superfamily Chalcidoidea (four species). The parasitoids Gelis agilis F. (Ichneumonidae), Chrysocharis aquilegiae (Erdös) (Eulophidae), Catolaccus ater (Ratzeburg) (Pteromalidae), and Eupelmus urozonus (Dalman) (Eupelmidae) had not been reported from the host before. Triclistus pallipes Holmgren (Ichneumonidae), Dibrachys cavus Walker (Pteromalidae) had the greatest effect on the natural regulation of S. pyrella population. Parasitization for the wintering cocoons of S. pyrella changed each year, but it was high throughout the study. The contribution of secondary parasitoids was much higher than primary parasitoids. PMID:25480977

  16. Ecological and morphological characteristics of parasitoids in Phauda flammans (Lepidoptera, Zygaenidae)

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xia-Lin; Li, Jun; Su, Li; Liu, Jun-Yan; Meng, Ling-Yu; Lin, Min-Yi; Zhang, Jing; Lu, Wen

    2015-01-01

    Phauda flammans Walker (Lepidoptera, Zygaenidae) is one of the notorious defoliators on Ficus spp. trees. In order to avoid environmental pollution, potential biological control agents for P. flammans need to be investigated instead of chemical control. Four species of insect parasitoids were identified from P. flammans, including three hymenopteran species (i.e., Gotra octocinctus, Apanteles sp. and Eurytoma verticillata) and one dipteran species (i.e., Exorista yunnanica). Parasitoid ratios of G. octocinctus, Apanteles sp., Eu. verticillata and Ex. yunnanica were 7.2%, 4.2%, 1.6% and 0.9%. The four species were all larval endoparasitoids of P. flammans larvae. Time of cocoon (pupa) to adult, life span, major axis of cocoon and body length of females were all longer compared to males for G. octocinctus, Apanteles sp. and Ex. yunnanica. Based on the parasitoid ratios, the most abundant parasitoid species was G. octocinctus. PMID:26651181

  17. Fate of Ingested Aristolactams from Aristolochia chilensis in Battus polydamas archidamas (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae).

    PubMed

    Urzúa, Alejandro; Olguín, Angel; Santander, Rocío

    2013-01-01

    We performed a sequestration study of aristolactams (ALs) from Aristolochia chilensis in Battus polydamas archidamas (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) by examining the AL content of the plant, fifth instar larvae, osmeterial secretion, pupae, exuviae and feces. Aristolactam-I (AL-I) and aristolactam-II (AL-II) present in A. chilensis are sequestered by fifth instar larvae of B. polydamas archidamas. There is a preferential sequestration of AL-II, or a more efficient metabolization and excretion of AL-I, by the larva. No ALs were found in the osmeterial secretion, pupae and exuviae; in addition, little AL-I and no AL-II were found in larval frass. The two lactams, particularly AL-I, are extensively metabolized to other products in the larva. A reasonable hypothesis is that the ingested ALs are oxidized to their respective aristolochic acids. PMID:26462522

  18. Allopatric distribution and diversification without niche shift in a bryophyte-feeding basal moth lineage (Lepidoptera: Micropterigidae).

    PubMed

    Imada, Yume; Kawakita, Atsushi; Kato, Makoto

    2011-10-22

    The Lepidoptera represent one of the most successful radiations of plant-feeding insects, which predominantly took place within angiosperms beginning in the Cretaceous period. Angiosperm colonization is thought to underlie the evolutionary success of the Lepidoptera because angiosperms provide an enormous range of niches for ecological speciation to take place. By contrast, the basal lepidopteran lineage, Micropterigidae, remained unassociated with angiosperms since Jurassic times but nevertheless achieved a modest diversity in the Japanese Archipelago. We explored the causes and processes of diversification of the Japanese micropterigid moths by performing molecular phylogenetic analysis and extensive ecological surveying. Phylogenetic analysis recovered a monophyletic group of approximately 25 East Asian endemic species that feed exclusively on the liverwort Conocephalum conicum, suggesting that niche shifts hardly played a role in their diversification. Consistent with the low flying ability of micropterigid moths, the distributions of the Conocephalum specialists are each localized and allopatric, indicating that speciation by geographical isolation has been the major process shaping the diversity of Japanese Micropterigidae. To our knowledge, this is the largest radiation of herbivorous insects that does not accompany any apparent niche differentiation. We suggest that the significance of non-ecological speciation during the diversification of the Lepidoptera is commonly underestimated. PMID:21367790

  19. Sexual Dimorphism and Allometric Effects Associated With the Wing Shape of Seven Moth Species of Sphingidae (Lepidoptera: Bombycoidea).

    PubMed

    de Camargo, Willian Rogers Ferreira; de Camargo, Nícholas Ferreira; Corrêa, Danilo do Carmo Vieira; de Camargo, Amabílio J Aires; Diniz, Ivone Rezende

    2015-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism is a pronounced pattern of intraspecific variation in Lepidoptera. However, moths of the family Sphingidae (Lepidoptera: Bombycoidea) are considered exceptions to this rule. We used geometric morphometric techniques to detect shape and size sexual dimorphism in the fore and hindwings of seven hawkmoth species. The shape variables produced were then subjected to a discriminant analysis. The allometric effects were measured with a simple regression between the canonical variables and the centroid size. We also used the normalized residuals to assess the nonallometric component of shape variation with a t-test. The deformations in wing shape between sexes per species were assessed with a regression between the nonreduced shape variables and the residuals. We found sexual dimorphism in both wings in all analyzed species, and that the allometric effects were responsible for much of the wing shape variation between the sexes. However, when we removed the size effects, we observed shape sexual dimorphism. It is very common for females to be larger than males in Lepidoptera, so it is expected that the shape of structures such as wings suffers deformations in order to preserve their function. However, sources of variation other than allometry could be a reflection of different reproductive flight behavior (long flights in search for sexual mates in males, and flight in search for host plants in females). PMID:26206895

  20. Sexual Dimorphism and Allometric Effects Associated With the Wing Shape of Seven Moth Species of Sphingidae (Lepidoptera: Bombycoidea)

    PubMed Central

    de Camargo, Nícholas Ferreira; Corrêa, Danilo do Carmo Vieira; de Camargo, Amabílio J. Aires; Diniz, Ivone Rezende

    2015-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism is a pronounced pattern of intraspecific variation in Lepidoptera. However, moths of the family Sphingidae (Lepidoptera: Bombycoidea) are considered exceptions to this rule. We used geometric morphometric techniques to detect shape and size sexual dimorphism in the fore and hindwings of seven hawkmoth species. The shape variables produced were then subjected to a discriminant analysis. The allometric effects were measured with a simple regression between the canonical variables and the centroid size. We also used the normalized residuals to assess the nonallometric component of shape variation with a t-test. The deformations in wing shape between sexes per species were assessed with a regression between the nonreduced shape variables and the residuals. We found sexual dimorphism in both wings in all analyzed species, and that the allometric effects were responsible for much of the wing shape variation between the sexes. However, when we removed the size effects, we observed shape sexual dimorphism. It is very common for females to be larger than males in Lepidoptera, so it is expected that the shape of structures such as wings suffers deformations in order to preserve their function. However, sources of variation other than allometry could be a reflection of different reproductive flight behavior (long flights in search for sexual mates in males, and flight in search for host plants in females). PMID:26206895

  1. Mitochondrial genome characterization of Tecia solanivora (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) and its phylogenetic relationship with other lepidopteran insects.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Ríos, Viviana; Franco-Sierra, Nicolás D; Alvarez, Javier Correa; Saldamando-Benjumea, Clara I; Villanueva-Mejía, Diego F

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitogenome of the potato tuber moth Tecia solanivora (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) was sequenced, annotated, characterized and compared with 140 species of the order Lepidoptera. The circular genome is 15,251bp, containing 37 genes (13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and an A+T-rich region). The gene arrangement was identical to other lepidopteran mitogenomes but different from the ancestral arrangement found in most insects for the tRNA-Met gene (A+T-region, tRNA-I, tRNA-Q, tRNA-M). The mitogenome of T. solanivora is highly A+T-biased (78.2%) and exhibits negative AT- and GC-skews. All PCGs are initiated by canonical ATN start codons, except for Cytochrome Oxidase subunit 1 (COI), which is initiated by CGA. Most PCGs have a complete typical stop codon (TAA). Only NAD1 has a TAG stop codon and the COII and NAD5 genes have an incomplete stop codon consisting of just a T. The A+T-rich region is 332bp long and contains common features found in lepidopteran mitogenomes, including the 'ATAGA' motif, a 17bp poly (T) stretch and a (AT)8 element preceded by the 'ATTTA' motif. Other tandem repeats like (TAA)4 and (TAT)7 were found, as well as (T)6 and (A)10 mononucleotide repeat elements. Finally, this mitogenome has 20 intergenic spacer regions. The phylogenetic relationship of T. solanivora with 28 other lepidopteran families (12 superfamilies) showed that taxonomic classification by morphological features coincides with the inferred phylogeny. Thus, the Gelechiidae family represents a monophyletic group, suggesting that T. solanivora and Pectinophora gossypiella have a recent common ancestor. PMID:26802972

  2. Efficacy of Silk Channel Injections with Insecticides for Management of Lepidoptera Pests of Sweet Corn.

    PubMed

    Sparks, A N; Gadal, L; Ni, X

    2015-08-01

    The primary Lepidoptera pests of sweet corn (Zea mays L. convar. saccharata) in Georgia are the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), and the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith). Management of these pests typically requires multiple insecticide applications from first silking until harvest, with commercial growers frequently spraying daily. This level of insecticide use presents problems for small growers, particularly for "pick-your-own" operations. Injection of oil into the corn ear silk channel 5-8 days after silking initiation has been used to suppress damage by these insects. Initial work with this technique in Georgia provided poor results. Subsequently, a series of experiments was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of silk channel injections as an application methodology for insecticides. A single application of synthetic insecticide, at greatly reduced per acre rates compared with common foliar applications, provided excellent control of Lepidoptera insects attacking the ear tip and suppressed damage by sap beetles (Nitidulidae). While this methodology is labor-intensive, it requires a single application of insecticide at reduced rates applied ∼2 wk prior to harvest, compared with potential daily applications at full rates up to the day of harvest with foliar insecticide applications. This methodology is not likely to eliminate the need for foliar applications because of other insect pests which do not enter through the silk channel or are not affected by the specific selective insecticide used in the silk channel injection, but would greatly reduce the number of applications required. This methodology may prove particularly useful for small acreage growers. PMID:26470329

  3. A revised checklist of Nepticulidae fossils (Lepidoptera) indicates an Early Cretaceous origin.

    PubMed

    Doorenweerd, Camiel; Nieukerken, Erik J Van; Sohn, Jae-Cheon; Labandeira, Conrad C

    2015-01-01

    With phylogenetic knowledge of Lepidoptera rapidly increasing, catalysed by increasingly powerful molecular techniques, the demand for fossil calibration points to estimate an evolutionary timeframe for the order is becoming an increasingly pressing issue. The family Nepticulidae is a species rich, basal branch within the phylogeny of the Lepidoptera, characterized by larval leaf-mining habits, and thereby represents a potentially important lineage whose evolutionary history can be established more thoroughly with the potential use of fossil calibration points. Using our experience with extant global Nepticulidae, we discuss a list of characters that may be used to assign fossil leaf mines to Nepticulidae, and suggest useful methods for classifying relevant fossil material. We present a checklist of 79 records of Nepticulidae representing adult and leaf-mine fossils mentioned in literature, often with multiple exemplars constituting a single record. We provide our interpretation of these fossils. Two species now are included in the collective generic name Stigmellites: Stigmellites resupinata (Krassilov, 2008) comb. nov. (from Ophiheliconoma) and Stigmellites almeidae (Martins-Neto, 1989) comb. nov. (from Nepticula). Eleven records are for the first time attributed to Nepticulidae. After discarding several dubious records, including one possibly placing the family at a latest Jurassic position, we conclude that the oldest fossils likely attributable to Nepticulidae are several exemplars representing a variety of species from the Dakota Formation (USA). The relevant strata containing these earliest fossils are now dated at 102 Ma (million years ago) in age, corresponding to the latest Albian Stage of the Early Cretaceous. Integration of all records in the checklist shows that a continuous presence of nepticulid-like leaf mines preserved as compression-impression fossils and by amber entombment of adults have a fossil record extending to the latest Early Cretaceous

  4. The type-material of Arctiinae (Lepidoptera, Erebidae) described by Burmeister and Berg in the collection of the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia (Buenos Aires, Argentina)

    PubMed Central

    Beccacece, Hernán M.; Vincent, Benoit; Navarro, Fernando R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Carlos G. Burmeister and Carlos Berg were among the most important and influential naturalists and zoologists in Argentina and South America and described 241 species and 34 genera of Lepidoptera. The Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia (MACN) housed some of the Lepidoptera type specimens of these authors. In this study we present a catalogue with complete information and photographs of 11 Burmeister type specimens and 10 Berg type specimens of Phaegopterina, Arctiina and Pericopina (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae, Arctiini) housed in the MACN. Lectotypes or holotypes were designated where primary type specimens could be recognized; in some cases we were not able to recognize types. The catalogue also proposes nomenclatural changes and new synonymies: Opharus picturata (Burmeister, 1878), comb. n.; Opharus brunnea Gaede, 1923: 7, syn. n.; Hypocrisias jonesi (Schaus, 1894), syn. n.; Leucanopsis infucata (Berg, 1882), stat. rev.; Paracles argentina (Berg, 1877), sp. rev.; Paracles uruguayensis (Berg, 1886), sp. rev. PMID:25061380

  5. Phylogeny and Historical Biogeography of Asian Pterourus Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae): A Case of Intercontinental Dispersal from North America to East Asia.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li-Wei; Yen, Shen-Horn; Lees, David C; Lu, Chih-Chien; Yang, Ping-Shih; Hsu, Yu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    The phylogenetic status of the well-known Asian butterflies often known as Agehana (a species group, often treated as a genus or a subgenus, within Papilio sensu lato) has long remained unresolved. Only two species are included, and one of them especially, Papilio maraho, is not only rare but near-threatened, being monophagous on its vulnerable hostplant, Sassafras randaiense (Lauraceae). Although the natural history and population conservation of "Agehana" has received much attention, the biogeographic origin of this group still remains enigmatic. To clarify these two questions, a total of 86 species representatives within Papilionidae were sampled, and four genes (concatenated length 3842 bp) were used to reconstruct their phylogenetic relationships and historical scenarios. Surprisingly, "Agehana" fell within the American Papilio subgenus Pterourus and not as previously suggested, phylogenetically close to the Asian Papilio subgenus Chilasa. We therefore formally synonymize Agehana with Pterourus. Dating and biogeographic analysis allow us to infer an intercontinental dispersal of an American ancestor of Asian Pterourus in the early Miocene, which was coincident with historical paleo-land bridge connections, resulting in the present "East Asia-America" disjunction distribution. We emphasize that species exchange between East Asia and America seems to be a quite frequent occurrence in butterflies during the Oligocene to Miocene climatic optima. PMID:26484776

  6. Phylogeny and Historical Biogeography of Asian Pterourus Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae): A Case of Intercontinental Dispersal from North America to East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Li-Wei; Lu, Chih-Chien; Yang, Ping-Shih; Hsu, Yu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    The phylogenetic status of the well-known Asian butterflies often known as Agehana (a species group, often treated as a genus or a subgenus, within Papilio sensu lato) has long remained unresolved. Only two species are included, and one of them especially, Papilio maraho, is not only rare but near-threatened, being monophagous on its vulnerable hostplant, Sassafras randaiense (Lauraceae). Although the natural history and population conservation of “Agehana” has received much attention, the biogeographic origin of this group still remains enigmatic. To clarify these two questions, a total of 86 species representatives within Papilionidae were sampled, and four genes (concatenated length 3842 bp) were used to reconstruct their phylogenetic relationships and historical scenarios. Surprisingly, “Agehana” fell within the American Papilio subgenus Pterourus and not as previously suggested, phylogenetically close to the Asian Papilio subgenus Chilasa. We therefore formally synonymize Agehana with Pterourus. Dating and biogeographic analysis allow us to infer an intercontinental dispersal of an American ancestor of Asian Pterourus in the early Miocene, which was coincident with historical paleo-land bridge connections, resulting in the present “East Asia-America” disjunction distribution. We emphasize that species exchange between East Asia and America seems to be a quite frequent occurrence in butterflies during the Oligocene to Miocene climatic optima. PMID:26484776

  7. Pheromone binding proteins of Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) are encoded at a single locus.

    PubMed

    Newcomb, R D; Sirey, T M; Rassam, M; Greenwood, D R

    2002-11-01

    The light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Tortricidae: Lepidoptera) uses a blend of (E)-11-tetradecenyl acetate and (E,E)-9,11-tetradecadienyl acetate as its sex pheromone. Odorant binding proteins, abundant in the antennae of male and female E. postvittana, were separated by native PAGE to reveal four major proteins with distinct mobilities. Microsequencing of their N-terminal residues showed that two were general odorant binding proteins (GOBPs) while two were pheromone binding proteins (PBPs). Full length cDNAs encoding these proteins were amplified using a combination of PCR and RACE-PCR. Sequence of the GOBPs revealed two genes (EposGOBP1, EposGOBP2), similar to orthologues in other species of Lepidoptera. Eleven cDNAs of the PBP gene were amplified, cloned and sequenced revealing two major phylogenetic clusters of PBP sequences differing by six amino acid substitutions. The position of the six amino acid differences on the protein was predicted by mapping onto the three-dimensional structure of PBP of Bombyx mori. All six substitutions were predicted to fall on the outside of the protein away from the inner pheromone binding pocket. One substitution does fall close to the putative dimerisation region of the protein (Ser63Thr). Expression of three of the cDNAs in a baculovirus expression system revealed that one class encodes an electrophoretically slow form (EposPBP1-12) while the other encodes a fast form (EposPBP1-2, EposPBP1-3). A native Western of these expressed proteins compared with antennal protein extracts demonstrated that PBP is also expressed in female antennae and that PBP may be present as a dimer as well as a monomer in E. postvittana. The fast and slow forms of EposPBP1 are allelic. Westerns on single antennal pair protein extracts and allele-specific PCR from genomic DNA both show a segregating pattern of inheritance in laboratory and wild populations. Radio labelled (E)-11-tetradecenyl acetate binds to both fast and slow PBP forms in

  8. Key biosynthetic gene subfamily recruited for pheromone production prior to the extensive radiation of Lepidoptera

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Moths have evolved highly successful mating systems, relying on species-specific mixtures of sex pheromone components for long-distance mate communication. Acyl-CoA desaturases are key enzymes in the biosynthesis of these compounds and to a large extent they account for the great diversity of pheromone structures in Lepidoptera. A novel desaturase gene subfamily that displays Δ11 catalytic activities has been highlighted to account for most of the unique pheromone signatures of the taxonomically advanced ditrysian species. To assess the mechanisms driving pheromone evolution, information is needed about the signalling machinery of primitive moths. The currant shoot borer, Lampronia capitella, is the sole reported primitive non-ditrysian moth known to use unsaturated fatty-acid derivatives as sex-pheromone. By combining biochemical and molecular approaches we elucidated the biosynthesis paths of its main pheromone component, the (Z,Z)-9,11-tetradecadien-1-ol and bring new insights into the time point of the recruitment of the key Δ11-desaturase gene subfamily in moth pheromone biosynthesis. Results The reconstructed evolutionary tree of desaturases evidenced two ditrysian-specific lineages (the Δ11 and Δ9 (18C>16C)) to have orthologs in the primitive moth L. capitella despite being absent in Diptera and other insect genomes. Four acyl-CoA desaturase cDNAs were isolated from the pheromone gland, three of which are related to Δ9-desaturases whereas the fourth cDNA clusters with Δ11-desaturases. We demonstrated that this transcript (Lca-KPVQ) exclusively accounts for both steps of desaturation involved in pheromone biosynthesis. This enzyme possesses a Z11-desaturase activity that allows transforming the palmitate precursor (C16:0) into (Z)-11-hexadecenoic acid and the (Z)-9-tetradecenoic acid into the conjugated intermediate (Z,Z)-9,11-tetradecadienoic acid. Conclusion The involvement of a single Z11-desaturase in pheromone biosynthesis of a non

  9. Geographical range and laboratory studies on Apanteles opuntiarum (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in Argentina, a candidate for biological control of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a pest that threatens native Opuntia spp. in North America. Control tactics developed and implemented against this invasive pest successfully eradicated the moth in Mexico and on barrier islands in the United States. However,...

  10. Effect of gossypol and gossypol related compounds on mulberry pyralid (diaphania pyloalis walker, lepidoptera: pyralidae), a pest of the Mulberry Tree

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gossypol, gossypurpurin and diaminogossypol were tested for inhibitory effects against feeding mulberry pyralid larvae (Diaphania pyloalis Walker, Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). The inclusion of very low concentrations of these compounds (10, 50 or 100 µmoles/g) in artificial diets increased the number of...

  11. A review of five species, and descriptions of three new species, in the genus Ogdoconta Butler (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Condicinae, Condicini) from North America north of Mexcio

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The species of the genus Ogdoconta Butler, 1891 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Condicinae, Condicini) from North America north of Mexico are reviewed, and a description of the genus is given. Ogdoconta satana Metzler, Knudson, & Poole, new species, is described from New Mexico and Texas, Ogdoconta rufipen...

  12. A new species of Lixophaga Townsend (Diptera: Tachinidae) from Colombia, a parasitoid of Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new species of Lixophaga Townsend (Diptera: Tachinidae) from Colombia, Lixophaga puscolulo Carrejo & Woodley, sp. nov., is described and illustrated. It is a parasitoid of the tomato fruit borer, Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), an insect pest of Solanum quitoense Lam....

  13. Influence of trap design on upwind flight behavior and capture of female grape berry moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidea) with a kairomone lure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oil-coated clear panel traps baited with a host plant-based kairomone lure are effective in monitoring female grape berry moth (GBM), Paralobesia viteana (Clemens) (Lepidoptera:Tortricidae), but servicing these traps in a vineyard is cumbersome. In this study, we compared the performance of differen...

  14. An Empirical Test of the F2 Screen for Detection of Bacillus thuringiensis-Resistance Alleles in Tobacco Budworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insects exposed to genetically-modified crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins are under intense selection pressure that could result in widespread Bt resistance. Screening for early indications of Bt resistance developing in targeted Lepidoptera is conducted in many of the regions wher...

  15. Phenology and egg production of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum(Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): comparison of field census data and life stage development in the field

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural phenology and development of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) was studied under field conditions in St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge, St. Marks, FL. from July 2006 to September 2007. Cactus pads (Opuntia stricta Haw. [Cactaceae]) were visually surveyed...

  16. F2 screen for resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2Ab2-maize in field populations of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from the southern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a target of transgenic maize and cotton expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins in both North and South America. In 2013 and 2014, a total of 215 F2 two-parent families of S. frugiperda were established usin...

  17. Disruption of the leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) in citrus: effect of blend and placement height, longevity of disruption and emission profile of a new dispenser

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent efforts to disrupt mating of the leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), a global pest of citrus, have focused on the use of SPLAT™ (ISCA Technologies), a flowable wax emulsion intended to serve as a slow-release matrix for pheromones. Early success with this...

  18. Comparison of reproductive and flight capacity of beet webworm, Loxostege sticticalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), developing from diapause and non-diapause larvae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The beet webworm, Loxostege sticticalis L (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), employs both diapause and migration as life history strategies. To determine the role diapause plays in the population dynamics of L. sticticalis, the reproductive and flight potentials of adults originating from diapause and non-d...

  19. Toward reconstructing the hyper-diverse radiation of ditrysian Lepidoptera (Insecta): initial evidence from 123 exemplars and 5 protein-coding nuclear genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the mega-diverse insect order Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths; 165,000 species total), 98% of the species fall in the clade Ditrysia, relationships within which are little understood. As the first step in a long-term study of ditrysian phylogeny, we tested the ability of maximum likelihood ana...

  20. The leafmining Leurocephala schinusae (Lepidoptera Gracillariidae): Not suitable for the biological control of Schinus terebinthifolius (Sapindales Anacardiaceae)in continental USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leurocephala schinusae Davis & Mc Kay (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) was studied to assess its suitability as a biological control agent of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae), a serious environmental weed in the USA and elsewhere in the world. The host range was determined by ...

  1. Acrapex azumai Sugi (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) as a possible biological control agent of the invasive weed Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv. (Poaceae) in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lepidopteran larvae were discovered boring in the basal stems of Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv. (Poaceae) in Itoshima city, Fukuoka Prefecture, Kyushu, Japan. Adults reared from these larvae were identified as Acrapex azumai Sugi (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Sequencing of the CO1 (cytochrome oxidase 1...

  2. Biological and ecological consequences of Diolcogaster sp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) parasitizing Agaraea minuta (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) and the effects on two Costus (Costaceae) plant species in Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Costus spicatus and Costus spiralis var. spiralis (Costaceae) are economically important plants due to their pharmacological and medicinal properties and ornamental value. These plants are natives from the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest and are fed upon by Agaraea minuta (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). Thi...

  3. Impact of planting dates on a seed maggot, Neotephritis finalis (Diptera: Tephritidae), and sunflower bud moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) damage in cultivated sunflower

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neotephritis finalis (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), and sunflower bud moth, Suleima helianthana (Riley) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) are major head-infesting insect pests of cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Planting date was evaluated as a cultural pest management strategy for control of N...

  4. The complete mitochondrial genome of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Sphingidae), and an examination of mitochondrial gene variability within butterflies and moths.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Stephen L; Whiting, Michael F

    2008-01-31

    The entire mitochondrial genome of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta (Lepidoptera: Spinghidae) was sequenced -- a circular molecular 15516 bp in size. The arrangement of the protein coding genes (PCGs) was the same as that found in the ancestral insect, however Manduca possessed the derived tRNA arrangement of CR-M-I-Q which has been found in all Lepidoptera sequenced to date. Additionally, Manduca, like all lepidopteran mt genomes, has numerous large intergenic spacer regions and microsatellite-like repeat regions. Nucleotide composition is highly A+T biased, and the lepidopterans have the second most biased nucleotide composition of the insect orders after Hymenoptera. Secondary structural features of the PCGs identified in other Lepidoptera were present but highly modified by the presence of microsatellite-like repeat regions which may significantly alter their function in the post-transcriptional modification of pre-mRNAs. Secondary structure models of the ribosomal RNA genes of Manduca are presented and are similar to those proposed for other insect orders. Conserved regions were identified within non-translated spacer regions which correspond to sites for the origin and termination of replication and transcription. Comparisons of gene variability across the order suggest that the mitochondrial genes most frequently used in phylogenetic analysis of the Lepidoptera, cox1 and cox2, are amongst the least variable genes in the genome and phylogenetic resolution could be improved by using alternative, higher variability genes such as nad2, nad3, nad4 and nad5. PMID:18065166

  5. Diet flight pattern and flight performance of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) measured on a flight mill: The influence of age, gender, mating status and body size

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is an invasive herbivore that poses a serious risk to the rich diversity of Opuntia cacti in North America. Knowledge of the flight behavior of the cactus moth is crucial for a better understanding of natural dispersal, and for both monitoring an...

