Sample records for submarine volcano located

  1. Active submarine volcano sampled

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Brian

    On June 4, 1982, two full dredge hauls of fresh olivine basalt were recovered from the upper flanks of Kavachi submarine volcano, Solomon Islands, from water depths of 400 and 900 m. The shallower dredge site was within one-half mile of the active submarine vent evidenced at the surface by an area of slick water, probably caused by gas emissions. Kavachi is a composite stratovolcano located on the ‘trench-slope break’ or ‘outer-arc high’ of the New Georgia Group, approximately 35 km seaward of the main volcanic line and only 30 km landward of the base of the trench inner wall. The volcano has been observed to erupt every year or two for at least the last 30 years (see cover photographs). An island formed in 1952, 1961, 1965, and 1978, but in each case it rapidly eroded below sea level. The latest eruption was observed by Solair pilots during the several weeks up to and including May 18, 1982.

  2. Long-term eruptive activity at a submarine arc volcano

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Embley, R.W.; Chadwick, W.W., Jr.; Baker, E.T.; Butterfield, D.A.; Resing, J.A.; De Ronde, C. E. J.; Tunnicliffe, V.; Lupton, J.E.; Juniper, S.K.; Rubin, K.H.; Stern, R.J.; Lebon, G.T.; Nakamura, K.-I.; Merle, S.G.; Hein, J.R.; Wiens, D.A.; Tamura, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Three-quarters of the Earth's volcanic activity is submarine, located mostly along the mid-ocean ridges, with the remainder along intraoceanic arcs and hotspots at depths varying from greater than 4,000 m to near the sea surface. Most observations and sampling of submarine eruptions have been indirect, made from surface vessels or made after the fact. We describe here direct observations and sampling of an eruption at a submarine arc volcano named NW Rota-1, located 60 km northwest of the island of Rota (Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands). We observed a pulsating plume permeated with droplets of molten sulphur disgorging volcanic ash and lapilli from a 15-m diameter pit in March 2004 and again in October 2005 near the summit of the volcano at a water depth of 555 m (depth in 2004). A turbid layer found on the flanks of the volcano (in 2004) at depths from 700 m to more than 1,400 m was probably formed by mass-wasting events related to the eruption. Long-term eruptive activity has produced an unusual chemical environment and a very unstable benthic habitat exploited by only a few mobile decapod species. Such conditions are perhaps distinctive of active arc and hotspot volcanoes. ?? 2006 Nature Publishing Group.

  3. Geomechanical Characterization of Submarine Volcano-Flank Sediments, Martinique, Lesser

    E-print Network

    Manga, Michael

    Chapter 7 Geomechanical Characterization of Submarine Volcano-Flank Sediments, Martinique, Lesser of Montagne Pel´ee that generated large submarine mass wasting deposits. Here, we evaluate the preconditioning.), Submarine Mass Movements and Their Consequences, Advances in Natural and Technological Hazards Research 37

  4. Research Article Evolution of West Rota Volcano, an extinct submarine volcano in the

    E-print Network

    Stern, Robert J.

    submarine eruption. The youngest unit consists of 1­2 m diam- eter spheroids of rhyolite pumice, interpreted mineralization, Mariana Arc, pumice, Quaternary volcano, submarine caldera. INTRODUCTION The 3000-km long Izu

  5. A submarine canyon as the cause of a mud volcano Liuchieuyu Island in Taiwan

    E-print Network

    Lin, Andrew Tien-Shun

    A submarine canyon as the cause of a mud volcano Ð Liuchieuyu Island in Taiwan J. Chowa,*, J, we also discuss the relationship between a nearby submarine canyon (Kaoping Submarine Canyon¯ection; Submarine canyon; Mud volcano 1. Introduction In the early Pliocene, the paleoenvironment of the offshore

  6. Seafloor seismic monitoring of an active submarine volcano: Local seismicity at Vailulu'u Seamount, Samoa

    E-print Network

    Shearer, Peter

    Seafloor seismic monitoring of an active submarine volcano: Local seismicity at Vailulu'u Seamount'u; volcano; seismic monitoring; volcanic activity; submarine. Index Terms: 3025 Marine Geology and Geophysics of an active submarine volcano: Local seismicity at Vailulu'u Seamount, Samoa, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 5, Q

  7. Submarine venting of liquid carbon dioxide on a Mariana Arc volcano

    E-print Network

    Chadwick, Bill

    Submarine venting of liquid carbon dioxide on a Mariana Arc volcano John Lupton NOAA/Pacific Marine, California, 92065, USA [1] Although CO2 is generally the most abundant dissolved gas found in submarine CO2-rich hydrothermal system at 1600-m depth near the summit of NW Eifuku, a small submarine volcano

  8. Growth History of Kaena Volcano, the Isolated, Dominantly Submarine, Precursor Volcano to Oahu, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinton, J. M.; Eason, D. E.

    2014-12-01

    The construction of O'ahu began with the recently recognized, ~3.5-4.9 Ma Ka'ena Volcano, as an isolated edifice in the Kaua'i Channel. Ka'ena remained submarine until, near the end of its lifetime as magma supply waned and the volcano transitioned to a late-shield stage of activity, it emerged to reach a maximum elevation of ~1000 m above sea level. We estimate that Ka'ena was emergent only for the last 15-25% of its lifespan, and that subaerial lavas make up < 5% of the total volume (20-27 x 103 km3). O'ahu's other volcanoes, Wai'anae (~3.9-2.85 Ma) and Ko'olau (~3.0-1.9 Ma), were built at least partly on the flanks of earlier edifices and both were active subaerial volcanoes for at least 1 Ma. The constructional history of Ka'ena contrasts with that of Wai'anae, Ko'olau, and many other Hawaiian volcanoes, which likely emerge within a few hundred kyr after inception, and with subaerial lavas comprising up to 35 volume % of the volcano. These relations suggest that volcano growth history and morphology are critically dependent on whether volcanic initiation and growth occur in the deep ocean floor (isolated), or on the flanks of pre-existing edifices. Two other volcanoes that likely formed in isolation are West Moloka'i and Kohala, both of which have long submarine rift zones, and neither attained great heights above sea level despite having substantial volume. The partitioning of volcanism between submarine and subaerial volcanism depends on the distance between volcanic centers, whether new volcanoes initiate on the flanks of earlier ones, and the time over which neighboring volcanoes are concurrently active. Ka'ena might represent an end-member in this spectrum, having initiated far from its next oldest neighbor and completed much of its evolution in isolation.

  9. Near-specular acoustic scattering from a buried submarine mud volcano.

    PubMed

    Gerig, Anthony L; Holland, Charles W

    2007-12-01

    Submarine mud volcanoes are objects that form on the seafloor due to the emission of gas and fluidized sediment from the Earth's interior. They vary widely in size, can be exposed or buried, and are of interest to the underwater acoustics community as potential sources of active sonar clutter. Coincident seismic reflection data and low frequency bistatic scattering data were gathered from one such buried mud volcano located in the Straits of Sicily. The bistatic data were generated using a pulsed piston source and a 64-element horizontal array, both towed over the top of the volcano. The purpose of this work was to appropriately model low frequency scattering from the volcano using the bistatic returns, seismic bathymetry, and knowledge of the general geoacoustic properties of the area's seabed to guide understanding and model development. Ray theory, with some approximations, was used to model acoustic propagation through overlying layers. Due to the volcano's size, scattering was modeled using geometric acoustics and a simple representation of volcano shape. Modeled bistatic data compared relatively well with experimental data, although some features remain unexplained. Results of an inversion for the volcano's reflection coefficient indicate that it may be acoustically softer than expected. PMID:18247739

  10. Environmental monitoring of El Hierro Island submarine volcano, by combining low and high resolution satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eugenio, F.; Martin, J.; Marcello, J.; Fraile-Nuez, E.

    2014-06-01

    El Hierro Island, located at the Canary Islands Archipelago in the Atlantic coast of North Africa, has been rocked by thousands of tremors and earthquakes since July 2011. Finally, an underwater volcanic eruption started 300 m below sea level on October 10, 2011. Since then, regular multidisciplinary monitoring has been carried out in order to quantify the environmental impacts caused by the submarine eruption. Thanks to this natural tracer release, multisensorial satellite imagery obtained from MODIS and MERIS sensors have been processed to monitor the volcano activity and to provide information on the concentration of biological, chemical and physical marine parameters. Specifically, low resolution satellite estimations of optimal diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd) and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration under these abnormal conditions have been assessed. These remote sensing data have played a fundamental role during field campaigns guiding the oceanographic vessel to the appropriate sampling areas. In addition, to analyze El Hierro submarine volcano area, WorldView-2 high resolution satellite spectral bands were atmospherically and deglinted processed prior to obtain a high-resolution optimal diffuse attenuation coefficient model. This novel algorithm was developed using a matchup data set with MERIS and MODIS data, in situ transmittances measurements and a seawater radiative transfer model. Multisensor and multitemporal imagery processed from satellite remote sensing sensors have demonstrated to be a powerful tool for monitoring the submarine volcanic activities, such as discolored seawater, floating material and volcanic plume, having shown the capabilities to improve the understanding of submarine volcanic processes.

  11. High-resolution seismic structure analysis of an active submarine mud volcano area off SW Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hsiao-Shan; Hsu, Shu-Kun; Tsai, Wan-Lin; Tsai, Ching-Hui; Lin, Shin-Yi; Chen, Song-Chuen

    2015-04-01

    In order to better understand the subsurface structure related to an active mud volcano MV1 and to understand their relationship with gas hydrate/cold seep formation, we conducted deep-towed side-scan sonar (SSS), sub-bottom profiler (SBP), multibeam echo sounding (MBES), and multi-channel reflection seismic (MCS) surveys off SW Taiwan from 2009 to 2011. As shown in the high-resolution sub-bottom profiler and EK500 sonar data, the detailed structures reveal more gas seeps and gas flares in the study area. In addition, the survey profiles show several submarine landslides occurred near the thrust faults. Based on the MCS results, we can find that the MV1 is located on top of a mud diapiric structure. It indicates that the MV1 has the same source as the associated mud diapir. The blanking of the seismic signal may indicate the conduit for the upward migration of the gas (methane or CO2). Therefore, we suggest that the submarine mud volcano could be due to a deep source of mud compressed by the tectonic convergence. Fluids and argillaceous materials have thus migrated upward along structural faults and reach the seafloor. The gas-charged sediments or gas seeps in sediments thus make the seafloor instable and may trigger submarine landslides.

  12. H2O Contents of Submarine and Subaerial Silicic Pyroclasts from Oomurodashi Volcano, Northern Izu-Bonin Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntosh, I. M.; Tani, K.; Nichols, A. R.

    2014-12-01

    Oomurodashi volcano is an active shallow submarine silicic volcano in the northern Izu-Bonin Arc, located ~20 km south of the inhabited active volcanic island of Izu-Oshima. Oomurodashi has a large (~20km diameter) flat-topped summit located at 100 - 150 metres below sea level (mbsl), with a small central crater, Oomuro Hole, located at ~200 mbsl. Surveys conducted during cruise NT12-19 of R/V Natsushima in 2012 using the remotely-operated vehicle (ROV) Hyper-Dolphin revealed that Oomuro Hole contains numerous active hydrothermal vents and that the summit of Oomurodashi is covered by extensive fresh rhyolitic lava and pumice clasts with little biogenetic or manganese cover, suggesting recent eruption(s) from Oomuro Hole. Given the shallow depth of the volcano summit, such eruptions are likely to have generated subaerial eruption columns. A ~10ka pumiceous subaerial tephra layer on the neighbouring island of Izu-Oshima has a similar chemical composition to the submarine Oomurodashi rocks collected during the NT12-19 cruise and is thought to have originated from Oomurodashi. Here we present FTIR measurements of the H2O contents of rhyolitic pumice from both the submarine deposits sampled during ROV dives and the subaerial tephra deposit on Izu-Oshima, in order to assess magma degassing and eruption processes occurring during shallow submarine eruptions.

  13. A Miocene submarine volcano at Low Layton, Jamaica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wadge, G.

    1982-01-01

    A submarine fissure eruption of Upper Miocene age produced a modest volume of alkaline basalt at Low Layton, on the north coast of Jamaica. The eruption occurred in no more than a few hundred meters of water and produced a series of hyaloclastites, pillow breccias and pillow lavas, massive lavas, and dikes with an ENE en echelon structure. The volcano lies on the trend of one of the island's major E-W strike-slip fault zones; the Dunavale Fault Zone. The K-Ar age of the eruption of 9.5 plus or minus 0.5 Ma. B.P. corresponds to an extension of the Mid-Cayman Rise spreading center inferred from magnetic anomalies and bathymetry of the Cayman Trough to the north and west of Jamaica. The Low Layton eruption was part of the response of the strike-slip fault systems adjacent to this spreading center during this brief episode of tectonic readjustment.

  14. Mapping the sound field of an erupting submarine volcano using an acoustic glider

    E-print Network

    Bohnenstiehl, Delwayne

    Mapping the sound field of an erupting submarine volcano using an acoustic glider Haru Matsumoto 02723 robert.w.embley@noaa.gov Abstract: An underwater glider with an acoustic data logger flew toward that the glider provides an effective platform for monitoring natural and anthropogenic ocean sounds. VC 2011

  15. Geology and chemistry of hydrothermal deposits from active submarine volcano Loihi, Hawaii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Malahoff; Gary M. McMurtry; John C. Wiltshire; Hsueh-Wen Yeh

    1982-01-01

    High-resolution bathymetric surveys, bottom photography and sample analyses show that Loihi Seamount at the southernmost extent of the Hawaiian `hotspot' is an active, young submarine volcano that is probably the site of an emerging Hawaiian island. Hydrothermal deposits sampled from the active summit rift system were probably formed by precipitation from cooling vent fluids or during cooling and oxidation of

  16. Argon-40: Excess in submarine pillow basalts from Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brent, Dalrymple G.; Moore, J.G.

    1968-01-01

    Submarine pillow basalts from Kilauea Volcano contain excess radiogenic argon-40 and give anomalously high potassium-argon ages. Glassy rims of pillows show a systematic increase in radiogenic argon-40 with depth, and a pillow from a depth of 2590 meters shows a decrease in radiogenic argon-40 inward from the pillow rim. The data indicate that the amount of excess radiogenic argon-40 is a direct function of both hydrostatic pressure and rate of cooling, and that many submarine basalts are not suitable for potassium-argon dating.

  17. Mapping the sound field of an erupting submarine volcano using an acoustic glider.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Haru; Haxel, Joseph H; Dziak, Robert P; Bohnenstiehl, Delwayne R; Embley, Robert W

    2011-03-01

    An underwater glider with an acoustic data logger flew toward a recently discovered erupting submarine volcano in the northern Lau basin. With the volcano providing a wide-band sound source, recordings from the two-day survey produced a two-dimensional sound level map spanning 1 km (depth) × 40 km(distance). The observed sound field shows depth- and range-dependence, with the first-order spatial pattern being consistent with the predictions of a range-dependent propagation model. The results allow constraining the acoustic source level of the volcanic activity and suggest that the glider provides an effective platform for monitoring natural and anthropogenic ocean sounds. PMID:21428474

  18. Analysis of Submarine Landslides at West Mata Volcano, NE Lau Basin, Using Hydroacoustic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caplan-Auerbach, J.; Dziak, R. P.; Chadwick, B.; Lau, T. K. A.; Bohnenstiehl, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    Hundreds of submarine landslides were detected by a network of moored hydrophones near the erupting West Mata submarine volcano during a five month deployment in 2010-2011. The landslides are identifiable by their spectral characteristics, including a low frequency onset and extended broadband coda. All hydroacoustic signals at West Mata exhibit spectral banding due to interference of direct and surface-reflected waves (the Lloyd's Mirror effect), but in landslide signals the bands change frequency over the duration of the signal. This shows that the source is propagating, and the timing between direct and reflected arrivals is changing. We use the change in spectral content to estimate source and terminus depths and average propagation velocity. Landslides were only weakly recorded on a hydrophone to the south of West Mata suggesting that the events took place on the volcano's north flank, a region known from bathymetric mapping to have experienced significant mass wasting. We propose that the few landslides that did not exhibit spectral banding failed over a large source area and depth range and represent the largest West Mata slides. West Mata landslides occurred frequently during the eruption, suggesting that they may be triggered by loading of fragmental material on the volcano's flanks. While the slides occurred throughout the duration of the deployment, events tend to cluster in time, possibly indicating sequential or retrogressive failures.

  19. Researchers rapidly respond to submarine activity at Loihi Volcano, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The 1996 Loihi Science Team

    The largest swarm of earthquakes ever observed at a Hawaiian volcano occurred at Loihi Seamount during July and early August 1996. The earthquake activity formed a large summit pit crater similar to those observed at Kilauea, and hydrothermal activity led to the formation of intense hydrothermal plumes in the ocean surrounding the summit. To investigate this event, the Rapid Response Cruise (RRC) was dispatched to Loihi in early August and two previously planned LONO cruises (named for a Hawaiian warrior god) sailed in September and October on the R/V Kaimikai-O-Kanaloa. Calm weather and a newly refurbished ship provided excellent opportunities for documenting the volcanic, hydrothermal plume, vent, and biological activities associated with the earthquake swarm.

  20. Submarine landslides and volcanic features on Kohala and Mauna Kea volcanoes and the Hana Ridge, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, John R.; Satake, Kenji; Morgan, Julia K.; Lipman, Peter W.

    The deep submarine eastern flanks of Mauna Kea, Kohala, and Haleakala volcanoes were mapped for the first time with a multibeam bathymetric and sidescan sonar system during joint Japan-US cruises aboard the JAMSTEC vessel R/V Yokosuka in 1999. The Pololu slump off northeast Kohala is overlain by a carbonate platform in the shallow region and the deeper areas are incised by downslope oriented channels. It is cut by several faults and slump scars and appears to override an older slide located farther east, here named the Laupahoehoe slump. The structures characteristic of the Laupahoehoe slump are NW-SE oriented scarp-and-bench topographic features analogous to the Hilina slump on the mobile SE flank of Kilauea. Enclosed basins lie at 3000-5000 m, fronted by ridges on their seaward sides. The basins may result from local rotational slumps or from uplift above discontinuous thrust faults. The Laupahoehoe slump appears to be overlapped by shield margins of both Kohala and Mauna Kea and thus may have been derived from an elongate Kohala edifice. A large debris apron continues from the base of the two-slide complex, abutting the distal Hana Ridge (Haleakala east rift zone). The tip of the Hana Ridge displays a curious steep-sided arcuate rift tip that resembles the classic amphitheater scarp of a landslide. Numerous flat-topped volcanic domes are distributed along the broad crest of the lower rift zone. Similar cones, though fewer in number, are also present on the Hilo Ridge, which may be the continuation of a Kohala rift zone.

  1. Hydrothermal Venting at Kick'Em Jenny Submarine Volcano (West Indies)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carey, S.; Croff Bell, K. L.; Dondin, F. J. Y.; Roman, C.; Smart, C.; Lilley, M. D.; Lupton, J. E.; Ballard, R. D.

    2014-12-01

    Kick'em Jenny is a frequently-erupting, shallow submarine volcano located ~8 km off the northwest coast of Grenada in the West Indies. The last eruption took place in 2001 but did not breach the sea surface. Focused and diffuse hydrothermal venting is taking place mainly within a small (~100 x 100 m) depression within the 300 m diameter crater of the volcano at depths of about 265 meters. Near the center of the depression clear fluids are being discharged from a focused mound-like vent at a maximum temperature of 180o C with the simultaneous discharge of numerous bubble streams. The gas consists of 93-96% CO2 with trace amounts of methane and hydrogen. A sulfur component likely contributes 1-4% of the gas total. Gas flux measurements on individual bubble streams ranged from 10 to 100 kg of CO2 per day. Diffuse venting with temperatures 5 to 35o C above ambient occurs throughout the depression and over large areas of the main crater. These zones are extensively colonized by reddish-yellow bacterial mats with the production of loose Fe-oxyhydroxides largely as a surface coating and in some cases, as fragile spires up to several meters in height. A high-resolution photo mosaic of the crater depression was constructed using the remotely operated vehicle Hercules on cruise NA039 of the E/V Nautilus. The image revealed prominent fluid flow patterns descending the sides of the depression towards the base. We speculate that the negatively buoyant fluid flow may be the result of second boiling of hydrothermal fluids at Kick'em Jenny generating a dense saline component that does not rise despite its elevated temperature. Increased density may also be the result of high dissolved CO2 content of the fluids, although we were not able to measure this directly. The low amount of sulphide mineralization on the crater floor suggests that deposition may be occurring mostly subsurface, in accord with models of second boiling mineralization from other hydrothermal vent systems.

  2. Submarine geology of Hana Ridge and Haleakala Volcano's northeast flank, Maui

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eakins, B.W.; Robinson, J.E.

    2006-01-01

    We present a morphostructural analysis of the submarine portions of Haleakala Volcano and environs, based upon a 4-year program of geophysical surveys and submersible explorations of the underwater flanks of Hawaiian volcanoes that was conducted by numerous academic and governmental research organizations in Japan and the U.S. and funded primarily by the Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology. A resulting reconnaissance geologic map features the 135-km-long Hana Ridge, the 3000 km2 Hana slump on the volcano's northeast flank, and island-surrounding terraces that are the submerged parts of volcanic shields. Hana Ridge below 2000 m water depth exhibits the lobate morphology typical of the subaqueously erupted parts of Hawaiian rift zones, with some important distinctions: namely, subparallel crestlines, which we propose result from the down-rift migration of offsets in the dike intrusion zone, and an amphitheater at its distal toe, where a submarine landslide has embayed the ridge tip. Deformation of Haleakala's northeast flank is limited to that part identified as the Hana slump, which lies downslope from the volcano's submerged shield, indicating that flank mobility is also limited in plan, inconsistent with hypothesized volcanic spreading driven by rift-zone dilation. The leading edge of the slump has transverse basins and ridges that resemble the thrust ramps of accretionary prisms, and we present a model to describe the slump's development that emphasizes the role of coastally generated fragmental basalt on gravitational instability of Haleakala's northeast flank and that may be broadly applicable to other ocean-island slumps.

  3. New insights into hydrothermal vent processes in the unique shallow-submarine arc-volcano, Kolumbo (Santorini), Greece

    PubMed Central

    Kilias, Stephanos P.; Nomikou, Paraskevi; Papanikolaou, Dimitrios; Polymenakou, Paraskevi N.; Godelitsas, Athanasios; Argyraki, Ariadne; Carey, Steven; Gamaletsos, Platon; Mertzimekis, Theo J.; Stathopoulou, Eleni; Goettlicher, Joerg; Steininger, Ralph; Betzelou, Konstantina; Livanos, Isidoros; Christakis, Christos; Bell, Katherine Croff; Scoullos, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We report on integrated geomorphological, mineralogical, geochemical and biological investigations of the hydrothermal vent field located on the floor of the density-stratified acidic (pH ~ 5) crater of the Kolumbo shallow-submarine arc-volcano, near Santorini. Kolumbo features rare geodynamic setting at convergent boundaries, where arc-volcanism and seafloor hydrothermal activity are occurring in thinned continental crust. Special focus is given to unique enrichments of polymetallic spires in Sb and Tl (±Hg, As, Au, Ag, Zn) indicating a new hybrid seafloor analogue of epithermal-to-volcanic-hosted-massive-sulphide deposits. Iron microbial-mat analyses reveal dominating ferrihydrite-type phases, and high-proportion of microbial sequences akin to "Nitrosopumilus maritimus", a mesophilic Thaumarchaeota strain capable of chemoautotrophic growth on hydrothermal ammonia and CO2. Our findings highlight that acidic shallow-submarine hydrothermal vents nourish marine ecosystems in which nitrifying Archaea are important and suggest ferrihydrite-type Fe3+-(hydrated)-oxyhydroxides in associated low-temperature iron mats are formed by anaerobic Fe2+-oxidation, dependent on microbially produced nitrate. PMID:23939372

  4. Submarine geology of the Hilina slump and morpho-structural evolution of Kilauea volcano, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, John R.; Malahoff, Alexander; Shor, Alexander N.

    1999-12-01

    Marine geophysical data, including SEA BEAM bathymetry, HAWAII MR1 sidescan, and seismic reflection profiles, along with recent robot submersible observations and samples, were acquired over the offshore continuation of the mobile Kilauea volcano south flank. This slope comprises the three active hot spot volcanoes Mauna Loa, Kilauea, and Loihi seamount and is the locus of the Hawaiian hot spot. The south flank is the site of frequent low-intensity seismicity as well as episodic large-magnitude earthquakes. Its sub-aerial portion creeps seaward at a rate of approximately 10 cm/year. The Hilina slump is the only large submarine landslide in the Hawaiian Archipelago thought to be active, and this study is one of the first to more highly resolve submarine slide features there. The slump is classified into four distinct zones from nearshore to the island's base. Estimates of size based on these data indicate a slumped area of 2100 km 2 and a volume of 10,000-12,000 km 3, equivalent to about 10% of the entire island edifice. The overall picture gained from these data sets is one of mass wasting of the neovolcanic terrain as it builds upward and seaward, though reinforcement by young and pre-Hawaii seamounts adjacent to the pedestal is apparent. Extensive lava delta deposits are formed by hyaloclastites and detritus from recent lava flows into the sea. These deposits dominate the upper submarine slope offshore of Kilauea, with pillow breccia revealed at mid-depths. Along the lower flanks, massive outcrops of volcanically derived sedimentary rocks were found underlying Kilauea, thus necessitating a rethinking of previous models of volcanic island development. The morphologic and structural evolutionary model for Kilauea volcano and the Hilina slump proposed here attempts to incorporate this revelation. A hazard assessment for the Hilina slump is presented where it is suggested that displacement of the south flank to date has been restrained by a still developing northeast lateral submarine boundary. When it does fully mature, the south flank may be more subject to land slips triggered by large, long duration earthquakes and thus Kilauea may undergo more frequent episodes of failure with increased displacements.

  5. Plume indications from hydrothermal activity on Kawio Barat Submarine Volcano, Sangihe Talaud Sea, North Sulawesi, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarim, S.; Baker, E. T.; Walker, S. L.; Wirasantosa, S.; Permana, H.; Sulistiyo, B.; Shank, T. M.; Holden, J. F.; Butterfield, D.; Ramdhan, M.; Adi, R.; Marzuki, M. I.

    2010-12-01

    Kawio Barat submarine volcano has formed in response to the active tectonic conditions in Sangihe Talaud, an area that lies in the subduction zone between the Molucca Sea Plate and Celebes Sea Plate. Submarine volcanic activity in the western Sangihe volcanic arc is controlled by the west-dipping Molucca Sea Plate as it subducts beneath the Sangihe Arc. A secondary faulting system on Kawio Barat is in a northwest - southeast direction, and creates a network of deep cracks that facilitate hydrothermal discharge in this area. Hydrothermal activity on Kawio Barat was first discovered by joint Indonesia/Australian cruises in 2003. In 2010, as part of the joint US/Indonesian INDEX-SATAL expedition, we conducted CTD casts that confirmed continuing activity. Hydrothermal plumes were detected by light -scattering (LSS) and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) sensors on the CTD package. LSS anomalies were found between 1600-1900 m, with delta NTU levels of 0.020-0.040. ORP anomalies coincident with the LSS anomalies indicate strong concentrations of reduced species such as H2S and Fe, confirming the hydrothermal origin of the plumes. Images of hydrothermal vents on Kawio Barat Submarine volcano, recorded by high- definition underwater cameras on the ROV “Little Hercules” operated from the NOAA ship Okeanos Explorer, confirmed the presence and sources of the detected vent plumes in the northern and southwest part of the summit in 1800-1900 m depth. In southwest part of this summit chimney, drips of molten sulfur were observed in the proximity of microbal staining.

  6. Submarine Location Estimation via a Network of Detection-Only Sensors

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Shengli

    Submarine Location Estimation via a Network of Detection-Only Sensors Shengli Zhou and Peter by the source/target receive-geometry and the target aspect can detect the return signal. Thus, submarines can. Traditional Approach and Low-Visibility Targets Submarine detection and localization is one major applica

  7. Submarine mass movements on continental margins HOMA J. LEE*, JACQUES LOCAT, PRISCILLA DESGAGNS, JEFFREY D. PARSONS,

    E-print Network

    Lin, Andrew Tien-Shun

    Submarine mass movements on continental margins HOMA J. LEE*, JACQUES LOCAT, PRISCILLA DESGAGNÉS **Institut de Ciències del Mar, Barcelona 08003, Spain ABSTRACT Submarine landslides can be important currents. Recent submarine land- slide research has: shown that landslides and sediment waves may generate

  8. Submarine pyroclastic deposits formed at the Soufrière Hills volcano, Montserrat (1995 2003): What happens when pyroclastic flows enter the ocean?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Trofimovs; L. Amy; G. Boudon; C. Deplus; E. Doyle; N. Fournier; M. B. Hart; J. C. Komorowski; A. Le Friant; E. J. Lock; C. Pudsey; G. Ryan; R. S. J. Sparks; P. J. Talling

    2006-01-01

    The Soufrière Hills volcano, Montserrat, West Indies, has undergone a series of dome growth and collapse events since the eruption began in 1995. Over 90% of the pyroclastic material produced has been deposited into the ocean. Sampling of these submarine deposits reveals that the pyroclastic flows mix rapidly and violently with the water as they enter the sea. The coarse

  9. Controls on lava morphology and volcano growth in submarine and subglacial environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, S.; Eason, D. E.; McClinton, J. T.; Howell, J.

    2012-12-01

    Submarine and subglacial lava flows share common morphological characteristics derived from underwater eruption. Rapid cooling in water produces a wide range of lava morphologies that provide a remarkably good record of emplacement style and corresponding eruption dynamics. Submarine lava morphology has been shown to be sensitive to changes in local lava flow rate resulting from a combination of vent effusion rate, seafloor slope, and lava viscosity. Subaqueous flows that are slow-moving or efficiently cooled tend to form nearly spherical pillow lavas, while faster flows with less efficient cooling become flatter thus tending to produce a higher proportion of lobate and sheet flows. Recent advances in mapping submarine lava morphology at a regional-scale by applying remote-sensing methods to high-resolution sonar data allow us to infer the relative flow rates within individual eruptive units as well as understanding regional emplacement style from comprehensive maps of lava morphology for entire ridge segments. Recent studies at the hotspot-influenced Galapagos Spreading Center reveal a strong correlation between long-term magma supply and lava surface morphology. Eruptions at lower magma supply predominantly form pillow lavas, which tend to build steep-sided mounds and ridgelines. With increasing magma supply, lava morphologies tend toward higher effusion rate lobates and sheets, producing low-relief flow fields and smoother ridge topography. This observation seems to hold irrespective of spreading rate, and is associated with a shift in eruptive style from focused point-source eruptions in low magma supply areas to dominantly fissure-fed eruptions at higher magma supply. Complications arise in subglacial and shallow submarine environments, where low confining pressures result in phreatomagmatic activity and produce hyaloclastic deposits. Variable water/magma ratios during subglacial eruption can cause abrupt changes between effusive and explosive activity, often producing more complex lithological sequences than observed in deep submarine environments.. Nevertheless, fundamental relationships between volcano growth and magma supply seem to hold for both environments. We compare submarine and subglacial volcanic styles from seamounts and tuyas to sheet flows and moberg sheets, their lava morphology, and relationship to long-term magma supply.

  10. North Kona slump: Submarine flank failure during the early(?) tholeiitic shield stage of Hualalai Volcano

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lipman, P.W.; Coombs, M.L.

    2006-01-01

    The North Kona slump is an elliptical region, about 20 by 60 km (1000-km2 area), of multiple, geometrically intricate benches and scarps, mostly at water depths of 2000-4500 m, on the west flank of Hualalai Volcano. Two dives up steep scarps in the slump area were made in September 2001, using the ROV Kaiko of the Japan Marine Science and Technology Center (JAMSTEC), as part of a collaborative Japan-USA project to improve understanding of the submarine flanks of Hawaiian volcanoes. Both dives, at water depths of 2700-4000 m, encountered pillow lavas draping the scarp-and-bench slopes. Intact to only slightly broken pillow lobes and cylinders that are downward elongate dominate on the steepest mid-sections of scarps, while more equant and spherical pillow shapes are common near the tops and bases of scarps and locally protrude through cover of muddy sediment on bench flats. Notably absent are subaerially erupted Hualalai lava flows, interbedded hyaloclastite pillow breccia, and/or coastal sandy sediment that might have accumulated downslope from an active coastline. The general structure of the North Kona flank is interpreted as an intricate assemblage of downdropped lenticular blocks, bounded by steeply dipping normal faults. The undisturbed pillow-lava drape indicates that slumping occurred during shield-stage tholeiitic volcanism. All analyzed samples of the pillow-lava drape are tholeiite, similar to published analyses from the submarine northwest rift zone of Hualalai. Relatively low sulfur (330-600 ppm) and water (0.18-0.47 wt.%) contents of glass rinds suggest that the eruptive sources were in shallow water, perhaps 500-1000-m depth. In contrast, saturation pressures calculated from carbon dioxide concentrations (100-190 ppm) indicate deeper equilibration, at or near sample sites at water depths of -3900 to -2800 m. Either vents close to the sample sites erupted mixtures of undegassed and degassed magmas, or volatiles were resorbed from vesicles during flowage downslope after eruption in shallow water. The glass volatile compositions suggest that the tholeiitic lavas that drape the slump blocks were erupted either (1) early during shield-stage tholeiitic volcanism prior to emergence of a large subaerial edifice, or alternatively (2) from submarine radial vents during subaerial shield-building. Because no radial vents have been documented on land or underwater for the unbuttressed flanks of any Hawaii volcano, alternative (1) is favored. In comparison to other well-documented Hawaiian slumps and landslides, North Kona structures suggest a more incipient slump event, with smaller down-slope motions and lateral displacements.

  11. Bubble Plumes at NW Rota-1 Submarine Volcano, Mariana Arc: Visualization and Analysis of Multibeam Water Column Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merle, S. G.; Chadwick, W. W.; Embley, R. W.; Doucet, M.

    2012-12-01

    During a March 2010 expedition to NW Rota-1 submarine volcano in the Mariana arc a new EM122 multibeam sonar system on the R/V Kilo Moana was used to repeatedly image bubble plumes in the water column over the volcano. The EM122 (12 kHz) system collects seafloor bathymetry and backscatter data, as well as acoustic return water column data. Previous expeditions to NW Rota-1 have included seafloor mapping / CTD tow-yo surveys and remotely operated vehicle (ROV) dives in 2004, 2005, 2006 and 2009. Much of the focus has been on the one main eruptive vent, Brimstone, located on the south side of the summit at a depth of ~440m, which has been persistently active during all ROV visits. Extensive degassing of CO2 bubbles have been observed by the ROV during frequent eruptive bursts from the vent. Between expeditions in April 2009 and March 2010 a major eruption and landslide occurred at NW Rota-1. ROV dives in 2010 revealed that after the landslide the eruptive vent had been reorganized from a single site to a line of vents. Brimstone vent was still active, but 4 other new eruptive vents had also emerged in a NW/SE line below the summit extending ~100 m from the westernmost to easternmost vents. During the ROV dives, the eruptive vents were observed to turn on and off from day to day and hour to hour. Throughout the 2010 expedition numerous passes were made over the volcano summit to image the bubble plumes above the eruptive vents in the water column, in order to capture the variability of the plumes over time and to relate them to the eruptive output of the volcano. The mid-water sonar data set totals >95 hours of observations over a 12-day period. Generally, the ship drove repeatedly over the eruptive vents at a range of ship speeds (0.5-4 knots) and headings. In addition, some mid-water data was collected during three ROV dives when the ship was stationary over the vents. We used the FMMidwater software program (part of QPS Fledermaus) to visualize and analyze the data collected with this new mid-water technology. The data show that during some passes over the vent all 5 eruptive vents were contributing to the plume above the volcano, whereas on other passes only 1 vent was visible. However, it was common that multiple vents were active at any one time. The highest observed rise of a bubble plume in the water column came from the easternmost vent, with the main plume rising 415 meters from the vent to within 175 m of the surface. In some cases, wisps from the main plume rose to heights less than 100 m from the surface. This analysis shows that water column imaging multibeam sonar data can be used as a proxy to determine the level of eruptive activity above submarine volcanoes that have robust CO2 output. We plan to compare this data set to other data sets including hydrophone recordings, ADCP data and ROV visual observations.

  12. Hydrodynamic modeling of magmatic-hydrothermal activity at submarine arc volcanoes, with implications for ore formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruen, Gillian; Weis, Philipp; Driesner, Thomas; Heinrich, Christoph A.; de Ronde, Cornel E. J.

    2014-10-01

    Subduction-related magmas have higher volatile contents than mid-ocean ridge basalts, which affects the dynamics of associated submarine hydrothermal systems. Interaction of saline magmatic fluids with convecting seawater may enhance ore metal deposition near the seafloor, making active submarine arcs a preferred modern analogue for understanding ancient massive sulfide deposits. We have constructed a quantitative hydrological model for sub-seafloor fluid flow based on observations at Brothers volcano, southern Kermadec arc, New Zealand. Numerical simulations of multi-phase hydrosaline fluid flow were performed on a two-dimensional cross-section cutting through the NW Caldera and the Upper Cone sites, two regions of active venting at the Brothers volcanic edifice, with the former hosting sulfide mineralization. Our aim is to explore the flow paths of saline magmatic fluids released from a crystallizing magma body at depth and their interaction with seawater circulating through the crust. The model includes a 3×2 km sized magma chamber emplaced at ?2.5 km beneath the seafloor connected to the permeable cone via a ?200 m wide feeder dike. During the simulation, a magmatic fluid was temporarily injected from the top of the cooling magma chamber into the overlying convection system, assuming hydrostatic conditions and a static permeability distribution. The simulations predict a succession of hydrologic regimes in the subsurface of Brothers volcano, which can explain some of the present-day hydrothermal observations. We find that sub-seafloor phase separation, inferred from observed vent fluid salinities, and the temperatures of venting at Brothers volcano can only be achieved by input of a saline magmatic fluid at depth, consistent with chemical and isotopic data. In general, our simulations show that the transport of heat, water, and salt from magmatic and seawater sources is partly decoupled. Expulsion of magmatic heat and volatiles occurs within the first few hundred years of magma emplacement in the form of rapidly rising low-salinity vapor-rich fluids. About 95% of the magmatically derived salt is temporarily trapped in the crust, either as dense brine or as precipitated halite. This retained salt can only be expelled by later convection of seawater during the waning period of the hydrothermal system (i.e., “brine mining”). While the abundant mineralization of the NW Caldera vent field at Brothers could not be classified as an economic ore deposit, our model has important implications for submarine metal enrichment and the origin of distinct ore types known from exposed systems on land. Sulfide-complexed metals (notably Au) will preferentially ascend during early vapor-dominated fluid expulsion, potentially forming gold ± copper rich vein and replacement deposits in near-seafloor zones of submarine volcanoes. Dense magmatic brine will initially accumulate chloride-complexed base metals (such as Cu, Fe, Pb and Zn) at depth before they are mobilized by seawater convection. The resulting mixed brines can become negatively buoyant when they reach the seafloor and may flow laterally towards depressions, potentially forming layers of base metal sulphides with distinct zonation of metals.

  13. Discovery of an active shallow submarine silicic volcano in the northern Izu-Bonin Arc: volcanic structure and potential hazards of Oomurodashi Volcano (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tani, K.; Ishizuka, O.; Nichols, A. R.; Hirahara, Y.; Carey, R.; McIntosh, I. M.; Masaki, Y.; Kondo, R.; Miyairi, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Oomurodashi is a bathymetric high located ~20 km south of Izu-Oshima, an active volcanic island of the northern Izu-Bonin Arc. Using the 200 m bathymetric contour to define its summit dimensions, the diameter of Oomurodashi is ~20 km. Oomurodashi has been regarded as inactive, largely because it has a vast flat-topped summit at 100 - 150 meters below sea level (mbsl). During cruise NT07-15 of R/V Natsushima in 2007, we conducted a dive survey in a small crater, Oomuro Hole, located in the center of the flat-topped summit, using the remotely-operated vehicle (ROV) Hyper-Dolphin. The only heat flow measurement conducted on the floor of Oomuro Hole during the dive recorded an extremely high value of 4,200 mW/m2. Furthermore, ROV observations revealed that the southwestern wall of Oomuro Hole consists of fresh rhyolitic lavas. These findings suggest that Oomurodashi is in fact an active silicic submarine volcano. To confirm this hypothesis, we conducted detailed geological and geophysical ROV Hyper-Dolphin (cruise NT12-19). In addition to further ROV surveys, we carried out single-channel seismic (SCS) surveys across Oomurodashi in order to examine the shallow structures beneath the current edifice. The ROV surveys revealed numerous active hydrothermal vents on the floor of Oomuro Hole, at ~200 mbsl, with maximum water temperature measured at the hydrothermal vents reaching 194°C. We also conducted a much more detailed set of heat flow measurements across the floor of Oomuro Hole, detecting very high heat flows of up to 29,000 mW/m2. ROV observations revealed that the area surrounding Oomuro Hole on the flat-topped summit of Oomurodashi is covered by extensive fresh rhyolitic lava and pumice clasts with minimum biogenetic or manganese cover, suggesting recent eruption(s). These findings strongly indicate that Oomurodashi is an active silicic submarine volcano, with recent eruption(s) occurring from Oomuro Hole. Since the summit of Oomurodashi is in shallow water, it is possible that eruption columns are likely to breach the sea surface and generate subaerial plumes. A ~10 ka pumiceous tephra layer with a similar composition to the rocks recovered during the dives has been discovered in the subaerial outcrops of Izu-Oshima, suggesting that this tephra may have originated from Oomurodashi. The deeper slopes of Oomurodashi are composed of effusive and intrusive rocks that are bimodal in composition, with basaltic dikes and lavas on the northern flank and dacite volcaniclastics on the eastern flank. This suggests that Oomurodashi is a complex of smaller edifices of various magma types, similar to what has been observed at silicic submarine calderas in the southern part of the Izu-Bonin Arc (e.g. Sumisu Caldera; Tani et al., 2008, Bull. Vol.). Furthermore, the SCS surveys revealed the presence of a buried caldera structure, ~8 km in diameter, beneath the flat-topped summit of Oomurodashi, indicating that voluminous and explosive eruptions may have occurred in the past.

  14. Historical bathymetric charts and the evolution of Santorini submarine volcano, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watts, A. B.; Nomikou, P.; Parks, M.; Smith, J.

    2013-12-01

    Historical bathymetric charts are a potential resource for better understanding the dynamics of the seafloor and the role of active processes such as those associated with submarine faulting, landsliding, and magmatism. The UK Hydrographic Office, for example, has been involved in lead line measurements of seafloor depth since the early 1790s in a range of geological settings including ocean islands. Here, we report on an analysis of historical bathymetric charts in the region of Santorini volcano, Greece. Repeat lead line surveys in 1848, 1866 and 1928 and multibeam swath bathymetric surveys in 2001 and 2006 have been used to document changes in the depth of the seafloor in Santorini caldera. The data reveal that the flanks of the Kameni islands, a volcanic dome and dacitic lava complex in the caldera centre, have shallowed by up to 215 m and deepened by up to 60 m since 1848. The largest shallowing occurred between the 1866 and 1928 surveys and was accompanied by a significant increase in the surface area of the island of Nea Kameni, especially its southeast flank. Field observations by the French Geologist, F. A. Fouqué, during 1866-1870 suggest the shallowing is associated with the formation of the Giorgos and Aphroessa domes and their associated lava flows. Other shallowing probably occurred during 1925-1928 when lava flows filled the narrow strait between Nea Kameni and Mikra Kameni. The largest deepenings occurred between the 1928 and 2001 and 2006 surveys, on the shelf and slope of Nea Kameni. One possibility is that the deepening is caused by mass wasting due to large-scale slope failure and debris flow. Another is that it reflects a stress-induced viscoelastic relaxation of the crust following dome loading. Irrespective, the rates implied from the volumes and duration of the 19th century submarine magmatic activity are up to 0.11 km3/yr, which is significantly larger than rates inferred from mapping of surface lava flows.

  15. Dive and Explore: An Interactive Web Visualization that Simulates Making an ROV Dive to an Active Submarine Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiland, C.; Chadwick, W. W.

    2004-12-01

    Several years ago we created an exciting and engaging multimedia exhibit for the Hatfield Marine Science Center that lets visitors simulate making a dive to the seafloor with the remotely operated vehicle (ROV) named ROPOS. The exhibit immerses the user in an interactive experience that is naturally fun but also educational. The public display is located at the Hatfield Marine Science Visitor Center in Newport, Oregon. We are now completing a revision to the project that will make this engaging virtual exploration accessible to a much larger audience. With minor modifications we will be able to put the exhibit onto the world wide web so that any person with internet access can view and learn about exciting volcanic and hydrothermal activity at Axial Seamount on the Juan de Fuca Ridge. The modifications address some cosmetic and logistic ISSUES confronted in the museum environment, but will mainly involve compressing video clips so they can be delivered more efficiently over the internet. The web version, like the museum version, will allow users to choose from 1 of 3 different dives sites in the caldera of Axial Volcano. The dives are based on real seafloor settings at Axial seamount, an active submarine volcano on the Juan de Fuca Ridge (NE Pacific) that is also the location of a seafloor observatory called NeMO. Once a dive is chosen, then the user watches ROPOS being deployed and then arrives into a 3-D computer-generated seafloor environment that is based on the real world but is easier to visualize and navigate. Once on the bottom, the user is placed within a 360 degree panorama and can look in all directions by manipulating the computer mouse. By clicking on markers embedded in the scene, the user can then either move to other panorama locations via movies that travel through the 3-D virtual environment, or they can play video clips from actual ROPOS dives specifically related to that scene. Audio accompanying the video clips informs the user where they are going or what they are looking at. After the user is finished exploring the dive site they end the dive by leaving the bottom and watching the ROV being recovered onto the ship at the surface. Within the three simulated dives there are a total of 6 arrival and departure movies, 7 seafloor panoramas, 12 travel movies, and 23 ROPOS video clips. This virtual exploration is part of the NeMO web site and will be at this URL http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/vents/dive.html

  16. Historical bathymetric charts and the evolution of Santorini submarine volcano, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watts, A. B.; Nomikou, P.; Moore, J. D. P.; Parks, M. M.; Alexandri, M.

    2015-03-01

    Historical bathymetric charts are a potential resource for better understanding the dynamics of the seafloor and the role of active processes, such as submarine volcanism. The British Admiralty, for example, have been involved in lead line measurements of seafloor depth since the early 1790s. Here, we report on an analysis of historical charts in the region of Santorini volcano, Greece. Repeat lead line surveys in 1848, late 1866, and 1925-1928 as well as multibeam swath bathymetry surveys in 2001 and 2006 have been used to document changes in seafloor depth. These data reveal that the flanks of the Kameni Islands, a dacitic dome complex in the caldera center, have shallowed by up to ˜175 m and deepened by up to ˜80 m since 1848. The largest shallowing occurred between the late 1866 and 1925-1928 surveys and the largest deepening occurred during the 1925-1928 and 2001 and 2006 surveys. The shallowing is attributed to the emplacement of lavas during effusive eruptions in both 1866-1870 and 1925-1928 at rates of up to 0.18 and 0.05 km3 a-1, respectively. The deepening is attributed to a load-induced viscoelastic stress relaxation following the 1866-1870 and 1925-1928 lava eruptions. The elastic thickness and viscosity that best fits the observed deepening are 1.0 km and ˜1016 Pa s, respectively. This parameter pair, which is consistent with the predictions of a shallow magma chamber thermal model, explains both the amplitude and wavelength of the historical bathymetric data and the present day rate of subsidence inferred from InSAR analysis.

  17. 3104 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SIGNAL PROCESSING, VOL. 55, NO. 6, JUNE 2007 Submarine Location Estimation Via a

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Shengli

    3104 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SIGNAL PROCESSING, VOL. 55, NO. 6, JUNE 2007 Submarine Location by the source/target receive geometry, and the target aspect can detect the return signal. Thus, submarines can and missed detections. Index Terms--Active sonar, cross section, multistatic, sensor net- work, submarine

  18. V. Lykousis, D. Sakellariou and J. Locat (eds.). Submarine Mass Movements and Their Consequences, 395-403. 2007 Springer.

    E-print Network

    ten Brink, Uri S.

    V. Lykousis, D. Sakellariou and J. Locat (eds.). Submarine Mass Movements and Their Consequences, 395- 403. © 2007 Springer. REVISITING SUBMARINE MASS MOVEMENTS ALONG THE U.S. ATLANTIC CONTINENTAL in the generation of tsunamis by submarine mass movements has warranted a reassessment of their distribution

  19. Software for Preliminary Location Shallow Explosions, at Colima Volcano, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez Mendez, P. J.; Alatorre, E.; Dominguez, T.; Navarro-Ochoa, C.; Breton Gonzalez, M.

    2002-12-01

    The Colima Volcano (19.51oN, 103.61oW) had been considered, historically, the most active volcano in Mexico, located in west side of Trans Mexican Volcanic Belt, this stratovolcano has andesitic activity: explosive eruptions of sub-plinian type, with generation of piroclastic flows and fall deposits, and effusive eruptions that generated block-lava domes and flows. The most recent eruption is a sample for this, it was erupted since May of 2001, with generation of summit dome and little lava flows. Result of comparison between the pictures from visual monitoring network and explosive events of low magnitude recorded in RESCO (State of Colima Seismic Network), we observed that surface expression of explosive events and its seismic record had a variable temporal delay. This fact motivated us to define the zone where this dynamical process takes place (the zone where the pressure of gasses contained into bubble overcomes confined pressure for the magma and that had seismic and visual expressions). Particle's movement and spectral analysis of seismic records show that each explosive event is composed of body and surface waves, moreover, shock waves are also observed for near stations. From Arrival times of these phases and group velocities, we obtained a multilayer structural model for more proximal region to the volcano that satisfied our observations. We plotted a Wadati's Diagram for body and surface waves and added a simple correction to obtain the origin time. A simple PC program for location of these explosive events was implemented. A small correlation between explosive events and tremor volcanic duration for the tremors which occurred during the months of April, May and early June of 2002 was also observed. Location of the source of the small explosions is another tool of surveillance that could be added to those which are already been carried out in Colima, since temporary or space variations of these sources could inform from physical changes in the behavior of the volcano.

  20. Seismic tomography reveals magma chamber location beneath Uturuncu volcano (Bolivia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukarina, Ekaterina; West, Michael; Koulakov, Ivan

    2014-05-01

    Uturuncu volcano belongs to the Altiplano-Puna Volcanic Complex in the central Andes, the product of an ignimbrite ''flare-up''. The region has been the site of large-scale silicic magmatism since 10 Ma, producing 10 major eruptive calderas and edifices, some of which are multiple-eruption resurgent complexes as large as the Yellowstone or Long Valley caldera. Satellite measurements show that the hill has been rising more than half an inch a year for almost 20 years, suggesting that the Uturuncu volcano, which has erupted last time more than 300,000 years ago, is steadily inflating, which makes it fertile ground for study. In 2009 an international multidisciplinary team formed a project called PLUTONS to study Uturuncu. Under this project a 100 km wide seismic network was set around the volcano by seismologists from University of Alaska Fairbanks. Local seismicity is well distributed and provides constraints on the shallow crust. Ray paths from earthquakes in the subducting slab complement this with steep ray paths that sample the deeper crust. Together the shallow and deep earthquakes provide strong 3D coverage of Uturuncu and the surrounding region. To study the deformation source beneath the volcano we performed simultaneous tomographic inversion for the Vp and Vs anomalies and source locations, using the non-linear passive source tomographic code, LOTOS. We estimated both P and S wave velocity structures beneath the entire Uturuncu volcano by using arrival times of P and S waves from more than 600 events registered by 33 stations. To show the reliability of the results, we performed a number of different tests, including checkerboard synthetic tests and tests with odd/even data. Obtained Vp/Vs ratio distribution shows increased values beneath the south Uturuncu, at a depth of about 15 km. We suggest the high ratio anomaly is caused by partial melt, presented in expanding magma chamber, responsible for the volcano inflation. The resulting Vp, Vs and the ratio reveal the paths of the ascending fluids and melts, feeding the magma chamber. This work was partly supported by Project #7.3 of BES RAS and Project #14-05-31176 mola of RFBR.

  1. Repeater Fault Location for a Submarine Optical Fiber Cable Transmission System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Kobayashi; Y. Ichihashi

    1984-01-01

    This paper introduces a repeater fault location system for a repeated submarine optical fiber transmission system of 400 Mbits\\/ s at 1.3?m. The repeater fault location system is used in an out-of-service test. The fault locator transmits a test signal via a main optical fiber line, in order to make a loop-back path in one of the repeaters for returning

  2. Viral infections stimulate the metabolism and shape prokaryotic assemblages in submarine mud volcanoes

    PubMed Central

    Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Dell'Anno, Antonio; Danovaro, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Mud volcanoes are geological structures in the oceans that have key roles in the functioning of the global ecosystem. Information on the dynamics of benthic viruses and their interactions with prokaryotes in mud volcano ecosystems is still completely lacking. We investigated the impact of viral infection on the mortality and assemblage structure of benthic prokaryotes of five mud volcanoes in the Mediterranean Sea. Mud volcano sediments promote high rates of viral production (1.65–7.89 × 109?viruses?g?1?d?1), viral-induced prokaryotic mortality (VIPM) (33% cells killed per day) and heterotrophic prokaryotic production (3.0–8.3??gC?g?1?d?1) when compared with sediments outside the mud volcano area. The viral shunt (that is, the microbial biomass converted into dissolved organic matter as a result of viral infection, and thus diverted away from higher trophic levels) provides 49?mgC?m?2?d?1, thus fuelling the metabolism of uninfected prokaryotes and contributing to the total C budget. Bacteria are the dominant components of prokaryotic assemblages in surface sediments of mud volcanoes, whereas archaea dominate the subsurface sediment layers. Multivariate multiple regression analyses show that prokaryotic assemblage composition is not only dependant on the geochemical features and processes of mud volcano ecosystems but also on synergistic interactions between bottom-up (that is, trophic resources) and top-down (that is, VIPM) controlling factors. Overall, these findings highlight the significant role of the viral shunt in sustaining the metabolism of prokaryotes and shaping their assemblage structure in mud volcano sediments, and they provide new clues for our understanding of the functioning of cold-seep ecosystems. PMID:22170423

  3. Cold seeps associated with a submarine debris avalanche deposit at Kick'em Jenny volcano, Grenada (Lesser Antilles)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carey, Steven; Ballard, Robert; Bell, Katherine L. C.; Bell, Richard J.; Connally, Patrick; Dondin, Frederic; Fuller, Sarah; Gobin, Judith; Miloslavich, Patricia; Phillips, Brennan; Roman, Chris; Seibel, Brad; Siu, Nam; Smart, Clara

    2014-11-01

    Remotely operated vehicle (ROV) exploration at the distal margins of a debris avalanche deposit from Kick'em Jenny submarine volcano in Grenada has revealed areas of cold seeps with chemosynthetic-based ecosystems. The seeps occur on steep slopes of deformed, unconsolidated hemipelagic sediments in water depths between 1952 and 2042 m. Two main areas consist of anastomosing systems of fluid flow that have incised local sediments by several tens of centimeters. No temperature anomalies were observed in the vent areas and no active flow was visually observed, suggesting that the venting may be waning. An Eh sensor deployed on a miniature autonomous plume recorder (MAPR) recorded a positive signal and the presence of live organisms indicates at least some venting is still occurring. The chemosynthetic-based ecosystem included giant mussels (Bathymodiolus sp.) with commensal polychaetes (Branchipolynoe sp.) and cocculinid epibionts, other bivalves, Siboglinida (vestimentiferan) tubeworms, other polychaetes, and shrimp, as well as associated heterotrophs, including gastropods, anemones, crabs, fish, octopods, brittle stars, and holothurians. The origin of the seeps may be related to fluid overpressure generated during the collapse of an ancestral Kick'em Jenny volcano. We suggest that deformation and burial of hemipelagic sediment at the front and base of the advancing debris avalanche led to fluid venting at the distal margin. Such deformation may be a common feature of marine avalanches in a variety of geological environments especially along continental margins, raising the possibility of creating large numbers of ephemeral seep-based ecosystems.

  4. Earthquakes, Subaerial and Submarine Landslides, Tsunamis and Volcanoes in Aysén Fjord, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lastras, G.; Amblas, D.; Calafat-Frau, A. M.; Canals, M.; Frigola, J.; Hermanns, R. L.; Lafuerza, S.; Longva, O.; Micallef, A.; Sepulveda, S. A.; Vargas Easton, G.; Azpiroz, M.; Bascuñán, I.; Duhart, P.; Iglesias, O.; Kempf, P.; Rayo, X.

    2014-12-01

    The Aysén fjord, 65 km long and east-west oriented, is located at 45.4ºS and 73.2ºW in Chilean Patagonia. It has a maximum water depth of 345 m. It collects the inputs of Aysén, Pescado, Condor and Cuervo rivers, which drain the surrounding Patagonian Andes. The fjord is crossed by the Liquiñe-Ofqui Fault Zone, a seismically active trench parallel intra-arc fault system. On 21 April 2007, an Mw 6.2 earthquake triggered numerous subaerial and submarine landslides along the fjord flanks. Some of the subaerial landslides reached the water mass, generating tsunami-like displacement waves that flooded the adjacent coastlines, withlocal >50 m high run-ups, causing ten fatalities and damage to salmon farms. The research cruise DETSUFA on board BIO Hespérides in March 2013, aiming to characterise the landslides and their effects, mapped with great detail the submerged morphology of the fjord. Multibeam data display deformation structures created by the impact of the landslides in the inner fjord floor. Landslide material descended and accelerated down the highly sloping fjord flanks, and reached the fjord floor at 200 m water depth generating large, 10-m-deep impact depressions. Fjord floor sediment was pushed and piled up in arcuate deformation areas formed by 15-m-high compressional ridges, block fields and a narrow frontal depression. Up to six >1.5 km2 of these structures have been identified. In addition, the cruise mapped the outer fjord floor beyond the Cuervo ridge. This ridge, previously interpreted as a volcanic transverse structure, most probably acted as a limit for grounding ice in the past, as suggested by the presence of a melt-water channel. The fjord smoothens and deepens to more than 330 m forming an enclosed basin, before turning SW across a field of streamlined hills of glacial origin. Three volcanic cones, one of them forming Isla Colorada and the other two totally submerged and previously unknown, have been mapped in the outer fjord. The largest one is 160 m high, 1.3 km in diameter and tops at 67 m water depth. This high-resolution data set illustrates a wide set of geohazards in the recent lively geological history of Aysén fjord.

  5. SeaMARC 2 side-scan images of submarine volcanoes: Potential analogues for Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fryer, P.; Hussong, D.; Mouginis-Mark, P. J.

    1984-01-01

    The Earth's surface beneath the oceans may be very similar, in terms of ambient pressures, to the surface of Venus. For that reason it is particularly important for geologists studying the surface of Venus to understand the processes which form features on the floors of the oceans. With the SeaMARC 2 seafloor mapping system, it is possible to view a swath of seafloor that is 10 km wide (about 6.2 mi). Side scan images of the Mariana region show that volcanoes of the island arc are more complicated than previously realized and that features of the fore-arc region, which resemble volcanoes morphologically, may result from processes other than volcanism. By comparing data obtained from the ocean floor with radar images of Venus, the geological evolution of that planet may be more fully understood.

  6. Lava bubble-wall fragments formed by submarine hydrovolcanic explosions on L?'ihi Seamount and K?lauea Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clague, David A.; Davis, Alice S.; Bischoff, James L.; Dixon, Jacqueline E.; Geyer, Renee

    Glassy bubble-wall fragments, morphologically similar to littoral limu o Pele, have been found in volcanic sands erupted on L?'ihi Seamount and along the submarine east rift zone of K?lauea Volcano. The limu o Pele fragments are undegassed with respect to H2O and S and formed by mild steam explosions. Angular glass sand fragments apparently form at similar, and greater, depths by cooling-contraction granulation. The limu o Pele fragments from L?'ihi Seamount are dominantly tholeiitic basalt containing 6.25-7.25% MgO. None of the limu o Pele samples from L?'ihi Seamount contains less than 5.57% MgO, suggesting that higher viscosity magmas do not form lava bubbles. The dissolved CO2 and H2O contents of 7 of the limu o Pele fragments indicate eruption at 1200+/-300m depth (120+/-30bar). These pressures exceed that generally thought to limit steam explosions. We conclude that hydrovolcanic eruptions are possible, with appropriate pre-mixing conditions, at pressures as great as 120bar.

  7. Unravelling the Geometry of Unstable Flanks of Submarine Volcanoes by Magnetic Investigation: the Case of the "sciara del Fuoco" Scar (stromboli Volcano, Aeolian Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muccini, F.; Cocchi, L.; Carmisciano, C.; Speranza, F.; Marziani, F.

    2012-12-01

    Stromboli is the easternmost island of the Aeolian Archipelago (Tyrrhenian Sea) and one of the most active Mediterranean volcanoes. The volcanic edifice rises over 3000 m above the surrounding seafloor, from a depth of about 2000 m b.s.l. to 924 m a.s.l. The north-western flank of volcano is deeply scarred by a destructive collapse event occurred ca. 5000 years ago, and forming a big horseshoe-shaped depression, known as "Sciara del Fuoco" (SdF). This depression, 3 Km long and 2 Km wide, is supposed to extend into the sea down to 700 m b.s.l., while further basinward it turns into a fan-shaped mounted deposit down to about 2600 m b.s.l., where it merges the so-called "Stromboli Canyon". Since its formation, emerged and submerged portions of the SdF have been progressively filled by the volcanic products of the persistent activity of the Stromboli Volcano. In the last 10 years, two paroxysmal eruptions occurred in the Stromboli Volcano, during 2002-2003 and February-April 2007. During both events, the SdF has been partially covered by lava flows and affected by slope failures, also causing (for the 2002-2003 event) a local tsunami. Since the 1990's, and especially after the last two paroxysms, the submerged extension of the SdF has been intensively investigated by using swath bathymetry data. We focused principally on the magnetic anomaly pattern of the submerged SdF since the chaotic depositional system virtually cancels magnetic remanence (which at Stromboli can reach 5-10 A/m values), thus lowering magnetic residual intensity. On July 2012 we acquired new detailed sea-surface magnetic data of the SdF from the shoreline to about 7 km offshore, where the depth is more than 1800 m b.s.l. We collected data thanks to the Italian Navy ship "Nave Aretusa" and by using the Marine Magnetics SeaSPY magnetometer. At the same time, new bathymetric data were acquired in the same area by using a Kongsberg Marine multibeam systems. Although the morphologic features of the submarine prosecution of the SdF system were already studied and unveiled, the complete description of the in-depth extension of the system and the overall volume estimation is still poorly known. This has important implications for the hazard assessment of the landslide structure and most generally of the entire volcanic edifice. The application of a classical geomagnetic prospection to describe a landslide feature is an uncommon procedure yet it can be considered as innovative approach, having the advantages of effectiveness, low cost and expedition typical of the geomagnetic survey. Here we present the interpretation of the newly acquired high-resolution magnetic dataset, thanks to susceptibility and magnetic remanence values gathered from on-land rock samples at Stromboli. A 3D inverse model is here proposed, allowing a full definition of the submerged SdF structure geometry.

  8. Caldera structure of submarine Volcano #1 on the Tonga Arc at 21°09'S, southwestern Pacific: Analysis of multichannel seismic profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Han-Joon; Jou, Hyeong-Tae; Lee, Gwang-Hoon; Na, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Hyun-Sub; Jang, Ugeun; Lee, Kyeong-Yong; Kim, Chang-Hwan; Lee, Sang Hoon; Park, Chan-Hong; Jung, Seom-Kyu; Suk, Bong-Cool

    2013-08-01

    Volcano #1 is a large submarine stratovolcano with a summit caldera in the south central part of the Tonga Arc. We collected and analyzed multichannel seismic profiles in conjunction with magnetic data from Volcano #1 to investigate the structure of the intracaldera fill and processes of caldera formation. The intracaldera fill, exhibiting stratified units with a maximum thickness of 2 km, consists of at least four seismic units and a thick wedge of landslide debris derived from the caldera wall. The structural caldera floor, deepening toward the northwestern rim, suggests asymmetric collapse in the initial stage, which, in turn, appears to have contributed to the creation of a caldera elongated to the northwest by enhancing gravitational instability along the northwestern caldera boundary. Occasional, but repeated, eruptions resulted in a thick accumulation of the intracaldera fill and further subsidence in the mode of piston collapse. Magnetization lows are well-defined along the structural rim of the caldera that is interpreted as the inner principal ring fault. The magnetization lows indicate sites of submarine hydrothermal vents that caused an alteration of magnetic minerals. Faults recognized on the outer slope of the volcano are interpreted to be involved in hydrothermal fluid circulation.

  9. Two-dimensional simulations of explosive eruptions of Kick-em Jenny and other submarine volcanos

    SciTech Connect

    Gisler, Galen R.; Weaver, R. P. (Robert P.); Mader, Charles L.; Gittings, M. L. (Michael L.)

    2004-01-01

    Kick-em Jenny, in the Eastern Caribbean, is a submerged volcanic cone that has erupted a dozen or more times since its discovery in 1939. The most likely hazard posed by this volcano is to shipping in the immediate vicinity (through volcanic missiles or loss-of-buoyancy), but it is of interest to estimate upper limits on tsunamis that might be produced by a catastrophic explosive eruption. To this end, we have performed two-dimensional simulations of such an event in a geometry resembling that of Kick-em Jenny with our SAGE adaptive mesh Eulerian multifluid compressible hydrocode. We use realistic equations of state for air, water, and basalt, and follow the event from the initial explosive eruption, through the generation of a transient water cavity and the propagation of waves away from the site. We find that even for extremely catastrophic explosive eruptions, tsunamis from Kick-em Jenny are unlikely to pose significant danger to nearby islands. For comparison, we have also performed simulations of explosive eruptions at the much larger shield volcano Vailuluu in the Samoan chain, where the greater energy available can produce a more impressive wave. In general, however, we conclude that explosive eruptions do not couple well to water waves. The waves that are produced from such events are turbulent and highly dissipative, and don't propagate well. This is consistent with what we have found previously in simulations of asteroid-impact generated tsunamis. Non-explosive events, however, such as landslides or gas hydrate releases, do couple well to waves, and our simulations of tsunamis generated by subaerial and sub-aqueous landslides demonstrate this.

  10. Simulation of Submarine Hydrothermal Systems: IV. Fluid Flow in Active Arc-Related Volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruen, G.; Coumou, D.; Weis, P.; Driesner, T.; de Ronde, C.; Heinrich, C. A.

    2008-12-01

    Fluid flow through submarine hydrothermal systems transports a major part of the Earth's heat to its surface and greatly impacts the chemistry of crust and overlying ocean. Seafloor high-temperature vent sites are manifestations of active ore-forming systems and can be regarded as modern analogues of massive sulfide deposits whose ancient equivalents have been exploited as world-class mines on land. Recent research cruises dedicated to seafloor hydrothermal activity along convergent plate boundaries, e.g. along the intra-oceanic Kermadec arc, have systematically surveyed and sampled numerous hydrothermal plumes. Follow-up submersible dives show venting that ranges from relatively high temperature (~300° C), metal-rich fluids to lower temperature, gas-rich and metal-poor fluids. Some of these vent sites show evidence for significant contributions from magmatic sources. The physics of such systems is complex because the seawater-derived hydrothermal fluid can mix with ambient seawater and phase-separate, either via boiling or condensation, into a low-salinity vapor and a high-salinity brine. In order to model the sub-seafloor hydrology with numerical transport simulation techniques, a newly developed pressure-enthalpy-salinity scheme has been used, which includes the full phase relations of the NaCl-H2O system up to 1000° C and accurately captures boiling, condensation, and salt precipitation. We have designed a new numerical model, based on observations in currently active arc-related systems, to assess the influence of first-order physical parameters (such as seafloor topography and the contribution of magmatic fluids) to fluid flow patterns, thermal structure, and phase-separation. Preliminary results of these simulations will be presented and compared with data recently obtained from simulations at mid-ocean ridge systems. In our ongoing project, we aim to predict the optimal conditions for which metal-rich magmatic vapor may cool and contract to an aqueous liquid, which in turn is likely to generate particularly Cu- and Au-rich mineralization on the seafloor.

  11. EXPLORATION OF VOLCANISM ALONG The PACIFIC "SUBMARINE RING OF FIRE"

    E-print Network

    EXPLORATION OF VOLCANISM ALONG The PACIFIC "SUBMARINE RING OF FIRE" · NOAA Office of Ocean Systematic, interdisciplinary exploration of submarine magmatic arcs and diverse ecosystems - Spatial of submarine volcanoes are generated within subduction zones Volatile Release ~200 Km forearc ocean crust

  12. Network-based evaluation of infrasound source location at Sakurajima Volcano, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKee, K. F.; Fee, D.; Rowell, C. R.; Johnson, J. B.; Yokoo, A.; Matoza, R. S.

    2013-12-01

    An important step in advancing the science and application of volcano infrasound is improved source location and characterization. Here we evaluate different network-based infrasonic source location methods, primarily srcLoc and semblance, using data collected at Sakurajima Volcano, Japan in July 2013. We investigate these methods in 2- and 3-dimensions to assess the necessity of considering 3-D sensor and vent locations. In addition, we compare source locations found using array back azimuth projection from dual arrays. The effect of significant local topography on source location will also be evaluated. Preliminary analysis indicates periods of high- and low-level activity, suggesting different processes occurring in the upper conduit and vent. Network processing will be applied to determine signal versus noise, a technique which illuminates when the volcano is producing infrasound, to further investigate these processes. We combine this with other methods to identify the number and style of eruptions. By bringing together source location, timing of activity level, type of activity (such as tremor, explosions, etc.), and number of events, we aim to improve understanding of the activity and associated infrasound signals at Sakurajima Volcano.

  13. Submarine landslides in French Polynesia SUBMARINE LANDSLIDES IN SOCIETY AND AUSTRAL ISLANDS,

    E-print Network

    Clouard, Valerie

    Submarine landslides in French Polynesia 1 SUBMARINE LANDSLIDES IN SOCIETY AND AUSTRAL ISLANDS of numerous submarine landslides in French Polynesia. This inventory shows an evolution of the landslide type with the age of oceanic islands. Submarine active volcanoes are subject to superficial landslides of fragmental

  14. An experiment to detect and locate lightning associated with eruptions of Redoubt Volcano

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoblitt, R.P.

    1994-01-01

    A commercially-available lightning-detection system was temporarily deployed near Cook Inlet, Alaska in an attempt to remotely monitor volcanogenic lightning associated with eruptions of Redoubt Volcano. The system became operational on February 14, 1990; lightning was detected in 11 and located in 9 of the 13 subsequent eruptions. The lightning was generated by ash clouds rising from pyroclastic density currents produced by collapse of a lava dome emplaced near Redoubt's summit. Lightning discharge (flash) location was controlled by topography, which channeled the density currents, and by wind direction. In individual eruptions, early flashes tended to have a negative polarity (negative charge is lowered to ground) while late flashes tended to have a positive polarity (positive charge is lowered to ground), perhaps because the charge-separation process caused coarse, rapid-settling particles to be negatively charged and fine, slow-settling particles to be positively charged. Results indicate that lightning detection and location is a useful adjunct to seismic volcano monitoring, particularly when poor weather or darkness prevents visual observation. The simultaneity of seismicity and lightning near a volcano provides the virtual certainty that an ash cloud is present. This information is crucial for aircraft safety and to warn threatened communities of impending tephra falls. The Alaska Volcano Observatory has now deployed a permanent lightning-detection network around Cook Inlet. ?? 1994.

  15. The 2011 Eruption of Nabro Volcano (Eritrea): Earthquake Locations from a Temporary Broadband Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamlyn, J.; Keir, D.; Hammond, J.; Wright, T.; Neuberg, J.; Kibreab, A.; Ogubazghi, G.; Goitom, B.

    2012-04-01

    Nabro volcano dominates the central part of the Nabro Volcanic Range (NVR), which trends SSW-NNE covering a stretch of 110 km from the SEE margin of the Afar depression to the Red Sea. Regionally, the NVR sits within the Afar triangle, the triple junction of the Somalian, Arabian and African plates. On 12th June 2011 Nabro volcano suddenly erupted after being inactive for 10, 000 years. In response, a network of 8 seismometers, were located around the active vent. The seismic signals detected by this array and those arriving at a regional seismic station (located to the north-west) were processed to provide accurate earthquake locations for the period August-October. Transects of the volcano were used to create cross sections to aid the interpretation. Typically, the majority of the seismic events are located at the active vent and on the flanks of Nabro, with fewer events dispersed around the surrounding area. However, there appears to be a smaller hub of events to the south-west of Nabro beneath the neighbouring Mallahle volcanic caldera (located on the Ethiopian side of the international border). This may imply some form of co-dependent relationship within the plumbing of the magma system beneath both calderas.

  16. Submarine seismic monitoring of El Hierro volcanic eruption with a 3C-geophone string: applying new acquisition and data processing techniques to volcano monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurado, Maria Jose; Ripepe, Maurizio; Lopez, Carmen; Blanco, Maria Jose; Crespo, Jose

    2015-04-01

    A submarine volcanic eruption took place near the southernmost emerged land of the El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain), from October 2011 to February 2012. The Instituto Geogra?co Nacional (IGN) seismic stations network evidenced seismic unrest since July 2011 and was a reference also to follow the evolution of the seismic activity associated with the volcanic eruption. Right after the eruption onset, in October 2011 a geophone string was deployed by the CSIC-IGN to monitor seismic activity. Monitoring with the seismic array continued till May 2012. The array was installed less than 2 km away from the new vol¬cano, next to La Restinga village shore in the harbor from 6 to 12m deep into the water. Our purpose was to record seismic activity related to the volcanic activity, continuously and with special interest on high frequency events. The seismic array was endowed with 8, high frequency, 3 component, 250 Hz, geophone cable string with a separation of 6 m between them. Each geophone consists on a 3-component module based on 3 orthogonal independent sensors that measures ground velocity. Some of the geophones were placed directly on the seabed, some were buried. Due to different factors, as the irregular characteristics of the seafloor. The data was recorded on the surface with a seismometer and stored on a laptop computer. We show how acoustic data collected underwater show a great correlation with the seismic data recorded on land. Finally we compare our data analysis results with the observed sea surface activity (ash and lava emission and degassing). This evidence is disclosing new and innovative tecniques on monitoring submarine volcanic activity. Reference Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN), "Serie El Hierro." Internet: http://www.ign.es/ign/resources /volcanologia/HIERRO.html [May, 17. 2013

  17. The NeMO Explorer Web Site: Interactive Exploration of a Recent Submarine Eruption and Hydrothermal Vents, Axial Volcano, Juan de Fuca Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiland, C.; Chadwick, W. W.; Embley, R. W.

    2001-12-01

    To help visualize the submarine volcanic landscape at NOAA's New Millennium Observatory (NeMO), we have created the NeMO Explorer web site: http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/vents/nemo/explorer.html. This web site takes visitors a mile down beneath the ocean surface to explore Axial Seamount, an active submarine volcano 300 miles off the Oregon coast. We use virtual reality to put visitors in a photorealistic 3-D model of the seafloor that lets them view hydrothermal vents and fresh lava flows as if they were really on the seafloor. At each of six virtual sites there is an animated tour and a 360o panorama in which users can view the volcanic landscape and see biological communities within a spatially accurate context. From the six sites there are hyperlinks to 50 video clips taken by a remotely operated vehicle. Each virtual site concentrates on a different topic, including the dynamics of the 1998 eruption at Axial volcano (Rumbleometer), high-temperature hydrothermal vents (CASM and ASHES), diffuse hydrothermal venting (Marker33), subsurface microbial blooms (The Pit), and the boundary between old and new lavas (Castle vent). In addition to exploring the region geographically, visitors can also explore the web site via geological concepts. The concepts gallery lets you quickly find information about mid-ocean ridges, hydrothermal vents, vent fauna, lava morphology, and more. Of particular interest is an animation of the January 1998 eruption, which shows the rapid inflation (by over 3 m) and draining of the sheet flow. For more info see Fox et al., Nature, v.412, p.727, 2001. This project was funded by NOAA's High Performance Computing and Communication (HPCC) and Vents Programs. Our goal is to present a representative portion of the vast collection of NOAA's multimedia imagery to the public in a way that is easy to use and understand. These data are particularly challenging to present because of their high data rates and low contextual information. The 3-D models create effective context and new video technology allows us to present good quality video at lower data rates. Related curriculum materials for middle- and high-school students are also available from the NeMO web site at http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/vents/nemo/education.html. >http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/vents/nemo/explorer.html

  18. Numerical modelling of mud volcanoes and their ows using constraints from the Gulf of Cadiz

    E-print Network

    Biggs, Juliet

    Numerical modelling of mud volcanoes and their £ows using constraints from the Gulf of Cadiz of submarine mud volcanoes is between 1000 and 100 000. Because many are associated with greenhouse gases and submarine mud volcanoes is highly significant. Clues to the processes forming submarine mud volcanoes can

  19. Pre-eruption pressure, temperature and volatile content of rhyolite magma from the 1650 AD eruption of Kolumbo submarine volcano, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantner, K.; Carey, S.; Sigurdsson, H.; Vougioukalakis, G.; Nomikou, P.; Roman, C.; Bell, K. L.; Alexandri, M.

