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Sample records for subjective audiological tests

  1. Audiological Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Darrell E., Ed.

    The text, designed for students and others interested in clinical audiology, is intended to provide comprehensive coverage of not only important concepts in audiology but particularly of the methods and procedures used in audiological assessment. The functions of tests, the administration of specific tests, and the analysis of test results are…

  2. Cochlear Implants in Subjects Over Age 65: Quality of Life and Audiological Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Aimoni, Claudia; Ciorba, Andrea; Hatzopoulos, Stavros; Ramacciotti, Giulia; Mazzoli, Manuela; Bianchini, Chiara; Rosignoli, Monica; Skarżyński, Henryk; Skarżyński, Piotr H

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cochlear implants (CIs) have been recognized as a safe and effective means for profound hearing loss rehabilitation in children and adults and recently their use has been extended to subjects over 65 years of age. The aim of this paper was to assess indices related to changes in the quality of life (QoL) in elderly CI recipients. MATERIAL AND METHODS A case-control paradigm was used to assess the effects of CIs on the QoL. Forty-two subjects were assigned to the Case group and 15 subjects to the Control group. All 57 subjects were affected by profound hearing loss and had received a CI. Audiological data were collected from both groups at: (i) 1 month pre-implantation [T1]; (ii) 1 day pre- implantation [T2]; (iii) 30 days post-implantation, with CI used in free field [T3]; and (iv) 12 months post-implantation, with CI used in a free field [T4]. The QoL was assessed via a Glasgow Benefit Inventory (GBI) questionnaire, adapted to otolaryngology. To compare subjects across different ages with varying degrees of speech development, a perception parameter was used from the Speech Perception Categories test developed by Geers and Moog. RESULTS Hearing performance was considerably improved after CI. In relation to the hearing performance at time T1, statistically significant threshold gains were observed in both groups in the T3 and T4 observation windows. At time T4, a threshold gain of 70 dB HL in the Case group and a gain of 84 dB HL in the Control group were observed. With speech therapy rehabilitation, a perception level of 6 was reached by 80.0% of patients in the Case group and by 100% of patients in the Control group. In terms of QoL, both groups showed improved post-CI scores. Statistical differences were observed between the 2 groups, with the Control group outperforming the Case group in all but the social section. CONCLUSIONS Despite age-related changes in auditory system and prolonged hearing deprivation, CIs offer audiological and QoL benefits in

  3. A Browser-Server-Based Tele-audiology System That Supports Multiple Hearing Test Modalities

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Daoyuan; Givens, Gregg

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Millions of global citizens suffering from hearing disorders have limited or no access to much needed hearing healthcare. Although tele-audiology presents a solution to alleviate this problem, existing remote hearing diagnosis systems support only pure-tone tests, leaving speech and other test procedures unsolved, due to the lack of software and hardware to enable communication required between audiologists and their remote patients. This article presents a comprehensive remote hearing test system that integrates the two most needed hearing test procedures: a pure-tone audiogram and a speech test. Materials and Methods: This enhanced system is composed of a Web application server, an embedded smart Internet-Bluetooth® (Bluetooth SIG, Kirkland, WA) gateway (or console device), and a Bluetooth-enabled audiometer. Several graphical user interfaces and a relational database are hosted on the application server. The console device has been designed to support the tests and auxiliary communication between the local site and the remote site. Results: The study was conducted at an audiology laboratory. Pure-tone audiogram and speech test results from volunteers tested with this tele-audiology system are comparable with results from the traditional face-to-face approach. Conclusions: This browser-server–based comprehensive tele-audiology offers a flexible platform to expand hearing services to traditionally underserved groups. PMID:25919376

  4. Towards an ecological audiology: stereophonic listening chamber and acoustic environmental tests.

    PubMed

    Borg, E; Wilson, M; Samuelsson, E

    1998-01-01

    An acoustic laboratory for reproduction of speech and acoustic environments is presented along with two sound field tests. Its design has been inspired by the LEDE (Living End Dead End) principle for construction of radio and music control rooms. The equipment and the 12 loudspeakers can simultaneously reproduce several stereophonic and monophonic recordings. The interesting feature is that the delayed first reflex in the LEDE room allows for a realistic perception of the recording room. A preliminary presentation of two newly developed tests for sound field listening is given. In DSIN. Directional Speech In Noise, the JFC (just follow conversation) threshold for continuous discourse is determined in 12 directions in quiet and in noise from +/- 60 degrees azimuth. In SEIT (Sound Environmental Identification Test), stereophonic acoustic environments are presented and the subject is asked to identify specific components and to characterize each environment as closely as possible. Results from tests with normal hearing subjects and examples of results with hearing impaired subjects are presented. The potential of the technique for use in aural rehabilitation, functional definition of auditory communication and quality assessment of hearing aids is discussed. It is pointed out that the term ecological audiology is suitable for describing the interaction between the communicating individual and the environment in a broad sense. PMID:9832401

  5. A Comparison of Two Methods for Measuring Listening Effort As Part of an Audiologic Test Battery

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jingjing; Cox, Robyn; Pendergraft, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated 2 measures of listening effort (a self-report measure and a word recall measure) regarding their suitability for inclusion in a comprehensive audiologic testing protocol. The relationship between the 2 measures was explored, and both measures were examined with regard to validity, sensitivity, and effect on speech intelligibility performance. Method Thirty adults with normal hearing participated. Speech intelligibility performance was evaluated at 4 signal-to-noise ratios by using keywords embedded in both high- and low-context sentences. Listening effort was evaluated at set intervals throughout the speech intelligibility task. Results Results obtained with the 2 measures were consistent with expected changes in listening effort. However, data obtained with the self-report method demonstrated greater sensitivity to these changes. The 2 measures were uncorrelated. Under certain conditions, speech intelligibility performance was more negatively affected when the word recall measure was used. Exploration of additional theoretical and practical considerations supported a conclusion that the self-report measure was preferable for measuring listening effort simultaneously with speech intelligibility. Conclusion The results of this study provide a rationale for preferring the self-report measure of listening effort over the word recall measure when testing audiologic outcomes. PMID:25996680

  6. Audiology Services Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallaudet Coll., Washington, DC. Pre-College Programs.

    The manual describes audiology services offered at the Model Secondary School for the Deaf (MSSD). Components are listed for diagnostic services, instructional services, program development, training, and publications. Testing and reporting procedures for MSSD students are outlined. Testing includes pure-tone air conduction testing, tympanometry,…

  7. Audiological results with the cochlear implant.

    PubMed

    Thielemeir, M A; Brimacombe, J A; Eisenberg, L S

    1982-01-01

    Audiological test results from 135 adult, profoundly deaf, single-electrode cochlear implant subjects are presented. Unaided, aided, and cochlear implant warble-tone and speech detection thresholds have been analyzed, as well as word, word stress, and environmental sound discrimination scores. Results indicate that implant thresholds are significantly better than aided thresholds at all frequencies tested and for speech detection. Also, word, word stress, and environmental sound discrimination scores are all significantly better with the implant than with a hearing aid. Although the implant does not provide speech discrimination, subjects report that it does provide valuable speech and sound awareness, which aids in speechreading and voice monitoring. A small group of subjects has shown that an an implant in the poorer ear can also be successfully combined with a hearing aid in the better ear. The audiological test results clearly show that the implant is a viable alternative for the profoundly deaf. PMID:6805394

  8. American Academy of Audiology

    MedlinePlus

    ... ABA Certification Meetings & Events Employee Resources Research Practice Management Reimbursement Coding Compliance Resources and Tools Publications Audiology Today Journal of the American Academy of Audiology Books Brochures ...

  9. Audiological findings in aphasic patients after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Onoue, Solange Satie; Ortiz, Karin Zazo; Minett, Thaís Soares Cianciarullo; Borges, Alda Christina Lopes de Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    Objective To outline the audiological findings of aphasic patients after cerebrovascular accidents. Methods This is a cross-sectional study performed between March 2011 and August 2012 in the Speech, Language, and Hearing Pathology Department of the Universidade Federal de São Paulo. A total of 43 aphasic subjects (27 men) were referred for audiological evaluation after stroke, with mean age of 54.48 years. Basic audiological evaluation tests were performed, including pure tone audiometry, speech audiometry (speech recognition threshold and word recognition score), immittance measures (tympanometry and contralateral acoustic reflex), and transient otoacoustic emissions. Results Sensorineural hearing loss was prevalent (78.6%). Speech recognition threshold and word recognition score were not obtained in some patients because they were unable to perform the task. Hearing loss was a common finding in this population. Conclusion Comprehension and/or oral emission disruptions in aphasic patients after stroke compromised conventional speech audiometry, resulting in the need for changes in the evaluation procedures for these patients. PMID:25628193

  10. Development and evaluation of a linguistically and audiologically controlled sentence intelligibility test.

    PubMed

    Uslar, Verena N; Carroll, Rebecca; Hanke, Mirko; Hamann, Cornelia; Ruigendijk, Esther; Brand, Thomas; Kollmeier, Birger

    2013-10-01

    To allow for a systematic variation of linguistic complexity of sentences while acoustically controlling for intelligibility of sentence fragments, a German corpus, Oldenburg linguistically and audiologically controlled sentences (OLACS), was designed, implemented, and evaluated. Sentences were controlled for plausibility with a questionnaire survey. Verification of the speech material was performed in three listening conditions (quiet, stationary, and fluctuating noise) by collecting speech reception thresholds (SRTs) and response latencies as well as individual cognitive measures for 20 young listeners with normal hearing. Consistent differences in response latencies across sentence types verified the effect of linguistic complexity on processing speed. The addition of noise decreased response latencies, giving evidence for different response strategies for measurements in noise. Linguistic complexity had a significant effect on SRT. In fluctuating noise, this effect was more pronounced, indicating that fluctuating noise correlates with stronger cognitive contributions. SRTs in quiet correlated with hearing thresholds, whereas cognitive measures explained up to 40% of the variance in SRTs in noise. In conclusion, OLACS appears to be a suitable tool for assessing the interaction between aspects of speech understanding (including cognitive processing) and speech intelligibility in German. PMID:24116439

  11. A Survey of the Deaf Community Concerning Their Opinions, Needs and Knowledge of Audiology and Audiology Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Charles E.; Martin, Frederick N.

    1987-01-01

    A survey questionnaire of 32 adult deaf subjects evaluated their knowledge of and interest in audiology and services of audiologists. Issues examined included communication, practices in audiology, deafness, hearing, the auditory system, delivery of specific services to the deaf community and general interrelationships in the deaf community.…

  12. Audiology in Nicaragua.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polich, Laura

    1995-01-01

    Interviews with 37 individuals in Nicaragua were the basis of this review of the audiology field in that nation. The review covers the prevalence and etiology of hearing impairment, training for audiologists, government services for individuals with hearing impairment, private agencies concerned with hearing impairment, and fitting and use of…

  13. Knowledge Translation in Audiology

    PubMed Central

    Kothari, Anita; Bagatto, Marlene P.; Seewald, Richard; Miller, Linda T.; Scollie, Susan D.

    2011-01-01

    The impetus for evidence-based practice (EBP) has grown out of widespread concern with the quality, effectiveness (including cost-effectiveness), and efficiency of medical care received by the public. Although initially focused on medicine, EBP principles have been adopted by many of the health care professions and are often represented in practice through the development and use of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). Audiology has been working on incorporating EBP principles into its mandate for professional practice since the mid-1990s. Despite widespread efforts to implement EBP and guidelines into audiology practice, gaps still exist between the best evidence based on research and what is being done in clinical practice. A collaborative dynamic and iterative integrated knowledge translation (KT) framework rather than a researcher-driven hierarchical approach to EBP and the development of CPGs has been shown to reduce the knowledge-to-clinical action gaps. This article provides a brief overview of EBP and CPGs, including a discussion of the barriers to implementing CPGs into clinical practice. It then offers a discussion of how an integrated KT process combined with a community of practice (CoP) might facilitate the development and dissemination of evidence for clinical audiology practice. Finally, a project that uses the knowledge-to-action (KTA) framework for the development of outcome measures in pediatric audiology is introduced. PMID:22194314

  14. Audiological Assessment of Deaf-Blind Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Phyllis F.; Roeser, Ross J.

    The audiological assessment of 50 deaf blind children, 6 months to 14 years of age, in an outpatient setting is described, as are testing procedures and results. Etiological factors are given which include maternal rubella (accounting for 27 children), meningitis, prematurity, neonatal anoxia, and Rh incompatability. Discussed are the following…

  15. The Role of Audiologic Evaluation in Progressive Audiologic Tinnitus Management

    PubMed Central

    Henry, James A.; Zaugg, Tara L.; Myers, Paula J.; Schechter, Martin A.

    2008-01-01

    Progressive Audiologic Tinnitus Management (PATM) is based on the premise that tinnitus is managed most efficiently using a hierarchy of clinical services that address different levels of need. PATM includes five levels of management: (a) triage; (b) audiologic evaluation; (c) group education; (d) tinnitus evaluation; and (e) individualized management. This article provides an overview of PATM and focuses on the procedures that make up the Level 2 Audiologic Evaluation. The evaluation is conducted to assess the potential need for medical, audiologic (hearing loss, tinnitus, hyperacusis), and/or mental health services. The Tinnitus Handicap Inventory, Hearing Handicap Inventory, and Tinnitus and Hearing Survey are used to differentiate effects of tinnitus and hearing loss. If indicated, patients are interviewed with the Tinnitus-Impact Screening Interview. Patients requiring amplification receive hearing aids. Often, management of hearing loss at Level 2 addresses any problems that were attributed to the tinnitus, which obviates further tinnitus-specific intervention. PMID:18628281

  16. Bridging the Gap between Audiology and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razack, Zaim Riza

    1995-01-01

    This article examines issues related to the provision of educational audiological services that are sensitive to the needs of a diverse population. The focus is on paradigm shifts from traditional clinical audiology to classroom-based educational audiology and use of a cyclical reflective process. Critical components of courses offered at York…

  17. Book Review: Telepractice in Audiology

    PubMed Central

    VENTO, BARBARA A.

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a review of the book Telepractice in Audiology, authored by Emma Rushbrooke MPhil(AUD), BA, DipAud., MAudSA., LSLS. Cert. AVT, RNC, and K. Todd Houston, PhD, CCC-SLP, LSLS Cert. AVT, and 13 contributing authors. This is the first book entirely devoted to tele-audiology. It provides practical information for working with clients across the lifespan and for multiple practice settings. Reviewer Dr. Barbara Vento endorses this work as a comprehensive resource on the topic of teleaudiology for both students and aspiring teleaudiologists.

  18. A Support Program: Audiological Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunblatt, Henna; Daar, Lisa

    1994-01-01

    A program was developed by a school audiologist and school counselor to provide information to children (ages 3-15) about their deafness. The program consists of informational classes addressing basic audiology, hearing aids, frequency modulation (FM) systems, audiograms, and student concerns; and individualized counseling sessions. (Author/JDD)

  19. Best Practices in Educational Audiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Kris

    1991-01-01

    Members (n=182) of the Educational Audiology Association were surveyed to determine emerging levels of best practices in the field. Demographic data, uses of amplification, the role of the educational audiologist as case manager/consultant, and both clinical and professional concerns are discussed. Areas for further research are suggested.…

  20. Prisoner subjects and drug testing.

    PubMed

    Lasagna, L

    1977-09-01

    Objections to prison research are based more often on opposition to the evils of prison life than to unethical practices and to the memories of atrocities committed in the name of science in Nazi prison camps during World War II. The National Commission's pronouncements on prison research specifically illustrate this general phenomenon. Having decided that research on prisoners can be performed ethically, and having learned that most prisoner volunteers bitterly resent being deprived of the opportunity to participate in research, the Commission has nevertheless stipulated prison conditions that cannot realistically be met and thus has de facto eliminated such research. The most serious potential loss is the elimination of the unique facility in Lexington, Kentucky--the Addiction Research Center. Predicting the addiction liability of drugs is not likely to be feasible in any nonprison setting, so that the addiction potential of new marketed drugs will be established in the future as it was in the past--by trial-and-error in patients, who will become the unwilling, uninformed research subjects in this area. PMID:892002

  1. Preserved Hearing Following Vestibular Schwannoma Surgery: Audiological Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauch, Christopher D.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Audiologic test results were reviewed for 30 patients whose hearing was preserved following eighth nerve tumor surgery. Improved auditory brainstem response tracings were seen as probably indicating increased neural synchrony due to reduced pressure on the cochlear nerve following surgery, whereas reduced hearing sensitivity probably reflects…

  2. Testing subject comprehension of utility questionnaires.

    PubMed

    Dobrez, Deborah G; Calhoun, Elizabeth A

    2004-03-01

    Utility questionnaires are often considered difficult for subjects to understand. Our study reports pilot testing of two subject comprehension tests to determine whether comprehension can be directly measured. Current health utilities were assessed using the standard gamble (SG), time trade-off (TTO), and visual analog scale. Subjects were randomized to one of two tests: (1) Logical consistency was tested by comparing rankings of two health states with an investigator-assigned a priori ranking; (2) Utility responses for two hypothetical respondents were presented; the subject was asked who had the better health. Thirty-one subjects completed the SG and TTO for two health states: being blind and wearing glasses. No subjects had inconsistent rankings. Post hoc analyses found that subjects reporting utilities below the first decile for the state, wearing glasses, had significantly lower current health utility than remaining subjects. Of the thirty subjects who evaluated the hypothetical respondents' utilities, five incorrectly judged the respondent with worse utility to have better health. Those subjects also reported current health utilities significantly lower than the remaining subjects. Our study findings suggest that a minority should be expected to have difficulty completing utility questionnaires. Comprehension checks may improve the reliability of utility data by enhancing training and by identifying subjects who may have misunderstood the utility questions. PMID:15085909

  3. Audiologic Assessment of Infants and Toddlers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gravel, Judith S.

    This paper provides guidelines for the audiologic assessment of infants and young children, highlighting recent technologic advances in auditory electrophysiology, acoustic immitance measure procedures, and behavioral audiometric techniques. First, audiologic assessment guidelines developed by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association are…

  4. A brief history of audiology at Mayo Clinic.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Wayne O; Rose, Darrell E; Hedgecock, Leroy D

    2003-01-01

    Audiometric hearing tests were conducted at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester at the beginning of the 1930s. The list price for one of its audiometers at that time was 3,500 dollars, which translates into approximately 37,000 dollars in 2003 currency. Physicians and residents in training were responsible for conducting hearing tests in the 1930s and 1940s. In the early 1940s a registered nurse was trained as an audiometrist to assist for some of the audiometric testing. The first "consulting audiologist" at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester was hired in 1949, early in the development of audiology as a profession. Growth in demand for audiologic services for larger numbers of patients and in the variety of services provided to them led to marked increases in personnel, space, and specialization over the years. PMID:12940701

  5. Connected Audiological Rehabilitation: 21st Century Innovations

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Gabrielle H.; Chisolm, Theresa H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Tele-audiology provides a means to offer audiologic rehabilitation (AR) in a cost-, resource-, and time-effective manner. If designed appropriately, it also has the capability of personalizing rehabilitation to the user in terms of content, depth of detail, etc., thus permitting selection of the best content for a particular individual. Synchronous/real-time data collection, store and forward telehealth, remote monitoring and mobile health using smartphone applications have each been applied to components of audiologic rehabilitation intervention (sensory management, instruction in the use of technology and control of the listening environment, perceptual and communication strategies training, and counseling). In this article, the current state of tele-audiological rehabilitation interventions are described and discussed. Results The provision of AR via tele-audiology potentially provides a cost-effective mechanism for addressing barriers to the routine provision of AR beyond provisions of hearing technology. Furthermore, if designed appropriately, it has the capability of personalizing rehabilitation to the user in terms of content, depth of detail, etc., thus permitting selection of the best content for a particular individual. However, effective widespread implementation of tele-audiology will be dependent on good education of patients and clinician alike, and researchers must continue to examine the effectiveness of these new approaches to AR in order to ensure clinicians provide effective evidence-based rehabilitation to their patients. Conclusions While several barriers to the widespread use of tele-audiology for audiologic rehabilitation currently exist, it is concluded that through education of patients and clinicians alike, it will gain greater support from practitioners and patients over time and will become successfully and widely implemented. PMID:26415970

  6. A Systematic Review of Audiology Terminology.

    PubMed

    Oh, Soo Hee; Lee, Junghak

    2016-09-01

    The present report provides an overview of terminology studies in audiology including topics and study characteristics, as well as categorizing the main issues. The goals are to improve the understanding of the current issues for terminology in audiology and to provide some basic information that will be useful to develop an international standard. Search procedures were completed over two phases. Phase 1 included a systematic electronic searches using MEDLINE (PubMed), Excerpta Medica Database, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and International Organization for Standardization with keywords related to terminology of audiology. The studies were initially identified according to the titles of 2921 publications following careful abstract examination. Of these, whole texts of 16 publications were retrieved. Five papers met the inclusion criteria were further investigated. In phase 2, a manual search was conducted to collect additional publications with keywords related to terminology project in audiology. A total of 16 papers were found. The essential terminology issues classified included 'appropriateness,' 'classification/framework,' 'inconsistency of terminology,' 'multilingual and international aspects,' and 'service quality/delivery including communication and accessibility.' This was indicative of the paucity of terminology research in audiology, despite recurring terminology issues. Establishment of standardized terminology in audiology may minimize current challenging terminology issues by improving appropriateness and consistency of terminology as well as communication among relevant stakeholders at national and international levels. PMID:27626085

  7. A Systematic Review of Audiology Terminology

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Soo Hee

    2016-01-01

    The present report provides an overview of terminology studies in audiology including topics and study characteristics, as well as categorizing the main issues. The goals are to improve the understanding of the current issues for terminology in audiology and to provide some basic information that will be useful to develop an international standard. Search procedures were completed over two phases. Phase 1 included a systematic electronic searches using MEDLINE (PubMed), Excerpta Medica Database, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and International Organization for Standardization with keywords related to terminology of audiology. The studies were initially identified according to the titles of 2921 publications following careful abstract examination. Of these, whole texts of 16 publications were retrieved. Five papers met the inclusion criteria were further investigated. In phase 2, a manual search was conducted to collect additional publications with keywords related to terminology project in audiology. A total of 16 papers were found. The essential terminology issues classified included 'appropriateness,' 'classification/framework,' 'inconsistency of terminology,' 'multilingual and international aspects,' and 'service quality/delivery including communication and accessibility.' This was indicative of the paucity of terminology research in audiology, despite recurring terminology issues. Establishment of standardized terminology in audiology may minimize current challenging terminology issues by improving appropriateness and consistency of terminology as well as communication among relevant stakeholders at national and international levels. PMID:27626085

  8. Survey of Educational Preparation in Pediatric Audiology: A Decade Later.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oyler, Robert F.; Gross, Shannon R.

    2000-01-01

    This study surveyed audiology program directors (N=46) and audiologists (N=70) concerning preparation in pediatric audiology, specifically general program characteristics, education and training in pediatric audiology, affiliation with a pediatric medical facility, affiliation with school systems, and perceived adequacy of preparation. Comparison…

  9. A comparative study of the audiological outcomes with Retro-X (semi-implantable hearing aid system) and conventional open fitting hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Lenarz, Minoo; Lenarz, Thomas; Stieve, Martin; Winter, Mark

    2008-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the results of hearing augmentation with the Retro-X semi-implantable hearing aid to a conventional non-implantable open canal hearing aid using the same software technology (Titan-X, auric Hearing Systems, HiKaNo.:13.20.03.0047). Nineteen subjects (20 ears) with mild to moderate high-frequency sensory-neural hearing loss were included in this clinical study. All the subjects were first fitted with a conventional open canal hearing aid (Titan-X). After a period of 4-6 weeks audiological evaluations were performed using standardized speech tests in quiet and noise. Subjective evaluation was performed with the help of standardized questionnaires. After this phase the patients received the semi-implantable Retro-X device under local anaesthesia and 4 weeks later were fitted with a hearing module with the same software technology as the conventional Titan-X hearing aid. Four weeks following the first fitting the same audiological evaluations were performed under similar conditions and the patients were evaluated again using the same questionnaires in order to compare the results of the Retro-X semi-implantable system with the conventional open canal hearing aid. Audiological evaluations revealed better results with the semi-implantable Retro-X in the adaptive speech in noise test; however, the results of the monosyllabic word test in quiet were similar for the Retro-X and conventional open canal hearing aid. The patients subjectively preferred the improved wearing comfort of the semi-implantable device. The Retro-X semi-implantable hearing aid provides better speech perception in noise and higher wearing comfort in comparison to the conventional open canal hearing aids. Considering the simple implantation procedure under local anaesthesia with low complication rate, Retro-X is an alternative to the conventional open canal hearing aids in patients with mild to moderate high frequency sensory-neural hearing loss. PMID:18365229

  10. Scope of practice in audiology. Ad Hoc Committee on scope of Practice in Audiology.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    This scope of practice in audiology statement is an official policy of the American Speech-Language Hearing Association (ASHA). The document was developed by the ASHA Ad Hoc Committee on the Scope of Practice in Audiology and approved in 1995 by the Legislative Council (8-95). Members of the ad hoc committee include David Wark (chair), Tamara Adkins, J. Michael Dennis, Dana L. Oviatt, Lori Williams, and Evelyn Cherow (ex officio). Lawrence Higdon, ASHA vice president for professional practices in audiology, served as monitoring vice president. This statement supersedes the Scope of Practice, Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology statement (LC 6-89), Asha, April 1990, 1-2. PMID:8680260

  11. Dimensions of Multiskilling: Considerations for Educational Audiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Carole E.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses multiskilling and use of support personnel in educational audiology in reference to the following principles: guidelines, models of multiskilling, components of successful multiskilling, and do's and don'ts for multiskilling. These principles are illustrated through the use of multiskilling in the establishment of a hearing-aid…

  12. Educational Audiology Hard of Hearing. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Frederick S.

    The audiology curriculum of the Department of Communicative Disorders at Utah State University which has been developed to prepare specialists in clinical and/or educational management of aurally handicapped children is described. Focused upon are prevalence of children's unilateral and bilateral hearing loss, areas affected by hearing impairment…

  13. APPLIED AUDIOLOGY FOR CHILDREN. SECOND EDITION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DALE, D.M.C.

    THE PURPOSE OF THE BOOK IS TO HELP TEACHERS, PARENTS, DOCTORS, AND WORKERS IN AUDIOLOGY CLINICS MAKE THE MOST OF SOUND IN THE EDUCATIONAL AND SOCIAL TREATMENT OF DEAFNESS. ASPECTS OF SOUND AMPLIFICATION CONSIDERED ARE THE NATURE OF SOUND, ELECTRICAL AMPLIFICATION, AND VARIOUS TYPES OF HEARING AIDS (INDIVIDUAL, GROUP, INDUCTION LOOP, SPEECH…

  14. Speech-Language-Pathology and Audiology Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.

    The handbook contains State Education Department rules and regulations that govern speech-language pathology and audiology in New York State. The handbook also describes licensure and first registration as a licensed speech-language pathologist or audiologist. The introduction discusses professional regulation in New York State while the second…

  15. Crosscheck Principle in Pediatric Audiology Today: A 40-Year Perspective

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The crosscheck principle is just as important in pediatric audiology as it was when first described 40 years ago. That is, no auditory test result should be accepted and used in the diagnosis of hearing loss until it is confirmed or crosschecked by one or more independent measures. Exclusive reliance on only one or two tests, even objective auditory measures, may result in a auditory diagnosis that is not clear or perhaps incorrect. On the other hand, close and careful analysis of findings for a test battery consisting of objective procedures and behavioral tests whenever feasible usually leads to prompt and accurate diagnosis of auditory dysfunction. This paper provides a concise review of the crosscheck principle from its introduction to its clinical application today. The review concludes with a description of a modern test battery for pediatric hearing assessment that supplements traditional behavioral tests with a variety of independent objective procedures including aural immittance measures, otoacoustic emissions, and auditory evoked responses. PMID:27626077

  16. Crosscheck Principle in Pediatric Audiology Today: A 40-Year Perspective.

    PubMed

    Hall, James W

    2016-09-01

    The crosscheck principle is just as important in pediatric audiology as it was when first described 40 years ago. That is, no auditory test result should be accepted and used in the diagnosis of hearing loss until it is confirmed or crosschecked by one or more independent measures. Exclusive reliance on only one or two tests, even objective auditory measures, may result in a auditory diagnosis that is not clear or perhaps incorrect. On the other hand, close and careful analysis of findings for a test battery consisting of objective procedures and behavioral tests whenever feasible usually leads to prompt and accurate diagnosis of auditory dysfunction. This paper provides a concise review of the crosscheck principle from its introduction to its clinical application today. The review concludes with a description of a modern test battery for pediatric hearing assessment that supplements traditional behavioral tests with a variety of independent objective procedures including aural immittance measures, otoacoustic emissions, and auditory evoked responses. PMID:27626077

  17. Downhole steam generator subject of Sandia tests

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-05-01

    The first field test of a down-hole steam generator developed to inject hot steam directly into deeply buried heavy oil reservoirs began in mid-April near Long Beach, CA. The 23-ft-long, 6-in.-diameter generator, developed by Sandia National Laboratories, will produce up to 800 cu ft of 500 F steam a minute (1.2 MW thermal) at the bottom of a 2500-ft well. Goals of the test are to demonstrate the feasibility of operating the generator at realistic depths and to determine its overall performance and environmental impact. Development of the generator is part of the US Department of Energy's Project Deep Steam to identify techniques for recovering heavy oil from deeply buried (greater than 2500 ft) reservoirs.