  6. Field host range of Apanteles opuntiarum (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in Argentina, a potential biocontrol agent of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) was successfully used for biological control of Opuntia spp. (Cactaceae) in Australia and South Africa, where no native cacti occur. Since 1989, this South American moth has been invading the southeastern United States, threatening the unique ca...

  7. Improvement of the sterile insect technique for codling moth Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus)(Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) to facilitate expansion of field application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The codling moth Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is a key pest of most pome fruit (apple, pear and quince) and walnut orchards in the temperate regions of the world. Efforts to control the codling moth have in the past mostly relied on the use of broad spectrum insecticide spra...

  8. An overlooked sibling of the fruit-piercing moth Eudocima phalonia (Linnaeus, 1763) from Africa (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Calpinae).

    PubMed

    Brou, V A; Zilli, A

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, we have been investigating the tropical calpine genus Eudocima Billberg, 1920 (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Calpinae) with the intent of producing a generic revision. There are a number of undescribed species and here we describe as new a closely related species to the widespread and economically important fruit-piercer Eudocima phalonia (Linnaeus, 1763) (= fullonia Clerck, 1764), with which it has long been confused. Study material came from the private collection of Vernon Antoine Brou collection (VAB) and the Natural History Museum, London (NHM). PMID:27394873

  9. Ecology of the African Maize Stalk Borer, Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) with Special Reference to Insect-Plant Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Calatayud, Paul-André; Le Ru, Bruno P.; van den Berg, Johnnie; Schulthess, Fritz

    2014-01-01

    Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is an important pest of maize and sorghum in sub-Saharan Africa. One century after its first description by Fuller in 1901, inaccurate information based on earlier reports are still propagated on its distribution (e.g., absent from the lower altitudes in East Africa) and host plant range (e.g., feeding on a large range of wild grass species). This review provides updated information on the biology, distribution and genetics of B. fusca with emphasis on insect-plant interactions. Related to this, new avenues of stem borer management are proposed. PMID:26462824

  10. Parasitoids of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) collected on tomato plants in lavras, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marchiori, C H; Silva, C G; Lobo, A P

    2004-08-01

    The objective of this paper was to report on the occurrence of parasitoids of Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) on tomato plants, under greenhouse conditions, in Lavras County (21 degrees 14'43"S; 44 degrees 59'59"W), State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, from August 2001 to February 2002. Three groups of parasitoids were collected: 21 specimens of Bracon sp. (Braconidae), one specimen of Earinus sp. (Braconidae), and 13 specimens of Conura sp. (Chalcididae). The rate of parasitism for the three species was 4.2%, 0.2%, and 2.6%, respectively. This is the first reported occurrence of Earinus sp. parasitizing Tuta absoluta in Brazil. PMID:15622852

  11. Southern Andean Stigmella sinuosa complex (Lepidoptera, Nepticulidae): unraveling problematic taxonomy with a pictorial key of adults?

    PubMed

    Stonis, Jonas R; Remeikis, Andrius

    2016-01-01

    On the basis of morphological studies of a collection sample from the southern Andes of Argentina and Chile, we describe and name two new species of Stigmella Schrank (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae): S. sinuosa Remeikis & Stonis, sp. nov. and S. mevia Remeikis & Stonis, sp. nov. Other two new species are documented but left unnamed. All treated taxa belong to a newly designated S. sinuosa complex that belongs to the S. salicis group. The S. sinuosa complex contains cryptic species. We also discuss the differentiation of the species of the complex by using morphological characters. PMID:27395717

  12. Thaumetopoein: an urticating protein from the hairs and integument of the pine processionary caterpillar (Thaumetopoea pityocampa Schiff., Lepidoptera, Thaumetopoeidae).

    PubMed

    Lamy, M; Pastureaud, M H; Novak, F; Ducombs, G; Vincendeau, P; Maleville, J; Texier, L

    1986-01-01

    Hairs of the Thaumetopoea pityocampa caterpillar (Lepidoptera) cause a cutaneous reaction in man and animals. The irritating fraction extracted from hairs contains soluble proteins which were separated by various electrophoretic and immunoelectrophoretic techniques. Some of these proteins are present also in cuticle and haemolymph. One protein of 28,000 mol. wt is hair specific and caused a reaction in pig skin identical to that produced by hair extract. It is therefore an urticating protein which we have named thaumetopoein. This protein is formed of two subunits of molecular weights 13,000 and 15,000. It is present in large quantities in the glands producing urticating hairs. PMID:3087028

  13. The preimaginal stages of Pnigalio gyamiensis Myartseva & Kurashev, 1990 (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae), a parasitoid associated with Chrysoesthia sexguttella (Thunberg) (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae).

    PubMed

    Yegorenkova, Ekaterina; Yefremova, Zoya

    2012-01-01

    The larval instars of Pnigalio gyamiensis Myartseva and Kurashev are described in detail for the first time. This species is a larval-pupal ectoparasitoid of Chrysoesthia sexguttella (Thunberg) (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae), which forms leaf mines in the plant Chenopodium album L. (Caryophyllales: Amaranthaceae). The female of Pnigalio gyamiensis lays a single egg on the skin of the host larva or nearby it, without any significant preference for a particular variant. The presence of long hairs on its body provides the newly-hatched first larval instar with high mobility. Some peculiarities in this parasitoid-host relationship are described. PMID:22936867

  14. Host Selection, Growth, and Survival of Melonworm (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on Four Cucurbit Crops Under Laboratory Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Panthi, B. R.; Seal, D. R.; Capinera, J. L.; Nuessly, G. S.; Martin, C. G.

    2016-01-01

    The melonworm, Diaphania hyalinata L. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is one of the most serious insect problems affecting cucurbit production. We evaluated the relative preference and suitability of yellow squash, zucchini, cucumber, and watermelon to melonworm by measuring its oviposition, larval feeding preference, survivorship, and developmental responses in the laboratory. Whole plants were used for oviposition study, whereas host leaf discs were used for all the other studies. Watermelon feeding resulted in the longest larval development period (14.3 d), greatest prepupal weights and survivals rates (92%; first instar to adult) among the four crops. However, for watermelon, adult oviposition preference (199.5 eggs/♀), egg survival (70%), and larval feeding (4.1% defoliation) were numerically or statistically lowest, and larval head capsule widths and whole-body lengths were smallest. When differences occurred among these variables, yellow squash, zucchini, and cucumber were each typically higher (or quicker to develop) than watermelon. So why do melonworm adults not prefer watermelon, or at least select it as frequently as squash and cucumber when ovipositing? The answer likely is that there might be some variation in the important chemical components among these cucurbits. We suggest that comparison of kairomones and allomones from watermelon and related cucurbits would be very useful for determining the combination resulting in the lowest risk of damage to the more susceptible cucurbits (assuming the levels can be modified without seriously affecting the crops). PMID:27400704

  15. Host Selection, Growth, and Survival of Melonworm (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on Four Cucurbit Crops Under Laboratory Conditions.

    PubMed

    Panthi, B R; Seal, D R; Capinera, J L; Nuessly, G S; Martin, C G

    2016-08-01

    The melonworm, Diaphania hyalinata L. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is one of the most serious insect problems affecting cucurbit production. We evaluated the relative preference and suitability of yellow squash, zucchini, cucumber, and watermelon to melonworm by measuring its oviposition, larval feeding preference, survivorship, and developmental responses in the laboratory. Whole plants were used for oviposition study, whereas host leaf discs were used for all the other studies. Watermelon feeding resulted in the longest larval development period (14.3 d), greatest prepupal weights and survivals rates (92%; first instar to adult) among the four crops. However, for watermelon, adult oviposition preference (199.5 eggs/♀), egg survival (70%), and larval feeding (4.1% defoliation) were numerically or statistically lowest, and larval head capsule widths and whole-body lengths were smallest. When differences occurred among these variables, yellow squash, zucchini, and cucumber were each typically higher (or quicker to develop) than watermelon. So why do melonworm adults not prefer watermelon, or at least select it as frequently as squash and cucumber when ovipositing? The answer likely is that there might be some variation in the important chemical components among these cucurbits. We suggest that comparison of kairomones and allomones from watermelon and related cucurbits would be very useful for determining the combination resulting in the lowest risk of damage to the more susceptible cucurbits (assuming the levels can be modified without seriously affecting the crops). PMID:27400704

  16. Molecular Phylogeny of Grassland Caterpillars (Lepidoptera: Lymantriinae: Gynaephora) Endemic to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhao-Feng; Guo, Zhong-Long; Bao, Gen-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Gynaephora (Lepidoptera Erebidae: Lymantriinae) is a small genus, consisting of 15 nominated species, of which eight species are endemic to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). In this study, we employed both mitochondrial and nuclear loci to infer a molecular phylogeny for the eight QTP Gynaephora spp. We used the phylogeny to estimate divergence dates in a molecular dating analysis and to delimit species. This information allowed us to investigate associations between the diversification history of the eight QTP species and geological and climatic events. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the eight QTP species formed a monophyletic group with strong supports in both Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses. The low K2P genetic distances between the eight QTP species suggested that diversification occurred relatively quickly and recently. Out of the eight species, five species were highly supported as monophyletic, which were also recovered by species delimitation analyses. Samples of the remaining three species (G. aureata, G. rouergensis, and G. minora) mixed together, suggesting that further studies using extensive population sampling and comprehensive morphological approaches are necessary to clarify their species status. Divergence time estimation results demonstrated that the diversification and speciation of Gynaephora on the QTP began during the late Miocene/early Pliocene and was potentially affected by the QTP uplift and associated climate changes during this time. PMID:26053874

  17. Annual Migration of Agrotis segetum (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): Observed on a Small Isolated Island in Northern China

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jianglong; Fu, Xiaowei; Wu, Xiao; Zhao, Xincheng; Wu, Kongming

    2015-01-01

    Migration behavior of the turnip moth, Agrotis segetum (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is not well known by far. Here, we present the data from an 11-year study on A. segetum by means of searchlight trapping and ovarian dissection on Beihuang (BH) Island, which located in the center of the Bohai Strait in northern China. The data showed a large number of A. segetum flight across the strait each year, which provides direct evidence that A. segetum is a long-distance migrant, migrating at least 40 - 60 km to reach the trapping site. The migration period during 2003-2013 ranged from 115 to 172 d. Among the catches, the proportion of females was significantly higher than that of males in each month from May to September. Ovarian dissection showed that the proportion of mated females and the proportion of sexually mature females was significantly higher than that of unmated females and sexually immature females in early summer, respectively, but conversely in autumn. The early summer populations migrate in a south-north direction, which might undertake a long-distance flight on several successive nights. The autumn populations migrate in a north-south direction, which might originate not far from the trapping site. Based on these findings, the migratory physiology of A. segetum was discussed. PMID:26114576

  18. Digestive Physiology and Nutritional Responses of Autographa gamma (L.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Different Sugar Beet Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Naseri, Bahram; Golikhajeh, Neshat; Rahimi Namin, Foroogh

    2016-01-01

    Digestive enzymatic activity and nutritional responses of Autographa gamma (L.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), an important insect pest of sugar beet, on nine sugar beet cultivars (Peritra, Karolina, Paolita, Lenzier, Tiller, Ardabili, Persia, Rozier, and Dorothea) were studied. The highest proteolytic activity of fourth and fifth instar of A. gamma was in larvae fed on cultivar Persia. The highest amylolytic activity of fourth and fifth instar was observed in larvae fed on cultivars Rozier and Dorothea, respectively. The lowest proteolytic and amylolytic activities in fourth instar were observed on cultivar Tiller; whereas the lowest activities in fifth instar were detected on cultivars Karolina and Tiller, respectively. Larval weight in both larval instars (fourth and fifth) was the heaviest on cultivar Persia and the lightest on cultivar Karolina. Furthermore, weight gain of larvae was the highest on cultivar Persia and the lowest on cultivar Karolina. The results of this study suggest that cultivar Tiller was the most unsuitable host plant for feeding of A. gamma. PMID:27324581

  19. Supercooling Capacity and Cold Tolerance of the Wild Silkworm, Antheraea pernyi (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan-Qun; Zheng, Xi-Xi; Ma, Hong-Fang; Xia, Run-Xi; Li, Yu-Ping; Zhang, Qi-Rui

    2016-08-01

    While wild silkworms have served humans for several thousand years, little attention on cold hardiness has been paid to these economically important species. In the present study, supercooling capacity and low temperature tolerance of Chinese oak silkworm, Antheraea pernyi (Guérin-Méneville) (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae), an economic insect reared both for silk production as well as human food, were examined under laboratory conditions. The supercooling points (SCPs) of pupae dropped significantly from a mean of -15.6°C in prediapause to -20.1°C in diapause, and then increased to -17.5°C during postdiapause development. Sex and voltinism influenced body mass but had no significant effect on the SCP. Our data demonstrated that cold tolerance of A. pernyi is tightly linked to life stage. Exposure of eggs to -5°C for up to 8 h had no effect on the hatching rate, whereas silkworm larvae failed to break through the chorion and hatch following a 4-8-h exposure to -10°C. Mean SCPs of intact eggs and naked larvae one day before hatching were similar, -23.3°C and -22.3°C, respectively, indicating that chorion does not significantly affect SCP. Comparison of lower lethal temperature (LLT50) and SCP means suggested that both pupae and eggs of A. pernyi are chill intolerant. These data will improve our understanding of low temperature tolerance in this commercially important species. PMID:27371710

  20. Annual Migration of Cabbage Moth, Mamestra brassicae L. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), over the Sea in Northern China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiao; Fu, Xiaowei; Guo, Jianglong; Zhao, Xincheng; Wu, Kongming

    2015-01-01

    The cabbage moth, Mamestra brassicae L. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a serious pest of vegetable crops throughout the world. In order to determine whether or not M. brassicae is a migrant, and if yes, what is the pattern of M. brassicae seasonal migration, a long-term study on M. brassicae from April to October in 2003-2014 was carried out by means of a searchlight trap on a small island located in the center of the Bohai Strait. The results show that a large number of M. brassicae were trapped every year on the island, which indicates that M. brassicae is a migrant and migrated at least 40-60 km across the Bohai Strait. The mean migration period of M. brassicae over the sea within one year is 151 ± 8 d in 2003-2014, with the shortest time span 78 d in 2003 and the longest 189 d in 2014, respectively. The number of M. brassicae captured, however, varies considerably between months or years. The majority of captures were female, with different levels of ovarian development and mating status. Most of the females trapped in May-July during 2010-2014 had a high mating rate and advanced level of ovarian development, suggesting that the migration of this species does not conform to the hypothesis of 'oogenesis-flight syndrome'. The findings of the present study are beneficial to the development of forecasting systems and management strategies of M. brassicae. PMID:26176951

  1. The molecular and physiological impact of bisphenol A in Sesamia nonagrioides (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Kontogiannatos, Dimitris; Swevers, Luc; Zakasis, Giannis; Kourti, Anna

    2015-03-01

    In the present study we investigated the potential relative effects of bisphenol A (BPA) and RH-5992 (tebufenozide) on the development and metamorphosis of the corn stalk borer, Sesamia nonagrioides (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). A number of morphological and molecular factors were examined in order to identify the toxic and the endocrine-relative action of these two chemicals. We observed that BPA, RH-5992 and the combination of BPA/RH-5992 caused a developmental delay by extending the transition period between larval and pupal instars. These chemicals also reduced adult emergence and caused molting malformations during development and metamorphosis. In the corn stalk borer, BPA exhibits ecdysteroid activities in a fashion similar to that of the ecdysone agonist RH-5992. These results suggest that exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of BPA during the early stages of the corn borer's life cycle can result in various disorders that may be a consequence of endocrine disruption. The molecular mechanism by which BPA interferes with the physiological processes was also investigated. A significant induction was observed in the expression levels of the ecdysone-induced genes SnEcR and SnUSP, after injection of BPA and RH-5992. Additionally, we found that BPA acts as a very weak agonist of ecdysteroids in Bombyx mori derived Bm5 cell lines. From these cellular and molecular assays, our results brought evidence that BPA, like RH-5992, interferes with the ecdysteroidal pathways of the lepidopteran insect species. PMID:25492584

  2. Immunochemical quantitation, size distribution, and cross-reactivity of lepidoptera (moth) aeroallergens in southeastern Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Wynn, S.R.; Swanson, M.C.; Reed, C.E.; Penny, N.D.; Showers, W.B.; Smith, J.M.

    1988-07-01

    With an immunochemical method, we analyzed outdoor air samples during a 3-year period for concentrations of the predominant local species of moth, Pseudaletia unipuncta (Haworth). Airborne particulates were collected on fiberglass filter sheets with an Accu-Vol sampler located 1.5 m above ground on the southeastern Minnesota prairie. Filter eluates analyzed by RIA inhibition contained concentrations of moth protein peaking in June and August to September of each year, with levels comparable to reported immunochemically measured levels of pollen and mold allergens. These peaks also corresponded with total numbers of moths captured in light traps. Moth-allergen activity was distributed in particle sizes ranging from 0.8 to greater than 4.1 micron when sized samples were obtained by use of an Andersen cascade impaction head. By RIA inhibition, there was cross-reactivity between P. unipuncta and insects of different genera, families, and orders, but not with pollens or molds. Forty-five percent of 257 patients with immediate positive skin tests to common aeroallergens had positive skin tests to one or more commercially available whole body insect extracts. Of 120 patients with allergic rhinitis believed to be primarily caused by ragweed sensitivity, 5% also had elevated specific IgE to moths. We conclude that airborne concentrations of Lepidoptera can be measured immunochemically and that moths may be a seasonal allergen in the United States.

  3. Modeling the Habitat Retreat of the Rediscovered Endemic Hawaiian Moth Omiodes continuatalis Wallengren (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    PubMed Central

    Vorsino, Adam E.; King, Cynthia B.; Haines, William P.; Rubinoff, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Survey data over the last 100 years indicate that populations of the endemic Hawaiian leafroller moth, Omiodes continuatalis (Wallengren) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), have declined, and the species is extirpated from large portions of its original range. Declines have been attributed largely to the invasion of non-native parasitoid species into Hawaiian ecosystems. To quantify changes in O. continuatalis distribution, we applied the maximum entropy modeling approach using Maxent. The model referenced historical (1892–1967) and current (2004–2008) survey data, to create predictive habitat suitability maps which illustrate the probability of occurrence of O. continuatalis based on historical data as contrasted with recent survey results. Probability of occurrence is predicted based on the association of biotic (vegetation) and abiotic (proxy of precipitation, proxy of temperature, elevation) environmental factors with 141 recent and historic survey locations, 38 of which O. continuatalis were collected from. Models built from the historical and recent surveys suggest habitat suitable for O. continuatalis has changed significantly over time, decreasing both in quantity and quality. We reference these data to examine the potential effects of non-native parasitoids as a factor in changing habitat suitability and range contraction for O. continuatalis. Synthesis and applications: Our results suggest that the range of O. continuatalis, an endemic Hawaiian species of conservation concern, has shrunk as its environment has degraded. Although few range shifts have been previously demonstrated in insects, such contractions caused by pressure from introduced species may be important factors in insect extinctions. PMID:23300954

  4. Gene flow among Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) geographic and host populations in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Timm, A E; Geertsema, H; Warnich, L

    2006-04-01

    Information on gene flow among geographic and host populations of C. pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in South Africa is lacking, despite the importance of these measures for the success of control practices such as chemical control and sterile insect release, which are affected by the amount of gene flow among populations. Therefore, populations collected from nine geographically distant regions in South Africa from apples, pears, and stone fruit were compared using amplified fragment length polymorphism with five selective primer pairs. Results showed that although populations from different hosts were not genetically differentiated, significant evidence for population substructure was apparent between geographic populations. Over local scales, it was possible to distinguish between populations collected from orchards situated <1 km apart. These results suggest that although extensive gene flow occurs among populations from different hosts, gene flow among local geographic C. pomonella populations may be limited and is explained in terms of limited moth flight, the relative isolation of pome fruit production areas, and the absence of wild hosts. PMID:16686131

  5. Susceptibility of Choristoneura rosaceana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) to two new reduced-risk insecticides.

    PubMed

    Sial, Ashfaq A; Brunner, Jay F; Doerr, Michael D

    2010-02-01

    The response of field-collected populations of the obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), to chlorantraniliprole, spinetoram, spinosad, and azinphosmethyl was assessed using a diet incorporation bioassay. Populations of obliquebanded leafroller were collected from nine orchards in Chelan, Douglas, Grant, and Okanogan counties of Washington. The neonates of the F1 or F2 generation were used in all assays. The parameters of probit regression lines were estimated and lethal concentration ratios were calculated for all populations compared with a susceptible laboratory population. Significant variation was detected in response to all four insecticides including chlorantraniliprole and spinetoram, which had never been used in the field, lethal concentration ratios were 3.9-39.7 for azinphosmethyl, 0.5-3.6 for spinosad, 1.2-5.3 for chlorantraniliprole, and 0.5-4.1 for spinetoram. Correlation analysis indicated possibility of cross-resistance between spinosad and spinetoram, which are both members of spinosyn class. The occurrence of low but significant levels of resistance against chlorantraniliprole and spinetoram in field-collected populations of C. rosaceana before their first field application indicates that the risk of resistance evolution against these two new reduced-risk insecticides exists. However, it is likely that these low levels of resistance can be managed if the insecticides are used judiciously in conjunction with sound resistance management programs. Implications of these results for developing and implementing resistance management strategies are discussed. PMID:20214379

  6. Chemical composition and insecticidal activities of essential oils against diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae).

    PubMed

    Reddy, S G Eswara; Kirti Dolma, Shudh; Koundal, Rajkesh; Singh, Bikram

    2016-08-01

    Five Himalayan plants namely, Acorus calamus, Cedrus deodara, Aegle marmelos, Tagetes minuta and Murraya koenigii were used for the extraction of essential oils through hydrodistillation and the major volatile constituents as identified by GC and GC-MS techniques were β-asarone (91.1%), β-himachalene (45.8%), limonene (59.5%), Z-ocimene (37.9%) and α-pinene (54.2%), respectively. Essential oils were tested for their insecticidal properties against larvae of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae). Results showed that A. calamus was most toxic (LC50 = 0.29 mg mL(-1)) to P. xylostella followed by C. deodara (LC50 = 1.08 mg mL(-1)) and M. koenigii (LC50 = 1.93 mg mL(-1)) via residual toxicity bioassay. Per cent feeding deterrence index and growth inhibition was significantly higher in A. calamus (42.20 and 68.55, respectively) followed by C. deodara (35.41 and 52.47). In repellent activity studies, C. deodara showed high repellence (64.76%) followed by A. calamus (55.05%). PMID:26264423

  7. Suitability of Creeping Bentgrass and Bermudagrass Cultivars for Black Cutworms and Fall Armyworms (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Hong, Seung Cheon; Obear, Glen R; Liesch, Patrick J; Held, David W; Williamson, R Chris

    2015-08-01

    The black cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon Hufnagel, and fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), are common turfgrass pests of golf courses in the southeastern United States. Heat-tolerant bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) cultivars are expanding the range of bentgrass further south, but these cultivars have not been studied for their potential host plant resistance to black cutworm or fall armyworm. The goals of the study were to investigate feeding response of black cutworm and fall armyworm to these newer heat-tolerant creeping bentgrass cultivars, as well as commonly used cultivars of bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (Loppers.)]. Choice and no-choice feeding assays and fecundity tests were conducted in the laboratory and greenhouse to evaluate performance and preference of the two insects. When given a choice, neither black cutworm nor fall armyworm showed a preference for the majority of new cultivars tested. There were no differences in leaf area consumption or insect development for either pest in no-choice feeding assays. Black cutworm females preferred laying eggs in bentgrass compared with bermudagrass, but will oviposit onto bermudagrass, suggesting that both turf species are suitable hosts of this pest. The broad host ranges of generalist caterpillar pests of turfgrass hinder the application of host plant resistance in integrated pest management on golf courses. PMID:26470340

  8. Complete mitochondrial genome of the mulberry white caterpillar Rondotia menciana (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae).

