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Sample records for subtelomeric deletion syndrome

  1. Loss-of-Function Mutations in Euchromatin Histone Methyl Transferase 1 (EHMT1) Cause the 9q34 Subtelomeric Deletion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kleefstra, Tjitske; Brunner, Han G.; Amiel, Jeanne; Oudakker, Astrid R.; Nillesen, Willy M.; Magee, Alex; Geneviève, David; Cormier-Daire, Valérie; van Esch, Hilde; Fryns, Jean-Pierre; Hamel, Ben C. J.; Sistermans, Erik A.; de Vries, Bert B. A.; van Bokhoven, Hans

    2006-01-01

    A clinically recognizable 9q subtelomeric deletion syndrome has recently been established. Common features seen in these patients are severe mental retardation, hypotonia, brachycephaly, flat face with hypertelorism, synophrys, anteverted nares, cupid bow or tented upper lip, everted lower lip, prognathism, macroglossia, conotruncal heart defects, and behavioral problems. The minimal critical region responsible for this 9q subtelomeric deletion (9q?) syndrome has been estimated to be <1 Mb and comprises the euchromatin histone methyl transferase 1 gene (EHMT1). Previous studies suggested that haploinsufficiency for EHMT1 is causative for 9q subtelomeric deletion syndrome. We have performed a comprehensive mutation analysis of the EHMT1 gene in 23 patients with clinical presentations reminiscent of 9q subtelomeric deletion syndrome. This analysis revealed three additional microdeletions that comprise the EHMT1 gene, including one interstitial deletion that reduces the critical region for this syndrome. Most importantly, we identified two de novo mutations—a nonsense mutation and a frameshift mutation—in the EHMT1 gene in patients with a typical 9q? phenotype. These results establish that haploinsufficiency of EHMT1 is causative for 9q subtelomeric deletion syndrome. PMID:16826528

  2. Dental developmental abnormalities in a patient with subtelomeric 7q36 deletion syndrome may confirm a novel role for the SHH gene.

    PubMed

    Linhares, Natália D; Svartman, Marta; Salgado, Mauro Ivan; Rodrigues, Tatiane C; da Costa, Silvia S; Rosenberg, Carla; Valadares, Eugênia R

    2014-12-01

    Studies in mice demonstrated that the Shh gene is crucial for normal development of both incisors and molars, causing a severe retardation in tooth growth, which leads to abnormal placement of the tooth in the jaw and disrupted tooth morphogenesis. In humans the SHH gene is located on chromosome 7q36. Defects in its protein or signaling pathway may cause holoprosencephaly spectrum, a disorder in which the developing forebrain fails to correctly separate into right and left hemispheres and that can be manifested in microforms such as single maxillary central incisor. A novel role for this gene in the developing human primary dentition was recently demonstrated. We report a 12-year old boy with a de novo 7q36.1-qter deletion characterized by high-resolution karyotyping, oligonucleotide aCGH and FISH. His phenotype includes intellectual disability, non-verbal communication, hypospadia, partial sacral agenesis and absence of coccyx, which are distinctive features of the syndrome and mainly correlated with the MNX1, HTR5A and EN2 genes. No microforms of holoprosencephaly spectrum were observed; but the patient had diastema and dental developmental abnormalities, such as conical, asymmetric and tapered inferior central incisors. The dental anomalies are reported herein for the first time in subtelomeric 7q36 deletion syndrome and may confirm clinically a novel role for the SHH gene in dental development. PMID:25606385

  3. Dental developmental abnormalities in a patient with subtelomeric 7q36 deletion syndrome may confirm a novel role for the SHH gene?

    PubMed Central

    Linhares, Natália D.; Svartman, Marta; Salgado, Mauro Ivan; Rodrigues, Tatiane C.; da Costa, Silvia S.; Rosenberg, Carla; Valadares, Eugênia R.

    2013-01-01

    Studies in mice demonstrated that the Shh gene is crucial for normal development of both incisors and molars, causing a severe retardation in tooth growth, which leads to abnormal placement of the tooth in the jaw and disrupted tooth morphogenesis. In humans the SHH gene is located on chromosome 7q36. Defects in its protein or signaling pathway may cause holoprosencephaly spectrum, a disorder in which the developing forebrain fails to correctly separate into right and left hemispheres and that can be manifested in microforms such as single maxillary central incisor. A novel role for this gene in the developing human primary dentition was recently demonstrated. We report a 12-year old boy with a de novo 7q36.1-qter deletion characterized by high-resolution karyotyping, oligonucleotide aCGH and FISH. His phenotype includes intellectual disability, non-verbal communication, hypospadia, partial sacral agenesis and absence of coccyx, which are distinctive features of the syndrome and mainly correlated with the MNX1, HTR5A and EN2 genes. No microforms of holoprosencephaly spectrum were observed; but the patient had diastema and dental developmental abnormalities, such as conical, asymmetric and tapered inferior central incisors. The dental anomalies are reported herein for the first time in subtelomeric 7q36 deletion syndrome and may confirm clinically a novel role for the SHH gene in dental development. PMID:25606385

  4. Chromosome size polymorphism in Plasmodium falciparum can involve deletions of the subtelomeric pPFrep20 sequence.

    PubMed Central

    Patarapotikul, J; Langsley, G

    1988-01-01

    The P. falciparum pPFrep20 repetitive element from the Palo Alto Uganda strain has been isolated and sequenced. The Palo Alto pPFrep20 repeat (pPFPArep20) has a clustered subtelomeric location and on chromosome 1 has been deleted from one end. Analysis of chromosome 1 from 5 other strains has revealed that pPFrep20 sequences have been deleted from one end in 3 of them. Thus, deletion of pPFrep20 appears to be a frequent event that could significantly contribute to chromosome size polymorphism in P. falciparum. Images PMID:2837730

  5. Diverse mutational mechanisms cause pathogenic subtelomeric rearrangements

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yue; Hermetz, Karen E.; Jackson, Jodi M.; Mulle, Jennifer G.; Dodd, Anne; Tsuchiya, Karen D.; Ballif, Blake C.; Shaffer, Lisa G.; Cody, Jannine D.; Ledbetter, David H.; Martin, Christa L.; Rudd, M. Katharine

    2011-01-01

    Chromosome rearrangements are a significant cause of intellectual disability and birth defects. Subtelomeric rearrangements, including deletions, duplications and translocations of chromosome ends, were first discovered over 40 years ago and are now recognized as being responsible for several genetic syndromes. Unlike the deletions and duplications that cause some genomic disorders, subtelomeric rearrangements do not typically have recurrent breakpoints and involve many different chromosome ends. To capture the molecular mechanisms responsible for this heterogeneous class of chromosome abnormality, we coupled high-resolution array CGH with breakpoint junction sequencing of a diverse collection of subtelomeric rearrangements. We analyzed 102 breakpoints corresponding to 78 rearrangements involving 28 chromosome ends. Sequencing 21 breakpoint junctions revealed signatures of non-homologous end-joining, non-allelic homologous recombination between interspersed repeats and DNA replication processes. Thus, subtelomeric rearrangements arise from diverse mutational mechanisms. In addition, we find hotspots of subtelomeric breakage at the end of chromosomes 9q and 22q; these sites may correspond to genomic regions that are particularly susceptible to double-strand breaks. Finally, fine-mapping the smallest subtelomeric rearrangements has narrowed the critical regions for some chromosomal disorders. PMID:21729882

  6. Subtelomeric Deletion of Chromosome 10p15.3: Clinical Findings and Molecular Cytogenetic Characterization

    PubMed Central

    DeScipio, Cheryl; Conlin, Laura; Rosenfeld, Jill; Tepperberg, James; Pasion, Romela; Patel, Ankita; McDonald, Marie T; Aradhya, Swaroop; Ho, Darlene; Goldstein, Jennifer; McGuire, Marianne; Mulchandani, Surabhi; Medne, Livija; Rupps, Rosemarie; Serrano, Alvaro H.; Thorland, Erik C; Tsai, Anne C-H; Hilhorst-Hofstee, Yvonne; Ruivenkamp, Claudia AL; Van Esch, Hilde; Addor, Marie-Claude; Martinet, Danielle; Mason, Thornton B.A.; Clark, Dinah; Spinner, Nancy B; Krantz, Ian D

    2012-01-01

    We describe 19 unrelated individuals with submicroscopic deletions involving 10p15.3 characterized by chromosomal microarray (CMA). Interestingly, to our knowledge, only two individuals with isolated, submicroscopic 10p15.3 deletion have been reported to date; however, only limited clinical information is available for these probands and the deleted region has not been molecularly mapped. Comprehensive clinical history was obtained for 12 of the 19 individuals described in this study. Common features among these 12 individuals include: cognitive/behavioral/developmental differences (11/11), speech delay/language disorder (10/10), motor delay (10/10), craniofacial dysmorphism (9/12), hypotonia (7/11,), brain anomalies (4/6) and seizures (3/7). Parental studies were performed for nine of the 19 individuals; the 10p15.3 deletion was de novo in seven of the probands, not maternally inherited in one proband and inherited from an apparently affected mother in one proband. Molecular mapping of the 19 individuals reported in this study has identified two genes, ZMYND11 (OMIM# 608668) and DIP2C (OMIM# 611380) (UCSC Genome Browser), mapping within 10p15.3 which are most commonly deleted. Although no single gene has been identified which is deleted in all 19 individuals studied, the deleted region in all but one individual includes ZMYND11 and the deleted region in all but one other individual includes DIP2C. There is not a clearly identifiable phenotypic difference between these two individuals and the size of the deleted region does not generally predict clinical features. Little is currently known about these genes complicating a direct genotype/phenotype correlation at this time. These data however, suggest that ZMYND11 and/or DIP2C haploinsufficiency contributes to the clinical features associated with 10p15 deletions in probands described in this study. PMID:22847950

  7. 22q13 deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Phelan, M C; Rogers, R C; Saul, R A; Stapleton, G A; Sweet, K; McDermid, H; Shaw, S R; Claytor, J; Willis, J; Kelly, D P

    2001-06-15

    We have recently collected clinical information on 37 individuals with deletion of 22q13 and compared the features of these individuals with 24 previously reported cases. The features most frequently associated with this deletion are global developmental delay, generalized hypotonia, absent or severely delayed speech, and normal to advanced growth. Minor anomalies include dolicocephaly, abnormal ears, ptosis, dysplastic toenails, and relatively large hands. As with many terminal deletions involving pale G-band regions, the deletion can be extremely subtle and can go undetected on routine cytogenetic analysis. In fact, 32% of the individuals in our study had previous chromosome analyses that failed to detect the deletion. Eight of 37 individuals had deletion of 22q13 secondary to an unbalanced chromosome translocation. In the newborn, this deletion should be considered in cases of hypotonia for which other common causes have been excluded. In the older child, this syndrome should be suspected in individuals with normal growth, profound developmental delay, absent or delayed speech, and minor dysmorphic features. We recommend high-resolution chromosome analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization studies, or molecular analysis to exclude this diagnosis. PMID:11391650

  8. Genetics Home Reference: 18q deletion syndrome

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    ... people of all ethnic backgrounds. What are the genetic changes related to 18q deletion syndrome? 18q deletion ... Center . Where can I find general information about genetic conditions? The Handbook provides basic information about genetics ...

  9. Genetics Home Reference: 18q deletion syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... deletion syndrome is caused by a deletion of genetic material from the long (q) arm of chromosome 18. ... rearrangement called a balanced translocation, in which no genetic material is gained or lost. Individuals with a balanced ...

  10. Delimitation of the Earliness per se D1 (Eps-D1) flowering gene to a subtelomeric chromosomal deletion in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum)

    PubMed Central

    Zikhali, Meluleki; Wingen, Luzie U.; Griffiths, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Earliness per se (Eps) genes account for the variation in flowering time when vernalization and photoperiod requirements are satisfied. Genomics and bioinformatics approaches were used to describe allelic variation for 40 Triticum aestivum genes predicted, by synteny with Brachypodium distachyon, to be in the 1DL Eps region. Re-sequencing 1DL genes revealed that varieties carrying early heading alleles at this locus, Spark and Cadenza, carry a subtelomeric deletion including several genes. The equivalent region in Rialto and Avalon is intact. A bimodal distribution in the segregating Spark X Rialto single seed descent (SSD) populations enabled the 1DL QTL to be defined as a discrete Mendelian factor, which we named Eps-D1. Near isogenic lines (NILs) and NIL derived key recombinants between markers flanking Eps-D1 suggest that the 1DL deletion contains the gene(s) underlying Eps-D1. The deletion spans the equivalent of the Triticum monoccocum Eps-A m 1 locus, and hence includes MODIFIER OF TRANSCRIPTION 1 (MOT1) and FTSH PROTEASE 4 (FTSH4), the candidates for Eps-A m 1. The deletion also contains T. aestivum EARLY FLOWERING 3-D1 (TaELF3-D1) a homologue of the Arabidopsis thaliana circadian clock gene EARLY FLOWERING 3. Eps-D1 is possibly a homologue of Eps-B1 on chromosome 1BL. NILs carrying the Eps-D1 deletion have significantly reduced total TaELF3 expression and altered TaGIGANTEA (TaGI) expression compared with wild type. Altered TaGI expression is consistent with an ELF3 mutant, hence we propose TaELF3-D1 as the more likely candidate for Eps-D1. This is the first direct fine mapping of Eps effect in bread wheat. PMID:26476691

  11. Delimitation of the Earliness per se D1 (Eps-D1) flowering gene to a subtelomeric chromosomal deletion in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    PubMed

    Zikhali, Meluleki; Wingen, Luzie U; Griffiths, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Earliness per se (Eps) genes account for the variation in flowering time when vernalization and photoperiod requirements are satisfied. Genomics and bioinformatics approaches were used to describe allelic variation for 40 Triticum aestivum genes predicted, by synteny with Brachypodium distachyon, to be in the 1DL Eps region. Re-sequencing 1DL genes revealed that varieties carrying early heading alleles at this locus, Spark and Cadenza, carry a subtelomeric deletion including several genes. The equivalent region in Rialto and Avalon is intact. A bimodal distribution in the segregating Spark X Rialto single seed descent (SSD) populations enabled the 1DL QTL to be defined as a discrete Mendelian factor, which we named Eps-D1. Near isogenic lines (NILs) and NIL derived key recombinants between markers flanking Eps-D1 suggest that the 1DL deletion contains the gene(s) underlying Eps-D1. The deletion spans the equivalent of the Triticum monoccocum Eps-A (m) 1 locus, and hence includes MODIFIER OF TRANSCRIPTION 1 (MOT1) and FTSH PROTEASE 4 (FTSH4), the candidates for Eps-A (m) 1. The deletion also contains T. aestivum EARLY FLOWERING 3-D1 (TaELF3-D1) a homologue of the Arabidopsis thaliana circadian clock gene EARLY FLOWERING 3. Eps-D1 is possibly a homologue of Eps-B1 on chromosome 1BL. NILs carrying the Eps-D1 deletion have significantly reduced total TaELF3 expression and altered TaGIGANTEA (TaGI) expression compared with wild type. Altered TaGI expression is consistent with an ELF3 mutant, hence we propose TaELF3-D1 as the more likely candidate for Eps-D1. This is the first direct fine mapping of Eps effect in bread wheat. PMID:26476691

  12. A boy with a submicroscopic 22qter deletion, general overgrowth and features suggestive of FG syndrome.

    PubMed

    de Vries, B B; Bitner-Glindzicz, M; Knight, S J; Tyson, J; MacDermont, K D; Flint, J; Malcolm, S; Winter, R M

    2000-12-01

    Over recent years, submicroscopic subtelomeric rearrangements have been shown to be a significant cause of mental retardation and, therefore, such abnormalities should be considered in every child with moderate to severe retardation with additional features suggestive of a chromosomal abnormality. The FG syndrome is an X-linked recessive mental retardation syndrome with congenital hypotonia, relative macrocephaly, a characteristic facies and constipation. We describe a severely mentally retarded boy with a history of severe constipation, truncal hypotonia, facial dysmorphism, fetal pads, and joint laxity, leading to an initial diagnosis of FG syndrome at the age of 3 years. Clinical re-evaluation at the age of 6 years, when he showed signs of general overgrowth, initiated a telomere screen, and a submicroscopic 22q13.3 telomere deletion was detected. The features suggestive of FG syndrome in this boy with a 22q13.3--> qter deletion may indicate testing for submicroscopic 22qter deletions in patients with atypical features of FG syndrome without a definite X-linked family history. PMID:11149619

  13. Cognitive-behavioral characteristics and developmental trajectories in children with deletion 11qter (Jacobsen syndrome), and their relation to deletion size.

    PubMed

    Fisch, Gene S

    2015-01-01

    Subtelomeric deletions represent an important class of abnormalities to be considered when investigating genetic links to intellectual disability (ID). One subtelomeric deletion found on the long arm of chromosome 11q produces a characteristic phenotype that includes ID and is often referred to as Jacobsen syndrome (JBS). Previously, researchers found an inverse relationship between IQ and deletion size. While useful, IQ does not provide a comprehensive picture of the cognitive-behavioral strengths and weaknesses in JBS, nor does it reveal how the profiles evolve as these individuals age. One purpose of this study was to confirm the relationship between IQ or adaptive behavior (DQ) and deletion size. We also examined cognitive-behavioral profiles of children with JBS and the extent to which they changed over time. Initially, at T1, we examined 10 children, ages 5-20 years, diagnosed with JBS. Cognitive ability was assessed with the Stanford-Binet (4th Edition). Adaptive behavoir was evaluated with the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS). Eight children were reassessed 2 years later (T2). Results show a negative but non-significant correlation between IQ and deletion size. There was no statistically significant relationship between DQ and deletion size. As for our second aim, IQ and DQ scores were stable from T1 to T2. Cognitive profiles were not significantly different from T1 to T2. However, there were significant changes in adaptive behavior domain scores from T1 to T2. Lack of a significant relationship between cognitive-behavioral measures and deletion size, as well as changes in cognitive-behavioral profiles are discussed. PMID:25425441

  14. Deletion 22q13.3 syndrome.

    PubMed

    Phelan, Mary C

    2008-01-01

    The deletion 22q13.3 syndrome (deletion 22q13 syndrome or Phelan-McDermid syndrome) is a chromosome microdeletion syndrome characterized by neonatal hypotonia, global developmental delay, normal to accelerated growth, absent to severely delayed speech, and minor dysmorphic features. The deletion occurs with equal frequency in males and females and has been reported in mosaic and non-mosaic forms. Due to lack of clinical recognition and often insufficient laboratory testing, the syndrome is under-diagnosed and its true incidence remains unknown. Common physical traits include long eye lashes, large or unusual ears, relatively large hands, dysplastic toenails, full brow, dolicocephaly, full cheeks, bulbous nose, and pointed chin. Behavior is autistic-like with decreased perception of pain and habitual chewing or mouthing. The loss of 22q13.3 can result from simple deletion, translocation, ring chromosome formation and less common structural changes affecting the long arm of chromosome 22, specifically the region containing the SHANK3 gene. The diagnosis of deletion 22q13 syndrome should be considered in all cases of hypotonia of unknown etiology and in individuals with absent speech. Although the deletion can sometimes be detected by high resolution chromosome analysis, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) or array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) is recommended for confirmation. Differential diagnosis includes syndromes associated with hypotonia, developmental delay, speech delay and/or autistic-like affect (Prader-Willi, Angelman, Williams, Smith-Magenis, Fragile X, Sotos, FG, trichorhinophalangeal and velocardiofacial syndromes, autism spectrum disorders, cerebral palsy). Genetic counseling is recommended and parental laboratory studies should be considered to identify cryptic rearrangements and detect parental mosaicism. Prenatal diagnosis should be offered for future pregnancies in those families with inherited rearrangements. Individuals with deletion 22q13 should have routine examinations by the primary care physician as well as genetic evaluations with referral to specialists if neurological, gastrointestinal, renal, or other systemic problems are suspected. Affected individuals benefit from early intervention programs, intense occupational and communication therapies, adaptive exercise and sport programs, and other therapies to strengthen their muscles and increase their communication skills. No apparent life-threatening organic abnormalities accompany the diagnosis of deletion 22q13. PMID:18505557

  15. A subtelomeric non-LTR retrotransposon Hebe in the bdelloid rotifer Adineta vaga is subject to inactivation by deletions but not 5' truncations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Rotifers of the class Bdelloidea are microscopic freshwater invertebrates best known for: their capacity for anhydrobiosis; the lack of males and meiosis; and for the ability to capture genes from other non-metazoan species. Although genetic exchange between these animals might take place by non-canonical means, the overall lack of meiosis and syngamy should greatly impair the ability of transposable elements (TEs) to spread in bdelloid populations. Previous studies demonstrated that bdelloid chromosome ends, in contrast to gene-rich regions, harbour various kinds of TEs, including specialized telomere-associated retroelements, as well as DNA TEs and retrovirus-like retrotransposons which are prone to horizontal transmission. Vertically-transmitted retrotransposons have not previously been reported in bdelloids and their identification and studies of the patterns of their distribution and evolution could help in the understanding of the high degree of TE compartmentalization within bdelloid genomes. Results We identified and characterized a non-long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposon residing primarily in subtelomeric regions of the genome in the bdelloid rotifer Adineta vaga. Contrary to the currently prevailing views on the mode of proliferation of non-LTR retrotransposons, which results in frequent formation of 5'-truncated ('dead-on-arrival') copies due to the premature disengagement of the element-encoded reverse transcriptase from its template, this non-LTR element, Hebe, is represented only by non-5'-truncated copies. Most of these copies, however, were subject to internal deletions associated with microhomologies, a hallmark of non-homologous end-joining events. Conclusions The non-LTR retrotransposon Hebe from the bdelloid rotifer A. vaga was found to undergo frequent microhomology-associated deletions, rather than 5'-terminal truncations characteristic of this class of retrotransposons, and to exhibit preference for telomeric localization. These findings represent the first example of a vertically transmitted putatively deleterious TE in bdelloids, and may indicate the involvement of microhomology-mediated non-homologous end-joining in desiccation-induced double-strand break repair at the genome periphery. PMID:20359339

  16. Genetics Home Reference: 22q13.3 deletion syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 3 deletion syndrome are known. What are the genetic changes related to 22q13.3 deletion syndrome? 22q13. ... Center . Where can I find general information about genetic conditions? The Handbook provides basic information about genetics ...

  17. 1p36 deletion syndrome: an update

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Valerie K; Zaveri, Hitisha P; Scott, Daryl A

    2015-01-01

    Deletions of chromosome 1p36 affect approximately 1 in 5,000 newborns and are the most common terminal deletions in humans. Medical problems commonly caused by terminal deletions of 1p36 include developmental delay, intellectual disability, seizures, vision problems, hearing loss, short stature, distinctive facial features, brain anomalies, orofacial clefting, congenital heart defects, cardiomyopathy, and renal anomalies. Although 1p36 deletion syndrome is considered clinically recognizable, there is significant phenotypic variation among affected individuals. This variation is due, at least in part, to the genetic heterogeneity seen in 1p36 deletions which include terminal and interstitial deletions of varying lengths located throughout the 30 Mb of DNA that comprise chromosome 1p36. Array-based copy number variant analysis can easily identify genomic regions of 1p36 that are deleted in an affected individual. However, predicting the phenotype of an individual based solely on the location and extent of their 1p36 deletion remains a challenge since most of the genes that contribute to 1p36-related phenotypes have yet to be identified. In addition, haploinsufficiency of more than one gene may contribute to some phenotypes. In this article, we review recent successes in the effort to map and identify the genes and genomic regions that contribute to specific 1p36-related phenotypes. In particular, we highlight evidence implicating MMP23B, GABRD, SKI, PRDM16, KCNAB2, RERE, UBE4B, CASZ1, PDPN, SPEN, ECE1, HSPG2, and LUZP1 in various 1p36 deletion phenotypes. PMID:26345236

  18. 22q11 deletion syndrome: current perspective

    PubMed Central

    Hacıhamdioğlu, Bülent; Hacıhamdioğlu, Duygu; Delil, Kenan

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome 22q11 is characterized by the presence of chromosome-specific low-copy repeats or segmental duplications. This region of the chromosome is very unstable and susceptible to mutations. The misalignment of low-copy repeats during nonallelic homologous recombination leads to the deletion of the 22q11.2 region, which results in 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS). The 22q11.2 deletion is associated with a wide variety of phenotypes. The term 22q11DS is an umbrella term that is used to encompass all 22q11.2 deletion-associated phenotypes. The haploinsufficiency of genes located at 22q11.2 affects the early morphogenesis of the pharyngeal arches, heart, skeleton, and brain. TBX1 is the most important gene for 22q11DS. This syndrome can ultimately affect many organs or systems; therefore, it has a very wide phenotypic spectrum. An increasing amount of information is available related to the pathogenesis, clinical phenotypes, and management of this syndrome in recent years. This review summarizes the current clinical and genetic status related to 22q11DS. PMID:26056486

  19. Genetics Home Reference: 1p36 deletion syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... deletion syndrome is caused by a deletion of genetic material from a specific region in the short (p) ... rearrangement called a balanced translocation, in which no genetic material is gained or lost. Balanced translocations usually do ...

  20. Genetics Home Reference: 2q37 deletion syndrome

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    ... deletion syndrome is caused by a deletion of genetic material from a specific region in the long (q) ... This rearrangement is called a balanced translocation. No genetic material is gained or lost in a balanced translocation, ...

  1. Genetics Home Reference: 2q37 deletion syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cases have been reported worldwide. What are the genetic changes related to 2q37 deletion syndrome? 2q37 deletion ... Center . Where can I find general information about genetic conditions? The Handbook provides basic information about genetics ...

  2. Genetics Home Reference: 1p36 deletion syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... individuals are likely never diagnosed. What are the genetic changes related to 1p36 deletion syndrome? 1p36 deletion ... Center . Where can I find general information about genetic conditions? The Handbook provides basic information about genetics ...

  3. Sensorineural deafness and male infertility: a contiguous gene deletion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuzhou; Malekpour, Mahdi; Al?Madani, Navid; Kahrizi, Kimia; Zanganeh, Marvam; Mohseni, Marzieh; Mojahedi, Faezeh; Daneshi, Ahmad; Najmabadi, Hossein; Smith, Richard J H

    2007-01-01

    Background Syndromic hearing loss that results from contiguous gene deletions is uncommon. Deafness?infertility syndrome (DIS) is caused by large contiguous gene deletions at 15q15.3. Methods Three families with a novel syndrome characterised by deafness and infertility are described. These three families do not share a common ancestor and do not share identical deletions. Linkage was established by completing a genome?wide scan and candidate genes in the linked region were screened by direct sequencing. Results The deleted region is about 100?kb long and involves four genes (KIAA0377, CKMT1B, STRC and CATSPER2), each of which has a telomeric duplicate. This genomic architecture underlies the mechanism by which these deletions occur. CATSPER2 and STRC are expressed in the sperm and inner ear, respectively, consistent with the phenotype in persons homozygous for this deletion. A deletion of this region has been reported in one other family segregating male infertility and sensorineural deafness, although congenital dyserythropoietic anaemia type I (CDAI) was also present, presumably due to a second deletion in another genomic region. Conclusion We have identified three families segregating an autosomal recessive contiguous gene deletion syndrome characterised by deafness and sperm dysmotility. This new syndrome is caused by the deletion of contiguous genes at 15q15.3. PMID:17098888

  4. Genetics Home Reference: 22q13.3 deletion syndrome

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    ... with a segment from another chromosome, but no genetic material is gained or lost. Balanced translocations usually do ... have a chromosomal rearrangement with extra or missing genetic material. Individuals with 22q13.3 deletion syndrome who inherit ...

  5. Genetics Home Reference: 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

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    ... other disorders with overlapping features. What are the genetic changes related to 22q11.2 deletion syndrome? Most ... Center . Where can I find general information about genetic conditions? The Handbook provides basic information about genetics ...

