Science.gov

Sample records for substance exposure prevention

  1. A hazardous substance exposure prevention rating method for intervention needs assessment and effectiveness evaluation: the Small Business Exposure Index

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Aims This paper describes the refinement and adaptation to small business of a previously developed method for systematically prioritizing needs for intervention on hazardous substance exposures in manufacturing worksites, and evaluating intervention effectiveness. Methods We developed a checklist containing six unique sets of yes/no variables organized in a 2 × 3 matrix of exposure potential versus exposure protection at three levels corresponding to a simplified hierarchy of controls: materials, processes, and human interface. Each of the six sets of indicator variables was reduced to a high/moderate/low rating. Ratings from the matrix were then combined to generate an exposure prevention 'Small Business Exposure Index' (SBEI) Summary score for each area. Reflecting the hierarchy of controls, material factors were weighted highest, followed by process, and then human interface. The checklist administered by an industrial hygienist during walk-through inspection (N = 149 manufacturing processes/areas in 25 small to medium-sized manufacturing worksites). One area or process per manufacturing department was assessed and rated. A second hygienist independently assessed 36 areas to evaluate inter-rater reliability. Results The SBEI Summary scores indicated that exposures were well controlled in the majority of areas assessed (58% with rating of 1 or 2 on a 6-point scale), that there was some room for improvement in roughly one-third of areas (31% of areas rated 3 or 4), and that roughly 10% of the areas assessed were urgently in need of intervention (rated as 5 or 6). Inter-rater reliability of EP ratings was good to excellent (e.g., for SBEI Summary scores, weighted kappa = 0.73, 95% CI 0.52–0.93). Conclusion The SBEI exposure prevention rating method is suitable for use in small/medium enterprises, has good discriminatory power and reliability, offers an inexpensive method for intervention needs assessment and effectiveness evaluation, and complements

  2. Substance Use Prevention Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Judy

    This report outlines the Hillsborough County, Florida, Head Start Program's project to field test with young children and their families curricula that were designed to prevent alcohol and other drug problems. A national search conducted by means of computers, individual contacts, and other methods yielded information on 22 substance abuse…

  3. Youths' Exposure to Substance Use Prevention Messages: 2003. The NSDUH Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) asks youths aged 12 to 17 whether they have talked with at least one of their parents during the past year about the dangers of tobacco, alcohol, or drug use. Youths are also asked whether they have seen or heard any alcohol or drug prevention messages from sources such as posters, pamphlets,…

  4. Recipes for Prevention. Substance Abuse Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Catherine

    This handbook, which is the first in a series of materials being developed by an educational group in Albany, New York, for parents and caregivers of preschoolers, focuses on substance abuse prevention concepts. Its goals are to promote awareness that substance abuse prevention starts with very young children and to provide a format of activities…

  5. Mississippi Substance Abuse Prevention Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Bureau of School Improvement.

    This document presents the Substance Abuse Prevention Curriculum developed for use in Mississippi elementary and secondary schools. The curriculum uses a developmental approach to substance abuse prevention which emphasizes helping students gain information needed to make sound decisions about drug use. Incorporated into the curriculum are all…

  6. Translating Developmental Neuroscience to Substance Use Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Riggs, Nathaniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Several preventive interventions have demonstrated efficacy in reducing substance use. However, opportunities exist to further improve prevention approaches. The application of recent advances in developmental neuroscience can inform the design, implementation, and evaluation of substance use prevention programs. This paper first briefly describes the developmental integration of the prefrontal cortex with emotion and motivation centers of the brain, and the implications of this process for substance use vulnerability. Discussed next are specific examples of how developmental neuroscience can inform prevention timing, development, and evaluation. Contextual considerations are then suggested including a critical role for schools in substance misuse prevention. Finally, current theoretical and methodological challenges to the translation of developmental neuroscience to substance use prevention are discussed. PMID:26236576

  7. Preventing and Treating Substance Abuse among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sussman, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Substance misuse is one of the most prevalent causes of adolescent injury and death. Additionally, 5-8% of adolescents in the U.S. qualify for a diagnosis of substance abuse disorder. This article discusses formal prevention and treatment program models, focusing on a continuum of care which extends from prevention to treatment alternatives.…

  8. Prevention of substance abuse: a brief overview

    PubMed Central

    MEDINA-MORA, MARÍA ELENA

    2005-01-01

    Recent advances in psychosocial research and neurosciences have provided new avenues for prevention of substance abuse at the individual and community level. A series of risk and protective factors affecting the likelihood of using and abusing substances have been identified. The scope of prevention has been broadened, allowing the prescription of different interventions for individuals according to their varying degrees of vulnerability to substance experimentation, continuous use and dependence. An increased awareness of comorbidity between mental and substance use disorders provides an arena for prevention within psychiatry and related disciplines. Emphasis on program evaluation has helped identify cost effective programs and policies. The integration of prevention within healthy life style policies and programs, including interventions at the school, family and community levels, is more likely to produce the desired outcomes. PMID:16633497

  9. Adolescents' Exposure to Disasters and Substance Use.

    PubMed

    Schiff, Miriam; Fang, Lin

    2016-06-01

    This paper reviews the impact of exposure to man-made or natural disasters on adolescent substance use. It covers empirical studies published from 2005 to 2015 concerning (a) the scope of the problem, (b) vulnerable groups and risk and protective factors, and (c) evidence-based interventions. The review suggests a strong link between adolescent substance use and exposure to either man-made or natural disaster. Vulnerable groups include adolescents with previous exposure to traumatic events, living in areas that are continually exposed to disasters, and ethnic minorities. Risk and protective factors at the individual, familial, community, and societal levels are described based on the bioecological model of mass trauma. Given that mass trauma is unfortunately a global problem, it is important to establish international interdisciplinary working teams to set gold standards for comparative studies on the etiology for adolescent substance use in the context of disasters. PMID:27087347

  10. Substance misuse prevention: addressing anhedonia.

    PubMed

    Sussman, Steve; Leventhal, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Anhedonia refers to the inability of experiencing pleasure in positive life events. It has been conceptualized as a stable yet malleable characteristic and is associated with hypoactivity in the mesolimbic and mesocortical dopaminergic systems. Very recently, it has been posited as an etiologic factor associated with drug addiction onset, escalation, and relapse. Prevention programming could be developed to counteract the harmful impact of anhedonia, so as to minimize its impact on drug misuse. Remedial efforts are those that either (1) permit the individual to tolerate low levels of pleasure without resorting to drug misuse or other maladaptive behaviors that may unhealthily besot pleasure (for example, through normalization, structuring time, or meditation) or (2) counteract anhedonia by enhancing ones capability to experience pleasure (for example, behavioral activation, positive psychology, pharmacotherapy, or pursuit of positive addictions). School-based activities could be developed that can be completed by individuals, small workgroups, or the whole classroom. The concept of anhedonia is described in this chapter, and possible prevention strategies that might be utilized in schools as well as other contexts are discussed. PMID:24753277

  11. Substance Abuse Prevention in the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lachance, Laurie L.

    This is a Searchlight Plus document, an informational analysis paper based on a computer search of the ERIC database from 1966 through November 1985 and on pertinent outside resources. This paper reviews, analyzes, and interprets the literature on the topic of substance abuse prevention in schools and points out the implications of the information…

  12. Phytotechnologies – Preventing Exposures, Improving Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Heather F.; Burken, Joel G.; Maier, Raina M.; Newman, Lee A.; Rock, Steven; Schnoor, Jerald L.; Suk, William A.

    2014-01-01

    Phytotechnologies have the potential to reduce the amount and/or toxicity of deleterious chemicals/agents, and thereby, prevent human exposures to hazardous substances. As such, phytotechnologies are a tool for primary prevention within the context of public health. Research advances demonstrate that phytotechnologies can be uniquely tailored for effective exposure prevention for a variety of applications. In addition to exposure prevention, phytotechnologists have advanced the use of plants as sensors to delineate environmental contaminants and potential exposures. The applications presented in this paper are at various stages of development and are presented in a framework to reflect how phytotechnologies can help meet basic public health needs for access to clean water, air, and food resources. As plant-based technologies can often be integrated into communities at minimal cost and with low infrastructure needs, their use in improving environmental quality can be applied broadly to minimize potential contaminant exposure. These natural treatment systems concurrently provide ecosystem services of notable value to communities and society. In the future, integration and coordination of phytotechnology activities with public health research will allow technology development that focuses on prevention of environmental exposures. Such an approach will lead to an important role of phytotechnologies in providing sustainable solutions to environmental exposure challenges that improve public health and potentially reduce the burden of disease. PMID:23819283

  13. Substance misuse prevention as corporate social responsibility.

    PubMed

    Radacsi, Gergely; Hardi, Peter

    2014-03-01

    All sectors of society should be involved in reducing substance misuse, including businesses. However, the business sector is typically involved only to the extent that their products compel them to be (e.g., alcohol producers promoting responsible alcohol consumption). This article examines why business participation has been limited and how embedding prevention within a framework of health promotion could increase participation. It reviews both Hungarian and international cases, concluding that although corporate social responsibility (CSR) offers a framework to approach substance misuse reduction, a different perception of the role of the business sector is necessary to make it viable. PMID:24093521

  14. Phytotechnologies--preventing exposures, improving public health.

    PubMed

    Henry, Heather F; Burken, Joel G; Maier, Raina M; Newman, Lee A; Rock, Steven; Schnoor, Jerald L; Suk, William A

    2013-01-01

    Phytotechnologies have potential to reduce the amount or toxicity of deleterious chemicals and agents, and thereby, can reduce human exposures to hazardous substances. As such, phytotechnologies are tools for primary prevention in public health. Recent research demonstrates phytotechnologies can be uniquely tailored for effective exposure prevention in a variety of applications. In addition to exposure prevention, plants can be used as sensors to identify environmental contamination and potential exposures. In this paper, we have presented applications and research developments in a framework to illustrate how phytotechnologies can meet basic public health needs for access to clean water, air, and food. Because communities can often integrate plant-based technologies at minimal cost and with low infrastructure needs, the use of these technologies can be applied broadly to minimize potential contaminant exposure and improve environmental quality. These natural treatment systems also provide valuable ecosystem services to communities and society. In the future, integrating and coordinating phytotechnology activities with public health research will allow technology development focused on prevention of environmental exposures to toxic compounds. Hence, phytotechnologies may provide sustainable solutions to environmental exposure challenges, improving public health and potentially reducing the burden of disease. PMID:23819283

  15. A Novel Combination HIV Prevention Strategy: Post-Exposure Prophylaxis with Contingency Management for Substance Abuse Treatment Among Methamphetamine-Using Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Jesse B.; Inzhakova, Galina; Lake, Jordan E.; Shoptaw, Steven; Reback, Cathy J.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Methamphetamine use has been associated with HIV transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM). However, providers have been hesitant to utilize post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) in populations of stimulant users. This single-arm, open label pilot study sought to demonstrate the safety, feasibility, and acceptability of PEP combined with the drug abstinence intervention of contingency management (CM) in methamphetamine-using MSM. HIV-uninfected MSM reporting recent methamphetamine use were recruited to a CM intervention. Those who reported a recent high-risk sexual or injection drug exposure to an HIV-infected or serostatus unknown source were initiated on tenofovir/emtricitabine (Truvada)-based PEP. Participants were followed over 3 months for infectious/biologic, behavioral, and drug use outcomes. Fifty-three participants enrolled in the study; 35 participants (66%) initiated PEP after a high-risk exposure. The median time from exposure to medication administration was 37.8 h (range 12.5–68.0 h). Twenty-five (71.4%) PEP initiators successfully completed the treatment course. Median medication adherence was 96% (IQR 57–100%), and medication was generally well tolerated. Methamphetamine abstinence during CM treatment increased PEP adherence (2% [95% CI +1–+3%]) per clean urine toxicology sample provided), and increased the odds of PEP course completion (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.04–1.31). One incident of HIV seroconversion was observed in a participant who did not complete PEP treatment, and reported multiple subsequent exposures. Findings demonstrate that PEP, when combined with CM, is safe, feasible, and acceptable as an HIV prevention strategy in methamphetamine-using MSM. PMID:22680280

  16. Reducing substance use during adolescence: a translational framework for prevention

    PubMed Central

    Stanis, Jessica J.; Andersen, Susan L.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Most substance use is initiated during adolescence when substantial development of relevant brain circuitry is still rapidly maturing. Developmental differences in reward processing, behavioral flexibility, and self-regulation lead to changes in resilience or vulnerability to drugs of abuse depending on exposure to risk factors. Intervention and prevention approaches to reducing addiction in teens may be able to capitalize on malleable brain systems in a predictable manner. Objective To review what is known about how factors that increase vulnerability to addiction, including developmental stage, exposure to early life adversity (ranging from abuse, neglect, and bullying), drug exposure, and genetic predisposition, impact the development of relevant systems. Results and Conclusions Appropriate, early intervention may restore the normal course of an abnormal trajectory and reduce the likelihood of developing a substance use disorder (SUD) later in life. A considerable amount is known about the functional neuroanatomy and/or pharmacology of risky behaviors based on clinical and preclinical studies, but relatively little has been directly translated to reduce their impact on addiction in high-risk children or teenagers. An opportunity exists to effectively intervene before adolescence when substance use is likely to emerge. PMID:24464527

  17. MANUAL FOR PREVENTING SPILLS OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES AT FIXED FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the manual is to provide guidance to prevent spills of hazardous substances in fixed facilities that produce substances from raw or starter materials, store the substances, or transfer the substances to and from transportation terminals. The emphasis is on smaller-...

  18. 76 FR 36557 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention... Abuse and Mental Health Services, Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Prevention Drug...

  19. 76 FR 50236 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse...: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Prevention,......

  20. Exposure to Hazardous Chemical Substances--A Major Campus Environmental Health & Safety Concern.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Donald A.; Sorensen, Alfred J.

    1980-01-01

    A broad spectrum of potentially hazardous chemicals offers serious exposure risks to members of college and university communities. A formal program is needed to minimize exposure to these substances and maintain a prevention oriented protective program. The University of Massachusetts has developed such a program. (JN)

  1. Adolescent Substance Abuse: A Comprehensive Approach to Prevention Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wodarski, John S.; Smyth, Nancy J.

    1994-01-01

    Presents data on the extent, nature, and consequences of adolescent substance abuse. Definition of substance abuse is considered. Discusses primary and secondary prevention programs, including programs targeting high-risk youth, school and peer group, families, and communities. Outlines tertiary prevention efforts and emphasizes the need for…

  2. Substance Use and Its Prevention: A Survey of Classroom Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genaux, Melisa; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A nationwide survey of 109 teachers of students with behavioral disorders found little programming concerning prevention of substance abuse. Teachers differed in their priority assignment of substance abuse prevention and reported the absence of parental involvement in such efforts. Lack of time, curriculum materials, and adequate funding were…

  3. Research and Intervention. Preventing Substance Abuse in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Gerardo M., Ed.; Clement, Vonnie V., Ed.

    This publication presents four major research papers on college campus substance abuse prevention and research with reviews of the papers by practitioners in the substance abuse prevention field. Following a Preface and Introduction, the first paper is "Theories, Dominant Models, and the Need for Applied Research" by Gerardo M. Gonzalez. It…

  4. Accessing Substance Abuse Prevention Programs for Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Jennifer L.; Johnson, Gail E.

    2009-01-01

    Current estimates indicate that over 6 million children live with at least one parent who is a substance abuser or is substance dependent. Children who are exposed to drug and alcohol abuse are at a greater risk of experiencing academic and behavior difficulties. Additionally, several studies have shown that students with emotional and behavioral…

  5. Exposure to Violence, Substance Use, and Neighborhood Context

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Emily M.; Pinchevsky, Gillian M.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent exposure to violence and substance use are both public health problems, but how neighborhood context contributes to these outcomes is unclear. This study uses prospective data from 1,416 adolescents to examine the direct and interacting influences of victimization and neighborhood factors on adolescent substance use. Based on hierarchical Bernoulli regression models that controlled for prior substance use and multiple individual-level factors, exposure to violence significantly increased the likelihood of marijuana use but not alcohol use or binge drinking. There was little evidence that community norms regarding adolescent substance use influenced rates of substance use or moderated the impact of victimization. Community disadvantage did not directly impact substance use, but the relationship between victimization and marijuana use was stronger for those in neighborhoods with greater disadvantage. The results suggest that victimization is particularly likely to affect adolescents’ marijuana use, and that this relationship may be contingent upon neighborhood economic conditions. PMID:25432621

  6. 78 FR 38355 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP) Drug... Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Prevention Drug...

  7. 75 FR 82408 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention... within three weeks after the meeting. Committee Name: Substance Abuse and Mental Health...

  8. 76 FR 20994 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... meeting of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance... Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Prevention Drug...

  9. Facilitating Visitation for Infants with Prenatal Substance Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burry, Caroline Long; Wright, Lois

    2006-01-01

    Permanency planning for infants with prenatal substance exposure is challenging due to characteristics of the infants and the ongoing substance use or relapse of the parents. Visitation is a primary mechanism through which child welfare workers determine and support permanency planning. Productive use of visitation for permanency planning for…

  10. 78 FR 61815 - National Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-04

    ... programs that work to prevent substance use where young people learn, grow, and play. We support substance... insurance can sign up for affordable coverage by visiting www.HealthCare.gov . Because adult role models... community organizations as they advance their drive to keep young people, families, and neighborhoods...

  11. 76 FR 62293 - National Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... the United States of America the two hundred and thirty-sixth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2011-26148... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8728 of October 3, 2011 National Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2011 By... increase their chances of living long, healthy, and productive lives. During National Substance...

  12. Substance Abuse Prevention Program. Evaluation Report 1986-87.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns, Jennifer S.

    In May 1986, the Albuquerque, New Mexico Public Schools adopted a policy to address concerns about student substance abuse. All schools developed objectives and activities to address substance abuse prevention and intervention, and an interdisciplinary team was formed to monitor and facilitate the schools' efforts in implementing the policy. To…

  13. Comprehensive Substance Abuse Prevention Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Empey, Donald W.

    This document describes the Glendale Unified School District's (California) comprehensive drug, alcohol, and tobacco education program. The program is based on three components: (1) a sequential outcome-based curriculum that provides students with knowledge about substance abuse and peer-resistant skills; (2) a strong message that the possession,…

  14. Implications of genetic epidemiology for the prevention of substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Merikangas, K R; Avenevoli, S

    2000-01-01

    Despite advances in characterizing human genotypes, the complex process through which genes exert their influence limits the application of molecular genetics to human diseases. Substance use disorders are necessarily complicated by gene-environment interaction because exposure to an exogenous substance is required for their development. The methods of genetic epidemiology are specifically designed to identify sources of complexity that impede etiologic findings and prevention efforts. The goal of this paper is to illustrate the application of family study methods to identify risk factors for substance abuse and their implications for prevention. The Yale Family Study is a controlled family study of the comorbidity of substance and psychiatric disorders. The sample consists of 223 probands with substance use and/or an anxiety disorders and community controls, 1218 adult first degree relatives and spouses, and 203 offspring (ages 7-17) followed for 8 years. Results indicated familial aggregation of substance disorders in adults and children, independence of familial aggregation of alcoholism and drug dependence, and specificity of familial clustering of some drugs of abuse. Familial factors are more strongly associated with substance dependence than abuse, with an attributable risk of 55%. Premorbid psychiatric disorders--social phobia and bipolar affective disorder in adults, and depression, anxiety, conduct, and oppositional defiant disorders in children--were strongly associated with the subsequent development of substance dependence (attributable risks ranging from 44 to 86%). A family history of substance abuse and premorbid psychopathology are strongly associated with the development of substance use disorders. Implications for primary and secondary prevention are discussed. As specific genetic vulnerability markers for substance use disorders become identified, application of the tools of genetic epidemiology may be employed to identify specific environmental

  15. Workshop report: environmental exposures and cancer prevention.

    PubMed Central

    Kreiger, Nancy; Ashbury, Fredrick D; Purdue, Mark P; Marrett, Loraine D

    2003-01-01

    The Workshop on Environmental Exposures and Cancer was held by Cancer Care Ontario (CCO) 25-26 April 2001. An expert panel convened to achieve consensus on a list of important environmental exposures, priority environmental exposures in Ontario, and recommendations for CCO in the areas of surveillance, research, and prevention activities to address these environmental exposures. Panel members developed a working definition of environmental exposure and criteria to prioritize the identified exposures. The process followed in the workshop provided CCO with important direction for its surveillance, research, and prevention activities to address environmental exposures and cancer. It is hoped that the environmental exposures and the opportunities identified through this workshop process will guide policy makers, program personnel, and researchers interested in and struggling with the challenges associated with surveillance, research, and prevention of environmental exposures. PMID:12515687

  16. Law Enforcement and Substance Abuse Prevention: Training and Strategy Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbara, John J.

    1982-01-01

    Describes a training program and a specific information strategy for police promoting substance abuse prevention. Discusses training components for a successful drug abuse presentation and selection of an appropriate prevention strategy. Presents a model of types of drug information. Discusses problems with negative attitudes and use of drug…

  17. Substance Use and HIV Prevention for Youth in Correctional Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mouttapa, Michele; Watson, Donnie W.; McCuller, William J.; Reiber, Chris; Tsai, Winnie

    2009-01-01

    Evidence-based programs for substance use and HIV prevention (SUHIP) were adapted for high-risk juveniles detained at 24-hour secure correctional facilities. In this pilot study, comparisons were made between adolescents who received the SUHIP intervention and a control group on changes in: (1) knowledge of HIV prevention behaviors, (2) attitudes…

  18. Preventing and Reducing Substance Use among Institutionalized Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morehouse, Ellen; Tobler, Nancy S.

    2000-01-01

    Evaluates the Residential Student Assistance Program for its ability to prevent or decrease alcohol and other drug use in high-risk, multi-problem, inner-city minority adolescents. A fifth-year outcome evaluation documented the program's effectiveness in both preventing and reducing substance use among participants. (Author/MKA)

  19. The Juvenile and Adolescent Substance Abuse Prevention Program: An Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talpade, Medha; Lynch, Diane; Lattimore, Barbara; Graham, Ashlee

    2008-01-01

    The Juvenile and Adolescent Substance Abuse Prevention Program (JASAP) is a curriculum-based prevention and health promotion program for youth between the ages of 13 to 18 years in Fulton County, Georgia. The program was established in 2007 to promote healthy decision-making skills that would eventually lead to informed choices and decisions…

  20. Evidence-Based Prevention for Adolescent Substance Use.

    PubMed

    Harrop, Erin; Catalano, Richard F

    2016-07-01

    Due to the significant consequences of adolescent substance use behaviors, researchers have increasingly focused on prevention approaches. The field of prevention science is based on the identification of predictors of problem behaviors, and the development and testing of prevention programs that seek to change these predictors. As the field of prevention science moves forward, there are many opportunities for growth, including the integration of prevention programs into service systems and primary care, an expansion of program adaptations to fit the needs of local populations, and a greater emphasis on the development of programs targeted at young adult populations. PMID:27338963

  1. 3 CFR 9033 - Proclamation 9033 of September 30, 2013. National Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2013

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2013 9033 Proclamation 9033 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 9033 of September 30, 2013 Proc. 9033 National Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2013By the... to crime, motor vehicle crashes, and fatalities. This month, we recognize substance abuse...

  2. Impact of Adolescent Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence on Substance Use in Early Adulthood*

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Carolyn A.; Elwyn, Laura J.; Ireland, Timothy O.; Thornberry, Terence P.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Youth exposure to intimate partner violence has been theorized to increase the risk of adverse outcomes in adulthood including substance-use problems. However, the limited research on the association between early exposure to intimate partner violence and later alcohol- or drug-use problems is inconclusive. Using a prospective design, this study investigates whether adolescent exposure to intimate partner violence increases the risk for problem substance use in early adulthood and whether this relationship differs by gender. Method: The study uses a subsample (n = 508) of participants from the Rochester Youth Development Study, a longitudinal study of urban, largely minority adolescents that oversampled youth at high risk for antisocial behavior and drug use. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess whether adolescent exposure to intimate partner violence predicted increased odds of four indicators of problem substance use in early adulthood, controlling for parental substance use, adolescent maltreatment, and sociodemographic risk factors. Results: Exposure to severe intimate partner violence as an adolescent significantly increased the odds of alcohol-use problems in early adulthood for young women (odds ratio = 5.63, p < .05) but not for young men. Exposure to intimate partner violence did not increase the odds of other substance-use indicators for either gender. Conclusions: Girls exposed to intimate partner violence may be at increased risk for problems with alcohol use in adulthood and should be a target for prevention and intervention efforts. Overall, however, the association between exposure to intimate partner violence and later substance-use problems is less than anticipated in this high-risk community sample. PMID:20230719

  3. Maternal exposure to endocrine-active substances and breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Dorea, Jose G

    2006-07-01

    Women pass on low levels of hazardous environmental contaminants and naturally occurring substances during pregnancy and nursing. In addition to estrogenic activity, these substances exhibit antiestrogenic, antiandrogenic, and androgenic actions, and because they can affect thyroid metabolism, they are described as endocrine-active substances (EAS). Specific topics related to EAS metabolism by mothers, fetuses, and infants are discussed. There is strong evidence that the assumed risk of EAS in early human development is exacerbated by interrupting neonatal priming provided by breastfeeding. The benefits of breastfeeding are fundamental to attenuate possible EAS effects on infants due to long-term intrauterine exposure. Breastfeeding is a guarantor of health benefits, whereas its alternative (infant formula) is a predictor of some health limitations. Mothers concerned with exposure to environmental contaminants should be advised of the proven benefits of breastfeeding and the possible health limitations of formula feeding. PMID:16799917

  4. Black Churches in Substance Use and Abuse Prevention Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Diane R.; Scott, Wilma; Lacey, Krim; Blount, Joan; Roman, Dorothy; Brown, Doreen

    2006-01-01

    In light of their historical role in African American communities, faith-based organizations are uniquely positioned to offer substance use prevention programs to urban African American youth. This article describes the efforts of a university-based program to provide training and technical assistance to faith-based organizations in the…

  5. Navy Substance Abuse Prevention Program: Research and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Randall M.

    This paper describes the research and evaluation efforts of the Navy Substance Abuse Prevention Program at the University of Arizona. The importance and usefulness of formative and summative evaluations are discussed and specific evaluation tasks are identified. The first of these tasks is associated with personnel selection; the functions and…

  6. Young Children of Substance Abusers. Prevention Research Update No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Gregory; Prendergast, Michael

    1991-01-01

    The stated objectives of this document are: to increase awareness of and clarify the risks facing children of substance abusers (COSAs) through a review of recent empirical research literature; and to examine the prevention and intervention issues involved in providing services to these youth in the schools. The literature review deals mainly with…

  7. Substance Abuse among Latino Youth. Prevention Research Update, Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Gregory A.; Gilbert, M. Jean

    This publication is one of a series summarizing recent research on adolescent drug abuse and its prevention. The report provides an overview of research and reviews its implications for dealing with substance abuse among Latino youth, placing new information in the context of past findings. Research has shown that drug use patterns in several…

  8. 77 FR 60615 - National Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ... two hundred and thirty-seventh. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2012-24703 Filed 10-3-12; 8:45 am... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8879 of October 1, 2012 National Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2012 By... hurt by alcohol and drug abuse. From diminished achievement in our schools, to greater risks on...

  9. Youth-Initiated HIV Risk and Substance Use Prevention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goggin, K.; Metcalf, K.; Wise, D.; Kennedy, S.; Murray, T.; Burgess, D.; Reese-Smith, J.; Terhune, N.; Broadus, K.; Downes, A.; Buckendahl, H.

    This study evaluates the first year of a novel HIV and substance use prevention program for inner city youth (Offering New Youth eXperiences--ONYX). Baseline and follow-up measures of knowledge, attitudes, and risk behaviors were administered seven months apart to 441 youth participating in the ONYX program. Youth (n=71) who provided data at both…

  10. Measuring Quality of Delivery in a Substance Use Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, Steven; Jackson-Newsom, Julia; Pankratz, Melinda M.; Hansen, William B.; Ringwalt, Christopher L.; Dusenbury, Linda

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate an observation measure designed to capture teachers' use of interactive teaching skills within the delivery of the All Stars substance use prevention program. Coders counted the number of times teachers praised and encouraged students, accepted and used students' ideas, asked questions,…

  11. Diversity in relapse prevention needs: gender and race comparisons among substance abuse treatment patients.

    PubMed

    Walton, M A; Blow, F C; Booth, B M

    2001-05-01

    Attempts to address high relapse rates following substance abuse treatment have focused on identifying relapse prevention needs and development of subsequent relapse prevention programs. Few studies have examined whether women and African-Americans have unique relapse prevention needs. Research in this area could provide an initial basis for the development of alternative relapse prevention approaches that could be more appropriate for this pop ulation. This study examined gender and race differences in psychosocial concerns among patients recruited from substance abuse treatment as potential indicators of relapse prevention needs. Participants (N = 331) completed several questionnaires during their first month of substance abuse treatment. Assessment packets included measures of coping, self-efficacy, resource needs, cravings, social influences, exposure, and leisure activities. Analyses focused on gender and race differences in these variables before and after controlling for background characteristics (i.e., age, marital status, income, polysubstance use, treatment type, and problem severity). Gender differences found were that men reported poorer coping skills and more negative social influences and exposure to substances than women; these differences remained significant when controlling for background characteristics. Significant race differences were found on all scales except negative social influences. After controlling for background characteristics, African-Americans reported significantly greater coping skills and self-efficacy than did Caucasians; however, African-Americans also reported greater resource needs in comparison to Caucasians. Results highlight the diversity in psychosocial issues among substance abusers in treatment, particularly between Caucasians and African-Americans. Implications for developing alternative relapse prevention approaches to address this diversity are discussed. PMID:11417937

  12. Prenatal substance exposure: What predicts behavioral resilience by early adolescence?

    PubMed

    Liebschutz, Jane M; Crooks, Denise; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Cabral, Howard J; Heeren, Timothy C; Gerteis, Jessie; Appugliese, Danielle P; Heymann, Orlaith D; Lange, Allison V; Frank, Deborah A

    2015-06-01

    Understanding behavioral resilience among at-risk adolescents may guide public policy decisions and future programs. We examined factors predicting behavioral resilience following intrauterine substance exposure in a prospective longitudinal birth-cohort study of 136 early adolescents (ages 12.4-15.9 years) at risk for poor behavioral outcomes. We defined behavioral resilience as a composite measure of lack of early substance use initiation (before age 14), lack of risky sexual behavior, or lack of delinquency. Intrauterine substance exposures included in this analysis were cocaine, tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana. We recruited participants from Boston Medical Center as mother-infant dyads between 1990 and 1993. The majority of the sample was African American/Caribbean (88%) and 49% female. In bivariate analyses, none and lower intrauterine cocaine exposure level predicted resilience compared with higher cocaine exposure, but this effect was not found in an adjusted model. Instead, strict caregiver supervision (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 6.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) [1.90, 19.00], p = .002), lower violence exposure (AOR = 4.07, 95% CI [1.77, 9.38], p < .001), and absence of intrauterine tobacco exposure (AOR = 3.71, 95% CI [1.28, 10.74], p = .02) predicted behavioral resilience. In conclusion, caregiver supervision in early adolescence, lower violence exposure in childhood, and lack of intrauterine tobacco exposure predicted behavioral resilience among a cohort of early adolescents with significant social and environmental risk. Future interventions should work to enhance parental supervision as a way to mitigate the effects of adversity on high-risk groups of adolescents. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26076097

  13. [Methods of substance abuse prevention in the Armed Forces].

    PubMed

    Fisun, A Ia; Shamreĭ, V K; Marchenko, A A; Sinenchenko, A G; Pastushenkov, A V

    2013-09-01

    Dynamics of substance abuse morbidity in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation during the last 10 years (2002-2012) was analyzed. Results of performed analysis showed decreasing tendency since 2007 in conscripts (0.07% in 2012) and in contract soldiers (0.3% in 2012). Alcoholism prevailed in the structure of substance abuse in conscripts (0.05%), drug abuses were diagnosed 2,5 times less often (0.02%). In contract soldiers non-alcohol abuses were diagnosed in 0.004% of cases. It is stated that the major aims of substance abuse prevention are qualitative recruiting of military units (especially in troops maintaining the combat readiness) and departments (subunits) of military education, creating conditions for propaganda for healthy lifestyle, prohibition of drugs and psychopharmaceuticals in military units. For early detection of persons liable to substance abuse and facts of drug consumption it is necessary to perform a medical examination with the help of special program apparatus complex (such as "Addicts") and take into account clinical signs of addiction. Besides, it is necessary to introduce planned and unexpected medical examinations of servicemen. Algorithm of measures in case of detection of serviceman with alcohol or drug intoxication is given. In conclusion the main organizational principals of substance abuse prevention in the Armed Forces are given. PMID:24341196

  14. Measuring quality of delivery in a substance use prevention program.

    PubMed

    Giles, Steven; Jackson-Newsom, Julia; Pankratz, Melinda M; Hansen, William B; Ringwalt, Christopher L; Dusenbury, Linda

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate an observation measure designed to capture teachers' use of interactive teaching skills within the delivery of the All Stars substance use prevention program. Coders counted the number of times teachers praised and encouraged students, accepted and used students' ideas, asked questions, self-disclosed personal anecdotes, and corrected student misbehavior. These teacher behaviors loaded on three factors: classroom management, acknowledgment, and student-centered methods. Classroom management was negatively related to student engagement. Acknowledgment was negatively related to students' normative beliefs. Student-centered methods were positively related to student idealism and normative beliefs, and marginally predicted decreases in student marijuana use. Editors' Strategic Implications: The authors provide a promising approach to studying pedagogical prevention approaches, and they also link teaching processes to student outcomes. This study of program delivery should be of general interest (i.e., not limited to substance use prevention) to practitioners and researchers. PMID:19030993

  15. Development of computerized scenarios for wildlife exposure to priority substances

    SciTech Connect

    Brownlee, L.J.; McPherson, S.M.; Norton, M.R.; Ward, D.R.; Lloyd, K.M.

    1995-12-31

    A computerized model has been developed to estimate wildlife exposure in the Canadian environment to substances through inhalation and ingestion of food, water and soil. This Windows application was developed in Visual Basic using Microsoft Access databases and designed to make the evaluation process consistent, transparent and efficient. Bird, mammal, amphibian and reptile species were selected on the basis of food guild, body size, habitat and distribution in Canada. Intake rates were estimated using allometric equations or measured intake rates when available. Ingestion rates were estimated from free-living metabolic rates and dietary composition. With the information, the authors will develop the exposure scenarios required for assessments of risk to wildlife from priority substances listed in the Canadian Environmental Protection Act.

  16. Neuroimaging methods for adolescent substance use disorder prevention science

    PubMed Central

    Clark, DB; Chung, T; Pajtek, S; Zhai, Z; Long, E; Hasler, B

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods safely provide in vivo indicators of cerebral macrostructure, microstructure, and activation that can be examined in relation to substance use disorder (SUD) risks and effects. This article will provide an overview of MRI approaches, including volumetric measures, diffusion tensor imaging, functional MRI, that have been applied to studies of adolescent neuromaturation in relationship to risk phenotypes and adolescent SUD. To illustrate these applications, examples of research findings will be presented. MRI indicators have demonstrated that neurobiological maturation continues throughout adolescence. MRI research has suggested that variations in neurobiological maturation may contribute to SUD risk, and that substance use adversely influence adolescent brain development. Directly measured neurobiological variables may be viable preventive intervention targets and outcome indicators. Further research is needed to provide definitive findings on neurodevelopmental immaturity as an SUD risk and to determine the directions such observations suggest for advancing prevention science. PMID:23417665

  17. Jump start: a targeted substance abuse prevention program.

    PubMed

    Harrington, N G; Donohew, L

    1997-10-01

    A substance abuse prevention and life skills program for economically disadvantaged, high sensation seeking African American teens was developed and tested in Cincinnati, Ohio. Formative research was conducted to determine program content and format. Over two implementations, 289 individuals in the target population were recruited as participants for the field test of the program. For the first implementation, participants were randomly selected from the city's summer youth employment program. For the second, a media campaign was designed to recruit participants. Process evaluation indicated that participants evaluated the program extremely positively. Outcome evaluation indicated that significant pretest differences between high and low sensation seekers were neutralized for liquor and marijuana in both years of the program and for attitude toward drugs in the first year of the program. These results suggest that sensation seeking is a useful message design and audience-targeting variable for substance abuse prevention program design. Implications and recommendations for future research are discussed. PMID:9307894

  18. Promising and Proven Substance Abuse Prevention Programs. Guide to Science-Based Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Substance Abuse Prevention.

    For more than a decade, the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administrations Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP) has supported demonstration programs designed to identify interventions that work with populations at high risk to prevent substance abuse, delay its onset, and reduce substance abuse-related behaviors. Research now…

  19. 78 FR 5471 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP)...

  20. 75 FR 4577 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention...

  1. 75 FR 28623 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention...

  2. 77 FR 55482 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP)...

  3. 77 FR 45647 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP)...

  4. 78 FR 52779 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP)...

  5. 77 FR 1708 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP)...

  6. 75 FR 8978 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Cancellation of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice... the February 10, 2010 meeting of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP) National Advisory Council. Public notice was given in...

  7. 76 FR 59710 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP)...

  8. 78 FR 69702 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP)...

  9. Exposure of hairdressing apprentices to airborne hazardous substances

    PubMed Central

    Mounier-Geyssant, Estelle; Oury, Véronique; Mouchot, Lory; Paris, Christophe; Zmirou-Navier, Denis

    2006-01-01

    Background Few studies have investigated exposure of hairdressing apprentices to airborne irritants. This study describes exposure levels of apprentices to chemical products used in hairdressing salons in relation with their activity. Methods Following a two stages study design, a group of 300 students completed a questionnaire on their work activities and environment. Among these, a group of 28 subjects volunteered to undergo personal exposure and workplace concentrations measurements over a work shift, during a cold and a hot season, with the agreement of the salon owners. Three chemical substances were studied (ammonia, hydrogen peroxide and persulfates) because they are respiratory tract irritants and because their concentrations could be quantified within a 5 to 8 hour shift period. Results Personal exposure values for H2O2and NH3 (averages [standard deviations] are 0.05 [0.04] and 0.90 [0.76] mg.m-3, respectively) were greater than workplace ambient air concentrations (corresponding values of 0.04 [0.03] and 0.68 [0.42] mg.m-3) for H2O2 and NH3, with no significant seasonal variation. By contrast, workplace concentrations of persulfates (0.019 [0.018] mg.m-3) were greater than personal exposure (0.016 [0.021] mg.m-3, a finding that is consistent with the fact that bleaching is more often undertaken by senior hairdressers. However, all exposure values were lower than the current TLV TWA values. This study also shows that over half of technical spaces where chemical substances used for dying, permanenting or bleaching are manipulated, have no ventilation system, and not even a door or a window opening outside. Conclusion The study hairdressing salons, on average, were small, the most probable reason why occupational hygiene measures such as appropriate ventilation were too seldom implemented. As a consequence, young apprentices and senior hairdressers experience substantial exposure to known airways irritants. PMID:16893447

  10. 78 FR 37560 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention..., http://nac.samhsa.gov/ , or by contacting Matthew J. Aumen. Committee Name: Substance Abuse and...

  11. 77 FR 43344 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention..., http://nac.samhsa.gov/ , or by contacting Matthew J. Aumen. Committee Name: Substance Abuse and...

  12. 78 FR 45545 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention... meeting will also be available on the SAMHSA Web site after the meeting. Committee Name: Substance...

  13. 3 CFR 8728 - Proclamation 8728 of October 3, 2011. National Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2011

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2011 8728 Proclamation 8728 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8728 of October 3, 2011 Proc. 8728 National Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2011By the President... chances of living long, healthy, and productive lives. During National Substance Abuse Prevention...

  14. 45 CFR 96.46 - Substance abuse prevention and treatment services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Substance abuse prevention and treatment services... BLOCK GRANTS Direct Funding of Indian Tribes and Tribal Organizations § 96.46 Substance abuse prevention... organizations under the substance abuse prevention and treatment Block Grant. (b) For the purpose of...

  15. 45 CFR 96.46 - Substance abuse prevention and treatment services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Substance abuse prevention and treatment services... BLOCK GRANTS Direct Funding of Indian Tribes and Tribal Organizations § 96.46 Substance abuse prevention... organizations under the substance abuse prevention and treatment Block Grant. (b) For the purpose of...

  16. 45 CFR 96.46 - Substance abuse prevention and treatment services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Substance abuse prevention and treatment services... BLOCK GRANTS Direct Funding of Indian Tribes and Tribal Organizations § 96.46 Substance abuse prevention... organizations under the substance abuse prevention and treatment Block Grant. (b) For the purpose of...

  17. 45 CFR 96.46 - Substance abuse prevention and treatment services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Substance abuse prevention and treatment services... BLOCK GRANTS Direct Funding of Indian Tribes and Tribal Organizations § 96.46 Substance abuse prevention... organizations under the substance abuse prevention and treatment Block Grant. (b) For the purpose of...

  18. 45 CFR 96.46 - Substance abuse prevention and treatment services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Substance abuse prevention and treatment services... BLOCK GRANTS Direct Funding of Indian Tribes and Tribal Organizations § 96.46 Substance abuse prevention... organizations under the substance abuse prevention and treatment Block Grant. (b) For the purpose of...

  19. Prenatal Substance Exposure: What Predicts Behavioral Resilience by Early Adolescence?

    PubMed Central

    Liebschutz, Jane; Crooks, Denise; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Cabral, Howard J; Heeren, Timothy C; Gerteis, Jessie; Appugliese, Danielle P.; Heymann, Orlaith D.; Lange, Allison V.; Frank, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding behavioral resilience among at-risk adolescents may guide public policy decisions and future programs. We examined factors predicting behavioral resilience following intrauterine substance exposure (IUSE) in a prospective longitudinal birth-cohort study of 136 early adolescents (age 12.4–15.9) at-risk for poor behavioral outcomes. We defined behavioral resilience as a composite measure of lack of early substance use initiation (before age 14), lack of risky sexual behavior, or lack of delinquency. IUSEs included in this analysis were cocaine (IUCE), tobacco (IUTE), alcohol (IUAE), and marijuana (IUME). We recruited participants from Boston Medical Center as mother-infant dyads between 1990 and 1993. The majority of the sample was African-American/Caribbean (88%) and 49% female. In bivariate analyses, none and lower IUCE level predicted resilience compared to higher IUCE, but this effect was not found in an adjusted model. Instead, strict caregiver supervision (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=6.02, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.90–19.00, p=0.002), lower violence exposure (AOR=4.07, 95% CI=1.77–9.38, p<0.001), and absence of intrauterine tobacco exposure (AOR=3.71, 95% CI= 1.28–10.74, p=0.02) predicted behavioral resilience. In conclusion, caregiver supervision in early adolescence, lower violence exposure in childhood, and lack of intrauterine tobacco exposure predict behavioral resilience among a cohort of early adolescents with significant social and environmental risk. Future interventions should work to enhance parental supervision as a way to mitigate the effects of adversity on high-risk groups of adolescents. PMID:26076097

  20. Prenatal Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl Substances and Behavioral Development in Children

    PubMed Central

    Quaak, Ilona; de Cock, Marijke; de Boer, Michiel; Lamoree, Marja; Leonards, Pim; van de Bor, Margot

    2016-01-01

    Background: In recent years, prevalence rates of behavioral disorders in children have increased. One factor possibly implied in the etiology of behavioral disorders is exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). The use of PFASs is highly integrated into everyday life, and exposure is ubiquitous. Exposure to PFASs during early life may be particularly harmful, as it represents a critical time window for brain development. However, research in the area is limited, especially among preschool children. The objective of the current study was to explore the relationship between prenatal exposure to several PFASs and behavioral development at the age of 18 months. Methods: Data from the Dutch cohort LINC (Linking Maternal Nutrition to Child Health) were used. Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were measured in cord plasma. The total exposure of PFASs was also calculated (ΣPFASs). Behavioral development was assessed with the Child Behavior Checklist 1.5–5 (CBCL 1.5–5). The CBCL scales “Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder” (ADHD) and “Externalizing problems” were used for further analysis. Separate regression models were composed for each combination, in which exposure levels were classified in tertiles. Both whole population and sex-stratified analyses were performed. A family history of ADHD, the educational level, smoking or using alcohol or illicit drugs during pregnancy were considered as confounders. In total, data from 76 mother-child pairs was included. Results: No significant associations were found between prenatal PFAS exposure and ADHD scores in the whole population and in the sex-stratified analyses. With regard to externalizing behavior, a significant negative association was found between the highest levels of ΣPFAS exposure and externalizing problem behavior in the whole population, but only in the crude model. After stratifying for sex, boys in the second and third tertile of exposure to PFOA

  1. Evidence-Based Practice in School Substance Use Prevention: Fidelity of Implementation under Real-World Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ennett, S. T.; Haws, S.; Ringwalt, C. L.; Vincus, A. A.; Hanley, S.; Bowling, J. M.; Rohrbach, L. A.

    2011-01-01

    Fidelity of program implementation under real-world conditions is a critical issue in the dissemination of evidence-based school substance use prevention curricula. Program effects are diminished when programs are implemented with poor fidelity. We assessed five domains of fidelity--adherence, exposure (dosage), quality of delivery, participant…

  2. 29 CFR 570.57 - Exposure to radioactive substances and to ionizing radiations (Order 6).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exposure to radioactive substances and to ionizing... to Their Health or Well-Being § 570.57 Exposure to radioactive substances and to ionizing radiations... radioactive substances and to ionizing radiations are particularly hazardous and detrimental to health...

  3. 29 CFR 570.57 - Exposure to radioactive substances and to ionizing radiations (Order 6).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exposure to radioactive substances and to ionizing... to Their Health or Well-Being § 570.57 Exposure to radioactive substances and to ionizing radiations... radioactive substances and to ionizing radiations are particularly hazardous and detrimental to health...

  4. 29 CFR 570.57 - Exposure to radioactive substances and to ionizing radiations (Order 6).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exposure to radioactive substances and to ionizing... to Their Health or Well-Being § 570.57 Exposure to radioactive substances and to ionizing radiations... radioactive substances and to ionizing radiations are particularly hazardous and detrimental to health...

  5. 29 CFR 570.57 - Exposure to radioactive substances and to ionizing radiations (Order 6).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exposure to radioactive substances and to ionizing... to Their Health or Well-Being § 570.57 Exposure to radioactive substances and to ionizing radiations... radioactive substances and to ionizing radiations are particularly hazardous and detrimental to health...

  6. 29 CFR 570.57 - Exposure to radioactive substances and to ionizing radiations (Order 6).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exposure to radioactive substances and to ionizing... to Their Health or Well-Being § 570.57 Exposure to radioactive substances and to ionizing radiations... radioactive substances and to ionizing radiations are particularly hazardous and detrimental to health...

  7. Assessing state substance abuse prevention infrastructure through the lens of CSAP's Strategic Prevention Framework.

    PubMed

    Piper, Douglas; Stein-Seroussi, Al; Flewelling, Robert; Orwin, Robert G; Buchanan, Rebecca

    2012-02-01

    Although the organizational structures and operating procedures of state substance abuse prevention systems vary substantially across states, there is scant empirical research regarding approaches for rigorous assessment of system attributes and which attributes are most conducive to overall effectiveness. As one component of the national cross-site evaluation of the SPF State Incentive Grant Program (SPF SIG), an instrument was developed to assess state substance abuse prevention system infrastructure in order to measure infrastructure change and examine the role of state infrastructure in achieving prevention-related outcomes. In this paper we describe the development of this instrument and summarize findings from its baseline administration. As expected, states and territories were found to vary substantially with respect seven key characteristics, or domains, of state prevention infrastructure. Across the six domains that were assessed using numeric ratings, states scored highest on data systems and lowest on strategic planning. Positive intercorrelations were observed among these domains, indicating that states with high capacity on one domain generally have relatively high capacity on other domains as well. The findings also suggest that state prevention infrastructure development is linked to both funding from state government and the presence of a state interagency coordinating body with decision-making authority. The methodology and baseline findings presented will be used to inform the ongoing national cross-site evaluation of the SPF SIG and may provide useful information to guide further research on state substance abuse prevention infrastructure. PMID:22054526

  8. MANUAL AND TRAINING COURSE FOR PREVENTION OF SPILLS OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES AT FIXED FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this manual and training course is to prevent spills of hazardous substances in fixed facilities which are those facilities that produce the substances from raw or starter materials, store the substances, or transfer the substances to and from transportation termin...

  9. 75 FR 7483 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse... meeting. Committee Name: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Drug Testing...

  10. Young Adults in the Workplace: A Multisite Initiative of Substance Use Prevention Programs. RTI Press Book

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bray, Jeremy W., Ed.; Galvin, Deborah M., Ed.; Cluff, Laurie A., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Although higher rates of substance use among young adults aged 16 to 24 are well-established (OAS, 2010), existing workplace substance use prevention and early intervention programs primarily target older workers. These data suggest that workplaces need substance abuse prevention and early intervention programs that are proven to be efficacious…

  11. Take Action on 5 Policies America Must Adopt To Reduce and Prevent Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Join Together, Boston, MA.

    The Join Together National Policy Panel presents five policies that can help communities reduce and prevent substance abuse. They are: (1) compel substance abuse treatment for criminal offenders; (2) ensure that every person who has an addiction gets treatment; (3) make substance abuse prevention an urgent priority in every community; (4) increase…

  12. 3 CFR 8879 - Proclamation 8879 of October 1, 2012. National Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2012

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2012 8879 Proclamation 8879 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8879 of October 1, 2012 Proc. 8879 National Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2012By the President... communities, to the heartache of lives cut tragically short, the consequences of substance abuse are...

  13. Substance Abuse Prevention Program for Children and Adolescents in a Community-Based Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelton, Andrea; Harvin, Sheila; White, Janeana

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a community-based substance abuse prevention program utilizing a cognitive-behavioral curriculum to children and adolescents affected by a substance use disorder in a parent or caretaker.

  14. [The feasibility of synthetic enhancer substances for preventive nanotherapy].

    PubMed

    Miklya, Ildiko

    2010-09-01

    Nanotechnology, the great promise of the 21st century, may revolutionize also the art of healing. Previously unexpected broadening of diagnostic procedures and methods to deliver specific drugs acting in lower than nanomolecular concentrations right to the target cells may play a crucial role in the rapid development of preventive medicine. In this context, (-)-deprenyl/selegiline, a drug developed 40 years ago and still world-wide used to treat Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and depression, by enhancing the activity of catecholaminergic neurons in the brain stem via a previously unknown mechanism [catecholaminergic activity enhancer (CAE) effect], is a highly promising experimental tool for further research in this direction. The same fits for (-)-BPAP, the newly developed enhancer substance, 100 times more potent than (-)-deprenyl, which in contrast to the latter is not only an enhancer of the catecholaminergic neurons but also of the serotonergic neurons in the brain stem. Tiny amounts of enhancer substances are closed in liposomes and marked with a specific signal to help identify the exact location of the target cells, through the activation of which the drug exerts its specific enhancer effect. The method also offers an approach to better understand the up-to-the-present unknown mechanism of the enhancer effect. PMID:20962359

  15. Applying Computer Technology to Substance Abuse Prevention Science Results of a Preliminary Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsch, Lisa A.; Bickel, Warren K.; Badger, Gary J.

    2007-01-01

    This manuscript reports on the development and evaluation of a computer-based substance abuse prevention program for middle school-aged adolescents, called "HeadOn: Substance Abuse Prevention for Grades 6-8TM". This self-guided program was designed to deliver effective drug abuse prevention science to youth via computer-based educational…

  16. Exposure Plus Response-Prevention Treatment of Bulimia Nervosa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leitenberg, Harold; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Evaluated exposure plus response-prevention treatment of bulimia nervosa among 47 women. Subjects were assigned to either exposure plus response-prevention in one setting, exposure plus response-prevention in multiple settings, cognitive-behavioral therapy, or waiting-list control conditions. Found three treatment groups improved significantly on…

  17. Core Competencies and the Prevention of Adolescent Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haegerich, Tamara M.; Tolan, Patrick H.

    2008-01-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period during which youth are at increased risk for using substances. An empirical focus on core competencies illustrates that youth are less likely to use substances when they have a positive future orientation, a belief in the ability to resist substances, emotional and behavioral control, sound decision-making…

  18. A wakeup call to the prevention field: are prevention programs for substance use effective for girls?

    PubMed

    Kumpfer, Karol L; Smith, Paula; Summerhays, Julia Franklin

    2008-07-01

    Substance misuse in adolescent girls has increased dramatically since 1992. This article reviews trends in use rates and etiological theories tested by gender that suggest that family protective factors have more influence on girls. Next, a literature review reveals that few prevention programs have published their outcomes by gender or developed gender-specific programs. Nationwide community coalition results found positive effects on boys but increased drug use in young girls. The most effective programs are family focused targeting family bonding, supervision, and communication. Recent gender-specific prevention programs with positive results address stress, depression, social assertiveness, and body image. The authors recommend additional research testing programs by gender and also gender-specific versus generic versions of evidence-based programs to determine how to improve prevention program effectiveness for girls. PMID:18649225

  19. Is the Receptivity of Substance Abuse Prevention Programming Affected by Students' Perceptions of the Instructor?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Peggy C.; Sloboda, Zili; Grey, Scott; Stephens, Richard; Hammond, Augustine; Hawthorne, Richard; Teasdale, Brent; Williams, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Drawing on the elaboration likelihood model of persuasive communication, the authors examine the impact of the perceptions of the instructor or source on students' receptivity to a new substance abuse prevention curriculum. Using survey data from a cohort of students participating in the Adolescent Substance Abuse Prevention Study, the authors use…

  20. ATOD Prevention Programming in the Non-School Hours and Adolescent Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alter, Randi J.; Jun, Mi Kyung; J-McKyer, E. Lisako

    2007-01-01

    To reduce problems associated with youth substance use, Indiana developed funding streams and infrastructure to facilitate coordination of statewide prevention efforts. These prevention efforts aimed at youth include programming in the non-school hours. To examine the relationship between these efforts and youth substance abuse, students…

  1. The Prevalence of Evidence-Based Substance Use Prevention Curricula in the Nation's Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanley, Sean M.; Ringwalt, Chris; Ennett, Susan T.; Vincus, Amy A.; Bowling, J. Michael; Haws, Susan W.; Rohrbach, Louise A.

    2010-01-01

    Current guidelines for school-based substance use prevention suggest that prevention efforts should begin in elementary grades, before students begin using substances. Previous research suggests, however, that the use of evidence-based curricula in these grades may be low. Using a 2005 survey of public school districts in the United States that…

  2. Not Just the Needle: The State of HIV Prevention Science among Substance Users and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Shoptaw, Steve; Montgomery, Brooke; Williams, Chyvette T.; El-Bassel, Nabila; Aramrattana, Apinun; Metzger, David S.; Kuo, Irene; Bastos, Francisco I.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2013-01-01

    Successes in preventing HIV transmission among substance using populations have focused primarily among injection drug users, which have produced measurable reductions in HIV incidence and prevalence. By contrast, the majority of substances used worldwide are administered by non-injectable means, and there is a dearth of HIV prevention interventions that target non-injecting substance users. Increased surveillance of trends in substance use, especially cocaine (including crack) and methamphetamine in addition to new and emerging substances (e.g., synthetic cannabinoids, cathinones and other amphetamine analogs) are needed to develop and scale-up effective and robust interventions for populations at risk for HIV-transmission via sexual behaviors related to non-injection substance use. Strategies are needed that address unique challenges to HIV prevention for substance users who are HIV-infected and those who are HIV- uninfected and at high risk. We propose a research agenda that prioritizes: (1) ) combination HIV prevention strategies in substance users; (2) behavioral HIV prevention programs that reduce sexual transmission behaviors in non-treatment seeking individuals; (3) medical and/or behavioral treatments for substance abuse that reduce/eliminate substance-related sexual transmission behaviors; and (4) structural interventions to reduce HIV incidence. PMID:23764632

  3. Substance Use among Asian American Adolescents: Perceptions of Use and Preferences for Prevention Programming

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Lin; Barnes-Ceeney, Kevin; Lee, Rebecca A.; Tao, John

    2011-01-01

    Rarely has substance use prevention programming targeted Asian American adolescents. Using a focus group methodology, we explored perceptions of substance use and preferences for prevention programming among 31 Asian American adolescents in New York City. Participants considered substance use common in the community. Factors contributing to substance use among Asian American adolescents (e.g., peer pressure, pressure to achieve, family factors, and community influence) were identified, and the need for prevention programs tailored for the Asian American community was highlighted. Participants discussed preferred program content, delivery settings, and recruitment and retention strategies. Despite the favorable attitude for family-based prevention programming, participants raised potential issues concerning the feasibility of such a program. Study findings facilitate understanding of Asian American adolescents’ substance use behavior and shed light on prevention program development for this underserved population. PMID:21919640

  4. Childhood stress exposure among preadolescents with and without family histories of substance use disorders

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Nora E.; Ryan, Stacy R.; Acheson, Ashley; Mathias, Charles W.; Liang, Yuanyuan; Dougherty, Donald M.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Having a family history of substance use disorders (FH+) increases risk for developing a substance use disorder. This risk may be at least partially mediated by increased exposure to childhood stressors among FH+ individuals. However, measures typically used to assess exposure to stressors are narrow in scope and vary across studies. The nature of stressors that disproportionately affect FH+ children, and how these stressors relate to later substance use in this population, are not well understood. Objectives The purpose of this study was to assess exposure to a broad range of stressors among FH+ and FH− children to better characterize how exposure to childhood stressors relates to increased risk for substance misuse among FH+ individuals. Methods A total of 386 children (305 FH+, 81 FH−; ages 10-12) were assessed using the Stressful Life Events Schedule prior to the onset of regular substance use. Both the number and severity of stressors were compared. Preliminary follow-up analyses were done for 53 adolescents who subsequently reported initiation of substance use. Results FH+ children reported more frequent and severe stressors than did FH− children, specifically in the areas of housing, family, school, crime, peers, and finances. Additionally, risk for substance use initiation during early adolescence was influenced directly by having a family history of substance use disorders and also indirectly through increased exposure to stressors among FH+ individuals. Conclusions FH+ children experience greater stress across multiple domains, which contributes to their risk for substance misuse and related problems during adolescence and young adulthood. PMID:25134029

  5. Vibration exposure and prevention in Finland.

    PubMed

    Starck, J; Pyykkö, I; Koskimies, K; Pekkarinen, J

    1994-05-01

    The number of annually compensated occupational diseases due to exposure to hand-arm vibration (HAV) has decreased during the last 15 years. The number of exposed workers has been declining in Finland, especially in forestry work, as harvesters have increasingly replaced manual chain saw operations. During the entire 1970s, forest work caused more cases of vibration-induced occupational diseases than all industrial branches together. The decrease is mainly due to the technical development of chain saws, but also to the effective health care services in Finland. Other factors such as warm transport, warm rest cabins in which to take pauses at work, warm meals, adequate protective clothing, and vocationally adjusted early medical rehabilitation have helped to cut down health hazards, especially in forest work. The number of new cases has been decreasing in Finland not only in forestry but also in other industries. In Finland a considerable amount of research has been conducted to hand-arm vibration, resulting in the increased awareness of the health risks related to certain occupations. This has helped to carry out the Primary Health Care Act (1972) followed by the Occupational Health Care Act (1979) which obligates employers to arrange occupational health care for their employees. We believe that the research activity has contributed significantly to achieving the present health in Finnish work places. The purpose of the present paper is to describe the cases of occupational exposure to HAV, and the effectiveness of different preventive measures in Finland. PMID:7708103

  6. Technology-based Interventions for Preventing and Treating Substance Use Among Youth.

    PubMed

    Marsch, Lisa A; Borodovsky, Jacob T

    2016-10-01

    Preventing or mitigating substance use among youth generally involves 3 different intervention frameworks: universal prevention, selective prevention, and treatment. Each of these levels of intervention poses unique therapeutic and implementation challenges. Technology-based interventions provide solutions to many of these problems by delivering evidence-based interventions in a consistent and cost-effective manner. This article summarizes the current state of the science of technology-based interventions for preventing substance use initiation and mitigating substance use and associated consequences among youth. PMID:27613350

  7. Preventing Substance Abuse among Children and Adolescents: Family-Centered Approaches. Practitioner's Guide. Prevention Enhancement Protocols System (PEPS) Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birch & Davis Associates, Inc., Silver Spring, MD.