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Jee; Jun, Jumin; Kim, Iksoo

    2016-01-01

    The mulberry white caterpillar, Rondotia menciana, belongs to the lepidopteran family Bombycidae, in which the domestic silkworm, Bombyx mori is included. In this study, we describe the complete mitochondrial genome of R. menciana in terms of general genomic features and characteristic features found in the A+T-rich region. The 15,364 bp long genome consisted of a typical set of genes (13 protein-coding genes [PCGs], 2 rRNA genes, and 22 tRNA genes) and 1 major non-coding A+T-rich region, with the typical arrangement found in Lepidoptera. Twelve of the 13 PCGs started with typical ATN codons, except for the COI, which began with CGA and twelve of 13 PCGs had complete stop codons, except for the COII, which ended with a single T. The 360 bp long A+T-rich region harbored the conserved sequence blocks typically found in lepidopteran insects. Additionally, the A+T-rich region of R. menciana contained one tRNA(Met)-like structure, which had a proper anticodon and secondary structure. PMID:24779598

  9. Reidentification of Sex Pheromones of Tea Geometrid Ectropis obliqua Prout (Lepidoptera: Geometridae).

    PubMed

    Yang, Yunqiu; Zhang, Longwa; Guo, Feng; Long, Yanhua; Wang, Yun; Wan, Xiaochun

    2016-02-01

    Tea geometrid Ectropis obliqua Prout (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) is an important defoliator of the tree crop Camellia sinensis L. in China. The sex pheromones of E. obliqua have not been identified, but have potential importance relative to the biological control of this predator. In this study, the female sex pheromones of E. obliqua were identified and evaluated for use in the monitoring and mass trapping of this pest. The sex pheromone extracts were subjected to gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The identified chemicals were synthesized and applied to wind-tunnel tests and field experiments. (Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9-octadecatriene and 6,7-epoxy-(Z,Z)-3,9-octadecadiene were determined to be the primary sex pheromones produced by the female E. obliqua; the latter elicits the strongest electroantennogram responses from male E. obliqua antennae. However, males did not respond to single components in the wind-tunnel tests. The results of a field-trapping experiment indicated that a 4:6 v/v blend of (Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9-octadecatriene and 6,7-epoxy-(Z,Z)-3,9-octadecadiene was highly effective in attracting male moths. PMID:26491188

  10. Potential Toxicity of α-Cypermethrin-Treated Nets on Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    PubMed

    Biondi, A; Zappalà, L; Desneux, N; Aparo, A; Siscaro, G; Rapisarda, C; Martin, T; Tropea Garzia, G

    2015-06-01

    Insect-proof nets are thought to be effective physical barriers to protect tomato crops against several insect pests, including the invasive tomato pest, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). However, protected tomato crops are frequently infested by this destructive pest, and there is a higher infestation of plants closer to openings in Mediterranean greenhouses, suggesting that immigrating adults can easily walk on these protective materials and find a way to reach the crop. Laboratory bioassays were carried out to characterize the potential toxicity of α-cypermethrin-treated insect-proof nets (Agronet) against T. absoluta adults. The data showed that the net acts mainly through a variety of chronic sublethal effects rather than acute ones. Reduced longevity and, more markedly, a reduced number of laid eggs were observed after the moths were exposed to the treated net over the duration of their lifetimes. A Y-tube experiment showed that the treated net does not affect the T. absoluta olfaction cues for host location. In contrast, when the moths were given the option to choose either the treated or the untreated net in laboratory cages, they significantly preferred the untreated one. The toxicological significance and the functional implications of these subtle effects for the implementation of integrated T. absoluta management strategies are discussed. PMID:26470245

  11. When caterpillars attack: biogeography and life history evolution of the Miletinae (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae).

    PubMed

    Kaliszewska, Zofia A; Lohman, David J; Sommer, Kathrin; Adelson, Glenn; Rand, Douglas B; Mathew, John; Talavera, Gerard; Pierce, Naomi E

    2015-03-01

    Of the four most diverse insect orders, Lepidoptera contains remarkably few predatory and parasitic species. Although species with these habits have evolved multiple times in moths and butterflies, they have rarely been associated with diversification. The wholly aphytophagous subfamily Miletinae (Lycaenidae) is an exception, consisting of nearly 190 species distributed primarily throughout the Old World tropics and subtropics. Most miletines eat Hemiptera, although some consume ant brood or are fed by ant trophallaxis. A well-resolved phylogeny inferred using 4915 bp from seven markers sampled from representatives of all genera and nearly one-third the described species was used to examine the biogeography and evolution of biotic associations in this group. Biogeographic analyses indicate that Miletinae likely diverged from an African ancestor near the start of the Eocene, and four lineages dispersed between Africa and Asia. Phylogenetic constraint in prey selection is apparent at two levels: related miletine species are more likely to feed on related Hemiptera, and related miletines are more likely to associate with related ants, either directly by eating the ants, or indirectly by eating hemipteran prey that are attended by those ants. These results suggest that adaptations for host ant location by ovipositing female miletines may have been retained from phytophagous ancestors that associated with ants mutualistically. PMID:25639142

  12. Chronic exposure of the European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) to Cry1Ab Bacillus thuringiensis toxin.

    PubMed

    Chaufaux, J; Seguin, M; Swanson, J J; Bourguet, D; Siegfried, B D

    2001-12-01

    Transgenic corn expressing the insecticidal toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner is gaining support as an effective control technology for use against lepidopteran pests, particularly European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Crambidae). However, there is concern that widespread adoption of transgenic plants will rapidly lead to B. thuringiensis toxin resistance. Thus, long-term selection of O. nubilalis populations with the Cry1Ab B. thuringiensis toxin has been undertaken in several laboratories in the United States and in Europe. We present results from two independent selection experiments performed in laboratories at the University of Nebraska and at the Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique in France. Although the protocols and methods used by the two laboratories were different, the results were comparable. The highest level of resistance occurred at generation 7 (14-fold), generation 9 (13-fold), and generation 9 (32-fold) for three different strains. For each strain, the level of resistance fluctuated from generation to generation, although there were consistently significant decreases in toxin susceptibility across generations for all selected strains. These results suggest that low levels of resistance are common among widely distributed O. nubilalis populations. PMID:11777065

  13. Development and Leaf Consumption by Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Reared on Leaves of Agroenergy Crops.

    PubMed

    Cabezas, M F; Nava, D E; Geissler, L O; Melo, M; Garcia, M S; Krüger, R

    2013-12-01

    Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a polyphagous pest that threatens more than 24 species of crop plants including those used for biodiesel production such as Ricinus communis (castor bean), Jatropha curcas (Barbados nut), and Aleurites fordii (tung oil tree). The development and leaf consumption by S. cosmioides reared on leaves of these three species were studied under controlled laboratory conditions. The egg-to-adult development time of S. cosmioides was shortest when reared on castor bean leaves and longest when reared on tung oil tree leaves. Larvae reared on castor bean and Barbados nut leaves had seven instars, whereas those reared on tung oil tree leaves had eight. Females originating from larvae reared on castor bean and Barbados nut leaves showed greater fecundity than did females originating from larvae reared on tung oil tree leaves. Insects fed on castor bean leaves had shorter life spans than those fed on tung oil tree and Barbados nut leaves although the oviposition period did not differ significantly. The intrinsic and finite rates of increase were highest for females reared on castor bean leaves. Total leaf consumption was highest for larvae reared on tung oil tree leaves and lowest for those reared on Barbados nut leaves. We conclude that castor bean is a more appropriate host plant for the development of S. cosmioides than are Barbados nut and tung oil tree. PMID:27193276

  14. Evolution of Resistance by Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Infesting Insecticidal Crops in the Southern United States

    PubMed Central

    Onstad, David; Crain, Philip; Crespo, Andre; Hutchison, William; Buntin, David; Porter, Pat; Catchot, Angus; Cook, Don; Pilcher, Clint; Flexner, Lindsey; Higgins, Laura

    2016-01-01

    We created a deterministic, frequency-based model of the evolution of resistance by corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), to insecticidal traits expressed in crops planted in the heterogeneous landscapes of the southern United States. The model accounts for four generations of selection by insecticidal traits each year. We used the model results to investigate the influence of three factors on insect resistance management (IRM): 1) how does adding a third insecticidal trait to both corn and cotton affect durability of the products, 2) how does unstructured corn refuge influence IRM, and 3) how do block refuges (50% compliance) and blended refuges compare with regard to IRM? When Bt cotton expresses the same number of insecticidal traits, Bt corn with three insecticidal traits provides longer durability than Bt corn with two pyramided traits. Blended refuge provides similar durability for corn products compared with the same level of required block refuge when the rate of refuge compliance by farmers is 50%. Results for Mississippi and Texas are similar, but durabilities for corn traits are surprisingly lower in Georgia, where unstructured corn refuge is the highest of the three states, but refuge for Bt cotton is the lowest of the three states. Thus, unstructured corn refuge can be valuable for IRM but its influence is determined by selection for resistance by Bt cotton. PMID:26637533

  15. Host Plant Associations and Parasitism of South Ecuadorian Eois Species (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) Feeding on Peperomia (Piperaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Seifert, Carlo L.; Bodner, Florian; Brehm, Gunnar; Fiedler, Konrad

    2015-01-01

    The very species-rich tropical moth genus Eois Hübner (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) is a promising model group for studying host plant specialization and adaptive radiation. While most Eois species are assumed to be specialized herbivores on Piper L. species, records on other plant taxa such as Peperomia Ruiz & Pavón (Piperaceae) are still relatively scarce. Moreover, little is known about life history traits of most species, and only a few caterpillars have been described so far. We collected caterpillars associated with Peperomia (Piperaceae) host plants from June 2012 to January 2013 in three elevational bands of montane and elfin rainforests on the eastern slopes of the Andes in southern Ecuador. Caterpillars were systematically searched and reared to the adult stage. We were able to delimitate ten species of Eois on Peperomia by comparison of larval and adult morphology and by using 658 bp fragments of the mitochondrial COI gene (barcode sequences). Three of these species, Eois albosignata (Dognin), Eois bolana (Dognin), and Eois chasca (Dognin), are validly described whereas the other seven taxa represent interim morphospecies, recognized unequivocally by their DNA barcodes, and their larval and adult morphology. We provide information about their host plants, degree of parasitism, and describe the larval stages in their last instar. Additionally, caterpillars and moths are illustrated in color plates. This is the first comparative study dealing with Eois moths whose caterpillars feed on Peperomia hosts. PMID:26286230

  16. Toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry proteins to Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Li, Hua; Bouwer, Gustav

    2012-01-01

    The susceptibility of one of the most important pests in southern Africa, Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry proteins was evaluated by bioassay. Cry proteins were produced in Escherichia coli BL21 cells that were transformed with plasmids containing one of six cry genes. The toxicity of each Cry protein to H. armigera larvae was determined by the diet contamination method for second instar larvae and the droplet feeding method for neonate larvae. For each of the proteins, dose-mortality and dose-growth inhibition responses were analyzed and the median lethal dose (LD(50)) and median inhibitory dose (ID(50)) determined. Second instar larvae were consistently less susceptible to the evaluated Cry proteins than neonate larvae. The relative toxicity of Cry proteins ranked differently between neonate larvae and second instar larvae. On the basis of the LD(50) and ID(50) values, Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, and Cry2Aa were the most toxic of the evaluated proteins to H. armigera larvae. The study provides an initial benchmark of the toxicity of individual Cry proteins to H. armigera in South Africa. PMID:22019386

  17. Thermal Death Kinetics of Fifth-Instar Corcyras cephalonica (Lepidoptera: Galleriidae)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Liling; Zhongxin, Li; Ma, Wenqiang; Yan, Shengkun; Cui, Kuanbo

    2015-01-01

    The infestation of rice moth, Corcyras cephalonica (Lepidoptera: Galleriidae), causes severe losses in postharvest walnuts. Heat has been studied as a phytosanitary treatment to replace chemical fumigation for controlling this pest. Information on kinetics for thermal mortality of C. cephalonica is needed for developing effective postharvest phytosanitary thermal treatments of walnuts. Thermal death kinetics of fifth-instar C. cephalonica were investigated at temperatures between 44°C and 50°C at a heating rate of 5°C min−1 using a heating block system. The results showed that thermal-death curves for C. cephalonica larvae followed a 0 order of kinetic reaction. The time to reach 100% mortality decreased with increasing temperature from 150 min at 44°C to 2.5 min at 50°C. The activation energy for controlling C. cephalonica was 466–592 kJ/mol, and the z value obtained from the thermal death time curve was 3.3°C. This kinetic model prediction could be useful in designing the thermal treatment protocol for controlling C. cephalonica in walnuts. PMID:25843578

  18. Thermal death kinetics of fifth-instar Corcyras cephalonica (Lepidoptera: Galleriidae).

    PubMed

    Yang, Liling; Zhongxin, Li; Ma, Wenqiang; Yan, Shengkun; Cui, Kuanbo

    2015-01-01

    The infestation of rice moth, Corcyras cephalonica (Lepidoptera: Galleriidae), causes severe losses in postharvest walnuts. Heat has been studied as a phytosanitary treatment to replace chemical fumigation for controlling this pest. Information on kinetics for thermal mortality of C. cephalonica is needed for developing effective postharvest phytosanitary thermal treatments of walnuts. Thermal death kinetics of fifth-instar C. cephalonica were investigated at temperatures between 44°C and 50°C at a heating rate of 5°C min(-1) using a heating block system. The results showed that thermal-death curves for C. cephalonica larvae followed a 0 order of kinetic reaction. The time to reach 100% mortality decreased with increasing temperature from 150 min at 44°C to 2.5 min at 50°C. The activation energy for controlling C. cephalonica was 466-592 kJ/mol, and the z value obtained from the thermal death time curve was 3.3°C. This kinetic model prediction could be useful in designing the thermal treatment protocol for controlling C. cephalonica in walnuts. PMID:25843578

  19. Impact of Cultivation and Subsequent Burial on Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and Conotrachelus nenuphar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    PubMed Central

    Baughman, William B.; Nelson, Peter N.; Grieshop, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the efficacy of cultivation as a potential management strategy for codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar Herbst (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in apple orchards. Cocooned codling moth pupae and thinning apples infested with plum curculio larvae were cultivated over in the field. Emergence, percent burial, damage to buried fruit, and depth of burial was recorded. In the laboratory, both insects were buried at variable depths in sand and potting soil and emergence was measured. A greater proportion of plum curculio larvae buried in infested fruit under laboratory conditions survived to adulthood compared with unburied infested fruit, down to 15 cm. No codling moth adults emerged from under 1 cm or more of sand. Buried codling moth larvae experienced drastically reduced survival to adulthood compared with unburied larvae. These results indicate that strip cultivation may negatively impact codling moth diapausing larvae and pupae on the ground, but not likely to negatively impact plum curculio in infested dropped apples. PMID:26470248

  20. Complete mitochondrial genome of the pink bollworm Pectinophora gossypiella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Sun, Yang; Xiao, Liubin; Tan, Yongan; Dai, Hanyang; Bai, Lixin

    2016-05-01

    Pectinophora gossypiella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is a key pest in many cotton-growing countries of the world. In this study, the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of the pink bollworm P. gossypiella was determined, which is 15,202 bp in length (GenBank accession number: KM225795) containing 37 typical animal mitochondrial gene and an A + T-rich region. The gene order of P. gossypiella mtDNA was different from the insect ancestral gene order in the translocation of trnM, as shared by previously sequenced lepidopteran mtDNAs. The protein-coding genes (PCGs) have typical mitochondrial start codons ATN, with the exception of COI, Nad5, which uses the start codons CGA, GTT. Eight PCGs stop with complete termination codons (TAA), whereas five PCGs use incomplete stop codon T. All of the tRNA genes had typical cloverleaf secondary structures except for trnS1(AGN), in which the dihydrouridine (DHU) arm did not form a stable stem-loop structure. Like other insects, the control region is located between rrnS and trnM with a length of 309 bp and an A + T content of 94.8%, which is the most AT-rich region and comparatively simple, with little evidence of long tandem repeats, but harbors a conserved structure combining the motif ATAGA and a 18-bp poly-T stretch. PMID:25231711

  1. Abdominal macrochaetae of female Hylesia oratex Dyar, 1913 (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Saturniidae): external morphology and medical significance.

    PubMed

    Brito, Rosângela; Specht, Alexandre; Filho, Wilson S A; Fronza, Edegar; Mielke, Carlos G C

    2015-09-01

    The representatives of the genus Hylesia Hübner, [1820] are significant among the medically important Lepidoptera. Adult females use abdominal setae to wrap and protect the eggs that remain for months in nature. These setae, in contact with human skin, may cause allergic reactions including swelling, itching and local erythema, known as lepidopterism. The morphology of the abdominal scales and setae from the female H. oratex Dyar, 1913 is herein described and aspects related to their medical significance are discussed. Portions of each abdominal segment were examined through a scanning electron microscope. Two types of scales without medical importance, and two types of setae with medical importance, classified as "true setae" and "modified setae" were found. The true setae, which are slightly fusiform and have radially arranged lateral projections, are responsible for the allergic reactions caused by skin penetration. The modified setae, which are larger, curved, with the median enlarged and serrated margins, can be responsible for the release of chemical substances. This information provides a better understanding of the structure of the urticating setae, which are responsible for lepidopterism outbreaks in humans, and contributes towards the identification of the moth species involved. PMID:26312428

  2. Sequential sampling plan for Cameraria ohridella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) on horse chestnut tree.

    PubMed

    Ferracini, Chiara; Alma, Alberto

    2007-12-01

    A fixed precision sequential sampling plan for estimating the density of the horse chestnut, Aesculus hippocastanum L., leafminer Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dimic (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) was developed. Data were collected from 2002 to 2004 in Turin, northwestern Italy, with the aim of developing a sampling strategy for estimating populations of C. ohridella mines. Taylor's power law was used as a regression model. Sampling parameters were estimated from 216 data sets, and an additional 110 independent data sets were used to validate the fixed precision sequential sampling plan with resampling software. Covariance analysis indicated that there were not significant differences in the coefficient of Taylor's power law between heights of the foliage, months, and years. Dispersion patterns of C. ohridella were determined to be aggregated. The parameters of the Taylor's power law were used to calculate minimum sample sizes and sampling stop lines for different precision levels. Considering a mean density value of five mines per leaf, an average sample number of only 49 leaves was necessary to achieve a desired precision level of 0.25. As the precision level was increased to 0.10, the average sample size increased to 303 leaves. The sequential sampling plan should provide an effective management of C. ohridella in the urban areas, minimizing sampling time and cost, and at the same should be an effective tool to reduce insecticide applications and prevent the esthetic damage. PMID:18232410

  3. Bioecology of Stenoma catenifer (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) and associated larval parasitoids reared from Hass avocados in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Hoddle, Mark S; Hoddle, Christina D

    2008-06-01

    A 10-wk study of the avocado seed-feeding moth Stenoma catenifer Walsingham (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae), was conducted in a commercial 'Hass' avocado (Persea americana Miller [Lauraceae]) orchard in Guatemala. Up to 45% of fruit in the orchard were damaged by larval S. catenifer. Larval-to-adult survivorship for 1,881 S. catenifer larvae in Hass fruit was 37%, and adult sex ratio was 51% female. Four species of larval parasitoid were reared from field-collected S. catenifer larvae. The most common parasitoid reared was a gregarious Apanteles sp., which parasitized 53% of larvae and produced on average eight to nine cocoons per host. Apanteles sp. sex ratio was 47% female and 87% of parasitoids emerged successfully from cocoons. Apanteles sp. longevity was approximately equal to 1.5 d in the absence of food, and when provisioned with honey, parasitoids survived for 5-7 d. The mean number of cocoons produced by Apanteles sp. per host, and larval parasitism rates were not significantly affected by the number of S. catenifer larvae inhabiting seeds. Oviposition studies conducted with S. catenifer in the laboratory indicated that this moth lays significantly more eggs on the branch to which the fruit pedicel is attached than on avocado fruit. When given a choice between Hass and non-Hass avocados, S. catenifer lays up to 2.69 times more eggs on Hass. PMID:18613567

  4. Biological control of Indianmeal moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) on finished stored products using egg and larval parasitoids.

    PubMed

    Grieshop, Matthew J; Flinn, Paul W; Nechols, James R

    2006-08-01

    Biological control using hymenopteran parasitoids presents an attractive alternative to insecticides for reducing infestations and damage from the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), in retail and warehouse environments. We examined the potential for using combinations of the egg parasitoid Trichogramma deion Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), and the larval parasitoid Habrobracon hebetor (Say) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) for preventing infestations of P. interpunctella in coarse-ground cornmeal as well as the influence of packaging on parasitoid effectiveness. Treatments included one or both parasitoids and either cornmeal infested with P. interpunctella eggs or eggs deposited on the surface of plastic bags containing cornmeal. H. hebetor had a significant impact on the number of live P. interpunctella, suppressing populations by approximately 71% in both unbagged and bagged cornmeal. In contrast, T. deion did not suppress P. interpunctella in unbagged cornmeal. However, when released on bagged cornmeal, T. deion significantly increased the level of pest suppression (87%) over bagging alone (15%). When H. hebetor was added to bagged cornmeal, there was a significant reduction of live P. interpunctella compared with the control (70.6%), with a further reduction observed when T. deion was added (96.7%). These findings suggest that, in most situations, a combined release of both T. deion and H. hebetor would have the greatest impact; because even though packaging may protect most of the stored products, there are usually areas in the storage landscape where poor sanitation is present. PMID:16937658

  5. Sampling plan for Diaphania spp. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and for hymenopteran parasitoids on cucumber.

    PubMed

    Bacci, Leandro; Picanço, Marcelo C; Moura, Marcelo F; Della Lucia, Terezinha M C; Semeão, Altair A

    2006-12-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the best technique, sampling unit, and the number of samples to compose a conventional sampling plan for the cucurbit borers, Diaphania spp. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), and for hymenopteran parasitoids on cucumber. This research was carried out in 10 commercial cucumber crops fields from July to December 2000 in Tocantins, Minas Gerais State, Brazil (21 degrees 11' 15" S; 42 degrees 03' 45" W; altitude 363 m). The sampling methods studied were beating on a tray, direct counting of insects on the lower leaf surface, and whole leaf collection. Three sampling units also were studied: leaves from a branch located in the apical, median, or basal third of the canopy. The best sampling systems, which included the best technique and sampling unit, were determined based on the relative variance and the economic precision of the sampling. Once the best sampling systems were established, the numbers of samples to compose the conventional sampling plans were determined. The more suitable sampling system for the larvae of Diaphania spp. in cucumber plants was beating a leaf of the median third of the canopy on a plastic tray. One leaf must be sampled for every 50 plants in a crop. The more suitable sampling system for hymenopteran parasitoids in cucumber plants was to directly count the adults on one leaf of the median third of the canopy. One leaf must be sampled for every 74 plants in a crop. PMID:17195691

  6. Interspecific competition between two generalist parasitoids that attack the leafroller Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Feng, Y; Wratten, S; Sandhu, H; Keller, M

    2015-08-01

    Two generalist parasitoids, Dolichogenidea tasmanica (Cameron) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and Therophilus unimaculatus (Turner) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) attack early instars of tortricid moths, including the light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). The two parasitoids co-exist in natural habitats, while D. tasmanica is dominant in vineyards, whereas T. unimaculatus occurs mainly in adjacent native vegetation. This difference suggests possible competition between the two species, mediated by habitat. Here, we report on the extent of interspecific differences in host discrimination and the outcome of interspecific competition between the two parasitoids. The parasitoids did not show different behavioural responses to un-parasitized hosts or those that were parasitized by the other species. Larvae of D. tasmanica out-competed those of T. unimaculatus, irrespective of the order or interval between attacks by the two species. The host larvae that were attacked by two parasitoids died more frequently before a parasitoid completed its larval development than those that were attacked by a single parasitoid. Dissection of host larvae parasitized by both species indicated that first instars of D. tasmanica attacked and killed larval T. unimaculatus. PMID:25572341

  7. Toxicity and residual efficacy of chlorantraniliprole, spinetoram, and emamectin benzoate to obliquebanded leafroller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Sial, Ashfaq A; Brunner, Jay F

    2010-08-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the residual toxicity of spinetoram, chlorantraniliprole, and emamectin benzoate to obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Larvae were exposed to apple (Malus spp.) foliage collected at different intervals after an airblast sprayer application at the manufacturer-recommended field rate and half the field rate. A mortality of 100% was recorded at field rate applications of spinetoram, chlorantraniliprole, and emamectin benzoate through 59, 38, and 10 d after treatment (DAT), respectively. Significantly less foliage was consumed by C. rosaceana larvae surviving in the emamectin, chlorantraniliprole, and spinetoram treatments compared with those exposed to untreated foliage. Third-instar C. rosaceana exposed to fresh residues on terminal foliage showed 100% mortality after 5-d exposure to spinetoram residues and after 10-d exposure to chlorantraniliprole and emamectin benzoate. The effects of larval movement from foliage with fresh residues was examined by transferring neonate larvae from foliage treated with spinetoram, chlorantraniliprole, or emamectin benzoate to untreated foliage after various exposure intervals. An exposure of 1, 3, and 6 d was required for spinetoram, chlorantraniliprole, and emamectin benzoate to cause 100% mortality at the field rate, respectively. The higher the concentration of chlorantraniliprole and emamectin benzoate, the less exposure time was necessary to cause high levels of mortality in C. rosaceana neonates. Our results indicate that these novel insecticides are highly toxic to C. rosaceana larvae. Implications of these results for C. rosaceana management programs are discussed. PMID:20857737

  8. Lethal and sublethal effects of an insect growth regulator, pyriproxyfen, on obliquebanded leafroller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Sial, Ashfaq A; Brunner, Jay F

    2010-04-01

    The obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is one of the most destructive pests of tree fruit in Washington. The development of insecticide resistance in C. rosaceana has led us to explore new management tactics. The use of very low doses of insecticides that have strong sublethal effects represents an environmentally friendly option to improve existing integrated pest management (IPM) strategies. We tested the insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen to determine its lethal and sublethal effects on growth and development of C. rosaceana. A leaf-disk bioassay was used to test seven concentrations of pyriproxyfen ranging from 0 to 30 ppm on fifth-instar C. rosaceana. Male and female larvae were assessed separately for mortality as well as other parameters of growth and development. The LC, values for males and females were 2.4 and 4.8 ppm, respectively. The response to pyriproxyfen was concentration-dependent: only 5-6% of the larvae treated with the highest concentration emerged as morphologically normal adults compared with 86% emergence in the controls. The pupation and adult emergence was significantly delayed at concentrations higher than 1 ppm. The weights of C. rosaceana pupae and adults were significantly increased, whereas fecundity and fertility were significantly reduced at a sublethal concentration of 0.3 ppm. We conclude that both lethal and sublethal effects might exhibit significant impacts on the population dynamics of C. rosaceana in tree fruit orchards treated with low concentrations of pyriproxyfen. PMID:20429446

  9. Response of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) to different pheromone emission levels in greenhouse tomato crops.