  6. Genetics Home Reference: 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

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    ... and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding 22q11.2 deletion syndrome? ADHD ; ... 22, 2016 Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications U.S. National Library of Medicine , National Institutes of ...

  7. Genetics Home Reference: 16p11.2 deletion syndrome

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    ... and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding 16p11.2 deletion syndrome? autism ; ... 22, 2016 Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications U.S. National Library of Medicine , National Institutes of ...

  8. Genetics Home Reference: 16p11.2 deletion syndrome

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    ... Most also have at least some features of autism spectrum disorders. These disorders are characterized by impaired ... Registry: 16p11.2 deletion syndrome Genetic Testing Registry: Autism, susceptibility to, 14a You might also find information ...

  9. Molecular dissection of the 5q deletion in myelodysplastic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ebert, Benjamin L.

    2011-01-01

    The 5q- syndrome is a subtype of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) with a defined clinical phenotype associated with heterozygous deletions of Chromosome 5q. While no genes have been identified that undergo recurrent homozygous inactivation, functional studies have revealed individual genes that contribute to the clinical phenotype of MDS through haploinsufficient gene expression. Heterozygous loss of the RPS14 gene on 5q leads to activation of p53 in the erythroid lineage and the macrocytic anemia characteristic of the 5q- syndrome. The megakaryocytic and platelet phenotype of the 5q- syndrome has been attributed to heterozygous deletion of miR145 and miR146a. Murine models have implicated heterozygous loss of APC, EGR1, DIAPH1, and NPM1 in the pathophysiology of del(5q) MDS. These findings indicate that the phenotype of MDS patients with deletions of Chromosome 5q is due to haploinsufficiency of multiple genes. PMID:21943668

  10. The 22q13.3 Deletion Syndrome (Phelan-McDermid Syndrome).

    PubMed

    Phelan, K; McDermid, H E

    2012-04-01

    The 22q13.3 deletion syndrome, also known as Phelan-McDermid syndrome, is a contiguous gene disorder resulting from deletion of the distal long arm of chromosome 22. In addition to normal growth and a constellation of minor dysmorphic features, this syndrome is characterized by neurological deficits which include global developmental delay, moderate to severe intellectual impairment, absent or severely delayed speech, and neonatal hypotonia. In addition, more than 50% of patients show autism or autistic-like behavior, and therefore it can be classified as a syndromic form of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The differential diagnosis includes Angelman syndrome, velocardiofacial syndrome, fragile X syndrome, and FG syndrome. Over 600 cases of 22q13.3 deletion syndrome have been documented. Most are terminal deletions of ?100 kb to >9 Mb, resulting from simple deletions, ring chromosomes, and unbalanced translocations. Almost all of these deletions include the gene SHANK3 which encodes a scaffold protein in the postsynaptic densities of excitatory synapses, connecting membrane-bound receptors to the actin cytoskeleton. Two mouse knockout models and cell culture experiments show that SHANK3 is involved in the structure and function of synapses and support the hypothesis that the majority of 22q13.3 deletion syndrome neurological defects are due to haploinsufficiency of SHANK3, although other genes in the region may also play a role in the syndrome. The molecular connection to ASD suggests that potential future treatments may involve modulation of metabotropic glutamate receptors. PMID:22670140

  11. The 22q13.3 Deletion Syndrome (Phelan-McDermid Syndrome)

    PubMed Central

    Phelan, K.; McDermid, H.E.

    2012-01-01

    The 22q13.3 deletion syndrome, also known as Phelan-McDermid syndrome, is a contiguous gene disorder resulting from deletion of the distal long arm of chromosome 22. In addition to normal growth and a constellation of minor dysmorphic features, this syndrome is characterized by neurological deficits which include global developmental delay, moderate to severe intellectual impairment, absent or severely delayed speech, and neonatal hypotonia. In addition, more than 50% of patients show autism or autistic-like behavior, and therefore it can be classified as a syndromic form of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The differential diagnosis includes Angelman syndrome, velocardiofacial syndrome, fragile X syndrome, and FG syndrome. Over 600 cases of 22q13.3 deletion syndrome have been documented. Most are terminal deletions of ∼100 kb to >9 Mb, resulting from simple deletions, ring chromosomes, and unbalanced translocations. Almost all of these deletions include the gene SHANK3 which encodes a scaffold protein in the postsynaptic densities of excitatory synapses, connecting membrane-bound receptors to the actin cytoskeleton. Two mouse knockout models and cell culture experiments show that SHANK3 is involved in the structure and function of synapses and support the hypothesis that the majority of 22q13.3 deletion syndrome neurological defects are due to haploinsufficiency of SHANK3, although other genes in the region may also play a role in the syndrome. The molecular connection to ASD suggests that potential future treatments may involve modulation of metabotropic glutamate receptors. PMID:22670140

  12. Molecular characterization of deletion breakpoints in adults with 22q11 deletion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Stachon, Andrea C.; Squire, Jeremy A.; Moldovan, Laura; Bayani, Jane; Meyn, Stephen; Chow, Eva; Bassett, Anne S.

    2011-01-01

    22q11 Deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a common microdeletion syndrome with variable expression, including congenital and later onset conditions such as schizophrenia. Most studies indicate that expression does not appear to be related to length of the deletion but there is limited information on the endpoints of even the common deletion breakpoint regions in adults. We used a real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) approach to fine map 22q11.2 deletions in 44 adults with 22q11DS, 22 with schizophrenia (SZ; 12 M, 10 F; mean age 35.7 SD 8.0 years) and 22 with no history of psychosis (NP; 8 M, 14 F; mean age 27.1 SD 8.6 years). QPCR data were consistent with clinical FISH results using the TUPLE1 or N25 probes. Two subjects (one SZ, one NP) negative for clinical FISH had atypical 22q11.2 deletions confirmed by FISH using the RP11-138C22 probe. Most (n = 34; 18 SZ, 16 NP) subjects shared a common 3 Mb hemizygous 22q11.2 deletion. However, eight subjects showed breakpoint variability: a more telomeric proximal breakpoint (n = 2), or more centromeric (n = 3) or more telomeric distal breakpoint (n = 3). One NP subject had a proximal nested 1.4 Mb deletion. COMT and TBX1 were deleted in all 44 subjects, and PRODH in 40 subjects (19 SZ, 21 NP). The results delineate proximal and distal breakpoint variants in 22q11DS. Neither deletion extent nor PRODH haploinsufficiency appeared to explain the clinical expression of schizophrenia in the present study. Further studies are needed to elucidate the molecular basis of schizophrenia and clinical heterogeneity in 22q11DS. PMID:17028864

  13. Deletions of the elastin gene in Williams Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, F.; Nickerson, E.; McCaskill, C.

    1994-09-01

    To investigate deletions in the elastin gene in patients with Williams Syndrome (WS), we screened 37 patients and their parents for deletions in the elastin gene by both fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using cosmid cELN272 containing the 5{prime} end of the elastin gene and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using a primer pair which amplifies intron 17 in the elastin gene, producing a polymorphic amplification product. Thirty-two patients have been investigated by both the FISH and PCR techniques, one patient was studied only by PCR, and 4 patients were studied only by FISH. Overall, 34 of 37 patients (92%) were deleted for the elastin gene. Using the PCR marker, 14 patients were informative and 12 were shown to be deleted [maternal (n=5) and paternal (n=7)]. Using cosmid cELN272, 33 of 36 patients demonstrated a deletion of chromosome 7q11.23. In one family, both the mother and daughter were deleted due to an apparently de novo deletion arising in the mother. Three patients were not deleted using the elastin cosmid; 2 of these patients have classic WS. Another non-deleted patient has the typical facial features and hypercalcemia but normal intelligence. These three patients will be important in delineating the critical region(s) responsible for the facial features, hypercalcemia, mental retardation and supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS). There was not an absolute correlation between deletions in elastin and SVAS, although these individuals may be at risk for other cardiovascular complications such as hypertention. Since the majority of WS patients are deleted for a portion of the elastin gene, most likely this marker will be an important diagnostic tool, although more patients will need to be studied. Those patients who are not deleted but clinically have WS will be missed using only this one marker. Expansion of the critical region to other loci and identification of additional markers will be essential for identifying all patients with WS.

  14. Phenotype-genotype correlation in 20 deletion and 20 non-deletion Angelman syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Moncla, A; Malzac, P; Voelckel, M A; Auquier, P; Girardot, L; Mattei, M G; Philip, N; Mattei, J F; Lalande, M; Livet, M O

    1999-01-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by the absence of a maternal contribution to chromosome 15q11-q13. There are four classes of AS according to molecular or cytogenetic status: maternal microdeletion of 15q11-q13 (approximately 70% of AS patients); uniparental disomy (UPD); defects in a putative imprinting centre (IM); the fourth includes 20-30% of AS individuals with biparental inheritance and a normal pattern of allelic methylation in 15q11-q13. Mutations of UBE3A have recently been identified as causing AS in the latter group. Few studies have investigated the phenotypic differences between these classes. We compared 20 non-deletion to 20 age-matched deletion patients and found significant phenotypic differences between the two groups. The more severe phenotype in the deletion group may suggest a contiguous gene syndrome. PMID:10196695

  15. Developmental Trajectories in Syndromes with Intellectual Disability, with a Focus on Wolf-Hirschhorn and Its Cognitive-Behavioral Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisch, Gene S.; Carpenter, Nancy; Howard-Peebles, Patricia N.; Holden, Jeanette J. A.; Tarleton, Jack; Simensen, Richard; Battaglia, Agatino

    2012-01-01

    Few studies exist of developmental trajectories in children with intellectual disability, and none for those with subtelomeric deletions. We compared developmental trajectories of children with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome to other genetic disorders. We recruited 106 children diagnosed with fragile X, Williams-Beuren syndrome, or Wolf-Hirschhorn…

  16. Developmental Trajectories in Syndromes with Intellectual Disability, with a Focus on Wolf-Hirschhorn and Its Cognitive-Behavioral Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisch, Gene S.; Carpenter, Nancy; Howard-Peebles, Patricia N.; Holden, Jeanette J. A.; Tarleton, Jack; Simensen, Richard; Battaglia, Agatino

    2012-01-01

    Few studies exist of developmental trajectories in children with intellectual disability, and none for those with subtelomeric deletions. We compared developmental trajectories of children with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome to other genetic disorders. We recruited 106 children diagnosed with fragile X, Williams-Beuren syndrome, or Wolf-Hirschhorn…

  17. Supporting Children with Genetic Syndromes in the Classroom: The Example of 22q Deletion Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, Colin; Stedman, Lindsey

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of children are likely to have a known genetic cause for their special educational needs. One such genetic condition is 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22qDS), a genetic syndrome associated with early speech and language difficulties, global and specific cognitive impairments, difficulties with attention and difficulties with…

  18. Supporting Children with Genetic Syndromes in the Classroom: The Example of 22q Deletion Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, Colin; Stedman, Lindsey

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of children are likely to have a known genetic cause for their special educational needs. One such genetic condition is 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22qDS), a genetic syndrome associated with early speech and language difficulties, global and specific cognitive impairments, difficulties with attention and difficulties with…

  19. Neuropathic scapuloperoneal syndrome (Davidenkow's syndrome) with chromosome 17p11.2 deletion.

    PubMed

    Verma, Ashok

    2005-11-01

    The nosologic boundary of neuropathic scapuloperoneal syndrome (Davidenkow's syndrome) remains ill defined and its genetic basis is unknown. A case of Davidenkow's syndrome with the monochromosomic 17p11.2 deletion that often is associated with hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) is described. The other allele at chromosome 17p11.2 locus was of normal length, and direct sequencing of the coding region of the peripheral nerve protein-22 gene in this allele revealed no additional mutation. The deleted allele in the proband was inherited from the paternal line in which the affected members had a late onset Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1 clinical phenotype. This observation suggests that the rare Davidenkow's syndrome is clinically related to HNPP and its genotype could be a chromosome 17p11.2 deletion. PMID:16007675

  20. Deletion involving D15S113 in a mother and son without Angelman syndrome: Refinement of the Angelman syndrome critical deletion region

    SciTech Connect

    Michaelis, R.C.; Skinner, S.A.; Lethco, B.A.

    1995-01-02

    Deletions of 15q11-q13 typically result in Angelman syndrome when inherited from the mother and Prader-Willi syndrome when inherited from the father. The critical deletion region for Angelman syndrome has recently been restricted by a report of an Angelman syndrome patient with a deletion spanning less than 200 kb around the D15S113 locus. We report here on a mother and son with a deletion of chromosome 15 that includes the D15S113 locus. The son has mild to moderate mental retardation and minor anomalies, while the mother has a borderline intellectual deficit and slightly downslanting palpebral fissures. Neither patient has the seizures, excessive laughter and hand clapping, ataxia or the facial anomalies which are characteristic of Angelman syndrome. The proximal boundary of the deletion in our patients lies between the D15S10 and The D15S113 loci. Our patients do not have Angelman syndrome, despite the deletion of the D15S113 marker. This suggests that the Angelman syndrome critical deletion region is now defined as the overlap between the deletion found in the previously reported Angelman syndrome patient and the region that is intact in our patients. 28 refs., 6 figs.

  1. Subtelomeric screening in Serbian children with dysmorphic features and unexplained developmental delay/intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Damnjanovic, Tatjana; Cuturilo, Goran; Maksimovic, Nela; Dimitrijevic, Nikola; Mitic, Vesna; Jekic, Biljana; Lukovic, Ljiljana; Bunjevacki, Vera; Varljen, Tatjana; Dobricic, Valerija; Jovanovic, Ida; Kostic, Vladimir; Novakovic, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    Developmental delay and intellectual disabilities (DD/ID) are significant health problems affecting 3% of the human population. Submicroscopic chromosomal rearrangements involving subtelomeric regions are often considered to be the cause of unexplained DD/ID. Screening of subtelomeric regions was performed in 80 unrelated patients with DD/ID and normal GTG-banded chromosomes using the MLPA method with two kits (SALSA P070-B1 and P036-E1). The MLPA screening revealed subtelomeric chromosome aberrations in four cases (5%). The aberrations detected were: 1p deletion, 1p deletion combined with 12q duplication, 4p deletion, and 9p deletion combined with 15q duplication. The deletions detected were classified as causative for the patients' observed phenotypes. This study confirms the high frequency of subtelomeric rearrangements in unexplained DD/ID and reinforces the argument for routine subtelomeric screening in order to get a correct diagnosis, establish genotype-phenotype correlations and offer accurate genetic counseling. PMID:26690596

  2. Cardiac Defects and Results of Cardiac Surgery in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carotti, Adriano; Digilio, Maria Cristina; Piacentini, Gerardo; Saffirio, Claudia; Di Donato, Roberto M.; Marino, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    Specific types and subtypes of cardiac defects have been described in children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome as well as in other genetic syndromes. The conotruncal heart defects occurring in patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome include tetralogy of Fallot, pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect, truncus arteriosus, interrupted aortic…

  3. Cardiac Defects and Results of Cardiac Surgery in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carotti, Adriano; Digilio, Maria Cristina; Piacentini, Gerardo; Saffirio, Claudia; Di Donato, Roberto M.; Marino, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    Specific types and subtypes of cardiac defects have been described in children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome as well as in other genetic syndromes. The conotruncal heart defects occurring in patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome include tetralogy of Fallot, pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect, truncus arteriosus, interrupted aortic…

  4. Congenital variant Rett syndrome in a girl with terminal deletion of chromosome 3p

    PubMed Central

    Wahlstrom, J.; Uller, A.; Johannesson, T.; Holmqvist, D.; Darnfors, C.; Vujic, M.; Tonnby, B.; Hagberg, B.; Martinsson, T.

    1999-01-01

    A girl fulfilling four/five of six inclusion criteria and eight/nine of 11 supportive criteria for atypical Rett syndrome had a cytogenetic deletion of chromosome 3p, del(3)(pter?3p25.1~25.2). The deletion was situated on the maternally derived chromosome and by molecular analysis the deletion breakpoint was shown to be between DNA markers D3S3589 and D3S1263.???Keywords: chromosome 3; deletion; Rett syndrome PMID:10227408

  5. The deletion 22q13 syndrome: a new case.

    PubMed

    Karaman, A; Aydin, H; Geçkinli, B; Göksu, K

    2015-01-01

    The deletion 22q13.3 syndrome (Phelan-McDermid syndrome) is a chromosome microdeletion syndrome characterized by neonatal hypotonia, global developmental delay, normal to accelerated growth, absent to severely delayed speech, and minor dysmorphic features. Common physical traits include long eye lashes, large or unusual ears, relatively large hands, dysplastic toenails, full brow, dolicocephaly, full cheeks, bulbous nose, and pointed chin. Behavior is autisticlike with decreased perception of pain and habitual chewing or mouthing. The loss of 22q13.3 can result from simple deletion, translocation, ring chromosome formation and less common structural changes affecting the long arm of chromosome 22, specifically the region containing the SHANK3 gene. The present case was referred at the age of 8 months because of delayed psychomotor development, hypotonia and autistic features. Clinical examination showed a small forehead, long eyelashes, epicanthal folds and lowset ears, large and broad hands and feet with short terminal phalanges. He had no eye contact and could not sit without support. PMID:26043508

  6. Mathematical Learning Disabilities in Children with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Smedt, Bert; Swillen, Ann; Verschaffel, Lieven; Ghesquiere, Pol

    2009-01-01

    Mathematical learning disabilities (MLD) occur frequently in children with specific genetic disorders, like Turner syndrome, fragile X syndrome and neurofibromatosis. This review focuses on MLD in children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS). This syndrome is the most common known microdeletion syndrome with a prevalence of at…

  7. Mathematical Learning Disabilities in Children with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Smedt, Bert; Swillen, Ann; Verschaffel, Lieven; Ghesquiere, Pol

    2009-01-01

    Mathematical learning disabilities (MLD) occur frequently in children with specific genetic disorders, like Turner syndrome, fragile X syndrome and neurofibromatosis. This review focuses on MLD in children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS). This syndrome is the most common known microdeletion syndrome with a prevalence of at…

  8. Subtelomere FISH analysis of 11?688 cases: an evaluation of the frequency and pattern of subtelomere rearrangements in individuals with developmental disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Ravnan, J B; Tepperberg, J H; Papenhausen, P; Lamb, A N; Hedrick, J; Eash, D; Ledbetter, D H; Martin, C L

    2006-01-01

    Background Subtelomere fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) analysis has increasingly been used as an adjunct to routine cytogenetic testing in order to detect small rearrangements. Previous reports have estimated an overall abnormality rate of 6%, with a range of 2–29% because of different inclusion criteria. Methods This study presents data compiled from 11?688 cases referred for subtelomere FISH testing in three clinical cytogenetic laboratories. Results In this study population, the detection rate for clinically significant subtelomere abnormalities was approximately 2.5%, with an additional 0.5% detection of presumed familial variants. Approximately half of the clinically significant abnormalities identified were terminal deletions, the majority of which were de novo. Most of the remaining cases were unbalanced translocations between two chromosomes or two arms of the same chromosome. Approximately 60% of the unbalanced translocations were inherited from a parent carrying a balanced form of the rearrangement. Other abnormalities identified included tandem duplications, apparently balanced translocations, partial deletions, and insertions. Interestingly, 9 cases (0.08%) were found to have interstitial deletions of non?telomeric control loci, either BCR on 22q or PML on 15q. The most common clinically significant imbalances found were deletions of 1p, 22q, 4p, 9q, 8p, 2q and 20p. The most common familial variants were a deletion or duplication of 10q, deletion of 4q, deletion of Yq, and duplication of X/Yp onto Xq. Conclusions This study of subtelomere rearrangements is a 20 fold increase in number over the previously reported largest study and represents an unbiased analysis of subtelomere rearrangements in a large, unselected patient population. PMID:16199540

  9. Detecting rearrangements in children using subtelomeric FISH and SKY.

    PubMed

    Clarkson, Blaise; Pavenski, Katerina; Dupuis, Lucie; Kennedy, Shelley; Meyn, Stephen; Nezarati, Marjan M; Nie, Gloria; Weksberg, Rosanna; Withers, Stephen; Quercia, Nada; Teebi, Ahmad S; Teshima, Ikuko

    2002-02-01

    The etiology of mental retardation (MR), often presenting as developmental delay in childhood, is unknown in approximately one-half of cases. G-banding is the standard method for investigating those suspected of having a chromosomal etiology; however, detection of structural abnormalities is limited by the size and pattern of the G-bands involved. Rearrangements involving subtelomeric regions have been shown to cause MR and this has generated interest in investigating the prevalence of these rearrangements using telomere-specific probes. In addition, because cryptic interchromosomal rearrangements may not be small or confined to chromosomal ends, spectral karyotyping (SKY) using chromosome-specific painting probes may be of value. We report here a study using these two FISH-based techniques in 50 children with idiopathic MR or developmental delay and normal GTG-banded karyotypes. Our objective was to assess the prevalence of cryptic rearrangements in this population using subtelomeric FISH and SKY. Three rearrangements were detected by subtelomeric FISH: a derivative 5 from a maternal t(5;21); a recombinant 11 from a paternal pericentric inversion; and a 2q deletion that was also present in the mother. Only the derivative 5 was detected by SKY. SKY did not detect any interstitial interchromosomal rearrangement. The prevalence of clinically significant cryptic rearrangements by subtelomeric FISH and SKY was thus 4% (95% confidence interval 0.5-13.7) and 2% (95% CI 0.05-10.7), respectively. This study supports the view that G-banding does not detect all clinically significant chromosomal abnormalities and that subtelomeric FISH and SKY can detect some of these abnormalities. PMID:11840482

  10. Late-onset epileptic spasms in a patient with 22q13.3 deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Nobutsune; Kobayashi, Yoshiyuki; Fujii, Yuji; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki; Kobayashi, Masao

    2016-01-01

    Patients with 22q13.3 deletion syndrome present with diverse neurological problems such as global developmental delays, hypotonia, delayed or absent speech, autistic behavior, and epilepsy. Seizures occur in up to one-third of patients with 22q13.3 deletion syndrome; however, only a few reports have provided details regarding the seizure manifestations. The present report describes a patient with 22q13.3 deletion syndrome who presented with late-onset epileptic spasms (ES) and electroencephalography features like Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. An array comparative genomic hybridization analysis revealed that a chromosomal deletion of this patient included SHANK3. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first confirmed case of late-onset ES occur in patients with 22q13.3 deletion syndrome with a SHANK3 deletion. PMID:26094094

  11. Interstitial 22q13 deletions not involving SHANK3 gene: a new contiguous gene syndrome.

    PubMed

    Disciglio, Vittoria; Lo Rizzo, Caterina; Mencarelli, Maria Antonietta; Mucciolo, Mafalda; Marozza, Annabella; Di Marco, Chiara; Massarelli, Antonio; Canocchi, Valentina; Baldassarri, Margherita; Ndoni, Enea; Frullanti, Elisa; Amabile, Sonia; Anderlid, Britt Marie; Metcalfe, Kay; Le Caignec, Cédric; David, Albert; Fryer, Alan; Boute, Odile; Joris, Andrieux; Greco, Donatella; Pecile, Vanna; Battini, Roberta; Novelli, Antonio; Fichera, Marco; Romano, Corrado; Mari, Francesca; Renieri, Alessandra

    2014-07-01

    Phelan-McDermid syndrome (22q13.3 deletion syndrome) is a contiguous gene disorder resulting from the deletion of the distal long arm of chromosome 22. SHANK3, a gene within the minimal critical region, is a candidate gene for the major neurological features of this syndrome. We report clinical and molecular data from a study of nine patients with overlapping interstitial deletions in 22q13 not involving SHANK3. All of these deletions overlap with the largest, but not with the smallest deletion associated with Phelan-McDermid syndrome. The deletion sizes and breakpoints varied considerably among our patients, with the largest deletion spanning 6.9?Mb and the smallest deletion spanning 2.7?Mb. Eight out of nine patients had a de novo deletion, while in one patient the origin of deletion was unknown. These patients shared clinical features common to Phelan-McDermid syndrome: developmental delay (11/12), speech delay (11/12), hypotonia (9/12), and feeding difficulties (7/12). Moreover, the majority of patients (8/12) exhibited macrocephaly. In the minimal deleted region, we identified two candidate genes, SULT4A1 and PARVB (associated with the PTEN pathway), which could be associated in our cohort with neurological features and macrocephaly/hypotonia, respectively. This study suggests that the haploinsufficiency of genes in the 22q13 region beside SHANK3 contributes to cognitive and speech development, and that these genes are involved in the phenotype associated with the larger Phelan-McDermid syndrome 22q13 deletions. Moreover, because the deletions in our patients do not involve the SHANK3 gene, we posit the existence of a new contiguous gene syndrome proximal to the smallest terminal deletions in the 22q13 region. PMID:24700646

  12. Epilepsy in Angelman syndrome associated with chromosome 15q deletion.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, A; Kumagai, T; Miura, K; Miyazaki, S; Hayakawa, C; Yamanaka, T

    1992-01-01

    We report eight sporadic cases of typical Angelman syndrome (AS) associated with chromosome 15q12 deletion. Age at first visit was 3-35 months (average 18 months), and follow-up period was 4-20 years (average 14.1 years). The characteristic features of epilepsy in AS are (a) seizure onset in early childhood (8 of 8); (b) evolution of seizure type with age (8 of 8); (c) EEG abnormality changes from high-voltage slow bursts (HVS) in infancy to diffuse spike and waves in middle childhood (4 of 5); (d) atypical absence seizures (8 of 8), often occurring as atypical absence status (4 of 8); and (e) diminution of seizure discharges and clinical seizures after puberty (7 of 7). We believe that AS may frequently exist in the intractable epilepsies of childhood with severe mental retardation. We stress the importance of AS as one of the main etiologic background diseases of the intractable epilepsies with infantile onset such as West syndrome, Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, and others. PMID:1464268

  13. Autism, ADHD, Mental Retardation and Behavior Problems in 100 Individuals with 22q11 Deletion Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niklasson, Lena; Rasmussen, Peder; Oskarsdottir, Solveig; Gillberg, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the prevalence and type of associated neuropsychiatric problems in children and adults with 22q11 deletion syndrome. One-hundred consecutively referred individuals with 22q11 deletion syndrome were given in-depth neuropsychiatric assessments and questionnaires screens. Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and/or attention…

  14. Syndrome of proximal interstitial deletion 4p15

    SciTech Connect

    Fryns, J.P.

    1995-09-11

    In this journal, Chitayat et al. reported on 2 boys and a girl with interstitial deletion in the short arm of chromosome 4, including p15.2p15.33. All 3 patients had a characteristic face distinct from that of Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome and multiple minor congenital anomalies. One patient had a congenitally enlarged penis. The authors noted that all had normal growth, and all had moderate psychomotor retardation (patient 1, developmental age of 4-6 years at age 9 years; patient 2, mental age 6 years at age 25 years; and patient 3, global delay with hypotonia, difficulties in both gross and fine motor development, and persistent delay in language skills). 5 refs., 1 fig.

  15. Growth hormone deficiency in 18q deletion syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Ghidoni, P.D.; Cody, J.; Danney, J.

    1994-09-01

    The 18q- syndrome is one of the most common chromosomal deletion syndromes. Clinical characteristics are variable but may include: hypotonia, cleft palate, mental retardation and hearing impairment. Growth failure (GF) (<3% weight/height) is present in 80% of affected individuals. We evaluated growth hormone (GH) sufficiency in 15 patients with 18q- syndrome. Of these 15 patients, 10 have growth failure (<3% weight/height); of the remaining 5, 3 had normal growth parameters and 2 had growth along the 5%. Twelve patients failed to produce adequate GH following standard stimulation testing. Of these 12 patients with inadequate GH production, 2 had normal growth (above 3%). Of the 15, only 1 has normal GH production and normal growth parameters. Bone age was obtained on 1 patient with both GH deficiency and GF, and revealed significant delays. GH levels in response to GH releasing factor were normal in 3 out of 4 patients. MRI studies of GH-deficient patients indicated normal midline structures. Myelination in the few studied GH-deficient patients appeared delayed. The gene for myelin basic protein (MBP) is known to be located on the terminal portion of the long arm of chromosome 18. Neither the gene for GH, GH releasing factor nor GH releasing factor receptor is on chromosome 18. These genes are located on chromosomes 17, chromosome 20 and chromosome 7, respectively. Findings to date suggest that GH deficiency is common in individuals with 18q- syndrome. The etiology of this finding is unknown. We postulate that a gene(s) on chromosome 18q is involved in GH expression.