    2010-12-01

    Biotite-bearing, crystal-poor rhyolite magma was the predominant magma type discharged during the 1650 AD explosive eruption of Kolumbo submarine volcano, Greece. The eruption produced thick sequences of pumice deposits (~100 m) in the upper crater walls of the volcano, but also led to the formation of extensive pumice rafts that were dispersed throughout the southern Aegean Sea, and subaerial tephra fallout as far east as Turkey. Preliminary estimates of pre-eruption volatile contents have been determined using the volatile-by-difference method on plagioclase-hosted melt inclusions and yield an average value of 6.0 wt.%. This corresponds to a pre-eruption storage pressure of 180 MPa, assuming a H2O-saturated magma. Comparison of the natural glass compositions and mineral assemblage of the Kolumbo samples with experimental results on other rhyolite magmas of similar composition in the modified haplogranite system of Blundy and Cashman (2001) supports the pressure and total volatile estimates. Pre-eruption temperature was estimated at 750° C based on the plagioclase-melt geothermometer of Putika (2008). Preliminary modeling of volatile degassing based on the pre-eruption P,T and volatile contents indicates that a fragmentation threshold of 75% can be easily obtained at water depths of 500 m (existing crater depth). The high volatile content of the Kolumbo magma and historical accounts of substantial subaerial eruption plumes suggests that the explosive eruption was driven by primary volatile degassing and that there were periods of sustained magma discharge. Initiation of the eruption may have been caused by injection of more mafic magma into the Kolumbo magma reservoir as evidenced by the abundance of mafic enclaves present in many of the pumice samples.

  20. Dependence of Moment-tensor Solutions on Source Location Observed at Pacaya Volcano, Guatemala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanza, F.; Waite, G. P.

    2014-12-01

    Synthetic modeling aimed at measuring the capability of a seismic network to resolve source mechanisms can provide a guide to the deployment of sensors on volcanoes. Recovering the source mechanisms of events is especially challenging because at frequencies of about 1 Hz, which are common for volcanic sources, scattering strongly influences seismic recordings. The focus of this research is to explore the trade off between the number and location of seismic stations and the accuracy of seismic source reconstructions in the presence of heterogeneous structures. We investigate this relationship at Pacaya volcano, Guatemala. During a fieldwork campaign in October-November 2013, four 3-component broadband seismometers were installed around the central vent at distances between 0.6 and 1.5 km. In addition to tremor, the network recorded a long-period event that repeated thousands of times each day. In order to determine the optimal deployment strategy for the next field campaign, we conduct a sensitivity analysis using synthetic seismograms. The repetitive nature of the source and the accessibility of the volcano will facilitate deployment of a spatially-dense seismic network, in which a subset of stations is moved around the cone to enable records from dozens of sites. We used then different subsets of stations and velocity models to test the expected capability of the network to extract a reliable moment-tensor. Preliminary results highlight a strong dependence of position on the moment tensor solutions. The source mechanism changes from a sill to a dyke as the source becomes deeper. It is therefore critical to get an accurate location to better reconstruct the source mechanism. The results of this study have broad implications for volcano seismic source studies, which often involve repetitive events, but typically face the same challenges of heterogeneous, but poorly constrained structure and weak, shallow sources.

  1. Location Analysis and Assessment of Submarine Groundwater Discharge: A Geospatial Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Subham

    2013-04-01

    Coastal aquifers have the tendency to discharge their subsurface flow into the sea either through seepage or submarine springs where fractures prevail, having some hydraulic links with the sea resulting in dominant flow of submarine springs. The existence of these springs was known for more than last 1000 years since the time of the Phoenicians where they used to use submarine springs for mainly drinking purposes. Submarine Groundwater Discharges (SGDs) are receiving considerable attention in the literature as a major pathway for anthropogenically derived pollutants to coastal waters in recent days. The specific objective of this research is to develop remote sensing as a tool for the identification, quantification and mapping of SGDs. The principal means of the assessment will be using optical and thermal infrared remote sensing techniques. Identification of the geologic and anthropogenic controls on SGDs through an analysis of available offshore and onshore geological spatial datasets and available satellite imagery within a GIS framework is the main goal of this research work which will help to determine the significance of SGDs to the nutrient load on the coastal and estuarine ecosystem.

  2. Volcanic evolution of the submarine super volcano, Tamu Massif of Shatsky Rise: New insights from Formation MicroScanner logging imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tominaga, Masako; Iturrino, Gerardo; Evans, Helen F.

    2015-01-01

    Massif, the southernmost plateau of Shatsky Rise, is recently reported as the largest single volcano known on Earth. This work seeks to understand the type of volcanism necessary to form such an anomalously large single volcano by integrating core and high-resolution wireline logging data. In particular, resistivity imagery obtained by the Formation MicroScanner, in Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Hole U1347A, located on the eastern flank of Tamu Massif, was used to construct a logging-based volcanostratigraphy. This model revealed two different volcanic stages formed Tamu Massif: (i) the core part of the massif's basaltic basement was formed by a "construction phase" of volcanism with cyclic eruption events from a steady state magma supply and (ii) the very topmost basaltic section was formed by a "depositional phase" of volcanism during which long-traveling lava flows were deposited from a distant eruption center.

  3. Active Submarine Volcanoes and Electro-Optical Sensor Networks: The Potential of Capturing and Quantifying an Entire Eruptive Sequence at Axial Seamount, Juan de Fuca Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delaney, J. R.; Kelley, D. S.; Proskurowski, G.; Fundis, A. T.; Kawka, O.

    2011-12-01

    The NE Pacific Regional Scale Nodes (RSN) component of the NSF Ocean Observatories Initiative is designed to provide unprecedented electrical power and bandwidth to the base and summit of Axial Seamount. The scientific community is engaged in identifying a host of existing and innovative observation and measurement techniques that utilize the high-power and bandwidth infrastructure and its real-time transmission capabilities. The cable, mooring, and sensor arrays will enable the first quantitative documentation of myriad processes leading up to, during, and following a submarine volcanic event. Currently planned RSN instrument arrays will provide important and concurrent spatial and temporal constraints on earthquake activity, melt migration, hydrothermal venting behavior and chemistry, ambient currents, microbial community structure, high-definition (HD) still images and HD video streaming from the vents, and water-column chemistry in the overlying ocean. Anticipated, but not yet funded, additions will include AUVs and gliders that continually document the spatial-temporal variations in the water column above the volcano and the distal zones. When an eruption appears imminent the frequency of sampling will be increased remotely, and the potential of repurposing the tracking capabilities of the mobile sensing platforms will be adapted to the spatial indicators of likely eruption activity. As the eruption begins mobile platforms will fully define the geometry, temperature, and chemical-microbial character of the volcanic plume as it rises into the thoroughly documented control volume above the volcano. Via the Internet the scientific community will be able to witness and direct adaptive sampling in response to changing conditions of plume formation. A major goal will be to document the eruptive volume and link the eruption duration to the volume of erupted magma. For the first time, it will be possible to begin to quantify the time-integrated output of an underwater volcanic eruption linked to the heat, chemical, and biological fluxes. In the late stages of the event, the dissipation of the "event plume" into the surrounding water column and the plume's migration patterns in the ambient regional flow will be tracked using specifically designed mobile sensor-platforms. The presence of these assets opens the potential for more immediate, coordinated, and thorough event responses than the community has previously been able to mount. Given the relative abundance of information on many variables in a verifiable and archived spatial and temporal context, and the rapidly evolving ability to conduct real-time genomic analyses, our community may be able to secure entirely novel organisms that are released into the overlying ocean only under well-characterized eruptive conditions.

  4. Optimizing submarine berthing with a persistence incentive

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerald G. Brown; Kelly J. Cormican; Siriphong Lawphongpanich; Daniel B. Widdis

    1997-01-01

    Submarine berthing plans reserve mooring locations for inbound U.S. Navy nuclear submarines prior to their port entrance. Once in port, submarines may be shifted to different berthing locations to allow them to better receive services they require or to make way for other shifted vessels. However, submarine berth shifting is expensive, labor inten- sive, and potentially hazardous. This article presents

  5. Permanent tremor of Masaya Volcano, Nicaragua: Wave field analysis and source location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MéTaxian, Jean-Philippe; Lesage, Philippe; Dorel, Jacques

    1997-10-01

    The Masaya Volcano, Nicaragua, is a basaltic caldera in a subduction zone. The permanent source of the volcanic tremor was located inside Santiago crater, at the lava lake's position and 400 m below the NE rim, and therefore corresponds to superficial magma activity. We used two tripartite arrays (90 m side), one semicircular array (r=120 m) in 1992, and two semicircular arrays (r=60 m) and a 2500 m long linear array radiating out from the source and on the flank of the crater in 1993. We used both a cross-spectrum method and a correlation method to determine the wave delay time between the reference station and the other stations of an array and to quantify the wave field. Using the delays therefore by intersecting the back azimuth wave directions from the arrays, we could pinpoint the source. Additionally, the correlation coefficients obtained as functions of frequency for the three components of motion confirm the inferred position of the source of tremor. The tremor's wave field is composed of comparable quantities of dispersed Rayleigh and Love surface waves, whose phase velocities lie in the ranges 730-1240 m/s at 2 Hz and 330-550 m/s at 6 Hz. The dispersive phase velocities were inverted to obtain crustal structures with a minimal number of layers. The resulting velocity models are similar for the northern and southern parts of the volcano. After geometrical spreading corrections, Q2Hz=14 and Q3Hz=31 were determined along the northern linear array. The typical low velocities and low Q corresponding to the cone structure and are similar to those of other basaltic volcanoes like Puu Oo, Hawaii, and Klyuchevskoy, Kamchatka.

  6. NOAA Explorations: Submarine Ring of Fire 2004

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NOAA's 2004 Submarine Ring of Fire expedition's goals are to examine over a 1,000 km stretch of submarine volcanoes and sea-floor hot springs in the Mariana Island Arc. At this website, users can find general information about the Mariana Arc, the research, and the scientists involved. Educators can find intriguing lesson plans about volcanoes and the chemistry of hydrothermal vents for grades fifth through twelfth. The site presents fascinating materials about seafloor mapping, volcanism, and vent chemistry. Visitors can view amazing satellite images of the overall Mariana Arc Volcanic Chain, its sea floor, and the NW Uracas and Ahyi submarine volcanoes.

  7. Internet Geography: Volcanoes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site is part of GeoNet Internet Geography, a resource for pre-collegiate British geography students and their instructors. This page focuses on various aspects of volcanoes, including the main features of a volcano, types of volcanoes, the Ring of Fire, locations of volcanoes, volcanic flows, and case studies about specific volcanoes.

  8. Numerical modelling of mud volcanoes and their flows using constraints from the Gulf of Cadiz

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bramley J. Murton; Juliet Biggs

    2003-01-01

    It is estimated that the total number of submarine mud volcanoes is between 1000 and 100?000. Because many are associated with greenhouse gases, such as methane, it is argued that the global flux of these gases to the atmosphere from the world’s terrestrial and submarine mud volcanoes is highly significant. Clues to the processes forming submarine mud volcanoes can be

  9. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Venezky, Dina Y.; Orr, Tim R.

    2008-01-01

    Lava from Kilauea volcano flowing through a forest in the Royal Gardens subdivision, Hawai'i, in February 2008. The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) monitors the volcanoes of Hawai'i and is located within Hawaiian Volcanoes National Park. HVO is one of five USGS Volcano Hazards Program observatories that monitor U.S. volcanoes for science and public safety. Learn more about Kilauea and HVO at http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov.

  10. Recent Results From Seafloor Instruments at the NeMO Observatory, Axial Volcano, Juan de Fuca Ridge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. W. Chadwick; D. A. Butterfield; R. W. Embley; C. Meinig; S. E. Stalin; S. L. Nooner; M. A. Zumberge; C. G. Fox

    2002-01-01

    NeMO is a seafloor observatory at Axial Seamount, an active submarine volcano located on the Juan de Fuca Ridge (JdFR) in the NE Pacific. Axial Volcano was chosen for NeMO because it has the largest magma supply on the JdFR, and is therefore the best place to study volcanic events and the perturbations they cause to pre-existing hydrothermal systems. In

  11. Submarine sliver in North Kona: A window into the early magmatic and growth history of Hualalai Volcano, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hammer, J.E.; Coombs, M.L.; Shamberger, P.J.; Kimura, Jun-Ichi

    2006-01-01

    Two manned submersible dives examined the Hualalai Northwest rift zone and an elongate ridge cresting at 3900 mbsl during a 2002 JAMSTEC cruise. The rift zone flank at dive site S690 (water depth 3412-2104 m) is draped by elongated and truncated pillow lavas. These olivine-rich tholeiitic lavas are compositionally indistinguishable from those examined further south along the bench, except that they span a wider range in dissolved sulfur content (200-1400 ppm). The elongate ridge investigated in dive S692, located at the base of the bench, is a package of distinct lithologic units containing volcaniclastic materials, glassy pillow breccias, and lava blocks; these units contain a range of compositions including tholeiitic basalt, transitional basalt, and hawaiite. The textures, compositions, and stratigraphic relationships of materials within the elongate ridge require that a variety of transport mechanisms juxtaposed materials from multiple eruptions into individual beds, compacted them into a coherent package of units, and brought the package to its present depth 10 km from the edge of the North Kona slump bench. Sulfur-rich hawaiite glasses at the base of the elongate ridge may represent the first extant representatives of juvenile alkalic volcanism at Hualalai. They are geochemically distinct from shield tholeiite and post-shield alkalic magmas, but may be related to transitional basalt by high-pressure crystal fractionation of clinopyroxene. Tholeiitic glasses that compose the majority of the exposed outcrop are similar to Mauna Kea tholeiites and other Hualalai tholeiites, but they differ from younger basalts in having greater incompatible element enrichments and higher CaO for a given MgO. These differences could arise from small extents of partial melting during the transition from alkalic to shield stage magmatism. Low sulfur contents of most of the volcaniclastic tholeiites point to early emergence of Hualalai above sea level relative to the development of the midslope slump bench. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Virtual Volcano

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Discovery Channel's website has several interactive features on volcanoes to complement its programs on Pompeii. At the homepage, visitors can explore a virtual volcano, by clicking on "Enter". The virtual volcano has several components. The first is a quickly revolving globe with red triangles and gray lines on it that represent active volcanoes and plate boundaries. Clicking on "Stop Rotation", located next to the globe, will enable a better look. Visitors can also click one of the topics below the globe, to see illustrations of "Tectonic Plates", "Ring of Fire" (no, not the Johnny Cash song), and "Layers Within". Visitors can click on "Build your Own Volcano and Watch it Erupt" on the menu on the left side of the page, where they will be given a brief explanation of two factors that affect the shape and explosiveness of volcanoes: viscosity and gas. Then they must choose, and set, the conditions of their volcano by using the arrows under the viscosity and gas headings, and clicking on "Set Conditions", underneath the arrows. Once done, a description of the type of volcano created will be given, and it's time to "Start Eruption". While the lava flows, and the noise of an eruption sounds, terms describing various features of the volcano are superimposed on the virtual volcano, and can be clicked on for explanations.

  13. The hydroacoustic record of activity at Monowai and its implications for submarine volcanism

    E-print Network

    Watts, A. B. "Tony"

    The hydroacoustic record of activity at Monowai and its implications for submarine volcanism A. B active submarine volcanism. One submarine volcano with a record of activity extending back to 1977 and collapse of a submarine magmatic cone. The main aim of this project is to use geophysical data analysis

  14. Long Period (LP) volcanic earthquake source location at Merapi volcano by using dense array technics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metaxian, Jean Philippe; Budi Santoso, Agus; Laurin, Antoine; Subandriyo, Subandriyo; Widyoyudo, Wiku; Arshab, Ghofar

    2015-04-01

    Since 2010, Merapi shows unusual activity compared to last decades. Powerful phreatic explosions are observed; some of them are preceded by LP signals. In the literature, LP seismicity is thought to be originated within the fluid, and therefore to be representative of the pressurization state of the volcano plumbing system. Another model suggests that LP events are caused by slow, quasi-brittle, low stress-drop failure driven by transient upper-edifice deformations. Knowledge of the spatial distribution of LP events is fundamental for better understanding the physical processes occurring in the conduit, as well as for the monitoring and the improvement of eruption forecasting. LP events recorded at Merapi have a spectral content dominated by frequencies between 0.8 and 3 Hz. To locate the source of these events, we installed a seismic antenna composed of 4 broadband CMG-6TD Güralp stations. This network has an aperture of 300 m. It is located on the site of Pasarbubar, between 500 and 800 m from the crater rim. Two multi-parameter stations (seismic, tiltmeter, S-P) located in the same area, equipped with broadband CMG-40T Güralp sensors may also be used to complete the data of the antenna. The source of LP events is located by using different approaches. In the first one, we used a method based on the measurement of the time delays between the early beginnings of LP events for each array receiver. The observed differences of time delays obtained for each pair of receivers are compared to theoretical values calculated from the travel times computed between grid nodes, which are positioned in the structure, and each receiver. In a second approach, we estimate the slowness vector by using MUSIC algorithm applied to 3-components data. From the slowness vector, we deduce the back-azimuth and the incident angle, which give an estimation of LP source depth in the conduit. This work is part of the Domerapi project funded by French Agence Nationale de la Recherche (https://sites.google.com/site/domerapi2).

  15. Alaska Volcano Observatory Monitoring Station

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    An Alaska Volcano Observatory Monitoring station with Peulik Volcano behind. This is the main repeater for the Peulik monitoring network located on Whale Mountain, Beecharaof National Wildlife Refuge....

  16. Repetitive Long-Period Seismicity: Source Location and Mechanism Characteristics, Villarrica Volcano, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, J.; Waite, G. P.

    2012-12-01

    Villarrica Volcano, Chile has an exposed magma free-surface, characterized by vigorous degassing ranging from small bubble bursts to Strombolian style slug bursting. Slug bursting events are characterized by both repetitive seismic and acoustic signals within the long-period (LP) band. We use the very repetitive nature of the low amplitude seismic LP signals to identify them with a matched filter on several persistent seismic stations, functional over the three year experiment duration. We stack the seismic and acoustic signals accompanying degassing to increase the signal to noise ratio, and tie signals measured 2010-2012 to produce a synthetic seismic network that recorded LP signals at a wide range of azimuths and distances from the source. Particle motions for most of the 21 stations were dominantly tangential, indicating the presence of a complex source geometry that deviated greatly from the logical axisymmetric geometry visible at the lave lake surface. We use the synthetic network to solve for the moment-tensor and location of the LP source, searching for the best source-time function using combinations of moment components, single force components, and both, for six different homogeneous half-space velocity models. Using the best source configuration and velocity model as a guide, we present forward models of reasonable geometries with geologic significance, including dikes, sills, pipes, and combination mechanisms to validate and test the sensitivity of the results of the free-inversion. Our results indicate that the current repetitive LP seismicity dominated by tangential particle motions is probably associated with relic fissure geometry from the last eruptive phase, and is caused by a conduit constriction through which large gas slugs pass (seismic emission) and subsequently burst at the surface (acoustic emission).

  17. Application of near real-time radial semblance to locate the shallow magmatic conduit at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, P.; Whilldin, D.; Chouet, B.

    2004-01-01

    Radial Semblance is applied to broadband seismic network data to provide source locations of Very-Long-Period (VLP) seismic energy in near real time. With an efficient algorithm and adequate network coverage, accurate source locations of VLP energy are derived to quickly locate the shallow magmatic conduit system at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. During a restart in magma flow following a brief pause in the current eruption, the shallow magmatic conduit is pressurized, resulting in elastic radiation from various parts of the conduit system. A steeply dipping distribution of VLP hypocenters outlines a region extending from sea level to about 550 m elevation below and just east of the Halemaumau Pit Crater. The distinct hypocenters suggest the shallow plumbing system beneath Halemaumau consists of a complex plexus of sills and dikes. An unconstrained location for a section of the conduit is also observed beneath the region between Kilauea Caldera and Kilauea Iki Crater.

  18. Submarine Volcanic Cones in the São Miguel Region/Azores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiß, Benedikt; Hübscher, Christian; Wolf, Daniela

    2014-05-01

    São Miguel, the main island of the Azores Archipelago, is located in an area ~1500 km west of Portugal where the American, African and Eurasian plates converge. Just as well as the other eight Azorian islands, it is of volcanic origin and therefore volcanic processes also play an important role for the evolution of its submarine domain. Around 300 submarine volcanic cones have been mapped in the vicinity of São Miguel Island with multi-beam data during RV Meteor cruise M79/2 . They are distributed in depth down to 3000 m. They exhibit an average diameter of 600 m, an average slope of 22° and heights mainly between 50 and 200 m, slightly decreasing with increasing water depth. Even if their morphological appearances show no segregation, the volcanic setting can be classified in three different categories. A numerous amount of cones are located on the submarine flank of Sete Cidades Volcano in the west of São Miguel considered as parasitic structures, whereas in the very east they build up an own superstructure possibly reflecting an early submarine stadium of a posterior subaerial stratovolcano like Sete Cidades. The third class is controlled by and orientated along faults, most of them in a graben system southwest of the Island. High-resolution multichannel seismic data depicts that the graben cones extinguished synchronously in the past most likely accompanying with the end of graben formation. Backscatter data reveal a rough surface possibly caused by currents removing the fine grain-size fraction over time. However, a young cone investigated in detail is characterized by a smooth surface, a distal increasing stratification and concave shaped flanks. Other few exhibit craters, all together indicating rather a phreatomagmatic than an effusive evolution of these structures. Very similar in size and shape to cinder cones on-shore São Miguel Island, they appear to be their submarine equivalent.

  19. 2006 Nature Publishing Group Long-term eruptive activity at a submarine arc

    E-print Network

    Chadwick, Bill

    © 2006 Nature Publishing Group Long-term eruptive activity at a submarine arc volcano Robert W , Douglas A. Wiens12 & Yoshihiko Tamura13 Three-quarters of the Earth's volcanic activity is submarine of submarine eruptions have been indirect, made from surface vessels or made after the fact1­6 . We describe

  20. Determining the seismic source mechanism and location for an explosive eruption with limited observational data: Augustine Volcano, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Phillip B.; Chouet, Bernard A.; Power, John

    2011-02-01

    Waveform inversions of the very-long-period components of the seismic wavefield produced by an explosive eruption that occurred on 11 January, 2006 at Augustine Volcano, Alaska constrain the seismic source location to near sea level beneath the summit of the volcano. The calculated moment tensors indicate the presence of a volumetric source mechanism. Systematic reconstruction of the source mechanism shows the source consists of a sill intersected by either a sub-vertical east-west trending dike or a sub-vertical pipe and a weak single force. The trend of the dike may be controlled by the east-west trending Augustine-Seldovia arch. The data from the network of broadband sensors is limited to fourteen seismic traces, and synthetic modeling confirms the ability of the network to recover the source mechanism. The synthetic modeling also provides a guide to the expected capability of a broadband network to resolve very-long-period source mechanisms, particularly when confronted with limited observational data.

  1. Epsilon-Proteobacterial Dominance in Microbial Mats Located at the Champagne Hydrothermal Vent Site on NW Eifuku Volcano, Mariana Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, R. E.; Moyer, C. L.

    2004-12-01

    By far the most extensive hydrothermal vent related microbial mats discovered during the 2004 Ring of Fire cruise were those found at NW Eifuku Volcano located along the Mariana Island Arc. The Champagne Hydrothermal Vent Site located near the summit of NW Eifuku Volcano (1,650 meters below sea level) consists of multiple white smoker chimneys venting highly gaseous fluids (Max temp ˜103° C). Large amounts of liquid carbon dioxide bubbles and clathrates were observed exuding from the seafloor contributing to an extremely low Eh (i.e., highly reducing conditions) and giving the location its name. Luxuriant white flocculent mats were discovered and collected in and around the Champagne Vent Site in April, 2004. Molecular analyses of small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) from these mats using both T-RFLP community fingerprinting and PCR-generated clone library analyses showed that the bacterial community is dominated by ? -Proteobacteria represented by the thiovulum-group along with lesser levels of Thermotogales represented by the thermotoga-group (as determined using the Ribosomal Database Project). Initial estimates of the relative abundance of phylotypes place the thiovulum-group at 50% and 67%, and the thermotoga-group at 18% and 9%, for T-RFLP and clone library methods, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of SSU rDNA sequence data also suggests that these most dominant phylotypes are most likely chemoautotrophic and involved in sulfur-cycling. Due to the extreme nature of their habitat, many of these bacteria often grow where no macrofauna are present. However, on the edges of these areas, once sufficient mixing has taken place, abundant macrofauna can be seen vigorously feeding upon these microbial mats. This further demonstrates the transfer of chemosynthetically-derived energy up the food chain supporting large communities of macrofauna. Similar types of microbial mats have been observed at Axial Volcano on the Juan de Fuca Ridge, where they were dominated by a diverse community of ? -Proteobacteria known to both oxidize and reduce multiple sulfur compounds.

  2. Microbial Communities in Sunken Wood Are Structured by Wood-Boring Bivalves and Location in a Submarine Canyon

    PubMed Central

    Fagervold, Sonja K.; Romano, Chiara; Kalenitchenko, Dimitri; Borowski, Christian; Nunes-Jorge, Amandine; Martin, Daniel; Galand, Pierre E.

    2014-01-01

    The cornerstones of sunken wood ecosystems are microorganisms involved in cellulose degradation. These can either be free-living microorganisms in the wood matrix or symbiotic bacteria associated with wood-boring bivalves such as emblematic species of Xylophaga, the most common deep-sea woodborer. Here we use experimentally submerged pine wood, placed in and outside the Mediterranean submarine Blanes Canyon, to compare the microbial communities on the wood, in fecal pellets of Xylophaga spp. and associated with the gills of these animals. Analyses based on tag pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA bacterial gene showed that sunken wood contained three distinct microbial communities. Wood and pellet communities were different from each other suggesting that Xylophaga spp. create new microbial niches by excreting fecal pellets into their burrows. In turn, gills of Xylophaga spp. contain potential bacterial symbionts, as illustrated by the presence of sequences closely related to symbiotic bacteria found in other wood eating marine invertebrates. Finally, we found that sunken wood communities inside the canyon were different and more diverse than the ones outside the canyon. This finding extends to the microbial world the view that submarine canyons are sites of diverse marine life. PMID:24805961

  3. Validation of Innovative Exploration Technologies for Newberry Volcano: Drill Site Location Map 2010

    DOE Data Explorer

    Jaffe, Todd

    Newberry project drill site location map 2010. Once the exploration mythology is validated, it can be applied throughout the Cascade Range and elsewhere to locate and develop “blind” geothermal resources.

  4. 33 CFR 209.310 - Representation of submarine cables and pipelines on nautical charts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Representation of submarine cables and pipelines on nautical charts. 209.310 Section...Representation of submarine cables and pipelines on nautical charts. (a) The policy...the locations of submarine cables and pipelines on nautical charts published by the...

  5. 33 CFR 209.310 - Representation of submarine cables and pipelines on nautical charts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Representation of submarine cables and pipelines on nautical charts. 209.310 Section...Representation of submarine cables and pipelines on nautical charts. (a) The policy...the locations of submarine cables and pipelines on nautical charts published by the...

  6. 33 CFR 209.310 - Representation of submarine cables and pipelines on nautical charts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Representation of submarine cables and pipelines on nautical charts. 209.310 Section...Representation of submarine cables and pipelines on nautical charts. (a) The policy...the locations of submarine cables and pipelines on nautical charts published by the...

  7. 33 CFR 209.310 - Representation of submarine cables and pipelines on nautical charts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Representation of submarine cables and pipelines on nautical charts. 209.310 Section...Representation of submarine cables and pipelines on nautical charts. (a) The policy...the locations of submarine cables and pipelines on nautical charts published by the...

  8. 33 CFR 209.310 - Representation of submarine cables and pipelines on nautical charts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Representation of submarine cables and pipelines on nautical charts. 209.310 Section...Representation of submarine cables and pipelines on nautical charts. (a) The policy...the locations of submarine cables and pipelines on nautical charts published by the...

  9. Quantitative constraints on the growth of submarine lava pillars from a monitoring instrument that was caught in a lava flow

    E-print Network

    Chadwick, Bill

    Quantitative constraints on the growth of submarine lava pillars from a monitoring instrument that are common features within the collapsed interiors of submarine sheet flows on intermediate and fast beneath each crust. During the submarine eruption of Axial Volcano in 1998 on the Juan de Fuca Ridge

  10. Hawaii's volcanoes revealed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eakins, Barry W.; Robinson, Joel E.; Kanamatsu, Toshiya; Naka, Jiro; Smith, John R.; Takahashi, Eiichi; Clague, David A.

    2003-01-01

    Hawaiian volcanoes typically evolve in four stages as volcanism waxes and wanes: (1) early alkalic, when volcanism originates on the deep sea floor; (2) shield, when roughly 95 percent of a volcano's volume is emplaced; (3) post-shield alkalic, when small-volume eruptions build scattered cones that thinly cap the shield-stage lavas; and (4) rejuvenated, when lavas of distinct chemistry erupt following a lengthy period of erosion and volcanic quiescence. During the early alkalic and shield stages, two or more elongate rift zones may develop as flanks of the volcano separate. Mantle-derived magma rises through a vertical conduit and is temporarily stored in a shallow summit reservoir from which magma may erupt within the summit region or be injected laterally into the rift zones. The ongoing activity at Kilauea's Pu?u ?O?o cone that began in January 1983 is one such rift-zone eruption. The rift zones commonly extend deep underwater, producing submarine eruptions of bulbous pillow lava. Once a volcano has grown above sea level, subaerial eruptions produce lava flows of jagged, clinkery ?a?a or smooth, ropy pahoehoe. If the flows reach the ocean they are rapidly quenched by seawater and shatter, producing a steep blanket of unstable volcanic sediment that mantles the upper submarine slopes. Above sea level then, the volcanoes develop the classic shield profile of gentle lava-flow slopes, whereas below sea level slopes are substantially steeper. While the volcanoes grow rapidly during the shield stage, they may also collapse catastrophically, generating giant landslides and tsunami, or fail more gradually, forming slumps. Deformation and seismicity along Kilauea's south flank indicate that slumping is occurring there today. Loading of the underlying Pacific Plate by the growing volcanic edifices causes subsidence, forming deep basins at the base of the volcanoes. Once volcanism wanes and lava flows no longer reach the ocean, the volcano continues to submerge, while erosion incises deep river valleys, such as those on the Island of Kaua?i. The edges of the submarine terraces that ring the islands, thus, mark paleocoastlines that are now as much as 2,000 m underwater, many of which are capped by drowned coral reefs.

  11. Shallow-water longshore drift-fed submarine fan deposition (Moisie River Delta, Eastern Canada)

    E-print Network

    St-Ong, Guillaume

    ORIGINAL Shallow-water longshore drift-fed submarine fan deposition (Moisie River Delta, Eastern Submarine canyons and associated submarine fans are in some cases located at the end of a littoral cell to the discovery of an unusu- ally shallow submarine fan (60 m) located at the end of a littoral cell. Sediment

  12. A Benthic Invertebrate Survey of Jun Jaegyu Volcano: An active undersea volcano in Antarctic Sound, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinones, G.; Brachfeld, S.; Gorring, M.; Prezant, R. S.; Domack, E.

    2005-12-01

    Jun Jaegyu volcano, an Antarctic submarine volcano, was dredged in May 2004 during cruise 04-04 of the RV Laurence M. Gould to determine rock, sediment composition and marine macroinvertebrate diversity. The objectives of this study are to examine the benthic assemblages and biodiversity present on a young volcano. The volcano is located on the continental shelf of the northeastern Antarctic Peninsula, where recent changes in surface temperature and ice shelf stability have been observed. This volcano was originally swath-mapped during cruise 01-07 of the Research Vessel-Ice Breaker Nathaniel B. Palmer. During LMG04-04 we also studied the volcano using a SCUD video camera, and performed temperature surveys along the flanks and crest. Both the video and the dredge indicate a seafloor surface heavily colonized by benthic organisms. Indications of fairly recent lava flows are given by the absence of marine life on regions of the volcano. The recovered dredge material was sieved, and a total of thirty-three invertebrates were extracted. The compilation of invertebrate community data can subsequently be compared to other benthic invertebrate studies conducted along the peninsula, which can determine the regional similarity of communities over time, their relationship to environmental change and health, if any, and their relationship to geologic processes in Antarctic Sound. Twenty-two rock samples, all slightly weathered and half bearing encrusted organisms, were also analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Except for one conglomerate sample, all are alkali basalts and share similar elemental compositions with fresh, unweathered samples from the volcano. Two of the encrusted basalt samples have significantly different compositions than the rest. We speculate this difference could be due to water loss during sample preparation, loss of organic carbon trapped within the vesicles of the samples and/or elemental uptake by the organism. These results can establish a qualitative baseline survey for other young volcanoes, and be used to monitor changes in the benthic assemblages and biodiversity as a function of environmental change and environmental health.

  13. Simple Submarine

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Using simple, inexpensive items, students build and test submarine models in a single class period. They gain insight into the engineering that's required to make these machines ascend, descend, and hover safely in extreme environments. The printable eight-page handout includes a series of inquiry-based questions that get students thinking about the complex engineering required for submersibles, illustrated experiment directions, and a worksheet that includes thought-provoking questions along with areas for recording experiment data.

  14. Global observation of vertical-CLVD earthquakes at active volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuler, Ashley; Nettles, Meredith; EkströM, GöRan