    PubMed

    Vacas, Sandra; López, Jesús; Primo, Jaime; Navarro-Llopis, Vicente

    2013-10-01

    The response of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) to different emission rates of its pheromone, (3E, 8Z, 11Z)-tetradecatrienyl acetate, was measured in two greenhouse trials with traps baited with mesoporous dispensers. For this purpose, weekly moth trap catches were correlated with increasing pheromone emission levels by multiple regression analysis. Pheromone release profiles of the dispensers were obtained by residual pheromone extraction and gas chromatography quantification. In the first trial carried out in summer 2010, effect of pheromone emission was significant as catches increased linearly with pheromone release rates up to the highest studied level of 46.8 μg/d. A new trial was carried out in spring 2011 to measure the effect of the emission factor when pheromone release rates were higher. Results demonstrated that trap catches and pheromone emission fitted to a quadratic model, with maximum catches obtained with a release level of 150.3 μg/d of (3E, 8Z, 11Z)-tetradecatrienyl acetate. This emission value should provide enhanced attraction of T. absoluta and improve mass trapping, attract-and-kill, or monitoring techniques under greenhouse conditions in the Mediterranean area. PMID:24331616

  10. [Electrophysiological and behavioral responses of male Apamea apameoides (Draudt) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to sex pheromone components].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ai-Liang; Zhou, Zhang-Ting; Zhang, Ya-Bo; Zhou, Zhi-Feng; Shen, Zhi-Lian; Wang, Hao-Jie; Shu, Jin-Ping

    2014-10-01

    The sex pheromone gland extracts collected from calling females of Apamea apameoides (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) were analyzed with GC-MS, the electrophysiological and behavioral responses of the male adults to serial dilutions of sex pheromone components and their synthetic blends were investigated with Y-tube olfactometer in laboratory and in bamboo forest field. The results indicated that (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate and (Z)-11-hexadecen-1-ol were the functional components in the sex pheromone gland extracts. Electroantennogram (EAG) recordings showed that sex pheromone gland extracts, (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate, (Z)-11-hexadecen-1-ol and the mixture of (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate and (Z)-11-hexadecen-1-ol all could elicit strong EAG responses, and the average EAG values increased with the increasing concentration of the sex pheromone. The blends of (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate and (Z)-11-hexadecen-1-ol at the ratio of 57:43 elicited a higher EAG value than each singular component did. The results of behavioral assay by Y-tube olfactometer accorded with those of EAG responses on the whole, and the mixture of (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate and (Z)-11-hexadecen-1-ol at the ratio of 57:43 was more attractive than each component alone. In field tests with silicone rubber as pheromone dispensers (concentration = 10(4) ng · uL(-1)), the average number of male adults captured per trap by the mixture was (48.5 ± 6.7). PMID:25796914

  11. Demonstration and Characterization of a Persistent Pheromone Lure for the Navel Orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Higbee, Bradley S; Burks, Charles S; Larsen, Thomas E

    2014-01-01

    The lack of an effective pheromone lure has made it difficult to monitor and manage the navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), in the economically important crops in which it is the primary insect pest. A series of experiments was conducted to demonstrate and characterize a practical synthetic pheromone lure for capturing navel orangeworm males. Traps baited with lures prepared with 1 or 2 mg of a three- or four-component formulation captured similar numbers of males. The fluctuation over time in the number of males captured in traps baited with the pheromone lure correlated significantly with males captured in female-baited traps. Traps baited with the pheromone lure usually did not capture as many males as traps baited with unmated females, and the ratio of males trapped with pheromone to males trapped with females varied between crops and with abundance. The pheromone lure described improves the ability of pest managers to detect and monitor navel orangeworm efficiently and may improve management and decrease insecticide treatments applied as a precaution against damage. Awareness of differences between male interaction with the pheromone lure and calling females, as shown in these data, will be important as further studies and experience determine how best to use this lure for pest management. PMID:26462827

  12. Demonstration and Characterization of a Persistent Pheromone Lure for the Navel Orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    PubMed Central

    Higbee, Bradley S.; Burks, Charles S.; Larsen, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    The lack of an effective pheromone lure has made it difficult to monitor and manage the navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), in the economically important crops in which it is the primary insect pest. A series of experiments was conducted to demonstrate and characterize a practical synthetic pheromone lure for capturing navel orangeworm males. Traps baited with lures prepared with 1 or 2 mg of a three- or four-component formulation captured similar numbers of males. The fluctuation over time in the number of males captured in traps baited with the pheromone lure correlated significantly with males captured in female-baited traps. Traps baited with the pheromone lure usually did not capture as many males as traps baited with unmated females, and the ratio of males trapped with pheromone to males trapped with females varied between crops and with abundance. The pheromone lure described improves the ability of pest managers to detect and monitor navel orangeworm efficiently and may improve management and decrease insecticide treatments applied as a precaution against damage. Awareness of differences between male interaction with the pheromone lure and calling females, as shown in these data, will be important as further studies and experience determine how best to use this lure for pest management. PMID:26462827

  13. Various Chemical Strategies to Deceive Ants in Three Arhopala Species (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) Exploiting Macaranga Myrmecophytes

    PubMed Central

    Inui, Yoko; Shimizu-kaya, Usun; Okubo, Tadahiro; Yamsaki, Eri; Itioka, Takao

    2015-01-01

    Macaranga myrmecophytes (ant-plants) are generally well protected from herbivore attacks by their symbiotic ants (plant-ants). However, larvae of Arhopala (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) species survive and develop on specific Macaranga ant-plant species without being attacked by the plant-ants of their host species. We hypothesized that Arhopala larvae chemically mimic or camouflage themselves with the ants on their host plant so that the larvae are accepted by the plant-ant species of their host. Chemical analyses of cuticular hydrocarbons showed that chemical congruency varied among Arhopala species; A. dajagaka matched well the host plant-ants, A. amphimuta did not match, and unexpectedly, A. zylda lacked hydrocarbons. Behaviorally, the larvae and dummies coated with cuticular chemicals of A. dajagaka were well attended by the plant-ants, especially by those of the host. A. amphimuta was often attacked by all plant-ants except for the host plant-ants toward the larvae, and those of A. zylda were ignored by all plant-ants. Our results suggested that conspicuous variations exist in the chemical strategies used by the myrmecophilous butterflies that allow them to avoid ant attack and be accepted by the plant-ant colonies. PMID:25853675

  14. An Evaluation of Butterfly Gardens for Restoring Habitat for the Monarch Butterfly (Lepidoptera: Danaidae).

    PubMed

    Cutting, Brian T; Tallamy, Douglas W

    2015-10-01

    The eastern migratory monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus L.) population in North America hit record low numbers during the 2013-2014 overwintering season, prompting pleas by scientists and conservation groups to plant the butterfly's milkweed host plants (Asclepias spp.) in residential areas. While planting butterfly gardens with host plants seems like an intuitive action, no previous study has directly compared larval survival in gardens and natural areas to demonstrate that gardens are suitable habitats for Lepidoptera. In this study, milkweed was planted in residential gardens and natural areas. In 2009 and 2010, plants were monitored for oviposition by monarch butterflies and survival of monarch eggs and caterpillars. Monarchs oviposited significantly more frequently in gardens than in natural sites, with 2.0 and 6.2 times more eggs per plant per observation in 2009 and 2010, respectively. There were no significant differences in overall subadult survival between gardens and natural areas. Significant differences in survival were measured for egg and larval cohorts when analyzed separately, but these were not consistent between years. These results suggest that planting gardens with suitable larval host plants can be an effective tool for restoring habitat for monarch butterflies. If planted over a large area, garden plantings may be useful as a partial mitigation for dramatic loss of monarch habitat in agricultural settings. PMID:26314013

  15. Bird predation on cutworms (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in wheat fields and chlorpyrifos effects on brain cholinesterase activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McEwen, L.C.; DeWeese, L.R.; Schladweiler, P.

    1986-01-01

    Horned larks, Eremophila alpestris (L.), and McCown's longspurs, Calcarius mccownii (Lawrence), were collected at intervals from two winter wheat fields in Montana [USA] after aerial application of chlorpyrifos to control cutworms. Both bird species had a high (95-100%) incidence of Lepidoptera, mostly pale western cutworms, Agrotis orthogonia Morrison, in their stomachs at 3 days postspray. Incidence of cutworms and other insects in stomachs of birds from sprayed fields was lower at 9 and 16 days postspray than in control birds, presumably due to insecticide-caused reduction of insects. Effects of birds on population dynamics of insect pests in wheat are unknown, but birds do contribute to cutworm mortality. Predation is one of the limiting factors to cutworm increase and can supplement insecticidal control. Brain cholinesterase activity in horned larks collected from the sprayed fields at 3 and 9 days postspray was significantly lower than in unexposed larks, but at 16 days the difference was not significant. Although nontarget birds clearly were exposed to chlorpyrifos and manifested a sublethal physiological response, toxic effects were less severe than those resulting from endrin application for cutworm control in wheat. More study is needed of larger chlorpyrifos-treated fields under a variety of conditions to fully assess effects on nontarget life.

  16. Toxicity of phosphine to Carposina niponensis (Lepidoptera: Carposinadae) at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Bo, Liu; Fanhua, Zhang; Yuejin, Wang

    2010-12-01

    Carposina niponensis Matsumura (Lepidoptera: Carposinadae), is widely distributed in pome fruit production areas in China and presents a problem in some export markets because it is considered a quarantine pest by some countries. Methyl bromide is the only fumigant used for fumigation of apples (Malus spp.) for export. However, phosphine is a candidate replacement that can be applied directly at low temperature. Here, laboratory tests showed that tolerance of different stages of C. niponensis to phosphine fumigation at 0 degrees C differed greatly; first-second-instar larvae were the least tolerant stage and the mature fifth instars were the most tolerant stage. In the mature larvae, fumigation tests, with a range of phosphine concentrations from 0.42 to 1.95 mg/liters and exposure periods of 24 h to 14 d at 0 degrees C indicated narcosis when phosphine concentration was > or = 1.67 mg/liter and that a 15.52-8.14-d fumigation period was required to achieve 99% mortality with different phosphine concentrations. The expression of C(0.7)T = k was obtained, which indicated that exposure time was much more important than concentration of phosphine in mortality of mature larvae of C. niponensis. All results suggested that phosphine fumigation at low temperature offers promising control of C. niponensis infestation in pome fruit. PMID:21309217

  17. Where does Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) overwinter in adjacent peach, pear and apple orchards?

    PubMed

    Yang, X-F; Fan, F; Wang, C; Wei, G-S

    2016-02-01

    The Oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a major pest of tree fruits worldwide, and the diapausing larvae overwinter in cryptic habitats. Investigations of overwintering G. molesta were conducted in adjacent peach, pear and apple orchards in Northern China over three consecutive winters to determine the overwintering site and habitat preferences of the moth. Counts of overwintering larvae in the different orchards demonstrated that the late-maturing peach orchard ('Shenzhou honey peach') was the most preferred overwintering habitat with more than 90% of the collected larvae. Larvae were more abundant in host trees, and they very rarely overwintered in the soil. The overwintering site preferences on the host trees were significantly different; over 50% larvae were located in the tree trunks, and followed by main branches. Most of the G. molesta overwintered on the sunny side of the host trees at or below 60 cm from the ground; a few were cocooned on the shaded sides of the trees or greater than 60 cm from the ground. G. molesta began overwintering between August and October, mid- to late September was the peak period for entering winter diapause during 2011-2013 (77.78, 67.59 and 71.15%, respectively). Our findings improve understanding of the orchard habitat and overwintering site preferences of G. molesta and would be useful in the development of efficient forecasting and pest-management strategies for orchards during the winter and early spring. PMID:26548961

  18. Expansion of the Mexican Rice Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) into Rice and Sugarcane in Louisiana.

    PubMed

    Wilson, B E; Hardy, T N; Beuzelin, J M; VanWeelden, M T; Reagan, T E; Miller, R; Meaux, J; Stout, M J; Carlton, C E

    2015-06-01

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is an invasive pest of sugarcane, Saccharum spp., rice, Oryza sativa L., and other graminaceous crops in the Gulf Coast region of the United States. Traps baited with E. loftini female sex pheromones were used to document establishment and distribution of E. loftini near sugarcane, rice, and noncrop hosts in seven southwest Louisiana parishes from 2009 to 2013. Additional field surveys documented larval infestations in commercial sugarcane and rice. After its initial detection in 2008, no E. loftini were detected in Louisiana in 2009 and only two adults were captured in 2010. Trapping documented range expansion into Cameron, Beauregard, and Jefferson Davis parishes in 2011 and Allen, Acadia, and Vermilion parishes in 2013. During the course of this study, E. loftini expanded its range eastward into Louisiana 120 km from the Texas border (≈22 km/yr). Surveys of larval infestations provided the first record of E. loftini attacking rice and sugarcane in Louisiana. Infestations of E. loftini in rice planted without insecticidal seed treatments in Calcasieu Parish reached damaging levels. PMID:26313982

  19. Yield Response to Mexican Rice Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Injury in Bioenergy and Conventional Sugarcane and Sorghum.

    PubMed

    Vanweelden, M T; Wilson, B E; Beuzelin, J M; Reagan, T E; Way, M O

    2015-10-01

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is an invasive stem borer of sugarcane, Saccharum spp., and sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.), and poses a threat against the production of dedicated bioenergy feedstocks in the U.S. Gulf Coast region. A 2-yr field study was conducted in Jefferson County, TX, to evaluate yield losses associated with E. loftini feeding on bioenergy and conventional cultivars of sugarcane and sorghum under natural and artificially established E. loftini infestations. Bioenergy sugarcane (energycane) 'L 79-1002' and 'Ho 02-113' and sweet sorghum 'M81E' exhibited reduced E. loftini injury; however, these cultivars, along with high-biomass sorghum cultivar 'ES 5140', sustained greater losses in fresh stalk weight. Negative impacts to sucrose concentration from E. loftini injury were greatest in energycane, high-biomass sorghum, and sweet sorghum cultivars. Even under heavy E. loftini infestations, L 79-1002, Ho 02-113, and 'ES 5200' were estimated to produce more ethanol than all other cultivars under suppressed infestations. ES 5200, Ho 02-113, and L 79-1002 hold the greatest potential as dedicated bioenergy crops for production of ethanol in the Gulf Coast region; however, E. loftini management practices will need to be continued to mitigate yield losses. PMID:26453718

  20. Characterization of novel microsatellite markers for Hyphantria cunea and implications for other Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Cao, L J; Wen, J B; Wei, S J; Liu, J; Yang, F; Chen, M

    2015-06-01

    This is the first report of microsatellite markers (simple sequence repeats, SSR) for fall webworm, Hyphantria cunea (Drury) (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae), an important quarantine pest in some European and Asian countries. Here, we developed 48 microsatellite markers for H. cunea from SSR enrichment libraries. Sequences isolated from libraries were sorted into four categories and analyzed. Our results suggest that sequences classified as Grouped should not be used for microsatellite primer design. The genetic diversity of microsatellite loci was assessed in 72 individuals from three populations. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 5 with an average of 3. The observed and expected heterozygosities of loci ranged from 0 to 0.958 and 0 to 0.773, respectively. A total of 18 out of 153 locus/population combinations deviated significantly from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Moreover, significant linkage disequilibrium was detected in one pair of loci (1275 pairs in total). In the neutral test, two loci were grouped into the candidate category for positive selection and the remainder into the neutral category. In addition, a complex mutation pattern was observed for these loci, and F ST performed better than did R ST for the estimation of population differentiation in different mutation patterns. The results of the present study can be used for population genetic studies of H. cunea. PMID:25772405

  1. Larval biology of anthophagous Eumaeini (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae, Theclinae) in the cerrado of central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Neuza A P; Duarte, Marcelo; Araújo, Eliezer B; Morais, Helena C

    2014-01-01

    The biology and morphology of the early stages of 22 species of Eumaeini (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae, Theclinae) are presented. Observations were collected through the inspection of inflorescences in the field and the rearing of 214 larvae in laboratory. Allosmaitia strophius (Godart) associated with Malpighiaceae species and the polyphagous Strymon mulucha (Hewitson) were the most frequently collected species. Detritivory was observed in two species, Electrostrymon endymion (F.) and Kisutam syllis (Godman & Salvin), and myrmecophily in four other species, A. strophius, Ministrymon azia (Hewitson), Parrhasius polibetes (Stoll), and S. mulucha. Cannibalism was observed in A. strophius; in addition, the pupa of this and of three other species produced audible sounds. Paiwarria aphaca (Hewitson) was highlighted because of the great difference observed between its first and last instars, as well as the marked difference between that species and the larvae of Paiwarria umbratus (Geyer) documented in Costa Rica. Larvae of Calycopis mimas (Godman & Salvin) displayed "bungee jumping" behavior when stimulated. Parasitoids (Diptera, Hymenoptera) attacked 21 larvae of eight species, A. strophius, K. syllis, M. azia, Pai. aphaca, P. polibetes, Rekoa marius (Lucas), S. mulucha, and Tmolus venustus (H.H. Druce). Illustrations of immatures and parasitoids are provided. PMID:25368090

  2. Digestive Physiology and Nutritional Responses of Autographa gamma (L.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Different Sugar Beet Cultivars.

    PubMed

    Naseri, Bahram; Golikhajeh, Neshat; Rahimi Namin, Foroogh

    2016-01-01

    Digestive enzymatic activity and nutritional responses of Autographa gamma (L.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), an important insect pest of sugar beet, on nine sugar beet cultivars (Peritra, Karolina, Paolita, Lenzier, Tiller, Ardabili, Persia, Rozier, and Dorothea) were studied. The highest proteolytic activity of fourth and fifth instar of A. gamma was in larvae fed on cultivar Persia. The highest amylolytic activity of fourth and fifth instar was observed in larvae fed on cultivars Rozier and Dorothea, respectively. The lowest proteolytic and amylolytic activities in fourth instar were observed on cultivar Tiller; whereas the lowest activities in fifth instar were detected on cultivars Karolina and Tiller, respectively. Larval weight in both larval instars (fourth and fifth) was the heaviest on cultivar Persia and the lightest on cultivar Karolina. Furthermore, weight gain of larvae was the highest on cultivar Persia and the lowest on cultivar Karolina. The results of this study suggest that cultivar Tiller was the most unsuitable host plant for feeding of A. gamma. PMID:27324581

  3. Functional Response of Three Species of Predatory Pirate Bugs Attacking Eggs of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    PubMed

    Queiroz, Obiratanea S; Ramos, Rodrigo S; Gontijo, Lessando M; Picanço, Marcelo C

    2015-04-01

    The functional response and predation parameters of three species of predatory pirate bugs Amphiareus constrictus (Stal), Blaptostethus pallescens Poppius, and Orius tristicolor (White) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) were evaluated at four different densities of eggs of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Experiments were conducted in Petri dishes containing a tomato leaf disk infested with the pest eggs, and maintained inside growth chamber with environmental conditions of 25 ± 2 °C, 70 ± 10% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 12:12 (L:D) h. A. constrictus and B. pallescens showed a type III functional response where predation increased at a decreasing rate after egg density was higher than 12 per leaf disk, reaching an upper plateau of 18.86 and 25.42 eggs per 24 hours, respectively. By contrast, O. tristicolor showed a type II functional response where the number of eggs preyed upon increased at a decreasing rate as egg density increased, reaching an upper limit of 15.20 eggs per 24 hours. The predator equations used in this study estimated handling time of 1.25, 0.87, 0.96 h for A. constrictus, B. pallescens, and O. tristicolor, respectively. The lower handling time and possible higher attack rate of B. pallescens suggests a higher efficiency and probably greater impact on the pest population. If conservation or classical biological control of T. absoluta is to be implemented, then prioritizing which natural enemy species is the most efficient is an important first step. PMID:26313178

  4. Effect of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis cotton on pink bollworm (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) response to sex pheromone.

    PubMed

    Carrière, Yves; Nyboer, Megan E; Ellers-Kirk, Christa; Sollome, James; Colletto, Nick; Antilla, Larry; Dennehy, Timothy J; Staten, Robert T; Tabashnik, Bruce E

    2006-06-01

    Fitness costs associated with resistance to transgenic crops producing toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) could reduce male response to pheromone traps. Such costs would cause underestimation of resistance frequency if monitoring was based on analysis of males caught in pheromone traps. To develop a DNA-based resistance monitoring program for pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), we compared the response to pheromone traps of males with and without cadherin alleles associated with resistance to Bt cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). When irradiated males from two hybrid laboratory strains with an intermediate frequency of resistance alleles were released in large field cages, the probability of capture in pheromone traps was not lower for males with resistance alleles than for males without resistance alleles. These results suggest that analysis of trapped males would not underestimate the frequency of resistance. As the time males spent in traps in the field increased from 3 to 15 d, the success of DNA amplification declined from 100 to 30%. Thus, the efficiency of a DNA-based resistance monitoring program would be improved by analyzing males remaining in traps for 3 d or less. PMID:16813335

  5. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Chinese skipper, Polytremis jigongi (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae).

    PubMed

    Yang, Qichang; Zhao, Huidong; Chang, Yuan; Liu, Lu; Zhu, Jianqing; Yu, Weidong; Jiang, Weibin

    2016-07-01

    The sequence of the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Polytremis jigongi (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) has been presented in this article. It is 15,353 bp in length, with an A + T content of 80.9% containing 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNAs, 2 rRNAs, and a noncoding control region (D-loop). All of the 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes were found. All protein-coding genes started with ATN as a start codon except for the gene COX1 that uses CGA as in other lepidopteran species. Five protein-coding genes use incomplete stop codon TA or T, while the others use TAA as stop codons. Most of the tRNA genes can be folded into a typical cloverleaf structure. Nucleotide composition is similar to other insects, showing a high bias toward A + T. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the genome sequence of P. jigongi is close to Hesperiidae. PMID:26061339

  6. Complete mitochondrial genome of Cotton Leaf Roller Haritalodes derogata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Sun, Yang; Xiao, Liubin; Tan, Yongan; Bai, Lixin

    2016-07-01

    Haritalodes derogata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) has been recorded as an important pest of cotton in many countries of the world. In this study, the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of Cotton Leaf Roller Haritalodes derogata is determined, which is 15,253 bp in length (GenBank accession number: KC515397) containing 37 typical animal mitochondrial gene and an A + T-rich region. The gene order of H. derogata mtDNA was different from the insect ancestral gene order in the translocation of trnM, as shared by previously sequenced lepidopteran mtDNAs. The protein-coding genes (PCGs) have typical mitochondrial start codons ATN, with the exception of COI, Nad5, which uses the start codons CGA, GTT. In addition, five of 13 PCGs harbor the incomplete termination codons, a single T. All of the tRNA genes had typical cloverleaf secondary structures except for trnS1(AGN). Like other lepidopteran mtgenomes, the control region is located between rrnS and trnM with a length of 329 bp and an A + T content of 96%, which is the most AT-rich region and habors a conserved structure combining the motif ATAGA and a 14-bp poly-T stretch. Both maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses highly support a sister-group relationship: Pyraustinae + (Spilomelinae + (Acentropina (Crambine + Schoenobiine))). PMID:26152351

  7. The complete mitochondrial genome of Antheraea pernyi strain 731 (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongliang; Wu, An-Quan

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of Antheraea pernyi strain 731 (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) is determined for the first time. It is a circular molecule of 15,570 bp in length, with 37 typical coding genes and one non-coding A T-rich region. Its gene order and content are identical to the common type found in most insect mitogenomes. All protein-coding genes (PCGs) start with a typical ATN initiation codon, except for the cox1 gene, which begins with TTAG codon. Nine genes used standard complete termination codon TAA, whereas the cox1, cox2, nad3, and nad5 genes end with single T. All tRNAs display typical secondary cloverleaf structures as those of other insects. Additionally, the non-coding AT-rich region is 553 bp long, located between rrnS and trnM genes. It contains some structures of repeated motifs and microsatellite-like elements characteristic of the other lepidopterons. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the Antheraea pernyi 731 was close to Saturniidae. PMID:25939049

  8. Temperature niche shift observed in a Lepidoptera population under allochronic divergence.

    PubMed

    Santos, H; Paiva, M R; Tavares, C; Kerdelhué, C; Branco, M

    2011-09-01

    A process of adaptive divergence for tolerance to high temperatures was identified using a rare model system, consisting of two sympatric populations of a Lepidoptera (Thaumetopoea pityocampa) with different life cycle timings, a 'mutant' population with summer larval development, Leiria SP, and the founder natural population, having winter larval development, Leiria WP. A third, allopatric population (Bordeaux WP) was also studied. First and second instar larvae were experimentally exposed to daily-cycles of heat treatment reaching maximum values of 36, 38, 40 and 42 °C; control groups placed at 25 °C. A lethal temperature effect was only significant at 42 °C, for Leiria SP, whereas all temperatures tested had a significant negative effect upon Leiria WP, thus indicating an upper threshold of survival c.a. 6 °C above that of the WP. Cox regression model, for pooled heat treatments, predicted mortality hazard to increase for Leiria WP (+108%) and Bordeaux WP (+78%) in contrast to Leiria SP; to increase by 24% for each additional °C; and to decrease by 53% from first to second instar larvae. High variability among individuals was observed, a population characteristic that may favour selection and consequent adaptation. Present findings provide an example of ecological differentiation, following a process of allochronic divergence. Results further contribute to a better understanding of the implications of climate change for ecological genetics. PMID:21635606

  9. Brevibacterium pityocampae sp. nov., isolated from caterpillars of Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Lepidoptera, Thaumetopoeidae).

    PubMed

    Kati, Hatice; Ince, Ikbal Agah; Demir, Ismail; Demirbag, Zihni

    2010-02-01

    This work deals with the taxonomic study of a bacterium, strain Tp12(T), isolated from caterpillars of the pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775; Lepidoptera, Thaumetopoeidae). The isolate was assigned to the genus Brevibacterium on the basis of a polyphasic taxonomic study, including morphological and biochemical characteristics, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, fatty acid analysis and DNA G+C content. The highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to this isolate was approximately 96 %, with the type strains of Brevibacterium album and Brevibacterium samyangense. Cellular fatty acids of the isolate are of the branched type, with the major components being anteiso-C(15 : 0) and anteiso-C(17 : 0). The DNA G+C content was 69.8 mol%. Although the strain was related to B. album and B. samyangense according to 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, it differed from any known species of Brevibacterium. Based on this evidence, the novel species Brevibacterium pityocampae sp. nov. is proposed, with strain Tp12(T) (=DSM 21720(T) =NCCB 100255(T)) as the type strain. PMID:19651741

  10. Chronic Sublethal Effects of Cantharidin on the Diamondback Moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhengyu; Zhang, Yalin

    2015-01-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is a major pest of cruciferous vegetables worldwide. Cantharidin, a natural toxin isolated from blister beetles, has been reported to be toxic to P. xylostella. However, little is known on the chronic sublethal effects of cantharidin on this species. In this study, we assessed the changes of susceptibility, development, reproduction and other demographic parameters in both the selected P. xylostella strain (Sub, selected by LC25 cantharidin for consecutive 12 generations) and the revertant strain (SubR, derived from the Sub strain without being exposed to cantharidin for 12 generations). Results revealed that the two strains maintained a relatively high-level susceptibility to cantharidin. Severe adverse effects on the population dynamics and fitness in Sub strain were observed. In addition, repeated exposure of P. xylostella to sublethal concentration of cantharidin resulted in negative effects on adult performance and deformities in adults. Although morphologically normal for individuals, the SubR strain exhibited a disadvantage in population growth rate. Our results showed that sublethal concentration of cantharidin exhibited severe negative effects on population growth for longtime. These findings would be useful for assessing the potential effects and risk of cantharidin on P. xylostella and for developing effective integrated pest management. PMID:26035491

  11. Response of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), eggs to gamma radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, W. D.; Arthur, V.; Mastrangelo, T.