  16. Processing by MRE11 is involved in the sensitivity of subtelomeric regions to DNA double-strand breaks

    PubMed Central

    Muraki, Keiko; Han, Limei; Miller, Douglas; Murnane, John P.

    2015-01-01

    The caps on the ends of chromosomes, called telomeres, keep the ends of chromosomes from appearing as DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and prevent chromosome fusion. However, subtelomeric regions are sensitive to DSBs, which in normal cells is responsible for ionizing radiation-induced cell senescence and protection against oncogene-induced replication stress, but promotes chromosome instability in cancer cells that lack cell cycle checkpoints. We have previously reported that I-SceI endonuclease-induced DSBs near telomeres in a human cancer cell line are much more likely to generate large deletions and gross chromosome rearrangements (GCRs) than interstitial DSBs, but found no difference in the frequency of I-SceI-induced small deletions at interstitial and subtelomeric DSBs. We now show that inhibition of MRE11 3′–5′ exonuclease activity with Mirin reduces the frequency of large deletions and GCRs at both interstitial and subtelomeric DSBs, but has little effect on the frequency of small deletions. We conclude that large deletions and GCRs are due to excessive processing of DSBs, while most small deletions occur during classical nonhomologous end joining (C-NHEJ). The sensitivity of subtelomeric regions to DSBs is therefore because they are prone to undergo excessive processing, and not because of a deficiency in C-NHEJ in subtelomeric regions. PMID:26209132

  17. Characterization of 14 novel deletions underlying Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome: an update of the CREBBP deletion repertoire.

    PubMed

    Rusconi, Daniela; Negri, Gloria; Colapietro, Patrizia; Picinelli, Chiara; Milani, Donatella; Spena, Silvia; Magnani, Cinzia; Silengo, Margherita Cirillo; Sorasio, Lorena; Curtisova, Vaclava; Cavaliere, Maria Luigia; Prontera, Paolo; Stangoni, Gabriela; Ferrero, Giovanni Battista; Biamino, Elisa; Fischetto, Rita; Piccione, Maria; Gasparini, Paolo; Salviati, Leonardo; Selicorni, Angelo; Finelli, Palma; Larizza, Lidia; Gervasini, Cristina

    2015-06-01

    Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RSTS) is a rare, clinically heterogeneous disorder characterized by cognitive impairment and several multiple congenital anomalies. The syndrome is caused by almost private point mutations in the CREBBP (~55% of cases) and EP300 (~8%) genes. The CREBBP mutational spectrum is variegated and characterized by point mutations (30-50 %) and deletions (~10%). The latter are diverse in size and genomic position and remove either the whole CREBBP gene and its flanking regions or only an intragenic portion. Here, we report 14 novel CREBBP deletions ranging from single exons to the whole gene and flanking regions which were identified by applying complementary cytomolecular techniques: fluorescence in situ hybridization, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and array comparative genome hybridization, to a large cohort of RSTS patients. Deletions involving CREBBP account for 23% of our detected CREBBP mutations, making an important contribution to the mutational spectrum. Genotype-phenotype correlations revealed that patients with CREBBP deletions extending beyond this gene did not always have a more severe phenotype than patients harboring CREBBP point mutations, suggesting that neighboring genes play only a limited role in the etiopathogenesis of CREBBP-centerd contiguous gene syndrome. Accordingly, the extent of the deletion is not predictive of the severity of the clinical phenotype. PMID:25805166

  18. Sequence homology at the breakpoint and clinical phenotype of mitochondrial DNA deletion syndromes.

    PubMed

    Sadikovic, Bekim; Wang, Jing; El-Hattab, Ayman; Landsverk, Megan; Douglas, Ganka; Brundage, Ellen K; Craigen, William J; Schmitt, Eric S; Wong, Lee-Jun C

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions are a common cause of mitochondrial disorders. Large mtDNA deletions can lead to a broad spectrum of clinical features with different age of onset, ranging from mild mitochondrial myopathies (MM), progressive external ophthalmoplegia (PEO), and Kearns-Sayre syndrome (KSS), to severe Pearson syndrome. The aim of this study is to investigate the molecular signatures surrounding the deletion breakpoints and their association with the clinical phenotype and age at onset. MtDNA deletions in 67 patients were characterized using array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) followed by PCR-sequencing of the deletion junctions. Sequence homology including both perfect and imperfect short repeats flanking the deletion regions were analyzed and correlated with clinical features and patients' age group. In all age groups, there was a significant increase in sequence homology flanking the deletion compared to mtDNA background. The youngest patient group (<6 years old) showed a diffused pattern of deletion distribution in size and locations, with a significantly lower sequence homology flanking the deletion, and the highest percentage of deletion mutant heteroplasmy. The older age groups showed rather discrete pattern of deletions with 44% of all patients over 6 years old carrying the most common 5 kb mtDNA deletion, which was found mostly in muscle specimens (22/41). Only 15% (3/20) of the young patients (<6 years old) carry the 5 kb common deletion, which is usually present in blood rather than muscle. This group of patients predominantly (16 out of 17) exhibit multisystem disorder and/or Pearson syndrome, while older patients had predominantly neuromuscular manifestations including KSS, PEO, and MM. In conclusion, sequence homology at the deletion flanking regions is a consistent feature of mtDNA deletions. Decreased levels of sequence homology and increased levels of deletion mutant heteroplasmy appear to correlate with earlier onset and more severe disease with multisystem involvement. PMID:21187929

  19. A case of 3p deletion syndrome associated with cerebellar hemangioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Suzuki-Muromoto, Sato; Hino-Fukuyo, Naomi; Haginoya, Kazuhiro; Kikuchi, Atsuo; Sato, Hiroki; Sato, Yuko; Nakayama, Tojo; Kubota, Yuki; Kakisaka, Yosuke; Uematsu, Mitsugu; Kumabe, Toshihiro; Md, Shigeo Kure

    2016-02-01

    We described clinical course of a 24-year-old woman with 3p deletion syndrome associated with cerebellar hemangioblastoma at the age of 16years old. She presented dysmorphic facial features, growth retardation and severe psychomotor retardation associated with 3p deletion syndrome. We identified de novo 3p deletion encompassing p25 by using array-based comparative genomic hybridization, where causative gene of von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease located. Surgical therapy for cerebellar hemangioblastoma was performed, and histological examination was consistent in cerebellar hemangioblastoma. She showed no other tumors associated VHL disease till 24years old. This is the first case report of a patient with 3p deletion syndrome whose cerebellar hemangioblastoma may be associated with VHL disease. Repeat imaging studies were recommended for the patients with 3p deletion syndrome. PMID:26365017

  20. Early onset intellectual disability in chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cascella, Marco; Muzio, Maria Rosaria

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, or DiGeorge syndrome, or velocardiofacial syndrome, is one of the most common multiple anomaly syndromes in humans. This syndrome is commonly caused by a microdelection from chromosome 22 at band q11.2. Although this genetic disorder may reflect several clinical abnormalities and different degrees of organ commitment, the clinical features that have driven the greatest amount of attention are behavioral and developmental features, because individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome have a 30-fold risk of developing schizophrenia. There are differing opinions about the cognitive development, and commonly a cognitive decline rather than an early onset intellectual disability has been observed. We report a case of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome with both early assessment of mild intellectual disabilities and tetralogy of Fallot as the only physic manifestation. PMID:26358864

  1. Parental origin of de novo chromosome 9 deletions in del(9p) syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Micale, M.A.; Haren, J.M.; Conroy, J.M.

    1995-05-22

    Parental origin of de novo deletions in the short arm of chromosome 9 in patients with a clinical diagnosis of del(9p) syndrome was assessed in 13 patients using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of highly polymorphic dinucleotide repeat microsatellite markers located in the putative deleted region. The deletion was found to be of paternal origin in 9 cases and of maternal origin in the remaining 4 cases, suggesting that the molecular event resulting in the deletion occurs in both male and female gametogenesis and that genomic imprinting does not appear to play a role in the pathogenesis of del(9p) syndrome. 22 refs., 1 fig.

  2. Acquired retinal pigmentary degeneration in a child with 13q deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Zenia P; Belin, Peter J; Cavuoto, Kara M; Jayakar, Parul; McKeown, Craig A

    2015-10-01

    Orbeli syndrome, or 13q deletion syndrome, is a rare condition caused by a distal deletion in the long arm of chromosome 13. The syndrome is characterized by severe physical malformations and developmental delays and has been associated with numerous ocular manifestations. We report the case of a 10-year-old boy with 13q deletion syndrome, who was evaluated for impaired vision and found to have bilateral retinal pigmentary changes resembling those seen in retinitis pigmentosa. There has only been one other case of retinal pigment variation in association with 13q deletion syndrome; however, this represents the first case of bilateral symmetric retinal pigmentary changes with corresponding rod and cone dysfunction on electroretinography. PMID:26486039

  3. Velo-cardio-facial syndrome: Frequency and textent of 22q11 deletions

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsay, E.A.; Goldberg, R.; Jurecic, V.

    1995-07-03

    Velo-cardio-facial (VCFS) or Shprintzen syndrome is associated with deletions in a region of chromosome 22q11.2 also deleted in DiGeorge anomaly and some forms of congenital heart disease. Due to the variability of phenotype, the evaluation of the incidence of deletions has been hampered by uncertainty of diagnosis. In this study, 54 patients were diagnosed with VCFS by a single group of clinicians using homogeneous clinical criteria independent of the deletion status. Cell lines of these patients were established and the deletion status evaluated for three loci within the commonly deleted region at 22q11.2 using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). In 81% of the patients all three loci were hemizygous. In one patient we observed a smaller interstitial deletion than that defined by the three loci. The phenotype of this patient was not different from that observed in patients with larger deletions. 22 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Deletion mapping of 22q11 in CATCH22 syndrome: Identification of a second critical region

    SciTech Connect

    Kurahashi, Hiroki; Nakayama, Takahiro; Nishisho, Isamu

    1996-06-01

    The deletion at 22q11.2 implicates a variety of congenital anomaly syndromes, for which the acronym CATCH22 has been proposed . Most patients with these syndromes share the common large deletion spanning 1-2 Mb, while the phenotypic variability of the patients does not seem to correlate with the extent of the deletions. On the basis of the deletions of rare cases with unbalanced translocation, the shortest region of overlap (SRO) had been identified in the most-centromeric region of the common large deletion. One patient (ADU) has been reported to carry a balanced translocation with the breakpoint located in the SRO. Recently, three transcripts were identified at or very close to the ADU breakpoint (ADUBP), making them strong candidates for CATCH22 syndrome. Here, we describe one patient with a unique deletion at 22q11.2 revealed by quantitative hybridization and/or FISH with six DNA markers in the common large deletion. The patient was dizygous at loci within the SRO and hemizygous only at the most-telomeric locus in the common large deletion. This finding suggests that there must be another critical region in the common large deletion besides the breakpoint of the ADU and that haploinsufficiency of genes in this deletion may also play a major role in CATCH22 pathogenesis. 15 refs., 3 figs.

  5. The Schizophrenia Phenotype in 22q11 Deletion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bassett, Anne S.; Chow, Eva W.C.; AbdelMalik, Philip; Gheorghiu, Mirona; Husted, Janice; Weksberg, Rosanna

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the schizophrenia phenotype in 24 subjects with 22q11 deletion syndrome (22qDS) and schizophrenia (22qDS-schizophrenia), a rare but relatively homogenous genetic subtype of schizophrenia associated with a microdeletion on chromosome 22. Individuals with 22qDS are at genetically high risk for schizophrenia. Method Standard measures of signs, symptoms, and course of schizophrenia were assessed in 16 adults with 22qDS-schizophrenia who did not meet criteria for mental retardation and in 46 adults with schizophrenia without evidence of 22qDS from a community familial sample. Results There were no significant differences in age at onset, lifetime or cross-sectional core positive and negative schizophrenic symptoms, or global functioning between the two groups of patients with schizophrenia. Patients with 22qDS-schizophrenia had higher excitement subscale scores and less lifetime substance use than the comparison patients with schizophrenia, but no significant differences in anxiety-depression symptom severity were found between the groups. Conclusions These findings indicate that the core clinical schizophrenia phenotype would not distinguish individuals with a 22qDS subtype from those with schizophrenia who did not have the 22qDS subtype. The results provide further support for the utility of 22qDS-schizophrenia as a neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia as well as support for prospective studies of individuals with 22qDS to help identify precursors of schizophrenia. PMID:12944331

  6. Acute Dystonia in a Patient with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kontoangelos, Konstantinos; Maillis, Antonis; Maltezou, Maria; Tsiori, Sofia; Papageorgiou, Charalambos C.

    2015-01-01

    The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (di George syndrome) is one of the most prevalent genetic disorders. The clinical features of the syndrome are distinct facial appearance, velopharyngeal insufficiency, conotruncal heart disease, parathyroid and immune dysfunction; however, little is known about possible neurodegenerative diseases. We describe the case of an 18-year old patient suffering from 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Since adolescence, he presented with behavioral disorders, recommended treatment with 2 mg aloperidin and he presented cervical dystonia and emergence of torticollis and trunk dystonia. Antipsychotic medications either accelerate or reveal dystonic symptoms. PMID:26605035

  7. Maladaptive Behavior Differences in Prader-Willi Syndrome Due to Paternal Deletion versus Maternal Uniparental Disomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dykens, Elisabeth M.; King, Bryan H.; Cassidy, Suzanne B.

    1999-01-01

    This study compared maladaptive behavior in 23 people with Prader-Willi syndrome due to paternal deletion and in 23 age- and gender-matched subjects with maternal uniparental disomy. Controlling for IQs, the deletion cases showed significantly higher maladaptive ratings, more symptom-related distress, and more behavior problems. Findings suggest a…

  8. Nasal dimple as part of the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Gripp, K.W.; Reed, L.A.; Emanuel, B.S.

    1997-03-31

    The phenotype of the 22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome is quite variable. We describe 2 patients with a 22q11.2 deletion and a dimpled nasal tip, which, we suggest can be the extreme of the broad or bulbous nose commonly found in the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, and should not be confused with the more severe nasal abnormalities seen in frontonasal dysplasia. 11 refs., 2 figs.

  9. A deletion and a duplication in distal 22q11.2 deletion syndrome region. Clinical implications and review

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Luis; Nevado, Julián; Santos, Fernando; Heine-Suñer, Damià; Martinez-Glez, Victor; García-Miñaur, Sixto; Palomo, Rebeca; Delicado, Alicia; Pajares, Isidora López; Palomares, María; García-Guereta, Luis; Valverde, Eva; Hawkins, Federico; Lapunzina, Pablo

    2009-01-01

    Background Individuals affected with DiGeorge and Velocardiofacial syndromes present with both phenotypic diversity and variable expressivity. The most frequent clinical features include conotruncal congenital heart defects, velopharyngeal insufficiency, hypocalcemia and a characteristic craniofacial dysmorphism. The etiology in most patients is a 3 Mb recurrent deletion in region 22q11.2. However, cases of infrequent deletions and duplications with different sizes and locations have also been reported, generally with a milder, slightly different phenotype for duplications but with no clear genotype-phenotype correlation to date. Methods We present a 7 month-old male patient with surgically corrected ASD and multiple VSDs, and dysmorphic facial features not clearly suggestive of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, and a newborn male infant with cleft lip and palate and upslanting palpebral fissures. Karyotype, FISH, MLPA, microsatellite markers segregation studies and SNP genotyping by array-CGH were performed in both patients and parents. Results Karyotype and FISH with probe N25 were normal for both patients. MLPA analysis detected a partial de novo 1.1 Mb deletion in one patient and a novel partial familial 0.4 Mb duplication in the other. Both of these alterations were located at a distal position within the commonly deleted region in 22q11.2. These rearrangements were confirmed and accurately characterized by microsatellite marker segregation studies and SNP array genotyping. Conclusion The phenotypic diversity found for deletions and duplications supports a lack of genotype-phenotype correlation in the vicinity of the LCRC-LCRD interval of the 22q11.2 chromosomal region, whereas the high presence of duplications in normal individuals supports their role as polymorphisms. We suggest that any hypothetical correlation between the clinical phenotype and the size and location of these alterations may be masked by other genetic and/or epigenetic modifying factors. PMID:19490635

  10. Molecular cytogenetic detection of chromosome 15 deletions in patients with Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes

    SciTech Connect

    Chadwick, D.E.; Weksberg, R.; Shuman, C.

    1994-09-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and Angelman syndrome (AS) are clinically distinct genetic disorders involving alterations of chromosome 15q11-q13. Approximately 75% of individuals with PWS and AS have deletions within 15q11-q13 by molecular analysis. We have evaluated fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for the clinical laboratory detection of del(15)(q11q13) using the cosmid probes D15S11 and GABRB3 (ONCOR, Gaithersburg, NY). 4/4 PWS and 1/1 AS patients previously identified as having cytogenetic deletions were deleted for both probes. In a prospectively ascertained series of 54 patient samples referred to rule out either PWS or AS, 8 were deleted for D15S11 and GABRB3. In addition, an atypical deletion patient with PWS was also identified who was found to be deleted for GABRB3 but not D15S11. The SNRPN locus was also deleted in this patient. Only 4 of the 9 patient samples having molecular cytogenetic deletions were clearly deleted by high resolution banding (HRB) analysis. The microscopic and submicroscopic deletions have been confirmed by dinucleotide (CA) repeat analysis. Microsatellite polymorphism analysis was also used to demonstrate that five non-deletion patients in this series had biparental inheritance of chromosome 15, including region q11-q13. Deletions were not detected by either HRB, FISH or microsatellite polymorphism analysis in samples obtained from parents of the deletion patients. Methylation studies of chromosome 15q11-q13 are in progress for this series of PWS and AS families. FISH analysis of chromosome 15q11-q13 in patients with PWS and AS is a rapid, sensitive and reliable method for deletion detection.

  11. The Neural Correlates of Non-Spatial Working Memory in Velocardiofacial Syndrome (22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kates, Wendy R.; Krauss, Beth R.; AbdulSabur, Nuria; Colgan, Deirdre; Antshel, Kevin M.; Higgins, Anne Marie; Shprintzen, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    Velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS), also known as 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, is a neurogenetic disorder that is associated with both learning disabilities and a consistent neuropsychological phenotype, including deficits in executive function, visuospatial perception, and working memory. Anatomic imaging studies have identified significant…

  12. The Neural Correlates of Non-Spatial Working Memory in Velocardiofacial Syndrome (22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kates, Wendy R.; Krauss, Beth R.; AbdulSabur, Nuria; Colgan, Deirdre; Antshel, Kevin M.; Higgins, Anne Marie; Shprintzen, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    Velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS), also known as 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, is a neurogenetic disorder that is associated with both learning disabilities and a consistent neuropsychological phenotype, including deficits in executive function, visuospatial perception, and working memory. Anatomic imaging studies have identified significant…

  13. A ceRNA approach may unveil unexpected contributors to deletion syndromes, the model of 5q- syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Arancio, Walter; Genovese, Swonild Ilenia; Bongiovanni, Lucia; Tripodo, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    In genomic deletions, gene haploinsufficiency might directly configure a specific disease phenotype. Nevertheless, in some cases no functional association can be identified between haploinsufficient genes and the deletion-associated phenotype. Transcripts can act as microRNA sponges. The reduction of transcripts from the hemizygous region may increase the availability of specific microRNAs, which in turn may exert in-trans regulation of target genes outside the deleted region, eventually contributing to the phenotype. Here we prospect a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) approach for the identification of candidate genes target of epigenetic regulation in deletion syndromes. As a model, we analyzed the 5q- myelodysplastic syndrome. Genes in haploinsufficiency within the common 5q deleted region in CD34+ blasts were identified in silico. Using the miRWalk 2.0 platform, we predicted microRNAs whose availability, and thus activity, could be enhanced by the deletion, and performed a genomewide analysis of the genes outside the 5q deleted region that could be targeted by the predicted miRNAs. The analysis pointed to two genes with altered expression in 5q- transcriptome, which have never been related with 5q- before. The prospected approach allows investigating the global transcriptional effect of genomic deletions, possibly prompting discovery of unsuspected contributors in the deletion-associated phenotype. Moreover, it may help in functionally characterizing previously reported unexpected interactions. PMID:26682279

  14. Contiguous gene syndromes due to deletions in the distal short arm of the human X chromosome

    SciTech Connect

    Ballabio, A.; Andria, G. ); Bardoni, B.; Fraccaro, M.; Maraschio, P.; Zuffardi, O.; Guioli, S.; Camerino, G. ); Carrozzo, R. ); Bick, D.; Campbell, L. ); Hamel, B. ); Ferguson-Smith, M.A. ); Gimelli, G. )

    1989-12-01

    Mendelian inherited disorders to deletions of adjacent genes on a chromosome have been described as contiguous gene syndromes. Short stature, chondrodysplasia punctata, mental retardation, steroid sulfatase deficiency, and Kallmann syndrome have been found as isolated entities or associated in various combination in 27 patients with interstitial and terminal deletions involving the distal short are of the X chromosome. The use of cDNA and genomic probes from the Xp22-pter region allowed us to identify 12 different deletion intervals and to confirm, and further refine, the chromosomal assignment of X-linked recessive chondrodysplasia punctata and Kallmann syndrome genes. A putative pseudoautosomal gene affecting height and an X-linked nonspecific mental retardation gene have been tentatively assigned to specific intervals. The deletion panel described is a useful tool for mapping new sequences and orienting chromosome walks in the region.

  15. Mapping Cortical Morphology in Youth with Velocardiofacial (22q11.2 Deletion) Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kates, Wendy R.; Bansal, Ravi; Fremont, Wanda; Antshel, Kevin M.; Hao, Xuejun; Higgins, Anne Marie; Liu, Jun; Shprintzen, Robert J.; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS; 22q11.2 deletion syndrome) represents one of the highest known risk factors for schizophrenia. Insofar as up to 30% of individuals with this genetic disorder develop schizophrenia, VCFS constitutes a unique, etiologically homogeneous model for understanding the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Method:…

  16. Mapping Cortical Morphology in Youth with Velocardiofacial (22q11.2 Deletion) Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kates, Wendy R.; Bansal, Ravi; Fremont, Wanda; Antshel, Kevin M.; Hao, Xuejun; Higgins, Anne Marie; Liu, Jun; Shprintzen, Robert J.; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS; 22q11.2 deletion syndrome) represents one of the highest known risk factors for schizophrenia. Insofar as up to 30% of individuals with this genetic disorder develop schizophrenia, VCFS constitutes a unique, etiologically homogeneous model for understanding the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Method:…

  17. Incidental Radiologic Findings in the 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, J.E.; Yi, J.J.; Roalf, D.R.; Loevner, L.A.; Ruparel, K.; Whinna, D.; Souders, M.C.; McDonald-McGinn, D.M.; Yodh, E.; Vandekar, S.; Zackai, E.H.; Gur, R.C.; Emanuel, B.S.; Gur, R.E.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome is a common genetic microdeletion syndrome that results in cognitive delays and an increased risk of several psychiatric disorders, particularly schizophrenia. The current study investigates the prevalence of incidental neuroradiologic findings within this population and their relationships with psychiatric conditions. Materials and Methods Brain MR imaging from 58 individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome was reviewed by board-certified radiologists by using standard clinical procedures. Intracranial incidental findings were classified into 8 categories and compared with a large typically developing cohort. Results The rate of incidental findings was significantly higher (P < .0001) in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome compared with typically developing individuals, driven by a high prevalence of cavum septum pellucidum (19.0%) and white matter abnormalities (10.3%). Both of these findings were associated with psychosis in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Conclusions Cavum septum pellucidum and white matter hyperintensities are significantly more prevalent in patients with the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome and may represent biomarkers for psychosis. PMID:24948496

  18. A new deletion of 18q23 with few typical features of the 18q- syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Kohonen-Corish, M; Strathdee, G; Overhauser, J; McDonald, T; Jammu, V

    1996-01-01

    We report on a patient with a deletion of 18q23. At both 2 and 4 years of age, she displayed few of the facial features or other clinical features associated with the 18q- syndrome. Fluorescent in situ hybridisation and microsatellite marker and RFLP analysis were performed to characterise the extent of the deletion, and a terminal deletion of 18q23 was confirmed. The deleted region includes the gene for myelin basic protein, suggesting that hemizygosity of this gene does not invariably lead to mental and developmental delay. The clinical presentation of this patient suggests that either she is not deleted for the genes involved in the 18q- clinical phenotype or this patient represents one end of the spectrum of the clinical variability seen with 18q terminal deletions. Images PMID:8728701

  19. Human Subtelomeric WASH Genes Encode a New Subclass of the WASP Family

    PubMed Central

    Linardopoulou, Elena V; Parghi, Sean S; Friedman, Cynthia; Osborn, Gregory E; Parkhurst, Susan M; Trask, Barbara J

    2007-01-01

    Subtelomeres are duplication-rich, structurally variable regions of the human genome situated just proximal of telomeres. We report here that the most terminally located human subtelomeric genes encode a previously unrecognized third subclass of the Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein family, whose known members reorganize the actin cytoskeleton in response to extracellular stimuli. This new subclass, which we call WASH, is evolutionarily conserved in species as diverged as Entamoeba. We demonstrate that WASH is essential in Drosophila. WASH is widely expressed in human tissues, and human WASH protein colocalizes with actin in filopodia and lamellipodia. The VCA domain of human WASH promotes actin polymerization by the Arp2/3 complex in vitro. WASH duplicated to multiple chromosomal ends during primate evolution, with highest copy number reached in humans, whose WASH repertoires vary. Thus, human subtelomeres are not genetic junkyards, and WASH's location in these dynamic regions could have advantageous as well as pathologic consequences. PMID:18159949

  20. Unambiguous molecular detections with multiple genetic approach for the complicated chromosome 22q11 deletion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chen; Huang, Cheng-Hung; Cheong, Mei-Leng; Hung, Kun-Long; Lin, Lung-Huang; Yu, Yeong-Seng; Chien, Chih-Cheng; Huang, Huei-Chen; Chen, Chan-Wei; Huang, Chi-Jung

    2009-01-01

    Background Chromosome 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) causes a developmental disorder during the embryonic stage, usually because of hemizygous deletions. The clinical pictures of patients with 22q11DS vary because of polymorphisms: on average, approximately 93% of affected individuals have a de novo deletion of 22q11, and the rest have inherited the same deletion from a parent. Methods using multiple genetic markers are thus important for the accurate detection of these microdeletions. Methods We studied 12 babies suspected to carry 22q11DS and 18 age-matched healthy controls from unrelated Taiwanese families. We determined genomic variance using microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH), quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). Results Changes in genomic copy number were significantly associated with clinical manifestations for the classical criteria of 22q11DS using MPLA and qPCR (p < 0.01). An identical deletion was shown in three affected infants by MLPA. These reduced DNA dosages were also obtained partially using array-CGH and confirmed by qPCR but with some differences in deletion size. Conclusion Both MLPA and qPCR could produce a clearly defined range of deleted genomic DNA, whereas there must be a deleted genome that is not distinguishable using MLPA. These data demonstrate that such multiple genetic approaches are necessary for the unambiguous molecular detection of these types of complicated genomic syndromes. PMID:19243607

  1. Expanding the mutation spectrum for Fraser syndrome: identification of a novel heterozygous deletion in FRAS1.

    PubMed

    Hoefele, Julia; Wilhelm, Christian; Schiesser, Monika; Mack, Reinhold; Heinrich, Uwe; Weber, Lutz T; Biskup, Saskia; Daumer-Haas, Cornelia; Klein, Hanns-Georg; Rost, Imma

    2013-05-15

    Fraser syndrome (FS) is a rare autosomal recessive inherited disorder characterized by cryptophthalmos, laryngeal defects and oral clefting, mental retardation, syndactyly, and urogenital defects. To date, 250 patients have been described in the literature. Mutations in the FRAS1 gene on chromosome 4 have been identified in patients with Fraser syndrome. So far, 26 mutations have been identified, most of them are truncating mutations. The mutational spectrum includes nucleotide substitutions, splicing defects, a large insertion, and small deletions/insertions. Moreover, single heterozygous missense mutations in FRAS1 seem to be responsible for non-syndromic unilateral renal agenesis. Here we report the first case of a family with two patients affected by Fraser syndrome due to a deletion of 64 kb (deletion 4q21.21) and an additional novel frameshift mutation in exon 66 of the FRAS1 gene. To date, large deletions of the FRAS1 gene have not yet been described. Large deletions seem to be a rare cause for Fraser syndrome, but should be considered in patients with a single heterozygous mutation. PMID:23473829

  2. Child with Deletion 9p Syndrome Presenting with Craniofacial Dysmorphism, Developmental Delay, and Multiple Congenital Malformations

    PubMed Central

    Sirisena, Nirmala D.; Wijetunge, U. Kalpani S.; de Silva, Ramya; Dissanayake, Vajira H. W.