  18. The Use of Randomization Tests in Single-Subject Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haardorfer, Regine; Gagne, Phill

    2010-01-01

    Some researchers have argued for the use of or have attempted to make use of randomization tests in single-subject research. To address this tide of interest, the authors of this article describe randomization tests, discuss the theoretical rationale for applying them to single-subject research, and provide an overview of the methodological…

  19. Educational Audiology: A Comparison of Service Delivery Systems Utilized by Missouri Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allard, J. Brad; Golden, Diane Cordry

    1991-01-01

    Comparison of three audiology service delivery systems--(1) school-based audiology within the district, (2) non-school-based audiology in the community, and (3) school-based audiology in a remote community--found the local school-based delivery system superior on various quality indicators. (Author/DB)

  20. Audiologic changes after pinna augmentation.

    PubMed

    Amin, Kavit; Hone, Robert; Kanegaonkar, Rahul

    2016-08-01

    No studies to date have objectively assessed whether pinna morphology affects sound intensity detected within the external auditory canal (EAC). Commonly performed procedures on the EAC are carried out for acquired and congenital pathology, together with correction of ear deformities. Our aim was to use an experimental model to identify whether a relationship exists between pinna shape and its subsequent effect on the hearing subject. An anatomically accurate and life-size model made of rubber composite was used for this study. Serial sections (small wedge, defect open; small wedge, defect closed; large wedge, defect open; large wedge, defect closed [equivalent to a protruding ear]; and pinnectomy) were undertaken, and the sound intensity changes assessed at the junction between the EAC and middle ear (tympanic membrane position) using an AURICAL Plus (Otometrics; Taastrup, Denmark) sound processor. A statistically significant loss was demonstrated for wedge-excised models, which was greatest at 180° azimuth. This loss was significantly reduced when the wedge defects were closed. A statistically significant improvement was demonstrated in the protruding ("bat") ear model compared with the normal ear at 0° azimuth. In this model, gain in sound intensity is adversely affected by pinna wedge resection. Because this change may be increased in those with protruding ears, this factor is important to consider for all cosmetic and noncosmetic operations to the pinna, and it supports the notion that the pinna is not a simple funnel. PMID:27551847

  1. Issues of Validity of SAT Subject Test: Korean with Listening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Saekyun H.; Han, Hyunjoo

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated some issues regarding the validity of the Scholastic Achievement Test (SAT) Subject Test: Korean with Listening. The SAT Korean has been administered just once a year since its inception in 1997. As of March 2006, it had been administered nine times. However, SAT foreign language tests are not as rigorously researched as…

  2. Construct Validity of the Ecological Momentary Assessment in Audiology Research

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yu-Hsiang; Stangl, Elizabeth; Zhang, Xuyang; Bentler, Ruth A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is a methodology involving repeated assessments/surveys to collect data describing respondents’ current or very recent experiences and related contexts in their natural environments. The use of EMA in audiology research is growing. Purpose This study examined the construct validity (i.e., the degree to which a measurement reflects what it is intended to measure) of EMA in terms of measuring speech understanding and related listening context. Experiment 1 investigated the extent to which individuals can accurately report their speech recognition performance and characterize the listening context in controlled environments. Experiment 2 investigated whether the data aggregated across multiple EMA surveys conducted in uncontrolled, real-world environments would reveal a valid pattern that was consistent with the established relationships between speech understanding, hearing aid use, listening context, and lifestyle. Research Design This is an observational study. Study Sample Twelve and twenty-seven adults with hearing impairment participated in Experiments 1 and 2, respectively. Data Collection and Analysis In the laboratory testing of Experiment 1, participants estimated their speech recognition performance in settings wherein the signal-to-noise ratio was fixed or constantly varied across sentences. In the field testing the participants reported the listening context (e.g., noisiness level) of several semicontrolled real-world conversations. Their reports were compared to (1) the context described by normal-hearing observers and (2) the background noise level measured using a sound level meter. In Experiment 2, participants repeatedly reported the degree of speech understanding, hearing aid use, and listening context using paper-and-pencil journals in their natural environments for 1 week. They also carried noise dosimeters to measure the sound level. The associations between (1) speech understanding, hearing aid

  3. The Subjective Visual Vertical: Validation of a Simple Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tesio, Luigi; Longo, Stefano; Rota, Viviana

    2011-01-01

    The study sought to provide norms for a simple test of visual perception of verticality (subjective visual vertical). The study was designed as a cohort study with a balanced design. The setting was the Rehabilitation Department of a University Hospital. Twenty-two healthy adults, of 23-58 years, 11 men (three left handed) and 11 women (three left…

  4. HIV testing among lesbian women: social contexts and subjective meanings.

    PubMed

    Dolan, Kathleen A; Davis, Phillip W

    2008-01-01

    This study provides descriptive statistics on prevalence of testing, testing sites, and reasons for testing among lesbian women in the United States. It also provides qualitative data about the social meanings and specific circumstances of their HIV testing experiences. Analysis draws on a sample of lesbian women living in a single large southeastern city. An especially diverse snowball and chain-referral sample of 162 lesbian women was given a questionnaire, and qualitative data were gathered from 24 women participating in three focus groups and from 67 women participating in depth-interviews. A large majority of women in the survey sample (80%) reported at least one test, and more than one in four women were tested five or more times. More than one in ten were tested during drug treatment or while incarcerated. The most common testing sites were clinics and hospitals, and the most common reason women gave was because they "thought they were at risk." Most tests were voluntary rather than mandatory occupational or institutional requirements. The subjective meanings associated with HIV testing, as well as the women's counseling needs before, during, and after testing are analyzed. The implications for a better understanding of lesbian women's sexual health are discussed. PMID:18825867

  5. Banning live patients as test subjects on licensing examinations.

    PubMed

    Formicola, Allan J; Shub, Judith L; Murphy, Francis J

    2002-05-01

    The use of live patients on the licensing examinations was a part of dentistry for almost the entire twentieth century and continues up until today. Considerable new debate about the appropriateness of using live patients as test subjects began in the mid-1990s and culminated in the passage of a resolution in the American Dental Association's year 2000 House of Delegates calling for an end to this practice by the year 2005. The live patient examination tests a narrow range of clinical skills, creates ethical dilemmas for candidates, for the host institution, and for the profession, and is unable to distinguish between those ready to assume independent practice from those who are not yet at that level of competence. There are other ways to test for such readiness including proposals in New York State to substitute a postdoctoral year or mannequins in place of live subjects. The public and the dental profession will be better off by developing alternative licensing tests to the use of live subjects. PMID:12056765

  6. [Inappropriately ordered tests from hepatitis B vaccinated subjects].

    PubMed

    Ozbek, Ozgen Alpay; Oktem, Ibrahim Mehmet Ali

    2010-04-01

    Laboratory testing for viral hepatitis B constitutes a vast burden regarding the cost and the workload for health care system for many countries including ours. There are several reports stating that the cost in question is not always necessary. As a consequence of larger scale vaccination programmes, an increase in unnecessary hepatitis B testing is expected in vaccinated individuals. The present retrospective study aims to determine the rate of inappropriately ordered tests from vaccinated individuals and to discuss the causes and possible solutions of this problem. Laboratory records of 56.349 subjects admitted to Dokuz Eylul University Hospital, Izmir, during 2007 and 2009, were evaluated retrospectively for hepatitis B serological test results. Unnecessary testing was defined as the requests for HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HBc IgM, HBeAg and anti-HBe tests from those who had positive anti-HBs and negative anti-HBc results. The cost burden was calculated by taking account the prices recommended by the Department of Social Security. The appropriateness of anti-HBs test orders were not taken into evaluation since specific clinical conditions (immune response disorders, HIV infection, chronic hemodialysis, newborns of HBsAg positive mothers, contact with HBsAg carriers) were not clarified. It was found that among the 17.869 samples tested for both anti-HBs and anti-HBc, 4402 (24.6%) were ordered from subjects who were vaccinated against hepatitis B virus (anti-HBs positive, anti-HBc negative status). Thus, 11.405 (12.9%) tests out of a total of 88.174 hepatitis B tests (HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HBc IgM, HBeAg, anti-HBe) were unnecessarily ordered. Social security services and/or individuals paid approximately 59.000 USD for these unnecessary tests in three years, leading to an economic loss of approximately 20.000 USD yearly. Providing appropriate feedback to clinicians and reflex test application (to order a test according to the results of previous tests in accordance to

  7. Interventional Audiology: Broadening the Scope of Practice to Meet the Changing Demands of the New Consumer.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Brian

    2016-05-01

    Given the growth in the aging population, low hearing uptake rates and the emerging science indicating that age-related hearing loss has long term consequences to health and wellness, an interventional audiology strategy is needed. This paper will define interventional audiology and offer guidance on bringing an interventional audiology to life in clinical practice. PMID:27516719

  8. Interventional Audiology: Broadening the Scope of Practice to Meet the Changing Demands of the New Consumer

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Given the growth in the aging population, low hearing uptake rates and the emerging science indicating that age-related hearing loss has long term consequences to health and wellness, an interventional audiology strategy is needed. This paper will define interventional audiology and offer guidance on bringing an interventional audiology to life in clinical practice. PMID:27516719

  9. Relative Effects of English Proficiency on General Admissions Tests versus Subject Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennock-Roman, Maria

    2002-01-01

    Examined the degree to which test scores reflect English proficiency using data on students whose native language was Spanish. They had taken the GRE, English proficiency tests, and the PAEG, a test in Spanish used for admission to graduate schools in Puerto Rico. Found that quantitative, analytical, and subject tests are more highly related to…

  10. Partial Recovery of Audiological, Vestibular, and Radiological Findings following Spontaneous Intralabyrinthine Haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Pézier, Thomas; Hegemann, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The diagnosis, work-up, and treatment of sudden sensorineural hearing loss and sudden vestibular loss vary widely between units. With the increasing access to both magnetic resonance imaging and objective vestibular testing, our understanding of the various aetiologies at hand is increasing. Despite this, the therapeutic options are limited and without a particularly strong evidence base. We present a rare, yet increasingly diagnosed, case of intralabyrinthine haemorrhage (ILH) together with radiological, audiological, and vestibular test results. Of note, this occurred spontaneously and has shown partial recovery in all the mentioned modalities. PMID:24455375

  11. From Colorado to Guam: Infant Diagnostic Audiological Evaluations by Telepractice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Deborah; Eclavea, Elaine; Dreith, Susan; Habte, Bereket

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript describes a pilot project in which infants in Guam who refer on newborn hearing screening receive diagnostic audiological evaluation conducted by audiologists in Colorado over the Internet (telepractice). The evaluation is completed in real time using commercially-available software and personal computers to control the diagnostic…

  12. A Systematic Analysis of Audiological Services in EHDI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Karen F.; Bradham, Tamala S.; Nelson, Lauri

    2011-01-01

    State coordinators of early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) programs completed a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, or SWOT, analysis that examined 12 areas within state EHDI programs. For audiological evaluation and services, 299 items were listed by 49 coordinators, and themes were identified within each SWOT category.…

  13. A Guide to Clinical Services in Speech Pathology and Audiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehabilitation Services Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    A listing of speech pathology and audiology services in the United States, the guide includes the names of 910 clinics and of 216 members of the American Speech and Hearing Association who are engaged in full time private practice. Arranged geographically, by state and city, the guide specifies the following for each clinic: official name,…

  14. The Role of Speech Pathology and Audiology in Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakare, C. A.

    1976-01-01

    Speech and language disorder is seen as a characteristic feature in most of the areas of exceptionalities identified as the hearing impaired, the visually impaired, the mentally retarded, the physically handicapped, and learning disabilities. Commonalities of speech pathology/audiology and special education are discussed. (MLW)

  15. Educational Audiology: A Proposal for Training and Accreditation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenich, Jennifer Komnick; And Others

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses the practice of educational audiology, its legislative basis, and services offered to hearing-impaired children, such as a high-risk register/referral system, comprehensive screening program, and classroom acoustics management. A plan for in-service education and a proposal for an accreditation program in Educational Audiology…

  16. Astronaut Joseph Kerwin test subject Lower Body Negative Pressure experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Scientist-Astronaut Joseph P. Kerwin, Skylab 2 science pilot, serves as test subject for the Lower Body Negative Pressure Experiment. Astronaut Paul J. Weitz, Skylab 2 pilot, assists Kerwin with the blood pressure cuff. They are in the experiment and work area of the Orbital Workshop crew quarters of the Skylab 1 and 2 space station cluster in Earth orbit. Kerwin is lying in the lower body negative pressure device. The purpose of the M092 experiment is to provide information concerning the time course of cardiovascular adaptation during flight, and to provide inflight data for predicting the degree of orthostatic intolerance and impairment of physical capacity to be expected upon return to Earth environment. The data collected in support of M092 are blood pressure, heart rate, body temperature, vectorcardiogram, LBNPD pressure, leg volume changes, and body weight.

  17. Pediatric Audiology Report: Assessment and Revision of an Audiology Report Written to Parents of Children with Hearing Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donald, Ashleigh J.; Kelly-Campbell, Rebecca J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was twofold: first, to evaluate a typical pediatric diagnostic audiology report to establish its readability and comprehensibility for parents and, second, to revise the report to improve its readability, as well as the comprehension, sense of self-efficacy, and positive opinions of parent readers. Method: In…

  18. Audiological Outcome of Classical Adenoidectomy versus Endoscopically-Assisted Adenoidectomy using a Microdebrider

    PubMed Central

    Sarin, Vanita; Anand, Vanika; Bhardwaj, Bhanu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate audiological outcomes following adenoidectomy by the classical method and by endoscopically-assisted adenoidectomy using a powered instrument (microdebrider). Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in a tertiary care center. It included 40 patients divided into two equal groups of 20 each. Group-A patients underwent classical adenoidectomy, while Group-B patients were subjected to endoscopically-assisted adenoidectomy using a microdebrider. Hearing outcome was measured by post-operative pure-tone audiometry and tympanometry. Results: The post-operative average air-bone gap (ABG) was reduced from 19.6 dB to 11.8 dB in Group A and from 17.6 dB to 8.7 dB in Group B (P=0.010). There was reversal of tympanometric curves from type-B and type-C to type-A in 55% of the patients in Group A, while type-A curve was seen in 90% cases in Group B in the post-operative period. Conclusion: Audiological outcomes of endoscopically-assisted adenoidectomy using a microdebrider were superior compared with classical adenoidectomy. PMID:26878001

  19. Audiological and psychological characteristics of a group of tinnitus sufferers, prior to tinnitus management training.

    PubMed

    Dineen, R; Doyle, J; Bench, J

    1997-02-01

    A profile of audiological and psychological characteristics, obtained before starting tinnitus management training, is presented for 96 subjects with tinnitus. Variability was marked in all measures. A history of headaches, neck or back pain, or balance problems was not related to the ability to cope with tinnitus. The coping strategies used to manage tinnitus were influenced by the beliefs held about tinnitus, but the coping strategies chosen were not necessarily effective. No gender differences were found in coping ability or overall stress levels, although there were gender differences on some psychological measures and stress influences. Subjects who had previously sought assistance differed from those who had not in the complexity of the tinnitus sounds, the level of emotional reaction and the use of coping behaviours. PMID:9056041

  20. A multiple-channel cochlear implant and wearable speech-processor: an audiological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Tong, Y C; Clark, G M; Dowell, R C; Martin, L F; Seligman, P M; Patrick, J F

    1981-01-01

    Stand audiological tests were administered to a totally deaf multiple-channel cochlear implant patient with a wearable speech-processor in a monitored sound field under the following conditions: a wearable unit activated alone (WA), lipreading with the wearable unit off (LA), and wearable unit activated in combination with lipreading (WL). Thresholds obtained for narrow-band noise signals indicated that the wearable unit allowed the patient to detect a variety of sounds at different frequencies. The results obtained in closed-set word tests and open-set word and sentence tests showed significant improvements in word and sentence scores from LA to WL. In the open-set (C.I.D.) sentence test, the patient scored 22% for LA and 76% for WL. The WL score of 76% correlates with a satisfactory performance in understanding connected speech. The patient also scored 30% correct in a test involving the recognition of environmental sounds. PMID:6895683

  1. SAT® II: Subject Tests in Foreign Languages--Using the Tests for Admission and Placement. Research Summary RS-07

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Entrance Examination Board, 2002

    2002-01-01

    As an admissions test, the SAT II: Subject Tests in foreign languages allow students to demonstrate academic competence in the selected language area. As a placement tool, the SAT II: Subject Tests in foreign languages serve the same function as the SAT II: Subject Tests do in other academic areas such as world history, chemistry, or math. SAT II:…

  2. Indication criteria for cochlear implants and hearing aids: impact of audiological and non-audiological findings

    PubMed Central

    Haumann, Sabine; Hohmann, Volker; Meis, Markus; Herzke, Tobias; Lenarz, Thomas; Büchner, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Owing to technological progress and a growing body of clinical experience, indication criteria for cochlear implants (CI) are being extended to less severe hearing impairments. It is, therefore, worth reconsidering these indication criteria by introducing novel testing procedures. The diagnostic evidence collected will be evaluated. The investigation includes postlingually deafened adults seeking a CI. Prior to surgery, speech perception tests [Freiburg Speech Test and Oldenburg sentence (OLSA) test] were performed unaided and aided using the Oldenburg Master Hearing Aid (MHA) system. Linguistic skills were assessed with the visual Text Reception Threshold (TRT) test, and general state of health, socio-economic status (SES) and subjective hearing were evaluated through questionnaires. After surgery, the speech tests were repeated aided with a CI. To date, 97 complete data sets are available for evaluation. Statistical analyses showed significant correlations between postsurgical speech reception threshold (SRT) measured with the adaptive OLSA test and pre-surgical data such as the TRT test (r=−0.29), SES (r=−0.22) and (if available) aided SRT (r=0.53). The results suggest that new measures and setups such as the TRT test, SES and speech perception with the MHA provide valuable extra information regarding indication for CI. PMID:26557327

  3. Testing a New Design for Subject Access to Online Catalogs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drabenstott, Karen M.; Weller, Marjorie S.

    Over the last decade, studies of online catalogs have revealed that they frequently discourage users. Subject queries often fail to produce retrievals or produce retrieval sets that are too large and unwieldy to be easily scanned. Research shows that users are seeking alternative approaches to those that manipulate the subject headings in catalog…

  4. Audiologic profile of OSAS and simple snoring patients: the effect of chronic nocturnal intermittent hypoxia on auditory function.

    PubMed

    Martines, Francesco; Ballacchino, Antonella; Sireci, Federico; Mucia, Marianna; La Mattina, Eleonora; Rizzo, Serena; Salvago, Pietro

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of nocturnal intermittent hypoxia on auditory function of simple snoring patients and subjects affected by OSAS; we compared the audiologic profile with the severity of OSAS to detect early signs of cochlear damage. One hundred-sixty patients underwent overnight polysomnography, micro-otoscopy, multi-frequency audiometry, acufenometry, TEOAE recording and d-ROMs test. All subjects were divided in four groups, based on presence/absence of AHI (simple snoring without OSAS, mild OSAS, moderate OSAS, severe OSAS). Sixty (37.5 %) patients were not affected by OSAS, 58 (36.25 %) presented a mild OSAS, 18 (11.25 %) a moderate OSAS and 24 (15 %) a severe OSAS; the 57.14 % of moderate to severe OSAS suffered from tinnitus with respect to the 31.03 % of mild OSAS (P = 0.024). A higher percentage (41.66 %) of hearing loss was found among individuals with moderate to severe degree of OSAS (P < 0.0001). All groups were characterized by a mean hearing threshold <25 dB HL for 0.25-3 kHz frequencies and a progressive decrease in hearing sensitivity, particularly for 6-16 kHz frequencies (P < 0.05). The analysis of otoacoustic emissions SNR mean values evidenced a significant difference between simple snoring and severe OSAS individuals for 3 and 4 kHz frequencies (P < 0.05). d-ROM levels resulted higher in patients with severe OSAS with respect to simple snoring subjects (P = 0.004). Our data underline the key role of chronic nocturnal intermittent hypoxia in the development of an early cochlear damage and a more marked high-frequency hearing loss in case of severe OSAS (P < 0.05). PMID:26164293

  5. Extended high-frequency audiometry (9,000-20,000 Hz). Usefulness in audiological diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Valiente, Antonio; Roldán Fidalgo, Amaya; Villarreal, Ithzel M; García Berrocal, José R

    2016-01-01

    Early detection and appropriate treatment of hearing loss are essential to minimise the consequences of hearing loss. In addition to conventional audiometry (125-8,000 Hz), extended high-frequency audiometry (9,000-20,000 Hz) is available. This type of audiometry may be useful in early diagnosis of hearing loss in certain conditions, such as the ototoxic effect of cisplatin-based treatment, noise exposure or oral misunderstanding, especially in noisy environments. Eleven examples are shown in which extended high-frequency audiometry has been useful in early detection of hearing loss, despite the subject having a normal conventional audiometry. The goal of the present paper was to highlight the importance of the extended high-frequency audiometry examination for it to become a standard tool in routine audiological examinations. PMID:26025356

  6. [The emotional assessment by test subjects of short musical fragments].

    PubMed

    Al'tman, Ia A; Guzikov, B M; Zakharova, L E; Poltorak, S V

    1999-01-01

    Emotional estimation of 96 short (2-5 s) musical fragments was studied in 6 healthy subjects. Fragments were scored on a 5-point scale. Statistically significant difference in estimations of specific musical fragments (positive, negative, or indifferent) was found. PMID:10693273

  7. Objective and Subjective Knowledge and HIV Testing among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hou, Su-I

    2004-01-01

    Little research has been conducted on the knowledge domain specifically related to HIV testing among college students. Students (age 18-24) were recruited from a major university in the southeastern United States to participate in a Web-based survey during spring 2003 (N=440). About 21% of the students reported previous voluntary HIV tests.…

  8. Intelligibility, subjective ratings and completion time scores using the FAAF test with hearing-impaired subjects and noisy reverberant environments.

    PubMed

    Shields, P W; Campbell, D R

    2001-08-01

    A series of experiments have been performed with the primary aim of assessing the performance of a signal-processing algorithm for a possible future hearing aid application. As part of this work the four alternative auditory feature (FAAF) test was used to obtain a quantitative assessment of speech intelligibility and a subjective assessment of speech quality. This paper reports results of experiments using normal hearing (NH) subjects that provide partial verification of the FAAF test originators' prior work. Also reported are intelligibility score, mean opinion score (MOS) and completion time data obtained by use of the PMID:11694098

  9. Beginnings: Introducing Computer Technology to Students in Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McErlain, Eileen; Squibb, Kevin

    In the areas of audiology and speech science, computer technology has moved to the forefront in both the clinical and laboratory settings. It is imperative that students in both speech-language pathology and audiology acquire fundamental skills with all aspects of computer technology in order to maintain professional marketability. A survey of 75…

  10. Audiological results with Baha in conductive and mixed hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Pfiffner, Flurin; Caversaccio, Marco-Domenico; Kompis, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The level of improvement in the audiological results of Baha(®) users mainly depends on the patient's preoperative hearing thresholds and the type of Baha sound processor used. This investigation shows correlations between the preoperative hearing threshold and postoperative aided thresholds and audiological results in speech understanding in quiet of 84 Baha users with unilateral conductive hearing loss, bilateral conductive hearing loss and bilateral mixed hearing loss. Secondly, speech understanding in noise of 26 Baha users with different Baha sound processors (Compact, Divino, and BP100) is investigated. Linear regression between aided sound field thresholds and bone conduction (BC) thresholds of the better ear shows highest correlation coefficients and the steepest slope. Differences between better BC thresholds and aided sound field thresholds are smallest for mid-frequencies (1 and 2 kHz) and become larger at 0.5 and 4 kHz. For Baha users, the gain in speech recognition in quiet can be expected to lie in the order of magnitude of the gain in their hearing threshold. Compared to its predecessor sound processors Baha(®) Compact and Baha(®) Divino, Baha(®) BP100 improves speech understanding in noise significantly by +0.9 to +4.6 dB signal-to-noise ratio, depending on the setting and the use of directional microphone. For Baha users with unilateral and bilateral conductive hearing loss and bilateral mixed hearing loss, audiological results in aided sound field thresholds can be estimated with the better BC hearing threshold. The benefit in speech understanding in quiet can be expected to be similar to the gain in their sound field hearing threshold. The most recent technology of Baha sound processor improves speech understanding in noise by an order of magnitude that is well perceived by users and which can be very useful in everyday life. PMID:21389707

  11. Interactions of Task and Subject Variables among Continuous Performance Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denney, Colin B.; Rapport, Mark D.; Chung, Kyong-Mee

    2005-01-01

    Background: Contemporary models of working memory suggest that target paradigm (TP) and target density (TD) should interact as influences on error rates derived from continuous performance tests (CPTs). The present study evaluated this hypothesis empirically in a typically developing, ethnically diverse sample of children. The extent to which…

  12. How to Implement Itemization in an Audiology Practice.

    PubMed

    Sjoblad, Stephanie; Abel, Debbie

    2016-05-01

    The hearing aid delivery landscape has dramatically changed over the past several years, with a commercial payer, the Internet, and big box stores dispensing hearing aids directly to patients. The audiology community needs to modify the bundled billing model. This session will describe how to optimize the services you provide to current and new patients and change the hearing aid delivery and hearing aid pricing model to remain competitive with these new market trends. This activity will educate participants on itemized billing, sometimes referred to as unbundling, its pros and cons, and how it could aid audiologists in differentiating themselves in the hearing aid delivery landscape. PMID:27516720

  13. How to Implement Itemization in an Audiology Practice

    PubMed Central

    Sjoblad, Stephanie; Abel, Debbie

    2016-01-01

    The hearing aid delivery landscape has dramatically changed over the past several years, with a commercial payer, the Internet, and big box stores dispensing hearing aids directly to patients. The audiology community needs to modify the bundled billing model. This session will describe how to optimize the services you provide to current and new patients and change the hearing aid delivery and hearing aid pricing model to remain competitive with these new market trends. This activity will educate participants on itemized billing, sometimes referred to as unbundling, its pros and cons, and how it could aid audiologists in differentiating themselves in the hearing aid delivery landscape. PMID:27516720

  14. Influence of middle ear mucosal condition on post-tympanoplasty audiologic outcome.

    PubMed

    Song, Chan Il; Hong, Hye Ran; Yoon, Tae Hyun

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the association between the middle ear mucosal condition and post-tympanoplasty audiologic outcome was investigated in patients with chronic otitis media without cholesteatoma. One hundred and forty-three patients with chronic otitis media were collected in the Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery at Asan Medical Center between January, 2009 and December, 2011. In the course of tympanoplasty, the status of the middle ear mucosa was divided into normal or abnormal by one surgeon. Pure tone audiometry was performed preoperatively and postoperatively, and post-tympanoplasty tympanogram was also conducted to estimate the condition of middle ear cavity. Of the 143 patients, there were 73 patients with normal middle ear mucosa and 70 patients with abnormal middle ear mucosa around Eustachian tube opening. The mean ABG of subjects with normal middle ear mucosa was 20.1 dB preoperatively, and 9.7 dB postoperatively (p < 0.001). Preoperative mean ABG was 22.4 dB and postoperative mean ABG was 16.4 dB in abnormal middle ear mucosa group (p = 0.137). Postoperative ABGs for 500 and 1000 Hz (7.1, 7.7 dB) in normal middle ear mucosa patients were significantly lower than those (17.2, 19.4 dB) in abnormal middle ear mucosa patients (p < 0.001). There was statistically significant correlation between middle ear mucosa status and post-tympanoplasty audiologic outcomes. The better condition of middle ear ventilation, the better postoperative hearing thresholds revealed after tympanoplasty. PMID:25749615

  15. Subjective Well-Being, Test Anxiety, Academic Achievement: Testing for Reciprocal Effects

    PubMed Central

    Steinmayr, Ricarda; Crede, Julia; McElvany, Nele; Wirthwein, Linda

    2016-01-01

    In the context of adolescents’ subjective well-being (SWB), research has recently focused on a number of different school variables. The direction of the relationships between adolescents’ SWB, academic achievement, and test anxiety is, however, still open although reciprocal causation has been hypothesized. The present study set out to investigate to what extent SWB, academic achievement, and test anxiety influence each other over time. A sample of N = 290 11th grade students (n = 138 female; age: M = 16.54 years, SD = 0.57) completed measures of SWB and test anxiety in the time span of 1 year. Grade point average (GPA) indicated students’ academic achievement. We analyzed the reciprocal relations using cross-lagged structural equation modeling. The model fit was satisfactory for all computed models. Results indicated that the worry component of test anxiety negatively and GPA positively predicted changes in the cognitive component of SWB (life satisfaction). Worry also negatively predicted changes in the affective component of SWB. Moreover, worry negatively predicted changes in students’ GPA. Directions for future research and the differential predictive influences of academic achievement and test anxiety on adolescents’ SWB are discussed with regard to potential underlying processes. PMID:26779096

  16. Audiologic and Vestibular Findings in Wolfram Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Karzon, Roanne K.; Hullar, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    Context Clinical manifestations of Wolfram syndrome (WS), a rare autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disease, include diabetes mellitus (DM), optic nerve atrophy (OA), diabetes insipidus (DI) and sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). Objective Assessment of auditory and vestibular function in WS patients using a standardized protocol. Design Prospective cohort study of 11 patients using otoscopic inspection, tympanometry, otoacoustic emissions, pure tones, speech in noise, the speech intelligibility index and rotational chair testing. Results Mean SNHL diagnosis was 7.3 years with 55% prevalence. Four patients with a Speech Intelligibility Index (SII) less than 0.75 (better ear) routinely used bilateral amplification devices. Two patients with normal hearing sensitivity exhibited abnormal speech in noise (SIN) scores. The only patient with significant vestibular dysfunction also had a distinctive low frequency component to her SNHL. Conclusions Hearing loss may occur earlier than previously suspected and comprehensive testing including speech in noise testing may reveal deficits not apparent with pure tone testing. Particular configurations of hearing loss may indicate a need for comprehensive vestibular assessment. Because SNHL can be the first symptom of WS, audiologists and otolaryngologists should be vigilant about referring patients with hearing loss for ophthalmologic examination. PMID:23698626

  17. Prevalence and Audiological Characteristics of Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder in Pediatric Population: A Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Vignesh, S S; Jaya, V; Muraleedharan, A

    2016-06-01

    Auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD) is a type of hearing disorder which is challenging for assessment and rehabilitation. This disorder has been studied over a decade and prevalence of the disorder is variable. The study aimed at estimating the prevalence and audiological characteristics of ANSD in children. A retrospective study was conducted from the medical records of pediatric patients evaluated at Rajiv Gandhi Government General Hospital and Madras Medical College, Chennai to estimate the prevalence of ANSD. Medical records of 2,624 children evaluated during the period of November 2010 to October 2012 within the age range of 6 months to 12 years were analyzed. Out of 2,624 pediatric population assessed 217 (8.26 %) of them had unilateral or bilateral sensory neural hearing loss with varying degrees. Out of 217 children with sensory neural hearing loss 5.06 % (N = 11) had ANSD. Audiological characteristics varied among the group. Children with ANSD had varied degree of hearing thresholds from normal to profound hearing impairment. All of them had 'A' type tympanogram with absent stapedial reflexes. DPOAEs or TEOAEs were observed in 54 % of population with ANSD. All of them had abnormal auditory brainstem responses (ABR). Replicable cochlear microphonics was observed in 46 % of children with ANSD. These results indicate that ANSD is not a rare condition among children and we emphasize the use of objective tests like tympanometry, Stapedial Reflex test, otoacoustic emissions and ABR in routine hearing assessment procedure for all children to identify ANSD. PMID:27340636

  18. Testing of Laser Components Subjected to Exposure in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.

    2010-01-01

    Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) missions provide an opportunity for developing space qualifiable materials by studying the response of novel materials when subjected to the synergistic effects of the harsh space environment. MISSE 6 was transported to the international Space Station (ISS) via STS 123 on March 11. 2008. The astronauts successfully attached the passive experiment containers (PEC) to external handrails of the international space station (ISS) and opened up for long term exposure. After more than a year of exposure attached to the station's exterior, the PEC with several hundred material samples returned to the earth with the STS-128 space shuttle crew that was launched on shuttle Discovery from the Kennedy Space Center, Fla., on Aug. 28. Meanwhile, MISSE 7 launch is scheduled to be launched on STS 129 mission. MISSE-7 was launched on Space Shuttle mission STS-129 on Atlantis was launched on November 16, 2009. This paper will briefly review recent efforts on MISSE 6 and MISSE 7 missions at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC).

  19. The application of computer-based testing to allow testing out in retraining subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Portwood, G.; Johnson, K.; Webster, C.

    1991-01-01

    ORNL's computer-generated test our program, developed using computer-based training (CBT) technology, allows employees the option of testing out'' instead of attending the General Employee Retraining (GER) class. The program contains a bank'' of questions; 20 different questions randomly selected by the computer for each exam. The exam is administered by computer; minimum input is required of the individual taking the exam. The training organization inputs the bank of exam questions, the type of questions to be used, and categorizes questions according to subject, such as Quality Assurance, Hazard Communication, Radiation Safety, and so forth. The exam is graded by the computer and a hard-copy record may be generated. Exam results may be stored on a floppy disk. Compliance training, as required by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in many areas, has become an activity which requires individuals to spend more and more of their time in training. Compliance training could be defined as, training that is required for individuals who perform certain activities.'' In other words, it is training that is not optional. Compliance training exists for subjects that are general in nature such as General Employee Training (GET), and for subjects of a more technical nature such as Rad Worker, SARA/OSHA, and so forth. The computer-generated program, developed by ORNL using computer-based training technology, meets the criteria for compliance training, but training time'' or man training hours'' in the pilot program was reduced from two hours per person to about 20 minutes per person. Overall training time for the pilot program was reduced by almost sixty percent.