    2013-01-01

    AbstractSome of the largest and most anomalous volcanic earthquakes have non-double-couple focal mechanisms. Here, we investigate the link between volcanic unrest and the occurrence of non-double-couple earthquakes with dominant vertical tension or pressure axes, known as vertical compensated-linear-vector-dipole (vertical-CLVD) earthquakes. We determine focal mechanisms for 313 target earthquakes from the standard and surface wave catalogs of the Global Centroid Moment Tensor Project and identify 86 shallow 4.3 ? MW ? 5.8 vertical-CLVD earthquakes <span class="hlt">located</span> near <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> that have erupted in the last ~100 years. The majority of vertical-CLVD earthquakes occur in subduction zones in association with basaltic-to-andesitic stratovolcanoes or <span class="hlt">submarine</span> <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, although vertical-CLVD earthquakes are also <span class="hlt">located</span> in continental rifts and in regions of hot spot volcanism. Vertical-CLVD earthquakes are associated with many types of confirmed or suspected eruptive activity at nearby <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, including volcanic earthquake swarms as well as effusive and explosive eruptions and caldera collapse. Approximately 70% of all vertical-CLVD earthquakes studied occur during episodes of documented volcanic unrest at a nearby <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. Given that volcanic unrest is underreported, most shallow vertical-CLVD earthquakes near active <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> are likely related to magma migration or eruption processes. Vertical-CLVD earthquakes with dominant vertical pressure axes generally occur after volcanic eruptions, whereas vertical-CLVD earthquakes with dominant vertical tension axes generally occur before the start of volcanic unrest. The occurrence of these events may be useful for identifying <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> that have recently erupted and those that are likely to erupt in the future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NSDL&redirectUrl=http://science.howstuffworks.com/transport/engines-equipment/submarine.htm"><span id="translatedtitle">How <span class="hlt">Submarines</span> Work</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p>Brain, Marshall</p> <p></p> <p>In this article, presented by HowStuffWorks.com, shows how a <span class="hlt">submarine</span> dives and surfaces in the water. It also shows how life support is maintained, how the <span class="hlt">submarine</span> gets its power, how a <span class="hlt">submarine</span> finds its way in the deep ocean and how <span class="hlt">submarines</span> might be rescued. The article addresses many points effectively and is a good survey of the topic.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.V11B4725C"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Silicic Explosive Eruptions: what can <span class="hlt">submarine</span> pyroclasts tell us?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Carey, R.; Allen, S.; McPhie, J.; Fiske, R. S.; Tani, K.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Our understanding of <span class="hlt">submarine</span> volcanism is in its infancy with respect to subaerial eruption processes. Two fundamental differences between eruptions in seawater compared to those on land are that (1) eruptions occur at higher confining pressures, and (2) in a seawater medium, which has a higher heat capacity, density and viscosity than air. Together with JAMSTEC collaborators we have a sample suite of <span class="hlt">submarine</span> pumice deposits from modern <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> of known eruption depths. This sample suite spans a spectrum of eruption intensities, from 1) powerful explosive caldera-forming (Myojin Knoll caldera); to 2) weakly explosive cone building (pre-caldera Myojin Knoll pumice and Kurose-Nishi pumice); to 3) volatile-driven effusive dome spalling (Sumisu knoll A); to 4) passive dome effusion (Sumisu knoll B and C). This sample suite has exceptional potential, not simply because the samples have been taken from well-constrained, sources but because they have similar high silica contents, are unaltered and their phenocrysts contain melt inclusions. Microtextural quantitative analysis has revealed that (i) clast vesicularities remain high (69-90 vol.%) regardless of confining pressure, mass eruption rate or eruption style , (ii) vesicle number densities scale with inferred eruption rate, and (iii) darcian and inertial permeabilities of <span class="hlt">submarine</span> effusive and explosive pyroclasts overlap with explosively-erupted subaerial pyroclasts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NSDL&redirectUrl=http://www.amnh.org/education/resources/rfl/web/dsv/volcanoes.html"><span id="translatedtitle">Research on the Web: Deep Sea <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> and Vents</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This Web research project gives students a close-up look at the dynamic forces at work in the deep seas. They'll work as scientists, making observations and recording their findings. Students begin by gathering background information on <span class="hlt">submarine</span> <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> and mid-ocean ridges. They then compare volcanic activity on land with <span class="hlt">submarine</span> <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, noting the effects of near-freezing temperatures and incredibly intense pressure on <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> on the ocean floor. They end by viewing real-time videos of deep sea vents in motion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.V43F2326H"><span id="translatedtitle">Geochronology, geochemistry and geophysics of Mahukona <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Hawai`i</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hanano, D.; Garcia, M. O.; Weis, D. A.; Flinders, A. F.; Ito, G.; Kurz, M. D.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Mahukona is an extinct <span class="hlt">submarine</span> <span class="hlt">volcano</span> that fills a gap in the Loa-trend of paired Hawaiian <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> between Hualalai and Kaho`olawe. A new marine survey of the seamount was undertaken in an attempt to resolve the <span class="hlt">location</span> of the <span class="hlt">volcano’s</span> summit. The multibeam bathymetry showed no clear summit. The gravity data reveals a central oval-shaped residual gravity anomaly with a maximum density 85 kg/m3 greater than the surrounding edifice, which could be the frozen magmatic center of Mahukona. Eighteen weakly to strongly olivine-phyric samples were collected by submersible from the shallower parts (>2 km) of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> to supplement previous dredged samples. These fresh, mostly glassy samples vary from low-silica tholeiites to weakly alkali basalts. Ar-Ar weighted plateau ages range from 653 ka for a tholeiite to 479 and 351 ka for transitional basalts. These ages straddle the predicted age for the end of shield building (435 ka) and are older than previous ages for transitional basalts (310-298 ka; Clague and Calvert, 2008). Trace elements show a moderate range of variability (33% for Ba and Nb) and parallel primitive mantle normalized patterns suggesting variable degrees of melting of a similar source. Zr/Nb ratios for this Loa chain <span class="hlt">volcano</span> (11-14) span the Loa-Kea boundary. Pb, Sr, Nd and Hf isotope ratios for 12 samples are distinct from adjacent Kohala <span class="hlt">volcano</span> with Loihi-like values, although they are slightly higher in Hf and Nd at a given Pb isotope value. Most samples have Loa-like Pb isotope ratios, although two tholeiites have Kea-like ratios but high, Loa-like Zr/Nb. Sr isotopes are well correlated with the other isotopic systems indicating no ancient carbonate-rich sediment source component is needed. Mahukona He isotope ratios overlap with those found at Lo`ihi Seamount. Higher values are found in transitional basalts and lower in the tholeiites (16-21 vs. 12-14 Ra), which is opposite to other Hawaiian <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>. With high-precision data sets for more <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> along the Hawaiian chain in multiple stages of growth, we will be able to resolve the fine structure and evolution of the Hawaiian plume. Clague, D. and Calvert, A. 2008. Bull. Volcanol.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.P13B1371A"><span id="translatedtitle">Mud <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> - Analogs to Martian Cones and Domes (by the thousands !)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Allen, C.; Oehler, D.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Mud <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> are mounds formed by low temperature slurries of gas, liquid, sediments and rock that erupt to the surface from depths of meters to kilometers. They are common on Earth, with estimates of thousands onshore and tens of thousands offshore. Mud <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> occur in basins with rapidly-deposited accumulations of fine-grained sediments. Such settings are ideal for concentration and preservation of organic materials, and mud <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> typically occur in sedimentary basins that are rich in organic biosignatures. Domes and cones, cited as possible mud <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> by previous authors, are common on the northern plains of Mars. Our analysis of selected regions in southern Acidalia Planitia has revealed over 18,000 such features, and we estimate that more than 40,000 occur across the area. These domes and cones strongly resemble terrestrial mud <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> in size, shape, morphology, associated flow structures and geologic setting. Geologic and mineralogic arguments rule out alternative formation mechanisms involving lava, ice and impacts. We are studying terrestrial mud <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> from onshore and <span class="hlt">submarine</span> <span class="hlt">locations</span>. The largest concentration of onshore features is in Azerbaijan, near the western edge of the Caspian Sea. These features are typically hundreds of meters to several kilometers in diameter, and tens to hundreds of meters in height. Satellite images show spatial densities of 20 to 40 eruptive centers per 1000 km2. Many of the features remain active, and fresh mud flows as long as several kilometers are common. A large field of <span class="hlt">submarine</span> mud <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> is <span class="hlt">located</span> in the Gulf of Cadiz, off the Atlantic coasts of Morocco and Spain. High-resolution sonar bathymetry reveals numerous km-scale mud <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, hundreds of meters in height. Seismic profiles demonstrate that the mud erupts from depths of several hundred meters. These <span class="hlt">submarine</span> mud <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> are the closest morphologic analogs yet found to the features in Acidalia Planitia. We are also conducting laboratory analyses of surface samples collected from mud <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> in Azerbaijan, Taiwan and Japan. X-ray diffraction, visible / near infrared reflectance spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy show that the samples are dominated by mixed-layer smectite clays, along with quartz, calcite and pyrite. Thin section analysis by optical and scanning electron microscopy confirms the mineral identifications. These samples also contain chemical and morphological biosignatures, including common microfossils, with evidence of partial replacement by pyrite. The bulk samples contain approximately 1 wt% total organic carbon and 0.4 mg / gm volatile hydrocarbons. The thousands of features in Acidalia Planitia cited as analogous to terrestrial mud <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> clearly represent an important element in the sedimentary record of Mars. Their <span class="hlt">location</span>, in the distal depocenter for massive Hesperian-age floods, suggests that they contain fine-grained sediments from a large catchment area in the martian highlands. We have proposed these features as a new class of exploration target that can provide access to minimally-altered material from significant depth. By analogy to terrestrial mud <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, these features may also be excellent sites for the sampling martian organics and subsurface microbial life, if such exist or ever existed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.T53A4659H"><span id="translatedtitle">The preliminary results of new <span class="hlt">submarine</span> caldera on the west of Kume-jima island, Central Ryukyu Arc, Japan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Harigane, Y.; Ishizuka, O.; Shimoda, G.; Sato, T.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The Ryukyu Arc occurs between the islands of Kyushu and Taiwan with approximately 1200 km in the full length. This volcanic arc is caused by subduction of the Philippine Sea plate beneath the Eurasia Plate along the Ryukyu trench, and is composed of forearc islands, chains of arc <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, and a back-arc rift called Okinawa Trough. The Ryukyu Arc is commonly divided into three segments (northern, central and southern) that bounded by the Tokara Strait and the Kerama Gap, respectively (e.g., Konishi 1965; Kato et al., 1982). Sato et al. (2014) mentioned that there is no active subaerial <span class="hlt">volcano</span> in the southwest of Iotori-shima in the Central Ryukyu Arc whereas the Northern Ryukyu Arc (i.e., the Tokara Islands) has active frontal arc <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>. Therefore, the existence of <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> and volcanotectonic history of active volcanic front in the southwestern part of the Central Ryukyu Arc are still ambiguous. Detailed geophysical and geological survey was mainly conducted using R/V Kaiyou-maru No.7 during GK12 cruise operated by the Geological Survey of Japan/National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Japan. As a result, we have found a new <span class="hlt">submarine</span> volcanic caldera on the west of Kume-jima island, where <span class="hlt">located</span> the southwestern part of Central Ryukyu Arc. Here, we present (1) the bathymetrical feature of this new <span class="hlt">submarine</span> caldera for the first time and (2) the microstructural and petrological observations of volcanic rocks (20 volcanic samples in 13 dredge sites) sampled from the small volcanic cones of this caldera <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. The dredged samples from the caldera consist of mainly rhyolite pumice with minor andesites, Mn oxides-crust and hydrothermally altered rocks. Andesite has plagioclase, olivine and pyroxene phenocrysts. Key words: volcanic rock, caldera, arc volcanism, active volcanic front, Kume-jima island, Ryukyu Arc</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_5 --> <div id="page_6" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="101"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/1770"><span id="translatedtitle">Deep Research <span class="hlt">Submarine</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Woertz, Jeff</p> <p>2002-02-01</p> <p>The Deep Sea Research <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> (Figure 1) is a modified VIRGINIA Class <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> that incorporates a permanently installed Deep Sea Operations Compartment (Figure 2). Table 1 summarizes the characteristics of the Deep ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NSDL&redirectUrl=http://www.msichicago.org/online-science/activities/activity-detail/activities/design-a-submarine/"><span id="translatedtitle">Design a <span class="hlt">Submarine</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p>Museum of Science and Industry, Chicago</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Learners act as engineers and design mini <span class="hlt">submarines</span> that move in the water like real <span class="hlt">submarines</span>. The <span class="hlt">submarines</span> must be able to float, sink, and hover steadily without touching the top of the water or resting on the bottom. Use this activity to introduce learners to density and buoyancy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://mitchenerg.people.cofc.edu/mcm96paper.ps.gz"><span id="translatedtitle">Using Ambient Noise Fields for <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Team #525 for the Mathematical Contest in Modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Mitchener, W. Garrett</p> <p></p> <p>Using Ambient Noise Fields for <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> <span class="hlt">Location</span> Team #525 for the Mathematical Contest or click, and storms. Our job is to determine if this noise can be used to detect a <span class="hlt">submarine</span>, and determine its <span class="hlt">location</span>, direction of travel, speed, and size. The <span class="hlt">submarine</span> is assumed not to make any noise</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=USGSPUBS&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr01367"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Volcano</span>-hazard zonation for San Vicente <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, El Salvador</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Major, J.J.; Schilling, S.P.; Pullinger, C.R.; Escobar, C.D.; Howell, M.M.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>San Vicente <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, also known as Chichontepec, is one of many <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> along the volcanic arc in El Salvador. This composite <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">located</span> about 50 kilometers east of the capital city San Salvador, has a volume of about 130 cubic kilometers, rises to an altitude of about 2180 meters, and towers above major communities such as San Vicente, Tepetitan, Guadalupe, Zacatecoluca, and Tecoluca. In addition to the larger communities that surround the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, several smaller communities and coffee plantations are <span class="hlt">located</span> on or around the flanks of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, and major transportation routes are <span class="hlt">located</span> near the lowermost southern and eastern flanks of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. The population density and proximity around San Vicente <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, as well as the proximity of major transportation routes, increase the risk that even small landslides or eruptions, likely to occur again, can have serious societal consequences. The eruptive history of San Vicente <span class="hlt">volcano</span> is not well known, and there is no definitive record of historical eruptive activity. The last significant eruption occurred more than 1700 years ago, and perhaps long before permanent human habitation of the area. Nevertheless, this <span class="hlt">volcano</span> has a very long history of repeated, and sometimes violent, eruptions, and at least once a large section of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> collapsed in a massive landslide. The oldest rocks associated with a volcanic center at San Vicente are more than 2 million years old. The <span class="hlt">volcano</span> is composed of remnants of multiple eruptive centers that have migrated roughly eastward with time. Future eruptions of this <span class="hlt">volcano</span> will pose substantial risk to surrounding communities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NSDL&redirectUrl=http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/"><span id="translatedtitle">US Geological Survey <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Hazards Program</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The US Geological Survey <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Hazards Program website presents its objectives "to advance the scientific understanding of volcanic processes and to lessen the harmful impacts of volcanic activity." The public can explore information on <span class="hlt">volcano</span> monitoring, warning schemes, and emergency planning. Students and educators can find out about the types, effects, <span class="hlt">location</span>, and history of <span class="hlt">volcano</span> hazards. The website offers recent online <span class="hlt">volcano</span> reports and maps, <span class="hlt">volcano</span> factsheets, videos, and a photo glossary. Teachers can find online versions of many educational <span class="hlt">volcano</span>-related books and videos. The website features the volcanic observatories in Alaska, the Cascades, Hawaii, Long Valley, and Yellowstone.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA....12658W"><span id="translatedtitle">The implementation of a <span class="hlt">volcano</span> seismic monitoring network in Sete Cidades <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, São Miguel, Açores</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wallenstein, N.; Montalvo, A.; Barata, U.; Ortiz, R.</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>Sete Cidades is one of the three active central <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> of S. Miguel Island, in the Azores archipelago. With a 5 kilometres wide caldera, it has the highest eruptive record in the last 5000 years with 17 intracaldera explosive events (Queiroz, 1997). Only <span class="hlt">submarine</span> volcanic eruptions occurred in Sete Cidades <span class="hlt">volcano</span>-tectonic system since the settlement of the island, in the 15th century. Small seismic swarms, some of which were interpreted as being related with magmatic and/or deep hydrothermal origin, characterize the most recent seismo-volcanic activity of Sete Cidades <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. To complement the regional seismic network, operating since the early 80's, a new local seismic network was designed and installed at Sete Cidades <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>. It includes 5 digital stations being one 5-seconds three-component station <span class="hlt">located</span> inside the caldera and four 10-seconds one-component stations placed on the caldera rim. The solution found for the digital telemetry is based on UHF 19,2 Kbps radio modems linking four of the seismic stations to a central point, where the fifth station is installed. At this site, signals are synchronised with a GPS receiver, stored in a PC and re-transmitted to the Azores University Volcanological Observatory by an 115,2 Kbps Spread Spectrum 2.4 Ghz Radio Modem Network. Seismic signal tests carried out in all the area showed that cultural and sea noise, as well as some scattering effects due to the geological nature of the terrain (composed by thick pumice and ash deposits) and the topographic effects are factors that can not be avoidable and will be present in future records. This low cost network with locally developed and assembled components, based on short-period sensors without signal filtering in the field and digital telemetry, will improve the detection and <span class="hlt">location</span> of low magnitude events in the Sete Cidades <span class="hlt">volcano</span> area. Future developments of this program will include the installation of a seismic array inside the caldera to identify and characterize LP events and volcanic tremor signals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOVIMAGE-USGS&redirectUrl=http://gallery.usgs.gov/photos/01_11_2012_g30Ne65DDx_01_11_2012_0"><span id="translatedtitle">Thomas A. Jaggar, Hawaiian <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observatory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://gallery.usgs.gov/">USGS Multimedia Gallery</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Thomas A. Jaggar founded the Hawaiian <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observatory in 1912 and served as its Director until 1940.  Shown here in 1925, Jaggar is at work in HVO's first building, which, at the time, was <span class="hlt">located</span> on the northeast rim of K?lauea <span class="hlt">Volcano’s</span> summit caldera, near the present-day Volc...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52747242"><span id="translatedtitle">Venus small <span class="hlt">volcano</span> classification and description</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>J. C. Aubele</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The high resolution and global coverage of the Magellan radar image data set allows detailed study of the smallest <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> on the planet. A modified classification scheme for <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> less than 20 km in diameter is shown and described. It is based on observations of all members of the 556 significant clusters or fields of small <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> <span class="hlt">located</span> and described</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=USGSPUBS&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/mf2233"><span id="translatedtitle">Bathymetry of southern Mauna Loa <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Hawaii</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Chadwick, William W.; Moore, James G.; Garcia, Michael O.; Fox, Christopher G.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Manua Loa, the largest <span class="hlt">volcano</span> on Earth, lies largely beneath the sea, and until recently only generalized bathymetry of this giant <span class="hlt">volcano</span> was available. However, within the last two decades, the development of multibeam sonar and the improvement of satellite systems (Global Positioning System) have increased the availability of precise bathymetric mapping. This map combines topography of the subaerial southern part of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> with modern multibeam bathymetric data from the south <span class="hlt">submarine</span> flank. The map includes the summit caldera of Mauna Loa <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> and the entire length of the 100-km-long southwest rift zone that is marked by a much more pronounced ridge below sea level than above. The 60-km-long segment of the rift zone abruptly changes trend from southwest to south 30 km from the summit. It extends from this bend out to sea at the south cape of the island (Kalae) to 4 to 4.5 km depth where it impinges on the elongate west ridge of Apuupuu Seamount. The west <span class="hlt">submarine</span> flank of the rift-zone ridge connects with the Kahuku fault on land and both are part of the ampitheater head of a major <span class="hlt">submarine</span> landslide (Lipman and others, 1990; Moore and Clague, 1992). Two pre-Hawaiian volcanic seamounts in the map area, Apuupuu and Dana Seamounts, are apparently Cretaceous in age and are somewhat younger than the Cretaceous oceanic crust on which they are built.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=CFR2014&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title33-vol2-sec165-1302.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">33 CFR 165.1302 - Bangor Naval <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Base, Bangor, WA.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>...2014-07-01 false Bangor Naval <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Base, Bangor, WA. 165.1302 Section...District § 165.1302 Bangor Naval <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Base, Bangor, WA. (a) <span class="hlt">Location</span>...Vessels that are performing work at Naval <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Base Bangor pursuant to a...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=CFR2014&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title33-vol2-sec165-1328.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">33 CFR 165.1328 - Regulated Navigation Area; U.S. Navy <span class="hlt">submarines</span>, Hood Canal, WA.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>...Regulated Navigation Area; U.S. Navy <span class="hlt">submarines</span>, Hood Canal, WA. 165.1328 Section...Regulated Navigation Area; U.S. Navy <span class="hlt">submarines</span>, Hood Canal, WA. (a) <span class="hlt">Location</span>...Washington whenever any U.S. Navy <span class="hlt">submarine</span> is operating in the Hood Canal and is being...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://folk.uio.no/hensven/Hovland_Svensen_MarGeol_06.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Submarine</span> pingoes: Indicators of shallow gas hydrates in a pockmark at Nyegga, Norwegian Sea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Svensen, Henrik</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Submarine</span> pingoes: Indicators of shallow gas hydrates in a pockmark at Nyegga, Norwegian Sea Martin the features as true <span class="hlt">submarine</span> pingoes, formed by the local accumulation of hydrate (ice) below the sediment the pockmark. We suggest that these <span class="hlt">submarine</span> hydrate-pingoes manifest the exact <span class="hlt">locations</span> where fluid flow</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=CFR2012&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title33-vol2-sec165-1302.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">33 CFR 165.1302 - Bangor Naval <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Base, Bangor, WA.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>...2012-07-01 false Bangor Naval <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Base, Bangor, WA. 165.1302 Section...District § 165.1302 Bangor Naval <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Base, Bangor, WA. (a) <span class="hlt">Location</span>...Vessels that are performing work at Naval <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Base Bangor pursuant to a...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=CFR2013&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title33-vol2-sec165-1302.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">33 CFR 165.1302 - Bangor Naval <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Base, Bangor, WA.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>...2013-07-01 false Bangor Naval <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Base, Bangor, WA. 165.1302 Section...District § 165.1302 Bangor Naval <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Base, Bangor, WA. (a) <span class="hlt">Location</span>...Vessels that are performing work at Naval <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Base Bangor pursuant to a...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://paleomag.uqar.ca/IMG/pdf/CAUCHON-VOYER_et_al_2007_Santorini.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">SUBMARINE</span> MASS MOVEMENTS IN THE BETSIAMITES AREA, GENEVIEVE CAUCHON-VOYER1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>St-Ong, Guillaume</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">SUBMARINE</span> MASS MOVEMENTS IN THE BETSIAMITES AREA, GENEVIEVE CAUCHON-VOYER1 , JACQUES <span class="hlt">LOCAT</span>1 A complex <span class="hlt">submarine</span> geomorphology was revealed from multibeam bathymetry and seismic reflection surveys. Introduction Investigating <span class="hlt">submarine</span> mass movements in order to evaluate slope stability for a region</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=CFR&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title33-vol2-sec165-1302.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">33 CFR 165.1302 - Bangor Naval <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Base, Bangor, WA.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>...2010-07-01 false Bangor Naval <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Base, Bangor, WA. 165.1302 Section...District § 165.1302 Bangor Naval <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Base, Bangor, WA. (a) <span class="hlt">Location</span>...Vessels that are performing work at Naval <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Base Bangor pursuant to a...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=CFR2013&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title33-vol2-sec165-1328.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">33 CFR 165.1328 - Regulated Navigation Area; U.S. Navy <span class="hlt">submarines</span>, Hood Canal, WA.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>...Regulated Navigation Area; U.S. Navy <span class="hlt">submarines</span>, Hood Canal, WA. 165.1328 Section...Regulated Navigation Area; U.S. Navy <span class="hlt">submarines</span>, Hood Canal, WA. (a) <span class="hlt">Location</span>...Washington whenever any U.S. Navy <span class="hlt">submarine</span> is operating in the Hood Canal and is being...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=CFR2012&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title33-vol2-sec165-1328.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">33 CFR 165.1328 - Regulated Navigation Area; U.S. Navy <span class="hlt">submarines</span>, Hood Canal, WA.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>...Regulated Navigation Area; U.S. Navy <span class="hlt">submarines</span>, Hood Canal, WA. 165.1328 Section...Regulated Navigation Area; U.S. Navy <span class="hlt">submarines</span>, Hood Canal, WA. (a) <span class="hlt">Location</span>...Washington whenever any U.S. Navy <span class="hlt">submarine</span> is operating in the Hood Canal and is being...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-HHH&redirectUrl=http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/cz0044.photos.579137p/"><span id="translatedtitle">Detail of conning tower atop the <span class="hlt">submarine</span>. Note the wire ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Detail of conning tower atop the <span class="hlt">submarine</span>. Note the wire rope wrapped around the base of the tower, which may have been used in an attempt to pull the <span class="hlt">submarine</span> offshore. - Sub Marine Explorer, <span class="hlt">Located</span> along the beach of Isla San Telmo, Pearl Islands, Isla San Telmo, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOVIMAGE-USGS&redirectUrl=http://gallery.usgs.gov/photos/03_29_2013_otk7Nay4LH_03_29_2013_5"><span id="translatedtitle">Redoubt <span class="hlt">Volcano</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://gallery.usgs.gov/">USGS Multimedia Gallery</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Ascending eruption cloud from Redoubt <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> as viewed to the west from the Kenai Peninsula. The mushroom-shaped plume rose from avalanches of hot debris (pyroclastic flows) that cascaded down the north flank of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. A smaller, white steam plume rises from the summit crater. ...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhDT.......302S"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigations of Anomalous Earthquakes at Active <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shuler, Ashley Elizabeth</p> <p></p> <p>This dissertation investigates the link between volcanic unrest and the occurrence of moderate-to-large earthquakes with a specific type of focal mechanism. Vertical compensated-linear-vector-dipole (vertical-CLVD) earthquakes have vertical pressure or tension axes and seismic radiation patterns that are inconsistent with the double-couple model of slip on a planar fault. Prior to this work, moderate-to-large vertical-CLVD earthquakes were known to be geographically associated with volcanic centers, and vertical-CLVD earthquakes were linked to a tsunami in the Izu-Bonin volcanic arc and a subglacial fissure eruption in Iceland. Vertical-CLVD earthquakes are some of the largest and most anomalous earthquakes to occur in volcanic systems, yet their physical mechanisms remain controversial largely due to the small number of observations. Five vertical-CLVD earthquakes with vertical pressure axes are identified near Nyiragongo <span class="hlt">volcano</span> in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Three earthquakes occur within days of a fissure eruption at Nyiragongo, and two occur several years later in association with the refilling of the lava lake in the summit crater of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. Detailed study of these events shows that the earthquakes have slower source processes than tectonic earthquakes with similar magnitudes and <span class="hlt">locations</span>. All five earthquakes are interpreted as resulting from slip on inward-dipping ring-fault structures <span class="hlt">located</span> above deflating shallow magma chambers. The Nyiragongo study supports the interpretation that vertical-CLVD earthquakes may be causally related to dynamic physical processes occurring inside the edifices or magmatic plumbing systems of active <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>. Two seismicity catalogs from the Global Centroid Moment Tensor (CMT) Project are used to search for further examples of shallow earthquakes with robust vertical-CLVD focal mechanisms. CMT solutions for approximately 400 target earthquakes are calculated and 86 vertical-CLVD earthquakes are identified near active <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>. Together with the Nyiragongo study, this work increases the number of well-studied vertical-CLVD earthquakes from 14 to 101. Vertical-CLVD earthquakes have focal depths in the upper ˜10 km of the Earth's crust, and ˜80% have centroid <span class="hlt">locations</span> within 30 km of an active volcanic center. Vertical-CLVD earthquakes are observed near several different types of <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> in a variety of geographic and tectonic settings, but most vertical-CLVD earthquakes are observed near basaltic-to-andesitic stratovolcanoes and <span class="hlt">submarine</span> <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> in subduction zones. Vertical-CLVD earthquakes are linked to tsunamis, volcanic earthquake swarms, effusive and explosive eruptions, and caldera collapse, and approximately 70% are associated with documented volcanic eruptions or episodes of volcanic unrest. Those events with vertical pressure axes typically occur after volcanic eruptions initiate, whereas events with vertical tension axes commonly occur before the start of volcanic unrest. Both types of vertical-CLVD earthquakes have longer source durations than tectonic earthquakes of the same magnitude. The isotropic and pure vertical-CLVD components of the moment tensor cannot be independently resolved using our long-period seismic dataset. As a result, several physical mechanisms can explain the retrieved deviatoric vertical-CLVD moment tensors, including dip-slip motion on ring faults, volume exchange between two reservoirs, the opening and closing of tensile cracks, and volumetric sources. An evaluation of these mechanisms is performed using constraints obtained from detailed studies of individual vertical-CLVD earthquakes. Although no single physical mechanism can explain all of the characteristics of vertical-CLVD earthquakes, a ring-faulting model consisting of slip on inward- or outward-dipping ring faults triggered by the inflation or deflation of a shallow magma chamber can account for their seismic radiation patterns and source durations, as well as their temporal relationships with volcanic unrest. The observation that most vertical-CLVD earthquakes a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40493059"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of the shapes and sizes of seafloor <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> on Earth and “pancake” domes on Venus</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Deborah K. Smith</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>The fact that flat-topped “pancake” domes observed on Venus resemble flat-topped <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> on Earth's seafloor suggests that volcanic processes on the seafloor and on Venus may operate to construct volcanic forms with similar characteristics. To test this, the shapes and size distributions of terrestrial <span class="hlt">submarine</span> <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> (seamounts) from several magmatic and tectonic provinces are quantitatively compared with those of venusian</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMOS51D..01B"><span id="translatedtitle">Dynamic Controls of Fluid and Gas Flow at North Alex Mud <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, West Nile Delta</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brueckmann, W.; Bialas, J.; Jegen, M. D.; Lefeldt, M. R.; Hoelz, S.; Feseker, T.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>The North Alex Mud <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> (NAMV) is <span class="hlt">located</span> at a water depth of 500m above a large deep-seated gas reservoir on the upper slope of the western Nile deep-sea fan. It has been the object of an integrated study of fluid and gas flow using existing and newly developed observatory technologies to better constrain and quantify devolatilisation and defluidisation patterns and their long-term variability in relation to underlying hydrocarbon reservoirs. As it is known that the activity of mud <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> varies significantly over periods of months and weeks, the assessment of the activity of NAMV focuses on proxies of fluid and gas emanations. <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> mud <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> are usually characterized by fluid formation and fluidization processes occuring at depths of several kilometers below the seafloor, driving a complex system of interacting geochemical, geological and microbial processes. Mud <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> are natural leakages of oil and gas reservoirs. Near-surface observations made at such sites can therefore be used to monitor phenomena that occur at greater depth. Since the initiation of the project in 2007, NAMV has arguably become one of the best-instrumented mud <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> worldwide with a network of observatories collecting long-term records of chemical fluxes, seismicity, temperature, ground deformation, and methane concentration. In addition five research cruises collected complementary geophysical and geological data and samples. In the summer of 2010 a large number of monitoring systems has been recovered which provide us with a synoptic view of the internal dynamics of an active mud <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. We will present an integrated analysis based on ship-based and sea-floor observations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-STC&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/256912"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Submarine</span> cable route survey</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Herrouin, G.; Scuiller, T.</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>The growth of telecommunication market is very significant. From the beginning of the nineties, more and more the use of optical fiber <span class="hlt">submarine</span> cables is privileged to that of satellites. These <span class="hlt">submarine</span> telecommunication highways require accurate surveys in order to select the optimum route and determine the cable characteristics. Advanced technology tools used for these surveys are presented along with their implementation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/18423534"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Submarine</span> neutrino communication</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Patrick Huber</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>We discuss the possibility to use a high energy neutrino beam from a muon storage ring to provide one way communication with a submerged <span class="hlt">submarine</span>. Neutrino interactions produce muons which can be detected either, directly when they pass through the <span class="hlt">submarine</span> or by their emission of Cerenkov light in sea water, which, in turn, can be exploited with sensitive photo</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=ERIC&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=paint&pg=6&id=EJ758487"><span id="translatedtitle">Paint-Stirrer <span class="hlt">Submarine</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Young, Jocelyn; Hardy, Kevin</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>In this article, the authors discuss a unique and challenging laboratory exercise called, the paint-stir-stick <span class="hlt">submarine</span>, that keeps the students enthralled. The paint-stir-stick <span class="hlt">submarine</span> fits beautifully with the National Science Education Standards Physical Science Content Standard B, and with the California state science standards for physical…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000GeoJI.142..361S"><span id="translatedtitle">Volcanic events associated with an enigmatic <span class="hlt">submarine</span> earthquake</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sugioka, Hiroko; Fukao, Yoshio; Kanazawa, Toshihiko; Kanjo, Kenji</p> <p>2000-08-01</p> <p>On 1996 September 4, a <span class="hlt">submarine</span> earthquake occurred underneath the Smith Caldera near Tori-Shima on the Izu-Bonin arc, Japan. Its mechanism was a CLVD with the principal tensile dipole in the vertical direction. The tsunami magnitude Mt of 7.5 was significantly larger than not only the body wave magnitude, mb, of 5.6 but also the moment magnitude, Mw, of 5.7, and thus slow faulting is not a major cause of the generation of large tsunamis. We have detected successive T-wave trains subsequent to the direct T-wave train from this earthquake on the records of the OBS <span class="hlt">submarine</span> cable arrays off northeastern, central and southwestern Honshu. We have <span class="hlt">located</span> these T-wave origins to be coincident with the epicentre of the CLVD earthquake within their solution errors. The T-wave events were repeated for about 35min, while their wave characteristics changed with time. The T-wave amplitude at a station about 700m deep increases with time more strongly than those at stations at greater depths. The T-wave duration is shortened progressively with time. The spectral shape of these T waves is similar to that for ordinary shallow earthquakes, indicating that the ultimate origins of these T waves are within the solid Earth rather than at or above the ocean bottom. Such temporal changes and the spectral shape suggest that the origins of these T waves are seismic shocks that migrated upwards well into the body of the Smith <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>. The spectra of seismic waves from the CLVD source lack significantly high-frequency components, suggesting a lower than normal rupture velocity due presumably to a hotter source environment than in the surrounding region. We suggest that as a result of the CLVD earthquake, the magma-bearing source material was squeezed radially inwards and expelled vertically outwards to induce the magma ascent and associated upward migration of seismic events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://www.nps.edu/Academics/Schools/GSEAS/Departments/USW/Documents/HILGERSUMMER2012.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">THE <span class="hlt">SUBMARINE</span> REVIEW SUMMER 2012</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>THE <span class="hlt">SUBMARINE</span> REVIEW 1 SUMMER 2012 SPURRING INNOVATION AT THE DECKPLATE LEVEL IN THE <span class="hlt">SUBMARINE</span> FORCE LT Ryan P. Hilger, USN <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Student at the Naval Postgraduate School he phenomenal success to alter how we design and operate our <span class="hlt">submarines</span>. Vice Admiral Richardson happily announced after</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=USGSPUBS&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/sir20075174A"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Hazards Assessment for Medicine Lake <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Northern California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Donnelly-Nolan, Julie M.; Nathenson, Manuel; Champion, Duane E.; Ramsey, David W.; Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Ewert, John W.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Medicine Lake <span class="hlt">volcano</span> (MLV) is a very large shield-shaped <span class="hlt">volcano</span> <span class="hlt">located</span> in northern California where it forms part of the southern Cascade Range of <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>. It has erupted hundreds of times during its half-million-year history, including nine times during the past 5,200 years, most recently 950 years ago. This record represents one of the highest eruptive frequencies among Cascade <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> and includes a wide variety of different types of lava flows and at least two explosive eruptions that produced widespread fallout. Compared to those of a typical Cascade stratovolcano, eruptive vents at MLV are widely distributed, extending 55 km north-south and 40 km east-west. The total area covered by MLV lavas is >2,000 km2, about 10 times the area of Mount St. Helens, Washington. Judging from its long eruptive history and its frequent eruptions in recent geologic time, MLV will erupt again. Although the probability of an eruption is very small in the next year (one chance in 3,600), the consequences of some types of possible eruptions could be severe. Furthermore, the documented episodic behavior of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> indicates that once it becomes active, the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> could continue to erupt for decades, or even erupt intermittently for centuries, and very likely from multiple vents scattered across the edifice. Owing to its frequent eruptions, explosive nature, and proximity to regional infrastructure, MLV has been designated a 'high threat <span class="hlt">volcano</span>' by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Early Warning System assessment. Volcanic eruptions are typically preceded by seismic activity, but with only two seismometers <span class="hlt">located</span> high on the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> and no other USGS monitoring equipment in place, MLV is at present among the most poorly monitored Cascade <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NSDL&redirectUrl=http://www.fs.fed.us/gpnf/volcanocams/msh/"><span id="translatedtitle">Mount St. Helens <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>Cam</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This webcam shows a static image of Mount St. Helens taken from the Johnston Ridge Observatory. The Observatory and <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>Cam are <span class="hlt">located</span> at an elevation of approximately 4,500 feet, about five miles from the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. The observer is looking approximately south-southeast across the North Fork Toutle River Valley. The <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>Cam image automatically updates approximately every five minutes. Other features include current conditions reports, weather updates, an image achive, and eruption movies. In addition, there are frequently asked questions, and information about using the <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>Cam image and funding for the <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>Cam.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EOSTr..95..157C"><span id="translatedtitle">Discovery of the Largest Historic Silicic <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Eruption</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Carey, Rebecca J.; Wysoczanski, Richard; Wunderman, Richard; Jutzeler, Martin</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>It was likely twice the size of the renowned Mount St. Helens eruption of 1980 and perhaps more than 10 times bigger than the more recent 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption in Iceland. However, unlike those two events, which dominated world news headlines, in 2012 the daylong <span class="hlt">submarine</span> silicic eruption at Havre <span class="hlt">volcano</span> in the Kermadec Arc, New Zealand (Figure 1a; ~800 kilometers north of Auckland, New Zealand), passed without fanfare. In fact, for a while no one even knew it had occurred.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=USGSPUBS&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70012419"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Submarine</span> volcanic features west of Kealakekua Bay, Hawaii</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Fornari, D.J.; Lockwood, J.P.; Lipman, P.W.; Rawson, M.; Malahoff, A.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>Visual observations of <span class="hlt">submarine</span> volcanic vents were made from the submersible vehicle DSV "Sea Cliff" in water depths between 1310 and 690 m, west of Kealakekua Bay, Hawaii. Glass-rich, shelly <span class="hlt">submarine</span> lavas surround circular 1- to 3-m-diameter volcanic vents between 1050 and 690 m depth in an area west-northwest of the southernpoint (Keei Pt.) of Kealakekua Bay. Eye-witness accounts indicate that this area was the site of a <span class="hlt">submarine</span> eruption on February 24, 1877. Chemical analyses of lavas from these possible seafloor vent areas indicate that the eruptive products are very similar in composition to volcanic rocks produced by historic eruptions of Mauna Loa <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. ?? 1980.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1980JVGR....7..323F"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Submarine</span> volcanic features west of Kealakekua Bay, Hawaii</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fornari, Daniel J.; Lockwood, John P.; Lipman, Peter W.; Rawson, Michael; Malahoff, Alexander</p> <p>1980-05-01</p> <p>Visual observations of <span class="hlt">submarine</span> volcanic vents were made from the submersible vehicle DSV "Sea Cliff" in water depths between 1310 and 690 m, west of Kealakekua Bay, Hawaii. Glass-rich, shelly <span class="hlt">submarine</span> lavas surround circular 1- to 3-m-diameter volcanic vents between 1050 and 690 m depth in an area west-northwest of the southernpoint (Keei Pt.) of Kealakekua Bay. Eye-witness accounts indicate that this area was the site of a <span class="hlt">submarine</span> eruption on February 24, 1877. Chemical analyses of lavas from these possible seafloor vent areas indicate that the eruptive products are very similar in composition to volcanic rocks produced by historic eruptions of Mauna Loa <span class="hlt">volcano</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/0909.4554.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Submarine</span> neutrino communication</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Huber, Patrick</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>We discuss the possibility to use a high energy neutrino beam from a muon storage ring to provide one way communication with a submerged <span class="hlt">submarine</span>. Neutrino interactions produce muons which can be detected either, directly when they pass through the <span class="hlt">submarine</span> or by their emission of Cerenkov light in sea water, which, in turn, can be exploited with sensitive photo detectors. Due to the very high neutrino flux from a muon storage ring, it is sufficient to mount either detection system directly onto the hull of the submersible. The achievable data transfer rates compare favorable with existing technologies and do allow for a communication at the usual speed and depth of <span class="hlt">submarines</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/0909.4554v2"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Submarine</span> neutrino communication</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Patrick Huber</p> <p>2010-08-20</p> <p>We discuss the possibility to use a high energy neutrino beam from a muon storage ring to provide one way communication with a submerged <span class="hlt">submarine</span>. Neutrino interactions produce muons which can be detected either, directly when they pass through the <span class="hlt">submarine</span> or by their emission of Cerenkov light in sea water, which, in turn, can be exploited with sensitive photo detectors. Due to the very high neutrino flux from a muon storage ring, it is sufficient to mount either detection system directly onto the hull of the submersible. The achievable data transfer rates compare favorable with existing technologies and do allow for a communication at the usual speed and depth of <span class="hlt">submarines</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/325614"><span id="translatedtitle">Automating the hunt for <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> on Venus</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>M. C. Burl; U. M. Fayyad; P. Perona; P. Smyth; M. P. Burl</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Our long-term goal is to develop a trainable tool for <span class="hlt">locating</span> patterns of interest in large image databases. Toward this goal we have developed a prototype system, based on classical filtering and statistical pattern recognition techniques, for automatically <span class="hlt">locating</span> <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> in the Magellan SAR database of Venus. Training for the specific <span class="hlt">volcano</span>-detection task is obtained by synthesizing feature templates (via</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=USGSPUBS&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr20071225"><span id="translatedtitle">Digital Data for <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Hazards at Newberry <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Oregon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Schilling, S.P.; Doelger, S.; Sherrod, D.R.; Mastin, L.G.; Scott, W.E.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Newberry <span class="hlt">volcano</span> is a broad shield <span class="hlt">volcano</span> <span class="hlt">located</span> in central Oregon, the product of thousands of eruptions, beginning about 600,000 years ago. At least 25 vents on the flanks and summit have been active during the past 10,000 years. The most recent eruption 1,300 years ago produced the Big Obsidian Flow. Thus, the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>'s long history and recent activity indicate that Newberry will erupt in the future. Newberry Crater, a volcanic depression or caldera has been the focus of Newberry's volcanic activity for at least the past 10,000 years. Newberry National Volcanic Monument, which is managed by the U.S. Forest Service, includes the caldera and extends to the Deschutes River. Newberry <span class="hlt">volcano</span> is quiet. Local earthquake activity (seismicity) has been trifling throughout historic time. Subterranean heat is still present, as indicated by hot springs in the caldera and high temperatures encountered during exploratory drilling for geothermal energy. The report USGS Open-File Report 97-513 (Sherrod and others, 1997) describes the kinds of hazardous geologic events that might occur in the future at Newberry <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. A hazard-zonation map is included to show the areas that will most likely be affected by renewed eruptions. When Newberry <span class="hlt">volcano</span> becomes restless, the eruptive scenarios described herein can inform planners, emergency response personnel, and citizens about the kinds and sizes of events to expect. The geographic information system (GIS) <span class="hlt">volcano</span> hazard data layers used to produce the Newberry <span class="hlt">volcano</span> hazard map in USGS Open-File Report 97-513 are included in this data set. Scientists at the USGS Cascades <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observatory created a GIS data layer to depict zones subject to the effects of an explosive pyroclastic eruption (tephra fallout, pyroclastic flows, and ballistics), lava flows, volcanic gasses, and lahars/floods in Paulina Creek. A separate GIS data layer depicts drill holes on the flanks of Newberry <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> that were used to estimate the probability of coverage by future lava flows.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=USGSPUBS&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70022348"><span id="translatedtitle">Spreading <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Borgia, A.; Delaney, P.T.; Denlinger, R.P.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>As <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> grow, they become ever heavier. Unlike mountains exhumed by erosion of rocks that generally were lithified at depth, <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> typically are built of poorly consolidated rocks that may be further weakened by hydrothermal alteration. The substrates upon which <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> rest, moreover, are often sediments lithified by no more than the weight of the volcanic overburden. It is not surprising, therefore, that volcanic deformation includes-and in the long term is often dominated by-spreading motions that translate subsidence near volcanic summits to outward horizontal displacements around the flanks and peripheries. We review examples of volcanic spreading and go on to derive approximate expressions for the time <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> require to deform by spreading on weak substrates. We also demonstrate that shear stresses that drive low-angle thrust faulting from beneath volcanic constructs have maxima at volcanic peripheries, just where such faults are seen to emerge. Finally, we establish a theoretical basis for experimentally derived scalings that delineate <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> that spread from those that do not.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NSDL&redirectUrl=http://www.kineticcity.com/controlcar/activity.php?act=2&virus=warper"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Baseball</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-12</p> <p>In this game, learners are <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> that must complete several steps to erupt. Starting at home plate, learners draw cards until they have enough points to move to first base. This process repeats for each learner at each base, and each base demonstrates a different process in a <span class="hlt">volcano</span>'s eruption. The first learner to make it back to home plate erupts and is the winner. This is a good introduction to <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>. When learners set up a free account at Kinetic City, they can answer bonus questions at the end of the activity as a quick assessment. As a larger assessment, learners can complete the Smart Attack game after they've completed several activities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://woodshole.er.usgs.gov/staffpages/utenbrink/my%20publications/chaytor_ISSMMTC2012_Munson.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">135Y. Yamada et al. (eds.), <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Mass Movements and Their Consequences, Advances in Natural and Technological Hazards Research 31,</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>ten Brink, Uri S.</p> <p></p> <p>135Y. Yamada et al. (eds.), <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Mass Movements and Their Consequences, Advances in Natural The Munson-Nygren-Retriever (MNR) landslide complex is a series of distinct <span class="hlt">submarine</span> landslides <span class="hlt">located</span>, USA e-mail: jchaytor@usgs.gov Chapter 12 A Reevaluation of the Munson-Nygren- Retriever <span class="hlt">Submarine</span></p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://140.115.21.141/download/M10-15_references/Liu_etal_2002_The%20effect%20of%20a%20submarine%20canyon%20on%20the%20river%20sediment%20dispersal%20and%20inner%20shelf%20sediment%20movements%20in%20southern%20Taiwan_Liu_etal_2002.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">The eect of a <span class="hlt">submarine</span> canyon on the river sediment dispersal and inner shelf sediment movements in</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Lin, Andrew Tien-Shun</p> <p></p> <p>The e¡ect of a <span class="hlt">submarine</span> canyon on the river sediment dispersal and inner shelf sediment movements 2001 Abstract This study examines the influence of a <span class="hlt">submarine</span> canyon on the dispersal of sediments the head region of the Kao-ping <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Canyon whose landward terminus is <span class="hlt">located</span> approximately 1 km</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48548909"><span id="translatedtitle">Mud <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Chi-Yuen Wang; Michael Manga</p> <p></p> <p>\\u000a \\u000a Mud <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>\\u000a are surface structures formed by the eruption of mud from the subsurface. Figure 3.1 shows a typical examples. The erupted\\u000a materials are usually fine grained sediment, water, and gases, dominantly CO2 and methane. Fragments of country rock are also sometimes entrained. They range in size from <1 m, typical of mud <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>\\u000a formed by liquefaction\\u000a at shallow depths,</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NSDL&redirectUrl=https://scout.wisc.edu/Reports/ScoutReport/2002/scout-020830#IntheNews"><span id="translatedtitle">Researchers Find Japanese <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> at Pearl Harbor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p>Green, Marcia.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Earlier this week, researchers from the University of Hawaii and the Hawaii Underwater Research Lab <span class="hlt">located</span> the remains of a Japanese midget <span class="hlt">submarine</span>. Found in 1200 feet of water, the <span class="hlt">submarine</span> was sunk by the USS Ward just an hour before the aerial attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941. Most important, the discovery of the midget <span class="hlt">submarine</span> offers concrete physical evidence that the United States did fire the first shot against the Japanese. Previous expeditions to <span class="hlt">locate</span> the sub, including an effort made in 2000 by the National Geographic Society, had been unsuccessful, largely due to the fact that the area is a military "junkyard" with tons of debris on the ocean floor.For more in-depth information on this story, readers may find the first four news links particularly helpful. The fifth link leads to the Hawaii Underwater Research Lab's Web site that features photographs of the midget sub from the expedition earlier this week. The sixth link is to a Web site dealing with the history and missions of the USS Ward. The final link contains detailed information about the 2000 expedition led by Robert Ballard, with support from the National Geographic Society, to find the midget <span class="hlt">submarine</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=USGSPUBS&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr01395"><span id="translatedtitle">Lahar-hazard zonation for San Miguel <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, El Salvador</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Major, J.J.; Schilling, S.P.; Pullinger, C.R.; Escobar, C.D.; Chesner, C.A.; Howell, M.M.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>San Miguel <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, also known as Chaparrastique, is one of many <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> along the volcanic arc in El Salvador. The <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">located</span> in the eastern part of the country, rises to an altitude of about 2130 meters and towers above the communities of San Miguel, El Transito, San Rafael Oriente, and San Jorge. In addition to the larger communities that surround the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, several smaller communities and coffee plantations are <span class="hlt">located</span> on or around the flanks of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, and the PanAmerican and coastal highways cross the lowermost northern and southern flanks of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. The population density around San Miguel <span class="hlt">volcano</span> coupled with the proximity of major transportation routes increases the risk that even small <span class="hlt">volcano</span>-related events, like landslides or eruptions, may have significant impact on people and infrastructure. San Miguel <span class="hlt">volcano</span> is one of the most active <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> in El Salvador; it has erupted at least 29 times since 1699. Historical eruptions of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> consisted mainly of relatively quiescent emplacement of lava flows or minor explosions that generated modest tephra falls (erupted fragments of microscopic ash to meter sized blocks that are dispersed into the atmosphere and fall to the ground). Little is known, however, about prehistoric eruptions of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. Chemical analyses of prehistoric lava flows and thin tephra falls from San Miguel <span class="hlt">volcano</span> indicate that the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> is composed dominantly of basalt (rock having silica content</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=USGSPUBS&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70013764"><span id="translatedtitle">Acoustic stratigraphy and hydrothermal activity within Epi <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Caldera, Vanuatu, New Hebrides Arc</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Greene, H. Gary; Exon, N.F.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Geological and geophysical surveys of active <span class="hlt">submarine</span> <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> offshore and southeast of Epi Island, Vanuatu, New Hebrides Arc, have delineated details of the structure and acoustic stratigraphy of three volcanic cones. These <span class="hlt">submarine</span> cones, named Epia, Epib, and Epic, are aligned east-west and spaced 3.5 km apart on the rim of a submerged caldera. At least three acoustic sequences, of presumed Quaternary age, can be identified on single-channel seismic-reflection profiles. Rocks dredged from these cones include basalt, dacite, and cognate gabbroic inclusions with magmatic affinities similar to those of the Karua (an active <span class="hlt">submarine</span> <span class="hlt">volcano</span> off the southeastern tip of Epi) lavas. ?? 1988 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://www.tamug.edu/cavebiology/reprints/Reprint-10.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Tlie <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Caves of Bermuda</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Iliffe, Thomas M.</p> <p></p> <p>Tlie <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Caves of Bermuda ThomasM. Iliffe Bermuda Biological Station, Ferry Reach 1-15 #12;The <span class="hlt">Submarine</span>CavesofBermuda ThomasM.Iliffe BermudaBiological Station,Ferry Reach 1-15 Abstract Bermuda the volcanic pedistal. Three types of <span class="hlt">submarine</span> limestone cave morphology have so far been identified</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/1458040"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Coaxial Cable Pressure Characteristics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>K. Aida; M. Aiki</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>In equalization design of <span class="hlt">submarine</span> coaxial cable system, the cable attenuation deviation due to pressure in deep sea bottom has significant weight. This paper treats the <span class="hlt">submarine</span> coaxial cable characteristics pressure dependency. By using an artificial ocean test facility, 1.7 inch <span class="hlt">submarine</span> coaxial cable attenuation, phase, capacitance and insulator core diameter were studied and their pressure coefficients under a pressure</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NSDL&redirectUrl=http://www.geo.mtu.edu/volcanoes/"><span id="translatedtitle">Michigan Tech <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The Michigan Tech <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> Page encourages collaborative, interdisciplinary work on active <span class="hlt">volcanos</span>, and links to resources for the Santa Maria Decade <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> in Guatemala and for Central America's most frequently active <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, Fuego. Also includes images of Pinatubo <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> [one nice one taken from the Space Shuttle Endeavor] and some movies of laharic activity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NSDL&redirectUrl=http://scrippsblogs.ucsd.edu/explorations/files/2013/09/SUBMARINE_A_Journey_into_Science_Discovery.pdf#page=2"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Submarine</span>: Soda Cup Lander</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p>James Cameron</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>In this activity (on page 2), learners create a <span class="hlt">submarine</span> using a plastic cup. This is a fun way to learn about buoyancy and density. Extensions for this activity, such as adding a propeller or manometer, are also included. <br> Note: You will also need access to a tank or swimming pool to watch your <span class="hlt">submarine</span> dive. <br> Safety note: Learners will need an adult's help to drill holes in the film canister. Learners will also need an adult's help if they use a glue gun to attach the film canister to the plastic cup.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NSDL&redirectUrl=http://learningcenter.nsta.org/product_detail.aspx?id=10.2505/4/ss07_030_06_32"><span id="translatedtitle">Paint-Stirrer <span class="hlt">Submarine</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p>Jocelyn Young</p> <p>2007-02-01</p> <p>In today's fast-paced, technological world, it is a constant struggle for teachers to find new and exciting ways to challenge and engage our students. The Paint-Stirrer <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> is a unique and challenging laboratory exercise that keeps the students enthralled. They won't even realize they are learning because they will be having too much fun. This inquiry-based, hands-on experience in building a <span class="hlt">submarine</span> allows the students to learn about buoyancy, buoyant force, Archimedes' principle, and motion in an engaging manner. It will be an experience neither you nor your students will ever forget.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49832199"><span id="translatedtitle">SCOOP--An Improved <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Cable Recovery System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>G. Rich; J. Ewald; C. Jeffcoat; R. Weller</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>For more than twenty years, acoustically controlled, buoyant subsurface arrays have been utilized by research institutions and industry for mooring, <span class="hlt">location</span>, and retrieval of oceanographic instruments. <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> telecommunications cable laying and repair operations typically involve <span class="hlt">location</span> and retrieval of free cable ends left on the seafloor. In deep water areas, conventional methods for cable-end <span class="hlt">location</span> and recovery included the use</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/54277526"><span id="translatedtitle">Groundwater Flow System of Unzen <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Japan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>K. Kazahaya; M. Yasuhara; A. Inamura; T. Sumii; H. Hoshizumi; T. Kohno; S. Ohsawa; Y. Yusa; K. Kitaoka; K. Yamaguchi</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Unzen <span class="hlt">volcano</span> (peak 1486 m) is developed on the western part of Beppu-Shimabara Graben (20 km NS wide and 200 km EW long) <span class="hlt">located</span> at Kyushu island, SW Japan. We have been studied groundwater system of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> using geochemical and hydrological technique in order to estimate flux of magmatic volatiles through the groundwater. We have collected over 150 sample</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-STC&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6250610"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> generate devastating waves</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lockridge, P. (National Geophysical Data Center, Boulder, CO (USA))</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Although volcanic eruptions can cause many frightening phenomena, it is often the power of the sea that causes many <span class="hlt">volcano</span>-related deaths. This destruction comes from tsunamis (huge <span class="hlt">volcano</span>-generated waves). Roughly one-fourth of the deaths occurring during volcanic eruptions have been the result of tsunamis. Moreover, a tsunami can transmit the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>'s energy to areas well outside the reach of the eruption itself. Some historic records are reviewed. Refined historical data are increasingly useful in predicting future events. The U.S. National Geophysical Data Center/World Data Center A for Solid Earth Geophysics has developed data bases to further tsunami research. These sets of data include marigrams (tide gage records), a wave-damage slide set, digital source data, descriptive material, and a tsunami wall map. A digital file contains information on methods of tsunami generation, <span class="hlt">location</span>, and magnitude of generating earthquakes, tsunami size, event validity, and references. The data can be used to describe areas mot likely to generate tsunamis and the <span class="hlt">locations</span> along shores that experience amplified effects from tsunamis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990SPIE.1085...13O"><span id="translatedtitle">Fiber Optic <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Cables</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Oestreich, Ulrich H. P.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Submarine</span> communication cables have one of the longest history in the field of technics. During the last 20 years their importance showed a drastic decay in favour of satellites. Presently their future looks bright again as they contain now optical fibers instead of coaxial pairs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NSDL&redirectUrl=http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/home.html"><span id="translatedtitle">Cascades <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observatory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This United States Geological Survey (USGS) resource provides links to news and current events regarding <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> and current activities and a summary for the Cascade Range and its <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>. Other links connect to information about living with <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, visiting a <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, educational outreach, and hazards assessment reports and maps. There are also extensive menus for links to the USGS <span class="hlt">volcano</span> hazards program, individual <span class="hlt">volcano</span> information, and a FAQ site along with a menu of interests list and a miscellaneous list of sites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=USGSPUBS&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70094778"><span id="translatedtitle">Santorini <span class="hlt">Volcano</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Druitt, T.H.; Edwards, L.; Mellors, R.M.; Pyle, D.M.; Sparks, R.S.J.; Lanphere, M.; Davies, M.; Barreirio, B.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Santorini is one of the most spectacular caldera <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> in the world. It has been the focus of significant scientific and scholastic interest because of the great Bronze Age explosive eruption that buried the Minoan town of Akrotiri. Santorini is still active. It has been dormant since 1950, but there have been several substantial historic eruptions. Because of this potential risk to life, both for the indigenous population and for the large number of tourists who visit it, Santorini has been designated one of five European Laboratory <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> by the European Commission. Santorini has long fascinated geologists, with some important early work on <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> being conducted there. Since 1980, research groups at Cambridge University, and later at the University of Bristol and Blaise Pascal University in Clermont-Ferrand, have collected a large amount of data on the stratigraphy, geochemistry, geochronology and petrology of the volcanics. The volcanic field has been remapped at a scale of 1:10 000. A remarkable picture of cyclic volcanic activity and magmatic evolution has emerged from this work. Much of this work has remained unpublished until now. This Memoir synthesizes for the first time all the data from the Cambridge/Bristol/Clermont groups, and integrates published data from other research groups. It provides the latest interpretation of the tectonic and magmatic evolution of Santorini. It is accompanied by the new 1:10 000 full-colour geological map of the island.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/56440540"><span id="translatedtitle">Earth Currents in Short <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Cables</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>D. W. Cherry; A. T. Stovold</p> <p>1946-01-01</p> <p>PRIOR to 1940, faults on <span class="hlt">submarine</span> telephone cables between Great Britain and the Continent were normally <span class="hlt">located</span> by direct-current methods employing a good wire in another cable. Confirmatory tests were usually made by the impedance-frequency method1. When the time came in 1944 to restore telephone communications, no good wires were available. The impedance-frequency method was employed for fault localization with</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=USGSPUBS&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70009840"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Submarine</span> basalt from the Revillagigedo Islands region, Mexico</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Moore, J.G.</p> <p>1970-01-01</p> <p>Ocean-floor dredging and <span class="hlt">submarine</span> photography in the Revillagigedo region off the west coast of Mexico reveal that the dominant exposed rock of the <span class="hlt">submarine</span> part of the large island-forming <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> (Roca Partida and San Benedicto) is a uniform alkali pillow basalt; more siliceous rocks are exposed on the upper, subaerial parts of the <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>. Basalts dredged from smaller seamounts along the Clarion fracture zone south of the Revillagigedo Islands are tholeiitic pillow basalts. Pillows of alkali basalts are more vesicular than Hawaiian tholeiitic pillows collected from the same depths. This difference probably reflects a higher original volatile content of the alkali basalts. Manganese-iron oxide nodules common in several dredge hauls generally contain nucleii of rhyolitic pumice or basalt pillow fragments. The pumice floated to its present site from subaerial eruptions, became waterlogged and sank, and was then coated with manganese-iron oxides. The thickness of palagonite rinds on the glassy pillow fragments is proportional to the thickness of manganese-iron oxide layers, and both are a measure of the age of the nodule. Both oldest basalts (10-100 m.y.) and youngest (less than 1 m.y.) are along the Clarion fracture zone, whereas basalts from Roca Partida and San Benedicto <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> are of intermediate age. ?? 1970.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001PhDT.......133C"><span id="translatedtitle">Seismic and acoustic studies of Lo`ihi <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> and southeast Hawai`i</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Caplan-Auerbach, Jacqueline</p> <p>2001-10-01</p> <p>The growth patterns and internal structure of Lo`ihi <span class="hlt">submarine</span> <span class="hlt">volcano</span> have been investigated in two studies: an evaluation of the 1996 Lo`ihi earthquake swarm and a 1998 multi-channel seismic reflection survey. A velocity model constructed from the earthquake swarm and from refraction data collected in 1998 indicates that Lo`ihi's edifice has seismic velocities between 4--6 km/s while the shallow summit and flanks have velocities near 2 km/s. Earthquake relocations using the new model show that the 1996 swarm consisted of an early, tectonic phase in which a magma chamber drained, followed by the formation of a pit crater on Lo`ihi's summit. Use of an ocean bottom seismometer during the 1996 swarm suggested that instruments must be positioned on Lo`ihi to properly evaluate its behavior. More data were collected on Lo`ihi when the Hawai`i Undersea Geo-Observatory (HUGO) was deployed on the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> in 1997. This real-time seafloor observatory contained a high-rate hydrophone on which 3 months of nearly continuous data were recorded. Data recorded by HUGO include local and teleseismic earthquakes, and Pacific-wide T-phases. <span class="hlt">Locations</span> of offshore Hawai`i island earthquakes improve dramatically with data from HUGO. The majority of signals recorded on the HUGO hydrophone have the Kilauea ocean entry as their source. Many signals are impulsive events believed to be hydrovolcanic explosions. Other events, designated "roars", are composed of a low-frequency rumble, accompanied by a prolonged broadband hiss. We interpret these events as <span class="hlt">submarine</span> landslides because the largest of these events correlate with observed collapses of the Kilauea ocean entry. All of these collapses and some of the smaller landslides were also detected by the autonomous hydrophone array operated by the Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, >5000 km from Kilauea. These data represent the first confirmed hydroacoustic recordings of <span class="hlt">submarine</span> landslides and could be a useful component in tsunami monitoring efforts. That landsliding is a fundamental process in the growth of a Hawaiian <span class="hlt">volcano</span> was further made clear both by the MCS data which show that Lo`ihi's Ranks have experienced mass wasting throughout its growth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.V44A..02T"><span id="translatedtitle">Shrimp Populations on Northwest Rota, an Active <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> of the Mariana Volcanic Arc</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tunnicliffe, V.; Juniper, S. K.; Limén, H.; Jones, W. J.; Vrijenhoek, R.; Webber, R.; Eerkes-Medrano, D.</p> <p>2004-12-01</p> <p>NW Rota-1 is a <span class="hlt">submarine</span> <span class="hlt">volcano</span> that manifested active volcanic and hydrothermal activity during submersible surveys in March 2004 (see Embley et al.). Substratum on the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> summit (520 m depth) was entirely basalt outcrop or variously-sized ejecta lying near the angle of repose. While no fauna inhabited the rim of the volcanic pit, patches of shrimp were <span class="hlt">located</span> within 25 m and on the nearby summit. Two species are present. Opaepele cf. loihi shows few morphological differences from either a nearby population on Eifuku <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> (see Chadwick et al.) at 1700 m depth or from the type locality in Hawaii. A molecular comparison of COI sequences of 13 specimens found little difference from two Hawaiian sequences. Video observations detail frequent feeding activity using spatulate chelipeds to trim microbial filaments as the cephalothorax sways across the substratum. The second species is an undescribed Alvinocaris. Juveniles of this species appear to form clusters distinct from Opaepele where they also graze on filaments. Sparse adults of Alvinocaris range up to 5.5 cm long and display aggressive behaviour moving through patches of smaller shrimp. Densities of Opaepele were highest on sloping rock walls (over 500 per sq.m.) whereas adult Alvinocaris were more abundant on rubble. This division may reflect food preference: microbial filaments versus polychaetes and meiofauna. Characterization of particulates from these substrata was conducted using visual sorting and stable isotope composition. As Alvinocaris matures, the chelipeds enlarge, enabling a greater predatory capacity. Measurements of Opaepele from digital in situ images reveal a population structure suggesting a recent recruitment. Average size is significantly smaller than the Eifuku population and no egg-bearing females were collected. The disjunct range of this species where it occurs on active <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> 6000 km apart is puzzling. Further work on intermediate sites and into the reproductive strategy of the species is required.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://www.activetectonics.coas.oregonstate.edu/paper_files/annurev-marine-120709-142852.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Paleoseismology Based on Turbidite Records</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Goldfinger, Chris</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Paleoseismology Based on Turbidite Records Chris Goldfinger College of Oceanic trigger processes such as turbidity currents, <span class="hlt">submarine</span> landslides, tsunami (which may be recorded both counterparts. This article reviews the use of <span class="hlt">submarine</span> turbidite deposits for paleoseismology, focuses</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NSDL&redirectUrl=http://www.discoveryeducation.com/teachers/free-lesson-plans/understanding-volcanoes.cfm"><span id="translatedtitle">Understanding <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p>Frank Weisel</p> <p></p> <p>This lesson plan is part of the DiscoverySchool.com lesson plan library for grades 6-8. It focuses on the three types of <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>: shield, cinder cone, and composite. Students research each type and then make models of each one to learn the distinctive properties of each type. Included are objectives, materials, procedures, discussion questions, evaluation ideas, suggested readings, and vocabulary. There are videos available to order which complement this lesson, an audio-enhanced vocabulary list, and links to teaching tools for making custom quizzes, worksheets, puzzles and lesson plans.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/55644254"><span id="translatedtitle">Volcanic Explosions, Seismicity, and Debris from the West and North Mata <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Complex, NE Lau Basin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>R. P. Dziak; D. R. Bohnenstiehl; E. T. Baker; H. Matsumoto; J. Haxel; S. Walker; M. Fowler</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The discovery of the explosively erupting deep-ocean West Mata <span class="hlt">volcano</span> in the northeast Lau Basin offers an unprecedented opportunity for in situ and near-field studies of the hydroacoustic wavefield produced by a <span class="hlt">submarine</span> arc <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, as well as the relationship between gas-driven explosions and the formation of volcanic-hydrothermal plumes. From December 2009 to April 2010, we re-initiated acoustic monitoring of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/14901934"><span id="translatedtitle">Flushing <span class="hlt">submarine</span> canyons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Miquel Canals; Pere Puig; Xavier Durrieu de Madron; Serge Heussner; Albert Palanques; Joan Fabres</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The continental slope is a steep, narrow fringe separating the coastal zone from the deep ocean. During low sea-level stands, slides and dense, sediment-laden flows erode the outer continental shelf and the continental slope, leading to the formation of <span class="hlt">submarine</span> canyons that funnel large volumes of sediment and organic matter from shallow regions to the deep ocean1. During high sea-level</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.V51G..01G"><span id="translatedtitle">Subaerial, <span class="hlt">submarine</span> and extraterrestrial volcanic morphologies: Comparisons and contrasts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gregg, T. K.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Interpretation of volcanic deposits on Mars is frustrated by lack of ground truth. Although orbiting instruments are collecting compositional data (as spectra), and rovers are providing detailed analyses of a few select areas on the surface, volcanic morphologies remain the primary means for our understanding of Martian volcanic behavior. Geologic mapping, combined with critical study of terrestrial analogs, provides a sound means for constraining the precise origin of volcanic deposits on Mars, Earth's sea floor, and the surfaces of the other terrestrial planets. Layered deposits within Hesperia Planum, Mars, and composing Tyrrhenus Mons (a low-relief central-vent <span class="hlt">volcano</span> <span class="hlt">located</span> within Hesperia Planum) have variously been interpreted to be: flood lavas, pyroclastic deposits (probably pyroclastic flows), or sedimentary deposits. Compositional data are not helpful here: the area is covered with sufficient dust to prevent orbiting instruments from measuring the bedrock composition. An additional complication is that these deposits were emplaced in the Noachian to Early Hesperian and have been subsequently modified by fluvial, mass wasting, and groundwater sapping processes. Comparing Martian deposits with terrestrial subaerial and <span class="hlt">submarine</span> analogs provides necessary insight for interpreting the Martian deposits as effusive, explosive, or sedimentary. The planform margins of eroded subaerial ignimbrite deposits on Earth, for example, are locally dominated by aeolian exploitation of contraction cooling joints and have a crenulated margin. In contrast, the planform shape of seamounts reflects competing forces of accumulation of lava with simultaneous mass-wasting of oversteepened slopes, resulting in an almost stellate outline. Sedimentary deposits are unlikely to display thermal jointing, but may have jointing caused by local tectonics. Thus, determining the nature of these (and other) layered deposits requires the compilation of a 'preponderance of evidence,' including geologic setting, deposit morphology, and erosional history.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NSDL&redirectUrl=http://cse.ssl.berkeley.edu/lessons/indiv/coe/summary.html"><span id="translatedtitle">Surfing for Earthquakes and <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p>Patty Coe</p> <p></p> <p>This resource is part of the Science Education Gateway (SEGway) project, funded by NASA, which is a national consortium of scientists, museums, and educators working together to bring the latest science to students, teachers, and the general public. In this lesson, students use the Internet to research data on earthquakes and <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> and plot <span class="hlt">locations</span> to determine plate boundaries. Extensions include interpretation of interaction between plate boundaries, causes of earthquakes and <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, and the comparison of the formation of Olympus Mons on Mars and the Hawaiian volcanic chain. There are worksheets, references, assessment ideas, and vocabulary available for educators.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMOS31E..08S"><span id="translatedtitle">The Initiation of <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Debris Flow after 2006 Pingtung Earthquake Offshore Southwestern Taiwan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Su, C. C.; Liu, J. T.; Chiu, H. T.; Li, S. J.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>On 26?27 December 2006, a series of <span class="hlt">submarine</span> cables were damaged offshore southwestern Taiwan from Gaoping Slope to the northern terminus of the Manila Trench. The cable breakages were caused by gravity flows which triggered by the Pingtung earthquake doublet occurred on 26 December 2006 at 20:26 (21.9°N, 120.6°E; ML 7.0) and 20:34 (21.97°N, 120.42°E; ML 7.0) offshore of Fangliao Twonship and meanwhile the local fishermen reported disturbed waters at the head of Fangliao <span class="hlt">submarine</span> canyon. Although many researchers conjectured the disturbed waters may cause by the eruption of <span class="hlt">submarine</span> <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> which has been widely discovered off the southwestern Taiwan, the actual mechanism is still unclear. In previous studies, a series of faults, liquefaction strata, pockmarks and acoustically transparent sediments with doming structures were observed at the head of Fanliao <span class="hlt">submarine</span> canyon and may highly related to the <span class="hlt">submarine</span> groundwater discharge off southwestern Taiwan. Recently, further multi-beam surveys were conducted at the east of Fangliao <span class="hlt">submarine</span> canyon head and the result shows large area of seafloor subsidence after Pingtung Earthquake. The area of subsidence is over 60 km2 with maximum depth around 5 meters. The north end of the subsidence is connected to the Fangliao <span class="hlt">submarine</span> canyon where the first cable was failed (CH-US CN-W2-1: 22°13.287'N, 120°33.722'E) after Pingtung Earthquake. All the evidences point out the large earthquake might triggered liquefaction process and generated large debris flow and swept the <span class="hlt">submarine</span> cables away from the Fangliao <span class="hlt">submarine</span> canyon head to the abyss.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999JSAES..12..123H"><span id="translatedtitle">Seismic signals from Lascar <span class="hlt">Volcano</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hellweg, M.</p> <p>1999-03-01</p> <p>Lascar, the most active <span class="hlt">volcano</span> in northern Chile, lies near the center of the region studied during the Proyecto de Investigación Sismológica de la Cordillera Occidental 94 (PISCO '94). Its largest historical eruption occurred on 19 April 1993. By the time of the PISCO '94 deployment, its activity consisted mainly of a plume of water vapor and SO 2. In April and May 1994, three short-period, three-component seismometers were placed on the flanks of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, augmenting the broadband seismometer <span class="hlt">located</span> on the NW flank of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> during the entire deployment. In addition to the usual seismic signals recorded at <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, Lascar produced two unique tremor types: Rapid-fire tremor and harmonic tremor. Rapid-fire tremor appears to be a sequence of very similar, but independent, "impulsive" events with a large range of amplitudes. Harmonic tremor, on the other hand, is a continuous, cyclic signal lasting several hours. It is characterized by a spectrum with peaks at a fundamental frequency and its integer multiples. Both types of tremor seem to be generated by movement of fluids in the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, most probably water, steam or gas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17225386"><span id="translatedtitle">Acoustic scattering from mud <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> and carbonate mounds.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Holland, Charles W; Weber, Thomas C; Etiope, Giuseppe</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Submarine</span> mud <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> occur in many parts of the world's oceans and form an aperture for gas and fluidized mud emission from within the earth's crust. Their characteristics are of considerable interest to the geology, geophysics, geochemistry, and underwater acoustics communities. For the latter, mud <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> are of interest in part because they pose a potential source of clutter for active sonar. Close-range (single-interaction) scattering measurements from a mud <span class="hlt">volcano</span> in the Straits of Sicily show scattering 10-15 dB above the background. Three hypotheses were examined concerning the scattering mechanism: (1) gas entrained in sediment at/near mud <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, (2) gas bubbles and/or particulates (emitted) in the water column, (3) the carbonate bio-construction covering the mud <span class="hlt">volcano</span> edifice. The experimental evidence, including visual, acoustic, and nonacoustic sensors, rules out the second hypothesis (at least during the observation time) and suggests that, for this particular mud <span class="hlt">volcano</span> the dominant mechanism is associated with carbonate chimneys on the mud <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. In terms of scattering levels, target strengths of 4-14 dB were observed from 800 to 3600 Hz for a monostatic geometry with grazing angles of 3-5 degrees. Similar target strengths were measured for vertically bistatic paths with incident and scattered grazing angles of 3-5 degrees and 33-50 degrees, respectively. PMID:17225386</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://www.saguenay.ggl.ulaval.ca/saguenay/publi/locatleeul.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Submarine</span> landslides: advances and challenges</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Jacques Locat; Homa J. Lee</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Due to the recent development of well-integrat ed surveying techniques of the sea-floor, significant improvements were achieved in mapping and describing the morphology of <span class="hlt">submarine</span> mass movements. Except for the occurrence of turbidity currents, the aquatic environment (marine and fresh water) experiences the same type of mass failure as found on land. <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> mass movements however, can have run out</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMOS31E..02M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Landslides: A Multidisciplinary Crossroad</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moscardelli, L. G.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The study of <span class="hlt">submarine</span> landslides has advanced considerably in the last decade. A multitude of geoscience disciplines, including marine, petroleum and planetary geology, as well as geohazard assessments, are concerned with the study of these units. Oftentimes, researchers working in these fields disseminate their findings within their own communities and a multidisciplinary approach seems to lack. This presentation showcases several case studies in which a broader approach has increased our understanding of <span class="hlt">submarine</span> landslides in a variety of geologic settings. Three-dimensional seismic data from several continental margins (Trinidad, Brazil, Morocco, Canada, GOM), as well as data from outcrop localities are shown to explore geomorphological complexities associated with <span class="hlt">submarine</span> landslides. Discussion associated with the characterization and classification of <span class="hlt">submarine</span> landslides is also part of this work. Topics that will be cover include: 1) how data from conventional oil and gas exploration activities can be used to increase our understanding of the dynamic behavior of <span class="hlt">submarine</span> landslides, 2) analogies between terrestrial <span class="hlt">submarine</span> landslides and potential Martian counterparts, 3) impact of <span class="hlt">submarine</span> landslides in margin construction, as well as their economic significance and 4) the importance of quantifying the morphology of <span class="hlt">submarine</span> landslides in a systematic fashion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1982easc.conf..277M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Submarine</span> laser communications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McConathy, D. R.</p> <p></p> <p>The Department of the Navy and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) are sponsoring a joint study to investigate the use of blue-green laser technology to comunicate with <span class="hlt">submarines</span> at operating depths. Two approaches are under investigation - one in which the laser itself is space-based, and the other in which the laser is ground-based with its beam redirected to the earth's surface by an orbiting mirror. This paper discusses these two approaches, and presents a brief history of activities which led to the current studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASA-TRS&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820063974&hterms=submarine&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dsubmarine"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Submarine</span> fresh water outflow detection with a dual-frequency microwave and an infrared radiometer system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Blume, H.-J. C.; Kendall, B. M.; Fedors, J. C.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>Since infrared measurements are only very slightly affected by whitecap and banking angle influences, the combined multifrequency radiometric signatures of the L-band, the S-band, and an infrared radiometer are used in identifying freshwater outflows (submerged and superficial). To separate the river and lagoon outflows from the <span class="hlt">submarine</span> outflows, geographical maps with a scale of 1:100,000 are used. In all, 44 <span class="hlt">submarine</span> freshwater springs are identified. This is seen as indicating that the <span class="hlt">submarine</span> freshwater outflow <span class="hlt">locations</span> are more numerous around the island than had earlier been estimated. Most of the <span class="hlt">submarine</span> springs are <span class="hlt">located</span> at the northwest and southeast portion of the Puerto Rican coastline; the success in detecting the <span class="hlt">submarine</span> springs during both missions at the northwest portion of the island is 39%. Salinity and temperature distribution plots along the flight path in longitude and latitude coordinates reveal that runoff direction can be determined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.V33A1174X"><span id="translatedtitle">Penguin Bank: A Loa-Trend Hawaiian <span class="hlt">Volcano</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xu, G.; Blichert-Toft, J.; Clague, D. A.; Cousens, B.; Frey, F. A.; Moore, J. G.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>Hawaiian <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> along the Hawaiian Ridge from Molokai Island in the northwest to the Big Island in the southeast, define two parallel trends of <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> known as the Loa and Kea spatial trends. In general, lavas erupted along these two trends have distinctive geochemical characteristics that have been used to define the spatial distribution of geochemical heterogeneities in the Hawaiian plume (e.g., Abouchami et al., 2005). These geochemical differences are well established for the <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> forming the Big Island. The longevity of the Loa- Kea geochemical differences can be assessed by studying East and West Molokai <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> and Penguin Bank which form a volcanic ridge perpendicular to the Loa and Kea spatial trends. Previously we showed that East Molokai <span class="hlt">volcano</span> (~1.5 Ma) is exclusively Kea-like and that West Molokai <span class="hlt">volcano</span> (~1.8 Ma) includes lavas that are both Loa- and Kea-like (Xu et al., 2005 and 2007).The <span class="hlt">submarine</span> Penguin Bank (~2.2 Ma), probably an independent <span class="hlt">volcano</span> constructed west of West Molokai <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, should be dominantly Loa-like if the systematic Loa and Kea geochemical differences were present at ~2.2 Ma. We have studied 20 samples from Penguin Bank including both <span class="hlt">submarine</span> and subaerially-erupted lavas recovered by dive and dredging. All lavas are tholeiitic basalt representing shield-stage lavas. Trace element ratios, such as Sr/Nb and Zr/Nb, and isotopic ratios of Sr and Nd clearly are Loa-like. On an ?Nd-?Hf plot, Penguin Bank lavas fall within the field defined by Mauna Loa lavas. Pb isotopic data lie near the Loa-Kea boundary line defined by Abouchami et al. (2005). In conclusion, we find that from NE to SW, i.e., perpendicular to the Loa and Kea spatial trend, there is a shift from Kea-like East Molokai lavas to Loa-like Penguin Bank lavas with the intermediate West Molokai <span class="hlt">volcano</span> having lavas with both Loa- and Kea-like geochemical features. Therefore, the Loa and Kea geochemical dichotomy exhibited by Big Island <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> existed at ~2.2 Ma when the Molokai Island <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> formed and has persisted until the present. References: Abouchami et al., 2005 Nature, 434:851-856 Xu et al., 2005 G3, doi: 10.1029/2004GC000830 Xu et al., 2007 G3, doi: 10.1029/2006GC001554</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52265822"><span id="translatedtitle">REVEL* sails in a new direction. (* Research and Education: <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span>, Exploration and Life)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>V. Robigou</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>The REVEL Project started as an education and outreach program designed to integrate elementary to high school science teachers into fully-funded research cruises that study the full spectrum of processes associated with <span class="hlt">submarine</span> <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>. Since its inception at the University of Washington in 1996, REVEL provided 47 science teachers an opportunity to explore the nature of mid-ocean ridge volcanism and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NSDL&redirectUrl=http://volcano.oregonstate.edu/vwdocs/vwlessons/volcano_types/index.html"><span id="translatedtitle">Types of <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This <span class="hlt">volcano</span> resource introduces the six-type classification system and points out weaknesses of the classic three-type system. The six types of <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> are shield <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, strato <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, rhyolite caldera complexes, monogenetic fields, flood basalts, and mid-ocean ridges. For each type of <span class="hlt">volcano</span> there is a description of both structure and dynamics along with examples of each. You can account for more than ninty percent of all <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> with these six types. Additionally, any system will be more useful if you use modifiers from the other potential classification schemes with the morphological types.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.V32B..07S"><span id="translatedtitle">Global Observation of Vertical-CLVD Earthquakes Associated with Active <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shuler, A. E.; Ekstrom, G.; Nettles, M.