    2010-10-01

    As insects increase in radiotolerance as they develop and usually several developmental stages of the pest may be present in the fresh shipped commodity, it is important to know the radiation susceptibility of the stages of the target insect before the establishment of ionizing radiation quarantine treatments. This study was performed to determine the radiotolerance of eggs of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), to gamma radiation. This species is considered as one of the most serious worldwide pests for temperate fruits, especially peaches. Eggs (12 h old) were exposed to 0 (control), 25, 35, 50, 75, 100, 125 and 150 Gy of gamma radiation. Surviving larvae were allowed to feed on an artificial diet. Three days after irradiation, it was verified that larvae's cephalic capsules were significantly affected by gamma radiation, and the estimated mean LD 90 and LD 99 were 66.3 Gy and 125.8 Gy, respectively. Oriental fruit moth eggs revealed to be quite radiosensitive and very low doses as 50 Gy were sufficient to disrupt G. molesta embryogenesis. At 25 Gy, only male adults originated from the surviving larvae and, after mating with untreated fertile females, shown to be sterile.

  12. Changes in insecticide resistance of the rice striped stem borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    PubMed

    Su, Jianya; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Wu, Min; Gao, Congfen

    2014-02-01

    Application of insecticides is the most important method to control Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), and continuous use of individual insecticides has driven the rapid development of insecticide resistance in C. suppressalis during the past 30 yr. Monitoring insecticide resistance provides information essential for integrated pest management. Insecticide resistance of field populations to monosultap, triazophos, chlorpyrifos, and abamectin in China was examined in 2010 and 2011. The results indicated that the resistance levels of 14 field populations to four insecticides were significantly different. Four populations showed moderate resistance, and other populations possessed low-level resistance or were susceptible to monosultap. Nine populations displayed an extremely high or a high level of resistance to triazophos, whereas four populations were sensitive to this agent. Five populations exhibited a low level of resistance to abamectin, while the others remained sensitive. When compared with historical data, resistance to monosultap and triazophos decreased significantly, and the percentage of populations with high-level or extremely high-level resistance was obviously reduced. By contrast, the resistance to abamectin increased slightly. The increasing and decreasing resistance levels reported in this study highlight the different evolutionary patterns of insecticide resistance in C. suppressalis. An overreliance on one or two insecticides may promote rapid development of resistance. Slow development of resistance to abamectin, which was used mainly in mixtures with other insecticides, implies that the use of insecticide mixtures may be an effective method to delay the evolution of resistance to insecticides. PMID:24665718

  13. Host Plant Associations and Parasitism of South Ecuadorian Eois Species (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) Feeding on Peperomia (Piperaceae).

    PubMed

    Seifert, Carlo L; Bodner, Florian; Brehm, Gunnar; Fiedler, Konrad

    2015-01-01

    The very species-rich tropical moth genus Eois Hübner (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) is a promising model group for studying host plant specialization and adaptive radiation. While most Eois species are assumed to be specialized herbivores on Piper L. species, records on other plant taxa such as Peperomia Ruiz & Pavón (Piperaceae) are still relatively scarce. Moreover, little is known about life history traits of most species, and only a few caterpillars have been described so far. We collected caterpillars associated with Peperomia (Piperaceae) host plants from June 2012 to January 2013 in three elevational bands of montane and elfin rainforests on the eastern slopes of the Andes in southern Ecuador. Caterpillars were systematically searched and reared to the adult stage. We were able to delimitate ten species of Eois on Peperomia by comparison of larval and adult morphology and by using 658 bp fragments of the mitochondrial COI gene (barcode sequences). Three of these species, Eois albosignata (Dognin), Eois bolana (Dognin), and Eois chasca (Dognin), are validly described whereas the other seven taxa represent interim morphospecies, recognized unequivocally by their DNA barcodes, and their larval and adult morphology. We provide information about their host plants, degree of parasitism, and describe the larval stages in their last instar. Additionally, caterpillars and moths are illustrated in color plates. This is the first comparative study dealing with Eois moths whose caterpillars feed on Peperomia hosts. PMID:26286230

  14. Structural, evolutionary and functional analysis of APN genes in the Lepidoptera Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ping; Cheng, Tingcai; Jin, Shengkai; Jiang, Liang; Wang, Chen; Xia, Qingyou

    2014-02-10

    Aminopeptidases N (APNs), the receptors of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin in the lepidopteran midgut, are involved in the Bt pathogen infection mechanism. In the present work, we screened 102 APNs from SilkDB, ButterflyBase and MonarchBase; 16 APNs were identified from the silkworm (Bombyx mori) and 24 from the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus). Syntenic and phylogenetic tree analysis showed that APN genes have developed multi-family genes before evolutionary divergence of the Lepidoptera. The tissue-expression pattern shows some BmAPNs are specifically or highly expressed in the midgut. Bacillus bombysepticus (Bb) is a specific pathogen of B. mori, leading to acute fuliginosa septicemia of the larva. BmAPNs were modulated by real time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis after Bb or Bt oral infection. There were different patterns of induced expression between Bb and Bt challenges, suggesting that B. mori has different responses to infection by the specific pathogen Bb and the nonspecific pathogen Bt. Research on BmAPNs will help us to better understand the evolutionary conservation and functions in Bb or Bt pathogen interaction with the host and to apply this knowledge in agricultural and forestry pest control. PMID:24286860

  15. Wedding biodiversity inventory of a large and complex Lepidoptera fauna with DNA barcoding

    PubMed Central

    Janzen, Daniel H; Hajibabaei, Mehrdad; Burns, John M; Hallwachs, Winnie; Remigio, Ed; Hebert, Paul D.N

    2005-01-01

    By facilitating bioliteracy, DNA barcoding has the potential to improve the way the world relates to wild biodiversity. Here we describe the early stages of the use of cox1 barcoding to supplement and strengthen the taxonomic platform underpinning the inventory of thousands of sympatric species of caterpillars in tropical dry forest, cloud forest and rain forest in northwestern Costa Rica. The results show that barcoding a biologically complex biota unambiguously distinguishes among 97% of more than 1000 species of reared Lepidoptera. Those few species whose barcodes overlap are closely related and not confused with other species. Barcoding also has revealed a substantial number of cryptic species among morphologically defined species, associated sexes, and reinforced identification of species that are difficult to distinguish morphologically. For barcoding to achieve its full potential, (i) ability to rapidly and cheaply barcode older museum specimens is urgent, (ii) museums need to address the opportunity and responsibility for housing large numbers of barcode voucher specimens, (iii) substantial resources need be mustered to support the taxonomic side of the partnership with barcoding, and (iv) hand-held field-friendly barcorder must emerge as a mutualism with the taxasphere and the barcoding initiative, in a manner such that its use generates a resource base for the taxonomic process as well as a tool for the user. PMID:16214742

  16. Identification and Evaluation of 21 Novel Microsatellite Markers from the Autumnal Moth (Epirrita autumnata) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae)

    PubMed Central

    Aarnes, Siv Grethe; Fløystad, Ida; Schregel, Julia; Vindstad, Ole Petter Laksforsmo; Jepsen, Jane Uhd; Eiken, Hans Geir; Ims, Rolf A.; Hagen, Snorre B.

    2015-01-01

    The autumnal moth (Epirrita autumnata) is a cyclically outbreaking forest Lepidoptera with circumpolar distribution and substantial impact on Northern ecosystems. We have isolated 21 microsatellites from the species to facilitate population genetic studies of population cycles, outbreaks, and crashes. First, PCR primers and PCR conditions were developed to amplify 19 trinucleotide loci and two tetranucleotide loci in six multiplex PCR approaches and then analyzed for species specificity, sensitivity and precision. Twelve of the loci showed simple tandem repeat array structures while nine loci showed imperfect repeat structures, and repeat numbers varied in our material between six and 15. The application in population genetics for all the 21 microsatellites were further validated in 48 autumnal moths sampled from Northern Norway, and allelic variation was detected in 19 loci. The detected numbers of alleles per locus ranged from two to 13, and the observed and expected heterozygosities varied from 0.04 to 0.69 and 0.04 to 0.79, respectively. Evidence for linkage disequilibrium was found for six loci as well as indication of one null allele. We find that these novel microsatellites and their multiplex-PCR assays are suitable for further research on fine- and large-scale population-genetic studies of Epirrita autumnata. PMID:26393576

  17. Contribution of the maxillary muscles to proboscis movement in hawkmoths (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae)--an electrophysiological study.

    PubMed

    Wannenmacher, G; Wasserthal, Lutz T

    2003-08-01

    The role of the maxillary muscles in the uncoiling and coiling movements of hawkmoths (Sphingidae) has been examined by electromyogram recordings, combined with video analysis. The maxillary muscles of adult Lepidoptera can be divided into two groups, galeal and stipital muscles. The galea contains two basal muscles and two series of oblique longitudinal muscles, which run through the entire length of the galea. Three muscles insert on the stipes, taking their origin on the tentorium and on parts of the cranium and gena, respectively. Proboscis extension is initiated by an elevation of the galea base caused by the basal galeal muscles. The actual uncoiling of the proboscis spiral is accompanied by rapid compressions of the stipites which are caused by two of the stipital muscles. The study provides strong support for the hypothesis that uncoiling is brought about by an increase of hemolymph pressure by the stipites forcing hemolymph into the galeae. Recoiling is caused by the contraction of both sets of oblique longitudinal galeal muscles supported by elasticity of the galea cuticle. Finally, the remaining stipital muscle pulls down the galea base which brings the coiled proboscis back to its resting position where it is held in the U-shaped groove of the labium without further muscle activity. PMID:12880657

  18. Importance of Habitat Heterogeneity in Richness and Diversity of Moths (Lepidoptera) in Brazilian Savanna.

    PubMed

    Braga, Laura; Diniz, Ivone Rezende

    2015-06-01

    Moths exhibit different levels of fidelity to habitat, and some taxa are considered as bioindicators for conservation because they respond to habitat quality, environmental change, and vegetation types. In this study, we verified the effect of two phytophysiognomies of the Cerrado, savanna and forest, on the diversity distribution of moths of Erebidae (Arctiinae), Saturniidae, and Sphingidae families by using a hierarchical additive partitioning analysis. This analysis was based on two metrics: species richness and Shannon diversity index. The following questions were addressed: 1) Does the beta diversity of moths between phytophysiognomies add more species to the regional diversity than the beta diversity between sampling units and between sites? 2) Does the distribution of moth diversity differ among taxa? Alpha and beta diversities were compared with null models. The additive partitioning of species richness for the set of three Lepidoptera families identified beta diversity between phytophysiognomies as the component that contributed most to regional diversity, whereas the Shannon index identified alpha diversity as the major contributor. According to both species richness and the Shannon index, beta diversity between phytophysiognomies was significantly higher than expected by chance. Therefore, phytophysiognomies are the most important component in determining the richness and composition of the community. Additive partitioning also indicated that individual families of moths respond differently to the effect of habitat heterogeneity. The integrity of the Cerrado mosaic of phytophysiognomies plays a crucial role in maintaining moth biodiversity in the region. PMID:26313955

  19. Hindwings are unnecessary for flight but essential for execution of normal evasive flight in Lepidoptera

    PubMed Central

    Jantzen, Benjamin; Eisner, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    In Lepidoptera, forewings and hindwings are mechanically coupled and flap in synchrony. Flight is anteromotoric, being driven primarily by action of the forewings. Here we report that lepidopterans can still fly when their hindwings are cut off, a procedure reducing their total wing surface, on average, by nearly one half. However, as we demonstrate by analysis of three-dimensional flight trajectories of a moth and a butterfly (Lymantria dispar and Pieris rapae), hindwing removal causes lepidopterans to incur a loss in both linear and turning acceleration, so that they are unable to exercise their normal flight maneuverability. Without hindwings they still are able to zigzag aerially (the ablation has no effect on their turning radius in flight) but at lesser speed and therefore less evasively. Consequently, hindwings in the expanded state in which they occur in lepidopterans seem to contribute in an essential way to lepidopteran survival. Moths in today's world, we argue, may rely on their evasive flight primarily to avoid capture by bats, whereas butterflies, which we propose advertise their evasiveness collectively through shared aposematism, may depend upon it primarily for defense against birds. Aerial agility thus may be the chief adaptive asset derived by lepidopterans from possession of oversize hindwings. PMID:18936482

  20. Patterns of mitochondrial haplotype diversity in the invasive pest Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Tooman, Leah K; Rose, Caroline J; Carraher, Colm; Suckling, D Max; Paquette, Sébastien Rioux; Ledezma, Lisa A; Gilligan, Todd M; Epstein, Marc; Barr, Norman B; Newcomb, Richard D

    2011-06-01

    The light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a horticultural pest of Australia and New Zealand that has more recently invaded Hawaii, Europe, and California. A 2,216-bp region of the mitochondrial genome containing the cytochrome oxidase I and II genes was sequenced from 752 individuals. Haplotype network analyses revealed a major split between a predominantly Western Australian clade and all other samples, suggestive of either a deep genetic divergence or a cryptic species. Nucleotide and haplotype diversity were highest in the country of origin, Australia, and in New Zealand populations, with evidence of haplotype sharing between New Zealand and Tasmania. Nucleotide and haplotype diversity were higher in California than within the British Isles or Hawaii. From the total of 96 haplotypes, seven were found in California, of which four were private. Within California, there have been at least two introductions; based on genetic diversity we were unable to assign a likely source for a single moth found and eradicated in Los Angeles in 2007; however, our data suggest it is unlikely that Hawaii and the British Isles are sources of the major E. postvittana population found throughout the rest of the state since 2006. PMID:21735912

  1. Partial Life History of Chrysodeixis includens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Summer Hosts.

    PubMed

    Moonga, M N; Davis, J A

    2016-08-01

    The soybean looper, Chrysodeixis includens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a major defoliating pest of soybeans, Glycine max (L.) Merrill, in Louisiana. However, other alternate host crops in the agroecosystem have the potential to impact C. includens populations. Life table statistics of C. includens on four host plants were evaluated. C. includens larvae were fed leaves of three cotton Gossypium hirsutum L. cultivars 'DP 143 B2RF,' 'DP 174 RF,' and 'PHY 485 WRF'; cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walpers 'California Blackeye'; three soybean cultivars 'Lyon,' 'PI 227687,' and 'RC 4955'; and sweetpotato Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lamarck 'Evangeline.' All C. includens larvae reared on cotton cultivars DP 143 B2RF and PHY 485 WRF experienced 100% mortality during the first instar. Total developmental period of preadult C. includens was significantly shorter on cotton DP 174 RF and cowpea California Blackeye but longer on sweetpotato Evangeline. Sweetpotato Evangeline had the highest amount of leaf tissue consumed and soybean Lyon had the least. Pupal weight was highest when insects fed on cotton DP 174 RF and lowest on soybean PI 227687. Life table statistics showed that the highest intrinsic rate of increase and net reproductive rate were attained when insects were reared on cotton DP 174 RF and cowpea California Blackeye whilst the lowest were recorded on soybean PI 227687. This study provides valuable information on the role of alternative host crops on the partial life history of C. includens in Louisiana agroecosystems. PMID:27375294

  2. Impact of Cultivation and Subsequent Burial on Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and Conotrachelus nenuphar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Baughman, William B; Nelson, Peter N; Grieshop, Matthew J

    2015-06-01

    We assessed the efficacy of cultivation as a potential management strategy for codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar Herbst (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in apple orchards. Cocooned codling moth pupae and thinning apples infested with plum curculio larvae were cultivated over in the field. Emergence, percent burial, damage to buried fruit, and depth of burial was recorded. In the laboratory, both insects were buried at variable depths in sand and potting soil and emergence was measured. A greater proportion of plum curculio larvae buried in infested fruit under laboratory conditions survived to adulthood compared with unburied infested fruit, down to 15 cm. No codling moth adults emerged from under 1 cm or more of sand. Buried codling moth larvae experienced drastically reduced survival to adulthood compared with unburied larvae. These results indicate that strip cultivation may negatively impact codling moth diapausing larvae and pupae on the ground, but not likely to negatively impact plum curculio in infested dropped apples. PMID:26470248

  3. The complete mitogenome sequence of the Japanese oak silkmoth, Antheraea yamamai (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae).

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong Ryeol; Kim, Man Il; Hong, Mee Yeon; Kim, Kee Young; Kang, Pil Don; Hwang, Jae Sam; Han, Yeon Soo; Jin, Byung Rae; Kim, Iksoo

    2009-09-01

    The 15,338-bp long complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the Japanese oak silkmoth, Antheraea yamamai (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) was determined. This genome has a gene arrangement identical to those of all other sequenced lepidopteran insects, but differs from the most common type, as the result of the movement of tRNA(Met) to a position 5'-upstream of tRNA(Ile). No typical start codon of the A. yamamai COI gene is available. Instead, a tetranucleotide, TTAG, which is found at the beginning context of all sequenced lepidopteran insects was tentatively designated as the start codon for A. yamamai COI gene. Three of the 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs) harbor the incomplete termination codon, T or TA. All tRNAs formed stable stem-and-loop structures, with the exception of tRNA(Ser)(AGN), the DHU arm of which formed a simple loop as has been observed in many other metazoan mt tRNA(Ser)(AGN). The 334-bp long A + T-rich region is noteworthy in that it harbors tRNA-like structures, as has also been seen in the A + T-rich regions of other insect mitogenomes. Phylogenetic analyses of the available species of Bombycoidea, Pyraloidea, and Tortricidea bolstered the current morphology-based hypothesis that Bombycoidea and Pyraloidea are monophyletic (Obtectomera). As has been previously suggested, Bombycidae (Bombyx mori and B. mandarina) and Saturniidae (A. yamamai and Caligula boisduvalii) formed a reciprocal monophyletic group. PMID:18979227

  4. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Ailanthus silkmoth, Samia cynthia cynthia (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae).

    PubMed

    Sima, Yang-Hu; Chen, Mo; Yao, Rui; Li, Yu-Ping; Liu, Teng; Jin, Xin; Wang, Li-peng; Su, Jun-Fang; Li, Xi-Sheng; Liu, Yan-Qun

    2013-09-10

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the Ailanthus silkmoth, Samia cynthia cynthia (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) was determined. The circular genome is 15,345 bp long, and presents a typical gene organization and order for sequenced mitogenomes of Bombycidea species. The nucleotide composition of the genome is highly A+T biased, accounting for 79.86%. The AT skew of the genome is slightly negative, indicating the occurrence of more Ts than As, as found in other Saturniidae species. All protein-coding genes (PCGs) are initiated by ATN codons, except for COI and COII, which are tentatively designated by CGA and GTG, respectively, as observed in other insects. Four of 13 PCGs, including COI, COII, ATP6, and ND3, harbor the incomplete termination codons, T or TA. With an exception for tRNASer(AGN), all other tRNAs can form a typical clover-leaf structure of mitochondrial tRNA. The 359 bp A+T-rich region of S. c. cynthia contains non-repetitive sequences, but harbors several features common to the Bombycidea insects, including the motif ATAGA followed by a poly-T stretch of 19 bp, a microsatellite-like (AT)7 element preceded by the ATTTA motif, and a poly-A element upstream tRNAMet. The phylogenetic analyses support the morphology-based current hypothesis that Bombycidae and Saturniidae are monophyletic. Our result confirms that Saturniini and Attacini form a reciprocal monophyletic group within Saturniidae. PMID:23747351

  5. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of the Scarlet Tiger moth Callimorpha dominula (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Arctiidae).

    PubMed

    Peng, Xiao-Yi; Duan, Xiao-Yu; Qiang, Yi

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the Scarlet Tiger moth Callimorpha dominula (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) has been reconstructed from the whole-genome Illumina sequencing data. This circular genome is 15 496 bp in size, and contains 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs), two ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), and one A + T-rich D-loop or control region. Most PCGs are initiated with the ATN codons, except for COX1 with the unusual CGA as its initiation codon. Four PCGs (COX1, COX2, ND3, and ND4) are terminated with incomplete codon T, ND4L uses TAG as its termination codon, while all the other eight PCGs employ the usual ATN codons. The nucleotide composition is highly asymmetric (40.1% A, 40.9% T, 7.6% G, and 11.4% C) with an overall A + T content of 81.0%. The phylogenetic analysis based on the neighbor-joining (NJ) method suggests that C. dominula is more phylogenetically related to its confamilial counterparts than to those from other families. PMID:26329289

  6. New Fossil Lepidoptera (Insecta: Amphiesmenoptera) from the Middle Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation of Northeastern China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weiting; Shih, Chungkun; Labandeira, Conrad C.; Sohn, Jae-Cheon; Davis, Donald R.; Santiago-Blay, Jorge A.; Flint, Oliver; Ren, Dong

    2013-01-01

    Background The early history of the Lepidoptera is poorly known, a feature attributable to an inadequate preservational potential and an exceptionally low occurrence of moth fossils in relevant mid-Mesozoic deposits. In this study, we examine a particularly rich assemblage of morphologically basal moths that contribute significantly toward the understanding of early lepidopteran biodiversity. Methodology/Principal Findings Our documentation of early fossil moths involved light- and scanning electron microscopic examination of specimens, supported by various illumination and specimen contrast techniques. A total of 20 moths were collected from the late Middle Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation in Northeastern China. Our principal results were the recognition and description of seven new genera and seven new species assigned to the Eolepidopterigidae; one new genus with four new species assigned to the Mesokristenseniidae; three new genera with three new species assigned to the Ascololepidopterigidae fam. nov.; and one specimen unassigned to family. Lepidopteran assignment of these taxa is supported by apomorphies of extant lineages, including the M1 vein, after separation from the M2 vein, subtending an angle greater than 60 degrees that is sharply angulate at the junction with the r–m crossvein (variable in Trichoptera); presence of a foretibial epiphysis; the forewing M vein often bearing three branches; and the presence of piliform scales along wing veins. Conclusions/Significance The diversity of these late Middle Jurassic lepidopterans supports a conclusion that the Lepidoptera–Trichoptera divergence occurred by the Early Jurassic. PMID:24278142

  7. Identification and Characterization of Pathogen-Response Genes (repat) in Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Machado, Vilmar; Serrano, Jose; Galián, Jose

    2016-01-01

    The fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda, Noctuidae, Lepidoptera) is one of the most important crop pests in the Americas, causing significant damage to maize, rice and sorghum. The mechanisms that determine its defences against pathogens are particularly relevant for the development of management and control strategies. We used an in silico approach to identify and characterize pathogen response genes (repat) present in different tissue libraries of S. fugiperda. The analyses revealed complete cDNA for nine repat genes; of these, repat15 and repat39 were found in libraries from a specific tissue--the midgut of larvae fed with xenobiotic substances. High expression levels of some genes were found in different libraries: 39 hits in repat30 in challenged hemocytes, 16 hits in repat31 in fat body, 10 hits in repat32 in fat body and 10 in challenged hemocytes, and 10 hits in repat38 in midgut of non-treated larvae and midgut of larvae fed with natural and xenobiotic substances. The genes corresponded to two ontology categories, stress response and immune response, and their phylogenetic relationships, nucleotide similarity, number of amino acid residues and molecular weights agree with what has been described for repat genes. It is noteworthy that proteins encoded by the repat genes of S. frugiperda have important defence functions in other tissues beyond midgut and that their functional categories are likely diverse, as they are related to cell envelope structure, energy metabolism, transport and binding. PMID:27172709

  8. Evaluation of artificial diets for Attacus atlas (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) in Yogyakarta Special Region, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Sukirno, Sukirno; Situmorang, J; Sumarmi, S; Soesilohadi, R C Hidayat; Pratiwi, R; Sukirno, Sukirno; Situmorang, J; Sumarmi, S; Soesilohadi, R C Hidayat; Pratiwi, R

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate artificial diets that can be used to successfully culture the atlas silk moth, Attacus atlas L. (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) indoors. Four plant species were evaluated as the basic component of each diet, barringtonia (Barringtonia asiatica), cheesewood (Nauclea orientalis), soursop (Annona muricata), and mahogany (Swietenia mahagoni). Evaluation of the nutritional value of each diet was determined by an analysis of the hemolymph proteins of sixth instars using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. Survivorship, cocoon quality, and hemolymph protein content of larvae fed the barringtonia diet were higher than those of larvae fed mahogany-, cheesewood-, and soursop-based artificial diets. The average adult emergence of those fed the barringtonia-based diet was 74.5%. The weights of the cocoon in this treatment with the pupa and the empty cocoons were 7.0 and 1.1 g, respectively. Hemolymph of the larvae fed the barringtonia-based artificial diet had the highest concentration of protein with an average of 28.06 mg/ml. The atlas moth reared on the barringtonia-based artificial diet was comparable with those reared only on barringtonia leaves. However, the weight of empty cocoons, adult wingspan, and amount of hemolymph protein were lower than in those reared on barringtonia leaves only. This may suggest that the artificial barringtonia-based diet requires additional protein for maximum efficiency. PMID:24498735

  9. Olfactory sensitivity of two sympatric species of rice leaf folders (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) to plant volatiles.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, R; Khan, Z R; Caballero, P; Juliano, B O

    1990-09-01

    Electroantennograms (EAGs) were recorded from male and female moths of two sympatric leaf folder species,Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Gue-née) andMarasmia patnalis Bradley (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) to 91 volatile chemicals of plant origin. Responses of both leaf folder species were similar to all compounds except to three monoterpenes-β-myrcene, menthone, and isomenthone- and two sesquiterpenes-cis-nerolidol and isophytol. Response ofM. patnalis, an oligophagous leaf folder, to these compounds was higher compared with that of polyphagousC. medinalis. EAG responses of males to saturated and unsaturated aliphatic aldehydes were significantly higher than those of conspecific females in both species. A higher response ofC. medinalis males also was observed for 1-nonanol, 3-nonen-2-one, andtrans, trans-2,6-dimethyl-2,4,6-octatriene. In contrast, females of both species responded more to monoterpenes, borneol, isoborneol, and fenchyl alchohol. Response ofC. medinalis female was higher for terpinen-4-ol, carveol, dihydrocarveol, (-)-myrtenal, and perillaldehyde. In both species and sexes, high EAG responses were recorded for compounds of the green leaf odor complex. EAG responses to nonanal and hexanal were maximum among the aliphatic aldehydes while 1-hexanol elicited the highest response among the alcohols tested. EAG responses to terpene compounds-citronellal,α-terpineol, and (-)-myrtenal-were equal to the response to 1-hexanol. While all compounds tested elicited a negative potential, thymol and carvacrol elicited a positive EAG potential. The EAG data are discussed with regard. PMID:24264320

  10. Aquatic respiration as a potential survival mechanism of Brephidium pseudofea (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) larvae to intertidal environments.