  20. Post Test Evaluation of HSCT Nozzle Acoustic Liner Subcomponents Subjected to a Hot Acoustic Durability Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verrilli, Michael J.; Lee, Kuan

    2008-01-01

    The acoustic liner system designed for use in the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) was tested in a thermal-acoustic environment. Five ceramic matrix composite (CMC) acoustic tile configurations, five bulk acoustic absorbers, and one thermal protection system design were tested. The CMC acoustic tiles were subjected to two 2 3/4 hr ambient temperature acoustic exposures to measure their dynamic response. One exposure was conducted on the tiles alone and the second exposure included the tiles and the T-foam bulk absorber. The measured tile RMS strains were small. With or without the T-foam absorber, the dynamic strains were below strain levels that would cause damage during fatigue loading. After the ambient exposure, a 75-hr durability test of the entire acoustic liner system was conducted using a thermal-acoustic cycle that approximated the anticipated service cycle. Acoustic loads up to 139 dB/Hz and temperatures up to 1670 F (910 C) were employed during this 60 cycle test. During the durability test, the CMC tiles were exposed to temperatures up to 1780 F and a transient through thickness gradient up to 490 F. The TPS peak temperatures on the hot side of the panels ranged from 750 to 1000 F during the 60 cycles. The through thickness delta T ranged from 450 to 650 F, varying with TPS location and cycle number. No damage, such as cracks or chipping, was observed in the CMC tiles after completion of the testing. However, on tile warped during the durability test and was replaced after 43 or 60 cycles. No externally observed damage was found in this tile. No failure of the CMC fasteners occurred, but damage was observed. Cracks and missing material occurred, only in the fastener head region. No indication of damage was observed in the T-foam acoustic absorbers. The SiC foam acoustic absorber experienced damage after about 43 cycles. Cracking in the TPS occurred around the attachment holes and under a vent. In spite of the development of damage, the TPS maintained

  1. Instrument for controlling the application of mechanical loads to biological and bicompatible test subjects

    DOEpatents

    Lintilhac, P.M.; Vesecky, T.B.

    1995-09-19

    An apparatus and methods are disclosed facilitating the application of forces and measurement of dimensions of a test subject. In one arrangement the test subject is coupled to a forcing frame and controlled forces applied thereto. Force applied to the test subject is measured and controlled. A dimensional characteristic of the test subject, such as growth, is measured by a linear variable differential transformer. The growth measurement data can be used to control the force applied. The transducer module receives force and dimensional data from the forcing frame. The transducer module is a separate, microprocessor-based unit that communicates the test data to a controller unit that controls the application of force to the test subject and receives the test data from the transducer module for force control, storage, and/or communication to the user. 8 figs.

  2. Instrument for controlling the application of mechanical loads to biological and bicompatible test subjects

    DOEpatents

    Lintilhac, Phillip M.; Vesecky, Thompson B.

    1995-01-01

    Apparatus and methods are disclosed facilitating the application of forces and measurement of dimensions of a test subject. In one arrangement the test subject is coupled to a forcing frame and controlled forces applied thereto. Force applied to the test subject is measured and controlled. A dimensional characteristic of the test subject, such as growth, is measured by a linear variable differential transformer. The growth measurement data can be used to control the force applied. The transducer module receives force and dimensional data from the forcing frame. The transducer module is a separate, microprocessor-based unit that communicates the test data to a controller unit that controls the application of force to the test subject and receives the test data from the transducer module for force control, storage, and/or communication to the user.

  3. Group Testing as a Pedagogical Technique to Enhance Learning in Difficult Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scafe, Marla G.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of group testing as a pedagogical technique to enhance learning in a difficult subject such as statistics. Individual test scores were compared to their group test scores for the same, identical test. A t test was used to compare the scores for 157 randomly selected MBA students enrolled…

  4. Subjective benefit of communication aids evaluated by postlingually deaf adults.

    PubMed

    Rihkanen, H

    1990-06-01

    Three groups of postlingually deaf adults were selected, trained and followed for about 2 years. The subjects with residual hearing were fitted with a powerful hearing aid (HA group, N = 10), the rest were given a single channel vibrotactile aid (V group, N = 8) or received a single channel cochlear implant (CI group, N = 10). The subjects were asked to evaluate the subjective benefit, disadvantage and magnitude of hearing impairment after the rehabilitation. Although the HA group achieved the highest scores in the audiological tests, the interviews revealed that the CI group found the implant quite beneficial in everyday life and in changing their attitude towards the handicap. After 2 years of use, this group reported the highest index of benefit, the best discrimination of everyday sounds and used the device most frequently. The V group were not as satisfied with their devices as the CI and HA groups. PMID:2364187

  5. Antileishmania Immunological Tests for Asymptomatic Subjects Living in a Visceral Leishmaniasis-Endemic Area in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Luciana Almeida; Romero, Héctor Dardo; Nogueira Nascentes, Gabriel Antônio; Costa, Roberto Teodoro; Rodrigues, Virmondes; Prata, Aluízio

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the behavior of different tests used for the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in asymptomatic subjects living in an endemic area. No gold standard is available for the diagnosis of asymptomatic infection with Leishmania. In continuation of a previous study, 1,017 subjects living in a VL-endemic area were clinically reevaluated. Of these, 576 had at least one positive serological test in a first assessment. About 3 years after the first evaluation, none of the subjects had progressed to clinical VL. Among this group, 246 subjects were selected, and five serological tests (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay p [ELISAp], ELISArK39, ELISArK26, indirect immunofluorescence test [IIFT] using L. amazonensis promastigote antigen, and an immunochromatographic test using rK39 antigen [TRALd]) and the Montenegro skin test (MST) were repeated. There was a significant increase in the number of subjects who tested positive in the MST, IIFT, ELISAp, and ELISArK39 in the second evaluation. For all tests, there were subjects who tested positive in the first evaluation and negative in the second evaluation. A positive result in the serological tests and MST in subjects from the endemic area studied did not indicate a risk of progression to VL and may only be temporary. PMID:21292896

  6. Antileishmania immunological tests for asymptomatic subjects living in a visceral leishmaniasis-endemic area in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Luciana Almeida; Romero, Héctor Dardo; Nogueira Nascentes, Gabriel Antônio; Costa, Roberto Teodoro; Rodrigues, Virmondes; Prata, Aluízio

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the behavior of different tests used for the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in asymptomatic subjects living in an endemic area. No gold standard is available for the diagnosis of asymptomatic infection with Leishmania. In continuation of a previous study, 1,017 subjects living in a VL-endemic area were clinically reevaluated. Of these, 576 had at least one positive serological test in a first assessment. About 3 years after the first evaluation, none of the subjects had progressed to clinical VL. Among this group, 246 subjects were selected, and five serological tests (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay p [ELISAp], ELISArK39, ELISArK26, indirect immunofluorescence test [IIFT] using L. amazonensis promastigote antigen, and an immunochromatographic test using rK39 antigen [TRALd]) and the Montenegro skin test (MST) were repeated. There was a significant increase in the number of subjects who tested positive in the MST, IIFT, ELISAp, and ELISArK39 in the second evaluation. For all tests, there were subjects who tested positive in the first evaluation and negative in the second evaluation. A positive result in the serological tests and MST in subjects from the endemic area studied did not indicate a risk of progression to VL and may only be temporary. PMID:21292896

  7. Using Therapeutic Sound With Progressive Audiologic Tinnitus Management

    PubMed Central

    Henry, James A.; Zaugg, Tara L.; Myers, Paula J.; Schechter, Martin A.

    2008-01-01

    Management of tinnitus generally involves educational counseling, stress reduction, and/or the use of therapeutic sound. This article focuses on therapeutic sound, which can involve three objectives: (a) producing a sense of relief from tinnitus-associated stress (using soothing sound); (b) passively diverting attention away from tinnitus by reducing contrast between tinnitus and the acoustic environment (using background sound); and (c) actively diverting attention away from tinnitus (using interesting sound). Each of these goals can be accomplished using three different types of sound—broadly categorized as environmental sound, music, and speech—resulting in nine combinations of uses of sound and types of sound to manage tinnitus. The authors explain the uses and types of sound, how they can be combined, and how the different combinations are used with Progressive Audiologic Tinnitus Management. They also describe how sound is used with other sound-based methods of tinnitus management (Tinnitus Masking, Tinnitus Retraining Therapy, and Neuromonics). PMID:18664499

  8. [Audiological analysis and peri-and postoperative complications in bone-anchored hearing aid surgery].

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Yoshihiro; Takahashi, Masatoki; Kitamura, Ken

    2011-07-01

    The bone-anchored hearing aid (BAHA) has advantages over conventional hearing aids in sound quality and speech reception in silence, but requires surgery and may have peri-and postoperative complications. We evaluated audiological findings and complications in 12 subjects (13 ears)-8 men and 4 women aged 20-71--undergoing BAHA surgery from September 2001 to October 2005. Surgery was for single-sided deafness in one subject. Mean warble tone thresholds with BAHA were 29.9dB and 65.2dB without. Functional gains ranged from 16 to 52dB (mean: 35.3dB). Dural exposure or venous hemorrhage was seen in 4 ears, and mastoid cells opened and a skin flap was damaged in 1 ear each. No severe complications occurred perioperatively. Skin reactions categorized into grade 1 or more were recognized in nearly 70% of ears during the first postoperative year but most were a grade 1 reaction and skin reactions decreased with time. Skin overgrowth occurred in 1 ear immediately after an abutment separated accidentally from the fixture. All complications were treated in outpatient clinics. No fixture extrusion occurred. The decision to proceed with BAHA surgery thus required fully informed consent based on knowledge of peri-and postoperative complications. PMID:21838056

  9. 40 CFR 799.5075 - Drinking water contaminants subject to testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drinking water contaminants subject to testing. 799.5075 Section 799.5075 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION OF SPECIFIC CHEMICAL SUBSTANCE AND MIXTURE TESTING REQUIREMENTS Multichemical Test...

  10. Federal Rule Yields Hope for Science: Testing Mandate Is Expected to Increase Time for Subject

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2007-01-01

    Some proponents of science education say they have faced no greater foe over the past few years than federally mandated tests in reading and mathematics, which have forced teachers to devote increasingly bigger chunks of class time to building students' skills in those two subjects. But if testing has squeezed science out, can testing also bring…

  11. 16 CFR 1702.10 - Human experimental data involving the testing of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... considers its regulations concerning the protection of human subjects (16 CFR part 1028) to be an example of... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Human experimental data involving the testing of human subjects. 1702.10 Section 1702.10 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY...

  12. 16 CFR 1702.10 - Human experimental data involving the testing of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... considers its regulations concerning the protection of human subjects (16 CFR part 1028) to be an example of... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Human experimental data involving the testing of human subjects. 1702.10 Section 1702.10 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY...

  13. A Store-and-Forward Tele-Audiology Solution to Promote Efficient Screenings for Ototoxicity during Cisplatin Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Dille, Marilyn F.; McMillan, Garnett P.; Helt, Wendy J.; Konrad-Martin, Dawn; Jacobs, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Tele-audiology improves access, controls cost, and improves efficiency of many aspects within health care. We have developed and validated a device, the ototoxicity identification device (OtoID), which enables remote hearing monitoring by a patient during chemotherapy treatment. Aspects of the design such as patient self-testing and texting of results to the audiology clinic are important features of this device. Purpose The purpose of this article is to present the efficacy and effectiveness of the OtoID hearing screener. Research Design A repeated measures design was used in this study. Study Sample Twenty-one veterans undergoing cisplatin chemotherapy were recruited in this study. Data Collection and Analysis Participants were tested using the OtoID at each cisplatin treatment by an audiologist using the manual mode of test and the participant using the automated mode of test. Test sensitivity and specificity were developed from the detection (yes/no) of an American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) change in hearing. Results The OtoID had a test sensitivity of 80.6% and specificity of 85.3%. A logistic regression model analysis of the probability of an ASHA shift identified by the automated OtoID was conducted. Separate models were fit to establish effects of age, average baseline thresholds in the sensitive range for ototoxicity (SRO), and dose of cisplatin on the probability of a positive hearing change result. Interactions were also included to evaluate these effects on the sensitivity and false-positive rates of the automated test. Results indicated no statistically significant effects of age, of baseline hearing in the SRO frequencies, or of cisplatin dose. Conclusions The OtoID automated test can be recommended for use. The automated test provides significant personnel efficiencies. The modem with simple text messaging function recently added to the device improves on these efficiencies. PMID:26415968

  14. Evaluation of an Indoor Sonic Boom Subjective Test Facility at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loubeau, Alexandra; Rathsam, Jonathan; Klos, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    A sonic boom simulator at NASA Langley Research Center has been constructed for research on human response to low-amplitude sonic booms heard indoors. Research in this facility will ultimately lead to development of a psychoacoustic model for single indoor booms. The first subjective test was designed to explore indoor human response to variations in sonic boom rise time and amplitude. Another goal was to identify loudness level variability across listener locations within the facility. Finally, the test also served to evaluate the facility as a laboratory research tool for studying indoor human response to sonic booms. Subjects listened to test sounds and were asked to rate their annoyance relative to a reference boom. Measurements of test signals were conducted for objective analysis and correlation with subjective responses. Results confirm the functionality of the facility and effectiveness of the test methods and indicate that loudness level does not fully describe indoor annoyance to the selected sonic boom signals.

  15. Monitoring noise susceptibility: sensitivity of otoacoustic emissions and subjective audiometry.

    PubMed

    Plinkert, P K; Hemmert, W; Wagner, W; Just, K; Zenner, H P

    1999-12-01

    The capacity of different audiological methods to detect a high noise susceptibility was examined in 20 normally hearing and 26 especially noise-susceptible subjects. The latter were selected from 422 soldiers in field studies: they had shown a temporary threshold shift (TTS) in pure tone audiometry (PTA) after regular training with firearms. In laboratory experiments, the TTS-positive soldiers were re-examined using greatly reduced sound intensities, which caused no TTS in a control subject group. Before and after acoustic stimulation, different subjective (PTA, high frequency audiometry (HFA), upper limit of hearing (ULH)) and objective (transiently evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE), distortion products (DPOAE)) audiological tests were performed. After exposure to low impact noise in the laboratory, in both PTA and HFA, a TTS was observed in 11.5% (N = 3) of the noise-susceptible group (compared to 0% in the control group). In the TTS-positive group, deterioration of the ULH occurred in 28% (N = 7) (compared to 15% (N = 3) in the control group). An ULH improvement occurred in only one subject (3.8%) (compared to 25% (N = 5) in the control group). Significant alterations of click-evoked OAE-amplitudes were found in 26.9% (N = 7) of the selected groups, whereas stable emissions were observed in all but one subject (5%) of the control group. However, DPOAE alterations were seen in 19.2% (N = 5) of the TTS-positive soldiers but also in 25% (N = 5) of the control group. These results suggest that TEOAE provides a more sensitive and more objective method of detecting a subtle noise-induced disturbance of cochlear function than do PTA or DPOAE. PMID:10656598

  16. Correlations Between Cardiovascular Autonomic Control Indices During the Two-hour Immobilization Test in Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Kiselev, A.R.; Shvartz, V.A.; Karavaev, A.S.; Mironov, S.A.; Ponomarenko, V.I.; Gridnev, V.I.; Prokhorov, M.D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to assess the features of dynamics of cardiovascular autonomic indices and correlations between them during the two-hour immobilization test in healthy subjects. Methods: Photoplethysmogram (PPG) and electrocardiogram were recorded simultaneously during the two-hour immobilization test in 14 healthy subjects (5 men and 9 women) aged 29±5 years (mean±SD). Dynamics of heart rate variability (HRV) power spectrum in high-frequency and low-frequency ranges (in ms2 and percents of total spectral power), mean heart rate (HR), and index S of synchronization between 0.1-Hz rhythms in PPG and HR were analyzed. Results: Individual dynamics of all studied cardiovascular autonomic indices during the two-hour immobilization test was unique in each healthy subject. Two groups of healthy subjects were identified basing on individual features of autonomic control. The group with initial low level of index S maintained the low level of S during the two-hour immobilization test. The group with initial high index S maintained the high level of S only during the first 100 minutes of test. During the last 20 minutes of test, index S was similar in both groups. Many cardiovascular autonomic indices correlate between themselves for an individual subject, but they do not correlate between the subjects. Multiple regression analysis in each subject has shown a high correlation between mean HR and all other studied autonomic parameters in 57% of subjects (multiple R>0.9, P<0.05). For 204 records analyzed without taking into account the individual features of subjects, the above mentioned correlation was smaller (multiple R=0.45, P<0.001). Index S was found out to be the most independent one among the autonomic indices. Conclusion: Cardiovascular autonomic control is characterized by a pronounced variability among healthy subjects and stability in time in each subject. We have not found any regularity in variation of cardiovascular autonomic

  17. Recent Advances in Modeling Stress Distributions in Multilayers Subjected to Biaxial Flexure Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Hsueh, Chun-Hway; Luttrell, Claire Roberta

    2007-01-01

    Although biaxial flexure tests have been used extensively to measure the strength of brittle materials, the tests and analyses have been limited to materials of uniform properties. Despite the increasing applications of multilayered structures, characterization of their strengths using biaxial flexure tests has been difficult because the analytical description of the strength-fracture load relation for multilayers subjected to biaxial flexure tests is unavailable. The newly derived closed-form solutions for the elastic stress distributions in multilayered discs subjected to ring-on-ring tests are summarized here. These solutions are obtained by (i) finding the correlation between monolayered and multilayered discs subjected to biaxial bending moment and (ii) conversion from the existing solutions for monolayers. Using this methodology, the closed-form solutions for multilayers subjected to other biaxial flexure tests can also be obtained. Finite element results for ring-on-rings tests performed on (i) porcelain/zirconia bilayered discs and (ii) solid oxide fuel cells trilayered discs are also presented to validate the closed-form solutions. The closed-form solutions hence provide a basis for evaluating biaxial strength of multilayers using biaxial flexure tests.

  18. Analyzing Student Performance in Specific Subject Area Indicators on the ETS Major Field Test in Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Settlage, Daniel Murray; Wollscheid, Jim R.

    2015-01-01

    The Major Field Test is a commonly used assessment instrument, but little emphasis has been put on analyzing student-level subject area indicator scores. The Educational Testing Service recently made these data available to institutions, and it is analyzed here. This analysis builds on previous work by incorporating demographic and programmatic…

  19. Developing an Achievement Test for the Subject of Sound in Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sözen, Merve; Bolat, Mualla

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an achievement test which includes the basic concepts about the subject of sound and its properties in middle school science lessons and which at the same time aims to reveal the alternative concepts that the students already have. During the process of the development of the test, studies in the field and…

  20. 40 CFR 799.5055 - Hazardous waste constituents subject to testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hazardous waste constituents subject to testing. 799.5055 Section 799.5055 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION OF SPECIFIC CHEMICAL SUBSTANCE AND MIXTURE TESTING REQUIREMENTS Multichemical...

  1. Brazilian young adults and noise: attitudes, habits, and audiological characteristics.

    PubMed

    Zocoli, Angela Maria Fontana; Morata, Thais Catalani; Marques, Jair Mendes; Corteletti, Lilian Jacob

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine behaviors and attitudes of Brazilian teenagers towards noise, and determine their audiological characteristics. Participants were 245 young persons (14 to 18 years old) who attended private school. Behaviors and attitudes were measured using the validated Portuguese version of the Youth Attitude to Noise Scale (YANS). Pure-tone audiometry was used to evaluate the hearing of a sub-sample of 24 participants. Music played through personal media players was the most common exposure reported. A substantial percentage of participants reported temporary tinnitus (69%) after attending discos, music concerts, and listening to music through headphones. Tinnitus complaints were more frequent among females (41%) than males (27%). Four participants (1.6%) reported use of a hearing protector. Among a subsample of 24 participants, two (8%) young women had bilateral audiometric notches. YANS scores in the present study were slightly lower than those obtained in Sweden and the US, indicating a more negative attitude towards noise. Gender, age, country, and/or region are variables that will influence exposure to noise or music and possibly hearing outcomes. PMID:19863355

  2. Human subjects concerns in ground based ECLSS testing - Managing uncertainty in closely recycled systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crump, William J.; Janik, Daniel S.; Thomas, L. Dale

    1990-01-01

    U.S. space missions have to this point used water either made on board or carried from earth and discarded after use. For Space Station Freedom, long duration life support will include air and water recycling using a series of physical-chemical subsystems. The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) designed for this application must be tested extensively at all stages of hardware maturity. Human test subjects are required to conduct some of these tests, and the risks associated with the use of development hardware must be addressed. Federal guidelines for protection of human subjects require careful consideration of risks and potential benefits by an Institutional Review Board (IRB) before and during testing. This paper reviews the ethical principles guiding this consideration, details the problems and uncertainties inherent in current hardware testing, and presents an incremental approach to risk assessment for ECLSS testing.

  3. Objective and subjective hardness of a test item used for evaluating food mixing ability.

    PubMed

    Salleh, N M; Fueki, K; Garrett, N R; Ohyama, T

    2007-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare objective and subjective hardness of selected common foods with a wax cube used as a test item in a mixing ability test. Objective hardness was determined for 11 foods (cream cheese, boiled fish paste, boiled beef, apple, raw carrot, peanut, soft/hard rice cracker, jelly, plain chocolate and chewing gum) and the wax cube. Peak force (N) to compress each item was obtained from force-time curves generated with the Tensipresser. Perceived hardness ratings of each item were made by 30 dentate subjects (mean age 26.9 years) using a visual analogue scale (100 mm). These subjective assessments were given twice with a 1 week interval. High intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for test-retest reliability were seen for all foods (ICC > 0.68; P < 0.001). One-way anova found a significant effect of food type on both the objective hardness score and the subjective hardness rating (P < 0.001). The wax cube showed significant lower objective hardness score (32.6 N) and subjective hardness rating (47.7) than peanut (45.3 N, 63.5) and raw carrot (82.5 N, 78.4) [P < 0.05; Ryan-Einot-Gabriel-Welsch (REGW)-F]. A significant semilogarithmic relationship was found between the logarithm of objective hardness scores and subjective hardness ratings across twelve test items (r = 0.90; P < 0.001). These results suggest the wax cube has a softer texture compared with test foods traditionally used for masticatory performance test, such as peanut and raw carrot. The hardness of the wax cube could be modified to simulate a range of test foods by changing mixture ratio of soft and hard paraffin wax. PMID:17302945

  4. Evaluating Maintenance Performance: Test Administrator's Manual and Test Subject's Instructions for Criterion Referenced Job Task Performance Tests for Electronic Maintenance. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriver, Edgar L.; And Others

    This document furnishes a complete copy of the Test Subject's Instructions and the Test Administrator's Handbook for a battery of criterion referenced Job Task Performance Tests (JTPT) for electronic maintenance. General information is provided on soldering, Radar Set AN/APN-147(v), Radar Set Special Equipment, Radar Set Bench Test Set-Up, and…

  5. Subtyping Somatic Tinnitus: A Cross-Sectional UK Cohort Study of Demographic, Clinical and Audiological Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Jamie; Vella, Claire; Hoare, Derek J.; Hall, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    Somatic tinnitus is the ability to modulate the psychoacoustic features of tinnitus by somatic manoeuvres. The condition is still not fully understood and further identification of this subtype is essential, particularly for the purpose of establishing protocols for both its diagnosis and treatment. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics of somatic tinnitus within a large UK cohort using a largely unselected sample. We believe this to be relatively unique in comparison to current literature on the topic. This was investigated by using a total of 608 participant assessments from a set of recognised tinnitus and audiology measures. Results from a set of chi-square tests of association found that amongst the individuals with somatic tinnitus, a higher proportion had pulsatile tinnitus (different from heartbeat), were under the age of 40, reported variation in the loudness of their tinnitus and reported temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorder. The same pattern of results was confirmed using a multivariate analysis of the data based on logistic regression. These findings have strong implications towards the profiling of somatic tinnitus as a distinct subtype of general tinnitus. PMID:25996779

  6. An investigation on impacts of scheduling configurations on Mississippi biology subject area testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchette, Frances Lenora

    The purpose of this mixed modal study was to compare the results of Biology Subject Area mean scores of students on a 4 x 4 block schedule, A/B block schedule, and traditional year-long schedule for 1A to 5A size schools. This study also reviewed the data to determine if minority or gender issues might influence the test results. Interviews with administrators and teachers were conducted about the type of schedule configuration they use and the influence that the schedule has on student academic performance on the Biology Subject Area Test. Additionally, this research further explored whether schedule configurations allow sufficient time for students to construct knowledge. This study is important to schools, teachers, and administrators because it can assist them in considering the impacts that different types of class schedules have on student performance and if ethnic or gender issues are influencing testing results. This study used the causal-comparative method for the quantitative portion of the study and constant comparative method for the qualitative portion to explore the relationship of school schedules on student academic achievement on the Mississippi Biology Subject Area Test. The aggregate means of selected student scores indicate that the Mississippi Biology Subject Area Test as a measure of student performance reveals no significant difference on student achievement for the three school schedule configurations. The data were adjusted for initial differences of gender, minority, and school size on the three schedule configurations. The results suggest that schools may employ various schedule configurations and expect student performance on the Mississippi Biology Subject Area Test to be unaffected. However, many areas of concern were identified in the interviews that might impact on school learning environments. These concerns relate to effective classroom management, the active involvement of students in learning, the adequacy of teacher education

  7. Data Acquisition, Management, and Analysis in Support of the Audiology and Hearing Conservation and the Orbital Debris Program Office

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dicken, Todd

    2012-01-01

    My internship at Johnson Space Center, Houston TX comprised of working simultaneously in the Space Life Science Directorate (Clinical Services Branch, SD3) in Audiology and Hearing Conservation and in the Astromaterials Research and Exploration Sciences Directorate in the Orbital Debris Program Office (KX). The purpose of the project done to support the Audiology and Hearing Conservation Clinic (AuHCon) is to organize and analyze auditory test data that has been obtained from tests conducted onboard the International Space Station (ISS) and in Johnson Space Center's clinic. Astronauts undergo a special type of auditory test called an On-Orbit Hearing Assessment (OOHA), which monitors hearing function while crewmembers are exposed to noise and microgravity during long-duration spaceflight. Data needed to be formatted to assist the Audiologist in studying, analyzing and reporting OOHA results from all ISS missions, with comparison to conventional preflight and post-flight audiometric test results of crewmembers. Orbital debris is the #1 threat to manned spacecraft; therefore NASA is investing in different measurement techniques to acquire information on orbital debris. These measurements are taken with telescopes in different parts of the world to acquire brightness variations over time, from which size, rotation rates and material information can be determined for orbital debris. Currently many assumptions are taken to resolve size and material from observed brightness, therefore a laboratory (Optical Measurement Center) is used to simulate the space environment and acquire information of known targets suited to best model the orbital debris population. In the Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) telescopic data were acquired and analyzed to better assess the orbital debris population.

  8. Testing of a Loop Heat Pipe Subjected to Variable Accelerating Forces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Jentung; Ottenstein, Laura; Kaya, Tarik; Rogers, Paul; Hoff, Craig

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs of the functionality of a loop heat pipe that was subjected to variable accelerating forces. The topics include: 1) Summary of LHP (Loop Heat Pipe) Design Parameters; 2) Picture of the LHP; 3) Schematic of Test Setup; 4) Test Configurations; 5) Test Profiles; 6) Overview of Test Results; 7) Start-up; 8) Typical Start-up without Temperature Overshoot; 9) Start-up with a Large Temperature Overshoot; 10) LHP Operation Under Stationary Condition; 11) LHP Operation Under Continuous Acceleration; 12) LHP Operation Under Periodic Acceleration; 13) Effects of Acceleration on Temperature Oscillation and Hysteresis; 14) Temperature Oscillation/Hysteresis vs Spin Rate; and 15) Summary.

  9. The interlocking finger test in patients with Parkinson's disease and healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Souza, Carolina Pinto; Oliveira, Guiomar Nascimento; Foss, Maria Paula; Tumas, Vitor

    2016-07-01

    The interlocking finger test (ILFT) is a bedside screening test in which the subject must imitate four bimanual finger gestures without symbolic meaning. We assessed the utility of the test in the cognitive evaluation of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). We evaluated 88 healthy subjects and 101 patients with PD using a simplified motor score of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), Hoehn and Yahr and Schwab and England scales, Geriatric Depression Scale, Pfeffer Functional Activities Questionnaire, Clinical Dementia Rating, Mini-Mental State Examination, clock drawing test, digit span, word list battery of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease assessment, Frontal Assessment Battery, semantic verbal fluency test, and the ILFT. Diagnoses of mild cognitive impairment and dementia were made using the Movement Disorder Society diagnostic criteria. ILFT scores in healthy subjects correlated significantly with age (p=0.001) and only one healthy subject scored 2 in the test. ILFT scores were significantly lower in patients with PD and dementia (p=0.001) and significantly correlated with cognitive and functional tests, but not with depressive symptoms (p=0.607), Hoehn and Yahr scores (p=0.907), or Schwab and England scores (p=0.701). Twenty-five patients with dementia, three patients with mild cognitive impairment, and six patients with apparently normal cognition scored less than 3 in the ILFT. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the ILFT to discriminate patients with dementia from those without it was 0.76 (cut-off score of 3/2: sensitivity of 61%, specificity of 0.85). In conclusion, the ILFT seems to be a useful bedside test to assess cognitive impairment in patients with PD. PMID:26960261

  10. Otologic and Audiologic Outcomes With the Furlow and von Langenbeck With Intravelar Veloplasty Palatoplasties in Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate

    PubMed Central

    Antonelli, Patrick J.; Jorge, José C.; Feniman, Mariza R.; Piazentin-Penna, Sílvia H.A.; Dutka-Souza, Jeniffer C.R.; Seagle, M. Brent; Williams, William N.; Nackashi, John A.; Boggs, Steve; Graciano, Maria I.G.; Souza, Telma V.; Neto, José S.M.; Garla, Luis A.; Silva, Marcos L.N.; Marques, Ilza L.; Borgo, Hilton C.; Martinelli, Ângela P.M.C.; Shuster, Jonathan J.; Pimentel, Maria C.M.; Zimmermann, Maria C.; Bento-Gonçalves, Cristina G.A.; Kemker, F. Joseph; McGorray, Susan P.; Pegoraro-Krook, Maria I.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Cleft palate increases the risk of chronic middle ear disease and hearing loss. The goal of this report was to determine which of two palate surgeries and which timing of palate surgery were associated with better otologic and audiologic outcomes in children with unilateral cleft lip and palate at 5 to 6 years of age. Design Subjects were randomly assigned to the von Langenbeck with intravelar veloplasty or Furlow palate repair, to palate surgery at 9 to 12 months or 15 to 18 months of age, and to the Spina or Millard lip repair. Setting Centralized, tertiary care craniofacial treatment center. Patients A total of 673 infants with unilateral cleft lip and palate. Interventions Palate and lip were repaired using established techniques. Serial otoscopic and audiometric evaluations were performed. Main Outcome Measures Hearing and otoscopic findings at 5 to 6 years old. Results There were 370 children available for analysis. Hearing and need for tympanostomy tube placement did not differ by palatoplasty, age at palatoplasty, cheiloplasty, or surgeon. Risk of developing cholesteatoma or perforation was higher with Millard cheiloplasty (odds ratio = 5.1, 95% confidence interval = 1.44 to 18.11, p = .012). Type and age at palatoplasty were not significantly associated with either the rate of developing these sequelae or the rate of achieving bilaterally normal hearing and ear examinations. Conclusions Type of palatoplasty did not influence otologic and audiologic outcomes in 5- to 6-year-olds with unilateral cleft lip and palate. The potential influence of lip repair on otologic outcomes warrants further investigation. PMID:20536371

  11. Maximum likelihood ratio tests for comparing the discriminatory ability of biomarkers subject to limit of detection.

    PubMed

    Vexler, Albert; Liu, Aiyi; Eliseeva, Ekaterina; Schisterman, Enrique F

    2008-09-01

    In this article, we consider comparing the areas under correlated receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves of diagnostic biomarkers whose measurements are subject to a limit of detection (LOD), a source of measurement error from instruments' sensitivity in epidemiological studies. We propose and examine the likelihood ratio tests with operating characteristics that are easily obtained by classical maximum likelihood methodology. PMID:18047527

  12. Usability Testing, User-Centered Design, and LibGuides Subject Guides: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonsteby, Alec; DeJonghe, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Usability testing has become a routine way for many libraries to ensure that their Web presence is user-friendly and accessible. At the same time, popular subject guide creation systems, such as LibGuides, decentralize Web content creation and put authorship into the hands of librarians who may not be trained in user-centered design principles. At…

  13. A PC-based software test for measuring alcohol and drug effects in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Mills, K C; Parkman, K M; Spruill, S E

    1996-12-01

    A new software-based visual search and divided-attention test of cognitive performance was developed and evaluated in an alcohol dose-response study with 24 human subjects aged 21-62 years. The test used language-free, color, graphic displays to represent the visuospatial demands of driving. Cognitive demands were increased over previous hardware-based tests, and the motor skills required for the test involved minimal eye movements and eye-hand coordination. Repeated performance on the test was evaluated with a latin-square design by using a placebo and two alcohol doses, low (0.48 g/kg/LBM) and moderate (0.72 g/kg/LBM). The data on 7 females and 17 males yielded significant falling and rising impairment effects coincident with moderate rising and falling breath alcohol levels (mean peak BrALs = 0.045 g/dl and 0.079 g/dl). None of the subjects reported eye-strain or psychomotor fatigue as compared with previous tests. The high sensitivity/variance relative to use in basic and applied research, and worksite fitness-for-duty testing, was discussed. The most distinct advantage of a software-based test that operates on readily available PCs is that it can be widely distributed to researchers with a common reference to compare a variety of alcohol and drug effects. PMID:8986207

  14. Nondestructive Evaluation Tests Performed on Space Shuttle Leading- Edge Materials Subjected to Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Don J.; Martin, Richard E.; Bodis, James R.