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Recent work suggests that vertical-CLVD earthquakes associated with active <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> can be generated by slip on pre-existing ring fault structures. These earthquakes can occur in connection with ongoing volcanic eruptions. These events can also occur due to the transport of magma from deeper to more shallow magma chambers, and so their detection may be useful for determining the likelihood of future eruptions. In this study, we perform a systematic global search for non-double-couple earthquakes with either vertical P or T axes <span class="hlt">located</span> within 100 kilometers of a <span class="hlt">volcano</span> that has erupted since 1900. Our survey utilizes the Global CMT Catalog as well as a catalog of newly detected earthquakes that were <span class="hlt">located</span> using intermediate-period surface waves (Ekström, 2006). Using updated methods that include both body and surface wave data, deviatoric centroid-moment-tensor solutions were (re)calculated for 135 vertical-CLVD earthquakes recorded in the Global CMT catalog from 1976-2009 and 175 earthquakes recorded in the surface wave catalog from 1991-2008. In total, 33 earthquakes from the Global CMT catalog and 49 earthquakes from the surface wave catalog were found to have robust vertical-CLVD sources, excluding earthquakes previously studied at Bárdarbunga and Nyiragongo <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>. Though many of the vertical-CLVD earthquakes are not temporally associated with eruptions at nearby <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, roughly one third occur during periods of observed volcanic unrest. For example, vertical-CLVD events are associated with a paroxysmal explosion at Stromboli in 2003, with a <span class="hlt">submarine</span> eruption at Vailulu’u in 1995, and with large-scale eruptions at Sierra Negra in 2005 and Tungurahua in 2006. Dozens of vertical-CLVD earthquakes are also associated with the incremental caldera collapse of Miyakejima in 2000. We explore a range of potential physical mechanisms for vertical-CLVD earthquakes by integrating our seismic observations with auxiliary data from the best-studied <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>. Full moment tensor solutions are also calculated, and the trade-offs between isotropic and vertical-CLVD components are considered in our models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFM.V12G..03H"><span id="translatedtitle">Simultaneous <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> and Subaerial Volcanic Activity on the Flanks of the Western Canary Islands La Palma and El Hierro</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hansteen, T. H.; Schmincke, H. U.; Klügel, A.; Abratis, M.</p> <p>2003-12-01</p> <p>The westernmost and youngest Canary Islands La Palma (2.0 Ma) and El Hierro (1.1 Ma) are presently in their shield stages. The subaerial and <span class="hlt">submarine</span> morphology of both islands is characterized by one or three elongated ridges, respectively, commonly interpreted as volcanic rift zones. Our investgations indicate that young <span class="hlt">submarine</span> volcanic activity off the islands is not confined to the extensions of these rift zones, but is also dispersed along the island flanks. Fresh basaltic rocks dredged along these flanks (RV "Poseidon" cruise 270 in 2001, and RV "Meteor" cruise M43 in 1998) comprise basanites to tephrites and alkali basalts. Remarkably, the dredged lavas are geochemically more diverse than those of the Holocene subaerial ridges. Fresh basalts have been recovered from 21 young <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> on the <span class="hlt">submarine</span> flanks of El Hierro at depths from 800 to 2300 m. Another 25 volcanic cones can be tentatively identified from morphologies similar to the dreged ones. These <span class="hlt">submarine</span> <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> off El Hierro occur in a dispersed manner on the blunt noses representing the extensions of the postulated suabearial northeast and northwest rift zones but also off the rift axes. Young <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> also occur within the Las Playas and El Julan landslide scars, testifying to renewed volcanic activity following large landslides. On the east flank of La Palma, we recovered basaltic rocks from 8 volcanic cones at depths between 850 and 2200 m and at a distance of up to 30 km off the rift axis, recognizing another 20 possible <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> in the same area from high-resolution bathymetric data. Remarkably, young <span class="hlt">submarine</span> <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> are comparatively rare on the western flank and the <span class="hlt">submarine</span> extension of the Cumbre Vieja rift zone. The high density of apparently young <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> on the NE and NW slopes of El Hierro suggests that <span class="hlt">submarine</span> volcanism is volumetrically important during subaerial growth stages of the Canary Islands. Our results indicate that a broad melting anomaly involving distinct sources must occur in the mantle beneath La Palma and El Hierro.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.V33H..06C"><span id="translatedtitle">Silicic <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Eruptions: what can erupted pyroclasts tell us?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Carey, R.; Allen, S.; McPhie, J.; Fiske, R. S.; Tani, K.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Our understanding of <span class="hlt">submarine</span> volcanism is in its infancy with respect to subaerial eruption processes. Two fundamental differences between eruptions in seawater compared to those on land are that (1) eruptions occur at higher confining pressures, and (2) in a seawater medium, which has a higher heat capacity, density and viscosity than air. Together with JAMSTEC collaborators we have a sample suite of <span class="hlt">submarine</span> pumice deposits from modern <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> of known eruption depths. This sample suite spans a spectrum of eruption intensities, from 1) powerful explosive caldera-forming (Myojin Knoll caldera); to 2) weakly explosive cone building (pre-caldera Myojin Knoll pumice and Kurose-Nishi pumice); to 3) volatile-driven effusive dome spalling (Sumisu knoll A); to 4) passive dome effusion (Sumisu knoll B and C). This sample suite has exceptional potential, not simply because the samples have been taken from well-constrained, sources but because they have similar high silica contents, are unaltered and their phenocrysts contain melt inclusions. Microtextural quantitative analysis has revealed that (i) clast vesicularities remain high (69-90 vol.%) regardless of confining pressure, mass eruption rate or eruption style , (ii) vesicle number densities scale with inferred eruption rate, and (iii) darcian and inertial permeabilities of <span class="hlt">submarine</span> effusive and explosive pyroclasts overlap with explosively-erupted subaerial pyroclasts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASA-TRS&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810054384&hterms=submarine&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dsubmarine"><span id="translatedtitle">Multifrequency radiometer detection of <span class="hlt">submarine</span> freshwater sources along the Puerto Rican coastline</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Blume, H.-J. C.; Kendall, B. M.; Fedors, J. C.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>The surface area above <span class="hlt">submarine</span> springs of fresh water exhibit temperatures and salinities lower than the surrounding sea waters. A multifrequency radiometer system which earlier demonstrated an accuracy of 1 degree C and 1 part per thousand in remotely detecting the surface temperature and salinities, respectively, was used to detect <span class="hlt">submarine</span> freshwater springs. The first mission on February 4, 1978, consisted of overflight measurements over three fourths of the coastal areas around the Island of Puerto Rico. During the second mission on February 6, 1978, special attention was directed to the northwest portion of Puerto Rico where several <span class="hlt">submarine</span> springs had been reported. The previously reported spring <span class="hlt">locations</span> correlated well with the <span class="hlt">locations</span> detected by the radiometers. After separating the surface runoffs such as rivers, lagoons, marshes, and bays, 44 <span class="hlt">submarine</span> freshwater springs were identified which indicates that the <span class="hlt">submarine</span> freshwater outflow <span class="hlt">locations</span> are more numerous around the island than had earlier been estimated. The majority of the <span class="hlt">submarine</span> springs are <span class="hlt">located</span> at the northwest and southeast portion of the Puerto Rican coastline. The success of detecting the same <span class="hlt">submarine</span> springs during both missions at the northwest portion of the island was 39%.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=USGSPUBS&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70035857"><span id="translatedtitle">Postshield stage transitional volcanism on Mahukona <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Hawaii</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Clague, D.A.; Calvert, A.T.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Age spectra from 40Ar/39Ar incremental heating experiments yield ages of 298??25 ka and 310??31 ka for transitional composition lavas from two cones on <span class="hlt">submarine</span> Mahukona <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Hawaii. These ages are younger than the inferred end of the tholeiitic shield stage and indicate that the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> had entered the postshield alkalic stage before going extinct. Previously reported elevated helium isotopic ratios of lavas from one of these cones were incorrectly interpreted to indicate eruption during a preshield alkalic stage. Consequently, high helium isotopic ratios are a poor indicator of eruptive stage, as they occur in preshield, shield, and postshield stage lavas. Loihi Seamount and Kilauea are the only known Hawaiian <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> where the volume of preshield alkalic stage lavas can be estimated. ?? Springer-Verlag 2008.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=USGSPUBS&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/mf2255"><span id="translatedtitle">Bathymetry of the southwest flank of Mauna Loa <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Hawaii</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Chadwick, William W.; Moore, James G.; Fox, Christopher G.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Much of the seafloor topography in the map area is on the southwest <span class="hlt">submarine</span> flank of the currently active Mauna Loa <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>. The benches and blocky hills shown on the map were shaped by giant landslides that resulted from instability of the rapidly growing <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. These landslides were imagined during a 1986 to 1991 swath sonar program of the United States Hawaiian Exclusive Economic Zone, a cooperative venture by the U.S. Geological Survey and the British Institute of Oceanographic Sciences (Lipman and others, 1988; Moore and others, 1989). Dana Seamount (and probably also the neighboring Day Seamount) are apparently Cretaceous in age, based on paleomagnetic studies, and predate the growth of the Hawaiian Ridge <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> (Sager and Pringle, 1990).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001LPI....32.1258K"><span id="translatedtitle">Slopes of Martian <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kallianpur, K.; Mouginis-Mark, P. J.</p> <p>2001-03-01</p> <p>We use MOLA data to derive slope maps of 9 <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> on Mars. Tharsis <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> have the same shape as Galapagos <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> with deep calderas. Alba Patera is very similar to Tyrrhena Patera. Slopes greater than 7 degrees are common on Elysium Mons.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NSDL&redirectUrl=http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/monitor/index.html"><span id="translatedtitle">Monitoring Active <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p>Robert Tilling</p> <p></p> <p>This United States Geological Survey (USGS) publication discusses the historic and current monitoring of active <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> around the globe. Techniques to measure deviations in pressure and stress induced by subterranean magma movement, as well as other technologies, explain the ways in which researchers monitor and predict <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>. Case studies of <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> such as Mt. St. Helens, El Chichon, Mauna Loa, and others are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NSDL&redirectUrl=http://www.geology.sdsu.edu/how_volcanoes_work/index.html"><span id="translatedtitle">How <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> Work</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This educational resource describes the science behind <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> and volcanic processes. Topics include volcanic environments, <span class="hlt">volcano</span> landforms, eruption dynamics, eruption products, eruption types, historical eruptions, and planetary volcanism. There are two animations, over 250 images, eight interactive tests, and a <span class="hlt">volcano</span> crossword puzzle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOVIMAGE-USGS&redirectUrl=http://gallery.usgs.gov/photos/09_21_2011_pTKw40Ymm2_09_21_2011_0"><span id="translatedtitle">USGS Hawaiian <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observatory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://gallery.usgs.gov/">USGS Multimedia Gallery</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The USGS Hawaiian <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observatory is perched on the rim of Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>'s summit caldera (next to the Thomas A. Jaggar Museum in Hawai'i <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> National Park), providing a spectacular view of the active vent in Halema‘uma‘u Crater....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42031112"><span id="translatedtitle">Operation of a digital seismic network on Mount St. Helens <span class="hlt">volcano</span> and observations of long period seismic events that originate under the <span class="hlt">volcano</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Michael Fehler; Bernard Chouet</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>During 1981 we operated, with the cooperation of the U. S. Geological Survey, a 9 station digital seismic array on Mount St. Helens <span class="hlt">volcano</span> in Washington State. One of our stations was placed inside the crater of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, six were <span class="hlt">located</span> on the flanks of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> within two km of the crater and two were approximately ten km</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=USGSPUBS&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70112251"><span id="translatedtitle">Infrared science of Hawaiian <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Fischer, William A.; Moxham, R.M.; Polcyn, R.C.; Landis, G.H.</p> <p>1964-01-01</p> <p>Aerial infrared-sensor surveys of Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span> have depicted the areal extent and the relative intensity of abnormal thermal features in the caldera area of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> and along its associated rift zones. Many of these anomalies show correlation with visible steaming and reflect convective transfer of heat to the surface from subterranean sources. Structural details of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, some not evident from surface observation, are also delineated by their thermal abnormalities. Several changes were observed in the patterns of infrared emission during the period of study; two such changes show correlation in <span class="hlt">location</span> with subsequent eruptions, but the cause-and-effect relationship is uncertain. Thermal anomalies were also observed on the southwest flank of Mauna Loa; images of other <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> on the island of Hawaii, and of Haleakala on the island of Maui, revealed no thermal abnormalities. Approximately 25 large springs is- suing into the ocean around the periphery of Hawaii have been detected. Infrared emission varies widely with surface texture and composition, suggesting that similar observations may have value for estimating surface conditions on the moon or planets.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/51342242"><span id="translatedtitle">Obstacle avoidance sonar for <span class="hlt">submarines</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Albert C. Dugas; Kenneth M. Webman</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>The Advanced Mine Detection Sonar (AMDS) system was designed to operate in poor environments with high biological and\\/or shallow-water boundary conditions. It provides increased capability for active detection of volume, close-tethered, and bottom mines, as well as <span class="hlt">submarine</span> and surface target active\\/passive detection for ASW and collision avoidance. It also provides bottom topography mapping capability for precise <span class="hlt">submarine</span> navigation in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMOS33D..01C"><span id="translatedtitle">Swath sonar mapping of Earth's <span class="hlt">submarine</span> plate boundaries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Carbotte, S. M.; Ferrini, V. L.; Celnick, M.; Nitsche, F. O.; Ryan, W. B. F.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The recent loss of Malaysia Airlines flight MH370 in an area of the Indian Ocean where less than 5% of the seafloor is mapped with depth sounding data (Smith and Marks, EOS 2014) highlights the striking lack of detailed knowledge of the topography of the seabed for much of the worlds' oceans. Advances in swath sonar mapping technology over the past 30 years have led to dramatic improvements in our capability to map the seabed. However, the oceans are vast and only an estimated 10% of the seafloor has been mapped with these systems. Furthermore, the available coverage is highly heterogeneous and focused within areas of national strategic priority and community scientific interest. The major plate boundaries that encircle the globe, most of which are <span class="hlt">located</span> in the <span class="hlt">submarine</span> environment, have been a significant focus of marine geoscience research since the advent of swath sonar mapping. While the <span class="hlt">location</span> of these plate boundaries are well defined from satellite-derived bathymetry, significant regions remain unmapped at the high-resolutions provided by swath sonars and that are needed to study active volcanic and tectonic plate boundary processes. Within the plate interiors, some fossil plate boundary zones, major hotspot <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, and other volcanic provinces have been the focus of dedicated research programs. Away from these major tectonic structures, swath mapping coverage is limited to sparse ocean transit lines which often reveal previously unknown deep-sea channels and other little studied sedimentary structures not resolvable in existing low-resolution global compilations, highlighting the value of these data even in the tectonically quiet plate interiors. Here, we give an overview of multibeam swath sonar mapping of the major plate boundaries of the globe as extracted from public archives. Significant quantities of swath sonar data acquired from deep-sea regions are in restricted-access international archives. Open access to more of these data sets would enable global comparisons of plate boundary structures and processes and could facilitate a more coordinated approach to optimizing the future acquisition of these high-value data by the global research community.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=USGSPUBS&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/gip75"><span id="translatedtitle">Cascades <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observatory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Venezky, Dina Y.; Driedger, Carolyn; Pallister, John</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Washington's Mount St. Helens <span class="hlt">volcano</span> reawakens explosively on October 1, 2004, after 18 years of quiescence. Scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey's Cascades <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observatory (CVO) study and observe Mount St. Helens and other <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> of the Cascade Range in Washington, Oregon, and northern California that hold potential for future eruptions. CVO is one of five USGS <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Hazards Program observatories that monitor U.S. <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> for science and public safety. Learn more about Mount St. Helens and CVO at http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NSDL&redirectUrl=http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/"><span id="translatedtitle">Cascades <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observatory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This is the homepage of the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) Cascades <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observatory (CVO). The site features news and events, updates on current activity of Cascade Range <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, and information summaries on each of the <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> in the range. There are also hazard assessment reports, maps, and a 'Living with <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span>' feature that provides general interest information. A set of menus provides access to more technical information, such as a glossary, information on <span class="hlt">volcano</span> hydrology, monitoring information, a photo archive, and information on CVO research projects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=USGSPUBS&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/pp17504"><span id="translatedtitle">Absolute and relative <span class="hlt">locations</span> of earthquakes at Mount St. Helens, Washington, using continuous data: implications for magmatic processes: Chapter 4 in A <span class="hlt">volcano</span> rekindled: the renewed eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004-2006</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Thelen, Weston A.; Crosson, Robert S.; Creager, Kenneth C.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>This study uses a combination of absolute and relative <span class="hlt">locations</span> from earthquake multiplets to investigate the seismicity associated with the eruptive sequence at Mount St. Helens between September 23, 2004, and November 20, 2004. Multiplets, a prominent feature of seismicity during this time period, occurred as <span class="hlt">volcano</span>-tectonic, hybrid, and low-frequency earthquakes spanning a large range of magnitudes and lifespans. Absolute <span class="hlt">locations</span> were improved through the use of a new one-dimensional velocity model with excellent shallow constraints on P-wave velocities. We used jackknife tests to minimize possible biases in absolute and relative <span class="hlt">locations</span> resulting from station outages and changing station configurations. In this paper, we show that earthquake hypocenters shallowed before the October 1 explosion along a north-dipping structure under the 1980-86 dome. Relative relocations of multiplets during the initial seismic unrest and ensuing eruption showed rather small source volumes before the October 1 explosion and larger tabular source volumes after October 5. All multiplets possess absolute <span class="hlt">locations</span> very close to each other. However, the highly dissimilar waveforms displayed by each of the multiplets analyzed suggest that different sources and mechanisms were present within a very small source volume. We suggest that multiplets were related to pressurization of the conduit system that produced a stationary source that was highly stable over long time periods. On the basis of their response to explosions occurring in October 2004, earthquakes not associated with multiplets also appeared to be pressure dependent. The pressure source for these earthquakes appeared, however, to be different from the pressure source of the multiplets.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASA-TRS&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01455&hterms=PDT&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DPDT"><span id="translatedtitle">Elysium Mons <span class="hlt">Volcano</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>On July 4, 1998--the first anniversary of the Mars Pathfinder landing--Mars Global Surveyor's latest images were radioed to Earth with little fanfare. The images received on July 4, 1998, however, were very exciting because they included a rare crossing of the summit caldera of a major martian <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. Elysium Mons is <span class="hlt">located</span> at 25oN, 213oW, in the martian eastern hemisphere. Elysium Mons is one of three large <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> that occur on the Elysium Rise-- the others are Hecates Tholus (northeast of Elysium Mons) and Albor Tholus (southeast of Elysium Mons). The <span class="hlt">volcano</span> rises about 12.5 kilometers (7.8 miles) above the surrounding plain, or about 16 kilometers (9.9 miles) above the martian datum-- the 'zero' elevation defined by average martian atmospheric pressure and the planet's radius.<p/>Elysium Mons was discovered by Mariner 9 in 1972. It differs in a number of ways from the familiar Olympus Mons and other large <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> in the Tharsis region. In particular, there are no obvious lava flows visible on the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>'s flanks. The lack of lava flows was apparent from the Mariner 9 images, but the new MOC high resolution image--obtained at 5.24 meters (17.2 feet) per pixel--illustrates that this is true even when viewed at higher spatial resolution.<p/>Elysium Mons has many craters on its surface. Some of these probably formed by meteor impact, but many show no ejecta pattern characteristic of meteor impact. Some of the craters are aligned in linear patterns that are radial to the summit caldera--these most likely formed by collapse as lava was withdrawn from beneath the surface, rather than by meteor impact. Other craters may have formed by explosive volcanism. Evidence for explosive volcanism on Mars has been very difficult to identify from previous Mars spacecraft images. This and other MOC data are being examined closely to better understand the nature and origin of volcanic features on Mars.<p/>The three MOC images, 40301 (red wide angle), 40302 (blue wide angle), and 40303 (high resolution, narrow angle) were obtained on Mars Global Surveyor's 403rd orbit around the planet around 9:58 - 10:05 p.m. PDT on July 2, 1998. The images were received and processed at Malin Space Science Systems (MSSS) around 4:00 p.m. PDT on July 4, 1998.<p/>This image: MOC image 40303, shown at 25% of its original size. North is approximately up, illumination is from the right. Resolution of picture shown here is 21 meters (69 feet) per pixel. Image was received with bright slopes saturated at DN=255.<p/>Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://mitchenerg.people.cofc.edu/mcm96summary.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">We wish to develop a new method of detecting <span class="hlt">submarines</span> that does not require the generation of sound, as sonar does. Rather, it should employ changes in the water's ambient</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Mitchener, W. Garrett</p> <p></p> <p>We wish to develop a new method of detecting <span class="hlt">submarines</span> that does not require the generation the <span class="hlt">location</span>, size, and velocity of the <span class="hlt">submarine</span>. Our model suggests using transducer arrays suspended from of determining the amplitude and directionof echoes froma <span class="hlt">submarine</span>. From the amplitudeof the echoes, we can</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFM.T62A1294E"><span id="translatedtitle">Multibeam Bathymetry of Haleakala <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Maui</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Eakins, B. W.; Robinson, J.</p> <p>2002-12-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">submarine</span> northeast flank of Haleakala <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Maui was mapped in detail during the summers of 2001 and 2002 by a joint team from the Japan Marine Science and Technology Center (JAMSTEC), Tokyo Institute of Technology, University of Hawaii, and the U.S. Geological Survey. JAMSTEC instruments used included SeaBeam 2112 hull-mounted multibeam sonar (bathymetry and sidescan imagery), manned submersible Shinkai 6500 and ROV Kaiko (bottom video, photographs and sampling of Hana Ridge), gravimeter, magnetometer, and single-channel seismic system. Hana Ridge, Haleakala's <span class="hlt">submarine</span> east rift zone, is capped by coral-reef terraces for much of its length, which are flexurally tilted towards the axis of the Hawaiian Ridge and delineate former shorelines. Its deeper, more distal portion exhibits a pair of parallel, linear crests, studded with volcanic cones, that suggest lateral migration of the rift zone during its growth. The northern face of the arcuate ridge terminus is a landslide scar in one of these crests, while its southwestern prong is a small, constructional ridge. The Hana slump, a series of basins and ridges analogous to the Laupahoehoe slump off Kohala <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Hawaii, lies north of Hana Ridge and extends down to the Hawaiian moat. Northwest of this slump region a small, dual-crested ridge strikes toward the Hawaiian moat and is inferred to represent a fossil rift zone, perhaps of East Molokai <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>. A sediment chute along its southern flank has built a large <span class="hlt">submarine</span> fan with a staircase of contour-parallel folds on its surface that are probably derived from slow creep of sediments down into the moat. Sediments infill the basins of the Hana slump [Moore et al., 1989], whose lowermost layers have been variously back-tilted by block rotation during slumping and flexural loading of the Hawaiian Ridge; the ridges define the outer edges of those down-dropped blocks, which may have subsided several kilometers. An apron of volcaniclastic debris shed from subaerial Haleakala smoothes the upper slopes of the slump complex. The slump and apron do not extend beyond the formerly-subaerial portion of Hana Ridge, implying that supply of subaerially-erupted volcaniclastic sediments may be a necessary precondition to massive slope failure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/56063304"><span id="translatedtitle">Resistivity Changes of Sakurajima <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> by Magnetotelluric Continuous Observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>K. Aizawa; W. Kanda; Y. Ogawa; M. Iguchi; A. Yokoo</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>In order to predict <span class="hlt">volcano</span> eruptions and to contribute to hazard mitigation, monitoring of subsurface magma movement is the most essential approach. Recent study of time change of seismic structure (4D tomography) in Etna <span class="hlt">volcano</span> clearly imaged time change of Vp\\/Vs structure, [Patanè et al., 2006]. They showed that structure changes not only on the <span class="hlt">location</span> of magma intrusion but</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40159528"><span id="translatedtitle">Paleomagnetic constraints on eruption patterns at the Pacaya composite <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, Guatemala</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>F Michael Conway; Jimmy F Diehl; Otoniel Matías</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Pacaya <span class="hlt">volcano</span> is an active composite <span class="hlt">volcano</span> <span class="hlt">located</span> in the volcanic highlands of Guatemala about 40 km south of Guatemala City. Volcanism at Pacaya alternates between Strombolian and Vulcanian, and during the past five years there has been a marked increase in the violence of eruptions. The <span class="hlt">volcano</span> is composed principally of basalt flows interbedded with thin scoria fall units,</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASA-TRS&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA03880&hterms=geology+economic&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dgeology%2Beconomic"><span id="translatedtitle">Soufriere Hills <span class="hlt">Volcano</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>In this ASTER image of Soufriere Hills <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> on Montserrat in the Caribbean, continued eruptive activity is evident by the extensive smoke and ash plume streaming towards the west-southwest. Significant eruptive activity began in 1995, forcing the authorities to evacuate more than 7,000 of the island's original population of 11,000. The primary risk now is to the northern part of the island and to the airport. Small rockfalls and pyroclastic flows (ash, rock and hot gases) are common at this time due to continued growth of the dome at the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>'s summit.<p/>This image was acquired on October 29, 2002 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.<p/>ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.<p/>The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.<p/>Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long- term research effort to understand and protect our home planet. Through the study of Earth, NASA will help to provide sound science to policy and economic decision-makers so as to better life here, while developing the technologies needed to explore the universe and search for life beyond our home planet.<p/>Size: 40.5 x 40.5 km (25.1 x 25.1 miles) <span class="hlt">Location</span>: 16.7 deg. North lat., 62.2 deg. West long. Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 1,2, and 3. Original Data Resolution: 15 m Date Acquired: October 29, 2002</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://www.whoi.edu/science/MCG/groundwater/pubs/PDF/Bokuniewicz%20ECSS.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Direct measures of <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Groundwater Discharge (SGD)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Page: 1 Direct measures of <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Groundwater Discharge (SGD) over a fractured rock aquifer of <span class="hlt">submarine</span> groundwater discharge (SGD) have been made, but measurements along the South American coast of <span class="hlt">submarine</span>, freshwater springs have been recognized in the folk wisdom of millennia, the scientific inquiry</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://www.nps.edu/Academics/Schools/GSEAS/Departments/USW/Documents/HOWARDAPR2011.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">THE <span class="hlt">SUBMARINE</span> REVIEW FIXED SONAR SYSTEMS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>THE <span class="hlt">SUBMARINE</span> REVIEW 1 APRIL 2011 FIXED SONAR SYSTEMS THE HISTORY AND FUTURE OF THE UNDEWATER Undersea Warfare Department Executive Summary One of the most challenging aspects of Anti-<span class="hlt">Submarine</span> War water and intended to monitor the growing <span class="hlt">submarine</span> threat of the Soviet Union. SOSUS provided cueing</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://edocs.nps.edu/npspubs/scholarly/biblio/Jun09-Submarine_biblio.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Warfare in the A Bibliography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Warfare in the 20th & 21st Centuries: A Bibliography Compiled by Michaele Lee Huygen 3D, 1966. p. 205. This bibliography is a revised edition of the bibliography <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Warfare in the 20th & 21st Centuries, 2003, which is in turn a revised and expanded version of <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Warfare in the 20</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASA-TRS&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA11081&hterms=water+chile&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dwater%2Bchile"><span id="translatedtitle">Chaiten <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Chile</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p><p/> On May 2, 2008 Chile's Chaiten <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> erupted after 9,000 years of inactivity. Now, 4 weeks later, the eruption continues, with ash-, water-, and sulfur-laden plumes blowing hundreds of kilometers to the east and north over Chile and Argentina. On May 24, ASTER captured a day-night pair of thermal infrared images of the eruption, displayed here in enhanced, false colors. At the time of the daytime acquisition (left image) most of the plume appears dark blue because it is too thick for upwelling ground radiation to penetrate. At the edges it appears orange, indicating the presence of ash and sulfur dioxide. In the nighttime image (right), the plume is orange and red near the source, and becomes more yellow-orange further away from the vent. The possible cause is that ash is settling out of the plume further downwind, revealing the dominant presence of sulfur dioxide. <p/> The images were acquired May 24, 2008, cover an area of 37 x 26.5 km, and are <span class="hlt">located</span> near 42.7 degrees south latitude, 72.7 degrees west longitude. <p/> The U.S. science team is <span class="hlt">located</span> at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.7681T"><span id="translatedtitle">Glob<span class="hlt">Volcano</span>: Earth Observation Services for global monitoring of active <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tampellini, L.; Ratti, R.; Borgström, S.; Seifert, F. M.; Solaro, G.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>The Glob<span class="hlt">Volcano</span> project is part of the Data User Element (DUE) programme of the European Space Agency (ESA). The objective of the project is to demonstrate EO-based (Earth Observation) services able to support the Volcanological Observatories and other mandate users (Civil Protection, scientific communities of <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>) in their monitoring activities. The information service is assessed in close cooperation with the user organizations for different types of active <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, from various geographical areas in various climatic zones. Users are directly and actively involved in the validation of the Earth Observation products, by comparing them with ground data available at each site. The following EO-based information services have been defined, harmonising the user requirements provided by a worldwide selection of user organizations. - Deformation Mapping - Surface Thermal Anomalies - Volcanic Gas Emission (SO2) - Volcanic Ash Tracking During the first phase of the project (completed in June 2008) a pre-operational information system has been designed, implemented and validated, involving a limited number of test areas and respective user organizations (i.e. Piton de la Fournaise in La Reunion Island, Karthala in Comore Islands, Stromboli, <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> and Etna in Italy, Soufrière Hills in Montserrat Island, Colima in Mexico, Merapi in Indonesia). The second phase of the project (currently on-going) concerns the service provision on pre-operational basis. Fifteen volcanic sites <span class="hlt">located</span> in four continents are regularly monitored and as many user organizations are involved and cooperating with the project team. Based on user requirements, the Glob<span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Information System has been developed following system engineering rules and criteria, besides most recent interoperability standards for geospatial data. The Glob<span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Information System includes two main elements: 1. The Glob<span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Data Processing System, which consists of seven of EO data processing subsystems <span class="hlt">located</span> at each respective service centre. 2. The Glob<span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Information Service, which is the provision infrastructure, including three elements: - Glob<span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Products Archives, including two main functionalities: WMS (Web Map Service) for products visualization through the GVUI and products delivery. - Glob<span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Metadata Catalogue, offering CS-W (Catalogue Service for Web) functionality. - Glob<span class="hlt">Volcano</span> User Interface (GVUI), based on the Virtual Earth platform. Whereas product downloading is allowed to committed user organisations only, the Metadata Catalogue can be publicly accessed, thus providing a powerful tool for scientific interchanges and cooperation among the user organizations and scientific communities of <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-STC&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6874514"><span id="translatedtitle">Gravity model studies of Newberry <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Oregon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gettings, M.E.; Griscom, A.</p> <p>1988-09-10</p> <p>Newberry, <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, a large Quaternary <span class="hlt">volcano</span> <span class="hlt">located</span> about 60 km east of the axis of the High Cascades <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> in central Oregon, has a coincident positive residual gravity anomaly of about 12 mGals. Model calculations of the gravity anomaly field suggest that the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> is underlain by an intrusive complex of mafic composition of about 20-km diameter and 2-km thickness, at depths above 4 km below sea level. However, uplifted basement in a northwest trending ridge may form part of the underlying excess mass, thus reducing the volume of the subvolcanic intrusive. A ring dike of mafic composition is inferred to intrude to near-surface levels along the caldera ring fractures, and low-density fill of the caldera floor probably has a thickness of 0.7--0.9 km. The gravity anomaly attributable to the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> is reduced to the east across a north-northwest trending gravity anomaly gradient through Newberry caldera and suggests that normal, perhaps extensional, faulting has occurred subsequent to caldera formation and may have controlled the <span class="hlt">location</span> of some late-stage basaltic and rhyolitic eruptions. Significant amounts of felsic intrusive material may exist above the mafic intrusive zone but cannot be resolved by the gravity data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=USGSPUBS&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70023450"><span id="translatedtitle">Mud <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> of the Orinoco Delta, Eastern Venezuela</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Aslan, A.; Warne, A.G.; White, W.A.; Guevara, E.H.; Smyth, R.C.; Raney, J.A.; Gibeaut, J.C.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Mud <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> along the northwest margin of the Orinoco Delta are part of a regional belt of soft sediment deformation and diapirism that formed in response to rapid foredeep sedimentation and subsequent tectonic compression along the Caribbean-South American plate boundary. Field studies of five mud <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> show that such structures consist of a central mound covered by active and inactive vents. Inactive vents and mud flows are densely vegetated, whereas active vents are sparsely vegetated. Four out of the five mud <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> studied are currently active. Orinoco mud flows consist of mud and clayey silt matrix surrounding lithic clasts of varying composition. Preliminary analysis suggests that the mud <span class="hlt">volcano</span> sediment is derived from underlying Miocene and Pliocene strata. Hydrocarbon seeps are associated with several of the active mud <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>. Orinoco mud <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> overlie the crest of a mud-diapir-cored anticline <span class="hlt">located</span> along the axis of the Eastern Venezuelan Basin. Faulting along the flank of the Pedernales mud <span class="hlt">volcano</span> suggests that fluidized sediment and hydrocarbons migrate to the surface along faults produced by tensional stresses along the crest of the anticline. Orinoco mud <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> highlight the proximity of this major delta to an active plate margin and the importance of tectonic influences on its development. Evaluation of the Orinoco Delta mud <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> and those elsewhere indicates that these features are important indicators of compressional tectonism along deformation fronts of plate margins. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NSDL&redirectUrl=http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/about/edu/"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Resources for Educators</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This site provides an up-to-date list of textual and video educational materials pertaining to <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>. The online pamphlets and books, hardcopy books, rental films and videos cover all levels of interest regarding <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>. The site furnishes the information or links to information needed to obtain these materials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASA-TRS&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01910&hterms=Sunset+Crater+Arizona&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DSunset%2BCrater%2BArizona"><span id="translatedtitle">Northern Arizona <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p><p/> Northern Arizona is best known for the Grand Canyon. Less widely known are the hundreds of geologically young <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, at least one of which buried the homes of local residents. San Francisco Mtn., a truncated stratovolcano at 3887 meters, was once a much taller structure (about 4900 meters) before it exploded some 400,000 years ago a la Mt. St. Helens. The young cinder cone field to its east includes Sunset Crater, that erupted in 1064 and buried Native American homes. This ASTER perspective was created by draping ASTER image data over topographic data from the U.S. Geological Survey National Elevation Data. <p/> With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. <p/> ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. <p/> The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance. <p/> The U.S. science team is <span class="hlt">located</span> at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate. <p/> Size: 20.4 by 24.6 kilometers (12.6 by 15.2 miles) <span class="hlt">Location</span>: 35.3 degrees North latitude, 111.5 degrees West longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER Bands 3, 2, and 1 Original Data Resolution: Landsat 30 meters (24.6 feet); ASTER 15 meters (49.2 feet) Dates Acquired: October 21, 2003</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50343864"><span id="translatedtitle">Human powered <span class="hlt">submarine</span> propeller design</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>B. Ellis; D. Wacholder</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>While all parts of a <span class="hlt">submarine</span> contribute to its overall performance, the propeller blade design is often neglected due to the difficulties in analyzing the impact in design changes combined with a lack of previous research in blade designs for the power and speed requirements as dictated by a human powered vehicle. To aid us in the design of our</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/1459065"><span id="translatedtitle">Digital Transmission over <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Cables</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>W. Litchman</p> <p>1965-01-01</p> <p>The problems of transoceanic transmission of large volumes of information have been raised increasingly over the past few years. Lately, the need for transoceanic digital communications has been of interest. This paper discusses the significance of these trends and examines the technical prospects for handling large volumes of digital traffic using <span class="hlt">submarine</span> cables. Concentrating on transatlantic traffic, an argument is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52845009"><span id="translatedtitle">Seismic Methods in <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Geology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>E. C. Bullard; T. F. Gaskell</p> <p>1938-01-01</p> <p>PROF. MAURICE EWING has shown that it is possible to use the seismic method for investigating <span class="hlt">submarine</span> geology, and has used the method to show that, in the continental shelf off the coast of Virginia, many thousands of feet of sediments overlie the Palæozoic or pre-Cambrian rocks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002ASAJ..111.2415D"><span id="translatedtitle">Obstacle avoidance sonar for <span class="hlt">submarines</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dugas, Albert C.; Webman, Kenneth M.</p> <p>2002-05-01</p> <p>The Advanced Mine Detection Sonar (AMDS) system was designed to operate in poor environments with high biological and/or shallow-water boundary conditions. It provides increased capability for active detection of volume, close-tethered, and bottom mines, as well as <span class="hlt">submarine</span> and surface target active/passive detection for ASW and collision avoidance. It also provides bottom topography mapping capability for precise <span class="hlt">submarine</span> navigation in uncharted littoral waters. It accomplishes this by using advanced processing techniques with extremely narrow beamwidths. The receive array consists of 36 modules arranged in a 15-ft-diameter semicircle at the bottom of the <span class="hlt">submarine</span> sonar dome to form a chin-mounted array. Each module consists of 40 piezoelectric rubber elements. The modules provide the necessary signal conditioning to the element data prior to signal transmission (uplink) through the hull. The elements are amplified, filtered, converted to digital signals by an A/D converter, and multiplexed prior to uplink to the inboard receiver. Each module also has a downlink over which it receives synchronization and mode/gain control. Uplink and downlink transmission is done using fiberoptic telemetry. AMDS was installed on the USS Asheville. The high-frequency chin array for Virginia class <span class="hlt">submarines</span> is based on the Asheville design.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48925593"><span id="translatedtitle">Currents in Monterey <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Canyon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>J. P. Xu; Marlene A. Noble</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Flow fields of mean, subtidal, and tidal frequencies between 250 and 3300 m water depths in Monterey <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Canyon are examined using current measurements obtained in three yearlong field experiments. Spatial variations in flow fields are mainly controlled by the topography (shape and width) of the canyon. The mean currents flow upcanyon in the offshore reaches (>1000 m) and downcanyon</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/354ckqk60uuxv5dx.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Submarine</span> silicic volcanism of the Healy caldera, southern Kermadec arc (SW Pacific): I - volcanology and eruption mechanisms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Ian C. Wright; John A. Gamble; Phil A. R. Shane</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">submarine</span> Healy <span class="hlt">volcano</span> (southern Kermadec arc), with a 2-2.5 km wide caldera, is pervasively mantled with highly vesicular silicic pumice within a water depth of 1,150-1,800 m. Pumices comprise type 1 white-light grey pumice with ⢾ mm vesicles and weak-moderate foliation, type 2 grey pumice with millimetre-scale laminae, flow banded foliation, including stretched vesicles ⣗ mm in length, and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40925420"><span id="translatedtitle">Noble gases in <span class="hlt">submarine</span> pillow basalt glasses from Loihi and Kilauea, Hawaii - A solar component in the Earth</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Masahiko Honda; Ian McDougall; Desmond B. Patterson; Anthony Doulgeris; David A. Clague</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Noble gas elemental and isotopic abundances have been analyzed in 22 samples of basaltic glass dredged from the <span class="hlt">submarine</span> flanks of two currently active Hawaiian <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, Loihi Seamount and Kilauea. Neon isotopic ratios are enriched in Ne-20 and Ne-21 by as much as 16 percent with respect to atmospheric ratios. All the Hawaiian basalt glass samples show relatively high He-3\\/He-4</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1512426J"><span id="translatedtitle">Monitoring El Hierro <span class="hlt">submarine</span> volcanic eruption events with a <span class="hlt">submarine</span> seismic array</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jurado, Maria Jose; Molino, Erik; Lopez, Carmen</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">submarine</span> volcanic eruption took place near the southernmost emerged land of the El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain), from October 2011 to February 2012. The Instituto Geografico Nacional (IGN) seismic stations network evidenced seismic unrest since July 2012 and was a reference also to follow the evolution of the seismic activity associated with the volcanic eruption. From the beginning of the eruption a geophone string was installed less than 2 km away from the new <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, next to La Restinga village shore, to record seismic activity related to the volcanic activity, continuously and with special interest on high frequency events. The seismic array was endowed with 8, high frequency, 3 component, 250 Hz, geophone cable string with a separation of 6 m between them. The analysis of the dataset using spectral techniques allows the characterization of the different phases of the eruption and the study of its dynamics. The correlation of the data analysis results with the observed sea surface activity (ash and lava emission and degassing) and also with the seismic activity recorded by the IGN field seismic monitoring system, allows the identification of different stages suggesting the existence of different signal sources during the volcanic eruption and also the posteruptive record of the degassing activity. The study shows that the high frequency capability of the geophone array allow the study of important features that cannot be registered by the standard seismic stations. The accumulative spectral amplitude show features related to eruptive changes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011NatGe...4..799R"><span id="translatedtitle">Active <span class="hlt">submarine</span> eruption of boninite in the northeastern Lau Basin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Resing, Joseph A.; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Embley, Robert W.; Lupton, John E.; Baker, Edward T.; Dziak, Robert P.; Baumberger, Tamara; Lilley, Marvin D.; Huber, Julie A.; Shank, Timothy M.; Butterfield, David A.; Clague, David A.; Keller, Nicole S.; Merle, Susan G.; Buck, Nathaniel J.; Michael, Peter J.; Soule, Adam; Caress, David W.; Walker, Sharon L.; Davis, Richard; Cowen, James P.; Reysenbach, Anna-Louise; Thomas, Hans</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>Subduction of oceanic crust and the formation of volcanic arcs above the subduction zone are important components in Earth's geological and geochemical cycles. Subduction consumes and recycles material from the oceanic plates, releasing fluids and gases that enhance magmatic activity, feed hydrothermal systems, generate ore deposits and nurture chemosynthetic biological communities. Among the first lavas to erupt at the surface from a nascent subduction zone are a type classified as boninites. These lavas contain information about the early stages of subduction, yet because most subduction systems on Earth are old and well-established, boninite lavas have previously only been observed in the ancient geological record. Here we observe and sample an active boninite eruption occurring at 1,200m depth at the West Mata <span class="hlt">submarine</span> <span class="hlt">volcano</span> in the northeast Lau Basin, southwest Pacific Ocean. We find that large volumes of H2O, CO2 and sulphur are emitted, which we suggest are derived from the subducting slab. These volatiles drive explosive eruptions that fragment rocks and generate abundant incandescent magma-skinned bubbles and pillow lavas. The eruption has been ongoing for at least 2.5 years and we conclude that this boninite eruption is a multi-year, low-mass-transfer-rate eruption. Thus the Lau Basin may provide an important site for the long-term study of <span class="hlt">submarine</span> volcanic eruptions related to the early stages of subduction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASA-TRS&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA03514&hterms=russia&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Drussia"><span id="translatedtitle">Shiveluch <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p><p/>On the night of June 4, 2001, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) captured this thermal image of the erupting Shiveluch <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. <span class="hlt">Located</span> on Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula, Shiveluch rises to an altitude of 2,447 meters (8,028 feet). The active lava dome complex is seen as a bright (hot) area on the summit of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. To the southwest, a second hot area is either a debris avalanche or hot ash deposit. Trailing to the west is a 25-kilometer (15-mile) ash plume, seen as a cold 'cloud' streaming from the summit. At least 60 large eruptions have occurred here during the last 10,000 years; the largest historical eruptions were in 1854 and 1964.<p/>Because Kamchatka is <span class="hlt">located</span> along the major aircraft routes between North America/Europe and Asia, this area is constantly monitored for potential ash hazards to aircraft. The area is part of the 'Ring of Fire,' a string of <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> that encircles the Pacific Ocean.<p/>The lower image is the same as the upper, except it has been color-coded: red is hot, light greens to dark green are progressively colder, and gray/black are the coldest areas.<p/>The image is <span class="hlt">located</span> at 56.7 degrees north latitude, 161.3 degrees east longitude. <p/>ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched Dec. 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-HHH&redirectUrl=http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ct0564.photos.034450p/"><span id="translatedtitle">30. VIEW OF PHOTO CAPTIONED '<span class="hlt">SUBMARINE</span> BASE, NEW LONDON, CONNECTICUT. ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>30. VIEW OF PHOTO CAPTIONED '<span class="hlt">SUBMARINE</span> BASE, NEW LONDON, CONNECTICUT. 2 JUNE 1930. <span class="hlt">SUBMARINE</span> TRAINING TANK - STEELWORK 98% COMPLETE; BRICKWORK 95% COMPLETE, PIPING 10% IN PLACE. LOOKING NORTH. CONTRACT NO. Y-1539-ELEVATOR, <span class="hlt">SUBMARINE</span> ESCAPE TANK.' - U.S. Naval <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Base, New London <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Escape Training Tank, Albacore & Darter Roads, Groton, New London County, CT</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997RaSc...32..113K"><span id="translatedtitle">Directional VLF antenna for communicating with <span class="hlt">submarines</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>King, Ronold W. P.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>High-power, very low frequency transmitters for communicating with <span class="hlt">submarines</span> use electrically short, top-loaded, vertical monopoles. These are efficient radiators of the lateral surface wave, but since they are omnidirectional, they expose residents of neighboring urban areas to possibly harmful effects. A possible alternative, the horizontal traveling-wave antenna of the Beverage type, is analyzed, and the design for the frequency range from 10 to 30 kHz is described. The antenna is highly directive in the horizontal plane. Although the field of the unit horizontal dipole over the earth is much smaller than that of the unit vertical dipole, the large effective length of the traveling-wave antenna makes its field comparable to that of the electrically short vertical monopole. Furthermore, since the radiated field in all directions except within a 30° to 60° angle out to sea is small, there is no exposure risk when the electrically long horizontal antenna is <span class="hlt">located</span> near inhabited areas.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=USGSPUBS&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70015804"><span id="translatedtitle">Geology of Medicine Lake <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Northern California Cascade Range</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Donnelly-Nolan, Julie</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Medicine Lake <span class="hlt">volcano</span> (MLV) is <span class="hlt">located</span> in an E-W extensional environment on the Modoc Plateau just east of the main arc of the Cascades. It consists mainly of mafic lavas, although drillhole data indicate that a larger volume of rhyolite is present than is indicated by surface mapping. The most recent eruption was rhyolitic and occurred about 900 years ago. At least seventeen eruptions have occurred since 12,000 years ago, or between 1 and 2 eruptions per century on average, although activity appears to be strongly episodic. The calculated eruptive rate is about 0.6 km3 per thousand years during the entire history of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. Drillhole data indicate that the plateau surface underlying the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> has been downwarped by 0.5 km under the center of MLV. The <span class="hlt">volcano</span> may be even larger than the estimated 600 km3, already the largest <span class="hlt">volcano</span> by volume in the Cascades.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JVGR..172..189K"><span id="translatedtitle">Living with <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>: The sustainable livelihoods approach for <span class="hlt">volcano</span>-related opportunities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kelman, Ilan; Mather, Tamsin A.</p> <p>2008-05-01</p> <p>Although the negative impacts of volcanism on society are well documented and accepted, many possible benefits from <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> are not always fully considered. This paper provides suggestions for understanding and implementing <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>' benefits by suggesting further application of existing risk management frameworks to volcanology: living with risk by using the sustainable livelihoods approach at the local level. This paper presents an overview bringing established paradigms into volcanic risk management where they are sometimes absent despite their advantages. The sustainable livelihoods approach is important in its application to volcanic scenarios in four ways: Understanding, communicating, and managing vulnerability and risk and local perceptions of vulnerability and risk beyond immediate threats to life. Maximising the benefits to communities of their volcanic environment, especially during quiescent periods, without increasing vulnerability. Managing crises. Managing reconstruction and resettlement after a crisis. An overview of case studies is provided showing how volcanic opportunities could be used for sustainable livelihoods. The approach of living with volcanic risks and benefits could be adopted and implemented as an integral part of changing perceptions of <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> and of managing <span class="hlt">volcano</span>-related crisis and non-crisis situations. However, the sustainable livelihoods approach is not a panacea, so limitations are discussed along with why living near a <span class="hlt">volcano</span> cannot solve all livelihood concerns. In particular, livelihood diversity and livelihood transferability to other <span class="hlt">locations</span> assists in living with <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFM.V21D0547G"><span id="translatedtitle">Morphologic Comparison of <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Lava Channels on the East Pacific Rise and Simulated Channel Flows</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Garry, W. B.; Gregg, T. K.; Schouten, H.; Tivey, M.; Fornari, D.</p> <p>2003-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Submarine</span> lava channels observed on the East Pacific Rise (EPR) between 9-10° N exhibit five prominent surface textures: lobate, jumbled, lineated, folded, and smooth. These textures are similar in appearance and distribution to final morphologies observed in polyethylene glycol (PEG ) channel flows produced in laboratory simulations. Maps of the surface textures for both <span class="hlt">submarine</span> and simulated flows were made to compare the distribution of the various textural types. Photomosaics of tow-camera images taken near the axial summit collapse trough of the EPR were used to analyze the <span class="hlt">submarine</span> lava channels. The mosaics are made from swaths of images that have a 6-m field of view, and cross channels that are as wide as 115 m. PEG channel flows were produced on slopes of <10° . The final flow morphologies formed by solidified PEG after extrusion had ceased were mapped and compared to the <span class="hlt">submarine</span> cross-channel mosaics. Levees of both <span class="hlt">submarine</span> and PEG channels are lobate. The outer margins of PEG levees are easy to see, but flow margins are not as obvious in the <span class="hlt">submarine</span> images, making it difficult to determine <span class="hlt">submarine</span> flow and levee widths. After effusion of PEG has ceased in simulated flows, the solidified crust on the wax within the channel subsides, leaving a high-standing levee and a low-lying channel crust. Similarly, images of the channel-levee margin in <span class="hlt">submarine</span> flows show the crust in the channel at a lower level than the top of the levees, indicating subsidence of channel crust after the eruption had ceased. The channel-levee transitions in <span class="hlt">submarine</span> flows are characterized by a zone of jumbled lava. Jumbled pieces of solidified PEG are not present at the channel-levee margin after drain-out, but a shear zone is observed at this <span class="hlt">location</span> during emplacement. The observed jumbled region in <span class="hlt">submarine</span> channels may be generated by a similar shear zone at the channel-levee margin, combined with pieces of crust broken during channel subsidence. Crust textures in <span class="hlt">submarine</span> channels are various combinations of jumbled, lineated, and smooth, while PEG channel crusts are typically smooth or folded. Analysis of flow textures, as well as channel and levee dimensions in <span class="hlt">submarine</span> flows, will contribute to a better understanding of the emplacement and evolution of lava flows at mid-ocean ridges.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-HHH&redirectUrl=http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ct0564.photos.034454p/"><span id="translatedtitle">34. VIEW OF <span class="hlt">SUBMARINE</span> ESCAPE TRAINING TANK PRIOR TO ADDITION ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>34. VIEW OF <span class="hlt">SUBMARINE</span> ESCAPE TRAINING TANK PRIOR TO ADDITION OF BLISTERS IN 1959, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - U.S. Naval <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Base, New London <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Escape Training Tank, Albacore & Darter Roads, Groton, New London County, CT</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.V51A4723Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Seismic Structure Beneath Taal <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Philippines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>You, S. H.; Gung, Y.; Konstantinou, K. I.; Lin, C. H.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The very active Taal <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> is situated 60 km south of Metro Manila in the southern part of Luzon Island. Based on its frequent explosive eruptions and high potential hazards to nearby population of several million, Taal <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> is chosen as one of the 15 most dangerous "Decade <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span>" in the world. We deployed a temporary seismic network consisting of 8 stations since March 2008. The temporal network was operated from late March 2008 to mid March 2010 and recorded over 2270 local earthquakes. In the early data processing stages, unexpected linear drifting of clock time was clearly identified from ambient noise cross-correlation functions for a number of stations. The drifting rates of all problematic stations were determined as references to correct timing errors prior to further processing. Initial <span class="hlt">locations</span> of earthquakes were determined from manually picking P- and S-phases arrivals with a general velocity model based on AK135. We used travel times of 305 well-<span class="hlt">located</span> local events to derive a minimum 1-D model using VELEST. Two major earthquake groups were noticed from refined <span class="hlt">locations</span>. One was underneath the western shore of Taal Lake with a linear feature, and the other spread at shallower depths showing a less compact feature around the eastern flank of Taal <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Island. We performed seismic tomography to image the 3D structure beneath Taal <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> using a well-established algorithm, LOTOS. Some interesting features are noted in the tomographic results, such as a probable solidified past magma conduit below the northwestern corner of Taal <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Island, characterized by high Vp, Vs, and low Vp/Vs ratio, and a potential large hydrothermal reservoir beneath the central of Taal <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Island, characterized by low Vs and high Vp/Vs ratio. Combining the results of seismicity and tomographic images, we also suggest the potential existence of a magma chamber beneath the southwestern Taal Lake, and a magma conduit or fault extending from there to the northwestern shore of Taal Lake. Such magmatic signatures have never been reported in previous studies, suggesting that new eruption centers might be forming in places away from the historical craters on Taal <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Island.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=USGSPUBS&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr02342"><span id="translatedtitle">Catalog of earthquake hypocenters at Alaskan <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>: January 1, 2000 through December 31, 2001</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Dixon, James P.; Stihler, Scott D.; Power, John A.; Tytgat, Guy; Estes, Steve; Moran, Seth C.; Paskievitch, John; McNutt, Stephen R.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>The Alaska <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of the U.S. Geological Survey, the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks, and the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, has maintained seismic monitoring networks at potentially active <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> in Alaska since 1988 (Power and others, 1993; Jolly and others, 1996; Jolly and others, 2001). The primary objectives of this program are the seismic surveillance of active, potentially hazardous, Alaskan <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> and the investigation of seismic processes associated with active volcanism. This catalog reflects the status and evolution of the seismic monitoring program, and presents the basic seismic data for the time period January 1, 2000, through December 31, 2001. For an interpretation of these data and previously recorded data, the reader should refer to several recent articles on <span class="hlt">volcano</span> related seismicity on Alaskan <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> in Appendix G. The AVO seismic network was used to monitor twenty-three <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> in real time in 2000-2001. These include Mount Wrangell, Mount Spurr, Redoubt <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Iliamna <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Augustine <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Katmai Volcanic Group (Snowy Mountain, Mount Griggs, Mount Katmai, Novarupta, Trident <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Mount Mageik, Mount Martin), Aniakchak Crater, Pavlof <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Mount Dutton, Isanotski Peaks, Shishaldin <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Fisher Caldera, Westdahl Peak, Akutan Peak, Makushin <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Great Sitkin <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, and Kanaga <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> (Figure 1). AVO <span class="hlt">located</span> 1551 and 1428 earthquakes in 2000 and 2001, respectively, on and around these <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>. Highlights of the catalog period (Table 1) include: volcanogenic seismic swarms at Shishaldin <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> between January and February 2000 and between May and June 2000; an eruption at Mount Cleveland between February and May 2001; episodes of possible tremor at Makushin <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> starting March 2001 and continuing through 2001, and two earthquake swarms at Great Sitkin <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> in 2001. This catalog includes: (1) earthquake origin times, hypocenters, and magnitudes with summary statistics describing the earthquake <span class="hlt">location</span> quality; (2) a description of instruments deployed in the field and their <span class="hlt">locations</span>; (3) a description of earthquake detection, recording, analysis, and data archival systems; (4) station parameters and velocity models used for earthquake <span class="hlt">locations</span>; (5) a summary of daily station usage throughout the catalog period; and (6) all HYPOELLIPSE files used to determine the earthquake <span class="hlt">locations</span> presented in this report.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=USGSPUBS&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr98360"><span id="translatedtitle">Preliminary <span class="hlt">volcano</span>-hazard assessment for Akutan <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> east-central Aleutian Islands, Alaska</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Waythomas, Christopher F.; Power, John A.; Richter, Donlad H.; McGimsey, Robert G.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Akutan <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> is a 1100-meter-high stratovolcano on Akutan Island in the east-central Aleutian Islands of southwestern Alaska. The <span class="hlt">volcano</span> is <span class="hlt">located</span> about 1238 kilometers southwest of Anchorage and about 56 kilometers east of Dutch Harbor/Unalaska. Eruptive activity has occurred at least 27 times since historical observations were recorded beginning in the late 1700?s. Recent eruptions produced only small amounts of fine volcanic ash that fell primarily on the upper flanks of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. Small amounts of ash fell on the Akutan Harbor area during eruptions in 1911, 1948, 1987, and 1989. Plumes of volcanic ash are the primary hazard associated with eruptions of Akutan <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> and are a major hazard to all aircraft using the airfield at Dutch Harbor or approaching Akutan Island. Eruptions similar to historical Akutan eruptions should be anticipated in the future. Although unlikely, eruptions larger than those of historical time could generate significant amounts of volcanic ash, fallout, pyroclastic flows, and lahars that would be hazardous to life and property on all sectors of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> and other parts of the island, but especially in the major valleys that head on the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> flanks. During a large eruption an ash cloud could be produced that may be hazardous to aircraft using the airfield at Cold Bay and the airspace downwind from the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. In the event of a large eruption, volcanic ash fallout could be relatively thick over parts of Akutan Island and volcanic bombs could strike areas more than 10 kilometers from the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22366644"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Submarines</span>, spacecraft and exhaled breath.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pleil, Joachim D; Hansel, Armin</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>Foreword The International Association of Breath Research (IABR) meetings are an eclectic gathering of researchers in the medical, environmental and instrumentation fields; our focus is on human health as assessed by the measurement and interpretation of trace chemicals in human exhaled breath. What may have escaped our notice is a complementary field of research that explores the creation and maintenance of artificial atmospheres practised by the <span class="hlt">submarine</span> air monitoring and air purification (SAMAP) community. SAMAP is comprised of manufacturers, researchers and medical professionals dealing with the engineering and instrumentation to support human life in <span class="hlt">submarines</span> and spacecraft (including shuttlecraft and manned rockets, high-altitude aircraft, and the International Space Station (ISS)). Here, the immediate concerns are short-term survival and long-term health in fairly confined environments where one cannot simply 'open the window' for fresh air. As such, one of the main concerns is air monitoring and the main sources of contamination are CO(2) and other constituents of human exhaled breath. Since the inaugural meeting in 1994 in Adelaide, Australia, SAMAP meetings have been held every two or three years alternating between the North American and European continents. The meetings are organized by Dr Wally Mazurek (a member of IABR) of the Defense Systems Technology Organization (DSTO) of Australia, and individual meetings are co-hosted by the navies of the countries in which they are held. An overriding focus at SAMAP is life support (oxygen availability and carbon dioxide removal). Certainly, other air constituents are also important; for example, the closed environment of a <span class="hlt">submarine</span> or the ISS can build up contaminants from consumer products, cooking, refrigeration, accidental fires, propulsion and atmosphere maintenance. However, the most immediate concern is sustaining human metabolism: removing exhaled CO(2) and replacing metabolized O(2). Another important concern is a suite of products from chemical reactions among oxidizing compounds with biological chemicals such as amines, thiols and carbonyls. SAMAP Meeting We (Armin and Joachim) attended the 2011 SAMAP conference in Taranto, Italy (10-14 October), which occurred just a few weeks after the IABR meeting in Parma, Italy (11-15 September 2011). It was held at the Officers' Club of the Taranto Naval Base under the patronage of the Italian navy; the local host was Lucio Ricciardi of the University of Insubria, Varese, Italy. At the 2011 SAMAP meeting, the theme was air-independent propulsion (AIP), meaning the capability of recharging the main batteries of the <span class="hlt">submarine</span> without the need to surface. Only a few navies (e.g. US, UK, France, Russia, China) have historically had this capability using nuclear-powered <span class="hlt">submarines</span> that can function underwater for extended periods of time (months). Most navies operate <span class="hlt">submarines</span> with conventional diesel-electric propulsion, wherein diesel-powered generators charge battery banks which then drive an electric motor connected to the propeller. The batteries are charged while the boat is on the surface or during snorkelling, when the boat is submerged a few meters below the surface and a snorkel tube is extended to the surface. The period between battery charges can vary from several hours to one or two days depending on the power requirements and the nature of the mission. The process is necessary for breathing air revitalization (flushing out accumulated contaminants) and for the operation of the diesel engines. However, during this period the <span class="hlt">submarine</span> is vulnerable to detection. Since the 1940s there have been various attempts to develop a power generation system that is independent of external air (AIP). To this end hydrogen peroxide was initially used and later liquid oxygen (LOX). Currently, most AIP <span class="hlt">submarines</span> use fuel cell technology (LOX and hydrogen) to supplement the conventional diesel-electric system in order to extend the underwater endurance to 2-3 weeks. These propulsion engineering changes also reduce per</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-STC&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5897756"><span id="translatedtitle">Saga is largest commercial <span class="hlt">submarine</span> ever</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1985-05-01</p> <p>The long-range autonomous <span class="hlt">submarine</span>, Saga, went nuclear last year with an agreement between the French and two Canadian companies. The agreement to convert the prototype from Swedish Stirling closed-cycle combustion engines to a nuclear power supply will make Saga the first non-defense nuclear <span class="hlt">submarine</span>. With an external hull displacement of 500 tons, Saga will be the largest commercial <span class="hlt">submarine</span> ever built.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=USGSPUBS&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ds367"><span id="translatedtitle">Catalog of Earthquake Hypocenters at Alaskan <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span>: January 1 through December 31, 2007</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Dixon, James P.; Stihler, Scott D.; Power, John A.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Between January 1 and December 31, 2007, AVO <span class="hlt">located</span> 6,664 earthquakes of which 5,660 occurred within 20 kilometers of the 33 <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> monitored by the Alaska <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observatory. Monitoring highlights in 2007 include: the eruption of Pavlof <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, volcanic-tectonic earthquake swarms at the Augustine, Illiamna, and Little Sitkin volcanic centers, and the cessation of episodes of unrest at Fourpeaked Mountain, Mount Veniaminof and the northern Atka Island <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> (Mount Kliuchef and Korovin <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>). This catalog includes descriptions of : (1) <span class="hlt">locations</span> of seismic instrumentation deployed during 2007; (2) earthquake detection, recording, analysis, and data archival systems; (3) seismic velocity models used for earthquake <span class="hlt">locations</span>; (4) a summary of earthquakes <span class="hlt">located</span> in 2007; and (5) an accompanying UNIX tar-file with a summary of earthquake origin times, hypocenters, magnitudes, phase arrival times, <span class="hlt">location</span> quality statistics, daily station usage statistics, and all files used to determine the earthquake <span class="hlt">locations</span> in 2007.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/53949956"><span id="translatedtitle">Rapid Inflation Caused by Shallow Magmatic Activities at Okmok <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Alaska, Detected by GPS Campaigns 2000-2003</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Y. Miyagi; J. Freymueller; F. Kimata; T. Sato; D. Mann</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Okmok <span class="hlt">volcano</span> is <span class="hlt">located</span> on Umnak Island in the Aleutian Arc, Alaska. This <span class="hlt">volcano</span> consists of a large caldera, and there are several post-caldera cones within the caldera. It has erupted more than 10 times during the last century, with the latest eruption occurring in February 1997. Annual GPS campaigns during 2000-2003 have revealed a rapid inflation at Okmok <span class="hlt">volcano</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/54349663"><span id="translatedtitle">Surface Deformation Caused by Shallow Magmatic Activity at Okmok <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Detected by GPS Campapigns 2000-2002</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Y. Miyagi; J. Freymueller; F. Kimata; T. Sato; D. Mann; N. Fujii; M. Kasahara</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Okmok <span class="hlt">volcano</span> is <span class="hlt">located</span> on Umnak Island in the eastern part of Aleutian Arc. This <span class="hlt">volcano</span> consists of a large caldera, and there are cones within the caldera. Okmok <span class="hlt">volcano</span> has erupted more than 10 times during the last century, with the latest eruption occurring in February 1997. Significant surface deformation before, during and after the eruption has been detected</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOVIMAGE-USGS&redirectUrl=http://gallery.usgs.gov/photos/mQHs38Vjj1_83"><span id="translatedtitle">Vent of Sand <span class="hlt">Volcano</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://gallery.usgs.gov/">USGS Multimedia Gallery</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Vent of sand <span class="hlt">volcano</span> produced by liquefaction is about 4 ft across in strawberry field near Watsonville. Strip spanning vent is conduit for drip irrigation system. Furrow spacing is about 1.2 m (4 ft) on center....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NSDL&redirectUrl=http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/its2001/Separate_Papers/6-04_Satake.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Tsunami Modeling from <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Landslides</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p>Kenji Satake</p> <p></p> <p>This paper describes a kinematic model that computes tsunamis generated from <span class="hlt">submarine</span> landslides. The model is based on bathymetric (ocean floor modeling) data and historical tsunami data. The papers' main focus is the application of the model to the 1741 Oshima-Oshima Tsunami in Japan and landslide events around the Hawaiian Islands. This paper was presented at the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program Review and International Tsunami Symposium in Seattle, Washington on August 10, 2001.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=USGSPUBS&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr03267"><span id="translatedtitle">Catalog of earthquake hypocenters at Alaskan <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>: January 1 through December 31, 2002</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Dixon, James P.; Stihler, Scott D.; Power, John A.; Tytgat, Guy; Moran, Seth C.; Sánchez, John; Estes, Steve; McNutt, Stephen R.; Paskievitch, John</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>The Alaska <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of the U.S. Geological Survey, the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks, and the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, has maintained seismic monitoring networks at historically active <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> in Alaska since 1988 (Power and others, 1993; Jolly and others, 1996; Jolly and others, 2001; Dixon and others, 2002). The primary objectives of this program are the seismic monitoring of active, potentially hazardous, Alaskan <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> and the investigation of seismic processes associated with active volcanism. This catalog presents the basic seismic data and changes in the seismic monitoring program for the period January 1, 2002 through December 31, 2002. Appendix G contains a list of publications pertaining to seismicity of Alaskan <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> based on these and previously recorded data. The AVO seismic network was used to monitor twenty-four <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> in real time in 2002. These include Mount Wrangell, Mount Spurr, Redoubt <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Iliamna <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Augustine <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Katmai Volcanic Group (Snowy Mountain, Mount Griggs, Mount Katmai, Novarupta, Trident <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Mount Mageik, Mount Martin), Aniakchak Crater, Mount Veniaminof, Pavlof <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Mount Dutton, Isanotski Peaks, Shishaldin <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Fisher Caldera, Westdahl Peak, Akutan Peak, Makushin <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Great Sitkin <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, and Kanaga <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> (Figure 1). Monitoring highlights in 2002 include an earthquake swarm at Great Sitkin <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> in May-June; an earthquake swarm near Snowy Mountain in July-September; low frequency (1-3 Hz) tremor and long-period events at Mount Veniaminof in September-October and in December; and continuing volcanogenic seismic swarms at Shishaldin <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> throughout the year. Instrumentation and data acquisition highlights in 2002 were the installation of a subnetwork on Okmok <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, the establishment of telemetry for the Mount Veniaminof subnetwork, and the change in the data acquisition system to an EARTHWORM detection system. AVO <span class="hlt">located</span> 7430 earthquakes during 2002 in the vicinity of the monitored <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>. This catalog includes: (1) a description of instruments deployed in the field and their <span class="hlt">locations</span>; (2) a description of earthquake detection, recording, analysis, and data archival systems; (3) a description of velocity models used for earthquake <span class="hlt">locations</span>; (4) a summary of earthquakes <span class="hlt">located</span> in 2002; and (5) an accompanying UNIX tar-file with a summary of earthquake origin times, hypocenters, magnitudes, and <span class="hlt">location</span> quality statistics; daily station usage statistics; and all HYPOELLIPSE files used to determine the earthquake <span class="hlt">locations</span> in 2002.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40494984"><span id="translatedtitle">Eruptive and earthquake activities related to the 2000 eruption of Mount Cameroon <span class="hlt">volcano</span> (West Africa)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>B. Ateba; C. Dorbath; L. Dorbath; N. Ntepe; M. Frogneux; F. T. Aka; J. V. Hell; J. C. Delmond; D. Manguelle</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Mount Cameroon is an active <span class="hlt">volcano</span> <span class="hlt">located</span> in the Gulf of Guinea, west of Central Africa. After the March–April 1999 eruption on the SW flank, another eruption of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> occurred in 2000. It took place from three sites on the southwest flank and near the summit. The first eruptive site was <span class="hlt">located</span> 500 m to the southwest of the summit,</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.V11B4701E"><span id="translatedtitle">Sediment wave-forms and modes of construction on Mariana (and other) intra-oceanic arc <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Embley, R. W.; Stern, R. J.; Chadwick, B.; Tamura, Y.; Merle, S. G.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Most intra-oceanic arc <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> are composite edifices constructed primarily in the <span class="hlt">submarine</span> environment, built up by volcaniclastic sediments derived from hydroclastic and pyroclastic processes at/near the summits, punctuated by occasional lava flows and intrusions. Of particular interest in the mode of construction are extensive fields of large sediment waveforms (SWFs), up to >2 km wavelength and >100 m amplitude, on the <span class="hlt">submarine</span> flanks of many islands and seamounts within the Mariana and other intra-oceanic subduction zones. These SWFs are composed of coarse-grained volcaniclastic sediments derived from the (approximate) point source summits of the island and <span class="hlt">submarine</span> <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>. SWFs around some seamounts and islands, particularly those with large calderas, define quasi-concentric ring-like ridges, suggesting formation by density currents generated during <span class="hlt">submarine</span> and island eruptions, and preserved for 10s of thousands of years. Some types of SWFs appear to have formed by progressive slumping of oversteepened slopes without fluidization. General conclusions about the origin of SWFs are hampered by the dearth of samples and high resolution seismic reflection profiles. However, large coherent slumps and debris avalanches documented for some ocean islands (e.g., Hawaiian Islands) are (mostly) are not as evident on the composite arc <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>. <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Mariana arc (and other intra-oceanic arc) volcanism probably spread volcaniclastic material primarily during <span class="hlt">submarine</span> "Neptunian" eruptions and by progressive slides and other sediment flow rather than by catastrophic flank collapse. These processes could mitigate the Hawaiian-style of tsumami hazard, but Krakatoa-type tsunami hazards exist.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=USGSPUBS&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70025521"><span id="translatedtitle">Ups and downs on spreading flanks of ocean-island <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>: evidence from Mauna Loa and K?lauea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Lipman, Peter W.; Eakins, Barry W.; Yokose, Hisayoshi</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Submarine</span>-flank deposits of Hawaiian <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> are widely recognized to have formed largely by gravitationally driven <span class="hlt">volcano</span> spreading and associated landsliding. Observations from submersibles show that prominent benches at middepths on flanks of Mauna Loa and Kilauea consist of volcaniclastic debris derived by landsliding from nearby shallow <span class="hlt">submarine</span> and subaerial flanks of the same edifice. Massive slide breccias from the mature subaerial tholeiitic shield of Mauna Loa underlie the frontal scarp of its South Kona bench. In contrast, coarse volcaniclastic sediments derived largely from <span class="hlt">submarine</span>-erupted preshield alkalic and transitional basalts of ancestral Kilauea underlie its Hilina bench. Both midslope benches record the same general processes of slope failure, followed by modest compression during continued <span class="hlt">volcano</span> spreading, even though they record development during different stages of edifice growth. The dive results suggest that volcaniclastic rocks at the north end of the Kona bench, interpreted by others as distal sediments from older <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> that were offscraped, uplifted, and accreted to the island by far-traveled thrusts, alternatively are a largely coherent stratigraphic assemblage deposited in a basin behind the South Kona bench.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.4702C"><span id="translatedtitle">Sediment-laden flow induced <span class="hlt">submarine</span> cable failures off southwestern Taiwan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cheng, Y.; Su, C. C.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Taiwan is <span class="hlt">located</span> on the convergent boundary between the Eurasian and Philippine Sea plates, where has a highly frequency of earthquakes. Furthermore, the interaction between the largest continent (Eurasia Continent) and ocean (Pacific Ocean) leads to torrential-rain-induced flooding in the plume rain (May-June) and typhoon seasons (July-October). According to statistics from Water Resources Agency, in the last few decades, the mean annual sediment load was 384 million tons from the island of Taiwan into the sea. Off southwestern Taiwan, two major <span class="hlt">submarine</span> canyons, the Gaoping <span class="hlt">submarine</span> canyon (GPSC) and Fangliao <span class="hlt">submarine</span> canyon (FLSC), are incising from continental shelf to deep sea floor and both of them transport considerable amounts of sediment to the South China Sea. In contrast to the GPSC which is directly connected to the Gaoping River, the FLSC which is smaller, younger and confined to the slope, does not associate with any river on land. Since 2006, southern Taiwan has been through several big typhoons and earthquakes which triggered <span class="hlt">submarine</span> landslides and turbidity currents and damaged many <span class="hlt">submarine</span> cables. The analytical results from sediment cores which taken from the GPSC and FLSC during 2005 to 2010 show these <span class="hlt">submarine</span> cable break events may caused by different processes. In the upper GPSC, hyperpycnal flow might be the major process which caused the cable damages. On the contrary, cable failures in FLSC are due to sediment liquefaction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.V21A2763E"><span id="translatedtitle">Experimental Insights on Natural Lava-Ice/Snow Interactions and Their Implications for Glaciovolcanic and <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Eruptions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Edwards, B. R.; Karson, J.; Wysocki, R.; Lev, E.; Bindeman, I. N.; Kueppers, U.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Lava-ice-snow interactions have recently gained global attention through the eruptions of ice-covered <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, particularly from Eyjafjallajokull in south-central Iceland, with dramatic effects on local communities and global air travel. However, as with most <span class="hlt">submarine</span> eruptions, direct observations of lava-ice/snow interactions are rare. Only a few hundred potentially active <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> are presently ice-covered, these <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> are generally in remote places, and their associated hazards make close observation and measurements dangerous. Here we report the results of the first large-scale experiments designed to provide new constraints on natural interactions between lava and ice/snow. The experiments comprised controlled effusion of tens of kilograms of melted basalt on top of ice/snow, and provide insights about observations from natural lava-ice-snow interactions including new constraints for: 1) rapid lava advance along the ice-lava interface; 2) rapid downwards melting of lava flows through ice; 3) lava flow exploitation of pre-existing discontinuities to travel laterally beneath and within ice; and 4) formation of abundant limu o Pele and non-explosive vapor transport from the base to the top of the lava flow with minor O isotope exchange. The experiments are consistent with observations from eruptions showing that lava is more efficient at melting ice when emplaced on top of the ice as opposed to beneath the ice, as well as the efficacy of tephra cover for slowing melting. The experimental extrusion rates are as within the range of those for <span class="hlt">submarine</span> eruptions as well, and reproduce some features seen in <span class="hlt">submarine</span> eruptions including voluminous production of gas rich cavities within initially anhydrous lavas and limu on lava surfaces. Our initial results raise questions about the possibility of secondary ingestion of water by <span class="hlt">submarine</span> and glaciovolcanic lava flows, and the origins of apparent primary gas cavities in those flows. Basaltic melt moving down ice channel over thermocouples (flow approx 30 cm in width).</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NSDL&redirectUrl=http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/Vhp/C1073/"><span id="translatedtitle">Living With <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span>: The USGS <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Hazards Program</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This report summarizes the <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Hazards Program of the United States Geological Survey (USGS). Topics include its goals and activities, some key accomplishments, and a plan for future operations. There are also discussions of active and potentially active <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> in the U.S., the role of the USGS <span class="hlt">volcano</span> observatories, prediction of eruptions, and potential danger to aircraft from volcanic plumes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.V51C2051C"><span id="translatedtitle">Seismicity at Baru <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Western Panama, Panama</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Camacho, E.; Novelo-Casanova, D. A.; Tapia, A.; Rodriguez, A.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>The Baru <span class="hlt">volcano</span> in Western Panama (8.808°N, 82.543°W) is a 3,475 m high strato <span class="hlt">volcano</span> that lies at about 50 km from the Costa Rican border. The last major eruptive event at this <span class="hlt">volcano</span> occurred c.1550 AD and no further eruptive activity from that time is known. Since the 1930´s, approximately every 30 years a series of seismic swarms take place in the surroundings of the volcanic edifice. Theses swarms last several weeks alarming the population who lives near the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. The last of these episodes occurred on May 2006 and lasted one and a half months. More than 20,000 people live adjacent to the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> and any future eruption has the potential to be very dangerous. In June 2007, a digital seismic monitoring network of ten stations, linked via internet, was installed around the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> in a collaborative project between the University of Panama and the Panamanian Government. The seismic data acquisition at the sites is performed using LINUX-SEISLOG and the events are recorded by four servers at different <span class="hlt">locations</span> using the Earth Worm system. In this work we analyze the characteristics of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> seismicity recorded from May 4th, 2006 to July 31st, 2008 by at least 4 stations and <span class="hlt">located</span> at about 15 km from the summit. To determine the seismic parameters, we tested several crustal velocity models and used the seismic analysis software package SEISAN. Our final velocity model was determined using seismic data for the first four km obtained from a temporal seismic network deployed in 1981 by the British Geological Survey (BGS) as part of geothermal studies conducted at Cerro Pando, Western Panama Highlands. Our results indicate that all the events recorded in the quadrant 8.6-9.0°N and 82.2-82.7°W are <span class="hlt">located</span> in the depth range of 0.1 to 8 km. Cross sections show vertical alignments of hypocenters below the summit although most of the seismicity is concentrated in its eastern flank reaching the town of Boquete. All the calculated focal mechanisms are of the strike slip type.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/5940530"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Submarine</span> landslide geomorphology, US continental slope</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>B. g. Mcadoo; L. f. Pratson; D. l. Orange</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>The morphometric analysis of <span class="hlt">submarine</span> landslides in four distinctly different tectonic environments on the continental slopes of Oregon, central California, Texas, and New Jersey provides useful insight into <span class="hlt">submarine</span> process, including sediment transport mechanisms and slope stability. Using Geographic Information System (GIS) software, we identify landslides from multibeam bathymetric and GLORIA sidescan surveys based solely on surficial morphology and reflectivity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50871071"><span id="translatedtitle">Dynamics Modeling for <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Pipeline Oil Spill</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Ming Xiao; Qingjun Gao; Jianguo Lin; Wei Li; Xiao Liang</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The present oil spill models are usually based on sea surface, while few of them are for <span class="hlt">submarine</span> oil spill. Therefore, modeling and simulation for <span class="hlt">submarine</span> pipeline oil spill is discussed by FLUENT in this paper to forecast the trajectory of oil. The coupling of pressure and velocity under unsteady-state condition is solved by pressure implicit with splitting of operators</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://www.dspace.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/243401"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Submarine</span> landslide flows simulation through centrifuge modelling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Gue, Chang Shin</p> <p>2012-05-08</p> <p><span class="hlt">SUBMARINE</span> LANDSLIDE FLOWS SIMULATION THROUGH CENTRIFUGE MODELLING by Chang Shin GUE A dissertation submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at the University of Cambridge Churchill College January... “Continuous effort – not strength or intelligence – is the key to unlocking our potential” - Winston Churchill ABSTRACT <span class="hlt">SUBMARINE</span> LANDSLIDE FLOWS SIMULATION THROUGH CENTRIFUGE MODELLING Chang Shin GUE Landslides occur both onshore...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NSDL&redirectUrl=http://serc.carleton.edu/introgeo/conceptests/examples/oldvolc.html"><span id="translatedtitle">ConcepTest: Oldest <span class="hlt">Volcano</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Examine the diagram below. The lettered objects represent <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> formed on an oceanic plate above a hot spot. The arrow illustrates the direction of plate motion. Which <span class="hlt">volcano</span> is the oldest? a. b. c. d.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001E%26PSL.192..145D"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Submarine</span> evidence for large-scale debris avalanches in the Lesser Antilles Arc</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Deplus, Christine; Le Friant, Anne; Boudon, Georges; Komorowski, Jean-Christophe; Villemant, Benoit; Harford, Chloe; Ségoufin, Jacques; Cheminée, Jean-Louis</p> <p>2001-10-01</p> <p>Results from a recent marine geophysical survey demonstrate the importance of the process of flank collapse in the growth and evolution of <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> along an island arc. The Aguadomar cruise, aboard the French R/V L'Atalante, surveyed the flanks of the Lesser Antilles Arc between the islands of Montserrat and St. Lucia. Analysis of the data shows that flank collapse events occurred on active <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> all along the arc and resulted in debris avalanches, some of them being of large magnitude. The debris avalanche deposits display hummocky topography on the swath bathymetry, speckled pattern on backscatter images, hyperbolic facies on 3.5 kHz echosounder data and chaotic units on air gun seismic profiles. They extend from horseshoe-shaped structures previously identified on the subaerial part of the <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>. In the southern part of the arc, large-scale debris avalanche deposits were identified on the floor of the Grenada Basin west of active <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> on Dominica, Martinique and St. Lucia. The extent of debris avalanche deposits off Dominica is about 3500 km 2. The debris avalanches have resulted from major flank collapse events which may be mainly controlled by the large-scale structure of the island arc and the presence of the deep Grenada Basin. In the northern part of the arc, several debris avalanche deposits were also identified around the island of Montserrat. With smaller extent (20-120 km 2), they are present on the east, south and west <span class="hlt">submarine</span> flanks of Soufriere Hills <span class="hlt">volcano</span> which has been erupting since July 1995. Flank collapse is thus a recurrent process in the recent history of this <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. The marine data are also relevant for a discussion of the transport mechanisms of debris avalanches on the seafloor surrounding a volcanic island arc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=USGSPUBS&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70036539"><span id="translatedtitle">Early growth of Kohala <span class="hlt">volcano</span> and formation of long Hawaiian rift zones</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Lipman, P.W.; Calvert, A.T.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Transitional-composition pillow basalts from the toe of the Hilo Ridge, collected from outcrop by submersible, have yielded the oldest ages known from the Island of Hawaii: 1138 ?? 34 to 1159 ?? 33 ka. Hilo Ridge has long been interpreted as a <span class="hlt">submarine</span> rift zone of Mauna Kea, but the new ages validate proposals that it is the distal east rift zone of Kohala, the oldest subaerial <span class="hlt">volcano</span> on the island. These ages constrain the inception of tholeiitic volcanism at Kohala, provide the first measured duration of tholeiitic shield building (???870 k.y.) for any Hawaiian <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, and show that this 125-km-long rift zone developed to near-total length during early growth of Kohala. Long eastern-trending rift zones of Hawaiian <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> may follow fractures in oceanic crust activated by arching of the Hawaiian Swell in front of the propagating hotspot. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/1102.0495.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Primary Initiation of <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Canyons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Herndon, J Marvin</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The discovery of close-to-star gas-giant exo-planets lends support to the idea of Earth's origin as a Jupiter-like gas-giant and to the consequences of its compression, including whole-Earth decompression dynamics that gives rise, without requiring mantle convection, to the myriad measurements and observations whose descriptions are attributed to plate tectonics. I propose here another, unanticipated consequence of whole-Earth decompression dynamics: namely, a specific, dominant, non-erosion, underlying initiation-mechanism precursor for <span class="hlt">submarine</span> canyons that follows as a direct consequence of Earth's early origin as a Jupiter-like gas-giant.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=USGSPUBS&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70034693"><span id="translatedtitle">Currents in monterey <span class="hlt">submarine</span> canyon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Xu, J. P.; Noble, M.A.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Flow fields of mean, subtidal, and tidal frequencies between 250 and 3300 m water depths in Monterey <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Canyon are examined using current measurements obtained in three yearlong field experiments. Spatial variations in flow fields are mainly controlled by the topography (shape and width) of the canyon. The mean currents flow upcanyon in the offshore reaches (>1000 m) and downcanyon in the shallow reaches (100-m amplitude isotherm oscillations and associated high-speed rectilinear currents. The 15-day spring-neap cycle and a ???3-day??? band are the two prominent frequencies in subtidal flow field. Neither of them seems directly correlated with the spring-neap cycle of the sea level.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://oaktrust.library.tamu.edu//handle/1969.1/ETD-TAMU-1991-THESIS-Z96"><span id="translatedtitle">Computer simulation of <span class="hlt">submarine</span> motion </span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Zurflueh, Jeffery Alan</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>and gM = d (Id)). The right hand side, i. e. , the ma terms and the d d(Itu) dt dt terms, were derived and verified to be equal to the same terms in Feldman's equations. It was not possible to verify the ~ and PM terms as they are determined from... of gravity (CG) m = mass of the <span class="hlt">submarine</span> g = gt'avlty. Figure 13 shows plots of the roll angle (Q) vs. time for the propulsion torque values of -1000, -2000, and -4000 Newton*meter (N*m). Table 1(pg. 23) displays the comparison between the simulated...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NSDL&redirectUrl=http://www.geo.mtu.edu/volcanoes/index.html"><span id="translatedtitle">Michigan Technological University <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> Page</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This site offers links to current volcanic activity reports, volcanic hazards mitigation, information on Central American <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, remote sensing of <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, volcanologic research in online journals, and more. There are also links to a site with information on becoming a volcanologist, and a comics page of <span class="hlt">volcano</span> humor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993LPI....24...47A"><span id="translatedtitle">Venus small <span class="hlt">volcano</span> classification and description</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aubele, J. C.</p> <p>1993-03-01</p> <p>The high resolution and global coverage of the Magellan radar image data set allows detailed study of the smallest <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> on the planet. A modified classification scheme for <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> less than 20 km in diameter is shown and described. It is based on observations of all members of the 556 significant clusters or fields of small <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> <span class="hlt">located</span> and described by this author during data collection for the Magellan Volcanic and Magmatic Feature Catalog. This global study of approximately 10 exp 4 <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> provides new information for refining small <span class="hlt">volcano</span> classification based on individual characteristics. Total number of these <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> was estimated to be 10 exp 5 to 10 exp 6 planetwide based on pre-Magellan analysis of Venera 15/16, and during preparation of the global catalog, small <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> were identified individually or in clusters in every C1-MIDR mosaic of the Magellan data set. Basal diameter (based on 1000 measured edifices) generally ranges from 2 to 12 km with a mode of 34 km, and follows an exponential distribution similar to the size frequency distribution of seamounts as measured from GLORIA sonar images. This is a typical distribution for most size-limited natural phenomena unlike impact craters which follow a power law distribution and continue to infinitely increase in number with decreasing size. Using an exponential distribution calculated from measured small <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> selected globally at random, we can calculate total number possible given a minimum size. The paucity of edifice diameters less than 2 km may be due to inability to identify very small volcanic edifices in this data set; however, summit pits are recognizable at smaller diameters, and 2 km may represent a significant minimum diameter related to style of volcanic eruption. Guest, et al, discussed four general types of small volcanic edifices on Venus: (1) small lava shields; (2) small volcanic cones; (3) small volcanic domes; and (4) scalloped margin domes ('ticks'). Steep-sided domes or 'pancake domes', larger than 20 km in diameter, were included with the small volcanic domes. For the purposes of this study, only volcanic edifices less than 20 km in diameter are discussed. This forms a convenient cutoff since most of the steep-sided domes ('pancake domes') and scalloped margin domes ('ticks') are 20 to 100 km in diameter, are much less numerous globally than are the smaller diameter volcanic edifices (2 to 3 orders of magnitude lower in total global number), and do not commonly occur in large clusters or fields of large numbers of edifices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMOS32A..01R"><span id="translatedtitle">Recurrence Periods of Earthquake-Induced <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Landslides</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rodríguez-Ochoa, R.; Nadim, F.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Submarine</span> landslides represent a constant threat to offshore installations deployed along the continental slope, therefore the estimation of the recurrence period of slope failures is a key parameter to assess the risk associated with potential massive transport of soil sediments. The initiation of <span class="hlt">submarine</span> slope failures may be due to long-term triggers like the formation of weak layers, sedimentation rates and fault displacements, as well as short-term triggers like earthquakes and storm waves, or a combination of both of them. The recurrence period of <span class="hlt">submarine</span> slope failures can be linked to the recurrence period of their triggers. When the main trigger of slope failure is an earthquake, it is possible to estimate numerically the probability density of the return period for slope failure by using the seismic hazard curve and a mechanical model for earthquake-triggered slope instability. This paper presents a procedure to calculate the conditional probability of slope failure with the maximum probability density (peak) to obtain the return period of the earthquake event with the largest probability of inducing a slope failure. The conditional probability corresponding to the maximum probability density is estimated after obtaining several conditional cumulative probability points for different earthquake return periods, and matching a cumulative distribution function (CDF) to those points; finally, the maximum probability density of the corresponding probability density function (PDF) is obtained. The suggested analytical procedure is applied and compared with available geological evidence in a site <span class="hlt">located</span> in the Gulf of Mexico.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-STC&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6728427"><span id="translatedtitle">Fuel-cell-propelled <span class="hlt">submarine</span>-tanker-system study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Court, K E; Kumm, W H; O'Callaghan, J E</p> <p>1982-06-01</p> <p>This report provides a systems analysis of a commercial Arctic Ocean <span class="hlt">submarine</span> tanker system to carry fossil energy to markets. The <span class="hlt">submarine</span> is to be propelled by a modular Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell system. The power level is 20 Megawatts. The DOE developed electric utility type fuel cell will be fueled with methanol. Oxidant will be provided from a liquid oxygen tank carried onboard. The twin screw <span class="hlt">submarine</span> tanker design is sized at 165,000 deadweight tons and the study includes costs and an economic analysis of the transport system of 6 ships. The route will be under the polar icecap from a loading terminal <span class="hlt">located</span> off Prudhoe Bay, Alaska to a transshipment facility postulated to be in a Norwegian fjord. The system throughput of the gas-fed methanol cargo will be 450,000 barrels per day. The total delivered cost of the methanol including well head purchase price of natural gas, methanol production, and shipping would be $25/bbl from Alaska to the US East Coast. Of this, the shipping cost is $6.80/bbl. All costs in 1981 dollars.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/11066903"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of tsunami hazard to the U.S. East Coast using relationships between <span class="hlt">submarine</span> landslides and earthquakes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Uri S. ten Brink; Homa J. Lee; Eric L. Geist; David Twichell</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Submarine</span> landslides along the continental slope of the U.S. Atlantic margin are potential sources for tsunamis along the U.S. East coast. The magnitude of potential tsunamis depends on the volume and <span class="hlt">location</span> of the landslides, and tsunami frequency depends on their recurrence interval. However, the size and recurrence interval of <span class="hlt">submarine</span> landslides along the U.S. Atlantic margin is poorly known.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASA-TRS&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=MSFC-0203323&hterms=earthquake+italy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dearthquake%2Bitaly"><span id="translatedtitle">Erupting <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Mount Etna</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Expedition Five crew members aboard the International Space Station (ISS) captured this overhead look at the smoke and ash regurgitated from the erupting <span class="hlt">volcano</span> Mt. Etna on the island of Sicily, Italy in October 2002. Triggered by a series of earthquakes on October 27, 2002, this eruption was one of Etna's most vigorous in years. This image shows the ash plume curving out toward the horizon. The lighter-colored plumes down slope and north of the summit seen in this frame are produced by forest fires set by flowing lava. At an elevation of 10,990 feet (3,350 m), the summit of the Mt. Etna <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, one of the most active and most studied <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> in the world, has been active for a half-million years and has erupted hundreds of times in recorded history.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-HHH&redirectUrl=http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ct0564.photos.034449p/"><span id="translatedtitle">29. VIEW OF <span class="hlt">SUBMARINE</span> ESCAPE TRAINING TANK DURING CONSTRUCTION AT ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>29. VIEW OF <span class="hlt">SUBMARINE</span> ESCAPE TRAINING TANK DURING CONSTRUCTION AT POINT JUST ABOVE THE <span class="hlt">SUBMARINE</span> SECTION AT THE 110-FOOT LEVEL 1929-1930 - U.S. Naval <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Base, New London <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Escape Training Tank, Albacore & Darter Roads, Groton, New London County, CT</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-HHH&redirectUrl=http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ct0564.photos.034452p/"><span id="translatedtitle">32. VIEW OF PHOTO CAPTIONED '<span class="hlt">SUBMARINE</span> BASE, NEW LONDON, CONN. ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>32. VIEW OF PHOTO CAPTIONED '<span class="hlt">SUBMARINE</span> BASE, NEW LONDON, CONN. OCTOBER 3, 1932. COMPLETION OF ERECTION OF STEELWORK FOR ELEVATOR. LOOKING NORTH. CONTRACT NO. Y-1539-ELEVATOR, <span class="hlt">SUBMARINE</span> ESCAPE TANK.' - U.S. Naval <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Base, New London <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Escape Training Tank, Albacore & Darter Roads, Groton, New London County, CT</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=USGSPUBS&redirectUrl=http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/730/pdf/ds730.pdf@noteRELATED+WORK#texthttp://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/730/2011_AVO_Seismic_Catalog.zip@noteTHUMBNAIL#texthttp://pubs.er.usgs.gov/thumbnails/ds_730.jpg"><span id="translatedtitle">Catalog of earthquake hypocenters at Alaskan <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span>: January 1 through December 31, 2011</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Dixon, James P.; Stihler, Scott D.; Power, John A.; Searcy, Cheryl K.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Between January 1 and December 31, 2011, the Alaska <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observatory (AVO) <span class="hlt">located</span> 4,364 earthquakes, of which 3,651 occurred within 20 kilometers of the 33 <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> with seismograph subnetworks. There was no significant seismic activity above background levels in 2011 at these instrumented volcanic centers. This catalog includes <span class="hlt">locations</span>, magnitudes, and statistics of the earthquakes <span class="hlt">located</span> in 2011 with the station parameters, velocity models, and other files used to <span class="hlt">locate</span> these earthquakes.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=USGSPUBS&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70036945"><span id="translatedtitle">Timing of occurrence of large <span class="hlt">submarine</span> landslides on the Atlantic Ocean margin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Lee, H.J.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Submarine</span> landslides are distributed unevenly both in space and time. Spatially, they occur most commonly in fjords, active river deltas, <span class="hlt">submarine</span> canyon-fan systems, the open continental slope and on the flanks of oceanic volcanic islands. Temporally, they are influenced by the size, <span class="hlt">location</span>, and sedimentology of migrating depocenters, changes in seafloor pressures and temperatures, variations in seismicity and volcanic activity, and changes in groundwater flow conditions. The dominant factor influencing the timing of <span class="hlt">submarine</span> landslide occurrence is glaciation. A review of known ages of <span class="hlt">submarine</span> landslides along the margins of the Atlantic Ocean, augmented by a few ages from other <span class="hlt">submarine</span> <span class="hlt">locations</span> shows a relatively even distribution of large landslides with time from the last glacial maximum until about five thousand years after the end of glaciation. During the past 5000??yr, the frequency of occurrence is less by a factor of 1.7 to 3.5 than during or shortly after the last glacial/deglaciation period. Such an association likely exists because of the formation of thick deposits of sediment on the upper continental slope during glacial periods and increased seismicity caused by isostatic readjustment during and following deglaciation. Hydrate dissociation may play a role, as suggested previously in the literature, but the connection is unclear.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....2352S"><span id="translatedtitle">Lahar Hazard Modeling at Tungurahua <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Ecuador</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sorensen, O. E.; Rose, W. I.; Jaya, D.</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>Tungurahua <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> (Lat. 01^o28'S; Long. 78^o27'W), <span class="hlt">located</span> in the central Ecuadorian Andes, is an active edifice that rises more than 3 km above surrounding topography. Since European settlement in 1532, Tungurahua has experienced four major eruptive episodes: 1641-1646, 1773-1781, 1886-1888 and 1916-1918 (Hall et al, JVGR V91; p1-21, 1999). In September 1999, Tungurahua began a new period of activity that continues to the present. During this time, the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> has erupted daily, depositing ash and blocks on its steep flanks. A pattern of continuing eruptions, coupled with rainfall up to 28 mm in a 6 hour period (rain data collected in Baños at 6-hr intervals, 3000 meters below Tungurahua’s summit), has produced an environment conducive to lahar mobilization. Tungurahua <span class="hlt">volcano</span> presents an immediate hazard to the town of Baños, an important tourist destination and cultural center with a population of about 25,000 residents <span class="hlt">located</span> 8 km from the crater. During the current eruptive episode, lahars have occurred as often as 3 times per week on the northern and western slopes of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. Consequently, the only north-south trending highway on the west side of Tungurahua has been completely severed at the intersection of at least ten drainages, where erosion has exceeded 10 m since 1999. The La Pampa quebrada, <span class="hlt">located</span> 1 km west of Baños, is the most active of Tungurahua's drainages. At this <span class="hlt">location</span>, where the slope is moderate, lahars continue to inundate the only highway linking Baños to the Pan American Highway. Because of steep topography, the conventional approach of measuring planimetric inundation areas to determine the scale of lahars could not be employed. Instead, cross sections were measured in the channels using volume/cross-sectional inundation relationships determined by (Iverson et al, GSABull V110; no. 8, p972-984, 1998). After field observations of the lahars, LAHARZ, a program used in a geographic information system (GIS) to objectively map lahar-hazard-zones using a digital elevation model (DEM), was used to construct a hazard map for the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. The 10 meter resolution DEM was constructed for Tungurahua <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> using scanned topographic lines obtained from the GIS Department at the Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Quito, Ecuador. The steep topographic gradients and rapid downcutting of most rivers draining the edifice prevents the deposition of lahars on the lower flanks of Tungurahua. Modeling confirms the high degree of flow channelization in the deep Tungurahua canyons. Inundation zones observed and shown by LAHARZ at Baños yield identification of safe zones within the city which would provide safety from even the largest magnitude lahar expected.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.V43A4867W"><span id="translatedtitle">Mapping tremor at K?lauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wech, A.; Thelen, W. A.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Mapping the magma pathway geometry beneath active <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> is vital to providing an understanding of how each system works, what drives its dynamics and what eventually controls the surface expression of volcanism. Seismicity can provide clues about the subsurface plumbing, but the seismic catalog is often incomplete. The broad spectrum of seismic phenomena at <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, from discrete earthquakes to the continuous hum of tremor, hampers event identification, and there are no standard seismological tools to resolve this problem. Even at K?lauea, one of the best-instrumented and most studied <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> in the world, a detailed source geometry remains elusive. Here we present the first map of a <span class="hlt">volcano</span>'s deep plumbing system by taking a new approach to seismic monitoring. Using envelope cross-correlation, we systematically scan through 2.5 years of continuous seismic data to identify and <span class="hlt">locate</span> thousands of undocumented volcanic sources, which we interpret to map the path of magma ascent from the deep mantle, offshore south of the Big Island, to the lava lake in K?lauea's crater. The results offer a fundamental insight into the source of K?lauea volcanism and generate a baseline understanding that increases our ability to interpret pre- and co-eruptive observations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=USGSPUBS&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr20041234"><span id="translatedtitle">Catalog of earthquake hypocenters at Alaskan <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>: January 1 through December 31, 2003</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Dixon, James P.; Stihler, Scott D.; Power, John A.; Tytgat, Guy; Moran, Seth C.; Sanchez, John J.; McNutt, Stephen R.; Estes, Steve; Paskievitch, John</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The Alaska <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of the U.S. Geological Survey, the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks, and the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, has maintained seismic monitoring networks at historically active <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> in Alaska since 1988. The primary objectives of this program are the near real time seismic monitoring of active, potentially hazardous, Alaskan <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> and the investigation of seismic processes associated with active volcanism. This catalog presents the calculated earthquake hypocenter and phase arrival data, and changes in the seismic monitoring program for the period January 1 through December 31, 2003. The AVO seismograph network was used to monitor the seismic activity at twenty-seven <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> within Alaska in 2003. These include Mount Wrangell, Mount Spurr, Redoubt <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Iliamna <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Augustine <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Katmai volcanic cluster (Snowy Mountain, Mount Griggs, Mount Katmai, Novarupta, Trident <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Mount Mageik, Mount Martin), Aniakchak Crater, Mount Veniaminof, Pavlof <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Mount Dutton, Isanotski Peaks, Shishaldin <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Fisher Caldera, Westdahl Peak, Akutan Peak, Makushin <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Okmok Caldera, Great Sitkin <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Kanaga <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Tanaga <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, and Mount Gareloi. Monitoring highlights in 2003 include: continuing elevated seismicity at Mount Veniaminof in January-April (volcanic unrest began in August 2002), volcanogenic seismic swarms at Shishaldin <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> throughout the year, and low-level tremor at Okmok Caldera throughout the year. Instrumentation and data acquisition highlights in 2003 were the installation of subnetworks on Tanaga and Gareloi Islands, the installation of broadband installations on Akutan <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> and Okmok Caldera, and the establishment of telemetry for the Okmok Caldera subnetwork. AVO <span class="hlt">located</span> 3911 earthquakes in 2003. This catalog includes: (1) a description of instruments deployed in the field and their <span class="hlt">locations</span>; (2) a description of earthquake detection, recording, analysis, and data archival systems; (3) a description of velocity models used for earthquake <span class="hlt">locations</span>; (4) a summary of earthquakes <span class="hlt">located</span> in 2003; and (5) an accompanying UNIX tar-file with a summary of earthquake origin times, hypocenters, magnitudes, phase arrival times, and <span class="hlt">location</span> quality statistics; daily station usage statistics; and all HYPOELLIPSE files used to determine the earthquake <span class="hlt">locations</span> in 2003.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010GGG....11.5S23H"><span id="translatedtitle">Tephra layers: A controlling factor on <span class="hlt">submarine</span> translational sliding?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Harders, Rieka; Kutterolf, Steffen; Hensen, Christian; Moerz, Tobias; Brueckmann, Warner</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Submarine</span> slope failures occur at all continental margins, but the processes generating different mass wasting phenomena remain poorly understood. Multibeam bathymetry mapping of the Middle America Trench reveals numerous continental slope failures of different dimensions and origin. For example, large rotational slumps have been interpreted to be caused by slope collapse in the wake of subducting seamounts. In contrast, the mechanisms generating translational slides have not yet been described. Lithology, shear strength measurements, density, and pore water alkalinity from a sediment core across a slide plane indicate that a few centimeters thick intercalated volcanic tephra layer marks the detachment surface. The ash layer can be correlated to the San Antonio tephra, emplaced by the 6000 year old caldera-forming eruption from Masaya-Caldera, Nicaragua. The distal deposits of this eruption are widespread along the continental slope and ocean plate offshore Nicaragua. Grain size measurements permit us to estimate the reconstruction of the original ash layer thickness at the investigated slide. Direct shear test experiments on Middle American ashes show a high volume reduction during shearing. This indicates that marine tephra layers have the highest hydraulic conductivity of the different types of slope sediment, enabling significant volume reduction to take place under undrained conditions. This makes ash layers mechanically distinct within slope sediment sequences. Here we propose a mechanism by which ash layers may become weak planes that promote translational sliding. The mechanism implies that ground shaking by large earthquakes induces rearrangement of ash shards causing their compaction (volume reduction) and produces a rapid accumulation of water in the upper part of the layer that is capped by impermeable clay. The water-rich veneer abruptly reduces shear strength, creating a detachment plane for translational sliding. Tephra layers might act as slide detachment planes at convergent margins of subducting zones, at <span class="hlt">submarine</span> slopes of volcanic islands, and at submerged <span class="hlt">volcano</span> slopes in lakes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=ERIC&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=French+AND+Revolution&pg=2&id=EJ701041"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Location</span>, <span class="hlt">Location</span>, <span class="hlt">Location</span>!</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ramsdell, Kristin</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Of prime importance in real estate, <span class="hlt">location</span> is also a key element in the appeal of romances. Popular geographic settings and historical periods sell, unpopular ones do not--not always with a logical explanation, as the author discovered when she conducted a survey on this topic last year. (Why, for example, are the French Revolution and the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=USGSPUBS&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ds645"><span id="translatedtitle">Catalog of earthquake hypocenters at Alaskan <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span>: January 1 through December 31, 2010</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Dixon, James P.; Stihler, Scott D.; Power, John A.; Searcy, Cheryl K.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Between January 1 and December 31, 2010, the Alaska <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observatory (AVO) <span class="hlt">located</span> 3,405 earthquakes, of which 2,846 occurred within 20 kilometers of the 33 <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> with seismograph subnetworks. There was no significant seismic activity in 2010 at these monitored volcanic centers. Seismograph subnetworks with severe outages in 2009 were repaired in 2010 resulting in three volcanic centers (Aniakchak, Korovin, and Veniaminof) being relisted in the formal list of monitored <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>. This catalog includes <span class="hlt">locations</span> and statistics of the earthquakes <span class="hlt">located</span> in 2010 with the station parameters, velocity models, and other files used to <span class="hlt">locate</span> these earthquakes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFM.V52B0425W"><span id="translatedtitle">3-d Visualization of Earthquakes and Erupting Vents in Time-series Animations: Application to Kilauea and Miyakejima <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wright, T. L.</p> <p>2003-12-01</p> <p>Computer programs have been developed to view erupting vents and earthquake sequences on and beneath transparent topography shown by a DEM, vertical image, or map. In a single frame an earthquake dataset can be rotated with the mouse to create perspective views. Multiple-frame time animations are created in which the perspective (e.g., map, cross-section) and time increments (e.g., hour, day, month) are chosen by the user. Viewed as movies, the animations allow recognition of seismicity patterns occurring over large areas and long time periods. Departures from characteristic activity are easily spotted and can be further investigated in a single frame or in animation with shorter time increments. Time animations have been made of earthquake sequences accompanying several eruptions of Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span> and the Miyakejima eruption and associated dike emplacement in 2000. An earthquake swarm shallower than 6 km beneath Miyakejima island began on the evening of 6/26/2000. The seismicity moved to the southwest, then to the north and offshore, and a <span class="hlt">submarine</span> eruption occurred on the morning of 6/27. Shortly thereafter, earthquakes of M 4 and above migrated westward, also becoming deeper (to 20 km), marking the emplacement of a large dike northwest of Miyakejima island. Eruptions at Miyakejima from 7/8 to 9/1 were associated with formation of a new caldera. The timing and <span class="hlt">location</span> of the <span class="hlt">submarine</span> eruption can be seen in the seismicity, consistent with later visual observation of discolored seawater and photographs obtained of the seafloor vents. Seismicity associated with the <span class="hlt">submarine</span> eruption plunges eastward. Seismic sequences preceding explosive eruptions at Miyakejima summit in August plunge southwest. Intersection of the opposed dips occurs near 10 km depth, consistent with existence of a deeper basaltic reservoir feeding the explosive eruptions. Sequences of vertical, pipe-like seismicity extending to very shallow depths over the propagating dike and occurring over times of 4-6 hours suggest additional episodes of undersea eruption near the islands of Kozushima and Toushima. At Kilauea the focus has been on two long eruptions, Mauna Ulu (1969-1974) and Pu'u 'O'o (1983-ongoing). In the latter a maturing magma transport system is shown by (1) diminishing shallow rift seismicity and south flank response, and (2) increasing frequency and depth of long-period seismicity beneath Kilauea's summit. An event seen in the animations and not previously noticed was a seismic sequence beneath Kilauea triggered by the M6.6 Mauna Loa earthquake of 11/16/1983. Beginning 4 hours after the mainshock, seismicity occurred on a Kaoiki fault trace buried beneath Kilauea lava and also on Kilauea's southwest flank, a zone usually active only during intrusions on Kilauea's southwest rift zone. In the former the animations vividly depict the changing seismicity beneath the growing Mauna Ulu shield and the eruptions and intrusions elsewhere on the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> that occurred during pauses in the Mauna Ulu activity. Following the end of Mauna Ulu activity in 7/1974, the animations show the sequence of eruptions and intrusions leading up to the M7.2 Kilauea south flank earthquake of 11/29/1975. The presence of greatly elevated levels of seismicity at 30 km beneath Kilauea and at 0-15 km beneath Kilauea's southwestern flank compared to earlier times may be useful in forecasting future large south flank earthquakes. The same computer programs used for the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> animations can be applied to mainshock aftershock sequences associated with large earthquakes, and to tectonic earthquake sequences associated with subducting or obducting plates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.V53B2817P"><span id="translatedtitle">Reconnaissance seismology at nine <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> of the central Andes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pritchard, M. E.; Krzesni, D.; Button, N.; Welch, M.; Jay, J.; Henderson, S.; Glass, B.; Soler, V.; Amigo, A.; Sunagua, M.; Minaya, E.; Clavero, J. E.; Barrientos, S. E.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The seismicity of the <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> of the central Andes of Bolivia and Chile is poorly constrained. We have deployed small temporary networks (1 to 5 stations each) of short and intermediate period seismometers for several months to years at eight potentially active <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> in Chile and Bolivia between the years 2004 and 2011. We record background seismicity at these <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> for the first time in order to compare it with other manifestations of volcanic activity like fumaroles, ground deformation, and satellite observed thermal anomalies as well as setting a baseline for future episodes of unrest. Seismometers were deployed near the <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> Irruputuncu, Olca, Olla\\:{u}e, Parinacota, Isluga, Guallatiri, Putana, all near the Chile-Bolivia border, Láscar <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, Chile, and the hydrothermal field Sol de Manana, Bolivia. All of these areas were selected because they have thermal anomalies in nighttime satellite ASTER infrared observations, active fumaroles, or recent eruptive activity. The seismic data were used to create a catalog for the region containing more than 5000 local and regional earthquake <span class="hlt">locations</span>. All phase arrivals were picked manually by visually inspecting waveforms and <span class="hlt">locations</span> were determined using the generalized earthquake-<span class="hlt">location</span> (GENLOC) program that is part of the Antelope software package. Over the course of 4 months, Ollag\\:{u}e <span class="hlt">volcano</span> was found to be most active with an average of 1.5 earthquakes per day within 25km, and sometimes as many as 10 per day. Over the course of 10 months, Guallatiri <span class="hlt">volcano</span> was found to the be most active of the <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> monitored in Chile with an average of 0.7 earthquakes per day within 25km, and sometimes as many as 7 per day. Earthquake swarms were identified near Ollag\\:{u}e, Guallatiri, Puchuldiza Geysers, Putana, and potentially Parinacota. The swarms at Puchuldiza were recorded on at least two different days, one swarm consisted of more than 20 earthquakes in a time period of about about 5 hours. Swarms at Putana <span class="hlt">volcano</span> in late 2009 may correspond in time with a pulse of ground uplift observed by satellite InSAR, but the other swarms do not appear to have measurable deformation associated with them. Putana also appears to have numerous small local earthquakes triggered by the 27 February 2010 M_{w} 8.8 Maule, Chile earthquake (about 1600 km distant) as did the nearby Uturuncu <span class="hlt">volcano</span> in Bolivia. On the other hand, Láscar <span class="hlt">volcano</span> in Chile did not have significant triggered local seismicity from the 2010 earthquake in spite of having many more recent eruptions than Putana and Uturuncu.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFMIN33A0867D"><span id="translatedtitle">Operational Monitoring of <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> Using Keyhole Markup Language</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dehn, J.; Bailey, J. E.; Webley, P.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> are some of the most geologically powerful, dynamic, visually appealing structures on the Earth's landscape. Volcanic eruptions are hard to predict, difficult to quantify and impossible to prevent, making effective monitoring a difficult proposition. In Alaska, <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> are an intrinsic part of the culture, with over 100 <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> and volcanic fields that have been active in historic time monitored by the Alaska <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observatory (AVO). Observations and research are performed using a suite of methods and tools in the fields of remote sensing, seismology, geodesy and geology, producing large volumes of geospatial data. Keyhole Markup Language (KML) offers a context in which these different, and in the past disparate, data can be displayed simultaneously. Dynamic links keep these data current, allowing it to be used in an operational capacity. KML is used to display information from the aviation color codes and activity alert levels for <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> to <span class="hlt">locations</span> of thermal anomalies, earthquake <span class="hlt">locations</span> and ash plume modeling. The dynamic refresh and time primitive are used to display <span class="hlt">volcano</span> webcam and satellite image overlays in near real-time. In addition a virtual globe browser using KML, such as Google Earth, provides an interface to further information using the hyperlink, rich- text and flash-embedding abilities supported within object description balloons. By merging these data sets in an easy to use interface, a virtual globe browser provides a better tool for scientists and emergency managers alike to mitigate volcanic crises.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOVIMAGE-USGS&redirectUrl=http://gallery.usgs.gov/photos/01_13_2011_u85Ct21SRm_01_13_2011_0"><span id="translatedtitle">Augustine <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Sampling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://gallery.usgs.gov/">USGS Multimedia Gallery</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Students climb out of ravine on north flank of Augustine <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> during descent from sampling the 2006 lava flow during 2010 summer field campaign. From left: Laurel Morrow (junior geology major at CSUF), Matthew Bidwell (Science teacher at South Junior High School in Anaheim, CA), Ashley Melendez (...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASA-TRS&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=GL-2002-001361&hterms=guatemala&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dguatemala"><span id="translatedtitle">Santa Maria <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Guatemala</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>The eruption of Santa Maria <span class="hlt">volcano</span> in 1902 was one of the largest eruptions of the 20th century, forming a large crater on the mountain's southwest flank. Since 1922, a lava-dome complex, Santiaguito, has been forming in the 1902 crater. Growth of the dome has produced pyroclastic flows as recently as the 2001-they can be identified in this image. The city of Quezaltenango (approximately 90,000 people in 1989) sits below the 3772 m summit. The <span class="hlt">volcano</span> is considered dangerous because of the possibility of a dome collapse such as one that occurred in 1929, which killed about 5000 people. A second hazard results from the flow of volcanic debris into rivers south of Santiaguito, which can lead to catastrophic flooding and mud flows. More information on this <span class="hlt">volcano</span> can be found at web sites maintained by the Smithsonian Institution, <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> World, and Michigan Tech University. ISS004-ESC-7999 was taken 17 February 2002 from the International Space Station using a digital camera. The image is provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Searching and viewing of additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts is available at the NASA-JSC Gateway to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-ASDC&redirectUrl=https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/misr/gallery/iceland_volcano_plume3"><span id="translatedtitle">Iceland: Eyjafjallajökull <span class="hlt">Volcano</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/">Atmospheric Science Data Center </a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-04-17</p> <p>article title:  Eyjafjallajökull <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Plume Heights     View Larger ... among the best constraints for aerosol plume evolution modeling. These data are being used in continuing studies of the ... data were obtained from the NASA Langley Research Center Atmospheric Science Data Center in Hampton, VA. Image credit: ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.G23C0846S"><span id="translatedtitle">Gravity and Geodetic Studies at Concepción <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, Nicaragua</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Saballos, J. A.; Malservisi, R.; Connor, C.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Four gravity surveys were conducted in an area of 18.0 x 12.4 km2 between 2007 and 2010 on and around Concepción <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, Ometepe Island, Nicaragua. The amplitude of the anomaly ranges from -15 to 45 mGal. The bulk average density of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> was estimated by minimizing the cross-correlation, on a 2-dimensional grid, between the simple Bouguer anomaly and topography of the volcanic edifice, yielding a value of 1.764 ± 0.004 g cm-3. This has a meaningful impact on models such as gravitational spreading, and <span class="hlt">volcano</span> loading. The resulting complete Bouguer anomaly map shows that the upper part of the volcanic edifice has a lower density than the lower part, consistent with the fact that the upper part is made of pyroclastic materials and built upon a more consolidated base left after a Plinian eruption not later than 2,720 ± 60 years B.P. The upper part of the cone is the major source for the generation of debris flows, which is a significant hazard for about 15,000 inhabitants. A low Bouguer anomaly trending NE and running from the southern side of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> to its western side is interpreted as an inactive fault that may be related to a recently discovered fault, within the lake, using seismic data 15 km south of the island. Dual-frequency geodetic global positioning data recorded in episodic campaigns have been collected on five stations around the <span class="hlt">volcano’s</span> base. The two stations with more occupations, 2001-2010, <span class="hlt">located</span> N and SE side of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> show a baseline change rate of -7 ± 2 mm/yr. While another pair of stations on the eastern and southern side of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> have a baseline change rate of -6 ± 6 mm/yr. These results suggest that the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> is not currently spreading by the action of gravity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=USGSPUBS&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70032222"><span id="translatedtitle">One hundred years of <span class="hlt">volcano</span> monitoring in Hawaii</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Kauahikaua, J.; Poland, M.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>In 2012 the Hawaiian <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observatory (HVO), the oldest of five <span class="hlt">volcano</span> observatories in the United States, is commemorating the 100th anniversary of its founding. HVO's <span class="hlt">location</span>, on the rim of Klauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span> (Figure 1)one of the most active <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> on Earthhas provided an unprecedented opportunity over the past century to study processes associated with active volcanism and develop methods for hazards assessment and mitigation. The scientifically and societally important results that have come from 100 years of HVO's existence are the realization of one man's vision of the best way to protect humanity from natural disasters. That vision was a response to an unusually destructive decade that began the twentieth century, a decade that saw almost 200,000 people killed by the effects of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=USGSPUBS&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70038650"><span id="translatedtitle">One hundred years of <span class="hlt">volcano</span> monitoring in Hawaii</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Kauahikaua, Jim; Poland, Mike</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>In 2012 the Hawaiian <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observatory (HVO), the oldest of five <span class="hlt">volcano</span> observatories in the United States, is commemorating the 100th anniversary of its founding. HVO's <span class="hlt">location</span>, on the rim of Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span> (Figure 1)—one of the most active <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> on Earth—has provided an unprecedented opportunity over the past century to study processes associated with active volcanism and develop methods for hazards assessment and mitigation. The scientifically and societally important results that have come from 100 years of HVO's existence are the realization of one man's vision of the best way to protect humanity from natural disasters. That vision was a response to an unusually destructive decade that began the twentieth century, a decade that saw almost 200,000 people killed by the effects of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GML...tmp...23N"><span id="translatedtitle">Shallow-water longshore drift-fed <span class="hlt">submarine</span> fan deposition (Moisie River Delta, Eastern Canada)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Normandeau, Alexandre; Lajeunesse, Patrick; St-Onge, Guillaume</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Submarine</span> canyons and associated <span class="hlt">submarine</span> fans are in some cases <span class="hlt">located</span> at the end of a littoral cell where they act as conduits for the transfer of eroded terrigenous sediments to the marine environment. Such fans are generally found in deep-water settings at >500 m water depth. Offshore the Moisie River Delta (NW Gulf of St. Lawrence, Eastern Canada), high-resolution multibeam bathymetry and seismic data led to the discovery of an unusually shallow <span class="hlt">submarine</span> fan (?60 m) <span class="hlt">located</span> at the end of a littoral cell. Sediment is transported westward on the shallow coastal shelf, as demonstrated by the downcurrent displacement of oblique nearshore sandbars where the shelf narrows to less than 1 km. The steep slope near the end of the littoral cell is incised by a channel that feeds a <span class="hlt">submarine</span> fan composed of smaller channels and depositional lobes. According to existing Holocene evolution models for the region, the fan formed within the last 5,000 years. Its evolution is largely due to the transport of sediment by longshore drift. Multibeam echosounder and seismic data also reveal that the gravity-driven accretion of the <span class="hlt">submarine</span> fan is characterized mainly by two processes, i.e., frequent small-scale, downslope migration of sandwaves on the slope, and more episodic slumping/turbidity-current activity in the deeper part of the fan. This study documents that, besides their common deep-water <span class="hlt">location</span>, smaller-scale <span class="hlt">submarine</span> fans can occur also in very shallow water, implying that they could be more frequent than previously thought both in modern environments and in the rock record.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=USGSPUBS&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr01189"><span id="translatedtitle">Catalog of earthquake hypocenters at Alaskan <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>: January 1, 1994 through December 31, 1999</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Jolly, Arthur D.; Stihler, Scott D.; Power, John A.; Lahr, John C.; Paskievitch, John; Tytgat, Guy; Estes, Steve; Lockhart, Andrew B.; Moran, Seth C.; McNutt, Stephen R.; Hammond, William R.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>The Alaska <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of the U.S. Geological Survey, the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska - Fairbanks, and the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, has maintained a seismic monitoring program at potentially active <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> in Alaska since 1988 (Power and others, 1993; Jolly and others, 1996). The primary objectives of this program are the seismic surveillance of active, potentially hazardous, Alaskan <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> and the investigation of seismic processes associated with active volcanism. Between 1994 and 1999, the AVO seismic monitoring program underwent significant changes with networks added at new <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> during each summer from 1995 through 1999. The existing network at Katmai –Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes (VTTS) was repaired in 1995, and new networks were installed at Makushin (1996), Akutan (1996), Pavlof (1996), Katmai - south (1996), Aniakchak (1997), Shishaldin (1997), Katmai - north (1998), Westdahl, (1998), Great Sitkin (1999) and Kanaga (1999). These networks added to AVO's existing seismograph networks in the Cook Inlet area and increased the number of AVO seismograph stations from 46 sites and 57 components in 1994 to 121 sites and 155 components in 1999. The 1995–1999 seismic network expansion increased the number of <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> monitored in real-time from 4 to 22, including Mount Spurr, Redoubt <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Iliamna <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Augustine <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Mount Snowy, Mount Griggs, Mount Katmai, Novarupta, Trident <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Mount Mageik, Mount Martin, Aniakchak Crater, Pavlof <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Mount Dutton, Isanotski <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, Shisaldin <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Fisher Caldera, Westdahl <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, Akutan <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, Makushin <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Great Sitkin <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, and Kanaga <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> (see Figures 1-15). The network expansion also increased the number of earthquakes <span class="hlt">located</span> from about 600 per year in1994 and 1995 to about 3000 per year between 1997 and 1999. Highlights of the catalog period include: 1) a large volcanogenic seismic swarm at Akutan <span class="hlt">volcano</span> in March and April 1996 (Lu and others, 2000); 2) an eruption at Pavlof <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> in fall 1996 (Garces and others, 2000; McNutt and others, 2000); 3) an earthquake swarm at Iliamna <span class="hlt">volcano</span> between September and December 1996; 4) an earthquake swarm at Mount Mageik in October 1996 (Jolly and McNutt, 1999); 5) an earthquake swarm <span class="hlt">located</span> at shallow depth near Strandline Lake; 6) a strong swarm of earthquakes near Becharof Lake; 7) precursory seismicity and an eruption at Shishaldin <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> in April 1999 that included a 5.2 ML earthquake and aftershock sequence (Moran and others, in press; Thompson and others, in press). The 1996 calendar year is also notable as the seismicity rate was very high, especially in the fall when 3 separate areas (Strandline Lake, Iliamna <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, and several of the Katmai <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>) experienced high rates of <span class="hlt">located</span> earthquakes. This catalog covers the period from January 1, 1994, through December 31,1999, and includes: 1) earthquake origin times, hypocenters, and magnitudes with summary statistics describing the earthquake <span class="hlt">location</span> quality; 2) a description of instruments deployed in the field and their <span class="hlt">locations</span> and magnifications; 3) a description of earthquake detection, recording, analysis, and data archival; 4) velocity models used for earthquake <span class="hlt">locations</span>; 5) phase arrival times recorded at individual stations; and 6) a summary of daily station usage from throughout the report period. We have made calculated hypocenters, station <span class="hlt">locations</span>, system magnifications, velocity models, and phase arrival information available for download via computer network as a compressed Unix tar file.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60135706"><span id="translatedtitle">Haines - Scagway <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Cable Intertie Project, Haines to Scagway, Alaska; Final Technical and Construction Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Alan See; Bennie N. Rinehart; Glen Marin</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>The Haines to Skagway <span class="hlt">submarine</span> cable project is <span class="hlt">located</span> n Taiya Inlet, at the north end of Lynn Canal, in Southeast Alaska. The cable is approximately 15 miles long, with three landings and splice vaults. The cable is 35 kV, 3-Phase, and armored. The cable interconnects the Goat Lake Hydro Project near Skagway with the community of Haines. Both communities</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40494126"><span id="translatedtitle">Vent fluid chemistry in Bahía Concepción coastal <span class="hlt">submarine</span> hydrothermal system, Baja California Sur, Mexico</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>R. M. Prol-Ledesma; C. Canet; M. A. Torres-Vera; M. J. Forrest; M. A. Armienta</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Shallow <span class="hlt">submarine</span> hydrothermal activity has been observed in the Bahía Concepción bay, <span class="hlt">located</span> at the Gulf coast of the Baja California Peninsula, along faults probably related to the extensional tectonics of the Gulf of California region. Diffuse and focused venting of hydrothermal water and gas occurs in the intertidal and shallow subtidal areas down to 15 m along a NW–SE-trending</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/61395829"><span id="translatedtitle">Paleogeographic reconstruction of the Prinos oil field <span class="hlt">submarine</span> fan with the use of logs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Baltas</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>The Prinos oil field is <span class="hlt">located</span> in the Gulf of Kavala in the north Aegean Sea, Greece. The sandstones which form the reservoir rock were deposited by a <span class="hlt">submarine</span> fan during the Messinian. Core analyses of a full reservoir sequence revealed the presence of four facies: A4\\/B2, C, E, and D. FDC, CNL, GR, CAL, HDT, and dipmeter logs of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/11476197"><span id="translatedtitle">Potential role of compressional structures in generating <span class="hlt">submarine</span> slope failures in the Niger Delta</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>N. Sultan; M. Voisset; B. Marsset; T. Marsset; E. Cauquil; Jean-Louis Colliat</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The study area, offshore Nigeria, is <span class="hlt">located</span> in one of the compressional zones within the Niger Delta, which is characterized by imbricate thrust structures. Although the low mean slope angle (around 2°), bathymetry data from the study area have shown the existence of several <span class="hlt">submarine</span> landslides which coincide with known subsurface faulted compressive features.In this paper, we have focused on</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-HHH&redirectUrl=http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/cz0044.photos.579140p/"><span id="translatedtitle">Exterior view of <span class="hlt">submarine</span> with survey crew posed in front. ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Exterior view of <span class="hlt">submarine</span> with survey crew posed in front. From left to right: Todd Croteau - U.S. National Park Service, Joshua Price - U.S. Navy, Bert Ho - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Michael McCarthy - Western Australia Maritime Museum, Larry Murphy - U.S. National Park Service, Don Johnson- University of Nebraska Engineering School, James Delgado- Institute for Nautical Archeology, Jacinto Ahmendra - Government of Panama. - Sub Marine Explorer, <span class="hlt">Located</span> along the beach of Isla San Telmo, Pearl Islands, Isla San Telmo, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.V31E4792M"><span id="translatedtitle">Receiver Function Analyses of Uturuncu <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Bolivia and Lastarria/Cordon Del Azufre <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span>, Chile</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mcfarlin, H. L.; Christensen, D. H.; Thompson, G.; McNutt, S. R.; Ryan, J. C.; Ward, K. M.; Zandt, G.; West, M. E.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Uturuncu <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> and a zone between Lastarria and Cordon del Azufre <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> (also calledLazufre), have seen much attention lately because of significant and rapid inflation of one to twocentimeters per year over large areas. Uturuncu is <span class="hlt">located</span> near the Bolivian-Chilean border, andLazufre is <span class="hlt">located</span> near the Chilean-Argentine border. The PLUTONS Project deployed 28broadband seismic stations around Uturuncu <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, from April 2009 to Octobor 2012, and alsodeployed 9 stations around Lastarria and Cordon del Azufre <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, from November, 2011 toApril 2013. Teleseismic receiver functions were generated using the time-domain iterativedeconvolution algorithm of Ligorria and Ammon (1999) for each volcanic area. These receiverfunctions were used to better constrain the depths of magma bodies under Uturuncu and Lazufre,as well as the ultra low velocity layer within the Altiplano-Puna Magma Body (APMB). Thelow velocity zone under Uturuncu is shown to have a top around 10 km depth b.s.l and isgenerally around 20 km thick with regional variations. Tomographic inversion shows a well resolved,near vertical, high Vp/Vs anomaly directly beneath Uturuncu that correlates well with adisruption in the receiver function results; which is inferred to be a magmatic intrusion causing alocal thickening of the APMB. Preliminary results at Lazufre show the top of a low velocityzone around 5-10 km b.s.l with a thickness of 15-30 km.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASA-TRS&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930005156&hterms=elastic+search&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Delastic%2Bsearch"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimates of elastic plate thicknesses beneath large <span class="hlt">volcanos</span> on Venus</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mcgovern, Patrick J.; Solomon, Sean C.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Megellan radar imaging and topography data are now available for a number of <span class="hlt">volcanos</span> on Venus greater than 100 km in radius. These data can be examined to reveal evidence of the flexural response of the lithosphere to the volcanic load. On Earth, flexure beneath large hotspot <span class="hlt">volcanos</span> results in an annual topographic moat that is partially to completely filled in by sedimentation and mass wasting from the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>'s flanks. On Venus, erosion and sediment deposition are considered to be negligible at the resolution of Magellan images. Thus, it may be possible to observe evidence of flexure by the ponding of recent volcanic flows in the moat. We also might expect to find topographic signals from unfilled moats surrounding large <span class="hlt">volcanos</span> on Venus, although these signals may be partially obscured by regional topography. Also, in the absence of sedimentation, tectonic evidence of deformation around large <span class="hlt">volcanos</span> should be evident except where buried by very young flows. We use analytic solutions in axisymmetric geometry for deflections and stresses resulting from loading of a plate overlying an inviscid fluid. Solutions for a set of disk loads are superimposed to obtain a solution for a conical <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. The deflection of the lithosphere produces an annular depression or moat, the extent of which can be estimated by measuring the distance from the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>'s edge to the first zero crossing or to the peak of the flexural arch. Magellan altimetry data records (ARCDRs) from data cycle 1 are processed using the GMT mapping and graphics software to produce topographic contour maps of the <span class="hlt">volcanos</span>. We then take topographic profiles that cut across the annular and ponded flows seen on the radar images. By comparing the <span class="hlt">locations</span> of these flows to the predicted moat <span class="hlt">locations</span> from a range of models, we estimate the elastic plate thickness that best fits the observations, together with the uncertainty in that estimate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14..169M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Volcano</span>-seismic activity before and after the Maule 2010 Earthquake (Southern Chile): a comparison between Llaima and Villarrica <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mora-Stock, C.; Thorwart, M.; Wunderlich, T.; Bredemeyer, S.; Rabbel, W.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Llaima and Villarrica are two of the most actives <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> in the Southern Volcanic Zone in the Chilean Andes, with different type of activity and edifice. Llaima is a close vent <span class="hlt">volcano</span> with constant seismic activity, while Villarrica is an open vent <span class="hlt">volcano</span> with lava lake at the summit and constant degassing. The relation between <span class="hlt">volcano</span> eruptions following a great earthquake has been studied in different cases around the world, and it has been the case for the 1960 Valdivia earthquake in southern Chile, where Llaima and Villarrica presented eruptions on the following months to years. This study is focused on characterizing the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>-seismic activity in the months before and after the M8.8 Maule earthquake on the 27th February 2010. Time series for tremors, long period and <span class="hlt">volcano</span> tectonic events were obtained from the catalogue of the Volcanic Observatory of the Southern Andes (OVDAS in Spanish) and from the continuous record of the SFB 574 temporary volcanic network. In Villarrica <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, peaks of activity of tremor and long period events were observed months prior to and after the earthquake, followed by degassing activity, which is consistent with an increase in the activity related to fluids (gas and magma). While in Llaima <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, a high increase in the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> tectonic activity was observed directly after the earthquake, consistent with a possible structural adjustment response. The values for pressure change and normal stress were calculated for the Maule earthquake (M8.8) giving results two orders of magnitude lower in comparison to the ones obtained for Valdivia earthquake (M9.5). Finally, these changes in the seismic behavior had lasted over a year, than it is possible to state that the Maule earthquake affected Llaima and Villarrica in some way due to static stress, but given the <span class="hlt">location</span> and the insufficient critical state of both edifices, it was not possible to generate a great eruption.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=USGSPUBS&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ds467"><span id="translatedtitle">Catalog of Earthquake Hypocenters at Alaskan <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span>: January 1 through December 31, 2008</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Dixon, James P.; Stihler, Scott D.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Between January 1 and December 31, 2008, the Alaska <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observatory (AVO) <span class="hlt">located</span> 7,097 earthquakes of which 5,318 occurred within 20 kilometers of the 33 <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> monitored by the AVO. Monitoring highlights in 2008 include the eruptions of Okmok Caldera, and Kasatochi <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, as well as increased unrest at Mount Veniaminof and Redoubt <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>. This catalog includes descriptions of: (1) <span class="hlt">locations</span> of seismic instrumentation deployed during 2008; (2) earthquake detection, recording, analysis, and data archival systems; (3) seismic velocity models used for earthquake <span class="hlt">locations</span>; (4) a summary of earthquakes <span class="hlt">located</span> in 2008; and (5) an accompanying UNIX tar-file with a summary of earthquake origin times, hypocenters, magnitudes, phase arrival times, <span class="hlt">location</span> quality statistics, daily station usage statistics, and all files used to determine the earthquake <span class="hlt">locations</span> in 2008.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998PEPI..108..113K"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Submarine</span> cable OBS using a retired <span class="hlt">submarine</span> telecommunication cable: GeO-TOC program</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kasahara, Junzo; Utada, Hisashi; Sato, Toshinori; Kinoshita, Hajimu</p> <p>1998-06-01</p> <p>In order to study the Earth's structure and subduction zone tectonics, seismic data from the oceanic region are extremely important. The present seismograph distribution in the oceanic region, however, provides a very poor coverage. To improve this poor seismic coverage, a cable OBS system using a retired <span class="hlt">submarine</span> telecommunication cable is proposed. The GeO-TOC cable runs from Ninomiya, Japan, to Guam through the Izu-Bonin forearc and the Marina Trough. The total length of the cable is 2659 km. An OBS, IZU, using the GeO-TOC cable, was successfully installed at the landward slope of the Izu-Bonin Trench in January 1997. The IZU OBS is <span class="hlt">located</span> approximately 400 km south of Tokyo. The installation method is similar to repair work on <span class="hlt">submarine</span> cables. The IZU OBS is equipped with three accelerometers, a hydrophone, a quartz pressure gauge, and a quartz precision thermometer with a few temperature sensors to monitor overheating of the internal electronics. After installation, the voltage increase is 90 V when the current is maintained at a constant 370 mA. Data from accelerometers are digitized by 24-bit A/D converters and sent to Ninomiya at 9600 bps for each component. Hydrophone data are sent to Ninomiya as analog signals using the AM (Amplitude Modulation) method for safety reasons. Hydrophone data are digitized at the shore station. Other slow-rate data are multiplexed and sent to the shore at 9600 bps. The instrument can be controlled by a shore computer. All data will be transmitted from Ninomiya to Tokyo and combined with other existing seismic data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=USGSPUBS&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr01366"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Volcano</span> hazards in the San Salvador region, El Salvador</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Major, J.J.; Schilling, S.P.; Sofield, D.J.; Escobar, C.D.; Pullinger, C.R.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>San Salvador <span class="hlt">volcano</span> is one of many <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> along the volcanic arc in El Salvador (figure 1). This <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, having a volume of about 110 cubic kilometers, towers above San Salvador, the country’s capital and largest city. The city has a population of approximately 2 million, and a population density of about 2100 people per square kilometer. The city of San Salvador and other communities have gradually encroached onto the lower flanks of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, increasing the risk that even small events may have serious societal consequences. San Salvador <span class="hlt">volcano</span> has not erupted for more than 80 years, but it has a long history of repeated, and sometimes violent, eruptions. The <span class="hlt">volcano</span> is composed of remnants of multiple eruptive centers, and these remnants are commonly referred to by several names. The central part of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, which contains a large circular crater, is known as El Boquerón, and it rises to an altitude of about 1890 meters. El Picacho, the prominent peak of highest elevation (1960 meters altitude) to the northeast of the crater, and El Jabali, the peak to the northwest of the crater, represent remnants of an older, larger edifice. The <span class="hlt">volcano</span> has erupted several times during the past 70,000 years from vents central to the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> as well as from smaller vents and fissures on its flanks [1] (numerals in brackets refer to end notes in the report). In addition, several small cinder cones and explosion craters are <span class="hlt">located</span> within 10 kilometers of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. Since about 1200 A.D., eruptions have occurred almost exclusively along, or a few kilometers beyond, the northwest flank of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, and have consisted primarily of small explosions and emplacement of lava flows. However, San Salvador <span class="hlt">volcano</span> has erupted violently and explosively in the past, even as recently as 800 years ago. When such eruptions occur again, substantial population and infrastructure will be at risk. Volcanic eruptions are not the only events that present a risk to local communities. Another concern is a landslide and an associated debris flow (a watery flow of mud, rock, and debris--also known as a lahar) that could occur during periods of no volcanic activity. An event of this type occurred in 1998 at Casita <span class="hlt">volcano</span> in Nicaragua when extremely heavy rainfall from Hurricane Mitch triggered a landslide that moved down slope and transformed into a rapidly moving debris flow that destroyed two villages and killed more than 2000 people. Historical landslides up to a few hundred thousand cubic meters in volume have been triggered on San Salvador <span class="hlt">volcano</span> by torrential rainstorms and earthquakes, and some have transformed into debris flows that have inundated populated areas down stream. Destructive rainfall- and earthquake-triggered landslides and debris flows on or near San Salvador <span class="hlt">volcano</span> in September 1982 and January 2001 demonstrate that such mass movements in El Salvador have also been lethal. This report describes the kinds of hazardous events that occur at <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> in general and the kinds of hazardous geologic events that have occurred at San Salvador <span class="hlt">volcano</span> in the past. The accompanying <span class="hlt">volcano</span>-hazards-zonation maps show areas that are likely to be at risk when hazardous events occur again.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/33587"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparative naval architecture analysis of diesel <span class="hlt">submarines</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Torkelson, Kai Oscar</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Many comparative naval architecture analyses of surface ships have been performed, but few published comparative analyses of <span class="hlt">submarines</span> exist. Of the several design concept papers, reports and studies that have been written ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50172893"><span id="translatedtitle">Capacity upgrade in WDM <span class="hlt">submarine</span> cable system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Eiichi Shibano; Hidenori Taga; Toshio Kawazawa; Koji Goto</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>The capacity upgrade from 20 Gbit\\/s to 160 Gbit\\/s in a WDM <span class="hlt">submarine</span> cable system has been designed based on the experimental study of the dependency of the repeater output power and the number of wavelength</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40494783"><span id="translatedtitle">On the origin of El Chichón <span class="hlt">volcano</span> and subduction of Tehuantepec Ridge: A geodynamical perspective</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Marina Manea; Vlad C. Manea</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The origin of El Chichón <span class="hlt">volcano</span> is poorly understood, and we attempt in this study to demonstrate that the Tehuantepec Ridge (TR), a major tectonic discontinuity on the Cocos plate, plays a key role in determining the <span class="hlt">location</span> of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> by enhancing the slab dehydration budget beneath it. Using marine magnetic anomalies we show that the upper mantle beneath</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/55626847"><span id="translatedtitle">Helium Variations in Mineral Separates from Cerro Negro <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Nicaragua: Assessing Short TimeScale Variations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>A. M. Shaw; D. Hilton; T. Fischer; J. Walker</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Cerro Negro <span class="hlt">volcano</span> is a young basaltic <span class="hlt">volcano</span> <span class="hlt">located</span> in northwestern Nicaragua. It has undergone at least 23 eruptive phases over its 150-year history. We report new He abundance and isotope results in phenocryst phases from recent volcanic ashes and lavas. Analyses were carried out on both olivine and pyroxene phases for the 1992, 1995 and 1999 eruptions, allowing He</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41004470"><span id="translatedtitle">Submersible study of mud <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> seaward of the Barbados accretionary wedge: sedimentology, structure and rheology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Sophie Lance; Pierre Henry; Xavier Le Pichon; Siegfried Lallemant; Hervé Chamley; Frauke Rostek; Jean-Claude Faugères; Eliane Gonthier; Karine Olu</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>In 1992, the Nautile went to a mud <span class="hlt">volcano</span> field <span class="hlt">located</span> east of the Barbados accretionary wedge near 13 ° 50N. Using nannofossil analysis on cores, we determined the sedimentation rate, and provided a new estimation of the age of the mud <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> (750,000 years for the oldest one). Six structures have been explored with the submersible Nautile, and manifestations</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://www.ipgp.fr/~nshapiro/PUBLICATIONS/Koulakov_etal_jvgr2014.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Asymmetric caldera-related structures in the area of the Avacha group of <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> in Kamchatka as revealed by ambient noise tomography and</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Shapiro, Nikolai</p> <p></p> <p>Asymmetric caldera-related structures in the area of the Avacha group of <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> in Kamchatka: Kamchatka Avachinsky <span class="hlt">volcano</span> Ambient noise tomography Deep seismic sounding Caldera forming Avacha group includes two active and potentially dangerous <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, Avachinsky and Koryaksky, <span class="hlt">located</span> close</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52547008"><span id="translatedtitle">Addressing <span class="hlt">submarine</span> geohazards through scientific drilling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>A. Camerlenghi</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Natural <span class="hlt">submarine</span> geohazards (earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, volcanic island flank collapses) are geological phenomena originating at or below the seafloor leading to a situation of risk for off-shore and on-shore structures and the coastal population. Addressing <span class="hlt">submarine</span> geohazards means understanding their spatial and temporal variability, the pre-conditioning factors, their triggers, and the physical processes that control their evolution. Such scientific</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1712391I"><span id="translatedtitle">Catalogue of Icelandic <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ilyinskaya, Evgenia; Larsen, Gudrun; Vogfjörd, Kristin; Tumi Gudmundsson, Magnus; Jonsson, Trausti; Oddsson, Björn; Reynisson, Vidir; Barsotti, Sara; Karlsdottir, Sigrun</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Volcanic activity in Iceland occurs on volcanic systems that usually comprise a central <span class="hlt">volcano</span> and fissure swarm. Over 30 systems have been active during the Holocene. In the last 100 years, over 30 eruptions have occurred displaying very varied activity in terms of eruption styles, eruptive environments, eruptive products and their distribution. Although basaltic eruptions are most common, the majority of eruptions are explosive, not the least due to magma-water interaction in ice-covered <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>. Extensive research has taken place on Icelandic volcanism, and the results reported in scientific papers and other publications. In 2010, the International Civil Aviation Organisation funded a 3 year project to collate the current state of knowledge and create a comprehensive catalogue readily available to decision makers, stakeholders and the general public. The work on the Catalogue began in 2011, and was then further supported by the Icelandic government and the EU. The Catalogue forms a part of an integrated volcanic risk assessment project in Iceland (commenced in 2012), and the EU FP7 project FUTUREVOLC (2012-2016), establishing an Icelandic <span class="hlt">volcano</span> Supersite. The Catalogue is a collaborative effort between the Icelandic Meteorological Office (the state <span class="hlt">volcano</span> observatory), the Institute of Earth Sciences at the University of Iceland, and the Icelandic Civil Protection, with contributions from a large number of specialists in Iceland and elsewhere. The catalogue is scheduled for opening in the first half of 2015 and once completed, it will be an official publication intended to serve as an accurate and up to date source of information about active <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> in Iceland and their characteristics. The Catalogue is an open web resource in English and is composed of individual chapters on each of the volcanic systems. The chapters include information on the geology and structure of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>; the eruption history, pattern and products; the known precursory signals and current monitoring level; associated hazards; and detailed descriptions of possible eruption scenarios. Where data allows, the likelihood of different eruption scenarios will also be depicted by probabilistic event trees. The chapters are illustrated with a number of figures, interactive maps and photographs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.V11C2293D"><span id="translatedtitle">Preliminary Geologic Map of Newberry <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Oregon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Donnelly-Nolan, J. M.; Ramsey, D. W.; Jensen, R. A.; Champion, D. E.; Calvert, A. T.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>The late Pleistocene and Holocene rear-arc Newberry <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> is <span class="hlt">located</span> in central Oregon east of the Cascades arc axis. Total area covered by the broad, shield-shaped edifice and its accompanying lava field is about 3,200 square kilometers, encompassing all or part of 38 U.S.G.S. 1:24,000-scale quadrangles. Distance from the northernmost extent of lava flows to the southernmost is about 115 km; east-west maximum width is less than 50 km. A printed version of the preliminary map at its intended publication scale of 1:50,000 is 8 ft high by 4 ft wide. More than 200 units have been identified so far, each typically consisting of the lava flow(s) and accompanying vent(s) that represent single eruptive episodes, some of which extend 10’s of kilometers across the edifice. Vents are commonly aligned north-northwest to north-northeast, reflecting a strong regional tectonic influence. The largest individual units on the map are basaltic, some extending nearly 50 km to the north through the cities of Bend and Redmond from vents low on the northern flank of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. The oldest and most distal of the basalts is dated at about 350 ka. Silicic lava flows and domes are confined to the main edifice of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>; the youngest rhyolite flows are found within Newberry Caldera, including the rhyolitic Big Obsidian Flow, the youngest flow at Newberry <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> (~1,300 yr B.P.). The oldest known rhyolite dome is dated at about 400 ka. Andesite units (those with silica contents between 57% and 63%) are the least common, with only 13 recognized to date. The present 6.5 by 8 km caldera formed about 75 ka with the eruption of compositionally-zoned rhyolite to basaltic andesite ash-flow tuff. Older widespread silicic ash-flow tuffs imply previous caldera collapses. Approximately 20 eruptions have occurred at Newberry since ice melted off the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> in latest Pleistocene time. The mapping is being digitally compiled as a spatial geodatabase in ArcGIS. Within the geodatabase, feature classes have been created representing geologic lines (contacts, faults, lava tubes, etc.), geologic unit polygons, and volcanic vent <span class="hlt">location</span> points. The geodatabase can be queried to determine the spatial distributions of different rock types, geologic units, and other geologic and geomorphic features. Map colors are being used to indicate compositions. Some map patterns have been added to distinguish the youngest lavas and the ash-flow tuffs. Geodatabase information can be used to better understand the evolution, growth, and potential hazards of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16844646"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Submarine</span> landslides: processes, triggers and hazard prediction.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Masson, D G; Harbitz, C B; Wynn, R B; Pedersen, G; Løvholt, F</p> <p>2006-08-15</p> <p>Huge landslides, mobilizing hundreds to thousands of km(3) of sediment and rock are ubiquitous in <span class="hlt">submarine</span> settings ranging from the steepest volcanic island slopes to the gentlest muddy slopes of <span class="hlt">submarine</span> deltas. Here, we summarize current knowledge of such landslides and the problems of assessing their hazard potential. The major hazards related to <span class="hlt">submarine</span> landslides include destruction of seabed infrastructure, collapse of coastal areas into the sea and landslide-generated tsunamis. Most <span class="hlt">submarine</span> slopes are inherently stable. Elevated pore pressures (leading to decreased frictional resistance to sliding) and specific weak layers within stratified sequences appear to be the key factors influencing landslide occurrence. Elevated pore pressures can result from normal depositional processes or from transient processes such as earthquake shaking; historical evidence suggests that the majority of large <span class="hlt">submarine</span> landslides are triggered by earthquakes. Because of their tsunamigenic potential, ocean-island flank collapses and rockslides in fjords have been identified as the most dangerous of all landslide related hazards. Published models of ocean-island landslides mainly examine 'worst-case scenarios' that have a low probability of occurrence. Areas prone to <span class="hlt">submarine</span> landsliding are relatively easy to identify, but we are still some way from being able to forecast individual events with precision. Monitoring of critical areas where landslides might be imminent and modelling landslide consequences so that appropriate mitigation strategies can be developed would appear to be areas where advances on current practice are possible. PMID:16844646</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1214530G"><span id="translatedtitle">Multiparameter <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Surveillance of Villarrica <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> (South-Central Chile)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Garofalo, Kristin; Peña, Paola; Dzierma, Yvonne; Hansteen, Thor; Rabbel, Wolfgang; Gil, Fernando</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Villarrica is one of the most active <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> in Chile and one of the few in the world known to have an active lava lake within its crater. This snow-covered <span class="hlt">volcano</span> generates frequent strombolian eruptions and lava flows and, at times, the melting of snow can cause massive lahars. Besides this, continuous degassing and high-level seismicity are the most common types of activity recorded at the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. In order to investigate the mechanisms driving the persistent degassing and seismic activity at the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, we use a multiparameter approach based on the combined study of high time-resolved gas and seismic data. These data are respectively acquired by means of 3 stationary NOVAC-type scanning Mini-DOAS and 7 additional seismometers (short period and broad bands), installed at the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> since March 2009, that complement the existing OVDAS (Observatorio Volcanológico de los Andes del Sur) <span class="hlt">volcano</span> monitoring network. On the basis of the combination of gas and seismological measurements we aim at gaining insight into <span class="hlt">volcano</span>-magmatic processes, and factors playing a role on onset of volcanic unrest and eruptive activity. Since the gas monitoring network has been installed at the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> a correlation between SO2 emissions and seismic activity (LP events) has been recognized. A possible role played by regional tectonics on detected changes in <span class="hlt">volcano</span> degassing and seismicity, and consequently on the volcanic activity, is also investigated.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1512028H"><span id="translatedtitle">Topographic analysis of <span class="hlt">submarine</span> cable failures offshore southwestern taiwan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hsia, Pei Cheng; Shine Liu, Char; Hsu, Ho Han</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>In 2006, there was large scale of the <span class="hlt">submarine</span> cable failures offshore southern Taiwan right after the Pingtung Earthquake. Apparently the December 26 Pingtung Earthquake triggered <span class="hlt">submarine</span> mass movements which generated turbidity currents in the <span class="hlt">submarine</span> canyons and damaged cables lying across the canyons. In addition, the Typhoon Morakot on August 8-9, 2009 and the Jiashian Earthquake on March 4, 2010 also caused many <span class="hlt">submarine</span> cable failures offshore southwestern Taiwan. The most of broken cable sites are along the axis of the Gaoping <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Canyon (GPSC) and Fangliao <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Canyon (FLSC), topography should be an important factor controlling transport processes of <span class="hlt">submarine</span> mass movement. The cable broken sites indicate that there were <span class="hlt">submarine</span> mass movement pass through. Therefore, the topographic factor of the cable broken sites can be the threshold to index <span class="hlt">submarine</span> mass movement. And as, <span class="hlt">submarine</span> cables are distributed widely offshore southwestern Taiwan, why only a total of 35 sites of <span class="hlt">submarine</span> cable failures occurred in 2006, 2009 and 2010? We use bathymetry data, CHIRP (compressed high-intensity radar pulse) sonar profile data and the time series of the cable breakage to investigate the characteristics of <span class="hlt">submarine</span> mass movement and to develop a model for the series of <span class="hlt">submarine</span> cable failure. Using the Geographic Information System (GIS) software, we analyze the bathymetric data collected before the 35 sites of <span class="hlt">submarine</span> cable failures offshore southwestern Taiwan. Applying the hydrology in GIS software, the flow movement could be derived from the factors of slope and aspect. We quantify the transport process of <span class="hlt">submarine</span> mass movement and combine with the time series of the cable breakage to discuss the effect between <span class="hlt">submarine</span> cable failures. Based on the CHIRP sonar data, we identified the distinct CHIRP echo character patterns after the <span class="hlt">submarine</span> cable failures and classify the distinct CHIRP echo characters. Using the threshold of topographic factor to expect where will be potential area of <span class="hlt">submarine</span> mass movement and evidence the result by CHIRP sonar profile data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMIN43A1130C"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Monitoring Using Google Earth</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cameron, W.; Dehn, J.; Bailey, J. E.; Webley, P.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>At the Alaska <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observatory (AVO), remote sensing is an important component of its daily monitoring of <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>. AVO’s remote sensing group (AVORS) primarily utilizes three satellite datasets; Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data, from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) Polar Orbiting Satellites (POES), Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Terra and Aqua satellites, and NOAA’s Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) data. AVHRR and MODIS data are collected by receiving stations operated by the Geographic Information Network of Alaska (GINA) at the University of Alaska’s Geophysical Institute. An additional AVHRR data feed is supplied by NOAA’s Gilmore Creek satellite tracking station. GOES data are provided by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), Monterey Bay. The ability to visualize these images and their derived products is critical for the timely analysis of the data. To this end, AVORS has developed javascript web interfaces that allow the user to view images and metadata. These work well for internal analysts to quickly access a given dataset, but they do not provide an integrated view of all the data. To do this AVORS has integrated its datasets with Keyhole Markup Language (KML) allowing them to be viewed by a number of virtual globes or other geobrowsers that support this code. Examples of AVORS’ use of KML include the ability to browse thermal satellite image overlays to look for signs of volcanic activity. Webcams can also be viewed interactively through KML to confirm current activity. Other applications include monitoring the <span class="hlt">location</span> and status of instrumentation; near real-time plotting of earthquake hypocenters; mapping of new volcanic deposits using polygons; and animated models of ash plumes, created by a combination of ash dispersion modeling and 3D visualization packages.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMOS21A1156B"><span id="translatedtitle">Monitoring the Dynamic Properties of an active Mud <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> in the West Nile Delta</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brueckmann, W.; Tryon, M. D.; Bialas, J.; Feseker, T.; Lefeldt, M. R.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Large numbers of <span class="hlt">submarine</span> mud <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> have been discovered in many different continental margin settings often associated with hydrocarbon provinces. They are characterized by fluid formation and fluidization processes occuring at depths of several kilometers below the seafloor which drive a complex system of interacting geochemical, geological and microbial processes. As mud <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> are natural leakages of oil and gas reservoirs, near-surface phenomena can be used for monitoring of processes at great depth. North Alex Mud <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> (NAMV) in the West Nile Delta, apparently rooted at depths of more than 5 kilometers is the focus of an industry-funded research project using existing and newly developed observatory technologies to better understand and quantify the internal dynamics and its long-term variability in relation to underlying gas reservoirs. As it is known that the activity of mud <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> varies significantly over periods of months and weeks, the assessment of the activity of NAMV focuses on proxies of fluid and gas emanations. Since the initiation of the project in 2007 NAMV has arguably become one of the best-instrumented mud <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> worldwide with a network of observatories collecting permanent long-term records of chemical fluxes, seismicity, temperature, ground deformation, and methane concentration. We will report on the first results of CAT meter deployments to determine chemical fluxes and relate them to long-term records of temperature, deformation as evident from tiltmeter deployments, and seismicity from a local OBS network.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=ERIC&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Sutton&pg=4&id=EJ522565"><span id="translatedtitle">Human-Powered <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Competition: World <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> International 1996 [and] Design Technology Exhibit: A School Model.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hibberd, John C.; Edwards, Don</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Hibbard describes the process used by students at Millersville University to build a human-powered <span class="hlt">submarine</span> for entry in an international <span class="hlt">submarine</span> competition. Edwards discusses the Design Technology Exhibit held at Lu Sutton Elementary School, the purpose of which was to challenge students to design a useful structure and provide them with the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NSDL&redirectUrl=http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/yvo/"><span id="translatedtitle">Yellowstone <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observatory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This is the homepage of the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) Yellowstone <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observatory. It features news articles, monitoring information, status reports and information releases, and information on the volcanic history of the Yellowstone Plateau Volcanic Field. Users can access monthly updates with alert levels and aviation warning codes and real-time data on ground deformation, earthquakes, and hydrology. There is also a list of online products and publications, and an image gallery</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NSDL&redirectUrl=http://www.spacegrant.hawaii.edu/class_acts/GelVol.html"><span id="translatedtitle">Gelatin <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span>: Student Page</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This is the Student Page of an activity that teaches students how and why magma moves inside <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> by injecting colored water into a clear gelatin cast. The Student Page contains the activity preparation instructions and materials list, key words, and a photograph of the experimental setup. There is also an extension activity question that has students predict what will happen when the experiment is run using an elongated model. This activity is part of Exploring Planets in the Classroom's Volcanology section.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NSDL&redirectUrl=http://www.mrsciguy.com/EarthScience/eq.html"><span id="translatedtitle">Earthquakes and <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p>Medina, Philip</p> <p></p> <p>This unit provides an introduction for younger students on earthquakes, <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, and how they are related. Topics include evidence of continental drift, types of plate boundaries, types of seismic waves, and how to calculate the distance to the epicenter of an earthquake. There is also information on how earthquake magnitude and intensity are measured, and how seismic waves can reveal the Earth's internal structure. A vocabulary list and downloadable, printable student worksheets are provided.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.V13D2147P"><span id="translatedtitle">U-Th/He Ages of HSDP-2 <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Samples</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Peterson, B. T.; Aciego, S. M.; Kennedy, B. M.; Depaolo, D. J.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>Hawaiian lavas have been used to investigate the life-cycles of hotspot-traversing <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>. The ~ 3500m core recovered by the Hawaii Scientific Drill Project, phase 2 (HSDP-2) has proven invaluable in refinement of models that link plume structures and melting rates to subaerial growth and geochemical evolution. Accurate age dating of lavas is critical in linking geochemical observations to plume characteristics; however, young ages and potassium-poor lavas limit the precision of argon methods. The U-Th/He method on olivine phenocrysts has been used to successfully date Hawaiian post-shield alkali basalts and flood basalts from the Snake River Plain. We are applying the method to olivine-rich lithologies in the HSDP-2 core in an attempt to gain further information about the growth rates of Hawaiian <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>. Preliminary results indicate that the method could help refine the flow chronology, but that modifications to the analysis procedure may be necessary to optimize the results. A subaerial Mauna Kea tholeiitic basalt from 528m depth yields a U-Th/He age of 485 +/- 100 ka (sample SR0222), slightly older than expected based on previous determinations on stratigraphically bounding flows by the argon isochron method (Sharp et al., Gcubed, 2005). A <span class="hlt">submarine</span> hyaloclastite sample from 2931m depth (SR930) yields a preliminary age of 650+/-100 ka, which agrees well with previous Ar measurements. A pillow lava, SR0964, was also investigated, but it yielded a complicated He release pattern and no age can be obtained. U and Th concentrations in olivine separates from all three samples are low (2.6 - 5.2 ppb U; 4.5 - 8.0 ppb Th). The <span class="hlt">submarine</span> samples appear to have a substantial amount of magmatic helium still remaining in the olivine after in vacuo crushing, as evidenced by high R/Ra values in gas released at high temperature. Residual gas left after crushing may be up to 85% magmatic, which makes the determination of radiogenic He less accurate. Sulfur contents of glass from the host <span class="hlt">submarine</span> lava samples are high, indicating that the lavas were incompletely degassed. Helium isotopic ratios measured from the crushing step are within error of previously published values (R/Ra = 12.4 and 12.9). Extreme R/Ra values in the 530° C pre-fusion extraction (R/Ra = 756 for SR0964 and 68 for SR0930) suggest that high-T degassing may preferentially release 3He. We are continuing a helium isotopic exploration of the lowermost 450m of HSDP-2, which will provide important information about He isotopes in the core of the Hawaiian plume, and focusing further U- Th/He investigations on samples with low-S glass.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.V31G..02S"><span id="translatedtitle">Seismic anisotropy and its time variation on active <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Savage, M. K.; Ohkura, T.; Umakoshi, K.; Shimizu, H.; Iguchi, M.; Johnson, J. H.; Ohminato, T.; Roman, D. C.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Seismic anisotropy, the directional dependence of wave speeds, is caused by stress-oriented cracks and can be used to monitor stresses from magmatic movement. Shear wave splitting fast polarisations (?) align with cracks and hence with the compressive stress field. Delay times (dt) measure the density of cracks. Time variations in both ? and dt on <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> have been reported by ourselves and other workers. Here we report results from a new objective automatic technique, developed on Ruapehu, New Zealand and Asama, Japan. We also applied it to Okmok; Soufrière Hills; Aso; Unzen and Sakurajima. Thousands of measurements made on each <span class="hlt">volcano</span> allow us to determine correlations with other <span class="hlt">volcano</span> monitoring techniques. We examine <span class="hlt">volcano</span>-tectonic earthquakes local to each <span class="hlt">volcano</span> and more distant regional earthquakes. Seismic waves from local earthquakes travel solely through the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, so that anisotropy in the mantle or lower crustal mineral alignment will not affect the measurements, but care must be taken because earthquake <span class="hlt">locations</span> and hence ray paths may change due to magma movement. Spatial changes are thus difficult to disentangle from temporal changes. We analyse families of earthquakes with near-identical waveforms to try to overcome this limitation. Deep regional earthquakes occur mostly in subducted plates and their paths are affected by mantle and lower crustal mineral anisotropy as well as by crustal stress. They are also affected by laterally varying properties, but earthquakes far removed from the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> should not have systematic variations in <span class="hlt">location</span> that are correlated with magma movement. Therefore, changes in measurements from regional events that correlate with magma movement can be interpreted as temporal rather than spatial variations. Common features at all <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> are that stations closest to the craters yield the fewest good measurements, and even those tend to give varying results at closely spaced stations. Scattering from the volcanic edifice may be making the S waves difficult to pick, and the local stresses may be varied. Stations on the volcanic flanks give many good measurements. Some stations yield variations in ? and dt that depend upon the earthquake <span class="hlt">location</span>. But at most <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, some stations show changes that are better explained by variations in time than in space. Where GPS measurements are available, the variations sometimes but not always correlate with previously-modeled inflation or deflation events and ? usually matches well with the stress field modelled from GPS-derived <span class="hlt">locations</span> of magmatic sources. At Soufrière Hills variations in focal mechanisms correlate with variations in ?. The temporal variations in ? are large, ranging from 30? at some stations to 90? at other stations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMOS43C1845C"><span id="translatedtitle">Newly recognized <span class="hlt">submarine</span> slide complexes in the southern California Bight</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Conrad, J. E.; Lee, H. J.; Edwards, B. D.; McGann, M.; Sliter, R. W.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>New high-resolution bathymetric and seismic-reflection surveys have imaged large (<0.5 km3) <span class="hlt">submarine</span> landslides offshore southern California that have not been previously recognized in the Borderland. The new data show several large slides or slide complexes that include: 1) a slide complex consisting of numerous (>7) individual overlapping slides along the western margin of Santa Cruz Basin (SCB slide); 2) a series of slumps and slide scars on the slope south of San Pedro shelf (SPS slide); and 3) a slope failure along the shelf edge in northern San Diego County, termed the Del Mar slide. The SCB slide complex extends for 30 km along the western slope of Santa Cruz Basin, with debris lobes extending 5-8 km into the basin. Head scarps of some of these slides are 50-75 m high. The SPS slide complex also appears to consist of multiple slides, which roughly parallel the Palos Verdes Fault and the San Gabriel Canyon <span class="hlt">submarine</span> channel on the shelf edge and slope south of San Pedro shelf. Slide deposits associated with this complex are only partially mapped due to limited high-resolution bathymetric coverage, but extend to the south in the area SW of Lasuen Knoll. Seismic-reflection profiles show that some of these deposits are up to 20 m thick. The Del Mar slide is <span class="hlt">located</span> about 10 km north of La Jolla Canyon and extends about 6 km along the shelf edge. The head scarp lies along the trend of a branch of the Rose Canyon Fault Zone. Radiocarbon ages of sediment overlying this slide indicate the Del Mar slide is approximately 12-16 ka. These large slide complexes have several characteristics in common. Nearly all occur in areas of tectonic uplift. All of the complexes show evidence of recurrent slide activity, exhibiting multiple headwall scarps and debris lobes, and where available, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles of these slide areas provide evidence of older, buried mass transport deposits. Assuming typical sedimentation rates, the recurrence interval of major slide events appears to be on the order of tens of thousands of years. Most of the slide complexes do not appear to be <span class="hlt">located</span> in areas of high sediment input. The SCB and Del Mar slides are in areas receiving relatively small terrestrial sediment input from fluvial sources, as are most other previously recognized <span class="hlt">submarine</span> slides in the Borderland. Only the SPS slide, which lies adjacent to the San Gabriel Canyon <span class="hlt">submarine</span> channel, is associated with a significant fluvial sediment source.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMOS33B1070H"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Submarine</span> landslide hazard off Northeastern Taiwan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huang, C. L.; Hsu, S. K.; Tsai, C. H.; Doo, W. B.; Lin, S. S.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>In the northern margin of the western end of the Okinawa Trough, three major <span class="hlt">submarine</span> channels running across the continental margin are distinctive. From east to west, they are the North Mein-Hua <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Canyon, Mein-Hua <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Canyon and the Keelung Valley. To the east of the Mein-Hua <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Canyon, the slope of the continental margin is quite gentle, implying that the risk of slope instability is low. However, between the Keelung Valley and the Mei-Hua <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Canyon, the slope is rather steep. We have conducted multi-channel reflection seismics, sub-bottom profilers and multi-beam bathymetry in this area. The results show two general trends of fracture or faulting. The NE-SW trending faults generally follow the major orientation of the Taiwan mountain belt. Thus, these faults could be reverse faults from the former collisional thrust faults to currently post-collisional normal faults. Another almost E-W trending faults are consistent with the N-S extending of the Southern Okinawa Trough. Because the most significant faulting in the northwest end of the study is probably associated with the offshore extension of the Kenchiao Fault or the Sanchiao Fault, we consider either of these two faults as the northeast boundary (headwall) of the potential <span class="hlt">submarine</span> landslide. Taking the stability slope angle of 0.5 degree as the stable landslide slope as shown in the area to the northeast of the study area, we estimate the total volume of the potential <span class="hlt">submarine</span> landslide could be 300 cubic kilometers. Such a landslide volume may generate a local tsunami and affect especially the northeast coast of Taiwan.