    PubMed

    Warren, V; Daniels, J C; Hahn, D A

    2011-10-01

    The eastern pygmy blue, Brephidium pseudofea (Morrison) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae: Polyommatinae), inhabits intertidal environments that are periodically flooded. The immature stages are subject to salt or brackish water inundation during this time and therefore must endure many stressors, including respiratory limitation and salt exposure. Our goal was to investigate possible mechanisms used by the larval stages of B. pseudofea to endure periodic tidal inundation by using physiological and morphological analyses in comparison with several species of terrestrial lepidopteran larvae. A review of tidal charts showed that the immature stages of B. pseudofea would be prone to complete inundation two to five times per month during the summer months (May to August) and partial submersion for up to 20 d per month during the rest of the year. Larvae of several terrestrial lepidopteran species studied consumed oxygen under water for a limited period, but B. pseudofea demonstrated substantially higher oxygen consumption. Light microscopy of B. pseudofea larvae revealed small air pockets in and around the spiracles when submerged in tap water; these air pockets disappeared when exposed to detergent solution. The resulting air pockets may function as a diffusion layer for oxygen to be absorbed from the surrounding water or may act in conjunction with trans-cuticular gas exchange to meet the larva's respiratory needs. Morphological examination by scanning electron microscopy showed that B. psudofea larvae have distinctively small, clavate setae that appear insufficient to effectively support a functional plastron. PMID:22251740

  11. Lethal and Sublethal Effects of Cantharidin on Development and Reproduction of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhengyu; Wang, Yao; Zhang, Yalin

    2015-06-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is a major pest of cruciferous vegetables throughout the world. Cantharidin, a natural toxin isolated from beetles in the families Meloidae and Oedemeridae, has been reported to be toxic to some pests, including the diamondback moth. However, the effects of cantharidin, especially its sublethal effects on development and reproduction of diamondback moth, are less known. In this study, we investigated the sublethal effects of cantharidin at LC2 (0.41 mg liter(-1)), LC10 (1.33 mg liter(-1)), LC25 (3.38 mg liter(-1)), and LC50 (9.53 mg liter(-1)) on development and reproduction parameters of two consecutive diamondback moth generations. The results indicated that cantharidin reduced population growth by decreasing its pupation rate, pupal weight, and adult emergence, and by delaying its development. Furthermore, the duration of the female preoviposition period increased, while the oviposition and postoviposition periods, fecundity, and survival rates of the offspring decreased. The peaks of age-specific fecundity in LC10, LC25, and LC50 treatment groups lagged behind the control group. The mean values of the net reproductive rate (R0), intrinsic rate of increase (r), and finite rate of increase (λ) were significantly lower than those of the control, and the mean generation time (T) was prolonged. The present study demonstrates that cantharidin exhibits significant adverse effects on the population dynamics of diamondback moth, leading to fitness disadvantages. PMID:26470229

  12. Host selection behavior and the fecundity of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) on multiple host plants.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bin; Shi, Zhanghong; Hou, Youming

    2014-01-01

    Insect herbivores often have higher densities on host plants grown in monocultures than those in diverse environments. The underlying mechanisms are thought to be that polyphagous insects have difficulty in selecting food or oviposition sites when multiple host plants exist. However, this hypothesis needs to be extensively investigated. Our field experiments revealed that the population of the diamondback moths, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), significantly decreased in a mixed cropping field compared with a monoculture. To determine the reasons for the reduction in population in the mixed cropping field, the takeoff behavior and fecundity of females in no-choice and free-choice laboratory environments were compared by video recordings of host selection by P. xylostella. Adults displayed a significantly higher takeoff frequency in free-choice environments than those in no-choice treatments and preferred landing on Brassica campestris (L.) or Brassica juncea (Coss) plants in contrast with Brassica oleracea (L.). Female adults in the free-choice environment also laid fewer eggs compared with the monoculture. Olfaction experiments demonstrated orientation by P. xylostella to host volatiles when presented with a choice between plant odors and clean air, but females showed no preference when odors from three Brassicaceae species were presented simultaneously. We conclude that mixed cropping alters the host-finding behavior of P. xylostella resulting in reduced oviposition. PMID:25527573

  13. Consequences of exotic host use: impacts on Lepidoptera and a test of the ecological trap hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Su'ad; Read, Quentin

    2016-08-01

    Investigating the effects of invasive species on native biodiversity is one of the most pressing challenges in ecology. Our goal in this study was to quantify the effects of invasive plants on butterfly and moth communities. In addition, we sought to elucidate the fitness consequences of non-native hosts on lepidopterans. We conducted a meta-analysis on a total of 76 studies which provided data on larval performance, survival, oviposition preference, abundance, and species richness of Lepidoptera on native and exotic plants. Overwhelmingly, we found that performance and survival were reduced for larvae developing on exotic hosts, relative to native hosts. At the community level, alien plant invasion was associated with a reduction in the overall abundance and richness of lepidopteran communities. We found that lepidopterans did not show strong oviposition preference for native hosts. This result suggests that many invasive plant species may decrease lepidopteran abundance by providing a target for oviposition where larvae have a relatively poor chance of survival. Among studies that tested both survival and preference on exotic hosts, 37.5 % found evidence for novel hosts that could function as ecological traps (the figure was 18 % when considering studies that only assayed larval performance). Thus, although the majority of novel hosts included in our analyses are not likely to act as ecological traps, the potential clearly exists for this effect, and the role of ecological traps should be considered along with other aspects of global change impacting natural communities. PMID:26820566

  14. Resistance to selected organochlorin, organophosphate, carbamate and pyrethroid, in Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Mushtaq A; Ahmad, Munir; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Aslam, Muhammad; Sayyed, Ali H

    2008-10-01

    The toxicity of the most commonly used insecticides of organochlorine, organophosphate, pyrethroid, and carbamate groups were investigated against Spodoptera litura (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) populations collected for three consecutive years (2004-2006). For a chlorocyclodiene and pyrethroids tested, the resistance ratios compared with Lab-PK were in the range of 10- to 92-fold for endosulfan, 5- to 111-fold for cypermethrin, 2- to 98-fold for deltamethrin, and 7- to 86-fold for beta-cyfluthrin. For organophosphates and carbamates, resistance ratios were in the range of 3- to 169-fold for profenofos, 18- to 421-fold for chlorpyrifos, 3- to 160-fold for quinalphos, 6- to 126-fold for phoxim, 7- to 463-fold for triazophos, and 10- to 389-fold for methomyl and 16- to 200-fold for thiodicarb. Resistance ratios were generally low to medium for deltamethrin and beta-cyfluthrin and high to very high for endosulfan, cypermethrin, profenofos, chlorpyrifos, quinalphos, phoxim, triazophos, methomyl, or thiodicarb. Pairwise comparisons of the log LC50 values of insecticides tested for all the populations showed correlations among several insecticides, suggesting a cross-resistance mechanism. Integration of timely judgment of pest problem, delimiting growing of alternate crops such as arum, rotation of insecticides with new chemicals, and insect growth regulators in relation to integrated pest management could help in manageable control of this important pest. PMID:18950050

  15. Estimate of Alabama argillacea (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) development with nonlinear models.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, R S; Ramalho, F S; Zanuncio, J C; Serrão, J E

    2003-11-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate which nonlinear model [Davidson (1942, 1944), Stinner et al. (1974), Sharpe & DeMichele (1977), and Lactin et al. (1995)] best describes the relationship between developmental rates of the different instars and stages of Alabama argillacea (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), and temperature. A. argillacea larvae were fed with cotton leaves (Gossypium hirsutum L., race latifolium Hutch., cultivar CNPA 7H) at constant temperatures of 20, 23, 25, 28, 30, 33, and 35 masculine C; relative humidity of 60 +/- 10%; and photoperiod of 14:10 L:D. Low R(2) values obtained with Davidson (0.0001 to 0.1179) and Stinner et al. (0.0099 to 0.8296) models indicated a poor fit of their data for A. argillacea. However, high R(2) values of Sharpe & DeMichele (0.9677 to 0.9997) and Lactin et al. (0.9684 to 0.9997) models indicated a better fit for estimating A. argillacea development. PMID:15029370

  16. An endemic population of western poplar clearwing moths (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) invades a monoculture of hybrid poplar.

    PubMed

    Brown, John J; Kittelson, Neal T; Hannon, Eugene R; Walsh, Douglas B

    2006-06-01

    Western poplar clearwing, Paranthrene robiniae (Hy. Edwards) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), is endemic in Pacific Northwest riparian habitats at low population densities. These moths have colonized commercial hybrid poplar (Populus spp.) plantings. Moth populations increased rapidly and became a major pest. Trap catches of male moths in mid-season surveys increased 190-fold from 95 in 2001 to >18,500 in 2002 across 6597 ha of poplars monitored. The outbreak of western poplar clearwings was widespread in 2002. Pheromone-baited traps placed one trap per 81.75 ha over 13,274 ha of commercial poplars captured >108,000 male moths in 2002. Damage to commercial poplars included girdling of saplings and burrows in limbs and trunks of trees. Repeated applications of chlorpyrifos failed to reduce the abundance of moths in 2002. Two management strategies over two separate plantations of approximately 6500 ha each were contrasted. Future control strategies recommend a halt to the use of contact insecticides that target adult moths. Short-term (3-5 yr) control should involve a pheromone-based mating disruption strategy followed eventually by selection of a clone that is less susceptible to P. robiniae attack. PMID:16813311

  17. Pollination by nocturnal Lepidoptera, and the effects of light pollution: a review

    PubMed Central

    MacGregor, Callum J; Pocock, Michael J O; Fox, Richard; Evans, Darren M

    2015-01-01

    1. Moths (Lepidoptera) are the major nocturnal pollinators of flowers. However, their importance and contribution to the provision of pollination ecosystem services may have been under-appreciated. Evidence was identified that moths are important pollinators of a diverse range of plant species in diverse ecosystems across the world. 2. Moth populations are known to be undergoing significant declines in several European countries. Among the potential drivers of this decline is increasing light pollution. The known and possible effects of artificial night lighting upon moths were reviewed, and suggest how artificial night lighting might in turn affect the provision of pollination by moths. The need for studies of the effects of artificial night lighting upon whole communities of moths was highlighted. 3. An ecological network approach is one valuable method to consider the effects of artificial night lighting upon the provision of pollination by moths, as it provides useful insights into ecosystem functioning and stability, and may help elucidate the indirect effects of artificial light upon communities of moths and the plants they pollinate. 4. It was concluded that nocturnal pollination is an ecosystem process that may potentially be disrupted by increasing light pollution, although the nature of this disruption remains to be tested. PMID:25914438

  18. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of tea tussock moth, Euproctis pseudoconspersa (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) and its phylogenetic implications.

    PubMed

    Dong, Wan-Wei; Dong, Si-Yu; Jiang, Guo-Fang; Huang, Guo-Hua

    2016-02-10

    In present work, we described the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the tea tussock moth Euproctis pseudoconspersa (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae). The complete mitogenome of E. pseudoconspersa is a circular genome 15,461 bp in size. It contains 37 genes and an A+T-rich region usually presented in lepidopteran mitogenomes, which genes share a lot of features with other known lepidopteran mitogenomes. Nucleotide composition of A+T in this mitogenome is 79.92%, and the AT skew is slightly positive. Both codon distribution and relative synonymous codon usage of the 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs) are consistent with those published lepidopteran sequences. All tRNA genes have typical cloverleaf secondary structures, except for the tRNA(Ser(AGN)), in which the dihydrouridine (DHU) arm is simplified down to a loop. The A+T-rich region of E. pseudoconspersa mitogenome possess the motif 'ATAGA' and poly-T stretch as the formerly identified conserved elements of Lepidoptera mitogenomes. The phylogenetic relationships were reconstructed by using maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) methods based on nucleotide sequences of 13 PCGs of 38 moths. The results were very consistent with the traditional relationships within Noctuoidea from morphological data, and showed that Lymantriidae is more closely related to Erebidae than to Noctuidae. PMID:26611527

  19. Is It an Ant or a Butterfly? Convergent Evolution in the Mitochondrial Gene Order of Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera

    PubMed Central

    Babbucci, Massimiliano; Basso, Andrea; Scupola, Antonio; Patarnello, Tomaso; Negrisolo, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Insect mitochondrial genomes (mtDNA) are usually double helical and circular molecules containing 37 genes that are encoded on both strands. The arrangement of the genes is not constant for all species, and produces distinct gene orders (GOs) that have proven to be diagnostic in defining clades at different taxonomic levels. In general, it is believed that distinct taxa have a very low chance of sharing identically arranged GOs. However, examples of identical, homoplastic local rearrangements occurring in distinct taxa do exist. In this study, we sequenced the complete mtDNAs of the ants Formica fusca and Myrmica scabrinodis (Formicidae, Hymenoptera) and compared their GOs with those of other Insecta. The GO of F. fusca was found to be identical to the GO of Dytrisia (the largest clade of Lepidoptera). This finding is the first documented case of an identical GO shared by distinct groups of Insecta, and it is the oldest known event of GO convergent evolution in animals. Both Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera acquired this GO early in their evolution. Using a phylogenetic approach combined with new bioinformatic tools, the chronological order of the evolutionary events that produced the diversity of the hymenopteran GOs was determined. Additionally, new local homoplastic rearrangements shared by distinct groups of insects were identified. Our study showed that local and global homoplasies affecting the insect GOs are more widespread than previously thought. Homoplastic GOs can still be useful for characterizing the various clades, provided that they are appropriately considered in a phylogenetic and taxonomic context. PMID:25480682

  20. Effects of ultraviolet-B exposure of Arabidopsis thaliana on herbivory by two crucifer-feeding insects (Lepidoptera)

    SciTech Connect

    Grant-Petersson, J.; Renwick, J.A.A.

    1996-02-01

    Larvae of Pieris rapae (L.) (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) and Trichoplusia ni (Huebner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) were fed foliage from Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. plants that had received a high dose of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) or from control plants. Treatments were compared using the Student independent t-test. P. rapae larvae consumed less of the foliage exposed to UV-B than control foliage. This difference as significant in older but not younger larvae, and the older P. rapae larvae fed foliage exposed to UV-B weighed significantly less. For T. ni, however, consumption and larval weights were approximately equal for UV-exposed and control foliage. No significant differences in growth rates per unit consumption on UV-exposed versus control foliage were found for either species. Chemical analysis showed that flavonoid levels increased in response to UV-B. Results suggested that UV-inducible flavonoids may act as feeding deterrents to P. rapae but not to T. ni. 56 refs., 6 figs.

  1. The complete genome of a baculovirus isolated from an insect of medical interest: Lonomia obliqua (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae)

    PubMed Central

    Aragão-Silva, C. W.; Andrade, M. S.; Ardisson-Araújo, D. M. P.; Fernandes, J. E. A.; Morgado, F. S.; Báo, S. N.; Moraes, R. H. P.; Wolff, J. L. C.; Melo, F. L.; Ribeiro, B. M.

    2016-01-01

    Lonomia obliqua (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) is a species of medical importance due to the severity of reactions caused by accidental contact with the caterpillar bristles. Several natural pathogens have been identified in L. obliqua, and among them the baculovirus Lonomia obliqua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (LoobMNPV). The complete genome of LoobMNPV was sequenced and shown to have 120,022 bp long with 134 putative open reading frames (ORFs). Phylogenetic analysis of the LoobMNPV genome showed that it belongs to Alphabaculovirus group I (lepidopteran-infective NPV). A total of 12 unique ORFs were identified with no homologs in other sequenced baculovirus genomes. One of these, the predicted protein encoded by loob035, showed significant identity to an eukaryotic transcription terminator factor (TTF2) from the Lepidoptera Danaus plexippus, suggesting an independent acquisition through horizontal gene transfer. Homologs of cathepsin and chitinase genes, which are involved in host integument liquefaction and viral spread, were not found in this genome. As L. obliqua presents a gregarious behavior during the larvae stage the impact of this deletion might be neglectable. PMID:27282807

  2. Effects of Kaolin on Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and Its Compatibility With the Natural Enemy, Trichogramma cacoeciae (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    PubMed

    Pease, Christina E; López-Olguín, Jesús F; Pérez-Moreno, Ignacio; Marco-Mancebón, Vicente

    2016-04-01

    Lobesia botrana (Denis and Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is an important grapevine pest in Europe recently encountered in America. Trichogramma cacoeciae Marchal (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) is amongst the most effective parasitoids for Lepidopteran species. Studies to evaluate the effect of kaolin, an inert, nontoxic mineral, on oviposition, egg hatch, and neonate mortality of these species were carried out. Efficacy on L. botrana neonate larvae, oviposition, and egg hatch was evaluated. Effects of kaolin on parasitism and emergence of T. cacoeciae from L. botrana and Ephestia kuehniella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) eggs were also evaluated. Lobesia botrana egg hatch and oviposition rates were reduced, and neonate larvae mortality was significantly greater in kaolin-treated arenas and when included in synthetic neonate larvae diet. Kaolin had no effect on T. cacoeciae parasitism in both hosts. There was only a slight but statistically insignificant effect on T. cacoeciae progeny emergence from L. botrana eggs and no effect from E. kuehniella. The results involving reductions in L. botrana oviposition and egg hatch and increase in larval mortality with kaolin suggest this compound may contribute to reduction in population densities and can be considered in rational integrated pest management strategies for L. botrana. Due to the laboratory results presented on parasitoid emergence, even though field bioassays would give a more exhaustive evaluation, it appears kaolin can be compatible with T. cacoeciae in L. botrana management. PMID:26803817

  3. The complete genome of a baculovirus isolated from an insect of medical interest: Lonomia obliqua (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae).

    PubMed

    Aragão-Silva, C W; Andrade, M S; Ardisson-Araújo, D M P; Fernandes, J E A; Morgado, F S; Báo, S N; Moraes, R H P; Wolff, J L C; Melo, F L; Ribeiro, B M

    2016-01-01

    Lonomia obliqua (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) is a species of medical importance due to the severity of reactions caused by accidental contact with the caterpillar bristles. Several natural pathogens have been identified in L. obliqua, and among them the baculovirus Lonomia obliqua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (LoobMNPV). The complete genome of LoobMNPV was sequenced and shown to have 120,022 bp long with 134 putative open reading frames (ORFs). Phylogenetic analysis of the LoobMNPV genome showed that it belongs to Alphabaculovirus group I (lepidopteran-infective NPV). A total of 12 unique ORFs were identified with no homologs in other sequenced baculovirus genomes. One of these, the predicted protein encoded by loob035, showed significant identity to an eukaryotic transcription terminator factor (TTF2) from the Lepidoptera Danaus plexippus, suggesting an independent acquisition through horizontal gene transfer. Homologs of cathepsin and chitinase genes, which are involved in host integument liquefaction and viral spread, were not found in this genome. As L. obliqua presents a gregarious behavior during the larvae stage the impact of this deletion might be neglectable. PMID:27282807

  4. Testing DNA Barcode Performance in 1000 Species of European Lepidoptera: Large Geographic Distances Have Small Genetic Impacts

    PubMed Central

    Huemer, Peter; Mutanen, Marko; Sefc, Kristina M.; Hebert, Paul D. N.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the performance of DNA barcodes (mt cytochrome c oxidase 1 gene) in the identification of 1004 species of Lepidoptera shared by two localities (Finland, Austria) that are 1600 km apart. Maximum intraspecific distances for the pooled data were less than 2% for 880 species (87.6%), while deeper divergence was detected in 124 species. Despite such variation, the overall DNA barcode library possessed diagnostic COI sequences for 98.8% of the taxa. Because a reference library based on Finnish specimens was highly effective in identifying specimens from Austria, we conclude that barcode libraries based on regional sampling can often be effective for a much larger area. Moreover, dispersal ability (poor, good) and distribution patterns (disjunct, fragmented, continuous, migratory) had little impact on levels of intraspecific geographic divergence. Furthermore, the present study revealed that, despite the intensity of past taxonomic work on European Lepidoptera, nearly 20% of the species shared by Austria and Finland require further work to clarify their status. Particularly discordant BIN (Barcode Index Number) cases should be checked to ascertain possible explanatory factors such as incorrect taxonomy, hybridization, introgression, and Wolbachia infections. PMID:25541991

  5. Ancient Expansion of the Hox Cluster in Lepidoptera Generated Four Homeobox Genes Implicated in Extra-Embryonic Tissue Formation

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, William R.; Gibbs, Melanie; Breuker, Casper J.; Holland, Peter W. H.

    2014-01-01

    Gene duplications within the conserved Hox cluster are rare in animal evolution, but in Lepidoptera an array of divergent Hox-related genes (Shx genes) has been reported between pb and zen. Here, we use genome sequencing of five lepidopteran species (Polygonia c-album, Pararge aegeria, Callimorpha dominula, Cameraria ohridella, Hepialus sylvina) plus a caddisfly outgroup (Glyphotaelius pellucidus) to trace the evolution of the lepidopteran Shx genes. We demonstrate that Shx genes originated by tandem duplication of zen early in the evolution of large clade Ditrysia; Shx are not found in a caddisfly and a member of the basally diverging Hepialidae (swift moths). Four distinct Shx genes were generated early in ditrysian evolution, and were stably retained in all descendent Lepidoptera except the silkmoth which has additional duplications. Despite extensive sequence divergence, molecular modelling indicates that all four Shx genes have the potential to encode stable homeodomains. The four Shx genes have distinct spatiotemporal expression patterns in early development of the Speckled Wood butterfly (Pararge aegeria), with ShxC demarcating the future sites of extraembryonic tissue formation via strikingly localised maternal RNA in the oocyte. All four genes are also expressed in presumptive serosal cells, prior to the onset of zen expression. Lepidopteran Shx genes represent an unusual example of Hox cluster expansion and integration of novel genes into ancient developmental regulatory networks. PMID:25340822

  6. Perching mate-locating strategy in Paysandisia archon (Lepidoptera: Castniidae): behavioral and morpho-physiological investigations.

    PubMed

    Riolo, P; Verdolini, E; Anfora, G; Minuz, R L; Ruschioni, S; Carlin, S; Isidoro, N

    2014-06-01

    We studied Paysandisia archon (Burmeister) (Lepidoptera: Castniidae: Castniinae) courtship behavior to provide a detailed qualitative and quantitative description of male and female behaviors. Moreover, to investigate the role of antennal olfaction and visual stimuli in mate-recognition, bioassays with antennectomized adults and dummies were performed. To assess the presence of a pheromone gland in the ovipositor, morphological (using light and scanning electron microscopic techniques), electrophysiological, and chemical investigations were carried out. We observed perching mate-locating behavior of P. archon males, with the female triggering the courtship sequence by approaching the perching male first. The stereotyped courtship sequence is made up of five main steps: female flight, pair flight, alighting close, copulation attempt, and clasping. Our findings suggest that visual cues are important in P. archon courtship behavior, and the role of chemical cues is also discussed. Moreover, we observed a higher antenna cleaning frequency in females than in males. Ovipositor extrusions during courtship appeared not to be related to calling behavior, and histological investigations showed no evidence of glandular tissues involved in sex pheromone production. The P. archon ovipositor consists of the eighth uromere, which forms the ovipositor base, and the 9th and 10th uromeres are fused together and connected to the base by an intersegmental membrane. Overall, 24 compounds were identified from extracts obtained from ovipositors: 9 compounds were detected only in extracts from the ovipositors of 24-h-old virgin females, and not from those of 1-h-old females. None of these compounds elicited any significant electrophysiological responses from male antennae. PMID:25026660

  7. Survey of susceptibilities to monosultap, triazophos, fipronil, and abamectin in Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    PubMed

    He, Yue Ping; Gao, Cong Fen; Cao, Ming Zhang; Chen, Wen Ming; Huang, Li Qin; Zhou, Wei Jun; Liu, Xu Gan; Shen, Jin Liang; Zhu, Yu Cheng

    2007-12-01

    To provide a foundation for national resistance management of the Asiatic rice borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), a study was carried out to determine dose-response and susceptibility changes over a 5-yr period in the insect from representative rice, Oryza sativa L., production regions. In total, 11 populations were collected from 2002 to 2006 in seven rice-growing provinces in China, and they were used to examine their susceptibility levels to monosultap, triazophos, fipronil, and abamectin. Results indicated that most populations had increased tolerance to monosultap. Several field populations, especially those in the southeastern Zhejiang Province, were highly or extremely highly resistant to triazophos (resistance ratio [RR] = 52.57-899.93-fold), and some populations in Anhui, Jiangsu, Shanghai, and the northern rice regions were susceptible or had a low level of resistance to triazophos (RR = 1.00-10.69). Results also showed that most field populations were susceptible to fipronil (RR < 3), but the populations from Ruian and Cangnan, Zhejiang, in 2006 showed moderate levels of resistance to fipronil (RR = 20.99-25.35). All 11 field populations collected in 2002-2006 were susceptible to abamectin (RR < 5). The tolerance levels in the rice stem borer exhibited an increasing trend (or with fluctuation) over a 5-yr period for different insecticides, and they reached a maximal level in 2006 for all four insecticides. Analysis of regional resistance ratios indicated that the history and intensity of insecticide application are the major driving forces for the resistance evolution in C. suppressalis. Strategic development of insecticide resistance management also is proposed. PMID:18232403

  8. Captures of Ostrinia furnacalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) With Sex Pheromone Traps in NE China Corn and Soybeans.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ri-Zhao; Li, Lian-Bing; Klein, Michael G; Li, Qi-Yun; Li, Peng-Pei; Sheng, Cheng-Fa