    This guideline summarizes state-of-the-art approaches and interventions designed to strengthen the role of families in substance abuse prevention. Topics discussed are: (1) "Why Use Family-Centered Approaches? Aren't Our School and Community Efforts Sufficient?"; (2) "How Big a Problem Is Substance Abuse Among Youth?"; (3) "What Puts Children and…

  8. Medical Toxicology and Public Health-Update on Research and Activities at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry : Environmental Exposures among Arctic Populations: The Maternal Organics Monitoring Study in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Mehruba; Ridpath, Alison; Berner, James; Schier, Joshua G

    2016-09-01

    Evidence suggests that in-utero exposure to environmental chemicals, such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs), heavy metals, and radionuclides, that might bioaccumulate in the mother may increase a newborn's risk of adverse developmental, neurological, and immunologic effects. Chemical contamination of bodies of water and strong ocean currents worldwide can drive these chemicals from lower latitudes to Arctic waters where they accumulate in common traditional subsistence foods. In response to concerns of the people from Alaska of the effects of bio-accumulated chemicals on their children, the Maternal Organics Monitoring Study(MOMS) was developed. The objective of the study was to assess the risks and benefits associated with the population's subsistence diet. Data analysis of biological samples at the CDC's NCEH laboratory and maternal questionnaires is ongoing. Results will be provided to Alaska Native communities to help support public health actions and inform future interventions and research. PMID:27379884

  9. Korean research project on the integrated exposure assessment of hazardous substances for food safety

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Ji-Ae; Kwon, Ho-Jang; Ha, Mina; Kim, Ho; Oh, Se Young; Kim, Jeong Seon; Lee, Sang-Ah; Park, Jung-Duck; Hong, Young-Seoub; Sohn, Seok-Joon; Pyo, Heesoo; Park, Kyung Su; Lee, Kwang-Geun; Kim, Yong Dae; Jun, Sangil; Hwang, Myung Sil

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This survey was designed to conduct the first nationwide dietary exposure assessment on hazardous substances including the intakes of functional food and herbal medicine. In this paper, we introduced the survey design and the results of the dietary exposure status and internal exposure levels of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and mercury (Hg). Methods: We selected 4867 subjects of all ages throughout Korea. We conducted a food survey, dietary survey, biomonitoring, and health survey. Results: Pb and Cd were the highest (median value) in the seaweed (94.2 μg/kg for Pb; 594 μg/kg for Cd), and Hg was the highest in the fish (46.4 μg/kg). The dietary exposure level (median value) of Pb was 0.14 μg/kg body weight (bw)/d, 0.18 μg/kg bw/d for Cd, and 0.07 μg/kg bw/d for Hg. Those with a blood Pb level of less than 5.00 μg/dL (US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, reference value for those 1 to 5 years of age) were 99.0% of all the subjects. Those with a blood Cd level with less than 0.30 μg/L (German Federal Environmental Agency, reference value for non-smoking children) were 24.5%. For those with a blood Hg level with less than 5.00 μg/L (human biomonitoring I, references value for children and adults, German Federal Environmental Agency) was 81.0 % of all the subjects. Conclusions: The main dietary exposure of heavy metals occurs through food consumed in a large quantity and high frequency. The blood Hg level and dietary exposure level of Hg were both higher than those in the European Union. PMID:26184046

  10. Preventing Substance Abuse by Supporting Families' Efforts with Community Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bry, Brenna H.

    1994-01-01

    Argues that, because the resources of most contemporary nuclear families for monitoring and providing alternative incentives are not sufficient to compete with the positive contingencies associated with substance use, communities must support parent's efforts by supplementing them. (LKS)

  11. Sustainability of State-Level Substance Abuse Prevention Infrastructure After the Completion of the SPF SIG.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Jessica M; Stein-Seroussi, Al; Flewelling, Robert L; Orwin, Robert G; Zhang, Lei

    2015-06-01

    Recent national substance abuse prevention efforts that have been disseminated at the state level have provided fertile ground for addressing the dearth of systematic research on state-level substance abuse prevention infrastructure. The Strategic Prevention Framework State Incentive Grant Program (SPF SIG), a national public health initiative sponsored by the US Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration and its Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, is one such effort, providing an opportunity to examine state-level substance abuse prevention infrastructure across the country. The aims of the SPF SIG initiative include reducing substance abuse and its related problems, as well as enhancing state and local prevention infrastructure and capacity. In this article, we describe the status of state-level substance abuse prevention infrastructure and capacity 1 year after the first 26 funded states ended their projects, based on follow-up interviews with state prevention decision-makers. We found that, in five of the six prevention domains we measured, prevention infrastructure capacity increased during the 12-month period after the grants ended. The evidence for further SPF capacity development even after the conclusion of the grants suggests that states recognized the benefits of using the SPF and took deliberate steps to sustain and enhance the integration of this framework into their state prevention systems. In addition, the findings suggest that state agencies and organizations can benefit from time-limited resources aimed at increasing their capacity and that such efforts can have a lasting impact on measures of state prevention system capacity. PMID:25732188

  12. Is it important to prevent early exposure to drugs and alcohol among adolescents?

    PubMed

    Odgers, Candice L; Caspi, Avshalom; Nagin, Daniel S; Piquero, Alex R; Slutske, Wendy S; Milne, Barry J; Dickson, Nigel; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2008-10-01

    Exposure to alcohol and illicit drugs during early adolescence has been associated with poor outcomes in adulthood. However, many adolescents with exposure to these substances also have a history of conduct problems, which raises the question of whether early exposure to alcohol and drugs leads to poor outcomes only for those adolescents who are already at risk. In a 30-year prospective study, we tested whether there was evidence that early substance exposure can be a causal factor for adolescents' future lives. After propensity-score matching, early-exposed adolescents remained at an increased risk for a number of poor outcomes. Approximately 50% of adolescents exposed to alcohol and illicit drugs prior to age 15 had no conduct-problem history, yet were still at an increased risk for adult substance dependence, herpes infection, early pregnancy, and crime. Efforts to reduce or delay early substance exposure may prevent a wide range of adult health problems and should not be restricted to adolescents who are already at risk. PMID:19000215

  13. Is It Important to Prevent Early Exposure to Drugs and Alcohol Among Adolescents?

    PubMed Central

    Odgers, Candice L.; Caspi, Avshalom; Nagin, Daniel S.; Piquero, Alex R.; Slutske, Wendy S.; Milne, Barry J.; Dickson, Nigel; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to alcohol and illicit drugs during early adolescence has been associated with poor outcomes in adulthood. However, many adolescents with exposure to these substances also have a history of conduct problems, which raises the question of whether early exposure to alcohol and drugs leads to poor outcomes only for those adolescents who are already at risk. In a 30-year prospective study, we tested whether there was evidence that early substance exposure can be a causal factor for adolescents’ future lives. After propensity-score matching, early-exposed adolescents remained at an increased risk for a number of poor outcomes. Approximately 50% of adolescents exposed to alcohol and illicit drugs prior to age 15 had no conduct-problem history, yet were still at an increased risk for adult substance dependence, herpes infection, early pregnancy, and crime. Efforts to reduce or delay early substance exposure may prevent a wide range of adult health problems and should not be restricted to adolescents who are already at risk. PMID:19000215

  14. Science-Based Prevention Programs and Principles, 2002. Effective Substance Abuse and Mental Health Programs for Every Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schinke, S.; Brounstein, P.; Gardner, S.

    The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) and its Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP) are committed to bringing effective substance abuse prevention and behavioral health promotion programs to every community in the Nation. As more knowledge is gained about efficacy and effectiveness of prevention and…

  15. A Review of Elementary School-Based Substance Use Prevention Programs: Identifying Program Attributes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopfer, S.; Davis, D.; Kam, J. A.; Shin, Y.; Elek, E.; Hecht, M. L.

    2010-01-01

    This article takes a systematic approach to reviewing substance use prevention programs introduced in elementary school (K-6th grade). Previous studies evaluating such programs among elementary school students showed mixed effects on subsequent substance use and related psychosocial factors. Thirty published evaluation studies of 24 elementary…

  16. Depression, Craving, and Substance Use Following a Randomized Trial of Mindfulness-Based Relapse Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witkiewitz, Katie; Bowen, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Objective: A strong relation between negative affect and craving has been demonstrated in laboratory and clinical studies, with depressive symptomatology showing particularly strong links to craving and substance abuse relapse. Mindfulness-based relapse prevention (MBRP), shown to be efficacious for reduction of substance use, uses…

  17. Effective Prevention of Adolescent Substance Abuse--Educational versus Deterrent Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tze, Virginia M. C.; Li, Johnson C.-H.; Pei, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    Substance abuse, especially among adolescents, has long been an important issue in society. In light of the adverse impact of substance abuse, scholars, educators, and policy-makers have proposed different approaches to prevent and reduce such abuse. This paper investigates the effectiveness of the two prominent approaches--educational and…

  18. Substance Abuse Prevention and Intervention for Students with Disabilities: A Call to Educators. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCombs, Kathryn; Moore, Dennis

    This digest summarizes basic information on substance abuse prevention and intervention for students with disabilities. It identifies risks associated with specific disabilities including mental retardation/developmental disability, emotional disturbance (at highest risk for substance abuse), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, blindness,…

  19. Adolescent Initiation of Licit and Illicit Substance Use: Impact of Intrauterine Exposures and Post-natal Exposure to Violence

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Deborah A.; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Crooks, Denise; Cabral, Howard J.; Gerteis, Jessie; Hacker, Karen A.; Martin, Brett; Weinstein, Zohar B.; Heeren, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    Whether intrauterine exposures to alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, or cocaine predispose offspring to substance use in adolescence has not been established. We followed a sample of 149 primarily African American/African Caribbean, urban adolescents recruited at term birth until age 16 to investigate intrauterine cocaine exposure (IUCE). We found that in Kaplan-Meier analyses higher levels of IUCE were associated with a greater likelihood of initiation of any substance (licit or illicit), as well as marijuana and alcohol specifically. Adolescent initiation of other illicit drugs and cigarettes were analyzed only in the “any” summary variable since they were used too infrequently to analyze as individual outcomes. In Cox proportional hazard models controlling for intrauterine exposure to alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana and demographic and postnatal covariates, those who experienced heavier IUCE had a greater likelihood of initiation of any substance, and those with lighter intrauterine marijuana exposure had a greater likelihood of initiation of any substance as well as of marijuana specifically. Time-dependent higher levels of exposure to violence between ages of 8 and 16 were also robustly associated with initiation of any licit or illicit substance, and of marijuana, and alcohol particularly. PMID:20600847

  20. Local and National Outcomes from Community Partnerships to Prevent Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Robert K., Ed.

    1997-01-01

    Outcomes evaluation of community partnerships to prevent substance abuse poses many methodological challenges. The nine articles of this special section illustrate the variety of approaches evaluators have taken to studies that are often complicated because of small sample size. (SLD)

  1. 7 CFR 205.272 - Commingling and contact with prohibited substance prevention practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling Requirements § 205.272 Commingling and contact with prohibited substance prevention practice standard. (a) The handler of an organic handling operation must implement...

  2. 7 CFR 205.272 - Commingling and contact with prohibited substance prevention practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling Requirements § 205.272 Commingling and contact with prohibited substance prevention practice standard. (a) The handler of an organic handling operation must implement...

  3. 7 CFR 205.272 - Commingling and contact with prohibited substance prevention practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling Requirements § 205.272 Commingling and contact with prohibited substance prevention practice standard. (a) The handler of an organic handling operation must implement...

  4. Substance Abuse among Adolescent Females. Prevention Research Update No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodinger-de Uriarte, Cristina; Austin, Gregory

    This document examines what is known about alcohol and other drug abuse (AODA) among adolescent females. The first half of the document discusses the following topics: (1) prevalence and patterns of alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use among female adolescents; (2) correlates and risk of substance abuse, including age of initiation,…

  5. Substance Abuse Prevention and Geography. Teacher's Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Geographic Alliance, Storrs.

    This guide integrates themes of geography with health issues of the 1990s to encourage healthy lifestyles and promote geographic literacy. Designed for use by social studies educators and educators responsible for teaching about substance abuse and related health issues, this guide includes lessons for kindergarten through 12th grade. After an…

  6. Exposure and effects of perfluoroalkyl substances in tree swallows nesting in Minnesota and Wisconsin, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The exposure and effects of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were studied at eight locations in Minnesota and Wisconsin between 2007 and 2011 using tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) as sentinel species. These eight sites covered a range of possible exposure pathways and ecolog...

  7. Early Exposure to Toxic Substances Damages Brain Architecture. Working Paper #4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2006

    2006-01-01

    New science shows that exposure to toxins prenatally or early in life can have a devastating and lifelong effect on the developing architecture of the brain. Exposures to many chemicals have much more severe consequences for embryos, fetuses, and young children, whose brains are still developing, than for adults. Substances that can have a truly…

  8. Substance Use, Disordered Eating, and Weight Gain: Describing the Prevention and Treatment Needs of Incarcerated Women.

    PubMed

    Drach, Linda L; Maher, Julie E; Braun, Margaret J F; Murray, Stefanie L; Sazie, Elizabeth

    2016-04-01

    Weight-related concerns are associated with women's substance use and treatment relapse. The prevalence of overweight, obesity, disordered eating behavior, and substance abuse history was assessed among female inmates incarcerated for 6 to 24 months at an Oregon state prison, using a self-administered survey and physical measurements. Average weight gain was 20 pounds, 87% of women were overweight (39%) or obese (48%), and 24% reported using one or more unhealthy strategies to lose weight in the past 6 months. Women who used tobacco and illicit substances before incarceration gained more weight. Integrating nutrition and weight gain issues into substance abuse treatment could benefit incarcerated women-both soon after entering prison to prevent weight gain and close to release to prevent relapse into substance use. PMID:26984137

  9. Reconceptualizing Efficacy in Substance Use Prevention Research: Refusal Response Efficacy and Drug Resistance Self-Efficacy in Adolescent Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hye Jeong; Krieger, Janice L.; Hecht, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to utilize the Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM) to expand the construct of efficacy in the adolescent substance use context. Using survey data collected from 2,129 seventh-grade students in 39 rural schools, we examined the construct of drug refusal efficacy and demonstrated relationships among response efficacy (RE), self-efficacy (SE), and adolescent drug use. Consistent with the hypotheses, confirmatory factor analyses of a 12-item scale yielded a three-factor solution: refusal RE, alcohol-resistance self-efficacy (ASE), and marijuana-resistance self-efficacy (MSE). Refusal RE and ASE/MSE were negatively related to alcohol use and marijuana use, whereas MSE was positively associated with alcohol use. These data demonstrate that efficacy is a broader construct than typically considered in drug prevention. Prevention programs should reinforce both refusal RE and substance-specific resistance SE. PMID:23330857

  10. Preventing Substance Abuse: A Comprehensive Program for Catholic Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCorry, Frank

    This book provides information for teachers about drugs and their effects on body and mind, and explains the role of teachers in effective drug education, prevention, and assistance programs. Suggestions on preventing drug abuse are also directed to the Catholic community and parents, along with a challenge to introduce programs on the local,…

  11. Substance abuse in early adolescents and HIV preventive behaviors: findings from a school-based cross-sectional survey for the period from 2009 to 2013, Bangkok Thailand.

    PubMed

    Thepthien, B; Altaf, L; Chuchareon, P; Srivanichakron, S

    2016-10-01

    This study is first of its kind in Bangkok, and is a five-year (2009-2013) cross-sectional web-based survey to examine HIV preventive behaviors related to substance abuse among adolescents (N = 16,913). The questionnaire was self-administered. Logistic regression was used to analyze the data. The relationship between different types of substance abuse with risky and preventive behaviors was assessed. Male participants reported more substance abuse as compared to females. The risk behaviors observed among the substance abusers include increased sexual experience, multiple sex partners, no use of condoms, and injection drug use. The preventive behaviors include having a high self-risk assessment, going for HIV testing (highest in methamphetamine users), and screening for sexually transmitted infection. Logistic regression suggests that risky behaviors (e.g., sexual experience, injection drug use) are more common in substance abusers. Adolescents are clearly at a high risk. Behavioral preventive measures are needed to reduce or delay premature substance exposure to prevent a wide range of health problems and risks such as HIV and AIDS, injection drug use and unprotected sex. PMID:27120264

  12. Problematic Substance Use in Urban Adolescents: Role of Intrauterine Exposures to Cocaine and Marijuana and Post-Natal Environment

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Deborah A.; Kuranz, Seth; Appugliese, Danielle; Cabral, Howard; Chen, Clara; Crooks, Denise; Heeren, Timothy; Liebschutz, Jane; Richardson, Mark; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Background Linkages between intrauterine exposures to cocaine and marijuana and adolescents’ problematic substance use have not been fully delineated. Methods Prospective longitudinal study with assessors unaware of intrauterine exposure history followed 157 urban participants from birth until late adolescence. Level of intrauterine exposures was identified by mother's report and infant’s meconium. Problematic substance use, identified by the Voice Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (V-DISC) or the Audio Computer Assisted Self-Interview (ACASI) and urine assay, was a composite encompassing DSM-IV indication of tolerance, abuse, and dependence on alcohol, marijuana, and tobacco and any use of cocaine, glue, or opiates. Results Twenty percent (32/157) of the sample experienced problematic substance use by age 18 years, of whom the majority (22/157) acknowledged abuse, tolerance or dependence on marijuana with or without other substances. Structural equation models examining direct and indirect pathways linking a Cox survival model for early substance initiation to a logistic regression models found effects of post-natal factors including childhood exposure to violence and household substance use, early youth substance initiation, and ongoing youth violence exposure contributing to adolescent problematic substance use. Conclusion We did not identify direct relationships between intrauterine cocaine or marijuana exposure and problematic substance use, but did find potentially modifiable post-natal risk factors also noted to be associated with problematic substance use in the general population including earlier substance initiation, exposure to violence and to household substance use. PMID:24999059

  13. 40 CFR 1.43 - Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Office of Prevention, Pesticides and... STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Headquarters § 1.43 Office of Prevention, Pesticides and... matters pertaining to assessment and regulation of pesticides and toxic substances and is responsible...

  14. 40 CFR 1.43 - Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Office of Prevention, Pesticides and... STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Headquarters § 1.43 Office of Prevention, Pesticides and... matters pertaining to assessment and regulation of pesticides and toxic substances and is responsible...

  15. 40 CFR 1.43 - Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Office of Prevention, Pesticides and... STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Headquarters § 1.43 Office of Prevention, Pesticides and... matters pertaining to assessment and regulation of pesticides and toxic substances and is responsible...

  16. Life Skills Training: Preventing Substance Misuse by Enhancing Individual and Social Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botvin, Gilbert J.; Griffin, Kenneth W.

    2014-01-01

    Research concerning the etiology and prevention of substance misuse has led to the development of preventive interventions that are theory-based and effective. One such approach, Life Skills Training (LST), targets key etiologic factors using a conceptual framework derived from social learning theory and problem behavior theory. LST has been…

  17. An Interdisciplinary Approach for the Integration and Diffusion of Substance Abuse Prevention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bechtel, Lori J.; Vicary, Judith; Swisher, John; Smith, Edward; Hopkins, Abigail; Henry, Kimberly; Minner, Daphne

    2006-01-01

    Effective substance abuse prevention programs help students develop knowledge as well as psychosocial competencies that can help them resist or delay the initiation of alcohol, tobacco and other drug (ATOD) use. This paper describes the integration process used in a five-year project, Adoption of Drug Abuse Prevention Training (ADAPT), to study…

  18. [Meconium as a new biological material for detecting intrauterine exposure to toxic substances].

    PubMed

    Lisowska-Myjak, Barbara

    2005-07-01

    The use of licit and illicit drugs and exposure to other xenobiotic agents during pregnancy is common. These substances are known to have adverse effects on the pregnancy and fetus; however information on fetal exposure is sparse due to the lack of an appropriate measure of exposure. Meconium analysis is a new method for identifying in utero exposure of infants to a number of illicit and legal drugs, alcohol, nicotine, heavy metals, pesticides, congenital infections. It's testing is non-invasive, highly accurate and able to detect prior exposure in utero during 12-40 weeks of gestation. This has implications for toxicology to develop improved methods to identify exposed infants. PMID:16363385

  19. Overview of Meta-Analyses of the Prevention of Mental Health, Substance Use and Conduct Problems

    PubMed Central

    Sandler, Irwin; Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Cruden, Gracelyn; Mahrer, Nicole E.; Ahn, Soyeon; Brincks, Ahnalee; Brown, C. Hendricks

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents findings from an overview of meta-analyses of the effects of prevention and promotion programs to prevent mental health, substance use and conduct problems. The review of 48 meta-analyses found small but significant effects to reduce depression, anxiety, anti-social behavior and substance use. Further, the effects are sustained over time. Meta-analyses often found that the effects were heterogeneous. A conceptual model is proposed to guide the study of moderators of program effects in future meta-analyses and methodological issues in synthesizing findings across preventive interventions are discussed. PMID:24471372

  20. Substance misuse prevention and economic analysis: Challenges and opportunities regarding international utility

    PubMed Central

    Guyll, Max; Spoth, Richard; Cornish, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    Economic analyses of substance misuse prevention assess the intervention cost necessary to achieve a particular outcome, and thereby provide an additional dimension for evaluating prevention programming. This paper reviews several types of economic analysis, considers how they can be applied to substance misuse prevention, and discusses challenges to enhancing their international relevance, particularly their usefulness for informing policy decisions. Important first steps taken to address these challenges are presented, including the disease burden concept and the development of generalized cost-effectiveness, advances that facilitate international policy discussions by providing a common framework for evaluating health care needs and program effects. PMID:22676560

  1. Role of entrained droplet oil on the bioavailability of petroleum substances in aqueous exposures.

    PubMed

    Redman, A D

    2015-08-15

    Bioavailability of petroleum substances is a complex issue that is affected by substance composition, the physicochemical properties of the individual constituents, and the exposure preparation system. The present study applies mechanistic fate and effects models to characterize the role of droplet oil on dissolved exposure and predicted effects from both neat and weathered crude oils, and refined fuel oils. The main effect from droplet oil is input of additional dissolved hydrocarbons to the exposure system following preparation of the initial stock solution. Toxicity was characterized using toxic units (TU) and shows that replenishment of bioavailable hydrocarbons by droplets in toxicity tests with low droplet content (e.g., <1mg/L) is negligible, consistent with typical exposure conditions following open ocean oil spills. Further, the use of volumetric exposure metrics (e.g., mg/L) introduces considerable variability and the bioavailability-based metrics (e.g., TUs) provide a more consistent basis for understanding oil toxicity data. PMID:26072047

  2. Gender Differences in the Effects of Exposure to Violence on Adolescent Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Pinchevsky, Gillian M.; Wright, Emily M.; Fagan, Abigail A.

    2013-01-01

    To date, research exploring gender differences in the relationship between exposure to community violence and substance use has been limited. This study employs longitudinal data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) to assess the exposure to violence–substance use relationship and explore whether this relationship varies by gender. We find that the two forms of exposure to violence—direct (primary) and indirect (secondary)—independently increase the frequency of subsequent alcohol use, binge drinking, and marijuana use among males and females. One gender difference emerged, as females who had been directly victimized engaged in more frequent binge drinking than males who had been directly victimized. Across both sexes, the effect of each form of violence weakened when other predictors of substance use were included in the models. Future directions for this research are discussed, including policy recommendations to help adolescents cope with victimization experiences. PMID:23520836

  3. Drug Education Curriculum: Kindergarten. Health Education: Substance Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Drug Education.

    This curriculum guide, one of nine sequential manuals for elementary and secondary teachers and administrators, is designed to prevent drug misuse and abuse through activities for developing students' cognitive and affective skills. The materials emphasize the involvement of parents and community members and resources in implementing drug abuse…

  4. Say It Straight: Adolescent Substance Abuse Prevention Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Englander-Golden, Paula; And Others

    Patterns of drug use among teenagers indicate they are highly influenced by peers. To examine the influence of Say It Straight, an alcohol/drug abuse prevention program aimed at teaching adolescents to deal with peer pressure, sixth, seventh and eighth graders (N=509) created and role played situations in which they wanted to say "no" to an offer…

  5. Diffusion of School-Based Substance Abuse Prevention Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohrbach, Louise Ann; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Observes the preponderance of heavily marketed drug prevention programs (Project DARE, QUEST Skills for Life) over the more effective psychosocial-based programs. Reviews the literature on determinants of diffusion and recent research on strategies to increase diffusion of these programs. Considers implications for policy and future research. (MJP)

  6. Relapse Prevention with Substance Abusers: Clinical Issues and Myths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daley, Dennis C.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the problems of relapse with alcoholics and other drug abusers from three perspectives: client-related variables, common erroneous beliefs and myths held by professionals regarding relapse, and treatment system problems that may contribute to relapse. Offers proposed solutions and describes a relapse prevention model. (Author/ABB)

  7. Physical Training as a Substance Abuse Prevention Intervention for Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collingwood, Thomas R.; Sunderlin, Jeff; Reynolds, Roger; Kohl, Harold W., III

    2000-01-01

    Presents program evaluation data from school and community application of a physical fitness drug prevention program. Results reveal significant increases in physical activity and physical fitness. Youth self-report data indicates significant decreases in risk factors such as low self-concept, poor school attendance, anxiety, depression, and…

  8. Issues in Primary Prevention in Substance Abuse. A Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, Donald G.

    The purpose of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism is to reduce the incidence of social, psychological, and health problems due to the use of alcohol. Soliciting financial support for primary prevention programs is difficult because of: (1) Federal, state, and local revenues derived from sales of alcoholic beverages; (2) The…

  9. Community Action Guide to Policies for Prevention: The Recommendations of the Join Together Policy Panel on Preventing Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Join Together, Boston, MA.

    This guide accompanies Join Together's recommendations for drug and alcohol abuse prevention for policymakers and communities. It presents strategic examples of how major institutions and residents in communities have paid attention to substance abuse and worked to overcome its effects. Part 1 contains the recommendations and key policies…

  10. Prevention Validation and Accounting Platform: A Framework for Establishing Accountability and Performance Measures of Substance Abuse Prevention Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sehwan; McLeod, Jonnie H.; Williams, Charles; Hepler, Nancy

    2000-01-01

    Faced with the absence of a conceptual framework and the terminology for establishing evaluation criteria in the substance abuse prevention services field, this special issue is devoted to exploring the topics of accountability and performance measures. It discusses the requisite components (i.e., theory, methodology, convention on terms, data)…

  11. Engineered nanomaterials: exposures, hazards, and risk prevention

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology presents the possibility of revolutionizing many aspects of our lives. People in many settings (academic, small and large industrial, and the general public in industrialized nations) are either developing or using engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) or ENM-containing products. However, our understanding of the occupational, health and safety aspects of ENMs is still in its formative stage. A survey of the literature indicates the available information is incomplete, many of the early findings have not been independently verified, and some may have been over-interpreted. This review describes ENMs briefly, their application, the ENM workforce, the major routes of human exposure, some examples of uptake and adverse effects, what little has been reported on occupational exposure assessment, and approaches to minimize exposure and health hazards. These latter approaches include engineering controls such as fume hoods and personal protective equipment. Results showing the effectiveness - or lack thereof - of some of these controls are also included. This review is presented in the context of the Risk Assessment/Risk Management framework, as a paradigm to systematically work through issues regarding human health hazards of ENMs. Examples are discussed of current knowledge of nanoscale materials for each component of the Risk Assessment/Risk Management framework. Given the notable lack of information, current recommendations to minimize exposure and hazards are largely based on common sense, knowledge by analogy to ultrafine material toxicity, and general health and safety recommendations. This review may serve as an overview for health and safety personnel, management, and ENM workers to establish and maintain a safe work environment. Small start-up companies and research institutions with limited personnel or expertise in nanotechnology health and safety issues may find this review particularly useful. PMID:21418643

  12. Strain- and context-dependent behavioural responses of acute alarm substance exposure in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Quadros, Vanessa A; Silveira, Ariane; Giuliani, Giulie S; Didonet, Fernanda; Silveira, Alessandra S; Nunes, Mauro E; Silva, Tális O; Loro, Vania L; Rosemberg, Denis B

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the behavioural responses of wild type (WT) and leopard (leo) zebrafish elicited by alarm substances of conspecifics at three contexts: during the exposure period (Experiment 1); after exposure, in habituation to novelty (Experiment 2); or after exposure, in the light-dark preference test (Experiment 3), and analyse their influence on pigment response. During the exposure, leo showed decreased vertical drifts, increased number and duration of erratic movements, while WT had increased erratic movements and latency to enter the top. In the novel tank, we observed that angular velocity decreased in WT exposed to alarm substance, which also presented increased fear responses. Contrastingly, leo increased the number of entries and time in top, indicating differences in habituation profile. Alarm substance increased the number of erratic movements in the light-dark test, but elicited different responses between strains in scototaxis, latency to enter the dark compartment and risk assessment episodes. Moreover, the body colour of zebrafish did not change after alarm substance exposure. Principal component analyses suggest that burst swimming, anxiety-like behaviours, and locomotion/exploration were the components that most accounted for total variances of Experiments 1, 2, and 3, respectively. We conclude that chemical cue from conspecifics triggers strain- and context-dependent responses. PMID:26524408

  13. Substance Use Disorders and HIV/AIDS Prevention and Treatment Intervention: Research and Practice Considerations

    PubMed Central

    CAMPBELL, AIMEE N. C.; TROSS, SUSAN; CALSYN, DONALD A.

    2013-01-01

    Social workers are often on the front lines of the HIV/AIDS epidemic – delivering prevention education and interventions, offering or linking individuals to HIV testing, and working to improve treatment access, retention, and adherence, especially among vulnerable populations. Individuals with substance use disorders face additional challenges to reducing sexual and drug risk behaviors, as well as barriers to testing, treatment, and antiretroviral therapy adherence. This paper presents current data on HIV transmission and research evidence on prevention and intervention with substance abusers and highlights how individual social workers can take advantage of this knowledge in practice and through adoption and implementation within organizations. PMID:23731423

  14. Epidemiology and Etiology of Substance Use among American Indians and Alaska Natives: Risk, Protection, and Implications for Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Whitesell, Nancy Rumbaugh; Beals, Janette; Crow, Cecelia Big; Mitchell, Christina M.; Novins, Douglas K.

    2015-01-01

    Background The epidemiology and etiology of substance use and disorder in American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities have received increasing attention over the past 25 years and accumulating evidence provides important insights into substance use patterns in these populations. Objectives and methods We provide a descriptive sketch of the AI/AN population in the United States today, present a brief review of the literature on the epidemiology and etiology of substance use within these populations, and discuss key implications of this literature for prevention efforts. Conclusions and Scientific Significance Patterns of alcohol use and abuse in AI/AN populations are complex and vary across cultural groups, but alcohol clearly impacts both physical health and mental health within these communities. Tobacco use – and associated health consequences – is typically higher in these populations than among other US groups, although significant variation across Native communities is apparent here as with alcohol. Evidence regarding drug use and disorder is less extensive and thus less conclusive, but evidence demonstrates higher rates of use as well. Etiological explanations for substance use and disorder cut across individual characteristics (e.g., genetics) or experiences (e.g., exposure to trauma), to social contexts (e.g., family disruption), and to cultural factors (e.g., historical trauma). Protective factors likely cut across these multiple levels as well and deserve more focused attention for informing prevention efforts. The development of effective prevention strategies, built through collaboration between researchers and Native communities, drawing from the wisdom of both, is a high priority. PMID:22931069

  15. Traditionalism in the prevention of substance misuse among Puerto Ricans.

    PubMed

    Cuadrado, M; Lieberman, L

    1998-12-01

    Data are presented from a multicluster stratified sample of 1,084 Puerto Rican households in the New York City area. Researchers examined the impact of loss of traditional Hispanic family-oriented gender role values and degree of acculturation upon drug use. Sociodemographic variables are presented. Indices of "traditionalism" and "acculturation" were created, validated, and correlated with drug use. Traditionalism was found to covary negatively with drug use, but more so for women. The positive relationship between acculturation and drug use was found to be influenced by different levels of traditionalism. Implications for treatment and prevention are discussed. PMID:9869441

  16. 75 FR 14153 - National Advisory Committee for Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Hazardous Substances; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    ...A meeting of the National Advisory Committee for Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Hazardous Substances (NAC/AEGL Committee) will be held on April 13-15, 2010, in San Francisco, CA. At this meeting, the NAC/AEGL Committee will address, as time permits, the various aspects of the acute toxicity and the development of Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs) for the following chemicals: 1,3-......

  17. Prevention of adolescent substance abuse through the development of personal and social competence.

    PubMed

    Botvin, G J

    1983-01-01

    The initiation of substance use typically begins during adolescence and appears to be the result of the complex interplay of social, personality, cognitive, attitudinal, behavioral, and developmental factors. Traditional smoking, alcohol, and drug education programs have attempted to increase students' knowledge of the risks associated with using these substances in the hope that this would deter use. Other programs have attempted to enrich the personal and social development of students through what has been referred to as "affective" education. Unfortunately, the inescapable conclusion to be drawn from the substance abuse prevention literature is that few of these programs have demonstrated any degree of success in terms of the actual prevention of substance use/abuse. Traditional educational approaches to substance abuse prevention appear to be inadequate because they are based on faulty assumptions and are too narrow in their focus. The "affective" education approaches, on the other hand, appear to have placed too little emphasis on the acquisition of the kind of skills that are likely to increase general personal competence and enable students to cope with the various interpersonal and intrapersonal pressures to begin using tobacco, alcohol, or drugs. From the perspective of social learning theory (Bandura 1977) and problem behavior theory (Jessor and Jessor 1977), substance use is conceptualized as a socially learned, purposive, and functional behavior which is the result of the interplay of social (environmental) and personal factors. One potentially effective approach to substance abuse prevention might involve enhancing general personal competence and teaching adolescents the kind of problem-specific skills and knowledge which will increase their ability to resist the various forms of pro-substance-use social pressure. Brief reviews of the social skills training literature and the literature related to techniques for coping with anxiety not only provide

  18. Computer-Assisted HIV Prevention for Youth With Substance Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Marsch, Lisa A.; Grabinski, Michael J.; Bickel, Warren K.; Desrosiers, Alethea; Guarino, Honoria; Muehlbach, Britta; Solhkhah, Ramon; Taufique, Shilpa; Acosta, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    We developed an interactive, customizable, Web-based program focused on the prevention of HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and hepatitis among youth. Results from a randomized, controlled trial with youth in treatment for substance use demonstrated that this Web-based tool, when provided as an adjunct to an educator-delivered prevention intervention, increased accurate prevention knowledge, increased intentions to carefully choose partners, and was perceived as significantly more useful relative to the educator-delivered intervention when provided alone. Results suggest this Web-based program may be effective and engaging and may increase the adoption of effective HIV and disease prevention science for youth. Limitations are discussed. PMID:21190405

  19. The Zero Exposure Project: A Community Initiative Addressing Substance Abusing Women and Their Newborns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colen, Lisa Price

    2007-01-01

    The Zero Exposure Project is a public awareness campaign in Hillsborough County, Florida, designed to educate the public on the dangers of combining substance use with pregnancy. The authors describe the process of building the campaign from its original conception and share the challenges and successes of their collaborations with community…

  20. Prenatal cocaine exposure differentially affects stress responses in girls and boys: Associations with future substance use

    PubMed Central

    CHAPLIN, TARA M.; VISCONTI, KARI JEANNE; MOLFESE, PETER J.; SUSMAN, ELIZABETH J.; KLEIN, LAURA COUSINO; SINHA, RAJITA; MAYES, LINDA C.

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal cocaine exposure may affect developing stress response systems in youth, potentially creating risk for substance use in adolescence. Further, pathways from prenatal risk to future substance use may differ for girls versus boys. The present longitudinal study examined multiple biobehavioral measures, including heart rate, blood pressure, emotion, and salivary cortisol and salivary alpha amylase (sAA), in response to a stressor in 193 low-income 14- to 17-year-olds, half of whom were prenatally cocaine exposed (PCE). Youth’s lifetime substance use was assessed with self-report, interview, and urine toxicology/breathalyzer at Time 1 and at Time 2 (6–12 months later). PCExGender interactions were found predicting anxiety, anger, and sadness responses to the stressor, with PCE girls showing heightened responses as compared to PCE boys on these indicators. Stress Response × Gender interactions were found predicting Time 2 substance use in youth (controlling for Time 1 use) for sAA and sadness; for girls, heightened sadness responses predicted substance use, but for boys, dampened sAA responses predicted substance use. Findings suggest distinct biobehavioral stress response risk profiles for boys and girls, with heightened arousal for girls and blunted arousal for boys associated with prenatal risk and future substance use outcomes. PMID:25036298

  1. Exposure to hazardous substances in Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) recycling sites in France

    SciTech Connect

    Lecler, Marie-Thérèse Zimmermann, François; Silvente, Eric; Clerc, Frédéric; Chollot, Alain; Grosjean, Jérôme

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Chemical risks were assessed in the nine cathode ray tube screens recycling facilities. • The main hazardous agents are dust containing lead, cadmium, barium and yttrium. • Exposure and pollutant levels are described for different operations and processes. • All the operations and processes are concerned by significant levels of pollutants. • We suggest recommendations to reduce chemical risk. - Abstract: The Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) or e-waste recycling sector has grown considerably in the last fifteen years due to the ever shorter life cycles of consumables and an increasingly restrictive policy context. Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTs) from used television and computer screens represent one of the main sources of e-waste. CRTs contain toxic materials such as lead, cadmium, barium, and fluorescent powders which can be released if recycling of CRTs is not appropriate. Exposure to these harmful substances was assessed in nine workshops where CRT screens are treated. Particulate exposure levels were measured using a gravimetric method and metals were analysed by plasma emission spectrometry. The maximum levels of worker exposure were 8.8 mg/m{sup 3}, 1504.3 μg/m{sup 3}, 434.9 μg/m{sup 3}, 576.3 μg/m{sup 3} and 2894.3 μg/m{sup 3} respectively for inhalable dust, barium, cadmium, lead and yttrium. The maximum levels of airborne pollutants in static samples were 39.0 mg/m{sup 3}, 848.2 μg/m{sup 3}, 698.4 μg/m{sup 3}, 549.3 μg/m{sup 3} and 3437.9 μg/m{sup 3} for inhalable dust, barium, cadmium, lead and yttrium. The most harmful operations were identified, and preventive measures for reducing the chemical risk associated with screen recycling were proposed. Workplace measurements were used to define recommendations for reducing the chemical risks in CRT screens recycling facilities and for promoting the design and development of “clean and safe” processes in emerging recycling channels.

  2. Guideline for the out-of-hospital management of human exposures to minimally toxic substances.

    PubMed

    McGuigan, Michael A

    2003-01-01

    All substances are capable of producing toxicity, so nothing is completely non-toxic. Minimally toxic substances are those which produce little toxicity, minor self-limited toxicity, or clinically insignificant effects at most doses. Examples include silica gel, A&D ointment, chalk, lipstick, and non-camphor lip balms, watercolors, hand dishwashing detergents, non-salicylate antacids (excluding magnesium or sodium bicarbonate containing products), calamine lotion, clay, crayons, diaper rash creams and ointments, fabric softeners/sheets, glow products, glue (white, arts, and crafts type), household plant food, oral contraceptives, pen ink, pencils, starch/sizing, throat lozenges without local anesthetics, topical antibiotics, topical antifungals, topical steroids, topical steroids with antibiotics, and water-based paints. Minimally toxic exposures have the following characteristics: (1) The information specialist has confidence in the accuracy of the history obtained and the ability to communicate effectively with the caller. (2) The information specialist has confidence in the identity of the product(s) or substance(s) and a reasonable estimation of the maximum amount involved in the exposure. (3) The risks of adverse reactions or expected effects are acceptable to both the information specialist and the caller based on available medical literature and clinical experience. (4) The exposure does not require a healthcare referral since the potential effects are benign and self-limited. However, decisions regarding patient disposition should take into account the patient's intent, symptoms, and social environment. In addition, individual patient circumstances (e.g., pregnancy, pre-existing medical conditions, therapeutic interventions) need to be considered. Minimally toxic exposures may vary in route (dermal, inhalation, ingestion, ocular), chronicity (acute, chronic), and substance composition (single or multi-ingredient, single or multiple product). Future

  3. Preventable Exposures Associated With Human Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Baan, Robert; Straif, Kurt; Grosse, Yann; Lauby-Secretan, Béatrice; El Ghissassi, Fatiha; Bouvard, Véronique; Benbrahim-Tallaa, Lamia; Guha, Neela; Freeman, Crystal; Galichet, Laurent; Wild, Christopher P.

    2011-01-01

    Information on the causes of cancer at specific sites is important to cancer control planners, cancer researchers, cancer patients, and the general public. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Monograph series, which has classified human carcinogens for more than 40 years, recently completed a review to provide up-to-date information on the cancer sites associated with more than 100 carcinogenic agents. Based on IARC’s review, we listed the cancer sites associated with each agent and then rearranged this information to list the known and suspected causes of cancer at each site. We also summarized the rationale for classifications that were based on mechanistic data. This information, based on the forthcoming IARC Monographs Volume 100, offers insights into the current state-of-the-science of carcinogen identification. Use of mechanistic data to identify carcinogens is increasing, and epidemiological research is identifying additional carcinogens and cancer sites or confirming carcinogenic potential under conditions of lower exposure. Nevertheless, some common human cancers still have few (or no) identified causal agents. PMID:22158127

  4. Substance Use Prevention among At-Risk Rural Youth: Piloting the Social Ecological "One Life" Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Ronald D., Jr.; Barnes, Jeremy T.; Holman, Thomas; Hunt, Barry P.

    2014-01-01

    Substance use among youth is a significant health concern in the rural United States, particularly among at-risk students. While evidence-based programs are available, literature suggests that an underdeveloped rural health prevention workforce often limits the adoption of such programs. Additionally, population-size restrictions of national…

  5. Effective Methods to Improve Recruitment and Retention in School-Based Substance Use Prevention Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruzzese, Jean-Marie; Gallagher, Richard; McCann-Doyle, Sharon; Reiss, Philip T.; Wijetunga, Neil A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Poor recruitment and high attrition may invalidate results of research studies. This paper describes successful recruitment and retention strategies in a school-based substance use prevention trial and explores factors associated with intervention attendance and retention. Methods: A total of 384 parent-child dyads from 15 schools in…

  6. Straight Talking for Targeted Pre-Schoolers: A Substance Abuse Prevention Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heggins, Martha Jean; And Others

    This manual provides a substance abuse prevention curriculum for preschoolers that includes numerous activities that can be used in traditional learning centers. Unit One helps caregivers examine their style of interacting with young children and identify strategies that will facilitate children's problem solving, critical thinking, and decision…

  7. Substance Abuse among Asian American Youth. Prevention Research Update. Number Five/Winter 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Gregory A.; And Others

    This report discusses the substance use patterns and problems of Asian Americans adults and youth relative to other ethnic groups (primarily Whites). In addition, it summarizes the main explanations that have been offered for ethnic differences in use, and offers possible conclusions that may be drawn concerning prevention for Asian-American young…

  8. Substance Abuse among Black Youth. Prevention Research Update. Number Four/Fall 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prendergast, Michael L.; And Others

    This report discusses the substance use patterns and problems of black adults and youth relative to other groups (primarily whites). In addition, the report examines recent and older literature in order to reveal factors that may influence use and issues that need to be considered in designing prevention programs. The following sections are…

  9. Influence of a Family-Focused Substance Use Preventive Intervention on Growth in Adolescent Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, W. Alex; Kosterman, Rick; Hawkins, J. David; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Spoth, Richard L.; Redmond, Cleve

    2007-01-01

    Preparing for the Drug Free Years (PDFY) is a preventive intervention that targets parenting behaviors, family interaction patterns, and adolescent substance use, factors that have been shown to predict depression among teenagers. Effects of PDFY on trajectories of self-reported adolescent depressive symptoms from 6th through 12th grade were…

  10. The Effects of Interventions to Prevent Substance Use among Adolescents: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karki, Suyen; Pietila, Anna-Maija; Lansimies-Antikainen, Helena; Varjoranta, Pirjo; Pirskanen, Marjatta; Laukkanen, Eila

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review is to describe and evaluate the effects of interventions used for preventing or reducing substance use among adolescents under 18 years of age. Studies (N = 27) available in CINAHL and PubMed from 2007 to 2010 were included. Results showed that family-based interventions and combined interventions have significant…

  11. Substance Use: Determinants and Opportunities for Prevention in the Family and School Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinjan, Marloes; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2014-01-01

    During adolescence, teenagers try a range of risk behaviors including smoking, drinking, and the use of soft drugs. Because substance use contributes to an unhealthy lifestyle of teenagers on the short term and can lead to serious health problems on the longer term, prevention in this target group is important. This chapter provides an overview of…

  12. Lessons from Participation in a Web-Based Substance Use Preventive Program in Uruguay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balsa, Ana I.; Gandelman, Néstor; Lamé, Diego

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed individual and program characteristics associated with participation in an Information and Communication Technologies (ICT)-based substance use preventive intervention in Uruguay, South America. The intervention was directed at ninth- and tenth-grade students in 10 private schools in Montevideo. Participation in the program was…

  13. One Decade Down: Impact of Substance Prevention after the Principles of Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Jeremy; Frenzel, Erika

    2010-01-01

    Substance prevention programs proliferate throughout America's Schools. Since 1998, the US Department of Education (US DOE) has required that school-based programs funded with federal subsidies be subject to a four stage process to insure effectiveness. The current study applies multivariate Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) techniques to data from a…

  14. College Student-Athletes as Peer Educators for Substance Abuse Prevention: An Interactive Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tricker, Ray

    2009-01-01

    Athletes can be involved as role models and leaders--in collaboration with coaches and other staff--to enhance life skills and prevent substance use among their peers. "Drugs in Sport" is a peer education program involving collegiate athletes visiting middle schools to speak with school children. This article discusses the structure of the Drugs…

  15. Preventing Substance Abuse in American Indian and Alaska Native Youth: Promising Strategies for Healthier Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Elizabeth H.; Cummins, Lillian H.; Marlatt, G. Alan

    2004-01-01

    Substance abuse has had profoundly devastating effects on the health and well-being of American Indians and Alaska Natives. A wide variety of intervention methods has been used to prevent or stem the development of alcohol and drug problems in Indian youth, but there is little empirical research evaluating these efforts. This article is an…

  16. The Life Skills Program IPSY: Positive Influences on School Bonding and Prevention of Substance Misuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenzel, Victoria; Weichold, Karina; Silbereisen, Rainer K.

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated whether a life skills program (LSP) for the prevention of adolescent substance misuse can have positive influences on a school context and on school bonding. The study also explored whether effects on alcohol use are mediated by positive effects on school bonding resulting from program participation. The LSP IPSY…

  17. 7 CFR 205.272 - Commingling and contact with prohibited substance prevention practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Commingling and contact with prohibited substance prevention practice standard. 205.272 Section 205.272 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC...

  18. 7 CFR 205.272 - Commingling and contact with prohibited substance prevention practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Commingling and contact with prohibited substance prevention practice standard. 205.272 Section 205.272 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC...

  19. Complex mixtures: relevance of combined exposure to substances at low dose levels.

    PubMed

    Leeman, Winfried R; Krul, Lisette; Houben, Geert F

    2013-08-01

    Upon analysis of chemically complex food matrices a forest of peaks is likely to be found. Identification of these peaks and concurrent determination of the toxicological relevance upon exposure is very time consuming, expensive and often requires animal studies. Recently, a safety assessment framework based on the Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC) was published to assess the safety of chemically complex matrices more efficiently. In this safety assessment framework, the toxicological relevance of exposure to unidentified substances in chemically complex food matrices can be related to the Cramer class III TTC threshold, currently set at 90 μg/day. However, possible additive or synergistic effects of combined exposure is not covered. The current evaluation describes the relevance of combined low dose exposure to unidentified substances in chemically complex food matrices. It is concluded that to some extent cumulative effects at exposure levels for each substance at or below the Cramer class III TTC threshold, being present in a complex mixture including food, might occur. However the health relevance of possible cumulative effects at this dose level is considered to be that low that a need for a correction factor to cover possible cumulative effects is very low to absent. PMID:23597445

  20. The National Exposure Registry: procedures for establishing a registry of persons environmentally exposed to hazardous substances.

    PubMed

    Burg, J R; Gist, G L

    1995-01-01

    The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry has, as mandated in Superfund legislation, established the National Exposure Registry (NER). The purpose of the NER is to assess and evaluate the potential relationship between adverse health effects and environmental exposure for an exposed population, particularly the relationship between chronic health effects and long-term, low-level chemical exposures. The NER's primary goal is to facilitate epidemiology research by establishing multiple data bases (subregistries) that contain demographic, environmental, and health information on large populations exposed to selected chemicals. The Registry data mainly serve the purpose of being hypothesis-generating rather than hypothesis-testing. The NER is currently composed of subregistries of: (1) persons exposed to volatile organic compounds (VOCs)--a subset of registrants in whom trichloroethylene (TCE) is the primary VOC exposure, but others are present (N = 4,832), a subset in whom benzene is the primary VOC exposure (N = 1,142), and a subset in whom trichloroethane (TCA) and TCE are the highest VOC exposures (N = 3,666); and (2) persons with dioxin exposure (N = 250). Chromium and radioactive substances subregistries are planned. PMID:7491637

  1. Preventable hospitalizations among adult Medicaid beneficiaries with concurrent substance use disorders☆

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Kit Sang; Parks, Joe; Topolski, James

    2015-01-01

    Objective We aim to examine the relationships between substance use disorders and preventable hospitalizations for Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions among adult Medicaid beneficiaries. Methods Cross-sectional analysis using de-identified Medicaid claims data in 2012 from 177,568 beneficiaries in Missouri was conducted. Logistic regression models were estimated for the associations of substance use disorder status with Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions, demographics, chronic physical and mental illnesses. Zero-inflated negative binomial regressions assessed substance use disorders, hospitalization for Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions, and length of hospital stay for Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions adjusting for co-morbid physical illnesses, mental illnesses and demographics. Results Over 12% of the sample had been diagnosed for substance use disorder. Beneficiaries with substance use disorder were more likely than Nonsubstance use disorder beneficiaries to have admissions for chronic conditions including short/long-term complications of diabetes, uncontrolled diabetes, hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease/asthma, but not for acute conditions. While substance use disorder beneficiaries were more likely than Nonsubstance use disorder beneficiaries to be hospitalized for any Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions; there were no statistical differences between the two groups in terms of length of hospital stays. Conclusions Substance use disorder is statistically associated with hospitalizations for most Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions but not with length of hospital stay for Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions, after adjusting for covariates. The significant associations between substance use disorder and Ambulatory Care Sensitive Condition admissions suggest unmet primary health care needs for substance use disorder beneficiaries and a need for integrated primary/behavioral healthcare. PMID:26844094

  2. Strategic Prevention Framework State Incentive Grant Progress Report: Building a Sustainable Substance Abuse Prevention System, State of Hawai'i, 2006-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, S.; Lai, M.C.; Heusel, K.

    2011-01-01

    In 2006, the Hawai'i State Department of Health (DOH) received the Strategic Prevention Framework State Incentive Grant (SPF-SIG) from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) to establish a comprehensive, coordinated, and sustainable substance abuse prevention infrastructure in Hawai'i. The SPF-SIG Project is funded…

  3. HIV/AIDS, Substance Abuse, and Hepatitis Prevention Needs of Native Americans Living in Baltimore: In Their Own Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jeannette L.; Gryczynski, Jan; Wiechelt, Shelly A.

    2007-01-01

    A needs assessment funded by the Center of Substance Abuse Prevention was conducted in 2005-2006 to determine the HIV/AIDS, substance abuse, and hepatitis prevention needs of Native Americans living in Baltimore, Maryland. We used a community-based participatory approach to gain an in-depth understanding of local Native American health service…

  4. Integrating basic research with prevention/intervention to reduce risky substance use among college students

    PubMed Central

    Dick, Danielle M.; Hancock, Linda C.