    2013-01-01

    A 4-month-old Sri Lankan male child case with a de novo terminal deletion in the p22?pter region of chromosome 9 is described. The child presented with craniofacial dysmorphism, developmental delay, and congenital malformations in agreement with the consensus phenotype. A distinctive feature observed in this child was complete collapse of the left lung due to malformation of lung tissue. Cytogenetic studies confirmed terminal deletion of the short arm of chromosome 9 distal to band p22 [46,XY,del(9)(p22?pter)]. This is the first reported case of a de novo deletion 9p syndrome associated with pulmonary hypoplasia. This finding contributes to the widening of the spectrum of phenotypic features associated with deletion 9p syndrome. PMID:23984121

  3. Marfan syndrome with a complex chromosomal rearrangement including deletion of the FBN1 gene

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The majority of Marfan syndrome (MFS) cases is caused by mutations in the fibrillin-1 gene (FBN1), mapped to chromosome 15q21.1. Only few reports on deletions including the whole FBN1 gene, detected by molecular cytogenetic techniques, were found in literature. Results We report here on a female patient with clinical symptoms of the MFS spectrum plus craniostenosis, hypothyroidism and intellectual deficiency who presents a 1.9 Mb deletion, including the FBN1 gene and a complex rearrangement with eight breakpoints involving chromosomes 6, 12 and 15. Discussion This is the first report of MFS with a complex chromosome rearrangement involving a deletion of FBN1 and contiguous genes. In addition to the typical clinical findings of the Marfan syndrome due to FBN1 gene haploinsufficiency, the patient presents features which may be due to the other gene deletions and possibly to the complex chromosome rearrangement. PMID:22260333

  4. Angelman syndrome: Validation of molecular cytogenetic analysis of chromosome 15q11-q13 for deletion detection

    SciTech Connect

    White, L.; Knoll, J.H.M.

    1995-03-13

    In a series of 18 individuals comprising parents of Angelman syndrome (AS) patients and AS patients with large deletions, microdeletions, and no deletions, we utilized fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with genomic phage clones for loci D15S63 and GABRB3 for deletion detection of chromosome 15q11-q13. Utilization of probes at these loci allows detection of common large deletions and permits discrimination of less common small deletions. In all individuals the molecular cytogenetic data were concordant with the DNA deletion analyses. FISH provides an accurate method of deletion detection for chromosome 15q11-q13. 23 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Neuroblastoma in a boy with MCA/MR syndrome, deletion 11q, and duplication 12q

    SciTech Connect

    Koiffmann, C.P.; Vianna-Morgante, A.M.; Wajntal, A.

    1995-07-31

    Deletion 11q23{r_arrow}qter and duplication 12q23{r_arrow}qter are described in a boy with neuroblastoma, multiple congenital anomalies, and mental retardation. The patient has clinical manifestations of 11q deletion and 12q duplication syndromes. The possible involvement of the segment 11q23{r_arrow}24 in the cause of the neuroblastoma is discussed. 18 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Candidate Genes and the Behavioral Phenotype in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasad, Sarah E.; Howley, Sarah; Murphy, Kieran C.

    2008-01-01

    There is an overwhelming evidence that children and adults with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) have a characteristic behavioral phenotype. In particular, there is a growing body of evidence that indicates an unequivocal association between 22q11.2DS and schizophrenia, especially in adulthood. Deletion of 22q11.2 is the third highest risk…

  7. Candidate Genes and the Behavioral Phenotype in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasad, Sarah E.; Howley, Sarah; Murphy, Kieran C.

    2008-01-01

    There is an overwhelming evidence that children and adults with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) have a characteristic behavioral phenotype. In particular, there is a growing body of evidence that indicates an unequivocal association between 22q11.2DS and schizophrenia, especially in adulthood. Deletion of 22q11.2 is the third highest risk…

  8. Molecular definition of the smallest region of deletion overlap in the Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Gandelman, K.Y.; Gibson, L.; Meyn, M.S.; Yang-Feng, T.L. )

    1992-09-01

    Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS), associated with a deletion of chromosome 4p, is characterized by mental and growth retardation and typical dysmorphism. A girl with clinical features of WHS was found to carry a subtle deletion of chromosome 4p. Initially suggested by high-resolution chromosome analysis, her deletion was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with cosmid probes, E13, and Y2, of D4S113. To delineate this 4p deletion, the authors performed a series of FISH and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis by using probes from 4p16.3. A deletion of [approximately]2.5 Mb with the breakpoint at [approximately]80 kb distal to D4S43 was defined in this patient and appears to be the smallest WHS deletion so far identified. To further refine the WHS critical region, they have studied three unrelated patients with presumptive 4p deletions, two resulting from unbalanced segregations of parental chromosomal translocations and one resulting from an apparently de novo unbalanced translocation. Larger deletions were identified in two patients with WHS. One patient who did not clinically present with WHS had a smaller deletion that thus eliminates the distal 100-300 kb from the telomere as being part of the WHS region. This study has localized the WHS region to [approximately]2 MB between D4S43 and D4S142. 37 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Mini-Review Monosomy 1p36 syndrome: reviewing the correlation between deletion sizes and phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Rocha, C F; Vasques, R B; Santos, S R; Paiva, C L A

    2016-01-01

    The major clinical features of monosomy 1p36 deletion are developmental delay and hypotonia associated with short stature and craniofacial dysmorphisms. The objective of this study was to review the cases of 1p36 deletion that was reported between 1999 and 2014, in order to identify a possible correlation between the size of the 1p36-deleted segment and the clinical phenotype of the disease. Scientific articles published in the (National Center for Biotechnology Information; NCBI http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed) and Scientific Electronic Library Online (www.scielo.com.br) databases were searched using key word combinations, such as "1p36 deletion", "monosomy 1p36 deletion", and "1p36 deletion syndrome". Articles in English or Spanish reporting the correlation between deletion sizes and the respective clinical phenotypes were retrieved, while letters, reviews, guidelines, and studies with mouse models were excluded. Among the 746 retrieved articles, only 17 (12 case reports and 5 series of cases), comprising 29 patients (9 males and 20 females, aged 0 months (neonate) to 22 years) bearing the 1p36 deletions and whose clinical phenotypes were described, met the inclusion criteria. The genotype-phenotype correlation in monosomy 1p36 is a challenge because of the variability in the size of the deleted segment, as well as in the clinical manifestations of similar size deletions. Therefore, the severity of the clinical features was not always associated with the deletion size, possibly because of the other influences, such as stochastic factors, epigenetic events, or reduced penetration of the deleted genes. PMID:26910004

  10. FISH detection of chromosome 15 deletions in Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes

    SciTech Connect

    Teshima, I.; Chadwick, D.; Chitayat, D.

    1996-03-29

    We have evaluated fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis for the clinical laboratory detection of the 15q11-q13 deletion seen in Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and Angelman syndrome (AS) using probes for loci D15S11, SNRPN, D15S10, and GABRB3. In a series of 118 samples from patients referred for PWS or AS, 29 had deletions by FISH analysis. These included two brothers with a paternally transmitted deletion detectable with the probe for SNRPN only. G-banding analysis was less sensitive for deletion detection but useful in demonstrating other cytogenetic alterations in four cases. Methylation and CA-repeat analyses of 15q11-q13 were used to validate the FISH results. Clinical findings of patients with deletions were variable, ranging from newborns with hypotonia as the only presenting feature to children who were classically affected. We conclude that FISH analysis is a rapid and reliable method for detection of deletions within 15q11-q13 and whenever a deletion is found, FISH analysis of parental chromosomes should also be considered. 41 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Partial USH2A deletions contribute to Usher syndrome in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Dad, Shzeena; Rendtorff, Nanna D; Kann, Erik; Albrechtsen, Anders; Mehrjouy, Mana M; Bak, Mads; Tommerup, Niels; Tranebjærg, Lisbeth; Rosenberg, Thomas; Jensen, Hanne; Møller, Lisbeth B

    2015-12-01

    Usher syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by congenital hearing impairment, progressive visual loss owing to retinitis pigmentosa and in some cases vestibular dysfunction. Usher syndrome is divided into three subtypes, USH1, USH2 and USH3. Twelve loci and eleven genes have so far been identified. Duplications and deletions in PCDH15 and USH2A that lead to USH1 and USH2, respectively, have previously been identified in patients from United Kingdom, Spain and Italy. In this study, we investigate the proportion of exon deletions and duplications in PCDH15 and USH2A in 20 USH1 and 30 USH2 patients from Denmark using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). Two heterozygous deletions were identified in USH2A, but no deletions or duplications were identified in PCDH15. Next-generation mate-pair sequencing was used to identify the exact breakpoints of the two deletions identified in USH2A. Our results suggest that USH2 is caused by USH2A exon deletions in a small fraction of the patients, whereas deletions or duplications in PCDH15 might be rare in Danish Usher patients. PMID:25804404

  12. Unique and atypical deletions in Prader–Willi syndrome reveal distinct phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soo-Jeong; Miller, Jennifer L; Kuipers, Paul J; German, Jennifer Ruth; Beaudet, Arthur L; Sahoo, Trilochan; Driscoll, Daniel J

    2012-01-01

    Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS) is a multisystem, contiguous gene disorder caused by an absence of paternally expressed genes within the 15q11.2-q13 region via one of the three main genetic mechanisms: deletion of the paternally inherited 15q11.2-q13 region, maternal uniparental disomy and imprinting defect. The deletion class is typically subdivided into Type 1 and Type 2 based on their proximal breakpoints (BP1–BP3 and BP2–BP3, respectively). Despite PWS being a well-characterized genetic disorder the role of the specific genes contributing to various aspects of the phenotype are not well understood. Methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MS-MLPA) is a recently developed technique that detects copy number changes and aberrant DNA methylation. In this study, we initially applied MS-MLPA to elucidate the deletion subtypes of 88 subjects. In our cohort, 32 had a Type 1 and 49 had a Type 2 deletion. The remaining seven subjects had unique or atypical deletions that were either smaller (n=5) or larger (n=2) than typically described and were further characterized by array-based comparative genome hybridization. In two subjects both the PWS region (15q11.2) and the newly described 15q13.3 microdeletion syndrome region were deleted. The subjects with a unique or an atypical deletion revealed distinct phenotypic features. In conclusion, unique or atypical deletions were found in ∼8% of the deletion subjects with PWS in our cohort. These novel deletions provide further insight into the potential role of several of the genes within the 15q11.2 and the 15q13.3 regions. PMID:22045295

  13. Identification of 1p36 deletion syndrome in patients with facial dysmorphism and developmental delay

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Go Hun; Kim, Ja Hye; Cho, Ja Hyang; Kim, Gu-Hwan; Seo, Eul-Ju; Lee, Beom Hee; Choi, Jin-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The 1p36 deletion syndrome is a microdeletion syndrome characterized by developmental delays/intellectual disability, craniofacial dysmorphism, and other congenital anomalies. To date, many cases of this syndrome have been reported worldwide. However, cases with this syndrome have not been reported in Korean populations anywhere. This study was performed to report the clinical and molecular characteristics of five Korean patients with the 1p36 deletion syndrome. Methods The clinical characteristics of the 5 patients were reviewed. Karyotyping and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) analyses were performed for genetic diagnoses. Results All 5 patients had typical dysmorphic features including frontal bossing, flat right parietal bone, low-set ears, straight eyebrows, down-slanting palpebral fissure, hypotelorism, flat nasal roots, midface hypoplasia, pointed chins, small lips, and variable degrees of developmental delay. Each patient had multiple and variable anomalies such as a congenital heart defect including ventricular septal defect, atrial septal defect, and patent duct arteriosus, ventriculomegaly, cryptorchism, or hearing loss. Karyotyping revealed the 1p36 deletion in only 1 patient, although it was confirmed in all 5 patients by MLPA analyses. Conclusion All the patients had the typical features of 1p36 deletion. These hallmarks can be used to identify other patients with this condition in their early years in order to provide more appropriate care. PMID:26893599

  14. 5q14.3 deletion neurocutaneous syndrome: Contiguous gene syndrome caused by simultaneous deletion of RASA1 and MEF2C: A progressive disease.

    PubMed

    Ilari, Rita; Agosta, Guillermo; Bacino, Carlos

    2016-03-01

    We report the case of a young girl who was presented with complex clinical symptoms caused by the deletion of contiguous genes: RASA1 and MEF2C, located on chromosome 5q14.3. Specifically, the diagnosis of her skin disorder and vascular malformations involving central nervous system is consistent with a RASopathy. The child's neurological manifestations are observed in most patients suffering from 5q14.3 by deletion or mutation of the MEF2C gene. A review of the literature allowed us to conclude that the contiguous deletion of genes RASA1 and MEF2C fulfills the criteria for the diagnosis of a Neurocutaneous syndrome as proposed by Carr et al. [2011]. We also assessed the penetrance of RASA1 and clinical manifestations of MEF2C according to the type of deletion. This child described presents the complete symptomatology of both deleted genes. We would also like to highlight the progression of the disorder. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26774077

  15. Phenotypic and molecular assessment of seven patients with 6p25 deletion syndrome: Relevance to ocular dysgenesis and hearing impairment

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Douglas B; Jaafar, Mohamad S; Addison, Mark K; Munier, Francis; Ritch, Robert; MacDonald, Ian M; Walter, Michael A

    2004-01-01

    Background Thirty-nine patients have been described with deletions involving chromosome 6p25. However, relatively few of these deletions have had molecular characterization. Common phenotypes of 6p25 deletion syndrome patients include hydrocephalus, hearing loss, and ocular, craniofacial, skeletal, cardiac, and renal malformations. Molecular characterization of deletions can identify genes that are responsible for these phenotypes. Methods We report the clinical phenotype of seven patients with terminal deletions of chromosome 6p25 and compare them to previously reported patients. Molecular characterization of the deletions was performed using polymorphic marker analysis to determine the extents of the deletions in these seven 6p25 deletion syndrome patients. Results Our results, and previous data, show that ocular dysgenesis and hearing impairment are the two most highly penetrant phenotypes of the 6p25 deletion syndrome. While deletion of the forkhead box C1 gene (FOXC1) probably underlies the ocular dysgenesis, no gene in this region is known to be involved in hearing impairment. Conclusions Ocular dysgenesis and hearing impairment are the two most common phenotypes of 6p25 deletion syndrome. We conclude that a locus for dominant hearing loss is present at 6p25 and that this locus is restricted to a region distal to D6S1617. Molecular characterization of more 6p25 deletion patients will aid in refinement of this locus and the identification of a gene involved in dominant hearing loss. PMID:15219231

  16. An atypical case of fragile X syndrome caused by a deletion that includes FMRI gene

    SciTech Connect

    Quan, F.; Zonana, J.; Gunter, K.; Peterson, K.L.; Magenis, R.E., Popovich, B.W.

    1995-05-01

    Fragile X syndrome is the most common form of inherited mental retardation and results from the transcriptional inactivation of the FMR1 gene. In the vast majority of cases, this is caused by the expansion of an unstable CGG repeat in the first exon of the FMR1 gene. We describe here a phenotypically atypical case of fragile X syndrome, caused by a deletion that includes the entire FMR1 gene and {ge}9.0 Mb of flanking DNA. The proband, RK, was a 6-year-old mentally retarded male with obesity and anal atresia. A diagnosis of fragile X syndrome was established by the failure of RK`s DNA to hybridize to a 558-bp PstI-XhoI fragment (pfxa3) specific for the 5{prime}-end of the FMR1 gene. The analysis of flanking markers in the interval from Xq26.3-q28 indicated a deletion extending from between 160-500 kb distal and 9.0 Mb proximal to the FMR1 gene. High-resolution chromosome banding confirmed a deletion with breakpoints in Xq26.3 and Xq27.3. This deletion was maternally transmitted and arose as a new mutation on the grandpaternal X chromosome. The maternal transmission of the deletion was confirmed by FISH using a 34-kb cosmid (c31.4) containing most of the FMR1 gene. These results indicated that RK carried a deletion of the FMR1 region with the most proximal breakpoint described to date. This patient`s unusual clinical presentation may indicate the presence of genes located in the deleted interval proximal to the FMR1 locus that are able to modify the fragile X syndrome phenotype. 36 refs., 7 figs.

  17. Molecular analyses of 17p11.2 deletions in 62 Smith-Magenis syndrome patients.

    PubMed Central

    Juyal, R. C.; Figuera, L. E.; Hauge, X.; Elsea, S. H.; Lupski, J. R.; Greenberg, F.; Baldini, A.; Patel, P. I.

    1996-01-01

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a clinically recognizable, multiple congenital anomalies/mental retardation syndrome caused by an interstitial deletion involving band p11.2 of chromosome 17. Toward the molecular definition of the interval defining this microdeletion syndrome, 62 unrelated SMS patients in conjunction with 70 available unaffected parents were molecularly analyzed with respect to the presence or absence of 14 loci in the proximal region of the short arm of chromosome 17. A multifaceted approach was used to determine deletion status at the various loci that combined (i) FISH analysis, (ii)PCR and Southern analysis of somatic cell hybrids retaining the deleted chromosome 17 from selected patients, and (iii) genotype determination of patients for whom a parent(s) was available at four microsatellite marker loci and at four loci with associated RFLPs. The relative order of two novel anonymous markers and a new microsatellite marker was determined in 17p11.2. The results confirmed that the proximal deletion breakpoint in the majority of SMS patients is located between markers D17S58 (EW301) and D17S446 (FG1) within the 17p11.1-17p11.2 region. The common distal breakpoint was mapped between markers cCI17-638, which lies distal to D17S71, and cCI17-498, which lies proximal to the Charcot Marie-Tooth disease type 1A locus. The locus D17S258 was found to be deleted in all 62 patients, and probes from this region can be used for diagnosis of the SMS deletion by FISH. Ten patients demonstrated molecularly distinct deletions; of these, two patients had smaller deletions and will enable the definition of the critical interval for SMS. Images Figure 2 PMID:8651284

  18. Molecular analyses of 17p11.2 deletions in 62 Smith-Magenis syndrome patients

    SciTech Connect

    Juyal, R.C.; Figuera, L.E.; Hauge, X.

    1996-05-01

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a clinically recognizable, multiple congenital anomalies/mental retardation syndrome caused by an interstitial deletion involving band p11.2 of chromosome 17. Toward the molecular definition of the interval defining this microdeletion syndrome, 62 unrelated SMS patients in conjunction with 70 available unaffected parents were molecularly analyzed with respect to the presence or absence of 14 loci in the proximal region of the short arm of chromosome 17. A multifaceted approach was used to determine deletion status at the various loci that combined (1) FISH analysis, (2) PCR and Southern analysis of somatic cell hybrids retaining the deleted chromosome 17 from selected patients, and (3) genotype determination of patients for whom a parent(s) was available at four microsatellite marker loci and at four loci with associated RFLPs. The relative order of two novel anonymous markers and a new microsatellite marker was determined in 17p11.2. The results confirmed that the proximal deletion breakpoint in the majority of SMS patients is located between markers D17S58 (EW301) and D17S446 (FG1) within the 17p11.1-17p11.2 region. The common distal breakpoint was mapped between markers cCI17-638, which lies distal to D17S71, and cCI17-498, which lies proximal to the Charcot Marie-Tooth disease type 1A locus. The locus D17S258 was found to be deleted in all 62 patients, and probes from this region can be used for diagnosis of the SMS deletion by FISH. Ten patients demonstrated molecularly distinct deletions; of these, two patients had smaller deletions and will enable the definition of the critical interval for SMS. 49 refs.

  19. Prenatal diagnosis of interstitial deletion of 17(p11.2p11.2) (Smith-Magenis Syndrome)

    SciTech Connect

    1994-01-15

    Interstitial deletion of 17p11.2 is associated with Smith-Magenis syndrome. This is a recognizable chromosomal deletion syndrome, characterized by brachycephaly, midface hypoplasia, growth and mental retardation, behavioral problems, and ocular abnormalities. Molecular analysis indicates it is a contiguous gene syndrome. Over 50 patients have been reported since the deletion was first described by Smith et al. [1982]. Cases include one with mosaicism and a familial example. None were prenatally diagnosed. The authors report on the prenatal detection of interstitial deletion of 17p11.2. 11 refs., 1 fig.

  20. Subtelomeric chromosomal rearrangements in a large cohort of unexplained intellectually disabled individuals in Indonesia: A clinical and molecular study

    PubMed Central

    Mundhofir, Farmaditya E. P.; Nillesen, Willy M.; Van Bon, Bregje W. M.; Smeets, Dominique; Pfundt, Rolph; van de Ven-Schobers, Gaby; Ruiterkamp-Versteeg, Martina; Winarni, Tri I.; Hamel, Ben C. J.; Yntema, Helger G.; Faradz, Sultana M. H.

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT: Unbalanced subtelomeric chromosomal rearrangements are often associated with intellectual disability (ID) and malformation syndromes. The prevalence of such rearrangements has been reported to be 5-9% in ID populations. AIMS: To study the prevalence of subtelomeric rearrangements in the Indonesian ID population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We tested 436 subjects with unexplained ID using multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification (MLPA) using the specific designed sets of probes to detect human subtelomeric chromosomal imbalances (SALSA P070 and P036D). If necessary, abnormal findings were confirmed by other MLPA probe kits, fluorescent in situ hybridization or Single Nucleotide Polymorphism array. RESULTS: A subtelomeric aberration was identified in 3.7% of patients (16/436). Details on subtelomeric aberrations and confirmation analyses are discussed. CONCLUSION: This is the first study describing the presence of subtelomeric rearrangements in individuals with ID in Indonesia. Furthermore, it shows that also in Indonesia such abnormalities are a prime cause of ID and that in developing countries with limited diagnostic services such as Indonesia, it is important and feasible to uncover the genetic etiology in a significant number of cases with ID. PMID:24019618

  1. Genotype-phenotype correlation in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is caused by hemizygous microdeletions on chromosome 22q11.2 with highly variable physical and neuropsychiatric manifestations. We explored the genotype-phenotype relationship in a relatively large 22q11.2DS cohort treated and monitored in our clinic using comprehensive clinical evaluation and detailed molecular characterization of the deletion. Methods Molecular analyses in 142 subjects with 22q11.2DS features were performed by FISH and MLPA methods. Participants underwent clinical assessment of physical symptoms and structured psychiatric and cognitive evaluation. Results Deletions were found in 110 individuals including one with an atypical nested distal deletion which was missed by the FISH test. Most subjects (88.2%) carried the 3Mb typically deleted region and 11.8% carried 4 types of deletions differing in size and location. No statistically significant genotype-phenotype correlations were found between deletion type and clinical data although some differences in hypocalcemia and cardiovascular anomalies were noted. Analysis of the patient with the distal nested deletion suggested a redundancy of genes causing the physical and neuropsychiatric phenotype in 22q11.2DS and indicating that the psychiatric and cognitive trajectories may be governed by different genes. Conclusions MLPA is a useful and affordable molecular method combining accurate diagnosis and detailed deletion characterization. Variations in deletion type and clinical manifestations impede the detection of significant differences in samples of moderate size, but analysis of individuals with unique deletions may provide insight into the underlying biological mechanisms. Future genotype-phenotype studies should involve large multicenter collaborations employing uniform clinical standards and high-resolution molecular methods. PMID:23245648

  2. Novel features of 3q29 deletion syndrome: Results from the 3q29 registry.

    PubMed

    Glassford, Megan R; Rosenfeld, Jill A; Freedman, Alexa A; Zwick, Michael E; Mulle, Jennifer G

    2016-04-01

    3q29 deletion syndrome is caused by a recurrent, typically de novo heterozygous 1.6 Mb deletion, but because incidence of the deletion is rare (1 in 30,000 births) the phenotype is not well described. To characterize the range of phenotypic manifestations associated with 3q29 deletion syndrome, we have developed an online registry (3q29deletion.org) for ascertainment of study subjects and phenotypic data collection via Internet-based survey instruments. We report here on data collected during the first 18 months of registry operation, from 44 patients. This is the largest cohort of 3q29 deletion carriers ever assembled and surveyed in a systematic way. Our data reveal that 28% of registry participants report neuropsychiatric phenotypes, including anxiety disorder, panic attacks, depression, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia. Other novel findings include a high prevalence (64%) of feeding problems in infancy and reduced weight at birth for 3q29 deletion carriers (average reduction 13.9 oz (394 g), adjusted for gestational age and sex, P = 6.5e-07). We further report on the frequency of heart defects, autism, recurrent ear infections, gastrointestinal phenotypes, and dental phenotypes, among others. We also report on the expected timing of delayed developmental milestones. This is the most comprehensive description of the 3q29 deletion phenotype to date. These results are clinically actionable toward improving patient care for 3q29 deletion carriers, and can guide the expectations of physicians and parents. These data also demonstrate the value of patient-reported outcomes to reveal the full phenotypic spectrum of rare genomic disorders. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26738761

  3. Strong correlation of elastin deletions, detected by FISH, with Williams syndrome: Evaluation of 235 patients

    SciTech Connect

    Lowery, M.C.; Brothman, L.J.; Leonard, C.O.

    1995-07-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is generally characterized by mental deficiency, gregarious personality, dysmorphic facies, supravalvular aortic stenosis, and idiopathic infantile hypercalcemia. Patients with WS show allelic loss of elastin (ELN), exhibiting a submicroscopic deletion, at 7q11.23, detectable by FISH. Hemizygosity is likely the cause of vascular abnormalities in WS patients. A series of 235 patients was studied, and molecular cytogenetic deletions were seen in 96% of patients with classic WS. Patients included 195 solicited through the Williams Syndrome Association (WSA), plus 40 clinical cytogenetics cases referred by primary-care physicians. Photographs and medical records of most WSA subjects were reviewed, and patients were identified as {open_quotes}classic{open_quotes} (n = 114) or{open_quotes}uncertain{close_quotes} (n = 39). An additional 42 WSA patients were evaluated without clinical information. FISH was performed with biotinylated ELN cosmids on metaphase cells from immortalized lymphoblastoid lines from WSA patients and after high-resolution banding analysis on clinical referral patients. An alpha-satellite probe for chromosome 7 was included in hybridizations, as an internal control. Ninety-six percent of the patients with classic WS showed a deletion in one ELN allele; four of these did not show a deletion. Of the uncertain WS patients, only 3 of 39 showed a deletion. Of the 42 who were not classified phenotypically, because of lack of clinical information, 25 patients (60%) showed a deletion. Thirty-eight percent (15/40) of clinical cytogenetics cases showed an ELN deletion and no cytogenetic deletion by banded analysis. These results support the usefulness of FISH for the detection of elastin deletions as an initial diagnostic assay for WS. 14 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. A VARIANT CASE OF 6p24 DELETION SYNDROME (OMIM #612582).