    2016-02-01

    Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), commonly referred to as the Asian corn borer, is the most important corn pest in Asia. Although capturing males with pheromone traps has recently been the main monitoring tool and suppression technique, the best trap designs remain unclear. Commercially available Delta and funnel traps, along with laboratory-made basin and water traps, and modified Delta traps, were evaluated in corn and soybean fields during 2013-2014 in NE China. The water trap was superior for capturing first-generation O. furnacalis (1.37 times the Delta trap). However, the basin (8.3 ± 3.2 moths/trap/3 d), Delta (7.9 ± 2.5), and funnel traps (7.0 ± 2.3) were more effective than water traps (1.4 ± 0.4) during the second generation. Delta traps gave optimal captures when deployed at ca. 1.57 × the highest corn plants, 1.36× that of average soybean plants, and at the field borders. In Delta traps modified by covering 1/3 of their ends, captures increased by ca. 15.7 and 8.1% in the first and second generations, respectively. After 35 d in the field, pheromone lures were still ca. 50% as attractive as fresh lures, and retained this level of attraction for ca. 25 more days. Increased captures (first and second generation: 90.9 ± 9.5%; 78.3 ± 9.3%) were obtained by adding a lure exposed for 5 d to funnel traps baited with a 35-d lure. PMID:26362111

  9. Modeling evolution of resistance of sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) to transgenic Bt corn.

    PubMed

    Kang, J; Huang, F; Onstad, D W

    2014-08-01

    Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is a target pest of transgenic corn expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) protein, and the first evidence of resistance by D. saccharalis to Cry1Ab corn was detected in a field population in northeast Louisiana in 2004. We used a model of population dynamics and genetics of D. saccharalis to 1) study the effect of interfield dispersal, the first date that larvae enter diapause for overwintering, toxin mortality, the proportion of non-Bt corn in the corn patch, and the area of a crop patch on Bt resistance evolution; and 2) to identify gaps in empirical knowledge for managing D. saccharalis resistance to Bt corn. Increasing, the proportion of corn refuge did not always improve the durability of Bt corn if the landscape also contained sugarcane, sorghum, or rice. In the landscape, which consisted of 90% corn area, 5% sorghum area, and 5% rice area, the durability of single-protein Bt corn was 40 yr when the proportion of corn refuge was 0.2 but 16 yr when the proportion of corn refuge was 0.5. The Bt resistance evolution was sensitive to a change (from Julian date 260 to 272) in the first date larvae enter diapause for overwintering and moth movement. In the landscapes with Bt corn, non-Bt corn, sugarcane, sorghum, and rice, the evolution of Bt resistance accelerated when larvae entered diapause for overwintering early. Intermediate rates of moth movement delayed evolution of resistance more than either extremely low or high rates. This study suggested that heterogeneity in the agrolandscapes may complicate the strategy for managing Bt resistance in D. saccharalis, and designing a Bt resistance management strategy for D. saccharalis is challenging because of a lack of empirical data about overwintering and moth movement. PMID:24914780

  10. Pathogenicity of Nosema sp. (Microsporidia) in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Kermani, Nadia; Abu-Hassan, Zainal-Abidin; Dieng, Hamady; Ismail, Noor Farehan; Attia, Mansour; Abd Ghani, Idris

    2013-01-01

    Biological control using pathogenic microsporidia could be an alternative to chemical control of the diamondback moth (DBM) Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae). The microsporidium Nosema bombycis (NB) is one of the numerous pathogens that can be used in the Integrated Pest Management (IPM) of DBM. However, its pathogenicity or effectiveness can be influenced by various factors, particularly temperature. This study was therefore conducted to investigate the effect of temperature on NB infection of DBM larvae. Second-instar larvae at different doses (spore concentration: 0, 1×10²,1×10³,1×10⁴, and 1×10⁵) at 15°, 20°, 25°, 30° and 35°C and a relative humidity(RH) of 65% and light dark cycle (L:D) of 12∶12. Larval mortality was recorded at 24 h intervals until the larvae had either died or pupated. The results showed that the spore concentration had a significant negative effect on larval survival at all temperatures, although this effect was more pronounced (92%) at 35°C compared with that at 20 and 30°C (≃50%) and 25°C (26%). Histological observations showed that Nosema preferentially infected the adipose tissue and epithelial cells of the midgut, resulting in marked vacuolization of the cytoplasm. These findings suggest that Nosema damaged the midgut epithelial cells. Our results suggest that Nosema had a direct adverse effect on DBM, and could be utilized as an important biopesticide alternative to chemical insecticides in IPM. PMID:23675435

  11. Pathogenicity of Nosema sp. (Microsporidia) in the Diamondback Moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kermani, Nadia; Abu-hassan, Zainal-Abidin; Dieng, Hamady; Ismail, Noor Farehan; Attia, Mansour; Abd Ghani, Idris

    2013-01-01

    Biological control using pathogenic microsporidia could be an alternative to chemical control of the diamondback moth (DBM) Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae). The microsporidium Nosema bombycis (NB) is one of the numerous pathogens that can be used in the Integrated Pest Management (IPM) of DBM. However, its pathogenicity or effectiveness can be influenced by various factors, particularly temperature. This study was therefore conducted to investigate the effect of temperature on NB infection of DBM larvae. Second-instar larvae at different doses (spore concentration: 0, 1×102,1×103,1×104, and 1×105) at 15°, 20°, 25°, 30° and 35°C and a relative humidity(RH) of 65% and light dark cycle (L:D) of 12∶12. Larval mortality was recorded at 24 h intervals until the larvae had either died or pupated. The results showed that the spore concentration had a significant negative effect on larval survival at all temperatures, although this effect was more pronounced (92%) at 35°C compared with that at 20 and 30°C (≃50%) and 25°C (26%). Histological observations showed that Nosema preferentially infected the adipose tissue and epithelial cells of the midgut, resulting in marked vacuolization of the cytoplasm. These findings suggest that Nosema damaged the midgut epithelial cells. Our results suggest that Nosema had a direct adverse effect on DBM, and could be utilized as an important biopesticide alternative to chemical insecticides in IPM. PMID:23675435

  12. Toxicity of natural insecticides on the larvae of wheat head armyworm, Dargida diffusa (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Reddy, Gadi V P; Antwi, Frank B

    2016-03-01

    The wheat head armyworm, Dargida (previously Faronta) diffusa (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is widely distributed in North American grasslands and is most common on the Great Plains, where it is often a serious pest of corn and cereal crops. Six commercially available botanical or microbial insecticides used against D. diffusa were tested in the laboratory: Entrust(®) WP (spinosad 80%), Mycotrol(®) ESO (Beauveria bassiana GHA), Aza-Direct(®) (azadirachtin), Met52(®) EC (Metarhizium brunneum F52), Xpectro(®) OD (Beauveria bassiana GHA+pyrethrins), and Xpulse(®) OD (Beauveria bassiana GHA+azadirachtin). Concentrations of 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 fold the lowest labelled rates of formulated products were tested for all products, while for Entrust WP additional concentrations of 0.001 and 0.01 fold the label rates were also assessed. Survival rates were determined from larval mortality at 1-9 days post treatment application. We found that among the tested chemicals, Entrust(®) (spinosad) was the most effective, causing 83-100% mortality (0-17% survival rate) at day 3 across all concentrations. The others, in order of efficacy from most to least, were Xpectro(®) (B. bassiana GHA+pyrethrins), Xpulse(®)OD (B. bassiana GHA+azadirachtin), Aza-Direct(®) (azadirachtin), Met52(®) EC (M. brunneum F52), and Mycotrol(®) ESO (B. bassiana GHA). These products and entomopathogenic fungi caused 70-100% mortality (0-30% survivability) from days 7 to 9. The tested products and entomopathogenic fungi can be used in management of D. diffusa. PMID:26855414

  13. Effects of elevated CO2 leaf diets on gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) respiration rates.

    PubMed

    Foss, Anita R; Mattson, William J; Trier, Terry M

    2013-06-01

    Elevated levels of CO2 affect plant growth and leaf chemistry, which in turn can alter host plant suitability for insect herbivores. We examined the suitability of foliage from trees grown from seedlings since 1997 at Aspen FACE as diet for the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae: paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marshall) in 2004-2005, and trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michaux) in 2006-2007, and measured consequent effects on larval respiration. Leaves were collected for diet and leaf chemistry (nutritional and secondary compound proxies) from trees grown under ambient (average 380 ppm) and elevated CO2 (average 560 ppm) conditions. Elevated CO2 did not significantly alter birch or aspen leaf chemistry compared with ambient levels with the exception that birch percent carbon in 2004 and aspen moisture content in 2006 were significantly lowered. Respiration rates were significantly higher (15-59%) for larvae reared on birch grown under elevated CO2 compared with ambient conditions, but were not different on two aspen clones, until larvae reached the fifth instar, when those consuming elevated CO2 leaves on clone 271 had lower (26%) respiration rates, and those consuming elevated CO2 leaves on clone 216 had higher (36%) respiration rates. However, elevated CO2 had no apparent effect on the respiration rates of pupae derived from larvae fed either birch or aspen leaves. Higher respiration rates for larvae fed diets grown under ambient or elevated CO2 demonstrates their lower efficiency of converting chemical energy of digested food stuffs extracted from such leaves into their biosynthetic processes. PMID:23726059

  14. Reducing tuber damage by potato tuberworm (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) with cultural practices and insecticides.

    PubMed

    Clough, G H; Rondon, S i; DeBano, S J; David, N; Hamm, P B

    2010-08-01

    Cultural practices and insecticide treatments and combinations were evaluated for effect on tuber damage by potato tuberworm, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in the Columbia basin of eastern Oregon and Washington. A range of intervals between initial application of several insecticides and vine-kill were tested to determine how early to implement a program to control potato tuberworm tuber damage. Esfenvalerate, methamidophos, and methomyl were applied at recommended intervals, with programs beginning from 28 to 5 d before vine-kill. All insecticide treatments significantly reduced tuber damage compared with the untreated control, but there was no apparent advantage to beginning control efforts earlier than later in the season. Esfenvalerate and indoxacarb at two rates and a combination of the two insecticides were applied weekly beginning 4 wk before and at vine-kill, and indoxacarb was applied at and 1 wk postvine-kill as chemigation treatments. Application of insecticides at and after vine-kill also reduced tuberworm infestation. 'Russet Norkotah' and 'Russet Burbank' plants were allowed to naturally senesce or were chemically defoliated. They received either no irrigation or were irrigated by center-pivot with 0.25 cm water daily from vine-kill until harvest 2 wk later. Daily irrigation after vine-kill reduced tuber damage, and chemical vine-kill tended to reduce tuber damage compared with natural senescence. Covering hills with soil provides good protection but must be done by vine-kill. Data from these trials indicate that the most critical time for initiation of control methods is immediately before and at vine-kill. PMID:20857741

  15. Sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) management threshold assessment on four sugarcane cultivars.

    PubMed

    Posey, F R; White, W H; Reay-Jones, F P F; Gravois, K; Salassi, M E; Leonard, B R; Reagan, T E

    2006-06-01

    This research assesses the potential for using different economic injury thresholds in management of a key insect pest on susceptible and resistant commercially produced cultivars of sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids). In a 2-yr sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), study involving four commercially produced sugarcane cultivars and four insecticide treatment thresholds, 'LCP 85-384' and 'HoCP 91-555' were the most susceptible based on percentage of bored internodes compared with the more resistant 'HoCP 85-845' and 'CP 70-321'. In 2001, the 10% infested stalks threshold was not as effective as the 5% early season-10% late season and 5% full season for HoCP 91-555. Based on D. saccharalis injury under natural infestation conditions, susceptible cultivars seem to require a lower infestation threshold than the more resistant cultivars to achieve adequate injury reduction. Among yield components, only the theoretical recoverable sugar per stalk was significantly increased by applying insecticides. With the resistant HoCP 85-845, differences were not detected for percentage of bored internodes among treated versus untreated management regimes. The resistant HoCP 85-845 had higher levels of fiber in our study; however, no clear pattern on resistance mechanisms was established, because the resistant cultivar CP 70-321 had comparatively low levels of fiber. The development of cultivar-specific thresholds is expected to lower the amount of insecticide used for D. saccharalis management in the sugarcane industry, reduce selection pressure, and delay the development of insecticide resistance. PMID:16813338

  16. Characterization of a single-nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus of Thysanoplusia orichalcea L. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Cheng, X W; Carner, G R

    2000-05-01

    A single-nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV) isolated from Thysanoplusia orichalcea L. (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) (ThorNPV) in Indonesia has tetrahedral occlusion bodies (OBs) with a width of 1. 22 microm (range = 0.803-1.931 microm). The length of the virion with an envelope averaged 0.29 and 0.23 microm without an envelope. ThorNPV was propagated in Pseudoplusia includens (Walker) and its authenticity was confirmed by sequence analysis of the polyhedrin gene of the ThorNPV produced in T. orichalcea and P. includens. Polyhedrin amino acid sequence analysis revealed that ThorNPV belongs to Group II of baculoviruses and is closely related to Trichoplusia ni single nucleocapsid NPV, sharing 97.6% sequence identity. Infectivity of ThorNPV against third instar P. includens was low, with a LD(50) value of 65,636 OBs/larva. Electron microscopy of infected tissues showed many polyhedra without virions embedded, which might explain the low virulence against P. includens. Differences in virion occlusion rates between individual cells in the same tissue suggested that the inoculum consisted of at least two variants that differed in the gene(s) controlling virion occlusion. In a host range test using the LD(50) value to P. includens against Spodoptera exigua, S. frugiperda, S. eridania, Anticarsia gemmatalis, Helicoverpa zea, Trichoplusia ni, and P. includens, P. includens was the only species infected. The virus infected primarily the fat body, tracheal epithelium, and hypodermis. The genomic size of the ThorNPV is 135 kb. PMID:10843835

  17. Notable plesiomorphies and notable specializations: head structure of the primitive "tongue moth" Acanthopteroctetes unifascia (Lepidoptera: Acanthopteroctetidae).

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Niels P; Rota, Jadranka; Fischer, Stefan

    2014-02-01

    The Acanthopteroctetidae are one of the first-originated family-group lineages within "tongue moths" (Lepidoptera-Glossata). The purpose of this study is to provide a comprehensive account (based on whole mount preparations, serial sections, and Scanning electron microscopy) of the cephalic structure of an adult exemplar of the family, to supplement the sparse available information. Notable plesiomorphies include the retention of frontal retractors of the narrow labrum, a high supraocular index linked to strong development of cranio-mandibular ad- and abductors, and perhaps the unusually short but still coilable (just ca. 1.5 turns) galeal "tongue." Notable specializations (probably mostly family autapomorphies) include a complement of large sensilla placodea on the male antennae, an apical attachment of the long dorsal tentorial arm to the cranium, an extreme reduction of the single-segmented labial palps, a particularly strong subgenal bridge and a surface structure of near-parallel ridges on the ommatidial corneae. The presence of sizable saccular mandibular (type 1) glands opening into the adductor apodeme is unexpected, no counterparts being known from neighboring taxa. The same is true for ventral salivarium dilator muscles originating on the prelabium; and tentatively suggested to be homologues of the extrinsic palp flexors (the insertion shift being related to loss of original function due to palp reduction), rather than to the ventral salivarium muscles of more basal insects. A complete "deutocerebral loop"' may or may not be developed, as is true for a mutual appression of the optic lobe and circumoesophageal connective/suboesophageal ganglion, enclosing the anterior tentorial arm between them; a suboesophageal innervation of the retrocerebral complex was not observed. No characters bearing on the monophyly of the Coelolepida were identified. The scapo-pedicellar articulation with a scapal process and a smooth intercalary sclerite is reminiscent of

  18. Effects of Temperature on Development and Survival of Orthopygia glaucinalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) Reared on Platycarya strobilacea.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian-Feng; Yang, Mao-Fa; Hu, Ji-Feng; Han, Chang

    2015-04-01

    The larvae of Orthopygia glaucinalis (L.) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) are used to produce insect tea in Guizhou, China. We investigated the development and survival of O. glaucinalis reared on dried leaves of Platycarya strobilacea under laboratory conditions at 19, 22, 25, 28, 31, 34, and 37°C. The duration of development from egg deposition to adult emergence decreased significantly with increasing temperature from 19 to 31°C, whereas the duration of egg and overall development significantly increased at 34°C. Based on the extreme-value distribution function, the optimal temperature for survival of overall development was 24.89°C, and the larval stage was most susceptible to temperature extremes. The common linear model and the Ikemoto and Takai linear model were used to determine the relationship between temperature and the developmental rate, and estimated the low-temperature threshold (11.44 and 11.62°C, respectively) and the threshold constant (1220.70 and 1203.58 degree-days, respectively) of O. glaucinalis. Nonlinear models were used to assess in fitting the experiment data and to estimate the high temperature thresholds (34.00 to 39.08°C) and optimal temperatures (31.61 to 33.45°C). An intrinsic optimal temperature of 24.18°C was estimated for overall development using the Sharpe-Schoolfield-Ikemoto (SSI) model. Model-averaged parameter estimates and the unconditional standard error were also estimated for the temperature thresholds. Based on the biological parameters and model selection, we concluded that common linear, Lactin-1, and SSI models performed better for predicting the temperature-dependent development of O. glaucinalis. Our findings enable breeders to optimize the developmental rate of O. glaucinalis and improve the yield of insect tea. PMID:26470161

  19. Seasonal migration of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) over the Bohai Sea.

    PubMed

    Feng, Hongqiang; Wu, Xianfu; Wu, Bo; Wu, Kongming

    2009-02-01

    The seasonal migration of the Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) over the Bohai Sea was observed with a searchlight trap and an entomological radar located on a small island in the center of the sea, and through a network of light-traps around the Bohai region. The H. armigera moths were observed to migrate over the sea at least as early as May and light trapping through a network suggested migration might start as early as April, as soon as the moths had emerged from overwintering pupae. H. armigera moths migrated toward the north in southerly winds during spring and summer, and returned south on nights with northerly winds, or at altitudes where the wind was northerly, during fall. The passage of a weather front (cold or warm) or trough at approximately 1700 hours provokes migration of H. armigera over the sea. The H. armigera generally flew at altitudes of below 1,500 m above sea level (asl) with layer concentrations at 200-500 m asl, where the wind direction, wind speed, and temperature were optimum. During fall migration, H. armigera tended to orient toward the southwest and was able to compensate for the wind drift by turning clockwise when the downwind direction was < 225 degrees but counterclockwise when it was > 225 degrees. The displacement speed measured with the radar was 24-41 km/h, the duration of flight was 8-11 h and the maximum migration rate was 1,894 moths per km per h. PMID:19253623

  20. Modulation of Juvenile Hormone Esterase Gene Expression Against Development of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    2016-04-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is a widespread and destructive pest of cruciferous crops. Owing to its increasing resistance to conventional pesticides, new strategies need to be developed for diamondback moth control. Here, we investigated factors that modulate juvenile hormone esterase (JHE) activity and jhe (Px004817) transcription, and determined the effects of these factors on subsequent growth and development in diamondback moth. Starvation inhibited JHE activity and jhe transcription, increased mortality, and decreased the rate of molting from the third- to the fourth-instar stages. Larvae kept at 32°C molted earlier and showed increased JHE activity and jhe transcription after 24-h treatment. Exposure to 1,325 mg/liter OTFP (3-octylthio-1,1,1-trifluoro-2-propanone) delayed molting and pupation, increased pupal weight, and decreased JHE activity and jhe transcription at both 24 and 48 h. Treatment with 500 mg/liter pyriproxyfen delayed molting, completely suppressed pupation, and significantly increased JHE activity at 48 h and jhe transcription at 24 and 48 h. A combination of OTFP (1,325 mg/liter) and pyriproxyfen (500 mg/liter) induced the highest mortality, delayed molting, completely suppressed pupation, and significantly increased JHE activity at 48 h and jhe transcription at 24 and 48 h. These effects on JHE activity and jhe transcription were similar to those in insects treated only with pyriproxyfen. The results demonstrated that JHE and jhe (Px004817) were involved in the responses of diamondback moth to external modulators and caused changes in growth and development. The combination of OTFP and pyriproxyfen increased the effectiveness of action against diamondback moth. PMID:26880398

  1. Spatial Ecology of the Palm-Leaf Skeletonizer, Homaledra sabelella (Lepidoptera: Coleophoridae)

    PubMed Central

    Cronin, James T.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the processes that determine the distribution of populations is a fundamental goal in ecology. In this study, I determined the relative contribution of space and the biotic and abiotic environment to the distribution of the palm-leaf skeletonizer Homaledra sabalella (PLS; Lepidoptera: Coleophoridae) among patchily distributed dwarf palmettos (Sabal minor; Arecaceae). Based on surveys conducted at two sites in the Sherburne Wildlife Management Area, Louisiana, I found that the distribution of the PLS was primarily related to local environmental conditions – number of PLS increased with palmetto height, was greater in dry versus wet habitats, and varied in an inconsistent way with the type of understory cover. Spatial structure of the forest and isolation of the host plant were of minor importance to the distribution of the PLS. Based on a series of experiments, the mechanisms underlying the effects of these environmental variables on PLS abundance were elucidated. Tall palmettos have a greater abundance of PLS because they are 2.5 times more likely to be colonized than small palmettos. Tall palmettos do not represent better hosts (in terms of PLS survival to pupation, pupal length, or risk of parasitism). Similarly, an open understory increased colonization by two-fold, relative to a shrub understory, but understory type had no effect on host quality. Wet soils greatly reduced palmetto quality as a host (survival and pupal length), but only for the smallest palmettos (<0.75 m height). Finally, corroborating the survey data, my dispersal experiment revealed that the PLS is a strong flier and that local PLS populations (i.e., infested palmettos) are likely well connected by dispersal. I conclude by discussing how landscape-level changes at Sherburne Wildlife Management Area, owing to recent hurricane activity, could affect the risk of palmetto infestation by the PLS. PMID:21799826

  2. Effects of gibberellic acid on hemocytes of Galleria mellonella L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Altuntaş, H; Kılıç, A Y; Uçkan, F; Ergin, E

    2012-06-01

    The impacts of different doses of the plant growth regulator gibberellic acid (GA(3)) in diet on the number of total and differential hemocytes, frequency of apoptotic, and necrotic hemocytes, mitotic indices, encapsulation, and melanization responses were investigated using the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae. Total hemocyte counts increased in G. mellonella larvae at all treatment doses whereas GA(3) application had no effect on the number of different hemocyte types. The occurrence of apoptosis, necrosis and mitotic indices in GA(3) treated and untreated last instars were detected by acridine orange or ethidium bromide double staining by fluorescence microscopy. While the ratio of necrotic hemocytes increased at all GA(3) treatments, that of late apoptotic cells was only higher at doses >200 ppm when compared with untreated larvae. The percentage of mitotic index also increased at 5,000 ppm. Positively charged DEAE Sephadex A-25 beads were used for analysis of the levels of encapsulation and melanization in GA(3) treated G. mellonella larvae. At four and 24 h posttreatments with Sephadex A-25 bead injection, insects were dissected under a stereomicroscope. Encapsulation rates of larval hemocytes were dependent on the extent of encapsulation and time but not treatment groups. While the extent of melanization of hemocytes showed differences related to time, in general, a decrease was observed at all doses of GA(3) treated larvae at 24 h. We suggest that GA(3) treatment negatively affects hemocyte physiology and cell immune responses inducing cells to die by necrosis and apoptosis in G. mellonella larvae. PMID:22732628

  3. Identification and field bioassay of the sex pheromone of Trichophysetis cretacea (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    PubMed

    Peng, Cheng-Lin; Gu, Ping; Li, Juan; Chen, Qi-Yu; Feng, Chuang-Hong; Luo, Huai-Hai; Du, Yong-Jun

    2012-10-01

    The jasmine bud borer Trichophysetis cretacea (Butler) (Lepidoptera Crambidae) is an important agricultural pest of jasmine flowers Jasminum sambac in China. The extract from the pheromone gland of the female moth was analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate (Z11-16:Ac), (Z)-11-hexadecenal (Z11-16:Ald),and (Z)-11-hexadecenol (Z11-16:OH) were identified as the probable sex pheromone components. The electroantennogram (EAG) bioassay confirmed the results from the chemical analysis. Field bioassays conducted in the late summer and fall in Quanwei, Sichuan, China, showed that the synthetic chemical blend of Z11-16:Ac, Z11-16:Ald, and Z11-16:OH was highly attractive to male T. cretacea moths, and none of the three components was attractive by itself. All three components were necessary and the ratio of the three was critical. The highest number of male moths was captured when the ratio of Z11-16:Ac: Z11-16:Ald:Z11-16:OH was 10:10:1 at a dosage per lure of 200 microg Z11-16:Ac. The binary mixture of 200 microg Z11-16:Ac and 25 microg Z11-16:OH captured a number of Nymphicula mesorphna (10.3 +/- 4.4). The results indicate that traps with synthetic pheromone lures can be used to monitor jasmine bud borer populations in the field and potentially to control this pest. PMID:23156151

  4. Ecological Genetics and Host Range Expansion by Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Assefa, Y; Conlong, D E; Van Den Berg, J; Martin, L A

    2015-08-01

    The host plant range of pests can have important consequences for its evolution, and plays a critical role in the emergence and spread of a new pest outbreak. This study addresses the ecological genetics of the indigenous African maize stem borer, Busseola fusca (Fuller) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), in an attempt to investigate the evolutionary forces that may be involved in the recent host range expansion and establishment of this species in Ethiopian and southern African sugarcane. We used populations from Ethiopia, Zimbabwe, and South Africa to examine whether the host range expansion patterns shared by the Ethiopian and the southern African populations of B. fusca have evolved independently. Base-pair differences in the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene were used to characterize haplotype diversity and phylogenetic relationships. There were seven haplotypes among the 30 sequenced individuals collected on four host plant species from 17 localities in the four countries. Of the seven COI haplotypes identified, the two major ones occurred in both sugarcane and maize. Genetic analyses revealed no detectable genetic differentiation between southern African B. fusca populations from maize and sugarcane (FST = 0.019; P = 0.24). However, there was strong evidence of variation in genetic composition between populations of the pest from different geographic regions (FST = 0.948; P < 0.001). The main implication of these findings is that the B. fusca populations in maize in southern Africa are more likely to shift to sugarcane, suggesting that ecological opportunity is an important factor in host plant range expansion by a pest. PMID:26314073

  5. Biology of Habrobracon gelechiae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), as a parasitoid of the obliquebanded leafroller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Daane, Kent M; Wang, Xingeng; Duerr, Sean S; Kuhn, Emily J; Son, Youngsoo; Yokota, Glenn Y

    2013-02-01

    Habrobracon gelechiae Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) was studied as a parasitoid of the obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in California pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) orchards. Ovipositional behavior, adult longevity and fecundity, and the effects of temperature on developmental time and survival were determined. Habrobracon gelechiae develops as a gregarious, ectoparasitic idiobiont on late-instar C. rosaceana larvae. At 25°C, adult female wasps survived longer when provided honey and water (35.4 ± 4.9 d) or honey, water, and host larvae (34.4 ± 2.4 d) than when provided water (8.9 ± 1.1 d) or no food (5.9 ± 0.8 d). Over the adult lifespan, females parasitized 20.6 ± 2.1 hosts and deposited 228.8 ± 24.6 eggs. The intrinsic rate of increase was 0.24, the mean generation time was 18.15 d, and the double time 2.88 d. At constant temperatures, H. gelechiae successfully developed (egg to adult) from 15 to 35 °C. The developmental rate was fit to a nonlinear model, providing estimates of the parasitoid's lower (10.5 °C), upper (36.0 °C), and optimal (33.3 °C) development temperatures. Based on a linear model, 155 degree days were estimated for egg to adult eclosion. Temperature-dependent nonlinear model of survival showed similar shape with the model of development rate. The wasp developed under two diurnal temperature regimes, with 31.0 ± 13.3% survival at low (4-15 °C) and 63.0 ± 11.4% survival at high (15-35 °C) temperature regimes. The results are discussed with respect to H. gelechiae potential as a parasitoid of C. rosaceana in California's San Joaquin Valley. PMID:23339791

  6. Biocontrol of Duponcheria fovealis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) with soil-dwelling predators in potted plants.