    2015-01-01

    Too often basic research on etiological processes that contribute to substance use outcomes is disconnected from efforts to develop prevention and intervention programming. Substance use on college campuses is an area of concern where translational efforts that bring together basic scientists and prevention/intervention practitioners have potential for high impact. We describe an effort at a large, public, urban university in the United States to bring together researchers across the campus with expertise in college behavioral health with university administration and health/wellness practitioners to address college student substance use and mental health. The project “Spit for Science” examines how genetic and environmental influences contribute to behavioral health outcomes across the college years. We argue that findings coming out of basic research can be used to develop more tailored prevention and intervention programming that incorporates both biologically and psychosocially influenced risk factors. Examples of personalized programming suggest this may be a fruitful way to advance the field and reduce risky substance use. PMID:25999878

  5. Childhood exposure to a parental suicide attempt and risk for substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    McManama O'Brien, Kimberly H; Salas-Wright, Christopher P; Vaughn, Michael G; LeCloux, Mary

    2015-07-01

    Childhood exposure to parental suicidal behavior has been linked to a variety of adverse behavioral and health outcomes. However, relatively little is known about the degree to which such exposure may place individuals at risk for a substance use disorder (SUD). Employing data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, we compared the prevalence of SUDs among those who experienced childhood exposure to parental suicide attempts. Childhood exposure to parental suicide attempts was not associated with increased risk for the development of alcohol, cannabis, or cocaine use disorders. However, individuals who were exposed to a parental suicide attempt as children were significantly more likely to have met criteria for stimulant (AOR=1.40, 95% CI=1.18-1.67), sedative (AOR=1.24, 95% CI=1.04-1.47), tranquilizer (AOR=1.78, 95% CI=1.45-2.20), and opioid (AOR=1.41, 95% CI=1.19-1.67) use disorders in their lifetime. No significant gender differences were identified with respect to the magnitude of the relationship between exposure to parental suicide attempts and SUD risk among men and women. Findings suggest that, controlling for an array of sociodemographic, parental, mental health, and childhood adversity confounds, childhood exposure to parental suicide attempts is a vulnerability factor for low prevalence illicit drugs (i.e. stimulants, sedatives, tranquilizers, opioids), but not for more commonly used substances. PMID:25827333

  6. The Evaluation of a Workplace Program to Prevent Substance Abuse: Challenges and Findings.

    PubMed

    Spicer, Rebecca S; Miller, Ted R

    2016-08-01

    Workplace consequences of alcohol and drug abuse include poor performance, fighting, insubordination, and occupational injuries. To address the need for workplace substance abuse prevention, the PREVENT program, originally designed for the United States Navy, was adapted to the railroad workforce. This study evaluates the impact of the PREVENT program on alcohol use and smoking among young adults ages 18-29 in the railroad industry. We discuss challenges to study protocol faced by this evaluation in the reality of the workplace. PREVENT is a 2-day health promotion program that includes substance abuse and smoking modules. Using a prospective controlled before-after study design, we compare self-reported alcohol use and smoking pre- versus post-intervention among PREVENT participants versus a comparison group of workers. Comparison and case group non-equivalency at baseline is controlled for using a propensity score. The study sample suffered high losses to follow-up. In the analysis, we included those lost to follow up and applied an intent-to-treat approach that assumed, conservatively, that substance use by non-respondents was identical pre and post. In regression analysis PREVENT participants showed significant declines in drinking levels post-intervention compared to comparison workers, controlling for baseline and demographic factors. Relative to pre-intervention levels PREVENT participants consumed 56 % fewer drinks (relative rate = 0.44, 95 % CI 0.23-0.85) and consumed alcohol on 32 % fewer days (relative rate = 0.68, 95 % CI 0.50-0.93) compared to comparison workers. Changes in smoking behaviors were not significant. We conclude that PREVENT is a promising program for reducing alcohol abuse. PMID:27062500

  7. Integrating Mental Health Promotion and Substance Abuse Prevention on College Campuses. Prevention Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    According to the American Psychiatric Association, college can be an exciting time, though for some it can be overwhelming and stressful. Depression, anxiety, substance use, and eating disorders are common mental health issues on college campuses. The 2010 American College Health Association National College Health Assessment found that 28 percent…

  8. Early-life exposure to substance abuse and risk of type 2 diabetes in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Vaiserman, A M

    2015-08-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a chronic non-communicable disease that is driven by insulin resistance as a result of increasing obesity and decreasing activity levels that occur with increasing age. This disease generally develops after the age of 40, but it is now increasingly diagnosed in children and young adults. Increasing evidence, however, suggests that T2D can originate during early development. It has been repeatedly found that malnutrition during the gestational period can result in intrauterine growth restriction and low birth weight, which in combination with postnatal catch-up growth may subsequently lead to the development of T2D. There is ample evidence that T2D may also be programmed by maternal substance abuse (the harmful use of psychoactive substances such as illicit drugs or alcohol) during pregnancy and/or lactation. The research activity in this field is currently mainly focused on the childhood health problems following prenatal exposures to substance abuse. The delayed programming effects on adult-onset disorders, including metabolic syndrome and T2D, however, have been reported only rarely. This review provides animal and human evidence that early-life exposure to substance abuse, including alcohol, nicotine, and cocaine, may program not only childhood health outcomes but also life-long metabolic health status, including risk of T2D and related conditions. PMID:26077016

  9. Exposure to violence among substance-dependent pregnant women and their children

    PubMed Central

    Velez, Martha L.; Montoya, Ivan D.; Jansson, Lauren M.; Walters, Vickie; Svikis, Dace; Jones, Hendree E.; Chilcoat, Howard; Campbell, Jacquelyn

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of exposure to violence among drug-dependent pregnant women attending a multidisciplinary perinatal substance abuse treatment program. Participants (N = 715) completed the Violence Exposure Questionnaire within 7 days after their admission to the program. Their rates of lifetime abuse ranged from 72.7% for physical abuse to 71.3% for emotional abuse to 44.5% for sexual abuse. Their rates of abuse remained high during their current pregnancy, ranging from 40.9% for emotional abuse to 20.0% for physical abuse to 7.1% for sexual abuse. Nearly one third of the women reported having physical fights with their current partner (lifetime), and 25% of these women reported that children were present during those physical fights. A total of 30% of the women perceived a need for counseling regarding exposure to violence for themselves and 15% perceived a need for counseling for their children. Study findings confirm previous reports of high rates of abuse and violence exposure among substance-abusing pregnant women and their strong need for counseling for psychosocial sequelae. This study affirmed the value of routine screening for violence exposure in this at-risk population as well as the need to train therapists in specific strategies for helping such women address this complex array of problems. PMID:16377450

  10. Work Environments and Exposure to Hazardous Substances in Korean Tire Manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Byung-kyu; Jeong, Sijeong; Yi, Gwang Yong; Shin, Jungah

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study is to evaluate the tire manufacturing work environments extensively and to identify workers' exposure to hazardous substances in various work processes. Methods Personal air sampling was conducted to measure polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, carbon disulfide, 1,3-butadiene, styrene, methyl isobutyl ketone, methylcyclohexane, formaldehyde, sulfur dioxide, and rubber fume in tire manufacturing plants using the National Institute for Occupational Safety Health Manual of Analytical Methods. Noise, carbon monoxide, and heat stress exposure were evaluated using direct reading instruments. Past concentrations of rubber fume were assessed using regression analysis of total particulate data from 2003 to 2007, after identifying the correlation between the concentration of total particulate and rubber fume. Results Workers were exposed to rubber fume that exceeded 0.6 mg/m3, the maximum exposure limit of the UK, in curing and production management processes. Forty-seven percent of workers were exposed to noise levels exceeding 85 dBA. Workers in the production management process were exposed to 28.1℃ (wet bulb globe temperature value, WBGT value) even when the outdoor atmosphere was 2.7℃ (WBGT value). Exposures to other substances were below the limit of detection or under a tenth of the threshold limit values given by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. Conclusion To better classify exposure groups and to improve work environments, examining closely at rubber fume components and temperature as risk indicators in tire manufacturing is recommended. PMID:22993718

  11. The Role of Prenatal Substance Exposure and Early Adversity on Parasympathetic Functioning from 3 to 6 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Abar, Beau; Sheinkopf, Stephen; Lester, Barry; Lagasse, Linda; Seifer, Ronald; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada-Ellzey, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles; Whitaker, Toni; Hinckley, Matt; Hammond, Jane; Higgins, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    We employed latent growth curve analysis to examine trajectories of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) from 3 to 6 years among children with varying levels of prenatal substance exposure and early adversity. Data were drawn from a prospective longitudinal study of prenatal substance exposure that included 1,121 participants. Baseline RSA and RSA reactivity to an attention-demanding task were assessed at 3, 4, 5, and 6 years. Overall, there were significant individual differences in the trajectories of RSA reactivity, but not baseline RSA, across development. Greater levels of prenatal substance exposure, and less exposure to early adversity, were associated with increased RSA reactivity at 3 years, but by 6 years, both were associated with greater RSA reactivity. Prenatal substance exposure had an indirect influence through early adversity on growth in RSA reactivity. Results are in support of and contribute to the framework of allostatic load. PMID:24002807

  12. Examining the protective effects of brand equity in the keepin' it REAL substance use prevention curriculum.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong Kyu; Hecht, Michael L

    2011-10-01

    While branding appears to be an effective health prevention strategy, it is less clear how successful brands have protective effects. To better understand the role of branding in health prevention and promotion, it is necessary to examine how the persuasive mechanisms of branding function in health campaigns (e.g., modeling socially desirable behaviors). Using cross-sectional data (n = 709), the current study uncovered the mechanisms explaining branding's effects on adolescent substance use in a school-based substance use intervention, the keepin' it REAL (kiR) curriculum. Consistent with our predictions, a confirmatory factor analysis suggested that kiR brand equity had a higher order, multidimensional factor structure. In addition, a path analysis revealed that brand equity affected adolescent substance use directly and through the predicted social cognitive processes, including refusal efficacy and resistance skills. Thus, it is concluded that kiR brand equity serves as a protective factor for adolescent substance use. Practical implications, research limitations, and future directions are discussed. PMID:21512924

  13. Substance Use and HIV Among Female Sex Workers and Female Prisoners: Risk Environments and Implications for Prevention, Treatment, and Policies.

    PubMed

    Strathdee, Steffanie A; West, Brooke S; Reed, Elizabeth; Moazen, Babak; Moazan, Babak; Azim, Tasnim; Dolan, Kate

    2015-06-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) and female prisoners experience elevated HIV prevalence relative to the general population because of unprotected sex and unsafe drug use practices, but the antecedents of these behaviors are often structural in nature. We review the literature on HIV risk environments for FSWs and female prisoners, highlighting similarities and differences in the physical, social, economic, and policy/legal environments that need to be understood to optimize HIV prevention, treatment, and policy responses. Sex work venues, mobility, gender norms, stigma, debt, and the laws and policies governing sex work are important influences in the HIV risk environment among FSWs, affecting their exposure to violence and ability to practice safer sex and safer drug use behaviors. Female prisoners are much more likely to have a drug problem than do male prisoners and have higher HIV prevalence, yet are much less likely to have access to HIV prevention and treatment and access to drug treatment in prison. Women who trade sex or are imprisoned and engage in substance use should not be considered in separate silos because sex workers have high rates of incarceration and many female prisoners have a history of sex work. Repeated cycles of arrest, incarceration, and release can be socially and economically destabilizing for women, exacerbating their HIV risk. This dynamic interplay requires a multisectoral approach to HIV prevention and treatment that appreciates and respects that not all women are willing, able, or want to stop sex work or drug use. Women who engage in sex work, use drugs, or are imprisoned come from all communities and deserve sustained access to HIV prevention and treatment for substance use and HIV, helping them and their families to lead healthy and satisfying lives. PMID:25978477

  14. Substance Use and HIV Among Female Sex Workers and Female Prisoners: Risk Environments and Implications for Prevention, Treatment, and Policies

    PubMed Central

    Strathdee, Steffanie A.; West, Brooke S.; Reed, Elizabeth; Moazan, Babak; Azim, Tasnim; Dolan, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) and female prisoners experience elevated HIV prevalence relative to the general population because of unprotected sex and unsafe drug use practices, but the antecedents of these behaviors are often structural in nature. We review the literature on HIV risk environments for FSWs and female prisoners, highlighting similarities and differences in the physical, social, economic, and policy/legal environments that need to be understood to optimize HIV prevention, treatment, and policy responses. Sex work venues, mobility, gender norms, stigma, debt, and the laws and policies governing sex work are important influences in the HIV risk environment among FSWs, affecting their exposure to violence and ability to practice safer sex and safer drug use behaviors. Female prisoners are much more likely to have a drug problem than do male prisoners and have higher HIV prevalence, yet are much less likely to have access to HIV prevention and treatment and access to drug treatment in prison. Women who trade sex or are imprisoned and engage in substance use should not be considered in separate silos because sex workers have high rates of incarceration and many female prisoners have a history of sex work. Repeated cycles of arrest, incarceration, and release can be socially and economically destabilizing for women, exacerbating their HIV risk. This dynamic interplay requires a multisectoral approach to HIV prevention and treatment that appreciates and respects that not all women are willing, able, or want to stop sex work or drug use. Women who engage in sex work, use drugs, or are imprisoned come from all communities and deserve sustained access to HIV prevention and treatment for substance use and HIV, helping them and their families to lead healthy and satisfying lives. PMID:25978477

  15. Growth Factors and Anticatabolic Substances for Prevention and Management of Intervertebral Disc Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Petrillo, Stefano; Franceschetti, Edoardo; Maffulli, Nicola; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is frequent, appearing from the second decade of life and progressing with age. Conservative management often fails, and patients with IVD degeneration may need surgical intervention. Several treatment strategies have been proposed, although only surgical discectomy and arthrodesis have been proved to be predictably effective. Biological strategies aim to prevent and manage IVD degeneration, improving the function and anabolic and reparative capabilities of the nucleus pulposus and annulus fibrosus cells and inhibiting matrix degradation. At present, clinical applications are still in their infancy. Further studies are required to clarify the role of growth factors and anticatabolic substances for prevention and management of intervertebral disc degeneration. PMID:25098367

  16. Application of environmental sensitivity theories in personalized prevention for youth substance abuse: a transdisciplinary translational perspective.

    PubMed

    Thibodeau, Eric L; August, Gerald J; Cicchetti, Dante; Symons, Frank J

    2016-03-01

    Preventive interventions that target high-risk youth, via one-size-fits-all approaches, have demonstrated modest effects in reducing rates of substance use. Recently, substance use researchers have recommended personalized intervention strategies. Central to these approaches is matching preventatives to characteristics of an individual that have been shown to predict outcomes. One compelling body of literature on person × environment interactions is that of environmental sensitivity theories, including differential susceptibility theory and vantage sensitivity. Recent experimental evidence has demonstrated that environmental sensitivity (ES) factors moderate substance abuse outcomes. We propose that ES factors may augment current personalization strategies such as matching based on risk factors/severity of problem behaviors (risk severity (RS)). Specifically, individuals most sensitive to environmental influence may be those most responsive to intervention in general and thus need only a brief-type or lower-intensity program to show gains, while those least sensitive may require more comprehensive or intensive programming for optimal responsiveness. We provide an example from ongoing research to illustrate how ES factors can be incorporated into prevention trials aimed at high-risk adolescents. PMID:27012256

  17. Prevention validation and accounting platform: a framework for establishing accountability and performance measures of substance abuse prevention programs.

    PubMed

    Kim, S; McLeod, J H; Williams, C; Hepler, N

    2000-01-01

    The field of substance abuse prevention has neither an overarching conceptual framework nor a set of shared terminologies for establishing the accountability and performance outcome measures of substance abuse prevention services rendered. Hence, there is a wide gap between what we currently have as data on one hand and information that are required to meet the performance goals and accountability measures set by the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993 on the other. The task before us is: How can we establish the accountability and performance measures of substance abuse prevention programs and transform the field of prevention into prevention science? The intent of this volume is to serve that purpose and accelerate the processes of this transformation by identifying the requisite components of the transformation (i.e., theory, methodology, convention on terms, and data) and by introducing an open forum called, Prevention Validation and Accounting (PREVA) Platform. The entire PREVA Platform (for short, the Platform) is designed as an analytic framework, which is formulated by a collectivity of common concepts, terminologies, accounting units, protocols for counting the units, data elements, and operationalizations of various constructs, and other summary measures intended to bring about an efficient and effective measurement of process input, program capacity, process output, performance outcome, and societal impact of substance abuse prevention programs. The measurement units and summary data elements are designed to be measured across time and across jurisdictions, i.e., from local to regional to state to national levels. In the Platform, the process input is captured by two dimensions of time and capital. Time is conceptualized in terms of service delivery time and time spent for research and development. Capital is measured by the monies expended for the delivery of program activities during a fiscal or reporting period. Program capacity is captured

  18. Effects of intrauterine substance and postnatal violence exposure on aggression in children.

    PubMed

    Barthelemy, Olivier J; Richardson, Mark A; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Forman, Leah S; Cabral, Howard J; Frank, Deborah A

    2016-05-01

    During the cocaine epidemic of the 1980s and early 1990s, many expressed fears that children with intrauterine cocaine exposure (IUCE) would grow up to be unusually violent. The present study examines the relationship of caregiver reports of school-age children's aggressive behavior with IUCE and postnatal exposure to violence. Respondents were 140 low-income, primarily African American children, ages 8-11, and each child's current primary caregiver from a longitudinal study evaluating potential long term sequelae of IUCE. Multiple regression analyses were used to investigate the independent and interactive effects of level of IUCE (None (n = 69), Lighter (n = 47), Heavier (n =  24)) and exposure to violence (Violence Exposure Scale for Children-Revised) on aggressive behavior (Child Behavior Checklist), while also controlling for other intrauterine substance exposures and additional contextual factors. Children's self-reported exposure to violence was significantly positively associated with caregivers' reports of aggressive behavior (β = 2.17, P = .05), as was concurrent caregiver's psychiatric distress (β = .15, P = .003). However, neither IUCE nor its interaction with exposure to violence showed a significant association with aggressive behavior. Findings suggest the importance of postnatal social environment rather than IUCE in predicting aggressive behavior in childhood. Aggr. Behav. 42:209-221, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26660077

  19. Exposure to hazardous substances and male reproductive health: a research framework.

    PubMed Central

    Moline, J M; Golden, A L; Bar-Chama, N; Smith, E; Rauch, M E; Chapin, R E; Perreault, S D; Schrader, S M; Suk, W A; Landrigan, P J

    2000-01-01

    The discovery in the mid-1970s that occupational exposures to pesticides could diminish or destroy the fertility of workers sparked concern about the effects of hazardous substances on male reproductive health. More recently, there is evidence that sperm quantity and quality may have declined worldwide, that the incidence of testicular cancer has progressively increased in many countries, and that other disorders of the male reproductive tract such as hypospadias and cryptorchidism may have also increased. There is growing concern that occupational factors and environmental chemical exposures, including in utero and childhood exposures to compounds with estrogenic activity, may be correlated with these observed changes in male reproductive health and fertility. We review the evidence and methodologies that have contributed to our current understanding of environmental effects on male reproductive health and fertility and discuss the methodologic issues which confront investigators in this area. One of the greatest challenges confronting researchers in this area is assessing and comparing results from existing studies. We elaborate recommendations for future research. Researchers in the field of male reproductive health should continue working to prioritize hazardous substances; elucidate the magnitude of male reproductive health effects, particularly in the areas of testicular cancer, hypospadias, and cryptorchidism; develop biomarkers of exposure to reproductive toxins and of reproductive health effects for research and clinical use; foster collaborative interdisciplinary research; and recognize the importance of standardized laboratory methods and sample archiving. PMID:11017884

  20. Replication RCT of Early Universal Prevention Effects on Young Adult Substance Misuse

    PubMed Central

    Spoth, Richard; Trudeau, Linda; Redmond, Cleve; Shin, Chungyeol

    2014-01-01

    Objective For many substances, more frequent and problematic use occurs in young adulthood; these types of use are predicted by the timing of initiation during adolescence. We replicated and extended an earlier study examining whether delayed substance initiation during adolescence, resulting from universal preventive interventions implemented in middle school, reduces problematic use in young adulthood. Method Participants were middle school students from 36 Iowa schools randomly assigned to the Strengthening Families Program plus Life Skills Training (SFP 10–14 + LST), LST-only, or a control condition. Self-report questionnaires were collected at 11 time points, including four during young adulthood. The intercept (average level) and rate of change (slope) in young adult frequency measures (drunkenness, alcohol-related problems, cigarettes, and illicit drugs) across ages 19–22 were modeled as outcomes influenced by growth factors describing substance initiation during adolescence. Analyses entailed testing a two-step hierarchical latent growth curve model; models included the effects of baseline risk, intervention condition assignment, and their interaction. Results Analyses showed significant indirect intervention effects on the average levels of all young adult outcomes, through effects on adolescent substance initiation growth factors, along with intervention by risk interaction effects favoring the higher-risk subsample. Additional direct effects on young adult use were observed in some cases. Relative reduction rates were larger for the higher-risk subsample at age 22, ranging from 5.8% to 36.4% on outcomes showing significant intervention effects. Conclusions Universal preventive interventions implemented during early adolescence have the potential to decrease the rates of substance use and associated problems, into young adulthood. PMID:24821095

  1. Human exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) via house dust in Korea: Implication to exposure pathway.

    PubMed

    Tian, Zhexi; Kim, Seung-Kyu; Shoeib, Mahiba; Oh, Jeong-Eun; Park, Jong-Eun

    2016-05-15

    A wide range of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), including fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs), perfluorooctane sulfonamidoethanols (FOSEs), perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs), and perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs), were measured in fifteen house dust and two nonresidential indoor dust of Korea. Total concentrations of PFASs in house dust ranged from 29.9 to 97.6 ng g(-1), with a dominance of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), followed by 8:2 FTOH, N-Ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamidoethanol (EtFOSE), perfluoroctanoic acid (PFOA). In a typical exposure scenario, the estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of total PFASs via house dust ingestion were 2.83 ng d(-1) for toddlers and 1.13 ng d(-1) for adults, which were within the range of the mean EDIs reported from several countries. For PFOA and PFOS exposure via house dust ingestion, indirect exposure (via precursors) was a minor contributor, accounting for 5% and 12%, respectively. An aggregated exposure (hereafter, overall-EDIs) of PFOA and PFOS occurring via all pathways, estimated using data compiled from the literature, were 53.6 and 14.8 ng d(-1) for toddlers, and 20.5 and 40.6 ng d(-1) for adults, respectively, in a typical scenario. These overall-EDIs corresponded to 82% (PFOA) and 92% (PFOS) of a pharmacokinetic model-based EDIs estimated from adults' serum data. Direct dietary exposure was a major contributor (>89% of overall-EDI) to PFOS in both toddlers and adults, and PFOA in toddlers. As for PFOA exposure of adults, however direct exposure via tap water drinking (37%) and indirect exposure via inhalation (22%) were as important as direct dietary exposure (41%). House dust-ingested exposure (direct+indirect) was responsible for 5% (PFOS in toddlers) and <1% (PFOS in adults, and PFOA in both toddlers and adults) of the overall-EDIs. In conclusion, house-dust ingestion was a minor contributor in this study, but should not be ignored for toddlers' PFOS exposure due to its significance in the

  2. Quantitative Exposure Assessment of Various Chemical Substances in a Wafer Fabrication Industry Facility

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Jae-Kil; Shin, Jung-Ah

    2011-01-01

    Objectives This study was designed to evaluate exposure levels of various chemicals used in wafer fabrication product lines in the semiconductor industry where work-related leukemia has occurred. Methods The research focused on 9 representative wafer fabrication bays among a total of 25 bays in a semiconductor product line. We monitored the chemical substances categorized as human carcinogens with respect to leukemia as well as harmful chemicals used in the bays and substances with hematologic and reproductive toxicities to evaluate the overall health effect for semiconductor industry workers. With respect to monitoring, active and passive sampling techniques were introduced. Eight-hour long-term and 15-minute short-term sampling was conducted for the area as well as on personal samples. Results The results of the measurements for each substance showed that benzene, toluene, xylene, n-butyl acetate, 2-methoxyethanol, 2-heptanone, ethylene glycol, sulfuric acid, and phosphoric acid were non-detectable (ND) in all samples. Arsine was either "ND" or it existed only in trace form in the bay air. The maximum exposure concentration of fluorides was approximately 0.17% of the Korea occupational exposure limits, with hydrofluoric acid at about 0.2%, hydrochloric acid 0.06%, nitric acid 0.05%, isopropyl alcohol 0.4%, and phosphine at about 2%. The maximum exposure concentration of propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate (PGMEA) was 0.0870 ppm, representing only 0.1% or less than the American Industrial Hygiene Association recommended standard (100 ppm). Conclusion Benzene, a known human carcinogen for leukemia, and arsine, a hematologic toxin, were not detected in wafer fabrication sites in this study. Among reproductive toxic substances, n-butyl acetate was not detected, but fluorides and PGMEA existed in small amounts in the air. This investigation was focused on the air-borne chemical concentrations only in regular working conditions. Unconditional exposures during

  3. Mediation effects of a culturally generic substance use prevention program for Asian American adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Lin; Schinke, Steven P.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we examined the mediation effects of a family-based substance use prevention program on a sample of Asian American families. These families were randomized into an intervention arm or a non-intervention control arm. Using path models, we assessed the effect of the intervention on adolescent girls’ substance use outcomes at 2-year follow-up through family relationships and adolescent self-efficacy pathways. Bias-corrected bootstrapping strategy was employed to assess the significance of the mediation effect by evaluating the 95% confidence interval of the standardized coefficient. The results show that receiving the intervention exerted a positive effect on girls’ family relationships at 1-year follow-up. Such an improvement was associated with girls’ increased self-efficacy, which in turn led to girls’ decreased alcohol use, marijuana use, and future intention to use substances at 2-year follow-up. Considering the diverse cultural backgrounds, as well as languages, nationalities, and acculturation levels under the umbrella term “Asian Americans”, we demonstrate that a universal web-based intervention that tackles the theoretical- and empirical-based risk and protective factors can be effective for Asian Americans. Despite its generic nature, our program may provide relevant tools for Asian American parents in assisting their adolescent children to navigate through the developmental stage and ultimately, resist substance use. PMID:25505939

  4. An acute post-rape intervention to prevent substance use and abuse.

    PubMed

    Acierno, Ron; Resnick, Heidi S; Flood, Amanda; Holmes, Melisa

    2003-12-01

    The trauma of rape is routinely associated with extreme acute distress. Such peri-event anxiety increases risk of developing psychopathology and substance use or abuse post-rape, with the degree of initial distress positively predicting future problems. Unfortunately, the nature of post-rape forensic evidence collection procedures may exacerbate initial distress, thereby potentiating post-rape negative emotional sequelae. Consequently, substance use may increase in an effort to ameliorate this distress. To address this, a two-part video intervention was developed for use in acute post-rape time frames to (a) minimize anxiety during forensic rape examinations, thereby reducing risk of future emotional problems, and (b) prevent increased post-rape substance use and abuse. Pilot study data with 124 rape victims indicated that the low-cost, easily administered intervention was effective in reducing risk of marijuana abuse at 6 weeks. Nonstatistically significant trends also were evident for reduced marijuana use. Trends were also noted in favor of the intervention in the subgroup of women who were actively using substances pre-rape (among pre-rape alcohol users, 28% viewers vs. 43% nonviewers met criteria for post-rape alcohol abuse; among pre-rape marijuana users, the rates of post-marijuana use were 17% vs. 43%). PMID:14656554

  5. Monitoring of troponin release from cardiomyocytes during exposure to toxic substances using surface plasmon resonance biosensing.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Henrik; Kågedal, Bertil; Mandenius, Carl-Fredrik

    2010-10-01

    Troponin T (TnT) is a useful biomarker for studying drug-induced toxicity effects on cardiac cells. We describe how a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor was applied to monitor the release of TnT from active HL-1 cardiomyocytes in vitro when exposed to cardiotoxic substances. Two monoclonal human TnT antibodies were compared in the SPR immunosensor to analyse the TnT release. The detection limit of TnT was determined to be 30 ng/ml in a direct assay set-up and to be 10 ng/ml in a sandwich assay format. Exposure of the cardiomyocytes to doxorubicin, troglitazone, quinidine and cobalt chloride for periods of 6 and 24 h gave significant SPR responses, whereas substances with low toxicity showed insignificant effects (ascorbic acid, methotrexate). The SPR results were verified with a validated immunochemiluminescence method which showed a correlation of r (2) = 0.790. PMID:20694813

  6. Prevention, early intervention, harm reduction, and treatment of substance use in young people.

    PubMed

    Stockings, Emily; Hall, Wayne D; Lynskey, Michael; Morley, Katherine I; Reavley, Nicola; Strang, John; Patton, George; Degenhardt, Louisa

    2016-03-01

    We did a systematic review of reviews with evidence on the effectiveness of prevention, early intervention, harm reduction, and treatment of problem use in young people for tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drugs (eg, cannabis, opioids, amphetamines, or cocaine). Taxation, public consumption bans, advertising restrictions, and minimum legal age are effective measures to reduce alcohol and tobacco use, but are not available to target illicit drugs. Interpretation of the available evidence for school-based prevention is affected by methodological issues; interventions that incorporate skills training are more likely to be effective than information provision-which is ineffective. Social norms and brief interventions to reduce substance use in young people do not have strong evidence of effectiveness. Roadside drug testing and interventions to reduce injection-related harms have a moderate-to-large effect, but additional research with young people is needed. Scarce availability of research on interventions for problematic substance use in young people indicates the need to test interventions that are effective with adults in young people. Existing evidence is from high-income countries, with uncertain applicability in other countries and cultures and in subpopulations differing in sex, age, and risk status. Concerted efforts are needed to increase the evidence base on interventions that aim to reduce the high burden of substance use in young people. PMID:26905481

  7. Does Successful School-Based Prevention of Bullying Influence Substance Use among 13- To 16-Year-Olds?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amundsen, Ellen J.; Ravndal, Edle

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To test whether the school-based Olweus prevention programme against bullying may have lasting effects on substance use, a hypothesis based on the characteristics of bullies having misconduct behaviour associated with substance use. Methods: The Olweus programme was introduced from grades 7 through 9 in four schools and monitored up to grade…

  8. Preventive Effects of Treatment of Disruptive Behavior Disorder in Middle Childhood on Substance Use and Delinquent Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zonnevylle-Bender, Marjo J. S.; Matthys, Walter; van de Wiel, Nicolle M. H.; Lochman, John E.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Disruptive behavior disorder (DBD) is a well-known risk factor for substance abuse and delinquent behavior in adolescence. Therefore, the long-term preventive effects of treatment of DBD in middle childhood on beginning substance use and delinquency in early adolescence were investigated. Method: Children with DBD (8-13 years old) had…

  9. Life skills training: preventing substance misuse by enhancing individual and social competence.

    PubMed

    Botvin, Gilbert J; Griffin, Kenneth W

    2014-01-01

    Research concerning the etiology and prevention of substance misuse has led to the development of preventive interventions that are theory-based and effective. One such approach, Life Skills Training (LST), targets key etiologic factors using a conceptual framework derived from social learning theory and problem behavior theory. LST has been extensively tested in a series of randomized trials and found effective in preventing the use/misuse of alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, and other psychoactive drugs. Research demonstrates that it is effective when implemented under different delivery conditions, by different program providers, with different age groups, and with different populations. Follow-up studies provide evidence of the long-term effectiveness of LST. Independent economic analysis indicates that LST produces cost savings of as much as $38 for every dollar invested. Finally, LST offers the potential of reducing other health risk behaviors and fostering academic success. PMID:24753278

  10. Contrasting cellular stress responses of Baikalian and Palearctic amphipods upon exposure to humic substances: environmental implications.

    PubMed

    Protopopova, Marina V; Pavlichenko, Vasiliy V; Menzel, Ralph; Putschew, Anke; Luckenbach, Till; Steinberg, Christian E W

    2014-12-01

    The species-rich, endemic amphipod fauna of Lake Baikal does not overlap with the common Palearctic fauna; however, the underlying mechanisms for this are poorly understood. Considering that Palearctic lakes have a higher relative input of natural organic compounds with a dominance of humic substances (HSs) than Lake Baikal, we addressed the question whether HSs are candidate factors that affect the different species compositions in these water bodies. We hypothesized that interspecies differences in stress defense might reveal that Baikalian amphipods are inferior to Palearctic amphipods in dealing with HS-mediated stress. In this study, two key mechanisms of general stress response were examined: heat-shock protein 70 (HSP70) and multixenobiotic resistance-associated transporters (ABCB1). The results of quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) showed that the basal levels (in 3-day acclimated animals) of hsp70 and abcb1 transcripts were lower in Baikalian species (Eulimnogammarus cyaneus, Eulimnogammarus verrucosus, Eulimnogammarus vittatus-the most typical littoral species) than in the Palearctic amphipod (Gammarus lacustris-the only Palearctic species distributed in the Baikalian region). In the amphipods, the stress response was induced using HSs at 10 mg L(-1) dissolved organic carbon, which was higher than in sampling sites of the studied species, but well within the range (3-10 mg L(-1)) in the surrounding water bodies populated by G. lacustris. The results of qPCR and western blotting (n = 5) showed that HS exposure led to increased hsp70/abcb1 transcripts and HSP70 protein levels in G. lacustris, whereas these transcript levels remained constant or decreased in the Baikalian species. The decreased level of stress transcripts is probably not able to confer an effective tolerance to Baikalian species against further environmental stressors in conditions with elevated HS levels. Thus, our results suggest a greater robustness of Palearctic amphipods and

  11. Buthionine sulfoximine prevents the reduction of the genotoxic activity of maleic hydrazide by soil humic substances in Vicia faba seedlings.

    PubMed

    De Marco, A; De Simone, C; D'Ambrosio, C; Owczarek, M

    1999-01-13

    A significant reduction of the genotoxic effects caused by herbicide maleic hydrazide (MH) in Vicia faba seedlings was observed to be induced by a growth step in an organic soil as well as by a pretreatment with highly purified humic substances. In addition, such protective activity was resulted quite similar to that observed when the conditioning pretreatment was carried out with metal salts, so suggesting the involvement of the GSH biosynthesis in determining the protective activity observed. In agreement with this hypothesis, a previous exposure to buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), an inhibitor of the phytochelatins production, through the inhibition of GSH synthesis, prevented the reduction of the genotoxic activity of MH. The findings provide evidence for the involvement of the GSH biosynthesis pathway in determining the antigenotoxic activity revealed and suggest a possible involvement of the phytochelatins in this process. However, yet to be clarified is whether the stimulation of GSH production results as a consequence of a nonspecific influence on the protein synthesis by humic substances or of its direct activation due to the presence, as contaminants, of some heavy metals in both organic soil and humic acids extracts. PMID:10036330

  12. Updating versus Exposure to Prevent Consolidation of Conditioned Fear

    PubMed Central

    Pile, Victoria; Barnhofer, Thorsten; Wild, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Targeting the consolidation of fear memories following trauma may offer a promising method for preventing the development of flashbacks and other unwanted re-experiencing symptoms that characterise Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Research has demonstrated that performing visuo-spatial tasks after analogue trauma can block the consolidation of fear memory and reduce the frequency of flashbacks. However, no research has yet used verbal techniques to alter memories during the consolidation window. This is surprising given that the most effective treatments for PTSD are verbally-based with exposure therapy and trauma-focused cognitive behavioural therapy gaining the most evidence of efficacy. Psychological therapies aim to reduce the conditioned fear response, which is in keeping with the preliminary finding that an increased propensity for fear conditioning may be a vulnerability factor for PTSD. Our research had two aims. We investigated the degree to which individual differences in fear conditioning predict the development of PTSD symptoms. We also compared the preventative effects of two clinically informed psychological techniques administered during the consolidation window: exposure to the trauma memory and updating the meaning of the trauma. 115 healthy participants underwent a fear conditioning paradigm in which traumatic film stimuli (unconditioned stimuli) were paired with neutral stimuli (conditioned stimuli). Participants were randomly allocated to an updating, exposure or control group to compare the effects on the conditioned fear response and on PTSD symptomatology. The results showed that stronger conditioned responses at acquisition significantly predicted the development of PTSD symptoms. The updating group, who verbally devalued the unconditioned stimulus within the consolidation window, experienced significantly lower levels of PTSD symptoms during follow-up than the exposure and control groups. These findings are consistent with clinical

  13. Aquatic toxicity of forty industrial chemicals: Testing in support of hazardous substance spill prevention regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, M. W.; Ward, C. H.

    1981-05-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is presently developing hazardous substance spill regulations to help prevent water pollution. Aquatic animal toxicity data are used as criteria for the designation and categorization of substances as hazardous, even though this type of data is not available for many industrial chemicals. Static 96-hr. toxicity tests were conducted with 40 such chemicals to provide basic toxicity data for regulatory decision making. Thirty-two of the 40 chemicals tested were hazardous to aquatic life as determined by 96-hr. LC 50's less than or equal to 500 mg/l. All 40 chemicals were tested with the fresh-water fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas, and ten chemicals were also tested with the salt-water grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio.

  14. Promoting Global Health - Prevention and Treatment of Substance Abuse and HIV in Asia.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming D; Hser, Yih-Ing; Chen, Zhiwei; Chang, Linda

    2016-09-01

    This special issue contains 20 papers including 3 Perspectives, 1 Brief Report, 6 Invited Reviews, and 10 Original Articles, which highlight the work by presenters at the second meeting of the biennial Conference Series to Promote Global Health held on April 22-24, 2015 in Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China. These papers focused on the prevalent substance misuse of amphetamine-type-stimulants and opioids, and the increasing prevalence of HIV-infection in Asian countries. The Conference Series is sponsored by the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the U.S. National Institutes of Health, with the goal of exchanging knowledge and ideas related to, and promoting international collaborative work on, the prevention and treatment of substance use disorders and HIV-infection, in order to promote health in Asian and Pacific Islanders and other populations. PMID:27484319

  15. Prevention of accidental exposure in radiotherapy: the risk matrix approach.

    PubMed

    Vilaragut, J J; Duménigo, C; Delgado, J M; Morales, J; McDonnell, J D; Ferro, R; Ortiz López, P; Ramírez, M L; Pérez Mulas, A; Papadopulos, S; Gonçalves, M; López Morones, R; Sánchez Cayuela, C; Cascajo Castresana, A; Somoano, F; Álvarez, C; Guillén, A; Rodríguez, M; Pereira, P P; Nader, A

    2013-02-01

    Knowledge and lessons from past accidental exposures in radiotherapy are very helpful in finding safety provisions to prevent recurrence. Disseminating lessons is necessary but not sufficient. There may be additional latent risks for other accidental exposures, which have not been reported or have not occurred, but are possible and may occur in the future if not identified, analyzed, and prevented by safety provisions. Proactive methods are available for anticipating and quantifying risk from potential event sequences. In this work, proactive methods, successfully used in industry, have been adapted and used in radiotherapy. Risk matrix is a tool that can be used in individual hospitals to classify event sequences in levels of risk. As with any anticipative method, the risk matrix involves a systematic search for potential risks; that is, any situation that can cause an accidental exposure. The method contributes new insights: The application of the risk matrix approach has identified that another group of less catastrophic but still severe single-patient events may have a higher probability, resulting in higher risk. The use of the risk matrix approach for safety assessment in individual hospitals would provide an opportunity for self-evaluation and managing the safety measures that are most suitable to the hospital's own conditions. PMID:23274816

  16. Using Videogame Apps to Assess Gains in Adolescents’ Substance Use Knowledge: New Opportunities for Evaluating Intervention Exposure and Content Mastery

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Videogame interventions are becoming increasingly popular as a means to engage people in behavioral interventions; however, strategies for examining data from such interventions have not been developed. Objective The objective of this study was to describe how a technology-based intervention can yield meaningful, objective evidence of intervention exposure within a behavioral intervention. This study demonstrates the analysis of automatic log files, created by software from a videogame intervention, that catalog game play and, as proof of concept, the association of these data with changes in substance use knowledge as documented with standardized assessments. Methods We analyzed 3- and 6-month follow-up data from 166 participants enrolled in a randomized controlled trial evaluating a videogame intervention, PlayForward: Elm City Stories (PlayForward). PlayForward is a videogame developed as a risk reduction and prevention program targeting HIV risk behaviors (substance use and sex) in young minority adolescents. Log files were analyzed to extract the total amount of time spent playing the videogame intervention and the total number of game levels completed and beaten by each player. Results Completing and beating more of the game levels, and not total game play time, was related to higher substance use knowledge scores at the 3- (P=.001) and 6-month (P=.001) follow-ups. Conclusions Our findings highlight the potential contributions a videogame intervention can make to the study of health behavior change. Specifically, the use of objective data collected during game play can address challenges in traditional human-delivered behavioral interventions. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01666496; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01666496 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6cV9fxsOg) PMID:26510775

  17. Selective prevention programs for children from substance-affected families: a comprehensive systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Children from substance-affected families show an elevated risk for developing own substance-related or other mental disorders. Therefore, they are an important target group for preventive efforts. So far, such programs for children of substance-involved parents have not been reviewed together. We conducted a comprehensive systematic review to identify and summarize evaluations of selective preventive interventions in childhood and adolescence targeted at this specific group. From the overall search result of 375 articles, 339 were excluded, 36 full texts were reviewed. From these, nine eligible programs documented in 13 studies were identified comprising four school-based interventions (study 1–6), one community-based intervention (study 7–8), and four family-based interventions (study 9–13). Studies’ levels of evidence were rated in accordance with the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) methodology, and their quality was ranked according to a score adapted from the area of meta-analytic family therapy research and consisting of 15 study design quality criteria. Studies varied in program format, structure, content, and participants. They also varied in outcome measures, results, and study design quality. We found seven RCT’s, two well designed controlled or quasi-experimental studies, three well-designed descriptive studies, and one qualitative study. There was preliminary evidence for the effectiveness of the programs, especially when their duration was longer than ten weeks and when they involved children’s, parenting, and family skills training components. Outcomes proximal to the intervention, such as program-related knowledge, coping-skills, and family relations, showed better results than more distal outcomes such as self-worth and substance use initiation, the latter due to the comparably young age of participants and sparse longitudinal data. However, because of the small overall number of studies found, all conclusions must

  18. Selective prevention programs for children from substance-affected families: a comprehensive systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bröning, Sonja; Kumpfer, Karol; Kruse, Katja; Sack, Peter-Michael; Schaunig-Busch, Ines; Ruths, Sylvia; Moesgen, Diana; Pflug, Ellen; Klein, Michael; Thomasius, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    Children from substance-affected families show an elevated risk for developing own substance-related or other mental disorders. Therefore, they are an important target group for preventive efforts. So far, such programs for children of substance-involved parents have not been reviewed together. We conducted a comprehensive systematic review to identify and summarize evaluations of selective preventive interventions in childhood and adolescence targeted at this specific group. From the overall search result of 375 articles, 339 were excluded, 36 full texts were reviewed. From these, nine eligible programs documented in 13 studies were identified comprising four school-based interventions (study 1-6), one community-based intervention (study 7-8), and four family-based interventions (study 9-13). Studies' levels of evidence were rated in accordance with the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) methodology, and their quality was ranked according to a score adapted from the area of meta-analytic family therapy research and consisting of 15 study design quality criteria. Studies varied in program format, structure, content, and participants. They also varied in outcome measures, results, and study design quality. We found seven RCT's, two well designed controlled or quasi-experimental studies, three well-designed descriptive studies, and one qualitative study. There was preliminary evidence for the effectiveness of the programs, especially when their duration was longer than ten weeks and when they involved children's, parenting, and family skills training components. Outcomes proximal to the intervention, such as program-related knowledge, coping-skills, and family relations, showed better results than more distal outcomes such as self-worth and substance use initiation, the latter due to the comparably young age of participants and sparse longitudinal data. However, because of the small overall number of studies found, all conclusions must remain

  19. Cumulative Effects of Prenatal Substance Exposure and Early Adversity on Foster Children's HPA-Axis Reactivity during a Psychosocial Stressor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Philip A.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Bruce, Jacqueline; Pears, Katherine C.

    2012-01-01

    Dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis stress response has been reported among individuals with prenatal substance exposure and those with early adversity exposure. However, few researchers have examined the combined effects of these risk factors. Patterns of HPA reactivity among maltreated foster children with and without…

  20. Can Skin Exposure to Sunlight Prevent Liver Inflammation?

    PubMed Central

    Gorman, Shelley; Black, Lucinda J.; Feelisch, Martin; Hart, Prue H.; Weller, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Liver inflammation contributes towards the pathology of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Here we discuss how skin exposure to sunlight may suppress liver inflammation and the severity of NAFLD. Following exposure to sunlight-derived ultraviolet radiation (UVR), the skin releases anti-inflammatory mediators such as vitamin D and nitric oxide. Animal modeling studies suggest that exposure to UVR can prevent the development of NAFLD. Association studies also support a negative link between circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D and NAFLD incidence or severity. Clinical trials are in their infancy and are yet to demonstrate a clear beneficial effect of vitamin D supplementation. There are a number of potentially interdependent mechanisms whereby vitamin D could dampen liver inflammation, by inhibiting hepatocyte apoptosis and liver fibrosis, modulating the gut microbiome and through altered production and transport of bile acids. While there has been a focus on vitamin D, other mediators induced by sun exposure, such as nitric oxide may also play important roles in curtailing liver inflammation. PMID:25951129

  1. Food allergy: practical approach on education and accidental exposure prevention.

    PubMed

    Pádua, I; Moreira, A; Moreira, P; Barros, R

    2016-09-01

    Food allergies are a growing problem and currently the primary treatment of food allergy is avoidance of culprit foods. However, given the lack of information and education and also the ubiquitous nature of allergens, accidental exposures to food allergens are not uncommon. The fear of potential fatal reactions and the need of a proper avoidance leads in most of the cases to the limitation of leisure and social activities. This review aims to be a practical approach on education and accidental exposure prevention regarding activities like shopping, eating out, and travelling. The recommendations are focused especially on proper reading of food labels and the management of the disease, namely in restaurants and airplanes, concerning cross-contact and communication with other stakeholders. The implementation of effective tools is essential to manage food allergy outside home, avoid serious allergic reactions and minimize the disease's impact on individuals' quality of life. PMID:27608473

  2. The relevance of social contexts and social action in reducing substance use and victimization among women participating in an HIV prevention intervention in Cape Town, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Elizabeth; Emanuel, Andrea N; Myers, Bronwyn; Johnson, Kim; Wechsberg, Wendee M

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To examine qualitatively how women’s social context and community mobilization (eg, mobilizing women to take social action and engaging their community in social change) influence substance use abstinence and victimization among women participating in a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) intervention in Cape Town, South Africa. Methods Thirty women who had participated in a randomized controlled trial of a group-delivered intervention to address substance use, gender-based violence, and associated risk for HIV (The Women’s Health CoOp) were selected to participate in semi-structured interviews about their perceived impact of the intervention on their substance use and exposure to victimization. The Women’s CoOp intervention involved creating a new positive social environment for women within a group setting that also fostered women’s social action (eg, educating peers or family members) in the community. Interviews were analyzed using content analysis and coded to examine women’s descriptions of social contexts and social action, and the influence of these on women’s substance use abstinence and exposure to victimization. Results Social support (eg, via program staff and other participants) and social action (eg, engaging others in the community on issues relevant to substance use prevention or other health topics) promoted within the program, as well as outside social influences within women’s life contexts (eg, support from non-substance using family or male partners, leaving male partners or other peer relationships characterized by drug use, or finding employment) were key factors reported by women in terms of facilitating their substance use abstinence and in reducing women’s exposures to victimization. Conclusion Findings highlight the potential for group-delivered interventions that include mobilizing women to take social action in the larger community to be effective approaches for facilitating substance use abstinence, reductions

  3. Internal exposure of waste incineration workers to organic and inorganic substances.

    PubMed

    Wrbitzky, R; Göen, T; Letzel, S; Frank, F; Angerer, J

    1995-01-01

    One hundred and twenty-two persons employed in an industrial waste incineration plant were examined with respect to organic and inorganic substances which may be produced during the combustion of different waste. The employees were divided into three groups: persons with contact with the incinerator (WI workers, n = 45), periphery workers (n = 54) and management (n = 23). For the evaluation of internal exposure, the levels of lead, cadmium, mercury, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and m-xylene in blood, chromium in the erythrocytes, polychlorinated biphenyls, hexachlorobenzene and pentachlorophenol in plasma, and arsenic, chromium, nickel, vanadium, chlorophenols and hydroxypyrene in urine were determined. The internal exposures of the three groups were tested against each other and were compared with the reference values of the general population. Differences between the groups investigated were tested using the U test according to Wilcoxon, Mann and Whitney (P < 0.05). The biological exposure limits valid in Germany (BAT values) were not exceeded in any cases. Compared with the background levels of the German population, certain parameters were exceeded in several employees. Significantly higher levels of the WI workers in comparison to both periphery workers and management were found for toluene in blood (median: 1.1 vs 0.9 vs 0.6 microgram/l). For the lead and cadmium levels in blood and for the urinary excretion of arsenic, 2,4-dichlorophenol and tetrachlorophenols, statistical differences were found only between WI workers and one of the other groups. However, in all cases the elevations were very small and of interest more from the environmental than from the occupational point of view. It must be stressed that this waste incineration plant is very modern in terms of worker health and safety. At older plants without corresponding health and safety measures, higher internal exposure of the employees to hazardous substances may exist. PMID:8847108

  4. [Criteria for the determination of chronic exposure to hazardous substances via soil ingestion].

    PubMed

    Konietzka, R; Dieter, H H

    1994-01-01

    Legally recoverable protection of human health against pollutant effects must have for the enforcement in practice a technically comprehensible toxicological basis, i.e., a coherence or connection between the toxicological and legal definition of a dangerous situation must be found. For this purpose toxicological and socially accepted reference points in the unit "mg of pollutant amount absorbed per kg of weight per day" (mg/[kg of weight x d]) may be used to assess a danger in the sense a sufficient probability a damage to human health exists after exposure to certain pollutant concentrations. Based on the plausible toxicological assumption that above this reference point in case of an undisturbed course of action and by giving consideration to all exposure pathways a threshold of harmlessness including all groups of the population would be exceeded, criteria both for non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic substances or for substances suspected to cause cancer are being developed. These criteria allow to determine from which point the existence of a danger would be assessable as "sufficiently probable", and hence the required coherence between legal and toxicological view to be established. PMID:8148583

  5. Neurobiology of Adolescent Substance Use and Addictive Behaviors: Prevention and Treatment Implications

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, Christopher J.; Mayes, Linda C.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2015-01-01

    Psychoactive substance and nonsubstance/behavioral addictions are major public health concerns associated with significant societal cost. Adolescence is a period of dynamic biologic, psychological, and behavioral changes. Adolescence is also associated with an increased risk for substance use and addictive disorders. During adolescence, developmental changes in neural circuitry of reward processing, motivation, cognitive control, and stress may contribute to vulnerability for increased levels of engagement in substance use and nonsubstance addictive behaviors. Current biologic models of adolescent vulnerability for addictions incorporate existing data on allostatic changes in function and structure of the midbrain dopaminergic system, stress-associated neuroplasticity, and maturational imbalances between cognitive control and reward reactivity. When characterizing adolescent vulnerability, identifying subgroups of adolescents at high risk for addictive behaviors is a major goal of the addiction field. Genetics, epigenetics, and intermediate phenotypes/endophenotypes may assist in characterizing children and adolescents at risk. Improved understanding of the neurobiology of adolescence and addiction vulnerability has the potential to refine screening, enhance prevention and intervention strategies, and inform public policy. PMID:25022184

  6. Effects of Adolescent Universal Substance Misuse Preventive Interventions on Young Adult Depression Symptoms: Mediational Modeling.

    PubMed

    Trudeau, Linda; Spoth, Richard; Mason, W Alex; Randall, G Kevin; Redmond, Cleve; Schainker, Lisa

    2016-02-01

    Depression symptoms are associated with impairments in functioning and have substantial health and economic consequences. Universal substance misuse prevention programs have shown effects on non-targeted mental health-related symptoms, but long-term effects are understudied. This cluster randomized controlled trial examined effects of both the LifeSkills Training (LST) and Strengthening Families Program: For Parents and Youth 10-14 (SFP 10-14) interventions, delivered during seventh grade, on age 22 young adult depression symptoms. The study was conducted in US rural Midwestern communities with a randomly-selected sample from a larger study (N = 670). Experimental conditions were LST+SFP 10-14, LST-only, and a control condition. Effects on age 22 depression symptoms were hypothesized as mediated through effects on age 21 relationship problems and illicit use of substances. Structural equation modeling with manifest and latent variables was conducted to test hypotheses; the intervention conditions were combined and compared with the control condition because analyses indicated a comparable pattern of effects between intervention conditions. Significant indirect intervention effects were found on age 22 depression symptoms via effects on the mediating variables (indirect effect: β = -0.06, 95 % CI [-0.10, -0.01], p = 0.011). Effect sizes for the young adult variables were between d = 0.17 and 0.29, which can be considered small, but nontrivial, especially in the context of public health benefits. Results support scaled-up implementation of school-based and family-focused universal substance misuse preventive interventions. PMID:25795013

  7. 21 CFR 2.25 - Grain seed treated with poisonous substances; color identification to prevent adulteration of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...; color identification to prevent adulteration of human and animal food. 2.25 Section 2.25 Food and Drugs... RULINGS AND DECISIONS Human and Animal Foods § 2.25 Grain seed treated with poisonous substances; color identification to prevent adulteration of human and animal food. (a) In recent years there has...

  8. 21 CFR 2.25 - Grain seed treated with poisonous substances; color identification to prevent adulteration of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...; color identification to prevent adulteration of human and animal food. 2.25 Section 2.25 Food and Drugs... RULINGS AND DECISIONS Human and Animal Foods § 2.25 Grain seed treated with poisonous substances; color identification to prevent adulteration of human and animal food. (a) In recent years there has...

  9. 21 CFR 2.25 - Grain seed treated with poisonous substances; color identification to prevent adulteration of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...; color identification to prevent adulteration of human and animal food. 2.25 Section 2.25 Food and Drugs... RULINGS AND DECISIONS Human and Animal Foods § 2.25 Grain seed treated with poisonous substances; color identification to prevent adulteration of human and animal food. (a) In recent years there has...

  10. 21 CFR 2.25 - Grain seed treated with poisonous substances; color identification to prevent adulteration of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...; color identification to prevent adulteration of human and animal food. 2.25 Section 2.25 Food and Drugs... RULINGS AND DECISIONS Human and Animal Foods § 2.25 Grain seed treated with poisonous substances; color identification to prevent adulteration of human and animal food. (a) In recent years there has...

  11. 21 CFR 2.25 - Grain seed treated with poisonous substances; color identification to prevent adulteration of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...; color identification to prevent adulteration of human and animal food. 2.25 Section 2.25 Food and Drugs... RULINGS AND DECISIONS Human and Animal Foods § 2.25 Grain seed treated with poisonous substances; color identification to prevent adulteration of human and animal food. (a) In recent years there has...

  12. The Potential of Coaching as a Strategy to Improve the Effectiveness of School-Based Substance Use Prevention Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringwalt, Christopher L.; Pankratz, Melinda M.; Hansen, William B.; Dusenbury, Linda; Jackson-Newsom, Julia; Giles, Steven M.; Brodish, Paul H.

    2009-01-01

    Research-based substance use prevention curricula typically yield small effects when implemented by school teachers under real-world conditions. Using a randomized controlled trial, the authors examined whether expert coaching improves the effectiveness of the All Stars prevention curriculum. Although a positive effect on students' cigarette use…

  13. The Role Of The Self-Fulfilling Prophecy In Young Adolescents’ Responsiveness To A Substance Use Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    Madon, Stephanie; Scherr, Kyle C.; Spoth, Richard; Guyll, Max; Willard, Jennifer; Vogel, David L.

    2013-01-01

    This research examined whether naturally-occurring self-fulfilling prophecies influenced adolescents’ responsiveness to a substance use prevention program. The authors addressed this issue with a unique methodological approach that was designed to enhance the internal validity of research on naturally-occurring self-fulfilling prophecies by experimentally controlling for prediction without influence. Participants were 321 families who were assigned to an adolescent substance use prevention program that either did or did not systematically involve parents. Results showed that parents’ perceptions about the value of involving parents in adolescent substance use prevention predicted adolescents’ alcohol use more strongly among families assigned to the prevention program that systematically involved parents than to the one that did not. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:24072934

  14. Family-based interventions for the prevention of substance abuse and other impulse control disorders in girls.

    PubMed

    Kumpfer, K L

    2014-01-01

    Standardized family-based interventions are the most effective way of preventing or treating adolescent substance abuse and delinquency. This paper first reviews the incidence of adolescent substance abuse worldwide emphasizing gender and causes by etiological risk and protective factors. New epigenetic research is included suggesting that nurturing parenting significantly prevents the phenotypic expression of inherited genetic diseases including substance abuse. Evidence-based family interventions are reviewed including family change theories behind their success, principles and types of family-based interventions, research results, cultural adaptation steps for ethnic and international translation, and dissemination issues. The author's Strengthening Family Program is used as an example of how these principles of effective prevention and cultural adaptation can result in highly effective prevention programs not only for substance abuse, but for other impulse control disorders as well. The conclusions include recommendations for more use of computer technologies to cut the high cost of family interventions relative to youth-only prevention programs and increase the public health impact of evidence-based prevention programs. The paper recommends that to reduce health care costs these family-based approaches should be applied to the prevention and treatment of other impulse control disorders such as obesity and type 2 diabetes, sexually transmitted diseases, and delinquency. PMID:25938121

  15. Family-Based Interventions for the Prevention of Substance Abuse and Other Impulse Control Disorders in Girls

    PubMed Central

    Kumpfer, K. L.

    2014-01-01

    Standardized family-based interventions are the most effective way of preventing or treating adolescent substance abuse and delinquency. This paper first reviews the incidence of adolescent substance abuse worldwide emphasizing gender and causes by etiological risk and protective factors. New epigenetic research is included suggesting that nurturing parenting significantly prevents the phenotypic expression of inherited genetic diseases including substance abuse. Evidence-based family interventions are reviewed including family change theories behind their success, principles and types of family-based interventions, research results, cultural adaptation steps for ethnic and international translation, and dissemination issues. The author's Strengthening Family Program is used as an example of how these principles of effective prevention and cultural adaptation can result in highly effective prevention programs not only for substance abuse, but for other impulse control disorders as well. The conclusions include recommendations for more use of computer technologies to cut the high cost of family interventions relative to youth-only prevention programs and increase the public health impact of evidence-based prevention programs. The paper recommends that to reduce health care costs these family-based approaches should be applied to the prevention and treatment of other impulse control disorders such as obesity and type 2 diabetes, sexually transmitted diseases, and delinquency. PMID:25938121

  16. The Feasibility and Acceptability of “Arise”: An Online Substance Abuse Relapse Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    Bartel, Chelsea M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility and acceptability of a novel online adolescent substance abuse relapse prevention tool, “Arise” (3C Institute, Cary, NC). The program uses an innovative platform including interactive instructional segments and skill-building games to help adolescents learn and practice coping skills training strategies. Materials and Methods: We conducted a pilot test with nine adolescents in substance abuse treatment (44 percent female) and a feasibility test with treatment providers (n=8; 50 percent female). Adolescents interacted with the program via a secure Web site for approximately 30 minutes for each of two instructional units. Treatment providers reviewed the same material at their own pace. All participants completed a questionnaire with items assessing usability, acceptability, understanding, and subjective experience of the program. Results: Regarding feasibility, recruitment of this population within the study constraints proved challenging, but participant retention in the trial was high (no attrition). Adolescents and treatment providers completed the program with no reported problems, and overall we were able to collect data as planned. Regarding acceptability, the program received strong ratings from both adolescents and providers, who found the prototype informative, engaging, and appealing. Both groups strongly recommended continuing development. Conclusions: We were able to deliver the intervention as intended, and acceptability ratings were high, demonstrating the feasibility and acceptability of online delivery of engaging interactive interventions. This study contributes to our understanding of how interactive technologies, including games, can be used to modify behavior in substance abuse treatment and other health areas. PMID:26181807

  17. Assessment of family history of substance abuse for preventive interventions with patients experiencing chronic pain: A quality improvement project.