    PubMed

    Ergin, R N; Cigerciogullari, E; Alanay, Y; Yayla, M

    2015-01-01

    The 6p24 deletion syndrome, a contiguous gene deletion syndrome is characterized by a wide spectrum of clinical presentations. In this case report we present an antenatal case of 6p 24 deletion syndrome variant involving FOXC1 gene. First trimester fetal screening of a 34 year old pregnant female revealed ultrasonographic anomalies and chorionic villus sampling was performed to rule out any chromosomal anomaly. Cytogenetic examination resulted in normal 46,XY karyotype. In the following weeks further anomalies like cleft palate/lip, thick nuchal fold, ventral septal defect and low set ear were detected with ultrasonography. At 20 weeks of gestation, amniocentesis and whole genome array-CGH analysis revealed a 9.6 Mb interstitial deletion in the 6p25.2p24.1 region which has many genes including an important gene, FOXC1 and 119 Kb interstitial deletion at 9q22.31. The pregnancy was terminated. Postmortem morphological examination revealed turricephaly, hypertelorism, depressed nasal bridge, broad nasal tip, left sided cleft lip, low-set small ears, micrognathia, short neck, increased nuchal fold, short broad distal phalanges, broad thumbs, broad halluces and broad toes. PMID:26349195

  5. A new deletion refines the boundaries of the murine Prader-Willi syndrome imprinting center.

    PubMed

    Dubose, Amanda J; Smith, Emily Y; Yang, Thomas P; Johnstone, Karen A; Resnick, James L

    2011-09-01

    The human chromosomal 15q11-15q13 region is subject to both maternal and paternal genomic imprinting. Absence of paternal gene expression from this region results in Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), while absence of maternal gene expression leads to Angelman syndrome. Transcription of paternally expressed genes in the region depends upon an imprinting center termed the PWS-IC. Imprinting defects in PWS can be caused by microdeletions and the smallest commonly deleted region indicates that the PWS-IC lies within a region of 4.3 kb. The function and location of the PWS-IC is evolutionarily conserved, but delineation of the PWS-IC in mouse has proven difficult. The first targeted mutation of the PWS-IC, a deletion of 35 kb spanning Snrpn exon 1, exhibited a complete PWS-IC deletion phenotype. Pups inheriting this mutation paternally showed a complete loss of paternal gene expression and died neonatally. A reported deletion of 4.8 kb showed only a reduction in paternal gene expression and incomplete penetrance of neonatal lethality, suggesting that some PWS-IC function had been retained. Here, we report that a 6 kb deletion spanning Snrpn exon 1 exhibits a complete PWS-IC deletion phenotype. Pups inheriting this mutation paternally lack detectable expression of all PWS genes and paternal silencing of Ube3a, exhibit maternal DNA methylation imprints at Ndn and Mkrn3 and suffer failure to thrive leading to a fully penetrant neonatal lethality. PMID:21659337

  6. Terminal chromosome 4q deletion syndrome in an infant with hearing impairment and moderate syndromic features: review of literature

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Terminal deletions of chromosome 4q are associated with a broad spectrum of phenotypes including cardiac, craniofacial, digital, and cognitive impairment. The rarity of this syndrome renders genotype-phenotype correlation difficult, which is further complicated by the widely different phenotypes observed in patients sharing similar deletion intervals. Case presentation Herein, we describe a boy with congenital hearing impairment and a variety of moderate syndromic features that prompted SNP array analysis disclosing a heterozygous 6.9 Mb deletion in the 4q35.1q35.2 region, which emerged de novo in the maternal germ line. Conclusion In addition to the index patient, we review 35 cases from the literature and DECIPHER database to attempt genotype-phenotype correlations for a syndrome with great phenotypic variability. We delineate intervals with recurrent phenotypic overlap, particularly for cleft palate, congenital heart defect, intellectual disability, and autism spectrum disorder. Broad phenotypic presentation of the terminal 4q deletion syndrome is consistent with incomplete penetrance of the individual symptoms. PMID:24962056

  7. Subtypes in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Associated with Behaviour and Neurofacial Morphology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinderberry, Brooke; Brown, Scott; Hammond, Peter; Stevens, Angela F.; Schall, Ulrich; Murphy, Declan G. M.; Murphy, Kieran C.; Campbell, Linda E.

    2013-01-01

    22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) has a complex phenotype with more than 180 characteristics, including cardiac anomalies, cleft palate, intellectual disabilities, a typical facial morphology, and mental health problems. However, the variable phenotype makes it difficult to predict clinical outcome, such as the high prevalence of psychosis among…

  8. Deletion Variants of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus from Humans, Jordan, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Lamers, Mart M.; Raj, V. Stalin; Shafei, Mah’d; Ali, Sami Sheikh; Abdallh, Sultan M.; Gazo, Mahmoud; Nofal, Samer; Lu, Xiaoyan; Erdman, Dean D.; Koopmans, Marion P.; Abdallat, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    We characterized Middle East respiratory syndrome coronaviruses from a hospital outbreak in Jordan in 2015. The viruses from Jordan were highly similar to isolates from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, except for deletions in open reading frames 4a and 3. Transmissibility and pathogenicity of this strain remains to be determined. PMID:26981770

  9. Children with Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Exhibit Impaired Spatial Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Ling M.; Riggins, Tracy; Harvey, Danielle; Cabaral, Margarita; Simon, Tony J.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) have been shown to have impairments in processing spatiotemporal information. The authors examined whether children with 22q11.2DS exhibit impairments in spatial working memory performance due to these weaknesses, even when controlling for maintenance of attention. Children with…

  10. Subtypes in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Associated with Behaviour and Neurofacial Morphology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinderberry, Brooke; Brown, Scott; Hammond, Peter; Stevens, Angela F.; Schall, Ulrich; Murphy, Declan G. M.; Murphy, Kieran C.; Campbell, Linda E.

    2013-01-01

    22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) has a complex phenotype with more than 180 characteristics, including cardiac anomalies, cleft palate, intellectual disabilities, a typical facial morphology, and mental health problems. However, the variable phenotype makes it difficult to predict clinical outcome, such as the high prevalence of psychosis among…

  11. Deletion Variants of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus from Humans, Jordan, 2015.

    PubMed

    Lamers, Mart M; Raj, V Stalin; Shafei, Mah'd; Ali, Sami Sheikh; Abdallh, Sultan M; Gazo, Mahmoud; Nofal, Samer; Lu, Xiaoyan; Erdman, Dean D; Koopmans, Marion P; Abdallat, Mohammad; Haddadin, Aktham; Haagmans, Bart L

    2016-04-01

    We characterized Middle East respiratory syndrome coronaviruses from a hospital outbreak in Jordan in 2015. The viruses from Jordan were highly similar to isolates from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, except for deletions in open reading frames 4a and 3. Transmissibility and pathogenicity of this strain remains to be determined. PMID:26981770

  12. Children with Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Exhibit Impaired Spatial Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Ling M.; Riggins, Tracy; Harvey, Danielle; Cabaral, Margarita; Simon, Tony J.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) have been shown to have impairments in processing spatiotemporal information. The authors examined whether children with 22q11.2DS exhibit impairments in spatial working memory performance due to these weaknesses, even when controlling for maintenance of attention. Children with…

  13. Domain Specific Attentional Impairments in Children with Chromosome 22Q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bish, Joel P.; Chiodo, Renee; Mattei, Victoria; Simon, Tony J.

    2007-01-01

    One of the defining cognitive characteristics of the chromosome 22q deletion syndrome (DS22q11.2) is visuospatial processing impairments. The purpose of this study was to investigate and extend the specific attentional profile of children with this disorder using both an object-based attention task and an inhibition of return task. A group of…

  14. Functional outcomes of adults with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Butcher, Nancy J.; Chow, Eva W.C.; Costain, Gregory; Karas, Dominique; Ho, Andrew; Bassett, Anne S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome is a common multisystem genomic disorder with congenital and later-onset manifestations, including congenital heart disease, intellectual disability, and psychiatric illness, that may affect long-term functioning. There are limited data on adult functioning in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Methods We used the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales to assess functioning in 100 adults with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (n = 46 male; mean age = 28.8 (standard deviation = 9.7) years) where intellect ranged from average to borderline (n = 57) to mild intellectual disability (n = 43). Results More than 75% of the subjects scored in the functional deficit range. Although personal, vocational, and financial demographics confirmed widespread functional impairment, daily living skills and employment were relative strengths. Intelligence quotient was a significant predictor (P < 0.001) of overall and domain-specific adaptive functioning skills. A diagnosis of schizophrenia was a significant predictor (P < 0.05) of overall adaptive functioning, daily living skills, and socialization scores. Notably, congenital heart disease, history of mood/anxiety disorders, sex, and age were not significant predictors of functioning. Conclusion Despite functional impairment in adulthood that is primarily mediated by cognitive and psychiatric phenotypes, relative strengths in activities of daily living and employment have important implications for services and long-term planning. These results may help to inform expectations about outcomes for patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. PMID:22744446

  15. Subtelomeric CTCF and cohesin binding site organization using improved subtelomere assemblies and a novel annotation pipeline

    PubMed Central

    Stong, Nicholas; Deng, Zhong; Gupta, Ravi; Hu, Sufen; Paul, Shiela; Weiner, Amber K.; Eichler, Evan E.; Graves, Tina; Fronick, Catrina C.; Courtney, Laura; Wilson, Richard K.; Lieberman, Paul M.; Davuluri, Ramana V.; Riethman, Harold

    2014-01-01

    Mapping genome-wide data to human subtelomeres has been problematic due to the incomplete assembly and challenges of low-copy repetitive DNA elements. Here, we provide updated human subtelomere sequence assemblies that were extended by filling telomere-adjacent gaps using clone-based resources. A bioinformatic pipeline incorporating multiread mapping for annotation of the updated assemblies using short-read data sets was developed and implemented. Annotation of subtelomeric sequence features as well as mapping of CTCF and cohesin binding sites using ChIP-seq data sets from multiple human cell types confirmed that CTCF and cohesin bind within 3 kb of the start of terminal repeat tracts at many, but not all, subtelomeres. CTCF and cohesin co-occupancy were also enriched near internal telomere-like sequence (ITS) islands and the nonterminal boundaries of subtelomere repeat elements (SREs) in transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) and human embryonic stem cell (ES) lines, but were not significantly enriched in the primary fibroblast IMR90 cell line. Subtelomeric CTCF and cohesin sites predicted by ChIP-seq using our bioinformatics pipeline (but not predicted when only uniquely mapping reads were considered) were consistently validated by ChIP-qPCR. The colocalized CTCF and cohesin sites in SRE regions are candidates for mediating long-range chromatin interactions in the transcript-rich SRE region. A public browser for the integrated display of short-read sequence–based annotations relative to key subtelomere features such as the start of each terminal repeat tract, SRE identity and organization, and subtelomeric gene models was established. PMID:24676094

  16. Global distribution of the most prevalent deletions causing hypotonia-cystinuria syndrome.

    PubMed

    Martens, Kevin; Heulens, Inge; Meulemans, Sandra; Zaffanello, Marco; Tilstra, David; Hes, Frederik J; Rooman, Raoul; François, Inge; de Zegher, Francis; Jaeken, Jaak; Matthijs, Gert; Creemers, John W M

    2007-10-01

    Hypotonia-cystinuria syndrome (HCS) is a recessive disorder caused by microdeletions of SLC3A1 and PREPL on chromosome 2p21. Patients present with generalized hypotonia at birth, failure to thrive, growth retardation and cystinuria type I. While the initially described HCS families live in small regions in Belgium and France, we have now identified HCS alleles in patients and carriers from the Netherlands, Italy, Canada and United States of America. Surprisingly, among the nine deletions detected in those patients, only one novel deletion was found. Furthermore, one previously described deletion was found six times, another twice. Finally, we have investigated the frequency of both deletions using a random Belgian cohort. Given the global occurrence, HCS should be considered in the differential diagnosis of neonatal hypotonia. PMID:17579669

  17. VISUOSPATIAL AND NUMERICAL COGNITIVE DEFICITS IN CHILDREN WITH CHROMOSOME 22Q11.2 DELETION SYNDROME

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Tony J.; Bearden, Carrie E.; Mc-Ginn, Donna McDonald; Zackai, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    This article presents some of the earliest evidence of visuospatial and numerical cognitive deficits in children with the chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome; a common but ill-understood genetic disorder resulting in medical complications, cognitive impairment, and brain morphologic changes. Relative to a group of typically developing controls, deleted children performed more poorly on tests of visual attentional orienting, visual enumeration and relative numerical magnitude judgment. Results showed that performance deficits in children with the deletion could not be explained by a global deficit in psychomotor speed. Instead, our findings are supportive of the hypothesis that visuospatial and numerical deficits in children with the chromosome 22q11.2 deletion are due, at least in part, to posterior parietal dysfunction. PMID:15714897

  18. Mapping of heteroplasmic mitochondrial DNA deletions in Kearns-Sayre syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, I; Degoul, F; Obermaier-Kusser, B; Romero, N; Borrone, C; Marsac, C; Vayssiere, J L; Gerbitz, K; Fardeau, M; Ponsot, G

    1989-01-01

    Kearns-Sayre syndrome (KSS) is a progressive neuromuscular disease characterised by ophtalmoplegia, cardiac bloc branch, pigmentary retinopathy associated with abnormal mitochondrial function. We have studied the mitochondrial DNA organization of patients presenting KSS and have found large deletions ranging from 3 to 8.5 kilobase pairs. DNA molecules containing deletion are accompanied by the presence of the normal sized mtDNA molecule forming heteroplasmic genomes. The deletions always map in the region which is potentially single stranded during mitochondrial DNA replication. The deletions differ in length and position between individuals but are similar within the different tissues of an individual suggesting that they arise during or before embryogenesis. Images PMID:2813058

  19. Identification of a founder EPCAM deletion in Spanish Lynch syndrome families.

    PubMed

    Mur, P; Pineda, M; Romero, A; Del Valle, J; Borràs, E; Canal, A; Navarro, M; Brunet, J; Rueda, D; Ramón Y Cajal, T; Lázaro, C; Caldés, T; Blanco, I; Soto, J L; Capellá, G

    2014-03-01

    Germline deletions at the 3'-end of EPCAM have been involved in the etiology of Lynch syndrome (LS). The aim of this study was to characterize at the molecular level Spanish families harboring EPCAM deletions. Non-commercial multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) probes and long-range polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification were used to characterize each deletion. Haplotyping was performed by analyzing eight microsatellite markers and five MSH2single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Methylation of MSH2 was analyzed by methylation specific-MLPA. Tumors diagnosed in seven Spanish families harboring EPCAM deletions were almost exclusively colorectal. Mosaicism in MSH2 methylation was observed in EPCAM deletion carrier samples, being average methylation levels higher in normal colon and colorectal tumors (27.6% and 31.1%), than in lymphocytes and oral mucosa (1.1% and 0.7%). Three families shared the deletion c.858 + 2568_*4596del, with a common haplotype comprising 9.9 Mb. In two families the novel EPCAM deletion c.858 + 2488_*7469del was identified. This study provides knowledge on the clinical and molecular characteristics of mosaic MSH2 epimutations. The identification of an EPCAM founder mutation has useful implications for the molecular diagnosis of LS in Spain. PMID:23530899

  20. Detection of deletions and cryptic translocations in Miller-Dieker syndrome by in situ hybridization.

    PubMed Central

    Kuwano, A; Ledbetter, S A; Dobyns, W B; Emanuel, B S; Ledbetter, D H

    1991-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using two cosmid probes (41A and P13) from the Miller-Dieker syndrome (MDS) critical region in 17p13.3 was performed in a blinded comparison of three MDS patients with submicroscopic deletions and in four normal relatives used as controls. The controls showed both chromosome 17 homologues labeled in 85%-95% of cells, while each patient showed only one homologue labeled in 75%-80% of cells. Two MDS patients with cryptic translocations were also studied. In one case, a patient and her mother had the same der(17) (p+), but the reciprocal product of the translocation could not be identified in the mother by G-banding (i.e., it was a "half-cryptic" translocation). FISH revealed a 3q;17p translocation. The other case involved a patient with apparently normal karyotype. Because a large molecular deletion was found, a translocation involving two G-negative telomeres (i.e., a "full-cryptic" translocation) was postulated. FISH studies on her father and normal brother showed an 8q;17p translocation. These studies demonstrate that in situ hybridization is an efficient method for deletion detection in Miller-Dieker syndrome. More important, parental studies by FISH on patients demonstrating molecular deletions and a normal karyotype may identify cryptic translocation events, which cannot be detected by other molecular genetic strategies. Similar in situ strategies for deletion detection can be developed for other microdeletion syndromes, such as Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome or DiGeorge syndrome. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:1897521

  1. Testicular sex cord-stromal tumor in a boy with 2q37 deletion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background 2q37 deletion syndrome is a rare congenital disorder that is characterized by facial dysmorphism, obesity, vascular and skeletal malformations, and a variable degree of intellectual disability. To date, common but variable phenotypes, such as skeletal or digit malformations and obesity, have been associated with the deleted size or affected genes at chromosome 2q37. However, it remains elusive whether 2q37 deletion per se or other genetic factors, such as copy number variations (CNVs), may confer the risk for the tumorigenic condition. Case presentation We report a two-year-old Japanese boy with 2q37 deletion syndrome who exhibited the typical facial appearance, coarctation of the aorta, and a global developmental delay, while lacking the symptoms of brachydactyly and obesity. He developed a sex cord-stromal tumor of the right testis at three months of age. The array comparative genome hybridization analysis identified an 8.2-Mb deletion at 2q37.1 (chr2:234,275,216-242,674,807) and it further revealed two additional CNVs: duplications at 1p36.33–p36.32 (chr1:834,101–2,567,832) and 20p12.3 (chr20:5,425,762–5,593,096). The quantitative PCRs confirmed the heterozygous deletion of HDAC4 at 2q37.3 and duplications of DVL1 at 1q36 and GPCPD1 at 20p12.3. Conclusion This study describes the unique phenotypes in a boy with 2q37 deletion and additional CNVs at 1p36.33–p36.32 and 20p12.3. The data provide evidence that the phenotypic variations and unusual complications of 2q37 deletion syndrome are not simply explained by the deleted size or genes located at 2q37, but that external CNVs may account at least in part for their variant phenotypes. Accumulating the CNV data for chromosomal disorders will be beneficial for understanding the genetic effects of concurrent CNVs on the syndromic phenotypes and rare complications. PMID:24755370

  2. Mosaic partial deletion of the PTEN gene in a patient with Cowden syndrome.

    PubMed

    Salo-Mullen, Erin E; Shia, Jinru; Brownell, Isaac; Allen, Peter; Girotra, Monica; Robson, Mark E; Offit, Kenneth; Guillem, Jose G; Markowitz, Arnold J; Stadler, Zsofia K

    2014-09-01

    Cowden syndrome is an autosomal dominant condition caused by pathogenic mutations in the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) gene. Only a small proportion of identified pathogenic mutations have been reported to be large deletions and rearrangements. We report on a female patient with a previous history of breast ductal carcinoma in situ who presented to our institution for management of gastrointestinal hamartomatous polyposis. Although several neoplastic predisposition syndromes were considered, genetic evaluation determined that the patient met clinical diagnostic criteria for Cowden syndrome. Array-based comparative genomic hybridization was performed and revealed a mosaic partial deletion of the PTEN gene. Follow-up clinical history including bilateral thyroid nodules, dermatological findings, and a new primary "triple-negative" adenocarcinoma of the contralateral breast are discussed. We highlight the need for recognition and awareness of mosaicism as it may provide an explanation for variable phenotypic presentations and may alter the genetic counseling risk assessment of affected individuals and family members. PMID:24609522

  3. The use of two different MLPA kits in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Evers, L J M; Engelen, J J M; Houben, L M H; Curfs, L M G; van Amelsvoort, T A M J

    2016-04-01

    22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is one of the most common recurrent copy-number variant disorder, caused by a microdeletion in chromosome band 22q11.2 and occurring with a population prevalence of 1 in 2000. Until today there has been no evidence that the size of the deletion has an influence on the clinical phenotype. Most studies report that 22q11DS is associated with mild or borderline intellectual disability. There are a limited number of reports on 22q11DS subjects with moderate or severe intellectual disability. In this study we describe 63 adult patients with 22q11DS, including 22q11DS patients functioning at a moderate to severe intellectual disabled level. Deletion size was established with an experimental Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) mixture (P324) in addition to the commonly used MLPA kit (P250). We compared deletion size with intellectual functioning and presence of psychotic symptoms during life. The use of the experimental MLPA kit gives extra information on deletion size, only when combined with the common MLPA kit. We were able to detect eleven atypical deletions and in two cases the deletion size was shorter than all other "typical ones". We conclude that the use of the experimental kit P324 gives extra information about the deletion size, but only when used together with the standard P250 kit. We did not found any relation of deletion size with intelligence or presence of psychosis. PMID:26921528

  4. Two novel gross deletions of TSC2 in Malaysian patients with tuberous sclerosis complex and TSC2/PKD1 contiguous deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Nur Farrah Dila; Nik Abdul Malik, Nik Mohd Ariff; Mohseni, Jafar; Rani, Abdulqawee Mahyoob; Hayati, Fatemeh; Salmi, Abdul Razak; Narazah, Mohd Yusof; Zabidi-Hussin, Z A M H; Silawati, Abdul Rashid; Keng, Wee Teik; Ngu, Lock Hock; Sasongko, Teguh Haryo

    2014-05-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex is an autosomal dominant neurocutaneous disorder affecting multiple organs. Tuberous sclerosis complex is caused by mutation in either one of the two disease-causing genes, TSC1 or TSC2, encoding for hamartin and tuberin, respectively. TSC2/PKD1 contiguous gene deletion syndrome is a very rare condition due to deletion involving both TSC2 and PKD1 genes. Tuberous sclerosis complex cannot be easily diagnosed since there is no pathognomonic feature, although there are consensus diagnostic criteria for that. Mutation analysis is useful and plays important roles. We report here two novel gross deletions of TSC2 gene in Malay patients with tuberous sclerosis complex and TSC2/PKD1 contiguous gene deletion syndrome, respectively. PMID:24683199

  5. Deletion of 7q33-q35 in a Patient with Intellectual Disability and Dysmorphic Features: Further Characterization of 7q Interstitial Deletion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Dilzell, Kristen; Darcy, Diana; Sum, John; Wallerstein, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This case report concerns a 16-year-old girl with a 9.92?Mb, heterozygous interstitial chromosome deletion at 7q33-q35, identified using array comparative genomic hybridization. The patient has dysmorphic facial features, intellectual disability, recurrent infections, self-injurious behavior, obesity, and recent onset of hemihypertrophy. This patient has overlapping features with previously reported individuals who have similar deletions spanning the 7q32-q36 region. It has been difficult to describe an interstitial 7q deletion syndrome due to variations in the sizes and regions in the few patients reported in the literature. This case contributes to the further characterization of an interstitial distal 7q deletion syndrome. PMID:26064708

  6. Deletion of 7q33-q35 in a Patient with Intellectual Disability and Dysmorphic Features: Further Characterization of 7q Interstitial Deletion Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dilzell, Kristen; Darcy, Diana; Sum, John; Wallerstein, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This case report concerns a 16-year-old girl with a 9.92?Mb, heterozygous interstitial chromosome deletion at 7q33-q35, identified using array comparative genomic hybridization. The patient has dysmorphic facial features, intellectual disability, recurrent infections, self-injurious behavior, obesity, and recent onset of hemihypertrophy. This patient has overlapping features with previously reported individuals who have similar deletions spanning the 7q32-q36 region. It has been difficult to describe an interstitial 7q deletion syndrome due to variations in the sizes and regions in the few patients reported in the literature. This case contributes to the further characterization of an interstitial distal 7q deletion syndrome. PMID:26064708

  7. Mitochondrial DNA deletion in a patient with combined features of Leigh and Pearson syndromes

    SciTech Connect

    Blok, R.B.; Thorburn, D.R.; Danks, D.M.

    1994-09-01

    We describe a heteroplasmic 4237 bp mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletion in an 11 year old girl who has suffered from progressive illness since birth. She has some features of Leigh syndrome (global developmental delay with regression, brainstem dysfunction and lactic acidosis), together with other features suggestive of Pearson syndrome (history of pancytopenia and failure to thrive). The deletion was present at a level greater than 50% in skeletal muscle, but barely detectable in skin fibroblasts following Southern blot analysis, and only observed in blood following PCR analysis. The deletion spanned nt 9498 to nt 13734, and was flanked by a 12 bp direct repeat. Genes for cytochrome c oxidase subunit III, NADH dehydrogenase subunits 3, 4L, 4 and 5, and tRNAs for glycine, arginine, histidine, serine({sup AGY}) and leucine({sup CUN}) were deleted. Southern blotting also revealed an altered Apa I restriction site which was shown by sequence analysis to be caused by G{r_arrow}A nucleotide substitution at nt 1462 in the 12S rRNA gene. This was presumed to be a polymorphism. No abnormalities of mitochondrial ultrastructure, distribution or of respiratory chain enzyme complexes I-IV in skeletal muscle were observed. Mitochondrial disorders with clinical features overlapping more than one syndrome have been reported previously. This case further demonstrates the difficulty in correlating observed clinical features with a specific mitochondrial DNA mutation.

  8. A 8.26Mb deletion in 6q16 and a 4.95Mb deletion in 20p12 including JAG1 and BMP2 in a patient with Alagille syndrome and Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome.

    PubMed

    Le Gloan, Laurianne; Pichon, Olivier; Isidor, Bertrand; Boceno, Michelle; Rival, Jean-Marie; David, Albert; Le Caignec, Cédric

    2008-01-01

    We report a child presenting with Alagille and Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndromes. Standard karyotyping showed a de novo 46,XY,t(1;6)(p31;q16) translocation. Fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis identified a de novo deletion in the 20p12 chromosomal region encompassing JAG1, the major gene responsible for Alagille syndrome. The aberration was further characterized using an Agilent 44K oligonucleotide array, which confirmed the 4.95Mb 20p12 deletion. An additional 8.26Mb deletion was identified at the 6q16 translocation breakpoint. To our knowledge, WPW has never been associated with Alagille syndrome. The patient we describe presented with a 6q16 deletion containing 21 genes but no good candidate genes for WPW. The 20p12 deletion included 19 genes among them JAG1 and BMP2. Recently, two unrelated patients with WPW and BMP2 deletions have been reported. Despite a relationship between WPW and JAG1 deletion cannot be excluded, the JAG1 deletion is unlikely responsible for the ventricular preexcitation since WPW has never been associated with Alagille syndrome. Among the other deleted genes in 20p12, BMP2 appears to be a good candidate responsible for the WPW. PMID:18775522

  9. Genotype/phenotype correlation in women with nonmosaic X chromosome deletions and Turner syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Zinn, A.R.