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=USGSPUBS&redirectUrl=http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1995/0271/pdf/1994_Summary.pdf@noteDOCUMENT#texthttp://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1995/0271/body.html@noteTHUMBNAIL#texthttp://pubs.er.usgs.gov/thumbnails/ofr95271.GIF"><span id="translatedtitle">1994 Volcanic activity in Alaska: summary of events and response of the Alaska <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observatory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Neal, Christina A.; Doukas, Michael P.; McGimsey, Robert G.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>During 1994, the Alaska <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptions, possible eruptions, or false alarms at nine volcanic centers-- Mount Sanford, Iliamna, the Katmai group, Kupreanof, Mount Veniaminof, Shishaldin, Makushin, Mount Cleveland and Kanaga (table 1). Of these <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, AVO has a real time, continuously recording seismic network only at Iliamna, which is <span class="hlt">located</span> in the Cook Inlet area of south-central Alaska (fig. 1). AVO has dial-up access to seismic data from a 5-station network in the general region of the Katmai group of <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>. The remaining unmonitored <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> are <span class="hlt">located</span> in sparsely populated areas of the Wrangell Mountains, the Alaska Peninsula, and the Aleutian Islands (fig. 1). For these <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, the AVO monitoring program relies chiefly on receipt of pilot reports, observations of local residents and analysis of satellite imagery.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.V13I..04R"><span id="translatedtitle">Magmatically Greedy Reararc <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> of the N. Tofua Segment of the Tonga Arc</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rubin, K. H.; Embley, R. W.; Arculus, R. J.; Lupton, J. E.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Volcanism along the northernmost Tofua Arc is enigmatic because edifices of the arc's volcanic front are mostly, magmatically relatively anemic, despite the very high convergence rate of the Pacific Plate with this section of Tonga Arc. However, just westward of the arc front, in terrain generally thought of as part of the adjacent NE Lau Backarc Basin, lie a series of very active <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> and volcanic features, including the large <span class="hlt">submarine</span> caldera Niuatahi (aka <span class="hlt">volcano</span> 'O'), a large composite dacite lava flow terrain not obviously associated with any particular volcanic edifice, and the Mata <span class="hlt">volcano</span> group, a series of 9 small elongate <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> in an extensional basin at the extreme NE corner of the Lau Basin. These three volcanic terrains do not sit on arc-perpendicular cross chains. Collectively, these volcanic features appear to be receiving a large proportion of the magma flux from the sub-Tonga/Lau mantle wedge, in effect 'stealing' this magma flux from the arc front. A second occurrence of such magma 'capture' from the arc front occurs in an area just to the south, on southernmost portion of the Fonualei Spreading Center. Erupted compositions at these 'magmatically greedy' <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> are consistent with high slab-derived fluid input into the wedge (particularly trace element abundances and volatile contents, e.g., see Lupton abstract this session). It is unclear how long-lived a feature this is, but the very presence of such hyperactive and areally-dispersed volcanism behind the arc front implies these <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> are not in fact part of any focused spreading/rifting in the Lau Backarc Basin, and should be thought of as 'reararc <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>'. Possible tectonic factors contributing to this unusually productive reararc environment are the high rate of convergence, the cold slab, the highly disorganized extension in the adjacent backarc, and the tear in the subducting plate just north of the Tofua Arc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASA-TRS&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01722&hterms=Killing&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DKilling"><span id="translatedtitle">Space Radar Image of Colombian <span class="hlt">Volcano</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>This is a radar image of a little known <span class="hlt">volcano</span> in northern Colombia. The image was acquired on orbit 80 of space shuttle Endeavour on April 14, 1994, by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR). The <span class="hlt">volcano</span> near the center of the image is <span class="hlt">located</span> at 5.6 degrees north latitude, 75.0 degrees west longitude, about 100 kilometers (65 miles) southeast of Medellin, Colombia. The conspicuous dark spot is a lake at the bottom of an approximately 3-kilometer-wide (1.9-mile) volcanic collapse depression or caldera. A cone-shaped peak on the bottom left (northeast rim) of the caldera appears to have been the source for a flow of material into the caldera. This is the northern-most known <span class="hlt">volcano</span> in South America and because of its youthful appearance, should be considered dormant rather than extinct. The <span class="hlt">volcano</span>'s existence confirms a fracture zone proposed in 1985 as the northern boundary of volcanism in the Andes. The SIR-C/X-SAR image reveals another, older caldera further south in Colombia, along another proposed fracture zone. Although relatively conspicuous, these <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> have escaped widespread recognition because of frequent cloud cover that hinders remote sensing imaging in visible wavelengths. Four separate <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> in the Northern Andes nations ofColombia and Ecuador have been active during the last 10 years, killing more than 25,000 people, including scientists who were monitoring the volcanic activity. Detection and monitoring of <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> from space provides a safe way to investigate volcanism. The recognition of previously unknown <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> is important for hazard evaluations because a number of major eruptions this century have occurred at mountains that were not previously recognized as <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companiesfor the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtange-legenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency,Agenzia SpazialeItaliana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft undRaumfahrt e.v.(DLR), the major partner in science,operations, and data processing of X-SAR.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/61904"><span id="translatedtitle">Open architecture framework for improved early stage <span class="hlt">submarine</span> design</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Sewell, Eli A. (Eli Anthony)</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Could transparency between current disparate methods improve efficiency in early stage <span class="hlt">submarine</span> design? Does the lack of transparency between current design methods hinder the effectiveness of early stage <span class="hlt">submarine</span> design? ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1212866C"><span id="translatedtitle">The petrological relationship between Kamen <span class="hlt">volcano</span> and adjacent <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> of Klyuchevskaya group</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Churikova, Tatiana; Gordeychik, Boris; Wörner, Gerhard; Ivanov, Boris; Maximov, Alexander; Lebedev, Igor; Griban, Andrey</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>The Klyuchevskaya Group (KG) of <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> has the highest magma production rate across the Kamchatka arc and in fact for any arc worldwide. However, modern geochemical studies of Kamen <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, which is <span class="hlt">located</span> between Klyuchevskoy, Bezymianny and Ploskie Sopky <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, were not carried out and its relation and petrogenesis in comparison to other KG <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> is unknown. Space-time proximity of KG <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> and the common zone of seismicity below them may suggest a common source and genetic relationship. However, the lavas of neighboring <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> are rather different: high-Mg and high-Al basalts occur at Klyuchevskoy <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, Hbl-bearing andesites and d?cites dominate at Bezymianny and medium-high-K subalkaline rocks at Ploskie Sopky <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. Moreover, previously it was shown that distinct fluid signatures were observed in different KG <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>. In this report we present geological, petrographical, mineralogical and petrochemical data on the rocks of Kamen <span class="hlt">volcano</span> in comparison with other KG <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>. Three consecutive periods of <span class="hlt">volcano</span> activity were recognized in geological history of Kamen <span class="hlt">volcano</span>: stratovolcano formation, development of a dike complex and formation of numerous cinder and cinder-lava monogenetic cones. The rock series of <span class="hlt">volcano</span> are divided into four groups: olivine-bearing (Ol-2Px and Ol-Cpx), olivine-free (2Px-Pl, Cpx-Pl and abundant Pl), Hb-bearing and subaphyric rocks. While olivine-bearing rocks are observed in all volcanic stages, olivine-free lavas are presented only in the stratovolcano edifice. Lavas of the monogenetic cones are presented by olivine-bearing and subaphyric rocks. Dikes are olivine-bearing and hornblende-bearing rocks. Olivines of the Kamen stratovolcano and dikes vary from Fo60 to Fo83, clinopyroxenes are augites in composition and plagioclases have a bimodal distribution with maximum modes at An50 and An86. Oxides are represented by high-Al spinel, magnetite and titaniferous magnetite. Mineral compositions of the rocks from monogenetic cones are systematically different from minerals of dikes and stratovolcano. Olivines in monogenetic cones varies from Fo70 to Fo92, Mg# of clinopyroxenes from 72 to 80 and plagioclases are represented by An60-80. All rocks of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> belong to medium-K calc-alkaline basalt-basaltic-andesitic series. The rocks of the stratovolcano are high-Al low-Mg (MgO?7%, SiO2~50÷56%) and form the stable trends on all petrological diagrams with increasing K2?, decreasing Al2O3, TiO2, CaO, FeO and MgO from basalts to andesites. The melts of the dike complex are likely the least fractionated members of the same mantle source which is confirms by the same mineral composition. Lavas of the monogenetic cones are high-Mg basalts (MgO>6%, SiO2~50.5÷52.5%). They systematically differ from the stratovolcano samples by mineral composition and by higher MgO and CaO and low FeO, TiO2, Al2O3 and P2O5 at similar SiO2 content. The rocks of Ploskie Sopky <span class="hlt">volcano</span> are systematically different from stratovolcano Kamen in major elements and mineral composition and thus can not originate from the same mantle source by fractional crystallization. In contrast Kamen and Bezymianny stratovolcanoes form the narrow single geochemical trends, where Bezymianny data points comprise a more silica-rich part of the overall trend. Klyuchevskoy high-Mg cinder cones are similar to cinder cones of Kamen. However, Klyuchevskoy stratovolcano rocks differ in major elements and mineral composition from dikes and stratovolcano of Kamen. Thus, using petrological and mineralogical data we conclude that (1) Kamen and Bezymianny <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> have a common source; (2) monogenetic cones, which were erupted at Kamen <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, belong to the group of high-Mg cones of Klyuchevskoy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=USGSPUBS&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70014401"><span id="translatedtitle">Electrical structure of Newberry <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Oregon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Fitterman, D.V.; Stanley, W.D.; Bisdorf, R.J.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>From the interpretation of magnetotelluric, transient electromagnetic, and Schlumberger resistivity soundings, the electrical structure of Newberry <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> in central Oregon is found to consist of four units. From the surface downward, the geoelectrical units are 1) very resistive, young, unaltered volcanic rock, (2) a conductive layer of older volcanic material composed of altered tuffs, 3) a thick resistive layer thought to be in part intrusive rocks, and 4) a lower-crustal conductor. This model is similar to the regional geoelectrical structure found throughout the Cascade Range. Inside the caldera, the conductive second layer corresponds to the steep temperature gradient and alteration minerals observed in the USGS Newberry 2 test-hole. Drill hole information on the south and north flanks of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> (test holes GEO N-1 and GEO N-3, respectively) indicates that outside the caldera the conductor is due to alteration minerals (primarily smectite) and not high-temperature pore fluids. On the flanks of Newberry the conductor is generally deeper than inside the caldera, and it deepens with distance from the summit. A notable exception to this pattern is seen just west of the caldera rim, where the conductive zone is shallower than at other flank <span class="hlt">locations</span>. The <span class="hlt">volcano</span> sits atop a rise in the resistive layer, interpreted to be due to intrusive rocks. -from Authors</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14..723B"><span id="translatedtitle">Mathematical modelling of <span class="hlt">submarine</span> landslide motion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Burminskij, A.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Mathematical modelling of <span class="hlt">submarine</span> landslide motion The paper presents a mathematical model to calculate dynamic parameters of a <span class="hlt">submarine</span> landslide. The problem of estimation possible <span class="hlt">submarine</span> landslides dynamic parameters and run-out distances as well as their effect on <span class="hlt">submarine</span> structures becomes more and more actual because they can have significant impacts on infrastructure such as the rupture of <span class="hlt">submarine</span> cables and pipelines, damage to offshore drilling platforms, cause a tsunami. In this paper a landslide is considered as a viscoplastic flow and is described by continuum mechanics equations, averaged over the flow depth. The model takes into account friction at the bottom and at the landslide-water boundary, as well as the involvement of bottom material in motion. A software was created and series of test calculations were performed. Calculations permitted to estimate the contribution of various model coefficients and initial conditions. Motion down inclined bottom was studied both for constant and variable slope angle. Examples of typical distributions of the flow velocity, thickness and density along the landslide body at different stages of motion are given.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=USGSPUBS&redirectUrl=http://pubs.usgs.gov/sim/3329/pdf/sim3329_high.pdf@noteTHUMBNAIL#texthttp://pubs.er.usgs.gov/thumbnails/sim3329.jpg"><span id="translatedtitle">Newberry <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>'s youngest lava flows</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Robinson, Joel E.; Donnelly-Nolan, Julie M.; Jensen, Robert A.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The central caldera is visible in the lower right corner of the center map, outlined by the black dashed line. The caldera collapsed about 75,000 years ago when massive explosions sent volcanic ash as far as the San Francisco Bay area and created a 3,000-ft-deep hole in the center of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. The caldera is now partly refilled by Paulina and East Lakes, and the byproducts from younger eruptions, including Newberry <span class="hlt">Volcano’s</span> youngest rhyolitic lavas, shown in red and orange. The majority of Newberry <span class="hlt">Volcano’s</span> many lava flows and cinder cones are blanketed by as much as 5 feet of volcanic ash from the catastrophic eruption of Mount Mazama that created Crater Lake caldera approximately 7,700 years ago. This ash supports abundant tree growth and obscures the youthful appearance of Newberry <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>. Only the youngest volcanic vents and lava flows are well exposed and unmantled by volcanic ash. More than one hundred of these young volcanic vents and lava flows erupted 7,000 years ago during Newberry <span class="hlt">Volcano’s</span> northwest rift zone eruption.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52993670"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Monitoring Using Google Earth</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>W. Cameron; J. Dehn; J. E. Bailey; P. Webley</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>At the Alaska <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observatory (AVO), remote sensing is an important component of its daily monitoring of <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>. AVO's remote sensing group (AVORS) primarily utilizes three satellite datasets; Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data, from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Polar Orbiting Satellites (POES), Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NSDL&redirectUrl=http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/Glossary/PlateTectonics/Maps/map_quakes_volcanoes_plates.html"><span id="translatedtitle">Earthquakes, <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span>, and Plate Tectonics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This page consists of two maps of the world, showing how earthquakes define the boundaries of tectonic plates. <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> are also distributed at plate boundaries (the "Ring of Fire" in the Pacific) and at oceanic ridges. It is part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Cascades <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observatory website, which features written material, images, maps, and links to related topics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.V31G..05W"><span id="translatedtitle">Along-Arc Variations in the <span class="hlt">Location</span> of Frontal <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> and the Orientation of Volcanic Cross-Chains in Subduction Zones: 3-D Mantle Wedge Flow and Sub-Arc Mantle Temperatures in the southern Kuril-NE Japan subduction zone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wada, I.; He, J.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>We develop a 3-D thermal model for a margin segment that extends from the southern Kuril Islands to NE Japan, using a realistic geometry for the subducting Pacific plate, and investigate the effect of 3-D mantle wedge flow on the mantle wedge temperature and its relation to the distribution of arc <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>. Mantle wedge flow is driven largely by viscous coupling between the subducting slab and the overlying mantle, and its flow pattern is influenced by the geometry of the subducting slab and the subduction direction relative to the trench. Along the southern Kuril-NE Japan margin, the slab takes a complex geometry with varying subduction obliquity. The 3-D modeling results show that in NE Japan, the directions of the mantle wedge in-flow and out-flow are E-W, nearly parallel to the subduction direction. However, in southern Kuril, due to oblique subduction, the mantle flows in from NE, obliquely to the subduction direction, and flows out parallel to the subduction direction. These mantle wedge flow patterns are consistent with those inferred from the measured seismic anisotropy of the mantle wedge. The predicted inflow directions in both NE Japan and southern Kuril correlate well with the E-W and NE-SW orientations of cross-arc chains, respectively, indicating that the cross-chain orientation may be guided by the mantle inflow direction. In southern Kuril, obliquity subduction and steeper slab dip results in slightly cooler mantle wedge than in Tohoku at shallow depths (<100 km depth). Further, the northerly mantle inflow in southern Kuril and the westerly inflow in NE Japan converge in the hinge zone where the slab bends to accommodate a dip direction change between southern Kuril and NE Japan, discouraging mantle inflow within the hinge zone and causing the mantle wedge to be relatively cold. The slab surface depths beneath the frontal <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> in southern Kuril and NE Japan are about 120 km and 100 km, respectively. The along-arc variation in the mantle wedge temperature likely affects the <span class="hlt">locations</span> of melt generation and frontal <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>. We qualitatively examine whether the correlations between arc <span class="hlt">location</span>, cross-chain orientation, slab geometry, and subduction obliquity that are found in southern Kuril and NE Japan are present elsewhere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000JVGR..100..321Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Magnetic monitoring at Merapi <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, Indonesia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zlotnicki, J.; Bof, M.; Perdereau, L.; Yvetot, P.; Tjetjep, W.; Sukhyar, R.; Purbawinata, M. A.; Suharno</p> <p>2000-07-01</p> <p>Merapi <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">located</span> 30 km north of the heavily populated city of Yogjakarta, Java, is one of the most active of the 129 <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> in Indonesia. About every 2 years a new phase of activity is observed. Depending on the past activity the unrest gives rise either to an endogenous dome which partly collapses in the southwest direction or to pyroclastic flows which travel as far as 15 km. The 1990-1997 period has involved a plume emission on 30 August 1990, an extrusion on 20 January 1992, and a pyroclastic eruption on 22 November 1994. The intensity of the Earth magnetic field has been measured simultaneously and digitally recorded at four stations since 1990. Two Overhauser magnetometers with resolution of 0.01 nT have been installed in the summit area to strengthen the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> monitoring. Outstanding magnetic changes appear to correlate with volcanic activity. Three types of volcanomagnetic signals can be identified: long-term trends up to 15 nT with period >10 years; medium-term cyclic variations, at most 3 nT in amplitude and with 1-2 years period; and small events, reaching 1.5 nT, lasting a few months, and associated with any remarkable volcanic activity. Merapi <span class="hlt">volcano</span> began a new cycle of activity in 1995 leading to a dome growth in July 1996, and accompanied by 27 nuées ardentes in August. The comparison between magnetic data, seismicity, and surface phenomena suggests that some long-term trends of decade periods could be of thermomagnetic origin, while mid-term volcanomagnetic variations associated with the cycles of Merapi activity could be of piezomagnetic origin. Short-term variations of a few weeks duration, less than 1.5 nT, are well correlated with the 1995-1996 seismic activity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-HHH&redirectUrl=http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ct0564.photos.034451p/"><span id="translatedtitle">31. VIEW OF <span class="hlt">SUBMARINE</span> ESCAPE TRAINING TANK DURING CONSTRUCTION OF ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>31. VIEW OF <span class="hlt">SUBMARINE</span> ESCAPE TRAINING TANK DURING CONSTRUCTION OF THE ELEVATOR AND PASSAGEWAYS TO THE 18- AND 50-FOOT LOCKS AND CUPOLA 1932 - U.S. Naval <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Base, New London <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Escape Training Tank, Albacore & Darter Roads, Groton, New London County, CT</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-HHH&redirectUrl=http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ct0564.photos.034456p/"><span id="translatedtitle">36. VIEW OF CUPOLA, <span class="hlt">SUBMARINE</span> ESCAPE TRAINING TANK, SHOWING ROVING ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>36. VIEW OF CUPOLA, <span class="hlt">SUBMARINE</span> ESCAPE TRAINING TANK, SHOWING ROVING RESCUE BELL SUSPENDED ABOVE TANK, WITH TWO-LOCK RECOMPRESSION CHAMBER AT REAR, LOOKING WEST. Photo taken after installation of recompression chamber in 1956. - U.S. Naval <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Base, New London <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Escape Training Tank, Albacore & Darter Roads, Groton, New London County, CT</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-HHH&redirectUrl=http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ct0564.photos.034455p/"><span id="translatedtitle">35. INTERIOR VIEW OF EQUIPMENT HOUSE, <span class="hlt">SUBMARINE</span> ESCAPE TRAINING TANK, ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>35. INTERIOR VIEW OF EQUIPMENT HOUSE, <span class="hlt">SUBMARINE</span> ESCAPE TRAINING TANK, PRIOR TO ENLARGEMENT OF ROOM AND INSTALLATION OF TRIPLE-LOCK RECOMPRESSION CHAMBER IN 1957 - U.S. Naval <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Base, New London <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Escape Training Tank, Albacore & Darter Roads, Groton, New London County, CT</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://folk.uio.no/anelverh/Papers/De_Blasio_et_all_Understanding%20the%20high%20mobility%20of%20subaqueous%20debris.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Introduction Deep-sea deposits from <span class="hlt">submarine</span> landslides, debris</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Introduction Deep-sea deposits from <span class="hlt">submarine</span> landslides, debris flows, and turbidity currents have with <span class="hlt">submarine</span> mass-wasting. An example is the Storegga landslide on the Norwegian margin, which occurred about 9 detached from the front of slowing-down <span class="hlt">submarine</span> landslides. With a runout ratio of the order 0</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://folk.uio.no/anelverh/Papers/Ilstad.et.al_On_the_Frontal_Dynamics_and_Morphology_of.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">On the frontal dynamics and morphology of <span class="hlt">submarine</span> debris flows</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>On the frontal dynamics and morphology of <span class="hlt">submarine</span> debris flows Trygve Ilstada,*, Fabio V. De, MN 55414, USA Accepted 30 September 2004 Abstract Several <span class="hlt">submarine</span> debris flows show an apparently reserved. Keywords: <span class="hlt">submarine</span> slide; debris flow; Morphology; outrunner blocks; experiment 1. Introduction</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=CFR&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title32-vol5/pdf/CFR-2010-title32-vol5-sec700-1058.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">32 CFR 700.1058 - Command of a <span class="hlt">submarine</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 2010-07-01 false Command of a <span class="hlt">submarine</span>. 700.1058 Section 700.1058 National...Detail to Duty § 700.1058 Command of a <span class="hlt">submarine</span>. The officer detailed to command a <span class="hlt">submarine</span> shall be an officer of the line in...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://www.laas.fr/~monin/Version_anglaise/Publications_files/submarine.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Floating Antenna Model for LORAN-C Signal</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Monin, André</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Floating Antenna Model for LORAN-C Signal Processing A. MONIN LAAS-CNRS France An electromagnetic model of the floating antenna used by <span class="hlt">submarines</span> for LORAN-C radionavigation and very low The antenna used by <span class="hlt">submarines</span>, for LORAN-C radionavigation and very low frequency (VLF) communications</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://matematicas.uclm.es/omeva/wp-content/preprints/preprint05-09.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Optimal control design for the nonlinear manoeuvrability of a <span class="hlt">submarine</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Optimal control design for the nonlinear manoeuvrability of a <span class="hlt">submarine</span> Javier Garc´ia , Diana M, <span class="hlt">submarine</span>, optimal control, gradient descent method. 1 Introduction In the development of a naval architecture tool for the guidance and autopilot of a <span class="hlt">submarine</span> is important to choose both an accurate</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://chinacat.coastal.udel.edu/papers/ma-etal-om13.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Numerical simulation of tsunami waves generated by deformable <span class="hlt">submarine</span> landslides</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Kirby, James T.</p> <p></p> <p>Numerical simulation of tsunami waves generated by deformable <span class="hlt">submarine</span> landslides Gangfeng Ma a 2013 Accepted 4 July 2013 Available online 15 July 2013 Keywords: <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> landslide Nonhydrostatic wave model Tsunami wave Numerical modeling a b s t r a c t This paper presents a new <span class="hlt">submarine</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=CFR2011&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title32-vol5/pdf/CFR-2011-title32-vol5-sec700-1058.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">32 CFR 700.1058 - Command of a <span class="hlt">submarine</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 2011-07-01 false Command of a <span class="hlt">submarine</span>. 700.1058 Section 700.1058 National...Detail to Duty § 700.1058 Command of a <span class="hlt">submarine</span>. The officer detailed to command a <span class="hlt">submarine</span> shall be an officer of the line in...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://www-pord.ucsd.edu/~wryoung/reprintPDFs/Petrelisetal2006.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Tidal Conversion at a <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Ridge FRANOIS PTRLIS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Young, William R.</p> <p></p> <p>Tidal Conversion at a <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Ridge FRANÇOIS PÉTRÉLIS Laboratoire de Physique Statistique, Ecole-dimensional <span class="hlt">submarine</span> ridge is computed using an integral-equation method. The problem is characterized by two tide over <span class="hlt">submarine</span> topography is a main source of the mechanical energy required to power the internal</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=CFR2012&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title32-vol5/pdf/CFR-2012-title32-vol5-sec700-1058.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">32 CFR 700.1058 - Command of a <span class="hlt">submarine</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... 2012-07-01 false Command of a <span class="hlt">submarine</span>. 700.1058 Section 700.1058 National...Detail to Duty § 700.1058 Command of a <span class="hlt">submarine</span>. The officer detailed to command a <span class="hlt">submarine</span> shall be an officer of the line in...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://www4.comp.polyu.edu.hk/~oneprobe/doc/pam2011-main.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Non-cooperative Diagnosis of <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Cable Faults</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Chang, Rocky Kow-Chuen</p> <p></p> <p>Non-cooperative Diagnosis of <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Cable Faults Edmond W. W. Chan, Xiapu Luo, Waiting W. T. Fok|csxluo|cswtfok|csweicli|csrchang}@comp.polyu.edu.hk Abstract. <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> cable faults are not uncommon events in the In- ternet today. However, their impacts of the performance degradation. 1 Introduction <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> cables are critical elements of the Internet today, because</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://www.planetary.brown.edu/planetary/documents/1691.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Deep <span class="hlt">submarine</span> pyroclastic eruptions: theory and predicted landforms and deposits</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Head III, James William</p> <p></p> <p>Deep <span class="hlt">submarine</span> pyroclastic eruptions: theory and predicted landforms and deposits James W. Head III October 2001; received in revised form 19 August 2002; accepted 19 August 2002 Abstract <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> and illustrate the full range of <span class="hlt">submarine</span> eruption styles, we model several possible scenarios for the ascent</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=CFR2013&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title32-vol5/pdf/CFR-2013-title32-vol5-sec700-1058.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">32 CFR 700.1058 - Command of a <span class="hlt">submarine</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 2013-07-01 false Command of a <span class="hlt">submarine</span>. 700.1058 Section 700.1058 National...Detail to Duty § 700.1058 Command of a <span class="hlt">submarine</span>. The officer detailed to command a <span class="hlt">submarine</span> shall be an officer of the line in...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://www.geo.uib.no/hjemmesider/yngve/docs/MARGO_MassWasting_LR.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Mass wasting on the <span class="hlt">submarine</span> Lomonosov Ridge, central Arctic Ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Kristoffersen, Yngve</p> <p></p> <p>Mass wasting on the <span class="hlt">submarine</span> Lomonosov Ridge, central Arctic Ocean Yngve Kristoffersen a,, Bernard particulate matter in the water column accumulate as a uniform drape on <span class="hlt">submarine</span> plateaus and ridges Lomonosov Ridge is a <span class="hlt">submarine</span> feature of alpine proportions which rises 3 km above the adjacent abyssal</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=CFR2014&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title32-vol5/pdf/CFR-2014-title32-vol5-sec700-1058.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">32 CFR 700.1058 - Command of a <span class="hlt">submarine</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 2014-07-01 false Command of a <span class="hlt">submarine</span>. 700.1058 Section 700.1058 National...Detail to Duty § 700.1058 Command of a <span class="hlt">submarine</span>. The officer detailed to command a <span class="hlt">submarine</span> shall be an officer of the line in...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASA-TRS&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20090008648&hterms=concrete+anchors&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dconcrete%2Banchors"><span id="translatedtitle">Reducing Unsteady Loads on a Piggyback Miniature <span class="hlt">Submarine</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lin, John</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>A small, simple fixture has been found to be highly effective in reducing destructive unsteady hydrodynamic loads on a miniature <span class="hlt">submarine</span> that is attached in piggyback fashion to the top of a larger, nuclear-powered, host <span class="hlt">submarine</span>. The fixture, denoted compact ramp, can be installed with minimal structural modification, and the use of it does not entail any change in <span class="hlt">submarine</span> operations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.V43I..07H"><span id="translatedtitle">Microbial Communities in Erupting Fluids from West Mata <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Tonga Arc</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huber, J. A.; Cantin, H.; Resing, J.; Butterfield, D. A.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Eruptions provide unique opportunities for sampling the subseafloor microbial habitat due to the release of crustal fluids and microbes into the overlying water column via plumes and new diffuse vents. Work at mid-ocean ridges show that as post-eruption fluids evolve chemically, the subseafloor microbial communities also experience shifts in population structure and diversity. Timely sampling of plume and venting fluids is critical to understanding the microbial response to active volcanic eruptions, as well as resolving the relationship between stability and diversity. In response to eruption indicators observed in the water column during a November 2008 NOAA PMEL cruise, a multidisciplinary expedition funded by NSF and NOAA was mounted in May 2009 with the ROV Jason 2 to survey and observe eruption-related processes at West Mata <span class="hlt">volcano</span> and the Northeast Lau Spreading Center (NELSC). While eruptive activity was not found at NELSC, explosive and effusive activity was found at W. Mata, <span class="hlt">located</span> about 200 km southwest of Samoa at a depth of 1200 m. Diffuse venting and eruptive plumes were observed around the summit, and fluids were collected for cell counts, culturing, and DNA- and RNA-based analyses. Despite many vents having a pH of less than 3, all diffuse fluids contained cell concentrations elevated above background seawater, with large clumps of cells and filaments often present. Positive enrichments of anaerobic microbes, including thermophiles and hyperthermophiles, were obtained from a variety of vent and plume samples at 37, 55, 70, and 85 degrees Celsius. DNA- and RNA-based 16S rRNA clone libraries were built from all vent and plume samples. Results indicate that all sites are dominated by bacteria, but at relatively low diversity compared to other diffuse vent sites studied to date, suggesting that the microbial community may be at the early stages of development. Similar to other diffuse vents, most fluids hosted members of the mesophilic sulfur-oxidizing epsilon- and gamma- proteobacteria, although some putatively thermophilic bacteria were also recovered. The dominant genera found, Sulfurimonas spp., is also found at recently erupted fluids at NW Rota-1, a <span class="hlt">volcano</span> of the Mariana Arc. A comparison of active (RNA-based) bacteria versus total bacteria (DNA-based) is on-going and indicates that many members of the bacterial community are active in the sampled fluids. All microbial data will be presented along with geochemical data to provide further insight into <span class="hlt">submarine</span> volcanic-hosted ecosystems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985EOSTr..66Q1209."><span id="translatedtitle">Ruiz <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>: Preliminary report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Ruiz <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Colombia (4.88°N, 75.32°W). All times are local (= GMT -5 hours).An explosive eruption on November 13, 1985, melted ice and snow in the summit area, generating lahars that flowed tens of kilometers down flank river valleys, killing more than 20,000 people. This is history's fourth largest single-eruption death toll, behind only Tambora in 1815 (92,000), Krakatau in 1883 (36,000), and Mount Pelée in May 1902 (28,000). The following briefly summarizes the very preliminary and inevitably conflicting information that had been received by press time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NSDL&redirectUrl=http://www.spacegrant.hawaii.edu/class_acts/GelVolTe.html"><span id="translatedtitle">Gelatin <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span>: Teacher Page</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This is the Teacher Page of an activity that teaches students how and why magma moves inside <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> by injecting colored water into a clear gelatin cast. Activity preparation instructions are on the Student Page, while the Teacher Page has background, preparation, and in-class information. An extension activity has the students repeat the experiment using a square bread pan to simulate the original research that was done using elongate models with triangular cross-sections. This activity is part of Exploring Planets in the Classroom's Volcanology section.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASA-TRS&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=STS046-90-029&hterms=indonesian&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dindonesian"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span>, Central Java, Indonesia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>The island of Java (8.0S, 112.0E), perhaps better than any other, illustrates the volcanic origin of Pacific Island groups. Seen in this single view are at least a dozen once active <span class="hlt">volcano</span> craters. Alignment of the craters even defines the linear fault line of Java as well as the other some 1500 islands of the Indonesian Archipelago. Deep blue water of the Indian Ocean to the south contrasts to the sediment laden waters of the Java Sea to the north.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.9072B"><span id="translatedtitle">What can we learn about the history of oceanic shield <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> from deep marine sediments? Example from La Reunion <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bachelery, Patrick; Babonneau, Nathalie; Jorry, Stephan; Mazuel, Aude</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The discovery in 2006, during the oceanographic survey FOREVER, of large volcaniclastic sedimentary systems off La Réunion Island (western Indian ocean) revealed a new image of the evolution of oceanic shield <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> and their dismantling. Marine data obtained from 2006 to 2011 during the oceanographic surveys ERODER 1 to ERODER 4 included bathymetry, acoustic imagery, echosounding profiles, dredging and coring. Six major turbidite systems were mapped and described on the <span class="hlt">submarine</span> flanks of La Reunion volcanic edifice and the surrounding oceanic plate. The interpretation of sediment cores enable us to characterise the processes of gravity-driven sediment transfer from land to deep sea and also to revisit the history of the <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> of La Réunion Island. Turbidite systems constitute a major component of the transfer of volcanic materials to the abyssal plain (Saint-Ange et al., 2011; 2013; Sisavath et al., 2011; 2012; Babonneau et al., 2013). These systems are superimposed on other dismantling processes (slow deformation such as gravity sliding or spreading, and huge landslides causing debris avalanches). Turbidite systems mainly develop in connection with the hydrographic network of the island, and especially at the mouths of large rivers. They show varying degrees of maturity, with canyons incising the <span class="hlt">submarine</span> slope of the island and feeding depositional areas, channels and lobes extending over 150 km from the coast. The cores collected in turbidite systems show successions of thin and thick turbidites alternating with hemipelagic sedimentation. Sedimentological and stratigraphic analysis of sediment cores yielded a chronology of <span class="hlt">submarine</span> gravity events. First-order information was obtained on the explosive activity of these <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> by identifying tephra layers in the cores (glass shards and pumice). In addition, major events of the volcanic and tectonic history of the island can be identified and dated. In this contribution, we focus most attention on the southernmost turbidite system (St-Joseph system). Sedimentary records allow us to establish a link between two major landslides affecting the flanks of Piton de la Fournaise <span class="hlt">volcano</span> and the triggering of major turbidity currents. Thus, the age of these events could be obtained; their chronology being far too difficult to establish otherwise. In short: a beautiful example of the contribution of sedimentology to the study of the structural evolution of the <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>. References Babonneau N., Delacourt C., Cancouet R., Sisavath E., Bachelery P., Deschamps A., Mazuel A., Ammann J., Jorry S.J., Villeneuve N., 2013, Marine Geology, 346, 47-57. Saint-Ange F., Bachèlery P., Babonneau N., Michon, L., Jorry S.J., 2013, Marine Geology. 337, 35-52. Saint-Ange, F., Savoye, B., Michon, L., Bachelery, P., Deplus, C., De Voogd, B., Dyment, J., Le Drezen, E., Voisset, M., Le Friant, A., and Boudon, G., 2011. Geology, 39, 271-274, doi: 10.1130/G31478.1. Sisavath, E., Mazuel, A., Jorry, S., Babonneau, N., Bachèlery P., De Voogd, B., Salpin, M., Emmanuel, L., Beaufort, L., Toucanne, S., 2012, Sedimentary Geology, 281, p. 180-193, doi :10.1016/j.sedgeo.2012.09.010. Sisavath, E., Babonneau N., Saint-Ange F., Bachèlery P., Jorry S., Deplus C., De Voogd B., Savoye B., 2011, Marine Geology, v. 288, p. 1-17, doi:10.1016/j.margeo.2011.06.011.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://quebec.hwr.arizona.edu/research/inqua03-sarikaya.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">LATE QUATERNARY GLACIATION OF THE ERCIYES <span class="hlt">VOLCANO</span>, CENTRAL TURKEY</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Zreda, Marek</p> <p></p> <p>LATE QUATERNARY GLACIATION OF THE ERCIYES <span class="hlt">VOLCANO</span>, CENTRAL TURKEY SARIKAYA, M. Akif1, ÇINER, Attila, Turkey, aciner@hun.edu.tr, (2) Hydrology and Water Resources, Univ of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 Mount Erciyes (3917 m), highest stratovolcano of Central Turkey, is <span class="hlt">located</span> in the northeastern part</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PhDT........96F"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis and interpretation of <span class="hlt">volcano</span> deformation in Alaska: Studies from Okmok and Mt. Veniaminof <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fournier, Thomas J.</p> <p></p> <p>Four studies focus on the deformation at Okmok <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, the Alaska Peninsula and Mt. Veniaminof. The main focus of the thesis is the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> deformation at Okmok <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> and Mt. Veniaminof, but also includes an investigation of the tectonic related compression of the Alaska Peninsula. The complete data set of GPS observations at Okmok <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> are investigated with the Unscented Kalman Filter time series analysis method. The technique is shown to be useful for inverting geodetic data for time dependent non-linear model parameters. The GPS record at Okmok from 2000 to mid 2007 shows distinct inflation pulses which have several months duration. The inflation is interpreted as magma accumulation in a shallow reservoir under the caldera center and approximately 2.51cm below sea level. The <span class="hlt">location</span> determined for the magma reservoir agrees with estimates determined by other geodetic techniques. Smaller deflation signals in the Okmok record appear following the inflation pulses. A degassing model is proposed to explain the deflation. Petrologic observations from lava erupted in 1997 provide an estimate for the volatile content of the magma. The solution model VolatileCalc is used to determine the amount of volatiles in the gas phase. Degassing can explain the deflation, but only under certain circumstances. The magma chamber must have a radius between ˜1 and 21cm and the intruding magma must have less than approximately 500ppm CO2 . At Mt. Veniaminof the deformation signal is dominated by compression caused by the convergence of the Pacific and North American Plates. A subduction model is created to account for the site velocities. A network of GPS benchmarks along the Alaska Peninsula is used to infer the amount of coupling along the mega-thrust. A transition from high to low coupling near the Shumagin Islands has important implications for the seismogenic potential of this section of the fault. The Shumagin segment likely raptures in more frequent smaller magnitude quakes. The tectonic study provides a useful backdrop to examine the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> deformation at Mt. Veniaminof. After being corrected for tectonic motion the sites velocities indicate inflation at the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. The deformation is interpreted as pressurization occurring beneath the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> associated with eruptive activity in 2005.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1714782R"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Volcano</span> monitoring with an infrared camera: first insights from Villarrica <span class="hlt">Volcano</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rosas Sotomayor, Florencia; Amigo Ramos, Alvaro; Velasquez Vargas, Gabriela; Medina, Roxana; Thomas, Helen; Prata, Fred; Geoffroy, Carolina</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>This contribution focuses on the first trials of the, almost 24/7 monitoring of Villarrica <span class="hlt">volcano</span> with an infrared camera. Results must be compared with other SO2 remote sensing instruments such as DOAS and UV-camera, for the ''day'' measurements. Infrared remote sensing of volcanic emissions is a fast and safe method to obtain gas abundances in volcanic plumes, in particular when the access to the vent is difficult, during volcanic crisis and at night time. In recent years, a ground-based infrared camera (Nicair) has been developed by Nicarnica Aviation, which quantifies SO2 and ash on volcanic plumes, based on the infrared radiance at specific wavelengths through the application of filters. Three Nicair1 (first model) have been acquired by the Geological Survey of Chile in order to study degassing of active <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>. Several trials with the instruments have been performed in northern Chilean <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, and have proven that the intervals of retrieved SO2 concentration and fluxes are as expected. Measurements were also performed at Villarrica <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, and a <span class="hlt">location</span> to install a ''fixed'' camera, at 8km from the crater, was discovered here. It is a coffee house with electrical power, wifi network, polite and committed owners and a full view of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> summit. The first measurements are being made and processed in order to have full day and week of SO2 emissions, analyze data transfer and storage, improve the remote control of the instrument and notebook in case of breakdown, web-cam/GoPro support, and the goal of the project: which is to implement a fixed station to monitor and study the Villarrica <span class="hlt">volcano</span> with a Nicair1 integrating and comparing these results with other remote sensing instruments. This works also looks upon the strengthen of bonds with the community by developing teaching material and giving talks to communicate volcanic hazards and other geoscience topics to the people who live "just around the corner" from one of the most active <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> in Chile.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.5536S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Submarine</span> glaciated landscapes of central and northern British Columbia, Canada</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shaw, John; Lintern, Gwyn</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Recent systematic multibeam sonar mapping and ground-truthing surveys in the fjords and coastal waters of central and northern British Columbia, Canada, provide information on glacial processes associated with the Cordilleran Ice Sheet, and also on postglacial processes that have strongly modified the glacial terrain. During the last glacial maximum, ice covered the Coast Range, except for nunataks. Convergent streamlined glacial landforms in the Strait of Georgia testify to a strong flow of ice towards the southeast, between Vancouver Island and the mainland. During ice retreat, thick deposits of acoustically stratified glaciomarine mud were deposited in glacially over deepened basins. Retreat through the Douglas Channel fjord system was punctuated by still stands, resulting in a series of <span class="hlt">submarine</span> moraines. Postglacial processes have created a suite of landforms that mask the primary glacial terrain: 1) Fjord floors host thick deposits of acoustically transparent postglacial mud with highly variable distribution: banks up to 80-m thick are commonly adjacent to erosional zones with glaciomarine mud exposed at the seafloor; 2) In this region of high precipitation and snowpack melt, numerous cone-shaped Holocene fan deltas developed on the fjord sidewalls transport coarse sediment to the fjord floors. Larger deltas are developed at fjord heads, notably at Kitimat and Kildala; 3) <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> slope failures in this tectonically active area have resulted in a suite of mass transport deposits on sidewalls and fjord floors. The very large <span class="hlt">submarine</span> slope failures at Camano Sound and KitKat Inlet occurred on the steep, rear facets of large transverse moraines, and involved the failure of glaciomarine sediment that moved into deeper basins, perhaps as a retrogressive failure. The ages of these events are unknown, although the presence of postglacial mud in the slide scar at Caamano suggests that the event at that <span class="hlt">location</span> occurred in the late glacial or early Holocene. Also, sub-bottom profiling shows that some mass transport deposits apparent on the multibeam imagery are not recent, and are blanketed by postglacial mud. Thus, <span class="hlt">submarine</span> slope failure has been occurring throughout postglacial time; 4) Large, detached bedrock blocks on the fjord sidewall are currently being investigated with a view to understanding their rates of movement. They are provisionally interpreted as creep features, similar to terrestrial sackung.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=USGSPUBS&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70046087"><span id="translatedtitle">Geomorphic process fingerprints in <span class="hlt">submarine</span> canyons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Brothers, Daniel S.; ten Brink, Uri S.; Andrews, Brian D.; Chaytor, Jason D.; Twichell, David C.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Submarine</span> canyons are common features of continental margins worldwide. They are conduits that funnel vast quantities of sediment from the continents to the deep sea. Though it is known that <span class="hlt">submarine</span> canyons form primarily from erosion induced by <span class="hlt">submarine</span> sediment flows, we currently lack quantitative, empirically based expressions that describe the morphology of <span class="hlt">submarine</span> canyon networks. Multibeam bathymetry data along the entire passive US Atlantic margin (USAM) and along the active central California margin near Monterey Bay provide an opportunity to examine the fine-scale morphology of 171 slope-sourced canyons. Log–log regression analyses of canyon thalweg gradient (S) versus up-canyon catchment area (A) are used to examine linkages between morphological domains and the generation and evolution of <span class="hlt">submarine</span> sediment flows. For example, canyon reaches of the upper continental slope are characterized by steep, linear and/or convex longitudinal profiles, whereas reaches farther down canyon have distinctly concave longitudinal profiles. The transition between these geomorphic domains is inferred to represent the downslope transformation of debris flows into erosive, canyon-flushing turbidity flows. Over geologic timescales this process appears to leave behind a predictable geomorphic fingerprint that is dependent on the catchment area of the canyon head. Catchment area, in turn, may be a proxy for the volume of sediment released during geomorphically significant failures along the upper continental slope. Focused studies of slope-sourced <span class="hlt">submarine</span> canyons may provide new insights into the relationships between fine-scale canyon morphology and down-canyon changes in sediment flow dynamics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.V11C2290R"><span id="translatedtitle">Digital Geologic Map Database of Medicine Lake <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Northern California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ramsey, D. W.; Donnelly-Nolan, J. M.; Felger, T. J.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Medicine Lake <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">located</span> in the southern Cascades ~55 km east-northeast of Mount Shasta, is a large rear-arc, shield-shaped <span class="hlt">volcano</span> with an eruptive history spanning nearly 500 k.y. Geologic mapping of Medicine Lake <span class="hlt">volcano</span> has been digitally compiled as a spatial database in ArcGIS. Within the database, coverage feature classes have been created representing geologic lines (contacts, faults, lava tubes, etc.), geologic unit polygons, and volcanic vent <span class="hlt">location</span> points. The database can be queried to determine the spatial distributions of different rock types, geologic units, and other geologic and geomorphic features. These data, in turn, can be used to better understand the evolution, growth, and potential hazards of this large, rear-arc Cascades <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. Queries of the database reveal that the total area covered by lavas of Medicine Lake <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, which range in composition from basalt through rhyolite, is about 2,200 km2, encompassing all or parts of 27 U.S. Geological Survey 1:24,000-scale topographic quadrangles. The maximum extent of these lavas is about 80 km north-south by 45 km east-west. Occupying the center of Medicine Lake <span class="hlt">volcano</span> is a 7 km by 12 km summit caldera in which nestles its namesake, Medicine Lake. The flanks of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, which are dotted with cinder cones, slope gently upward to the caldera rim, which reaches an elevation of nearly 2,440 m. Approximately 250 geologic units have been mapped, only half a dozen of which are thin surficial units such as alluvium. These volcanic units mostly represent eruptive events, each commonly including a vent (dome, cinder cone, spatter cone, etc.) and its associated lava flow. Some cinder cones have not been matched to lava flows, as the corresponding flows are probably buried, and some flows cannot be correlated with vents. The largest individual units on the map are all basaltic in composition, including the late Pleistocene basalt of Yellowjacket Butte (296 km2 exposed), the largest unit on the map, whose area is partly covered by a late Holocene andesite flow. Silicic lava flows are mostly confined to the main edifice of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, with the youngest rhyolite flows found in and near the summit caldera, including the rhyolitic Little Glass Mountain (~1,000 yr B.P.) and Glass Mountain (~950 yr B.P.) flows, which are the youngest eruptions at Medicine Lake <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. In postglacial time, 17 eruptions have added approximately 7.5 km3 to the <span class="hlt">volcano’s</span> total estimated volume of 600 km3, which may be the largest by volume among Cascade Range <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>. The <span class="hlt">volcano</span> has erupted nine times in the past 5,200 years, a rate more frequent than has been documented at all other Cascade <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> except Mount St. Helens.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASA-TRS&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820005816&hterms=submarine&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dsubmarine"><span id="translatedtitle">A model for the <span class="hlt">submarine</span> depthkeeping team</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ware, J. R.; Best, J. F.; Bozzi, P. J.; Kleinman, D. W.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>The most difficult task the depthkeeping team must face occurs during periscope-depth operations during which they may be required to maintain a <span class="hlt">submarine</span> several hundred feet long within a foot of ordered depth and within one-half degree of ordered pitch. The difficulty is compounded by the facts that wave generated forces are extremely high, depth and pitch signals are very noisy and <span class="hlt">submarine</span> speed is such that overall dynamics are slow. A mathematical simulation of the depthkeeping team based on the optimal control models is described. A solution of the optimal team control problem with an output control restriction (limited display to each controller) is presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.7355B"><span id="translatedtitle">Small-scale <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> on Mars: distribution and types</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Broz, Petr; Hauber, Ernst</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> differ in sizes, as does the amount of magma which ascends to a planetary surface. On Earth, the size of <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> is anti-correlated with their frequency, i.e. small <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> are much more numerous than large ones. The most common terrestrial <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> are scoria cones (<few km in diameter) followed by tuff cones and tuff rings. As Mars is a planet which was volcanically active over most (if not all) of its history, a similar distribution of <span class="hlt">volcano</span> size might be expected. Martian small-scale <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> were not intensely studied for a long time due to a lack of high-resolution data enabling their proper identification; however their existence and basic characteristics were predicted on theoretical grounds. Streams of new high-resolution images now enable discovering and studying kilometer-size <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> with various shapes in unprecedented detail. Several types of small-scale <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> in various regions on Mars were recently described. Scoria cones provide a record of magmatic volatile content and have been identified in Tharsis (Ulysses Colles), on flanks of large <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> (e.g., Pavonis Mons), in the caldera of Ulysses Patera, in chaotic terrains or other large depressions (Hydraotes Colles, Coprates Chasma) and in the northern lowlands. Tuff rings and tuff cones, formed as a result of water-magma interaction, seem to be relatively rare on Mars and were only tentatively identified in three <span class="hlt">locations</span> (Nepenthes/Amenthes region, Arena Colles and inside Lederberg crater), and alternative interpretations (mud <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>) seem possible. Other relatively rare <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> seem to be lava domes, reported only from two regions (Acracida Planitia and Terra Sirenum). On the other hand, small shields and rootless cones (which are not primary volcanic landforms) represent widely spread phenomena recognized in Tharsis and Elysium. Based on these new observations, the distribution of small <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> on Mars seems to be much more widespread than anticipated a decade ago. There are sometimes significant differences in the final morphologies between Martian hypothesized and possible terrestrial analogs, despite fact that the physical processes behind <span class="hlt">volcano</span> formation should be similar on both planets. For example, Martian scoria cones are ~2.6 times wider than terrestrial analogues, as lower gravity and atmospheric pressure enable wider dispersion of pyroclasts from the vent. In addition, exit velocities of ejected particles should be increased on Mars because the lower atmospheric pressure favors more rapid exsolution of dissolved gases from the magma, which also favors a wider dispersion of ejected particles. Therefore, care must be taken when applying terrestrial morphometric relationships to the interpretation of hypothesized volcanic features on Mars and other terrestrial bodies. As on Earth, small-scale <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> on Mars display diverse shapes and hence provide insight into diverse volcanic processes responsible for such variations. Those diverse processes may point to various mechanisms of magma ascent and eruption styles in dependency on magma properties (e.g., amount of volatiles) and the paleo-environment at the time of formation. Hence the investigation of small-scale <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> provides useful tool enabling us to deepen our knowledge about the variety and richness of volcanism on Mars.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.T51I..06Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Active Monitoring for Active <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> - A challenge at Sakurajima <span class="hlt">volcano</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yamaoka, K.; Watanabe, T.; Michishita, T.; Miyamachi, H.; Iguchi, M.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Quantitative monitoring of magma transport process is essentially important for understanding the volcanic process and prediction of volcanic eruptions. To realize this monitoring, a project, deployment of an active source called ACROSS in Sakurajima <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, is being underway. In this study, we assessed the feasibility of the capability of monitoring using ACROSS vibrator system for Sakurajima <span class="hlt">volcano</span> in terms of detectability of signal and its temporal variation due to reasonable change in volcanic structure. Sakurajima <span class="hlt">volcano</span> is one of the most active <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> in the world, which erupts more than a thousand times in 2010, and has been intensively monitored by a research observatory. We chose Sakurajima <span class="hlt">volcano</span> as a first test site for <span class="hlt">volcano</span> monitoring with ACROSS because of its well-deployed seismic network and repeating volcanic eruptions. First we assess the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for the case in which we use the same source as deployed in the Tokai area. The detectability of temporal change in the signal from the source is simply dependent on the SNR at the receivers. As the SNR increases with the length of data-stacking, we estimate the reasonable stacking length and the distance range that ACROSS signal can be recorded with enough SNR. We use a general distance dependent attenuation model including geometrical spreading and internal energy dissipation to estimate the parameters describing source strength and internal energy dissipation. We use a attenuation relation that is estimated by existing ACROSS source in the Tokai area to estimate the source strength. As for the internal energy dissipation we use the data of explosion experiment that was carried out around Sakurajima <span class="hlt">volcano</span> in 2008. The result shows that the signal of an ACROSS vibrator can be recorded with good SNR for the whole area of Sakurajima island for the staking length of 3 months. Next we assess the effect of attenuation (Q) on the detectability of structure change for the realistic <span class="hlt">volcano</span> structure. We created a structure model of Sakurajima <span class="hlt">volcano</span> with existing structure model and calculated the change in spectral signal by a small change of structure model. The result shows that the low-Q nature of <span class="hlt">volcano</span> has little effect on the ACROSS signal in low frequency band (3.5-7.5Hz). These results will be compared with the actual observation experiment in the coming years. Acknowledgement: We use the data-set of the exploration experiment in Sakurajima <span class="hlt">volcano</span> which is carried out by <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> eruption prediction group in 2008.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40181521"><span id="translatedtitle">Muscular and Hepatic Pollution Biomarkers in the Fishes Phycis blennoides and Micromesistius poutassou and the Crustacean Aristeus antennatus in the Blanes <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Canyon (NW Mediterranean)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Montserrat Solé; Bastian Hambach; Verónica Cortijo; David Huertas; Pilar Fernández</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Submarine</span> canyons are regarded as a sink for pollutants. In order to determine if this theory applied to deep-sea species\\u000a from an important fishing ground (the Blanes <span class="hlt">submarine</span> canyon) <span class="hlt">located</span> in the NW Mediterranean, we sampled the commercial\\u000a fish Phycis blennoides and Micromesistius poutassou and the crustacean Aristeus antennatus. Specimens were sampled inside and outside (in the open continental slope)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=USGSPUBS&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ds531"><span id="translatedtitle">Catalog of earthquake hypocenters at Alaskan <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>: January 1 through December 31, 2009</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Dixon, James P.; Stihler, Scott D.; Power, John A.; Searcy, Cheryl K.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Between January 1 and December 31, 2009, the Alaska <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observatory (AVO) <span class="hlt">located</span> 8,829 earthquakes, of which 7,438 occurred within 20 kilometers of the 33 <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> with seismograph subnetworks. Monitoring highlights in 2009 include the eruption of Redoubt <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, as well as unrest at Okmok Caldera, Shishaldin <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, and Mount Veniaminof. Additionally severe seismograph subnetwork outages resulted in four <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> (Aniakchak, Fourpeaked, Korovin, and Veniaminof) being removed from the formal list of monitored <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> in late 2009. This catalog includes descriptions of: (1) <span class="hlt">locations</span> of seismic instrumentation deployed during 2009; (2) earthquake detection, recording, analysis, and data archival systems; (3) seismic velocity models used for earthquake <span class="hlt">locations</span>; (4) a summary of earthquakes <span class="hlt">located</span> in 2009; and (5) an accompanying UNIX tar-file with a summary of earthquake origin times, hypocenters, magnitudes, phase arrival times, <span class="hlt">location</span> quality statistics, daily station usage statistics, all files used to determine the earthquake <span class="hlt">locations</span> in 2009, and a dataless SEED volume for the AVO seismograph network.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://www.geo.mtu.edu/~raman/papers/FuegoOFR.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Hazards at Fuego and Acatenango, Guatemala<span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Hazards at Fuego and Acatenango, Guatemala<span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Hazards at Fuego and Acatenango, Guatemala<span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Hazards at Fuego and Acatenango, Guatemala<span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Hazards at Fuego and Acatenango, Guatemala 1111</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Rose, William I.</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Hazards at Fuego and Acatenango, Guatemala<span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Hazards at Fuego and Acatenango, Guatemala<span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Hazards at Fuego and Acatenango, Guatemala<span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Hazards at Fuego and Acatenango, Guatemala<span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Hazards at Fuego and Acatenango, Guatemala 11111 Open-File Report 01­431Open-File Report 01</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMDI53A2375T"><span id="translatedtitle">Imaging magma storage reservoirs beneath Sierra Negra <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, Galápagos, Ecuador</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tepp, G.; Belachew, M.; Ebinger, C. J.; Seats, K.; Ruiz, M. C.; Lawrence, J. F.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Ocean island <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> initiate and grow through repeated eruptions and intrusions of primarily basaltic magma that thicken the oceanic crust above melt production zones within the mantle. The movement of oceanic plates over the hot, melt-rich upwellings produces chains of progressively younger basaltic <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, as in the Galapagos Islands. Rates of surface deformation along the chain of 7 active <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> in the western Galápagos are some of the most rapid in the world, yet little is known of the subsurface structure of the active volcanic systems. The 16-station SIGNET array deployed between July 2009 and June 2011 provides new insights into the time-averaged structure beneath Sierra Negra, Cerro Azul, and Alcedo <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, and the ocean platform. We use wavespeed tomography to image volcanic island structure, with focus on the magmatic plumbing system beneath Sierra Negra <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, which has a deep, ~10 km-wide caldera and last erupted in 2005. We compare our results to those of ambient noise tomography. Our 120 x 100 km grid has a variable mesh of 2.5 - 10 km. We have good resolution at depths between 3 and 15 km, with poorer resolution beneath Cerro Azul <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. Events from Alcedo <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, which is just outside our array, cause some N-S smearing. Results from wavespeed tomography provide insights into the major island building processes: accretion through extrusive magmatism, magma chamber geometry and depth, radial dike intrusions, and magmatic underplating/sill emplacement. The wide caldera of Sierra Negra is underlain by high velocity (~7 %) material from depths of 5 - 15, and the flanks correspond to low velocity material at all depths. A high velocity zone corresponds to Cerro Azul (~3%). Aligned chains of eruptive centers correlate with elongate high velocity zones, suggesting that radial dikes are the sites of repeated dike intrusions. These chains are preferentially <span class="hlt">located</span> along ridges linking nearby <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>. A comparison of well-resolved zones with ambient noise tomography shows a close correlation between the shapes and depth distributions. An exception is Cerro Azul <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, where ambient noise tomography images a low velocity zone at frequencies corresponding to shallow depths, whereas wavespeed tomography in the mid to lower crust shows a moderate high velocity zone. We suggest that the differences can be explained by poor resolution from the wavespeed tomography in the <span class="hlt">location</span> of Cerro Azul and bias toward the shallow depths with slower velocities in the ambient noise tomography. The high-velocity zone beneath Sierra Negra is consistent with a large volume olivine-gabbro cumulate mush zone proposed from petrological studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NSDL&redirectUrl=http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/hazards/"><span id="translatedtitle">Types and Effects of <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Hazards</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This United States Geological Survey (USGS) website discusses <span class="hlt">volcano</span> hazards by type (gas, lahars, landslides, lava flows, pyroclastic flows, and tephra) and by the effect <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> have on people and land. This site gives an overview of <span class="hlt">volcano</span> hazards and links to selected case studies listed by country, <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, year, and type of hazard. Links to more USGS information about <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, such as a photo glossary, a site index, observatories, and an educator's page are also provided.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1213399A"><span id="translatedtitle">New insights on Panarea <span class="hlt">volcano</span> from terrestrial, marine and airborne data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Anzidei, Marco</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>The Panarea <span class="hlt">volcano</span> belongs to the Aeolian arc system and its activity, which recently produced impacts on the environment as well as on human settlements, is known since historical times. This <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, which includes Panarea island and its archipelago, is the emergent portion of <span class="hlt">submarine</span> stratovolcano more than 2000 m high and 20 Km across. In November 2002 a <span class="hlt">submarine</span> gas eruption started offshore 3 Km east of Panarea on top of a shallow rise of 2.3 km2 surrounded by the islets of Lisca Bianca, Bottaro and Lisca Nera. This event has posed new concern on a <span class="hlt">volcano</span> generally considered extinct. Soon after the <span class="hlt">submarine</span> eruption, this area has been surveyed under multidisciplinary programs funded by the Italian Department of the Civil Protection and INGV. Monitoring programs included subaerial and sea bottom DEM of Panarea <span class="hlt">volcano</span> by merging aerial digital photogrammetry, aerial laser scanning and multibeam bathymetry. A GPS ground deformation network (PANANET) was designed, set up and measured during time span December 2002 - October 2007. GPS data show rates of motion and strain values typical of volcanic areas which are in agreement with the NE-SW and NW-SE tectonic systems. The latter coincide with the main pathways for the upwelling of hydrothermal fluids. GPS data inferred a pre-event uplift followed by a general subsidence and shortening across the area that could be interpreted as the response to the surface of the inflation and deflation of the hydrothermal system reservoir which is progressively reducing its pressure after the 2002 gas eruption. Magnetic and gravimetric data depict the deep and shallow structure of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. From geochemical surveys were calculated energetic conditions at craters. Data were coupled with the computed physic-chemical state of the fluids at the level of the deep reservoir and provided the boundary conditions of the occurred event, and suggesting that a low-energy explosion was responsible for producing the craters at the sea bottom. Finally, we provide a model constrained by GPS data and Okada formulation, which suggests that the degassing intensity and distribution are strongly influenced by geophysical-geochemical changes within the hydrothermal/geothermal system. These variations may be triggered by changes in the regional stress field as suggested by the geophysical and volcanological events which occurred in 2002 in the Southern Tyrrhenian area.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24755668"><span id="translatedtitle">On the fate of pumice rafts formed during the 2012 Havre <span class="hlt">submarine</span> eruption.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jutzeler, Martin; Marsh, Robert; Carey, Rebecca J; White, James D L; Talling, Peter J; Karlstrom, Leif</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Pumice rafts are floating mobile accumulations of low-density pumice clasts generated by silicic volcanic eruptions. Pumice in rafts can drift for years, become waterlogged and sink, or become stranded on shorelines. Here we show that the pumice raft formed by the impressive, deep <span class="hlt">submarine</span> eruption of the Havre caldera <span class="hlt">volcano</span> (Southwest Pacific) in July 2012 can be mapped by satellite imagery augmented by sailing crew observations. Far from coastal interference, the eruption produced a single >400 km(2) raft in 1 day, thus initiating a gigantic, high-precision, natural experiment relevant to both modern and prehistoric oceanic surface dispersal dynamics. Observed raft dispersal can be accurately reproduced by simulating drift and dispersal patterns using currents from an eddy-resolving ocean model hindcast. For future eruptions that produce potentially hazardous pumice rafts, our technique allows real-time forecasts of dispersal routes, in addition to inference of ash/pumice deposit distribution in the deep ocean. PMID:24755668</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3997806"><span id="translatedtitle">On the fate of pumice rafts formed during the 2012 Havre <span class="hlt">submarine</span> eruption</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Jutzeler, Martin; Marsh, Robert; Carey, Rebecca J.; White, James D. L.; Talling, Peter J.; Karlstrom, Leif</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Pumice rafts are floating mobile accumulations of low-density pumice clasts generated by silicic volcanic eruptions. Pumice in rafts can drift for years, become waterlogged and sink, or become stranded on shorelines. Here we show that the pumice raft formed by the impressive, deep <span class="hlt">submarine</span> eruption of the Havre caldera <span class="hlt">volcano</span> (Southwest Pacific) in July 2012 can be mapped by satellite imagery augmented by sailing crew observations. Far from coastal interference, the eruption produced a single >400?km2 raft in 1 day, thus initiating a gigantic, high-precision, natural experiment relevant to both modern and prehistoric oceanic surface dispersal dynamics. Observed raft dispersal can be accurately reproduced by simulating drift and dispersal patterns using currents from an eddy-resolving ocean model hindcast. For future eruptions that produce potentially hazardous pumice rafts, our technique allows real-time forecasts of dispersal routes, in addition to inference of ash/pumice deposit distribution in the deep ocean. PMID:24755668</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=USGSPUBS&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70020950"><span id="translatedtitle">Gas hydrate accumulation at the Hakon Mosby Mud <span class="hlt">Volcano</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Ginsburg, G.D.; Milkov, A.V.; Soloviev, V.A.; Egorov, A.V.; Cherkashev, G.A.; Vogt, P.R.; Crane, K.; Lorenson, T.D.; Khutorskoy, M.D.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Gas hydrate (GH) accumulation is characterized and modeled for the Hakon Mosby mud <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, ca. 1.5 km across, <span class="hlt">located</span> on the Norway-Barents-Svalbard margin. Pore water chemical and isotopic results based on shallow sediment cores as well as geothermal and geomorphological data suggest that the GH accumulation is of a concentric pattern controlled by and formed essentially from the ascending mud <span class="hlt">volcano</span> fluid. The gas hydrate content of sediment peaks at 25% by volume, averaging about 1.2% throughout the accumulation. The amount of hydrate methane is estimated at ca. 108 m3 STP, which could account for about 1-10% of the gas that has escaped from the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> since its origin.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=USGSPUBS&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ds789"><span id="translatedtitle">Catalog of earthquake hypocenters at Alaskan <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>: January 1 through December 31, 2012</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Dixon, James P.; Stihler, Scott D.; Power, John A.; Haney, Matt; Parker, Tom; Searcy, Cheryl; Prejean, Stephanie</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Between January 1 and December 31, 2012, the Alaska <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observatory <span class="hlt">located</span> 4,787 earthquakes, of which 4,211 occurred within 20 kilometers of the 33 <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> monitored by a seismograph network. There was significant seismic activity at Iliamna, Kanaga, and Little Sitkin <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> in 2012. Instrumentation highlights for this year include the implementation of the Advanced National Seismic System Quake Monitoring System hardware and software in February 2012 and the continuation of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act work in the summer of 2012. The operational highlight was the removal of Mount Wrangell from the list of monitored <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>. This catalog includes hypocenters, magnitudes, and statistics of the earthquakes <span class="hlt">located</span> in 2012 with the station parameters, velocity models, and other files used to <span class="hlt">locate</span> these earthquakes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=USGSPUBS&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/pp18015"><span id="translatedtitle">Magma supply, storage, and transport at shield-stage Hawaiian <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>: Chapter 5 in Characteristics of Hawaiian <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Poland, Michael P.; Miklius, Asta; Montgomery-Brown, Emily K.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Magma supply to Hawaiian <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> has varied over millions of years but is presently at a high level. Supply to K?lauea’s shallow magmatic system averages about 0.1 km3/yr and fluctuates on timescales of months to years due to changes in pressure within the summit reservoir system, as well as in the volume of melt supplied by the source hot spot. Magma plumbing systems beneath K?lauea and Mauna Loa are complex and are best constrained at K?lauea. Multiple regions of magma storage characterize K?lauea’s summit, and two pairs of rift zones, one providing a shallow magma pathway and the other forming a structural boundary within the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, radiate from the summit to carry magma to intrusion/eruption sites <span class="hlt">located</span> nearby or tens of kilometers from the caldera. Whether or not magma is present within the deep rift zone, which extends beneath the structural rift zones at ~3-km depth to the base of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> at ~9-km depth, remains an open question, but we suggest that most magma entering K?lauea must pass through the summit reservoir system before entering the rift zones. Mauna Loa’s summit magma storage system includes at least two interconnected reservoirs, with one centered beneath the south margin of the caldera and the other elongated along the axis of the caldera. Transport of magma within shield-stage Hawaiian <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> occurs through dikes that can evolve into long-lived pipe-like pathways. The ratio of eruptive to noneruptive dikes is large in Hawai‘i, compared to other basaltic <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> (in Iceland, for example), because Hawaiian dikes tend to be intruded with high driving pressures. Passive dike intrusions also occur, motivated at K?lauea by rift opening in response to seaward slip of the <span class="hlt">volcano’s</span> south flank.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001Natur.412..727F"><span id="translatedtitle">Direct observation of a <span class="hlt">submarine</span> volcanic eruption from a sea-floor instrument caught in a lava flow</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fox, Christopher G.; Chadwick, William W.; Embley, Robert W.</p> <p>2001-08-01</p> <p>Our understanding of <span class="hlt">submarine</span> volcanic eruptions has improved substantially in the past decade owing to the recent ability to remotely detect such events and to then respond rapidly with synoptic surveys and sampling at the eruption site. But these data are necessarily limited to observations after the event. In contrast, the 1998 eruption of Axial <span class="hlt">volcano</span> on the Juan de Fuca ridge was monitored by in situ sea-floor instruments. One of these instruments, which measured bottom pressure as a proxy for vertical deformation of the sea floor, was overrun and entrapped by the 1998 lava flow. The instrument survived-being insulated from the molten lava by the solidified crust-and was later recovered. The data serendipitously recorded by this instrument reveal the duration, character and effusion rate of a sheet flow eruption on a mid-ocean ridge, and document over three metres of lava-flow inflation and subsequent drain-back. After the brief two-hour eruption, the instrument also measured gradual subsidence of 1.4metres over the next several days, reflecting deflation of the entire <span class="hlt">volcano</span> summit as magma moved into the adjacent rift zone. These findings are consistent with our understanding of <span class="hlt">submarine</span> lava effusion, as previously inferred from seafloor observations, terrestrial analogues, and laboratory simulations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=USGSPUBS&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70036606"><span id="translatedtitle">Deep long-period earthquakes beneath Washington and Oregon <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Nichols, M.L.; Malone, S.D.; Moran, S.C.; Thelen, W.A.; Vidale, J.E.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Deep long-period (DLP) earthquakes are an enigmatic type of seismicity occurring near or beneath <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>. They are commonly associated with the presence of magma, and found in some cases to correlate with eruptive activity. To more thoroughly understand and characterize DLP occurrence near <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> in Washington and Oregon, we systematically searched the Pacific Northwest Seismic Network (PNSN) triggered earthquake catalog for DLPs occurring between 1980 (when PNSN began collecting digital data) and October 2009. Through our analysis we identified 60 DLPs beneath six Cascade volcanic centers. No DLPs were associated with volcanic activity, including the 1980-1986 and 2004-2008 eruptions at Mount St. Helens. More than half of the events occurred near Mount Baker, where the background flux of magmatic gases is greatest among Washington and Oregon <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>. The six <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> with DLPs (counts in parentheses) are Mount Baker (31), Glacier Peak (9), Mount Rainier (9), Mount St. Helens (9), Three Sisters (1), and Crater Lake (1). No DLPs were identified beneath Mount Adams, Mount Hood, Mount Jefferson, or Newberry <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, although (except at Hood) that may be due in part to poorer network coverage. In cases where the DLPs do not occur directly beneath the volcanic edifice, the <span class="hlt">locations</span> coincide with large structural faults that extend into the deep crust. Our observations suggest the occurrence of DLPs in these areas could represent fluid and/or magma transport along pre-existing tectonic structures in the middle crust. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JVGR..200..116N"><span id="translatedtitle">Deep long-period earthquakes beneath Washington and Oregon <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nichols, M. L.; Malone, S. D.; Moran, S. C.; Thelen, W. A.; Vidale, J. E.</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>Deep long-period (DLP) earthquakes are an enigmatic type of seismicity occurring near or beneath <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>. They are commonly associated with the presence of magma, and found in some cases to correlate with eruptive activity. To more thoroughly understand and characterize DLP occurrence near <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> in Washington and Oregon, we systematically searched the Pacific Northwest Seismic Network (PNSN) triggered earthquake catalog for DLPs occurring between 1980 (when PNSN began collecting digital data) and October 2009. Through our analysis we identified 60 DLPs beneath six Cascade volcanic centers. No DLPs were associated with volcanic activity, including the 1980-1986 and 2004-2008 eruptions at Mount St. Helens. More than half of the events occurred near Mount Baker, where the background flux of magmatic gases is greatest among Washington and Oregon <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>. The six <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> with DLPs (counts in parentheses) are Mount Baker (31), Glacier Peak (9), Mount Rainier (9), Mount St. Helens (9), Three Sisters (1), and Crater Lake (1). No DLPs were identified beneath Mount Adams, Mount Hood, Mount Jefferson, or Newberry <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, although (except at Hood) that may be due in part to poorer network coverage. In cases where the DLPs do not occur directly beneath the volcanic edifice, the <span class="hlt">locations</span> coincide with large structural faults that extend into the deep crust. Our observations suggest the occurrence of DLPs in these areas could represent fluid and/or magma transport along pre-existing tectonic structures in the middle crust.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=USGSPUBS&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr20061264"><span id="translatedtitle">Catalog of Earthquake Hypocenters at Alaskan <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span>: January 1 through December 31, 2005</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Dixon, James P.; Stihler, Scott D.; Power, John A.; Tytgat, Guy; Estes, Steve; McNutt, Stephen R.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Summary: The Alaska <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of the U.S. Geological Survey, the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks, and the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, has maintained seismic monitoring networks at historically active <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> in Alaska since 1988 (Figure 1). The primary objectives of the seismic program are the real-time seismic monitoring of active, potentially hazardous, Alaskan <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> and the investigation of seismic processes associated with active volcanism. This catalog presents calculated earthquake hypocenters and seismic phase arrival data, and details changes in the seismic monitoring program for the period January 1 through December 31, 2005. The AVO seismograph network was used to monitor the seismic activity at thirty-two <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> within Alaska in 2005 (Figure 1). The network was augmented by two new subnetworks to monitor the Semisopochnoi Island <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> and Little Sitkin <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>. Seismicity at these <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> was still being studied at the end of 2005 and has not yet been added to the list of permanently monitored <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> in the AVO weekly update. Following an extended period of monitoring to determine the background seismicity at the Mount Peulik, Ukinrek Maars, and Korovin <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, formal monitoring of these <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> began in 2005. AVO <span class="hlt">located</span> 9,012 earthquakes in 2005. Monitoring highlights in 2005 include: (1) seismicity at Mount Spurr remaining above background, starting in February 2004, through the end of the year and into 2006; (2) an increase in seismicity at Augustine <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> starting in May 2005, and continuing through the end of the year into 2006; (3) volcanic tremor and seismicity related to low-level strombolian activity at Mount Veniaminof in January to March and September; and (4) a seismic swarm at Tanaga <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> in October and November. This catalog includes: (1) descriptions and <span class="hlt">locations</span> of seismic instrumentation deployed in the field in 2005; (2) a description of earthquake detection, recording, analysis, and data archival systems; (3) a description of seismic velocity models used for earthquake <span class="hlt">locations</span>; (4) a summary of earthquakes <span class="hlt">located</span> in 2005; and (5) an accompanying UNIX tar-file with a summary of earthquake origin times, hypocenters, magnitudes, phase arrival times, and <span class="hlt">location</span> quality statistics; daily station usage statistics; and all HYPOELLIPSE files used to determine the earthquake <span class="hlt">locations</span> in 2005.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JGRB..112.8205B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Volcano</span> flank instability in the Lesser Antilles Arc: Diversity of scale, processes, and temporal recurrence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Boudon, Georges; Le Friant, Anne; Komorowski, Jean-Christophe; Deplus, Christine; Semet, Michel P.</p> <p>2007-08-01</p> <p>The 1997 Boxing Day collapse, a remarkable feature of the ongoing eruption of Soufrière Hills on Montserrat, has prompted new interest in the study of <span class="hlt">volcano</span> stability in the Lesser Antilles. Building on a few cases documented in the literature, we have now identified at least 47 flank collapse events on <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> of the Caribbean arc where this type of behavior is characteristic and repetitive. About 15 events occurred on active <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> within the last 12,000 years. In the northern part of the arc, flank collapses are repetitive, do not exceed 1 km3 in volume, occur in all directions, and are promoted by intense hydrothermal alteration and well-developed fracturing of the summit part of the edifices. In contrast, infrequent but large sector collapses, with volumes up to tens of km3, are typical of the southern <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>. They are always directed to the west as a result of the high overall slopes of the islands toward the deep back-arc Grenada Basin. Because Caribbean islands are small, a large part of the resulting debris avalanches have flowed into the sea thus contributing voluminous and sudden inputs of volcaniclastic sediments to the Grenada Basin. Deposits from such <span class="hlt">submarine</span> flows have been identified during the recent AGUADOMAR and CARAVAL oceanographic cruises and traced to their source structures on land. Edifice collapses have a major influence on subsequent volcanic activity but also are of high concern because of their tsunamigenic potential.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/3814886"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Thermal Springs on the Galapagos Rift</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>John B. Corliss; Jack Dymond; Louis I. Gordon; John M. Edmond; Richard P. von Herzen; Robert D. Ballard; Kenneth Green; David Williams; Arnold Bainbridge; Kathy Crane; Tjeerd H. van Andel</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">submarine</span> hydrothermal activity on and near the Galapagos Rift has been explored with the aid of the deep submersible Alvin. Analyses of water samples from hydrothermal vents reveal that hydrothermal activity provides significant or dominant sources and sinks for several components of seawater; studies of conductive and convective heat transfer suggest that two-thirds of the heat lost from new</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-STC&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6887196"><span id="translatedtitle">Exploration models for <span class="hlt">submarine</span> slope sandstones</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Slatt, R.M.</p> <p>1986-09-01</p> <p>Recent published studies have demonstrated a far greater potential than previously recognized for <span class="hlt">submarine</span> slope sandstones to contain significant oil and gas reserves in the Gulf Coast and elsewhere. Comparison of modern slopes with outcrop and subsurface analogs from several areas provided the framework for developing the following <span class="hlt">submarine</span> slope sandstone exploration models: <span class="hlt">submarine</span> canyon fill, slope gully/channel fill, slope spillover sand sheets, and intraslope basin fill. <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> canyon fill is mainly shale, but sandstone beds that form stratigraphic traps may be present. Canyon shale fill juxtaposed against older sandstones can also form stratigraphic traps. Gully/channel fills are sandstones deposited on shallow-gradient slopes or ramps. The proximity of these sandstones to slope shales provides opportunities for stratigraphic traps to develop. Spillover sand sheets are resedimented from a shelf to a shallow-gradient slope and are associated with gully/channel fills. Intraslope basin fill is mainly shale, but elongate, sheetlike, or fan-shaped turbidite sandstones can provide stratigraphic traps. In all of these deposits, slope shales may be sufficiently enriched in organic carbon to be potential hydrocarbon source rocks; the potential for organic-rich shales to accumulate is highest in intraslope basin fill.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/jb/v077/i029/JB077i029p05812/JB077i029p05812.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Morphology of Quench Crystals in <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Basalts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Wilfred B. Bryan</p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Submarine</span> basalts from the mid-Atlantic ridge, Red Sea rift, and Joides site 105 in the western Atlantic have been studied in ultra thin, doubly polished thin sections. Most of the samples are pillow lava fragments containing a variety of skeletal crystal growth forms that can be related to three major textural zones in the pillows. Olivine appears as diffuse, lattice-like</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/37395992"><span id="translatedtitle">Analogues of stealth: <span class="hlt">Submarines</span> and aircraft</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Robert P. Haffa JR; James H. Patton JR</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>“Analogues of Stealth “ questions whether stealth technologies (measures designed to reduce the observable signature of a weapons platform) now being applied to aircraft will prove as successful as low?observable technologies and tactics employed by the <span class="hlt">submarine</span>. To address that question, the article briefly explores the history of antisubmarine warfare, notes the failures of various technologies designed to counter the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://iusti.polytech.univ-mrs.fr/~pouliquen/publiperso/pof_05cassar.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Submarine</span> granular flows down inclined planes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>C. Cassar; M. Nicolas; O. Pouliquen</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Submarine</span> flows of granular material down a rough inclined plane are experimentally investigated. We focus on the dense flow regime when the whole sediment layer is flowing down the slope and when no deposition nor entrainment occurs. In this regime, steady uniform flows are observed for which we systematically measure the depth-averaged velocity, the thickness, and the excess pore pressure</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/4873015"><span id="translatedtitle">Arctic Ocean warming: <span class="hlt">submarine</span> and acoustic measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>P. Mikhalevsky; A. Gavrilov; M. S. Moustafa; B. Sperry</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>In 1993 the USS Pargo made the first <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Science Expedition (SCICEX) to the Arctic Ocean. In April 1994 the first Transarctic Acoustic Propagation (TAP) experiment designed to measure Arctic Ocean temperature was conducted. SCICEX cruises to the Arctic followed annually from 1995 to 2000. Expendable CTDs and on some cruises standard CTDs were deployed along or close to the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48054514"><span id="translatedtitle">Gold plating in <span class="hlt">submarine</span> telephone cable repeaters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>D. S. Girling</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>Thousands of miles of <span class="hlt">submarine</span> telephone cables form an important and growing part of the world pattern of communications.\\u000a Repeaters every few miles along these cables maintain signal strengths, and many of the components in these repeaters are\\u000a gold plated to ensure freedom from deterioration or failure in service.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://www.cs.bham.ac.uk/~zas/CakeTalk-AUVExplorationJan09.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">AI Planning for Robotic <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Exploration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Yao, Xin</p> <p></p> <p>AI Planning for Robotic <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Exploration Zeyn Saigol School of Computer Science University of Birmingham PG Seminar Series 22nd January 2009 PG Seminar, 22 Jan 2009 Planning for AUV ExplorationPlanning for AUV Exploration #12;Planning for AUV ExplorationPG Seminar, 22 Jan 2009 Planning for AUV Exploration</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49960604"><span id="translatedtitle">Monitoring corrosion in <span class="hlt">submarine</span> sonar domes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>C. J. Sandwith; R. L. Ruedisueli; K. G. Booth; J. P. Papageorge; B. A. Eng</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The Applied Physics Laboratory at the University of Washington (APL-UW) and the Naval Sea Systems Command (NAVSEA) are involved in a long-term study to reduce corrosion in <span class="hlt">submarine</span> sonar domes. Besides periodically inspecting the structures in tile domes and recommending improvements in their design, materials, and maintenance, APLUW has recently developed an instrument package to monitor selected parameters of the</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASA-TRS&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930004270&hterms=ophiolite&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dophiolite"><span id="translatedtitle">Chemical environments of <span class="hlt">submarine</span> hydrothermal systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Shock, Everett L.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Perhaps because black-smoker chimneys make tremendous subjects for magazine covers, the proposal that <span class="hlt">submarine</span> hydrothermal systems were involved in the origin of life has caused many investigators to focus on the eye-catching hydrothermal vents. In much the same way that tourists rush to watch the spectacular eruptions of Old Faithful geyser with little regard for the hydrology of the Yellowstone basin, attention is focused on the spectacular, high-temperature hydrothermal vents to the near exclusion of the enormous underlying hydrothermal systems. Nevertheless, the magnitude and complexity of geologic structures, heat flow, and hydrologic parameters which characterize the geyser basins at Yellowstone also characterize <span class="hlt">submarine</span> hydrothermal systems. However, in the <span class="hlt">submarine</span> systems the scale can be considerably more vast. Like Old Faithful, <span class="hlt">submarine</span> hydrothermal vents have a spectacular quality, but they are only one fascinating aspect of enormous geologic systems operating at seafloor spreading centers throughout all of the ocean basins. A critical study of the possible role of hydrothermal processes in the origin of life should include the full spectrum of probable environments. The goals of this chapter are to synthesize diverse information about the inorganic geochemistry of <span class="hlt">submarine</span> hydrothermal systems, assemble a description of the fundamental physical and chemical attributes of these systems, and consider the implications of high-temperature, fluid-driven processes for organic synthesis. Information about <span class="hlt">submarine</span> hydrothermal systems comes from many directions. Measurements made directly on venting fluids provide useful, but remarkably limited, clues about processes operating at depth. The oceanic crust has been drilled to approximately 2.0 km depth providing many other pieces of information, but drilling technology has not allowed the bore holes and core samples to reach the maximum depths to which aqueous fluids circulate in oceanic crust. Such determinations rely on studies of pieces of deep oceanic crust uplifted by tectonic forces such as along the Southwest Indian Ridge, or more complete sections of oceanic crust called ophiolite sequences which are presently exposed on continents owing to tectonic emplacement. Much of what is thought to happen in <span class="hlt">submarine</span> hydrothermal systems is inferred from studies of ophiolite sequences, and especially from the better-exposed ophiolites in Oman, Cyprus and North America. The focus of much that follows is on a few general features: pressure, temperature, oxidation states, fluid composition and mineral alteration, because these features will control whether organic synthesis can occur in hydrothermal systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JVGR..258..163R"><span id="translatedtitle">He, N and C isotopes and fluxes in Aira caldera: Comparative study of hydrothermal activity in Sakurajima <span class="hlt">volcano</span> and Wakamiko crater, Kyushu, Japan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Roulleau, Emilie; Sano, Yuji; Takahata, Naoto; Kawagucci, Shinsuke; Takahashi, Hirochi</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>We investigate the degassing activity of an active <span class="hlt">submarine</span> crater, Wakamiko, and an active sub-aerial <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, Sakurajima, both <span class="hlt">located</span> in Aira caldera, southern Kyushu, Japan. We provide 3He/4He, ?13C-CO2 and ?15N data for 15 hot springs, wells and bubbling gas from Sakurajima <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, along with 3He/4He from seawater at four different sites for both Kagoshima bay and Wakamiko crater. We find a common magmatic 3He/4He ratio for Sakurajima and Wakamiko, 7.2 ± 0.8 Ra, which is consistent with 1) a mixing between air-saturated water (ASW) and MORB-type He, and 2) a common magmatic source <span class="hlt">located</span> in the center of Aira caldera. Corrected 3He/4He, ?13C-CO2 and CH4/3He data for Sakurajima are correlated with the distance from the volcanic vent (Showa crater), which we attribute to crustal contamination and biogenic reaction. The low ?13C-CO2 values (- 10.1 ± 0.2‰ to - 13.7 ± 0.3‰) observed at Sakurajima may result from the addition of carbon from organic matter from basement rocks in magmatic source. After correction for air-derived nitrogen, we find ?15Nc values range between - 1.7‰ and + 4.3‰ which indicates that magmatic N is dominated by a sedimentary-derived component (up to 65.8%). We calculate Wakamiko fluxes of 4He (975 ± 228 mol/y), 3He (0.011 ± 0.003 mol/y), CO2 (184 ± 43 t/d), and heat (195 ± 22 MW). Our helium and heat fluxes are the first in situ fluxes ever reported for Wakamiko crater. All these Wakamiko fluxes are at least one order of magnitude lower than those observed for Sakurajima (CO2: 1800 t/d; 3He: 0.71 mol/y; heat: 2100 MW): degassing at Sakurajima <span class="hlt">volcano</span> is much stronger than that at Wakamiko crater. The variation of Sakurajima CO2 flux with time, source (Minamidake or Showa crater) and eruptive activity, appears not to significantly affect the CO2 flux at Wakamiko crater, which is much more stable (132-307 t/d) during the last 30 years. This indicates that there is no link between Sakurajima and Wakamiko degassing activity, despite having the same magmatic source.