    PubMed

    Pestka, Elizabeth; Nash, Virginia; Evans, Michele; Cronin, Joan; Bee, Susan; King, Susan; Osborn, Kristine; Gehin, Jessica; Weis, Karen; Loukianova, Larissa

    2016-04-01

    This quality improvement project demonstrates that RN Care Managers, in a chronic pain programme, can assess for a family history of substance abuse in 5-10 min. Information informs treatment based on specific high risk criteria. Benefits include heightened awareness of the genetic and environmental risks associated with a family history of substance abuse, an opportunity to participate in motivational interventions to prevent or minimize consequences of substance use disorders, and likely substantial overall health-care cost savings. PMID:25963926

  18. Quantification of potential exposure of gray partridge (Perdix perdix) to pesticide active substances in farmlands.

    PubMed

    Bro, Elisabeth; Millot, Florian; Decors, Anouk; Devillers, James

    2015-07-15

    Estimating exposure of wild birds to plant protection products is of key importance in the risk assessment process evaluating their harmful potential. In this paper, we propose an ecologically-relevant methodology to estimate potential exposure to active substances (ASs) of a farmland focal bird, the gray partridge Perdix perdix. It is based on bird habitat use of fields at the time of pesticide applications. It accounts for spatio-temporal heterogeneity at population and landscape scales. We identify and quantify the potential exposure to 179 ASs of 140 clutches during pre-laying, laying, and incubation phases, and of 75 coveys. The data come from a large scale field study combining radiotelemetry and a farmer survey. They were collected in 12 different representative sites. The proportion of clutches potentially exposed to a given chemical was ≥5% for 32 ASs; prothioconazole and epoxiconazole ranking first. 71% of clutches were potentially exposed to ≥1 AS and 67% to ≥2 ASs. Mixtures involved 2 to 22 ASs. They emerged from commercial formulations, tank mixtures, bird habitat use, and combinations. ASs were fungicides (53%), herbicides (25%), and insecticides (16%) used on a variety of crops in April-June, when ground-nesting birds are breeding. The European Food Safety Authority conclusions report a long-term first-tier toxicity-to-exposure ratio (TERlt) <5 for 11 out of 19 documented ASs, and higher-tier TERlt <5 for 5 out of 10 ASs. This suggests a potential risk for bird reproduction in farmlands. Globally 13% of coveys were potentially exposed to 18 ASs during the first month (1-4 coveys per AS). The use of our field data in future research and risk assessment is discussed. PMID:25847175

  19. Causes, Consequences, and Prevention of Burnout among Substance Abuse Treatment Counselors: A Rural versus Urban Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Oser, Carrie B.; Biebel, Elizabeth P.; Pullen, Erin; Harp, Kathi LH

    2012-01-01

    Substance abuse counselors are vulnerable to burnout, which has negative repercussions for the counselor, employing organization, and clients. However, little is known about differences in counselor burnout from the counselors’ perspective in rural versus urban treatment centers. In 2008, focus group data from 28 rural and urban counselors in a southern state was analyzed, revealing three burnout themes across all counselors: causes, consequences, and prevention. However, there were various differences between rural and urban counselors in sub-themes with only rural counselors citing office politics and low occupational prestige as causes of burnout. Only urban counselors reported responses endorsing the sub-themes of role reversal, clients trying to choose their counselors, and changing jobs as consequences of burnout. All counselors cited co-worker support, clinical supervision, and self-care as important strategies for managing burnout. In sum, context clearly matters as rural counselors cited more causes of burnout; yet, the implications of burnout are universal in that they often lead to poor quality clinical care. There is a continued need for greater understanding of addiction as a disease, which would reduce stigma, especially in rural areas, as well as increase the prestige and earning potential of the substance abuse counseling occupation. PMID:23662328

  20. An HIV Prevention Intervention for Ethnically Diverse Men in Substance Abuse Treatment: Pilot Study Findings

    PubMed Central

    Burlew, A. Kathleen; Hatch-Maillette, Mary A.; Beadnell, Blair; Wright, Lynette; Wilson, Jerika

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We determined the acceptability, participants' receptivity, and effectiveness of a culturally adapted version of Real Men Are Safe (REMAS-CA), an HIV prevention intervention for men in substance abuse treatment. Methods. In 2010 and 2011, we compared participants who attended at least 1 (of 5) REMAS-CA session (n = 66) with participants in the original REMAS study (n = 136). Participants completed an assessment battery at baseline and at 3-month follow-up with measures of substance abuse, HIV risk behaviors, perceived condom barriers, and demographics. We conducted postintervention focus groups at each clinic. Results. Minority REMAS-CA participants were more likely to have attended 3 or more sessions (87.0%), meeting our definition of intervention completion, than were minority participants in the REMAS study (75.1%; odds ratio = 2.1). For REMAS-CA participants with casual partners (n = 25), the number of unprotected sexual occasions in the past 90 days declined (6.2 vs 1.6). Among minority men in the REMAS study (n = 36), the number of unprotected sexual occasions with casual partners changed little (9.4 vs 8.4; relative risk = 4.56). Conclusions. REMAS-CA was effective across ethnic groups, a benefit for HIV risk reduction programs that serve a diverse clientele. PMID:23488494

  1. 75 FR 11185 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Cancellation of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... cancellation of the March 8, 2010 meeting of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration..., Telephone: 240-276-2600, FAX: 240-276-2610. Toian Vaughn, Committee Management Officer, Substance Abuse...

  2. Evaluation of various substances to prevent adsorption of tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD) to glass surfaces*

    PubMed Central

    Landi, S.; Held, H. R.; Tseng, M. C.

    1970-01-01

    It is well known that a dilute tuberculin PPD solution (1 IU or 5 IU per dose) very rapidly loses its potency owing to adsorption of tuberculoprotein to the wall of the container into which it is dispensed. The amount of tuberculoprotein adsorbed per cm2 of glass surface has been measured for phosphate-buffered saline over a wide pH range (pH 1 to pH 10). The maximum adsorption was found at pH 4 (0.31 μg/cm2) and the least at between pH 6 and pH 10 (0.15 μg/cm2). The rate of adsorption of tuberculoprotein to glass was not changed when the phosphate-buffered saline was replaced by borate-buffered saline. Tuberculin PPD prepared by the ammonium sulfate precipitation method, by the trichloroacetic acid precipitation method and by a combination of both methods adsorbed equally well to glass and no difference in the rate of adsorption for these tuberculoproteins was found. Forty-two substances in addition to Tween 80 were tested for their property to prevent adsorption of tuberculoprotein to glass in dilute tuberculin PPD solutions (50 IU/ml of 14C-labelled PPD). The most efficient anti-adsorption agents were found to be nonionic surfactants, some ionic surfactants and some colloidal substances; polypeptides and non-surface-active substances of low molecular weight showed little or no anti-adsorption property. The labelling of PPD with 14C has proved to be a valuable tool, particularly for long-term adsorption studies and for screening substances to be used as efficient anti-adsorption agents. These studies have permitted the selection of agents which could be added to dilute solutions of tuberculin PPD (10 IU/ml to 500 IU/ml or 0.2 μg/ml to 10 μg/ml respectively) in order to avoid loss of potency due to adsorption. PMID:5312323

  3. Exposure and effects of perfluoroalkyl substances in tree swallows nesting in Minnesota and Wisconsin, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, Thomas W.; Dummer, Paul; Etterson, Matthew A.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Wu, Qian; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Trowbridge, Annette; McKann, Patrick C.

    2013-01-01

    The exposure and effects of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were studied at eight locations in Minnesota and Wisconsin between 2007 and 2011 using tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor). Concentrations of PFASs were quantified as were reproductive success end points. The sample egg method was used wherein an egg sample is collected, and the hatching success of the remaining eggs in the nest is assessed. The association between PFAS exposure and reproductive success was assessed by site comparisons, logistic regression analysis, and multistate modeling, a technique not previously used in this context. There was a negative association between concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in eggs and hatching success. The concentration at which effects became evident (150–200 ng/g wet weight) was far lower than effect levels found in laboratory feeding trials or egg-injection studies of other avian species. This discrepancy was likely because behavioral effects and other extrinsic factors are not accounted for in these laboratory studies and the possibility that tree swallows are unusually sensitive to PFASs. The results from multistate modeling and simple logistic regression analyses were nearly identical. Multistate modeling provides a better method to examine possible effects of additional covariates and assessment of models using Akaike information criteria analyses. There was a credible association between PFOS concentrations in plasma and eggs, so extrapolation between these two commonly sampled tissues can be performed.

  4. Exposure and effects of perfluoroalkyl substances in tree swallows nesting in Minnesota and Wisconsin, USA.

    PubMed

    Custer, Christine M; Custer, Thomas W; Dummer, Paul M; Etterson, Matthew A; Thogmartin, Wayne E; Wu, Qian; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Trowbridge, Annette; McKann, Patrick C

    2014-01-01

    The exposure and effects of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were studied at eight locations in Minnesota and Wisconsin between 2007 and 2011 using tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor). Concentrations of PFASs were quantified as were reproductive success end points. The sample egg method was used wherein an egg sample is collected, and the hatching success of the remaining eggs in the nest is assessed. The association between PFAS exposure and reproductive success was assessed by site comparisons, logistic regression analysis, and multistate modeling, a technique not previously used in this context. There was a negative association between concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in eggs and hatching success. The concentration at which effects became evident (150-200 ng/g wet weight) was far lower than effect levels found in laboratory feeding trials or egg-injection studies of other avian species. This discrepancy was likely because behavioral effects and other extrinsic factors are not accounted for in these laboratory studies and the possibility that tree swallows are unusually sensitive to PFASs. The results from multistate modeling and simple logistic regression analyses were nearly identical. Multistate modeling provides a better method to examine possible effects of additional covariates and assessment of models using Akaike information criteria analyses. There was a credible association between PFOS concentrations in plasma and eggs, so extrapolation between these two commonly sampled tissues can be performed. PMID:23860575

  5. Exposure of Norwegian toddlers to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS): The association with breastfeeding and maternal PFAS concentrations.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulou, Eleni; Sabaredzovic, Azemira; Namork, Ellen; Nygaard, Unni C; Granum, Berit; Haug, Line S

    2016-09-01

    High exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) has been associated with adverse health effects in children. PFASs exposure pathways of toddlers might differ from those of infants and adults, and the investigations on determinants of PFASs exposure in early childhood are scarce. Our aims were to examine the PFAS blood concentrations in Norwegian toddlers and to assess their relationship with maternal PFAS concentrations in pregnancy and breastfeeding duration. We determined PFAS concentrations in 112 plasma samples of 3-year-old children collected at 2010-2011 and 99 maternal serum samples collected around delivery at 2007-2008. PFAS concentrations in children were regressed on duration of breastfeeding, and the effect modification by maternal prenatal PFAS concentrations was examined in 55 mother-child pairs. Six PFASs were quantifiable in >50% of both maternal and children samples. Positive and significant correlations ranging between 0.50 and 0.66 were found between maternal and child concentrations of the same PFAS congeners. Nevertheless, toddlers had higher total PFAS blood concentrations than their mothers, due to higher concentrations of PFOA, PFNA and PFHxS. Every month of breastfeeding was associated with an increase of 3.3% (95% Confidence Intervals (CI): 0.8-5.8) for PFOS, 4.7% (95%CI: 2.8-6.6) for PFOA and 6.1% (95% CI: 2.6-9.7) for PFHpS in toddlers' plasma and a dose-response association was found, after adjustment for confounders. However, PFNA and PFUnDA concentrations in children were not associated with either maternal concentrations or breastfeeding duration. Our findings suggest that transplacental transfer, prenatally, and breastfeeding, postanatally, are among the main determinants of PFOS, PFOA, PFHxS and PFHpS concentrations in toddlers, while that was not the case for PFNA and PFUnDA. Nevertheless, due to the small number of mother child-pairs in our study, our results should be interpreted with caution. PMID:27453094

  6. Two-year outcomes of a randomized, family-based substance use prevention trial for Asian American adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Fang, Lin; Schinke, Steven P

    2013-09-01

    Asian Americans have been largely ignored in the prevention outcome literature. In this study, we tested a parent-child program with a sample of Asian American adolescent girls and their mothers, and evaluated the program's efficacy on decreasing girls' substance use and modifying risk and protective factors at individual, family, and peer levels. A total of 108 Asian American mother-daughter dyads recruited through online advertisements and from community service agencies were randomly assigned to an intervention arm (n = 56) or to a test-only control arm (n = 52). The intervention consisted of a nine-session substance abuse prevention program, delivered entirely online. Guided by family interaction theory, the prevention program aimed to strengthen the quality of girls' relationships with their mothers while increasing girls' resilience to resist substance use. Intent-to-treat analyses showed that at 2-year follow-up, intervention-arm dyads had significantly higher levels of mother-daughter closeness, mother-daughter communication, maternal monitoring, and family rules against substance use compared with the control-arm dyads. Intervention-arm girls also showed sustained improvement in self-efficacy and refusal skills and had lower intentions to use substances in the future. Most important, intervention-arm girls reported fewer instances of alcohol and marijuana use and prescription drug misuse relative to the control-arm girls. The study suggests that a culturally generic, family-based prevention program was efficacious in enhancing parent-child relationships, improving girls' resiliency, and preventing substance use behaviors among Asian American girls. PMID:23276322

  7. Two-Year Outcomes of a Randomized, Family-Based Substance Use Prevention Trial for Asian American Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Lin; Schinke, Steven P.

    2014-01-01

    Asian Americans have been largely ignored in the prevention outcome literature. In this study, we tested a parent-child program with a sample of Asian American adolescent girls and their mothers, and evaluated the program’s efficacy on decreasing girls’ substance use, and modifying risk and protective factors at individual, family, and peer levels. One hundred and eight Asian American mother-daughter dyads recruited through online advertisements and from community service agencies were randomly assigned to an intervention arm (n = 56) or to a test-only control arm (n = 52). The intervention consisted of a nine-session substance abuse prevention program, delivered entirely online. Guided by family interaction theory, the prevention program aimed to strengthen the quality of girls’ relationships with their mothers while increasing girls’ resilience to resist substance use. Intent-to-treat analyses showed that at 2-year follow-up, intervention-arm dyads had significantly higher levels of mother-daughter closeness, mother-daughter communication, maternal monitoring, and family rules against substance use compared to the control-arm dyads. Intervention-arm girls also showed sustained improvement in self-efficacy and refusal skills, and had lower intentions to use substances in the future. Most important, intervention-arm girls reported fewer instances of alcohol and marijuana use, and prescription drug misuse relative to the control-arm girls. The study suggests that a culturally generic, family-based prevention program was efficacious in enhancing parent-child relationships, improving girls’ resiliency, and preventing substance use behaviors among Asian American girls. PMID:23276322

  8. American Indian Substance Abuse Prevention Efforts: A Review of Programs, 2003-2013.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Margaret L; Baldwin, Julie A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the review was to assess substance abuse prevention (SAP) efforts in American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities from 2003-2013. In the past, many SAP programs were unable to meet the unique cultural needs of AI/AN communities adequately. It has been suggested that a disconnect may exist between the theories that are used to guide development of prevention programs in AI/AN communities and culturally appropriate theoretical constructs of AI/AN worldviews. To explore this possible disconnect further, Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were used to assess a total of 18 articles (N = 31 programs) on program location and method, participant characteristics, described program cultural elements, use of theory, program outcomes, program measures, and future recommendations. Results indicated that SAP programs in AI/AN communities vary widely in their use of theory, implementation strategies, view and definition of cultural constructs, overall evaluational rigor, and reporting methods. Future research is needed to integrate appropriate theory and cultural elements into SAP programs to tie them to measurable outcomes for AI/AN communities. PMID:26053884

  9. Advances in Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Interventions Among Racial, Ethnic, and Sexual Minority Populations

    PubMed Central

    Blume, Arthur W.

    2016-01-01

    Substance abuse research among racial, ethnic, and sexual minority populations historically has lagged behind that conducted with majority samples. However, interesting and potentially important advances in prevention, brief interventions, and treatment have been made in the last few years, at least among some minority populations, such as American Indian youth. New prevention efforts have focused on point-of-sale interventions for alcohol, as well as on family-unit interventions designed with subpopulation cultural values in mind. In addition, previously established evidence-based and culturally relevant interventions are being combined with computer technology. Empirical data support using brief interventions with patients of color in medical settings, capitalizing on teachable and reachable moments during a physical trauma or other health crisis. Finally, use of empirically supported treatment may be helpful, with a caveat that these interventions must appropriately match cultural traditions and respect the values of the clients. More research clearly is needed, especially among certain minority populations in the United States. A greater emphasis should be placed on developing novel, culturally grounded interventions in partnership with communities, in addition to adapting existing mainstream interventions for use by other cultures. PMID:27159811

  10. Advances in Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Interventions Among Racial, Ethnic, and Sexual Minority Populations.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Arthur W

    2016-01-01

    Substance abuse research among racial, ethnic, and sexual minority populations historically has lagged behind that conducted with majority samples. However, interesting and potentially important advances in prevention, brief interventions, and treatment have been made in the last few years, at least among some minority populations, such as American Indian youth. New prevention efforts have focused on point-of-sale interventions for alcohol, as well as on family-unit interventions designed with subpopulation cultural values in mind. In addition, previously established evidence-based and culturally relevant interventions are being combined with computer technology. Empirical data support using brief interventions with patients of color in medical settings, capitalizing on teachable and reachable moments during a physical trauma or other health crisis. Finally, use of empirically supported treatment may be helpful, with a caveat that these interventions must appropriately match cultural traditions and respect the values of the clients. More research clearly is needed, especially among certain minority populations in the United States. A greater emphasis should be placed on developing novel, culturally grounded interventions in partnership with communities, in addition to adapting existing mainstream interventions for use by other cultures. PMID:27159811

  11. The Treatment of Co-Occurring PTSD and Substance Use Disorders Using Trauma-Focused Exposure Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baschnagel, Joseph S.; Coffey, Scott F.; Rash, Carla J.

    2006-01-01

    Co-morbidity between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders (SUD) is high and there is a need for empirically validated treatments designed to address PTSD among SUD patients. One effective PTSD treatment that may be useful in treating PTSD-SUD is exposure therapy. This paper reviews the relationship between comorbid PTSD…

  12. Community Violence Exposure and Adolescent Substance Use: Does Monitoring and Positive Parenting Moderate Risk in Urban Communities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Rosalyn

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates whether monitoring and positive parenting moderate the relationship between community violence exposure (CVE) and youth substance use. Analyses utilized a subsample (N = 2197) of a cross-sectional, ethnically diverse, urban school district sample. Dependent variables were any past year alcohol or drug use (AOD) and binge…

  13. HIV Prevention Among Mexican Migrants at Different Migration Phases: Exposure to Prevention Messages and Association With Testing Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Donate, Ana P; Rangel, M Gudelia; Zhang, Xiao; Simon, Norma-Jean; Rhoads, Natalie; Gonzalez-Fagoaga, J Eduardo; Gonzalez, Ahmed Asadi

    2015-12-01

    Mobile populations are at increased risk for HIV infection. Exposure to HIV prevention messages at all phases of the migration process may help decrease im/migrants' HIV risk. We investigated levels of exposure to HIV prevention messages, factors associated with message exposure, and the association between exposure to prevention messages and HIV testing behavior among Mexican im/migrants at different phases of the migration process. We conducted a cross-sectional, probability survey of Mexican im/migrants (N = 3,149) traveling through the border city of Tijuana, Mexico. The results indicate limited exposure to prevention messages (57-75%) and suboptimal last 12-month HIV testing rates (14-25%) across five migration phases. Compared to pre-departure levels (75%), exposure to messages decreases at all post-departure migration phases (57-63%, p < .001). In general, exposure to prevention messages is positively associated with greater odds of HIV testing at the pre-departure, destination, and interception phases. Binational efforts need to be intensified to reach and deliver HIV prevention to Mexican im/migrants across the migration continuum. PMID:26595267

  14. Physiological correlates of neurobehavioral disinhibition that relate to drug use and risky sexual behavior in adolescents with prenatal substance exposure.

    PubMed

    Conradt, Elisabeth; Lagasse, Linda L; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R; Whitaker, Toni M; Hammond, Jane A; Lester, Barry M

    2014-01-01

    Physiological correlates of behavioral and emotional problems, substance use onset and initiation of risky sexual behavior have not been studied in adolescents with prenatal drug exposure. We studied the concordance between baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) at age 3 and baseline cortisol levels at age 11. We hypothesized that children who showed concordance between RSA and cortisol would have lower neurobehavioral disinhibition scores which would in turn predict age of substance use onset and first sexual intercourse. The sample included 860 children aged 16 years participating in the Maternal Lifestyle Study, a multisite longitudinal study of children with prenatal exposure to cocaine and other substances. Structural equation modeling was used to test pathways between prenatal substance exposure, early adversity, baseline RSA, baseline cortisol, neurobehavioral disinhibition, drug use, and sexual behavior outcomes. Concordance was studied by examining separate male and female models in which there were statistically significant interactions between baseline RSA and cortisol. Prenatal substance exposure was operationalized as the number of substances to which the child was exposed. An adversity score was computed based on caregiver postnatal substance use, depression and psychological distress, number of caregiver changes, socioeconomic and poverty status, quality of the home environment, and child history of protective service involvement, abuse and neglect. RSA and cortisol were measured during a baseline period prior to the beginning of a task. Neurobehavioral disinhibition, based on composite scores of behavioral dysregulation and executive dysfunction, substance use and sexual behavior were derived from questionnaires and cognitive tests administered to the child. Findings were sex specific. In females, those with discordance between RSA and cortisol (high RSA and low cortisol or low RSA and high cortisol) had the most executive dysfunction which, in

  15. Hip-Hop to Prevent Substance Use and HIV among African-American Youth: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner-Musa, Jocelyn O.; Rhodes, Warren A.; Harper, P. Thandi Hicks; Quinton, Sylvia L.

    2008-01-01

    Substance use and HIV risk behaviors are increasing among African-American youth. Interventions that incorporate youth values and beliefs are needed to reduce this trajectory. Hip-hop plays an important role in the lives of many African-American youth and provides a context within which to prevent risky behaviors. The current study examines the…

  16. Helping Students Overcome Substance Abuse: Effective Practices for Prevention and Intervention. The Guilford Practical Intervention in the Schools Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrow-Sanchez, Jason J.; Hawken, Leanne S.

    2007-01-01

    Unique in its coverage of both prevention and intervention, this book provides evidence-based strategies and ready-to-use tools for addressing substance abuse in middle and high school settings. Readers learn ways to identify students at risk and implement programs that meet a broad continuum of needs--from psychoeducational and support groups to…

  17. Efficacy of a Self-Administered Home-Based Parent Intervention on Parenting Behaviors for Preventing Adolescent Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Kenneth W.; Samuolis, Jessica; Williams, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    A growing body of literature suggests that parenting practices characterized by careful monitoring, firm and consistent limit setting, and nurturing communication patterns with children are protective against adolescent substance use and other problem behaviors. Family-based prevention programs that promote these behaviors can be an effective way…

  18. Effects of the 5th and 7th Grade Enhanced Versions of the "keepin' it REAL" Substance Use Prevention Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elek, Elvira; Wagstaff, David A.; Hecht, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed the outcomes of adapting the culturally-grounded, middle school, substance-use prevention intervention, "keepin' it REAL" ("kiR"), to target elementary school students and to address acculturation. At the beginning of 5th grade, 29 schools were randomly assigned to conditions obtained by crossing grade of implementation (5th,…

  19. Taking School-Based Substance Abuse Prevention to Scale: District-Wide Implementation of Keep a Clear Mind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jowers, Keri L.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Gately, Sherry

    2007-01-01

    Public schools are under increased pressure to implement evidence-based substance abuse prevention programs. A number of model programs have been identified, but little research has examined the effectiveness of these programs when "brought to scale" or implemented district-wide. The current paper summarizes the application of the Adelman and…

  20. The Role of Teacher Communicator Style in the Delivery of a Middle School Substance Use Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, Steven M.; Pankratz, Melinda M.; Ringwalt, Chris; Jackson-Newsom, Julia; Hansen, William B.; Bishop, Dana; Dusenbury, Linda; Gottfredson, Nisha

    2012-01-01

    We examine whether teachers' communicator style relates to student engagement, teacher-student relationships, student perceptions of teacher immediacy, as well as observer ratings of delivery skills during the implementation of All Stars, a middle school-based substance use prevention program. Data from 48 teachers who taught All Stars up to 3…

  1. Responding to Pacific Islanders: Culturally Competent Perspectives for Substance Abuse Prevention. CSAP Cultural Competence Series 8. Special Collaborative Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mokuau, Noreen; Kameoka, Velma A.; Kupuna, Abbie Napeahi; Kelly, Terry; Burgess, Paula-Ann; Kamiyama, David; Young, Kawen T.; Galea'i, Kenneth Elifasa; Natividad, Lisalinda; Dobbin, Jay; Oneisom, Innocente; Mason, Michael

    This monograph addresses issues of concern to primary health care practitioners, policy makers, and evaluators wishing to broaden access to quality substance abuse prevention services for Pacific Islanders. It is devoted exclusively to health issues affecting Pacific Islanders, who often lack access to comprehensive health care because of…

  2. Who's Calling the Shots? Decision-Makers and the Adoption of Effective School-Based Substance Use Prevention Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringwalt, Chris; Ennett, Susan T.; Vincus, Amy A.; Rohrbach, Louise Ann; Simons-Rudolph, Ashley

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates the relative roles of school district and school-level decision-makers in the implementation of effective substance use prevention curricula. Drawing on a "Site-Based Management" approach to effective decision-making, we hypothesized that schools whose personnel played active decision-making roles would be more likely to…

  3. Implementation of Adolescent Family-Based Substance Use Prevention Programmes in Health Care Settings: Comparisons across Conditions and Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aalborg, Annette E.; Miller, Brenda A.; Husson, Gail; Byrnes, Hilary F.; Bauman, Karl E.; Spoth, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine factors that influence the effectiveness and quality of implementation of evidence-based family-focused adolescent substance use prevention programmes delivered in health care settings and to assess the effects of programme choice versus programme assignment on programme delivery. Design: Strengthening Families Program: For…

  4. Cue exposure and relapse prevention in the treatment of addictive behaviors.

    PubMed

    Marlatt, G A

    1990-01-01

    Cue exposure techniques have been increasingly applied in the treatment of addictive behaviors. The role of cue exposure in a comprehensive approach to relapse prevention is considered from several theoretical perspectives. Issues discussed include the optimal definition of both cue and response variables in cue exposure, the relation between exposure to drug-taking cues and elicitation of outcome expectancies, and the combination of extinction-based cue exposure methods and skill training in relapse prevention programs. Whether cue exposure effects are mediated by extinction of appetitive craving responses and/or by the modification of efficacy and outcome expectancies is discussed. PMID:2248112

  5. Adolescent Substance Abuse: Risk Factors and Prevention Strategies. Maternal & Child Health Technical Information Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Mark J.

    The high prevalence of alcohol and substance abuse by adolescents poses a significant threat to the wellness of youth. Adolescents appear to use drugs for a variety of reasons. In addition to the multiple etiologic and risk factors present for substance abuse, there are many pathways teenagers may follow on their way to substance abuse. The…

  6. Using Social Disorganization Theory to Guide Substance Abuse Prevention among Adolescents: Implications for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaynes, Shane

    2014-01-01

    Substance use and abuse are problematic in the lives of adolescents, including interpersonal problems and scholastic problems. Risk for substance use has commonly been assessed at the individual level. This paper examines risk of adolescent substance abuse as a variable impacted by environmental or contextual factors surrounding the individual.…

  7. Prenatal polybrominated diphenyl ether and perfluoroalkyl substance exposures and executive function in school-age children.

    PubMed

    Vuong, Ann M; Yolton, Kimberly; Webster, Glenys M; Sjödin, Andreas; Calafat, Antonia M; Braun, Joseph M; Dietrich, Kim N; Lanphear, Bruce P; Chen, Aimin

    2016-05-01

    Executive function is a critical behavioral trait rarely studied in relation to potential neurotoxicants. Prenatal exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) has been associated with adverse neurodevelopment, but there is limited research on executive function. Data from 256 mother-child pairs in the Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment Study, a prospective birth cohort (2003-2006, Cincinnati, OH), was used to examine maternal serum PBDEs and PFASs and executive function in children ages 5 and 8 years. Maternal serum PBDEs and PFASs were measured at 16±3 weeks gestation. Executive function was assessed with the parent-rated Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF), which yields composite measures: behavioral regulation index, metacognition index, and global executive composite. Higher BRIEF scores indicate executive function impairments. Linear mixed models and generalized estimating equations were used to estimate covariate-adjusted associations between PBDEs and PFASs and executive function. A 10-fold increase in BDE-153 was associated with poorer behavior regulation (β=3.23, 95% CI 0.60, 5.86). Higher odds of having a score ≥60 in behavior regulation (OR=3.92, 95% CI 1.76, 8.73) or global executive functioning (OR=2.34, 95% CI 1.05, 5.23) was observed with increased BDE-153. Each ln-unit increase in perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was associated with poorer behavior regulation (β=3.14, 95% CI 0.68, 5.61), metacognition (β=3.10, 95% CI 0.62, 5.58), and global executive functioning (β=3.38, 95% CI 0.86, 5.90). However, no association was observed between perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and executive function. Prenatal exposures to BDE-153 and PFOS may be associated with executive function deficits in school-age children. PMID:26832761

  8. Indoor Air in Beauty Salons and Occupational Health Exposure of Cosmetologists to Chemical Substances

    PubMed Central

    Tsigonia, Alexandra; Lagoudi, Argyro; Chandrinou, Stavroula; Linos, Athena; Evlogias, Nikos; Alexopoulos, Evangelos C.

    2010-01-01

    The indoor environment in four beauty salons located in Athens (Greece) was examined in order to investigate the occupational health exposure of cosmetologists to various chemical products typically used in their work. Chemical substances chosen for investigation were volatile organic compounds (VOCs), formaldehyde, ozone and carbon dioxide. Total VOCs levels measured showed significant variation (100–1,450 μg m−3) depending on the products used and the number of treatments carried out, as well as ventilation. The main VOCs found in the salons were aromatics (toluene, xylene), esters and ketones (ethyl acetate, acetone, etc.) which are used as solvents in various beauty products; terpenes (pinene, limonene, camphor, menthenol) which have a particular odor and others like camphor which have specific properties. Ozone concentrations measured in all salons were quite low (0.1 and 13.3 μg m−3) and formaldehyde concentrations detected were lower than the detection limit of the method in all salons (<0.05 ppm). Carbon dioxide levels ranged between 402 and 1,268 ppm, depending on the number of people present in the salons during measurements and ventilation. Cosmetologists may be exposed to high concentrations of a mixture of volatile organic compounds although these levels could be decreased significantly by following certain practices such as good ventilation of the areas, closing the packages of the beauty products when not in use and finally selecting safer beauty products without strong odor. PMID:20195448

  9. Placental Transfer of Perfluoroalkyl Substances and Associations with Thyroid Hormones: Beijing Prenatal Exposure Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lin; Li, Jingguang; Lai, Jianqiang; Luan, Hemi; Cai, Zongwei; Wang, Yibaina; Zhao, Yunfeng; Wu, Yongning

    2016-02-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been detected in wildlife and human samples worldwide. Toxicology research showed that PFASs could interfere with thyroid hormone homeostasis. In this study, eight PFASs, fifteen PFAS precursors and five thyroid hormones were analyzed in 157 paired maternal and cord serum samples collected in Beijing around delivery. Seven PFASs and two precursors were detected in both maternal and cord sera with significant maternal-fetal correlations (r = 0.336 to 0.806, all P < 0.001). The median ratios of major PFASs concentrations in fetal versus maternal serum were from 0.25:1 (perfluorodecanoic acid, PFDA) to 0.65:1 (perfluorooctanoic acid, PFOA). Spearman partial correlation test showed that maternal thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was negatively correlated with most maternal PFASs (r = -0.261 to -0.170, all P < 0.05). Maternal triiodothyronin (T3) and free T3 (FT3) showed negative correlations with most fetal PFASs (r = -0.229 to -0.165 for T3; r = -0.293 to -0.169 for FT3, all P < 0.05). Our results suggest prenatal exposure of fetus to PFASs and potential associations between PFASs and thyroid hormone homeostasis in humans.

  10. Placental Transfer of Perfluoroalkyl Substances and Associations with Thyroid Hormones: Beijing Prenatal Exposure Study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lin; Li, Jingguang; Lai, Jianqiang; Luan, Hemi; Cai, Zongwei; Wang, Yibaina; Zhao, Yunfeng; Wu, Yongning

    2016-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been detected in wildlife and human samples worldwide. Toxicology research showed that PFASs could interfere with thyroid hormone homeostasis. In this study, eight PFASs, fifteen PFAS precursors and five thyroid hormones were analyzed in 157 paired maternal and cord serum samples collected in Beijing around delivery. Seven PFASs and two precursors were detected in both maternal and cord sera with significant maternal-fetal correlations (r = 0.336 to 0.806, all P < 0.001). The median ratios of major PFASs concentrations in fetal versus maternal serum were from 0.25:1 (perfluorodecanoic acid, PFDA) to 0.65:1 (perfluorooctanoic acid, PFOA). Spearman partial correlation test showed that maternal thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was negatively correlated with most maternal PFASs (r = −0.261 to −0.170, all P < 0.05). Maternal triiodothyronin (T3) and free T3 (FT3) showed negative correlations with most fetal PFASs (r = −0.229 to −0.165 for T3; r = −0.293 to −0.169 for FT3, all P < 0.05). Our results suggest prenatal exposure of fetus to PFASs and potential associations between PFASs and thyroid hormone homeostasis in humans. PMID:26898235

  11. Drug testing for newborn exposure to illicit substances in pregnancy: pitfalls and pearls.

    PubMed

    Farst, Karen J; Valentine, Jimmie L; Hall, R Whit

    2011-01-01

    Estimates of the prevalence of drug usage during pregnancy vary by region and survey tool used. Clinicians providing care to newborns should be equipped to recognize a newborn who has been exposed to illicit drugs during pregnancy by the effects the exposure might cause at the time of delivery and/or by drug testing of the newborn. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the literature and assess the clinical role of drug testing in the newborn. Accurate recognition of a newborn whose mother has used illicit drugs in pregnancy cannot only impact decisions for healthcare in the nursery around the time of delivery, but can also provide a key opportunity to assess the mother for needed services. While drug use in pregnancy is not an independent predictor of the mother's ability to provide a safe and nurturing environment for her newborn, other issues that often cooccur in the life of a mother with a substance abuse disorder raise concerns for the safety of the discharge environment and should be assessed. Healthcare providers in these roles should advocate for unbiased and effective treatment services for affected families. PMID:21785611

  12. Prenatal Perfluoroalkyl Substance Exposure and Child Adiposity at 8 Years of Age: The HOME Study

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Joseph M.; Chen, Aimin; Romano, Megan E.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Webster, Glenys M.; Yolton, Kimberly; Lanphear, Bruce P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine relationships between prenatal perfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) exposure and adiposity in children born to women who lived downstream from a fluoropolymer manufacturing plant. Methods Data are from a prospective cohort in Cincinnati, OH (HOME Study). We measured perfluorooctanoic (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonic (PFOS), perfluorononanoic (PFNA), and perfluorohexane sulfonic (PFHxS) acids in prenatal serum samples. We estimated differences in body mass index z-scores (BMI), waist circumference, and body fat at 8 years of age (n=204) and BMI between 2–8 years of age (n=285) according to PFAS concentrations. Results Children born to women in the top two PFOA terciles had greater adiposity at 8 years than children in the 1st tercile. For example, waist circumference (cm) was higher among children in the 2nd (4.3; 95% CI:1.7, 6.9) and 3rd tercile (2.2; 95% CI:−0.5, 4.9) compared to children in the 1st tercile. Children in the top two PFOA terciles also had greater BMI gains from 2–8 years compared to children in the 1st tercile (p<0.05). PFOS, PFNA and PFHxS were not associated with adiposity. Conclusions In this cohort, higher prenatal serum PFOA concentrations were associated with greater adiposity at 8 years and a more rapid increase in BMI between 2–8 years. PMID:26554535

  13. Placental Transfer of Perfluoroalkyl Substances and Associations with Thyroid Hormones: Beijing Prenatal Exposure Study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lin; Li, Jingguang; Lai, Jianqiang; Luan, Hemi; Cai, Zongwei; Wang, Yibaina; Zhao, Yunfeng; Wu, Yongning

    2016-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been detected in wildlife and human samples worldwide. Toxicology research showed that PFASs could interfere with thyroid hormone homeostasis. In this study, eight PFASs, fifteen PFAS precursors and five thyroid hormones were analyzed in 157 paired maternal and cord serum samples collected in Beijing around delivery. Seven PFASs and two precursors were detected in both maternal and cord sera with significant maternal-fetal correlations (r = 0.336 to 0.806, all P < 0.001). The median ratios of major PFASs concentrations in fetal versus maternal serum were from 0.25:1 (perfluorodecanoic acid, PFDA) to 0.65:1 (perfluorooctanoic acid, PFOA). Spearman partial correlation test showed that maternal thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was negatively correlated with most maternal PFASs (r = -0.261 to -0.170, all P < 0.05). Maternal triiodothyronin (T3) and free T3 (FT3) showed negative correlations with most fetal PFASs (r = -0.229 to -0.165 for T3; r = -0.293 to -0.169 for FT3, all P < 0.05). Our results suggest prenatal exposure of fetus to PFASs and potential associations between PFASs and thyroid hormone homeostasis in humans. PMID:26898235

  14. Effects of childhood exposure to familial alcoholism and family violence on adolescent substance use, conduct problems, and self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Jennifer; Stewart, Michael; Bernet, Christine; Coe, Michael; Brown, Sandra A

    2002-04-01

    Exposure to familial alcoholism has been associated with many behavioral and emotional difficulties among offspring. However, few studies have examined environmental risks that often coexist with familial alcoholism, and which may influence the development of offspring psychosocial problems. This study examined potential additive and interactive effects of childhood exposure to family violence and childhood exposure to familial alcoholism on adolescent functioning. Three domains of adolescent functioning were examined in a high-risk community sample of 109 families: lifetime levels of substance use, conduct disorder behaviors, and self-esteem. Results indicated that both childhood exposure to familial alcoholism and childhood exposure to family violence were associated with psychosocial functioning of offspring during adolescence, although the relations differ according to domain of functioning and gender. PMID:12013062

  15. Evidence for Site-Specific, Systematic Adaptation of Substance Prevention Curriculum with High-Risk Youths in Community and Alternative School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holleran Steiker, Lori K.; Hopson, Laura M.; Goldbach, Jeremy T.; Robinson, Charletta

    2014-01-01

    The problem of substance use among older youths is often disregarded in prevention research. The prevailing perception has been that prevention programming is developmentally inappropriate for those who are actively experimenting with substances. This project examines the differential effectiveness of youth-driven adaptations of the evidence-based…

  16. Prevention of Perinatal Substance Use: Pregnant and Postpartum Women and Their Infants Demonstration Grant Program. Abstracts of Active Projects FY 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health, Arlington, VA.

    This document presents summaries of the 147 demonstration grant projects sponsored by the federal Pregnant and Postpartum Women and Their Infants initiative, which is jointly funded by the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention and the Maternal and Child Health Bureau. This substance abuse prevention grant program, the largest federally funded…

  17. Effects of a youth substance use prevention program on stealing, fighting, and weapon use

    PubMed Central

    Nieri, Tanya; Apkarian, Jacob; Kulis, Stephen; Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Using a sample of sixth graders in 11 public schools in a large Southwestern city, this longitudinal study examined how a model substance use prevention program, keepin’ it REAL, that was implemented in 7th grade, influenced three other problem behaviors (fighting, weapon use, stealing), measured in 8th grade. Using a non-equivalent control group design, we compared 259 students in the intervention to 322 students in a treatment-as-usual condition. At baseline, 37% of the sample reported fighting in the last 30 days; 31% reported stealing in the last 30 days, and 16% reported using a weapon in the last 30 days. Regression analyses adjusted for students nested in schools through multi-level modeling and for missing data through multiple imputation. We found that at posttest the rates of all three behaviors were lower in the intervention group than the control group at posttest: 35% versus 37% got into a fight in the last 30 days; 24% versus 31% stole something in the last 30 days; and 16% versus 25% used a weapon in the last 30 days. The program impact for fighting and stealing was not statistically significant and involved minimal effect sizes. The program impact for weapon use was not statistically significant but had an effect size comparable to that for other problem behavior interventions. Promoting positive development via life skills may be a key to broadening program impact. PMID:25352527

  18. Effects of a youth substance use prevention program on stealing, fighting, and weapon use.

    PubMed

    Nieri, Tanya; Apkarian, Jacob; Kulis, Stephen; Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco

    2015-02-01

    Using a sample of sixth graders in 11 public schools in a large Southwestern city, this longitudinal study examined how a model substance use prevention program, keepin' it REAL, that was implemented in 7th grade, influenced three other problem behaviors (fighting, weapon use, stealing), measured in 8th grade. Using a non-equivalent control group design, we compared 259 students in the intervention to 322 students in a treatment-as-usual condition. At baseline, 37% of the sample reported fighting in the last 30 days; 31% reported stealing in the last 30 days, and 16% reported using a weapon in the last 30 days. Regression analyses adjusted for students nested in schools through multi-level modeling and for missing data through multiple imputation. We found that at posttest the rates of all three behaviors were lower in the intervention group than the control group at posttest: 35 versus 37% got into a fight in the last 30 days; 24 versus 31% stole something in the last 30 days; and 16 versus 25% used a weapon in the last 30 days. The program impact for fighting and stealing was not statistically significant and involved minimal effect sizes. The program impact for weapon use was not statistically significant but had an effect size comparable to that for other problem behavior interventions. Promoting positive development via life skills may be a key to broadening program impact. PMID:25352527

  19. Theoretical Foundations of Research Focused on HIV Prevention Among Substance-Involved Women: A Review of Observational and Intervention Studies.

    PubMed

    Auerbach, Judith D; Smith, Laramie R

    2015-06-01

    Although substance use continues to be a significant component of HIV risk among women worldwide, to date, relatively little attention has been paid in research, services, or policy to substance-involved women (SIW). HIV acquisition for SIW stems from transmission risks directly related to substance use and risks associated with sexual activity in which power to negotiate risk and safety are influenced by dynamics of male partnerships, sex work, and criminalization (of both drug use and sex work), among other factors. As such, HIV risk for SIW resides as much in the environment—physical, social, cultural, economic, and political—in which drug use occurs as it does from transmission-related behaviors of individual women. To reduce HIV infections among SIW, it is important to specify the interaction of individual- and environmental-level factors, including, but not limited to those related to women's own substance use, that can and ought to be changed. This involves theorizing about the interplay of gender, substance use, and HIV risk, and incorporating that theoretical understanding into intervention design and evaluation. A review of the published literature focused on HIV prevention among SIW revealed a general lack of theoretical and conceptual foundation specific to the gender-related and environmental drivers of HIV in this population. Greater theoretical linkages to intersectionality and syndemic approaches are recommended to better identify and target relevant mechanisms by which the interplay of gender dynamics and substance use potentiate the likelihood of HIV acquisition and transmission among SIW. PMID:25978481

  20. Substance use outcomes 51/2 years past baseline for partnership-based, family-school preventive interventions.

    PubMed

    Spoth, Richard L; Randall, G Kevin; Trudeau, Linda; Shin, Chungyeol; Redmond, Cleve

    2008-07-01

    This article reports adolescent substance use outcomes of universal family and school preventive interventions 5(1/2) years past baseline. Participants were 1677 7th grade students from schools (N=36) randomly assigned to the school-based Life Skills Training plus the Strengthening Families Program: For Parents and Youth 10-14 (LST+SFP 10-14), LST-alone, or a control condition. Self-reports were collected at baseline, 6 months later following the interventions, then yearly through the 12th grade. Measures included initiation-alcohol, cigarette, marijuana, and drunkenness, along with a Substance Initiation Index (SII)-and measures of more serious use-frequency of alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use, drunkenness frequency, monthly poly-substance use, and advanced poly-substance use. Analyses ruled out differential attrition. For all substance initiation outcomes, one or both intervention groups showed significant, positive point-in-time differences at 12th grade and/or significant growth trajectory outcomes when compared with the control group. Although no main effects for the more serious substance use outcomes were observed, a higher-risk subsample demonstrated significant, positive 12th grade point-in-time and/or growth trajectory outcomes for one or both intervention groups on all measures. The observed pattern of results likely reflects a combination of predispositions of the higher-risk subsample, the timing of the interventions, and baseline differences between experimental conditions favoring the control group. PMID:18434045

  1. Implementing the Regional Epidemiological Outcomes Workgroup (REOW) in the State of Oklahoma for Substance Abuse Prevention: An ODMHSAS Project.

    PubMed

    Gurganus, Kelsey M; Butt, Amir L; Kirchenbauer, Christin M; Melkvik, Chelsie; Piatt, Jamie; Hawkins, Jessica; U'Ren, Stephanie; Onuorah, Young

    2015-07-01

    With substance abuse being a significant problem in Oklahoma, the Oklahoma Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services aimed to address these problems using the Strategic Prevention Framework to empower local communities and to assist in implementing prevention strategies based on epidemiological data by establishing the Regional Epidemiological Outcomes Workgroup (REOW) network. Seventeen REOWs across the state helped identify and use community resources to collect, analyze, and interpret epidemiological data to measure the burden of substance abuse problems and the associated intermediate variables. The REOWs prioritized the needs of each community based on the data, identified the gaps and limitations in available community-level data, and helped find solutions. The REOWs serve as a permanent resource for the communities to establish a sustainable and ongoing monitoring system. With this comprehensive network, prevention providers and coalitions have a partner to assist in strategically allocating resources to address substance abuse and other emerging public health issues. The issues identified among different public health areas can help different community sectors formulate their strategy and address key problems in their areas. The REOW network brings awareness more effectively and efficiently to communities about eminent dangers posed by different health-related problems and behaviors. PMID:25536944

  2. Cord blood gene expression supports that prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances causes depressed immune functionality in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Pennings, Jeroen L A; Jennen, Danyel G J; Nygaard, Unni C; Namork, Ellen; Haug, Line S; van Loveren, Henk; Granum, Berit

    2016-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are a class of synthetic compounds that have widespread use in consumer and industrial applications. PFAS are considered environmental pollutants that have various toxic properties, including effects on the immune system. Recent human studies indicate that prenatal exposure to PFAS leads to suppressed immune responses in early childhood. In this study, data from the Norwegian BraMat cohort was used to investigate transcriptomics profiles in neonatal cord blood and their association with maternal PFAS exposure, anti-rubella antibody levels at 3 years of age and the number of common cold episodes until 3 years. Genes associated with PFAS exposure showed enrichment for immunological and developmental functions. The analyses identified a toxicogenomics profile of 52 PFAS exposure-associated genes that were in common with genes associated with rubella titers and/or common cold episodes. This gene set contains several immunomodulatory genes (CYTL1, IL27) as well as other immune-associated genes (e.g. EMR4P, SHC4, ADORA2A). In addition, this study identified PPARD as a PFAS toxicogenomics marker. These markers can serve as the basis for further mechanistic or epidemiological studies. This study provides a transcriptomics connection between prenatal PFAS exposure and impaired immune function in early childhood and supports current views on PPAR- and NF-κB-mediated modes of action. The findings add to the available evidence that PFAS exposure is immunotoxic in humans and support regulatory policies to phase out these substances. PMID:25812627

  3. Compensation for exposure to hazardous substances. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Investigations and Oversight of the Committee on Science and Technology, US House of Representatives, Ninety-Seventh Congress, Second Session, August 12, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    Victims of brown lung and exposure to brominated aromatic hydrocarbons (PBBS), attorneys, insurors, and respresentatives of environmental medicine testified on environmentally-related disease. The witnesses described the uncertainties in detecting and linking substances with adverse health effects and the problems of determining appropriate compensation for the victim. They also explored the social and economic costs and benefits of using environmental and occupational health laws to prevent disease. An appendix with additional material for the record follows the testimony of 12 witnesses. (DCK)

  4. Preventing Agricultural Chemical Exposure: A Safety Program Manual. Participatory Education with Farmworkers in Pesticide Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wake Forest Univ., Winston-Salem, NC. Dept. of Family and Community Medicine.

    Preventing Agricultural Chemical Exposure among North Carolina Farmworkers (PACE) is a project designed to describe farmworker pesticide exposure and to develop an educational intervention to reduce farmworker pesticide exposure. The PACE project used a community participation framework to ensure that the community played a significant role in…

  5. 78 FR 47320 - Preventing Skin Cancer Through Reduction of UV Exposure

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Preventing Skin Cancer Through Reduction of UV... information from the public on preventing skin cancer through the reduction of UV exposure. The information... problem of skin cancer. DATES: Written comments must be received on or before September 4, 2013....

  6. Mental Health Disorders among Children within Child Welfare who have Prenatal Substance Exposure: Rural vs. Urban Populations.

    PubMed

    Chasnoff, Ira J; Telford, Erin; Wells, Anne M; King, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzed differences in mental health diagnoses among Illinois child welfare-involved youth who have had prenatal substance exposure. Results indicate that youth from the rural area had a significantly higher rate of co-occurring mental health disorders. A multiple regression analysis revealed five significant predictors: living in a rural area, a history of neglect, having Fetal Alcohol Syndrome or an alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder, and age. These results have implications for adapting existing treatment models. PMID:26827476

  7. Exposure Therapy for Substance Abusers with PTSD: Translating Research to Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffey, Scott F.; Schumacher, Julie A.; Brimo, Marcella L.; Brady, Kathleen T.

    2005-01-01

    Epidemiological research indicates that there is substantial comorbidity between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorder (SUD). Moreover, there is growing evidence that having a comorbid PTSD diagnosis is associated with greater substance use problem severity and poorer outcomes from SUD treatment. In an attempt to improve…

  8. Multidimensionality Matters: An Effective HIV, Hepatitis C, and Substance-Use Prevention Program for Minority Parolees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepherd, Jennifer L.; Fandel, Johnna; Esposito, Rashaun; Pace, Elizabeth; Banks, Mekka; Denious, Jean E.

    2012-01-01

    African Americans and Hispanics are more likely than Whites to be incarcerated, and are also disparately affected by HIV, hepatitis C, and substance use. Reaching these populations as they leave prison is important given high rates of substance use and sexual risk-taking behaviors among U.S. prisoners. A 12-session, culturally appropriate,…

  9. Entrepreneurship education: A strength-based approach to substance use and suicide prevention for American Indian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tingey, Lauren; Larzelere-Hinton, Francene; Goklish, Novalene; Ingalls, Allison; Craft, Todd; Sprengeler, Feather; McGuire, Courtney; Barlow, Allison

    2016-01-01

    American Indian (AI) adolescents suffer the largest disparities in substance use and suicide. Predominating prevention models focus primarily on risk and utilize deficit-based approaches. The fields of substance use and suicide prevention research urge for positive youth development frameworks that are strength based and target change at individual and community levels. Entrepreneurship education is an innovative approach that reflects the gap in available programs. This paper describes the development and evaluation of a youth entrepreneurship education program in partnership with one AI community. We detail the curriculum, process evaluation results, and the randomized controlled trial evaluating its efficacy for increasing protective factors. Lessons learned may be applicable to other AI communities. PMID:27383095

  10. Preventing Childhood Trauma Resulting from Exposure to Domestic Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Dave

    1999-01-01

    This review of the literature on the prevention of childhood trauma resulting from domestic violence lists usually short-term effects of domestic violence on children and discusses the possibility of post traumatic stress disorder and prevention of adjustment problems through immediate intervention. Suggestions for intervention with children who…

  11. Occupational exposure to neurotoxic substances in Asian countries - Challenges and approaches

    PubMed Central

    Meyer-Baron, Monika; Kim, Eun A; Nuwayhid, Iman; Ichihara, Gaku; Kang, Seong-Kyu

    2012-01-01

    The fact that a conference on neurotoxicity was held in China triggered the idea to provide an insight into occupational diseases, their development and the approaches to investigate them in Asian countries. A historical review, a meta-analysis, and studies on humans and animals provide impressions on past and current problems. The Korean example showed that each newly introduced industry is accompanied by its own problems as regards occupational diseases. Mercury and carbon disulfide were of importance in the beginning, whereas solvents and manganese became important later. Outbreaks of diseases were important reasons to guide both the public and the governmental attention to prevention and allowed within a relatively short time considerable progress. As the example on the replacement of 2-bromopropane by 1-bromopropane showed, also the introduction of chemicals that are more beneficial for the environment may result in additional occupational risks. A lower mutagenicity of 1-bromopopane was shown to be associated with a greater neurotoxicity in Japanese studies. Although occupational health and diseases are commonly related to adults, child workers exposed to solvents were examined in a Lebanese study. The study started outlining the health hazards in young workers because they might be at a much greater risk due to the not yet completed maturation of their nervous system. That some occupational diseases are not yet a focus of prevention was shown by the study on pesticides. If at all, the serious health consequences resulting from excessive exposure were investigated. Research enabling precautionary actions was not available from the international literature. Despite globalization the knowledge on occupational diseases is not yet “globalized” and each country obviously undergoes its own development triggered by local experiences. Economic development that requires a healthy workforce, but also public interest that challenges governmental regulations further

  12. The Protective Effects of Neighborhood Collective Efficacy on Adolescent Substance Use and Violence Following Exposure to Violence

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Emily M.; Pinchevsky, Gillian M.

    2013-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that exposure to violence can result in many negative consequences for youth, but the degree to which neighborhood conditions may foster resiliency among victims is not well understood. This study tests the hypothesis that neighborhood collective efficacy attenuates the relationship between adolescent exposure to violence, substance use, and violence. Data were collected from 1,661–1,718 adolescents participating in the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN), who were diverse in terms of sex (51% male, 49% female), race/ethnicity (48% Hispanic, 34% African American, 14% Caucasian, and 4% other race/ethnicity), and age (mean age 12 years; range: 8–16). Information on neighborhood collective efficacy was obtained from adult residents, and data from the 1990 U.S. Census were used to control for neighborhood disadvantage. Based on hierarchical modeling techniques to adjust for the clustered data, Bernoulli models indicated that more exposure to violence was associated with a greater likelihood of tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use and perpetration of violence. Poisson models suggested that victimization was also related to a greater variety of substance use and violent behaviors. A moderating effect of collective efficacy was found in models assessing the variety of substance use; the relationship between victimization and substance use was weaker for youth in neighborhoods with higher versus lower levels of collective efficacy. These findings are consistent with literature indicating that social support can ameliorate the negative impact of victimization. This investigation extends this research to show that neighborhood social support can also help to promote resiliency among adolescents. PMID:24170438

  13. The protective effects of neighborhood collective efficacy on adolescent substance use and violence following exposure to violence.

    PubMed

    Fagan, Abigail A; Wright, Emily M; Pinchevsky, Gillian M

    2014-09-01

    Research has demonstrated that exposure to violence can result in many negative consequences for youth, but the degree to which neighborhood conditions may foster resiliency among victims is not well understood. This study tests the hypothesis that neighborhood collective efficacy attenuates the relationship between adolescent exposure to violence, substance use, and violence. Data were collected from 1,661 to 1,718 adolescents participating in the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods, who were diverse in terms of sex (51% male, 49% female), race/ethnicity (48% Hispanic, 34% African American, 14% Caucasian, and 4% other race/ethnicity), and age (mean age 12 years; range 8-16). Information on neighborhood collective efficacy was obtained from adult residents, and data from the 1990 U.S. Census were used to control for neighborhood disadvantage. Based on hierarchical modeling techniques to adjust for the clustered data, Bernoulli models indicated that more exposure to violence was associated with a greater likelihood of tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use and perpetration of violence. Poisson models suggested that victimization was also related to a greater variety of substance use and violent behaviors. A moderating effect of collective efficacy was found in models assessing the variety of substance use; the relationship between victimization and substance use was weaker for youth in neighborhoods with higher versus lower levels of collective efficacy. These findings are consistent with literature indicating that social support can ameliorate the negative impact of victimization. This investigation extends this research to show that neighborhood social support can also help to promote resiliency among adolescents. PMID:24170438

  14. Mortality patterns among industrial workers exposed to chloroprene and other substances. II. Mortality in relation to exposure.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Gary M; Youk, Ada O; Buchanich, Jeanine M; Cunningham, Michael; Esmen, Nurtan A; Hall, Thomas A; Phillips, Margaret L

    2007-03-20

    As part of an historical cohort study to investigate the mortality experience of industrial workers exposed to chloroprene (CD) and other substances, including vinyl chloride monomer (VC), we analyzed mortality from all cancers combined, respiratory system (RSC) and liver cancer in relation to CD and VC exposures. Subjects were 12,430 workers ever employed at one of two U.S. sites (Louisville, KY (n=5507) and Pontchartrain, LA (n=1357)) or two European sites (Maydown, Northern Ireland (n=4849) and Grenoble, France (n=717)). Historical exposures for individual workers were estimated quantitatively for CD and VC. For sites L, M, P and G, respectively, average intensity of CD exposures (median value of exposed workers in ppm) were 5.23, 0.16, 0.028 and 0.149 and median cumulative exposures (ppm years) were 18.35, 0.084, 0.133 and 1.01. For sites L and M, respectively, average intensity of VC exposures (median value of exposed workers in ppm) was 1.54 and 0.03 and median cumulative exposures (ppm years) were 1.54 and 0.094. We performed relative risk (RR) regression modeling to investigate the dependence of the internal cohort rates for all cancers combined, RSC and liver cancer on combinations of the categorical CD or VC exposure measures with adjustment for potential confounding factors. We categorized exposure measures into approximate quartiles based on the distribution of deaths from all cancers combined. We also considered 5- and 15-year lagged exposure measures and adjusted some RR models for worker pay type (white/blue collar) as a rough surrogate for lifetime smoking history. All modeling was site-specific to account for exposure heterogeneity. We also computed exposure category-specific standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) to assess absolute mortality rates. With the exception of a one statistically significant association with duration of exposure to CD and all cancers combined in plant M, we observed no evidence of a positive association with all cancers

  15. Implementation of adolescent family-based substance use prevention programs in health care settings: Comparisons across conditions and programs.