    2005-01-01

    In support of the space shuttle Return To Flight efforts at the NASA Glenn Research Center, a series of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) tests were performed on reinforced carbon/carbon (RCC) composite panels subjected to ballistic foam impact. The impact tests were conducted to refine and verify analytical models of an external tank foam strike on the space shuttle leading edge. The NDE tests were conducted to quantify the size and location of the resulting damage zone as well as to identify hidden damage.

  15. Preparation for Testing a Multi-Bay Box Subjected to Combined Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouse, Marshall; Jegley, Dawn

    2015-01-01

    The COmbined Loads Test System (COLTS) facility at NASA Langley Research Center provides a test capability to help develop validated structures technologies. The test machine was design to accommodate a range of fuselage structures and wing sections and subject them to both quasistatic and cyclic loading conditions. The COLTS facility is capable of testing fuselage barrels up to 4.6 m in diameter and 13.7 m long with combined mechanical, internal pressure, and thermal loads. The COLTS facility is currently being prepared to conduct a combined mechanical and pressure loading for a multi-bay pressure box to experimentally verify the structural performance of a composite structure which is 9.1 meters long and representative of a section of a hybrid wing body fuselage section in support of the Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project at NASA. This paper describes development of the multi-bay pressure box test using the COLTS facility. The multi-bay test article will be subjected to mechanical loads and internal pressure loads up to design ultimate load. Mechanical and pressure loads will be applied independently in some tests and simultaneously in others.

  16. Diagnostic Role of Captopril Challenge Test in Korean Subjects with High Aldosterone-to-Renin Ratios

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung Hee; Park, Kyeong Seon; Hong, A Ram; Shin, Chan Soo; Kim, Seong Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Background Diagnosis of primary aldosteronism (PA) begins with aldosterone-to-renin ratio (ARR) measurement followed by confirmative tests. However, the ARR has high false positive rates which led to unnecessary confirmatory tests. Captopril challenge test (CCT) has been used as one of confirmatory tests, but the accuracy of it in the diagnosis of PA is still controversial. We aimed to examine the clinical efficacy of CCT as a post-screening test in PA. Methods In a prospective study, we enrolled subjects with suspected PA who had hypertension and ARR >20 (ng/dL)/(ng/mL/hr). Sixty-four patients who underwent both the saline infusion test and the CCT were included. Results The diagnostic performance of plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) post-CCT was greater than that of ARR post-CCT and ARR pre-CCT in PA (area under the curve=0.956, 0.797, and 0.748, respectively; P=0.001). A cut-off value of 13 ng/dL showed the highest diagnostic odds ratio considering PAC post-CCT at 60 and 90 minutes. A PAC post-CCT of 19 ng/dL had a specificity of 100%, which can be used as a cut-off value for the confirmative test. Determining the diagnostic performance of PAC post-CCT at 90 minutes was sufficient for PA diagnosis. Subjects with PAC post-CCT at 90 minutes <13 ng/dL are less likely to have PA, and those with PAC post-CCT at 90 minutes ≥13 but <19 ng/dL should undergo secondary confirmatory tests. Conclusion The CCT test may be a reliable post-screening test to avoid the hospitalization in the setting of falsely elevated ARR screening tests. PMID:27184013

  17. Establishing construct validity of the Biology I Subject Area Testing program in Mississippi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philippoff, Christy Michelle Hollis

    Science education has undergone many revisions since it was permanently embedded in the country's educational curriculum at the end of the 19th century. Some of these revisions occurred as a direct result of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB). This legislation placed more accountability on schools than ever before by requiring that all students pass a series of standardized tests (USDE, 2010). High schools in Mississippi require four areas of standardized testing: English II, Algebra I, U.S. History, and Biology I (Wroten, 2008). The focus of this study is the Biology I Subject Area Test. In an effort to determine the validity of that test, this study explores the importance of the Mississippi Biology I content standards according to the importance ratings and frequency of use ratings by science professionals in Mississippi. The science professionals surveyed for this study were high school science teachers, college science professors and scientists in their professional settings. The science professionals' importance ratings were compared to the importance ratings placed on the content strands by the Mississippi Biology I Subject Area Test. To further determine the test's validity, it is also compared to the National Science Education Standards.

  18. Working Papers in Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology. Volume XIII.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Theresa Aherne; And Others

    Six papers contributed by graduate students report on studies that focused on the application of theory to practice in speech-language pathology and audiology. The first study revealed the ability of an autistic child to adapt to conversational partners of various ages and linguistic abilities. In the second paper, a language impaired child's…

  19. Epidemiology: An Essential Science for Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubker, Bobbie Boyd

    1997-01-01

    Introduces epidemiology as a health science that is essential as a complement to the basic laboratory and clinical sciences in speech-language pathology and audiology. A definition of epidemiology is presented. Principles of epidemiology, including causal criteria, and concepts such as incidence, prevalence, and risk are discussed. (Author/CR)

  20. Epidemiologic Issues in Audiology: Impact on Professional Training and Service Delivery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Thomas H.

    1997-01-01

    The benefits and disadvantages in conducting universal infant hearing screening and in the transition of audiology from a master's to a doctoral level profession are discussed from an epidemiological point of view. Epidemiologic strategies which may inform decision making in these two important and controversial areas are presented. (Author/CR)

  1. Analysis of Preferred Textbooks in Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Condon, Marilyn

    Directors of 100 undergraduate training programs in speech language pathology and audiology were surveyed about the readability level and faculty satisfaction with currently used textbooks. For each of seven fundamental courses, Ss were asked to indicate the academic level at which students typically completed the courses, the textbook currently…

  2. Working Papers in Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology. Volume XII.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    City Univ. of New York, Flushing. Queens Coll. Dept. of Communication Arts and Sciences.

    Seven papers report on speech language pathology and audiology studies performed by graduate students. The first paper reports on intelligibility of two popular synthetic speech systems used in communication aids for the speech impaired, the Votrax Personal Speech System and the Echo II synthesizer. The second paper reports facilitation of tense…

  3. Factors Affecting Career Choice among Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Larissa; Pellowski, Mark W.

    2016-01-01

    This investigation assessed the factors affecting career choice among 474 current undergraduate and graduate speech-language pathology and audiology students (from four universities). A 14-item questionnaire was developed that included questions related to general influence of career choice and whether or not the participants had previously been,…

  4. [Box and block test of manual dexterity in normal subjects and in patients with multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Mendes, M F; Tilbery, C P; Balsimelli, S; Moreira, M A; Cruz, A M

    2001-12-01

    Recently new disease-modifying treatments for multiple sclerosis (MS) were introduced which can change the natural course of the disease. In clinical trials with these new agents the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) is often used as a primary outcome instrument to measure neurological impairment and disability. A number of limitations have been identified when using the EDSS, some of wich are because the EDSS is an ordinal scale that is heavily biased to locomotor function. In this study we applied the box and block test of manual dexterity in normal subjects and relapsing-remitting MS patients. The results were that 64.8% of the female and 80.7% of the male patients had significant changes on this task compared with normal subjects, and as this test is easily applied and is sensitive in detecting upper extremity functional ability, we recommend its use in clinical trials to evaluate new drugs in MS patients. PMID:11733833

  5. A Score Based on Screening Tests to Differentiate Mild Cognitive Impairment from Subjective Memory Complaints

    PubMed Central

    de Gobbi Porto, Fábio Henrique; Spíndola, Lívia; de Oliveira, Maira Okada; Figuerêdo do Vale, Patrícia Helena; Orsini, Marco; Nitrini, Ricardo; Dozzi Brucki, Sonia Maria

    2013-01-01

    It is not easy to differentiate patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from subjective memory complainers (SMC). Assessments with screening cognitive tools are essential, particularly in primary care where most patients are seen. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of screening cognitive tests and to propose a score derived from screening tests. Elderly subjects with memory complaints were evaluated using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Brief Cognitive Battery (BCB). We added two delayed recalls in the MMSE (a delayed recall and a late-delayed recall, LDR), and also a phonemic fluency test of letter P fluency (LPF). A score was created based on these tests. The diagnoses were made on the basis of clinical consensus and neuropsychological testing. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were used to determine area under the curve (AUC), the sensitivity and specificity for each test separately and for the final proposed score. MMSE, LDR, LPF and delayed recall of BCB scores reach statistically significant differences between groups (P=0.000, 0.03, 0.001 and 0.01, respectively). Sensitivity, specificity and AUC were MMSE: 64%, 79% and 0.75 (cut off <29); LDR: 56%, 62% and 0.62 (cut off <3); LPF: 71%, 71% and 0.71 (cut off <14); delayed recall of BCB: 56%, 82% and 0.68 (cut off <9). The proposed score reached a sensitivity of 88% and 76% and specificity of 62% and 75% for cut off over 1 and over 2, respectively. AUC were 0.81. In conclusion, a score created from screening tests is capable of discriminating MCI from SMC with moderate to good accurancy. PMID:24147213

  6. Etiology and Audiological Outcomes at 3 Years for 364 Children in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Dahl, Hans-Henrik M.; Ching, Teresa Y. C.; Hutchison, Wendy; Hou, Sanna; Seeto, Mark; Sjahalam-King, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Hearing loss is an etiologically heterogeneous trait with differences in the age of onset, severity and site of lesion. It is caused by a combination of genetic and/or environmental factors. A longitudinal study to examine the efficacy of early intervention for improving child outcomes is ongoing in Australia. To determine the cause of hearing loss in these children we undertook molecular testing of perinatal “Guthrie” blood spots of children whose hearing loss was either detected via newborn hearing screening or detected later in infancy. We analyzed the GJB2 and SLC26A4 genes for the presence of mutations, screened for the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) A1555G mutation, and screened for congenital CMV infection in DNA isolated from dried newborn blood spots. Results were obtained from 364 children. We established etiology for 60% of children. One or two known GJB2 mutations were present in 82 children. Twenty-four children had one or two known SLC26A4 mutations. GJB2 or SLC26A4 changes with unknown consequences on hearing were found in 32 children. The A1555G mutation was found in one child, and CMV infection was detected in 28 children. Auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder was confirmed in 26 children whose DNA evaluations were negative. A secondary objective was to investigate the relationship between etiology and audiological outcomes over the first 3 years of life. Regression analysis was used to investigate the relationship between hearing levels and etiology. Data analysis does not support the existence of differential effects of etiology on degree of hearing loss or on progressiveness of hearing loss. PMID:23555729

  7. Demographic and psychological variables affecting test subject evaluations of ride quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, N. C.; Conley, H. W.

    1975-01-01

    Ride-quality experiments similar in objectives, design, and procedure were conducted, one using the U.S. Air Force Total In-Flight Simulator and the other using the Langley Passenger Ride Quality Apparatus to provide the motion environments. Large samples (80 or more per experiment) of test subjects were recruited from the Tidewater Virginia area and asked to rate the comfort (on a 7-point scale) of random aircraft motion typical of that encountered during STOL flights. Test subject characteristics of age, sex, and previous flying history (number of previous airplane flights) were studied in a two by three by three factorial design. Correlations were computed between one dependent measure, the subject's mean comfort rating, and various demographic characteristics, attitudinal variables, and the scores on Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. An effect of sex was found in one of the studies. Males made higher (more uncomfortable) ratings of the ride than females. Age and number of previous flights were not significantly related to comfort ratings. No significant interactions between the variables of age, sex, or previous number of flights were observed.

  8. Aging 5 Years in 5 Minutes: The Effect of Taking a Memory Test on Older Adults’ Subjective Age

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Matthew L.; Geraci, Lisa; De Forrest, Ross L.

    2015-01-01

    How old one feels—one’s subjective age—has been shown to predict important psychological and health outcomes. The current studies examined the effect of taking a standard memory test on older adults’ subjective age. Study 1 showed that older adults felt older after taking a standard neuropsychological screening test and participating in a free-recall experiment than they felt at baseline. Study 2 showed that the effect was selective to older adults: Younger adults’ subjective age was not affected by participating in the memory experiment. Study 3 showed that the subjective-aging effect was specific to memory, as taking a vocabulary test for a similar amount of time did not affect older adults’ subjective age. Finally, Study 4 showed that simply expecting to take a memory test subjectively aged older adults. The results indicate that being in a memory-testing context affects older adults’ self-perception by making them feel older. PMID:24100121

  9. Testing thermal comfort of trekking boots: an objective and subjective evaluation.

    PubMed

    Arezes, P M; Neves, M M; Teixeira, S F; Leão, C P; Cunha, J L

    2013-07-01

    The study of the thermal comfort of the feet when using a specific type of shoe is of paramount importance, in particular if the main goal of the study is to attend to the needs of users. The main aim of this study was to propose a test battery for thermal comfort analysis and to apply it to the analysis of trekking boots. Methodologically, the project involves both objective and subjective evaluations. An objective evaluation of the thermal properties of the fabrics used in the boots was developed and applied. In addition, the thermal comfort provided when using the boots was also assessed both subjective and objectively. The evaluation of the thermal comfort during use, which was simulated in a laboratory environment, included the measurement of the temperature and moisture of the feet. The subjective assessment was performed using a questionnaire. From the results obtained, it was possible to define an optimal combination of fabrics to apply to trekking boots by considering the provided thermal insulation, air permeability and wicking. The results also revealed that the subjective perception of thermal comfort appears to be more related to the increase in temperature of the feet than to the moisture retention inside the boot. Although the evaluation of knits used in the boots indicated that a particular combination of fibres was optimal for use in the inner layer, the subjective and objective evaluation of thermal comfort revealed that the evaluation provided by users did not necessarily match the technical assessment data. No correlation was observed between the general comfort and specific thermal comfort assessments. Finally, the identification of thermal discomfort by specific foot areas would be useful in the process of designing and developing boots. PMID:23317756

  10. Economic Evaluation of Pharmacogenetic Tests in Patients Subjected to Renal Transplantation: A Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Rancic, Nemanja; Dragojevic-Simic, Viktorija; Vavic, Neven; Kovacevic, Aleksandra; Segrt, Zoran; Djordjevic, Natasa

    2016-01-01

    Renal transplantation is the treatment of choice for the patients with end-stage renal failure. Genetic factors, among others, can influence variability in response to immunosuppressive drugs. Nowadays, due to restrictive health resources, the question arises whether routine pharmacogenetic analyses should be done in the renal transplant recipients or not. The aim of this literature review was to present the up-to-date information considering the economic feasibility of pharmacogenetic testing in patients subjected to renal transplantation. The organization United Network for Organ Sharing in the US estimated that total costs per renal transplant concerning these analyses were $334,300 in 2014. Pharmacogenetic testing prior to treatment initiation could be helpful to predict and assess treatment response and the risks for adverse drug reactions. This kind of testing before treatment initiation seems to be one of the most promising applications of pharmacokinetics. Although pharmacogenetic tests were found to be a cost-effective or cost-saving strategy in many cases, some authors represent another opinion. However, if the real costs of renal transplantation are recognized, the application of these tests in the standard daily practice could be considered more realistic, which additionally emphasizes the importance of future studies assessing their cost effectiveness.

  11. Post-Flight Test Results of Acousto-Optic Modulator Devices Subjected to Space Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.; Trivedi, Sudhir; Rosemeier, Jolanta; Diestler, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) is to study the performance of novel materials when subjected to the synergistic effects of the harsh space environment for several months. MISSE missions provide an opportunity for developing space qualifiable materials. Several laser and lidar components were sent by NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) as a part of the MISSE 7 mission. The MISSE 7 module was transported to the international space station (ISS) via STS 129 mission that was launched on Nov 16, 2009. Later, the MISSE 7 module was brought back to the earth via the STS 134 that landed on June 1, 2011. The MISSE 7 module that was subjected to exposure in a space environment for more than one and a half years included fiber laser, solid-state laser gain materials, detectors, and semiconductor laser diode. Performance testing of these components is now progressing. In this paper, the results of performance testing of a laser diode module sent by NASA Langley Research Center on MISSE 7 mission will be discussed. This paper will present the comparison of pre-flight and post-flight performance of two different COTS acousto-optic modulator (AOM) devices. Post-flight measurements indicate that these two devices did not undergo any significant performance degradation.

  12. Performance Testing of Lidar Components Subjected to Space Exposure in Space via MISSE 7 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.

    2012-01-01

    .The objective of the Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) is to study the performance of novel materials when subjected to the synergistic effects of the harsh space environment for several months. MISSE missions provide an opportunity for developing space qualifiable materials. Several laser and lidar components were sent by NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) as a part of the MISSE 7 mission. The MISSE 7 module was transported to the international space station (ISS) via STS 129 mission that was launched on Nov 16, 2009. Later, the MISSE 7 module was brought back to the earth via the STS 134 that landed on June 1, 2011. The MISSE 7 module that was subjected to exposure in space environment for more than one and a half year included fiber laser, solid-state laser gain materials, detectors, and semiconductor laser diode. Performance testing of these components is now progressing. In this paper, the current progress on post-flight performance testing of a high-speed photodetector and a balanced receiver is discussed. Preliminary findings show that detector characteristics did not undergo any significant degradation.

  13. Comparison of Cognitive Performance Tests for Promethazine Pharmacodynamics in Human Subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaksman, Z.; Boyd, J. L.; Wang, Z.; Putcha, L.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study is to compare cognitive function tests, Automated Neurological Assessment Metrics (ANAM) based Readiness Evaluation System (ARES(Registered TradeMark)) on a Palm Pilot and Windows based Spaceflight Cognitive Assessment Tool (WinSCAT(Registered TradeMark)) on a personal computer (PC) to assess performance effects of promethazine (PMZ) after administration to human subjects. In a randomized placebo-controlled cross-over design, subjects received 12.5, 25, and 50 mg intramuscular (IM) PMZ or a placebo and completed 14 sessions with WinSCAT(Registered TradeMark) (v. 1.26) and ARES(Registered TradeMark) (v. 1.27) consecutively for 72 h post dose. Maximum plasma concentrations (4.25, 6.25 and 13.33 ng/ml) were linear with dose and were achieved by 0.75, 8, and 24 h after dosing for the three doses, respectively. No significant differences in cognitive function after PMZ dosing were detected using WinSCAT(Registered TradeMark), however, tests from ARES(Registered TradeMark) demonstrated concentration dependent decrements in reaction time associated with PMZ dose.

  14. Performance testing of lidar components subjected to exposure in space via MISSE 7 mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.

    2012-10-01

    The objective of the Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) is to study the performance of novel materials when subjected to the synergistic effects of the harsh space environment for several months. MISSE missions provide an opportunity for developing space qualifiable materials. Several laser and lidar components were sent by NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) as a part of the MISSE 7 mission. The MISSE 7 module was transported to the international space station (ISS) via STS 129 mission that was launched on Nov 16, 2009. Later, the MISSE 7 module was brought back to the earth via the STS 134 that landed on June 1, 2011. The MISSE 7 module that was subjected to exposure in space environment for more than one and a half year included fiber laser, solid-state laser gain materials, detectors, and semiconductor laser diode. Performance testing of these components is now progressing. In this paper, the current progress on post-flight performance testing of a high-speed photodetector and a balanced receiver is discussed. Preliminary findings show that detector characteristics did not undergo any significant degradation.

  15. Post-flight test results of acousto-optic modulator devices subjected to space exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.; Trivedi, Sudhir; Rosemeier, Jolanta; Diestler, Mark

    2014-09-01

    The objective of the Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) is to study the performance of novel materials when subjected to the synergistic effects of the harsh space environment for several months. MISSE missions provide an opportunity for developing space qualifiable materials. Several laser and lidar components were sent by NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) as a part of the MISSE 7 mission. The MISSE 7 module was transported to the international space station (ISS) via STS 129 mission that was launched on Nov 16, 2009. Later, the MISSE 7 modulewas brought back to the earth via the STS 134 that landed on June 1, 2011. The MISSE 7 module that was subjected to exposure in space environment for more than one and a half year included fiber laser, solid-state laser gain materials, detectors, and semiconductor laser diode. Performance testing of these components is now progressing. In this paper, the results of performance testing of a laser diode module sent by NASA Langley Research Center on MISSE 7 mission will be discussed. This paper will present the comparison of pre-flight and post-flight performance of two different COTS acousto-optic modulator devices. Post-flight measurements indicate that these two devices did not undergo any significant performance degradation.

  16. Post-flight test results of seed laser module subjected to space exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.

    2013-09-01

    The objective of the Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) is to study the performance of novel materials when subjected to the synergistic effects of the harsh space environment for several months. MISSE missions provide an opportunity for developing space qualifiable materials. Several laser and lidar components were sent by NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) as a part of the MISSE 7 mission. The MISSE 7 module was transported to the international space station (ISS) via STS 129 mission that was launched on Nov 16, 2009. Later, the MISSE 7 module was brought back to the earth via the STS 134 that landed on June 1, 2011. The MISSE 7 module that was subjected to exposure in space environment for more than one and a half year included fiber laser, solid-state laser gain materials, detectors, and semiconductor laser diode. Performance testing of these components is now progressing. In this paper, the results of performance testing of a laser diode module sent by NASA Langley Research Center on MISSE 7 mission will be discussed. This paper will present the comparison of pre-flight and post-flight performance curves and discuss the effect of space exposure on the laser diode module. Preliminary findings on output power measurements show that the COTS laser diode characteristics did not undergo any significant performance degradation.

  17. New testing software for quantifying discrimination capacity in subjects with ocular pathologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, José J.; Jiménez, José R.; Ortiz, Carolina; Alarcón, Aixa; Anera, Rosario G.

    2011-01-01

    We develop a new visual test, designed as software for quantifying discrimination capacity under low-illumination conditions. This is an important task in the presence of visual disturbances, such as those perceived by subjects with some ocular pathologies. For this purpose, we propose a visual-disturbance index, checking the test with two groups of observers having different ocular pathologies: a group with unilateral keratitis and another group affected with age-related macular degeneration (ARMD). To compare the test results to objective data, we use a double-pass device to measure the Strehl ratio, a parameter that quantifies the retinal-image quality, taking into account aberrations, retinal reflection, and intraocular scattering working jointly. Diseased eyes present higher disturbance indexes and a lower Strehl ratio compared to their healthy fellow eyes, registering a significant descending correlation between the disturbance index and the Strehl ratio. The lower the Strehl ratio is, the higher the disturbance index for the eyes studied. Therefore, in keratitis and ARMD eyes, our results demonstrate a deterioration in the retinal-image quality and a lower discrimination capacity to peripheral stimuli, reducing visual performance. The test presented here could be useful for the study and time course in different eye diseases, especially those involving an increase in scattered light or alterations in the ocular media, as shown in this work.

  18. A Systematic Approach to Find a Professional Audiology Clinic: Patient-Based Information

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Gungu; Kim, Gibbeum; Na, Wondo

    2016-01-01

    This brief communication introduced a systematic way to find a professional audiology clinic developed for patients and professionals by the American Academy of Audiology, American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, and Healthy Hearing. Patients can access each organization's website to find professionals and/or clinics based on criteria such as location, hours, special areas, types of service, reviews and rating by previous patients, and kinds of insurance accepted. Such a system may protect the patients from information overload, guarantee accurate information, and help them find themselves professional audiologists who can assist them. We expect professional organizations to adopt this system as soon as possible and link hearing-impaired patients with professional audiologists in Korea. PMID:27626086

  19. A Systematic Approach to Find a Professional Audiology Clinic: Patient-Based Information.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gungu; Kim, Gibbeum; Na, Wondo; Han, Woojae

    2016-09-01

    This brief communication introduced a systematic way to find a professional audiology clinic developed for patients and professionals by the American Academy of Audiology, American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, and Healthy Hearing. Patients can access each organization's website to find professionals and/or clinics based on criteria such as location, hours, special areas, types of service, reviews and rating by previous patients, and kinds of insurance accepted. Such a system may protect the patients from information overload, guarantee accurate information, and help them find themselves professional audiologists who can assist them. We expect professional organizations to adopt this system as soon as possible and link hearing-impaired patients with professional audiologists in Korea. PMID:27626086

  20. Aural rehabilitation of hearing-impaired adults (official policy of the British Society of Audiology).

    PubMed

    Markides, A; Brooks, D N; Hart, F G; Stephens, S D

    1979-02-01

    This report, which outlines the official policy of the British Society of Audiology on the aural rehabilitation of hearing impaired adults, (a) estimates the prevalence of hearing impairment in adults in the United Kingdom; (b) identifies the main problems associated with hearing impairment in adults; (c) outlines the main aural rehabilitative procedures and (d) puts forward recommendations for future developments in this area. PMID:435658

  1. Clinical availability of the deep tendon reflex test using a novel apparatus in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yong-Wook

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical usefulness of a novel apparatus intended to improve the consistency and reliability of the deep tendon reflex (DTR) test. [Subjects] The participants included 50 healthy adults (25 male and 25 female) between 20 and 31 years of age who showed no knee abnormalities upon physical examination. [Methods] The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to verify inter-rater reliability for two parameters examined in the DTR test using a newly designed apparatus. These parameters were the patellar reflex amplitude and first knee extension angle. Pearson’s product correlation coefficient was then used to examine the correlation between these two parameters. [Results] The inter-rater reliability analysis showed a high correlation between the examiners for both DTR parameters (ICCs = 0.91–0.96). In addition, a significant positive correlation was observed between the two parameters (r = 0.91). [Conclusion] The results show that it is possible to use the novel apparatus described herein to obtain reliable results in the DTR test. PMID:25729159

  2. Telehealth in audiology: the need and potential to reach underserved communities.

    PubMed

    Swanepoel, De Wet; Clark, Jackie L; Koekemoer, Dirk; Hall, James W; Krumm, Mark; Ferrari, Deborah V; McPherson, Bradley; Olusanya, Bolajoko O; Mars, Maurice; Russo, Iêda; Barajas, Jose J

    2010-03-01

    Permanent hearing loss is a leading global health care burden, with 1 in 10 people affected to a mild or greater degree. A shortage of trained healthcare professionals and associated infrastructure and resource limitations mean that hearing health services are unavailable to the majority of the world population. Utilizing information and communication technology in hearing health care, or tele-audiology, combined with automation offer unique opportunities for improved clinical care, widespread access to services, and more cost-effective and sustainable hearing health care. Tele-audiology demonstrates significant potential in areas such as education and training of hearing health care professionals, paraprofessionals, parents, and adults with hearing disorders; screening for auditory disorders; diagnosis of hearing loss; and intervention services. Global connectivity is rapidly growing with increasingly widespread distribution into underserved communities where audiological services may be facilitated through telehealth models. Although many questions related to aspects such as quality control, licensure, jurisdictional responsibility, certification and reimbursement still need to be addressed; no alternative strategy can currently offer the same potential reach for impacting the global burden of hearing loss in the near and foreseeable future. PMID:20151929

  3. Audiological changes over time in adolescents and young adults with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Chandan, Hunsur Suresh; Prabhu, Prashanth

    2015-07-01

    Auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD) describes a condition in which a patient's otoacoustic emissions (OAE) are (or were at one time) present and auditory brainstem responses (ABR) are abnormal or absent. ANSD is also diagnosed based on the presence of cochlear microphonics and abnormal or absent ABRs with or without abnormalities of OAE. We noted the changes in audiological characteristics over time with respect to pure tone thresholds, OAEs and Speech Identification Scores (SIS) in seven individuals with ANSD. The results indicated that all the individuals with ANSD had decreased SIS over time, whereas there was subsequent reduction in pure tone thresholds only in nine out of fourteen ears. There was absence of OAEs for two individuals in both ears during the follow-up evaluations. There was no regular pattern of changes in pure tone thresholds or SIS across all individuals. This indicates that there may be gradual worsening of hearing abilities in individuals with ANSD. Thus, regular follow-up and monitoring of audiological changes are necessary for individuals with ANSD. Also, longitudinal studies need to be done to further add evidence to the audiological changes over time in individuals with ANSD. PMID:25577995

  4. Spirometry in Healthy Subjects: Do Technical Details of the Test Procedure Affect the Results?

    PubMed Central

    Sipoli, Luciana; Martinez, Larissa; Donária, Leila; Probst, Vanessa Suziane; Moreira, Graciane Laender; Pitta, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Spirometry should follow strict quality criteria. The American Thoracic Society (ATS) recommends the use of a noseclip; however there are controversies about its need. ATS also indicates that tests should be done in the sitting position, but there are no recommendations neither about position of the upper limbs and lower limbs nor about who should hold the mouthpiece while performing the maneuvers: evaluated subject or evaluator. Objectives To compare noseclip use or not, different upper and lower limbs positions and who holds the mouthpiece, verifying if these technical details affect spirometric results in healthy adults. Methods One hundred and three healthy individuals (41 men; age: 47 [33–58] years; normal lung function: FEV1/FVC = 83±5, FEV1 = 94 [88–104]%predicted, FVC = 92 [84–102]%predicted) underwent a protocol consisting of four spirometric comparative analysis in the sitting position: 1) maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV) with vs without noseclip; 2) FVC performed with vs without upper limbs support; 3) FVC performed with lower limbs crossed vs lower limbs in neutral position; 4) FVC, slow vital capacity and MVV comparing the evaluated subject holding the mouthpiece vs evaluator holding it. Results Different spirometric variables presented statistically significant difference (p<0.05) when analysing the four comparisons; however, none of them showed any variation larger than those considered as acceptable according to the ATS reproducibility criteria. Conclusions There was no relevant variation in spirometric results when analyzing technical details such as noseclip use during MVV, upper and lower limb positions and who holds the mouthpiece when performing the tests in healthy adults. PMID:25244437

  5. Metabolic and Subjective Results Review of the Integrated Suit Test Series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norcross, J.R.; Stroud, L.C.; Klein, J.; Desantis, L.; Gernhardt, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    Crewmembers will perform a variety of exploration and construction activities on the lunar surface. These activities will be performed while inside an extravehicular activity (EVA) spacesuit. In most cases, human performance is compromised while inside an EVA suit as compared to a crewmember s unsuited performance baseline. Subjects completed different EVA type tasks, ranging from ambulation to geology and construction activities, in different lunar analog environments including overhead suspension, underwater and 1-g lunar-like terrain, in both suited and unsuited conditions. In the suited condition, the Mark III (MKIII) EVA technology demonstrator suit was used and suit pressure and suit weight were parameters tested. In the unsuited conditions, weight, mass, center of gravity (CG), terrain type and navigation were the parameters. To the extent possible, one parameter was varied while all others were held constant. Tests were not fully crossed, but rather one parameter was varied while all others were left in the most nominal setting. Oxygen consumption (VO2), modified Cooper-Harper (CH) ratings of operator compensation and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured for each trial. For each variable, a lower value correlates to more efficient task performance. Due to a low sample size, statistical significance was not attainable. Initial findings indicate that suit weight, CG and the operational environment can have a large impact on human performance during EVA. Systematic, prospective testing series such as those performed to date will enable a better understanding of the crucial interactions of the human and the EVA suit system and their environment. However, work remains to be done to confirm these findings. These data have been collected using only unsuited subjects and one EVA suit prototype that is known to fit poorly on a large demographic of the astronaut population. Key findings need to be retested using an EVA suit prototype better suited to a

  6. Oxygen desaturation in healthy subjects undergoing the incremental shuttle walk test*

    PubMed Central

    Seixas, Daniel Machado; Seixas, Daniela Miti Tsukumo; Pereira, Monica Corso; Moreira, Marcos Mello; Paschoal, Ilma Aparecida

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the probability of oxygen desaturation in healthy individuals undergoing the incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT). METHODS: We enrolled 83 healthy subjects: 55 males (including 1 smoker) and 28 females. We determined pre-ISWT FEV1, FEV6, HR and SpO2, as well as post-ISWT HR and SpO2. RESULTS: Mean values overall were as follows: age, 35.05 ± 12.53 years; body mass index, 24.30 ± 3.47 kg/m2; resting HR, 75.12 ± 12.48 bpm; resting SpO2, 97.96 ± 1.02%; FEV1, 3.75 ± 0.81 L; FEV6, 4.45 ± 0.87 L; FEV1/FEV6 ratio, 0.83 ± 0.08 (no restriction or obstruction); incremental shuttle walk distance, 958.30 ± 146.32 m; post-ISWT HR, 162.41 ± 18.24 bpm; and post-ISWT SpO2, 96.27 ± 2.21%. In 11 subjects, post-ISWT SpO2 was higher than was pre-ISWT SpO2. In 17 subjects, there was a 4% decrease in SpO2 after the ISWT. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups with and without post-ISWT oxygen desaturation in terms of age, gender, FEV1, FEV6, FEV1/FEV6, pre-ISWT SpO2, incremental shuttle walk distance, HR, or percentage of maximal HR. In the individuals with post-ISWT oxygen desaturation, the body mass index was higher (p = 0.01) and post-ISWT SpO2 was lower (p = 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Healthy individuals can present oxygen desaturation after the ISWT. Using the ISWT to predict subtle respiratory abnormalities can be misleading. In healthy subjects, oxygen desaturation is common after the ISWT, as it is during any intense physical activity. PMID:24068265

  7. Recent progress made in testing laser diodes and optical materials subjected to exposure in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, progress made so far in the performance testing of waveguide laser components sent by NASA Langley Research Center on MISSE 6 mission will be discussed. The objective of the Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) is to study the performance of novel materials when subjected to the synergistic effects of the harsh space environment for several months. MISSE missions provide an opportunity for developing space qualifiable materials. The results of post-testing of several optical materials that were recently returned back after more than one year of exposure on the International Space Station (ISS) will be presented. The items were part of the MISSE 6 mission that was transported to the ISS via STS 123 on March 11, 2008 and returned to the Earth via STS 128 that was launched on August 2009. The materials experienced no visible damage during lengthy exposure in space. In the case of laser diode, a comparison of elemental analysis with pre-flight conditions will be presented. Furthermore, the optical components sent on MISSE 7 mission via STS-129 and later retrieved by STS-134 will be briefly discussed.