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996EOSTr..77..113S"><span id="translatedtitle">Monitoring Active <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Swanson, Don</p> <p></p> <p>Monitoring <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> is a surprisingly controversial enterprise. Some volcanologists argue that monitoring promises too much and delivers too little for risk mitigation. They trust only strict land-use measures (and accompanying high insurance premiums in risky zones) and urge that funds be used for public education and awareness rather than for instrumental monitoring. Others claim that monitoring is more akin to Brownian motion than to science: lots of action but little net progress. Still other volcanologists acknowledge the potential value of monitoring for prediction and warning but despair at the difficulty of it all. And, finally, some shy from surveillance, fearing the legal consequences of a failed monitoring effort during these litigious times. They wonder, “Will I be sued if an eruption is not foreseen or if an instrument fails at a critical time?”</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.V33C2403P"><span id="translatedtitle">San Miguel Volcanic Seismic and Structure in Central America: Insight into the Physical Processes of <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Patlan, E.; Velasco, A.; Konter, J. G.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>The San Miguel <span class="hlt">volcano</span> lies near the city of San Miguel, El Salvador (13.43N and - 88.26W). San Miguel <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, an active stratovolcano, presents a significant natural hazard for the city of San Miguel. In general, the internal state and activity of <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> remains an important component to understanding volcanic hazard. The main technology for addressing volcanic hazards and processes is through the analysis of data collected from the deployment of seismic sensors that record ground motion. Six UTEP seismic stations were deployed around San Miguel <span class="hlt">volcano</span> from 2007-2008 to define the magma chamber and assess the seismic and volcanic hazard. We utilize these data to develop images of the earth structure beneath the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, studying the volcanic processes by identifying different sources, and investigating the role of earthquakes and faults in controlling the volcanic processes. We initially <span class="hlt">locate</span> events using automated routines and focus on analyzing local events. We then relocate each seismic event by hand-picking P-wave arrivals, and later refine these picks using waveform cross correlation. Using a double difference earthquake <span class="hlt">location</span> algorithm (HypoDD), we identify a set of earthquakes that vertically align beneath the edifice of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, suggesting that we have identified a magma conduit feeding the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. We also apply a double-difference earthquake tomography approach (tomoDD) to investigate the <span class="hlt">volcano’s</span> plumbing system. Our preliminary results show the extent of the magma chamber that also aligns with some horizontal seismicity. Overall, this <span class="hlt">volcano</span> is very active and presents a significant hazard to the region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=USGSPUBS&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ds326"><span id="translatedtitle">Catalog of Earthquake Hypocenters at Alaskan <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span>: January 1 through December 31, 2006</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Dixon, James P.; Stihler, Scott D.; Power, John A.; Searcy, Cheryl</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Between January 1 and December 31, 2006, AVO <span class="hlt">located</span> 8,666 earthquakes of which 7,783 occurred on or near the 33 <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> monitored within Alaska. Monitoring highlights in 2006 include: an eruption of Augustine <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, a volcanic-tectonic earthquake swarm at Mount Martin, elevated seismicity and volcanic unrest at Fourpeaked Mountain, and elevated seismicity and low-level tremor at Mount Veniaminof and Korovin <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>. A new seismic subnetwork was installed on Fourpeaked Mountain. This catalog includes: (1) descriptions and <span class="hlt">locations</span> of seismic instrumentation deployed in the field during 2006, (2) a description of earthquake detection, recording, analysis, and data archival systems, (3) a description of seismic velocity models used for earthquake <span class="hlt">locations</span>, (4) a summary of earthquakes <span class="hlt">located</span> in 2006, and (5) an accompanying UNIX tar-file with a summary of earthquake origin times, hypocenters, magnitudes, phase arrival times, <span class="hlt">location</span> quality statistics, daily station usage statistics, and all files used to determine the earthquake <span class="hlt">locations</span> in 2006.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUSM.V21B..19L"><span id="translatedtitle">Interactions Between Separated <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Linde, A. T.; Sacks, I. S.; Kamigaichi, O.</p> <p>2002-05-01</p> <p>The Japan Meteorological Agency installed and operates a network of borehole strainmeters in south-east Honshu. One of these instruments is on Izu-Oshima, a volcanic island at the northern end of the Izu-Bonin arc. That strainmeter recorded large strain changes associated with the 1986 eruption of Miharayama on the island. Miyake-jima, about 70 km south of Izu-Oshima, erupted in 1983. No deformation monitoring was available on Miyake-jima but several changes occurred in the strain record at Izu-Oshima. There was a clear change in the long-term strain rate 2 days before the Miyake eruption. Frequent short period events recorded by the strainmeter showed a marked change in their character. The Izu-Oshima strainmeter showed that, over the period from 1980 to the 1986 eruption, the amplitude of the solid earth tides increased by almost a factor of two. At the time of the Miyake eruption, the rate of increase of the tidal amplitude also changed. While all of these changes were observed on a single instrument, they are very different types of change. From a number of independent checks, we can be sure that the strainmeter did not experience any change in performance at that time. Thus it recorded a change in deformation behavior in three very different frequency bands: over very long term, at tidal periods ( ~ day) and at very short periods (minutes). It appears that the distant eruption in 1984 had an effect on the magmatic system under Izu-Oshima. More recent tomographic and seismic attenuation work in the Tohoku (northern Honshu) area has show the existence of a low velocity, high attenuation horizontally elongated structure under the volcanic front. If such a structure exists in the similar tectonic setting for these <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, it could provide a mechanism for communication between the <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40845913"><span id="translatedtitle">Neon isotopes in <span class="hlt">submarine</span> basalts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Philippe Sarda; Thomas Staudacher; Claude J. Allègre</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Very large neon isotopic anomalies have been accurately measured in mid-ocean ridge basalt glassy samples from diverse <span class="hlt">locations</span> worldwide. Values for 20Ne\\/22Ne range up to ~ 13 and 21Ne\\/22Ne values range up to ~ 0.07 (present atmospheric values are 20Ne\\/22Ne = 9.8 and 21Ne\\/22Ne = 0.029). The data are highly correlated in the 20Ne\\/22Ne-21Ne\\/22Ne diagram, independent of sample <span class="hlt">location</span>. Loihi</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.9610G"><span id="translatedtitle">Imaging magma plumbing beneath Askja <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, Iceland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Greenfield, Tim; White, Robert S.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> during repose periods are not commonly monitored by dense instrumentation networks and so activity during periods of unrest is difficult to put in context. We have operated a dense seismic network of 3-component, broadband instruments around Askja, a large central <span class="hlt">volcano</span> in the Northern Volcanic Zone, Iceland, since 2006. Askja last erupted in 1961, with a relatively small basaltic lava flow. Since 1975 the central caldera has been subsiding and there has been no indication of volcanic activity. Despite this, Askja has been one of the more seismically active <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> in Iceland. The majority of these events are due to an extensive geothermal area within the caldera and tectonically induced earthquakes to the northeast which are not related to the magma plumbing system. More intriguing are the less numerous deeper earthquakes at 12-24km depth, situated in three distinct areas within the volcanic system. These earthquakes often show a frequency content which is lower than the shallower activity, but they still show strong P and S wave arrivals indicative of brittle failure, despite their <span class="hlt">location</span> being well below the brittle-ductile boundary, which, in Askja is ~7km bsl. These earthquakes indicate the presence of melt moving or degassing at depth while the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> is not inflating, as only high strain rates or increased pore fluid pressures would cause brittle fracture in what is normally an aseismic region in the ductile zone. The lower frequency content must be the result of a slower source time function as earthquakes which are both high frequency and low frequency come from the same cluster, thereby discounting a highly attenuating lower crust. To image the plumbing system beneath Askja, local and regional earthquakes have been used as sources to solve for the velocity structure beneath the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. Travel-time tables were created using a finite difference technique and the residuals were used to solve simultaneously for both the earthquake <span class="hlt">locations</span> and velocity structure. The 2014-15 Bárðarbunga dyke intrusion has provided a 45 km long, distributed source of large earthquakes which are well <span class="hlt">located</span> and provide accurate arrival time picks. Together with long-term background seismicity these provide excellent illumination of the Askja <span class="hlt">volcano</span> from all directions. We find a pronounced low-velocity anomaly beneath the caldera at a depth of ~7 km. The anomaly is ~10% slower than the initial best fitting 1D model and has a Vp/Vs ratio higher than the surrounding crust, suggesting the presence of increased temperature or partial melt. The body is unlikely to be entirely melt as S-waves are still detected at stations directly above the anomaly. This low-velocity body is slightly deeper than the depth range suggested by InSAR and GPS studies of a deflating source beneath Askja. Beneath the main low-velocity zone a region of reduced velocities extends into the lower crust and is coincident with deep seismicity. This is suggestive of a high temperature channel into the lower crust which could be a pathway for melt rising from the mantle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.3999S"><span id="translatedtitle">Long-term flow monitoring of <span class="hlt">submarine</span> gas emanations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Spickenbom, K.; Faber, E.; Poggenburg, J.; Seeger, C.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>One of the Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) strategies currently under study is the sequestration of CO2 in sub-seabed geological formations. Even after a thorough review of the geological setting, there is the possibility of leaks from the reservoirs. As part of the EU-financed project CO2ReMoVe (Research, Monitoring, Verification), which aims to develop innovative research and technologies for monitoring and verification of carbon dioxide geological storage, we are working on the development of <span class="hlt">submarine</span> long-term gas flow monitoring systems. Technically, however, these systems are not limited to CO2 but can be used for monitoring of any free gas emission (bubbles) on the seafloor. The basic design of the gas flow sensor system was derived from former prototypes developed for monitoring CO2 and CH4 on mud <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> in Azerbaijan. This design was composed of a raft floating on the surface above the gas vent to collect the bubbles. Sensors for CO2 flux and concentration and electronics for data storage and transmission were mounted on the raft, together with battery-buffered solar panels for power supply. The system was modified for installation in open sea by using a buoy instead of a raft and a funnel on the seafloor to collect the gas, which is then guided above water level through a flexible tube. Besides some technical problems (condensed water in the tube, movement of the buoys due to waves leading to biased measurement of flow rates), this setup provides a cost-effective solution for shallow waters. However, a buoy interferes with ship traffic, and it is also difficult to adapt this design to greater water depths. These requirements can best be complied by a completely submersed system. To allow unattended long-term monitoring in a <span class="hlt">submarine</span> environment, such a system has to be extremely durable. Therefore, we focussed on developing a mechanically and electrically as simple setup as possible, which has the additional advantage of low cost. The system consists of gas collector, sensor head and pressure housing for electronics and power supply. The collector is a plastic funnel, enclosed in a stainless-steel frame to add weight and stability. The whole unit is fixed to the sediment by nails or sediment screws. The sensor head is equipped with an "inverted tipping-bucket" sensor, which basically works like a turned upside-down rain gauge. It fills with the collected gas until full, then empties completely and starts again, which allows the calculation of the flow rate by container volume and frequency of the cycle. This sensor type is very robust due to a design nearly without moving parts and suitable for very low to medium flow rates. For higher flow rates different sensor heads using turbine wheels or pressure differences can be used. The pressure housing for this prototype is made of aluminium and contains a Hobo Pendant data logger with integrated battery supply. Since this setup is inexpensive, it can be deployed in numbers to cover larger areas. By addition of multi-channel data loggers, data transmission by acoustic modem or cable, relay stations on the seafloor or buoys etc. the infrastructure can be adapted to the environmental setting and financial budget. Prototype tests under laboratory conditions as well as field tests on natural <span class="hlt">submarine</span> gas vents as an analogue to leaking storage sites have demonstrated the capabilities and robustness of the systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.V33D2906Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Infrasound array observation at Sakurajima <span class="hlt">volcano</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yokoo, A.; Suzuki, Y. J.; Iguchi, M.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Showa crater at the southeastern flank of the Sakurajima <span class="hlt">volcano</span> has erupted since 2006, accompanying intermittent Vulcanian eruptions with small scale ash emissions. We conducted an array observation in the last half of 2011 in order to <span class="hlt">locate</span> infrasound source generated by the eruptions. The array <span class="hlt">located</span> 3.5 km apart from the crater was composed of 5 microphones (1kHz sampling) aligned in the radial direction from the crater with 100-m-intervals, and additional 4 microphones (200Hz sampling) in tangential direction to the first line in December 2011. Two peaks, around 2Hz and 0.5Hz, in power spectrum of the infrasound were identified; the former peak would be related to the eigen frequency of the vent of Showa crater, but the latter would be related to ejection of eruption clouds. They should be checked by experimental studies. The first 10 s infrasound signal was made by explosion directly and the following small amplitude infrasound tremors for about 2 min were mostly composed of diffraction and reflection waves from the topography around the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, mainly the wall of the Aira Caldera. It shows propagation direction of infrasound tremor after the explosion signals should be carefully examined. Clear change in the height of the infrasound source was not identified while volcanic cloud grew up. Strong eddies of the growing volcanic cloud would not be main sources of such weak infrasound signals, thus, infrasound waves are emitted mainly from (or through) the vent itself.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NSDL&redirectUrl=http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/Outreach/framework.html"><span id="translatedtitle">Cascades <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observatory: Educational Outreach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This portal provides access to educational materials produced by the Cascades <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observatory. The items include news and current events, information on current activity of the Cascades <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, and emergency information in the event of an eruption. There are also frequently-asked-questions features, a glossary, and links to reading materials such as fact sheets and reports of the United States Geological Survey (USGS). For educators and students, there are activities, special features, posters, videos, and slide shows.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18751588"><span id="translatedtitle">Mass casualty in an isolated environment: medical response to a <span class="hlt">submarine</span> collision.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jankosky, Christopher John</p> <p>2008-08-01</p> <p>On January 8, 2005, the U.S.S. SAN FRANCISCO (SSN 711), a nuclear-powered <span class="hlt">submarine</span>, collided with a seamount in a remote Pacific Ocean <span class="hlt">location</span>. The high-speed impact resulted in injuries to 90% of the crew. Subsequent emergency medical response is described as well as the 3-month physical and psychological morbidity. Recommendations for medical training, equipment, and policy for workers in isolated environments are discussed. PMID:18751588</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1215724T"><span id="translatedtitle">Glob<span class="hlt">Volcano</span> pre-operational services for global monitoring active <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tampellini, Lucia; Ratti, Raffaella; Borgström, Sven; Seifert, Frank Martin; Peltier, Aline; Kaminski, Edouard; Bianchi, Marco; Branson, Wendy; Ferrucci, Fabrizio; Hirn, Barbara; van der Voet, Paul; van Geffen, J.</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>The Glob<span class="hlt">Volcano</span> project (2007-2010) is part of the Data User Element programme of the European Space Agency (ESA). The project aims at demonstrating Earth Observation (EO) based integrated services to support the <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observatories and other mandate users (e.g. Civil Protection) in their monitoring activities. The information services are assessed in close cooperation with the user organizations for different types of <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, from various geographical areas in various climatic zones. In a first phase, a complete information system has been designed, implemented and validated, involving a limited number of test areas and respective user organizations. In the currently on-going second phase, Glob<span class="hlt">Volcano</span> is delivering pre-operational services over 15 volcanic sites <span class="hlt">located</span> in three continents and as many user organizations are involved and cooperating with the project team. The set of Glob<span class="hlt">Volcano</span> offered EO based information products is composed as follows: Deformation Mapping DInSAR (Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry) has been used to study a wide range of surface displacements related to different phenomena (e.g. seismic faults, <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, landslides) at a spatial resolution of less than 100 m and cm-level precision. Permanent Scatterers SAR Interferometry method (PSInSARTM) has been introduced by Politecnico of Milano as an advanced InSAR technique capable of measuring millimetre scale displacements of individual radar targets on the ground by using multi-temporal data-sets, estimating and removing the atmospheric components. Other techniques (e.g. CTM) have followed similar strategies and have shown promising results in different scenarios. Different processing approaches have been adopted, according to data availability, characteristic of the area and dynamic characteristics of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. Conventional DInSAR: Colima (Mexico), Nyiragongo (Congo), Pico (Azores), Areanal (Costa Rica) PSInSARTM: Piton de la Fournaise (La Reunion Island), Stromboli and <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> (Italy), Hilo (Hawai), Mt. St. Helens (United States), CTM (Coherent Target Monitoring): Cumbre Vieja (La Palma) To generate products either Envisat ASAR, Radarsat 1or ALOS PALSAR data have been used. Surface Thermal Anomalies Volcanic hot-spots detection, radiant flux and effusion rate (where applicable) calculation of high temperature surface thermal anomalies such as active lava flow, strombolian activity, lava dome, pyroclastic flow and lava lake can be performed through MODIS (Terra / Aqua) MIR and TIR channels, or ASTER (Terra), HRVIR/HRGT (SPOT4/5) and Landsat family SWIR channels analysis. ASTER and Landsat TIR channels allow relative radiant flux calculation of low temperature anomalies such as lava and pyroclastic flow cooling, crater lake and low temperature fumarolic fields. MODIS, ASTER and SPOT data are processed to detect and measure the following volcanic surface phenomena: Effusive activity Piton de la Fournaise (Reunion Island); Mt Etna (Italy). Lava dome growths, collapses and related pyroclastic flows Soufrière Hills (Montserrat); Arenal - (Costa Rica). Permanent crater lake and ephemeral lava lake Karthala (Comores Islands). Strombolian activity Stromboli (Italy). Low temperature fumarolic fields Nisyros (Greece), Vulcano (Italy), Mauna Loa (Hawaii). Volcanic Emission The Volcanic Emission Service is provided to the users by a link to GSE-PROMOTE - Support to Aviation Control Service (SACS). The aim of the service is to deliver in near-real-time data derived from satellite measurements regarding SO2 emissions (SO2 vertical column density - Dobson Unit [DU]) possibly related to volcanic eruptions and to track the ash injected into the atmosphere during a volcanic eruption. SO2 measurements are derived from different satellite instruments, such as SCIAMACHY, OMI and GOME-2. The tracking of volcanic ash is accomplished by using SEVIRI-MSG data and, in particular, the following channels VIS 0.6 and IR 3.9, and along with IR8.7, IR 10.8 and IR 12.0. The Glob<span class="hlt">Volcano</span> information system and its current experimentation represent a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMNS31A1667J"><span id="translatedtitle">Total Magnetic Field Signatures over <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> HVDC Power Cables</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Johnson, R. M.; Tchernychev, M.; Johnston, J. M.; Tryggestad, J.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Mikhail Tchernychev, Geometrics, Inc. Ross Johnson, Geometrics, Inc. Jeff Johnston, Geometrics, Inc. High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) technology is widely used to transmit electrical power over considerable distances using <span class="hlt">submarine</span> cables. The most commonly known examples are the HVDC cable between Italy and Greece (160 km), Victoria-Tasmania (300 km), New Jersey - Long Island (82 km) and the Transbay cable (Pittsburg, California - San-Francisco). These cables are inspected periodically and their <span class="hlt">location</span> and burial depth verified. This inspection applies to live and idle cables; in particular a survey company could be required to <span class="hlt">locate</span> pieces of a dead cable for subsequent removal from the sea floor. Most HVDC cables produce a constant magnetic field; therefore one of the possible survey tools would be Marine Total Field Magnetometer. We present mathematical expressions of the expected magnetic fields and compare them with fields observed during actual surveys. We also compare these anomalies fields with magnetic fields produced by other long objects, such as <span class="hlt">submarine</span> pipelines The data processing techniques are discussed. There include the use of Analytic Signal and direct modeling of Total Magnetic Field. The Analytic Signal analysis can be adapted using ground truth where available, but the total field allows better discrimination of the cable parameters, in particular to distinguish between live and idle cable. Use of a Transverse Gradiometer (TVG) allows for easy discrimination between cable and pipe line objects. Considerable magnetic gradient is present in the case of a pipeline whereas there is less gradient for the DC power cable. Thus the TVG is used to validate assumptions made during the data interpretation process. Data obtained during the TVG surveys suggest that the magnetic field of a live HVDC cable is described by an expression for two infinite long wires carrying current in opposite directions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-STC&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5755150"><span id="translatedtitle">Attributes and origins of ancient <span class="hlt">submarine</span> slides and filled embayments: Examples from the Gulf Coast basin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Morton, R.A. (Univ. of Texas, Austin (United States))</p> <p>1993-06-01</p> <p>Large <span class="hlt">submarine</span> slides and associated shelf margin embayments represent an intermediate member in the continuum of unstable shelf margin features. On seismic profiles, they may resemble <span class="hlt">submarine</span> canyons, but are different in their size, morphology, origin, and hydrocarbon exploration potential. Two large Neogene <span class="hlt">submarine</span> slides, <span class="hlt">located</span> in the northwestern Gulf Coast Basin, formed on the upper slope and flanks of prominent shelf-margin deltas. The basal detachment surface of each slide is a structural discontinuity that may be misinterpreted as an erosional unconformity and misidentified as a stratigraphic boundary separating depositional sequences. Regional stratigraphic correlations indicate that both slides were initiated after the continental platform was flooded. The condensed sections deposited during the rise in relative sea level contain the basal detachment surfaces. The relationships between the slides and sea level fluctuations are uncertain. The shelf-margin embayments created by the slides apparently were partly excavated during periods of lowered relative sea level and were filled during sea level rise and highstand. Eventually the preslide morphology of the shelf margin was restored by coalsced prograding deltas. <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> slides exhibit landward dipping, wavy, mounded, and chaotic seismic reflection that are manifestations of slump blocks and other mass transport material. Composition of these internally derived slide deposits depends on th composition of the pre-existing shelf margin. Embayment fill above the slide consists mostly of externally derived mudstones and sandstones deposited by various disorganized slope processes, as well as more organized <span class="hlt">submarine</span> channel-level systems. Thickest slope sandstones, which are potential hydrocarbon reservoirs, commonly occur above the basal slide mudstones where seismic reflections change from chaotic patterns to overlying wavy or subhorizontal reflections. 46 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-STC&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/232991"><span id="translatedtitle">Architectural elements and growth patterns of <span class="hlt">submarine</span> channels: Application to hydrocarbon exploration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Clark, J.D.; Pickering, K.T. [Univ. College London (United Kingdom)</p> <p>1996-02-01</p> <p>Modern and ancient <span class="hlt">submarine</span> channels show a wide range of architectural styles. Architectural element analysis is a useful descriptive means to characterize the type of channel fill, show the interconnectivity and lateral continuity of sand bodies, and interpret the causal sedimentary processes. This paper combines a review of the literature on <span class="hlt">submarine</span> channels with new observations and analysis, and proposes architectural element models for <span class="hlt">submarine</span> channels, in particular, demonstrating how these models can be applied to interpreting the sequential fill of ancient <span class="hlt">submarine</span> channels. Data for the dimensions and degrees of lateral continuity and vertical connectivity of channel elements, such as those giving rise to reservoir heterogeneities in hydrocarbon exploration, are presented for a variety of examples of architectural elements, providing quantitative information for reservoir analog models. Sequence analysis; a development of these techniques, in particular their application to smaller scale features of turbidite systems, is described in Pickering et al.. A comparison of element analysis schemes for deep-water deposits. The characterization of outcrops of ancient deposits into their component elements at a variety of scales may help unravel complex depositional histories and help in understanding the development of the growth stages within turbidite systems. Studies of modern <span class="hlt">submarine</span> channel data have shown that sinuosity and gradient are related, thereby permitting the identification of high- to low-sinuosity channel systems. It is important to attempt to link such observations to the different processes that may characterize, for example, low- vs. high-sinuosity deep-water channels, which will be particularly useful in evaluating the <span class="hlt">location</span> and development of sand-prone hydrocarbon reservoirs within such systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMOS51E..02C"><span id="translatedtitle">Near-Seafloor Magnetic Exploration of <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Hydrothermal Systems in the Kermadec Arc</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Caratori Tontini, F.; de Ronde, C. E. J.; Tivey, M.; Kinsey, J. C.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Magnetic data can provide important information about hydrothermal systems because hydrothermal alteration can drastically reduce the magnetization of the host volcanic rocks. Near-seafloor data (?70 m altitude) are required to map hydrothermal systems in detail; Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) are the ideal platform to provide this level of resolution. Here, we show the results of high-resolution magnetic surveys by the ABE and Sentry AUVs for selected <span class="hlt">submarine</span> <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> of the Kermadec arc. 3-D magnetization models derived from the inversion of magnetic data, when combined with high resolution seafloor bathymetry derived from multibeam surveys, provide important constraints on the subseafloor geometry of hydrothermal upflow zones and the structural control on the development of seafloor hydrothermal vent sites as well as being a tool for the discovery of previously unknown hydrothermal sites. Significant differences exist between the magnetic expressions of hydrothermal sites at caldera <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> ("donut" pattern) and cones ("Swiss cheese" pattern), respectively. Subseafloor 3-D magnetization models also highlight structural differences between focused and diffuse vent sites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUSMGP11G..03A"><span id="translatedtitle">New geophysical views of Mt.Melbourne <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> (East Antarctica)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Armadillo, E.; Gambetta, M.; Ferraccioli, F.; Corr, H.; Bozzo, E.</p> <p>2009-05-01</p> <p>Mt. Melbourne <span class="hlt">volcano</span> is <span class="hlt">located</span> along the transition between the Transantarctic Mountains and the West Antarctic Rift System. Recent volcanic activity is suggested by the occurrence of blankets of pyroclastic pumice and scoria fall around the eastern and southern flanks of Mt Melbourne and by pyroclastic layers interbedded with the summit snows. Geothermal activity in the crater area of Mount Melbourne may be linked to the intrusion of dykes within the last 200 years. Geophysical networks suggest that Mount Melbourne is a quiescent <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, possibly characterised by slow internal dynamics. During the 2002-2003 Italian Antarctic campaign a high-resolution aeromagnetic survey was performed within the TIMM (Tectonics and Interior of Mt. Melbourne area) project. This helicopter-borne survey was flown at low-altitude and in drape-mode configuration (305 m above terrain) with a line separation less than 500 m. Our new high-resolution magnetic maps reveal the largely ice-covered magmatic and tectonic patters in the Mt. Melbourne <span class="hlt">volcano</span> area. Additionally, in the frame of the UK-Italian ISODYN-WISE project (2005-06), an airborne ice-sounding radar survey was flown. We combine the sub-ice topography with images and models of the interior of Mt. Melbourne <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, as derived from the high resolution aeromagnetic data and land gravity data. Our new geophysical maps and models also provide a new tool to study the regional setting of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. In particular we re-assess whether there is geophysical evidence for coupling between strike-slip faulting, the Terror Rift, and Mount Melbourne <span class="hlt">volcano</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-HHH&redirectUrl=http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ct0564.photos.034436p/"><span id="translatedtitle">16. INTERIOR VIEW OF <span class="hlt">SUBMARINE</span> SECTION AT 110FOOT LEVEL, ESCAPE ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>16. INTERIOR VIEW OF <span class="hlt">SUBMARINE</span> SECTION AT 110-FOOT LEVEL, ESCAPE TRAINING TANK, SHOWING LADDER TO ESCAPE TANK, LOOKING SOUTH - U.S. Naval <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Base, New London <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Escape Training Tank, Albacore & Darter Roads, Groton, New London County, CT</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-HHH&redirectUrl=http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ct0564.photos.034470p/"><span id="translatedtitle">50. PIPING FOR <span class="hlt">SUBMARINE</span> SECTION, Y&D No. 107728 Scale 3/8' ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>50. PIPING FOR <span class="hlt">SUBMARINE</span> SECTION, Y&D No. 107728 Scale 3/8' = 1'; August 26, 1929 - U.S. Naval <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Base, New London <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Escape Training Tank, Albacore & Darter Roads, Groton, New London County, CT</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://mgg.rsmas.miami.edu/groups/sil/Stalker%20et%20al.%202009%20Estuaries.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Determining Spatial and Temporal Inputs of Freshwater, Including <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Groundwater Discharge,</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Miami, University of</p> <p></p> <p>Determining Spatial and Temporal Inputs of Freshwater, Including <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Groundwater Discharge. Florida . <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> groundwater discharge Introduction The timing and sources of freshwater delivery systems while <span class="hlt">submarine</span> groundwater discharge (SGD) has largely been ignored due, in part, as a result</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://chinacat.coastal.udel.edu/papers/grilli-etal-grl13-supplement-submitted.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Supplementary Material A <span class="hlt">submarine</span> landslide is required to explain the 2011 Tohoku tsunami</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Kirby, James T.</p> <p></p> <p>1 Supplementary Material A <span class="hlt">submarine</span> landslide is required to explain the 2011 Tohoku tsunami]. In contrast, tsunamis generated by a <span class="hlt">submarine</span> mass failure (SMF; i.e., a <span class="hlt">submarine</span> landslide), which are more</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=USGSPUBS&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70011692"><span id="translatedtitle">Chemistry and isotope ratios of sulfur in basalts and volcanic gases at Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, Hawaii</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Sakai, H.; Casadevall, T.J.; Moore, J.G.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Eighteen basalts and some volcanic gases from the <span class="hlt">submarine</span> and subaerial parts of Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span> were analyzed for the concentration and isotope ratios of sulfur. By means of a newly developed technique, sulfide and sulfate sulfur in the basalts were separately but simultaneously determined. The <span class="hlt">submarine</span> basalt has 700 ?? 100 ppm total sulfur with ??34S??s of 0.7 ?? 0.1 ???. The sulfate/sulfide molar ratio ranges from 0.15 to 0.56 and the fractionation factor between sulfate and sulfide is +7.5 ?? 1.5???. On the other hand, the concentration and ??34S??s values of the total sulfur in the subaerial basalt are reduced to 150 ?? 50 ppm and -0.8 ?? 0.2???, respectively. The sulfate to sulfide ratio and the fractionation factor between them are also smaller, 0.01 to 0.25 and +3.0???, respectively. Chemical and isotopic evidence strongly suggests that sulfate and sulfide in the <span class="hlt">submarine</span> basalt are in chemical and isotopic equilibria with each other at magmatic conditions. Their relative abundance and the isotope fractionation factors may be used to estimate the f{hook}o2 and temperature of these basalts at the time of their extrusion onto the sea floor. The observed change in sulfur chemistry and isotopic ratios from the <span class="hlt">submarine</span> to subaerial basalts can be interpreted as degassing of the SO2 from basalt thereby depleting sulfate and 34S in basalt. The volcanic sulfur gases, predominantly SO2, from the 1971 and 1974 fissures in Kilauea Crater have ??34S values of 0.8 to 0.9%., slightly heavier than the total sulfur in the <span class="hlt">submarine</span> basalts and definitely heavier than the subaerial basalts, in accord with the above model. However, the ??34S value of sulfur gases (largely SO2) from Sulfur Bank is 8.0%., implying a secondary origin of the sulfur. The ??34S values of native sulfur deposits at various sites of Kilauea and Mauna Loa <span class="hlt">volcanos</span>, sulfate ions of four deep wells and hydrogen sulfide from a geothermal well along the east rift zone are also reported. The high ??34S values (+5 to +6%.o) found for the hydrogen sulfide might be an indication of hot basaltseawater reaction beneath the east rift zone. ?? 1982.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMNS41A..06C"><span id="translatedtitle">Using the Three Dimensional Surface Resistivity Method for Imaging the Mud <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Conduits in Southwestern Taiwan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chang, P.; Huang, Y.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>We conducted two separate three dimensional (3D) surface resistivity surveys for imaging the mud <span class="hlt">volcano</span> structures at the Wushangting Nature Landscape Preservation Area (WNLPA) in Yanchao, southwestern Taiwan. The WNLPA site was famous for its distinctive features of two major cone-shape mud <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> and many mud holes that erupting mud fluids intermittently. The objective of the study is to identify the connections of these mud holes and the two mud <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, and also to analyze the relationships between the eruption activities and the subsurface structures. The electrode arrays were aligned in a counter- clockwise shape (C-shape) surrounding each mud <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. With the C-shape arrays, we are able to acquire better data quality for the mud <span class="hlt">volcano</span> imaging. The first 3D resistivity survey was conducted only for the northeast mud <span class="hlt">volcano</span> on December 30th, 2007 and the second survey was made for both mud <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> on April 11th of 2008. The electrode separations for the electrodes are 1-m in the first survey and 2-m in the second measurement. The 3D images of the first survey show that a major fissure system filling with mud fluids <span class="hlt">located</span> under the northeast <span class="hlt">volcano</span> crater. The nearby mud holes are connected to this major fissure system with some lateral fluid conduits. The second survey images suggest that the two mud <span class="hlt">volcano</span> craters are formed by two identical fissure systems in the near-surface at the WNLPA site. In addition, the low resistivity region in the northeast fissure system seems to be getting smaller during the two surveys. The findings may suggest that the system is getting drier because of less mud fluid supply. Our future work will focus on constructing the time-lapse 3D images for both mud <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> in order to study the relationships between the eruption activities and the structure changes of the fissure systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40494594"><span id="translatedtitle">Sr isotope diversity of hot spring and volcanic lake waters from Zao <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, Japan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Hiromasa Ishikawa; Tsukasa Ohba; Hirokazu Fujimaki</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The ratio of 87Sr\\/86Sr was measured from different water samples of thermal\\/mineral (hot spring as well as crater lake) and meteoric origins, in order to specify the <span class="hlt">location</span> and to verify the detailed model of a <span class="hlt">volcano</span>-hydrothermal system beneath Zao <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. The ratio showed a trimodal distribution for the case of thermal\\/mineral water: 0.7052–0.7053 (Type A, Zao hot spring), 0.7039–0.7043</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/55575348"><span id="translatedtitle">A possible volcanic hazard risk deduced from recent activity of the Gölcük <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, SW Turkey</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>N. Özgür; B. Platevoet; Ö. Elitok; S. Scaillet; H. Guuillou; F. Yagmurlu; A. Poisson</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The Gölcük <span class="hlt">volcano</span> is <span class="hlt">located</span> in the southern part of Kirka-Afyon-Isparta volcanic province (SW Turkey) within the Isparta-Angle belongs to the post-collisional alkali potassic-ultrapotassic magmatism. The entire explosive activity of Gölcük <span class="hlt">volcano</span> during Pleistocene resulted in three main volcanic formations and is disconnected from the older (Pliocene) volcanism. The first volcanic period started with a major explosive regional event at</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/53560111"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydroacoustic Records of the First Historical Eruption of Anatahan <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Mariana Islands</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>R. Dziak; H. Matsumoto; C. Fox; S. Byun; M. Fowler; J. Haxel; R. Embley</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>For the past decade, NOAA\\/Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory has monitored <span class="hlt">volcano</span>-seismic activity from western Pacific island-arc <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> using an array of U.S. Navy hydrophones (called SOSUS) deployed at fixed <span class="hlt">locations</span> throughout the North Pacific Ocean. SOSUS hydrophones are mounted within the SOFAR channel and record the hydroacoustic tertiary phase or T-wave of oceanic earthquakes from throughout the Pacific basin. Since</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52376764"><span id="translatedtitle">Preliminary Seismic Tomography of Deception Island <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, South Shetland Islands (Antarctica)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>D. Zandomeneghi; A. H. Barclay; T. Ben Zvi; W. Wilcock; J. M. Ibáñez; J. Almendros</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Deception Island, 62°59' S, 60°41' W, is an active <span class="hlt">volcano</span> <span class="hlt">located</span> in Bransfield Strait between the Antarctic Peninsula and the main South Shetland Islands. The <span class="hlt">volcano</span> has a basal diameter of ~30 km and rises ~1500 m from the seafloor to a maximum height of over 500 m above sea level. The 15-km-diameter emerged island is horseshoe-shaped with a flooded</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/54558340"><span id="translatedtitle">Inflation Rate of Shishaldin <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Inferred from Two-Way Stress Coupling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>T. Masterlark; Z. Lu; S. C. Moran; C. W. Wicks</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>An explosive eruption of Shishaldin <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">located</span> on Unimak Island in the Aleutian Arc, occurred on April 19, 1999. The eruption was preceded by an earthquake swarm of over 900 events centered about 13 km west of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. The swarm was initiated by a ML=5.2 strike-slip earthquake on March 4, 1999. Precursory phenomena, including low frequency seismicity beneath the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48820128"><span id="translatedtitle">Accident Risk Associated with Fueled Decommissioned Nuclear Powered <span class="hlt">Submarines</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>S. Kupca; A. Natalizio</p> <p></p> <p>\\u000a Many nuclear powered <span class="hlt">submarines</span> have been removed from active duty during the past decade. Common practice when retiring such\\u000a <span class="hlt">submarines</span> from active duty is to remove the fuel from the reactor vessel, thereby rendering the <span class="hlt">submarine</span> relatively harmless,\\u000a from a radiation risk perspective, to workers, the public and the environment. In Russia, the defueling process is progressing\\u000a slowly and a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57069802"><span id="translatedtitle">VIRGINIA-Class <span class="hlt">Submarine</span>: Two for Four in 2012 (A)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Tom Cross</p> <p></p> <p>The VIRGINIA-class <span class="hlt">submarine</span> was one of the largest naval-acquisition projects in history, involving the construction of 30 <span class="hlt">submarines</span> at an acquisition cost of $93 billion. By FY05, the VIRGINIA-class program was in its 10th year. Construction had begun on seven <span class="hlt">submarines</span>. Unit costs were running 41% over the base-line budget, and production goals were not being met. Ship construction budget</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57069803"><span id="translatedtitle">VIRGINIA-Class <span class="hlt">Submarine</span>: Two for Four in 2012 (B)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Tom Cross</p> <p></p> <p>The VIRGINIA-class <span class="hlt">submarine</span> was one of the largest naval-acquisition projects in history, involving the construction of 30 <span class="hlt">submarines</span> at an acquisition cost of $93 billion. By FY05, the VIRGINIA-class program was in its 10th year. Construction had begun on seven <span class="hlt">submarines</span>. Unit costs were running 41% over the base-line budget, and production goals were not being met. Ship construction budget</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOVIMAGE-USGS&redirectUrl=http://gallery.usgs.gov/photos/12_08_2009_wcr1Vih77O_12_08_2009_3"><span id="translatedtitle">Redoubt <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Summit Crater During Eruption</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://gallery.usgs.gov/">USGS Multimedia Gallery</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Redoubt <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> summit crater during eruption. This was taken just after explosive activity at redoubt ceased. There were still significant gas and steam emissions occurring. Iliamna <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> to the south of Redoubt is visible in the background....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/27085878"><span id="translatedtitle">Whale Entanglements With <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Telecommunication Cables</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Matthew Peter Wood; Lionel Carter</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Before 1955-1966, 16 instances of whale entanglement with <span class="hlt">submarine</span> telegraphic cables were reported in the scientific literature. Here we present new information, derived from global cable fault databases, that reveals an absence of whale entanglements since 1959. This cessation coincided with the transition from telegraphic to coaxial telecommunication cables followed by the change to fiber-optic systems in the 1980s. We</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/k77202n185842767.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Mass Movements and Their Consequences</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>D. C. Mosher; L. Moscardelli; R. C. Shipp; J. D. Chaytor; C. D. P. Baxter; H. J. Lee; R. Urgeles</p> <p></p> <p>\\u000a In 1929, an earthquake off the Grand Banks of Newfoundland initiated a <span class="hlt">submarine</span> mass movement that sheared undersea communication\\u000a cables and generated a tsunami that resulted in deaths of 27 people along the south coast of Newfoundland. This event initiated\\u000a the modern realization that the seafloor is a dynamic environment with potential to do harm. More recent catastrophic examples\\u000a include</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25109085"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Submarine</span> tower escape decompression sickness risk estimation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Loveman, G A M; Seddon, E M; Thacker, J C; Stansfield, M R; Jurd, K M</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Actions to enhance survival in a distressed <span class="hlt">submarine</span> (DISSUB) scenario may be guided in part by knowledge of the likely risk of decompression sickness (DCS) should the crew attempt tower escape. A mathematical model for DCS risk estimation has been calibrated against DCS outcome data from 3,738 exposures of either men or goats to raised pressure. Body mass was used to scale DCS risk. The calibration data included more than 1,000 actual or simulated <span class="hlt">submarine</span> escape exposures and no exposures with substantial staged decompression. Cases of pulmonary barotrauma were removed from the calibration data. The calibrated model was used to estimate the likelihood of DCS occurrence following <span class="hlt">submarine</span> escape from the United Kingdom Royal Navy tower escape system. Where internal DISSUB pressure remains at - 0.1 MPa, escape from DISSUB depths < 200 meters is estimated to have DCS risk < 6%. Saturation at raised DISSUB pressure markedly increases risk, with > 60% DCS risk predicted for a 200-meter escape from saturation at 0.21 MPa. Using the calibrated model to predict DCS for direct ascent from saturation gives similar risk estimates to other published models. PMID:25109085</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFM.V52A1034K"><span id="translatedtitle">Groundwater Flow System of Unzen <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Japan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kazahaya, K.; Yasuhara, M.; Inamura, A.; Sumii, T.; Hoshizumi, H.; Kohno, T.; Ohsawa, S.; Yusa, Y.; Kitaoka, K.; Yamaguchi, K.</p> <p>2001-12-01</p> <p>Unzen <span class="hlt">volcano</span> (peak 1486 m) is developed on the western part of Beppu-Shimabara Graben (20 km NS wide and 200 km EW long) <span class="hlt">located</span> at Kyushu island, SW Japan. We have been studied groundwater system of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> using geochemical and hydrological technique in order to estimate flux of magmatic volatiles through the groundwater. We have collected over 150 sample waters from springs, rivers, and wells, and they are analyzed for major chemistry and stable isotope ratios. Over 50 pore waters were extracted from 100-1200m-deep drilled cores at the eastern flank of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> by a centrifugal separator. The results are summarized as follows: 1) Flow rates of springs and rivers indicate that most of the groundwater recharged at Unzen <span class="hlt">volcano</span> flew down the slope directed to the east, which is restricted by graben structure. 2) All the groundwaters and spring waters collected inside the graben area are isotopically homogeneous, i. e., -48~-45 permil for hydrogen isotope ratio, indicating that the groundwater is well mixed during flowing. 3) In spite of the isotopic homogeneity, the groundwaters are chemically different from each other. In particular, bicarbonate concentration ranged from 20 to 180 mg/l, and it is inconsistent with the isotopic results. There are some active faults parallel to the graben, and bicarbonate anomalies are found close to the faults. Therefore, the chemical variation is likely to be made due to the addition of deep-seated CO2 ascending through the faults. 4) Linear relation between 1/DIC and carbon isotope ratio of DIC indicates that the DIC in groundwater is explained by simple mixing with two source, magmatic and organic matters. Combining the flow rate data, DIC concentrations and carbon isotope ratios, we estimated the magmatic CO2 flux as 30 t/d through the fault system. 5) Pore waters at 100-300m deep have similar isotopic composition to the present shallow groundwater and river waters, suggesting that those pore waters occupy a part of the shallowest aquifer. On the other hand, pore waters collected from the drilled core at greater than 500m show isotopic discontinuity in the vertical variation, indicating that stagnant aquifers formed at deeper levels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.S13B1989M"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterizing and comparing seismicity at Cascade Range (USA) <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moran, S. C.; Thelen, W. A.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>The Cascade Range includes 13 volcanic systems across Washington, Oregon, and northern California that are considered to have the potential to erupt at any time, including two that have erupted in the last 100 years (Mount St. Helens (MSH) and Lassen Peak). We investigated how seismicity compares among these <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, and whether the character of seismicity (rate, type, style of occurrence over time, etc.) is related to eruptive activity at the surface. Seismicity at Cascade <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> has been monitored by seismic networks of variable apertures, station densities, and lengths of operation, which makes a direct comparison of seismicity among <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> somewhat problematic. Here we present results of two non-network-dependent approaches to making such seismicity comparisons. In the first, we used network geometry and a grid-search method to compute the minimum magnitude required for a network to <span class="hlt">locate</span> an earthquake (“theoretical <span class="hlt">location</span> threshold”, defined as an event recorded on at least 4 stations with gap of <135o) for each <span class="hlt">volcano</span> out to 7 km. We then selected earthquakes with magnitudes greater than the highest theoretical <span class="hlt">location</span> threshold determined for any Cascade <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. To account for improving network densities with time, we used M 2.1 (<span class="hlt">location</span> threshold for the Three Sisters 1980s-90s network) for 1987-1999 and M 1.6 (threshold for the Crater Lake 2000s network) for 2000-2010. In order to include only background seismicity, we excluded earthquakes occurring at any <span class="hlt">volcano</span> during the 2004-2008 MSH eruption. We found that Mount Hood, Lassen Peak, and MSH had the three highest seismicity rates over that period, with Mount Hood, Medicine Lake <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, and MSH having the three highest cumulative seismic energy releases. The Medicine Lake energy release is dominated by a single swarm in September 1988; if that swarm is removed, then Lassen would have the third-highest cumulative seismic energy release. For the second comparison, we determined the degree of “swarminess” for seismicity at each <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. We first determined the background rate of <span class="hlt">locatable</span> earthquakes (no selection criteria were applied) within 7 km of each volcanic center, and then identified days during which the rate of seismicity was 2? or more above the background rate. Above-background days were linked together into one swarm if they occurred within 5 days of each other. We found that seismicity dominantly occurs in swarms (>60% of <span class="hlt">located</span> earthquakes) at Mount Hood, Three Sisters, Medicine Lake, and Lassen Peak, is mixed at Mount Rainier (46%), and dominantly does not occur in swarms (<40%) at MSH (non-eruptive periods only) and Mount Shasta. These comparisons show no obvious relationship with recency of eruptive activity, with the possible exception that <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> with the most recent eruptions have the highest background seismicity levels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.V44C..07N"><span id="translatedtitle">Inter- and intra-<span class="hlt">volcano</span> geochemical variations within the Higashi-Izu Monogenetic <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Field, Izu Peninsula, Japan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nichols, A. R.; Wysoczanski, R. J.; Tani, K.; Tamura, Y.; Baker, J. A.; Tatsumi, Y.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The Higashi-Izu Monogenetic <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Field (HIMVF) consists of 70 subaerial monogenetic <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> on the eastern side of the Izu Peninsula, Japan, and a further 50 <span class="hlt">submarine</span> monogenetic <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> that extend offshore towards the island of Izu-Oshima, a <span class="hlt">volcano</span> on the volcanic front of the Izu-Bonin Arc. The HIMVF has been active from 0.3 Ma until the present day, and is related to a change in the stress field after the Izu Peninsula tectonic block began to collide with the Honshu Arc. This study examines olivine-hosted silicate melt inclusions erupted in scoria from two of the subaerial monogenetic <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, Takatsukayama and Sukumoyama, that were active early in the history of the HIMVF (~0.27 Ma). Major element data (and volatile elements S and Cl) have been collected from 85 inclusions, from which subsets of 26 and 41 inclusions have been successfully analyzed for trace and volatile (H2O, CO2) elements, respectively. Overall the HIMVF inclusion data, together with whole rock data from previous studies, are more enriched in large-ion lithophile elements (LILE), high field strength elements (HFSE) and rare earth elements (REE) than the Izu-Bonin volcanic front, having a stronger geochemical affinity with the Izu-Bonin rear-arc. However, in detail there is a continuous compositional spectrum from more volcanic front-like to more rear-arc-like away from the volcanic front. This is detectable even over a few kilometers; with inclusions from Sukumoyama, 3.5 km closer to the volcanic front than Takatsukayama, having lower K2O and Th/Nb, and higher Ba/Th. The variation across the HIMVF is attributed to the melts being generated by a mixture of fluid and sediment melt components released from the downgoing slab, with the contribution from the fluid component decreasing across the HIMVF with distance from the volcanic front. The Takatsukayama and Sukumoyama inclusions also reveal an intra-<span class="hlt">volcano</span> geochemical diversity. Most inclusions are typical Izu-Bonin low TiO2 (0.81 to 1.18 wt.%), high Al2O3 (15.88 to 19.34 wt.%) basalts (low TiO2-HABs), but at each <span class="hlt">volcano</span> a few inclusions contain comparatively high TiO2 (1.11 to 2.19 wt.%) and low Al2O3 (11.75 to 14.04 wt.%), termed high TiO2-LABs, a composition that has not been seen elsewhere in the HIMVF or the Izu-Bonin Arc. The high TiO2-LABs are also characterized by higher K2O and LILE, except for Sr resulting in low Sr/Nd, HFSE and REE trace element concentrations, higher SiO2 content at a given MgO content, and lower CaO contents. In some cases the two types of inclusion have been trapped in the same host crystal, indicating that the heterogeneities they preserve exist in the magma chamber on a sub-crystal scale. As both groups exhibit the cross-HIMVF geochemical variability, we conclude that the heterogeneity does not reflect mantle processes or the true composition of melts in the magma chambers; instead we relate it to interstitial melts within the crystal mush of the magma chambers experiencing distinct crystallization histories. The high TiO2-LABs are generated by extensive crystallization of plagioclase in addition to the overall liquid line of descent (controlled by olivine ± clinopyroxene ± spinel crystallization) shown by the low TiO2-HAB melts. Unless they are trapped as inclusions in growing crystals, the high TiO2-LAB melts mix with and are overwhelmed by the more common low TiO2-HAB melts before eruption and are thus absent from the whole rock record.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASA-TRS&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20110023904&hterms=CO2+sensor&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DCO2%2Bsensor"><span id="translatedtitle">Monitoring <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> by Use of Air-Dropped Sensor Packages</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kedar, Sharon; Rivellini, Tommaso; Webb, Frank; Blaes, Brent; Bracho, Caroline; Lockhart, Andrew; McGee, Ken</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Sensor packages that would be dropped from airplanes have been proposed for pre-eruption monitoring of physical conditions on the flanks of awakening <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>. The purpose of such monitoring is to gather data that could contribute to understanding and prediction of the evolution of volcanic systems. Each sensor package, denoted a <span class="hlt">volcano</span> monitoring system (VMS), would include a housing with a parachute attached at its upper end and a crushable foam impact absorber at its lower end (see figure). The housing would contain survivable low-power instrumentation that would include a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver, an inclinometer, a seismometer, a barometer, a thermometer, and CO2 and SO2 analyzers. The housing would also contain battery power, control, data-logging, and telecommunication subsystems. The proposal for the development of the VMS calls for the use of commercially available sensor, power, and telecommunication equipment, so that efforts could be focused on integrating all of the equipment into a system that could survive impact and operate thereafter for 30 days, transmitting data on the pre-eruptive state of a target <span class="hlt">volcano</span> to a monitoring center. In a typical scenario, VMSs would be dropped at strategically chosen <span class="hlt">locations</span> on the flanks of a <span class="hlt">volcano</span> once the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> had been identified as posing a hazard from any of a variety of observations that could include eyewitness reports, scientific observations from positions on the ground, synthetic-aperture-radar scans from aircraft, and/or remote sensing from aboard spacecraft. Once dropped, the VMSs would be operated as a network of in situ sensors that would transmit data to a local monitoring center. This network would provide observations as part of an integrated <span class="hlt">volcano</span>-hazard assessment strategy that would involve both remote sensing and timely observations from the in situ sensors. A similar strategy that involves the use of portable sensors (but not dropping of sensors from aircraft) is already in use in the <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Disaster Assistance Program (VDAP), which was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance to respond to volcanic crises around the world. The VMSs would add a greatly needed capability that would enable VDAP response teams to deploy their <span class="hlt">volcano</span>-monitoring equipment in a more timely manner with less risk to personnel in the field.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005GeoRL..3223612B"><span id="translatedtitle">Detecting <span class="hlt">submarine</span> groundwater discharge with synoptic surveys of sediment resistivity, radium, and salinity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Breier, J. A.; Breier, C. F.; Edmonds, H. N.</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>A synoptic geophysical and geochemical survey was used to investigate the occurrence and spatial distribution of <span class="hlt">submarine</span> discharges of water to upper Nueces Bay, Texas. The 17 km survey incorporated continuous resistivity profiling; measurements of surface water salinity, temperature, and dissolved oxygen; and point measurements of dissolved Ra isotopes. The survey revealed areas of interleaving, vertical fingers of high and low conductivity extending up through 7 m of bay bottom sediments into the surface water, <span class="hlt">located</span> within 100 m of surface salinity and dissolved Ra maxima along with peaks in water temperature and lows in dissolved oxygen. These results indicate either brackish <span class="hlt">submarine</span> groundwater discharge or the leakage of oil field brine from submerged petroleum pipelines.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-STC&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5701"><span id="translatedtitle">Haines - Scagway <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Cable Intertie Project, Haines to Scagway, Alaska Final Technical and Construction Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Alan See; Bennie N. Rinehart; Glen Marin</p> <p>1998-11-01</p> <p>The Haines to Skagway <span class="hlt">submarine</span> cable project is <span class="hlt">located</span> n Taiya Inlet, at the north end of Lynn Canal, in Southeast Alaska. The cable is approximately 15 miles long, with three landings and splice vaults. The cable is 35 kV, 3-Phase, and armored. The cable interconnects the Goat Lake Hydro Project near Skagway with the community of Haines. Both communities are now on 100% hydroelectric power. The Haines to Skagway <span class="hlt">submarine</span> cable is the result of AP&T's goal of an alternative, economic, and environmentally friendly energy source for the communities served and to eliminate the use of diesel fuel as the primary source of energy. Diesel units will continue to be used as a backup system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995SPIE.2459..149B"><span id="translatedtitle">In-situ ultrasonic inspection of <span class="hlt">submarine</span> shaft seal housing for corrosion damage</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Batra, Narendra K.; Chaskelis, Henry H.; Mignogna, Richard B.</p> <p>1995-06-01</p> <p>The interior of the housings of primary and backup shaft seals of 637 class <span class="hlt">submarines</span> are exposed to sea water during service and become corroded during service. Corrosion damage evaluation requires disassembly of the housing and visual inspection. In this paper, we present quantitative results of in situ nondestructive ultrasonic technique developed for the inspection of the seal housings. Due to vast variations in velocity in the seal material, the velocity was determined at suitable sites not subjected to corrosion and of known thickness from the blueprints. Using this normalized velocity and measured time-of-flight, we determined the thickness of the seal housing at various <span class="hlt">locations</span> on the circumference. Subsequent mechanical thickness measurements, made when the housings were removed from service, agreed within the predicted uncertainty of 1.5% of ultrasonic measurements. This technique for the assessment of corrosion damage saves time and money, by preventing premature disassembly and downtime for the <span class="hlt">submarine</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JVGR..181..219S"><span id="translatedtitle">Anomalous earthquakes associated with Nyiragongo <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>: Observations and potential mechanisms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shuler, Ashley; Ekström, Göran</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>A series of five unusual earthquakes (4.6 ? M ? 5.3) has been recently <span class="hlt">located</span> near Nyiragongo <span class="hlt">volcano</span> (D. R. Congo) in the Western Rift Valley of the East African Rift. Despite their moderate size, these earthquakes do not appear in global seismicity catalogs, but were <span class="hlt">located</span> using long-period surface waves primarily recorded on the Global Seismographic Network. Three of the events occurred in the week following the January 2002 eruption of Nyiragongo, while the final two occurred in 2003 and 2005 respectively, and are not linked to a major eruption at Nyiragongo or its neighboring <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, Nyamuragira. Several common techniques were used to investigate the characteristics of these seismic sources in the context of the volcanic activity of the region. The frequency content of the five anomalous earthquakes was compared to that from local events found in global catalogs, and the newly detected earthquakes were shown to be slow events, being greatly depleted in frequencies above 0.1 Hz. Each of the newly detected earthquakes was modeled by a series of forces and by a centroid-moment tensor. A deviatoric moment tensor was shown to provide a better fit to the data. The newly detected earthquakes are highly non-double-couple in nature, each having a large compensated-linear-vector-dipole component of the moment tensor. Drawing on models based on similar observations from other active <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, we propose that the earthquakes are caused by slip on non-planar faults beneath the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. We suggest a mechanism in which these newly detected earthquakes are generated by the collapse of the roof of a shallow magma chamber along an inward-dipping cone-shaped ring fault. Diking events, which result in magma evacuation from shallow magma chambers, could trigger such earthquakes. Our results provide new constraints on the dynamics of the poorly understood magma system beneath Nyiragongo, an active <span class="hlt">volcano</span> that is a significant threat to life and property.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JVGR..298...27M"><span id="translatedtitle">Cape Wanbrow: A stack of Surtseyan-style <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> built over millions of years in the Waiareka-Deborah volcanic field, New Zealand</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moorhouse, B. L.; White, J. D. L.; Scott, J. M.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Volcanic fields typically include many small, monogenetic, <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> formed by single eruptions fed by short-lived magma plumbing systems that solidify after eruption. The Cape Wanbrow coastline of the northeast Otago region in the South Island of New Zealand exposes an Eocene-Oligocene intraplate basaltic field that erupted in Surtseyan style onto a submerged continental shelf, and the stratigraphy of Cape Wanbrow suggests that eruptions produced multiple <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> whose edifices overlapped within a small area, but separated by millions of years. The small Cape Wanbrow highland is shown to include the remains of 6 <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> that are distinguished by discordant to locally concordant inter-<span class="hlt">volcano</span> contacts marked by biogenic accumulations or other slow-formed features. The 6 <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> contain several lithofacies associations: (a) the dominantly pyroclastic E1 comprising well-bedded tuff and lapilli-tuff, emplaced by traction-dominated unsteady, turbulent high-density currents; (b) E2, massive to diffusely laminated block-rich tuff deposited by grain-dominant cohesionless debris flows; (c) E3, broadly cross-stratified tuff with local lenses of low- to high-angle cross-stratification which was deposited by either subaerial pyroclastic currents or subaqueously by unstable antidune- and chute-and-pool-forming supercritical flows; (d) E4, very-fine- to medium-grained tuff deposited by turbidity currents; (e) E5, bedded bioclast-rich tuff with increasing glaucony content upward, emplaced by debris flows; (f) E6, pillow lava and inter-pillow bioclastic sediment; and (g) E7, hyaloclastite breccia. These lithofacies associations aid interpretation of the eruptive evolution of each separate <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, which in turn grew and degraded during build-up of the overall volcanic pile. Sedimentary processes played a prominent role in the evolution of the volcanic pile with both syn- and post-eruptive re-mobilization of debris from the growing pile of primary pyroclastic deposits of multiple <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> separated by time. An increase in bioclastic detritus upsequence suggests that the stack of deposits from overlapping <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> built up into shallow enough waters for colonization to occur. This material was periodically shed from the top of the edifice to form bioclast-rich debris flow deposits of <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> 4, 5 and 6. Since the eruption of Surtsey (1963-1965) many studies have been made of the resulting island, but the pre-emergent base remains <span class="hlt">submarine</span>, unincised and little studied. Eruption-fed density currents that formed deposits of the <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> of Cape Wanbrow are inferred to be typical products of <span class="hlt">submarine</span> processes such as those that built Surtsey to the sea surface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1710468C"><span id="translatedtitle">Multiphase modelling of mud <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Colucci, Simone; de'Michieli Vitturi, Mattia; Clarke, Amanda B.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Mud volcanism is a worldwide phenomenon, classically considered as the surface expression of piercement structures rooted in deep-seated over-pressured sediments in compressional tectonic settings. The release of fluids at mud <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> during repeated explosive episodes has been documented at numerous sites and the outflows resemble the eruption of basaltic magma. As magma, the material erupted from a mud <span class="hlt">volcano</span> becomes more fluid and degasses while rising and decompressing. The release of those gases from mud volcanism is estimated to be a significant contributor both to fluid flux from the lithosphere to the hydrosphere, and to the atmospheric budget of some greenhouse gases, particularly methane. For these reasons, we simulated the fluid dynamics of mud <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> using a newly-developed compressible multiphase and multidimensional transient solver in the OpenFOAM framework, taking into account the multicomponent nature (CH4, CO2, H2O) of the fluid mixture, the gas exsolution during the ascent and the associated changes in the constitutive properties of the phases. The numerical model has been tested with conditions representative of the LUSI, a mud <span class="hlt">volcano</span> that has been erupting since May 2006 in the densely populated Sidoarjo regency (East Java, Indonesia), forcing the evacuation of 40,000 people and destroying industry, farmland, and over 10,000 homes. The activity of LUSI mud <span class="hlt">volcano</span> has been well documented (Vanderkluysen et al., 2014) and here we present a comparison of observed gas fluxes and mud extrusion rates with the outcomes of numerical simulations. Vanderkluysen, L.; Burton, M. R.; Clarke, A. B.; Hartnett, H. E. & Smekens, J.-F. Composition and flux of explosive gas release at LUSI mud <span class="hlt">volcano</span> (East Java, Indonesia) Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., Wiley-Blackwell, 2014, 15, 2932-2946</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASA-TRS&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20120013229&hterms=complement&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dcomplement"><span id="translatedtitle">Hemispherical Field-of-View Above-Water Surface Imager for <span class="hlt">Submarines</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hemmati, Hamid; Kovalik, Joseph M.; Farr, William H.; Dannecker, John D.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>A document discusses solutions to the problem of <span class="hlt">submarines</span> having to rise above water to detect airplanes in the general vicinity. Two solutions are provided, in which a sensor is <span class="hlt">located</span> just under the water surface, and at a few to tens of meter depth under the water surface. The first option is a Fish Eye Lens (FEL) digital-camera combination, situated just under the water surface that will have near-full- hemisphere (360 azimuth and 90 elevation) field of view for detecting objects on the water surface. This sensor can provide a three-dimensional picture of the airspace both in the marine and in the land environment. The FEL is coupled to a camera and can continuously look at the entire sky above it. The camera can have an Active Pixel Sensor (APS) focal plane array that allows logic circuitry to be built directly in the sensor. The logic circuitry allows data processing to occur on the sensor head without the need for any other external electronics. In the second option, a single-photon sensitive (photon counting) detector-array is used at depth, without the need for any optics in front of it, since at this <span class="hlt">location</span>, optical signals are scattered and arrive at a wide (tens of degrees) range of angles. Beam scattering through clouds and seawater effectively negates optical imaging at depths below a few meters under cloudy or turbulent conditions. Under those conditions, maximum collection efficiency can be achieved by using a non-imaging photon-counting detector behind narrowband filters. In either case, signals from these sensors may be fused and correlated or decorrelated with other sensor data to get an accurate picture of the object(s) above the <span class="hlt">submarine</span>. These devices can complement traditional <span class="hlt">submarine</span> periscopes that have a limited field of view in the elevation direction. Also, these techniques circumvent the need for exposing the entire <span class="hlt">submarine</span> or its periscopes to the outside environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=USGSPUBS&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70033414"><span id="translatedtitle">Eruptive history and tectonic setting of Medicine Lake <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, a large rear-arc <span class="hlt">volcano</span> in the southern Cascades</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Donnelly-Nolan, J. M.; Grove, T.L.; Lanphere, M.A.; Champion, D.E.; Ramsey, D.W.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Medicine Lake <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> (MLV), <span class="hlt">located</span> in the southern Cascades ??? 55??km east-northeast of contemporaneous Mount Shasta, has been found by exploratory geothermal drilling to have a surprisingly silicic core mantled by mafic lavas. This unexpected result is very different from the long-held view derived from previous mapping of exposed geology that MLV is a dominantly basaltic shield <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. Detailed mapping shows that < 6% of the ??? 2000??km2 of mapped MLV lavas on this southern Cascade Range shield-shaped edifice are rhyolitic and dacitic, but drill holes on the edifice penetrated more than 30% silicic lava. Argon dating yields ages in the range ??? 475 to 300??ka for early rhyolites. Dates on the stratigraphically lowest mafic lavas at MLV fall into this time frame as well, indicating that volcanism at MLV began about half a million years ago. Mafic compositions apparently did not dominate until ??? 300??ka. Rhyolite eruptions were scarce post-300??ka until late Holocene time. However, a dacite episode at ??? 200 to ??? 180??ka included the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>'s only ash-flow tuff, which was erupted from within the summit caldera. At ??? 100??ka, compositionally distinctive high-Na andesite and minor dacite built most of the present caldera rim. Eruption of these lavas was followed soon after by several large basalt flows, such that the combined area covered by eruptions between 100??ka and postglacial time amounts to nearly two-thirds of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>'s area. Postglacial eruptive activity was strongly episodic and also covered a disproportionate amount of area. The <span class="hlt">volcano</span> has erupted 9 times in the past 5200??years, one of the highest rates of late Holocene eruptive activity in the Cascades. Estimated volume of MLV is ??? 600??km3, giving an overall effusion rate of ??? 1.2??km3 per thousand years, although the rate for the past 100??kyr may be only half that. During much of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>'s history, both dry HAOT (high-alumina olivine tholeiite) and hydrous calcalkaline basalts erupted together in close temporal and spatial proximity. Petrologic studies indicate that the HAOT magmas were derived by dry melting of spinel peridotite mantle near the crust mantle boundary. Subduction-derived H2O-rich fluids played an important role in the generation of calcalkaline magmas. Petrology, geochemistry and proximity indicate that MLV is part of the Cascades magmatic arc and not a Basin and Range <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, although Basin and Range extension impinges on the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> and strongly influences its eruptive style. MLV may be analogous to Mount Adams in southern Washington, but not, as sometimes proposed, to the older distributed back-arc Simcoe Mountains volcanic field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.G51A0069L"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Volcano</span>-tectonic deformation at Mount Shasta and Medicine Lake <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, northern California, from GPS: 1996-2004</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lisowski, M.; Poland, M.; Dzurisin, D.; Owen, S.</p> <p>2004-12-01</p> <p>Mount Shasta and Medicine Lake <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> are two of the three Cascade <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> targeted for dense GPS and strainmeter deployments by the magmatic systems component of Earthscope's Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO). Leveling surveys indicate an average subsidence rate of ˜9 mm/yr at Medicine Lake <span class="hlt">volcano</span> since at least 1954, which could result from draining of a magma reservoir, cooling/crystallization of a subsurface body of magma or hot rock, loading by the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> and dense intrusions, crustal thinning due to regional extension, or some combination of these mechanisms. Displacements from GPS surveys in 1996 and 1999 revealed regional block rotation and contraction across the summit of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, but the time interval was too short to distinguish between possible mechanisms. On Mount Shasta, a 21-line, 12-km aperture EDM network was measured in 1981, 1982, and 1984 with no significant deformation detected, nor was there significant length change in three EDM lines recovered with GPS in 2000. We present results from GPS surveys completed in June and July 2004 of the region surrounding both Mount Shasta and Medicine Lake <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>. We find regional deformation to be dominated by a block rotation about a pole in southeast Oregon, similar to but generally south of poles determined by other workers using GPS in western Oregon and Washington. No significant residual deformation remains in the four GPS stations <span class="hlt">located</span> on Mount Shasta, which were previously measured in 2000. In contrast, GPS results from six stations on the upper flanks of Medicine Lake <span class="hlt">volcano</span> confirm the known subsidence and are consistent with elastic half-space models of volume loss that fit the leveling data. No significant residual regional strain was detected. As a result, we believe that subsidence at Medicine Lake does not likely result from crustal thinning due to regional extension. A more detailed examination of Medicine Lake subsidence sources, Mount Shasta edifice deformation, and possible local and regional temporal deformation changes will be available after installation of continuous GPS stations and strainmeters by the Plate Boundary Observatory. In addition, we have begun annual microgravity measurements that in the future should help to distinguish between possible deformation mechanisms for Medicine Lake <span class="hlt">volcano</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ISPAr.XL1b...5A"><span id="translatedtitle">Volcanic Environments Monitoring by Drones Mud <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Case Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Amici, S.; Turci, M.; Giulietti, F.; Giammanco, S.; Buongiorno, M. F.; La Spina, A.; Spampinato, L.</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>Volcanic activity has often affected human life both at large and at small scale. For example, the 2010 Eyjafjallajokull eruption caused severe economic damage at continental scale due to its strong effect on air traffic. At a local scale, ash fall and lava flow emission can cause harm and disruption. Understanding precursory signals to volcanic eruptions is still an open and tricky challenge: seismic tremor and gas emissions, for example, are related to upcoming eruptive activity but the mechanisms are not yet completely understood. Furthermore, information related to gases emission mostly comes from the summit crater area of a <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, which is usually hard to investigate with required accuracy. Although many regulation problems are still on the discussion table, an increasing interest in the application of cutting-edge technology like unmanned flying systems is growing up. In this sense, INGV (Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia) started to investigate the possibility to use unmanned air vehicles for volcanic environment application already in 2004. A flight both in visual- and radio-controlled mode was carried out on Stromboli <span class="hlt">volcano</span> as feasibility test. In this work we present the preliminary results of a test performed by INGV in collaboration with the University of Bologna (aerospace division) by using a multi-rotor aircraft in a hexacopter configuration. Thermal camera observations and flying tests have been realised over a mud <span class="hlt">volcano</span> <span class="hlt">located</span> on its SW flank of Mt. Etna and whose activity proved to be related to early stages of magma accumulation within the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=USGSPUBS&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70014809"><span id="translatedtitle">A magmatic model of Medicine Lake <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, California ( USA).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Donnelly-Nolan, J. M.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Medicine Lake <span class="hlt">volcano</span> is a Pleistocene and Holocene shield <span class="hlt">volcano</span> of the southern Cascade Range. It is <span class="hlt">located</span> behind the main Cascade arc in an extensional tectonic setting where high-alumina basalt is the most commonly erupted lava. This basalt is parental to the higher-silica calc-alkaline and tholeiitic lavas that make up the bulk of the shield. The presence of late Holocene, chemically identical rhyolites on opposite sides of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> led to hypotheses of a large shallow silicic magma chamber and of a small, deep chamber that fed rhyolites to the surface via cone sheets. Subsequent geophysical work has been unable to identify a large silicic magma body, and instead a small one has apparently been recognized. Some geologic data support the geophysical results. Tectonic control of vent alignments and the dominance of mafic eruptions both in number of events and volume throughout the history of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> indicate that no large silicic magma reservoir exists. Instead, a model is proposed that includes numerous dikes, sills and small magma bodies, most of which are too small to be recognized by present geophysical methods.-Author</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=USGSPUBS&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70030816"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparative velocity structure of active Hawaiian <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> from 3-D onshore-offshore seismic tomography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Park, J.; Morgan, J.K.; Zelt, C.A.; Okubo, P.G.; Peters, L.; Benesh, N.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>We present a 3-D P-wave velocity model of the combined subaerial and <span class="hlt">submarine</span> portions of the southeastern part of the Island of Hawaii, based on first-arrival seismic tomography of marine airgun shots recorded by the onland seismic network. Our model shows that high-velocity materials (6.5-7.0??km/s) lie beneath Kilauea's summit, Koae fault zone, and the upper Southwest Rift Zone (SWRZ) and upper and middle East Rift Zone (ERZ), indicative of magma cumulates within the volcanic edifice. A separate high-velocity body of 6.5-6.9??km/s within Kilauea's lower ERZ and upper Puna Ridge suggests a distinct body of magma cumulates, possibly connected to the summit magma cumulates at depth. The two cumulate bodies within Kilauea's ERZ may have undergone separate ductile flow seaward, influencing the <span class="hlt">submarine</span> morphology of Kilauea's south flank. Low velocities (5.0-6.3??km/s) seaward of Kilauea's Hilina fault zone, and along Mauna Loa's seaward facing Kao'iki fault zone, are attributed to thick piles of volcaniclastic sediments deposited on the <span class="hlt">submarine</span> flanks. Loihi seamount shows high-velocity anomalies beneath the summit and along the rift zones, similar to the interpreted magma cumulates below Mauna Loa and Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, and a low-velocity anomaly beneath the oceanic crust, probably indicative of melt within the upper mantle. Around Kilauea's <span class="hlt">submarine</span> flank, a high-velocity anomaly beneath the outer bench suggests the presence of an ancient seamount that may obstruct outward spreading of the flank. Mauna Loa's southeast flank is also marked by a large, anomalously high-velocity feature (7.0-7.4??km/s), interpreted to define an inactive, buried volcanic rift zone, which might provide a new explanation for the westward migration of Mauna Loa's current SWRZ and the growth of Kilauea's SWRZ. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFM.T62A1281H"><span id="translatedtitle">Is Detroit Seamount a "Hawaiian" <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huang, S.; Frey, F. A.</p> <p>2002-12-01</p> <p>Detroit Seamount, near the northern terminus of the Emperor seamounts may be an early manifestation of the Hawaiian hotspot. Surprisingly, lavas recovered from Detroit seamount by ODP Leg 145 have incompatible element abundances and isotopic ratios (Sr and Nd) more similar to MORB than shield lavas forming Hawaiian islands. The age of oceanic lithosphere at the time of Emperor seamount formation decreases northwards; hence the depleted nature of these ~81 Ma Detroit seamount lavas has been proposed to reflect: (a) an extreme case of plume-spreading ridge interaction whereby seamount lavas are dominated by components derived from MORB-related asthenoshere and lithosphere (Keller et al., 2000) or (b) enhanced melting of refractory parts of the Hawaiian plume as a result of plume ascent to lower pressures beneath thin lithosphere (Regelous et al., in press). Other possible explanations are that Detroit seamount is unrelated to the Hawaiian hotspot or that the geochemical characteristics of the Hawaiian plume have varied. Drilling at Site 1203 Leg 197 penetrated 457 m of 18 basalt flow units and 12 volcaniclastic interbeds. The upper flows are tholeiitic basalt, but lower flows are vesicular and thick flows of alkalic basalt. Tholeiitic basalt overlying alkalic basalt is unlike the Hawaiian sequence where alkalic postshield-stage lavas erupt after tholeiitic shield-stage lavas, but it is characteristic of the initial <span class="hlt">submarine</span> volcanism forming Hawaiian shields. We have not completed acquisition of Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic data, but our compositional data show that neither tholeiitic nor alkalic lavas at Site 1203 are similar to Hawaiian shield and postshield lavas. Although not as depleted in incompatible elements as MORB-like lavas from Leg 145 Site 884 on the eastern flank, Site 1203 tholeiitic lavas have incompatible element abundance intermediate between MORB and Hawaiian tholeiites. The alkalic lavas at Site 1203 have especially surprising geochemical characteristics. At given MgO content the abundance of relatively immobile incompatible elements are similar to those of Mauna Kea postshield alkalic basalt, but abundance of Sr and Ba are buffered at 220-260 ppm and 50-70 ppm, respectively. Some alkalic units also have anomalously low Ti/Zr (<80). Relatively compatible behavior of Sr, Ba and Ti is a characteristic of melts in equilibrium with phlogopite. Although phlogopite may be a residual phase during generation of highly alkalic rejuvenated-stage lavas, it is not a residual phase for late-shield or post-shield lavas. However, residual phlogopite has been inferred for <span class="hlt">submarine</span> alkalic lavas erupted during the initial growth of Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> (Sisson et al., 2002). The broad northern summit region of Detroit Seamount has been sampled by 4 closely spaced holes (883E and F, 1204A and B). Relative to tholeiitic basalt from the flanks (Sites 884 and 1203), summit lavas have lower SiO2 and higher abundance of incompatible elements; higher pressure of melt segregation and lower extent of melting are inferred. In summary, Detroit Seamount lavas are less enriched in highly incompatible elements than lavas forming Hawaiian shields. For (La/Yb)PM the island extremes are ~2.8 for Mauna Loa and 4.6 for Kilauea whereas Detroit Seamount lavas range from a MORB-like <1 at Site 884 to 1.2-2.1 in summit lavas (Sites 883 and 1204) to 2.2-2.5 in alkalic basalt (Site 1203). Although it is premature to endorse any of the proposed hypotheses for explaining these differences, an important result is that the evidence for residual phlogopite during segregation of alkalic lavas at Site 1203 is consistent with shallow melt segregation, and inconsistent with a relatively large extent of plume melting promoted by a longer melting column.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003JGRB..108.2534C"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantitative constraints on the growth of <span class="hlt">submarine</span> lava pillars from a monitoring instrument that was caught in a lava flow</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chadwick, William W.</p> <p>2003-11-01</p> <p>Lava pillars are hollow, vertical chimneys of solid basaltic lava that are common features within the collapsed interiors of <span class="hlt">submarine</span> sheet flows on intermediate and fast spreading mid-ocean ridges. They are morphologically similar to lava trees that form on land when lava overruns forested areas, but the sides of lava pillars are covered with distinctive, evenly spaced, thin, horizontal lava crusts, referred to hereafter as "lava shelves." Lava stalactites up to 5 cm long on the undersides of these shelves are evidence that cavities filled with a hot vapor phase existed temporarily beneath each crust. During the <span class="hlt">submarine</span> eruption of Axial <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> in 1998 on the Juan de Fuca Ridge a monitoring instrument, called VSM2, became embedded in the upper crust of a lava flow that produced 3- to 5-m-high lava pillars. A pressure sensor in the instrument showed that the 1998 lobate sheet flow inflated 3.5 m and then drained out again in only 2.5 hours. These data provide the first quantitative constraints on the timescale of lava pillar formation and the rates of <span class="hlt">submarine</span> lava flow inflation and drainback. They also allow comparisons to lava flow inflation rates observed on land, to theoretical models of crust formation on <span class="hlt">submarine</span> lava, and to previous models of pillar formation. A new model is presented for the rhythmic formation of alternating lava crusts and vapor cavities to explain how stacks of lava shelves are formed on the sides of lava pillars during continuous lava drainback. Each vapor cavity is created between a stranded crust and the subsiding lava surface. A hot vapor phase forms within each cavity as seawater is syringed through tiny cracks in the stranded crust above. Eventually, the subsiding lava causes the crust above to fail, quenching the hot cavity and forming the next lava crust. During the 1998 eruption at Axial <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, this process repeated itself about every 2 min during the 81-min-long drainback phase of the eruption, based on the thickness and spacing of the lava shelves. The VSM2 data show that lava pillars are formed during short-lived eruptions in which inflation and drainback follow each other in rapid succession and that pillars record physical evidence that can be used to interpret the dynamics of seafloor eruptions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1714655P"><span id="translatedtitle">Strategies for the implementation of a European <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observations Research Infrastructure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Puglisi, Giuseppe</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Active volcanic areas in Europe constitute a direct threat to millions of people on both the continent and adjacent islands. Furthermore, eruptions of "European" <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> in overseas territories, such as in the West Indies, an in the Indian and Pacific oceans, can have a much broader impacts, outside Europe. <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observatories (VO), which undertake <span class="hlt">volcano</span> monitoring under governmental mandate and Volcanological Research Institutions (VRI; such as university departments, laboratories, etc.) manage networks on European <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> consisting of thousands of stations or sites where volcanological parameters are either continuously or periodically measured. These sites are equipped with instruments for geophysical (seismic, geodetic, gravimetric, electromagnetic), geochemical (volcanic plumes, fumaroles, groundwater, rivers, soils), environmental observations (e.g. meteorological and air quality parameters), including prototype deployment. VOs and VRIs also operate laboratories for sample analysis (rocks, gases, isotopes, etc.), near-real time analysis of space-borne data (SAR, thermal imagery, SO2 and ash), as well as high-performance computing centres; all providing high-quality information on the current status of European <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> and the geodynamic background of the surrounding areas. This large and high-quality deployment of monitoring systems, focused on a specific geophysical target (<span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>), together with the wide volcanological phenomena of European <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> (which cover all the known <span class="hlt">volcano</span> types) represent a unique opportunity to fundamentally improve the knowledge base of <span class="hlt">volcano</span> behaviour. The existing arrangement of national infrastructures (i.e. VO and VRI) appears to be too fragmented to be considered as a unique distributed infrastructure. Therefore, the main effort planned in the framework of the EPOS-PP proposal is focused on the creation of services aimed at providing an improved and more efficient access to the volcanological facilities and observations on active <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>. The issue to facilitate the access to this valued source of information is to reshape this fragmented community into a unique infrastructure concerning common technical solutions and data policies. Some of the key actions include the implementation of virtual accesses to geophysical, geochemical, volcanological and environmental raw data and metadata, multidisciplinary volcanic and hazard products, tools for modelling volcanic processes, and transnational access to facilities of <span class="hlt">volcano</span> observatories. Indeed this implementation will start from the outcomes of the two EC-FP7 projects, Futurevolc and MED-SUV, relevant to three out of four global volcanic Supersites, which are <span class="hlt">located</span> in Europe and managed by European institutions. This approach will ease the exchange and collaboration among the European <span class="hlt">volcano</span> community, thus allowing better understanding of the volcanic processes occurring at European <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> considered worldwide as natural laboratories.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010cxo..pres...15."><span id="translatedtitle">Galactic Super-<span class="hlt">volcano</span> in Action</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-08-01</p> <p>A galactic "super-<span class="hlt">volcano</span>" in the massive galaxy M87 is erupting and blasting gas outwards, as witnessed by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and NSF's Very Large Array. The cosmic <span class="hlt">volcano</span> is being driven by a giant black hole in the galaxy's center and preventing hundreds of millions of new stars from forming. Astronomers studying this black hole and its effects have been struck by the remarkable similarities between it and a <span class="hlt">volcano</span> in Iceland that made headlines earlier this year. At a distance of about 50 million light years, M87 is relatively close to Earth and lies at the center of the Virgo cluster, which contains thousands of galaxies. M87's <span class="hlt">location</span>, coupled with long observations over Chandra's lifetime, has made it an excellent subject for investigations of how a massive black hole impacts its environment. "Our results show in great detail that supermassive black holes have a surprisingly good control over the evolution of the galaxies in which they live," said Norbert Werner of the Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology at Stanford University and the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, who led one of two papers describing the study. "And it doesn't stop there. The black hole's reach extends ever farther into the entire cluster, similar to how one small <span class="hlt">volcano</span> can affect practically an entire hemisphere on Earth." The cluster surrounding M87 is filled with hot gas glowing in X-ray light, which is detected by Chandra. As this gas cools, it can fall toward the galaxy's center where it should continue to cool even faster and form new stars. However, radio observations with the Very Large Array suggest that in M87 jets of very energetic particles produced by the black hole interrupt this process. These jets lift up the relatively cool gas near the center of the galaxy and produce shock waves in the galaxy's atmosphere because of their supersonic speed. The scientists involved in this research have found the interaction of this cosmic "eruption" with the galaxy's environment to be very similar to that of the Eyjafjallajokull <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, which forced much of Europe to close its airports earlier this year. With Eyjafjallajokull, pockets of hot gas blasted through the surface of the lava, generating shock waves that can be seen passing through the grey smoke of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. The hot gas then rises up in the atmosphere, dragging the dark ash with it. This process can be seen in a movie of the Eyjafjallajokull <span class="hlt">volcano</span> where the shock waves propagating in the smoke are followed by the rise of dark ash clouds into the atmosphere. In the analogy with Eyjafjallajokull, the energetic particles produced in the vicinity of the black hole rise through the X-ray emitting atmosphere of the cluster, lifting up the coolest gas near the center of M87 in their wake, much like the hot volcanic gases drag up the clouds of dark ash. And just like the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> here on Earth, shockwaves can be seen when the black hole pumps energetic particles into the cluster gas. "This analogy shows that even though astronomical phenomena can occur in exotic settings and over vast scales, the physics can be very similar to events on Earth," said co-author Aurora Simionescu also of the Kavli Institute. In M87, the plumes of cooler gas being lifted upwards contain as much mass as all of the gas contained within 12,000 light years of the center of the galaxy cluster. This shows the black hole-powered <span class="hlt">volcano</span> is very efficient at blasting the galaxy free of the gas that would otherwise cool and form stars. "This gas could have formed hundreds of millions of stars if the black hole had not removed it from the center of the galaxy. That seems like a much worse disruption than what the airline companies on Earth had to put up with earlier this year," said Evan Million, a graduate student at Stanford University and lead-author of the other paper to be published about this deep study of M87. The eruption in M87 that lifted up the cooler gas must have occurred about 150 million years earlie</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/53512303"><span id="translatedtitle">Surface Deformation Caused by a Shallow Magmatic Source at Okmok <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Aleutian Arc</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Y. Miyagi; J. T. Freymueller; F. Kimata; T. Sato; D. Mann; M. Kasahara</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Okmok <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">located</span> on Umnak Island in the eastern Aleutian arc, last erupted in 1997. Okmok consists of a 10 km wide caldera with several cones <span class="hlt">located</span> inside. Significant surface deformation before, during and after the eruption has been measured using InSAR. However, the area of coherent data has been limited to the northern part of the caldera, with some</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.6856B"><span id="translatedtitle">Sensitivity of Greenland outlet glacier dynamics to <span class="hlt">submarine</span> melting</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Beckmann, Johanna; Siegrfied, Merten; Perrette, Mahé; Carlov, Reinhard; Ganopolski, Andrey</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Over the last few decades Greenland ice mass loss has strongly increased due to surface melt and dynamic changes in marine-terminating outlet glaciers. A major reason for the retreat of these glaciers is believed to be related to increased <span class="hlt">submarine</span> melting, which in turn is caused by surrounding ocean warming and the enhanced subglacial water discharge. These complex physical processes are not yet fully understood. Inspecting the sensitivities of <span class="hlt">submarine</span> melting to model formulation and model parameters is crucial for investigations of outlet glacier response to future climate change. Different approaches have been used to compute <span class="hlt">submarine</span> melt rates of outlet glaciers using experimental data, numerical modelling and simplified analytical solutions. To model the process of <span class="hlt">submarine</span> melting for a selection of Greenland outlet glaciers, a simple <span class="hlt">submarine</span> melt parameterization is incorporated into a one-dimensional dynamic ice-flow model. The behaviour of this <span class="hlt">submarine</span> melt parameterization is demonstrated by running a suite of simulations to investigate the sensitivity of <span class="hlt">submarine</span> melt to changes in ocean properties and the amount and distribution of subglacial water discharge. A comparison of the simple parameterization with three-dimensional models and experimental data is conducted to assess the quality of parameterization and improve the parameterization of <span class="hlt">submarine</span> melting.