    PubMed

    Aalborg, Annette E; Miller, Brenda A; Husson, Gail; Byrnes, Hilary F; Bauman, Karl E; Spoth, Richard L

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The majority of knowledge related to implementation of family-based substance use prevention programs is based on programs delivered in school and community settings. The aim of this study is to examine procedures related to implementation effectiveness and quality of two family-based universal substance use prevention programs delivered in health care settings, the Strengthening Families Program: For Parents and Youth 10-14 (SFP) and Family Matters (FM). These evidence-based programs were delivered as part of a larger random control intervention study designed to assess the influence of program choice vs. assignment on study participation and adolescent substance use outcomes. We also assess the effects of program choice (vs. assignment to program) on program delivery. METHODS: A mixed method case study was conducted to assess procedures used to maximize implementation quality and fidelity of family-based prevention programs delivered in health care settings. Families with an 11 year old child were randomly selected for study participation from health plan membership databases of 4 large urban medical centers in the San Francisco Bay Area. Eligible families were initially randomized to a Choice study condition (families choose SFP or FM) or Assigned study condition (assigned to FM, SFP or control group); 494 ethnically diverse families were selected for participation in study programs. RESULTS: Successful implementation of family prevention programs in health care settings required knowledge of the health care environment and familiarity with established procedures for developing ongoing support and collaboration. Ongoing training of program deliverers utilizing data from fidelity assessment appeared to contribute to improved program fidelity over the course of the study. Families who chose FM completed the program in a shorter period (p<.0001) and spent more time implementing program activities (p=0.02) compared to families assigned to FM. SFP "choice

  16. Implementation of adolescent family-based substance use prevention programs in health care settings: Comparisons across conditions and programs

    PubMed Central

    Aalborg, Annette E.; Miller, Brenda A.; Husson, Gail; Byrnes, Hilary F.; Bauman, Karl E.; Spoth, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    Background The majority of knowledge related to implementation of family-based substance use prevention programs is based on programs delivered in school and community settings. The aim of this study is to examine procedures related to implementation effectiveness and quality of two family-based universal substance use prevention programs delivered in health care settings, the Strengthening Families Program: For Parents and Youth 10–14 (SFP) and Family Matters (FM). These evidence-based programs were delivered as part of a larger random control intervention study designed to assess the influence of program choice vs. assignment on study participation and adolescent substance use outcomes. We also assess the effects of program choice (vs. assignment to program) on program delivery. Methods A mixed method case study was conducted to assess procedures used to maximize implementation quality and fidelity of family-based prevention programs delivered in health care settings. Families with an 11 year old child were randomly selected for study participation from health plan membership databases of 4 large urban medical centers in the San Francisco Bay Area. Eligible families were initially randomized to a Choice study condition (families choose SFP or FM) or Assigned study condition (assigned to FM, SFP or control group); 494 ethnically diverse families were selected for participation in study programs. Results Successful implementation of family prevention programs in health care settings required knowledge of the health care environment and familiarity with established procedures for developing ongoing support and collaboration. Ongoing training of program deliverers utilizing data from fidelity assessment appeared to contribute to improved program fidelity over the course of the study. Families who chose FM completed the program in a shorter period (p<.0001) and spent more time implementing program activities (p=0.02) compared to families assigned to FM. SFP

  17. Validation of an aggregate exposure model for substances in consumer products: a case study of diethyl phthalate in personal care products

    PubMed Central

    Delmaar, Christiaan; Bokkers, Bas; ter Burg, Wouter; Schuur, Gerlienke

    2015-01-01

    As personal care products (PCPs) are used in close contact with a person, they are a major source of consumer exposure to chemical substances contained in these products. The estimation of realistic consumer exposure to substances in PCPs is currently hampered by the lack of appropriate data and methods. To estimate aggregate exposure of consumers to substances contained in PCPs, a person-oriented consumer exposure model has been developed (the Probabilistic Aggregate Consumer Exposure Model, PACEM). The model simulates daily exposure in a population based on product use data collected from a survey among the Dutch population. The model is validated by comparing diethyl phthalate (DEP) dose estimates to dose estimates based on biomonitoring data. It was found that the model's estimates compared well with the estimates based on biomonitoring data. This suggests that the person-oriented PACEM model is a practical tool for assessing realistic aggregate exposures to substances in PCPs. In the future, PACEM will be extended with use pattern data on other product groups. This will allow for assessing aggregate exposure to substances in consumer products across different product groups. PMID:25352161

  18. A component-centered meta-analysis of family-based prevention programs for adolescent substance use.

    PubMed

    Van Ryzin, Mark J; Roseth, Cary J; Fosco, Gregory M; Lee, You-Kyung; Chen, I-Chien

    2016-04-01

    Although research has documented the positive effects of family-based prevention programs, the field lacks specific information regarding why these programs are effective. The current study summarized the effects of family-based programs on adolescent substance use using a component-based approach to meta-analysis in which we decomposed programs into a set of key topics or components that were specifically addressed by program curricula (e.g., parental monitoring/behavior management,problem solving, positive family relations, etc.). Components were coded according to the amount of time spent on program services that targeted youth, parents, and the whole family; we also coded effect sizes across studies for each substance-related outcome. Given the nested nature of the data, we used hierarchical linear modeling to link program components (Level 2) with effect sizes (Level 1). The overall effect size across programs was .31, which did not differ by type of substance. Youth-focused components designed to encourage more positive family relationships and a positive orientation toward the future emerged as key factors predicting larger than average effect sizes. Our results suggest that, within the universe of family-based prevention, where components such as parental monitoring/behavior management are almost universal, adding or expanding certain youth-focused components may be able to enhance program efficacy. PMID:27064553

  19. Pesticides and inner-city children: exposures, risks, and prevention.

    PubMed

    Landrigan, P J; Claudio, L; Markowitz, S B; Berkowitz, G S; Brenner, B L; Romero, H; Wetmur, J G; Matte, T D; Gore, A C; Godbold, J H; Wolff, M S

    1999-06-01

    Six million children live in poverty in America's inner cities. These children are at high risk of exposure to pesticides that are used extensively in urban schools, homes, and day-care centers for control of roaches, rats, and other vermin. The organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos and certain pyrethroids are the registered pesticides most heavily applied in cities. Illegal street pesticides are also in use, including tres pasitos (a carbamate), tiza china, and methyl parathion. In New York State in 1997, the heaviest use of pesticides in all counties statewide was in the urban boroughs of Manhattan and Brooklyn. Children are highly vulnerable to pesticides. Because of their play close to the ground, their hand-to-mouth behavior, and their unique dietary patterns, children absorb more pesticides from their environment than adults. The long persistence of semivolatile pesticides such as chlorpyrifos on rugs, furniture, stuffed toys, and other absorbent surfaces within closed apartments further enhances urban children's exposures. Compounding these risks of heavy exposures are children's decreased ability to detoxify and excrete pesticides and the rapid growth, development, and differentiation of their vital organ systems. These developmental immaturities create early windows of great vulnerability. Recent experimental data suggest, for example, that chlorpyrifos may be a developmental neurotoxicant and that exposure in utero may cause biochemical and functional aberrations in fetal neurons as well as deficits in the number of neurons. Certain pyrethroids exert hormonal activity that may alter early neurologic and reproductive development. Assays currently used for assessment of the toxicity of pesticides are insensitive and cannot accurately predict effects to children exposed in utero or in early postnatal life. Protection of American children, and particularly of inner-city children, against the developmental hazards of pesticides requires a comprehensive

  20. Pesticides and inner-city children: exposures, risks, and prevention.

    PubMed Central

    Landrigan, P J; Claudio, L; Markowitz, S B; Berkowitz, G S; Brenner, B L; Romero, H; Wetmur, J G; Matte, T D; Gore, A C; Godbold, J H; Wolff, M S

    1999-01-01

    Six million children live in poverty in America's inner cities. These children are at high risk of exposure to pesticides that are used extensively in urban schools, homes, and day-care centers for control of roaches, rats, and other vermin. The organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos and certain pyrethroids are the registered pesticides most heavily applied in cities. Illegal street pesticides are also in use, including tres pasitos (a carbamate), tiza china, and methyl parathion. In New York State in 1997, the heaviest use of pesticides in all counties statewide was in the urban boroughs of Manhattan and Brooklyn. Children are highly vulnerable to pesticides. Because of their play close to the ground, their hand-to-mouth behavior, and their unique dietary patterns, children absorb more pesticides from their environment than adults. The long persistence of semivolatile pesticides such as chlorpyrifos on rugs, furniture, stuffed toys, and other absorbent surfaces within closed apartments further enhances urban children's exposures. Compounding these risks of heavy exposures are children's decreased ability to detoxify and excrete pesticides and the rapid growth, development, and differentiation of their vital organ systems. These developmental immaturities create early windows of great vulnerability. Recent experimental data suggest, for example, that chlorpyrifos may be a developmental neurotoxicant and that exposure in utero may cause biochemical and functional aberrations in fetal neurons as well as deficits in the number of neurons. Certain pyrethroids exert hormonal activity that may alter early neurologic and reproductive development. Assays currently used for assessment of the toxicity of pesticides are insensitive and cannot accurately predict effects to children exposed in utero or in early postnatal life. Protection of American children, and particularly of inner-city children, against the developmental hazards of pesticides requires a comprehensive

  1. Health Promotion and Substance Abuse Prevention among American Indian and Alaska Native Communities: Issues in Cultural Competence. Cultural Competence Series 9. Special Collaborative Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trimble, Joseph E., Ed.; Beauvais, Fred, Ed.

    Substance abuse continues to be one of the most damaging and chronic health problems faced by Indian people. American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) substance abuse prevention and treatment programs must be framed within the broader context of the widening health disparities between AI/AN communities and the general population. Successful…

  2. Preventing skin cancer: findings of the Task Force on Community Preventive Services On reducing Exposure to Ultraviolet Light.

    PubMed

    Saraiya, Mona; Glanz, Karen; Briss, Peter; Nichols, Phyllis; White, Cornelia; Das, Debjani

    2003-10-17

    Rates of skin cancer, the most common cancer in the United States, are increasing. The most preventable risk factor for skin cancer is unprotected ultraviolet (UV) exposure. Seeking to identify effective approaches to reducing the incidence of skin cancer by improving individual and community efforts to reduce unprotected UV exposure, the Task Force on Community Preventive Services conducted systematic reviews of community interventions to reduce exposure to ultraviolet light and increase protective behaviors. The Task Force found sufficient evidence to recommend two interventions that are based on improvements in sun protective or "covering-up" behavior (wearing protective clothing including long-sleeved clothing or hats): educational and policy approaches in two settings--primary schools and recreational or tourism sites. They found insufficient evidence to determine the effectiveness of a range of other population-based interventions and recommended additional research in these areas: educational and policy approaches in child care centers, secondary schools and colleges, recreational or tourism sites for children, and workplaces; interventions conducted in health-care settings and targeted to both providers and children's parents or caregivers; media campaigns alone; and community wide multicomponent interventions. This report also presents additional information regarding the recommended community interventions, briefly describes how the reviews were conducted, provides resources for further information, and provides information that can help in applying the interventions locally. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force conducted a systematic review of counseling by primary care clinicians to prevent skin cancer (CDC. Counseling to prevent skin cancer: recommendation and rationale of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. MMWR 2003;52[No. RR-15]:13-17), which is also included in this issue, the first jointly released findings from the Task Force on Community

  3. Prevention of mental disorders, substance abuse, and problem behaviors: a developmental perspective.

    PubMed

    Beardslee, William R; Chien, Peter L; Bell, Carl C

    2011-03-01

    Robust scientific evidence shows that mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders can be prevented before they begin. This article highlights and expands points from a 2009 Institute of Medicine report to provide a concise summary of the literature on preventing mental illness. Because prevention requires intervention before the onset of illness, effective preventive approaches are often interdisciplinary and developmental. Evidence-based preventive strategies are discussed for the different phases of a young person's life. Specific recommendations to focus on parenting, child development, and the prevention of depression are made for a target audience of practicing psychiatrists and mental health professionals. Further systemic recommendations are to prioritize prevention and to coordinate and facilitate research on preventive practices in order to reduce suffering, create healthier families, and save money. PMID:21363895

  4. Building culturally sensitive substance use prevention and treatment programs for transgendered populations.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, E L; van Servellen, G

    2000-10-01

    Studies show that transgendered individuals are at high risk for substance use problems. It is important to identify the unique needs and concerns of these individuals and culturally sensitive programs that will be successful in recruiting and retaining these individuals in drug abuse treatment services. This involves incorporating the needs of services from the perspectives of both the transgendered community and health-care professionals. It is the purpose of this article to discuss transgenderism as well as the substance use problems and difficulties within substance use treatment that transgendered men and women may face. This article presents guidelines for the design and evaluation of health-care services to transgendered populations. PMID:11027900

  5. Problematic substance use in Hispanic adolescents and young adults: Implications for prevention efforts

    PubMed Central

    Grigsby, Timothy J.; Forster, Myriam; Soto, Daniel W.; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Unger, Jennifer B.

    2014-01-01

    Using data collected between 2005–2012 from a longitudinal study of acculturation patterns and substance use among Hispanic youth in Southern California (N = 2,722), we fit multivariate logistic regression models to estimate the association of type and frequency of drug use, friend and parent drug use, cultural orientation (measured by the ARSMA-II), and psychological distress (CES-D score) in 10th grade with problematic substance use (measured with the RAPI) in (i) 11th grade and (ii) young adulthood. We conclude that future intervention efforts with Hispanic adolescents and young adults should target polysubstance and problem users and emphasize inter-individual, structural and cultural processes as they relate to problematic substance use. PMID:24779502

  6. Caregiver Substance Abuse and Children’s Exposure to Violence in a Nationally Representative Child Welfare Sample

    PubMed Central

    Seay, Kristen D.; Kohl, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Using data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being II (NSCAW II), this article examines the impact of caregiver substance abuse on children’s exposure to violence in the home in a nationally representative sample of families involved with child protective services (CPS). Logistic regression analyses indicate an increased risk of witnessing mild and severe violence in the home for children whose primary caregiver was abusing alcohol or drugs. However, analyses did not find statistically significant relationships between child report of direct victimization in the home by mild or severe violence and caregiver alcohol or drug abuse. PMID:23440502

  7. Schools Meet the Challenge: Educational Needs of Children at Risk Due to Prenatal Substance Exposure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulsen, Marie Kanne

    This report is intended to serve as a reference for educators and service providers providing early intervention services and family support to children who have been prenatally substance exposed. The first two sections present information on the extent of the problem noting that 1,200,000 American women of reproductive age use cocaine, alcohol,…

  8. Does Typography of Substance Abuse and Dependence Differ as a Function of Exposure to Child Maltreatment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danielson, Carla Kmett; Amstadter, Ananda B.; Dangelmaier, Ruth E.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the link between child maltreatment, including child sexual assault (CSA) and child physical assault (CPA), and addiction-related symptomatology in a subsample of adolescents from the National Survey of Adolescents, all of whom met DSM-IV criteria for substance abuse or dependence (N = 281). More than 60% of the sample reported a…

  9. Styles of Adaptation: The Impact of Frequency and Valence of Adaptation on Preventing Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, William B.; Pankratz, Melinda M.; Dusenbury, Linda; Giles, Steven M.; Bishop, Dana C.; Albritton, Jordan; Albritton, Lauren P.; Strack, Joann

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To be effective, evidence-based programs should be delivered as prescribed. This suggests that adaptations that deviate from intervention goals may limit a program's effectiveness. This study aims to examine the impact that number and quality of adaptations have on substance use outcomes. Design/methodology/approach: The authors…

  10. Attrition Bias in a Cohort Study of Substance Abuse Onset and Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAlister, Alfred; Gordon, Nancy P.

    1986-01-01

    Self-generated codes to insure student anonymity were used in a study of substance use among 2500 adolescents. Matching rates for various cohorts as a proportion of total respondents at different survey periods were less than ideal. The effects of coding and other attrition factors on the tracking are discussed. (JAZ)

  11. Rationale for a New Direction in Foster Youth Substance Use Disorder Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Braciszewski, Jordan M.; Moore, Roland S.; Stout, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Of the 463,000 children residing in United States foster care, 29,000 annually exit the system because they have “aged out,” are thus dropped from supportive services, and become responsible for their own housing, finances, and health needs. Given histories of maltreatment, housing instability, and parental substance use, youth preparing to exit care are at substantial risk of developing substance use disorders. Unfortunately, access to services is often limited, both before and after exit from care. Methods With the goal of developing a relevant substance use intervention for these youth, focus groups were conducted with foster care staff, administrators, and parents to assess the feasibility of potential approaches. Results Participants identified several population-specific barriers to delivering adapted intervention models developed for normative populations. They expressed concerns about foster youth developing, then quickly ending, relationships with interventionists, as well as admitting to substance use, given foster care program sanctions for such behavior. Group members stressed the importance of tailoring interventions, using creative, motivational procedures. Conclusions Foster youth seem to encounter unique barriers to receiving adequate care. In light of these results, a novel, engaging approach to overcoming these barriers is also presented. PMID:26229518

  12. Primer for Teachers: Quick and Easy Liver Wellness, Hepatitis B and Substance Abuse Prevention Messages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiel, Thelma King

    This guide provides information for teachers to use in teaching about liver wellness, hepatitis B, and substance abuse. The guide includes effective motivational techniques to help students understand how valuable their liver is to their health and well being. It also provides basic information to help students avoid liver damaging behaviors, such…

  13. The Role of Social Skills Training in a Comprehensive Prevention/Rehabilitation Substance Abuse Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Candler, Ann C.; And Others

    Substance abuse is pervasive in both rural and urban settings. Previous attempts to educate America's youth as to its dangers have not reduced the numbers of adolescents involved in the drug culture. The assertiveness-based "Just Say No" campaign attempts to counter peer pressure to use drugs, but is hampered by our society's encouragement of…

  14. Alabama Substance Abuse Prevention Training Program for Educational Personnel. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama Univ., Birmingham. School of Education.

    Quality substance abuse training for 279 educational personnel (school counselors, school nurses, and school psychologists) across the state of Alabama was provided in a series of two-day training sessions through a federal grant. Although the original grant proposed 7 training sessions, 9 training sessions were ultimately offered over the course…

  15. Engaging Ethnically Diverse Teens in a Substance Use Prevention Advocacy Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkleby, Marilyn A.; Feighery, Ellen C.; Altman, David A.; Kole, Sara; Tencati, Elaine

    2001-01-01

    Engaged low-income adolescents in community advocacy efforts to transform their schools and communities to reduce substance use. The intervention involved social cognitive constructs (sense of community, perceived self-efficacy, outcome expectancies, incentive value, policy control, and leadership competence). Though there were no changes in…

  16. SENSITIVE BIOCHEMICAL AND BEHAVIORAL INDICATORS OF TRACT SUBSTANCE EXPOSURE - PART II, PLATINUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The tissue/organ distribution of platinum (Pt) was examined in the adult mouse at various times after exposure to single or serially repeated (multiple) doses of Pt(SO4)2 or Na2PtCl6. Effects of exposure Pt on selected parameters of open field, exploratory and social behavior and...

  17. Fetal Substance Exposure and Cumulative Environmental Risk in an African American Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yumoto, Chie; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Jacobson, Joseph L.

    2008-01-01

    Two models of vulnerability to socioenvironmental risk were examined in 337 African American children (M = 7.8 years) recruited to overrepresent prenatal alcohol or cocaine exposure: The cumulative risk model predicted synergistic effects from exposure to multiple risk factors, and the fetal patterning of disease model predicted that prenatal…

  18. Exposure to Adult Substance Use as a Risk Factor in Adolescent Substance Use Onset: Part 1. Technical Report #97-13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracy, Allison J.; Collins, Linda M.; Graham, John W.

    The influence of parents and other important adults on adolescent substance use is becoming recognized as a salient topic of research. A study designed to assess the impact of adult substance use on adolescents' progression through increasingly more advanced stages of substance use is reported here. Latent Transition Analysis was used to estimate…

  19. Defining success with HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis: A prevention-effective adherence paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Haberer, Jessica E.; Bangsberg, David R.; Baeten, Jared M.; Curran, Kathryn; Koechlin, Florence; Amico, K. Rivet; Anderson, Peter; Mugo, Nelly; Venter, Francois; Goicochea, Pedro; Caceres, Carlos; O’Reilly, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Clinical trial data have shown that oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is efficacious when taken as prescribed; however, PrEP adherence is complex and must be understood within the context of variable risk for HIV infection and use of other HIV prevention methods. Different levels of adherence may be needed in different populations to achieve HIV prevention, and the optimal methods for achieving the necessary adherence for both individual and public health benefits are unknown. Guidance for PrEP use must consider these questions to determine the success of PrEP-based HIV prevention programs. In this article, we propose a new paradigm for understanding and measuring PrEP adherence, termed prevention-effective adherence, which incorporates dynamic HIV acquisition risk behaviors and the use of HIV alternative prevention strategies. We discuss the need for daily PrEP use only during periods of risk for HIV exposure, describe key issues for measuring and understanding relevant behaviors, review lessons from another health prevention field (i.e., family planning), and provide guidance for prevention-effective PrEP use. Moreover, we challenge emerging calls for sustained, near perfect PrEP adherence regardless of risk exposure and offer a more practical and public health-focused vision for this prevention intervention. PMID:26103095

  20. Prevention of substance abuse with rural head start children and families: results of project STAR.

    PubMed

    Kaminski, Ruth A; Stormshak, Elizabeth A; Good, Roland H; Goodman, Matthew Reader

    2002-12-01

    The effectiveness of a comprehensive intervention with preschool children aimed at reducing the risk of later substance abuse was examined. The intervention targeted risk factors during the preschool years linked to later substance use in adolescence and adulthood. Head Start classrooms were randomly assigned to either the intervention or the control group. A classroom-based curriculum was delivered by Head Start teachers who received a number of training workshops and continued consultation. Parent training and home visits were also provided to intervention families. Positive parenting as well as parent-school involvement increased over the 1st year of intervention. Intervention families maintained the positive effects on parenting into the kindergarten year over a matched control group; however, effects on school bonding were not maintained. Improvements in social competence, reported by teachers and parents, were found at the end of kindergarten. No changes were found for self-regulation. PMID:12502274

  1. The potential of coaching as a strategy to improve the effectiveness of school-based substance use prevention curricula.

    PubMed

    Ringwalt, Christopher L; Pankratz, Melinda M; Hansen, William B; Dusenbury, Linda; Jackson-Newsom, Julia; Giles, Steven M; Brodish, Paul H

    2009-08-01

    Research-based substance use prevention curricula typically yield small effects when implemented by school teachers under real-world conditions. Using a randomized controlled trial, the authors examined whether expert coaching improves the effectiveness of the All Stars prevention curriculum. Although a positive effect on students' cigarette use was noted, this finding may be attributed to marked baseline differences on this variable across the intervention and control groups. No effects were found on students' alcohol or marijuana use or on any of several variables thought to mediate curriculum effects. The effects of coaching on teachers may not become evident until future years, when they have moved beyond an initial mechanical delivery of the curriculum. PMID:17652615

  2. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment for the K-25 Site Toxic Substances Control Act Incinerator Operations, Level III

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    A Level III pollution prevention opportunity assessment (PPOA) was performed for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator to evaluate pollution prevention (P2) options for various waste streams: The main objective of this study was to identify and evaluate options to reduce the quantities of each waste stream generated by the TSCA Incinerator operations to realize significant environmental and/or economic benefits from P2. For each of the waste streams, P2 options were evaluated following the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) hierarchy to (1) reduce the quantity of waste generated, (2) recycle the waste, and/or (3) use alternate waste treatment or segregation methods. This report provides process descriptions, identification and evaluation of P2 options, and final recommendations.

  3. A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Parent-Centered Intervention in Preventing Substance Use and HIV Risk Behaviors in Hispanic Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prado, Guillermo; Pantin, Hilda; Briones, Ervin; Schwartz, Seth J.; Feaster, Daniel; Huang, Shi; Sullivan, Summer; Tapia, Maria I.; Sabillon, Eduardo; Lopez, Barbara; Szapocznik, Jose

    2007-01-01

    The present study evaluated the efficacy of Familias Unidas + Parent-Preadolescent Training for HIV Prevention (PATH), a Hispanic-specific, parent-centered intervention, in preventing adolescent substance use and unsafe sexual behavior. Two hundred sixty-six 8th-grade Hispanic adolescents and their primary caregivers were randomly assigned to 1 of…

  4. The use of virtual reality in craving assessment and cue-exposure therapy in substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Hone-Blanchet, Antoine; Wensing, Tobias; Fecteau, Shirley

    2014-01-01

    Craving is recognized as an important diagnosis criterion for substance use disorders (SUDs) and a predictive factor of relapse. Various methods to study craving exist; however, suppressing craving to successfully promote abstinence remains an unmet clinical need in SUDs. One reason is that social and environmental contexts recalling drug and alcohol consumption in the everyday life of patients suffering from SUDs often initiate craving and provoke relapse. Current behavioral therapies for SUDs use the cue-exposure approach to suppress salience of social and environmental contexts that may induce craving. They facilitate learning and cognitive reinforcement of new behavior and entrain craving suppression in the presence of cues related to drug and alcohol consumption. Unfortunately, craving often overweighs behavioral training especially in real social and environmental contexts with peer pressure encouraging the use of substance, such as parties and bars. In this perspective, virtual reality (VR) is gaining interest in the development of cue-reactivity paradigms and practices new skills in treatment. VR enhances ecological validity of traditional craving-induction measurement. In this review, we discuss results from (1) studies using VR and alternative virtual agents in the induction of craving and (2) studies combining cue-exposure therapy with VR in the promotion of abstinence from drugs and alcohol use. They used virtual environments, displaying alcohol and drugs to SUD patients. Moreover, some environments included avatars. Hence, some studies have focused on the social interactions that are associated with drug-seeking behaviors and peer pressure. Findings indicate that VR can successfully increase craving. Studies combining cue-exposure therapy with virtual environment, however, reported mitigated success so far. PMID:25368571

  5. The Use of Virtual Reality in Craving Assessment and Cue-Exposure Therapy in Substance Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hone-Blanchet, Antoine; Wensing, Tobias; Fecteau, Shirley

    2014-01-01

    Craving is recognized as an important diagnosis criterion for substance use disorders (SUDs) and a predictive factor of relapse. Various methods to study craving exist; however, suppressing craving to successfully promote abstinence remains an unmet clinical need in SUDs. One reason is that social and environmental contexts recalling drug and alcohol consumption in the everyday life of patients suffering from SUDs often initiate craving and provoke relapse. Current behavioral therapies for SUDs use the cue-exposure approach to suppress salience of social and environmental contexts that may induce craving. They facilitate learning and cognitive reinforcement of new behavior and entrain craving suppression in the presence of cues related to drug and alcohol consumption. Unfortunately, craving often overweighs behavioral training especially in real social and environmental contexts with peer pressure encouraging the use of substance, such as parties and bars. In this perspective, virtual reality (VR) is gaining interest in the development of cue-reactivity paradigms and practices new skills in treatment. VR enhances ecological validity of traditional craving-induction measurement. In this review, we discuss results from (1) studies using VR and alternative virtual agents in the induction of craving and (2) studies combining cue-exposure therapy with VR in the promotion of abstinence from drugs and alcohol use. They used virtual environments, displaying alcohol and drugs to SUD patients. Moreover, some environments included avatars. Hence, some studies have focused on the social interactions that are associated with drug-seeking behaviors and peer pressure. Findings indicate that VR can successfully increase craving. Studies combining cue–exposure therapy with virtual environment, however, reported mitigated success so far. PMID:25368571

  6. An Exposure Prevention Plan for an Anhydrous Ammonia Handling System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padolewski, Cathy L.; Bower, Amy; Ponikvar, Gary; Mellott, Ken

    1997-01-01

    In July of 1996, the Industrial Hygiene Team of the Environmental Management Office at NASA Lewis Research Center was contacted by the Space Station Program Office to conduct ammonia awareness training for a team of engineers and technicians. The team was tasked with assembling and operating an ammonia handling system for testing of a photovoltaic radiator at the NASA Plum Brook Station Space Power Facility. The ammonia handling system supports a radiator designed to radiate excess heat from a photovoltaic array module used to provide power to the International Space Station. The system would consist of a hazardous materials trailer equipped with an anhydrous ammonia tank, heater, accumulator, chiller, and flow bench. Meetings were held with representatives from the Space Station Program Office, the engineers and Plum Brook safety personnel. Guidance was also provided by representatives from Kennedy Space Center. Determinations were made concerning the locations and types of potential exposures and a plan was developed which included training, personal protective equipment, engineering controls and emergency response. Various organizations including the Plum Brook Safety Committee, the Lewis Environmental Management Office, the Test Readiness Review Board and the Program Office all had requirements that had to be met in order to satisfy themselves that all personnel involved in the operation of the system would be safe. What resulted was a comprehensive plan that provided more than adequate safety measures and succeeded in protecting all personnel from the hazards of the ammonia system. Testing of the photovoltaic radiator was successful and although ammonia leaks were detected and maintenance of the system was ongoing, no one was injured. It was felt that the training and controls in place allowed for a comfort level that did not interfere with the operations.

  7. Substance use, sexual behaviour and prevention strategies of Vancouver gay and bisexual men who recently attended group sex events.

    PubMed

    Rich, Ashleigh J; Lachowsky, Nathan J; Cui, Zishan; Sereda, Paul; Lal, Allan; Birch, Robert; Montaner, Julio; Moore, David; Hogg, Robert S; Roth, Eric A

    2016-01-01

    Group sex events are an epidemiologically important part of some gay and bisexual men's sexual culture in Canada. Associated with condomless anal intercourse and polysubstance use, such events have been cited as disproportionally contributing to HIV infection rates. We analysed questionnaire data from the Momentum Health Study in Vancouver, Canada, to understand substance use, sexual behaviour, psychosocial variables (Sexual Sensation Seeking, Sexual Escape Motivation, Treatment Optimism) and HIV prevention strategies (sero-sorting, strategic positioning, avoiding anal sex, disclosure, treatment as prevention) of men attending such events, which were defined as group (n ≥ 4 partners) sex parties, blackout events and darkrooms. Analysis by multivariable logistic regression compared men attending group sex events within the past six months (n = 180) with non-attendees (n = 539). Results showed that attendees reported: (1) significantly higher use of sex drugs and alcohol consumption, (2) higher scores on the Sexual Sensation Scale, more anal sex partners, greater odds of any condomless anal sex with sero-discordant partners and greater odds of reporting fisting and sex toy use and (3) different prevention practices that varied by HIV-serostatus. Findings are interpreted in light of the importance of pleasure, sociality and HIV/STI prevention strategies associated with group sex events. Findings contribute to the development of appropriate education and intervention for attendees. PMID:26443295

  8. Preventing Large-Scale Controlled Substance Diversion From Within the Pharmacy

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Emory S.; Dzierba, Steven H.; Jones, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale diversion of controlled substances (CS) from within a hospital or heath system pharmacy is a rare but growing problem. It is the responsibility of pharmacy leadership to scrutinize control processes to expose weaknesses. This article reviews examples of large-scale diversion incidents and diversion techniques and provides practical strategies to stimulate enhanced CS security within the pharmacy staff. Large-scale diversion from within a pharmacy department can be averted by a pharmacist-in-charge who is informed and proactive in taking effective countermeasures. PMID:24421497

  9. Antiretrovirals for Primary HIV Prevention: The Current Status of Pre- and Post-Exposure Prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Krakower, Douglas S.; Jain, Sachin; Mayer, Kenneth H.

    2015-01-01

    In light of the 2 million HIV infections that occur globally each year, there is a need to optimize strategies that integrate biomedical and behavioral approaches to HIV prevention. Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) immediately after acute high-risk exposures and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for those who engage in recurrent high-risk behaviors are promising bio-behavioral approaches to decreasing HIV transmission. Guidelines have recommended PEP for occupational and non-occupational exposures for over 15 years, but uptake of PEP has been limited, partly as a result of insufficient awareness of this intervention among persons at highest risk for acquiring HIV. However, since the publication of large randomized clinical trials demonstrating the efficacy of PrEP, and the dissemination of guidelines endorsing its use, there is a renewed focus on bio-behavioral prevention. Numerous studies have recently assessed the acceptability of bio-behavioral prevention programs among diverse populations or described experiences implementing these programs in “real-world” settings. As research and clinical data informing optimal utilization of PEP and PrEP are rapidly accumulating, this review provides a timely summary of recent progress in bio-behavioral prevention. By contextualizing the most noteworthy recent findings regarding PEP and PrEP, this review seeks to inform successful implementation of these promising prevention approaches. PMID:25600106

  10. The Natural Substance MS-10 Improves and Prevents Menopausal Symptoms, Including Colpoxerosis, in Clinical Research.

    PubMed

    Noh, Yoo-Hun; Kim, Do-Hee; Lee, Seung-Ah; Yin, Xing Fu; Park, Jiae; Lee, Moo Yeol; Lee, Won Bok; Lee, Sang Hyung; Kim, Jae Kwang; Kim, Sung-Su; Jeong, Yoonhwa; Myung, Soon-Chul; Kim, Tae Jin; Kang, Il-Jun

    2016-03-01

    Many natural substances were screened to develop nutraceuticals that reduce menopausal symptoms. A complex of Cirsium japonicum var. maackii and Thymus vulgaris extracts, named MS-10, had significant positive effects. Under a low concentration of estrogen, which represents postmenopausal physiological conditions, MS-10 had beneficial effects on estrogen receptor-expressing MCF-7 cells by reversibly enhancing estrogen activity. In addition, in the ovariectomized rat model, changes in bone-specific alkaline phosphatase activity and osteocalcin, as well as low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels were significantly decreased by MS-10. These results show that MS-10 protected bone health and reduced metabolic disturbances. Furthermore, in a clinical study, all menopausal symptoms, including hot flushes, parenthesis, insomnia, nervousness, melancholia, vertigo, fatigue, rheumatic pain, palpitations, formication, and headache, as well as colpoxerosis, were significantly improved by taking MS-10 for 90 days. Therefore, the evidence supports that MS-10 is an effective natural substance that can safely improve menopausal symptoms, including colpoxerosis. PMID:26848802

  11. The parenting partnership: The evaluation of a human service/corporate workplace collaboration for the prevention of substance abuse and mental health problems, and the promotion of family and work adjustment.

    PubMed

    Felner, R D; Brand, S; Mulhall, K E; Counter, B; Millman, J B; Fried, J

    1994-12-01

    A partnership between corporate worksites, a community-based prevention agency, and families in those worksites is described. Its primary goals were the reduction of family risk and enhancement of family protective factors that predispose children and youth to substance abuse and related social and emotional difficulties. A related goal of the program is to reduce family stress levels and attitudes that may influence the parents' levels of risk for substance abuse and related disorder. The program delivery strategy is conceived of as part of the necessart efforts of prevention programs to reach target populations in host settings in which they may naturally participate, thereby reducing obstacles and barriers to participation that often impede prevention efforts. Evaluation revealed that the program was generally better able to retain parents for a fairly lengthy period, and with high rates of attendance. Program attendance was also not affected by parental background characteristics that, in other delivery approaches, are often associated with poor attendance and high drop-out levels. Results also indicated that levels of program exposure (dosage) do make a significant difference in the efficacy of such efforts as those parents in the program who participated in higher percentages and numbers of sessions (i.e. more than 80% of sessions) showed both short-term and longer-term (i.e. across 18 month follow-ups) gains in their ratings of the target child's behavior problems and strengths, substance abuse resistance related knowledge and attitudes, reduced parental stress, depression and irritability, and increased utilization of social support. By contrast, parents who received a low program exposure exhibited a more restricted set of short-term gains. The findings are discussed in terms of their importance for consideration of program dosage for prevention programs, and the need to attend to the context in which programming is offered as it may facilitate or impede

  12. SENSITIVE BIOCHEMICAL AND BEHAVIORAL INDICATORS OF TRACE SUBSTANCE EXPOSURE. PART 1. CERIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    At various times after exposure of the adult mouse to single or repeated (multiple) doses of Cerium (Ce) citrate, the tissue/organ distribution and effects of Ce on selected behavioral parameters (ambutations and rearings in the open field, hole-in-board exploratory behavior, pas...

  13. An analytical approach to toxic substance replacement in support of pollution prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmer, I.B.

    1997-12-31

    In support of pollution prevention and in accordance with Executive Order 12856 concerning pollution prevention, all federal agencies must comply with the Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) chemical release reduction and pollution prevention planning. The inventory lists hundreds of chemicals and choosing those to replace and finding actual replacement chemicals or procedures is not always clear. This study focuses on an analytical approach to this problem by understanding the application of ethanol. Ethanol is a volatile organic compound (VOC) used as a solvent in ammunition manufacturing. Ethanol`s use as the solvent for shellac in a primer lacquer is characterized in the laboratory. Due to interest in substituting acetone for ethanol, an acetone-based primer lacquer is fabricated and tested in comparison to its ethanol counterpart. The results form the basis for broader application and chemical change.

  14. Toxic Environmental Chemicals: The Role of Reproductive Health Professionals In Preventing Harmful Exposures

    PubMed Central

    SUTTON, Patrice; WOODRUFF, Tracey J.; PERRON, Joanne; STOTLAND, Naomi; CONRY, Jeanne A.; MILLER, Mark D.; GIUDICE, Linda C.

    2015-01-01

    Every pregnant woman in the U.S. is exposed to many and varied environmental chemicals. Rapidly accumulating scientific evidence documents that widespread exposure to environmental chemicals at levels encountered in daily life can adversely impact reproductive and developmental health. Preconception and prenatal exposure to environmental chemicals are of particular import because they may have a profound and lasting impact on health across the life course. Thus, preventing developmental exposures to environmental chemicals would benefit greatly from the active participation of reproductive health professionals in clinical and policy arenas. PMID:22405527

  15. Mass Media, Youth, and the Prevention of Substance Abuse: Towards an Integrated Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallack, Lawrence

    1985-01-01

    Presents a series of principles which foster an integrated approach to prevention, and places the role of mass communications in that framework. Television programming, advertising, and mass media campaigns can all be used in an effort to change the message environment in which individuals behave. (Author)

  16. Substance abuse prevention in Cape Town's peri-urban settlements: local health trainers' perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Puljević, Cheneal; Learmonth, Despina

    2014-01-01

    South Africa currently experiences high levels of alcohol and other drug (AOD) abuse. As a result there is a need for the initiation of regional AOD abuse prevention programmes with a specific focus on youth prevention strategies. The Medical Knowledge Institute (MKI) is a non-profit organisation which develops and facilitates health information workshops to members of disadvantaged peri-urban communities in South Africa. This research investigated the views of eight local MKI health trainers on factors contributing to AOD abuse in their communities. Although the expected focus of the discussion was on prevention strategies and effective interventions, the trainers placed more emphasis on the individual and community factors influencing AOD abuse. The themes which emerged through the research included: status, government, (di)stress, gender, recreation, consequences and community. This research holds significance as it has the potential to assist further development of community-based AOD prevention workshops and to guide public health policy and service development for AOD abuse. PMID:25750776

  17. CRACKDOWN: A Guide to Preventing Substance Abuse Secondary. Citywide Teach-in--September 30.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    This secondary school curriculum guide, the subject of a citywide teach-in in the New York City schools, provides facts, lessons, and learning activities designed to provide information about and to prevent the use of crack, a form of cocaine. The guide covers the facts about crack, the reasons given for using crack, strategies for saying no to…

  18. A Hispanic/Latino Family Approach to Substance Abuse Prevention. CSAP Cultural Competence Series 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Coalition of Hispanic Health and Human Services Organizations.

    This monograph is designed to help scientists, decision makers, and service providers develop a deeper understanding of the role families and culture play in the prevention of alcohol and other drug abuse in Hispanic/Latino American populations. It also provides information on models of service delivery that are directed at strengthening families…

  19. Farmworker Substance Abuse: An Action Plan for the Year 2000. Proceedings of the National Farmworker Substance Abuse Prevention Conference (San Diego, California, October 18-20, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Migrant Resource Program, Inc., Austin, TX.

    This proceedings contains commissioned background papers used by conference work groups focusing on nine aspects of farmworker substance abuse, and the action plan developed by the work groups. The keynote address by Felipe G. Castro examines risk factors for substance abuse and addiction among Chicano farmworkers, particularly adolescent and…

  20. [Occupational lung diseases caused by exposure to chrysotile asbestos dust and the preventive measures].

    PubMed

    Pliukhin, A E; Burmistrova, T B

    2014-01-01

    To reveal major principles in system of occupational lung diseases prevention among workers engaged into extraction and usage of chrysotile asbestos, the authors specified main criteria for diagnosis of asbestos-related pulmonary diseases and signs of exposure to chrysotile dust, with identification of risk groups for occupational diseases development. The authors formulated main principles of prevention and rehabilitation for workers with asbestos-related pulmonary diseases. Special attention was paid to harmonization of all medical and technical measures aimed at prevention and liquidation of occupational asbestos-related diseases. PMID:25282798

  1. Cross-Lagged Associations Between Substance Use-Related Media Exposure and Alcohol Use During Middle School

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Joan S.; Miles, Jeremy N. V.; D’Amico, Elizabeth J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study examines the reciprocal longitudinal associations between alcohol or other drug (AOD)-related media exposure and alcohol use among middle school students, and explores whether these associations differ by ethnicity or gender. Methods The analytic sample is 7th grade students who were recruited from 16 California middle schools and surveyed in the spring semester of two academic years. Students reported on their background characteristics, exposure to seven types of AOD-related media content (internet videos, social networking sites, movies, television, magazine advertisements, songs, and video games) in the past 3 months, and alcohol use in the past 30 days. Structural equation modeling was used to examine cross-lagged associations between media exposure and alcohol use. Results Greater AOD-related media exposure in 7th grade was significantly associated with a higher probability of alcohol use in 8th grade (p=.02), and alcohol use in 7th grade was marginally associated with greater AOD-related media exposure in 8th grade (p=.07). These cross-lagged associations did not statistically differ by ethnicity (Hispanic vs. non-Hispanic white) or gender. Further, there was no evidence that certain types of media exposure were more strongly associated with alcohol use than others. Conclusions Results from this study suggest that AOD-related media effects and media selectively form a reciprocal, mutually influencing process that may escalate adolescent alcohol use over time. Addressing adolescents’ exposure to AOD-related media content and its effects on behavior, such as through media literacy education, may hold promise for improving the efficacy of alcohol prevention efforts for middle school students. PMID:23770074

  2. Practice-Informed Approaches to Addressing Substance Abuse and Trauma Exposure in Urban Native Families Involved with Child Welfare.

    PubMed

    Lucero, Nancy M; Bussey, Marian

    2015-01-01

    Similar to families from other groups, urban-based American Indian and Alaska Native ("Native") family members involved with the child welfare system due to substance abuse issues are also often challenged by untreated trauma exposure. The link between these conditions and the history of genocidal policies aimed at destroying Native family ties, as well as experiences of ongoing discrimination, bring added dimensions for consideration when pro- viding services to these families. Practice-based evidence indicates that the trauma-informed and culturally responsive model developed by the Denver Indian Family Resource Center (DIFRC) shows promise in reducing out-of-home placements and re-referrals in urban Native families with substance abuse and child welfare concerns, while also increasing caregiver capabilities, family safety, and child well-being. This article provides strategies from the DIFRC approach that non-Native caseworkers and supervisors can utilize to create an environment in their own agencies that supports culturally based practice with Native families while incorporating a trauma-informed understanding of service needs of these families. Casework consistent with this approach demonstrates actions that meet the Active Efforts requirement of the Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA) as well as sound clinical practice. Intensive and proactive case management designed specifically for families with high levels of service needs is a key strategy when combined with utilizing a caseworker brief screening tool for trauma exposure; training caseworkers to recognize trauma symptoms, making timely referrals to trauma treatment by behavioral health specialists experienced in working with Native clients, and providing a consistent service environment that focuses on client safety and worker trustworthiness. Finally, suggestions are put forth for agencies seeking to enhance their cultural responsiveness and include increasing workers' understanding of cultural values

  3. Trajectories of Risk for Early Sexual Activity and Early Substance Use in the Fast Track Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Children who exhibit early-starting conduct problems are more likely than their peers to initiate sexual activity and substance use at an early age, experience pregnancy, and contract a sexually-transmitted disease [STD], placing them at risk for HIV/AIDS. Hence, understanding the development of multi-problem profiles among youth with early-starting conduct problems may benefit the design of prevention programs. In this study, 1,199 kindergarten children (51 % African American; 47 % European American; 69 % boys) over-sampled for high rates of aggressive-disruptive behavior problems were followed through age 18. Latent class analyses (LCA) were used to define developmental profiles associated with the timing of initiation of sexual activity, tobacco and alcohol/drug use and indicators of risky adolescent sex (e.g. pregnancy and STD). Half of the high-risk children were randomized to a multi-component preventive intervention (Fast Track). The intervention did not significantly reduce membership in the classes characterized by risky sex practices. However, additional analyses examined predictors of poor outcomes, which may inform future prevention efforts. PMID:23417666

  4. Exercise Prevents Memory Impairment Induced by Arsenic Exposure in Mice: Implication of Hippocampal BDNF and CREB

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zi-Jiang; Yu, Yan; Xiao, Chao-Lun; Kang, Chao-Sheng; Ge, Guo; Linghu, Yan; Zhu, Jun-De; Li, Yu-Mei; Li, Qiang-Ming; Luo, Shi-Peng; Yang, Dang; Li, Lin; Zhang, Wen-Yan; Tian, Guang

    2015-01-01

    High concentrations of arsenic, which can be occasionally found in drinking water, have been recognized as a global health problem. Exposure to arsenic can disrupt spatial memory; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we tested whether exercise could interfere with the effect of arsenic exposure on the long-term memory (LTM) of object recognition in mice. Arsenic (0, 1, 3, and 10 mg/ kg, i.g.) was administered daily for 12 weeks. We found that arsenic at dosages of 1, 3, and 10 mg/kg decreased body weight and increased the arsenic content in the brain. The object recognition LTM (tested 24 h after training) was disrupted by 3 mg/ kg and 10 mg/ kg, but not 1 mg/ kg arsenic exposure. Swimming exercise also prevented LTM impairment induced by 3 mg/ kg, but not with 10 mg/ kg, of arsenic exposure. The expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and phosphorylated cAMP-response element binding protein (pCREB) in the CA1 and dentate gyrus areas (DG) of the dorsal hippocampus were decreased by 3 mg/ kg and 10 mg/ kg, but not by 1 mg/ kg, of arsenic exposure. The decrease in BDNF and pCREB in the CA1 and DG induced by 3 mg/ kg, but not 10 mg/ kg, of arsenic exposure were prevented by swimming exercise. Arsenic exposure did not affect the total CREB expression in the CA1 or DG. Taken together, these results indicated that swimming exercise prevented the impairment of object recognition LTM induced by arsenic exposure, which may be mediated by BDNF and CREB in the dorsal hippocampus. PMID:26368803

  5. Effects of a Television Drama about Environmental Exposure to Toxic Substances

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, May G.; Eustis Turf, Elizabeth; Wilson-Genderson, Maureen; Wells, Kristen; Huang, Grace C.; Beck, Vicki

    2011-01-01

    Objective. This study assessed short-term outcomes of viewing an episode of a prime-time television drama in which a child developed cancer after environmental exposure to an illegal pesticide. The study explored the effects among viewers of feeling transported into a narrative world. Methods. Respondents (n=2,139) to a post-episode Internet panel survey were asked if they had seen the show and asked questions about their demographic information, their frequency of viewing the television show, the degree to which they had felt transported into a narrative world created by the drama, and their knowledge and beliefs about the health effects of environmental exposure. Conversations with key informants from federal agencies and advocacy groups were also held. Results. Episode viewing and narrative transportation were positively associated with knowledge of toxic exposure effects, and transported viewers reported being more likely to report an unusually high number of cancer cases to authorities. The show also appeared to have prompted a clarification of federal pesticide-testing policy. Conclusions. Entertainment Education is a promising strategy for disseminating key points of information about environmental health. PMID:21563723

  6. Enhancing Exposure and Response Prevention for OCD: A Couple-Based Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramowitz, Jonathan S.; Baucom, Donald H.; Wheaton, Michael G.; Boeding, Sara; Fabricant, Laura E.; Paprocki, Christine; Fischer, Melanie S.

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of individual therapy by exposure and response prevention (ERP) for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is well established, yet not all patients respond well, and some show relapse on discontinuation. This article begins by providing an overview of the personal and interpersonal experiences of OCD, focusing on interpersonal…

  7. Habituation of Premonitory Sensations during Exposure and Response Prevention Treatment in Tourette's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verdellen, Cara W. J.; Hoogduin, Cees A. L.; Kato, Bernet S.; Keijsers, Ger P. J.; Cath, Danielle C.; Hoijtink, Herbert B.

    2008-01-01

    Exposure to premonitory sensations and response prevention of tics (ER) has been shown to be a promising new treatment for Tourette's syndrome (TS). The present study tested the hypothesis that habituation to unpleasant premonitory sensations associated with the tic is an underlying mechanism of change in ER. Patients rated the severity of…

  8. A meta-analysis of direct and mediating effects of community coalitions that implemented science-based substance abuse prevention interventions.

    PubMed

    Collins, David; Johnson, Knowlton; Becker, Betsy Jane

    2007-01-01

    This article reports results of a meta-analysis of the effects of a set of community coalitions that implemented science-based substance use prevention interventions as part of a State Incentive Grant (SIG) in Kentucky. The analysis included assessment of direct effects on prevalence of substance use among adolescents as well as assessment of what "risk" and "protective" factors mediated the coalition effects. In addition, we tested whether multiple science-based prevention interventions enhanced the effects of coalitions on youth substance use. Short-term results (using 8th-grade data) showed no significant decreases in six prevalence of substance use outcomes -- and, in fact, a significant though small increase in prevalence of use of one substance (inhalants). Sustained results (using 10th-grade data), however, showed significant, though small decreases in three of six substance use outcomes -- past month prevalence of cigarette use, alcohol use, and binge drinking. We found evidence that the sustained effects on these three prevalence outcomes were mediated by two posited risk factors: friends' drug use and perceived availability of drugs. Finally, we found that the number of science-based prevention interventions implemented in schools within the coalitions did not moderate the effects of the coalitions on the prevalence of drug use. Study limitations are noted. PMID:17613959

  9. First tier modeling of consumer dermal exposure to substances in consumer articles under REACH: a quantitative evaluation of the ECETOC TRA for consumers tool.

    PubMed

    Delmaar, J E; Bokkers, B G H; ter Burg, W; van Engelen, J G M

    2013-02-01

    The demonstration of safe use of chemicals in consumer products, as required under REACH, is proposed to follow a tiered process. In the first tier, simple conservative methods and assumptions should be made to quickly verify whether risks for a particular use are expected. The ECETOC TRA Consumer Exposure Tool was developed to assist in first tier risk assessments for substances in consumer products. The ECETOC TRA is not a prioritization tool, but is meant as a first screening. Therefore, the exposure assessment needs to cover all products/articles in a specific category. For the assessment of the dermal exposure for substances in articles, ECETOC TRA uses the concept of a 'contact layer', a hypothetical layer that limits the exposure to a substance contained in the product. For each product/article category, ECETOC TRA proposes default values for the thickness of this contact layer. As relevant experimental exposure data is currently lacking, default values are based on expert judgment alone. In this paper it is verified whether this concept meets the requirement of being a conservative exposure evaluation method. This is done by confronting the ECETOC TRA expert judgment based predictions with a mechanistic emission model, based on the well established theory of diffusion of substances in materials. Diffusion models have been applied and tested in many applications of emission modeling. Experimentally determined input data for a number of material and substance combinations are available. The estimated emissions provide information on the range of emissions that could occur in reality. First tier tools such as ECETOC TRA tool are required to cover all products/articles in a category and to provide estimates that are at least as high as is expected on the basis of current scientific knowledge. Since this was not the case, it is concluded that the ECETOC TRA does not provide a proper conservative estimation method for the dermal exposure to articles. An

  10. Expanding substance use treatment options for HIV prevention with Buprenorphine-Naloxone: HIV Prevention Trials Network 058 (HPTN 058)

    PubMed Central

    Metzger, David S.; Donnell, Deborah; Celentano, David D.; Jackson, J. Brooks; Shao, Yiming; Aramrattana, Apinun; Wei, Liu; Fu, Liping; Ma, Jun; Lucas, Gregory M.; Chawarski, Marek; Ruan, Yuhua; Richardson, Paul; Shin, Katherine; Chen, Ray Y.; Sugarman, Jeremy; Dye, Bonnie J.; Rose, Scott M.; Beauchamp, Geetha; Burns, David N.

    2015-01-01

    the use of thrice weekly BUP/NX as a way to reduce exposure to HIV risk. Continued access to BUP/NX may be required to sustain reductions in opioid use. PMID:25564105

  11. HIV/AIDS, substance abuse, and hepatitis prevention needs of Native Americans living in Baltimore: in their own words.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jeannette L; Gryczynski, Jan; Wiechelt, Shelly A

    2007-12-01

    A needs assessment funded by the Center of Substance Abuse Prevention was conducted in 2005-2006 to determine the HIV/AIDS, substance abuse, and hepatitis prevention needs of Native Americans living in Baltimore, Maryland. We used a community-based participatory approach to gain an in-depth understanding of local Native American health service needs. Community stakeholders and key informants embedded in the local Native American population were consulted at each stage of the research planning process. Two complementary methodologies (focus groups and surveys) produced a holistic assessment of the population's needs, risks, and strengths and uncovered the social and cultural contexts in which health risk behaviors unfold. The use of these methods within a participatory framework produced a more complete portrait of the service needs of the Native American population in Baltimore. Findings from this study support the necessity for future HIV/AIDS, substance abuse, and hepatitis prevention programming for urban Native Americans. PMID:18190277

  12. The role of teacher communicator style in the delivery of a middle school substance use prevention program.

    PubMed

    Giles, Steven M; Pankratz, Melinda M; Ringwalt, Chris; Jackson-Newsom, Julia; Hansen, William B; Bishop, Dana; Dusenbury, Linda; Gottfredson, Nisha

    2012-01-01

    We examine whether teachers' communicator style relates to student engagement, teacher-student relationships, student perceptions of teacher immediacy, as well as observer ratings of delivery skills during the implementation of All Stars, a middle school-based substance use prevention program. Data from 48 teachers who taught All Stars up to 3 consecutive years and their respective seventh-grade students (n = 2,240) indicate that having an authoritative communication style is negatively related to student engagement with the curriculum and the quality of the student-teacher relationship, while having an expressive communicator style improves teachers' immediacy to student needs. Adaptations made by a subsample of teachers (n = 27) reveal that those who were more expressive asked students more questions, used more motivational techniques, and introduced more new concepts than authoritarian teachers. PMID:25905120

  13. Occupational cancers with chemical exposure and their prevention in Korea: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Rim, Kyung-Taek

    2013-01-01

    The usage and types of chemicals being developed, with diversified new exposure of workers, are of natural concern to occupational disease. In Korea, with industrialization, application of many chemicals has increased. A large proportion of mortality and disease is due to cancer, and the causal hazardous agents include chemical agents, like heavy metals and so on. Due to the long latency period with malignancies and the fact they are usually found after workers' retirement, it is suggested that management policies must be established to prevent occupational cancers occurring among workers in Korea. To give a general description about the efforts to prevent the occupational cancer with exposure to chemicals, articles on the trends of occupational cancers were reviewed and summarized with related research and efforts for prevention in Korea. It is important to improve the understanding of occupational cancer and help to maintain sustainable and appropriate measures to guarantee workers safety and health. PMID:23886117

  14. [Fullerenes: Characteristics of the substance, biological effects and occupational exposure levels].

    PubMed

    Świdwińska-Gajewska, Anna Maria; Czerczak, Sławomir

    2016-01-01

    Fullerenes are molecules composed of an even number of carbon atoms of a spherical or an ellipsoidal, closed spatial structure. The most common fullerene is the C60 molecule with a spherical structure - a truncated icosahedron, compared to a football. Fullerenes are widely used in the diagnostics and medicine, but also in the electronics and energy industry. Occupational exposure to fullerene may occur during its production. The occupational concentrations of fullerenes reached 0.12-1.2 μ/m3 for nanoparticles fraction (< 100 nm), which may evidence low exposure levels. However, fullerene mostly agglomerates into larger particles. Absorption of fullerene by oral and respiratory routes is low, and it is not absorbed by skin. After intravenous administration, fullerene accumulates mainly in the liver but also in the spleen and the kidneys. In animal experiments there was no irritation or skin sensitization caused by fullerene, and only mild irritation to the eyes. Fullerene induced transient inflammation in the lungs in inhalation studies in rodents. Oral exposure does not lead to major adverse effects. Fullerene was not mutagenic, genotoxic or carcinogenic in experimental research. However, fullerene may cause harmful effects on the mice fetus when administered intraperitoneally or intravenously. Pristine C60 fullerene is characterized by poor absorption and low toxicity, and it does not pose a risk in the occupational environment. The authors of this study are of the opinion that there is no ground for estimating the maximum allowable concentration (NDS) of pristine fullerene C60. Fullerene derivatives, due to different characteristics, require separate analysis in terms of occupational risk assessment. Med Pr 2016;67(3):397-410. PMID:27364113

  15. Towards the prevention of lead exposure in South Africa: contemporary and emerging challenges.

    PubMed

    Mathee, Angela

    2014-12-01

    The prevention of lead exposure continues to constitute a major public health challenge in developed countries. In well-resourced countries major lead exposure reduction interventions have resulted in significant improvements in childhood blood lead distributions. In developing countries on the other hand, while lead exposure and poisoning remain serious public health concerns, a range of prevailing factors and circumstances, such as poverty, a large informal sector, competing public health challenges, low levels of awareness of lead hazards and weak capacity to enforce legislation, contribute to an increase in the scale and intensity of the challenge, and limit the prospects of comparable success in the foreseeable future. This paper collates available information to illustrate that despite some progress, a wide range of sources of lead exist in South Africa, and that certain settings and groups continue to be at high risk of lead exposure. Lead exposure in relation to paint, mining, lead melting in subsistence fishing communities, the consumption of Ayurvedic medicines and food production is described, and discussed with regard to the key factors hindering efforts to prevent lead poisoning and exposure in South Africa and many other developing countries. PMID:25086205

  16. Endocrine disrupting chemicals and other substances of concern in food contact materials: an updated review of exposure, effect and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Muncke, Jane

    2011-10-01

    Food contact materials (FCM) are an underestimated source of chemical food contaminants and a potentially relevant route of human exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Quantifying the exposure of the general population to substances from FCM relies on estimates of food consumption and leaching into food. Recent studies using polycarbonate plastics show that food simulants do not always predict worst-case leaching of bisphenol A, a common FCM substance. Also, exposure of children to FCM substances is not always realistically predicted using the common conventions and thus possibly misjudged. Further, the exposure of the whole population to substances leaching into dry foods is underestimated. Consumers are exposed to low levels of substances from FCM across their entire lives. Effects of these compounds currently are assessed with a focus on mutagenicity and genotoxicity. This approach however neglects integrating recent new toxicological findings, like endocrine disruption, mixture toxicity, and developmental toxicity. According to these new toxicology paradigms women of childbearing age and during pregnancy are a new sensitive population group requiring more attention. Furthermore, in overweight and obese persons a change in the metabolism of xenobiotics is observed, possibly implying that this group of consumers is insufficiently protected by current risk assessment practice. Innovations in FCM risk assessment should therefore include routine testing for EDCs and an assessment of the whole migrate toxicity of a food packaging, taking into account all sensitive population groups. In this article I focus on recent issues of interest concerning either exposure to or effects of FCM-related substances. Further, I review the use of benzophenones and organotins, two groups of known or suspected EDCs, in FCM authorized in the US and EU. PMID:21073950

  17. Lead Exposures in U.S. Children, 2008: Implications for Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Ronnie; Brown, Mary Jean; Kashtock, Michael E.; Jacobs, David E.; Whelan, Elizabeth A.; Rodman, Joanne; Schock, Michael R.; Padilla, Alma; Sinks, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Objective We reviewed the sources of lead in the environments of U.S. children, contributions to children’s blood lead levels, source elimination and control efforts, and existing federal authorities. Our context is the U.S. public health goal to eliminate pediatric elevated blood lead levels (EBLs) by 2010. Data sources National, state, and local exposure assessments over the past half century have identified risk factors for EBLs among U.S. children, including age, race, income, age and location of housing, parental occupation, and season. Data extraction and synthesis Recent national policies have greatly reduced lead exposure among U.S. children, but even very low exposure levels compromise children’s later intellectual development and lifetime achievement. No threshold for these effects has been demonstrated. Although lead paint and dust may still account for up to 70% of EBLs in U.S. children, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that ≥30% of current EBLs do not have an immediate lead paint source, and numerous studies indicate that lead exposures result from multiple sources. EBLs and even deaths have been associated with inadequately controlled sources including ethnic remedies and goods, consumer products, and food-related items such as ceramics. Lead in public drinking water and in older urban centers remain exposure sources in many areas. Conclusions Achieving the 2010 goal requires maintaining current efforts, especially programs addressing lead paint, while developing interventions that prevent exposure before children are poisoned. It also requires active collaboration across all levels of government to identify and control all potential sources of lead exposure, as well as primary prevention. PMID:18941567

  18. Effects of prenatal substance exposure on infant temperament vary by context.

    PubMed

    Locke, Robin L; Lagasse, Linda L; Seifer, Ronald; Lester, Barry M; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta S; Bauer, Charles R

    2016-05-01

    This was a prospective longitudinal multisite study of the effects of prenatal cocaine and/or opiate exposure on temperament in 4-month-olds of the Maternal Lifestyle Study (N = 958: 366 cocaine exposed, 37 opiate exposed, 33 exposed to both drugs, 522 matched comparison). The study evaluated positivity and negativity during The Behavior Assessment of Infant Temperament (Garcia Coll et al., 1988). Parents rated temperament (Infant Behavior Questionnaire; Rothbart, 1981). Cocaine-exposed infants showed less positivity overall, mainly during activity and threshold items, more negativity during sociability items, and less negativity during irritability and threshold items. Latent profile analysis indicated individual temperament patterns were best described by three groups: low/moderate overall reactivity, high social negative reactivity, and high nonsocial negative reactivity. Infants with heavy cocaine exposure were more likely in high social negative reactivity profile, were less negative during threshold items, and required longer soothing intervention. Cocaine- and opiate-exposed infants scored lower on Infant Behavior Questionnaire smiling and laughter and duration of orienting scales. Opiate-exposed infants were rated as less respondent to soothing. By including a multitask measure of temperament we were able to show context-specific behavioral dysregulation in prenatally cocaine-exposed infants. The findings indicate flatter temperament may be specific to nonsocial contexts, whereas social interactions may be more distressing for cocaine-exposed infants. PMID:26037110

  19. Implications of new data on lead toxicity for managing and preventing exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Silbergeld, E.K. )

    1990-11-01

    Recent advances in research on low-level lead poisoning point to the need to increase efforts to prevent exposure. Current biomedical consensus accepts that blood lead levels as low as 5 to 15 mcg/dL are risky to fetuses, young children, and adults. Lead at low dose is associated with increased blood pressure in adults, and chronic exposure has been associated in cohort studies with kidney disease and cancer. Data on lead toxicokinetics also points to the hazards of low-level, chronic exposure, since the lead that is accumulated over time in bone can be released at a relatively rapid rate during pregnancy and menopause. Sources that contribute to current lead exposure of the general population include unabated lead-based paint and contaminated soils, as well as lower level but pervasive sources in drinking water, food, and consumer products.