  8. "Frustrated" or "Surprised?" An Examination of the Perspectives of Spanish Teacher Candidates regarding the Praxis II Subject-Matter Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moser, Kelly

    2012-01-01

    Researchers (Sandarg & Schomber, 2009; Wilkerson, Schomber, & Sandarg, 2004) have urged the profession to develop a new subject-matter licensure test to reflect the best practices in the foreign language classroom. In October 2010, the Praxis II: World Language Test joined the Praxis Series. Given that this standards-driven test differs…

  9. Hearing Aid–Related Standards and Test Systems

    PubMed Central

    Ravn, Gert; Preves, David

    2015-01-01

    Many documents describe standardized methods and standard equipment requirements in the field of audiology and hearing aids. These standards will ensure a uniform level and a high quality of both the methods and equipment used in audiological work. The standards create the basis for measuring performance in a reproducible manner and independent from how and when and by whom parameters have been measured. This article explains, and focuses on, relevant acoustic and electromagnetic compatibility parameters and describes several test systems available. PMID:27516709

  10. Predicting the Reliability of Brittle Material Structures Subjected to Transient Proof Test and Service Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemeth, Noel N.; Jadaan, Osama M.; Palfi, Tamas; Baker, Eric H.

    Brittle materials today are being used, or considered, for a wide variety of high tech applications that operate in harsh environments, including static and rotating turbine parts, thermal protection systems, dental prosthetics, fuel cells, oxygen transport membranes, radomes, and MEMS. Designing brittle material components to sustain repeated load without fracturing while using the minimum amount of material requires the use of a probabilistic design methodology. The NASA CARES/Life 1 (Ceramic Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structure/Life) code provides a general-purpose analysis tool that predicts the probability of failure of a ceramic component as a function of its time in service. This capability includes predicting the time-dependent failure probability of ceramic components against catastrophic rupture when subjected to transient thermomechanical loads (including cyclic loads). The developed methodology allows for changes in material response that can occur with temperature or time (i.e. changing fatigue and Weibull parameters with temperature or time). For this article an overview of the transient reliability methodology and how this methodology is extended to account for proof testing is described. The CARES/Life code has been modified to have the ability to interface with commercially available finite element analysis (FEA) codes executed for transient load histories. Examples are provided to demonstrate the features of the methodology as implemented in the CARES/Life program.

  11. Tinnitus and hyperacusis therapy in a UK National Health Service audiology department: Patients’ evaluations of the effectiveness of treatments

    PubMed Central

    Aazh, Hashir; Moore, Brian C. J.; Lammaing, Karen; Cropley, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To assess patients’ judgements of the effectiveness of the tinnitus and hyperacusis therapies offered in a specialist UK National Health Service audiology department. Design: Cross-sectional service evaluation questionnaire survey. Patients were asked to rank the effectiveness of the treatment they received on a scale from 1 to 5 (1 = no effect, 5 = very effective). Study sample: The questionnaire was sent to all patients who received treatment between January and March 2014 (n = 200) and 92 questionnaires were returned. Results : The mean score was greatest for counselling (Mean = 4.7, SD = 0.6), followed by education (Mean = 4.5, SD = 0.8), cognitive behavioural therapy - CBT (Mean = 4.4, SD = 0.7), and hearing tests (Mean = 4.4, SD = 0.9). Only 6% of responders rated counselling as 3 or below. In contrast, bedside sound generators, hearing aids, and wideband noise generators were rated as 3 or below by 25%, 36%, and 47% of participants, respectively. Conclusion: The most effective components of the tinnitus and hyperacusis therapy interventions were judged by the patients to be counselling, education, and CBT. PMID:27195947

  12. Evaluating the subject-performed task effect in healthy older adults: relationship with neuropsychological tests

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Ana Rita; Pinho, Maria Salomé; Souchay, Céline; Moulin, Christopher J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background An enhancement in recall of simple instructions is found when actions are performed in comparison to when they are verbally presented – the subject-performed task (SPT) effect. This enhancement has also been found with older adults. However, the reason why older adults, known to present a deficit in episodic memory, have a better performance for this type of information remains unclear. In this article, we explored this effect by comparing the performance on the SPT task with the performance on other tasks, in order to understand the underlying mechanisms that may explain this effect. Objective We hypothesized that both young and older adult groups should show higher recall in SPT compared with the verbal learning condition, and that the differences between age groups should be lower in the SPT condition. We aimed to explore the correlations between these tasks and known neuropsychological tests, and we also measured source memory for the encoding condition. Design A mixed design was used with 30 healthy older adults, comparing their performance with 30 healthy younger adults. Each participant was asked to perform 16 simple instructions (SPT condition) and to only read the other 16 instructions (Verbal condition – VT). The test phase included a free recall task. Participants were also tested with a set of neuropsychological measures (speed of processing, working memory and verbal episodic memory). Results The SPT effect was found for both age groups; but even for SPT materials, group differences in recall persisted. Source memory was found to be preserved for the two groups. Simple correlations suggested differences in correlates of SPT performance between the two groups. However, when controlling for age, the SPT and VT tasks correlate with each other, and a measure of episodic memory correlated moderately with both SPT and VT performance. Conclusions A strong effect of SPT was observed for all but one, which still displayed the expected aging

  13. Training Instructional Designers and Subject Matter Experts in Test Development and Item Writing: Lessons from a Military Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noonan, John V.; Nelson, Clare Cary

    Although effective and efficient assessment procedures are crucial to the success of organizational training programs, the tests used for both student and program evaluation are often developed by instructional designers (IDS) and subject matter experts (SMEs) with little formal training in test development. This paper summarizes the major…

  14. Competitive testing of health behavior theories: how do benefits, barriers, subjective norm, and intention influence mammography behavior?

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Caitlin C.; Vernon, Sally W.; Diamond, Pamela M.; Tiro, Jasmin A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Competitive hypothesis testing may explain differences in predictive power across multiple health behavior theories. Purpose We tested competing hypotheses of the Health Belief Model (HBM) and Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) to quantify pathways linking subjective norm, benefits, barriers, intention, and mammography behavior. Methods We analyzed longitudinal surveys of women veterans randomized to the control group of a mammography intervention trial (n=704). We compared direct, partial mediation, and full mediation models with Satorra-Bentler χ2 difference testing. Results Barriers had a direct and indirect negative effect on mammography behavior; intention only partially mediated barriers. Benefits had little to no effect on behavior and intention; however, it was negatively correlated with barriers. Subjective norm directly affected behavior and indirectly affected intention through barriers. Conclusions Our results provide empiric support for different assertions of HBM and TRA. Future interventions should test whether building subjective norm and reducing negative attitudes increases regular mammography. PMID:23868613

  15. Surgical and Audiologic Comparison Between Sophono and Bone-Anchored Hearing Aids Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Joong-Wook; Kim, Sung Huhn; Choi, Jae Young; Park, Hong-Joon; Lee, Seung-Chul; Choi, Jee-Sun; Park, Han Q; Lee, Ho-Ki

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Bone-anchored hearing aids (BAHA) occasionally cause soft tissue problems due to abutment. Because Sophono does not have abutment penetrating skin, it is thought that Sophono has no soft tissue problem relating to abutment. On the other hand, transcutaneous device’s output is reported to be 10 to 15 dB lower than percutaneous device. Therefore, in this study, Sophono and BAHA were compared to each other from surgical and audiological points of view. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 9 Sophono patients and 10 BAHA patients. In BAHA cases, single vertical incision without skin thinning technique was done. We compared Sophono to BAHA by operation time, wound healing time, postoperative complications, postoperative hearing gain after switch on, and postoperative air-bone gap. Results The mean operation time was 60 minutes for Sophono and 25 minutes for BAHA. The wound healing time was 14 days for Sophono and 28 days for BAHA. No major intraoperative complication was observed. Skin problem was not observed in the 2 devices for the follow-up period. Postoperative hearing gain of bilateral aural atresia patients was 39.4 dB for BAHA (n=4) and 25.5 dB for Sophono (n=5). However, the difference was not statistically significant. In all patients included in this study, the difference of air-bone gap between two groups was 16.6 dB at 0.5 kHz and 18.2 dB at 4 kHz. BAHA was statistically significantly better than Sophono. Conclusion Considering the audiologic outcome, BAHA users were thought to have more audiologic benefit than Sophono users. However, Sophono had advantages over BAHA with abutment in cosmetic outcome. Sophono needed no daily skin maintenance and soft tissue complication due to abutment would not happen in Sophono. Therefore, a full explanation about each device is necessary before deciding implantation. PMID:26976022

  16. Subjective socioeconomic status causes aggression: A test of the theory of social deprivation.

    PubMed

    Greitemeyer, Tobias; Sagioglou, Christina

    2016-08-01

    Seven studies (overall N = 3690) addressed the relation between people's subjective socioeconomic status (SES) and their aggression levels. Based on relative deprivation theory, we proposed that people low in subjective SES would feel at a disadvantage, which in turn would elicit aggressive responses. In 3 correlational studies, subjective SES was negatively related to trait aggression. Importantly, this relation held when controlling for measures that are related to 1 or both subjective SES and trait aggression, such as the dark tetrad and the Big Five. Four experimental studies then demonstrated that participants in a low status condition were more aggressive than were participants in a high status condition. Compared with a medium-SES condition, participants of low subjective SES were more aggressive rather than participants of high subjective SES being less aggressive. Moreover, low SES increased aggressive behavior toward targets that were the source for participants' experience of disadvantage but also toward neutral targets. Sequential mediation analyses suggest that the experience of disadvantage underlies the effect of subjective SES on aggressive affect, whereas aggressive affect was the proximal determinant of aggressive behavior. Taken together, the present research found comprehensive support for key predictions derived from the theory of relative deprivation of how the perception of low SES is related to the person's judgments, emotional reactions, and actions. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27267323

  17. Using Achievement Tests/SAT® II: Subject Tests to Demonstrate Achievement and Predict College Grades: Sex, Language, Ethnic, and Parental Education Groups. Research Report No. 2001-5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramist, Leonard; Lewis, Charles; McCamley-Jenkins, Laura

    2001-01-01

    There has been increased interest in emphasizing Achievement Tests, as SAT II: Subject Tests, for use in admission and placement. In this report, data was obtained from a comprehensive database of categorized course grades for a large number and great variety of colleges, with student groups identified. For each student group, the percentage of…

  18. Substituting SAT® II: Subject Tests for SAT I: Reasoning Test: Impact on Admitted Class Composition and Quality. Research Report No. 2001-3. ETS RR-01-07

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgeman, Brent; Burton, Nancy; Cline, Frederick

    2001-01-01

    Using data from a sample of 10 colleges at which most students had taken both SAT I: Reasoning Test and SAT II: Subject Tests, the authors simulated the effects of making selection decisions using SAT II scores in place of SAT I scores. Specifically, they treated the students in each college as forming the applicant pool for a more select college,…

  19. Selecting Students with a General Reasoning Test (SAT I) or Tests in Academic Subjects (SAT II): Does It Matter for Non-Native Speakers of English?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgeman, Brent; Burton, Nancy; Cline, Frederick

    Using data from a sample of 10 colleges at which most students had taken both the SAT I: Reasoning Test and SAT II: Subject Tests researchers simulated the effects of making selection decisions using SAT II scores in place of SAT I scores. Students in each college were treated as forming the applicant pool for a more select college, and the top…

  20. Reducing Test Form Overlap of the GRE Subject Test in Mathematics Using IRT Triple-Part Equating. GRE Board Professional Report No. 86-14P.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinley, Robert L.; Schaeffer, Gary A.

    A study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using item response theory (IRT) equating to reduce test form overlap of the Graduate Record Examinations (GRE) Subject Test in Mathematics. Monte Carlo methods were employed to compare double-part equating with 20-item common item blocks to triple-part equating with 10-item common item blocks.…

  1. 16 CFR 1702.10 - Human experimental data involving the testing of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... considers its regulations concerning the protection of human subjects (16 CFR part 1028) to be an example of... POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS PETITIONS FOR EXEMPTIONS FROM POISON...

  2. 16 CFR 1702.10 - Human experimental data involving the testing of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... considers its regulations concerning the protection of human subjects (16 CFR part 1028) to be an example of... POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS PETITIONS FOR EXEMPTIONS FROM POISON...

  3. 16 CFR 1702.10 - Human experimental data involving the testing of human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... considers its regulations concerning the protection of human subjects (16 CFR part 1028) to be an example of... POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS PETITIONS FOR EXEMPTIONS FROM POISON...

  4. The audiological profile of adults with and without hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Mariana Aparecida; Sanches, Seisse Gabriela Gandolfi; Matas, Carla Gentile; Samelli, Alessandra Giannella

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether there is any influence of systemic arterial hypertension on the peripheral auditory system. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study that investigated 40 individuals between 30 and 50 years old, who were divided into groups with and without systemic arterial hypertension, using data from high-frequency audiometry, transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions and distortion-product otoacoustic emissions. The results were compared with those from groups of normal-hearing individuals, with and without systemic arterial hypertension, who underwent the pure-tone audiometry test. All individuals also underwent the following procedures: otoscopy, acoustic immittance measures, pure-tone audiometry at frequencies from 250 to 16000 Hz, transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions test and distortion-product otoacoustic emissions test. RESULTS: No statistically significant difference was observed between the groups with and without systemic arterial hypertension in either conventional or high-frequency audiometry. Regarding transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions, there was a trend toward statistical significance whereby the systemic arterial hypertension group showed lower results. Regarding distortion-product otoacoustic emissions, the systemic arterial hypertension group showed significantly lower results at the following frequencies: 1501, 2002, and 3003 Hz. A discriminant analysis indicated that the distortion-product otoacoustic emissions variables best distinguished individuals with and without systemic arterial hypertension. CONCLUSION: Data from this study suggest cochlear dysfunction in individuals with systemic arterial hypertension because their otoacoustic emission results were lower than those in the systemic arterial hypertension group. PMID:27166767

  5. Test-Retest Stability of Calibrated BOLD-fMRI in HIV− and HIV+ Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Ances, Beau; Vaida, Florin; Ellis, Ronald; Buxton, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Subject performance, scanner hardware, or biological factors can affect single session neuroimaging measures. Stability studies using calibrated blood oxygenation level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-fMRI) have been performed in health but not disease. We utilized calibrated BOLD-fMRI to determine the effects of HIV on neurovascular coupling. 6 clinically stable HIV-infected patients (HIV+) and 10 seronegative controls (HIV−) were scanned at two separate sessions approximately 3 months apart. Both mild hypercapnia (5% CO2) exposure and a visual functional activation task were performed. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) and inter-subject variance were determined for calibrated BOLD-fMRI measures (baseline cerebral blood flow (CBF), functional CBF, BOLD, and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO2) changes) for HIV+ and HIV− subjects. The two groups did not differ in age, sex, or education. HIV+ subjects had lower mean baseline CBF (p <0.04, Cohen’s d=−1.07) and functional BOLD responses (p< 0.001, Cohen’s d=−2.47) and a trend towards a decrease in mean functional CBF responses (p= 0.07, Cohen’s d=−0.92) despite similar mean functional CMRO2 changes (p= 0.71, Cohen’s d=0.19). The stability of each calibrated BOLD-fMRI measure, as assessed by ICC, was significantly lower for HIV+ subjects. In addition, HIV+ participants had greater inter-subject variability for baseline CBF (p <0.02), functional BOLD (p< 0.001), CBF (p< 0.001), and CMRO2 (p< 0.002) responses. Our results demonstrate that calibrated BOLD-fMRI measures have excellent stability within healthy controls. In contrast, these values have greater variability in clinically stable HIV+ subjects and may reflect alterations in coupling between CBF and CMRO2 with disease. PMID:20932922

  6. Principles and application of educational counseling used in progressive audiologic tinnitus management.

    PubMed

    Henry, James A; Zaugg, Tara L; Myers, Paula J; Kendall, Caroline J; Turbin, Mitchel B

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to loud sounds is a common cause and exacerbater of tinnitus - a troubling auditory symptom that affects millions of people worldwide. Clinical research at the National Center for Rehabilitative Auditory Research has resulted in a clinical model of tinnitus management referred to as Progressive Audiologic Tinnitus Management (PATM). The model involves five hierarchical levels of management: Triage, Audiologic Evaluation, Group Education, Tinnitus Evaluation, and Individualized Management. Counseling by audiologists and, as needed, mental health providers, is a key component of PATM. This style of counseling focuses less on didactic informational counseling; instead, counseling is used for facilitating patients' learning to adjust to the disturbing auditory symptom by successfully employing tools from two powerful skillsets for self-management of chronic tinnitus - the therapeutic uses of sound and techniques from cognitive-behavioral psychology. This article provides an overview of the methods of counseling used with PATM and provides details concerning the overarching principles of collaborative adult learning that are believed to be most important in facilitating self-management by patients who complain of tinnitus. PMID:19265252

  7. AUDIOLOGICAL FINDINGS IN OTOSPONDYLOMEGAEPIPHYSEAL DYSPLASIA (OSMED) ASSOCIATED WITH A NOVEL MUTATION IN COL11A2

    PubMed Central

    Tokgöz-Yilmaz, Suna; Şahli, Sanem; Fitoz, Suat; Sennaroğlu, Gonca; Tekin, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to assess the audiological findings of a 4-year-old child with a homozygous COL11A2 mutation and to point out the role of continuous follow-ups in children with craniofacial syndromes after the newborn hearing screening. Methods A 4-year-old boy with otospondylomegaepiphyseal dysplasia (OSMED) was followed up after birth for hearing loss. Transient Otoacoustic Emissions (TEOAE’s), Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emissions (DPOAE’s), Automated and Clinical Auditory Brainstem Response (AABR and ABR) measurements, Visual Reinforcement Audiometry, immitansmetric measurements and hearing threshold measurements were performed for audiological evaluation. Results The patient developed sensorineural hearing loss at 11 months of age while his hearing was normal at birth. Because of auditory-verbal training with hearing aids started at 20 months of age, he now has normal verbal communication with his peers. Conclusions This study clearly demonstrates that hearing loss developes in infancy in patients with OSMED and underscrores the importance of contunied hearing screening beyond newborn period for early intervention of hearing impairment and communication problems. PMID:21208667

  8. Substituting SAT II: Subject Tests for SAT I: Reasoning Tests: Impact on Admitted Class Composition and Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgeman, Brent; Burton, Nancy; Cline, Frederick

    2003-01-01

    Simulated the effects of making admission decisions using SAT II subject scores in place of SAT I reasoning scores. Found that success rates, in terms of first-year grade point averages, were virtually identical for students selected by the different models. The percentage of African American, Asian American, and White students selected varied…

  9. Effects of Test Expectation on Multiple-Choice Performance and Subjective Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balch, William R.

    2007-01-01

    Undergraduates studied the definitions of 16 psychology terms, expecting either a multiple-choice (n = 132) or short-answer (n = 122) test. All students then received the same multiple-choice test, requiring them to recognize the definitions as well as novel examples of the terms. Compared to students expecting a multiple-choice test, those…

  10. Reliability and Validity of Standing Back Extension Test for Detecting Motor Control Impairment in Subjects with Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Senthil P; Eapen, Charu; Mahale, Ajit

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Low back pain is a chronic health problem with high socioeconomic impact. Specific diagnosis or treatment approach has not yet effectively established to treat chronic low back pain. Standing Back Extension Test is one of the clinical measures to detect the passive extension subgroup of Motor Control Impairment (MCI); which could have an impact on spinal stability leading to recurrent chronic low back pain. Reliability and validity of this test is not fully established. Aim To determine the intra-rater and inter-rater reliability and concurrent validity of the Standing Back Extension Test for detecting MCI of the lumbar spine. Materials and Methods A total of 50 subjects were included in the study, 25 patients with Non Specific Low Back Pain (NSLBP) (12 men, 13 women) and 25 healthy controls (12 men, 13 women) were recruited into the study. All subjects performed the test movement. Two raters blinded to the subjects rated the test performance as either ‘Positive’ or ‘Negative’ based on the predetermined rating protocol. The thickness of Transverse Abdominis (TrA) muscle was assessed using Rehabilitative Ultrasound Imaging (RUSI). Statistical test used For reliability, the kappa coefficient with percent agreement was calculated and for assessing the validity Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curves and Area under the Curve (AUC) were constructed. Results The standing back extension test showed very good intra-rater (k=0.87 with an agreement of 96%) and good inter-rater (k=0.78 with an agreement of 94%) reliability and high AUC for TrA muscle. Conclusion The standing back extension test was found to be a reliable and a valid measure to detect passive extension subgroup for MCI in subjects with low back pain. PMID:26894091

  11. Subjective Confidence in Perceptual Judgments: A Test of the Self-Consistency Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koriat, Asher

    2011-01-01

    Two questions about subjective confidence in perceptual judgments are examined: the bases for these judgments and the reasons for their accuracy. Confidence in perceptual judgments has been claimed to rest on qualitatively different processes than confidence in memory tasks. However, predictions from a self-consistency model (SCM), which had been…

  12. The Subjective Well-Being Construct: A Test of Its Convergent, Discriminant, and Factorial Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arthaud-day, Marne L.; Rode, Joseph C.; Mooney, Christine H.; Near, Janet P.

    2005-01-01

    Using structural equation modeling, we found empirical support for the prevailing theory that subjective well-being consists of three domains: (1) cognitive evaluations of one's life (i.e., life satisfaction or happiness); (2) positive affect; and (3) negative affect. Multiple indicators of satisfaction/happiness were shown to have strong…

  13. The Development of Audiologic Criteria to Differentiate Between Auditory Thresholds and Cutile Thresholds of Deaf Children. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nober, E. Harris

    Researchers investigated a variety of audiologic procedures to determine whether they could differentiate between auditory thresholds and cutile (cutaneous-tactile) thresholds of 32 deaf adolescents. Ss were classified into one of the following three groups: a cutile group with no pure tone thresholds beyond 750 Hertz (Hz); a group of questionable…

  14. Correlation between tests of attention and performance on grooved and Purdue pegboards in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Strenge, Hans; Niederberger, Uwe; Seelhorst, Ulrike

    2002-10-01

    This study investigated the relation between tests of manual dexterity and attentional functions with 49 normal, right-handed medical students (26 women, 23 men, ages 19-30 years) who were assessed with a Purdue Pegboard Test, Grooved Pegboard Test, and a Test for Attentional Performance, comprising measures of tonic and phasic alertness and divided attention. Weak to moderately high partial correlations controlling for finger size were obtained between pegboard test performance of the left hand and phasic alertness (r = .31-.50). Purdue Pegboard Assembly subtest scores were weakly correlated with divided attention (r = -.39). These findings suggest that attention is an important determinant of performance for manual dexterity tests of the nondominant hand. PMID:12434843

  15. A Subjective Test of Modulated Blade Spacing for Helicopter Main Rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Brenda M.; Edwards, Bryan D.; Brentner, Kenneth S.; Booth, Earl R., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Analytically, uneven (modulated) spacing of main rotor blades was found to reduce helicopter noise. A study was performed to see if these reductions transferred to improvements in subjective response. Using a predictive computer code, sounds produced by six main rotor configurations: 4 blades evenly spaced, 5 blades evenly spaced and four configurations with 5 blades with modulated spacing of varying amounts, were predicted. These predictions were converted to audible sounds corresponding to the level flyover, takeoff and approach flight conditions. Subjects who heard the simulations were asked to assess the overflight sounds in terms of noisiness on a scale of 0 to 10. In general the evenly spaced configurations were found less noisy than the modulated spacings, possibly because the uneven spacings produced a perceptible pulsating sound due to the very low fundamental frequency.

  16. Exemplary Advanced Placement Programs: Comparing AP Test Scores by Subject and School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoven, John

    This study compared performance of seniors at 21 Montgomery County (Maryland) high schools on the Advanced Placement (AP) Tests. The schools were ranked by the percentage of college-educated adults within the school boundaries, and the ranking was compared to Advanced Placement test results (the average number of students, per 100 seniors, who…

  17. Anthropometric data from launch and entry suited test subjects for the design of a recumbent seating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoycos, Lara E.; Klute, Glen K.

    1993-01-01

    Returning space crews to Earth in a recumbent position requires the design of a new seating system. Current anthropometric data are based on measurements taken while the subjects were unsuited and sitting. To be most accurate, it is necessary to design by measurements of subjects in the launch and entry suit in a recumbent position. Since the design of the recumbent seating system must meet the requirements of both 5th percentile Japanese female and 95th percentile American male crew members, a delta is reported rather than absolute measurements of the test subjects. This delta is the difference in the measurements taken with the subjects unsuited and sitting and those taken with the subjects suited and recumbent. This delta, representative of the change due to the suit, can be added to the existing Man-Systems Integration Standards (NASA-STD-3000) anthropometric data to project the measurements for 5th percentile Japanese female and 95th percentile American male crew members. A delta accounting for the spinal elongation caused by prolonged exposures to microgravity is added as well. Both unpressurized and pressurized suit conditions are considered. Background information, the test protocol and procedure, analysis of the data, and recommendations are reported.