    PubMed

    Messelink, G; Van Wensveen, W

    2003-01-01

    Duponchelia fovealis Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a widespread pest in Dutch greenhouses. Most damage is recorded from potted plants as kalanchoe, cyclamen and begonia. Caterpillars of this pyralid prefer to live in a moist soil layer were they feed on either plant parts or organic matter. Larvae typically seek shelter within plant parts or in soil. This behaviour hampers contact between pesticides and caterpillars. Growers, therefore would welcome an effective method to prevent damage by D. fovealis. This paper describes the effects of the soil-dwelling mites Hypoaspis miles (Berlese) and Hypoaspis aculeifer (Canestrini) (Acari: Laelapidae) and the beetle Atheta coriaria Kraatz (Coleoptera: Staphilinidae) on eggs and larvae of D. fovealis. Both predatory mites and adults of the staphilinid beetle gave excellent control of eggs of D. fovealis in potting soil with kalanchoe. H. miles was slightly (99 percent control), but significantly, better than H. aculeifer (92 percent control). 50 to 87 percent of the eggs were predated by adult beetles of A. coriaria. These beetles also prey on first larval stages of D. fovealis. 87 percent of the H. miles population was present in the upper soil layer, whereas about half of the population of H. aculeifer preferred to stay deeper than 5 cm in soil. This behaviour might explain the slightly better control of D. fovealis by H. miles, since eggs and first larval stages of D. fovealis are mostly present in the upper soil layer. All predators tested may contribute to an integrated or biological system for controlling D. fovealis in potted plants. PMID:15149106

  7. Viruses in laboratory-reared cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Marti, O.G.; Myers, R.E.; Carpenter, J.E.; Styer, E.L.

    2007-03-15

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae: Phycitinae), is a non-native species threatening a variety of native cacti, particularly endangered species of Opuntia (Zimmerman et al. 2001), on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. Cactoblastis cactorum populations have expanded from Florida northward along the Atlantic coast as far as Charleston, SC, and westward along the Gulf of Mexico to Dauphin Island, south of Mobile, AL. It is feared that further movement to the west will allow C. cactorum to enter the US desert Southwest and Mexico, particularly the latter. Numerous cactus species, especially those of the genera Opuntia and Nopalea, are native to the U.S. and Mexico. Local economies based on agricultural and horticultural uses of cacti could be devastated by C. cactorum (Vigueras and Portillo 2001). A bi-national control program between the US and Mexico is being developed, utilizing the sterile insect technique (SIT). In the SIT program, newly emerged moths are irradiated with a {sup 60}Co source and released to mate with wild individuals. The radiation dose completely sterilizes the females and partially sterilizes the males. When irradiated males mate with wild females, the F1 progeny of these matings are sterile. In order for the SIT program to succeed, large numbers of moths must be reared from egg to adult on artificial diet in a quarantined rearing facility (Carpenter et al. 2001). Irradiated insects must then be released in large numbers at the leading edge of the invasive population and at times which coincide with the presence of wild individuals available for mating. Mortality from disease in the rearing colony disrupts the SIT program by reducing the numbers of insects available for release.

  8. [Altitudinal richness patterns of Papilionidae, Pieridae and Nymphalidae (Lepidoptera) in Mexican mountain areas].

    PubMed

    Monteagudo Sabaté, David; Luis Martínez, Moisés Armando

    2013-09-01

    Altitudinal richness patterns of Papilionidae, Pieridae and Nymphalidae (Lepidoptera) in Mexican mountain areas. Butterflies constitute an useful group to investigate biodiversity patterns in specific geographic areas. The aim of this study was to describe the altitudinal patterns distribution and to recognize the main grouping factors of these families. We conducted a comparative study between the butterfly fauna (Papilionidae, Pieridae and Nymphalidae) of five Mexican mountain ranges (Sierra de Manantlán, Sierra de Atoyac de Alvarez, Loxicha Region, Teocelo-Xalapa and Sierra de Juárez), that included 34 sites of altitudinal ranges from 100 to 2 820m. Data was obtained from the Zoology Museum of the National University of Mexico, and comprised more than 60 000 butterfly records of 398 taxa (subspecies level) proceeding during the last 35 years. Fauna similarity between localities were analyzed using a cluster analysis by Sorensen similarity coefficient. Species richness showed a general tendency to decrease with altitude; the main difference was found between the locality with higher altitude and the rest of the sites. The principal factors affecting the identified clusters followed this order: the location in Pacific or Atlantic slope, and location on a particular mountain range. Three altitudinal levels (low elevations, up to 1 200m; intermediate elevations, from 1200 to 1800 m; and high elevations, from 1800 to 2500 m) were described in accordance to their main characteristic taxa. While Neartic elements were common in the highest altitudinal floor, Neotropical taxa were common in the lowest one. It was more difficult to characterize the intermediate level in which a high number of localities were clustered; this intermediate level was characterized by the presence of some endemic species. The results suggest that historical factors are preeminent in butterfly fauna composition in these areas. Future studies may include other Mexican mountain areas to obtain

  9. Phylogeny of the pollinating yucca moths, with revision of Mexican species (Tegeticula and Parategeticula; Lepidoptera, Prodoxidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Pellmyr, Olof; Balcazar-Lara, Manuel; Segraves, Kari A.; Althoff, David M.; Littlefield, Rik J.

    2008-02-01

    ABSTRACT The yucca moths (Tegeticula and Parategeticula; Lepidoptera, Prodoxidae) are well-known for their obligate relationship as exclusive pollinators of yuccas. Revisionary work in recent years has revealed far higher species diversity than historically recognized, increasing the number of described species from four to 21. Based on field surveys in Mexico and examination of collections, we describe five additional species: T. californica Pellmyr sp. nov., T. tehuacana Pellmyr & Balcázar-Lara sp. nov., T. tambasi Pellmyr & Balcázar-Lara sp. nov., T. baja Pellmyr & Balcázar-Lara sp. nov., and P. californica Pellmyr & Balcázar-Lara sp. nov. Tegeticula treculeanella Pellmyr is identified as a junior synonym of T. mexicana Bastida. A diagnostic key to the adults of all species of the T. yuccasella complex is provided. A phylogeny based on a 2104-bp segment of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in the cytochrome oxidase I and II region supported monophyly of the two pollinator genera, and strongly supported monophyly of the 17 recognized species of the T. yuccasella complex. Most relationships are well-supported, but some relationships within a recent and rapidly diversified group of 11 taxa are less robust, and in one case conflicts with a whole-genome data set (AFLP). The current mtDNA-based analyses, together with previously published AFLP data, provide a robust phylogenetic foundation for future studies of life history evolution and host interactions in one of the classical models of coevolution and obligate mutualism. ADDITIONAL KEY WORDS: mutualism, pollination, molecular phylogenetics, mitochondrial DNA

  10. Bollgard cotton and resistance of tobacco budworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to conventional insecticides in southern Tamaulipas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Terán-Vargas, A P; Rodríguez, J C; Blanco, C A; Martínez-Carrillo, J L; Cibrián-Tovar, J; Sánchez-Arroyo, H; Rodríguez-del-Bosque, L A; Stanley, D

    2005-12-01

    Insecticide susceptibility in tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), was determined for 8 yr (1991-2001) with larvae sampled from cotton in southern Tamaulipas, Mexico. Before 1996, when Bollgard cotton expressing the Cry1A(c) delta-endotoxin was introduced into the region, two important patterns were documented. The first was economically significant increases in resistance to certain insecticide groups. The second was occurrence of virtually complete control failures in the field during 1994 and 1995. The largest resistance changes were recorded for the type II pyrethroids cypermethrin and deltamethrin. These products are the most widely used products in the region. Resistance ratios for these products increased up to > 100-fold from 1991 to 1995. After 1996, the resistance levels declined. These findings did not occur with other products of scant use (e.g., permethrin, profenofos, and endosulfan) or low tobacco budworm efficacy coupled to a high use pattern (e.g., methyl parathion). This clear trend toward reversal of resistance to type II pyrethroids can be understood, in part, with respect to two factors: 1) the high adoption rate of transgenic cotton in the region, from 31.2% in the beginning (1996) to approximately 90% in 1998; this has considerably curbed the use of synthetic insecticides, with the attending loss of selection pressure on this pest; and 2) the potential immigration to the region of susceptible tobacco budworms from cultivated and wild suitable hosts as well as from transgenic cotton might have influenced the pest population as a whole. The influence of transgenic cotton on southern Tamaulipas can be more clearly seen by the drastic reduction of insecticide use to control this important pest. Now tobacco budworms in this region are susceptible to type II pyrethroids. Two effective and fundamentally different pest management tools are now available to cotton growers in southern Tamaulipas: transgenic cotton

  11. Susceptibility of bollworm and tobacco budworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to Cry2Ab2 insecticidal protein.

    PubMed

    Ali, M I; Luttrell, R G

    2007-06-01

    Susceptibilities of 82 bollworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), and 44 tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), populations to Cry2Ab2 protein were measured in diet incorporated assays at the University of Arkansas from 2002 to 2005. Resulting data were used to calculate overall (pooled data) estimates of species susceptibility for future benchmarks of resistance. Variabilities among populations also were studied by comparing regressions for individual populations and calculating mean susceptibilities for different subgroups of the colonies studied. Individual lethal concentration (LC50) estimates for nine laboratory, seven laboratory-cross, and 28 field populations of H. virescens varied up to 48-fold when adjusted for the response of the most susceptible laboratory colony studied. Mean susceptibilities of all laboratory, laboratory-cross, or field colonies varied only two-fold. When grouped by host plants, populations collected on tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum (L.), seemed to be less susceptible than those collected on other host plants. Individual LC50 values for 82 laboratory, laboratory-cross and field populations of H. zea varied up to 37-fold. Mean LC50 values of all laboratory, laboratory-cross, or field populations varied only three-fold. Susceptibilities of populations from Bollgard cotton were up to four-fold less than those from Bacillus thuringiensis corn, Zea mays L. Field populations collected during late season were generally less susceptible than those collected early in the season. Across the two species, H. zea was less sensitive to Cry2Ab2 than H. virescens. Both species seem to be less sensitive to Cry2Ab2 than to CrylAc. PMID:17598557

  12. Effects of bacillus thuringiensis transgenic corn on corn earworm and fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) densities.

    PubMed

    Chilcutt, Charles F; Odvody, Gary N; Correa, J Carlos; Remmers, Jeff

    2007-04-01

    We examined 17 pairs of near-isogenic hybrids of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) (176, Mon810, and Bt11) and non-Bt corn, Zea mays L., to examine the effects of Bt on larval densities of Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) during 2 yr. During ear formation, instar densities of H. zea and S. frugiperda were recorded for each hybrid. We found that H. zea first, second, and fifth instar densities were each affected by Mon810 and Bt11 Bt corn but not by 176 corn. Surprisingly, first and second instars were found in higher numbers on ears of Mon810 and Bt11 corn than on non-Bt corn. Densities of third and fourth instars were equal on Bt and non-Bt hybrids, whereas densities of fifth instars were lower on Bt plants. S. frugiperda larval densities were only affected during 1 yr when second, and fourth to sixth instars were lower on ears of Mon810 and Bt11 hybrids compared with their non-Bt counterparts. Two likely explanations for early instar H. zea densities being higher on Bt corn than non-Bt corn are that (1) Bt toxins delay development, creating a greater abundance of early instars that eventually die, and (2) reduced survival of H. zea to later instars on Bt corn decreased the normal asymmetric cannibalism or H. zea-S. frugiperda intraguild predation of late instars on early instars. Either explanation could explain why differences between Bt and non-Bt plants were greater for H. zea than S. frugiperda, because H. zea is more strongly affected by Bt toxins and more cannibalistic. PMID:17461054

  13. Predicting economic losses from the continued spread of the Mexican rice borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    PubMed

    Reay-Jones, F P F; Wilson, L T; Reagan, T E; Legendre, B L; Way, M O

    2008-04-01

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is an invasive species that originated from Mexico, and it is threatening to cause major economic losses to sugarcane, Saccharum spp., and rice, Oryza sativa L., industries in Louisiana. The insect is expected to reach sugarcane and rice production areas in Louisiana by 2008, and infest all of Louisiana sugarcane and rice industries by 2035. When all sugarcane in Louisiana becomes infested, annual yield losses of $220 million would be expected for a cultivar of comparable susceptibility to LCP 85-384 (assuming this cultivar is planted on 100% of the production area). This also assumes the use of the current practice of rainfed production and one application of insecticide, which is presently used by farmers in Louisiana. Irrigation with 30 cm of water is predicted to reduce estimated losses by 29%, whereas four applications of a biorational insecticide such as tebufenozide are expected to reduce the loss in revenue by 53%. The use of the resistant 'HoCP 85-845' would reduce the projected loss in revenue by 24%. Combining all three management tactics on sugarcane, anticipated net loss in revenue would decrease by 66%. The rice industry in Louisiana is projected to suffer from a loss in revenue of $45 million when the entire state is infested. A 77% reduction in loss in revenue is expected with one application of lambda-cyhalothrin. A quarantine on east Texas sugarcane is estimated to save the Louisiana industry between $1.1 billion and $3.2 billion (depending on management) during the time needed for the insect to fully invade the state's sugarcane and rice producing area by natural migration rather than by accidental introduction. The rapid deployment of appropriate management tactics will have a key role in reducing the anticipated economic impact of E. loftini once it becomes a pest in Louisiana sugarcane and rice. PMID:18459384

  14. Mitochondrial Genome Sequence and Expression Profiling for the Legume Pod Borer Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    PubMed Central

    Margam, Venu M.; Coates, Brad S.; Hellmich, Richard L.; Agunbiade, Tolulope; Seufferheld, Manfredo J.; Sun, Weilin; Ba, Malick N.; Sanon, Antoine; Binso-Dabire, Clementine L.; Baoua, Ibrahim; Ishiyaku, Mohammad F.; Covas, Fernando G.; Srinivasan, Ramasamy; Armstrong, Joel; Murdock, Larry L.; Pittendrigh, Barry R.

    2011-01-01

    We report the assembly of the 14,054 bp near complete sequencing of the mitochondrial genome of the legume pod borer (LPB), Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), which we subsequently used to estimate divergence and relationships within the lepidopteran lineage. The arrangement and orientation of the 13 protein-coding, 2 rRNA, and 19 tRNA genes sequenced was typical of insect mitochondrial DNA sequences described to date. The sequence contained a high A+T content of 80.1% and a bias for the use of codons with A or T nucleotides in the 3rd position. Transcript mapping with midgut and salivary gland ESTs for mitochondrial genome annotation showed that translation from protein-coding genes initiates and terminates at standard mitochondrial codons, except for the coxI gene, which may start from an arginine CGA codon. The genomic copy of coxII terminates at a T nucleotide, and a proposed polyadenylation mechanism for completion of the TAA stop codon was confirmed by comparisons to EST data. EST contig data further showed that mature M. vitrata mitochondrial transcripts are monocistronic, except for bicistronic transcripts for overlapping genes nd4/nd4L and nd6/cytb, and a tricistronic transcript for atp8/atp6/coxIII. This processing of polycistronic mitochondrial transcripts adheres to the tRNA punctuated cleavage mechanism, whereby mature transcripts are cleaved only at intervening tRNA gene sequences. In contrast, the tricistronic atp8/atp6/coxIII in Drosophila is present as separate atp8/atp6 and coxIII transcripts despite the lack of an intervening tRNA. Our results indicate that mitochondrial processing mechanisms vary between arthropod species, and that it is crucial to use transcriptional information to obtain full annotation of mitochondrial genomes. PMID:21311752

  15. Evaluation of pheromone-based management strategies for dogwood borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) in commercial apple orchards.

    PubMed

    Leskey, Tracy C; Bergh, J Christopher; Walgenbach, James F; Zhang, Aijun

    2009-06-01

    The dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), is a serious wood-boring pest of apple in eastern North America. The recent identification of its sex pheromone and systematic documentation of the effect of a potent behavioral antagonist affords the opportunity to develop pheromone-based management strategies for this important pest. Here we evaluated the potential of pheromone-based mass trapping of males to reduce dogwood borer infestations and conducted preliminary evaluations of an antagonist-based pheromone blend for disruption of dogwood borer mate finding in commercial apple orchards in North Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia. In the mass trapping study, treatments included a conventional trunk-drench application of chlorpyrifos, a low-density mass trapping regime of 5 traps/ha, a higher-density mass trapping regime of 20 traps/ha, and an untreated control. We removed large numbers of males from orchards at all locations, with 27,155, 8,418, and 7,281 removed from high-density trapping plots in North Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia, respectively, over 2 yr. After 2 yr under each of these treatment regimes, infestation in high- and low-density mass trapping plots was not reduced to the level of chlorpyrifos-treated plots. An antagonist-based dispenser deployed at a rate of 250/ha effectively disrupted mate-finding by male dogwood borer. In plots with mating disruption dispensers, captures in pheromone-baited traps were virtually eliminated, and no males were captured in traps baited with virgin females. PMID:19610423

  16. Effect of electron beam irradiation on developmental stages of Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Junheon; Chung, Soon-Oh; Jang, Sin Ae; Jang, Miyeon; Park, Chung Gyoo

    2015-07-01

    Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is an economically important and polyphagous pest, which harms various kinds of food crops and important agricultural plants, such as cotton and paprika. Effects of electron beam irradiation at six dose levels between 50 and 350 Gy on the egg (24-48 h old), the larval (4-5th instar), and the pupal (7-d old for female, 5-d old for male) development, and on the adult (1-d old) reproduction were tested to identify a potential quarantine treatment dose. Increased doses of irradiation on eggs decreased egg hatchability, pupation and adult emergence and increased larval period. ED99 values for inhibition of hatching, pupation and emergence were 460.6, 236.9 and 197.8 Gy, respectively. When larvae were irradiated with more than 280 Gy, no larvae could develop into pupae. ED99 values for inhibition of pupation and adult emergence were 265.6 and 189.6 Gy, respectively. Even though the irradiation on pupa did not completely inhibit adult emergence, most of the pupae emerged to deformed adults. When adults were irradiated, fecundity was not affected. However, F1 egg hatching was completely inhibited at the dose of 350 Gy. ED99 value for inhibition of adult emergence was estimated at 366.5 Gy. Our results suggest that electron beam irradiation could be recommendable as an alternative to MB and as a phytosanitary treatment for quarantine. A treatment dose of less than or equal to 220 Gy is suggested as a potential quarantine treatment to H. armigera egg for prevention of pupation and to larva for prevention of adult emerge.

  17. Contrasting responses to desiccation and starvation by eggs and neonates of two lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Woods, H A; Singer, M S

    2001-01-01

    We examined the effects of desiccation on eggs and first-instar larvae of two species of Lepidoptera, Grammia geneura (Arctiidae) and Manduca sexta (Sphingidae). Grammia geneura occurs primarily in grasslands and savannas of the southwestern United States; M. sexta co-occurs with G. geneura but also is cosmopolitan across much of the Western Hemisphere. Eggs of G. geneura exposed to 0% relative humidity (RH) lost water much less rapidly (7.6 microg d(-1); 2.4% d(-1)) than did eggs of M. sexta (79.5 microg d(-1); 5.7% d(-1)). Eggs of both species survived at rates exceeding 75% at both 0% and 85% RH. Neonates of the two species responded differently to desiccation and starvation. In 85% RH, larval G. geneura survived at high rates (>80%) without access to food or water up to day 17, and in 0% RH, they survived at rates exceeding 50% through the first 10 d. Larvae at 0% RH lost mass very slowly (7.2 microg d(-1); 2.9% d(-1)), which was attributable both to low rates of water loss and to an ability to reduce metabolic rate to low levels. Larval M. sexta, in contrast, had rates of mortality that were much higher: after 1 d, fewer than 30% were alive in either group, and by about 1.5 d, all were dead. Neonate M. sexta also lost mass much more rapidly at 0% RH, about 329 microg d(-1). Water from metabolism appeared to contribute significantly to the water budget of G. geneura but not of M. sexta. These data show that G. geneura and M. sexta can inhabit similar macroclimates via remarkably different physiologies. PMID:11436144

  18. Identification of olfactory receptor neurons in Uraba lugens (Lepidoptera: Nolidae) and its implications for host range.

    PubMed

    Park, Kye Chung; Withers, Toni M; Suckling, David Maxwell

    2015-07-01

    Phytophagous insects detect volatile compounds produced by host and non-host plants, using species-specific sets of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs). To investigate the relationship between the range of host plants and the profile of ORNs, single sensillum recordings were carried out to identify ORNs and corresponding active compounds in female Uraba lugens (Lepidoptera: Nolidae), an oligophagous eucalypt feeder. Based on the response profiles to 39 plant volatile compounds, 13 classes of sensilla containing 40 classes of ORNs were identified in female U. lugens. More than 95% (163 out of 171) of these sensilla contained 16 classes of ORNs with narrow response spectra, and 62.6% (107 out of 171) 18 classes of ORNs with broad response spectra. Among the specialized ORNs, seven classes of ORNs exhibited high specificity to 1,8-cineole, (±)-citronellal, myrcene, (±)-linalool and (E)-β-caryophyllene, major volatiles produced by eucalypts, while nine other classes of ORNs showed highly specialized responses to green leaf volatiles, germacrene D, (E)-β-farnesene and geranyl acetate that are not produced by most eucalypts. We hypothesize that female U. lugens can recognize their host plants by detecting key host volatile compounds, using a set of ORNs tuned to host volatiles, and discriminate them from non-host plants using another set of ORNs specialized for non-host volatiles. The ORNs with broad response spectra may enhance the discrimination between host and non-host plants by adding moderately selective sensitivity. Based on our finding, it is suggested that phytophagous insects use the combinational input from both host-specific and non-host specific ORNs for locating their host plants, and the electrophysiological characterization of ORN profiles would be useful in predicting the range of host plants in phytophagous insects. PMID:25937382

  19. Phylogeny and Biogeography of Hawkmoths (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae): Evidence from Five Nuclear Genes

    PubMed Central

    Kawahara, Akito Y.; Mignault, Andre A.; Regier, Jerome C.; Kitching, Ian J.; Mitter, Charles

    2009-01-01

    Background The 1400 species of hawkmoths (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) comprise one of most conspicuous and well-studied groups of insects, and provide model systems for diverse biological disciplines. However, a robust phylogenetic framework for the family is currently lacking. Morphology is unable to confidently determine relationships among most groups. As a major step toward understanding relationships of this model group, we have undertaken the first large-scale molecular phylogenetic analysis of hawkmoths representing all subfamilies, tribes and subtribes. Methodology/Principal Findings The data set consisted of 131 sphingid species and 6793 bp of sequence from five protein-coding nuclear genes. Maximum likelihood and parsimony analyses provided strong support for more than two-thirds of all nodes, including strong signal for or against nearly all of the fifteen current subfamily, tribal and sub-tribal groupings. Monophyly was strongly supported for some of these, including Macroglossinae, Sphinginae, Acherontiini, Ambulycini, Philampelini, Choerocampina, and Hemarina. Other groupings proved para- or polyphyletic, and will need significant redefinition; these include Smerinthinae, Smerinthini, Sphingini, Sphingulini, Dilophonotini, Dilophonotina, Macroglossini, and Macroglossina. The basal divergence, strongly supported, is between Macroglossinae and Smerinthinae+Sphinginae. All genes contribute significantly to the signal from the combined data set, and there is little conflict between genes. Ancestral state reconstruction reveals multiple separate origins of New World and Old World radiations. Conclusions/Significance Our study provides the first comprehensive phylogeny of one of the most conspicuous and well-studied insects. The molecular phylogeny challenges current concepts of Sphingidae based on morphology, and provides a foundation for a new classification. While there are multiple independent origins of New World and Old World radiations, we conclude that

  20. Evaluation of five antibiotics on larval gut bacterial diversity of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiao-Li; Kang, Zhi-Wei; Pan, Qin-Jian; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2015-10-01

    Larvae of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), have rich microbial communities inhabiting the gut, and these bacteria contribute to the fitness of the pest. In this study we evaluated the effects of five antibiotics (rifampicin, ampicillin, tetracycline, streptomycin sulfate and chloramphenicol) on the gut bacterial diversity of P. xylostella larvae. We screened five different concentrations for each antibiotic in a leaf disc assay, and found that rifampicin and streptomycin sulfate at 3 mg/mL significantly reduced the diversity of the bacterial community, and some bacterial species could be rapidly eliminated. The number of gut bacteria in the rifampicin group and streptomycin sulfate group decreased more rapidly than the others. With the increase of antibiotic concentration, the removal efficiency was improved, whereas toxic effects became more apparent. All antibiotics reduced larval growth and development, and eventually caused high mortality, malformation of the prepupae, and hindered pupation and adult emergence. Among the five antibiotics, tetracycline was the most toxic and streptomycin sulfate was a relatively mild one. Some dominant bacteria were not affected by feeding antibiotics alone. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis graph showed that the most abundant and diverse bacteria in P. xylostella larval gut appeared in the cabbage feeding group, and diet change and antibiotics intake influenced gut flora abundance. Species diversity was significantly reduced in the artificial diet and antibiotics treatment groups. After feeding on the artificial diet with rifampicin, streptomycin sulfate and their mixture for 10 days, larval gut bacteria could not be completely removed as detected with the agarose gel electrophoresis method. PMID:25183343