    1994-09-01

    Turner syndrome is a complex human developmental disorder associated with the absence of the second sex chromosome (monosomy X). Cardinal features of the Turner phenotype include high intrauterine lethality, growth retardation, gonadal failure, and the variable presence of specific somatic abnormalities such as webbed neck, lymphedema, and skeletal abnormalities. Recent observations support the hypothesis that the phenotype associated with monosomy X results from haploid dosage of genes common the X and Y chromosomes that escape X-inactivation ({open_quotes}Turner genes{close_quotes}). Apart from a locus causing short stature that maps to the pseudoautosomal region on the distal short arm, the location of X-linked Turner genes is not known. Karyotype/phenotype correlations in women with partial X deletions have been inconsistent. However, previous studies have focused on sporadic sex chromosome aberrations and may have been confounded by occult mosaicism. In addition, mapping of deletions was limited by the resolution of cytogenetic techniques. I am reexamining genotype/phenotype correlations in partial X monosomy, focusing on a subset of cases in which mosaicism is highly unlikely (e.g., unbalanced X-autosome translocations, familial X deletions), and using molecular techniques to map deletions. I have collected eight cases of nonmosaic X deletions in women with varied manifestations of Turner syndrome. Cytogenetic data suggests that genes responsible for Turner anatomic abnormalities may lie within a critical region of the very proximal portion of the short arm (Xp11). Molecular characterization of the deletions is in progress. Methods include (1) fluorescence in situ hybridization of metaphase spreads from patient-derived cell lines, using cosmid probes that map to known locations on Xp, and (2) sequence tagged site (STS) content mapping of somatic cell hybrids retaining the deleted X chromosomes derived from these cell lines.

  10. Deletion syndrome 22q13: what the dentist should know to manage children with Phelan-McDermid syndrome effectively.

    PubMed

    Ivanoff, Chris; Ivanoff, Athena E

    2014-01-01

    Deletion Syndrome 22q13 (or Phelan-McDermid Syndrome) is a very rare genetic disorder characterized by general neonatal hypotonia, absent to delayed speech, and global developmental delays. With only 600 cases reported worldwide, the disease remains largely under-diagnosed, but diagnosis is on the rise. Current thinking suggests that 22q13 Deletion Syndrome may be one of the principal causes of idiopathic mental retardation. Patients with Phelan-McDermid Syndrome, especially children, can be a challenge for dental professionals, as it is often associated with autism. Dentists see patients with all kinds of special needs, developmental conditions and disabilities. Children with Phelan-McDermid Syndrome need dental care just like every other child. As with other autism-related disorders, children with Phelan-McDermid Syndrome need sameness and continuity in their environment. The dental literature, however, offers very little information to aid the dentist in the management of these children. This article aims to make dentists aware of the disorder and provides tips and recommendations that dentists may find helpful to manage Phelan-McDermid children more effectively. PMID:25241497

  11. EPCAM germline and somatic rearrangements in Lynch syndrome: identification of a novel 3'EPCAM deletion.

    PubMed

    Spaepen, Marijke; Neven, Esther; Sagaert, Xavier; De Hertogh, Gert; Beert, Eline; Wimmer, Katharina; Matthijs, Gert; Legius, Eric; Brems, Hilde

    2013-09-01

    3'EPCAM (Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule) genomic rearrangements can be a cause of mismatch repair deficiency in rare Lynch syndrome families. 3'EPCAM deletions include the polyadenylation signal and might result in promoter hypermethylation of the centromeric MSH2 gene in cis. A somatic rearrangement in trans affecting MSH2 is responsible for the final mismatch repair deficiency in the corresponding tumors but the mechanisms are not well documented. In this report two germline 3'EPCAM deletions are described together with the corresponding somatic mutations in the patient's colorectal tumors. Mutation and breakpoint analysis resulted in the identification of one novel (c.556-531_*872del) and one known EPCAM deletion (c.859-689_*14697del). Both deletions resulted from Alu mediated homologous recombination causing aberrant EPCAM-MSH2 fusion transcripts. The colorectal tumors of the deletion carriers were MSI-high. Strong hypermethylation of the MSH2 promoter was measured. Analysis of somatic genomic rearrangements showed a 4 Mb deletion including the EPCAM, MSH2 and MSH6 genes in one tumor and copy neutral loss of heterozygosity in the EPCAM-MSH2 region in the other tumor. This indicates that hemi- and homozygous hypermethylation of the MSH2 promoter and hence complete silencing of MSH2 expression was responsible for the mismatch repair deficiency in both colorectal tumors. PMID:23801599

  12. Comparison of phenotype in uniparental disomy and deletion Prader-Willi syndrome: Sex specific differences

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, J.; Langlois, S.; Robinson, W.P.

    1996-10-16

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) results primarily from either a paternal deletion of 15q11-q13 or maternal uniparental disomy (UPD) 15. Birth parameters and clinical presentation of 79 confirmed UPD cases and 43 deletion patients were compared in order to test whether any manifestations differ between the two groups. There were no major clinical differences between the two classes analyzed as a whole, other than the presence of hypopigmentation predominantly in the deletion group. However, there was a significant bias in sex-ratio (P<.001) limited to the UPD group with a predominance (68%) of males. An equal number of males and females was observed in the deletion group. When analyzed by sex, several significant differences between the UPD and deletion groups were observed. Female UPD patients were found to be less severely affected than female deletion patients in terms of length of gavage feeding and a later onset of hyperphagia. Although these traits are likely to be influenced by external factors, they may reflect a milder presentation of female UPD patients which could explain the observed sex bias by causing under-ascertainment of female UPD. Alternatively, there may be an effect of sex on either early trisomy 15 survival or the probability of somatic loss of a chromosome from a trisomic conceptus. 26 refs., 1 tab.

  13. A genetic etiology for DiGeorge syndrome: consistent deletions and microdeletions of 22q11.

    PubMed Central

    Driscoll, D A; Budarf, M L; Emanuel, B S

    1992-01-01

    DiGeorge syndrome (DGS), a developmental field defect of the third and fourth pharyngeal pouches, is characterized by aplasia or hypoplasia of the thymus and parathyroid glands and by conotruncal cardiac malformations. Cytogenetic studies support the presence of a DGS critical region in band 22q11. In the present study, we report the results of clinical, cytogenetic, and molecular studies of 14 patients with DGS. Chromosome analysis, utilizing high-resolution banding techniques, detected interstitial deletions in five probands and was inconclusive for a deletion in three probands. The remaining six patients had normal karyotypes. In contrast, molecular analysis detected DNA deletions in all 14 probands. Two of 10 loci tested, D22S75 and D22S259, are deleted in all 14 patients. A third locus, D22S66, is deleted in the eight DGS probands tested. Physical mapping using somatic cell hybrids places D22S66 between D22S75 and D22S259, suggesting that it should be deleted in the remaining six cases. Parent-of-origin studies were performed in five families. Four probands failed to inherit a maternal allele, and one failed to inherit a paternal allele. On the basis of these families, and of six maternally and five paternally derived unbalanced-translocation DGS probands in the literature, parent of origin or imprinting does not appear to play an important role in the pathogenesis of DGS. Deletion of the same three loci in all 14 DGS probands begins to delineate the region of chromosome 22 critical for DGS and confirms the hypothesis that submicroscopic deletions of 22q11 are etiologic in the vast majority of cases. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:1349199

  14. Repairing subtelomeric DSBs at the nuclear periphery.

    PubMed

    Taddei, Angela; Gasser, Susan M

    2006-05-01

    Nuclear organization creates microenvironments favoring distinct nuclear functions. In budding yeast, silent chromatin regions such as telomeres are clustered at the nuclear periphery, creating zones of transcriptional repression. Recently, in the Journal of Cell Biology, Therizols et al. report that "telomere tethering at the nuclear periphery is essential for DNA double strand break repair in subtelomeric regions". Here, we discuss these results and their functional implications. PMID:16621562

  15. Detection and discrimination between deletional and non-deletional Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes by methylation-specific PCR and quantitative melting curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen; Law, Hai-Yang; Chong, Samuel S

    2009-09-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and Angelman syndrome (AS) are clinically distinct neurological disorders caused by a lack of expression of oppositely imprinted genes in chromosomal region 15q11-13. The loss of expression can be due to parent-specific segmental deletions or can arise from non-deletional mechanisms, such as uniparental disomy of chromosome 15 or defects in imprinting. Most current diagnostic methods to distinguish PWS from AS require separate amplification and detection steps, and some methods cannot differentiate between deletional and non-deletional forms of these syndromes. We have developed a single-step, methylation-specific PCR, and quantitative melting curve analysis assay to identify methylation differences and copy number changes in PWS and AS. In this strategy, duplex amplification followed by melting curve analysis was performed to detect the maternally and paternally imprinted SNRPN alleles and LIS1 reference gene. To discriminate between deletional and non-deletional PWS and AS, relative peak height ratios of maternal or paternal SNRPN:LIS1 were determined, respectively. To validate the diagnostic accuracy of the analysis, methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification was performed on all PWS and AS samples. Complete concordance between the melting curve analysis and methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification results was observed for all PWS and AS samples. Methylation-specific PCR and quantitative melting curve analysis represents a simple, rapid, and robust alternative to methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification for the detection of and discrimination between deletional and non-deletional forms of PWS and AS. PMID:19661385

  16. Xp21 contiguous gene syndromes: Deletion quantitation with bivariate flow karyotyping allows mapping of patient breakpoints

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, E.R.B.; Towbin, J.A. ); Engh, G. van den; Trask, B.J. )

    1992-12-01

    Bivariate flow karyotyping was used to estimate the deletion sizes for a series of patients with Xp21 contiguous gene syndromes. The deletion estimates were used to develop an approximate scale for the genomic map in Xp21. The bivariate flow karyotype results were compared with clinical and molecular genetic information on the extent of the patients' deletions, and these various types of data were consistent. The resulting map spans >15 Mb, from the telomeric interval between DXS41 (99-6) and DXS68 (1-4) to a position centromeric to the ornithine transcarbamylase locus. The deletion sizing was considered to be accurate to [plus minus]1 Mb. The map provides information on the relative localization of genes and markers within this region. For example, the map suggests that the adrenal hypoplasia congenita and glycerol kinase genes are physically close to each other, are within 1-2 Mb of the telomeric end of the Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) gene, and are nearer to the DMD locus than to the more distal marker DXS28 (C7). Information of this type is useful in developing genomic strategies for positional cloning in Xp21. These investigations demonstrate that the DNA from patients with Xp21 contiguous gene syndromes can be valuable reagents, not only for ordering loci and markers but also for providing an approximate scale to the map of the Xp21 region surrounding DMD. 44 refs., 3 figs.

  17. Fulminant hepatic failure requiring liver transplantation in 22q13.3 deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bartsch, Oliver; Schneider, Eberhard; Damatova, Natalja; Weis, Roger; Tufano, Maria; Iorio, Raffaele; Ahmed, Alischo; Beyer, Vera; Zechner, Ulrich; Haaf, Thomas

    2010-08-01

    We report on a 4-year-old girl with severe developmental delay, absent speech, and chromosome 22q13.3 deletion (Phelan-McDermid syndrome), karyotype 46,XX.ish del(22)(q13.31qter)(ARSA-,N85A-,SHANK3-). At the age of 3 years, she needed an emergency liver transplantation because of fulminant hepatic failure, most likely caused by hyperacute autoimmune hepatitis triggered by a viral infection. This is the second report of a patient with 22q13.3 deletion and fulminant liver failure. By array-CGH we identified in this patient a 5.675 Mb terminal deletion (22q13.31 --> qter; including approximately 55 genes; from NUP50 to RABL2B) and in the previous patient a 1.535 Mb deletion (22q13.32 --> qter; including approximately 39 genes; from BRD1 to RABL2B). PIM3 is a prime candidate gene for the fulminant hepatic failure in the two patients; SHANK3/PROSAP2 could be another candidate gene. We recommend liver function tests and array-CGH in the management of patients with Phelan-McDermid syndrome. This patient showed a developmental catch-up following the liver transplantation, possibly suggesting that chronic hepatic disease could contribute to the developmental delay in a subset of these patients. PMID:20635403

  18. Deletions at the SOX10 Gene Locus Cause Waardenburg Syndrome Types 2 and 4

    PubMed Central

    Bondurand, Nadege ; Dastot-Le Moal, Florence ; Stanchina, Laure ; Collot, Nathalie ; Baral, Viviane ; Marlin, Sandrine ; Attie-Bitach, Tania ; Giurgea, Irina ; Skopinski, Laurent ; Reardon, William ; Toutain, Annick ; Sarda, Pierre ; Echaieb, Anis ; Lackmy-Port-Lis, Marilyn ; Touraine, Renaud ; Amiel, Jeanne ; Goossens, Michel ; Pingault, Veronique 

    2007-01-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is an auditory-pigmentary disorder that exhibits varying combinations of sensorineural hearing loss and abnormal pigmentation of the hair and skin. Depending on additional symptoms, WS is classified into four subtypes, WS1–WS4. Absence of additional features characterizes WS2. The association of facial dysmorphic features defines WS1 and WS3, whereas the association with Hirschsprung disease (aganglionic megacolon) characterizes WS4, also called “Waardenburg-Hirschsprung disease.” Mutations within the genes MITF and SNAI2 have been identified in WS2, whereas mutations of EDN3, EDNRB, and SOX10 have been observed in patients with WS4. However, not all cases are explained at the molecular level, which raises the possibility that other genes are involved or that some mutations within the known genes are not detected by commonly used genotyping methods. We used a combination of semiquantitative fluorescent multiplex polymerase chain reaction and fluorescent in situ hybridization to search for SOX10 heterozygous deletions. We describe the first characterization of SOX10 deletions in patients presenting with WS4. We also found SOX10 deletions in WS2 cases, making SOX10 a new gene of WS2. Interestingly, neurological phenotypes reminiscent of that observed in WS4 (PCWH syndrome [peripheral demyelinating neuropathy, central dysmyelinating leukodystrophy, WS, and Hirschsprung disease]) were observed in some WS2-affected patients with SOX10 deletions. This study further characterizes the molecular complexity and the close relationship that links the different subtypes of WS. PMID:17999358

  19. Deletions at the SOX10 gene locus cause Waardenburg syndrome types 2 and 4.

    PubMed

    Bondurand, Nadege; Dastot-Le Moal, Florence; Stanchina, Laure; Collot, Nathalie; Baral, Viviane; Marlin, Sandrine; Attie-Bitach, Tania; Giurgea, Irina; Skopinski, Laurent; Reardon, William; Toutain, Annick; Sarda, Pierre; Echaieb, Anis; Lackmy-Port-Lis, Marilyn; Touraine, Renaud; Amiel, Jeanne; Goossens, Michel; Pingault, Veronique

    2007-12-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is an auditory-pigmentary disorder that exhibits varying combinations of sensorineural hearing loss and abnormal pigmentation of the hair and skin. Depending on additional symptoms, WS is classified into four subtypes, WS1-WS4. Absence of additional features characterizes WS2. The association of facial dysmorphic features defines WS1 and WS3, whereas the association with Hirschsprung disease (aganglionic megacolon) characterizes WS4, also called "Waardenburg-Hirschsprung disease." Mutations within the genes MITF and SNAI2 have been identified in WS2, whereas mutations of EDN3, EDNRB, and SOX10 have been observed in patients with WS4. However, not all cases are explained at the molecular level, which raises the possibility that other genes are involved or that some mutations within the known genes are not detected by commonly used genotyping methods. We used a combination of semiquantitative fluorescent multiplex polymerase chain reaction and fluorescent in situ hybridization to search for SOX10 heterozygous deletions. We describe the first characterization of SOX10 deletions in patients presenting with WS4. We also found SOX10 deletions in WS2 cases, making SOX10 a new gene of WS2. Interestingly, neurological phenotypes reminiscent of that observed in WS4 (PCWH syndrome [peripheral demyelinating neuropathy, central dysmyelinating leukodystrophy, WS, and Hirschsprung disease]) were observed in some WS2-affected patients with SOX10 deletions. This study further characterizes the molecular complexity and the close relationship that links the different subtypes of WS. PMID:17999358

  20. Greig cephalopolysyndactyly syndrome: Altered phenotype of a contiguous gene syndrome by the presence of a chromosomal deletion

    SciTech Connect

    Hersh, J.H.; Williams, P.G.; Yen, F.F.

    1994-09-01

    Greig cephalopolysyndactyly syndrome (GCPS) is characterized by craniofacial anomalies, broad thumbs and halluces, polydactyly of the hands and feet, and variable syndactyly. Intellectual abilities are usually normal. Inheritance is in an autosomal dominant fashion. The disorder has been mapped to chromosome 7p13, suggesting that the condition represents a contiguous gene syndrome (CGS). A male infant presented with multiple congenital anomalies, including omphalocele, dysgenesis of the corpus callosum, hydrocephalus, esotropia, broad thumbs and halluces, syndactyly, polydactyly of one foot, hypotonia and developmental delay. A de novo interstitial deletion of chromosome 7p was detected, 46,XY,del(7)(p13p15). Although clinical findings in this case were reminiscent of GCPS, and the chromosomal abnormality included the region assigned to the candidate gene for this syndrome, additional physical abnormalities were present, as well as cognitive deficits. Some of these features have been previously described in patients with chromosomal deletions of 7p. The chromosomal abnormality in our case provides supportive evidence of the gene locus in GCPS, and that GCPS represents a new CGS. However, a larger deletion, extending beyond the limits of the gene, significantly altered the phenotype. Isolation of the gene responsible for GCPS, and identification of additional patients with chromosomal abnormalities in this region of chromosome 7, should help to provide more accurate genotype-phenotype correlations.

  1. The Neuropsychology of 22q11 Deletion Syndrome. A Neuropsychiatric Study of 100 Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niklasson, Lena; Gillberg, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to study the impact of ASD/ADHD on general intellectual ability and profile, executive functions and visuo-motor skills in children and adults with 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS). A secondary aim was to study if gender, age, heart disease, ASD, ADHD or ASD in combination with ADHD had an impact on general…

  2. The Neuropsychology of 22q11 Deletion Syndrome. A Neuropsychiatric Study of 100 Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niklasson, Lena; Gillberg, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to study the impact of ASD/ADHD on general intellectual ability and profile, executive functions and visuo-motor skills in children and adults with 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS). A secondary aim was to study if gender, age, heart disease, ASD, ADHD or ASD in combination with ADHD had an impact on general…

  3. A novel large deletion mutation of FERMT1 gene in a Chinese patient with Kindler syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ying; Bai, Jin-li; Liu, Xiao-yan; Qu, Yu-jin; Cao, Yan-yan; Wang, Jian-cai; Jin, Yu-wei; Wang, Hong; Song, Fang

    2015-11-01

    Kindler syndrome (KS; OMIM 173650) is a rare autosomal recessive skin disorder, which results in symptoms including blistering, epidermal atrophy, increased risk of cancer, and poor wound healing. The majority of mutations of the disease-determining gene (FERMT1 gene) are single nucleotide substitutions, including missense mutations, nonsense mutations, etc. Large deletion mutations are seldom reported. To determine the mutation in the FERMT1 gene associated with a 7-year-old Chinese patient who presented clinical manifestation of KS, we performed direct sequencing of all the exons of FERMT1 gene. For the exons 2-6 without amplicons, we analyzed the copy numbers using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) with specific primers. The deletion breakpoints were sublocalized and the range of deletion was confirmed by PCR and direct sequencing. In this study, we identified a new 17-kb deletion mutation spanning the introns 1-6 of FERMT1 gene in a Chinese patient with severe KS phenotypes. Her parents were carriers of the same mutation. Our study reported a newly identified large deletion mutation of FERMT1 gene involved in KS, which further enriched the mutation spectrum of the FERMT1 gene. PMID:26537214

  4. MLL2 mosaic mutations and intragenic deletion-duplications in patients with Kabuki syndrome.

    PubMed

    Banka, S; Howard, E; Bunstone, S; Chandler, K E; Kerr, B; Lachlan, K; McKee, S; Mehta, S G; Tavares, A L T; Tolmie, J; Donnai, D

    2013-05-01

    Kabuki syndrome (KS) is a rare multi-system disorder that can result in a variety of congenital malformations, typical dysmorphism and variable learning disability. It is caused by MLL2 point mutations in the majority of the cases and, rarely by deletions involving KDM6A. Nearly one third of cases remain unsolved. Here, we expand the known genetic basis of KS by presenting five typical patients with the condition, all of whom have novel MLL2 mutation types- two patients with mosaic small deletions, one with a mosaic whole-gene deletion, one with a multi-exon deletion and one with an intragenic multi-exon duplication. We recommend MLL2 dosage studies for all patients with typical KS, where traditional Sanger sequencing fails to identify mutations. The prevalence of such MLL2 mutations in KS may be comparable with deletions involving KDM6A. These findings may be helpful in understanding the mutational mechanism of MLL2 and the disease mechanism of KS. PMID:22901312

  5. A novel large deletion mutation of FERMT1 gene in a Chinese patient with Kindler syndrome

    PubMed Central

    GAO, Ying; BAI, Jin-li; LIU, Xiao-yan; QU, Yu-jin; CAO, Yan-yan; WANG, Jian-cai; JIN, Yu-wei; WANG, Hong; SONG, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Kindler syndrome (KS; OMIM 173650) is a rare autosomal recessive skin disorder, which results in symptoms including blistering, epidermal atrophy, increased risk of cancer, and poor wound healing. The majority of mutations of the disease-determining gene (FERMT1 gene) are single nucleotide substitutions, including missense mutations, nonsense mutations, etc. Large deletion mutations are seldom reported. To determine the mutation in the FERMT1 gene associated with a 7-year-old Chinese patient who presented clinical manifestation of KS, we performed direct sequencing of all the exons of FERMT1 gene. For the exons 2–6 without amplicons, we analyzed the copy numbers using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) with specific primers. The deletion breakpoints were sublocalized and the range of deletion was confirmed by PCR and direct sequencing. In this study, we identified a new 17-kb deletion mutation spanning the introns 1–6 of FERMT1 gene in a Chinese patient with severe KS phenotypes. Her parents were carriers of the same mutation. Our study reported a newly identified large deletion mutation of FERMT1 gene involved in KS, which further enriched the mutation spectrum of the FERMT1 gene. PMID:26537214

  6. Interstitial deletion of 11(p11.2p12): A newly described contiguous gene deletion syndrome involving the gene for hereditary multiple exostoses

    SciTech Connect

    Potocki, L.; Shaffer, L.G.

    1996-03-29

    Individuals with deletions of the proximal portion of the short arm of chromosome 11 share many manifestations including mental retardation, biparietal foramina, minor facial anomalies, and multiple cartilaginous exostoses. The finding of multiple exostoses in these patients is remarkable as the disorder hereditary multiple exostoses, which is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner, has recently been mapped by linkage to three regions, including proximal 11p. We report the clinical and molecular findings in an additional patient with an 11(p11.2p12) deletion. Cytogenetic and molecular analysis demonstrated a de novo, paternally derived deletion for markers which have been shown to be tightly linked to the 11p locus (EXT2). These data support the location of EXT2 within this region and also provide information regarding the ordering of polymorphic markers on 11p. Deletion 11(p11.2p12) is a rare, yet specific, deletion syndrome involving the EXT2 locus, a gene for parietal foramina, and a mental retardation locus, and therefore can be classified as a contiguous gene deletion syndrome. 24 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Genetic contributions to visuospatial cognition in Williams syndrome: insights from two contrasting partial deletion patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Williams syndrome (WS) is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder arising from a hemizygotic deletion of approximately 27 genes on chromosome 7, at locus 7q11.23. WS is characterised by an uneven cognitive profile, with serious deficits in visuospatial tasks in comparison to relatively proficient performance in some other cognitive domains such as language and face processing. Individuals with partial genetic deletions within the WS critical region (WSCR) have provided insights into the contribution of specific genes to this complex phenotype. However, the combinatorial effects of different genes remain elusive. Methods We report on visuospatial cognition in two individuals with contrasting partial deletions in the WSCR: one female (HR), aged 11 years 9 months, with haploinsufficiency for 24 of the WS genes (up to GTF2IRD1), and one male (JB), aged 14 years 2 months, with the three most telomeric genes within the WSCR deleted, or partially deleted. Results Our in-depth phenotyping of the visuospatial domain from table-top psychometric, and small- and large-scale experimental tasks reveal a profile in HR in line with typically developing controls, albeit with some atypical features. These data are contrasted with patient JB’s atypical profile of strengths and weaknesses across the visuospatial domain, as well as with more substantial visuospatial deficits in individuals with the full WS deletion. Conclusions Our findings point to the contribution of specific genes to spatial processing difficulties associated with WS, highlighting the multifaceted nature of spatial cognition and the divergent effects of genetic deletions within the WSCR on different components of visuospatial ability. The importance of general transcription factors at the telomeric end of the WSCR, and their combinatorial effects on the WS visuospatial phenotype are also discussed. PMID:25057328

  8. Large contiguous gene deletions in Sjögren-Larsson syndrome.

    PubMed

    Engelstad, Holly; Carney, Gael; S'aulis, Dana; Rise, Janae; Sanger, Warren G; Rudd, M Katharine; Richard, Gabriele; Carr, Christopher W; Abdul-Rahman, Omar A; Rizzo, William B

    2011-11-01

    Sjögren-Larsson syndrome (SLS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by ichthyosis, mental retardation, spasticity and mutations in the ALDH3A2 gene for fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase, an enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of fatty aldehyde to fatty acid. More than 70 mutations have been identified in SLS patients, including small deletions or insertions, missense mutations, splicing defects and complex nucleotide changes. We now describe 2 SLS patients whose disease is caused by large contiguous gene deletions of the ALDH3A2 locus on 17p11.2. The deletions were defined using long distance inverse PCR and microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization. A 24-year-old SLS female was homozygous for a 352-kb deletion involving ALDH3A2 and 4 contiguous genes including ALDH3A1, which codes for the major soluble protein in cornea. Although lacking corneal disease, she showed severe symptoms of SLS with uncommon deterioration in oral motor function and loss of ambulation. The other 19-month-old female patient was a compound heterozygote for a 1.44-Mb contiguous gene deletion and a missense mutation (c.407C>T, P136L) in ALDH3A2. These studies suggest that large gene deletions may account for up to 5% of the mutant alleles in SLS. Geneticists should consider the possibility of compound heterozygosity for large deletions in patients with SLS and other inborn errors of metabolism, which has implications for carrier testing and prenatal diagnosis. PMID:21684788

  9. Duplication 5q and deletion 9p due to a t(5;9)(q34;p23) in 2 cousins with features of Hunter-McAlpine syndrome and hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Vásquez-Velásquez, A I; García-Castillo, H A; González-Mercado, M G; Dávalos, I P; Raca, G; Xu, X; Dwyer, E; Rivera, H

    2011-01-01

    We report on 2 similarly affected cousins with a compound imbalance resulting from a familial t(5;9)(q34;p23) and entailing both an ?17-Mb 5q terminal duplication and an ?12-Mb 9p terminal deletion as determined by G-banding, subtelomere FISH, and aCGH. The proband's karyotype was 46,XX,der(9)t(5;9)(q34;p23)mat.ish der(9)t(5;9)(q34;p23)(9pter-,5qter+).arr 5q34q35(163,328,000-180,629,000)×3, 9p24p23(194,000-12,664,000)×1. Her cousin had the same unbalanced karyotype inherited from his father. The clinical phenotype mainly consists of a distinct craniofacial dysmorphism featuring microcephaly, flat facies, down slanting palpebral fissures, small flat nose, long philtrum, and small mouth with thin upper lip. Additional remarkable findings were craniosynostosis of several sutures, craniolacunia and preaxial polydactyly in the proband and hypothyroidism in both subjects. The observed clinical constellation generally fits the phenotypic spectrum of the 5q distal duplication syndrome (known also as Hunter-McAlpine syndrome), except for the thyroid insufficiency which can likely be ascribed to the concurrent 9p deletion, as at least 4 other 9pter monosomic patients without chromosome 5 involvement had this hormonal disorder. The present observation further confirms the etiology of the HMS phenotype from gain of the 5q35?qter region, expands the clinical pictures of partial trisomy 5q and monosomy 9p, and provides a comprehensive list of 160 patients with 5q distal duplication. PMID:21063078