  18. Frequency of Disparities in Laboratory Testing After Statin Initiation in Subjects ≥65 Years.

    PubMed

    Maciejewski, Matthew L; Mi, Xiaojuan; Curtis, Lesley H; Ng, Judy; Haffer, Samuel C; Hammill, Bradley G

    2016-08-01

    Laboratory testing is important for the safety of older adults initiating statins, but there has been little examination of laboratory testing disparities by race/ethnicity, age, gender, Medicaid eligibility, and multimorbidity. The study's purpose was to examine disparities in guideline-concordant baseline laboratory testing and abnormal laboratory values among a retrospective cohort of 76,868 Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries from 10 states in the eastern United States who had dyslipidemia and initiated a statin from July 1 to November 30, 2011. Guideline-concordant assessment of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was defined as evidence of an outpatient claim for either test within 180 days before or 14 days after the date of the index statin fill. In 2011, baseline laboratory testing rates were 89.3% for ALT and 88.8% for AST. Older adults were somewhat more likely to have ALT and AST testing if they were dually enrolled in Medicaid (relative risk 1.01, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00 to 1.02) or had multiple chronic conditions (relative risk 1.03, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.06 for 2 to 3 conditions; odds ratio [OR] 1.08, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.11 for 4 to 5 conditions; OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.17 for 6+ conditions), compared with 0 to 1 conditions. Non-Hispanic blacks were less likely to receive baseline testing (OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.96 to 0.98) than non-Hispanic Whites, and male beneficiaries were somewhat less likely to receive testing than female beneficiaries (OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.98 to 0.99). Abnormal values were rare. In conclusion, ALT and AST assessment after statin initiation was commonly done as recommended, and there were negligible disparities in testing rates for beneficiaries. PMID:27289297

  19. The Response of Circulating Leptin Levels to Exercise Stress Testing in Subjects Diagnosed with Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Pop, Dana; Dădârlat, Alexandra; Bodizs, Gyorgy; Stanca, Liana; Zdrenghea, Dumitru

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To assess the plasma leptin responses after exercise stress testing in patients with metabolic syndrome (MS). Material and Methods. We investigated 67 patients with MS, with mean age of 55 ± 7 years. They underwent exercise stress testing on cycloergometer. The lot was divided into three groups: group 1—10 patients with a true positive test, group 2—18 patients with a true negative test, and group 3—39 patients with a false negative test. Leptin levels were measured using the ELISA method. Results. Leptin levels decreased after effort in patients with MS (9.42 ± 11.08 ng/mL before and 8.18 ± 11.5 ng/mL after the exercise stress test, P = 0.0005, r = 0.874). In groups 1 (8.98 ± 9.09 at rest versus 5.98 ± 8.73 ng/mL after the exercise test, P = 0.002) and 3 (8.6 ± 10.53 at rest versus 6.91 ± 9.07 ng/mL, P = 0.0005), lower leptin levels were recorded immediately after exercise testing. Leptin levels were not significantly lower in group 2 before effort (9.49 ± 11.36 ng/ml) and after (9.46 ± 13.81 ng/mL). We found no correlation between leptinemia and exercise stress testing parameters, regardless of group. Conclusion. Our research showed that short-term exercise lowers leptin levels in coronary patients, without a relationship between its parameters and leptin values. PMID:24616817

  20. Association of nuclear and mitochondrial genes with audiological examinations in Iranian patients with nonaminoglycoside antibiotics-induced hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    Balali, Maryam; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Farhadi, Mohammad; Ahmadipour, Fatemeh; Ashkezari, Mahmoud Dehghani; Hemami, Mohsen Rezaei; Arabzadeh, Hossein; Falah, Masoumeh; Meng, Goh Yong; Houshmand, Massoud

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA mutations play an important role in causing sensorineural hearing loss. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of the mitochondrial genes RNR1, MT-TL1, and ND1 as well as the nuclear genes GJB2 and GJB6 with audiological examinations in nonfamilial Iranians with cochlear implants, using polymerase chain reaction, DNA sequencing, and RNA secondary structure analysis. We found that there were no novel mutations in the mitochondrial gene 12S rRNA (MT-RNR1) in patients with and without GJB2 mutation (GJB2+ and GJB2−, respectively), but a total of six polymorphisms were found. No mutations were observed in tRNALeu(UUR) (MT-TL1). Furthermore, eight polymorphisms were found in the mitochondrial ND1 gene. Additionally, no mutations were observed in the nuclear GJB6 gene in patients in the GJB2− and GJB2+ groups. The speech intelligibility rating and category of auditory perception tests were statistically assessed in patients in the GJB2− and GJB2+ groups. The results indicated that there was a significant difference (P<0.05) between the categories of auditory perception score in the GJB2− group compared to that in the GJB2+ group. Successful cochlear implantation was observed among individuals with GJB2 mutations (GJB2+) and mitochondrial polymorphisms compared to those without GJB2 mutations (GJB2−). In conclusion, the outcome of this study suggests that variation in the mitochondrial and nuclear genes may influence the penetrance of deafness. Therefore, further genetic and functional studies are required to help patients in making the best choice for cochlear implants. PMID:26889084

  1. Association of nuclear and mitochondrial genes with audiological examinations in Iranian patients with nonaminoglycoside antibiotics-induced hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Balali, Maryam; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Farhadi, Mohammad; Ahmadipour, Fatemeh; Ashkezari, Mahmoud Dehghani; Hemami, Mohsen Rezaei; Arabzadeh, Hossein; Falah, Masoumeh; Meng, Goh Yong; Houshmand, Massoud

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA mutations play an important role in causing sensorineural hearing loss. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of the mitochondrial genes RNR1, MT-TL1, and ND1 as well as the nuclear genes GJB2 and GJB6 with audiological examinations in nonfamilial Iranians with cochlear implants, using polymerase chain reaction, DNA sequencing, and RNA secondary structure analysis. We found that there were no novel mutations in the mitochondrial gene 12S rRNA (MT-RNR1) in patients with and without GJB2 mutation (GJB2(+) and GJB2(-), respectively), but a total of six polymorphisms were found. No mutations were observed in tRNA(Leu) (() (UUR) ()) (MT-TL1). Furthermore, eight polymorphisms were found in the mitochondrial ND1 gene. Additionally, no mutations were observed in the nuclear GJB6 gene in patients in the GJB2(-) and GJB2(+) groups. The speech intelligibility rating and category of auditory perception tests were statistically assessed in patients in the GJB2(-) and GJB2(+) groups. The results indicated that there was a significant difference (P<0.05) between the categories of auditory perception score in the GJB2(-) group compared to that in the GJB2(+) group. Successful cochlear implantation was observed among individuals with GJB2 mutations (GJB2(+)) and mitochondrial polymorphisms compared to those without GJB2 mutations (GJB2(-)). In conclusion, the outcome of this study suggests that variation in the mitochondrial and nuclear genes may influence the penetrance of deafness. Therefore, further genetic and functional studies are required to help patients in making the best choice for cochlear implants. PMID:26889084

  2. Experimental results from containment piping bellows subjected to severe accident conditions: Results from bellows tested in corroded conditions. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, L.D.; Parks, M.B.

    1995-10-01

    Bellows are an integral part of the containment pressure boundary in nuclear power plants. They are used at piping penetrations to allow relative movement between piping and the containment wall, while minimizing the load imposed on the piping and wall. Piping bellows are primarily used in steel containments; however, they have received limited use in some concrete (reinforced and prestressed) containments. In a severe accident they may be subjected to pressure and temperature conditions that exceed the design values, along with a combination of axial and lateral deflections. A test program to determine the leak-tight capacity of containment penetration bellows is being conducted at Sandia National Laboratories under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Several different bellows geometries, representative of actual containment bellows, have been subjected to extreme deflections along with pressure and temperature loads. The bellows geometries and loading conditions are described along with the testing apparatus and procedures. A total of nineteen bellows have been tested. Thirteen bellows were tested in ``like-new`` condition (results reported in Volume 1), and six were tested in a corroded condition. The tests showed that bellows in ``like-new`` condition are capable of withstanding relatively large deformations, up to, or near, the point of full compression or elongation, before developing leakage, while those in a corroded condition did not perform as well, depending on the amount of corrosion. The corroded bellows test program and results are presented in this report.

  3. [High-frequency active oscillation of the head in testing vestibuloocular reflex in healthy subjects].

    PubMed

    Pal'chun, V T; Derevianko, S N

    2000-01-01

    An original device has been designed in the ENT clinic of the Russian Medical University in cooperation with GUTA-clinic laboratory. The device registers high-frequency active oscillation of the head. This oscillation test was tried in 20 healthy individuals aged 20 to 60 years and was found easy to perform and highly informative. This technique can be used as an additional vestibular test in assessing function of the vestibular analyser. PMID:10771602

  4. Testing principle working mechanisms of the health action process approach for subjective physical age groups.

    PubMed

    Wienert, Julian; Kuhlmann, Tim; Fink, Sebastian; Hambrecht, Rainer; Lippke, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated differences in social-cognitive predictors and self-regulatory planning, as proposed by the health action process approach (HAPA), across three different subjective physical age groups for physical activity. With a cross-sectional design, 521 participants across the chronological age span from 25 to 86 years (M = 48.79; SD = 12.66) were separated into three groups: those who feel physically younger than they are in terms of chronological age, the same perceived and chronological age, and feeling physically older compared to their chronological age. Participants were assessed regarding their perceived vulnerability, outcome expectancies, general intentions, planning, self-efficacy, and stages of physical activity (non-intenders, intenders, and actors). Data were analysed via mean comparison and multigroup structural equation modelling. Mean differences for all but one construct were eminent in all groups, generally showing that those feeling physically younger also report better social-cognitive predictors of physical activity (e.g. lower perceived vulnerability) in comparison to those who feel the same age or older. The model showed that basic working mechanisms of the HAPA can be applied to all groups. With that, the results provide for the first time evidence that principle working mechanism of the HAPA can be applied to all subjective physical age groups. These may be used to tailor health promoting interventions according to participants' needs as a more suitable proxy than chronological age. PMID:26967593

  5. Characterization of Ceramic Matrix Composite Vane Subelements Subjected to Rig Testing in a Gas Turbine Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verrilli, Michael; Calomino, Anthony; Thomas, David J.; Robinson, R. Craig

    2004-01-01

    Vane subelements were fabricated from a silicon carbide fiber-reinforced silicon carbide matrix (SiC/SiC) composite. A cross-sectional slice of an aircraft engine metal vane was the basis of the vane subelement geometry. To fabricate the small radius of the vane's trailing edge using stiff Sylramic SiC fibers, a unique SiC fiber architecture was developed. A test configuration for the vanes in a high pressure gas turbine environment was designed and fabricated. Testing was conducted using a pressure of 6 atm and combustion flow rate of 0.5 kg/sec, and consisted of fifty hours of steady state operation followed by 102 2-minute thermal cycles. A surface temperature of 1320 C was obtained for the EBC-coated SiC/SiC vane subelement. This paper will briefly discuss the vane fabrication, test configuration, and results of the vane testing. The emphasis of the paper is on characterization of the post-test condition of the vanes.

  6. Trail Making Test performance contributes to subjective judgment of visual efficiency in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Loughman, James; Savva, George M.; Kenny, RoseAnne

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The determinant factors that influence self-reported quality of vision have yet to be fully elucidated. This study evaluated a range of contextual information, established psychophysical tests, and in particular, a series of cognitive tests as potentially novel determinant factors. Materials & Methods. Community dwelling adults (aged 50+) recruited to Wave 1 of The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing, excluding those registered blind, participated in this study (N = 5,021). Self-reports of vision were analysed in relation to visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, ocular pathology, visual (Choice Response Time task; Trail Making Test) and global cognition. Contextual factors such as having visited an optometrist and wearing glasses were also considered. Ordinal logistic regression was used to determine univariate and multivariate associations. Results and Discussion. Poor Trail Making Test performance (Odds ratio, OR = 1.36), visual acuity (OR = 1.72) and ocular pathology (OR = 2.25) were determinant factors for poor versus excellent vision in self-reports. Education, wealth, age, depressive symptoms and general cognitive fitness also contributed to determining self-reported vision. Conclusions. Trail Making Test contribution to self-reports may capture higher level visual processing and should be considered when using self-reports to assess vision and its role in cognitive and functional health. PMID:26664798

  7. Lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide metabolites in sedentary subjects and sportsmen before and after a cardiopulmonary test.

    PubMed

    Lo Presti, Rosalia; Canino, Baldassare; Montana, Maria; Caimi, Gregorio

    2013-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate the effects of an exercise test on some indices of oxidative status and endothelial function, in trained and untrained subjects. We examined lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide metabolites (NOx) and their ratio before and after a cardiopulmonary test, using a cycloergometer. We enrolled 60 male subjects who practiced sport unprofessionally, subdivided in two groups (A and B) according to the values of VO2max. Group A included sportsmen with poor or fair aerobic fitness (VO2max <39 ml/Kg/min), group B sportsmen with average to excellent aerobic fitness (VO2max >39 ml/Kg/min). The control group included 19 male sedentary subjects. Lipid peroxidation was evaluated by detection of the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS); the NOx were evaluated employing the Griess reagent. At rest, in comparison with sedentary controls, an increase in TBARS, NOx and TBARS/NOx ratio was found in all sportsmen and partially in the two groups. After the cardiopulmonary test, the increase of TBARS and TBARS/NOx ratio was significantly more evident in sedentary controls than in sportsmen. No variation was observed for NOx in any group. These data suggest that sportsmen are protected against the acute oxidative stress induced by an exercise test, and that protection is not strictly dependent on the aerobic fitness. PMID:22710809

  8. Patient Complexity Charge Matrix for Audiology Services: A New Perspective on Unbundling

    PubMed Central

    Windmill, Ian M.; Bishop, Charles; Elkins, Alex; Johnson, Mary Frances; Sturdivant, Grace

    2016-01-01

    Traditional approaches to unbundling hearing aid services often take existing bundled charges and then separate the charges across all potential services associated with dispensing the devices. However, this method results in every patient being charged the same amount even though the complexity of the service varies across patients. We describe a model of charging for hearing aid services that takes into account three elements associated with patient services (i.e., assessing hearing status, audiologic decision making and interpretation, and counseling and treatment options) and two levels of complexity (straightforward and complex). Using this approach, there is negligible long-term financial impact on a practice however patients will perceive a lower overall cost for amplification. Additionally, this approach provides a payment structure more representative of the professional value of each visit. PMID:27516721

  9. Teaching Evaluations: Influence of Test Difficulty and Perceived Difficulty of Subject Matter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combs, Natalie N.; And Others

    Students' evaluations of a lesson were made on the same videotaped lesson after students were informed that the lesson was difficult or that it was easy, and after they were given a hard or easy content test. A two-way factorial design was employed with 92 undergraduate students, who were randomly assigned to conditions. After all students…

  10. Audiologic Phenotype and Progression in GJB2 (Connexin 26) Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Kenna, Margaret A.; Feldman, Henry A.; Neault, Marilyn W.; Frangulov, Anna; Wu, Bai-Lin; Fligor, Brian; Rehm, Heidi L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To document the audiologic phenotype of children with biallelic GJB2 (connexin 26) mutations, and to correlate it with the genotype. Design Prospective, observational study. Setting Tertiary care children’s hospital. Patients Infants and children with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). Intervention Sequencing of the GJB2 (connexin 26) gene. Main Outcome Measures Degree and progression of SNHL. Results From December 1, 1998, through November 30, 2006, 126 children with biallelic GJB2 mutations were identified. Of the 30 different mutations identified, 13 (43%) were truncating and 17 (57%) were nontruncating; 62 patients had 2 truncating, 30 had 1 truncating and 1 nontruncating, and 17 had 2 nontruncating mutations. Eighty-four patients (67%) initially had measurable hearing in the mild to severe range in at least 1 of 4 frequencies (500, 1000, 2000, or 4000 Hz). Of these 84 patients with residual hearing, 47 (56%) had some degree of progressive hearing loss. Patients with 2 truncating mutations had significantly worse hearing compared with all other groups. Patients who had 1 or 2 copies of either an M34T or a V37I allele had the mildest hearing loss. Conclusions Hearing loss owing to GJB2 mutations ranges from mild to profound and is usually congenital. More than 50% of patients will experience some hearing loss progression, generally gradually but occasionally precipitously. Hearing loss severity may be influenced by genetic factors, such as the degree of preserved protein function in nontruncating mutations, whereas hearing loss progression may be dependent on factors other than the connexin 26 protein. Genetic counseling for patients with GJB2 mutations should include the variable audiologic phenotype and the possibility of progression. PMID:20083784

  11. Testing of a Loop Heat Pipe Subjective to Variable Accelerations. Part 2; Temperature Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Jentung; Ottenstein, Laura; Kaya, Taril; Rogers, Paul; Hoff, Craig

    2000-01-01

    The effect of accelerating forces on the performance of loop heat pipes (LHP) is of interest and importance to terrestrial and space applications. LHP's are being considered for cooling of military combat vehicles and for spinning spacecraft. In order to investigate the effect of an accelerating force on LHP operation, a miniature LHP was installed on a spin table. Variable accelerating forces were imposed on the LHP by spinning the table at different angular speeds. Several patterns of accelerating forces were applied, i.e. continuous spin at different speeds and periodic spin at different speeds and frequencies. The resulting accelerations ranged from 1.17 g's to 4.7 g's. This paper presents the second part of the experimental study, i.e. the effect of an accelerating force on the LHP operating temperature. It has been known that in stationary tests the LHP operating temperature is a function of the evaporator power and the condenser sink temperature when the compensation temperature is not actively controlled. Results of this test program indicate that any change in the accelerating force will result in a chance in the LHP operating temperature through its influence on the fluid distribution in the evaporator, condenser and compensation chamber. However, the effect is not universal, rather it is a function of other test conditions. A steady, constant acceleration may result in an increase or decrease of the operating temperature, while a periodic spin will lead to a quasi-steady operating temperature over a sufficient time interval. In addition, an accelerating force may lead to temperature hysteresis and changes in the temperature oscillation. In spite of all these effects, the LHP continued to operate without any problems in all tests.

  12. Techniques and Methods for Testing the Postural Function in Healthy and Pathological Subjects.

    PubMed

    Paillard, Thierry; Noé, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    The different techniques and methods employed as well as the different quantitative and qualitative variables measured in order to objectify postural control are often chosen without taking into account the population studied, the objective of the postural test, and the environmental conditions. For these reasons, the aim of this review was to present and justify the different testing techniques and methods with their different quantitative and qualitative variables to make it possible to precisely evaluate each sensory, central, and motor component of the postural function according to the experiment protocol under consideration. The main practical and technological methods and techniques used in evaluating postural control were explained and justified according to the experimental protocol defined. The main postural conditions (postural stance, visual condition, balance condition, and test duration) were also analyzed. Moreover, the mechanistic exploration of the postural function often requires implementing disturbing postural conditions by using motor disturbance (mechanical disturbance), sensory stimulation (sensory manipulation), and/or cognitive disturbance (cognitive task associated with maintaining postural balance) protocols. Each type of disturbance was tackled in order to facilitate understanding of subtle postural control mechanisms and the means to explore them. PMID:26640800

  13. Techniques and Methods for Testing the Postural Function in Healthy and Pathological Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Paillard, Thierry; Noé, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    The different techniques and methods employed as well as the different quantitative and qualitative variables measured in order to objectify postural control are often chosen without taking into account the population studied, the objective of the postural test, and the environmental conditions. For these reasons, the aim of this review was to present and justify the different testing techniques and methods with their different quantitative and qualitative variables to make it possible to precisely evaluate each sensory, central, and motor component of the postural function according to the experiment protocol under consideration. The main practical and technological methods and techniques used in evaluating postural control were explained and justified according to the experimental protocol defined. The main postural conditions (postural stance, visual condition, balance condition, and test duration) were also analyzed. Moreover, the mechanistic exploration of the postural function often requires implementing disturbing postural conditions by using motor disturbance (mechanical disturbance), sensory stimulation (sensory manipulation), and/or cognitive disturbance (cognitive task associated with maintaining postural balance) protocols. Each type of disturbance was tackled in order to facilitate understanding of subtle postural control mechanisms and the means to explore them. PMID:26640800

  14. The COPD assessment test and St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire: are they equivalent in subjects with COPD?

    PubMed Central

    Morishita-Katsu, Mariko; Nishimura, Koichi; Taniguchi, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Tomoki; Kondoh, Yasuhiro; Kataoka, Kensuke; Ogawa, Tomoya; Watanabe, Fumiko; Arizono, Shinichi; Nishiyama, Osamu; Nakayasu, Kazuhito; Imaizumi, Kazuyoshi; Hasegawa, Yoshinori

    2016-01-01

    Background The chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) assessment test (CAT) is a short questionnaire that has facilitated health status measurements in subjects with COPD. However, it remains controversial as to whether the CAT can be used as a suitable substitute for the St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ). This study investigated the reliability and score distributions of the CAT and SGRQ and evaluated which factors contributed to health status for each questionnaire. Methods A total of 109 consecutive subjects with stable COPD from a single center were enrolled in this study. Each subject completed pulmonary function tests, exercise tests, and the following self-administered questionnaires: the Baseline Dyspnea Index, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the CAT, and SGRQ. Results Internal consistencies of CAT and SGRQ total scores were both excellent (Cronbach’s α coefficients =0.890 and 0.933). Statistically significant correlations were observed between CAT and SGRQ total scores (R=0.668, P<0.001). Correlations of CAT scores with parameters related to pulmonary function, dyspnea, exercise performance, and psychological factors were inferior to correlations with those parameters with SGRQ total scores. Both multiple regression analyses and principal component analyses revealed that there were slight differences between SGRQ total scores and CAT scores. Conclusion The CAT is similar to SGRQ in terms of discriminating health status. However, we demonstrated that what is assessed by the CAT may differ slightly from what is measured by SGRQ. PMID:27462150

  15. Improving information retrieval using Medical Subject Headings Concepts: a test case on rare and chronic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Darmoni, Stéfan J.; Letord, Catherine; Jaulent, Marie-Christine; Griffon, Nicolas; Thirion, Benoît; Névéol, Aurélie

    2012-01-01

    Background: As more scientific work is published, it is important to improve access to the biomedical literature. Since 2000, when Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Concepts were introduced, the MeSH Thesaurus has been concept based. Nevertheless, information retrieval is still performed at the MeSH Descriptor or Supplementary Concept level. Objective: The study assesses the benefit of using MeSH Concepts for indexing and information retrieval. Methods: Three sets of queries were built for thirty-two rare diseases and twenty-two chronic diseases: (1) using PubMed Automatic Term Mapping (ATM), (2) using Catalog and Index of French-language Health Internet (CISMeF) ATM, and (3) extrapolating the MEDLINE citations that should be indexed with a MeSH Concept. Results: Type 3 queries retrieve significantly fewer results than type 1 or type 2 queries (about 18,000 citations versus 200,000 for rare diseases; about 300,000 citations versus 2,000,000 for chronic diseases). CISMeF ATM also provides better precision than PubMed ATM for both disease categories. Discussion: Using MeSH Concept indexing instead of ATM is theoretically possible to improve retrieval performance with the current indexing policy. However, using MeSH Concept information retrieval and indexing rules would be a fundamentally better approach. These modifications have already been implemented in the CISMeF search engine. PMID:22879806

  16. Optimized lower leg injury probability curves from post-mortem human subject tests under axial impacts

    PubMed Central

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Arun, Mike W.J.; Pintar, Frank A.; Szabo, Aniko

    2015-01-01

    Objective Derive optimum injury probability curves to describe human tolerance of the lower leg using parametric survival analysis. Methods The study re-examined lower leg PMHS data from a large group of specimens. Briefly, axial loading experiments were conducted by impacting the plantar surface of the foot. Both injury and non-injury tests were included in the testing process. They were identified by pre- and posttest radiographic images and detailed dissection following the impact test. Fractures included injuries to the calcaneus and distal tibia-fibula complex (including pylon), representing severities at the Abbreviated Injury Score (AIS) level 2+. For the statistical analysis, peak force was chosen as the main explanatory variable and the age was chosen as the co-variable. Censoring statuses depended on experimental outcomes. Parameters from the parametric survival analysis were estimated using the maximum likelihood approach and the dfbetas statistic was used to identify overly influential samples. The best fit from the Weibull, log-normal and log-logistic distributions was based on the Akaike Information Criterion. Plus and minus 95% confidence intervals were obtained for the optimum injury probability distribution. The relative sizes of the interval were determined at predetermined risk levels. Quality indices were described at each of the selected probability levels. Results The mean age, stature and weight: 58.2 ± 15.1 years, 1.74 ± 0.08 m and 74.9 ± 13.8 kg. Excluding all overly influential tests resulted in the tightest confidence intervals. The Weibull distribution was the most optimum function compared to the other two distributions. A majority of quality indices were in the good category for this optimum distribution when results were extracted for 25-, 45- and 65-year-old at five, 25 and 50% risk levels age groups for lower leg fracture. For 25, 45 and 65 years, peak forces were 8.1, 6.5, and 5.1 kN at 5% risk; 9.6, 7.7, and 6.1 kN at 25% risk

  17. Targets For Three-Dimensional (3-D) Tracking Of Human Impact Test Subjects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muzzy, William H.; Prell, Arthur M.

    1982-02-01

    Lightweight targets mounted on the head and neck of human volunteers are photographed by high-speed cameras during impact acceleration tests. The targets must be capable of being tracked through a wide angular motion by at least two cameras to obtain three-dimens-ional displacement and orientation. Because the targets are tracked and digitized by a computerized photodigitizer, their pattern must be selected to maximize recognition and minimize crossover confusion. This pater discusses the target construction, orientation on the accelerometer mount, pattern selection, and paint scheme.

  18. Analyses of layer-thickness effects in bilayered dental ceramics subjected to thermal stresses and ring-on-ring tests

    SciTech Connect

    Hsueh, Chun-Hway; Thompson, G. A.; Jadaan, Osama M.; Wereszczak, Andrew A; Becher, Paul F

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. The purpose of this study was to analyze the stress distribution through the thickness of bilayered dental ceramics subjected to both thermal stresses and ring-on-ring tests and to systematically examine how the individual layer thickness influences this stress distribution and the failure origin. Methods. Ring-on-ring tests were performed on In-Ceram Alumina/Vitadur Alpha porcelain bilayered disks with porcelain in the tensile side, and In-Ceram Alumina to porcelain layer thickness ratios of 1:2, 1:1, and 2:1 were used to characterize the failure origins as either surface or interface. Based on the thermomechanical properties and thickness of each layer, the cooling temperature from glass transition temperature, and the ring-on-ring loading configuration, the stress distribution through the thickness of the bilayer was calculated using closed-form solutions. Finite element analyses were also performed to verify the analytical results. Results. The calculated stress distributions showed that the location of maximum tension during testing shifted from the porcelain surface to the In-Ceram Alumina/porcelain interface when the relative layer thickness ratio changed from 1:2 to 1:1 and to 2:1. This trend is in agreement with the experimental observations of the failure origins. Significance. For bilayered dental ceramics subjected to ring-on-ring tests, the location of maximum tension can shift from the surface to the interface depending upon the layer thickness ratio. The closed-form solutions for bilayers subjected to both thermal stresses and ring-on-ring tests are explicitly formulated which allow the biaxial strength of the bilayer to be evaluated.

  19. Elastic-plastic finite element analysis-to-test correlation for structures subjected to dynamic loading

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, S.C.; Minicucci, J.M.

    1997-11-01

    A test program was undertaken to demonstrate the ability of elastic-plastic finite element methods to predict dynamic inelastic response for simple structural members. Cantilever and fixed-beam specimens were tested to levels that produced plastic straining in the range of 2.0% and to 3.0% and permanent sets. Acceleration, strain, and displacement data were recorded for use in analytical correlation. Correlation analyses were performed using the ABAQUS finite element code. Results of the correlation show that current elastic-plastic analysis techniques accurately capture dynamic inelastic response (displacement, acceleration) due to rapidly applied dynamic loading. Peak elastic and inelastic surface strains are accurately predicted. To accurately capture inelastic straining near connections, a solid model, including fillet welds, is necessary. The hardening models currently available in the ABAQUS code (isotropic, kinematic) do not accurately capture inelastic strain reversals caused by specimen rebound. Analyses performed consistently underpredicted the peak strain level of the first inelastic reversal and the rebound deflection and overpredicted the permanent set of structures experiencing inelastic rebound. Based on these findings, an improved hardening model is being implemented in the ABAQUS code by the developers. The intent of this model upgrade is to improve the ability of the program to capture inelastic strain reversals and to predict permanent sets.

  20. Testing of a Loop Heat Pipe Subjective to Variable Accelerations. Part 1; Start-up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Jentung; Rogers, Paul; Hoff, Craig

    2000-01-01

    The effect of accelerating forces on the performance of loop heat pipes (LHP) is of interest and importance to terrestrial and space applications. They are being considered for cooling of military combat vehicles and for spinning spacecraft. In order to investigate the effect of an accelerating force on LHP operation, a miniature LHP was installed on a spin table. Variable accelerating forces were imposed on the LHP by spinning the table at different angular speeds. Several patterns of accelerating forces were applied, i.e. continuous spin at different speeds and periodic spin at different speeds and frequencies. The resulting accelerations ranged from 1.17 g's to 4.7 g's. This paper presents the first part of the experimental study, i.e. the effects of a centrifugal force on the LHP start-up. Tests were conducted by varying the heat load to the evaporator, sink temperature, magnitude and frequency of centrifugal force, and LHP orientation relative to the direction of the accelerating force. The accelerating force seems to have little effect on the loop start-up in terms of temperature overshoot and superheat at boiling incipience. Changes in these parameters seem to be stochastic with or without centrifugal accelerating forces. The LHP started successfully in all tests.

  1. Experimental Tests on the Composite Foam Sandwich Pipes Subjected to Axial Load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Feng; Zhao, QiLin; Xu, Kang; Zhang, DongDong

    2015-12-01

    Compared to the composite thin-walled tube, the composite foam sandwich pipe has better local flexural rigidity, which can take full advantage of the high strength of composite materials. In this paper, a series of composite foam sandwich pipes with different parameters were designed and manufactured using the prefabricated polyurethane foam core-skin co-curing molding technique with E-glass fabric prepreg. The corresponding axial-load compressive tests were conducted to investigate the influence factors that experimentally determine the axial compressive performances of the tubes. In the tests, the detailed failure process and the corresponding load-displacement characteristics were obtained; the influence rules of the foam core density, surface layer thickness, fiber ply combination and end restraint on the failure modes and ultimate bearing capacity were studied. Results indicated that: (1) the fiber ply combination, surface layer thickness and end restraint have a great influence on the ultimate load bearing capacity; (2) a reasonable fiber ply combination and reliable interfacial adhesion not only optimize the strength but also transform the failure mode from brittle failure to ductile failure, which is vital to the fully utilization of the composite strength of these composite foam sandwich pipes.

  2. A SUMMARY OF TEST OBSERVATIONS WHEN IBUTTONS ARE SUBJECTED TO RF ENERGY

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, R J; Baluyot, E V

    2011-10-26

    The iButton is a 'one-wire', temperature sensor and data logger in a short metal cylinder package 17 mm in diameter and 6 mm tall. The device is designed to be attached to a surface and acquire temperature samples over time periods as short as 1 second to as long as 300 minutes. Both 8-bit and 16-bit samples are available with 8kB of memory available. Lifetime is limited to an internal battery that cannot be replaced or recharged. The RF test interest originated with the concern that the data logger could inadvertently record electrical emanations from other nearby equipment. The normal operation of the data logger does not support high speed sampling but the control interface will operate at either 15.4 kbps or 125 kbps. There were no observable effects in the operation of the module or in the data that could be attributed to the use of RF energy. They made the assumption that these devices would potentially show RF sensitivity in any of the registers and in the data memory equally, therefore gross changes in the data might show RF susceptibility. No such sensitivity was observed. Because significant power levels were used for these tests they can extrapolate downward in power to state that no RF susceptibility would occur at lower power levels given the same configurations.

  3. The GRE Subject Test Performance of U.S. and Non-U.S. Examinees, 1982-84: A Comparative Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Kenneth M.