  20. Implications of new data on lead toxicity for managing and preventing exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Silbergeld, E K

    1990-01-01

    Recent advances in research on low-level lead poisoning point to the need to increase efforts to prevent exposure. Current biomedical consensus accepts that blood lead levels as low as 5 to 15 mcg/dL are risky to fetuses, young children, and adults. Lead at low dose is associated with increased blood pressure in adults, and chronic exposure has been associated in cohort studies with kidney disease and cancer. Data on lead toxicokinetics also points to the hazards of low-level, chronic exposure, since the lead that is accumulated over time in bone can be released at a relatively rapid rate during pregnancy and menopause. Sources that contribute to current lead exposure of the general population include unabated lead-based paint and contaminated soils, as well as lower level but pervasive sources in drinking water, food, and consumer products. PMID:2088754

  1. Worksite cardiovascular wellness programs as a route to substance abuse prevention.

    PubMed

    Heirich, M; Sieck, C J

    2000-01-01

    This study addresses the question of worksites as an effective route to alcohol abuse prevention. Hypotheses tested include: (1) Cardiovascular disease risk reduction programs provide effective access for alcohol behavior change. (2) Proactive outreach and follow-up have more impact on health behavior change than health education classes. (3) Ongoing follow-up counseling produces the most behavior change. (4) Screening alone produces little change. The study population included 2000 employees, recruited through cardiovascular disease health screening, who were randomly assigned to individual outreach or classes interventions. Changes in the organization of work required more visible outreach, which produced demands for counseling services from many employees who were not in the original group targeted for outreach. After 3 years of intervention, rescreening results strongly supported hypotheses 1 and 2. Spill-over effects from counseling produced plant-wide improvements, so that hypotheses 3 and 4 were not confirmed. This demonstrates that highly visible outreach provides a cost-effective strategy for cardiovascular disease and alcohol prevention. PMID:10652688

  2. Evolutionary ecotoxicology of perfluoralkyl substances (PFASs) inferred from multigenerational exposure: a case study with Chironomus riparius (Diptera, Chironomidae).

    PubMed

    Stefani, F; Rusconi, M; Valsecchi, S; Marziali, L

    2014-11-01

    A multigeneration toxicity test on Chironomus riparius was performed with the aim of investigating the evolutionary consequences of exposure to perfluoralkyl substances (perfluorooctane sulfonic acid, PFOS; perfluorooctanoic acid, PFOA; perfluorobutane sulfonate, PFBS). Six-hundred larvae were bred per treatment and per generation until emergence and egg deposition under a nominal concentration of 10μg/L of contaminants. Newborn larvae were used to start the next generation. Evolution of genetic variability was evaluated along a total of 10 consecutive generations based on 5 microsatellite loci. Analysis of life-history traits (survival, sex ratio and reproduction) was also carried out. Rapid genetic variability reduction was observed in all treatments, including controls, across generations due to the test conditions. Nevertheless, an increased mutation rate determined a stronger conservation of genetic variability in PFOS and, at minor extent, in PFBS exposed populations compared to controls. No significant effects were induced by exposure to PFOA. Direct mutagenicity or induced stress conditions may be at the base of increased mutation rate, indicating the potential risk of mutational load caused by exposure to PFOS and PFBS. The test provided the opportunity to evaluate the use of approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) and coalescent approaches in evolutionary ecotoxicology. A weak performance was evidenced for ABC, either in terms of bias or dispersion of effective population sizes and of estimates of mutation rate. On the contrary, coalescent simulations proved the sensitivity of traditional genetic endpoints (i.e. heterozygosity and number of alleles) to the alteration of mutation rate, but not to erosion of genetic effective size. PMID:25146235

  3. Association of perfluoroalkyl substances exposure with reproductive hormone levels in adolescents: By sex status.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yang; Hu, Li-Wen; Qian, Zhengmin Min; Chang, Jen-Jen; King, Chris; Paul, Gunther; Lin, Shao; Chen, Pau-Chung; Lee, Yungling Leo; Dong, Guang-Hui

    2016-09-01

    Polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a group of common chemicals that ubiquitously exist in wildlife and humans. However, few studies have researched the effect of PFASs on reproductive hormones in adolescents. To provide information in this regard, we recruited 225 Taiwanese adolescents aged 13-15years from 2009 to 2010 to investigate the relationship between serum PFASs (PFOS, PFOA, PFBS, PFDA, PFDoA, PFHxA, PFHxS, PFNA and PFTA) and reproductive hormone concentrations using a cross-sectional study design. Results showed PFOS and PFTA levels were highest among the PFASs, with a median concentrations of 29.9 (interquartile range: 13.0-43.8) ng/mL and 6.0 (0.6-25.9) ng/mL in males, and a median concentrations of 28.8 (14.8-42.6) ng/mL and 4.5 (0.3-18.4) ng/mL in females. After adjustment for confounding factors, nonsignificant associations between PFASs and reproductive hormone were found except for PFNA with ln(estradiol) (β=0.2060, 95%CI: 0.0016, 0.4105). When stratified by sex, more significant associations were found in males than in females. Among males, PFASs were negatively associated with ln(testosterone) level for PFOS (β=-0.0029, 95%CI: -0.0055, -0.0003), PFDA (β=-0.2565, 95%CI: -0.4135, -0.0994), PFHxA (β=-0.3095, 95%CI: -0.5942, -0.0248), and PFNA (β=-0.4233, 95%CI: -0.6998, -0.1467). Furthermore, male participant ln(estradiol) levels were positively associated with PFOA (β=0.0921, 95%CI: 0.0186, 0.1656), and PFHxS (β=0.0462, 95%CI: 0.0020, 0.0905). Among females, a significant relationship was found only for PFDoA with ln(testosterone) (β=-0.0119, 95%CI: -0.0227, -0.0010). In conclusion, this study showed higher levels of PFASs coincide with lower testosterone and higher estradiol levels, and more significant associations of PFASs with reproductive hormone were found in males than in females. PMID:27258660

  4. Counseling Patients on Preventing Prenatal Environmental Exposures - A Mixed-Methods Study of Obstetricians

    PubMed Central

    Stotland, Naomi E.; Sutton, Patrice; Trowbridge, Jessica; Atchley, Dylan S.; Conry, Jeanne; Trasande, Leonardo; Gerbert, Barbara; Charlesworth, Annemarie; Woodruff, Tracey J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Describe the attitudes, beliefs, and practices of U.S. obstetricians on the topic of prenatal environmental exposures. Study Design A national online survey of American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) fellows and 3 focus groups of obstetricians. Results We received 2,514 eligible survey responses, for a response rate of 14%. The majority (78%) of obstetricians agreed that they can reduce patient exposures to environmental health hazards by counseling patients; but 50% reported that they rarely take an environmental health history; less than 20% reported routinely asking about environmental exposures commonly found in pregnant women in the U.S.; and only 1 in 15 reported any training on the topic. Barriers to counseling included: a lack of knowledge of and uncertainty about the evidence; concerns that patients lack the capacity to reduce harmful exposures; and fear of causing anxiety among patients. Conclusion U.S. obstetricians in our study recognized the potential impact of the environment on reproductive health, and the role that physicians could play in prevention, but reported numerous barriers to counseling patients. Medical education and training, evidence-based guidelines, and tools for communicating risks to patients are needed to support the clinical role in preventing environmental exposures that threaten patient health. PMID:24964083

  5. Mutation signatures of carcinogen exposure: genome-wide detection and new opportunities for cancer prevention

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to environmental mutagens is an important cause of human cancer, and measures to reduce mutagenic and carcinogenic exposures have been highly successful at controlling cancer. Until recently, it has been possible to connect the chemical characteristics of mutagens to actual mutations observed in human tumors only indirectly. Now, next-generation sequencing technology enables us to observe in detail the DNA-sequence-level effects of well-known mutagens, such as ultraviolet radiation and tobacco smoke, as well as endogenous mutagenic processes, such as those involving activated DNA cytidine deaminases (APOBECs). We can also observe the effects of less well-known but potent mutagens, including those recently found to be present in some herbal remedies. Crucially, we can now tease apart the superimposed effects of several mutational exposures and processes and determine which ones occurred during the development of individual tumors. Here, we review advances in detecting these mutation signatures and discuss the implications for surveillance and prevention of cancer. The number of sequenced tumors from diverse cancer types and multiple geographic regions is growing explosively, and the genomes of these tumors will bear the signatures of even more diverse mutagenic exposures. Thus, we envision development of wide-ranging compendia of mutation signatures from tumors and a concerted effort to experimentally elucidate the signatures of a large number of mutagens. This information will be used to link signatures observed in tumors to the exposures responsible for them, which will offer unprecedented opportunities for prevention. PMID:25031618

  6. Prenatal substance exposure and child self-regulation: Pathways to risk and protection.

    PubMed

    Eiden, Rina D; Godleski, Stephanie; Schuetze, Pamela; Colder, Craig R

    2015-09-01

    A conceptual model of the association between prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) and child self-regulation via maternal harshness and language development was examined. Specifically, the model tested whether PCE was associated with self-regulation either directly or indirectly via high maternal harshness and poor language development. The role of child sex, autonomic reactivity, and cumulative environmental risk as potential moderators was also explored. The sample was 216 mother-child dyads recruited at birth and assessed at 2, 7, 13, 24, 36, and 48 months of child ages. Participating mothers were primarily African American (72%). Results indicated a significant indirect association between PCE and child effortful control at 36 months via higher maternal harshness. Autonomic reactivity moderated the association between maternal harshness and self-regulation such that among children with poor autonomic reactivity, high maternal harshness was associated with lower conscience at 3 years. Child sex and environmental risk did not moderate the association between PCE and self-regulation. Thus, the quality of caregiving experience played a significant role in the development of self-regulation among PCE children, especially those at higher autonomic risk. In particular, PCE children who also exhibit poor autonomic reactivity may be particularly susceptible to environmental influences such as parenting. PMID:25913650

  7. Impulsive lifestyle counseling to prevent dropout from treatment for substance use disorders in people with antisocial personality disorder: A randomized study.

    PubMed

    Thylstrup, Birgitte; Hesse, Morten

    2016-06-01

    Patients with antisocial personality disorder in outpatient treatment for substance use disorders are at high risk of drop-out. Using a randomized design, this study tested the impact of adding a brief psycho-educational program, the Impulsive Lifestyle Counseling program, to outpatient substance abuse treatment in order to prevent treatment dropout. Patients (N=175) were recruited from 13 municipal treatment centers in Denmark, and assigned to treatment as usual or to the experimental condition. In all, 172 patients could be included in the analyses. In the intent-to-treat analysis, the risk of treatment dropout was reduced among patients randomized to the experimental program (hazard ratio=0.63, p=.031), after controlling for age, gender, and substitution treatment status. The study supported the efficacy of the Impulsive Lifestyle Counseling program as a method for preventing treatment dropout for patients with comorbid antisocial personality disorder in substance abuse treatment. Trial registration #ISRCTN67266318. PMID:26882500

  8. Total Diet Study: For a Closer-to-real Estimate of Dietary Exposure to Chemical Substances

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeeyeon; Kwon, Sungok; Yoon, Hae-Jung

    2015-01-01

    Recent amendment on the Food Sanitation Act in Korea mandated the Minister of Food & Drug Safety to secure the scientific basis for management and reevaluation of standards and specifications of foods. Especially because the current food safety control is limited within the scope of ‘Farm to Market’ covering from production to retail in Korea, safety control at the plane of true ‘Farm to Fork’ scope is urgently needed and should include ‘total diet’ of population instead of individual food items. Therefore, ‘Total Diet Study (TDS)’ which provides ‘closer-to-real’ estimates of exposure to hazardous materials through analysis on table-ready (cooked) samples of foods would be the solution to more comprehensive food safety management, as suggested by World Health Organization and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Although the protection of diets from hazards must be considered as one of the most essential public health functions of any country, we may need to revisit the value of foods which has been too much underrated by the meaningless amount of some hazardous materials in Korea. Considering the primary value of foods lies on sustaining life, growth, development, and health promotion of human being, food safety control should be handled not only by the presence or absence of hazardous materials but also by maximizing the value of foods via balancing with the preservation of beneficial components in foods embracing total diet. In this regard, this article aims to provide an overview on TDS by describing procedures involved except chemical analysis which is beyond our scope. Also, details on the ongoing TDS in Korea are provided as an example. Although TDS itself might not be of keen interest for most readers, it is the main user of the safety reference values resulted from toxicological research in the public health perspective. PMID:26483882

  9. "Unplugged," a European School-Based Program for Substance Use Prevention among Adolescents: Overview of Results from the EU-Dap Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vigna-Taglianti, Federica D.; Galanti, Maria Rosaria; Burkhart, Gregor; Caria, Maria Paola; Vadrucci, Serena; Faggiano, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    The EU-Dap study aimed to develop and evaluate a school-based curriculum for the prevention of substance use among young people. The school curriculum, "Unplugged," is based on social influence approach and addresses social and personal skills, knowledge, and normative beliefs. It consists of 12 one-hour interactive sessions delivered by…

  10. Long-Term Impact of a District-Wide School/Community-Based Substance Abuse Prevention Initiative on Gateway Drug Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohrmann, David K.; Alter, Randi J.; Greene, Robert; Younoszai, Tina M.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined long-term effects of a school/family/community substance abuse prevention partnership intervention lead by a Midwestern school district. Previous findings suggested that the program contributed to decreased tobacco and marijuana, but not alcohol, use prior to and after implementation between 1987 and 1991. The current study…

  11. Revisiting the concepts of risk and protective factors for understanding the etiology and development of substance use and substance use disorders: implications for prevention.

    PubMed

    Sloboda, Zili; Glantz, Meyer D; Tarter, Ralph E

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 20 years we have accumulated a greater knowledge and understanding of the genetic, neurobiological, and behavioral factors that may be associated with young people initiating the use of drugs and other substances and to progressing from use to abuse and dependence. This knowledge suggests that individuals may be "predisposed" to substance use disorders (SUD) and that the actual engagement in these behaviors depends on their environmental experiences from micro to macro levels. This paper summarizes this knowledge base and supports a developmental framework that examines the interaction of posited genetic, psychological, and neurobiological "predispositions" to SUD and those environmental influences that exacerbate this vulnerability. PMID:22676565

  12. Does adolescent's exposure to parental intimate partner conflict and violence predict psychological distress and substance use in young adulthood? A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Schiff, Miriam; Plotnikova, Maria; Dingle, Kaeleen; Williams, Gail M; Najman, Jake; Clavarino, Alexandra

    2014-12-01

    Little is known about the extent to which parental conflict and violence differentially impact on offspring mental health and substance use. Using data from a longitudinal birth cohort study this paper examines: whether offspring exposure to parental intimate partner violence (involving physical violence which may include conflicts and/or disagreements) or parental intimate partner conflict (conflicting interactions and disagreements only) are associated with offspring depression, anxiety and substance use in early adulthood (at age 21); and whether these associations are independent of maternal background, depression and anxiety and substance use. Data (n=2,126 women and children) were taken from a large-scale Australian birth-cohort study, the Mater University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy (MUSP). IPC and IPV were measured at the 14-year follow-up. Offspring mental health outcomes--depression, anxiety and substance use--were assessed at the 21-year follow-up using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Offspring of women experiencing IPV at the 14-year follow-up were more likely to manifest anxiety, nicotine, alcohol and cannabis disorders by the 21-year follow-up. These associations remained after adjustment for maternal anxiety, depression, and other potential confounders. Unlike males who experience anxiety disorders after exposure to IPV, females experience depressive and alcohol use disorders. IPV predicts offspring increased levels of substance abuse and dependence in young adulthood. Gender differences suggest differential impact. PMID:25082429

  13. Piracetam prevents memory deficit induced by postnatal propofol exposure in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan-Lin; Li, Feng; Chen, Xin

    2016-05-15

    Postnatal propofol exposure impairs hippocampal synaptic development and memory. However, the effective agent to alleviate the impairments was not verified. In this study, piracetam, a positive allosteric modulator of AMPA receptor was administered following a seven-day propofol regime. Two months after propofol administration, hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term memory decreased, while intraperitoneal injection of piracetam at doses of 100mg/kg and 50mg/kg following last propofol exposure reversed the impairments of memory and LTP. Mechanically, piracetam reversed propofol exposure-induced decrease of BDNF and phosphorylation of mTor. Similar as piracetam, BDNF supplementary also ameliorated propofol-induced abnormalities of synaptic plasticity-related protein expressions, hippocampal LTP and long-term memory. These results suggest that piracetam prevents detrimental effects of propofol, likely via activating BDNF synthesis. PMID:26957054

  14. Common Pitfalls in Exposure and Response Prevention (EX/RP) for OCD

    PubMed Central

    Gillihan, Seth J.; Williams, Monnica T.; Malcoun, Emily; Yadin, Elna; Foa, Edna B.

    2012-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a highly debilitating disorder. Fortunately there are treatments that help the majority of OCD sufferers. The behavioral treatment with the most empirical support for its efficacy is exposure and response prevention (EX/RP). Over the years in our supervision meetings and in our clinical practice we have noted a number of relatively common therapist pitfalls that decrease the effectiveness of EX/RP. These pitfalls include not encouraging patients to approach the most distressing situations, doing imaginal exposure when in vivo is called for (and vice versa), encouraging distraction during exposure, providing reassurance, failing to address the core fear, ineffective handling of mental compulsions, and difficulty working with close others in the patient’s life. In the current article we describe these common pitfalls and how to avoid them. PMID:22924159

  15. Epidemiology of Substance Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Merikangas, Kathleen R.; McClair, Vetisha L.

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies of substance use and substance use disorders (SUDs) have provided an abundance of data on the patterns of substance use in nationally representative samples across the world (Degenhardt et al. 2008; Johnston et al. 2011; SAMHSA 2011). This paper presents a summary of the goals, methods and recent findings on the epidemiology of substance use and disorders in the general population of adults and adolescents and describes the methods and findings on the genetic epidemiology of drug use disorders. The high 12 month prevalence rates of substance dependence in U.S. adults (about 12% for alcohol and 2–3% for illicit drugs) approximate those of other mental disorders as well as chronic physical disorders with major public health impact. New findings from the nationally representative samples of U.S. youth reveal that the lifetime prevalence of alcohol use disorders is approximately 8% and illicit drug use disorders is 2–3% (Merikangas et al. 2010; Swendsen et al. in press, SAMSHA, 2011). The striking increase in prevalence rates from ages 13 to 18 highlight adolescence as the key period of development of substance use disorders. The application of genetic epidemiological studies has consistently demonstrated that genetic factors have a major influence on progression of substance use to dependence, whereas environmental factors unique to the individual play an important role in exposure and initial use of substances. Identification of specific susceptibility genes and environmental factors that influence exposure and progression of drug use may enhance our ability to prevent and treat substance use disorders. PMID:22543841

  16. [Examination of Measures for Preventing Exposure in Nurses Who Handle Cyclophosphamide].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kaoru; Ono, Yuki; Suzuki, Yumi; Omori, Keiko; Matsuda, Mikiko; Sato, Hiroko; Omoto, Eijiro

    2015-12-01

    Health hazards due to long-term exposure to anticancer drugs have been reported among health care professionals. In Yamagata Prefectural Central Hospital, constant use of personal protective equipment(gloves and mask with face shield)is mandatory, but there is no clear description of the protective gown. To verify the exposure status of nurses while handling cyclophosphamide and the usefulness of a protective gown as a protective measure, urinary concentration of cyclophosphamide was measured for nurses who handled cyclophosphamide. No cyclophosphamide was detected in the urine samples collected from nurses who handled cyclophosphamide while wearing protective gowns or in the samples collected from nurses who handled cyclophosphamide without protective gowns. This finding suggests that gloves and a mask with a face shield are sufficient for preventing exposure to cyclophosphamide. However, considering that only experienced nurses were included as subjects in this study, we cannot conclude that a protective gown is unnecessary, because inexperienced nurses may be exposed to cyclophosphamide. Our study's findings may be one reference to examine measures for preventing exposure in nurses. PMID:26809304

  17. Occupational Exposure to HIV: Perceptions and Preventive Practices of Indian Nursing Students

    PubMed Central

    Shivalli, Siddharudha

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Nurses have a frontier caring role that brings them in close contact with patients' blood and body fluids. An understanding of their professional behavior is essential to assess and minimize the occupational exposure to HIV among them. Objectives. (1) To appraise the knowledge, attitudes, and preventive practices of nursing students pertaining to occupational exposure to HIV. (2) To quantify the risk and correlates of exposure to HIV among them. Methodology. Cross-sectional study was conducted in a nursing college of Varanasi, India. A semistructured and pretested pro forma consisting of questions pertaining to modes of HIV transmission, universal precaution practices, and various aspects of nursing HIV patients was utilized. Independent sample t- and z-tests were applied to judge the association of study variables with the knowledge and risk of HIV. Results. The study sample consisted of 87 female and 16 male nurses. Participants' knowledge of HIV transmission was satisfactory. More than 80% of them had an exposure to blood/body fluid in the last year. Exposure rates for blood/body fluid did not show a significant association (P > 0.05) with study variables. Conclusion. There were serious lacunae in implementation of the universal precautions despite satisfactory knowledge. Reinforcement of universal precautions is required. PMID:24987531

  18. Developing a media- and school-based program for substance abuse prevention among Hispanic youth: a case study of Mirame!/Look at me!

    PubMed

    Ramirez, A G; Gallion, K J; Espinoza, R; McAlister, A; Chalela, P

    1997-10-01

    Mirame!/Look at Me! is a substance abuse prevention program for low-income Mexican American youth 9 to 13 years of age. The theory-driven curriculum, developed for mass distribution via a satellite television network, features social models who demonstrate cognitive-behavioral skills and display conservative norms regarding substance abuse. An 18-session curriculum contains 5-minute videos that are assigned to be followed by discussion and social reinforcement from a teacher or volunteer. This case study reports the program development process and experiences in the initial dissemination of the program through national networks for schools and cable television subscribers. PMID:9307896

  19. Cancers in Australia attributable to exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation and prevented by regular sunscreen use

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Catherine M; Wilson, Louise F; Green, Adele C; Bain, Christopher J; Fritschi, Lin; Neale, Rachel E; Whiteman, David C

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the proportion and numbers of cancers occurring in Australia attributable to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and the proportion and numbers prevented by regular sun protection factor (SPF) 15+ sunscreen use. Methods We estimated the population attributable fraction (PAF) and numbers of melanomas and keratinocyte cancers (i.e. basal cell carcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas) due to exposure to ambient UVR resulting from residing in Australia versus residing in the UK (for melanoma) or Scandinavia (for keratinocyte cancers). We also estimated the prevented fraction (PF): the proportion of cancers that would have occurred but were likely prevented by regular sunscreen use. Results An estimated 7,220 melanomas (PAF 63%) and essentially all keratinocyte cancers occurring in Australia were attributable to high ambient UVR levels in Australia. We estimated that regular sunscreen use prevented around 14,190 (PF 9.3%) and 1,730 (PF 14%) people from developing SCC and melanoma, respectively. Conclusions Although our approach was conservative, a high proportion of skin cancers in Australia are attributable to high ambient levels of UVR. Prevailing levels of sunscreen use probably reduced skin cancer incidence by 10–15%. Implications Most skin cancers are preventable. Sunscreen should be a component of a comprehensive sun protection strategy. PMID:26437734

  20. Sexual Partnerships and Considerations for HIV Antiretroviral Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Utilization Among High-Risk Substance Using Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Mimiaga, Matthew J.; Closson, Elizabeth F.; Kothary, Vishesh; Mitty, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) remain at great risk of HIV in the United States, representing 65 % of incident HIV infections. One factor contributing to the high rate ofHIV infectionamongMSM isuse of“recreational”drugsthat are highly associated with unprotected anal sex. Pre-exposure chemoprophylaxis(PrEP)isanovelbiomedicalHIVprevention strategy that has the potential to reduce HIV transmission in MSM. Main and casual sex partners play a role in HIV prevention efforts for MSM. The study aimed to qualitatively explore the perceived influences of sexual relationships on promoting and inhibiting PrEP use among high-risk MSM who report regular drug use. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 40 participants recruited in Boston, Massachusetts. Data were analyzed using descriptive qualitative analysis. Casual partners presented a distinct set of concerns from primary partnerships. MSM generally viewed main partners as a potential source of support for taking PrEP. Given their informal and often temporary nature, PrEP disclosure to casual partners was considered unnecessary. HIV-related stigma and substance use were also perceived as barriers to discussing PrEP use with casual partners. MSM articulated a high degree of personal agency regarding their ability to take PrEP. Findings suggest that behavioral interventions to improve PrEP utilization and adherence for high-risk MSM should be tailored to sex partner type and the parameters established between sex partners. Approaches to PrEP disclosure and partner engagement should be informed by the relative benefits and limitations characterized by these different types of relationships. PMID:24243002

  1. Substance abuse studies and prevention efforts among Arabs in the 1990s in Israel, Jordan and the Palestinian Authority--a literature review.

    PubMed

    Weiss, S; Sawa, G H; Abdeen, Z; Yanai, J

    1999-02-01

    This paper is the result of a collaborative project of Israeli, Jordanian and Palestinian scientists gathered to reveal the current extent of substance abuse and efforts at prevention among Arabs in Israel, Jordan and the Palestinian Authority territories, in order to identify needs and suggest future collaborative activities and directions for regional cooperation. The article provides data and covers the current state of substance abuse prevention and research among Moslems, Christians and Druze in the trilateral region in the 1990s by reviewing prevention materials and studies published in the professional literature, as well as in reports and Doctoral and Master's theses in Arabic, which have been located in academic libraries and other institutions, in the framework of a comprehensive search. This manuscript is the first to summarize Jordanian and Palestinian findings in the substance abuse domain. The review shows that most of the Israeli research in the Arab sector deals with alcohol use among youth, that the majority of Jordanian studies focus on illicit drug use, that the research among Palestinians is in its infancy, and that comprehensive prevention programs are lacking in the trilateral region. It describes the key results of most of the 12 Israeli studies among Arabs, 11 Jordanian studies and four Palestinian studies. It reveals that drug abuse among Israeli Arab students is probably more prevalent than among Jewish adolescents, that the typical Jordanian drug addict has a higher level of education than the typical Palestinian drug addict, and that the Palestinian is more likely to be a multiple drug user. Recommendations for future activities include organization of a regional collaborative workshop in order to establish data collection systems for basic statistics relevant to drug abuse and development of comprehensive prevention programs, as well as studies in the substance abuse domain concerning knowledge, attitudes and behavior among the general

  2. A simple and rapid extraction method for sensitive determination of perfluoroalkyl substances in blood serum suitable for exposure evaluation.

    PubMed

    Luque, Noelia; Ballesteros-Gómez, Ana; van Leeuwen, Stefan; Rubio, Soledad

    2012-04-27

    In this work, we propose a microextraction method based on a new supramolecular solvent (SUPRAS) made up of reverse aggregates of hexanoic acid, combined with liquid chromatography/triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC/QQQ MS-MS) for the determination of the perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in blood serum. A SUPRAS is a nano-structured liquid made up of surfactant aggregates synthesized through a self-assembly process. The method involved the acidification of 765 μL of blood serum (600 μmol of hydrochloric acid per mL of serum) followed by the addition of hexanoic acid (97 μL) and tetrahydrofuran (THF) (600 μL), conditions under which the supramolecular solvent (∼360 μL) formed in situ after vortex-shaking and centrifugation. Parameters affecting extraction efficiency and concentration factors were studied. The overall sample treatment took only 20 min and several samples (20-30) can be simultaneously analyzed using conventional lab equipments, making additional investments unnecessary. Recoveries for the internal standards in samples ranged from 75 to 89% with relative standard deviations between 1 and 15%. Calibration was based on the use of internal standards. The method was very sensitive with detection limits ranging from 2 to 20 pg mL(-1) for PFASs. The approach developed was successfully applied to the determination of PFASs in different blood serum samples. The concentration of PFASs found in samples of animal origin ranged between 17 and 197.3 pg mL(-1) and between 84 and 5168 pg mL(-1) in samples of human origin. Both the analytical and operational features of this method make it suitable for the evaluation of exposure to PFASs. PMID:22420956

  3. HEALING OF THE CANOE: PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF A CULTURALLY GROUNDED INTERVENTION TO PREVENT SUBSTANCE ABUSE AND PROMOTE TRIBAL IDENTITY FOR NATIVE YOUTH IN TWO PACIFIC NORTHWEST TRIBE

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, Dennis M.; Thomas, Lisa Rey; Sigo, Robin Little Wing; Price, Laura; Lonczak, Heather; Lawrence, Nigel; Ahvakana, Katie; Austin, Lisette; Lawrence, Albie; Price, Joseph; Purser, Abby; Bagley, Lenora

    2015-01-01

    Using Community-Based and tribal Participatory Research (CBPR/TPR) approaches, an academic-tribal partnership between the University of Washington Alcohol and Drug Abuse Institute and the Suquamish and Port Gamble S’Klallam Tribes developed a culturally grounded social skills intervention to promote increased cultural belonging and prevent substance abuse among tribal youth. Participation in the intervention, which used the Canoe Journey as a metaphor for life, was associated with increased hope, optimism, and self-efficacy and with reduced substance use, as well as with higher levels of cultural identity and knowledge about alcohol and drugs among high school-age tribal youth. These results provide preliminary support for the intervention curricula in promoting positive youth development, an optimistic future orientation, and the reduction of substance use among Native youth. PMID:25768390

  4. Teachers' delivery skills and substance use prevention program outcomes: the moderating role of students' need for cognition and impulse decision making.

    PubMed

    Giles, Steven M; Pankratz, Melinda M; Ringwalt, Christopher; Hansen, William B; Dusenbury, Linda; Jackson-Newsom, Julia

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to extend the literature in both substance use implementation and persuasive health communication by examining the extent to which students' need for cognition and impulsive decision-making moderated the relationship between teachers' classroom communication behavior and program outcomes in an evidence-based middle school substance use prevention curriculum. Participants included 48 teachers and their respective 7th grade students who participated in a randomized trial testing the effectiveness of personal coaching as a means to improve the quality with which teachers implemented the All Stars curriculum. Need for cognition and impulse decision-making were both associated with positive changes in lifestyle incongruence and commitments to not use substances for students whose teachers displayed greater interactive teaching. Further, need for cognition was associated with lower alcohol use rates while impulse decision making related to lower rates of marijuana use in classes with interactive teaching. PMID:21381465

  5. Occupational exposures to human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus: risk, prevention, and management.

    PubMed

    Cleveland, Jennifer L; Cardo, Denise M

    2003-10-01

    Current data indicate that the risk for transmitting bloodborne pathogens in dental health care settings is low. Pre-exposure hepatitis B vaccination and the use of standard precautions to prevent exposure to blood are the most effective strategies for preventing DHCP from occupational infection with HIV, HBV or HCV. Each dental health care facility should develop a comprehensive written program for preventing and managing occupational exposures to blood that: (1) describes the types of blood exposures that may place DHCP at risk for infection; (2) outlines procedures for promptly reporting and evaluating such exposures; and (3) identifies a health care professional who is qualified to provide counseling and perform all medical evaluations and procedures in accordance with the most current USPHS recommendations. Finally, resources should be available that permit rapid access to clinical care, testing, counseling, and PEP for exposed DHCP and the testing and counseling of source patients. PMID:14664459

  6. TDS exposure project: application of the analytic hierarchy process for the prioritization of substances to be analyzed in a total diet study.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, A; Sioen, I; Cubadda, F; Ozer, H; Basegmez, H I Oktay; Turrini, A; Lopez Esteban, M T; Fernandez San Juan, P M; Sokolić-Mihalak, D; Jurkovic, M; De Henauw, S; Aureli, F; Vin, K; Sirot, V

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this article is to develop a general method based on the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) methodology to rank the substances to be studied in a Total Diet Studies (TDS). This method was tested for different substances and groups of substances (N = 113), for which the TDS approach has been considered relevant. This work was performed by a group of 7 experts from different European countries representing their institutes, which are involved in the TDS EXPOSURE project. The AHP methodology is based on a score system taking into account experts' judgments quantified assigning comparative scores to the different identified issues. Hence, the 10 substances of highest interest in the framework of a TDS are trace elements (methylmercury, cadmium, inorganic arsenic, lead, aluminum, inorganic mercury), dioxins, furans and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and some additives (sulfites and nitrites). The priority list depends on both the national situation (geographical variations, consumer concern, etc.) and the availability of data. Thus, the list depends on the objectives of the TDS and on reachable analytical performances. Moreover, such a list is highly variable with time and new data (e.g. social context, vulnerable population groups, emerging substances, new toxicological data or health-based guidance values). PMID:25478735

  7. Prevention effects on trajectories of African American adolescents' exposure to interparental conflict and depressive symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Barton, Allen W.; Beach, Steven R. H.; Kogan, Steven M.; Stanley, Scott M.; Fincham, Frank D.; Hurt, Tera R.; Brody, Gene H.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates the trajectory of children's exposure to interparental conflict during adolescence, its effects on adolescents' psychological adjustment, as well as the ability of a family-centered prevention program to alter this trajectory. A total of 331 African American couples with an adolescent or pre-adolescent child participated in a randomized control trial of the Promoting Strong African American Families (ProSAAF) program, a newly-developed program targeting couple and co-caregiving processes. Using a multi-informant, latent growth curve approach, child exposure to interparental conflict during adolescence was found to be stable over a period of two years among families in the control group, but significantly declined among families in the treatment condition. Rates of change were significantly different between intervention and control groups based on parents' report of youth exposure to interparental conflict, but not for child's report. Structural equation models found trajectory parameters of interparental conflict predicted changes in adolescent depressive symptoms, with increasing rates of changes in conflict associated with increases in adolescent internalizing symptoms over the 2-year duration of the study. Finally, a significant indirect effect was identified linking treatment, changes in parents' reports of child exposure to interparental conflict, and adolescent depressive symptoms. The implications for research and intervention are discussed. PMID:25844492

  8. Hypnotically facilitated exposure response prevention therapy for an OIF veteran with OCD.

    PubMed

    Proescher, Eric J

    2010-07-01

    The highly stressful conditions of a war zone may exacerbate or trigger a wide variety of symptoms including Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) once a service member returns home. Service members and new veterans of the Iraq and Afghanistan wars present to treatment with multiple psychosocial concerns and co-morbid psychiatric conditions. Evidence-based treatments including exposure based therapies are commonly recommended for use with returning veterans. Although studies support the efficacy of Exposure Response Prevention (ERP) therapy for treating OCD, eligibility for these studies limits participation to subjects who self-report a well-defined, circumscribed complaint. This approach is not typical of clinic clients who, more often than not, report multiple psychological issues. The following individual case study demonstrates how integrating hypnosis facilitated the cognitive-behavioral ERP therapy and treatment for a patient suffering from OCD. PMID:20718240

  9. What Adolescents Need to Prevent Relapse after Treatment for Substance Abuse: A Comparison of Youth, Parent, and Staff Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acri, Mary C.; Gogel, Leah P.; Pollock, Michele; Wisdom, Jennifer P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Little is known about what factors and supports youths identify as important for their sustained recovery after substance abuse treatment, and if their caregivers and treatment staff identify similar needs. The purpose of this study was to explore what youths, caregivers, and staff perceive as important to remain substance free after…

  10. Planning for pre-exposure prophylaxis to prevent HIV transmission: challenges and opportunities

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    There are currently several ongoing or planned trials evaluating the efficacy of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) as a preventative approach to reducing the transmission of HIV. PrEP may prove ineffective, demonstrate partial efficacy, or show high efficacy and have the potential to reduce HIV infection in a significant way. However, in addition to the trial results, it is important that issues related to delivery, implementation and further research are also discussed. As a part of the ongoing discussion, in June 2009, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation sponsored a Planning for PrEP conference with stakeholders to review expected trial results, outline responsible educational approaches, and develop potential delivery and implementation strategies. The conference reinforced the need for continued and sustained dialogue to identify where PrEP implementation may fit best within an integrated HIV prevention package. This paper identifies the key action points that emerged from the Planning for PrEP meeting. PMID:20624303

  11. Lost opportunities in HIV prevention: programmes miss places where exposures are highest

    PubMed Central

    Sandøy, Ingvild F; Siziya, Seter; Fylkesnes, Knut

    2008-01-01

    Background Efforts at HIV prevention that focus on high risk places might be more effective and less stigmatizing than those targeting high risk groups. The objective of the present study was to assess risk behaviour patterns, signs of current preventive interventions and apparent gaps in places where the risk of HIV transmission is high and in communities with high HIV prevalence. Methods The PLACE method was used to collect data. Inhabitants of selected communities in Lusaka and Livingstone were interviewed about where people met new sexual partners. Signs of HIV preventive activities in these places were recorded. At selected venues, people were interviewed about their sexual behaviour. Peer educators and staff of NGOs were also interviewed. Results The places identified were mostly bars, restaurants or sherbeens, and fewer than 20% reported any HIV preventive activity such as meetings, pamphlets or posters. In 43% of places in Livingstone and 26% in Lusaka, condoms were never available. There were few active peer educators. Among the 432 persons in Lusaka and 676 in Livingstone who were invited for interview about sexual behaviour, consistent condom use was relatively high in Lusaka (77%) but low in Livingstone (44% of men and 34% of women). Having no condom available was the most common reason for not using one. Condom use in Livingstone was higher among individuals socializing in places where condoms always were available. Conclusion In the places studied we found a high prevalence of behaviours with a high potential for HIV transmission but few signs of HIV preventive interventions. Covering the gaps in prevention in these high exposure places should be given the highest priority. PMID:18218124

  12. Reducing ultraviolet radiation exposure to prevent skin cancer methodology and measurement.

    PubMed

    Glanz, Karen; Mayer, Joni A

    2005-08-01

    Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer, and is also one of the most preventable. This paper builds on an evidence review of skin cancer prevention interventions that was conducted for the Guide to Community Preventive Services (n=85 studies), and summarizes the state of knowledge about research methodology and measurement in studies of the effectiveness of interventions to reduce ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure. As this field advances, researchers should strive to minimize threats to validity in their study designs, as well as to consider the balance between internal and external validity. There is a need for more longer-duration interventions, and follow-up periods that make possible conclusions about the potential of these interventions to affect intermediate markers of skin cancer or at least sustained behavior change. Also, more work is needed to minimize attrition and characterize nonresponders and study dropouts. Verbal report measures of behavior are the most widely used measures of solar protection behavior. Given their limitations, investigators should routinely collect data about reliability and validity of those measures. They should also increase efforts to complement verbal data with objective measures including observations, skin reflectance, personal dosimetry, skin swabbing, and inspection of moles. Measures of environments and policies should incorporate observations, documentation, and direct measures of ambient UVR and shade. This article places the data derived from the evidence review in the context of needs and recommendations for future research in skin cancer prevention. PMID:16005810

  13. Noise exposure and hearing loss prevention programmes after 20 years of regulations in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Daniell, W E; Swan, S S; McDaniel, M M; Camp, J E; Cohen, M A; Stebbins, J G

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate noise exposures and hearing loss prevention efforts in industries with relatively high rates of workers' compensation claims for hearing loss. Methods Washington State workers' compensation records were used to identify up to 10 companies in each of eight industries. Each company (n = 76) was evaluated by a management interview, employee personal noise dosimetry (n = 983), and employee interviews (n = 1557). Results Full‐shift average exposures were ⩾85 dBA for 50% of monitored employees, using Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) parameters with a 5 dB exchange rate (Lave), but 74% were ⩾85 dBA using a 3 dB exchange rate (Leq). Only 14% had Lave ⩾90 dBA, but 42% had Leq ⩾90 dBA. Most companies conducted noise measurements, but most kept no records, and consideration of noise controls was low in all industries. Hearing loss prevention programmes were commonly incomplete. Management interview scores (higher score = more complete programme) showed significant associations with percentage of employees having Lave ⩾85 dBA and presence of a union (multiple linear regression; R2 = 0.24). Overall, 62% of interviewed employees reported always using hearing protection when exposed. Protector use showed significant associations with percentage of employees specifically required to use protection, management score, and average employee time spent ⩾95 dBA (R2 = 0.65). Conclusions The findings raise serious concerns about the adequacy of prevention, regulation, and enforcement strategies in the United States. The percentage of workers with excessive exposure was 1.5–3 times higher using a 3 dB exchange rate instead of the OSHA specified 5 dB exchange rate. Most companies gave limited or no attention to noise controls and relied primarily on hearing protection to prevent hearing loss; yet 38% of employees did not use protectors routinely. Protector use was highest when hearing loss

  14. Evidence for Site-Specific, Systematic Adaptation of Substance Prevention Curriculum With High Risk Youth in Community and Alternative School Settings

    PubMed Central

    Holleran Steiker, Lori K.; Hopson, Laura M.; Goldbach, Jeremy T.; Robinson, Charletta

    2014-01-01

    The problem of substance use among older youth is of great concern, but has received little attention in prevention research. This may be due to the perception that prevention programming is developmentally inappropriate for older youth who are actively experimenting with substances. This project examined the differential effectiveness of youth-driven adaptations of the evidence-based prevention program, keepin’ it REAL (KiR). The participating sites included a juvenile justice day program, a homeless shelter, four alternative high schools, low-income housing programs, an LGBTQ youth center, and a youth group on the Texas-Mexico border. In the project’s first phase, high risk youth in community settings tailored KiR workbooks and videos to increase the relevance for their peers, older adolescents who are likely to have already initiated drug use. The second phase of the study, discussed here in detail, evaluates the effectiveness of the adapted versions of KiR compared with the original version and a comparison condition. The study employed a quasi-experimental pretest posttest design with a 6-week follow-up. Youth also participated in focus groups. Both qualitative and quantitative data suggest that participants receiving the adapted version of the curriculum experienced greater improvement in acceptance and use of substances than youth in the other two groups. PMID:25221419

  15. Evidence for Site-Specific, Systematic Adaptation of Substance Prevention Curriculum With High Risk Youth in Community and Alternative School Settings.

    PubMed

    Holleran Steiker, Lori K; Hopson, Laura M; Goldbach, Jeremy T; Robinson, Charletta

    2014-09-01

    The problem of substance use among older youth is of great concern, but has received little attention in prevention research. This may be due to the perception that prevention programming is developmentally inappropriate for older youth who are actively experimenting with substances. This project examined the differential effectiveness of youth-driven adaptations of the evidence-based prevention program, keepin' it REAL (KiR). The participating sites included a juvenile justice day program, a homeless shelter, four alternative high schools, low-income housing programs, an LGBTQ youth center, and a youth group on the Texas-Mexico border. In the project's first phase, high risk youth in community settings tailored KiR workbooks and videos to increase the relevance for their peers, older adolescents who are likely to have already initiated drug use. The second phase of the study, discussed here in detail, evaluates the effectiveness of the adapted versions of KiR compared with the original version and a comparison condition. The study employed a quasi-experimental pretest posttest design with a 6-week follow-up. Youth also participated in focus groups. Both qualitative and quantitative data suggest that participants receiving the adapted version of the curriculum experienced greater improvement in acceptance and use of substances than youth in the other two groups. PMID:25221419

  16. Adapting School-Based Substance Use Prevention Curriculum Through Cultural Grounding: A Review and Exemplar of Adaptation Processes for Rural Schools

    PubMed Central

    Colby, Margaret; Hecht, Michael L.; Miller-Day, Michelle; Krieger, Janice L.; Syvertsen, Amy K.; Graham, John W.; Pettigrew, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    A central challenge facing twenty-first century community-based researchers and prevention scientists is curriculum adaptation processes. While early prevention efforts sought to develop effective programs, taking programs to scale implies that they will be adapted, especially as programs are implemented with populations other than those with whom they were developed or tested. The principle of cultural grounding, which argues that health message adaptation should be informed by knowledge of the target population and by cultural insiders, provides a theoretical rational for cultural regrounding and presents an illustrative case of methods used to reground the keepin’ it REAL substance use prevention curriculum for a rural adolescent population. We argue that adaptation processes like those presented should be incorporated into the design and dissemination of prevention interventions. PMID:22961604

  17. Interventions to prevent skin cancer by reducing exposure to ultraviolet radiation: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Saraiya, Mona; Glanz, Karen; Briss, Peter A; Nichols, Phyllis; White, Cornelia; Das, Debjani; Smith, S Jay; Tannor, Bernice; Hutchinson, Angela B; Wilson, Katherine M; Gandhi, Nisha; Lee, Nancy C; Rimer, Barbara; Coates, Ralph C; Kerner, Jon F; Hiatt, Robert A; Buffler, Patricia; Rochester, Phyllis

    2004-12-01

    The relationship between skin cancer and ultraviolet radiation is well established. Behaviors such as seeking shade, avoiding sun exposure during peak hours of radiation, wearing protective clothing, or some combination of these behaviors can provide protection. Sunscreen use alone is not considered an adequate protection against ultraviolet radiation. This report presents the results of systematic reviews of effectiveness, applicability, other harms or benefits, economic evaluations, and barriers to use of selected interventions to prevent skin cancer by reducing exposure to ultraviolet radiation. The Task Force on Community Preventive Services found that education and policy approaches to increasing sun-protective behaviors were effective when implemented in primary schools and in recreational or tourism settings, but found insufficient evidence to determine effectiveness when implemented in other settings, such as child care centers, secondary schools and colleges, and occupational settings. They also found insufficient evidence to determine the effectiveness of interventions oriented to healthcare settings and providers, media campaigns alone, interventions oriented to parents or caregivers of children, and community-wide multicomponent interventions. The report also provides suggestions for areas for future research. PMID:15556744

  18. Poisonings Associated with Intubation: US National Poison Data System Exposures 2000-2013.

    PubMed

    Beauchamp, G A; Giffin, S L; Horowitz, B Z; Laurie, A L; Fu, R; Hendrickson, R G

    2016-06-01

    Patients may be intubated after exposure to a variety of substances because of respiratory failure, CNS sedation, pulmonary pathology, or cardiovascular instability. However, there is little data describing the types of substances that are associated with endotracheal intubation or the rates of intubation after these exposures. Evaluation of this association may inform future research on intubation after exposures to specific substances and guide poison prevention education. Our objective was to determine which exposures were commonly associated with intubation using the data from National Poison Data System (NPDS). The NPDS tracks data from potential exposures to substances reported to all American Association of Poison Control Centers. We performed a retrospective analysis of NPDS data from January 1st, 2000 to December 31st, 2013 to identify human exposures to substances that were associated with endotracheal intubation. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. There were 93,474 single substance exposures and 228,507 multiple substance exposures that were associated with intubation. The most common exposures to substances that were associated with intubation were atypical antipsychotics (7.4 %) for single exposures and benzodiazepines (27.4 %) for multiple exposures. Within each age group, the most common known exposures to substances were for patients under 6 years, clonidine for single and multiple exposures; for patients aged 6-12 years, clonidine for single exposures and atypical antipsychotics for multiple exposures; for patients aged 13-19 years, atypical antipsychotics for single and multiple exposures; and for patients over 19 years, atypical antipsychotics for single exposures and benzodiazepines for multiple exposures. From 2000-2013, the exposures to substances most commonly associated with intubation varied by single versus multiple exposures and by age. This study helps clarify the exposures to substances that are associated with

  19. [Consensus document on the prevention of exposure to methylmercury in Spain].

    PubMed

    González-Estecha, Montserrat; Bodas-Pinedo, Andrés; Guillén-Pérez, José Jesús; Rubio-Herrera, Miguel Ángel; Martínez-Álvarez, Jesús Román; Herráiz-Martínez, Miguel Ángel; Martell-Claros, Nieves; Ordóñez-Iriarte, José M; Sáinz-Martín, María; Farré-Rovira, Rosaura; Martínez-Astorquiza, Txantón; García-Donaire, José Antonio; Calvo-Manuel, Elpidio; Bretón-Lesmes, Irene; Prieto-Menchero, Santiago; Llorente-Ballesteros, M Teresa; Martínez-García, M José; Moreno-Rojas, Rafael; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar; Cuadrado-Cenzual, María Ángeles; Gallardo-Pino, Carmen; Blanco Fuentes, María; Torres-Moreno, Miriam; Trasobares-Iglesias, Elena M; Barceló Martín, Bernardino; Arroyo-Fernández, Manuel; Calle-Pascual, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    The beneficial effects of fish consumption in both children and adults are well known. However, the intake of methylmercury, mainly from contaminated fish and shellfish, can have adverse health effects. The study group on the prevention of exposure to methylmercury (GEPREM-Hg), made up of representatives from different Spanish scientific societies, has prepared a consensus document in a question and answer format, containing the group's main conclusions, recommendations and proposals. The objective of the document is to provide broader knowledge of factors associated with methylmercury exposure, its possible effects on health among the Spanish population, methods of analysis, interpretation of the results and economic costs, and to then set recommendations for fish and shellfish consumption. The group sees the merit of all initiatives aimed at reducing or prohibiting the use of mercury as well as the need to be aware of the results of contaminant analyses performed on fish and shellfish marketed in Spain. In addition, the group believes that biomonitoring systems should be set up in order to follow the evolution of methylmercury exposure in children and adults and perform studies designed to learn more about the possible health effects of concentrations found in the Spanish population, ta king into account the lifestyle, eating patterns and the Mediterranean diet. PMID:25561095

  20. Oxidative stress due to aluminum exposure induces eryptosis which is prevented by erythropoietin.

    PubMed

    Vota, Daiana M; Crisp, Renée L; Nesse, Alcira B; Vittori, Daniela C

    2012-05-01

    The widespread use of aluminum (Al) provides easy exposure of humans to the metal and its accumulation remains a potential problem. In vivo and in vitro assays have associated Al overload with anemia. To better understand the mechanisms by which Al affects human erythrocytes, morphological and biochemical changes were analyzed after long-term treatment using an in vitro model. The appearance of erythrocytes with abnormal shapes suggested metal interaction with cell surface, supported by the fact that high amounts of Al attached to cell membrane. Long-term incubation of human erythrocytes with Al induced signs of premature erythrocyte death (eryptosis), such as phosphatidylserine externalization, increased intracellular calcium, and band 3 degradation. Signs of oxidative stress, such as significant increase in reactive oxygen species in parallel with decrease in the amount of reduced glutathione, were also observed. These oxidative effects were completely prevented by the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine. Interestingly, erythrocytes were also protected from the prooxidative action of Al by the presence of erythropoietin (EPO). In conclusion, results provide evidence that chronic Al exposure may lead to biochemical and morphological alterations similar to those shown in eryptosis induced by oxidant compounds in human erythrocytes. The antieryptotic effect of EPO may contribute to enhance the knowledge of its physiological role on erythroid cells. Irrespective of the antioxidant mechanism, this property of EPO, shown in this model of Al exposure, let us suggest potential benefits by EPO treatment of patients with anemia associated to altered redox environment. PMID:22174104

  1. Prospective influence of music-related media exposure on adolescent substance-use initiation: a peer group mediation model.

    PubMed

    Slater, Michael D; Henry, Kimberly L

    2013-01-01

    The present study tests prospective effects of music-related media content (from television, Internet, and magazines) on youth alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use initiation. Indirect effects through association with substance-using peers were tested in a 4-wave longitudinal data set (2,729 middle school students for the alcohol model, 2,716 students for the cigarette model, and 2,710 students for the marijuana model) from schools across the United States. In so doing, the authors examine theoretical claims regarding socialization mechanisms for effects of popular music listenership on substance use initiation. Results supported direct effects on alcohol and cigarette uptake, and indirect effects through association with substance-using peers on all 3 substances. This research, in combination with prior studies by several research teams, suggests elevated popular music involvement is a risk factor with respect to younger adolescents' substance use behavior. This influence is in part explained by the role of music-related media content in socialization to substance-using peer groups. PMID:23311876

  2. Latino and European American early adolescents' exposure to music with substance-use references: examining parent-child communication as a moderator.

    PubMed

    Kam, Jennifer A; Wang, Ningxin; Harvey, Jessica

    2014-02-01

    This study hypothesized that frequent exposure to and attention to music with substance-use references would be indirectly related to alcohol, cigarette, or marijuana use through pro-substance-use beliefs (e.g., norms, outcome expectancies, and refusal efficacy). Parent-child communication, however, would attenuate such associations, which would differ by ethnicity. Multigroup mediation and moderation analyses were conducted, using cross-sectional survey data from 253 Latino and 308 European American 6th-8th grades students. For Latino and European American early adolescents, best-friend-injunctive norms and weak refusal efficacy were significant mediators, but not positive outcome expectancies. Descriptive norms were a significant mediator, but only for European American early adolescents. Although targeted parent-child communication and parental mediation did not moderate the associations between the music-exposure variables and the pro-substance-use beliefs variables, targeted parent-child communication attenuated the association between listening to favorite songs and alcohol consumption. Parental mediation attenuated the association between attention to music and alcohol consumption. PMID:24439624

  3. OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURES TO BODY FLUIDS AND BEHAVIORS REGARDING THEIR PREVENTION AND POST-EXPOSURE AMONG MEDICAL AND NURSING STUDENTS AT A BRAZILIAN PUBLIC UNIVERSITY

    PubMed Central

    de Souza-Borges, Fernanda Ribeiro Fagundes; Ribeiro, Larissa Araújo; de Oliveira, Luiz Carlos Marques

    2014-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the frequencies and characteristics of occupational exposures among medical and nursing students at a Brazilian public university, in addition to their prevention and post-exposure behavior. During the second semester of 2010, a self-administered semi-structured questionnaire was completed by 253/320 (79.1%) medical students of the clinical course and 149/200 (74.5%) nursing students who were already performing practical activities. Among medical students, 53 (20.9%) suffered 73 injuries, which mainly occurred while performing extra-curricular activities (32.9%), with cutting and piercing objects (56.2%), in the emergency room (39.7%), and as a result of lack of technical preparation or distraction (54.8%). Among nursing students, 27 (18.1%) suffered 37 injuries, which mainly occurred with hollow needles (67.6%) in the operating room or wards (72.2%), and as a result of lack of technical preparation or distraction (62.1%). Among medical and nursing students, respectively, 96.4% and 48% were dissatisfied with the instructions on previously received exposure prevention; 48% and 18% did not always use personal protective equipment; 67.6% and 16.8% recapped used needles; 49.3% and 35.1% did not bother to find out the source patient's serological results post-exposure; and 1.4% and 18.9% officially reported injuries. In conclusion, this study found high frequencies of exposures among the assessed students, inadequate practices in prevention and post-exposure, and, consequently, the need for training in “standard precautions” to prevent such exposures. PMID:24626419

  4. Girls Just Want to Know Where to Have Fun: Preventing Substance Use Initiation in an Under-Resourced Community in South Africa Through HealthWise.