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASA-TRS&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19770052997&hterms=submarine&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dsubmarine"><span id="translatedtitle">Identification of a ship or <span class="hlt">submarine</span> from its magnetic signature</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ioannidis, G.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>The relationship between the measured time fluctuations of the ambient magnetic field due to the passage of a ship or <span class="hlt">submarine</span> and the characteristic magnetization properties of this vessel are derived. This relationship would be useful in identifying or classifying ships and <span class="hlt">submarines</span> according to their magnetization properties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/56178421"><span id="translatedtitle">Processing of Ice Draft Measurements From <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Upward Looking Sonar</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>M. R. Wensnahan; D. L. Bentley; D. A. Rothrock; W. B. Tucker; Y. Yu; R. Weaver; F. Fetterer</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>In the last several years the US Navy has agreed to release data on ice draft taken using <span class="hlt">submarine</span>-mounted upward looking sonar. This data spans more than 40 years, from 1957 to present, and represents a significant resource for climate researchers. Currently, the data are being processed by the Navy's Arctic <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Lab, the Applied Physics Lab at the University</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/1587671"><span id="translatedtitle">Optical Fiber <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Cable System Development at KDD</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>YASUHIKO NIIRO</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>An optical fiber <span class="hlt">submarine</span> cable system using longwavelength and single-mode optical fiber is expected to provide economical long-haul digital transmission. This paper describes the recent research and development on an optical fiber <span class="hlt">submarine</span> cable system for international communication at the KDD Research and Development Laboratories. An experimental model including cable and repeaters has been designed and manufactured. An experimental repeater</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50343711"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Submarine</span> communications cable for deep-sea application</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Gary Waterworth; I. Watson</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>This paper details the design and qualification of high reliability <span class="hlt">submarine</span> cables specifically developed for the telecommunications industry. These cables are now readily available to support various offshore applications where multi low loss optical fibers and medium voltage power is required. The paper covers the design requirements specific to <span class="hlt">submarine</span> application, such as pressure, water and gaseous ingress and installation</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/51257197"><span id="translatedtitle">Technologies required for the future <span class="hlt">submarine</span> cable networks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Shu Yamamoto</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>The progress of DWDM transoceanic transmission technologies enabled the immense capacity transport of the <span class="hlt">submarine</span> cable networks and dramatically decreased the unit capacity cost. However, in order to cost-ffectively transport the large capacity traffic using the <span class="hlt">submarine</span> cable link, the study on the network architecture will be of great importance in terms of the reduction of the system installation cost</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/14376979"><span id="translatedtitle">The Place of the <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Cable in Aeronautical Communication</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>J. J. Gilbert; Cable COW</p> <p>1956-01-01</p> <p>Difficulty in satisfying increased requirements for aeronautical communication channels appears to justify investigating the potentialities of various means of <span class="hlt">submarine</span> cable communication as a means of easing the burden on long radio links. Relief might be found by using <span class="hlt">submarine</span> cables to connect strategic and widely separated land stations and thus materially reduce the length of radio links required. As</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12838773"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Submarine</span> escape trials 1999-2001--provision of medical support.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Benton, Peter</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Since the early 1960s all Royal Navy <span class="hlt">submarines</span> have been fitted with an escape system comprising a single escape tower (SET) and <span class="hlt">submarine</span> escape immersion suit (SEIS). This system enables escape from a <span class="hlt">submarine</span> at a depth of 180 metres (1.9 MPa) provided that the <span class="hlt">submarine</span> compartment is at a pressure of no greater than 1 bar (0.1 MPa). Due to a variety of causes which may include flooding and leakage of high pressure air systems it is the highly probable that the <span class="hlt">submarine</span> compartment will be at a pressure in excess of 1 bar (0.1 MPa) at the time of the escape. To investigate and determine what constitutes a 'safe' maximum escape depth from any given compartment pressure (the safe to escape curve), a purpose built chamber complex, the <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Escape Simulator (SES) has been constructed at the QinetiQ, formerly the Defence Evaluation and Research Agency (DERA), Alverstoke site. Unlike escapes from a <span class="hlt">submarine</span> where once released from the <span class="hlt">submarine</span> the escapee's ascent can not be halted, within the SES it is possible to halt the ascent phase. This article describes the systems and procedures developed to enable medical support to be provided rapidly to a subject at any stage of the compression decompression profile. The article also provides details of the results to date that have been obtained from this work. PMID:12838773</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/27457605"><span id="translatedtitle">Feasibility of Iceland\\/United Kingdom HVDC <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Cable Link</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>T. J. Hammons; A. Olsen; T. Gudnundsson</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>This paper addresses the viability of a <span class="hlt">submarine</span> cable connection from Iceland to the North of Scotland extended by HVDC overhead line to the South of England. Hydro development, <span class="hlt">submarine</span> cables, HVDC overhead transmission lines, rectifier\\/invertor stations, investment cost attributable to a power sale, availability of the connection, technical considerations and cost comparisons is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49944628"><span id="translatedtitle">Design considerations of a <span class="hlt">submarine</span> laser communications system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Larry B. Stotts</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>It is pointed out that the US Navy appears to be ready to initiate the development of an optical communication system between satellites and <span class="hlt">submarines</span>. This system will operate in the blue\\/green region of the spectrum. A great deal of the pat work has been to develop the critical components that will allow operations through clouds and water to <span class="hlt">submarines</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.6448M"><span id="translatedtitle">Io <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observer (IVO)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McEwen, A. S.; Keszthelyi, L.; Spencer, J.; Thomas, N.; Johnson, T.; Christensen, P.; Wurz, P.; Glassmeier, K. H.; Shinohara, C.; Girard, T.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>In early FY2008, NASA solicited study concepts for Discovery/Scout-class missions that would be enabled by use of 2 Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generators (ASRGs). We proposed an Io <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observer (IVO) study concept, because the ASRGs enable pointing flexibility and a high data rate from a low-cost mission in Jupiter orbit. Io presents a rich array of inter-connected orbital, geophysical, atmospheric, and plasma phenomena and is the only place in the Solar System (including Earth) where we can watch very large-scale silicate volcanic processes in action. Io is the best place to study tidal heating, which greatly expands the habitable zones of planetary systems. The coupled orbital-tidal evolution of Io and Europa is key to understanding the histories of both worlds. IVO utilizes an elliptical orbit inclined > 45° to Jupiter's orbital plane with repeated fast flybys of Io. Io will have nearly constant illumination at each flyby, which facilitates monitoring of changes over time. The view of Io on approach and departure will be nearly polar, enabling unique measurement and monitoring of polar heat flow (key to tidal heating models), equatorial plumes, and magnetospheric interactions. We expect to collect and return 20 Gbits per flyby via 34-m DSN stations, >1000 times the Io data return of Galileo. The minimal payload we considered included (1) a narrow-angle camera, (2) a thermal mapper, (3) an ion and neutral mass spectrometer, and (4) a pair of fluxgate magnetometers. The camera will acquire global km-scale monitoring and sampling down to 10 m/pixel or better. One key objective is to acquire nearly simultaneous (<0.1 s) multispectral measurements to determine the peak lava temperatures, which in turn constrains the temperature and rheology of Io's mantle and whether or not the heat flow is in equilibrium with tidal heating. The thermal mapper will be similar to THEMIS on Mars Odyssey, but with bandpasses designed to monitor volcanic activity, measure heat flow, and constrain silicate lava compositions. The ion and neutral mass spectrometer, to be contributed by the University of Bern and the Swedish Institute of Space Physics, will determine the composition of Io's escaping species, atmosphere, and volcanic plumes. Two Fluxgate Magnetometers are to be contributed by the Institut für Geophysik und extraterrestrische Physik of the Technische Universität Braunschweig, to characterize magnetospheric interactions with Io, and perhaps place tighter constraints on whether or not Io has an internally generated magnetosphere. Various science enhancement options are being considered.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.6394F"><span id="translatedtitle">Laboratory <span class="hlt">volcano</span> geodesy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Færøvik Johannessen, Rikke; Galland, Olivier; Mair, Karen</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Magma transport in volcanic plumbing systems induces surface deformation, which can be monitored by geodetic techniques, such as GPS and InSAR. These geodetic signals are commonly analyzed through geodetic models in order to constrain the shape of, and the pressure in, magma plumbing systems. These models, however, suffer critical limitations: (1) the modelled magma conduit shapes cannot be compared with the real conduits, so the geodetic models cannot be tested nor validated; (2) the modelled conduits only exhibit shapes that are too simplistic; (3) most geodetic models only account for elasticity of the host rock, whereas substantial plastic deformation is known to occur. To overcome these limitations, one needs to use a physical system, in which (1) both surface deformation and the shape of, and pressure in, the underlying conduit are known, and (2) the mechanical properties of the host material are controlled and well known. In this contribution, we present novel quantitative laboratory results of shallow magma emplacement. Fine-grained silica flour represents the brittle crust, and low viscosity vegetable oil is an analogue for the magma. The melting temperature of the oil is 31°C; the oil solidifies in the models after the end of the experiments. At the time of injection the oil temperature is 50°C. The oil is pumped from a reservoir using a volumetric pump into the silica flour through a circular inlet at the bottom of a 40x40 cm square box. The silica flour is cohesive, such that oil intrudes it by fracturing it, and produces typical sheet intrusions (dykes, cone sheets, etc.). During oil intrusion, the model surface deforms, mostly by doming. These movements are measured by an advanced photogrammetry method, which uses 4 synchronized fixed cameras that periodically image the surface of the model from different angles. We apply particle tracking method to compute the 3D ground deformation pattern through time. After solidification of the oil, the intrusion can be excavated and photographed from several angles to compute its 3D shape with the same photogrammetry method. Then, the surface deformation pattern can be directly compared with the shape of underlying intrusion. This quantitative dataset is essential to quantitatively test and validate classical <span class="hlt">volcano</span> geodetic models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.V44B..01T"><span id="translatedtitle">Deep magma feeding system of Fuji <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, Japan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Takahashi, E.; Asano, K.; Nakajima, J.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Fuji <span class="hlt">volcano</span> is known for its perfect cone shape and it is the largest among Japanese Quaternary <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>. For the last 100kya, Fuji has erupted dominantly basalt magma (>>99 vol%), but its eruption style changed (from debris flow and tephra dominant Ko-Fuji or Older Fuji, to lava flow dominant Shin-Fuji or Younger Fuji) at ~15 kya BP. The incompatible trace element composition of the magma changed abruptly between Ko-Fuji and Shin-Fuji. The origin of the voluminous yet monotonous basalt production and the simultaneous changes in volcanic style and magma chemistry in Fuji <span class="hlt">volcano</span> have been discussed but remain unanswered. Here we report the first high-pressure melting experimental results on Fuji Basalt (Hoei-IV, AD1707) and demonstrate that its main magma chamber is <span class="hlt">located</span> at ca.25km depth (Asano et al, this conference). We also show seismic tomographic images of Fuji <span class="hlt">volcano</span> for the first time, which reveal the existence of strong upwelling flow in the mantle and its connection to the voluminous lower crustal magma chamber (Fig.1). The chemistry of Fuji magma is buffered by a lower crustal AFC magma chamber <span class="hlt">located</span> at 25-35km depth. Mantle derived primitive basalt (FeO/MgO~1.0, saturated with mantle peridotite assemblage, oliv+opx+cpx) changes to evolved basalt (FeO/MgO~2.0, saturated with lower crustal gabbroic assemblage, opx+cpx+pl) by the AFC process. Very frequent low frequency earthquakes just above the magma chamber (red circles in Fig.1) may be due to the injection of basalt magma and/or fluids (Ukawa, 2007). The total lack of silica-rich rocks (basaltic andesite and andesite) in Fuji <span class="hlt">volcano</span> must be due to the special <span class="hlt">location</span> of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. As shown in Fig.1 (solid line), the plate boundary between the Eurasia plate and the subducting Phillipine sea plate is <span class="hlt">located</span> just beneath Fuji <span class="hlt">volcano</span> (~5 km depth). Large tectonic stress and deformation associated with the plate boundary inhibit the survival of a shallow level magma chamber, which would allow the evolution of basalt to silica-rich magma (as observed in nearby <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, e.g., Hakone, Izu Oshima). The change in volcanic eruption style may be understood by assuming the existence of a glacier (or thick ice-cap) during Ko-fuji. A landslide occurred at ~17 ky and a large part of its volcanic edifice, including the summit of Ko-fuji, has been lost. This landslide would have been triggered by melting of the glacier and should have caused a significant deloading effect on the magma feeding system.ig.1 NS cross section beneath Fuji <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>. dVs tomographic image with +-9% deviation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFM.V62D..01H"><span id="translatedtitle">Magnetotelluric Investigations of the Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Hawaii</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hoversten, G.; Newman, G. A.; Gasperikova, E.; Kauahikaua, J. P.</p> <p>2002-12-01</p> <p>A collaborative effort between Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Electromagnetic Instruments and the USGS Hawaiian <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observatory has undertaken a three-dimensional (3D) magnetotelluric (MT) study of the Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span> in Hawaii. The survey objectives are 1): to produce a high quality 3D MT data set over the central caldera and the eastern and southwestern rift zones, 2) to use this data set to drive the continued development of new 3D MT inversion algorithms and 3) to integrate existing gravity, seismic and electrical data with the new MT data to provide an improved understanding of the internal structure of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. Data acquired over the currently active eastern rift zone are compared to that from the now dormant southwest rift zone. The first phase of data collection acquired 6 sites in February 2002 with a second phase acquiring 30 sites in August 2002. The survey was designed to make use of multiple remote reference sites and multi-station robust processing techniques with as many as eight acquisition systems operating simultaneously. Excellent quality data was obtained even in the harshest conditions, such as those encountered on the fresh lava flows of the eastern rift zone, where electrical contact resistances were extremely high. Most sites, which required helicopter access, were recorded with only electric (E) fields to reduce weight and setup time. Certain helicopter sites had magnetic (H) data and were processed with and without local H data demonstrating the validity of using remote H fields with local E fields for impedance calculations. 3-D inversion of the data assuming the data to be local impedance is compared to 3D inversion that explicitly models the <span class="hlt">locations</span> of the measured E and H fields. Selected two-dimensional (2D) lines of sites are inverted with 2D algorithms and compared to previously obtained electrical structure from transient EM soundings. Early one-dimensional inversion of a site <span class="hlt">located</span> near the caldera shows a conductor at 5km depth, which is consistent with the depth to magma as shown by seismic monitoring experiments. In addition, a shallower conductor at about 1km depth is indicated and is being investigated as a possible indicator of shallow magma. The site near the caldera was occupied in February and again in August 2002, giving a time-lapse view of the resistivity structure. Three dimensional modeling of the entire island of Hawaii shows that the costal effects of the sea-land interface on the MT data is greatly reduced compared to the effects observed at continental boundaries where the interface is more 2D in nature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JVGR..177..857V"><span id="translatedtitle">Continental basaltic <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> — Processes and problems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Valentine, G. A.; Gregg, T. K. P.</p> <p>2008-11-01</p> <p>Monogenetic basaltic <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> are the most common volcanic landforms on the continents. They encompass a range of morphologies from small pyroclastic constructs to larger shields and reflect a wide range of eruptive processes. This paper reviews physical volcanological aspects of continental basaltic eruptions that are driven primarily by magmatic volatiles. Explosive eruption styles include Hawaiian and Strombolian ( sensu stricto) and violent Strombolian end members, and a full spectrum of styles that are transitional between these end members. The end-member explosive styles generate characteristic facies within the resulting pyroclastic constructs (proximal) and beyond in tephra fall deposits (medial to distal). Explosive and effusive behavior can be simultaneous from the same conduit system and is a complex function of composition, ascent rate, degassing, and multiphase processes. Lavas are produced by direct effusion from central vents and fissures or from breakouts (boccas, <span class="hlt">located</span> along cone slopes or at the base of a cone or rampart) that are controlled by varying combinations of cone structure, feeder dike processes, local effusion rate and topography. Clastogenic lavas are also produced by rapid accumulation of hot material from a pyroclastic column, or by more gradual welding and collapse of a pyroclastic edifice shortly after eruptions. Lava flows interact with — and counteract — cone building through the process of rafting. Eruption processes are closely coupled to shallow magma ascent dynamics, which in turn are variably controlled by pre-existing structures and interaction of the rising magmatic mixture with wall rocks. <span class="hlt">Locations</span> and length scales of shallow intrusive features can be related to deeper length scales within the magma source zone in the mantle. Coupling between tectonic forces, magma mass flux, and heat flow range from weak (low magma flux basaltic fields) to sufficiently strong that some basaltic fields produce polygenetic composite <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> with more evolved compositions. Throughout the paper we identify key problems where additional research will help to advance our overall understanding of this important type of volcanism.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.V41B2790B"><span id="translatedtitle">Volcaniclastic stratigraphy of Gede <span class="hlt">volcano</span> in West Java</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Belousov, A.; Belousova, M.; Zaennudin, A.; Prambada, O.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Gede <span class="hlt">volcano</span> (2958 m a.s.l.) and the adjacent Pangrango <span class="hlt">volcano</span> (3019 m a.s.l.) form large (base diameter 35 km) volcanic massif 60 km south of Jakarta. While Pangrango has no recorded eruptions, Gede is one of the most active <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> in Indonesia: eruptions were reported 26 times starting from 1747 (Petroeschevsky 1943; van Bemmelen 1949). Historic eruptions were mildly explosive (Vulcanian) with at least one lava flow. Modern activity of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> includes persistent solfataric activity in the summit crater and periodic seismic swarms - in 1990, 1991, 1992, 1995, 1996, 1997, 2000, 2010, and 2012 (CVGHM). Lands around the Gede-Pangrango massif are densely populated with villages up to 1500-2000 m a.s.l. Higher, the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> is covered by rain forest of the Gede-Pangrango Natural Park, which is visited every day by numerous tourists who camp in the summit area. We report the results of the detailed reinvestigation of volcaniclastic stratigraphy of Gede <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. This work has allowed us to obtain 24 new radiocarbon dates for the area. As a result the timing and character of activity of Gede in Holocene has been revealed. The edifice of Gede <span class="hlt">volcano</span> consists of main stratocone (Gumuruh) with 1.8 km-wide summit caldera; intra-caldera lava cone (Gede proper) with a 900 m wide summit crater, having 2 breaches toward N-NE; and intra-crater infill (lava dome/flow capped with 3 small craters surrounded by pyroclastic aprons). The Gumuruh edifice, composed mostly of lava flows, comprises more than 90% of the total volume of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. Deep weathering of rocks and thick (2-4 m) red laterite soil covering Gumuruh indicates its very old age. Attempts to get 14C dates in 4 different <span class="hlt">locations</span> of Gumuruh (including a large debris avalanche deposit on its SE foot) provided ages older than 45,000 years - beyond the limit for 14C dating. Outside the summit caldera, notable volumes of fresh, 14C datable volcaniclastic deposits were found only in the NNE sector of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> where they form a fan below the breached summit crater. The fan is composed of pyroclastic flows (PFs) and lahars of Holocene age that were deposited in 4 major stages: ~ 10 000 BP - voluminous PF of black scoria; ~ 4000 BP - two PFs of mingled grey/black scoria; ~ 1200 BP - multiple voluminous PFs strongly enriched by accidental material; ~ 1000 BP - a small scale debris avalanche (breaching of the crater wall) followed by small scale PFs of black scoria. The intra-crater lava dome/flow was erupted in 1840 (Petroeschevsky, 1943). Three small craters on the top of the lava dome were formed by multiple post-1840 small-scale phreatomagmatic eruptions. Ejected pyroclasts are lithic hydrothermally altered material containing a few breadcrust bombs. The Holocene eruptive history of Gede indicates that the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> can produce moderately strong (VEI 3-4) explosive eruptions and send PFs and lahars onto the NE foot of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NSDL&redirectUrl=http://es.ucsc.edu/~ward/papers/papers_index.htm"><span id="translatedtitle">Papers about <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> and Tsunamis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p>Steven N. Ward</p> <p></p> <p>Steven N Ward, a Earth Sciences professor at UC-Santa Cruz, provides downloadable PDF versions of his numerous publications about <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> and tsunamis as a part of his homepage. Topics include tsunamis caused by earthquakes, underwater landslides, volcanic eruptions, and asteroid impacts, as well as risk assessment and modeling.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40159305"><span id="translatedtitle">Seismic energy releases from <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Izumi Yokoyama</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Seismic energy release during the precursory, eruptive and declining stages of volcanic activities provides various information about the mechanisms of volcanic eruptions and the temporary developments of their activities. Hitherto the energy release patterns from precursory earthquake swarms were used to predict the eruption times, especially of andesitic or dacitic <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>. In this paper the discussion is expanded to quantify</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=ERIC&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=articles+AND+earth+AND+day&pg=4&id=EJ758294"><span id="translatedtitle">What Happened to Our <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Mangiante, Elaine Silva</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>In this article, the author presents an investigative approach to "understanding Earth changes." The author states that students were familiar with earthquakes and <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> in other regions of the world but never considered how the land beneath their feet had experienced changes over time. Here, their geology unit helped them understand and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.V53F..03L"><span id="translatedtitle">Wave field decomposition of volcanic tremor at Pacaya <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Guatemala</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lanza, F.; Waite, G. P.; Kenyon, L. M.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>A dense, small-aperture array of 12 short-period seismometers was deployed on the west flank of Pacaya <span class="hlt">volcano</span> (Guatemala) and operated for 14 days in January 2011. The data were used to investigate the properties of the volcanic tremor wave field at the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. Volcanic tremor has been proven to be a powerful tool for eruption forecasting, therefore, identifying its source <span class="hlt">locations</span> may shed new light on the dynamics of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> system. A preliminary spectral analysis highlights that most of the seismic energy is associated with six narrow spectral peaks between 1 and 6 Hz. After taking topography into account, we performed frequency-slowness analyses using the MUSIC algorithm and the semblance technique with the aim to define and <span class="hlt">locate</span> the different components contributing to the wave field. Results show a complex wave field, with possibly multiple sources. We identify peaks at frequencies < 2 Hz as being related to anthropogenic sources coming from the N- NW direction where the geothermal plant and San Vincente Pacaya village are <span class="hlt">located</span>. Azimuth measurements indicate that the 3 Hz signal propagates from the SE direction and it has been attributed to the new vent on the southeast flank of Pacaya <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>. However, the presence of secondary peaks with azimuths of ˜ 200°, 150° and 70° seems to suggest either nonvolcanic sources or perhaps the presence of structural heterogeneities that produce strong scattered waves. At higher frequencies, results show effects of array aliasing, and therefore have not been considered in this study. The dispersive properties of the wave field have been investigated using the Spatial Auto-Correlation Method (SPAC). The dispersion characteristics of Rayleigh waves have been then inverted to find a shallow velocity model beneath the array, which shows a range of velocities from about 0.3 km/s to 2 km/s, in agreement with slowness values of the frequency bands considered. In detail, apparent velocities of 1-2 km/s dominate at frequencies below 2 Hz, whereas lower apparent velocities of about 0.6 km/s are found to characterize the 3 Hz signal. We conclude that the sustained tremor at Pacaya seems to be linked to a shallow source both from the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, corresponding to the new vent opened on the SE flank of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> during the last explosive eruption in May 2010, and possibly from anthropogenic sources.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASA-TRS&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20110020296&hterms=exoskeleton&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dexoskeleton"><span id="translatedtitle">Miniature Robotic <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> for Exploring Harsh Environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Behar, Alberto; Bruhn, Fredrik; Carsey, Frank</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The miniature autonomous submersible explorer (MASE) has been proposed as a means of scientific exploration -- especially, looking for signs of life -- in harsh, relatively inaccessible underwater environments. Basically, the MASE would be a small instrumented robotic <span class="hlt">submarine</span> (see figure) that could launch itself or could be launched from another vehicle. Examples of environments that might be explored by use of the MASE include subglacial lakes, deep-ocean hydrothermal vents, acidic or alkaline lakes, brine lenses in permafrost, and ocean regions under Antarctic ice shelves.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/cond-mat/0504548v1"><span id="translatedtitle">Dynamic and instability of <span class="hlt">submarine</span> avalanches</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>F. Malloggi; J. Lanuza; B. Andreotti; E. Clément</p> <p>2005-04-21</p> <p>We perform a laboratory-scale experiment of <span class="hlt">submarine</span> avalanches on a rough inclined plane. A sediment layer is prepared and thereafter tilted up to an angle lower than the spontaneous avalanche angle. The sediment is scrapped until an avalanche is triggered. Based on the stability diagram of the sediment layer, we investigate different structures for the avalanche front dynamics. First we see a straight front descending the slope, and then a transverse instability occurs. Eventually, a fingering instability shows up similar to rivulets appearing for a viscous fluid flowing down an incline. The mechanisms leading to this new instability and the wavelength selection are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=USGSPUBS&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70013727"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrogen isotope systematics of <span class="hlt">submarine</span> basalts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Kyser, T.K.; O'Neil, J.R.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>The D/H ratios and water contents in fresh <span class="hlt">submarine</span> basalts from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, the East Pacific Rise, and Hawaii indicate that the primary D/H ratios of many <span class="hlt">submarine</span> lavas have been altered by processes including (1) outgassing, (2) addition of seawater at magmatic temperature, and (3) low-temperature hydration of glass. Decreases in ??D and H2O+ from exteriors to interiors of pillows are explained by outgassing of water whereas inverse relations between ??D and H2O+ in basalts from the Galapagos Rise and the FAMOUS Area are attributed to outgassing of CH4 and H2. A good correlation between ??D values and H2O is observed in a suite of <span class="hlt">submarine</span> tholeiites dredged from the Kilauea East Rift Zone where seawater (added directly to the magma), affected only the isotopic compositions of hydrogen and argon. Analyses of some glassy rims indicate that the outer millimeter of the glass can undergo lowtemperature hydration by hydroxyl groups having ??D values as low as -100. ??D values vary with H2O contents of subaerial transitional basalts from Molokai, Hawaii, and subaerial alkali basalts from the Society Islands, indicating that the primary ??D values were similar to those of <span class="hlt">submarine</span> lavas. Extrapolations to possible unaltered ??D values and H2O contents indicate that the primary ??D values of most thoteiite and alkali basalts are near -80 ?? 5: the weight percentages of water are variable, 0.15-0.35 for MOR tholeiites, about 0.25 for Hawaiian tholeiites, and up to 1.1 for alkali basalts. The primary ??D values of -80 for most basalts are comparable to those measured for deep-seated phlogopites. These results indicate that hydrogen, in marked contrast to other elements such as Sr, Nd, Pb, and O, has a uniform isotopic composition in the mantle. This uniformity is best explained by the presence of a homogeneous reservoir of hydrogen that has existed in the mantle since the very early history of the Earth. ?? 1984.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASA-TRS&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890011943&hterms=Charcoal&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DCharcoal"><span id="translatedtitle">Iridium emissions from Hawaiian <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Finnegan, D. L.; Zoller, W. H.; Miller, T. M.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Particle and gas samples were collected at Mauna Loa <span class="hlt">volcano</span> during and after its eruption in March and April, 1984 and at Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span> in 1983, 1984, and 1985 during various phases of its ongoing activity. In the last two Kilauea sampling missions, samples were collected during eruptive activity. The samples were collected using a filterpack system consisting of a Teflon particle filter followed by a series of 4 base-treated Whatman filters. The samples were analyzed by INAA for over 40 elements. As previously reported in the literature, Ir was first detected on particle filters at the Mauna Loa Observatory and later from non-erupting high temperature vents at Kilauea. Since that time Ir was found in samples collected at Kilauea and Mauna Loa during fountaining activity as well as after eruptive activity. Enrichment factors for Ir in the volcanic fumes range from 10,000 to 100,000 relative to BHVO. Charcoal impregnated filters following a particle filter were collected to see if a significant amount of the Ir was in the gas phase during sample collection. Iridium was found on charcoal filters collected close to the vent, no Ir was found on the charcoal filters. This indicates that all of the Ir is in particulate form very soon after its release. Ratios of Ir to F and Cl were calculated for the samples from Mauna Loa and Kilauea collected during fountaining activity. The implications for the KT Ir anomaly are still unclear though as Ir was not found at <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> other than those at Hawaii. Further investigations are needed at other <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> to ascertain if basaltic <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> other than hot spots have Ir enrichments in their fumes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=USGSPUBS&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70027510"><span id="translatedtitle">Evidence for dike emplacement beneath Iliamna <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Alaska in 1996</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Roman, D.C.; Power, J.A.; Moran, S.C.; Cashman, K.V.; Doukas, M.P.; Neal, C.A.; Gerlach, T.M.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Two earthquake swarms, comprising 88 and 2833 <span class="hlt">locatable</span> events, occurred beneath Iliamna <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Alaska, in May and August of 1996. Swarm earthquakes ranged in magnitude from -0.9 to 3.3. Increases in SO2 and CO2 emissions detected during the fall of 1996 were coincident with the second swarm. No other physical changes were observed in or around the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> during this time period. No eruption occurred, and seismicity and measured gas emissions have remained at background levels since mid-1997. Earthquake hypocenters recorded during the swarms form a cluster in a previously aseismic volume of crust <span class="hlt">located</span> to the south of Iliamna's summit at a depth of -1 to 4 km below sea level. This cluster is elongated to the NNW-SSE, parallel to the trend of the summit and southern vents at Iliamna and to the regional axis of maximum compressive stress determined through inversion of fault-plane solutions for regional earthquakes. Fault-plane solutions calculated for 24 swarm earthquakes <span class="hlt">located</span> at the top of the new cluster suggest a heterogeneous stress field acting during the second swarm, characterized by normal faulting and strike-slip faulting with p-axes parallel to the axis of regional maximum compressive stress. The increase in earthquake rates, the appearance of a new seismic volume, and the elevated gas emissions at Iliamna <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> indicate that new magma intruded beneath the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> in 1996. The elongation of the 1996-1997 earthquake cluster parallel to the direction of regional maximum compressive stress and the accelerated occurrence of both normal and strike-slip faulting in a small volume of crust at the top of the new seismic volume may be explained by the emplacement and inflation of a subvertical planar dike beneath the summit of Iliamna and its southern satellite vents. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JVGR..197..188E"><span id="translatedtitle">The 1793 eruption of San Martín Tuxtla <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, Veracruz, Mexico</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Espíndola, J. M.; Zamora-Camacho, A.; Godinez, M. L.; Schaaf, P.; Rodríguez, S. R.</p> <p>2010-11-01</p> <p>San Martín Tuxtla (N18.562°; W95.199°, 1659 masl) is a basaltic <span class="hlt">volcano</span> <span class="hlt">located</span> in southern Veracruz, a Mexican State bordering the Gulf of Mexico. It rises in a volcanic field strewn with monogenetic volcanic cones, maars and three other large <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> mostly dormant since the late Pliocene: Santa Marta, San Martín Pajapan and Cerro El Vigía. The latest eruptive event of San Martín occurred in 1793 and was described by Don José Mariano Moziño, a naturalist under the commission of the Viceroy of the then New Spain. In this work we present results of the study of this eruption based on historical accounts and field observations. We identified an ash deposit around the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> related to the 1793 eruption, mapped its distribution and determined its granulometric, petrographic and geochemical characteristics. These studies suggest that the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> began its activity with explosive phreatomagmatic explosions, which were followed by Strombolian activity; this period lasting from March to October 1793. The activity continued with an effusive phase that lasted probably 2 years. The eruption covered an area of about 480 km 2 with at least 1 cm of ash; the fines reaching distances greater than 300 km from the crater. A total mass of about 2.5 × 10 14 g was ejected and the volcanic columns probably reached altitudes of the order of 10 km during the most explosive phases. The lava emitted formed a coulee that descended the northern flank of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> and has an approximate volume of 2.0 × 10 7 m 3.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NSDL&redirectUrl=http://volcano.oregonstate.edu/volcanoes/planet_volcano/venus/intro.html"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> on Venus</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Visitors can read about the characteristics of volcanism on Venus and how it differs from volcanism on Earth. A map showing the <span class="hlt">locations</span> and types of volcanic structures on the surface of Venus is provided, along with links to other related topics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-STC&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6989934"><span id="translatedtitle">Facies analysis of strawn <span class="hlt">submarine</span> fan complex, Fort Worth basin, central Texas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Pranter, M.J. (Conoco Inc., Midland, TX (USA))</p> <p>1990-02-01</p> <p>The Fort Worth basin is a Paleozoic foreland basin <span class="hlt">located</span> in central Texas. The basin developed in direct response to the tectonic evolution of the Ouachita thrust belt. Fan delta, <span class="hlt">submarine</span> fan, and related slope depositional systems comprising the lower Strawn Group were deposited within the Fort Worth foreland basin and platform and shelf-edge carbonates developed on the adjacent Concho platform. The Ouachita thrust belt and related structural highlands served as the principal source areas for the thick accumulation of lower Strawn <span class="hlt">submarine</span> fan sequences. The nature and distribution of depositional environments were controlled by active subsidence within the Fort Worth basin. Both sediment loading and tectonic loading following thrust-sheet propagation were major contributors to basin subsidence. The most rapid subsidence within the Fort Worth basin occurred during the early and late Atokan and continued into the early Desmoinesian. Decreasing subsidence and sedimentation rates during the late Desmoinesian and early Missourian established a setting for the development of upper Strawn fluvial and deltaic systems, which eventually prograded across the Fort Worth basin. Several cycles of fan progradation and abandonment are represented within the lower Strawn. The lower Strawn delta-fed <span class="hlt">submarine</span> fan turbidites were deposited at the base of the slope forming an aggrading ramplike depositional feature. Individual facies recognized in outcrop and within the subsurface include fan delta, prodelta slope, proximal ramp, and distal ramp facies. Sandstone geometries and sediment distribution patterns reflect this ramplike feature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ExFl...56..123A"><span id="translatedtitle">The structure of the wake generated by a <span class="hlt">submarine</span> model in yaw</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ashok, A.; Van Buren, T.; Smits, A. J.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>The turbulent wake of a <span class="hlt">submarine</span> model in yaw was investigated using stereoscopic particle image velocimetry at The model (DARPA SUBOFF idealized <span class="hlt">submarine</span> geometry) is mounted in a low-speed wind tunnel using a support that mimics the sail, and it is yawed so that the body moves in the plane normal to the support. The measurements reveal the formation of a pair of streamwise vortices that are asymmetric in strength. The weaker vortex quickly diffuses, and in the absence of further diffusion, the stronger vortex maintains its strength even at the furthest downstream <span class="hlt">location</span>. It is suggested that the flow fields obtained here using a semi-infinite sail as a support will be similar to those obtained using a finite length sail since its tip vortex would not interact significantly with the body vortices present in the wake, at least for a considerable distance downstream of the stern Hence, a <span class="hlt">submarine</span> in yaw is expected to generate wakes which are inherently more persistent than one in pitch, and the strong asymmetries in yaw are expected to produce a net rolling moment on the body.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.5882W"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Sedimentation Transport Processes in the South-Eastern Terceira Rift / São Miguel Region (Azores)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Weiß, Benedikt; Hübscher, Christian; Lüdmann, Thomas</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The south-eastern Terceira Rift comprises a rift basin, igneous ridges, seamounts and São Miguel, the main island of the volcanic Azores Archipelago. It is <span class="hlt">located</span> ~1500 km west of continental Portugal within the convergence zone of the American, African and Eurasian plate. Due to <span class="hlt">submarine</span> and subaerial volcanism, the sedimentation rate is higher than usually assumed in such a segregated <span class="hlt">submarine</span> region. Multi-beam and high-resolution multi-channel seismic data reveal a wide variety of sediment transport processes. Volcanic fall-out sediments are abundant in the entire area. Along the northern slope of Sao Miguel terrestrial volcanic sediments are drained by rain water gullies which connect to <span class="hlt">submarine</span> channels. Turbidity currents created some 10 km long erosional channels which transported the sediments more than 40 km downslope. Several regional accumulations of talus and/or pyroclastic material get instable resulting in gravitational gliding, creeping or slide events. Volcanic ridges partly collapse due to tectonic stress and/or gravity spreading. Oceanic currents remobilize sediments and form drift deposits. Infilling drifts developed on top of hangingwall blocks of step faults. Therefore, the São Miguel region is a good example of a sedimentary system with strong time-variant and locally defined sediment support. Sedimentation is controlled by volcanism and tectonics, since these processes affect sedimentation pathways and oceanographic conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASA-TRS&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01736&hterms=Fossey+Dian&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3D%2528Fossey%2BDian%2529"><span id="translatedtitle">Space Radar Image of Karisoke & Virunga <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This is a false-color composite of Central Africa, showing the Virunga <span class="hlt">volcano</span> chain along the borders of Rwanda, Zaire and Uganda. This area is home to the endangered mountain gorillas. The image was acquired on October 3, 1994, on orbit 58 of the space shuttle Endeavour by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR). In this image red is the L-band (horizontally transmitted, vertically received) polarization; green is the C-band (horizontally transmitted and received) polarization; and blue is the C-band (horizontally transmitted and received) polarization. The area is centered at about 2.4 degrees south latitude and 30.8 degrees east longitude. The image covers an area 56 kilometers by 70 kilometers (35 miles by 43 miles). The dark area at the top of the image is Lake Kivu, which forms the border between Zaire (to the right) and Rwanda (to the left). In the center of the image is the steep cone of Nyiragongo <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, rising 3,465 meters (11,369 feet) high, with its central crater now occupied by a lava lake. To the left are three <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, Mount Karisimbi, rising 4,500 meters (14,800 feet) high; Mount Sabinyo, rising 3,600 meters (12,000 feet) high; and Mount Muhavura, rising 4,100 meters (13,500 feet) high. To their right is Nyamuragira <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, which is 3,053 meters (10,017 feet) tall, with radiating lava flows dating from the 1950s to the late 1980s. These active <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> constitute a hazard to the towns of Goma, Zaire and the nearby Rwandan refugee camps, <span class="hlt">located</span> on the shore of Lake Kivu at the top left. This radar image highlights subtle differences in the vegetation of the region. The green patch to the center left of the image in the foothills of Karisimbi is a bamboo forest where the mountain gorillas live. The vegetation types in this area are an important factor in the habitat of mountain gorillas. Researchers at Rutgers University in New Jersey and the Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund in London will use this data to produce vegetation maps of the area to aid in their studies of the last 650 mountain gorillas in the world. The faint lines above the bamboo forest are the result of agricultural terracing by the people who live in the region. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASA-TRS&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940006503&hterms=Hydrophones&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DHydrophones"><span id="translatedtitle">Underwater hydrophone <span class="hlt">location</span> survey</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cecil, Jack B.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The Atlantic Undersea Test and Evaluation Center (AUTEC) is a U.S. Navy test range <span class="hlt">located</span> on Andros Island, Bahamas, and a Division of the Naval Undersea Warfare Center (NUWC), Newport, RI. The Headquarters of AUTEC is <span class="hlt">located</span> at a facility in West Palm Beach, FL. AUTEC's primary mission is to provide the U.S. Navy with a deep-water test and evaluation facility for making underwater acoustic measurements, testing and calibrating sonars, and providing accurate underwater, surface, and in-air tracking data on surface ships, <span class="hlt">submarines</span>, aircraft, and weapon systems. Many of these programs are in support of Antisubmarine Warfare (ASW), undersea research and development programs, and Fleet assessment and operational readiness trials. Most tests conducted at AUTEC require precise underwater tracking (plus or minus 3 yards) of multiple acoustic signals emitted with the correct waveshape and repetition criteria from either a surface craft or underwater vehicle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://chinacat.coastal.udel.edu/papers/tappin-etal-margeol14.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Did a <span class="hlt">submarine</span> landslide contribute to the 2011 Tohoku tsunami? David R. Tappin a,</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Kirby, James T.</p> <p></p> <p>Did a <span class="hlt">submarine</span> landslide contribute to the 2011 Tohoku tsunami? David R. Tappin a, , Stephan T September 2014 Accepted 15 September 2014 Available online 28 September 2014 Keywords: tsunami <span class="hlt">submarine</span> that the most likely additional tsunami source was a <span class="hlt">submarine</span> mass failure (SMF--i.e., a <span class="hlt">submarine</span> landslide</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.V31B2785F"><span id="translatedtitle">Migration of a Caldera Eruptive Center, Newberry <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Oregon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Frone, Z.; Waibel, A.; Blackwell, D. D.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Newberry <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> is <span class="hlt">located</span> in Deschutes County, Oregon about 35 km south of the city of Bend. It is a bi-modal Quaternary <span class="hlt">volcano</span> and is one of the largest <span class="hlt">volcanos</span> in the Cascade Range. The <span class="hlt">volcano</span> is positioned near the junction of three geologic provinces: the Cascade Range to the west, the High Lava Plains portion of the Basin and Range to the south and east, and the Blue Mountains to the northeast. Newberry <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> has been active for the past 600,000 years and has had at least two caldera-forming eruptions. The most recent major caldera-related eruptions, resulting in significant silicic ash and pyroclastic deposits, occurred approximately 300,000 and 80,000 years ago. A large-volume basaltic eruption that occurred about 72,000 years ago is represented by the widespread Bend Lavas which extend approximately 70 km to the north of the central caldera. About 6,000 years ago numerous basaltic eruptions occurred along a northwest fracture zone. The most recent eruption, a silicic obsidian flow and associated pumice fall that vented from within the caldera, has been dated at 1,300 ybp. Newberry has been the site of multiple rounds of geothermal exploration over the past 30 years. Geophysical data including gravity, resistivity, and seismic studies collected in the 1980s in early exploration of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> have identified anomalous features beneath the west flank of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. Four deep (<2.8km) wells have been drilled on the northern half of the west flank; all of the wells have encountered temperatures in excess of 300°C, however, three of the wells have low permeability and unconnected fractures. The fourth well showed evidence of a hydrothermal system, but the well caved before a flow test could be completed. Recent geophysical analysis coupled with well geochemistry has identified evidence for older nested caldera related eruptive events buried under younger west flank lavas. A strong gravity gradient, a sharp MT boundary, and arcuate surface features from LIDAR coupled with 300-1200m offsets in units between wells is evidence that the caldera has migrated to the east over time. Buried silicic lavas are observed on the west flank; these lavas include McKay Butte, West Flank Dome, and Southwest Flank Dome. If this conclusion is correct, buried volcanic features similar to those observed in the present caldera could be expected under portions of the west flank, now buried by subsequent volcanic units. Hydrothermal systems, as exposed by erosion in older caldera mineral deposits, may be found associated with these features at Newberry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.V23D2134A"><span id="translatedtitle">Resistivity Changes of Sakurajima <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> by Magnetotelluric Continuous Observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aizawa, K.; Kanda, W.; Ogawa, Y.; Iguchi, M.; Yokoo, A.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>In order to predict <span class="hlt">volcano</span> eruptions and to contribute to hazard mitigation, monitoring of subsurface magma movement is the most essential approach. Recent study of time change of seismic structure (4D tomography) in Etna <span class="hlt">volcano</span> clearly imaged time change of Vp/Vs structure, [Patanè et al., 2006]. They showed that structure changes not only on the <span class="hlt">location</span> of magma intrusion but widely around the intrusion. They attributed Vp/Vs change to subsurface magma movement and fluids migration from the intrusion zone. Another method using seismic noise records are proposed to monitor the subsurface seismic structure [Brenguier et al., 2008]. These seismic methods have a great potential to reliable prediction of <span class="hlt">volcano</span> eruption, though the method need densely deployed seismometer network. Monitoring electric resistivity structure is also the promising tools for imaging the subsurface magma movement, because magma and degassed volatile is highly conductive. Indeed, by repeated DC electric measurement using active source field, significant resistivity change is detected before and after the 1986 eruption of Izu-Oshima <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, and the subsurface magma movement is deduced [Yukutake et al., 1990; Utada, 2003]. In this study, we show the first results of the long term continuous magnetotellurics (MT) observation to monitor the resistivity structure. Because MT impedance is stable and high time resolution [Eisel and Egbert, 2001; Hanekop and Simpson, 2006], the continuous MT observation is suitable to detect subsurface resistivity changes. We conducted long-term MT continuous measurements since May, 2008 to July, 2009 at Sakurajima, which is the most active <span class="hlt">volcano</span> in Japan. Two observation sites were set up at 3.3km east, and 3km WNW of the summit crater. The obtained MT impedance shows significant apparent resistivity changes, which continues 20~50 days, in the frequency range between 300-1 Hz at the both observation sites. This frequency range corresponds to the depth around sea level, where groundwater is likely to exist. The start of the resistivity changes roughly coincide with the start of the uplift of the summit detected by the underground tunnel tiltmeter, which is one of the most reliable indicators of the subsurface magma intrusion of Sakurajima <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. A possible cause of the apparent resistivity change is the volatile degassed from rising magma. In this study, we will carefully investigate the cause of the resistivity change of showing various data of <span class="hlt">volcano</span> activities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.V23D2113N"><span id="translatedtitle">Plenty of Deep Long-Period Earthquakes Beneath Cascade <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nichols, M. L.; Malone, S. D.; Moran, S. C.; Thelen, W. A.; Vidale, J. E.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>The Pacific Northwest Seismic Network (PNSN) records and <span class="hlt">locates</span> earthquakes within Washington and Oregon, including those occurring at 10 Cascade volcanic centers. In an earlier study (Malone and Moran, EOS 1997), a total of 11 deep long-period (DLP) earthquakes were reported beneath 3 Washington <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>. They are characterized by emergent P- and S- arrivals, long and ringing codas, and contain most of their energy below 5 Hz. DLP earthquakes are significant because they have been observed to occur prior to or in association with eruptions at several <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, and as a result are inferred to represent movement of deep-seated magma and associated fluids in the mid-to-lower crust. To more thoroughly characterize DLP occurrence in Washington and Oregon, we employed a two-step algorithm to systematically search the PNSN’s earthquake catalogue for DLP events occurring between 1980 and 2008. In the first step we applied a spectral ratio test to the demeaned and tapered triggered event waveforms to distinguish long-period events from the more common higher frequency <span class="hlt">volcano</span>-tectonic and regional tectonic earthquakes. In the second step we visually analyzed waveforms of the flagged long-period events to distinguish DLP earthquakes from long-period rockfalls, explosions, shallow low-frequency events, and glacier quakes. We identified 56 DLP earthquakes beneath 7 Cascade volcanic centers. Of these, 31 occurred at Mount Baker, where the background flux of magmatic gases is greater than at the other <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> in our study. The other 6 <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> with DLPs (counts in parentheses) are Glacier Peak (5), Mount Rainier (9), Mount St. Helens (9), Mount Hood (1), Three Sisters (1), and Crater Lake (1). No DLP events were identified beneath Mount Adams, Mount Jefferson, or Newberry <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>. The events are 10-40 km deep and have an average magnitude of around 1.5 (Mc), with both the largest and deepest DLPs occurring beneath Mount Baker. Cascade DLP earthquakes occur mostly as single events, although there are a few instances where two consecutive DLPs occur within seconds to hours of each other. None of the DLP earthquakes have been associated with anomalous activity at any Cascade <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, including the 1980-86 and 2004-08 eruptive periods at Mount St. Helens.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PApGe.171.1153N"><span id="translatedtitle">Seismic Wavefields in the Deep Seafloor Area from a <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Landslide Source</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nakamura, Takeshi; Takenaka, Hiroshi; Okamoto, Taro; Kaneda, Yoshiyuki</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>We use the finite difference method to simulate seismic wavefields at broadband land and seafloor stations for a given terrestrial landslide source, where the seafloor stations are <span class="hlt">located</span> at water depths of 1,900-4,300 m. Our simulation results for the landslide source explain observations well at the seafloor stations for a frequency range of 0.05-0.1 Hz. Assuming the epicenter to be <span class="hlt">located</span> in the vicinity of a large <span class="hlt">submarine</span> slump, we also model wavefields at the stations for a <span class="hlt">submarine</span> landslide source. We detect propagation of the Airy phase with an apparent velocity of 0.7 km/s in association with the seawater layer and an accretionary prism for the vertical component of waveforms at the seafloor stations. This later phase is not detected when the structural model does not consider seawater. For the model incorporating the seawater, the amplitude of the vertical component at seafloor stations can be up to four times that for the model that excludes seawater; we attribute this to the effects of the seawater layer on the wavefields. We also find that the amplification of the waveform depends not only on the presence of the seawater layer but also on the thickness of the accretionary prism, indicating low amplitudes at the land stations and at seafloor stations <span class="hlt">located</span> near the trough but high amplitudes at other stations, particularly those <span class="hlt">located</span> above the thick prism off the trough. Ignoring these characteristic structures in the oceanic area and simply calculating the wavefields using the same structural model used for land areas would result in erroneous estimates of the size of the <span class="hlt">submarine</span> landslide and the mechanisms underlying its generation. Our results highlight the importance of adopting a structural model that incorporates the 3D accretionary prism and seawater layer into the simulation in order to precisely evaluate seismic wavefields in seafloor areas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.C31A1112S"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Permafrost in the Laptev Sea Imaged With High-Resolution Multi-Channel Seismic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schwenk, T.; Spiess, V.; Kassens, H.; Rekant, P.; Gusev, E.</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>A thick permafrost layer has developed below the Laptev Sea during the last glacials as the now flooded shelf was exposed and not glaciated. The permafrost still exists today in a <span class="hlt">submarine</span> environment after the last transgression, but global warming with increasing arctic water temperatures may lead to degradation. Since organic carbon and gas hydrates are expected within und beneath the <span class="hlt">submarine</span> permafrost, the degradation of permafrost could release considerable amounts of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Even though this importance of the <span class="hlt">submarine</span> permafrost for the global climate system, the knowledge of its distribution and possible degradation in the Laptev Sea is still limited. In September 2004, high-resolution multi-channel seismic data as well as sediment echosounder and sidescan data were collected during the Expedition Transdrift X. This expedition was carried out in a Russian-German cooperation between the GEOMAR (Kiel, Germany), the VNIIO (St. Petersburg, Russia) and the University of Bremen (Germany). As seismic source, a Mini GI Gun was used; the seismic signals were received with a 48-channel streamer especially designed for shallow water. The main goal of the expedition was to image the distribution and character of the top of the permafrost. The seismic data show different seismic facies and features in the Laptev Sea. A central target of the cruise was a prominent reflector imaged with a dense grid of seismic and acoustic data. Shape and scale of the reflector seems to be similar to the thermokarst terrain of the Sibirian coastlands today including ice-complexes and filled thermokarst lakes. The strong reflection of the interface indicates the presence of permafrost. To the west, this reflector change from distinct to prolonged, which may interpreted as the degradation of the permafrost. A large number of gas seeps, mostly <span class="hlt">located</span> in the depression of the prominent reflector, could be identified, underlining the possible potential of the <span class="hlt">submarine</span> permafrost as greenhouse gas releaser.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17..612G"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> triggered by dynamic and static stress changes in Chile: Observations, stress field changes and physical modelling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gaete, Ayleen; Walter, Thomas</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Evidence is increasing that subduction zone earthquakes may influence the volcanic activity along a volcanic arc. The processes of triggering, however, are not clear. In a commonly discussed concept, changes of the crustal stress field may affect intrusive bodies under <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, open magma pathways and faults, and decompress a magma-fluid system. Other concepts focus on the dynamic passage of seismic waves, inducing bubble growth and ascent as well as fluid migration. <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> in the south and central Andes have a century long documented history of earthquake - eruption interactions. Numerous subduction earthquakes were followed by more and unexpected <span class="hlt">volcano</span> eruptions, which is why we here concentrate our research on this particular area. The most recent major subduction earthquake occurred on April 1st, 2014, close to the coast of northern Chile. During this event we had <span class="hlt">volcano</span> monitoring stations <span class="hlt">located</span> at several active <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> and fumarole sites, as well as at on of the largest geyser fields of the world, all <span class="hlt">located</span> within 500 km distance to the earthquake epicenter. Here we present preliminary results describing if and how those monitored <span class="hlt">volcano</span> sites showed activity level changes, which is an opportunity to study the influence of earthquakes over active and dormant <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>. After analysis of the date we computed the static strain and stress field in the overriding plate and at the sites of the <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>. In addition we design physical models that allow to study not only the effects of static stress changes and dilatation on fluid paths, but also the effect of dynamic processes. To this aim we simulate real seismic waveforms on a shaking table hosting an analogue <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, and discuss under which situations magma paths and ascent rates are augmented and hindered by the subduction earthquake. Results are transferrable to other subduction related <span class="hlt">volcano</span>-earthquake interactions and may allow better understanding of the processes of static and dynamic triggering.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFM.V21B1194W"><span id="translatedtitle">The Effects of Persistently Degassing <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> on the Natural Environment as Exemplified by Kilauea, Masaya and Poás <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Williams-Jones, G.; Flynn, L.; Harris, A. J.; Gibson, B.; Mouginis-Mark, P. J.</p> <p>2002-12-01</p> <p>While the effects on the global environment of large volcanic eruptions have been frequently studied, there has been little work on the impact of lower tropospheric emissions from persistently degassing <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>. In contrast to large volcanic eruptions which may have a short term but hemispheric/global effect (through injection of gas and ash into the stratosphere), persistently degassing <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> can have significant long-term (years to decades), local and regional effects. To examine these effects, we consider 3 persistently active degassing systems: Kilauea (USA), Poás (Costa Rica) and Masaya (Nicaragua). These <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> are characterized by SO2 emission rates ranging from 100s to 1000s metric tonnes per day, and have emitted acid gases into the troposphere for extended periods of time. Masaya, for example, has degassed approximately the same amount of SO2 (21 Tg) over a period of ~140 years as the 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo injected into the atmosphere in just a few hours. The extended degassing at Kilauea, Masaya and Poás impacts on commercial agriculture and has led to attempts to mechanically mitigate the hazard through capping of the active crater at Masaya and flooding to reinstate the acid crater lake at Poás. In order to investigate the environmental effects of persistent degassing, we use remote sensing data (Landsat ETM+, IKONOS) with NDVI band ratio algorithms to delineate poorly vegetated areas downwind of each <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. These data are incorporated, through a GIS, with DEM and various ground truth data (soil pH, dry deposition rates, precipitation acidity, etc). Extremely distinct zones of vegetation "kill off" are noted that correlate with changes in topography. It appears that sharp topographic changes allow the gas plume to decouple or couple with the ground, hence lessening or increasing its impact at any down wind <span class="hlt">location</span>. This integrated study of degassing at persistently active <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> may aide in limiting the effects on human populations and agriculture downwind of such systems through improved land use management.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=USGSPUBS&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70018262"><span id="translatedtitle">Noble gases in <span class="hlt">submarine</span> pillow basalt glasses from Loihi and Kilauea, Hawaii: A solar component in the Earth</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Honda, M.; McDougall, I.; Patterson, D.B.; Doulgeris, A.; Clague, D.A.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Noble gas elemental and isotopic abundances have been analysed in twenty-two samples of basaltic glass dredged from the <span class="hlt">submarine</span> flanks of two currently active Hawaiian <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, Loihi Seamount and Kilauea. Neon isotopic ratios are enriched in 20Ne and 21Ne by as much as 16% with respect to atmospheric ratios. All the Hawaiian basalt glass samples show relatively high 3He 4He ratios. The high 20Ne 22Ne values in some of the Hawaiian samples, together with correlations between neon and helium systematics, suggest the presence of a solar component in the source regions of the Hawaiian mantle plume. The solar hypothesis for the Earth's primordial noble gas composition can account for helium and neon isotopic ratios observed in basaltic glasses from both plume and spreading systems, in fluids in continental hydrothermal systems, in CO2 well gases, and in ancient diamonds. These results provide new insights into the origin and evolution of the Earth's atmosphere. ?? 1993.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASA-TRS&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=MSFC-6900901&hterms=submarine&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dsubmarine"><span id="translatedtitle">Deep-Sea <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> 'Ben Franklin'</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1969-01-01</p> <p>The deep-sea <span class="hlt">submarine</span> 'Ben Franklin' is being docked in the harbor. Named for American patriot and inventor Ben Franklin, who discovered the Gulf Steam, the 50-foot Ben Franklin was built between 1966 and 1968 in Switzerland for deep-ocean explorer Jacques Piccard and the Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corporation. The submersible made a famous 30-day drift dive off the East Coast of the United States and Canada in 1969 mapping the Gulf Stream's currents and sea life. It also made space exploration history by studying the behavior of aquanauts in a sealed, self-contained, self-sufficient capsule for NASA. On July 14, 1969, the Ben Franklin was towed to the high-velocity center of the Stream off the coast of Palm Beach, Florida. With a NASA observer on board, the sub descended to 1,000 feet off of Riviera Beach, Florida and drifted 1,400 miles north with the current for more than four weeks, reemerging near Maine. During the course of the dive, NASA conducted exhaustive analyses of virtually every aspect of onboard life. They measured sleep quality and patterns, sense of humor and behavioral shifts, physical reflexes, and the effect of a long-term routine on the crew. The <span class="hlt">submarine</span>'s record-shattering dive influenced the design of Apollo and Skylab missions and continued to guide NASA scientists as they devised future marned space-flight missions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25109084"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Submarine</span> 'safe to escape' studies in man.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jurd, K M; Seddon, F M; Thacker, J C; Blogg, S L; Stansfield, M R D; White, M G; Loveman, G A M</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The Royal Navy requires reliable advice on the safe limits of escape from a distressed <span class="hlt">submarine</span> (DISSUB). Flooding in a DISSUB may cause a rise in ambient pressure, increasing the risk of decompression sickness (DCS) and decreasing the maximum depth from which it is safe to escape. The aim of this study was to investigate the pressure/depth limits to escape following saturation at raised ambient pressure. Exposure to saturation pressures up to 1.6 bar (a) (160 kPa) (n = 38); escapes from depths down to 120 meters of sea water (msw) (n = 254) and a combination of saturation followed by escape (n = 90) was carried out in the QinetiQ <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Escape Simulator, Alverstoke, United Kingdom. Doppler ultrasound monitoring was used to judge the severity of decompression stress. The trials confirmed the previously untested advice, in the Guardbook, that if a DISSUB was lying at a depth of 90 msw, then it was safe to escape when the pressure in the DISSUB was 1.5 bar (a), but also indicated that this advice may be overly conservative. This study demonstrated that the upper DISSUB saturation pressure limit to safe escape from 90 msw was 1.6 bar (a), resulting in two cases of DCS. PMID:25109084</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASA-TRS&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=MSFC-6900905&hterms=quality+Research+scientist&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dquality%2BResearch%2Bscientist"><span id="translatedtitle">Deep-Sea Research <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> 'Ben Franklin'</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1969-01-01</p> <p>This is an aerial view of the deep-sea research <span class="hlt">submarine</span> 'Ben Franklin' at dock. Named for American patriot and inventor Ben Franklin, who discovered the Gulf Steam, the 50-foot Ben Franklin was built between 1966 and 1968 in Switzerland for deep-ocean explorer Jacques Piccard and the Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corporation. The submersible made a famous 30-day drift dive off the East Coast of the United States and Canada in 1969 mapping the Gulf Stream's currents and sea life, and also made space exploration history by studying the behavior of aquanauts in a sealed, self-contained, self-sufficient capsule for NASA. On July 14, 1969, the Ben Franklin was towed to the high-velocity center of the Stream off the coast of Palm Beach, Florida. With a NASA observer on board, the sub descended to 1,000 feet off of Riviera Beach, Florida and drifted 1,400 miles north with the current for more than four weeks, reemerging near Maine. During the course of the dive, NASA conducted exhaustive analyses of virtually every aspect of onboard life. They measured sleep quality and patterns, sense of humor and behavioral shifts, physical reflexes, and the effects of a long-term routine on the crew. The <span class="hlt">submarine</span>'s record-shattering dive influenced the design of Apollo and Skylab missions and continued to guide NASA scientists as they devised future marned space-flight missions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NSDL&redirectUrl=http://pumas.nasa.gov/files/10_04_04_1.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> and Urban Planning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-08-03</p> <p>In this activity, students use satellite imagery to assess potential danger associated with selecting a new and safer <span class="hlt">location</span> for the town of Villarrica, along with its corresponding communication and evacuation routes. Satellite imagery and a topographic map are included. The resource is from PUMAS - Practical Uses of Math and Science - a collection of brief examples created by scientists and engineers showing how math and science topics taught in K-12 classes have real world applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.S14A..04F"><span id="translatedtitle">Observations from a Dense Infrasound Sensor Network on Sakurajima <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Japan: a Benchmark Dataset for the <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Acoustics Community</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fee, D.; Yokoo, A.; Johnson, J. B.; Rowell, C. R.; McKee, K. F.; Matoza, R. S.; Swanson, E.; Iguchi, M.; Nakamichi, H.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>In July 2013 a dense infrasound network was deployed for ~8 days at the active Sakurajima <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Japan as part of the IAVCEI workshop, '<span class="hlt">Volcano</span> acoustics: from installation to analysis'. This infrasound network was between ~2.5-6 km distance from the active vent and consisted of five Hyperion digital infrasound sensors deployed in a circle around the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> and two collocated small-aperture 6-element arrays of MEMS-based broad-band pressure transducer sensors. All workshop-related data have been distributed to the workshop participants for future analysis. Two additional infrasound arrays with 4 and 5 sensors were deployed by the University of Bristol and Kyoto University (3.4 and 11.4 km). This infrasound network complements the long-standing multi-parameter monitoring network run by the Sakurajima <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observatory (SVO), including four infrasound stations at 2.3-6.3 km. During this study period Sakurajima exhibited a relatively high level of volcanic unrest, producing numerous ash-rich explosive eruptions per day. In this presentation we provide an overview of this unique infrasound dataset and highlight some of the scientific advances that are possible through a dense infrasound network combined with multiparameter observations. Preliminary analyses of the infrasound data show significant local propagation affects, as evidenced by substantial amplitude and waveform differences between two equidistant sites <span class="hlt">located</span> on opposite sides of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. Topography and crater morphology appear to play significant roles in local infrasound propagation at Sakurajima. Infrasound waveforms also vary considerably between eruptions, suggesting that the onsets of explosive volcanic eruptions are more complex than previously thought. High-amplitude infrasound was also recorded; with the largest explosion producing a remarkable peak pressure over 500 Pa at 2.5 km distance. Source localization techniques and future research directions in <span class="hlt">volcano</span> infrasound will also be presented. The geometry and arrangement of infrasound sensors offers the unprecedented opportunity to separate source processes from propagation and site effects. Additionally, the number and density of infrasound stations, full-azimuthal resolution, variety of sensors used, diverse eruptive activity, and extensive history of infrasound recordings by SVO make this a benchmark dataset that will yield abundant insight into <span class="hlt">volcano</span> acoustics and eruption processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.6312L"><span id="translatedtitle">Electrical conductivity of intermediate magmas from Uturuncu <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> (Bolivia)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Laumonier, Mickael; Gaillard, Fabrice; Sifre, David</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Magmas erupted at Uturuncu <span class="hlt">volcano</span> (South Bolivia) comes from the Altiplano-Puna Magma Body (APMB, Chile-Bolivia), a crustal massive body of 80 km long by 10 km thick <span class="hlt">located</span> at ~ 35 km depth named. Recent magneto telluric surveys reveal a resistivity lower than 1 ohm.m due to the presence of melt which could result in the reactivation of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. In order to better constrain the resistivity profiles and thus the conditions of magma storage of the APMB, we have performed in situ electrical measurements on natural dacites and andesites from Uturuncu with a 4-wire set up in a piston cylinder and internally heated pressure vessel. The range of temperature (500 to 1300°C), pressure (0.3 to 2 Gpa), and the various water contents covers the respective ranges occurring at natural conditions. The results show that the conductivity increases with the temperature and the water content but slightly decreases with the pressure. Then a model was built from these results so as to help in (i) interpreting the electrical signature of natural magmas, (ii) constraining their conditions (chemical composition, temperature, pressure, water content, melt fraction) from the source to the storage <span class="hlt">location</span> and (iii) providing information on the interior structure of a <span class="hlt">volcano</span> and its reservoir.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.S22C..01L"><span id="translatedtitle">Large-N in <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Settings: Volcanosri</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lees, J. M.; Song, W.; Xing, G.; Vick, S.; Phillips, D.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>We seek a paradigm shift in the approach we take on <span class="hlt">volcano</span> monitoring where the compromise from high fidelity to large numbers of sensors is used to increase coverage and resolution. Accessibility, danger and the risk of equipment loss requires that we develop systems that are independent and inexpensive. Furthermore, rather than simply record data on hard disk for later analysis we desire a system that will work autonomously, capitalizing on wireless technology and in field network analysis. To this end we are currently producing a low cost seismic array which will incorporate, at the very basic level, seismological tools for first cut analysis of a <span class="hlt">volcano</span> in crises mode. At the advanced end we expect to perform tomographic inversions in the network in near real time. Geophone (4 Hz) sensors connected to a low cost recording system will be installed on an active <span class="hlt">volcano</span> where triggering earthquake <span class="hlt">location</span> and velocity analysis will take place independent of human interaction. Stations are designed to be inexpensive and possibly disposable. In one of the first implementations the seismic nodes consist of an Arduino Due processor board with an attached Seismic Shield. The Arduino Due processor board contains an Atmel SAM3X8E ARM Cortex-M3 CPU. This 32 bit 84 MHz processor can filter and perform coarse seismic event detection on a 1600 sample signal in fewer than 200 milliseconds. The Seismic Shield contains a GPS module, 900 MHz high power mesh network radio, SD card, seismic amplifier, and 24 bit ADC. External sensors can be attached to either this 24-bit ADC or to the internal multichannel 12 bit ADC contained on the Arduino Due processor board. This allows the node to support attachment of multiple sensors. By utilizing a high-speed 32 bit processor complex signal processing tasks can be performed simultaneously on multiple sensors. Using a 10 W solar panel, second system being developed can run autonomously and collect data on 3 channels at 100Hz for 6 months with the installed 16Gb SD card. Initial designs and test results will be presented and discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMNH11A1111H"><span id="translatedtitle">A potential <span class="hlt">submarine</span> landslide tsunami in South China Sea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huang, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Switzer, A. D.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Submarine</span> earthquakes and <span class="hlt">submarine</span> landslides are two main sources of tsunamis. Tsunami hazard modeling in the South China Sea has been primarily concerned with the potential large <span class="hlt">submarine</span> earthquakes in the Manila trench. In contrast, evaluating the regional risk posed by tsunamis generated from <span class="hlt">submarine</span> landslide is a new endeavor. At offshore south central Vietnam, bathymetric and seismic surveys show evidence of potentially tsunamigenic <span class="hlt">submarine</span> landslides although their ages remain uncertain. We model two hypothetical <span class="hlt">submarine</span> landslide events at a potential site on the heavily sediment laden, seismically active, steep continental slope offshore southeast Vietnam. Water level rises along the coast of Vietnam are presented for the potential scenarios, which indicate that the southeast coastal areas of Vietnam are at considerable risk of tsunami generated offshore <span class="hlt">submarine</span> landslides. Key references: Kusnowidjaja Megawati, Felicia Shaw, Kerry Sieh, Zhenhua Huang, Tso-Ren Wu, Y. Lin, Soon Keat Tan and Tso-Chien Pan.(2009). Tsunami hazard from the subduction megathrust of the South China Sea, Part I, Source characterization and the resulting tsunami, Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, Vol. 36(1), pp. 13-20. Enet, F., Grilli, S.T. and Watts, P. (2003). Laboratory experiments for tsunami generated by underwater landslides: comparison with numerical modeling, In: Proceedings of 13th International Conference on Offshore and Polar Engineering, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, pp. 372-379.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=USGSPUBS&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70018827"><span id="translatedtitle">The chemical and hydrologic structure of Poas <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, Costa Rica</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Rowe, G.L., Jr.; Brantley, S.L.; Fernandez, J.F.; Borgia, A.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Comparison of the chemical characteristics of spring and river water draining the flanks of Poas <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Costa Rica indicates that acid chloride sulfate springs of the northwestern flank of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> are derived by leakage and mixing of acid brines formed in the summit hydrothermal system with dilute flank groundwater. Acid chloride sulfate waters of the Rio Agrio drainage basin on the northwestern flank are the only waters on Poas that are affected by leakage of acid brines from the summit hydrothermal system. Acid sulfate waters found on the northwestern flank are produced by the interaction of surface and shallow groundwater with dry and wet acid deposition of SO2 and H2SO4 aerosols, respectively. The acid deposition is caused by a plume of acid gases that is released by a shallow magma body <span class="hlt">located</span> beneath the active crater of Poas. -from Authors</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.V53B1557R"><span id="translatedtitle">Morne aux Diables. a potentially active <span class="hlt">volcano</span> in northern Dominica, Lesser Antilles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rheubottom, A. N.; Smith, A. L.; Roobol, M. J.</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>The island of Dominica, which is <span class="hlt">located</span> near the center of the Lesser Antilles island arc, comprises at least 8 potentially active <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>. One of these is Morne aux Diables, an isolated composite cone situated at the extreme northern end of the island. Age dating suggests that the main cone building activity occurred between 1.5 and 1.0 million years ago. Exposed on the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>'s flanks however are a number of unconsolidated valley-fill block and ash flow deposits suggesting more recent activity. One of these deposits, on the north-east flank of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, has been recently dated at > 46,000 years B.P. Other evidence of potential activity from this center includes the presence of warm (27°C), acidic (pH 1.6), sulfate-rich springs on the summit of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, hot springs on the coast, and the occurrence in 2002 and 2003 of shallow earthquake swarms partially <span class="hlt">located</span> beneath the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. Morne aux Diables is dominantly composed of deposits of block and ash flows and associated domes from Pelean-style activity, however, semi-vesicular andesite block and ash flows and surges (Asama-style activity) and pumiceous lapilli falls (Plinian-style activity) are locally abundant. The Pelean domes are <span class="hlt">located</span> both in the summit region and along the southern flanks of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. Petrologically, the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> is composed of a monotonous series of porphyritic andesites and dacites containing phenocrysts of plagioclase+augite-hypersthene with very sparse crystals of hornblende and quartz. Petrological models suggest the Morne aux Diables andesites and dacites can be produced by fractional crystallization of basaltic magma (such as those erupted from centers such as Morne Anglais and Morne Plat Pays in the south). Minor variations within this suite of andesites and dacites can be related to upper crustal fractionation of phenocryst phases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.V33F..04P"><span id="translatedtitle">Constraining <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>-Hydrologic Interaction at Masaya <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Nicaragua Through Continuous Temperature Monitoring and Modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pearson, S. C.; Connor, C.; Sanford, W. E.; Kiyosugi, K.; Lehto, H.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Flank fumaroles are a direct result of the interaction between groundwater and magma, and therefore have good potential for monitoring <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>. At Masaya <span class="hlt">volcano</span> in Nicaragua, Tough2 models of fluid transport through porous media show that three fumarole zones observed on the flank of Masaya <span class="hlt">volcano</span> can be explained by convection within the saturated zone when a uniform heat source is applied at depth. 5 days before the formation of a small lava lake in the active crater, temperatures increased by up to 5°C in the further fumarole zone, 3-4 km away. However, magnetic modeling shows that an anomaly of up to 6000 nT corresponds extremely well with topographic offset of a fault and fracture system on the flank of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> that is an important control on local fluid flux. Comparisons between Tough2 models of these structures, self-potential and CO2 data show that elevated fluid flux occurs in the hanging wall of relatively impermeable faults, and flow is inhibited in the footwall. Local geological structures like faults are therefore a dominant factor in the <span class="hlt">location</span> and response of these fumaroles. Although the fundamental source of fumaroles is groundwater-magma interaction, the response of the groundwater system to volcanic activity is on the order of months to years and is hard to resolve with current monitoring techniques. Therefore the source for variations in fumarole degassing is not simple, and a good conceptual model of the system is vital. Continuous monitoring of CO2 for 3 years has shown that there is a distinct structure to the temperature signal of fumarole gases prior to and during volcanic activity. 10-15 cycles were recorded during 4 10-day periods, two of which were associated with surficial volcanic activity. Rainfall also showed a significant, albeit imperfect, correlation with these signals. The frequency spectrum proved to be an extremely useful tool in identifying the beginning and end of the anomalous episodes. Using Tough2 to create numerical models of the system we have determined that flow of fluids from the water table is too slow to explain these responses. A pressure pulse originating from the active crater is however a possible mechanism. We are now creating models to see what magnitude and time- and spatial-scale changes can create the signals observed. Models allow us to see whether changes in diffuse degassing can emanate from variations below the water table, or are due to a shallow source like shallow fluid injection or a pressure pulse traveling through the system. This is extremely important when interpreting diffuse degassing variations in light of changes in volcanic activity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1714079L"><span id="translatedtitle">Broadband moment-tensor inversion of long-period events on <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>: example from Turrialba <span class="hlt">volcano</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lokmer, Ivan; Thun, Johannes; Bean, Christopher</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Seismic events on <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> form a spectral continuum, from the high-frequency (> 10 Hz) tectonic-like events to ultra long period events with dominant periods longer than 100s of seconds. Long-period events (LP) are characterised by the dominant frequencies between 0.5 and 2Hz and relatively simple waveforms. They are mainly <span class="hlt">located</span> within the first several hundred meters below <span class="hlt">volcano</span> summit and are thought to reflect the dynamics of the shallow magmatic and/or hydrothermal plumbing system. It is still puzzling if they are generated by the pressure perturbations within fluid-filled cracks and conduits, or by a more classical faulting model in the extremely weak material, where the role of fluid is to modulate overall stress rather than being directly involved in the source generation process. So far, several moment-tensor (MT) inversions of LP events have been performed. A typical MT solution comprises a tensile crack source mechanism, and a pulsing or resonating source-time function (STF). However, due to generally small magnitudes of these events (a small S/N ratio), only the most energetic part of the signal is used in inversions. More precisely, the low frequency limit of the STF is determined by the lowest frequency of the most energetic part of the recorded waveform (usually about 0.3 - 0.5 Hz). Since it is extremely difficult to recover longer period ground displacements from such small-amplitude velocity records by using classical instrument response removal approach, it is almost impossible to infer if the obtained STF represents the real displacement in the source or it is just its band-limited representation. Here we used a good-quality dataset recorded near the summit of Turrialba <span class="hlt">volcano</span> and applied some of the techniques used for the "baseline correction" in the strong motion seismology. In this way we managed to recover very low frequency part of LP signals, i.e. much lower than usual 0.3-0.5 Hz. Although the velocity records processed in this way did not differ significantly to the classically processed waveforms, the striking difference can be observed in the displacement, where the static shift was successfully recovered at the stations close to the source. Consequently, the obtained MT solution was the classical earthquake "ramp" function, rather than a pulsing or oscillating waveform. This is the first result of this kind, which will hopefully contribute to a better understanding of these puzzling events. In addition, extending inversions towards very low frequencies makes the solutions less sensitive to large uncertainties in the shallow velocity models (which is a huge problems in <span class="hlt">volcano</span> seismology).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=USGSPUBS&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70036106"><span id="translatedtitle">Mechanism of the 1996-97 non-eruptive <span class="hlt">volcano</span>-tectonic earthquake swarm at Iliamna <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Alaska</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Roman, D.C.; Power, J.A.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>A significant number of <span class="hlt">volcano</span>-tectonic(VT) earthquake swarms, some of which are accompanied by ground deformation and/or volcanic gas emissions, do not culminate in an eruption.These swarms are often thought to represent stalled intrusions of magma into the mid- or shallow-level crust.Real-time assessment of the likelihood that a VTswarm will culminate in an eruption is one of the key challenges of <span class="hlt">volcano</span> monitoring, and retrospective analysis of non-eruptive swarms provides an important framework for future assessments. Here we explore models for a non-eruptive VT earthquake swarm <span class="hlt">located</span> beneath Iliamna <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Alaska, in May 1996-June 1997 through calculation and inversion of fault-plane solutions for swarm and background periods, and through Coulomb stress modeling of faulting types and hypocenter <span class="hlt">locations</span> observed during the swarm. Through a comparison of models of deep and shallow intrusions to swarm observations,we aim to test the hypothesis that the 1996-97 swarm represented a shallow intrusion, or "failed" eruption.Observations of the 1996-97 swarm are found to be consistent with several scenarios including both shallow and deep intrusion, most likely involving a relatively small volume of intruded magma and/or a low degree of magma pressurization corresponding to a relatively low likelihood of eruption. ?? 2011 Springer-Verlag.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASA-TRS&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01761&hterms=images+environmental+change&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dimages%2Benvironmental%2Bchange"><span id="translatedtitle">Space Radar Image of Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Hawaii</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This three-dimensional image of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> Kilauea was generated based on interferometric fringes derived from two X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar data takes on April 13, 1994 and October 4, 1994. The altitude lines are based on quantitative interpolation of the topographic fringes. The level difference between neighboring altitude lines is 20 meters (66 feet). The ground area covers 12 kilometers by 4 kilometers (7.5 miles by 2.5 miles). The altitude difference in the image is about 500 meters (1,640 feet). The <span class="hlt">volcano</span> is <span class="hlt">located</span> around 19.58 degrees north latitude and 155.55 degrees west longitude. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR. The Instituto Ricerca Elettromagnetismo Componenti Elettronici (IRECE) at the University of Naples was a partner in the interferometry analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NSDL&redirectUrl=http://missiongeography.org/58mod1.htm"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span>: Local Hazard, Global Issue</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>In this module, students can explore two ways that <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> affect Earth: by directly threatening people and the environments adjacent to them, and by ejecting aerosols into the atmosphere. The module consists of three investigations in which they will study the local effects of volcanism using images of Mount St. Helens, examine how the effects of volcanic activity can be remotely sensed and monitored from space using NASA data for Mount Spurr in Alaska, and see how geography and spatial perspective are useful in addressing global issues in the tracking and mapping of aerosol hazards such as the ash cloud emitted by the 1989 eruption on Redoubt <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>. Each investigation is complete with overview, a list of materials and supplies, content preview, classroom procedures, worksheets, background, and evaluation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/54337645"><span id="translatedtitle">Seismicity at Baru <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Western Panama, Panama</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>E. Camacho; D. A. Novelo-Casanova; A. Tapia; A. Rodriguez</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The Baru <span class="hlt">volcano</span> in Western Panama (8.808°N, 82.543°W) is a 3,475 m high strato <span class="hlt">volcano</span> that lies at about 50 km from the Costa Rican border. The last major eruptive event at this <span class="hlt">volcano</span> occurred c.1550 AD and no further eruptive activity from that time is known. Since the 1930´s, approximately every 30 years a series of seismic swarms take</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NSDL&redirectUrl=http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/Glossary/StratoVolcano/description_composite_volcano.html"><span id="translatedtitle">Composite <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span>, Stratovolcanoes, and Subduction-Zone <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> (title provided or enhanced by cataloger)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This resource defines and describes composite <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, stratovolcanoes, subduction-zone <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> and composite cones. The information is from different sources and therefore the site gives a broad picture of these forms. The shape of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> is described as a function of the type and frequency of eruption and its proximity to plate boundaries.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.T21E..04H"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Submarine</span> mass wasting processes along slopes influenced by long-term tectonic erosion: The Middle America Trench</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Harders, R.; Ranero, C. R.; Weinrebe, W.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>We have studied <span class="hlt">submarine</span> land-sliding using a seafloor topography and side-scan sonar data along the continental slope of the Middle America Trench. This subduction zone is dominated by tectonic erosion. Studies during the last few decades have shown mass wasting structures at <span class="hlt">submarine</span> slopes around the world's continental margins, hot-spot volcanic islands, and volcanic island arcs. At Atlantic margins slides initiate at low slope angles and appear triggered by high sediment accumulation rates. At volcanic islands large-scale land-sliding is caused by <span class="hlt">volcano</span> sector collapse. At subduction zones with accretionary prisms, land-sliding seems associated to contractional tectonics and fluid seepage. <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> mass movements at subduction zones dominated by tectonic erosion are comparatively limited. However, tectonic erosion is active in about 50% of the world subduction zones. Distinct failures have been studied at slopes in Peru, Costa Rica, Nicaragua and New Zealand but extensive surveys have not been obtained. We present a comprehensive data sets on seafloor mapping on a subduction zone dominated by tectonic erosion. The data covers much of the Middle America Trench (MAT) from the Mexico-Guatemala border to Costa Rica - Panama border. The goal of this contribution is to evaluate how long-term tectonics caused by subduction erosion preconditions the continental slope structure to modulate the generation of land-sliding. We show that changes in subduction erosion processes, interacting with the local topography of the subducting plate correlate to variations in the type and distribution of failures along the slope of the region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NSDL&redirectUrl=http://www.beloit.edu/sepm/Earth_Works/Modeling_a_Volcano.html"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling an Active (!!) Explosive <span class="hlt">Volcano</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This activity is an active simulation of an explosive volcanic eruption. The model <span class="hlt">volcano</span> is a plastic 35 mm film cannister that erupts (the lid blows off) when gas pressure generated by dissolving alka seltzer is sufficiently high. It is realistic in that the timing of the eruption is difficult to predict precisely and in that the eruption occurs when the pressure of the gas exceeds the confining pressure of the lid. The experiment can be modified to show that an eruption will not occur if there is not enough gas pressure generated or if gas is allowed to escape gradually. Students will explain how the build-up of gas from dissolving alka seltzer causes the lid of a film cannister to blow off, explain that build-up of gas pressure causes eruption of explosive <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, and that the pressure comes from heating of dissolved gases in the magma, and they will delineate the similarities and differences between the model and an actual <span class="hlt">volcano</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.2307T"><span id="translatedtitle">Earthquakes - <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> (Causes and Forecast)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tsiapas, E.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>EARTHQUAKES - <span class="hlt">VOLCANOES</span> (CAUSES AND FORECAST) ELIAS TSIAPAS RESEARCHER NEA STYRA, EVIA,GREECE TEL.0302224041057 tsiapas@hol.gr The earthquakes are caused by large quantities of liquids (e.g. H2O, H2S, SO2, ect.) moving through lithosphere and pyrosphere (MOHO discontinuity) till they meet projections (mountains negative projections or projections coming from sinking lithosphere). The liquids are moved from West Eastward carried away by the pyrosphere because of differential speed of rotation of the pyrosphere by the lithosphere. With starting point an earthquake which was noticed at an area and from statistical studies, we know when, where and what rate an earthquake may be, which earthquake is caused by the same quantity of liquids, at the next east region. The forecast of an earthquake ceases to be valid if these components meet a crack in the lithosphere (e.g. limits of lithosphere plates) or a <span class="hlt">volcano</span> crater. In this case the liquids come out into the atmosphere by the form of gasses carrying small quantities of lava with them (<span class="hlt">volcano</span> explosion).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-STC&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/350740"><span id="translatedtitle">Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 1): New London <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Base, Defense Reutilization Marketing Office (contaminated soil and groundwater), Groton, CT, March 31, 1998</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>NONE</p> <p>1998-09-01</p> <p>The Defense Reutilization and Marketing Office (DRMO) is <span class="hlt">located</span> on the Naval <span class="hlt">Submarine</span> Base New London (NSB-NLON), Groton, Connecticut. This Interim Record of Decision (Interim ROD) addresses the contaminated soil and groundwater at this site. This Interim ROD presents the following interim remedy for soil and groundwater at the DRMO: Institutional Controls and Monitoring.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-STC&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/580829"><span id="translatedtitle">East Spar development: NCC buoy--The vertical <span class="hlt">submarine</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Boyle, E.C. [Kvaerner Oil and Gas Australia, Perth (Australia)</p> <p>1998-02-01</p> <p>The remote East Spar gas/condensate field has been developed using a subsea production system operated by an unmanned navigation, communication, and control (NCC) buoy. The use of this type of system allows control of the field from any convenient <span class="hlt">location</span>, with the command-response time and the cost of the facility almost completely independent of the distance to the shore or host facility. Successes during the project (such as using model tests to prove the concept and using a tension-leg mooring system to reduce the motion response of the buoy) are discussed and compared to failures, like the weight and size growth of the structure, caused as the design requirements were finalized and external factors changed. The operation and layout of this facility is summarized, showing why it was described as a vertical <span class="hlt">submarine</span>. Conclusions are drawn about the use of an NCC buoy to develop this field, showing that the main objectives have been achieved. The limited operating experience to date is also considered in the review of the design objectives. The paper concludes with the possibilities for the future of this type of concept.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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