    The Graduate Record Examination (GRE) subject-matter achievement tests are offered in 17 fields. This study investigated the performance of U.S. and non-U.S. citizens on the Subject Tests, and the relationship of selected English-proficiency-related background variables to the test performance of non-U.S. citizens. It was also concerned with…

  4. Elastic response and wrinkling onset of curved elastic membranes subjected to indentation test.

    PubMed

    Bernal, R; Tassius, Ch; Melo, F; Géminard, J-Ch

    2011-02-01

    Starting from a polymeric-fluid droplet, by vulcanization of the fluid free surface, curved elastic membranes, several nanometers thick and a few millimeters in diameter, which enclose a constant fluid volume, are produced. In an indentation-type test, carried out by pushing the membrane along its normal by means of a micro-needle, under some conditions, wrinkles are likely to appear around the contact region. Interestingly, we observe that the instability does not significantly alter the force-displacement relation: the relation between the force and the displacement remains linear and the associated stiffness is simply proportional to the tension of the membrane. In addition, we determine that the wrinkles develop when the stretching modulus of the membrane compares with its tension, which provides a useful method to estimate the elastic constant. PMID:21337016

  5. A Screening Approach for Classroom Acoustics Using Web-Based Listening Tests and Subjective Ratings

    PubMed Central

    Persson Waye, Kerstin; Magnusson, Lennart; Fredriksson, Sofie; Croy, Ilona

    2015-01-01

    Background Perception of speech is crucial in school where speech is the main mode of communication. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether a web based approach including listening tests and questionnaires could be used as a screening tool for poor classroom acoustics. The prime focus was the relation between pupils’ comprehension of speech, the classroom acoustics and their description of the acoustic qualities of the classroom. Methodology/Principal Findings In total, 1106 pupils aged 13-19, from 59 classes and 38 schools in Sweden participated in a listening study using Hagerman’s sentences administered via Internet. Four listening conditions were applied: high and low background noise level and positions close and far away from the loudspeaker. The pupils described the acoustic quality of the classroom and teachers provided information on the physical features of the classroom using questionnaires. Conclusions/Significance In 69% of the classes, at least three pupils described the sound environment as adverse and in 88% of the classes one or more pupil reported often having difficulties concentrating due to noise. The pupils’ comprehension of speech was strongly influenced by the background noise level (p<0.001) and distance to the loudspeakers (p<0.001). Of the physical classroom features, presence of suspended acoustic panels (p<0.05) and length of the classroom (p<0.01) predicted speech comprehension. Of the pupils’ descriptions of acoustic qualities, clattery significantly (p<0.05) predicted speech comprehension. Clattery was furthermore associated to difficulties understanding each other, while the description noisy was associated to concentration difficulties. The majority of classrooms do not seem to have an optimal sound environment. The pupil’s descriptions of acoustic qualities and listening tests can be one way of predicting sound conditions in the classroom. PMID:25615692

  6. Validity of subjective assessment as screening tool for dry eye disease and its association with clinical tests

    PubMed Central

    Bhatnagar, Kavita R; Pote, Sonali; Pujari, Sudeep; Deka, Dhiraj

    2015-01-01

    AIM To determine the role of subjective assessment using McMonnies dry eye questionnaire in diagnosing dry eye disease and its association with clinical tests. METHODS There were 500 patients screened for dry eye using McMonnies dry eye questionnaire between May to October 2013 at the outpatient Department of Ophthalmology of a medical college hospital. All 500 patients were subjected to clinical tests. Dry eye was defined as having one or more symptoms often or all the time. Positive signs were if one or both eyes revealed tear film breakup time (TBUT) of ≤10s, a Schirmer test score of ≤10 mm, a Rose Bengal staining score of ≥1, a Lissamine green staining score of ≥1 or existence of meibomian gland disease (≥grade 1). Statistical analysis was performed to describe the distribution of symptoms and signs, to assess the correlations between McMonnies score (MS) and variable clinical signs of dry eye, and to explore the association between dry eye symptoms and variable clinical signs. Analysis was performed using software package Epi info. A Probability (P) value using Chi-square test of <0.005 was taken as significant. RESULTS Dry eye prevalence with symptoms (questionnaire), Schirmer test, TBUT, Rose Bengal staining and Lissamine green staining was 25.6%, 15.20%, 20.80%, 23.60%, and 22.60% respectively. Among those with severe symptoms (MS>20), 75.86% had a low TBUT (<10s), 58.62% had a low Schirmer's I test (≤10 mm), 86.20% had Rose Bengal staining score of ≥1, 79.31% had Lissamine green staining score of ≥1. We found statistically significant associations between positive Schirmer test and arthritis (P<0.002), dryness elsewhere (P<0.001), contact lens use (P<0.002), systemic medication (P<0.0001), sleeping with eyes partly open (P<0.002), history of dry eyes treatment (P<0.0001), environmental factors (P<0.001), swimming (P<0.001). CONCLUSION Subjective assessment plays an important role in diagnosing dry eye disease. There is strong correlation

  7. High Order Statistics and Time-Frequency Domain to Classify Heart Sounds for Subjects under Cardiac Stress Test

    PubMed Central

    Moukadem, Ali; Schmidt, Samuel; Dieterlen, Alain

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of classification of the first and the second heart sounds (S1 and S2) under cardiac stress test. The main objective is to classify these sounds without electrocardiogram (ECG) reference and without taking into consideration the systolic and the diastolic time intervals criterion which can become problematic and useless in several real life settings as severe tachycardia and tachyarrhythmia or in the case of subjects being under cardiac stress activity. First, the heart sounds are segmented by using a modified time-frequency based envelope. Then, to distinguish between the first and the second heart sounds, new features, named αopt, β, and γ, based on high order statistics and energy concentration measures of the Stockwell transform (S-transform) are proposed in this study. A study of the variation of the high frequency content of S1 and S2 over the HR (heart rate) is also discussed. The proposed features are validated on a database that contains 2636 S1 and S2 sounds corresponding to 62 heart signals and 8 subjects under cardiac stress test collected from healthy subjects. Results and comparisons with existing methods in the literature show a large superiority for our proposed features. PMID:26089957

  8. Unsaturated Oral Fat Load Test Improves Glycemia, Insulinemia and Oxidative Stress Status in Nondiabetic Subjects with Abdominal Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Hervas, Sergio; Navarro, Inmaculada; Real, Jose T.; Artero, Ana; Peiro, Marta; Gonzalez-Navarro, Herminia; Carmena, Rafael; Ascaso, Juan F.

    2016-01-01

    Aims To evaluate the changes in glycemia, insulinemia, and oxidative stress markers during an oral fat load test in nondiabetic subjects with abdominal obesity and to analyze the association between postprandial oxidative stress markers and postprandial glucose and insulin responses. Methods We included 20 subjects with abdominal obesity (waist circumference > 102 cm for men and > 88 cm for women) and 20 healthy lean controls (waist circumference < 102 cm for men and < 88 cm for women). After 12 hours of fasting we performed a standardized fat load test (0–8 hours) with supracal® (50 g/m2). We determined metabolic parameters, oxidized and reduced glutathione, and malondialdehyde. Results In both groups, insulin, HOMA, oxidized/reduced glutathione ratio, and malondialdehyde significantly decreased in the postprandial state after the OFLT. All these parameters were significantly higher in the abdominal obesity group at baseline and during all the postprandial points, but the reduction from the baseline levels was significantly higher in the abdominal obesity group. Conclusion Unsaturated fat improves insulin resistance and oxidative stress status. It is possible that a consumption of unsaturated fat could be beneficial even in subjects with abdominal obesity in postprandial state. PMID:27537847

  9. Insights Gained from Ultrasonic Testing of Piping Welds Subjected to the Mechanical Stress Improvement Process

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Michael T.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Crawford, Susan L.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Moran, Traci L.

    2010-12-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is assisting the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in developing a position on the management of primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) in leak-before-break piping systems. Part of this involves determining whether inspections alone, or inspections plus mitigation, are needed. This work addresses the reliability of ultrasonic testing (UT) of cracks that have been mitigated by the mechanical stress improvement process (MSIP). The MSIP has been approved by the NRC (NUREG-0313) since 1986 and modifies residual stresses remaining after welding with compressive, or neutral, stresses near the inner diameter surface of the pipe. This compressive stress is thought to arrest existing cracks and inhibit new crack formation. To evaluate the effectiveness of the MSIP and the reliability of ultrasonic inspections, flaws were evaluated both before and after MSIP application. An initial investigation was based on data acquired from cracked areas in 325-mm-diameter piping at the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP) in Lithuania. In a follow-on exercise, PNNL acquired and evaluated similar UT data from a dissimilar metal weld (DMW) specimen containing implanted thermal fatigue cracks. The DMW specimen is a carbon steel nozzle-to-safe end-to-stainless steel pipe section that simulates a pressurizer surge nozzle. The flaws were implanted in the nozzle-to-safe end Alloy 82/182 butter region. Results are presented on the effects of MSIP on specimen surfaces, and on UT flaw responses.

  10. A study into salivary-based measurement of human stress subjected to Ellestad stress test protocol.

    PubMed

    Lee, Y K; Za'aba, A; Madzhi, N K; Ahmad, A

    2009-01-01

    Previous works on the effects of salivary alpha amylase in respond to various stressors report encouraging findings on it being a good indicator of stress. Ellestad protocol is a clinical procedure to screen for coronary artery disease by introducing exercise induced physical stress. If a salivary based biomarker profile in accordance to a stress test protocol could be established, the critical stress state which disable rational decision making could be ascertained in a standardized procedure. This technique would serve to aid human resource management in times of critical events such as rescue, firefighting or even military, that would potentially prevent unnecessary sacrifice of human lives. In this pilot study with five healthy volunteers performing the Ellestad protocol treadmill, a measurement profile with physiologic and salivary based biomarker is obtained. It is found that the alpha amylase levels or the changes in it as workload changes from resting-walking-running at ease-exhaustive running, is relatively more significant in reflecting the stress state than heart rate and blood pressure. Moreover, it is strongly associated with mood state with correlation coefficient of 0.8 and significance of 0.01. PMID:19964239

  11. What Is the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health and Why Is It Relevant to Audiology?

    PubMed

    Meyer, Carly; Grenness, Caitlin; Scarinci, Nerina; Hickson, Louise

    2016-08-01

    The World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) is widely used in disability and health sectors as a framework to describe the far-reaching effects of a range of health conditions on individuals. This biopsychosocial framework can be used to describe the experience of an individual in the components of body functions, body structures, and activities and participation, and it considers the influence of contextual factors (environmental and personal) on these components. Application of the ICF in audiology allows the use of a common language between health care professionals in both clinical and research settings. Furthermore, the ICF is promoted as a means of facilitating patient-centered care. In this article, the relevance and application of the ICF to audiology is described, along with clinical examples of its application in the assessment and management of children and adults with hearing loss. Importantly, the skills necessary for clinicians to apply the ICF effectively are discussed. PMID:27489397

  12. Distinct quantitative sensory testing profiles in nonspecific chronic back pain subjects with and without psychological trauma.

    PubMed

    Tesarz, Jonas; Gerhardt, Andreas; Leisner, Sabine; Janke, Susanne; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Eich, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    Psychological trauma is associated with an increased risk for chronification of nonspecific chronic back pain (nsCLBP) independent of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the mechanisms underlying the role of psychological trauma in nsCLBP are less clear than in PTSD. Therefore, this study considered whether psychological trauma exposure (TE) is accompanied by specific alterations in pain perception. The study included 56 participants with nsCLBP and TE (nsCLBP-TE), 93 participants with nsCLBP without TE (nsCLBP-W-TE), and 31 pain-free controls. All participants underwent a thorough clinical evaluation. The standardized quantitative sensory testing protocol of the "German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain" was used to obtain comprehensive profiles on somatosensory functions in painful (back) and non-painful areas (hand). The protocol consisted of thermal and mechanical detection as well as pain thresholds, vibration thresholds, and pain sensitivity to sharp and blunt mechanical stimuli. Psychological trauma was validated by structured clinical interview. Trauma-associated symptom severity, anxiety, and depressive symptomatology were assessed by self-report questionnaires. Differences in somatosensory function were seen only for pressure pain thresholds. Compared with controls, nsCLBP-TE revealed hyperalgesia generalized in space with lower thresholds in painful and non-painful areas, whereas nsCLBP-W-TE demonstrated localized alterations with decreased thresholds only in the pain-affected area of the back (P ≤ 0.006). Our findings suggest an augmented central pain processing in nsCLBP-TE (alterations in painful and non-painful areas), whereas nsCLBP-W-TE show only local changes (alterations only in the painful area) suggesting regional sensitization processes. This finding might explain why TE without PTSD is associated with an increased prevalence of chronic pain. PMID:25790450

  13. Pre-treatment of nickel test areas with sodium lauryl sulfate detects nickel sensitivity in subjects reacting negatively to routinely performed patch tests.

    PubMed

    Seidenari, S; Motolese, A; Belletti, B

    1996-02-01

    A fair % of patients with a clinical history of nickel allergy show negative patch test results. To improve the response rate to NiSO4 5% pet. patch tests, a testing procedure utilizing pre-treatment of the test area by a 24-h application of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) was introduced. 46 women with a clinical history of nickel sensitivity, who exhibited negative reactions to nickel sulfate 5% pet. patch tests, were studied. Patients underwent 6 patch tests on adjacent sites on the volar surface of the forearms. 4 patch tests were performed with a 72-h application of 40 mg nickel sulfate 5% pet. While 1 of these patch tests served as control, 3 test areas underwent 24-h pre-treatment with 40 microliters SLS, 1 with 0.1% and 2 with 0.5% solution. To evaluate differences in the reactivity to SLS plus nickel sulfate related to the site on the forearm, 0.5% SLS pre-treatment was performed both on a proximal and on a distal test site. At the 72-h evaluation, 19 subjects out of 46 showed positive reactions to nickel sulfate 5% pet. at skin sites pre-treated with 0.1% SLS, whereas 23 patients reacted positively at 0.5% SLS pre-treated areas. Echographic values of skin thickness and of hypo-echogenic dermal areas at positive pre-treated nickel test areas were higher than at control test areas, confirming the clinical evidence of an increased response to NiSO4 after SLS pre-treatment. The inflammatory reaction, as evaluated clinically and echographically, was much higher at distal skin areas (0.1% SLS and distal 0.5% SLS) than at proximal 0.5% SLS ones. PMID:8681564

  14. Human Cumulative Irritation Tests of Common Preservatives Used in Personal Care Products: A Retrospective Analysis of Over 45 000 Subjects.

    PubMed

    Walters, Russel M; Khanna, Preeya; Hamilton, Matthew; Mays, David A; Telofski, Lorena

    2015-11-01

    The cumulative irritation test (CIT) is an accepted method used to evaluate the skin irritation potential and safety of individual ingredients and formulas of leave-on skin care and cosmetic compounds. Here, we report the results of CITs collected by JOHNSON & JOHNSON Consumer Companies, Inc. (Skillman, NJ), part of an extensive tiered program to evaluate product safety. In the CIT, test formulations were applied to the skin of adults (18-70 years) with no known skin disease or allergies, 3 times per week for 2 weeks using semi-occlusive clinical patches. Preservatives were 1 of up to 16 components of test formulas, and included ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, diazolidinyl urea, 1,3-Bis(hydroxymethyl)-5,5-dimethylimidazolidine-2,4-dione, parabens, isothiazolinone, phenoxyethanol, sorbates, or benzoates. Skin sites were scored after each patch removal using a 5-point scale, with 0 = no visible reaction and 4 = erythema, marked edema, or substantial vesiculation. Scores were reported as percentage of maximal irritation score. Data were analyzed from 1363 CIT studies (over 45 000 subjects). There were no significant differences in percentage of maximal scores between formulas grouped by preservative types (p > .1). Median score across the entire dataset was 0.44, with most formulas showing none or mild irritation. Although seasonal variations were observed, no correlation was noted between score and preservative concentration. In conclusion, in a large, normal subject dataset, preservatives at typical in-use concentrations did not appear to contribute to skin irritation. PMID:26206148

  15. [Audiologic diagnosis of tumor-induced neural hearing disorders based on discrete finding constellations].

    PubMed

    Mausolf, A; Laubert, A; Marangos, N

    1990-09-01

    Modern electrophysiological and audiometric tests allow the cause of retrocochlear hearing loss to be diagnosed in almost all cases. Assessment of the stapedius reflex, discrimination using the Fowler test, the ERA findings with respect to inter-peak latency, interaural latency difference of the fifth wave, DORAS (difference between the objective response threshold and the subjective tone threshold), and finally the vestibular findings are all important. PMID:2262348

  16. Ira as a pioneer in audiology: His contributions to the clinical measurement of hearing and hearing impairment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Formby, C.; Gagne, J. P.

    2002-05-01

    Ira Hirsh's contributions to clinical science and research are diverse and significant. In fact, approximately one-third of the 100+ publications that Ira lists in his curriculum vitae (CV) are clinical in nature, dealing with various aspects of audiology, deafness, hearing aids, aural rehabilitation, and speech and language pathology. The majority of these citations, fully one-quarter of his publication list, addresses problems specific to the clinical measurement of hearing and hearing impairment. Undoubtedly, the most influential of these published works appears in his CV under the citation ``The Measurement of Hearing.'' The forward for this publication, his only textbook, was penned in June, 1952 (now precisely half a century past at the time of this session). The aims of this presentation are to (1) provide perspective on the fundamental importance of his virtually timeless text in shaping the fledgling discipline of audiology, and (2) celebrate Ira's many contributions to the profession and practice of audiology. [Preparation for this presentation was supported, in part, by a K24 career development award from NIDCD.

  17. Reliability of Single-leg and Double-leg Balance Tests in Subjects with Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction and Controls.

    PubMed

    Kouvelioti, Vasiliki; Kellis, Eleftherios; Kofotolis, Nikolaos; Amiridis, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the test-retest reliability of postural balance in patients with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACL) and controls. Ten healthy subjects and 15 individuals with ACL reconstruction performed single-leg and double-leg balance tests. The center of pressure (COP) was recorded using a pressure platform. For the total COP path, the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) ranged from 0.79 to 0.91. For the COP standard deviation, the ICCs ranged from 0.68 to 0.94. For the COP velocity, the ICCs ranged from 0.72 to 0.91. The sway area and ellipse scores displayed ICCs values of 0.67 to 0.95 and 0.53 to 0.92, respectively. The ICCs were higher for double leg tests compared with single-stance ones. These results indicate that 30 s balance tests in double and single-leg stance are reliable tools to assess static balance. The use of such tests to monitor rehabilitation programs following ACL reconstruction is recommended. PMID:25649642

  18. Micro-fractures produced in the Cadalso de los Vidrios granite (Madrid) subjected to Freeze-Thaw Durability Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freire-Lista, D. M.; Varas-Muriel, M. J.; Fort, R.

    2012-04-01

    A specific leucogranite (fine to medium grain sized) from Cadalso de los Vidrios, Madrid, Spain, from where it takes the name of the stone variety, which is a traditional heritage building material used in Central Spain, was subjected to freezing-thaw durability tests or accelerated artificial ageing tests (according to Spanish standard EN 12371:2001) to assess its durability by means of ultrasonic velocity measurements (a non-destructive technique), and optical and fluorescence petrography using a polarized optical microscope (destructive technique), both techniques used before, during and after laboratory ageing tests, or in other words, what is determined is the improvement or deterioration in some properties. The measurement of the ultrasonic velocity in the leucogranite cubic test specimens along the freezing-thaw cycles shown that the velocity diminishes with the number of cycles, in relation to the decay that the stones were experiencing. This deterioration can be observed by the loss of crystalline minerals in the surface of the analyzed samples and by the micro-fractures appearance up to one centimeter deep, which have been detected by the petrographic techniques previously mentioned. The images taken by means of the fluorescence microscope clearly show the micro-fractures generated during the durability test. These images have been processed and analyzed by the UTHSCSA Image Tool program with the purpose of being able to quantify the degree of decay that this type of crystalline materials undergone, when subjected to a number of freezing-thaw test cycles. It is therefore an effective, reliable and complementary technique to that of the petrography analysis, both optical and fluorescence ones. In the first cycles of the ageing test, the micro-fractures propagate along crystals edges and during the last cycles of the test, intracrystalline micro-fractures are generated, which are developed in different ways depending on the mineralogy of the crystals. Thus

  19. Chemical and immunological testing for faecal occult blood in screening subjects at risk of familial colorectal cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, L M; Rooney, P S; Bostock, K; Robinson, M H; Hardcastle, J D; Armitage, N C

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: People with a family history of colorectal cancer have an increased risk of the disease themselves. Many centres are advocating family history screening by endoscopy. AIMS: The performance of chemical and immunological faecal occult blood tests (Haemoccult and Hemeselect) in 212 subjects with a family history of colorectal cancer was assessed. RESULTS: Both Hemeselect and Haemoccult were positive in the only patient with colorectal cancer. Hemeselect was more sensitive than Haemoccult for adenomas (40% compared with 20%) (adenomas larger than 1 cm 75% compared with 50%). No additional abnormality was detected by the addition of Haemoccult or Hemeselect to 60 cm flexible sigmoidoscopy in screening people at lower levels of familial risk. A false positive rate of 16% for Hemeselect resulted in a high proportion of additional colonoscopies in this group. CONCLUSIONS: At present faecal occult blood tests are not sufficiently sensitive or specific to replace endoscopy in screening people at risk of familial colorectal cancer. PMID:9155586

  20. Anti-buckling fatigue test assembly. [for subjecting metal specimen to tensile and compressive loads at constant temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenbrenner, F. F.; Imig, L. A. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    An antibuckling fatigue test assembly is described for holding a metal specimen which is subjected to compression and to rapid cyclical heating and cooling while permitting visual observation. In an illustrative embodiment of this invention, the anti-buckling fatigue test apparatus includes first and second guide members between which the metal specimen is disposed and held, a heating assembly comprising a suitable heating source such as a quartz lamp and a reflecting assembly directing the heat onto the specimen, and a cooling assembly for directing a suitable cooling fluid such as air onto the specimen. The guide members each have a passage to permit the heat to be directed onto the specimen. An opening is provided in the reflecting assembly to permit visual inspection of that region of the specimen adjacent to the opening onto which the heat is directed.

  1. Development of modified vibration test criteria for qualifying space vehicle components. [subjected to broadband random acoustic excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, K. Y.; Kao, G. C.

    1974-01-01

    Simplified methods are described to estimate the test criteria of primary structures at component attachment points subjected to broadband random acoustic excitations. The current method utilizes a constant smeared component mass attenuation factor across the frequency range of interest. The developed method indicates that the attenuation factor is based on a frequency dependent ratio of the mechanical impedances of both the component and primary structures. The procedures used to predict the structural responses are considered as the present state-of-the-art and provide satisfactory prediction results. Example problems are used to illustrate the application procedures of the two methods and to compare the significant difference. It was found that the lower test criteria obtained by the impedance ratio method is due to the results of considering the effects of component/primary structure interaction.

  2. An acetone breath analyzer using cavity ringdown spectroscopy: an initial test with human subjects under various situations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chuji; Surampudi, Anand B.

    2008-10-01

    We have developed a portable breath acetone analyzer using cavity ringdown spectroscopy (CRDS). The instrument was initially tested by measuring the absorbance of breath gases at a single wavelength (266 nm) from 32 human subjects under various conditions. A background subtraction method, implemented to obtain absorbance differences, from which an upper limit of breath acetone concentration was obtained, is described. The upper limits of breath acetone concentration in the four Type 1 diabetes (T1D) subjects, tested after a 14 h overnight fast, range from 0.80 to 3.97 parts per million by volume (ppmv), higher than the mean acetone concentration (0.49 ppmv) in non-diabetic healthy breath reported in the literature. The preliminary results show that the instrument can tell distinctive differences between the breath from individuals who are healthy and those with T1D. On-line monitoring of breath gases in healthy people post-exercise, post-meals and post-alcohol-consumption was also conducted. This exploratory study demonstrates the first CRDS-based acetone breath analyzer and its potential application for point-of-care, non-invasive, diabetic monitoring.

  3. Post-Flight Test Results of Seed Laser Module Subjected to Space Exposure. Paper No. 8876-9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) is to study the performance of novel materials when subjected to the synergistic effects of the harsh space environment for several months. MISSE missions provide an opportunity for developing space qualifiable materials. Several laser and lidar components were sent by NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) as a part of the MISSE 7 mission. The MISSE 7 module was transported to the international space station (ISS) via STS 129 mission that was launched on Nov 16, 2009. Later, the MISSE 7 module was brought back to the earth via the STS 134 that landed on June 1, 2011. The MISSE 7 module that was subjected to exposure in space environment for more than one and a half year included fiber laser, solid-state laser gain materials, detectors, and semiconductor laser diode. Performance testing of these components is now progressing. In this paper, the results of performance testing of a laser diode module sent by NASA Langley Research Center on MISSE 7 mission will be discussed. This paper will present the comparison of pre-flight and post-flight performance curves and discuss the effect of space exposure on the laser diode module. Preliminary findings on output power measurements show that the COTS laser diode characteristics did not undergo any significant performance degradation.

  4. Genotypic tropism testing in proviral DNA to guide maraviroc initiation in aviremic subjects: 48-week analysis of the PROTEST study

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Federico; Poveda, Eva; Jesús Pérez-Elías, Maria; Hernández Quero, José; Àngels Ribas, Maria; Martínez-Madrid, Onofre J; Flores, Juan; Crespo, Manel; Gutiérrez, Félix; García-Deltoro, Miguel; Imaz, Arkaitz; Ocampo, Antonio; Artero, Arturo; Blanco, Francisco; Bernal, Enrique; Pasquau, Juan; Mínguez-Gallego, Carlos; Pérez, Núria; Aiestarán, Aintzane; Paredes, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In a previous interim 24-week virological safety analysis of the PROTEST study [1], initiation of Maraviroc (MVC) plus 2 nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) in aviremic subjects based on genotypic tropism testing of proviral HIV-1 DNA was associated with low rates of virological failure. Here we present the final 48-week analysis of the study. Methods PROTEST was a phase 4, prospective, single-arm clinical trial (ID: NCT01378910) carried on in 24 HIV care centres in Spain. Maraviroc-naïve HIV-1-positive adults with HIV-1 RNA (VL) <50 c/mL on stable ART during the previous 6 months, requiring an ART change due to toxicity, with no antiretroviral resistance to the ART started, and R5 HIV by proviral DNA genotypic tropism testing (defined as a G2P FPR >10% in a singleton), initiated MVC with 2 NRTIs and were followed for 48 weeks. Virological failure was defined as two consecutive VL>50 c/mL. Recent adherence was calculated as: (# pills taken/# pills prescribed during the previous week)*100. Results Tropism results were available from 141/175 (80.6%) subjects screened: 87/141 (60%) were R5 and 74/87 (85%) were finally included in the study. Their median age was 48 years, 16% were women, 31% were MSM, 36% had CDC category C at study entry, 62% were HCV+ and 10% were HBV+. Median CD4+ counts were 616 cells/mm3 at screening, and median nadir CD4+ counts were 143 cells/mm3. Previous ART included PIs in 46 (62%) subjects, NNRTIs in 27 (36%) and integrase inhibitors (INIs) in 1 (2%). The main reasons for treatment change were dyslipidemia (42%), gastrointestinal symptoms (22%), and liver toxicity (15%). MVC was given alongside TDF/FTC in 40 (54%) subjects, ABC/3TC in 30 (40%), AZT/3TC in 2 (3%) and ABC/TDF in 2 (3%). Sixty-two (84%) subjects maintained VL<50 c/mL through week 48, whereas 12 (16%) discontinued treatment: two (3%) withdrew informed consent, one (1%) had a R5→X4 shift in HIV tropism between the screening and baseline visits, one

  5. Audiologic Patterns of Otic Capsule Preserving Temporal Bone Fracture: Effects of the Affected Subsites

    PubMed Central

    Kim, So Young; Kim, Yoon Joong; Kim, Young Ho; Park, Min-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. This study was aimed to assess the relationship between the type of temporal bone area involved and conductive hearing loss. Methods. We enrolled 97 patients who visited the otolaryngology clinics of Seoul National University Hospital or Boramae Medical Center, Seoul Metropolitan Government-Seoul National University with temporal bone fracture between January 2004 and January 2014. Audiometric parameters, including initial and improved air-bone (AB) conduction gap values, were reviewed in accordance with the temporal bone computed tomography (external auditory canal [EAC], middle ear [ME], mastoid [M], and ossicle [O]). Results. Patients with ossicular chain involvement exhibited a larger AB gap compared to those with no ossicular chain involvement at 250, 1,000, 2,000, and 4,000 Hz. Among the groups without ossicular chain involvement, the initial AB gap was largest in patients with EAC+ME+M involvement, followed by the ME+M and M-only involvement groups. The greatest improvement in the AB gap was observed in the EAC+ME+M group followed by the ME+M and M-only groups, irrespective of ossicular chain involvement. Improvements in AB gap values were smallest at 2,000 Hz. Conclusion. Conductive hearing loss pattern differed according to the temporal bone area involved. Therefore, areas such as the hematoma and hemotympanum, as well as the fracture line of the temporal bone area, must be evaluated to predict audiologic patterns with otic capsule preserving temporal bone fracture. PMID:27337953

  6. ‘Is Going through Clinical Test a Headache?’ An HRV Study and Descriptive Report of Subjective Experience of Undergoing EEG Testing

    PubMed Central

    Kathrotia, Rajesh; Singh, Yogesh; Goel, Arun; Patil, Prashant

    2016-01-01

    To explore the heart rate variability (HRV) changes and subjective perception of undergoing electroencephalography (EEG). We conducted a study on 35 healthy male volunteers. The intervention consisted of placing 23 disc-type EEG electrodes of 5-7 mm diameter with long flexible lead according to international 10-20 system for the duration of 30 min, in a sitting position, on the scalp. The outcome measures were time and frequency domain parameters of HRV analysis and descriptive report of subjective experiences on a 3-point Likert scale. The perception of undergoing EEG ranged from pleasant to uneasy. For 13 (37%) participants it was soothing and relaxing, for 11 (31.5%) it was neutral and for the rest 11 (31.5%) it was uneasy and restrictive in nature. However, HRV analysis of the pre and post EEG, showed no statistically significant difference. In our study, the mixed subjective experience of undergoing EEG may be due to individual variation in the perception of the intervention. No difference in HRV parameters may be because of 2 possibilities. The first possibility is varied experiences of procedure with temporal progression. Same participants may have experienced 2 opposite extremes of experiences over and over again, which may have cancelled out sympathetic and parasympathetic responses. The second possibility may be that no stress is generated during clinical test. PMID:27536017

  7. Determination of rifaximin treatment period according to lactulose breath test values in nonconstipated irritable bowel syndrome subjects.

    PubMed

    Bae, Suhyun; Lee, Kwang Jae; Kim, Young-Sang; Kim, Kyu-Nam

    2015-06-01

    Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) can partly explain irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and rifaximin has been observed to improve abdominal symptoms in nonconstipated IBS patients. However, there are few reports on the association of the rifaximin treatment periods with the results of a lactulose breath test (LBT). Therefore, we performed a retrospective review of patient charts to investigate the relation between the rifaximin treatment periods with LBT results in nonconstipated IBS patients. We also evaluated the time to achieve a symptomatic improvement in the IBS patients as compared to the changes in the LBT. We reviewed the charts for patients who showed IBS symptoms with documented positive results for LBT during their initial visit and who had a follow-up LBT after treatment with rifaximin. The LBT values were compared to the subjects' symptom scores. A total of 102 subjects had a follow-up LBT to assess LBT normalization. The subjects were divided into groups according to treatment periods of 4 weeks (n = 36), 8 weeks (n = 43), and 12 weeks (n = 23). The groups with a longer treatment exhibited an increase in the hydrogen gas value at 90 min and its sum during 90 min at the initial LBT. There were significant differences in hydrogen gas value at 90 min and in its sum during 90 min at the initial LBT between the groups treated for 4 and 12 weeks. The most significant treatment response was observed during the first 4 weeks for all treatment groups. Symptomatic improvement occurred earlier than LBT normalization in the treatment period over 4 weeks. The results indicate that different rifaximin treatment periods are needed in accordance with LBT levels to effectively eradicate SIBO. PMID:26028929

  8. Antioxidant and Antifatigue Properties of the Aqueous Extract of Moringa oleifera in Rats Subjected to Forced Swimming Endurance Test

    PubMed Central

    Lamou, Bonoy; Taiwe, Germain Sotoing; Hamadou, André; Abene; Houlray, Justin; Atour, Mahamat Mey; Tan, Paul Vernyuy

    2016-01-01

    The effects of the aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera on swimming performance and related biochemical parameters were investigated in male Wistar rats (130–132 g). Four groups of rats (16 per group) were fed a standard laboratory diet and given distilled water, 100, 200, or 400 mg/kg of extract, respectively, for 28 days. On day 28, 8 rats from each group were subjected to the forced swimming test with tail load (10% of body weight). The remaining 8 rats per group were subjected to the 90-minute free swim. Maximum swimming time, glycemia, lactamia, uremia, triglyceridemia, hepatic and muscle glycogen, hematological parameters, and oxidative stress parameters (superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione, and malondialdehyde) were measured. Results. M. oleifera extract increased maximum swimming time, blood hemoglobin, blood glucose, and hepatic and muscle glycogen reserves. The extract also increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes and decreased the blood concentrations of malondialdehyde. Furthermore, it decreased blood concentrations of lactate, triglycerides, and urea. In conclusion, the antifatigue properties of M. oleifera extract are demonstrated by its ability to improve body energy stores and tissue antioxidant capacity and to reduce the tissue build-up of lactic acid. PMID:26904162

  9. Antioxidant and Antifatigue Properties of the Aqueous Extract of Moringa oleifera in Rats Subjected to Forced Swimming Endurance Test.