  10. Renal failure associated with APECED and terminal 4q deletion: evidence of autoimmune nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Al-Owain, Mohammed; Kaya, Namik; Al-Zaidan, Hamad; Bin Hussain, Ibrahim; Al-Manea, Hadeel; Al-Hindi, Hindi; Kennedy, Shelley; Iqbal, M Anwar; Al-Mojalli, Hamad; Al-Bakheet, Albandary; Puel, Anne; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Al-Muhsen, Saleh

    2010-01-01

    Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the autoimmune regulator gene (AIRE). Terminal 4q deletion is also a rare cytogenetic abnormality that causes a variable syndrome of dysmorphic features, mental retardation, growth retardation, and heart and limb defects. We report a 12-year-old Saudi boy with mucocutaneous candidiasis, hypoparathyroidism, and adrenocortical failure consistent with APECED. In addition, he has dysmorphic facial features, growth retardation, and severe global developmental delay. Patient had late development of chronic renal failure. The blastogenesis revealed depressed lymphocytes' response to Candida albicans at 38% when compared to control. Chromosome analysis of the patient revealed 46,XY,del(4)(q33). FISH using a 4p/4q subtelomere DNA probe assay confirmed the deletion of qter subtelomere on chromosome 4. Parental chromosomes were normal. The deleted array was further defined using array CGH. AIRE full gene sequencing revealed a homozygous mutation namely 845_846insC. Renal biopsy revealed chronic interstitial nephritis with advanced fibrosis. In addition, there was mesangial deposition of C3, C1q, and IgM. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first paper showing evidence of autoimmune nephropathy by renal immunofluorescence in a patient with APECED and terminal 4q deletion. PMID:21197407

  11. Chromosome 1p36 deletions: the clinical phenotype and molecular characterization of a common newly delineated syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Shapira, S K; McCaskill, C; Northrup, H; Spikes, A S; Elder, F F; Sutton, V R; Korenberg, J R; Greenberg, F; Shaffer, L G

    1997-01-01

    Deletions of the distal short arm of chromosome 1 (1p36) represent a common, newly delineated deletion syndrome, characterized by moderate to severe psychomotor retardation, seizures, growth delay, and dysmorphic features. Previous cytogenetic underascertainment of this chromosomal deletion has made it difficult to characterize the clinical and molecular aspects of the syndrome. Recent advances in cytogenetic technology, particularly FISH, have greatly improved the ability to identify 1p36 deletions and have allowed a clearer definition of the clinical phenotype and molecular characteristics of this syndrome. We have identified 14 patients with chromosome 1p36 deletions and have assessed the frequency of each phenotypic feature and clinical manifestation in the 13 patients with pure 1p36 deletions. The physical extent and parental origin of each deletion were determined by use of FISH probes on cytogenetic preparations and by analysis of polymorphic DNA markers in the patients and their available parents. Clinical examinations revealed that the most common features and medical problems in patients with this deletion syndrome include large anterior fontanelle (100%), motor delay/hypotonia (92%), moderate to severe mental retardation (92%), growth delay (85%), pointed chin (80%), eye/vision problems (75%), seizures (72%), flat nasal bridge (65%), clinodactyly and/or short fifth finger(s) (64%), low-set ear(s) (59%), ear asymmetry (57%), hearing deficits (56%), abusive behavior (56%), thickened ear helices (53%), and deep-set eyes (50%). FISH and DNA polymorphism analysis showed that there is no uniform region of deletion but, rather, a spectrum of different deletion sizes with a common minimal region of deletion overlap. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:9326330

  12. Alagille syndrome with interstitial 20p deletion derived from maternal ins(7;20)

    SciTech Connect

    Pi-Hsien Li; San-Ging Shu; Ching-Shiang Chi

    1996-06-28

    We present a 6-year-old Chinese boy with Alagille syndrome and an interstitial 20p deletion, with a karyotype of 46,XY,der(20)dir ins(7;20)(q11.23;p11.23p12.2 or p12.2p13)mat. He had a peculiar face and suffered from congenital heart disease, growth retardation, severe cholestasis, hepatosplenomegaly, and impaired renal function. The karyotype of his mother showed a balanced translocation, 46,XX,dir ins(7;20)(q11.23; p11.23p12.2 or p12.2p13), and her phenotype was normal. His dead elder brother was highly suspected as another victim of Alagille syndrome. The findings in the present family suggested that if Alagille syndrome is a single gene defect, the putative gene responsible for the syndrome would not be located at the insertion breakpoints but located within the deletion extent. 18 refs., 5 figs.

  13. CHILD syndrome caused by a deletion of exons 6-8 of the NSDHL gene.

    PubMed

    Kim, C A; Konig, A; Bertola, D R; Albano, L M J; Gattás, G J F; Bornholdt, D; Leveleki, L; Happle, R; Grzeschik, K-H

    2005-01-01

    The X-linked dominant CHILD syndrome (congenital hemidysplasia with ichthyosiform nevus and limb defects) is a rare developmental defect characterized by a strictly lateralized inflammatory nevus. In the majority of cases, the right side of the body is affected. Ipsilateral hypoplastic lesions may involve the brain, skeletal structures, lungs, heart or kidneys. We describe a case of CHILD syndrome involving the left side of the body. Absence of metacarpal, metatarsal and phalangeal bones of the left hand and foot resulted in oligodactyly, with only 3 fingers and 1 toe. An ipsilateral inflammatory epidermal nevus with hyperkeratosis, parakeratosis, acanthosis and perivascular lymphohistiocytic infiltrate was strictly confined to the left half of the patient's body. The phenotype was shown to be associated with a deletion of exons 6-8 of the X-linked NSDHL gene, confirming that CHILD syndrome is due to loss of function of an enzyme involved in cholesterol biosynthesis. PMID:16088165

  14. Identification of Intragenic Deletions and Duplication in the FLCN Gene in Birt-Hogg-Dubé Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Benhammou, Jihane N.; Vocke, Cathy D.; Santani, Avni; Schmidt, Laura S.; Baba, Masaya; Seyama, Kuniaki; Wu, Xiaolin; Korolevich, Susana; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Stolle, Catherine A.; Linehan, W. Marston

    2011-01-01

    Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome(BHDS), caused by germline mutations in the folliculin (FLCN) gene, predisposes individuals to develop fibrofolliculomas, pulmonary cysts, spontaneous pneumothoraces and kidney cancer. The FLCN mutation detection rate by bidirectional DNA sequencing in the National Cancer Institute BHDS cohort was 88%. To determine if germline FLCN intragenic deletions/duplications were responsible for BHDS in families lacking FLCN sequence alterations, 23 individuals from 15 unrelated families with clinically-confirmed BHDS but no sequence variations were analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR (RQ-PCR) using primers for all 14 exons. Multiplex Ligation-Dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA) Assay and array-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) were utilized to confirm and fine map the rearrangements. Long Range PCR followed by DNA sequencing was used to define the breakpoints. We identified 6 unique intragenic deletions in 9 patients from 6 different BHDS families including four involving exon 1, one that spanned exons 2–5, and one that encompassed exons 7–14 of FLCN. Four of the six deletion breakpoints were mapped, revealing deletions ranging from 5688 to 9189bp. In addition, one 1341bp duplication, which included exons 10 and 11, was identified and mapped. This report confirms that large intragenic FLCN deletions can cause BHDS and documents the first large intragenic FLCN duplication in a BHDS patient. Additionally, we identified a deletion “hot spot” in the 5?-noncoding-exon 1 region that contains the putative FLCN promoter based on a luciferase reporter assay. RQ-PCR, MLPA and aCGH may be used for clinical molecular diagnosis of BHDS in patients who are FLCN mutation-negative by DNA sequencing. PMID:21412933

  15. Identification of intragenic deletions and duplication in the FLCN gene in Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome.

    PubMed

    Benhammou, Jihane N; Vocke, Cathy D; Santani, Avni; Schmidt, Laura S; Baba, Masaya; Seyama, Kuniaki; Wu, Xiaolin; Korolevich, Susana; Nathanson, Katherine L; Stolle, Catherine A; Linehan, W Marston

    2011-06-01

    Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHDS), caused by germline mutations in the folliculin (FLCN) gene, predisposes individuals to develop fibrofolliculomas, pulmonary cysts, spontaneous pneumothoraces, and kidney cancer. The FLCN mutation detection rate by bidirectional DNA sequencing in the National Cancer Institute BHDS cohort was 88%. To determine if germline FLCN intragenic deletions/duplications were responsible for BHDS in families lacking FLCN sequence alterations, 23 individuals from 15 unrelated families with clinically confirmed BHDS but no sequence variations were analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR (RQ-PCR) using primers for all 14 exons. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) assay and array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) were utilized to confirm and fine map the rearrangements. Long-range PCR followed by DNA sequencing was used to define the breakpoints. We identified six unique intragenic deletions in nine patients from six different BHDS families including four involving exon 1, one that spanned exons 2-5, and one that encompassed exons 7-14 of FLCN. Four of the six deletion breakpoints were mapped, revealing deletions ranging from 5688 to 9189 bp. In addition, one 1341 bp duplication, which included exons 10 and 11, was identified and mapped. This report confirms that large intragenic FLCN deletions can cause BHDS and documents the first large intragenic FLCN duplication in a BHDS patient. Additionally, we identified a deletion "hot spot" in the 5'-noncoding-exon 1 region that contains the putative FLCN promoter based on a luciferase reporter assay. RQ-PCR, MLPA and aCGH may be used for clinical molecular diagnosis of BHDS in patients who are FLCN mutation-negative by DNA sequencing. PMID:21412933

  16. Deletion of locus D15S113 in a mother and son without features of Angelman syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Michaelis, R.C.; Tarleton, J.C.; Donlon, T.A.; Simensen, R.J.

    1994-09-01

    Deletions of the proximal long arm of chromosome 15 result in Angelman syndrome when inherited from the mother and Prader-Willi syndrome when inherited from the father. The minimal critical deletion region for Angelman syndrome has been reported to include D15S74 (B1.5), D15S10 (TD3-21), and D15S113 (LS6-1). We report a mother and son who have deletions that include D15S113 but who do not have features of Angelman syndrome. D.H. is a 10-year-old white male referred for genetic evaluation due to mental retardation. He has mild to moderate mental retardation and minor dysmorphic features, including downslanting palpebral fissures, prominent nose, broad forehead, small chin, midface hypoplasia, and large ears. His mother (B.S.) has slightly downslanting palpebral fissures and a borderline intellectual deficit. Neither individual has the seizures, excessive laughter, hand clapping, ataxia or facial dysmorphism which are characteristic of Angelman syndrome. The linear order of probes mapping to 15q11-q13 is 15cen-D15S11-D15S13-D15S10-D15S113-GABRB3-D15S12-tel. The proximal border of the deletion in our patients lies between D15S10 and D15S113. The fact that these two individuals do not have Angelman syndrome, despite deletion of D15S113, suggests that the Angelman syndrome critical deletion region should be further refined to exclude the D15S113 locus. In addition, the findings of a more severe intellectual impairment in the son than in the mother suggests that the region immediately telomeric to the critical deletion region for Angelman syndrome may contain imprintable genes that influence intellectual function.

  17. A de novo deletion in X 27-28 spans at least 3 megabases and results in fragile X syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Lachiewicz, A.; Rao, K.; Aylsworth, A.; Richie, R.; Schwartz, C.; Tarleton, J. ||

    1994-07-15

    A 2-year-old boy with Martin-Bell syndrome was referred for molecular testing and found to have a large deletion of FMRI. His mother was found to have two FMR-1 alleles in the normal range for CGG repeats. DNA probes located both proximal and distal to FRAXA were used to delineate the approximation location of the deletion endpoints. Proximal to the fragile site, DXS312 (pX135) was absent but DXS98 (4D8) was present. Distal to the fragile site, DXS296 (VK21) was absent but DXS304 (U6.2) was present. Our patient does not appear to have clinical findings other than those typically associated with fragile X syndrome suggesting that the deletion does not remove other contiguous genes, e.g., IDS. The deletion in this patient is larger than the patient reported by Gedeon et al., in whom approximately 2.5 megabases were estimated to be deleted. Using the physical map of Schlessinger et al., the physical extent of the deletion can be estimated to be at least 3 megabases. This patient may be useful in physical mapping of the chromosomal region near FMR-1. Continued long-term evaluation of this patient may uncover clinical findings suggestive that the deletion removes other genes near to FMR-1 or, alternatively, no findings atypical of the fragile X syndrome suggesting that no other genes lie in the deletion interval.

  18. Deletion at chromosome 16p13. 3 as a cause of Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome: Clinical aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Hennekam, R.C.M.; Tilanus, M.; Boogaard, M.J.H. van den ); Hamel, B.C.J.; Voshart-van Heeren, H.; Mariman, E.C.M.; Beersum, S.E.C. van ); Breuning, M.H. )

    1993-02-01

    In the accompanying paper, a chromosomal localization of the Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome by cytogenetic investigations with fluorescence in situ hybridization techniques at chromosome 16p13.3 is described. The authors investigated 19 of these patients and their parents (a) to ascertain the parental origin of the chromosome with the deletion in families where such a deletion was detected, (b) to disclose whether uniparental disomy plays a role in etiology, and (c) to compare clinical features in patients with a deletion to those in individuals in whom deletions were not detectable. Molecular studies showed a copy of chromosome 16 from each parent in all 19 patients. Uniparental disomy was also excluded for five other chromosome arms known to be imprinted in mice. None of the probes used for determining the origin of the deleted chromosome proved to be informative. The clinical features were essentially the same in patients with and without visible deletion, with a possible exception for the incidence of microcephaly, angulation of thumbs and halluces, and partial duplication of the halluces. A small deletion at 16p13.3 may be found in some patients with Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome. Cytogenetically undetectable deletions, point mutations, mosaicism, heterogeneity, or phenocopy by a nongenetic cause are the most probable explanations for the absence of cytogenetic or molecular abnormalities in other patients with Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome. 26 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs.

  19. Social Cognition in Williams Syndrome: Genotype/Phenotype Insights from Partial Deletion Patients

    PubMed Central

    Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Broadbent, Hannah; Farran, Emily K.; Longhi, Elena; D’Souza, Dean; Metcalfe, Kay; Tassabehji, May; Wu, Rachel; Senju, Atsushi; Happé, Francesca; Turnpenny, Peter; Sansbury, Francis

    2012-01-01

    Identifying genotype/phenotype relations in human social cognition has been enhanced by the study of Williams syndrome (WS). Indeed, individuals with WS present with a particularly strong social drive, and researchers have sought to link deleted genes in the WS critical region (WSCR) of chromosome 7q11.23 to this unusual social profile. In this paper, we provide details of two case studies of children with partial genetic deletions in the WSCR: an 11-year-old female with a deletion of 24 of the 28 WS genes, and a 14-year-old male who presents with the opposite profile, i.e., the deletion of only four genes at the telomeric end of the WSCR. We tested these two children on a large battery of standardized and experimental social perception and social cognition tasks – both implicit and explicit – as well as standardized social questionnaires and general psychometric measures. Our findings reveal a partial WS socio-cognitive profile in the female, contrasted with a more autistic-like profile in the male. We discuss the implications of these findings for genotype/phenotype relations, as well as the advantages and limitations of animal models and of case study approaches. PMID:22661963

  20. Social cognition in williams syndrome: genotype/phenotype insights from partial deletion patients.

    PubMed

    Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Broadbent, Hannah; Farran, Emily K; Longhi, Elena; D'Souza, Dean; Metcalfe, Kay; Tassabehji, May; Wu, Rachel; Senju, Atsushi; Happé, Francesca; Turnpenny, Peter; Sansbury, Francis

    2012-01-01

    Identifying genotype/phenotype relations in human social cognition has been enhanced by the study of Williams syndrome (WS). Indeed, individuals with WS present with a particularly strong social drive, and researchers have sought to link deleted genes in the WS critical region (WSCR) of chromosome 7q11.23 to this unusual social profile. In this paper, we provide details of two case studies of children with partial genetic deletions in the WSCR: an 11-year-old female with a deletion of 24 of the 28 WS genes, and a 14-year-old male who presents with the opposite profile, i.e., the deletion of only four genes at the telomeric end of the WSCR. We tested these two children on a large battery of standardized and experimental social perception and social cognition tasks - both implicit and explicit - as well as standardized social questionnaires and general psychometric measures. Our findings reveal a partial WS socio-cognitive profile in the female, contrasted with a more autistic-like profile in the male. We discuss the implications of these findings for genotype/phenotype relations, as well as the advantages and limitations of animal models and of case study approaches. PMID:22661963

  1. Eye Gaze During Face Processing in Children and Adolescents with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaser, Bronwyn; Debbane, Martin; Ottet, Marie-Christine; Vuilleumier, Patrik; Zesiger, Pascal; Antonarakis, Stylianos E.; Eliez, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a neurogenetic syndrome with high risk for the development of psychiatric disorder. There is interest in identifying reliable markers for measuring and monitoring socio-emotional impairments in 22q11DS during development. The current study investigated eye gaze as a potential marker during a…

  2. Memory in Intellectually Matched Groups of Young Participants with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome and Those with Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kravariti, Eugenia; Jacobson, Clare; Morris, Robin; Frangou, Sophia; Murray, Robin M.; Tsakanikos, Elias; Habel, Alex; Shearer, Jo

    2010-01-01

    The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22qDS) and schizophrenia have genetic and neuropsychological similarities, but are likely to differ in memory profile. Confirming differences in memory function between the two disorders, and identifying their genetic determinants, can help to define genetic subtypes in both syndromes, identify genetic risk factors…

  3. Overlapping Numerical Cognition Impairments in Children with Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion or Turner Syndromes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, T. J.; Takarae, Y.; DeBoer, T.; McDonald-McGinn, D. M.; Zackai, E. H.; Ross, J. L.

    2008-01-01

    Children with one of two genetic disorders (chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome and Turner syndrome) as well typically developing controls, participated in three cognitive processing experiments. Two experiments were designed to test cognitive processes involved in basic aspects numerical cognition. The third was a test of simple manual motor…

  4. Memory in Intellectually Matched Groups of Young Participants with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome and Those with Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kravariti, Eugenia; Jacobson, Clare; Morris, Robin; Frangou, Sophia; Murray, Robin M.; Tsakanikos, Elias; Habel, Alex; Shearer, Jo

    2010-01-01

    The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22qDS) and schizophrenia have genetic and neuropsychological similarities, but are likely to differ in memory profile. Confirming differences in memory function between the two disorders, and identifying their genetic determinants, can help to define genetic subtypes in both syndromes, identify genetic risk factors…

  5. Overlapping Numerical Cognition Impairments in Children with Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion or Turner Syndromes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, T. J.; Takarae, Y.; DeBoer, T.; McDonald-McGinn, D. M.; Zackai, E. H.; Ross, J. L.

    2008-01-01

    Children with one of two genetic disorders (chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome and Turner syndrome) as well typically developing controls, participated in three cognitive processing experiments. Two experiments were designed to test cognitive processes involved in basic aspects numerical cognition. The third was a test of simple manual motor…

  6. Comparison of facial features of DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) due to deletion 10p13-10pter with DGS due to 22q11 deletion

    SciTech Connect

    Goodship, J.; Lynch, S.; Brown, J.

    1994-09-01

    DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) is a congenital anomaly consisting of cardiac defects, aplasia or hypoplasia of the thymus and parathroid glands, and dysmorphic facial features. The majority of DGS cases have a submicroscopic deletion within chromosome 22q11. However there have been a number of reports of DGS in association with other chromosomal abnormalities including four cases with chromosome 10p deletions. We describe a further 10p deletion case and suggest that the facial features in children with DGS due to deletions of 10p are different from those associated with chromosome 22 deletions. The propositus was born at 39 weeks gestation to unrelated caucasian parents, birth weight 2580g (10th centile) and was noted to be dysmorphic and cyanosed shortly after birth. The main dysmorphic facial features were a broad nasal bridge with very short palpebral fissures. Echocardiography revealed a large subsortic VSD and overriding aorta. She had a low ionised calcium and low parathroid hormone level. T cell subsets and PHA response were normal. Abdominal ultrasound showed duplex kidneys and on further investigation she was found to have reflux and raised plasma creatinine. She had an anteriorly placed anus. Her karyotype was 46,XX,-10,+der(10)t(3;10)(p23;p13)mat. The dysmorphic facial features in this baby are strikingly similar to those noted by Bridgeman and Butler in child with DGS as the result of a 10p deletion and distinct from the face seen in children with DiGeorge syndrome resulting from interstitial chromosome 22 deletions.

  7. Chromosome 18q deletion syndrome with autoimmune diabetes mellitus: putative genomic loci for autoimmunity and immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Hogendorf, Anna; Lipska-Zietkiewicz, Beata S; Szadkowska, Agnieszka; Borowiec, Maciej; Koczkowska, Magdalena; Trzonkowski, Piotr; Drozdz, Izabela; Wyka, Krystyna; Limon, Janusz; Mlynarski, Wojciech

    2016-03-01

    A girl with 18q deletion syndrome was diagnosed with autoimmune diabetes mellitus and Hashimoto's thyroiditis at the age of 3 yr. In addition, the girl suffered from recurrent infections due to immunoglobulin A and IgG4 deficiency. She was also found to have CD3+CD4+FoxP3+, CD3+CD4+FoxP3+CD25+, and CD3+CD4+CD25+CD127 regulatory T cells deficiency. The exceptional coincidence of the two autoimmune disorders occurring at an early age, and associated with immune deficiency, implies that genes located on deleted 19.4 Mbp region at 18q21.32-q23 (chr18:58,660,699-78,012,870) might play a role in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity leading to ? cell destruction and diabetes. PMID:25403779

  8. A large homozygous deletion in the SAMHD1 gene causes atypical Aicardi-Goutiéres syndrome associated with mtDNA deletions.

    PubMed

    Leshinsky-Silver, Esther; Malinger, Gustavo; Ben-Sira, Liat; Kidron, Dvora; Cohen, Sarit; Inbar, Shani; Bezaleli, Tali; Levine, Arie; Vinkler, Chana; Lev, Dorit; Lerman-Sagie, Tally

    2011-03-01

    Aicardi-Goutiéres syndrome (AGS) is a genetic neurodegenerative disorder with clinical symptoms mimicking a congenital viral infection. Five causative genes have been described: three prime repair exonuclease1 (TREX1), ribonucleases H2A, B and C, and most recently SAM domain and HD domain 1 (SAMHD1). We performed a detailed clinical and molecular characterization of a family with autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder showing white matter destruction and calcifications, presenting in utero and associated with multiple mtDNA deletions. A muscle biopsy was normal and did not show any evidence of respiratory chain dysfunction. Southern blot analysis of tissue from a living child and affected fetuses demonstrated multiple mtDNA deletions. Molecular analysis of genes involved in mtDNA synthesis and maintenance (POLG?, POLG?, Twinkle, ANT1, TK2, SUCLA1 and DGOUK) revealed normal sequences. Sequencing of TREX1 and ribonucleases H2A, B and C failed to reveal any mutations. Whole-genome homozygosity mapping revealed a candidate region containing the SAMHD1 gene. Sequencing of the gene in the affected child and two affected fetuses revealed a large deletion (9 kb), spanning the promoter, exon1 and intron 1. The parents were found to be heterozygous for this deletion. The identification of a homozygous large deletion in the SAMHD1 gene causing atypical AGS with multiple mtDNA deletions may add information regarding the involvement of mitochondria in self-activation of innate immunity by cell intrinsic components. PMID:21102625

  9. Large deletions encompassing the TCOF1 and CAMK2A genes are responsible for Treacher Collins syndrome with intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Marie; Collet, Corinne; Verloes, Alain; Lambert, Laetitia; Herlin, Christian; Blanchet, Catherine; Sanchez, Elodie; Drunat, Séverine; Vigneron, Jacqueline; Laplanche, Jean-Louis; Puechberty, Jacques; Sarda, Pierre; Geneviève, David

    2014-01-01

    Mandibulofacial dysostosis is part of a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders of craniofacial development, which lead to malar and mandibular hypoplasia. Treacher Collins syndrome is the major cause of mandibulofacial dysostosis and is due to mutations in the TCOF1 gene. Usually patients with Treacher Collins syndrome do not present with intellectual disability. Recently, the EFTUD2 gene was identified in patients with mandibulofacial dysostosis associated with microcephaly, intellectual disability and esophageal atresia. We report on two patients presenting with mandibulofacial dysostosis characteristic of Treacher Collins syndrome, but associated with unexpected intellectual disability, due to a large deletion encompassing several genes including the TCOF1 gene. We discuss the involvement of the other deleted genes such as CAMK2A or SLC6A7 in the cognitive development delay of the patients reported, and we propose the systematic investigation for 5q32 deletion when intellectual disability is associated with Treacher Collins syndrome. PMID:23695276

  10. Large deletions encompassing the TCOF1 and CAMK2A genes are responsible for Treacher Collins syndrome with intellectual disability

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Marie; Collet, Corinne; Verloes, Alain; Lambert, Laetitia; Herlin, Christian; Blanchet, Catherine; Sanchez, Elodie; Drunat, Séverine; Vigneron, Jacqueline; Laplanche, Jean-Louis; Puechberty, Jacques; Sarda, Pierre; Geneviève, David

    2014-01-01

    Mandibulofacial dysostosis is part of a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders of craniofacial development, which lead to malar and mandibular hypoplasia. Treacher Collins syndrome is the major cause of mandibulofacial dysostosis and is due to mutations in the TCOF1 gene. Usually patients with Treacher Collins syndrome do not present with intellectual disability. Recently, the EFTUD2 gene was identified in patients with mandibulofacial dysostosis associated with microcephaly, intellectual disability and esophageal atresia. We report on two patients presenting with mandibulofacial dysostosis characteristic of Treacher Collins syndrome, but associated with unexpected intellectual disability, due to a large deletion encompassing several genes including the TCOF1 gene. We discuss the involvement of the other deleted genes such as CAMK2A or SLC6A7 in the cognitive development delay of the patients reported, and we propose the systematic investigation for 5q32 deletion when intellectual disability is associated with Treacher Collins syndrome. PMID:23695276

  11. Behavioral and Psychiatric Phenotypes in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tang, Kerri L; Antshel, Kevin M; Fremont, Wanda P; Kates, Wendy R

    2015-10-01

    22q11.2 Deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is a chromosomal microdeletion that affects approximately 40 to 50 genes and affects various organs and systems throughout the body. Detection is typically achieved by fluorescence in situ hybridization after diagnosis of one of the major features of the deletion or via chromosomal microarray or noninvasive prenatal testing. The physical phenotype can include congenital heart defects, palatal and pharyngeal anomalies, hypocalcemia/hypoparathyroidism, skeletal abnormalities, and cranial/brain anomalies, although prevalence rates of all these features are variable. Cognitive function is impaired to some degree in most individuals, with prevalence rates of greater than 90% for motor/speech delays and learning disabilities. Attention, executive function, working memory, visual-spatial abilities, motor skills, and social cognition/social skills are affected. The deletion is also associated with an increased risk for behavioral disorders and psychiatric illness. The early onset of psychiatric symptoms common to 22q11.2DS disrupts the development and quality of life of individuals with the syndrome and is also a potential risk factor for later development of a psychotic disorder. This review discusses prevalence, phenotypic features, and management of psychiatric disorders commonly diagnosed in children and adolescents with 22q11.2DS, including autism spectrum disorders, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, anxiety disorders, mood disorders, and schizophrenia/psychotic disorders. Guidelines for the clinical assessment and management of psychiatric disorders in youth with this syndrome are provided, as are treatment guidelines for the use of psychiatric medications. PMID:26372046

  12. Contiguous ABCD1 DXS1357E deletion syndrome: report of an autopsy case.

    PubMed

    Iwasa, Mitsuaki; Yamagata, Takanori; Mizuguchi, Masashi; Itoh, Masayuki; Matsumoto, Ayumi; Hironaka, Mitsugu; Honda, Ayako; Momoi, Mariko Y; Shimozawa, Nobuyuki