    PubMed

    Motamedi, Mojdeh; Caldwell, Linda; Wegner, Lisa; Smith, Edward; Jones, Damon

    2016-08-01

    This study examined how the perception of the availability of leisure opportunities may prevent substance use initiation through HealthWise, a school-based program focused on reducing risky behavior. In this study, we specifically focused on whether HealthWise increased student perceptions of leisure opportunities between 8th grade and 10th grade (N = 5610) in an under-resourced community in South Africa. Path analyses were used to test hypotheses. Given gender differences in substance use patterns, societal norms, and leisure opportunities in under-resourced communities, such as the townships of Cape Town, South Africa, it was especially important to examine associations within each gender. Results suggested that HealthWise directly reduced the likelihood of initiating alcohol and cigarette use and increased the amount of perceived leisure opportunities among girls but not boys. Perceived leisure opportunities mediated the effect of HealthWise on reducing the initiation of alcohol and cigarette use directly, and marijuana use indirectly, among girls but not boys. This is the first study to demonstrate how experimentally targeting leisure through an intervention can increase perceived leisure opportunities and thereby prevent early substance use initiation for a specific population. The importance of considering the context of gender, age, and location is discussed. PMID:27129478

  5. Pre-administration of curcumin prevents neonatal sevoflurane exposure-induced neurobehavioral abnormalities in mice.

    PubMed

    Ji, Mu-Huo; Qiu, Li-Li; Yang, Jiao-Jiao; Zhang, Hui; Sun, Xiao-Ru; Zhu, Si-Hai; Li, Wei-Yan; Yang, Jian-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Sevoflurane, a commonly used inhaled anesthetic, can induce neuronal apoptosis in the developing rodent brain and correlate with functional neurological impairment later in life. However, the mechanisms underlying these deleterious effects of sevoflurane remain unclear and no effective treatment is currently available. Herein, the authors investigated whether curcumin can prevent the sevoflurane anesthesia-induced cognitive impairment in mice. Six-day-old C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 3% sevoflurane 2h daily for 3 consecutive days and were treated with curcumin at the dose of 20 mg/kg or vehicle 30 min before the sevoflurane anesthesia from postnatal days 6 (P6) to P8. Cognitive functions were evaluated by open field, Morris water maze, and fear conditioning tests on P61, P63-69, and P77-78, respectively. In another separate experiment, mice were killed on day P8 or P78, and the brain tissues were harvested and then subjected to biochemistry studies. Our results showed that repeated neonatal sevoflurane exposure led to significant cognitive impairment later in life, which was associated with increased neuronal apoptosis, neuroinflammation, oxidative nitrosative stress, and decreased memory related proteins. By contrast, pre-administration of curcumin ameliorated early neuronal apoptosis, neuroinflammation, oxidative nitrosative stress, memory related proteins, and later cognitive dysfunction. In conclusion, our data suggested that curcumin pre-administration can prevent the sevoflurane exposure-induced cognitive impairment later in life, which may be partly attributed to its ability to attenuate the neural apoptosis, inflammation, and oxidative nitrosative stress in mouse brain. PMID:25447320

  6. Exposure to interparental violence and psychosocial maladjustment in the adult life course: advocacy for early prevention

    PubMed Central

    Roustit, C; Renahy, E; Guernec, G; Lesieur, S; Parizot, I; Chauvin, P

    2009-01-01

    Background: Early family-level and social-level stressors are both assumed to be the components of two main path models explaining the association between exposure to interparental violence in childhood and its long-term consequences on mental health explored through life-course epidemiological studies. Aims: To investigate the association between exposure to interparental violence in childhood and mental health outcomes in adulthood when taking into account early family and social stressors. Methods: A retrospective French cohort study of 3023 adults representative of the general population in the Paris metropolitan area was conducted in 2005 through at-home, face-to-face interviews. The outcomes measures were current depression and lifetime suicide attempt, intimate partner violence, violence against children and alcohol dependence. Results: The adults exposed to interparental violence during childhood had a higher risk of psychosocial maladjustment. After adjusting for family- and social-level stressors in childhood, this risk was, respectively, 1.44 (95% CI 1.03 to 2.00) for depression, 3.17 (1.75 to 5.73) for conjugal violence, 4.75 (1.60 to 14.14) for child maltreatment and 1.75 (1.19 to 2.57) for alcohol dependence. Conclusions: The adult consequences of parental violence in childhood—and this independently of the other forms of domestic violence and the related psychosocial risks—should lead to intensifying the prevention of and screening for this form of maltreatment of children. PMID:19477880

  7. Adherence challenges with drugs for pre-exposure prophylaxis to prevent HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Gengiah, Tanuja N.; Moosa, Atika; Naidoo, Anushka; Mansoor, Leila E.

    2013-01-01

    Background There are 34 million people living with HIV worldwide and each year this number increases. Until a vaccine is discovered, the prevention of new HIV infections remains an urgent priority. Several trials studying the use of oral and topical agents for the prevention of HIV infection have already been completed. Adherence has proved to be a major challenge in achieving product efficacy. Aim of the review To provide the clinical pharmacist with an understanding of the oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and topical microbicide product pipeline whilst emphasizing the critical importance of adherence to these drugs to avert HIV infection. Methods PubMed/Medline and the web-based clinical trials registry (ClinTrials.gov) were searched using appropriate key words. For the time period 1992 to 2013 - all phase II and phase III safety and effectiveness studies - testing agents for prevention of HIV infection were included in the review., Efficacy estimates, adherence estimates and reported challenges with adherence were extracted. Results Twenty four phase II and III clinical trials were found during review. Of these, 20 trials have been completed, and six trials show effectiveness in preventing HIV infection. The majority of the successful trials were to oral PrEP and to date only one microbicide trial of a vaginal antiretroviral microbicide gel has showed effectiveness. Adherence to study product played a major role in trial outcomes and there are several reasons for non-adherence. These include high on-trial pregnancy rates, low trial retention rates, low participant perception of risk, participant characteristics such as age<25 years, single status, migratory partners and trial fatigue. Study product characteristics such as dosage form, dosing interval, as well as associated adverse events may also influence adherence. Conclusion Moderate to high adherence is critical to demonstrate efficacy of drugs for HIV prevention. For topical agents, intermittent use

  8. Thyroxine administration prevents matrilineal intergenerational consequences of in utero ethanol exposure in rats.

    PubMed

    Tunc-Ozcan, Elif; Harper, Kathryn M; Graf, Evan N; Redei, Eva E

    2016-06-01

    The neurodevelopmental fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is characterized by cognitive and behavioral deficits in the offspring. Conferring the deficits to the next generation would increase overall FASD disease burden and prevention of this transmission could be highly significant. Prior studies showed the reversal of these behavioral deficits by low dose thyroxine (T4) supplementation to the ethanol-consuming mothers. Here we aim to identify whether prenatal ethanol (PE) exposure impairs hippocampus-dependent learning and memory in the second-generation (F2) progeny, and whether T4 administration to the ethanol-consuming dam can prevent it. Sprague-Dawley (S) dams received control diets (ad libitum and nutritional control) or ethanol containing liquid diet with and without simultaneous T4 (0.3mg/L diet) administration. Their offspring (SS F1) were mated with naive Brown Norway (B) males and females generating the SB F2 and BS F2 progeny. Hippocampus-dependent contextual fear memory and hippocampal expression of the thyroid hormone-regulated type 3 deiodinase, (Dio3) and neurogranin (Nrgn) were assessed. SS F1 PE-exposed females and their SB F2 progeny exhibited fear memory deficits. T4 administration to the mothers of F1 females reversed these deficits. Although SS F1 PE-exposed males also experienced fear memory deficit, this was neither transmitted to their BS F2 offspring nor reversed by prenatal T4 treatment. Hippocampal Dio3 and Nrgn expression showed similar pattern of changes. Grandmaternal ethanol consumption during pregnancy affects fear memory of the matrilineal second-generation progeny. Low dose T4 supplementation prevents this process likely via altering allele-specific and total expression of Dio3 in the hippocampus. PMID:27090562

  9. Alcohol, Marijuana, and Tobacco Use among Canadian Youth: Do We Need More Multi-Substance Prevention Programming?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leatherdale, Scott T.; Ahmed, Rashid

    2010-01-01

    Data from the Canadian Youth Smoking Survey (n = 27,030 in 2006; n = 16,705 in 2004; n = 11,757 in 2002) were used to examine changes in the prevalence and comorbid use of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana over time and examine if demographic factors and binge drinking are associated with comorbid substance use among youth. Alcohol was the most…

  10. Short-term effects on substance use of the keepin' it real pilot prevention program: linguistically adapted for youth in Jalisco, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Marsiglia, Flavio F; Booth, Jaime M; Ayers, Stephanie L; Nuño-Gutierrez, Bertha L; Kulis, Stephen; Hoffman, Steven

    2014-10-01

    This article presents the short-term effects of a pilot study of keepin'it REAL (Manténte REAL) conducted in central Mexico by a binational team of investigators. This middle school-based model program for preventing substance use was adapted for Mexico linguistically but not culturally. Two Guadalajara public middle schools were recruited and randomly assigned to either implement the prevention program or serve as a control site. The program was implemented in the treatment site by the students' regular teachers, who were trained by the research team. Seventh graders in ten classrooms in the treatment and control schools (N = 432) completed a pretest and posttest survey in Spanish similar to the survey utilized in the original efficacy trial of keepin'it REAL in the US. T-tests and OLS regressions were conducted to determine the effects of the intervention on substance use outcomes. Differences between treatment and control groups in frequency of use of alcohol and tobacco, the two substances of choice in this sample, were significant and in the desired direction. Differences in amount of use were also in the preferred direction but were not significant for alcohol and only marginally significant for tobacco. When the sample was split by gender, statistically significant treatment effects remained for females but were not observed among males. Effects of the linguistically adapted version of keepin'it REAL appears to be driven by the change in female use; however, the difference in male and female outcomes was not statistically significant. Implications for cultural adaptation and prevention in Mexico are discussed from a communication competency perspective. The promising results of the pilot study suggest that the linguistic adaptation was effective, but that a comprehensive cultural adaptation of keepin'it REAL in partnership with Mexican investigators and communities may be warranted. PMID:23877541

  11. Short-term effects on substance use of the keepin' it REAL pilot prevention program: Linguistically adapted for youth in Jalisco, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Booth, Jaime M.; Ayers, Stephanie L.; Nuño-Gutierrez, Bertha L.; Kulis, Stephen; Hoffman, Steven

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the short-term effects of a pilot study of keepin' it REAL(Manténte REAL) conducted in central Mexico by a bi-national team of investigators. This middle school-based model program for preventing substance use was adapted for Mexico linguistically but not culturally. Two Guadalajara public middle schools were recruited and randomly assigned to either implement the prevention program or serve as a control site. The program was implemented in the treatment site by the students' regular teachers, who were trained by the research team. Seventh graders in ten classrooms in the treatment and control schools (N = 432) completed a pretest and post-test survey in Spanish similar to the survey utilized in the original efficacy trial of keepin' it REAL in the US. T-tests and OLS regressions were conducted to determine the effects of the intervention on substance use outcomes. Differences between treatment and control groups in frequency of use of alcohol and tobacco, the two substances of choice in this sample, were significant and in the desired direction. Differences in amount of use were also in the preferred direction but were not significant for alcohol and only marginally significant for tobacco. When the sample was split by gender, statistically significant treatment effects remained for females but were not observed among males. Effects of the linguistically adapted version of keepin' it REAL appears to be driven by the change in female use, however the difference in male and female outcomes was not statistically significant. Implications for cultural adaptation and prevention in Mexico are discussed from a communication competency perspective. The promising results of the pilot study suggest that the linguistic adaptation was effective but that a comprehensive cultural adaptation of keepin' it REAL in partnership with Mexican investigators and communities may be warranted. PMID:23877541

  12. [Occupational bladder tumors among persons subjected to carcinogenic amino compound exposure: the epidemiology and prevention].

    PubMed

    Bul'bulian, M A

    1991-01-01

    The epidemiology of bladder tumors was examined among the subjects exposed to cancerogenic amino compounds such as beta-naphthylamine and benzidine (Group 1). The workers from other chemical shops of the plant were enrolled as a control group (Group 2); those from service shops (Group 3) and white-collar ones (Group 4) were also included. A total examined group comprised 4,624 subjects followed up in 1975-1979. The age- and sex-adjusted bladder tumor morbidity rates in males were 48.3, 11.0, 6.9 in Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively (the normal rate, 5.6 per 100,000), while the respective figures in females were 75.0 and 18.2 in Groups 1 and 2, respectively (the normal rate, 1.1 per 100,000). No bladder cancer was recorded among the male workers from service shops and female service and white-collar workers (the expected rate was less than 1). Calculating the bladder cancer morbidity rates by the common standard indices indicated that there was no excess of the rates typical of the disease for males as compared to females, which is generally observed on exposure to potent cancerogenic substances. There was an increase in the latent period of urinary bladder cancer progression from 13.0 to 18.6 in males and to 20.4 in females who had been exposed to benzidine, as compared to the 1950s and 1960s. The mean latent period was 24.2 years in females and 21.5 in males who had been exposed to beta-naphthylamine. 42% of all those who had diagnosed bladder cancer had not come in direct contact with the above cancerogenic agents.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1949409

  13. Opioid and Other Substance Misuse, Overdose Risk, and the Potential for Prevention Among a Sample of OEF/OIF Veterans in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Alex S.; Elliott, Luther; Golub, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes veterans' overdose risks and specific vulnerabilities through an analysis of qualitative data collected from a sample of recently separated, formerly enlisted OEF/OIF veterans in the New York City area. We illustrate how challenges to the civilian readjustment process such as homelessness, unemployment, and posttraumatic stress disorder can render veterans at increased risk for negative health consequences and then present veterans' perspectives as they outline several innovative solutions to these obstacles. We conclude by discussing several overdose prevention efforts currently underway and how they might be adapted to meet the opioid and substance misuse challenges veterans face. PMID:23869461

  14. New Exposure Biomarkers as Tools for Breast Cancer Epidemiology, Biomonitoring, and Prevention: A Systematic Approach Based on Animal Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Ackerman, Janet M.; Attfield, Kathleen R.; Brody, Julia Green

    2014-01-01

    Background: Exposure to chemicals that cause rodent mammary gland tumors is common, but few studies have evaluated potential breast cancer risks of these chemicals in humans. Objective: The goal of this review was to identify and bring together the needed tools to facilitate the measurement of biomarkers of exposure to potential breast carcinogens in breast cancer studies and biomonitoring. Methods: We conducted a structured literature search to identify measurement methods for exposure biomarkers for 102 chemicals that cause rodent mammary tumors. To evaluate concordance, we compared human and animal evidence for agents identified as plausibly linked to breast cancer in major reviews. To facilitate future application of exposure biomarkers, we compiled information about relevant cohort studies. Results: Exposure biomarkers have been developed for nearly three-quarters of these rodent mammary carcinogens. Analytical methods have been published for 73 of the chemicals. Some of the remaining chemicals could be measured using modified versions of existing methods for related chemicals. In humans, biomarkers of exposure have been measured for 62 chemicals, and for 45 in a nonoccupationally exposed population. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has measured 23 in the U.S. population. Seventy-five of the rodent mammary carcinogens fall into 17 groups, based on exposure potential, carcinogenicity, and structural similarity. Carcinogenicity in humans and rodents is generally consistent, although comparisons are limited because few agents have been studied in humans. We identified 44 cohort studies, with a total of > 3.5 million women enrolled, that have recorded breast cancer incidence and stored biological samples. Conclusions: Exposure measurement methods and cohort study resources are available to expand biomonitoring and epidemiology related to breast cancer etiology and prevention. Citation: Rudel RA, Ackerman JM, Attfield KR, Brody JG. 2014. New exposure

  15. Assessment of dietary exposure to flavouring substances via consumption of flavoured teas. Part II: transfer rates of linalool and linalyl esters into Earl Grey tea infusions.

    PubMed

    Orth, Anne-Marie; Poplacean, Iulia; Fastowski, Oxana; Engel, Karl-Heinz

    2014-01-01

    The assessment of dietary exposure via the consumption of flavoured foods is a key element of the safety evaluation of flavouring substances. Linalyl acetate and linalool are the major flavouring substances in Earl Grey teas; the objective of this study was to determine their transfer rates from the tea leaves into the tea beverage upon preparation of a hot water infusion. Spiking experiments revealed a transfer rate of 66% for linalool. In contrast, the transfer rate for linalyl acetate was only 1.9%; in turn, the hydrolysis product linalool (17.0%) and a spectrum (19.9%) of degradation and rearrangement products (monoterpene alcohols, esters and hydrocarbons) were present in the tea beverage. The transfer rates were shown to be proportional to the length of the infusion. The impact of the hot water treatment on the enantiomeric compositions of linalyl acetate and linalool was determined, and structure-dependent experiments were performed by variation of the acyl and the alcohol moiety of the monoterpene ester. Comparative dietary exposure assessments demonstrated the need to take correction factors based on the experimentally determined transfer rates into account. Based on tea consumption data from the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (2000/2001), the exposure to linalyl acetate ranges from 0.2 mg day(-1) (average) to 1.8 mg day(-1) (high). The corresponding values for linalool are 4.2 mg day(-1) (average) and 46.6 mg day(-1) (high). The exposure of linalool via consumption of the tea beverage is approximately 26 times higher than that of linalyl acetate, although in the flavoured tea leaves the median content of linalyl acetate is approximately 1.8 times higher than that of linalool. PMID:24237351

  16. Defining Daptomycin Resistance Prevention Exposures in Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecium and E. faecalis

    PubMed Central

    Werth, B. J.; Steed, M. E.; Ireland, C. E.; Tran, T. T.; Nonejuie, P.; Murray, B. E.; Rose, W. E.; Sakoulas, G.; Pogliano, J.; Arias, C. A.

    2014-01-01

    Daptomycin is used off-label for enterococcal infections; however, dosing targets for resistance prevention remain undefined. Doses of 4 to 6 mg/kg of body weight/day approved for staphylococci are likely inadequate against enterococci due to reduced susceptibility. We modeled daptomycin regimens in vitro to determine the minimum exposure to prevent daptomycin resistance (Dapr) in enterococci. Daptomycin simulations of 4 to 12 mg/kg/day (maximum concentration of drug in serum [Cmax] of 57.8, 93.9, 123.3, 141.1, and 183.7 mg/liter; half-life [t1/2] of 8 h) were tested against one Enterococcus faecium strain (S447) and one Enterococcus faecalis strain (S613) in a simulated endocardial vegetation pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model over 14 days. Samples were plated on media containing 3× the MIC of daptomycin to detect Dapr. Mutations in genes encoding proteins associated with cell envelope homeostasis (yycFG and liaFSR) and phospholipid metabolism (cardiolipin synthase [cls] and cyclopropane fatty acid synthetase [cfa]) were investigated in Dapr derivatives. Dapr derivatives were assessed for changes in susceptibility, surface charge, membrane depolarization, cell wall thickness (CWT), and growth rate. Strains S447 and S613 developed Dapr after simulations of 4 to 8 mg/kg/day but not 10 to 12 mg/kg/day. MICs for Dapr strains ranged from 8 to 256 mg/liter. Some S613 derivatives developed mutations in liaF or cls. S447 derivatives lacked mutations in these genes. Dapr derivatives from both strains exhibited lowered growth rates, up to a 72% reduction in daptomycin-induced depolarization and up to 6-nm increases in CWT (P < 0.01). Peak/MIC and AUC0–24/MIC ratios (AUC0–24 is the area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h) associated with Dapr prevention were 72.1 and 780 for S447 and 144 and 1561 for S613, respectively. Daptomycin doses of 10 mg/kg/day may be required to prevent Dapr in serious enterococcal infections. PMID:24957825

  17. Evidence of Shared Genome-Wide Additive Genetic Effects on Interpersonal Trauma Exposure and Generalized Vulnerability to Drug Dependence in a Population of Substance Users.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Rohan H C; Nugent, Nicole R; Brick, Leslie A; Bidwell, Cinnamon L; McGeary, John E; Keller, Matthew C; Knopik, Valerie S

    2016-06-01

    Exposure to traumatic experiences is associated with an increased risk for drug dependence and poorer response to substance abuse treatment (Claus & Kindleberger, 2002; Jaycox, Ebener, Damesek, & Becker, 2004). Despite this evidence, the reasons for the observed associations of trauma and the general tendency to be dependent upon drugs of abuse remain unclear. Data (N = 2,596) from the Study of Addiction: Genetics and Environment were used to analyze (a) the degree to which commonly occurring single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; minor allele frequency > 1%) in the human genome explains exposure to interpersonal traumatic experiences, and (b) the extent to which additive genetic effects on trauma are shared with additive genetic effects on drug dependence. Our results suggested moderate additive genetic influences on interpersonal trauma, h(2) SNP-Interpersonal = .47, 95% confidence interval (CI) [.10, .85], that are partially shared with additive genetic effects on generalized vulnerability to drug dependence, h(2) SNP-DD = .36, 95% CI [.11, .61]; rG-SNP = .49, 95% CI [.02, .96]. Although the design/technique does not exclude the possibility that substance abuse causally increases risk for traumatic experiences (or vice versa), these findings raise the possibility that commonly occurring SNPs influence both the general tendency towards drug dependence and interpersonal trauma. PMID:27214850

  18. Effects of chronic normobaric hypoxic and hypercapnic exposure in rats: Prevention of experimental chronic mountain sickness by hypercapnia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lincoln, B.; Bonkovsky, H. L.; Ou, Lo-Chang

    1987-09-01

    A syndrome of experimental chronic mountain sickness can be produced in the Hilltop strain of Sprague-Dawley rats by chronic hypobaric hypoxic exposure. This syndrome is characterized by polycythemia, plasma hemoglobinemia, pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular hypertrophy with eventual failure and death. It has generally been assumed that these changes are caused by chronic hypoxemia, not by hypobaric exposure per se. We have now confirmed this directly by showing that chronic normobaric hypoxic exposure (10.5% O2) produces similar hematologic and hemodynamic changes. Further, the addition of hypercapnic exposure to the hypoxic exposure blunted or prevented the effects of the hypoxic exposure probably by stimulating respiration, thus increasing the rate of oxygen delivery to the cells. Changes in the rate-controlling enzymes of hepatic heme metabolism, 5-aminolevulinate synthase and heme oxygenase, and in cytochrome(s) P-450, the major hepatic hemoprotein(s), were also measured in hypoxic and hypercapnic rats. Hypoxia decreased 5-aminolevulinate synthase and increased cytochrome(s) P-450, probably by increasing the size of a “regulatory” heme pool within hepatocytes. These changes were also prevented by the addition of hypercapnic to hypoxic exposure.

  19. [Pathomorphological picture of various internal organs of rats after long-term exposure to toxic substances in raw coke gas].

    PubMed

    Madej, J A; Houszka, M; Peryt, A

    1987-01-01

    The authors carried out morphological evaluation of a long-term action of toxic substances at low concentrations (about 1 NDS), contained in raw coke oven gas, i.e. gases: CO, H2S, SO2, NH3 and benzene, as well as dusts containing: C, SiO2, Pb and Cd on the liver and kidneys of three-month old male rats of the Wistar strain. The animals were exposed to the above toxic substances in an experimental chamber for 24 hr, and for 8 hr every day during 12 and 18 months. It was found that pathogenic action of the substances contained in raw coke oven gas was not the total action of all chemical components, but their complicated resultant. Significant differences in the intensity of morphological changes in lungs were observed between rats exposed for 8 hr ans 24 hr/day, in favour of the former. Such a relationship was not observed between 12 and 18 month exposition. Besides the catarrh of the air passages and cellular-fibrous changes in pulmonary alveoli, focal metaplasia of cells of bronchial epithelium was observed, which suggested the possibility of carcinogenic action of coke oven gases and dusts. No distinct morphological differences were found in the liver and kidneys between 8 and 24 hr exposition, whereas great differences were found between 12 and 18 months exposition. Chronic interstitial pyelitis was observed in kidneys after 18 month exposition. PMID:3697342

  20. Social justice and HIV vaccine research in the age of pre-exposure prophylaxis and treatment as prevention.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Theodore C; Sugarman, Jeremy

    2013-09-01

    The advent of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and treatment as prevention (TasP) as means of HIV prevention raises issues of justice concerning how most fairly and equitably to apportion resources in support of the burgeoning variety of established HIV treatment and prevention measures and further HIV research, including HIV vaccine research. We apply contemporary approaches to social justice to assess the ethical justification for allocating resources in support of HIV vaccine research given competing priorities to support broad implementation of HIV treatment and prevention measures, including TasP and PrEP. We argue that there is prima facie reason to believe that a safe and effective preventive HIV vaccine would offer a distinct set of ethically significant benefits not provided by current HIV treatment or prevention methods. It is thereby possible to justify continued support for HIV vaccine research despite tension with priorities for treatment, prevention, and other research. We then consider a counter-argument to such a justification based on the uncertainty of successfully developing a safe and effective preventive HIV vaccine. Finally, we discuss how HIV vaccine research might now be ethically designed and conducted given the new preventive options of TasP and PrEP, focusing on the ethically appropriate standard of prevention for HIV vaccine trials. PMID:24033297

  1. The EARLY ALLIANCE prevention trial: an integrated set of interventions to promote competence and reduce risk for conduct disorder, substance abuse, and school failure.

    PubMed

    Dumas, J E; Prinz, R J; Smith, E P; Laughlin, J

    1999-03-01

    Describes the EARLY ALLIANCE interventions, an integrated set of four programs designed to promote competence and reduce risk for early-onset conduct disorder, substance abuse, and school failure. These interventions are evaluated as part of a prevention trial that begins at school entry and targets child functioning and socializing practices across multiple contexts (school, peer group, family) and multiple domains (affective, social, and achievement coping-competence). The paper presents the conceptual foundation of the four interventions, including a synopsis of the risk and protective factors associated with conduct disorder and related outcomes, and of the coping-competence model driving EARLY ALLIANCE. The developmental rationale, intended impact, and procedures are described for each intervention: a universally administered classroom program and indicated, peer, reading-mentoring, and family programs. Interventions are currently being tested in a prevention trial, which is briefly summarized. PMID:11324096

  2. Evaluation of a substance abuse, HIV and hepatitis prevention initiative for urban Native Americans: the Native Voices program.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Kyle; Tom, Nazbah

    2011-01-01

    Although many community-based prevention interventions are conducted in American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities, few studies report the outcomes. This article is a mixed methods outcome evaluation of an HIV/AIDS, hepatitis, and substance abuse prevention intervention for an urban AI/AN community, Native Voices. The study group wascomposed of 100youth (ages 13 to 18) who lived in the San Francisco Bay Area. The outcome measures of interest were knowledge, perception of risk, sexual self-efficacy, ethnic identity, and sexual risk behavior. The findings indicate that knowledge, perception of risk, and sexual self-efficacy increased, while no change was shown in measures of ethnic identity and behavior. Findings extended prior research by evaluating the Gathering of Native Americans (GONA) curriculum, a promising intervention designed for AI/AN people. PMID:22400468

  3. The contributions of early adverse experiences and trajectories of respiratory sinus arrhythmia on the development of neurobehavioral disinhibition among children with prenatal substance exposure

    PubMed Central

    Conradt, Elisabeth; Degarmo, David; Fisher, Phil; Abar, Beau; Lester, Barry M.; Lagasse, Linda L.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R.; Whitaker, Toni M.; Hammond, Jane A.

    2015-01-01

    Neurobehavioral disinhibition (ND) is a complex condition reflecting a wide range of problems involving difficulties with emotion regulation and behavior control. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) is a physiological correlate of emotion regulation that has been studied in a variety of at-risk populations; however, there are no studies of RSA in children with ND. Data were drawn from a prospective longitudinal study of prenatal substance exposure that included 1,073 participants. Baseline RSA and RSA reactivity to an attention-demanding task were assessed at 3, 4, 5, and 6 years. ND was assessed at ages 8/9, 11, and 13/14 years via behavioral dysregulation and executive dysfunction composite measures. Greater exposure to early adversity was related to less RSA reactivity at 3 years, increases in RSA reactivity from ages 3 to 6 years, and increased behavioral dysregulation from ages 8/9 to 13/14. RSA reactivity was examined as a moderator of the association between early adversity and changes in ND. A significant Early Adversity × RSA Reactivity quadratic interaction revealed that children with decelerations in RSA reactivity exhibited increases in behavioral dysregulation, regardless of their exposure to early adversity. However, greater exposure to early adversity was related to greater increases in behavioral dysregulation, but only if children exhibited accelerations in RSA reactivity from ages 3 to 6 years. The results contribute to our understanding of how interactions across multiple levels of analysis contribute to the development of ND. PMID:24909973

  4. The contributions of early adverse experiences and trajectories of respiratory sinus arrhythmia on the development of neurobehavioral disinhibition among children with prenatal substance exposure.

    PubMed

    Conradt, Elisabeth; Degarmo, David; Fisher, Phil; Abar, Beau; Lester, Barry M; Lagasse, Linda L; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R; Whitaker, Toni M; Hammond, Jane A

    2014-11-01

    Neurobehavioral disinhibition (ND) is a complex condition reflecting a wide range of problems involving difficulties with emotion regulation and behavior control. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) is a physiological correlate of emotion regulation that has been studied in a variety of at-risk populations; however, there are no studies of RSA in children with ND. Data were drawn from a prospective longitudinal study of prenatal substance exposure that included 1,073 participants. Baseline RSA and RSA reactivity to an attention-demanding task were assessed at 3, 4, 5, and 6 years. ND was assessed at ages 8/9, 11, and 13/14 years via behavioral dysregulation and executive dysfunction composite measures. Greater exposure to early adversity was related to less RSA reactivity at 3 years, increases in RSA reactivity from ages 3 to 6 years, and increased behavioral dysregulation from ages 8/9 to 13/14. RSA reactivity was examined as a moderator of the association between early adversity and changes in ND. A significant Early Adversity × RSA Reactivity quadratic interaction revealed that children with decelerations in RSA reactivity exhibited increases in behavioral dysregulation, regardless of their exposure to early adversity. However, greater exposure to early adversity was related to greater increases in behavioral dysregulation, but only if children exhibited accelerations in RSA reactivity from ages 3 to 6 years. The results contribute to our understanding of how interactions across multiple levels of analysis contribute to the development of ND. PMID:24909973

  5. Next steps for birth defects research and prevention: The Birth Defects Study To Evaluate Pregnancy exposureS (BD-STEPS)

    PubMed Central

    Tinker, Sarah C.; Carmichael, Suzan L.; Anderka, Marlene; Browne, Marilyn L.; Caspers Conway, Kristin M.; Meyer, Robert E.; Nembhard, Wendy N.; Olney, Richard S.; Reefhuis, Jennita

    2015-01-01

    Background The Birth Defects Study To Evaluate Pregnancy exposureS (BD-STEPS) is a population-based, multi-Center case-control study of modifiable risk factors for selected birth defects in the United States. BD-STEPS is the second major research effort of the Centers for Birth Defects Research and Prevention, which extends and expands the initial research effort, the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS). Methods BD-STEPS focuses on 17 categories of structural birth defects selected based on severity, prevalence, consistent ascertainment, and previous findings that warrant additional research. Cases are identified through existing birth defects surveillance programs; controls are from vital records or birth hospital logs from the same catchment area. BD-STEPS usess a standardized computer-assisted telephone interview to collect information from case and control mothers on topics including demographics, health conditions, and medication use. Following the maternal interview, selected Centers request permission to sample residual newborn screening blood spots from state repositories for genetic analyses. New components planned for BD-STEPS include linkages with external datasets and use of online questionnaires to collect in-depth information on selected exposures. Results BD-STEPS extends NBDPS by continuing to collect data on many exposures that were assessed in NBDPS, allowing data from both studies to be combined and providing an unprecedented sample size to analyze rare exposures. BD-STEPS expands upon NBDPS by collecting more detailed information on existing exposures as well as new exposures. Conclusions The goal of BD-STEPS is to provide women and healthcare providers with information they need to make decisions to promote the healthiest pregnancy possible. PMID:25846741

  6. Role of the pharmacist in pre-exposure chemoprophylaxis (PrEP) therapy for HIV prevention

    PubMed Central

    Clauson, Kevin A.; Polen, Hyla H.; Joseph, Shine A.; Zapantis, Antonia

    2008-01-01

    With a global estimate of 2.5 million new infections of HIV occurring yearly, discovering novel methods to help stem the spread of the virus is critical. The use of antiretroviral chemoprophylaxis for preventing HIV after accidental or occupational exposure and in maternal to fetal transmission has become a widely accepted method to combat HIV. Based on this success, pre-exposure chemoprophylaxis (PrEP) is being explored in at-risk patient populations such as injecting drug users, female sex workers and men who have sex with men. This off-label and unmonitored use has created a need for education and intervention by pharmacists and other healthcare professionals. Pharmacists should educate themselves on PrEP and be prepared to counsel patients about their means of obtaining it (e.g. borrowing or sharing medications and ordering from disreputable Internet pharmacies). They should also be proactive about medication therapy management in these patients due to clinically important drug interactions with PrEP medications. Only one trial exploring the safety and efficacy of tenofovir as PrEP has been completed thus far. However, five ongoing trials are in various stages and two additional studies are scheduled for the near future. Unfortunately, studies in this arena have met with many challenges that have threatened to derail progress. Ethical controversy surrounding post-trial care of participants who seroconvert during studies, as well as concerns over emerging viral resistance and logistical site problems, have already halted several PrEP trials. Information about these early trials has already filtered down to affected individuals who are experimenting with this unproven therapy as an “evening before pill”. The potential for PrEP is promising; however, more extensive trials are necessary to establish its safety and efficacy. Pharmacists are well-positioned to play a key role in helping patients make choices about PrEP, managing their therapy, and developing

  7. Role of the pharmacist in pre-exposure chemoprophylaxis (PrEP) therapy for HIV prevention.

    PubMed

    Clauson, Kevin A; Polen, Hyla H; Joseph, Shine A; Zapantis, Antonia

    2009-01-01

    With a global estimate of 2.5 million new infections of HIV occurring yearly, discovering novel methods to help stem the spread of the virus is critical. The use of antiretroviral chemoprophylaxis for preventing HIV after accidental or occupational exposure and in maternal to fetal transmission has become a widely accepted method to combat HIV. Based on this success, pre-exposure chemoprophylaxis (PrEP) is being explored in at-risk patient populations such as injecting drug users, female sex workers and men who have sex with men. This off-label and unmonitored use has created a need for education and intervention by pharmacists and other healthcare professionals. Pharmacists should educate themselves on PrEP and be prepared to counsel patients about their means of obtaining it (e.g. borrowing or sharing medications and ordering from disreputable Internet pharmacies). They should also be proactive about medication therapy management in these patients due to clinically important drug interactions with PrEP medications. Only one trial exploring the safety and efficacy of tenofovir as PrEP has been completed thus far. However, five ongoing trials are in various stages and two additional studies are scheduled for the near future. Unfortunately, studies in this arena have met with many challenges that have threatened to derail progress. Ethical controversy surrounding post-trial care of participants who seroconvert during studies, as well as concerns over emerging viral resistance and logistical site problems, have already halted several PrEP trials. Information about these early trials has already filtered down to affected individuals who are experimenting with this unproven therapy as an "evening before pill". The potential for PrEP is promising; however, more extensive trials are necessary to establish its safety and efficacy. Pharmacists are well-positioned to play a key role in helping patients make choices about PrEP, managing their therapy, and developing policy

  8. Pre-exposure prophylaxis to prevent HIV infection: current status, future opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Krakower, Douglas S; Mayer, Kenneth H

    2015-02-01

    As the global incidence of HIV exceeds 2 million new infections annually, effective interventions to decrease HIV transmission are needed. Randomized, placebo-controlled studies have demonstrated that daily oral antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with a fixed-dose combination tablet containing tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine can significantly reduce HIV incidence among diverse at-risk populations. In these studies, the efficacy of PrEP was correlated with levels of adherence. Official guidelines recommend provision of PrEP to people at greatest risk of HIV acquisition, and demonstration projects suggest that high levels of uptake and adherence are possible outside of controlled studies. However, several potential barriers to implementing PrEP remain. These challenges include low awareness and utilization of PrEP by at-risk individuals, uncertainty about adherence in 'real-world' settings, the majority of healthcare providers being untrained in PrEP provision, limited data about potential adverse effects from long-term use of tenofovir-emtricitabine, high costs of PrEP medications, and stigma associated with PrEP use and the behaviors that would warrant PrEP. Innovative pharmacologic chemoprophylactic approaches could provide solutions to some of these challenges. Less-than-daily oral dosing regimens and long-acting injectable medications could reduce pill burdens and facilitate adherence, and local delivery of PrEP medications to genital compartments via gels, rings and films may limit systemic drug exposure and potential toxicities. As the portfolio of chemoprophylactic agents and delivery systems expands to meet the diverse sexual health needs and product preferences of individuals who may benefit from PrEP, it is hoped that antiretroviral chemoprophylaxis could become an acceptable, feasible, and highly effective addition to existing HIV prevention strategies. PMID:25673022

  9. Infant of a substance using mother

    MedlinePlus

    ... Maternal substance use; Maternal drug use; Narcotic exposure - infant; Substance use disorder - infant ... ARE THE SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS SEEN IN AN INFANT OF A SUBSTANCE-ABUSING MOTHER? Babies born to ...

  10. Preventing substance misuse: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial of the Strengthening Families Programme 10–14 UK (SFP 10–14 UK)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Prevention of alcohol, drug and tobacco misuse by young people is a key public health priority. There is a need to develop the evidence base through rigorous evaluations of innovative approaches to substance misuse prevention. The Strengthening Families Programme 10–14 is a universal family-based alcohol, drugs and tobacco prevention programme, which has achieved promising results in US trials, and which now requires cross-cultural assessment. This paper therefore describes the protocol for a randomised controlled trial of the UK version of the Strengthening Families Programme 10–14 (SFP 10–14 UK). Methods/Design The trial comprises a pragmatic cluster randomised controlled effectiveness trial with families as the unit of randomisation, with embedded process and economic evaluations. Participating families will be randomised to one of two treatment groups - usual care with full access to existing services (control group), or usual care plus SFP 10–14 UK (intervention group). The trial has two primary outcomes - the number of occasions that young people report having drunk alcohol in the last 30 days, and drunkenness during the last 30 days, both dichotomised as ‘never’ and ‘1-2 times or more’. The main follow-up is at 2 years past baseline, and short-term and intermediate outcomes are also measured at 9 and 15 months. Discussion The results from this trial will provide evidence on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an innovative universal family-based substance misuse prevention programme in a UK context. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN63550893. PMID:24438460

  11. Risky Substance Use Environments and Addiction: A New Frontier for Environmental Justice Research

    PubMed Central

    Mennis, Jeremy; Stahler, Gerald J.; Mason, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Substance use disorders are widely recognized as one of the most pressing global public health problems, and recent research indicates that environmental factors, including access and exposure to substances of abuse, neighborhood disadvantage and disorder, and environmental barriers to treatment, influence substance use behaviors. Racial and socioeconomic inequities in the factors that create risky substance use environments may engender disparities in rates of substance use disorders and treatment outcomes. Environmental justice researchers, with substantial experience in addressing racial and ethnic inequities in environmental risk from technological and other hazards, should consider similar inequities in risky substance use environments as an environmental justice issue. Research should aim at illustrating where, why, and how such inequities in risky substance use environments occur, the implications of such inequities for disparities in substance use disorders and treatment outcomes, and the implications for tobacco, alcohol, and drug policies and prevention and treatment programs. PMID:27322303

  12. Risky Substance Use Environments and Addiction: A New Frontier for Environmental Justice Research.

    PubMed

    Mennis, Jeremy; Stahler, Gerald J; Mason, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Substance use disorders are widely recognized as one of the most pressing global public health problems, and recent research indicates that environmental factors, including access and exposure to substances of abuse, neighborhood disadvantage and disorder, and environmental barriers to treatment, influence substance use behaviors. Racial and socioeconomic inequities in the factors that create risky substance use environments may engender disparities in rates of substance use disorders and treatment outcomes. Environmental justice researchers, with substantial experience in addressing racial and ethnic inequities in environmental risk from technological and other hazards, should consider similar inequities in risky substance use environments as an environmental justice issue. Research should aim at illustrating where, why, and how such inequities in risky substance use environments occur, the implications of such inequities for disparities in substance use disorders and treatment outcomes, and the implications for tobacco, alcohol, and drug policies and prevention and treatment programs. PMID:27322303

  13. Perinatal Substance Abuse: What's Best for the Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulsen, Marie Kanne

    This report, which is based on the work of the Perinatal Substance Exposure Think Tanks, establishes priorities for statewide services in California to young children who are prenatally exposed to alcohol and drugs. Although the report focuses on the developmental needs of children, it also examines efforts to provide prevention and treatment…

  14. Screening for Trauma Exposure, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Depression Symptoms among Mothers Receiving Child Welfare Preventive Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemtob, Claude M.; Griffing, Sascha; Tullberg, Erika; Roberts, Elizabeth; Ellis, Peggy

    2011-01-01

    The role of parental trauma exposure and related mental health symptoms as risk factors for child maltreatment for parents involved with the child welfare (CW) system has received limited attention. In particular, little is known about the extent to which mothers receiving CW services to prevent maltreatment have experienced trauma and suffered…

  15. Knowledge, Attitudes and Preventive Efforts of Malaysian Medical Students Regarding Exposure to Environmental Tobacco and Cigarette Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisch, Ann Stirling; Kurtz, Margot; Shamsuddin, Khadijah

    1999-01-01

    Study examines changes in knowledge, attitudes, and preventive efforts of Malaysian students concerning cigarette smoking and environmental exposure to tobacco smoke from their first pre-clinical year in medical school until their final clinical year. Although there were significant improvements in knowledge about smoking and environmental…

  16. Preliminary Predictors of within-Session Adherence to Exposure and Response Prevention in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Jessica; Caporino, Nicole E.; De Nadai, Alessandro S.; Truax, Tatyana; Lewin, Adam B.; Jung, Leah; Park, Jennifer M.; Khan, Yasmeen Ali; Murphy, Tanya K.; Storch, Eric A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cognitive-behavioral therapy with exposure and response prevention (ERP) is an effective treatment for pediatric OCD; however, up to 30 % of children are treatment non-responders and as many as 40% are partial responders. Although poor treatment adherence has been linked to attenuated response in adults with OCD, little research has…

  17. Cadmium exposure in the population: from health risks to strategies of prevention.

    PubMed

    Nawrot, Tim S; Staessen, Jan A; Roels, Harry A; Munters, Elke; Cuypers, Ann; Richart, Tom; Ruttens, Ann; Smeets, Karen; Clijsters, Herman; Vangronsveld, Jaco

    2010-10-01

    We focus on the recent evidence that elucidates our understanding about the effects of cadmium (Cd) on human health and their prevention. Recently, there has been substantial progress in the exploration of the shape of the Cd concentration-response function on osteoporosis and mortality. Environmental exposure to Cd increases total mortality in a continuous fashion without evidence of a threshold, independently of kidney function and other classical factors associated with mortality including age, gender, smoking and social economic status. Pooled hazard rates of two recent environmental population based cohort studies revealed that for each doubling of urinary Cd concentration, the relative risk for mortality increases with 17% (95% CI 4.2-33.1%; P < 0.0001). Tubular kidney damage starts at urinary Cd concentrations ranging between 0.5 and 2 μg urinary Cd/g creatinine, and recent studies focusing on bone effects show increased risk of osteoporosis even at urinary Cd below 1 μg Cd/g creatinine. The non-smoking adult population has urinary Cd concentrations close to or higher than 0.5 μg Cd/g creatinine. To diminish the transfer of Cd from soil to plants for human consumption, the bioavailability of soil Cd for the plants should be reduced (external bioavailability) by maintaining agricultural and garden soils pH close to neutral (pH-H(2)O of 7.5; pH-KCL of 6.5). Reducing the systemic bioavailability of intestinal Cd can be best achieved by preserving a balanced iron status. The latter might especially be relevant in groups with a lower intake of iron, such as vegetarians, and women in reproductive phase of life. In exposed populations, house dust loaded with Cd is an additional relevant exposure route. In view of the insidious etiology of health effects associated with low dose exposure to Cd and the current European Cd intake which is close to the tolerable weekly intake, one should not underestimate the importance of the recent epidemiological evidence on

  18. Anthropometry in 5- to 9-Year-Old Greenlandic and Ukrainian Children in Relation to Prenatal Exposure to Perfluorinated Alkyl Substances

    PubMed Central

    Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Vrijheid, Martine; Valvi, Damaskini; Pedersen, Henning Sloth; Zviezdai, Valentyna; Jönsson, Bo A.G.; Lindh, Christian H.; Bonde, Jens Peter; Toft, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    Background In some animal studies, perfluorinated alkyl substances are suggested to induce weight gain. Human epidemiological studies investigating these associations are sparse. Objective We examined pregnancy serum concentrations of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and the prevalence of offspring overweight (> 1 SD) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) > 0.5 at 5–9 years of age. Methods Sera from 1,022 pregnant women enrolled in the INUENDO cohort (2002–2004) from Greenland and Kharkiv (Ukraine) were analyzed for PFOA and PFOS using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Relative risks (RR) of being overweight and having WHtR > 0.5 in relation to continuous and categorized (tertiles) PFOA and PFOS were calculated at follow-up (2010–2012) using generalized linear models. Results Pooled PFOA median (range) was 1.3 (0.2–5.1) and PFOS median (range) was 10.8 (0.8–73.0) ng/mL. For each natural logarithm-unit (ln-unit) increase of pregnancy PFOA, the adjusted RR of offspring overweight was 1.11 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.82, 1.53] in Greenlandic children. In Ukrainian children, the adjusted RR of offspring overweight was 1.02 (95% CI: 0.72, 1.44) for each ln-unit increase of pregnancy PFOA. Prenatal exposure to PFOS was not associated with overweight in country-specific or pooled analysis. The adjusted RR of having WHtR > 0.5 for each ln-unit increase of prenatal exposure to PFOA was 1.30 (95% CI: 0.97, 1.74) in the pooled analysis. For 1–ln-unit increase of prenatal exposure to PFOS, the adjusted RR of having a WHtR > 0.5 was 1.38 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.82) in the pooled analysis. Conclusions The results indicate that prenatal PFOA and PFOS exposures may be associated with child waist-to-height ratio > 0.5. Prenatal PFOA and PFOS exposures were not associated with overweight. Citation Høyer BB, Ramlau-Hansen CH, Vrijheid M, Valvi D, Pedersen HS, Zviezdai V, Jönsson BA, Lindh CH, Bonde JP, Toft G. 2015. Anthropometry

  19. The Role of Substance-Specific Skills and Cognitions in the Effectiveness of a School-Based Prevention Program on Smoking Incidence.

    PubMed

    Maruska, Karin; Hansen, Julia; Hanewinkel, Reiner; Isensee, Barbara

    2016-09-01

    "Eigenständig werden 5+6" (Becoming independent 5+6) is a German school-based smoking prevention program that draws on social competence and social influence approaches. It was investigated whether the program's effect on smoking onset is mediated by substance-specific skills and cognitions such as knowledge, attitudes/risk perception, normative expectations, resistance skills, and refusal self-efficacy. Multiple mediation analyses revealed a statistically significant total indirect effect that accounted for 30.8% of the total effect. When considered separately, significant indirect effects could be found for normative expectations concerning peer smoking and the resistance skill of saying 'no'. Between these two mediators, the percentage of total effect mediated varied between 9.8% and 10.3%. Results of the current study emphasize the importance of substance-specific skills and cognitions in the effectiveness of school-based programs combining social competence and social influence curricula in preventing adolescent smoking onset. PMID:26024672

  20. Prevention of and response to inadvertent exposure of embryo/fetus to ionizing radiation, due to medical exposure of the mother. The Greek regulatory authority initiatives.

    PubMed

    Economides, Sotirios; Boziari, Argiro; Vogiatzi, Stavroula; Hourdakis, Konstantinos J; Kamenopoulou, Vassiliki; Dimitriou, Panagiotis

    2014-03-01

    Embryo/fetus (E/F) irradiation as a result of medical exposure of the mother should be avoided, unless there are strong clinical indications. Medical practitioners are assigned the primary task and obligation of ensuring overall patient protection and safety in the prescription of and during the delivery of medical exposure. In cases of unintended exposure of embryo/fetus (E/F), the risk analysis and communication is conducted by or under the supervision of medical physicists at local level. National competent authorities can contribute to the prevention, risk analysis and communication of inadvertent E/F exposure to ionizing radiation by recording, analyzing and disseminating the relevant information. Since 2001, Greek Atomic Energy Commission has established a committee with the mandate to provide advice, to keep records, to analyze and disseminate the experience gained in cases of unintended E/F exposure. During the period 2001-2011, the committee was consulted by 269 pregnant women undergone medical exposures. The conclusions from the relevant data analysis, as well as the experience gained are herein presented and discussed. PMID:23697885

  1. Perinatal Substance Abuse: A Coordinated Public Health and Child Welfare Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Robert

    1990-01-01

    Discusses legislation aimed at prevention, identification, and treatment of prenatal exposure to controlled substances and the consequences of such exposure. Coercive state intervention can include involuntary civil commitment, child protection; and criminal prosecution. Such intervention raises constitutional issues of privacy and…

  2. Cognitive Mediation of Symptom Change in Exposure and Response Prevention for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Su, Yi-Jen; Carpenter, Joseph K; Zandberg, Laurie J; Simpson, Helen Blair; Foa, Edna B

    2016-07-01

    This study examined cognitive mediators of symptom change during exposure and response prevention (EX/RP) for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Based on cognitive models of OCD, obsessive beliefs were hypothesized as a mediator of symptom change. Participants were 70 patients with primary OCD receiving EX/RP either as part of a randomized controlled trial (n=38) or in open treatment following nonresponse to risperidone or placebo in the same trial (n=32). Blinded evaluations of OCD severity and self-report assessments of three domains of obsessive beliefs (i.e., responsibility/threat of harm, importance/control of thoughts, and perfectionism/intolerance of uncertainty) were administered during acute (Weeks 0, 4 and 8) and maintenance treatment (Weeks 12 and 24). Study hypotheses were examined using cross-lagged multilevel modeling. Contrary to predictions, the obsessive beliefs domains investigated did not mediate subsequent OCD symptom reduction. In addition, OCD symptoms did not significantly mediate subsequent change in obsessive beliefs. The present study did not find evidence of cognitive mediation during EX/RP for OCD, highlighting the need to investigate other plausible mediators of symptom improvement. PMID:27423164

  3. Symptom Dimensions in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Phenomenology and Treatment Outcomes with Exposure and Ritual Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Monnica T.; Mugno, Beth; Franklin, Martin; Faber, Sonya

    2014-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a severe condition with varied symptom presentations. The cognitive-behavioral treatment with the most empirical support is currently exposure and ritual prevention (EX/RP); however, clinical impression and some empirical data suggest that certain OCD symptoms are more responsive to treatment than others. Prior work identifying symptom dimensions within OCD is discussed, including epidemiological findings, factor analytic studies, and biological findings. Symptom dimensions most reliably identified include contamination/cleaning, doubt about harm/checking, symmetry/ordering, and unacceptable thoughts/mental rituals. The phenomenology of each of these subtypes is described and research literature is summarized, emphasizing the differential effects of EX/RP and its variants on each of these primary symptom dimensions. To date it appears that EX/RP is an effective treatment for the various OCD dimensions, although not all dimensions have been adequately studied (i.e., symmetry and ordering). Modifications to treatment may be warranted for some types of symptoms. Clinical implications and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:23615340

  4. [Effective interventions to prevent health damage related to ultraviolet exposure: a review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Nguyen Thanh, Viêt; Clément, Juliette; Haroutunian, Laetitia; Léon, Christophe; Arwidson, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the current scientific knowledge on health promotion interventions designed to prevent health damage caused by natural ultraviolet (UV) exposure. The current state of knowledge in this area was assessed using a specific method including a review of literature reviews and a classification of health promotion interventions identified using scientific databases. We found a large number of promising programmes. Briefly, some interventions based on environmental changes and provision of shade were considered to be promising. Health education programmes delivered at school have been proven to be effective in various settings, from nursery school to college. Some parentbased interventions designed to promote children's sun protection behaviours have been shown to be relevant. Appearance-based actions, using for instance photoaging information, may be effective. Finally, some multi-component interventions in community settings appear to be promising. These findings present a number of limitations due to the marked diversity of outcome measures and the general quality of the documents reviewed. Furthermore, most interventions are poorly described in the reviews. The present study should therefore be considered to be a first step that needs to be completed by a more detailed description of the promising interventions and of their transposition to the French context. PMID:26751922

  5. Overcoming fear of eating: A case study of a novel use of exposure and response prevention.

    PubMed

    Glasofer, Deborah R; Albano, Anne Marie; Simpson, H Blair; Steinglass, Joanna E

    2016-06-01

    Even after successful weight restoration, many patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) continue to exhibit maladaptive eating including repetitive behaviors (i.e., food rituals) used to decrease anxiety about food, and to describe fears related to food content, including its effect on shape and weight. Although there are important differences between eating disorders and anxiety disorders, the shared clinical phenomena suggest potentially useful overlap in treatment strategies. This case study will describe treatment of a woman with AN using Exposure and Response Prevention for Anorexia Nervosa (AN-EXRP) as an adjunct to concurrent inpatient treatment. This is a novel use of a treatment approach with established efficacy in the treatment of anxiety disorders. AN-EXRP specifically targets eating-related anxiety with the intent to improve the restrictive eating patterns that persist after acute weight restoration. The case study described includes descriptions of (a) the treatment rationale and its phases of implementation, (b) illustrative sample dialogue between the patient and therapist, (c) pre- and posttreatment data on outcome measures of interest (e.g., food intake at a laboratory meal, self-report anxiety ratings, self-report eating-related rituals, and preoccupations), and (d) therapist considerations (e.g., maintaining alliance, adhering to treatment frame). (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27267508

  6. Advanced medical countermeasures for radiological accidents and nuclear disasters: prevention, prophylaxis, treatment and pre- and post-exposure management.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Slava; Jones, Jeffrey

    Countermeasures against nuclear terrorism to prevent or limit the number of irradiated human population or radiation intoxications include early identification of the nuclear terrorism event and all persons which exposed by radiation, decontamination program and procedures, radiation control, and medical countermeasures which include medical diagnosis,differential diagnosis of Acute Radiation Syndromes by Immune Enzyme Assay , pre-exposure vaccination with Human Antiradiation Vaccine, post-exposure specific treatment - de-intoxication with Radiation Antidote IgG (blocking Antiradiation Antibodies). Our Advanced Medical Technology elaborated as a part of effective countermeasure include Plan of Action.Countermeasures against nuclear terrorism to prevent or limit the number of high level of lethality and severe forms of radiation illness or intoxications include A.early identification of the nuclear terrorism event and persons exposed,b. appropriate decontamination, c. radiation control, and d.medical countermeasures and medical management of ARS. Medical countermeasures, which include medical interventions such as active immuneprophylaxis with Human Antiradiation Vaccine , passive immune-prophylaxis with Antiradiation Antitoxins immune-globulins IgG , and chemoprophylaxis - post-exposure antioxidants prophylaxis and antibioticprophylaxis. Medical countermeasures with Antiradiation Vaccine should be initiated before an exposure (if individuals are identified as being at high risk for exposure)but after a confirmed exposure event Antiradiation Vaccine not effective and Antiradiation Antidot IgG must be applyed for treatment of Acute Radiation Syndromes.

  7. Preventing Substance Abuse among Black and Hispanic Adolescent Girls: Results from a Computer-Delivered, Mother-Daughter Intervention Approach

    PubMed Central

    Schinke, Steven P.; Fang, Lin; Cole, Kristin C. A.

    2010-01-01

    This 2008 study involved 546 Black- and Hispanic-American adolescent girls and their mothers from New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut. Participants provided self-report data. Analysis of covariance indicated that the experimental intervention reduced risk factors, improved protective factors, and lowered girls' alcohol use and their future intentions to use substances. The study supports the value of computer-based and gender-specific interventions that involve girls and mothers. Future work needs to replicate and strengthen study results. Research support came from the National Institute on Drug Abuse within the National Institutes of Health of the United States Public Health Service. PMID:21190404

  8. Roles and effectiveness of lay community health workers in the prevention of mental, neurological and substance use disorders in low and middle income countries: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that lay community health workers (LHWs) could play a role in primary and secondary prevention of Mental, Neurological and Substance use (MNS) disorders in low resourced settings. We conducted a systematic review of the literature with the aim of assessing the existing evidence base for the roles and effectiveness of LHWs in primary and secondary prevention of MNS disorders in low and middle income countries (LMICs). Methods Internet searches of relevant electronic databases for articles published in English were done in August 2011 and repeated in June 2013. Abstracts and full text articles were screened according to predefined criteria. Authors were asked for additional information where necessary. Results A total of 15 studies, 11 of which were randomised, met our inclusion criteria. Studies were heterogeneous with respect to interventions, outcomes and LHWs’ roles. Reduction in symptoms of depression and improved child mental development were the common outcomes assessed. Primary prevention and secondary prevention strategies were carried out in 11 studies and 4 studies respectively .There was evidence of effectiveness of interventions however, most studies (n = 13) involved small sample sizes and all were judged to have an unclear or high risk of bias. Conclusions LHWs have the potential to provide psychosocial and psychological interventions as part of primary and secondary prevention of MNS disorders in LMICs, but there is currently insufficient robust evidence of effectiveness of LHW led preventive strategies in this setting. More studies need to be carried out in a wider range of settings in LMICs that control for risk of bias as far as possible, and that also collect indicators relating to the fidelity and cost of interventions. PMID:24119375

  9. Exposure to physical and sexual violence prior to imprisonment predicts mental health and substance use treatments in prison populations.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Francisco Caravaca; Luna, Aurelio; Mundt, Adrian

    2016-08-01

    The present study aimed to establish rates of exposure to physical or sexual violence (PSV) prior to imprisonment for prisoners in Spain and to explore whether people exposed to PSV access mental health treatment during imprisonment. In a sample of 2484 male and 225 female prisoners, socio-demographic variables, exposure to PSV prior to imprisonment and mental health treatments during imprisonment were assessed. Frequencies were calculated as per cent values with 95% confidence intervals (CI). The Risk Ratio (RR) of PSV and other socio-demographic variables to associate with mental health treatment during imprisonment was established. History of PSV was present in 35.2% (95% CI: 33.3-37.0) of the male and 40.0% (95% CI: 33.9-46.8) of the female prisoners. 70.7% (95% CI: 67.8-73.9) of the male and 76.9% (95% CI: 67.7-86.0) of the female prisoners with prior exposure to PSV were in mental health treatment during imprisonment. PSV was a significant predictor of mental health treatment during imprisonment in male (RR: 2.79; 95% CI 2.44-2.92) and female (RR: 1.94; 95% CI 1.76-2.23) prisoners. Most people with exposure to PSV prior to imprisonment access mental health treatment during imprisonment. Treatments may have to focus more on traumatic experiences. PMID:27262089

  10. Special Issue: Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuhrmann, Barbara S., Ed.; Washington, Craig S., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Presents ten articles about substance abuse: its effects, consequences, and strategies for intervention. Describes specific group therapy techniques and presents both a court service designed for assisting juveniles with drug/alcohol offenses, and a school-based substance abuse prevention program. Looks at strategies for counseling special…

  11. Prenatal exposure to phthalates, bisphenol A and perfluoroalkyl substances and cord blood levels of IgE, TSLP and IL-33.