    PubMed

    Lamou, Bonoy; Taiwe, Germain Sotoing; Hamadou, André; Abene; Houlray, Justin; Atour, Mahamat Mey; Tan, Paul Vernyuy

    2016-01-01

    The effects of the aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera on swimming performance and related biochemical parameters were investigated in male Wistar rats (130-132 g). Four groups of rats (16 per group) were fed a standard laboratory diet and given distilled water, 100, 200, or 400 mg/kg of extract, respectively, for 28 days. On day 28, 8 rats from each group were subjected to the forced swimming test with tail load (10% of body weight). The remaining 8 rats per group were subjected to the 90-minute free swim. Maximum swimming time, glycemia, lactamia, uremia, triglyceridemia, hepatic and muscle glycogen, hematological parameters, and oxidative stress parameters (superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione, and malondialdehyde) were measured. Results. M. oleifera extract increased maximum swimming time, blood hemoglobin, blood glucose, and hepatic and muscle glycogen reserves. The extract also increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes and decreased the blood concentrations of malondialdehyde. Furthermore, it decreased blood concentrations of lactate, triglycerides, and urea. In conclusion, the antifatigue properties of M. oleifera extract are demonstrated by its ability to improve body energy stores and tissue antioxidant capacity and to reduce the tissue build-up of lactic acid. PMID:26904162

  10. From dilatancy to contraction: Stress-dependent failure mode progression in two porous sandstones subjected to true triaxial testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiaodong; Haimson, Bezalel

    2013-04-01

    Porous sedimentary rocks such as sandstones are typical oil-bearing formations in which failure due to high stress concentration is likely to occur during wellbore drilling and subsequent operations. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of ?2 on strength, failure-plane angle, and failure mode under realistically simulated field conditions (?1 ×?2 ×?3). A series of true triaxial compression tests were conducted on two representative porous sandstones: Coconino (17.5% porosity, 99% quartz, with rounded and well-sorted 0.1 mm grains that are bonded by suturing and some quartz overgrowth), and Bentheim (24% porosity, 95% quartz, with sub-rounded 0.3 mm grains that are bonded exclusively by suturing). Square cuboidal specimens (19 x 19 x 38mm) were subjected to independent loads in three principal directions, using the University of Wisconsin testing apparatus, creating a true triaxial state of stress (?1 ×?2 ×?3). In all tests, ?3 and ?2 were maintained constant at predetermined levels, while ?1 was raised monotonically until failure occurred. The magnitude of ?3 varied between 0 and 150 MPa, covering the range of brittle behavior, brittle-ductile transition, and the threshold to the ductile zone in the weaker Bentheim sandstone. It was found that in both rocks the compressive strength (?1,peak) for a given ?3 increases as the preset ?2 is raised between tests, and reaches a peak (15% over ?1,peak when ?2 = ?3 in the Coconino, and less than 10% in the Bentheim), beyond which it gradually drops, such that when ?2 ? ?1,peak, the strength is approximately the same as when ?2 = ?3. This strengthening effect is considerably lower than that in previously tested crystalline rocks, such as Westerly granite and KTB amphibolite (more than 50%, Haimson, 2006). Plotting the test data in the ?oct vs. ?oct domain, where the two stress invariants ?oct, the octahedral shear stress, and ?oct,the mean normal stress, are both taken at failure), Coconino shows

  11. Estimation of genetic parameters and response to selection for a continuous trait subject to culling before testing.

    PubMed

    Arnason, T; Albertsdóttir, E; Fikse, W F; Eriksson, S; Sigurdsson, A

    2012-02-01

    The consequences of assuming a zero environmental covariance between a binary trait 'test-status' and a continuous trait on the estimates of genetic parameters by restricted maximum likelihood and Gibbs sampling and on response from genetic selection when the true environmental covariance deviates from zero were studied. Data were simulated for two traits (one that culling was based on and a continuous trait) using the following true parameters, on the underlying scale: h² = 0.4; r(A) = 0.5; r(E) = 0.5, 0.0 or -0.5. The selection on the continuous trait was applied to five subsequent generations where 25 sires and 500 dams produced 1500 offspring per generation. Mass selection was applied in the analysis of the effect on estimation of genetic parameters. Estimated breeding values were used in the study of the effect of genetic selection on response and accuracy. The culling frequency was either 0.5 or 0.8 within each generation. Each of 10 replicates included 7500 records on 'test-status' and 9600 animals in the pedigree file. Results from bivariate analysis showed unbiased estimates of variance components and genetic parameters when true r(E) = 0.0. For r(E) = 0.5, variance components (13-19% bias) and especially (50-80%) were underestimated for the continuous trait, while heritability estimates were unbiased. For r(E) = -0.5, heritability estimates of test-status were unbiased, while genetic variance and heritability of the continuous trait together with were overestimated (25-50%). The bias was larger for the higher culling frequency. Culling always reduced genetic progress from selection, but the genetic progress was found to be robust to the use of wrong parameter values of the true environmental correlation between test-status and the continuous trait. Use of a bivariate linear-linear model reduced bias in genetic evaluations, when data were subject to culling. PMID:22225584

  12. A comparison of hand grasp breakaway strengths and bare-handed grip strengths of the astronauts, SML 3 test subjects, and the subjects from the general population

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar L.; Klute, Glenn K.

    1993-01-01

    Astronauts have the task of retrieving and deploying satellites and handling massive objects in a around the payload bay. Concerns were raised that manual handling of such massive objects might induce loads to the shuttle suits exceeding the design-certified loads. The Crew and Thermal Division of NASA JSC simulated the satellite handling tasks (Satellite Manload Tests 1 and 3) and determined the maximum possible load that a suited member could impart onto the suit. In addition, the tests revealed that the load to the suit by an astronaut could be calculated from the astronaut's maximum hand grasp breakaway strength. Thus, this study was conducted to document that hand grasp breakaway strengths of the astronauts who were scheduled to perform EVA during the upcoming missions. In addition, this study verified whether the SML 3 test results were sufficient for documenting the maximum possible load. An attempt was made to predict grasp strength from grip strength and hand anthropometry. Based on the results from this study, the SML 3 test results were deemed sufficient to document the maximum possible load on the suit. Finally, prediction of grasp strength from grip strength was not as accurate as expected. Hence, it was recommended that grasp strength be collected from the astronauts in order to obtain accurate load estimation.

  13. Investigation on occupant ejection in high severity rear impact based on post mortem human subject sled tests.

    PubMed

    Petit, Philippe; Luet, Carole; Potier, Pascal; Vallancien, Guy

    2011-11-01

    Occupant protection in rear impact involves two competing challenges. On one hand, allowing a deformation of the seat would act as an energy absorber in low severity impacts and would consequently decrease the risk of neck injuries. However, on the other hand, large deformations of the seat may increase the likelihood of occupant ejection in high severity cases. Green et al. 1987 analyzed a total of 919 accidents in Great Britain. They found that occupant ejection resulted in a risk of severe injuries and fatalities between 3.6 and 4.5 times higher than those cases where no ejection was observed. The sample included single front, side and rear impacts as well as multiple impacts and rollover. The rate of belt use in the sample was 50%. While this analysis included all forms of impact scenarios, nevertheless, it highlights the relative injury severity of occupant ejection. Extensive literature search has found no full-scale rear impact tests involving Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) conducted in a laboratory environment and resulting in ejection. This paper describes a total of 10 sled tests conducted on 3 belted PMHS using a simplified seat design composed of rigid plates assembled such that the angular and linear stiffness of the seatback (including the foam) was modeled. The initial angular position and the range of motion of the seatback, the size of the PMHS, the slack length of the seatbelt, the angular stiffness of the seatback, and the use of headrest were varied in the test matrix while the pulse was kept constant (triangular acceleration with a peak of 17 G at 30 ms and a duration of 95 ms). In the test series, the tests were not run randomly but the likelihood of occupant ejection was increased systematically until ejection occurred. PMHS seat ejection was observed only for the 95th percentile, initially positioned with a seatback angle relative to the vertical equal to 22°, a range of seatback angular motion equal to 44° and no headrest. Repeating

  14. Computer simulation and sled test validation of a powerbase wheelchair and occupant subjected to frontal crash conditions.

    PubMed

    Bertocci, G E; Szobota, S; Hobson, D A; Digges, K

    1999-06-01

    The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) has led to an increased number of wheelchair users seeking transportation services. Many of these individuals are unable to transfer to a vehicle and are instead required to travel seated in their wheelchairs. Unfortunately, wheelchairs are not typically designed with the same occupant protection features as motor vehicle seats, and wheelchair seated occupants may be at higher risk for injury in a crash. To study the effects of crash level forces on wheelchairs and their occupants, it is useful to simulate crash conditions using computer modeling. This study has used a dynamic lumped mass crash simulator, in combination with sled impact testing, to develop a model of a secured commercial powerbase and restrained occupant subjected to a 20 g/30 mph frontal motor vehicle crash. Time histories profiles of simulation-generated wheelchair kinematics, occupant accelerations, tiedown forces and occupant restraint forces were compared to sled impact testing for model validation. Validation efforts for this model were compared to validation results found acceptable for the ISO/SAE surrogate wheelchair model. This wheelchair-occupant simulation model can be used to investigate wheelchair crash response or to evaluate the influence of various factors on occupant crash safety. PMID:10391594

  15. Fission product retention in TRISCO coated UO sub 2 particle fuels subjected to HTR simulated core heating tests

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, C.A.; Kania, M.J.

    1990-11-01

    Results of the examination and analysis of 25,730 individual microspheres from spherical fuel elements HFR-K3/1 and HFR-K3/3 are reported. The parent spheres were irradiated in excess of end-of-life exposure and subsequently subjected to simulated core heating tests in a special high-temperature furnace at Forschungszentrum, Juelich, GmbH (KFA). Following the heating tests, the spheres were electrolytically deconsolidated to obtain unbonded fuel particles for Irradiated Microsphere Gamma Analyzer (IMGA) analysis. For sphere HFR-K3/1, which was heated for 500 h at 1600{degree}C, only four particles were identified as having released fission products. The remaining particles from the sphere showed no statistical evidence of fission product release. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) examination showed that three of the defect particles had large sections of the TRISO coating missing, while the fourth appeared normal. For sphere HFR-K3/3, which was heated for 100 h at 1800{degree}C, the IMGA data revealed that fission product release (cesium) from individual particles was significant and that there was large particle-to-particle variation in retention capabilities. Individual particle release (cesium) averaged ten times the KFA-measured integral spherical fuel element release value. In addition, the bimodal distribution of the individual particle data indicated that two distinct modes of failure at fuel temperatures of 1800{degree}C and above may exist. 6 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Neurobehavioral testing of subjects exposed residentially to groundwater contaminated from an aluminum die-casting plant and local referents.

    PubMed

    Kilburn, K H; Warshaw, R H

    1993-08-01

    Residents adjoining a die-casting plant had excessive headaches, numbness of hands and feet, dizziness, blurred vision, staggering, sweating, abnormal heart rhythm, and depression, which led to measurements of neurobehavioral performance, affective status, and the frequency of symptoms. They had all been exposed via well water and proximity to the plant to volatile organic chemicals (VOC) and to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The 117 exposed women and men and 46 unexposed referents were studied together for simple and choice visual reaction time, body sway speed, blink reflex latency, color discrimination, Culture Fair (a nonverbal nonarithmetic intelligence test), recall of stories, figures, and numbers, cognitive and psychomotor control (slotted pegboard and trail making A and B), long-term memory, profile of mood states (POMS), and scores and frequencies of 34 symptoms. Choice reaction time, sway speed, and blink latency were impaired in both sexes of the exposed group and trail making B was impaired in exposed women. The POMS scores and frequencies of 30 of 34 symptoms were elevated in both sexes, compared to referents. Recall, long-term memory, psychomotor speed, and other cognitive function tests were reduced in exposed subjects and in the referents as compared to national referents. Neurophysiological impairment, and cognitive and psychomotor dysfunction and affective disorders, especially depression and excessive frequency of symptoms, were associated with the use of wells contaminated with VOCs, TCE and PCBs. PMID:8345533

  17. Neurobehavioral testing of subjects exposed residentially to groundwater contaminated from an aluminum die-casting plant and local referents

    SciTech Connect

    Kilburn, K.H.; Warshaw, R.H. )

    1993-08-01

    Residents adjoining a die-casting plant had excessive headaches, numbness of hands and feet, dizziness, blurred vision, staggering, sweating, abnormal heart rhythm, and depression, which led to measurements of neurobehavioral performance, affective status, and the frequency of symptoms. They had all been exposed via well water and proximity to the plant to volatile organic chemicals (VOC) and to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The 117 exposed women and men and 46 unexposed referents were studied together for simple and choice visual reaction time, body sway speed, blink reflex latency, color discrimination, Culture Fair (a nonverbal nonarithmetic intelligence test), recall of stories, figures, and numbers, cognitive and psychomotor control (slotted pegboard and trail making A and B), long-term memory, profile of mood states (POMS), and scores and frequencies of 34 symptoms. Choice reaction time, sway speed, and blink latency were impaired in both sexes of the exposed group and trail making B was impaired in exposed women. The POMS scores and frequencies of 30 of 34 symptoms were elevated in both sexes, compared to referents. Recall, long-term memory, psychomotor speed, and other cognitive function tests were reduced in exposed subjects and in the referents as compared to national referents. Neurophysiological impairment, and cognitive and psychomotor dysfunction and affective disorders, especially depression and excessive frequency of symptoms, were associated with the use of wells contaminated with VOCs, TCE and PCBs.

  18. Self-Esteem in Hearing-Impaired Children: The Influence of Communication, Education, and Audiological Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Theunissen, Stephanie C. P. M.; Rieffe, Carolien; Netten, Anouk P.; Briaire, Jeroen J.; Soede, Wim; Kouwenberg, Maartje; Frijns, Johan H. M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Sufficient self-esteem is extremely important for psychosocial functioning. It is hypothesized that hearing-impaired (HI) children have lower levels of self-esteem, because, among other things, they frequently experience lower language and communication skills. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare HI children's self-esteem across different domains with those of normal hearing (NH) children and to investigate the influence of communication, type of education, and audiological characteristics. Methods This large (N = 252) retrospective, multicenter study consisted of two age- and gender-matched groups: 123 HI children and 129 NH controls (mean age  = 11.8 years). Self-reports were used to measure self-esteem across four domains: perceived social acceptance by peers, perceived parental attention, perceived physical appearance, and global self-esteem. Results HI children experienced lower levels of self-esteem regarding peers and parents than NH controls. Particularly HI children who attended special education for the deaf were at risk, even after correcting for their language development and intelligence. Yet, levels of global self-esteem and self-esteem involving physical appearance in HI children equalled those of NH controls. Furthermore, younger age at implantation and longer duration of having cochlear implants (CIs) were related to higher levels of self-esteem. Conclusion HI children experience lower levels of self-esteem in the social domains. Yet, due to the heterogeneity of the HI population, there is high variability in levels of self-esteem. Discussion Clinicians must always be aware of the risk and protective factors related to self-esteem in order to help individual patients reach their full potential. PMID:24722329

  19. Preventive Audiology: Screening for Hearing Impairment in Children Having Recurrent URTI.

    PubMed

    Sharma, K; Pannu, M S; Arora, A; Sharma, V

    2016-06-01

    A late detection of hearing impairment in children can affect speech and language development. Otitis media with effusion (OME) associated with risk factors like recurrent upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) is considered the most common cause of silent hearing impairment among children. So this study was carried out to screen such at risk children for hearing impairment. The study was conducted on 1000 children in the age group of 2-12 years who presented to the OPD of ENT and Pediatrics Department, Govt Medical College with the complaint of recurrent URTI. The children were screened by history taking, general physical examination and local ENT examination. This was followed by impedance audiometry and pure tone audiometry (PTA, wherever indicated). Children with discharging ears and perforated tympanic membrane (TM) were excluded from the study. The most common presenting complaint was nasal discharge (67.9 %), followed by mouth breathing (66.3 %) and snoring (65 %). Only 16.2 % cases actually complained of some hearing impairment on exploratory history indicating the silent nature of OME. On examination 52.65 % cases had a normal looking TM whereas 41.2 % had a dull retracted TM. Results of impedance audiometry showed Type A graph in 56.75 %, Type B in 33.4 % indicating OME and Type C in 9.85 % indicating Eustachian tube dysfunction. PTA showed a mild conductive hearing loss in 26.7 % cases. OME is quite prevalent in high risk children and incidence of OME resulting in silent hearing impairment is quite high especially in young children having recurrent URTI. Impedance audiometry has been proved to be an objective screening tool for the same with a diagnostic accuracy of 87 % and thus under preventive audiology, it has a definite role in young children having recurrent URTI. PMID:27340630

  20. Audiological results using single-channel intracochlear implant, vibrotactile aid or acoustic hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Rihkanen, H; Jauhiainen, T; Linkola, H; Palva, T

    1989-01-01

    Users of a single-channel intracochlear implant (CI, n = 10) (3M/House), a single-channel vibrotactile aid (V, n = 8) (Minivib 3/Special Instrument Ab) and acoustic hearing aids (HA, n = 9) were tested. The comparison was made after training and a minimum of 11 months' use of the devices. All subjects were considered profoundly deaf, but the HA group had some residual hearing. The HA group achieved the best mean test scores in all the tests given. The difference between the CI group and V group increased, in favour to the CI users, as the auditory task was changed from the level of simple signal analysis to the level of linguistic interpretation. PMID:2816334

  1. Protein A/G-based immunochromatographic test for serodiagnosis of pythiosis in human and animal subjects from Asia and Americas.

    PubMed

    Intaramat, Akarin; Sornprachum, Thiwaree; Chantrathonkul, Bunkuea; Chaisuriya, Papada; Lohnoo, Tassanee; Yingyong, Wanta; Jongruja, Nujarin; Kumsang, Yothin; Sandee, Alisa; Chaiprasert, Angkana; Banyong, Ramrada; Santurio, Janio M; Grooters, Amy M; Ratanabanangkoon, Kavi; Krajaejun, Theerapong

    2016-08-01

    Pythiosis is a life-threatening infectious disease of both humans and animals living in Asia, Americas, Africa, and parts of Australia and New Zealand. The etiologic pathogen is the fungus-like organism Pythium insidiosum The disease has high mortality and morbidity rates. Use of antifungal drugs are ineffective against P. insidiosum, leaving radical surgery the main treatment option. Prompt treatment leads to better prognosis of affected individuals, and could be achieved by early and accurate diagnosis. Since pythiosis has been increasingly reported worldwide, there is a need for a rapid, user-friendly, and efficient test that facilitates the diagnosis of the disease. This study aims to develop an immunochromatographic test (ICT), using the bacterial protein A/G, to detect anti-P. insidiosum IgGs in humans and animals, and compare its diagnostic performance with the established ELISA. Eighty-five serum samples from 28 patients, 24 dogs, 12 horses, 12 rabbits, and 9 cattle with pythiosis, and 143 serum samples from 80 human and 63 animal subjects in a healthy condition, with thalassemia, or with other fungal infections, were recruited for assay evaluation. Detection specificities of ELISA and ICT were 100.0%. While the detection sensitivity of ELISA was 98.8%, that of ICT was 90.6%. Most pythiosis sera, that were falsely read negative by ICT, were weakly positive by ELISA. In conclusion, a protein A/G-based ICT is a rapid, user-friendly, and efficient assay for serodiagnosis of pythiosis in humans and animals. Compared to ELISA, ICT has an equivalent detection specificity and a slightly lower detection sensitivity. PMID:27118800

  2. Development and assessment of the disposition index based on the oral glucose tolerance test in subjects with different glycaemic status.

    PubMed

    Santos, J L; Yévenes, I; Cataldo, L R; Morales, M; Galgani, J; Arancibia, C; Vega, J; Olmos, P; Flores, M; Valderas, J P; Pollak, F

    2016-06-01

    Insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity indexes are related by hyperbolic functions, allowing the calculation of the disposition index (DI) as the product of the acute insulin response (AIR) and the insulin sensitivity index (Si) from intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT). Our objective was to develop an oral-DI based on the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and to assess its association with glucose tolerance status. This research is structured in three studies. Study 1: OGTT were performed in 833 non-diabetic Chilean women (18-60 years) without family history of diabetes mellitus. Study 2: an independent group of n = 57 non-diabetic (18-46 years) without family history of diabetes mellitus carried out an OGTT and an abbreviated IVGTT. Study 3: a sample of 1674 Chilean adults (18-60 years) with different glycaemic status performed an OGTT. An adequate statistical fit for a rectangular hyperbola was found between the area under the curve of insulin-to-glucose ratio (AUCI/G-R) and the Matsuda ISI-COMP index (study 1). The oral-DI derived as AUCI/G-R × ISI-COMP was previously termed insulin-secretion-sensitivity index-2 (ISSI-2). ISSI-2 significantly correlated with DI from IVGTT (rho = 0.34; p = 0.009) (study 2). ISSI-2 shows important differences across groups of subjects with different glycaemic status (study 3). We have confirmed that ISSI-2 replicates the mathematical properties of DI, showing significant correlations with DI from the abbreviated MM-IVGTT. These results indicate that ISSI-2 constitutes a surrogate measure of insulin secretion relative to insulin sensitivity and emphasizes the pivotal role of impaired insulin secretion in the development of glucose homeostasis dysregulation. PMID:26660757

  3. Twelve-Month Prospective Randomized Study of Pharmacists Utilizing Point-Of-Care Testing for Metabolic Syndrome and Related Conditions in Subjects Prescribed Antipsychotics

    PubMed Central

    Shuster, Sara M.; Davey, Cynthia S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Determine the percentage of subjects taking antipsychotics who meet criteria for metabolic syndrome based on point-of-care testing analyses. Evaluate pharmacist comprehensive medication management services using point-of-care tests to reduce the mean difference in number of metabolic syndrome risk parameters at 6 and 12 months. Method: This 12-month, prospective, multisite, randomized, controlled study included 120 subjects taking antipsychotics (mean [SD] age of 42.9 [11.3] years) recruited from 3 community mental health clinics in Minnesota. Subjects consented to receive either pharmacist (PCS; n = 60) or no pharmacist (NCS; n = 60) comprehensive medication management services. Data were collected from February 2010 to January 2012. Results: No statistical differences in metabolic syndrome based on point-of-care tests were observed between the 2 groups at baseline (PCS: 85.2%, n = 46 versus NCS: 71.2%, n = 42, P = .073) or at 12 months (PCS: 84.4%, n = 38 versus NCS: 70.2%, n = 33, P = .104). Subjects, overall, screened positive at baseline for dyslipidemia (85.8%, n = 106), hypertension (52.5%, n = 63), and diabetes (22.5%, n = 27) based on point-of-care testing for metabolic risk criteria. After 12 months, a nonsignificant (P = .099) higher adjusted mean number of metabolic syndrome parameters in PCS subjects compared to NCS subjects (mean difference [95% CI] = 0.41 [−0.08 to 0.90]) were found. Conclusions: A relatively high proportion of subjects met criteria for metabolic syndrome, although no significant improvement was observed between the groups after 12 months. Point-of-care test analyses identified a high proportion of subjects meeting criteria for dyslipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes. Utilizing point-of-care tests in mental health settings and fostering interprofessional partnerships with comprehensive medication management pharmacists may improve identification and long-term management of metabolic risks among patients prescribed

  4. Hearing stimulation of the pediatric patient with congenital aural atresia: surgical and audiological evaluation of 38 patients.

    PubMed

    Kuşcu, Oğuz; Günaydın, Rıza Önder; Bajin, Münir Demir; Sözen, Tevfik; Ünal, Ömer Faruk; Akyol, Umut

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is to stress the importance of and discuss the timing and options for the treatment of congenital aural atresia (CAA), including non-surgical alternative treatment modalities and amplification, and to report the audiological and surgical results of a series of patients. Thirty-eight children with CAA were evaluated with regard to hearing and anatomical anomalies accompanying CAA: the state of the ossicles and the facial nerve, postoperative complications and audiological results. The ages of the patients ranged between 4 and 18 years, with a mean of 10 years. All underwent surgical treatment; 32 had unilateral atresia, while 6 had bilateral atresia. The mean follow-up duration was 7 months. The facial canal was dehiscent in 36.8% of cases. In 70.2% cases, the malleus and incus were present as an ossicular mass, fixed and attached to the atretic bone. The stapes was normal in 97.3% of the patients; in 2.7% the suprastructure was deformed. The success rate, defined as an air-bone gap of 20 dB or less, was 63.1% in this series of patients. If atresia is bilateral, very early hearing stimulation to prevent the maldevelopment of children's speech and cognitive skills is of the utmost importance. In unilateral cases, surgery may be postponed until early adulthood, when the patient is able to make his/her own decision and cooperate in the treatment and postoperative aspects. PMID:25818960

  5. The pectoralis minor length test: a study of the intra-rater reliability and diagnostic accuracy in subjects with and without shoulder symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Jeremy S; Valentine, Rachel E

    2007-01-01

    Background Postural abnormality and muscle imbalance are thought to contribute to pain and a loss of normal function in the upper body. A shortened pectoralis minor muscle is commonly identified as part of this imbalance. Clinical tests have been recommended to test for shortening of this muscle. The aim of this study was to evaluate the intra-rater reliability and diagnostic accuracy of the pectoralis minor length test. Methods Measurements were made in 45 subjects with and 45 subjects without shoulder symptoms. Measurements were made with the subjects lying in supine. In this position the linear distance from the treatment table to the posterior aspect of the acromion was measured on two occasions (separated by a minimum of 30 minutes and additional data collection on other subjects to reduce bias) by one rater. The reliability of the measurements was analyzed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), 95% confidence intervals (CI) and standard error of measurement (SEM). The diagnostic accuracy of the test was investigated by determining the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios of the test against a 'gold standard' reference. The assessor remained 'blinded' to data input and the measurements were staggered to reduce examiner bias. Results The pectoralis minor length test was found to have excellent intra-rater reliability for dominant and non-dominant side of the subjects without symptoms, and for the painfree and painful side of the subjects with symptoms. The values calculated for the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios suggest this test performed in the manner investigated in this study and recommended in the literature, lacks diagnostic accuracy. Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that although the pectoralis minor length test demonstrates acceptable clinical reliability, its lack of specificity suggests that clinicians using this test to inform the clinical reasoning process with

  6. An Evaluation of Kernel Equating: Parallel Equating with Classical Methods in the SAT Subject Tests[TM] Program. Research Report. ETS RR-09-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Mary C.; Zhang, Lilly; Damiano, Michele

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated kernel equating methods by comparing these methods to operational equatings for two tests in the SAT Subject Tests[TM] program. GENASYS (ETS, 2007) was used for all equating methods and scaled score kernel equating results were compared to Tucker, Levine observed score, chained linear, and chained equipercentile equating…

  7. Testing of Performance of Optical Fibers Under Irradiation in Intense Radiation Fields, When Subjected to Very High Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Blue, Thomas; Windl, Wolfgang; Dickerson, Bryan

    2013-01-03

    The primary objective of this project is to measure and model the performance of optical fibers in intense radiation fields when subjected to very high temperatures. This research will pave the way for fiber optic and optically based sensors under conditions expected in future high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. Sensor life and signal-to-noise ratios are susceptible to attenuation of the light signal due to scattering and absorbance in the fibers. This project will provide an experimental and theoretical study of the darkening of optical fibers in high-radiation and high-temperature environments. Although optical fibers have been studied for moderate radiation fluence and flux levels, the results of irradiation at very high temperatures have not been published for extended in-core exposures. Several previous multi-scale modeling efforts have studied irradiation effects on the mechanical properties of materials. However, model-based prediction of irradiation-induced changes in silica's optical transport properties has only recently started to receive attention due to possible applications as optical transmission components in fusion reactors. Nearly all damage-modeling studies have been performed in the molecular-dynamics domain, limited to very short times and small systems. Extended-time modeling, however, is crucial to predicting the long-term effects of irradiation at high temperatures, since the experimental testing may not encompass the displacement rate that the fibers will encounter if they are deployed in the VHTR. The project team will pursue such extended-time modeling, including the effects of the ambient and recrystallization. The process will be based on kinetic MC modeling using the concept of amorphous material consisting of building blocks of defect-pairs or clusters, which has been successfully applied to kinetic modeling in amorphized and recrystallized silicon. Using this procedure, the team will model compensation for rate effects, and the

  8. Psychological functioning before predictive testing for Huntington's disease: the role of the parental disease, risk perception, and subjective proximity of the disease

    PubMed Central

    Decruyenaere, M.; Evers-Kiebooms, G.; Boogaerts, A.; Cassiman, J. J.; Cloostermans, T.; Demyttenaere, K.; Dom, R.; Fryns, J. P.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Psychometric testing of participants in predictive DNA testing for Huntington's disease (HD) has shown that 15% of the subjects at risk for HD had at least mild depression or a high score for general anxiety or both in the pre-test period. The main aim of the study was the delineation of variables associated with pre-test distress of applicants for predictive testing for HD. Based on theoretical considerations, four specific hypotheses were tested regarding the role of (1) the test participant's age at the (perceived) parental onset of HD, (2) the affected parent's sex, (3) the perception of the risk for HD, and (4) the subjective proximity of the disease. Secondly, these four variables were used in multiple regression analyses to select the best predictors of pre- and post-test psychological functioning (one year after the test). Increasing the understanding of pre- and post-test distress is important for developing better counselling and support strategies for test applicants.
METHODS—Data were collected by means of clinical interviews and psychometric questionnaires during the pre- and post-test (one year after the test) counselling sessions for predictive testing for HD.
RESULTS—We found significant associations of the participant's age at the parental onset, the subjective proximity of the disease onset, and the perceived risk with pre-test psychometric measures of psychological functioning. Multiple regression analyses showed that the best predictors of pre-test functioning were the perceived proximity of the disease onset and its interaction with risk perception. Regarding post-test functioning, none of the proposed variables had a unique contribution beyond that accounted for by pre-test psychological functioning.
CONCLUSIONS—Test participants who are close to the perceived age of onset of HD and who have a pessimistic risk perception should be given special attention during pre-test counselling because of their possible negative

  9. Salary-Trend Study of Faculty in Audiology and Speech Pathology for the Years 1983-84 and 1986-87.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Richard D.; Vong, Laurie

    Average salary increases for 805 faculty in the field of audiology and speech pathology are reported for 1983-1984 and 1986-1987, as part of the College and University Personnel Association's annual faculty salary studies. Included are comparative data for 120,580 faculty at 167 public colleges and 235 private colleges, representing 44 academic…

  10. Salary-Trend Study of Faculty in Audiology and Speech Pathology for the Years 1982-83 and 1985-86.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Richard D.; Carlton, J. Beth

    Average salary increases for 824 faculty in the field of audiology and speech pathology are reported for 1982-1983 and 1985-1986, as part of the College and University Personnel Association's annual faculty salary studies. Included are comparative data for 108,074 faculty at 174 public colleges and 193 private colleges, representing 41 academic…