    PubMed

    Ashley-Martin, Jillian; Dodds, Linda; Levy, Adrian R; Platt, Robert W; Marshall, Jean S; Arbuckle, Tye E

    2015-07-01

    The fetal time period is a critical window of immune system development and resulting heightened susceptibility to the adverse effects of environmental exposures. Epidemiologists and toxicologists have hypothesized that phthalates, bisphenol A (BPA) and perfluoroalkyl substance have immunotoxic properties. Immunotoxic effects of chemicals may manifest in an altered immune system profile at birth. Immunoglobulin E, thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), and interleukin-33 (IL-33) are integral in the etiology of childhood allergy and detectable at birth. The objective of this study was to determine the association between maternal levels of phthalates, bisphenol A (BPA), and perfluoroalkyl substances and elevated umbilical cord blood levels of IgE, TSLP, and IL-33. This study utilized data collected in the Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) Study, a trans-Canada cohort study of 2001 pregnant women. Of these women, 1258 had a singleton, term birth and cord blood sample. A Bayesian hierarchical model was employed to determine associations between log-transformed continuous variables and immune system biomarkers while adjusting for potential confounding from correlated environmental contaminants. Inverse, nonlinear associations were observed between maternal urinary MCPP levels and elevated levels of both IL-33/TSLP and IgE and between maternal urinary BPA levels and elevated levels of IL-33/TSLP. In this primarily urban Canadian population of pregnant women and their newborns, maternal urinary and plasma concentrations of phthalate metabolites, BPA, and perfluoroalkyl substances were not associated with immunotoxic effects that manifest as increased odds of elevated levels of IgE, TSLP or IL-33. PMID:25913155

  12. Update to agency for toxic substances and disease registry 2012 report on assessment of biota exposure to mercury originating from Savannah River Site.

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhne, W.

    2015-08-10

    The purpose of this report is to 1) update previous Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) assessment reports (Kvartek et al. 1994 and Halverson et al. 2008) on the fate of mercury in the Savannah River Site (SRS) environment and 2) address comments and recommendations from the review of SRS by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) concerning the evaluation of exposures to contaminants in biota originating from the SRS. The ATSDR reviewed and evaluated data from SRS, South Carolina Department of Health & Environmental Control (SCDHEC) and the Georgia Department of Natural Resources (GDNR) concerning the non-radioactive contaminant mercury. This report will provide a response and update to conclusions and recommendations made by the ATSDR.

  13. Are Substance Use Prevention Programs More Effective in Schools Making Adequate Yearly Progress? A Study of Project ALERT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Heddy Kovach; Ringwalt, Chris L.; Shamblen, Stephen R.; Hanley, Sean M.; Flewelling, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study sought to determine if a popular school-based drug prevention program might be effective in schools that are making adequate yearly progress (AYP). Thirty-four schools with grades 6 through 8 in 11 states were randomly assigned either to receive Project ALERT (n = 17) or to a control group (n = 17); of these, 10 intervention…

  14. Substance Use Prevention Program for Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities on Special Education Schools: A Cluster Randomised Control Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiewik, M.; VanDerNagel, J. E.?L.; Kemna, L. E.?M.; Engels, R. C.?M.?E.; DeJong, C. A.?J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Students without intellectual disability (ID) start experimenting with tobacco and alcohol between 12 and 15?years of age. However, data for 12- to 15-year old students with ID are unavailable. Prevention programs, like "prepared on time" (based on the attitude-social influence-efficacy model), are successful, but their…

  15. Substance Abuse/Use

    MedlinePlus

    ... Video Games Video Sharing Sites Webcasts/ Webinars Widgets Wikis Follow Us on New Media Virtual Office Hours ... users when they are included as part of medical and substance abuse treatment and prevention services. Syringe ...

  16. Pre-exposure prophylaxis for the primary prevention of HIV in at-risk women: empowerment and equity revisited.

    PubMed

    Kofman, Aaron; Adashi, Eli Y

    2014-01-01

    Women continue to bear a disproportionate burden of the HIV epidemic's impact. The last three years have witnessed the explosive emergence of pre-exposure prophylaxis as a viable, woman-initiated, and woman-controlled candidate for the primary prevention of HIV in women. These developments have proven particularly significant for at-risk women in environments where negotiation of safe sex is difficult. In this review, we trace the recent evolution of the pre-exposure prophylaxis vision for women, delineate the clinical trials that made it all possible, and discuss ongoing efforts required for its full actualization. PMID:25102335

  17. Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Prevention Basic Facts & Information Some factors that affect your ... control of the things that you can change. Preventive Recommendations for Adults Aged 65 and Older The ...

  18. Occupational Health Update: Focus on Preventing the Acquisition of Infections with Pre-exposure Prophylaxis and Postexposure Prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Weber, David J; Rutala, William A

    2016-09-01

    Health care personnel are commonly exposed to infectious agents via sharp injuries (eg, human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus), direct patient care (eg, pertussis and meningococcus), and the contaminated environment (eg, Clostridium difficile). An effective occupational program is a key aspect of preventing acquisition of an infection by offering the following: (1) education of health care personnel regarding proper handling of sharps, early identification and isolation of potentially infectious patients, and hand hygiene; (2) assuring immunity to vaccine-preventable diseases; and, (3) immediate availability of a medical evaluation after a nonprotected exposure to an infectious disease. PMID:27515145

  19. Maternal Exposure to Criteria Air Pollutants and Congenital Heart Defects in Offspring: Results from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study

    PubMed Central

    Luben, Thomas J.; Daniels, Julie L.; Fuentes, Montserrat; Richardson, David B.; Aylsworth, Arthur S.; Herring, Amy H.; Anderka, Marlene; Botto, Lorenzo; Correa, Adolfo; Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Langlois, Peter H.; Mosley, Bridget; Shaw, Gary M.; Siffel, Csaba; Olshan, Andrew F.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Epidemiologic literature suggests that exposure to air pollutants is associated with fetal development. Objectives: We investigated maternal exposures to air pollutants during weeks 2–8 of pregnancy and their associations with congenital heart defects. Methods: Mothers from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a nine-state case–control study, were assigned 1-week and 7-week averages of daily maximum concentrations of carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and sulfur dioxide and 24-hr measurements of fine and coarse particulate matter using the closest air monitor within 50 km to their residence during early pregnancy. Depending on the pollutant, a maximum of 4,632 live-birth controls and 3,328 live-birth, fetal-death, or electively terminated cases had exposure data. Hierarchical regression models, adjusted for maternal demographics and tobacco and alcohol use, were constructed. Principal component analysis was used to assess these relationships in a multipollutant context. Results: Positive associations were observed between exposure to nitrogen dioxide and coarctation of the aorta and pulmonary valve stenosis. Exposure to fine particulate matter was positively associated with hypoplastic left heart syndrome but inversely associated with atrial septal defects. Examining individual exposure-weeks suggested associations between pollutants and defects that were not observed using the 7-week average. Associations between left ventricular outflow tract obstructions and nitrogen dioxide and between hypoplastic left heart syndrome and particulate matter were supported by findings from the multipollutant analyses, although estimates were attenuated at the highest exposure levels. Conclusions: Using daily maximum pollutant levels and exploring individual exposure-weeks revealed some positive associations between certain pollutants and defects and suggested potential windows of susceptibility during pregnancy. Citation: Stingone JA, Luben TJ

  20. Success, Failure, and Unfinished Business of Education, Prevention, Policy, and Intervention Programs on Substance Misuse in Brazilian Sport.

    PubMed

    Santos, Azenildo M

    2015-01-01

    The current Brazilian situation is such that it is difficult to obtain a worldwide evaluation of failure in education, intervention, or prevention programs. How fragile Brazil's anti-doping system is, its appropriateness as well as its relevance, with needed policy infrastructures for achieving the selected goals, and how wide the gap is between education and prevention program effectiveness between high-performance athletes and recreational practitioners who just want to look good. An additional concern, and ever present flaw regarding Brazil's "common sportsman" in day-to-day society is their not receiving known and necessary "sports education," enabling the development of an "at-risk" population for self-harm. Reflections on public health policy are noted. PMID:26361918

  1. Exposure of activated sludge to nanosilver and silver ion: Inhibitory effects and binding to the fractions of extracellular polymeric substances.

    PubMed

    Geyik, Ayse Gul; Çeçen, Ferhan

    2016-07-01

    The main aim of the study was to determine the inhibitory effects of Ag(+) and AgNP (commercial and synthesized) on activated sludge by using respirometry. Along with this aim, also the changes taking place in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) were studied. Additionally, the binding of Ag(+) or AgNP to the different fractions in EPS was assessed using voltammetry. Synthesized AgNP led to an obvious inhibition whereas commercial AgNP had no effect on activated sludge. For Ag(+) and AgNP, IC50 values were found between 2.3-3.0mg/L and 3.2-11.1mg/L, respectively. Thus, AgNP was less inhibitory than silver ion, since the release of free silver from AgNP was very small. The protein and carbohydrate content of EPS generally increased when Ag(+) was added. Both tightly- and loosely bound fractions in EPS could bind Ag(+) and AgNP. Silver binding capacity of EPS was seen to depend on the molecular weight of proteins. PMID:27060244

  2. Substance Flow Analysis: A Case Study of Fluoride Exposure through Food and Beverages in Young Children Living in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Malde, Marian Kjellevold; Scheidegger, Ruth; Julshamn, Kåre; Bader, Hans-Peter

    2011-01-01

    Context Dental and skeletal fluorosis is endemic in the Ethiopian Rift Valley. Children are especially vulnerable to excessive fluoride intake because their permanent teeth are still being formed. Strategies to reduce the total fluoride intake by children are thus warranted. Case presentation By combining the results of field studies in Ethiopia, the relevant pathways for fluoride intake have been identified in 28 children 2–5 years of age living in two villages on the Wonji Shoa Sugar Estate in the Ethiopian Rift Valley. The focus of the present study was to simulate the fluoride intake of the children using the methods of material flow analysis (MFA) and substance flow analysis. Discussion With a model based on MFA, we quantified the potential reduction in total fluoride intake given different scenarios—for example, by reducing the fluoride intake from drinking water and cooking water. The results show clearly that only by removing fluoride completely from both drinking and cooking water does the probability of remaining below the daily tolerable upper intake level exceed 50%. Both prepared food and food ingredients must be taken into consideration when assessing the total fluoride intake by children living in high-fluoride areas. Relevance This knowledge will help health personnel, the government, and the food authorities to give scientifically based advice on strategies for reducing the total fluoride intake by children living in high-fluoride areas in the Ethiopian Rift Valley. PMID:21463976

  3. Epidemiology of hepatitis C virus exposure in Egypt: Opportunities for prevention and evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Miller, F DeWolfe; Elzalabany, Mahmoud S; Hassani, Sara; Cuadros, Diego F

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To critically evaluate the current epidemiology data on exposures, rather than infection, to hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission and recommend epidemiologic strategies to fill gaps. METHODS: Standard methods for identifying and evaluating relevant epidemiologic literature and available data were used. RESULTS: There is a large body of literature on the epidemiology of HCV transmission in Egypt that collectively identifies ongoing iatrogenic exposures as the major driver for HCV transmission due to short comings in infection control and standard procedures. Additional epidemiologic studies on HCV transmission that requires the participation of human subject is unwarranted. Alternatively, very little literature was found on the epidemiology of exposure to HCV, infection control, and safe injection practices. The information that is available on patterns of HCV exposure shows high frequencies of inadequate infection control, problems in sterilization in health care facilities, low rates of hand washing, untrained personnel, lack of stated policies in facilities, HCV contamination of instruments and very large injection frequencies with low but very significant syringe and needle reuse. There is an important need to increase the number, size, and diversity of epidemiologic studies on HCV exposures, patterns of risk factors for infection, infection control, and safe injection practices. In addition to health care facilities evaluation, relevant knowledge attitude and practice studies are recommended. CONCLUSION: Epidemiologic methods on HCV exposure can be used to characterize the magnitude of exposures to HCV infection, target interventions to reduce exposures, and provide the best method for evaluating interventions by demonstrating the reduction of exposure to HCV infection. PMID:26668697

  4. Integrating Antiretroviral Strategies for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention: Post- and Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis and Early Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Robert M.; Smith, Dawn K.

    2015-01-01

    Best practices for integrating human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing and antiretroviral interventions for prevention and treatment are suggested based on research evidence and existing normative guidance. The goal is to provide high-impact prevention services during periods of substantial risk. Antiretroviral medications are recommended for postexposure prophylaxis (PEP), pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), and treatment of HIV infection. We reviewed research evidence and current normative guidelines to identify best practices for integrating these high-impact prevention strategies. More sensitive HIV tests used for screening enable earlier diagnosis and treatment of HIV infection, more appropriate counseling, and help limit drug resistance. A fully suppressive PEP regimen should be initiated based on exposure history or physical findings when sensitive diagnostic testing is delayed or not available and antibody tests are negative. Transitions from PEP to PrEP are often warranted because HIV exposure events may continue to occur. This algorithmic approach to integrating PEP, PrEP, and early treatment decisions may increase the uptake of these interventions by a greater number and diversity of knowledgeable healthcare providers. PMID:26512356

  5. The relationship between baseline Organizational Readiness to Change Assessment subscale scores and implementation of hepatitis prevention services in substance use disorders treatment clinics: a case study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Organizational Readiness to Change Assessment (ORCA) is a measure of organizational readiness for implementing practice change in healthcare settings that is organized based on the core elements and sub-elements of the Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARIHS) framework. General support for the reliability and factor structure of the ORCA has been reported. However, no published study has examined the utility of the ORCA in a clinical setting. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between baseline ORCA scores and implementation of hepatitis prevention services in substance use disorders (SUD) clinics. Methods Nine clinic teams from Veterans Health Administration SUD clinics across the United States participated in a six-month training program to promote evidence-based practices for hepatitis prevention. A representative from each team completed the ORCA evidence and context subscales at baseline. Results Eight of nine clinics reported implementation of at least one new hepatitis prevention practice after completing the six-month training program. Clinic teams were categorized by level of implementation-high (n = 4) versus low (n = 5)-based on how many hepatitis prevention practices were integrated into their clinics after completing the training program. High implementation teams had significantly higher scores on the patient experience and leadership culture subscales of the ORCA compared to low implementation teams. While not reaching significance in this small sample, high implementation clinics also had higher scores on the research, clinical experience, staff culture, leadership behavior, and measurement subscales as compared to low implementation clinics. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that the ORCA was able to measure differences in organizational factors at baseline between clinics that reported high and low implementation of practice recommendations at follow-up. This

  6. Serum Biomarkers of Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl Substances in Relation to Serum Testosterone and Measures of Thyroid Function among Adults and Adolescents from NHANES 2011–2012

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Ryan C.; Johns, Lauren E.; Meeker, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a group of environmentally-persistent chemicals that have been widely used in many industrial applications. There is human and animal evidence that PFASs may alter levels of reproductive and thyroid-related hormones. However, human studies on the potential age-related effects of PFASs on these outcomes among males and females are limited. We explored the relationship between serum PFASs and serum total testosterone (T), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and free and total triiodothyronine (FT3, TT3) and thyroxine (FT4, TT4) among males and females 12 to 80 years of age from the 2011–2012 cycle of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Associations were assessed using multiple linear regression models that were stratified on sex and age categories. Effect estimates from the majority of the adjusted models were not statistically significant. However, exposure to PFASs may be associated with increases in FT3, TT3, and FT4 among adult females, but during adolescence, PFASs may be related to increases in TSH among males and decreases in TSH among females. No significant relationships were observed between PFASs and T in any of the models. These findings suggest that exposure to PFASs may disrupt thyroid hormone homeostasis. PMID:26035660

  7. Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Childhood Autism in Association with Prenatal Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl Substances: A Nested Case–Control Study in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Liew, Zeyan; Ritz, Beate; von Ehrenstein, Ondine S.; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard; Fei, Chunyuan; Bossi, Rossana; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2014-01-01

    Background: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are persistent pollutants found to be endocrine disruptive and neurotoxic in animals. Positive correlations between PFASs and neurobehavioral problems in children were reported in cross-sectional data, but findings from prospective studies are limited. Objectives: We investigated whether prenatal exposure to PFASs is associated with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or childhood autism in children. Methods: Among 83,389 mother–child pairs enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort during 1996–2002, we identified 890 ADHD cases and 301 childhood autism cases from the Danish National Hospital Registry and the Danish Psychiatric Central Registry. From this cohort, we randomly selected 220 cases each of ADHD and autism, and we also randomly selected 550 controls frequency matched by child’s sex. Sixteen PFASs were measured in maternal plasma collected in early or mid-pregnancy. We calculated risk ratios (RRs) using generalized linear models, taking into account sampling weights. Results: Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were detected in all samples; four other PFASs were quantified in ≥ 90% of the samples. We did not find consistent evidence of associations between mother’s PFAS plasma levels and ADHD [per natural log nanograms per milliliter increase: PFOS RR = 0.87 (95% CI: 0.74, 1.02); PFOA RR = 0.98 (95% CI: 0.82, 1.16)] or autism [per natural log nanograms per milliliter increase: PFOS RR = 0.92 (95% CI: 0.69, 1.22); PFOA RR = 0.98 (95% CI: 0.73, 1.31)]. We found positive as well as negative associations between higher PFAS quartiles and ADHD in models that simultaneously adjusted for all PFASs, but these estimates were imprecise. Conclusions: In this study we found no consistent evidence to suggest that prenatal PFAS exposure increases the risk of ADHD or childhood autism in children. Citation: Liew Z, Ritz B, von Ehrenstein OS, Bech BH, Nohr EA, Fei CY

  8. Occupational Radiation Exposure from C Arm Fluoroscopy During Common Orthopaedic Surgical Procedures and its Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Sumant; Saran, Atul K; Mahajan, M K; Mam, M K

    2015-01-01

    Background: Image intensifiers have become popular due to the concept of minimally invasive surgeries leading to decreasing invasiveness, decreased operative time, and less morbidity. The drawback, however, is an increased risk of radiation exposure to surgeon, patient and theatre staff. These exposures have been of concern due to their potential ability to produce biological effects. The present study was embarked upon to analyse the amount of radiation received by orthopedic surgeons in India using standard precautionary measures and also to bring awareness about the use of image intensifier safety in everyday practice. Materials and Methods: Twelve right-handed male orthopedic surgeons (4 senior consultants, 5 junior consultants and 3 residents) were included in a three month prospective study for radiation exposure measurement with adequate protection measures in all procedures requiring C Arm fluoroscopy. Each surgeon was provided with 5 Thermo Luminescent Dosimeter (TLD) badges which were tagged at the level of neck, chest, gonads and both wrists. Operative time and exposure time of each procedure was recorded. Exposure dose of each badge at the end of the study was obtained and the results were analysed. Results: Mean radiation exposure to all the parts were well within permissible limits. There was a significantly positive correlation between the exposure time and the exposure dose for the left wrist (r=0.735, p<0.01) and right wrist (r=0.58, p<0.05). The dominant hand had the maximum exposure overall. Conclusion: Orthopaedic surgeons are not classified radiation workers. The mean exposure doses to all parts of the body were well within permissible limits. Nothing conclusive, however, can be said about the stochastic effects (chance effects like cancers). Any amount of radiation taken is bound to pose an additional occupational hazard. It is thus desirable that radiation safety precautions should be taken and exposures regularly monitored with at least one

  9. Risks and Chemical Substances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumberg, Avrom A.

    1994-01-01

    Examines exposure to chemicals within the home and three important ways in which hazardous substances can be identified and evaluated. Suggests a rational picture of human health risks and contains an introductory discussion of reasons for exposure, epidemiology, cancer causes and patterns, animal testing, toxins, and risk. (LZ)

  10. Maternal Occupational Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Congenital Heart Defects among Offspring in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study

    PubMed Central

    Lupo, Philip J.; Symanski, Elaine; Langlois, Peter H.; Lawson, Christina C.; Malik, Sadia; Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Lee, Laura J.; Agopian, A. J.; Desrosiers, Tania A.; Waters, Martha A.; Romitti, Paul A.; Correa, Adolfo; Shaw, Gary M.; Mitchell, Laura E.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND There is evidence in experimental model systems that exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) results in congenital heart defects (CHDs); however, to our knowledge, this relationship has not been examined in humans. Therefore, we conducted a case-control study assessing the association between estimated maternal occupational exposure to PAHs and CHDs in offspring. METHODS Data on CHD cases and control infants were obtained from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study for the period of 1997 to 2002. Exposure to PAHs was assigned by industrial hygienist consensus, based on self-reported maternal occupational histories from 1 month before conception through the third month of pregnancy. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between maternal occupational PAH exposure and specific CHD phenotypic subtypes among offspring. RESULTS The prevalence of occupational PAH exposure was 4.0% in CHD case mothers (76/1907) and 3.6% in control mothers (104/2853). After adjusting for maternal age, race or ethnicity, education, smoking, folic acid supplementation, and study center, exposure was not associated with conotruncal defects (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.98; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.58–1.67), septal defects (AOR, 1.28; 95% CI, 0.86–1.90), or with any isolated CHD subtype. CONCLUSIONS Our findings do not support an association between potential maternal occupational exposure to PAHs and various CHDs in a large, population-based study. For CHD phenotypic subtypes in which modest nonsignificant associations were observed, future investigations could be improved by studying populations with a higher prevalence of PAH exposure and by incorporating information on maternal and fetal genotypes related to PAH metabolism. PMID:22945317

  11. Prevention Rather than Cure? Primary or Secondary Intervention for Dealing with Media Exposure to Terrorism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slone, Michelle; Shoshani, Anat

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the efficacy of primary versus secondary intervention in moderating state anxiety and state anger from media-based exposure to terrorism. Two hundred participants, allocated to a terrorism or nonterrorism media exposure and to antecedent or subsequent therapeutic or control intervention, were assessed for state anxiety and…

  12. A Review of Medical and Substance Use Co-Morbidities in Central Asian Prisons: Implications for HIV Prevention and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Polonsky, Maxim; Kerimi, Nina; Mamyrov, Mirlan; Dvoryak, Sergey; Altice, Frederick L.

    2013-01-01

    Background HIV incidence in Central Asia is rising rapidly. People who inject drugs (PWIDs) contribute greatest to the epidemic, with more than a quarter of all HIV cases being in the criminal justice system (CJS). This review assembled and aggregated recent data on drug-related health problems and respective healthcare services in the CJS of Central Asia and the Republic of Azerbaijan. Methods Online databases and published literature (peer-reviewed and grey) were reviewed. Additionally, prison officials in the 6 countries were invited to participate in a survey and prison administrators from Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan completed it. Results The data on conditions and healthcare in Central Asian prisons are inconsistent and lack unbiased details. Reporting is primarily based on “official” disease registries, which markedly underestimate prevalence. Even these limited data, however, indicate that HIV prevalence and drug-related health problems are high, concentrated and, in some countries, rising rapidly. Only some of the range of HIV prevention interventions recommended by international organizations have been implemented in the region with two of the crucial interventions, needle and syringe exchange programs (NSP) and opioid substitution therapy (OST), only available in Kyrgyzstan prisons, with Tajikistan implementing a pilot NSP and contemplating introduction of prison-based OST. Conclusions Despite deficiencies in routine health reporting and insufficient HIV sentinel surveillance undertaken in prisons, the data available on the concentration of HIV within at-risk populations in prisons indicate a necessity to broaden the range and increase the scale the scale of HIV prevention and treatment services. PMID:23932844

  13. Silica Exposures in Artisanal Small-Scale Gold Mining in Tanzania and Implications for Tuberculosis Prevention.

    PubMed

    Gottesfeld, Perry; Andrew, Damian; Dalhoff, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Gold miners exposed to crystalline silica are at risk of silicosis, lung cancer, and experience higher incidence rates of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). Although the hazards associated with mercury exposure in artisanal small-scale gold mining (ASGM) have been well documented, no published data was available on crystalline silica exposures in this population. Air sampling was conducted in the breathing zone of workers in five villages in Tanzania with battery-operated sampling pumps and bulk samples were collected to measure the type and concentration of crystalline silica in the ore. Samples were analyzed at an accredited laboratory with X-ray diffraction. Airborne crystalline silica exposures exceeded recommended limits for all tasks monitored with an average exposure of 16.85 mg/m(3) for underground drilling that was 337 fold greater than the recommended exposure limit (REL) published by the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and 0.19 mg/m(3) for aboveground operations or 4-fold greater than the REL. The exposures measured raise concern for possible acute and chronic silicosis and are known to significantly contribute to TB incidence rates in mining communities. The use of wet methods could greatly reduce exposures and the risk of TB and silicosis in ASGM. Ongoing efforts to address mercury and other hazards in ASGM should incorporate crystalline silica dust controls. PMID:25897484

  14. Psycho-social factors related to willingness to use pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention among Black men who have sex with men attending a community event

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, Lisa A.; Driffin, Daniel D.; Smith, Harlan; Conway-Washington, Christopher; White, Denise; Cherry, Chauncey

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES In the US, Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) holds tremendous promise for curbing the HIV/AIDS epidemic among these men. However, many psycho-social components must be addressed in order to effectively implement this prevention tool among BMSM. METHODS We assessed PrEP knowledge and use, health care access experiences, race-based medical mistrust, sexual partners and behaviors, and drug and alcohol use among 699 men attending a community event in the southeastern US. We used generalized linear modeling to assess factors associated with their willingness to use PrEP. RESULTS Three hundred ninety-eight men reported being BMSM and HIV negative status. Among these men, 60% reported being willing to use PrEP. Lack of being comfortable with talking to a health care provider about having sex with men, not having discussed having sex with a man with a health care provider, race-based medical mistrust, and alcohol consumption and substance use were all identified as barriers to willingness to use PrEP. Sexual risk taking, including number of sex partners and STI diagnosis, was not associated with willingness to use PrEP. CONCLUSIONS Findings from the current paper demonstrate the importance of acknowledging the role of various psycho-social factors in the uptake of PrEP. It is imperative that we prioritize research into better understanding these barriers as the failure to do so will impede the tremendous potential of this prevention technology. PMID:25001553

  15. Association between maternal occupational exposure to organic solvents and congenital heart defects, National Birth Defects Prevention Study, 1997–2002

    PubMed Central

    Gilboa, SM; Desrosiers, TA; Lawson, CC; Lupo, PJ; Riehle-Colarusso, T; Stewart, PA; van Wijngaarden, E; Waters, MA; Correa, A

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the relation between congenital heart defects (CHDs) in offspring and estimated maternal occupational exposure to chlorinated solvents, aromatic solvents, and Stoddard solvent during the period from one month before conception through the first trimester. Methods The study population included mothers of infants with simple, isolated CHDs and mothers of control infants who delivered from 1997 through 2002 and participated in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Two methods to assess occupational solvent exposure were employed: an expert consensus-based approach and a literature-based approach. Multiple logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between solvent classes and CHDs. Results 2,951 control mothers and 2,047 CHD case mothers were included. Using the consensus-based approach, associations were observed for exposure to any solvent and any chlorinated solvent with perimembranous ventricular septal defects (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.0 to 2.6 and OR 1.7; 95% CI 1.0 to 2.8 respectively). Using the literature-based approach, associations were observed for: any solvent exposure with aortic stenosis (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.1 to 4.1); and Stoddard solvent exposure with d-transposition of the great arteries (OR 2.0; 95% CI 1.0 to 4.2), right ventricular outflow tract obstruction defects (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.1 to 3.3), and pulmonary valve stenosis (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.1 to 3.8). Conclusions We found evidence of associations between occupational exposure to solvents and several types of CHDs. These results should be interpreted in light of the potential for misclassification of exposure. PMID:22811060

  16. [Substance use disorders as a cause and consequence of childhood abuse. Basic research, therapy and prevention in the BMBF-funded CANSAS-Network].

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Ingo; Barnow, Sven; Pawils, Silke

    2016-01-01

    Substance use disorders (SUDs) belong to the most frequent behavioural consequences of childhood abuse and neglect (CAN). In community samples, about 20% of adults with experiences of abuse or neglect in childhood have a lifetime diagnosis of an SUD. About 30% of individuals seeking treatment for a post-traumatic disorder have an SUD and 24–67% of all patients in treatment for an SUD have a history of CAN. About 16% of all children and adolescents under the age of 20 in Germany grow up in families where an alcohol- and/or drug-dependence is present. The children of parents with SUDs have, in addition to other risks to their development in cognitive and psychosocial domains, an increased risk of experiencing violence and neglect. Regarding both perspectives, SUD as a cause and as a consequence of CAN, a better understanding of relevant mediators and risk factors is necessary to improve prevention and develop adequate treatments. The aims of the BMBF-funded research network CANSAS are: 1. To gain a better understanding of the relationships between these two important public health problems (basic research), 2. To provide evidence-based treatments for survivors of CAN with SUDs and to increase the awareness for the necessity to diagnose CAN in patients with SUDs in counselling and treatment facilities (research on diagnostics and therapy), 3. To improve the systematic evaluation of child welfare among children of parents with SUDs through counselling services and to promote links between addiction services and youth welfare services (prevention research and health services research). In a multidisciplinary approach, the CANSAS network brings together experts in the fields of trauma treatment, epidemiology, basic research, health services research, prevention research as well as addiction services. PMID:26497814

  17. The GENACIS project: a review of findings and some implications for global needs in women-focused substance abuse prevention and intervention

    PubMed Central

    Wilsnack, Sharon C

    2012-01-01

    Gender, Alcohol, and Culture: An International Study (GENACIS) is a collaborative study of gender-related and cultural influences on alcohol use and alcohol-related problems of women and men. Members conduct comparative analyses of data from comparable general population surveys in 38 countries on five continents. This paper presents GENACIS findings that (1) age-related declines in drinking are uncommon outside North America and Europe; (2) groups of women at increased risk for hazardous drinking include women who cohabit, women with fewer social roles, more highly educated women in lower-income countries, and sexual minority women in North America; (3) heavier alcohol use shows strong and cross-culturally consistent associations with increased likelihood and severity of intimate partner violence; and (4) one effect or accompaniment of rapid social, economic, and gender-role change in traditional societies may be increased drinking among formerly abstinent women. These findings have potentially important implications for women-focused intervention and policy. Substance abuse services should include attention to middle-aged and older women, who may have different risk factors, symptoms, and treatment issues than their younger counterparts. Creative, targeted prevention is needed for high-risk groups of women. Programs to reduce violence between intimate partners must include attention to the pervasive role of alcohol use in intimate partner aggression. Social and economic empowerment of women, together with social marketing of norms of abstention or low-risk drinking, may help prevent increased hazardous alcohol use among women in countries undergoing rapid social change. Greater attention to effects of gender, culture, and their interactions can inform the design of more effective prevention, intervention, and policy to reduce the substantial global costs of alcohol abuse in both women and men. PMID:24474872

  18. Interventions designed to prevent adverse programming outcomes resulting from exposure to maternal obesity during development

    PubMed Central

    Nathanielsz, PW; Ford, SP; Long, NM; Vega, CC; Reyes-Castro, LA; Zambrano, E

    2013-01-01

    Maternal obesity is a global epidemic affecting the developed and developing world. Human and animal studies indicate that maternal obesity programs development predisposing offspring to later-life chronic diseases. Several mechanisms act together to produce these adverse health problems. There is a need for effective interventions that prevent these outcomes and guide management in human pregnancy. We report here dietary and exercise intervention studies in both altricial and precocial species, rats and sheep, designed to prevent adverse offspring outcomes. Both interventions present exciting opportunities to at least in part prevent adverse metabolic and other outcomes in mother and offspring. PMID:24147928

  19. Prenatal zinc prevents communication impairments and BDNF disturbance in a rat model of autism induced by prenatal lipopolysaccharide exposure.

    PubMed

    Kirsten, Thiago B; Queiroz-Hazarbassanov, Nicolle; Bernardi, Maria M; Felicio, Luciano F

    2015-06-01

    Aims: Previous investigations by our group have shown that prenatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS),which mimics infections by Gram-negative bacteria, induced autistic-like behavior. No effective treatment yet exists for autism. Therefore, we used our rat model to test a possible treatment for autism.We selected zinc as the prenatal treatment to prevent or ease the impairments induced by LPS because LPS induces hypozincaemia.Materials and methods:We evaluated the effects of LPS and zinc on female reproductive performance. Communication,which is impaired in autism,was tested in pups by ultrasonic vocalizations. Plasma levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were determined because it has been considered an autism important biomarker.Key findings: Prenatal LPS exposure reduced offspring number and treatment with zinc prevented this reduction.Moreover, pups that were prenatally exposed to LPS spent longer periods without calling their mothers, and posttreatment with zinc prevented this impairment induced by LPS to the same levels as controls. Prenatal LPS also increased BDNF levels in adult offspring, and posttreatment with zinc reduced the elevation of BDNF to the same levels as controls.Significance: BDNF hyperactivity was also found in several studies of autistic patients. Together with our previous studies, our model of prenatal LPS induced autistic-like behavioral, brain, and immune disturbances. This suggests that it is a valid rat model of autism. Prenatal zinc prevented reproductive, communication, and BDNF impairments.The present study revealed a potential beneficial effect of prenatal zinc administration for the prevention of autism with regard to the BDNF pathway. PMID:25817235

  20. Effects of scanning (routine health information exposure) on cancer screening and prevention behaviors in the general population.

    PubMed

    Hornik, Robert; Parvanta, Sarah; Mello, Susan; Freres, Derek; Kelly, Bridget; Schwartz, J Sanford

    2013-01-01

    Research on health information exposure focuses primarily on deliberate information-seeking behavior and its effects on health. By contrast, this study explores the complementary and perhaps more influential role of health information acquired through exposure to routinely used sources, called scanning. The authors hypothesized that scanning from nonmedical sources, both mediated and interpersonal, affects cancer screening and prevention decisions. The authors used a nationally representative longitudinal survey of 2,489 adults 40 to 70 years of age to analyze the effects of scanning on 3 cancer screening behaviors (mammography, prostate-specific antigen [PSA], and colonoscopy) and 3 prevention behaviors (exercising, eating fruits and vegetables, and dieting to lose weight). After adjustment for baseline behaviors and covariates, scanning at baseline predicted weekly exercise days 1 year later as well as daily fruit and vegetable servings 1 year later for those whose consumption of fruits and vegetables was already higher at baseline. Also, among those reporting timely screening mammogram behavior at baseline, scanning predicted repeat mammography. Scanning was marginally predictive of PSA uptake among those not reporting a PSA at baseline. Although there were strong cross-sectional associations, scanning did not predict dieting or colonoscopy uptake in longitudinal analyses. These analyses provide substantial support for a claim that routine exposure to health content from nonmedical sources affects specific health behaviors. PMID:24083417

  1. A New D.A.R.E. Curriculum Gets Mixed Reviews: Communications Activities for Improving and Evaluating the DARE School-Based Substance Abuse Prevention Curriculum. Program Results Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakashian, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Zili Sloboda, Sc.D., and colleagues at the University of Akron, Ohio, designed and evaluated "Take Charge of Your Life", a substance abuse prevention curriculum for 7th- and 9th-grade students delivered by D.A.R.E. (Drug Abuse Resistance Education) police officers. They designed "Take Charge of Your Life" to impact students' later (high school)…

  2. Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention Treatment 2003 U.S. Outbreak African Rodent Importation Ban For Clinicians Clinical Recognition Specimen Collection Treatment Smallpox ... Examining Animals with Suspected Monkeypox African Rodent Importation Ban Resources Related Links Poxvirus Molluscum Contagiosum Orf Virus ( ...

  3. Occupational Hepatitis B Exposure: A Peek into Indian Dental Students' Knowledge, Opinion, and Preventive Practices

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sandeep; Basak, Debashish; Kumar, Amit; Dasar, Pralhad; Mishra, Prashant; Kumar, Arunoday; Kumar Singh, Siddharth; Debnath, Nitai; Gupta, Anjali

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To determine the level of knowledge, opinions, and preventive practices followed by dental students against Hepatitis B. The study also explored if any correlation existed between knowledge, opinion, and preventive practices score. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a dental teaching institution. The subjects comprised 216 dental students. The study was conducted using a pretested, self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire was prepared to assess knowledge, opinion, and preventive practices against Hepatitis B. Kruskal-Wallis and Kendall Tau test were performed. Results. The study found that only 44.4% of the students were vaccinated with Hepatitis B vaccine. 59.3% of the students reported washing their hands after contact with patient's body fluids. 63.9% used personal protective measures like facemask, aprons, head cap, eye shields, and so forth, while treating patients. Median knowledge, opinion, and practice scores were found to be 5.00, 3.00, and 3.00, respectively. Significant correlation was obtained between knowledge and preventive practices score (r = 0.385, p value <0.0001). Conclusion. Effective measures need to be taken to improve preventive practices of the students to prevent them from risk of Hepatitis transmission. Mandatory vaccination against Hepatitis B needs to be implemented. PMID:26413091

  4. Occupational Hepatitis B Exposure: A Peek into Indian Dental Students' Knowledge, Opinion, and Preventive Practices.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sandeep; Basak, Debashish; Kumar, Amit; Dasar, Pralhad; Mishra, Prashant; Kumar, Arunoday; Kumar Singh, Siddharth; Debnath, Nitai; Gupta, Anjali

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To determine the level of knowledge, opinions, and preventive practices followed by dental students against Hepatitis B. The study also explored if any correlation existed between knowledge, opinion, and preventive practices score. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a dental teaching institution. The subjects comprised 216 dental students. The study was conducted using a pretested, self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire was prepared to assess knowledge, opinion, and preventive practices against Hepatitis B. Kruskal-Wallis and Kendall Tau test were performed. Results. The study found that only 44.4% of the students were vaccinated with Hepatitis B vaccine. 59.3% of the students reported washing their hands after contact with patient's body fluids. 63.9% used personal protective measures like facemask, aprons, head cap, eye shields, and so forth, while treating patients. Median knowledge, opinion, and practice scores were found to be 5.00, 3.00, and 3.00, respectively. Significant correlation was obtained between knowledge and preventive practices score (r = 0.385, p value <0.0001). Conclusion. Effective measures need to be taken to improve preventive practices of the students to prevent them from risk of Hepatitis transmission. Mandatory vaccination against Hepatitis B needs to be implemented. PMID:26413091

  5. Request for assistance in preventing vision disturbances and acute physical distress due to dimethylethylamine (DMEA) exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-12-01

    Methods were sought to reduce exposure to dimethylethylamine (DMEA) among foundry owners, operators, and workers and manufacturers of polyamides, due to possible vision disturbances and acute physical distress which may result. An investigation was made at an aluminum-casting foundry where blurring, fogging, and halo visual disturbances had been reported among workers exposed to DMEA, along with headaches, nausea, stomach pain, and increased heart rate. Medical and environmental studies were made. Exposure concentrations causing effects were measured at equal to or greater than 6 mg/cu m, or 2 parts per million (ppm), 8 hour time-weighted average. Exposures as high as 29 mg/cu m, (9.7 ppm) for 15 minutes also may have caused adverse effects. There was no current permissible exposure limit for DMEA. Leakage around pressure-tight seals in corebox machine gaskets may have accounted for some excessive exposure. It was recommended that more-frequent maintenance of these gaskets be undertaken along with other engineering controls. Work practices should be adjusted so as to reduce the pressure that delivers DMEA to coreboxes and to avoid excess gaseous DMEA in the corebox machine. Protective gloves should be worn. Evacuation plans should be developed in the event of a spill, leak, or other serious accident that may cause high concentrations of DMEA in the workplace.

  6. Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in river and ground/drinking water of the Ganges River basin: Emissions and implications for human exposure.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Brij Mohan; Bharat, Girija K; Tayal, Shresth; Larssen, Thorjørn; Bečanová, Jitka; Karásková, Pavlína; Whitehead, Paul G; Futter, Martyn N; Butterfield, Dan; Nizzetto, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Many perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. They have been widely used in production processes and daily-use products or may result from degradation of precursor compounds in products or the environment. India, with its developing industrialization and population moving from traditional to contemporary lifestyles, represents an interesting case study to investigate PFAS emission and exposure along steep environmental and socioeconomic gradients. This study assesses PFAS concentrations in river and groundwater (used in this region as drinking water) from several locations along the Ganges River and estimates direct emissions, specifically for PFOS and PFOA. 15 PFAS were frequently detected in the river with the highest concentrations observed for PFHxA (0.4-4.7 ng L(-1)) and PFBS (exposure intakes through drinking water were below safety thresholds for oral non-cancer risk in all age

  7. Family intervention for co-occurring substance use and severe psychiatric disorders: participant characteristics and correlates of initial engagement and more extended exposure in a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mueser, Kim T; Glynn, Shirley M; Cather, Corinne; Zarate, Roberto; Fox, Lindy; Feldman, James; Wolfe, Rosemarie; Clark, Robin E

    2009-10-01

    Clients with severe mental illness and substance use disorder (i.e., dual disorders) frequently have contact with family members, who may provide valuable emotional and material support, but have limited skills and knowledge to promote recovery. Furthermore, high levels of family conflict and stress are related to higher rates of relapse. The present study was a two-site randomized controlled trial comparing a comprehensive, behaviorally-based family intervention for dual disorders program (FIDD) to a shorter-term family psychoeducational program (FPE). The modal family was a single male son in his early 30s diagnosed with both alcohol and drug problems and a schizophrenia-spectrum disorder participating with his middle-aged mother, with whom he lived. Initial engagement rates following consent to participate in the study and the family intervention programs were moderately high for both programs (88% and 84%, respectively), but rates of longer term retention and exposure to the core elements of each treatment model were lower (61% and 55%, respectively). Characteristics of the relatives were the strongest predictors of successful initial engagement in the family programs with the most important predictor being relatives who reported higher levels of benefit related to the relationship with the client. Subsequent successful exposure to the family treatment models was more strongly associated with client factors, including less severity of drug abuse and male client gender. The results suggest that attention to issues of motivating relatives to participate in family intervention, and more focused efforts to address the disruptive effects of drug abuse on the family could improve rates of engagement and retention in family programs for dual disorders. PMID:19375870

  8. Inhibition of the phospholipase A2 activity of peroxiredoxin 6 prevents lung damage with exposure to hyperoxia

    PubMed Central

    Benipal, Bavneet; Feinstein, Sheldon I.; Chatterjee, Shampa; Dodia, Chandra; Fisher, Aron B.

    2015-01-01

    Lung injury associated with hyperoxia reflects in part the secondary effects of pulmonary inflammation and the associated production of reactive oxygen species due to activation of NADPH oxidase, type 2 (NOX2). Activation of NOX2 requires the phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity of peroxiredoxin 6 (Prdx6). Therefore, we evaluated whether blocking Prdx6 PLA2 activity using the inhibitor MJ33 would be protective in a mouse model of acute lung injury resulting from hyperoxic exposure. Mice were treated with an intraperitoneal injection of MJ33 (2.5 nmol/g body weight) at the start of exposure (zero time) and at 48 h during continuous exposure to 100% O2 for 80 h. Treatment with MJ33 reduced the number of neutrophils and the protein content in the fluid obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage, inhibited the increase in lipid peroxidation products in lung tissue, decreased the number of apoptotic cells in the lung, and decreased the perivascular edema associated with the 80 h exposure to hyperoxia. Thus, blocking Prdx6 PLA2 activity by MJ33 significantly protected lungs against damage from hyperoxia, presumably by preventing the activation of NOX2 and the amplification of lung injury associated with inflammation. These findings demonstrate that MJ33, a potent inhibitor of Prdx6 PLA2 activity, can protect mouse lungs against the manifestations of acute lung injury due to oxidative stress. PMID:25637741

  9. Cancer prevention: assessing causes, exposures, and recent trends in mortality for U. S. males, 1968-1978

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, D.L.; Bridbord, K.; Schneiderman, M.

    1983-01-01

    This paper addresses some enduring issues concerning prevention of environmental and occupational cancer. The first part reviews methodological problems of estimating cancer risks and outlines some research priorities. The second part documents countervailing trends in chemical production during the past two decades, noting the doubling of some synthetic organic human carcinogens and the leveling off of some heavy metal carcinogens. The final section details recent increases in site-specific causes of cancer mortality for men old enough to have developed workplace cancers (ages 35 to 84), considering those cancers that have been linked with exposures to toxic chemicals and to cigarette smoking. This paper points out that Doll and Peto's (1981) analysis of U.S. cancer trends does not indicate some important increases in older males; they conclude that apart from cigarette smoking, there is no generalized increase in cancer for persons up to age 64. In fact, there has been a sharp reduction in cancer mortality for those under age 45. This reduction more than offsets increases in some cancers for those ages 45 to 65. Men ages 55 to 84 have experienced major increases in mortality for certain cancers plausibly associated with occupational exposures, including cancers of the brain, lung, and multiple myeloma. These older age groups have potentially sustained longer workplace exposures to carcinogens, some of which have 25-year or greater latencies. Changes in infectious diseases, workplace exposures, diagnostic trends, environment, and nutrition require further study.

  10. Psychometrics and Cross-Cultural Comparisons of the Illustration-Based Assessment of Liability and Exposure to Substance Use and Antisocial Behavior© for Children

    PubMed Central

    Ridenour, Ty A.; Minnes, Sonia; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.; Reynolds, Maureen D.; Tarter, Ralph E.; Clark, Duncan B.

    2011-01-01

    Elementary school-age child report instruments that do not require reading or interviews are lacking. In four samples, psychometric estimates for 5- to 9-year-olds were obtained for the Assessment of Liability and Exposure to Substance use and Antisocial behavior© (ALEXSA©), a child-report instrument that can be completed even by illiterate children. Invariance between minority groups vs Caucasians also was tested. Samples were: high-risk, low SES African-Americans (n=337), youth of varied ethnicities experiencing chronic stress (n=209), Mexican migrants in a reading remediation program (n=45), and U.S. twins (42 pairs) who were nearly all Caucasian. Validity criteria consisted of child-, parent-, teacher- and research evaluator-ratings on previously developed research and clinical instruments. Replicating results with older samples, ALEXSA factors had adequate or better reliabilities and demonstrated validity in all four studies. Ethnic invariance was found except for differences that were expected due to migrant's after-school program. In sum, psychometrics of the ALEXSA were supported for 5- to 9-year-olds of varied races/ethnicities, risk levels and academic skills. PMID:22866171

  11. Severe anaphylactic shock due to ethylene oxide in a patient with myelomeningocele: successful exposure prevention and pretreatment with omalizumab.

    PubMed

    Listyo, Adrian; Hofmeier, Kathrin Scherer; Bandschapp, Oliver; Erb, Thomas; Hasler, Carol-Claudius; Bircher, Andreas J

    2014-01-01

    Ethylene oxide (EO) is a highly reactive gas widely used for sterilization of medical devices, for example, plastic materials and ventriculoperitoneal shunts. Allergic reactions to EO are rare and have been observed mainly in patients during hemodialysis and myelomeningocele patients. We describe severe anaphylaxis to EO in a patient with myelomeningocele during general anesthesia. A detailed description is provided about the prevention measures aimed at reducing exposure to EO including a novel approach by resterilization with plasma. Also, pretreatment with omalizumab was implemented for the first time in such a case. With these measures, further surgeries in our patient were uneventful. PMID:25612258

  12. Ethical Implications of Social Stigma Associated with the Promotion and Use of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis for HIV Prevention.

    PubMed

    Herron, Patrick D

    2016-04-01

    Identifying sources of and eliminating social stigma associated with the promotion and use of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for the prevention of sexually acquired HIV infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) is both a moral imperative and necessary requirement to ensure that public health objectives of HIV prevention can be met. This article will examine and address ethical concerns and criticisms regarding the use of PrEP, barriers to its promotion, and use among MSM and examine the types of social stigma associated with PrEP. An ethical justification for both healthcare and LGBT communities to address and overcome social stigma regarding the use of PrEP among MSM is offered. PMID:26859191

  13. Post-Natal Inhibition of NF-κB Activation Prevents Renal Damage Caused by Prenatal LPS Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiongshan; Wang, Fangjie; Ji, Yan; Huang, Pei; Deng, Yafei; Zhang, Qi; Han, Qi; Yi, Ping; Namaka, Michael; Liu, Ya; Li, Xiaohui

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to an inflammatory stimulus has been shown to cause renal damage in offspring. Our present study explored the role of intra-renal NF-κB activation in the development of progressive renal fibrosis in offspring that underwent prenatal exposure to an inflammatory stimulus. Time-dated pregnant rats were treated with saline (control group) or 0.79 mg/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS) through intra-peritoneal injection on gestational day 8, 10 and 12. At the age of 7 weeks, offspring from control or LPS group were treated with either tap water (Con+Ve or LPS+Ve group) or pyrollidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC, 120mg/L), a NF-κB inhibitor, via drinking water starting (Con+PDTC or LPS+PDTC group), respectively, till the age of 20 or 68 weeks. The gross structure of kidney was assessed by hematoxylin-eosin, periodic acid–Schiff staining and Sirius red staining. The expression levels of TNF-α, IL-6, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and renin-angiotensin system (RAS) genes were determined by real time polymerase chain reaction and/or immunohistochemical staining. Our data showed that post-natal persistent PDTC administration efficiently repressed intra-renal NF-κB activation, TNF-α and IL-6 expression. Post-natal PDTC also prevented intra-renal glycogen deposition and collagenous fiber generation as evident by the reduced expression of collagen III and interstitial α-SMA in offspring of prenatal LPS exposure. Furthermore, post-natal PDTC administration reversed the intra-renal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) over-activity in offspring of prenatal LPS exposure. In conclusion, prenatal inflammatory exposure results in offspring’s intra-renal NF-κB activation along with inflammation which cross-talked with excessive RAS activation that caused exacerbation of renal fibrosis and dysfunction in the offspring. Thus, early life prevention of NF-κB activation may be a potential preventive strategy for chronic renal inflammation and progressive renal damage. PMID

  14. Post-Natal Inhibition of NF-κB Activation Prevents Renal Damage Caused by Prenatal LPS Exposure.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wei; Guan, Xiao; Pan, Xiaodong; Sun, Xiongshan; Wang, Fangjie; Ji, Yan; Huang, Pei; Deng, Yafei; Zhang, Qi; Han, Qi; Yi, Ping; Namaka, Michael; Liu, Ya; Deng, Youcai; Li, Xiaohui

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to an inflammatory stimulus has been shown to cause renal damage in offspring. Our present study explored the role of intra-renal NF-κB activation in the development of progressive renal fibrosis in offspring that underwent prenatal exposure to an inflammatory stimulus. Time-dated pregnant rats were treated with saline (control group) or 0.79 mg/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS) through intra-peritoneal injection on gestational day 8, 10 and 12. At the age of 7 weeks, offspring from control or LPS group were treated with either tap water (Con+Ve or LPS+Ve group) or pyrollidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC, 120mg/L), a NF-κB inhibitor, via drinking water starting (Con+PDTC or LPS+PDTC group), respectively, till the age of 20 or 68 weeks. The gross structure of kidney was assessed by hematoxylin-eosin, periodic acid-Schiff staining and Sirius red staining. The expression levels of TNF-α, IL-6, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and renin-angiotensin system (RAS) genes were determined by real time polymerase chain reaction and/or immunohistochemical staining. Our data showed that post-natal persistent PDTC administration efficiently repressed intra-renal NF-κB activation, TNF-α and IL-6 expression. Post-natal PDTC also prevented intra-renal glycogen deposition and collagenous fiber generation as evident by the reduced expression of collagen III and interstitial α-SMA in offspring of prenatal LPS exposure. Furthermore, post-natal PDTC administration reversed the intra-renal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) over-activity in offspring of prenatal LPS exposure. In conclusion, prenatal inflammatory exposure results in offspring's intra-renal NF-κB activation along with inflammation which cross-talked with excessive RAS activation that caused exacerbation of renal fibrosis and dysfunction in the offspring. Thus, early life prevention of NF-κB activation may be a potential preventive strategy for chronic renal inflammation and progressive renal damage. PMID:27073902

  15. The Time is Now: Improving Substance Abuse Training in Medical Schools.

    PubMed

    Ram, Anita; Chisolm, Margaret S

    2016-06-01

    This commentary highlights the growing demand for substance abuse prevention and treatment, summarizes the literature regarding the current insufficiencies in substance abuse training in medical schools, and suggests strategies to address this gap in physician education. The authors describe how the combination of mandated coverage for substance abuse services and expanding treatment needs means that more physicians, regardless of their patient populations, will be faced with addressing the problem of substance use. The authors review the literature on substance abuse training in medical schools, which indicates insufficient exposure to this topic. The authors describe how current substance abuse training at medical schools is focused on transmitting scientific knowledge with relatively little education or training in attitudes and skills central to effective prevention and treatment. Given the gap between clinical need and physician education, the authors suggest several strategies for medical schools to increase training in substance abuse knowledge, attitudes, and skills, which will enhance the practice of evidence-based care. The authors posit that medical curricular reform, combined with initiatives to change clinical culture around substance abuse, will translate into improved rates of screening, shorter overall length of treatment, effective referrals for continued treatment, and increased access to care for individuals who use substances and so reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with substance use. PMID:25749922

  16. Current rabies vaccines and prophylaxis schedules: preventing rabies before and after exposure.

    PubMed

    Warrell, M J

    2012-01-01

    Travellers are probably the largest group in the general population to receive rabies pre-exposure prophylaxis. The dangerous consequences of the unavailability of rabies immune globulin in many countries could be ameliorated if pre-exposure rabies vaccination were practised more widely, especially in children, living in dog rabies enzootic countries. The WHO has recommended several different regimens for post-exposure prophylaxis, while individual countries decide on protocols for local use. Intramuscular regimens are expensive and waste vaccine. Although failure to receive vaccine is usually the due to the cost, the economical potential of intradermal vaccination has still not been realised 19 years after its introduction. The currently recommended 2-site intradermal post-exposure regimen is not economical for use in rural areas where 80% of Indian rabies deaths occur. Most countries using it demand higher potency vaccine, indicating that they do not have complete confidence in the method. This intradermal regimen has only been used where immunoglobulin is likely to be available for severely bitten patients. Increased intradermal doses are sometimes used for selected patients. Provision of economical rabies prophylaxis can be improved. Decisions to change recommendations should take account of the immunological, financial, practical and logistical aspects of dog bite treatment in remote areas. PMID:22342356

  17. Efficacy of a School-Based Primary Prevention Program for Coping with Exposure to Political Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slone, Michelle; Shoshani, Anat

    2008-01-01

    A paradigm conceptualizing resilience as factors moderating between political violence exposure and psychological distress administered in a 7-year research project yielded a profile of factors promoting Israeli children's coping in conflict conditions. Three factors--social support mobilization, self-efficacy, and meaning attribution--were…

  18. Lithium Treatment Prevents Apoptosis in Neonatal Rat Hippocampus Resulting from Sevoflurane Exposure.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xue; da Li, Wen-; Yuan, Bao-Long; Niu, Li-Jun; Yang, Xiao-Yu; Zhou, Zhi-Bin; Chen, Xiao-Hui; Feng, Xia

    2016-08-01

    We aimed to observe the therapeutic effects of lithium on inhalational anesthetic sevoflurane-induced apoptosis in immature brain hippocampus. From postnatal day 5 (P5) to P28, male Sprague-Dawley pups were intraperitoneally injected with lithium chloride or 0.9 % sodium chloride. On P7 after the injection, pups were exposed to 2.3 % sevoflurane or air for 6 h. Brain tissues were harvested 12 h and 3 weeks after exposure. Cleaved caspase-3, nNOS protein, GSK-3β,p-GSK-3β were assessed by Western blot, and histopathological changes were assessed using Nissl stain and TUNEL stain. From P28, we used the eight-arm radial maze test and step-through test to evaluate the influence of sevoflurane exposure on the learning and memory of juvenile rats. The results showed that neonatal sevoflurane exposure induced caspase-3 activation and histopathological changes in hippocampus can be attenuated by lithium chloride. Sevoflurane increased GSK-3β activity while pretreatment of lithium decreased GSK-3β activity. Moreover, sevoflurane showed possibly slight but temporal influence on the spatial learning and the memory of juvenile rats, and chronic use of lithium chloride might have the therapeutic effect. Our current study suggests that lithium attenuates sevoflurane induced neonatal hippocampual damage by GSK-3β pathway and might improve learning and memory deficits in rats after neonatal exposure. PMID:27068032

  19. Policy statement--children, adolescents, substance abuse, and the media.

    PubMed

    Strasburger, Victor C

    2010-10-01

    The causes of adolescent substance use are multifactorial, but the media can play a key role. Tobacco and alcohol represent the 2 most significant drug threats to adolescents. More than $25 billion per year is spent on advertising for tobacco, alcohol, and prescription drugs, and such advertising has been shown to be effective. Digital media are increasingly being used to advertise drugs. In addition, exposure to PG-13- and R-rated movies at an early age may be a major factor in the onset of adolescent tobacco and alcohol use. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends a ban on all tobacco advertising in all media, limitations on alcohol advertising, avoiding exposure of young children to substance-related (tobacco, alcohol, prescription drugs, illegal drugs) content on television and in PG-13- and R-rated movies, incorporating the topic of advertising and media into all substance abuse-prevention programs, and implementing media education programs in the classroom. PMID:20876181

  20. Single exposure of dopamine D1 antagonist prevents and D2 antagonist attenuates methylphenidate effect

    PubMed Central

    Claussen, Catherine M; Witte, Lindsey J; Dafny, Nachum

    2015-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPD) is a readily prescribed drug for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and moreover is used illicitly by youths for its cognitive-enhancing effects and recreation. MPD exposure in rodents elicits increased locomotor activity. Repetitive MPD exposure leads to further augmentation of their locomotor activity. This behavioral response is referred to as behavioral sensitization. Behavioral sensitization is used as an experimental marker for a drug’s ability to elicit dependence. There is evidence that dopamine (DA) is a key player in the acute and chronic MPD effect; however, the role of DA in the effects elicited by MPD is still debated. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of D1 and/or D2 DA receptors in the acute and chronic effect of MPD on locomotor activity. The study lasted for 12 consecutive days. Seven groups of male Sprague Dawley® rats were used. A single D1 or D2 antagonist was given before and after acute and chronic MPD administration. Single injection of D1 DA antagonist was able to significantly attenuate the locomotor activity when given prior to the initial MPD exposure and after repetitive MPD exposure, while the D2 DA antagonist partially attenuated the locomotor activity only when given before the second MPD exposure. The results show the role, at least in part, of the D1 DA receptor in the mechanism of behavioral sensitization, whereas the D2 DA receptor only partially modulates the response to acute and chronic MPD. PMID:27186140