    2013-06-01

    Contiguous ABCD1 DXS1357E deletion syndrome (CADDS) is a contiguous deletion syndrome involving the ABCD1 and DXS1357E/BAP31 genes on Xq28. Although ABCD1 is responsible for X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD), its phenotype differs from that of CADDS, which manifests with many features of Zellweger syndrome (ZS), including severe growth and developmental retardation, liver dysfunction, cholestasis and early infantile death. We report here the fourth case of CADDS, in which a boy had dysmorphic features, including a flat orbital edge, hypoplastic nose, micrognathia, inguinal hernia, micropenis, cryptorchidism and club feet, all of which are shared by ZS. The patient achieved no developmental milestones and died of pneumonia at 8 months. Biochemical studies demonstrated abnormal metabolism of very long chain fatty acids, which was higher than that seen in X-ALD. Immunocytochemistry and Western blot showed the absence of ALD protein (ALDP) despite the presence of other peroxisomal proteins. Pathological studies disclosed a small brain with hypomyelination and secondary hypoxic-ischemic changes. Neuronal heterotopia in the white matter and leptomeningeal glioneuronal heterotopia indicated a neuronal migration disorder. The liver showed fibrosis and cholestasis. The thymus and adrenal glands were hypoplastic. Array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analysis suggested that the deletion was a genomic rearrangement in the 90-kb span starting in DXS1357E/BACP31 exon 4 and included ABCD1, PLXNB3, SRPK3, IDH3G and SSR4, ending in PDZD4 exon 8. Thus, the absence of ALDP, when combined with defects in the B-cell antigen receptor associated protein 31 (BAP31) and other factors, severely affects VLCFA metabolism on peroxisomal functions and produces ZS-like pathology. PMID:22994209

  13. Myelination disturbance in a patient with hyperuricemia and hyperserotoninemia combined with 18q deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    László, Aranka; Vörös, Erika; Buga, Klára; Horváth, Katalin; Mayer, Péter; Osztovics, Magda; Pávics, László; Svekus, András; Patterson, Marc C

    2009-11-30

    We previously reported a male patient with an 18q21.3 deletion, hyperuricemia and typical symptoms of the Lesch-Nyhan syndrome who lacked hypoxanthine-guanine-phosphoribosyl-transferase (HGPRT) deficiency. The patient developed progressive peripheral neuropathy in additon to his profound mental retardation and self-injurious behavior. At the age of 23 years MR imaging revealed globally delayed myelination with relative sparing of the corpus callosum and frontal lobes. They were focal hyperintensities suggestive of gliosis. Multimodality evoked potentials found evidence of impaired central and peripheral conduction. Single photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) imaging demonstrated left frontal hyperperfusion and under it a temporoparietal hypoperfusion. PMID:20025132

  14. A Comparative Study of Cognition and Brain Anatomy between Two Neurodevelopmental Disorders: 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome and Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Linda E.; Stevens, Angela; Daly, Eileen; Toal, Fiona; Azuma, Rayna; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Murphy, Declan G. M.; Murphy, Kieran C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is associated with intellectual disability, poor social interaction and a high prevalence of psychosis. However, to date there have been no studies comparing cognition and neuroanatomical characteristics of 22q11DS with other syndromes to investigate if the cognitive strengths and difficulties and…

  15. Mother-Child Interaction as a Window to a Unique Social Phenotype in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome and in Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisman, Omri; Feldman, Ruth; Burg-Malki, Merav; Keren, Miri; Geva, Ronny; Diesendruck, Gil; Gothelf, Doron

    2015-01-01

    Mother-child interactions in 22q11.2 Deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) and Williams syndrome (WS) were coded for maternal sensitivity/intrusiveness, child's expression of affect, levels of engagement, and dyadic reciprocity. WS children were found to express more positive emotions towards their mothers compared to 22q11.2DS children and those with…

  16. A Comparative Study of Cognition and Brain Anatomy between Two Neurodevelopmental Disorders: 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome and Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Linda E.; Stevens, Angela; Daly, Eileen; Toal, Fiona; Azuma, Rayna; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Murphy, Declan G. M.; Murphy, Kieran C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is associated with intellectual disability, poor social interaction and a high prevalence of psychosis. However, to date there have been no studies comparing cognition and neuroanatomical characteristics of 22q11DS with other syndromes to investigate if the cognitive strengths and difficulties and…

  17. Mother-Child Interaction as a Window to a Unique Social Phenotype in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome and in Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisman, Omri; Feldman, Ruth; Burg-Malki, Merav; Keren, Miri; Geva, Ronny; Diesendruck, Gil; Gothelf, Doron

    2015-01-01

    Mother-child interactions in 22q11.2 Deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) and Williams syndrome (WS) were coded for maternal sensitivity/intrusiveness, child's expression of affect, levels of engagement, and dyadic reciprocity. WS children were found to express more positive emotions towards their mothers compared to 22q11.2DS children and those with…

  18. Practical guidelines for managing adults with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Wai Lun Alan; Butcher, Nancy J.; Costain, Gregory; Andrade, Danielle M.; Boot, Erik; Chow, Eva W.C.; Chung, Brian; Cytrynbaum, Cheryl; Faghfoury, Hanna; Fishman, Leona; García-Miñaúr, Sixto; George, Susan; Lang, Anthony E.; Repetto, Gabriela; Shugar, Andrea; Silversides, Candice; Swillen, Ann; van Amelsvoort, Therese; McDonald-McGinn, Donna M.; Bassett, Anne S.

    2015-01-01

    22q11.2 Deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is the most common microdeletion syndrome in humans, estimated to affect up to 1 in 2,000 live births. Major features of this multisystem condition include congenital anomalies, developmental delay, and an array of early- and later-onset medical and psychiatric disorders. Advances in pediatric care ensure a growing population of adults with 22q11.2DS. Informed by an international panel of multidisciplinary experts and a comprehensive review of the existing literature concerning adults, we present the first set of guidelines focused on managing the neuropsychiatric, endocrine, cardiovascular, reproductive, psychosocial, genetic counseling, and other issues that are the focus of attention in adults with 22q11.2DS. We propose practical strategies for the recognition, evaluation, surveillance, and management of the associated morbidities. PMID:25569435

  19. Exclusion of 22q11 deletion in Noonan syndrome with Tetralogy of Fallot

    SciTech Connect

    Digilio, M.C.; Marino, B.; Giannotti, A.; Dallapiccola, B. |

    1996-04-24

    We read with interest the report of Robin et al. [1995] published in recent issue of the Journal. The authors described 6 patients with Noonan syndrome (NS) who underwent molecular evaluation for submicroscopic deletion of chromosome band 22q11. None of those patients presented with conotruncal heart defects. Evidence for 22q11 hemizygosity was demonstrated in only one patient. This patient had NS-like manifestations without clinical manifestations of DiGeorge (DG) or velo-cardio-facial (VCF) syndromes. The molecular results obtained in the other 5 patients led the authors to conclude that classical NS is not due to del(22)(q11), even if some patients with del(22)(q11) may present NS-like manifestations. 12 refs., 1 tab.

  20. Intergenerational and intrafamilial phenotypic variability in 22q11.2 Deletion syndrome subjects

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is a common microdeletion syndrome, which occurs in approximately 1:4000 births. Familial autosomal dominant recurrence of the syndrome is detected in about 8-28% of the cases. Aim of this study is to evaluate the intergenerational and intrafamilial phenotypic variability in a cohort of familial cases carrying a 22q11.2 deletion. Methods Thirty-two 22q11.2DS subjects among 26 families were enrolled. Results Second generation subjects showed a significantly higher number of features than their transmitting parents (212 vs 129, P?=?0.0015). Congenital heart defect, calcium-phosphorus metabolism abnormalities, developmental and speech delay were more represented in the second generation (P?syndrome. PMID:24383682

  1. High incidence of large deletions in the PMS2 gene in Spanish Lynch syndrome families.

    PubMed

    Brea-Fernández, A J; Cameselle-Teijeiro, J M; Alenda, C; Fernández-Rozadilla, C; Cubiella, J; Clofent, J; Reñé, J M; Anido, U; Milá, M; Balaguer, F; Castells, A; Castellvi-Bel, S; Jover, R; Carracedo, A; Ruiz-Ponte, C

    2014-06-01

    Lynch syndrome (LS) is caused by germline mutations in one of the four mismatch repair (MMR) genes. Defects in this pathway lead to microsatellite instability (MSI) in DNA tumors, which constitutes the molecular hallmark of this disease. Selection of patients for genetic testing in LS is usually based on fulfillment of diagnostic clinical criteria (i.e. Amsterdam criteria or the revised Bethesda guidelines). However, following these criteria PMS2 mutations have probably been underestimated as their penetrances appear to be lower than those of the other MMR genes. The use of universal MMR study-based strategies, using MSI testing and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining, is being one proposed alternative. Besides, germline mutation detection in PMS2 is complicated by the presence of highly homologous pseudogenes. Nevertheless, specific amplification of PMS2 by long-range polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the improvement of the analysis of large deletions/duplications by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) overcome this difficulty. By using both approaches, we analyzed 19 PMS2-suspected carriers who have been selected by clinical or universal strategies and found five large deletions and one frameshift mutation in PMS2 in six patients (31%). Owing to the high incidence of large deletions found in our cohort, we recommend MLPA analysis as the first-line method for searching germline mutations in PMS2. PMID:23837913

  2. Autosomal recessive Wolfram syndrome associated with an 8.5 kb mtDNA single deletion

    SciTech Connect

    Barrientos, A.; Casademont, J.; Cardellach, F.

    1996-05-01

    Wolfram syndrome (MIM 222300) is characterized by optic atrophy, diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, neurosensory hearing loss, urinary tract abnormalities, and neurological dysfunction. The association of clinical manifestations in tissues and organs unrelated functionally or embryologically suggested the possibility of a mitochondrial implication in the disease, which has been demonstrated in two sporadic cases. Nonetheless, familial studies suggested an autosomal recessive mode of transmission, and recent data demonstrated linkage with markers on the short arm of human chromosome 4. The patient reported here, as well as her parents and unaffected sister, carried a heteroplasmic 8.5-kb deletion in mtDNA. The deletion accounted for 23% of mitochondrial genomes in lymphocytes from the patient and {approximately}5% in the tissues studied from members of her family. The presence of the deletion in the patient in a proportion higher than in her unaffected parents suggests a putative defect in a nuclear gene that acts at the mitochondrial level. 39 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Novel deletions involving the USH2A gene in patients with Usher syndrome and retinitis pigmentosa

    PubMed Central

    García-García, Gema; Jaijo, Teresa; Aparisi, Maria J.; Larrieu, Lise; Faugère, Valérie; Blanco-Kelly, Fiona; Ayuso, Carmen; Roux, Anne-Francoise; Millán, José M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the present work was to identify and characterize large rearrangements involving the USH2A gene in patients with Usher syndrome and nonsyndromic retinitis pigmentosa. Methods The multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) technique combined with a customized array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis was applied to 40 unrelated patients previously screened for point mutations in the USH2A gene in which none or only one pathologic mutation was identified. Results We detected six large deletions involving USH2A in six out of the 40 cases studied. Three of the patients were homozygous for the deletion, and the remaining three were compound heterozygous with a previously identified USH2A point mutation. In five of these cases, the patients displayed Usher type 2, and the remaining case displayed nonsyndromic retinitis pigmentosa. The exact breakpoint junctions of the deletions found in USH2A in four of these cases were characterized. Conclusions Our study highlights the need to develop improved efficient strategies of mutation screening based upon next generation sequencing (NGS) that reduce cost, time, and complexity and allow simultaneous identification of all types of disease-causing mutations in diagnostic procedures. PMID:25352746

  4. Highly restricted deletion of the SNORD116 region is implicated in Prader–Willi Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bieth, Eric; Eddiry, Sanaa; Gaston, Véronique; Lorenzini, Françoise; Buffet, Alexandre; Conte Auriol, Françoise; Molinas, Catherine; Cailley, Dorothée; Rooryck, Caroline; Arveiler, Benoit; Cavaillé, Jérome; Salles, Jean Pierre; Tauber, Maïthé

    2015-01-01

    The SNORD116 locus lies in the 15q11-13 region of paternally expressed genes implicated in Prader–Willi Syndrome (PWS), a complex disease accompanied by obesity and severe neurobehavioural disturbances. Cases of PWS patients with a deletion encompassing the SNORD116 gene cluster, but preserving the expression of flanking genes, have been described. We report a 23-year-old woman who presented clinical criteria of PWS, including the behavioural and nutritional features, obesity, developmental delay and endocrine dysfunctions with hyperghrelinemia. We found a paternally transmitted highly restricted deletion of the SNORD116 gene cluster, the shortest described to date (118 kb). This deletion was also present in the father. This finding in a human case strongly supports the current hypothesis that lack of the paternal SNORD116 gene cluster has a determinant role in the pathogenesis of PWS. Moreover, targeted analysis of the SNORD116 gene cluster, complementary to SNRPN methylation analysis, should be carried out in subjects with a phenotype suggestive of PWS. PMID:24916642

  5. Highly restricted deletion of the SNORD116 region is implicated in Prader-Willi Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bieth, Eric; Eddiry, Sanaa; Gaston, Véronique; Lorenzini, Françoise; Buffet, Alexandre; Conte Auriol, Françoise; Molinas, Catherine; Cailley, Dorothée; Rooryck, Caroline; Arveiler, Benoit; Cavaillé, Jérome; Salles, Jean Pierre; Tauber, Maïthé

    2015-02-01

    The SNORD116 locus lies in the 15q11-13 region of paternally expressed genes implicated in Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS), a complex disease accompanied by obesity and severe neurobehavioural disturbances. Cases of PWS patients with a deletion encompassing the SNORD116 gene cluster, but preserving the expression of flanking genes, have been described. We report a 23-year-old woman who presented clinical criteria of PWS, including the behavioural and nutritional features, obesity, developmental delay and endocrine dysfunctions with hyperghrelinemia. We found a paternally transmitted highly restricted deletion of the SNORD116 gene cluster, the shortest described to date (118?kb). This deletion was also present in the father. This finding in a human case strongly supports the current hypothesis that lack of the paternal SNORD116 gene cluster has a determinant role in the pathogenesis of PWS. Moreover, targeted analysis of the SNORD116 gene cluster, complementary to SNRPN methylation analysis, should be carried out in subjects with a phenotype suggestive of PWS. PMID:24916642

  6. Complete Deletion of a POLG1 Allele in a Patient with Alpers Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Naess, Karin; Barbaro, Michela; Bruhn, Helene; Wibom, Rolf; Nennesmo, Inger; von Döbeln, Ulrika; Larsson, Nils-Göran; Nemeth, Antal; Lesko, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding the catalytic subunit of polymerase γ (POLG1) are a major cause of human mitochondrial disease. More than 150 different point mutations in the gene have been reported to be disease causing, resulting in a large range of clinical symptoms. Depending on the mutation or combination of mutations, disease onset can occur in early infancy or late in adult life. Here, we describe the use of multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) analysis to detect deletions within POLG1, which could otherwise go undetected by solely sequencing of the gene. We present a case where an entire POLG1 allele is deleted, with a known pathogenic mutation (W748S) on the remaining allele. The deletion was found in a boy with Alpers syndrome, presenting at 18 months of age with slightly retarded motor development, balance problems, and seizures. Administration of valproic acid (VPA) led to rapidly progressive fatal liver failure in our patient, and we would like to highlight the need to carry out complete POLG1 gene analysis before administration of VPA in cases of pediatric seizure disorders of unknown origin. Debut and severity of the disease in this patient was unique when compared to homozygous or heterozygous patients with the W748S mutation, leading to the conclusion that gene dosage plays a role in the clinical phenotype of this disease. PMID:23430898

  7. A new frontonasal dysplasia syndrome associated with deletion of the SIX2 gene.

    PubMed

    Hufnagel, Robert B; Zimmerman, Sarah L; Krueger, Laura A; Bender, Patricia L; Ahmed, Zubair M; Saal, Howard M

    2016-02-01

    The frontonasal dysplasias are a group of craniofacial phenotypes characterized by hypertelorism, nasal clefting, frontal bossing, and abnormal hairline. These conditions are caused by recessive mutations in members of the aristaless gene family, resulting in abnormal cranial neural crest migration and differentiation. We report a family with a dominantly inherited craniofacial phenotype comprised of frontal bossing with high hairline, ptosis, hypertelorism, broad nasal tip, large anterior fontanelle, cranial base anomalies, and sagittal synostosis. Chromosomal microarray identified a heterozygous 108.3 kilobase deletion of chromosome 2p21 segregating with phenotype and limited to the sine oculis homeobox gene SIX2 and surrounding noncoding DNA. Similar to the human SIX2 deletion phenotype, one mouse model of frontonasal dysplasia, brachyrrhine, exhibits dominant inheritance and impaired cranial base chondrogenesis associated with reduced Six2 expression. We report the first human autosomal dominant frontonasal dysplasia syndrome associated with SIX2 deletion and with phenotypic similarities to murine models of Six2 Loss-of-function. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26581443

  8. Cockayne Syndrome due to a maternally-inherited whole gene deletion of ERCC8 and a paternally-inherited ERCC8 exon 4 deletion.

    PubMed

    Ting, T W; Brett, M S; Tan, E S; Shen, Y; Lee, S P; Lim, E C; Vasanwala, R F; Lek, N; Thomas, T; Lim, K W; Tan, E C

    2015-11-10

    Cockayne Syndrome (CS) is an autosomal recessive disorder that causes neurological regression, growth failure and dysmorphic features. We describe a Chinese female child with CS caused by deletions of exon 4 of ERCC8 on one chromosome and exons 1-12 on the other chromosome. By using chromosomal microarray, multiplex ligation-dependant probe analysis and long range PCR, we showed that she inherited a 277 kb deletion affecting the whole ERCC8 gene from the mother and a complex rearrangement resulting in deletion of exon 4 together with a 1,656 bp inversion of intron 4 from the father. A similar complex rearrangement has been reported in four unrelated Japanese CS patients. Analysis of the deletion involving exon 4 identified LINE and other repeat elements that may predispose the region to deletions, insertions and inversions. The patient also had insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, a rare co-existing feature in patients with CS. More research will be needed to further understand the endocrine manifestations in CS patients. PMID:26210811

  9. Detection of classical 17p11.2 deletions, an atypical deletion and RAI1 alterations in patients with features suggestive of Smith-Magenis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Gustavo H; Rodriguez, Jayson D; Carmona-Mora, Paulina; Cao, Lei; Gamba, Bruno F; Carvalho, Daniel R; de Rezende Duarte, Andréa; Santos, Suely R; de Souza, Deise H; DuPont, Barbara R; Walz, Katherina; Moretti-Ferreira, Danilo; Srivastava, Anand K

    2012-02-01

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a complex disorder whose clinical features include mild to severe intellectual disability with speech delay, growth failure, brachycephaly, flat midface, short broad hands, and behavioral problems. SMS is typically caused by a large deletion on 17p11.2 that encompasses multiple genes including the retinoic acid induced 1, RAI1, gene or a mutation in the RAI1 gene. Here we have evaluated 30 patients with suspected SMS and identified SMS-associated classical 17p11.2 deletions in six patients, an atypical deletion of ~139 kb that partially deletes the RAI1 gene in one patient, and RAI1 gene nonsynonymous alterations of unknown significance in two unrelated patients. The RAI1 mutant proteins showed no significant alterations in molecular weight, subcellular localization and transcriptional activity. Clinical features of patients with or without 17p11.2 deletions and mutations involving the RAI1 gene were compared to identify phenotypes that may be useful in diagnosing patients with SMS. PMID:21897445

  10. Narrowing and genomic annotation of the commonly deleted region of the 5q- syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Boultwood, Jacqueline; Fidler, Carrie; Strickson, Amanda J.; Watkins, Fiona; Gama, Susana; Kearney, Lyndal; Tosi, Sabrina; Kasprzyk, Arek; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Jaju, Rina J.; Wainscoat, James S.

    2002-01-15

    The 5q syndrome is the most distinct of the myelodysplastic syndromes, and the molecular basis for this disorder remains unknown. We describe the narrowing of the common deleted region (CDR) of the 5q syndrome to the approximately 1.5-megabases interval at 5q32 flanked by D5S413 and the GLRA1 gene. The Ensemblgene prediction program has been used for the complete genomic annotation of the CDR. The CDR is gene rich and contains 24 known genes and 16 novel (predicted) genes. Of 40 genes in the CDR, 33 are expressed in CD34 cells and, therefore, represent candidate genes since they are expressed within the hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell compartment. A number of the genes assigned to the CDR represent good candidates for the 5q syndrome, including MEGF1, G3BP, and several of the novel gene predictions. These data now afford a comprehensive mutational/expression analysis of all candidate genes assigned to the CDR.

  11. Deletion of 5' sequences of the CSB gene provides insight into the pathophysiology of Cockayne syndrome.

    PubMed

    Laugel, Vincent; Dalloz, Cecile; Stary, Anne; Cormier-Daire, Valerie; Desguerre, Isabelle; Renouil, Michel; Fourmaintraux, Alain; Velez-Cruz, Renier; Egly, Jean-Marc; Sarasin, Alain; Dollfus, Helene

    2008-03-01

    Cockayne syndrome is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a specific defect in the repair of UV-induced DNA lesions. Most cases of Cockayne syndrome are caused by mutations in the CSB gene but the pathophysiological mechanisms are poorly understood. We report the clinical and molecular data of two severely affected Cockayne patients with undetectable CSB protein and mRNA. Both patients showed severe growth failure, microcephaly, mental retardation, congenital cataracts, retinal pigmentary degeneration, photosensitivity and died at the ages of 6 and 8 years. UV irradiation assays demonstrated that both patients had the classical DNA repair defect. Genomic DNA sequencing of the CSB gene showed a homozygous deletion involving non-coding exon 1 and upstream regulatory sequences, but none of the coding exons. Functional complementation using a wild-type CSB expression plasmid fully corrected the DNA repair defect in transfected fibroblasts. Horibata et al recently proposed that all type of CSB mutations result in a defect in UV damage repair that is responsible for the photosensitivity observed in the syndrome, but that only truncated CSB polypeptides generated by nonsense mutations have some additional inhibitory functions in transcription or in oxidative damage repair, which are necessary to lead to the other features of the phenotype. Our patients do not fit the proposed paradigm and new hypotheses are required to account for the pathophysiology of Cockayne syndrome, at the crossroads between DNA repair and transcription. PMID:18183039

  12. A novel interstitial deletion in Xq25, identified by array-CGH in a patient with Lowe syndrome.

    PubMed

    Addis, Maria; Meloni, Cristiana; Congiu, Rita; Santaniello, Simona; Emma, Francesco; Zuffardi, Orsetta; Ciccone, Roberto; Cao, Antonio; Melis, Maria Antonietta; Cau, Milena

    2007-01-01

    The oculocerebrorenal syndrome of Lowe (OCRL) (MIM:309000) is an X-linked multisystemic disorder affecting the eyes, nervous system and kidneys due to mutations in OCRL1 gene. The gene contains 24 exons, and encodes a 105kDa phosphatydylinositol 4,5-biphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P(2)] 5-phosphatase localized primarily in the trans-Golgi network and the lysosomes. The large majority of the OCRL1 mutations producing Lowe syndrome are either missense mutations localized mainly in the catalytic domain or non-sense/frameshift mutations resulting in truncated proteins. Rarely, in about 6% of the cases, the disease results from large gene deletions occurring in the 5' part of the gene. Here we report a new case of a patient with Lowe syndrome due to a deletion of about 4Mb, encompassing the OCRL1 gene, detected by PCR and CGH array. The mother was carrier of the same deletion. PMID:17142121

  13. Respiratory failure, cleft palate and epilepsy in the mouse model of human Xq22.1 deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jian; Goldberg, Ethan M; Leu, N Adrian; Zhou, Lei; Coulter, Douglas A; Wang, P Jeremy

    2014-07-15

    Chromosomal segmental deletion is a frequent cause of human diseases. A familial 1.1 Mb deletion of human chromosome Xq22.1 associates with epilepsy, cleft palate and developmental defects in heterozygous female patients. Here, we describe a mouse mutant with a targeted deletion of the syntenic segment of the mouse X chromosome that phenocopies the human syndrome. Male mice with a deletion of a 1.1 Mb Nxf2-Nxf3 X-chromosomal segment exhibit respiratory failure, neonatal lethality and cleft palate. In female mice, heterozygosity for the deletion manifests cleft palate, early postnatal lethality, postnatal growth delay and spontaneous seizures in surviving animals, apparently due to X-chromosome inactivation. Furthermore, loss of a 0.35 Mb subregion containing Armcx5, Gprasp1, Gprasp2 and Bhlhb9 is sufficient to cause the Xq22.1 syndrome phenotype. Our results support that the 1.1 Mb deletion of human Xq22.1 is the genetic cause of the associated syndrome. PMID:24569167

  14. Further evidence for high rates of schizophrenia in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Monks, Stephen; Niarchou, Maria; Davies, Aimée R; Walters, James T R; Williams, Nigel; Owen, Michael J; van den Bree, Marianne B M; Murphy, Kieran C

    2014-03-01

    22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is associated with high rates of psychotic disorder, particularly schizophrenia. The deletion is considered to be a biological model for understanding this debilitating psychiatric disorder. It is unclear whether the psychotic manifestations in 22q11.2DS are similar to those in schizophrenia patients without the deletion. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), a positional candidate gene for schizophrenia, resides within the 22q11.2 region. It remains unknown whether hemizygosity for this gene is associated with risk of psychotic disorder. This study includes 83 adults with 22q11.2DS, 90 non-deleted individuals with schizophrenia, and 316 normal controls. Psychopathology was assessed using the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry, the Schedules for the Assessment of Positive and Negative Symptoms and the Global Assessment Scale. Schizotypy was assessed with the Kings Schizotypy Questionnaire and Oxford Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Emotions. IQ estimates were also obtained. Adults with 22q11.2DS were genotyped for a number of COMT polymorphisms as well as the Ashkenazi risk haplotype. This study confirms high rates of psychotic disorder (29%) in individuals with 22q11.2DS of which the majority had schizophrenia (22%). There does not appear to be a differential expression of schizophrenic symptom clusters in 22q11.2DS in relation to sporadic schizophrenia, though schizophrenia in 22q11.2DS seems to be less severe in terms of global assessment scores. Psychosis proneness seems to be of genetic origin in 22q11.2DS as individuals with 22q11.2DS without schizophrenia had higher schizotypy scores than normal controls. Finally, COMT was not associated with schizophrenia status or schizotypy. PMID:24534796

  15. Phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial DNA in a patient with Kearns-Sayre syndrome containing a novel 7629-bp deletion.

    PubMed

    Montiel-Sosa, Jose Francisco; Herrero, María Dolores; Munoz, Maria de Lourdes; Aguirre-Campa, Luis Enrique; Pérez-Ramírez, Gerardo; García-Ramírez, Rubén; Ruiz-Pesini, Eduardo; Montoya, Julio

    2013-08-01

    Mitochondrial DNA mutations have been associated with different illnesses in humans, such as Kearns-Sayre syndrome (KSS), which is related to deletions of different sizes and positions among patients. Here, we report a Mexican patient with typical features of KSS containing a novel deletion of 7629 bp in size with 85% heteroplasmy, which has not been previously reported. Sequence analysis revealed 3-bp perfect short direct repeats flanking the deletion region, in addition to 7-bp imperfect direct repeats within 9-10 bp. Furthermore, sequencing, alignment and phylogenetic analysis of the hypervariable region revealed that the patient may belong to a founder Native American haplogroup C4c. PMID:23391298

  16. 7q11.23 deletions in Williams syndrome arise as a consequence of unequal meiotic crossover

    SciTech Connect

    Urban, Z.; Csiszar, K.; Boyd, C.D.

    1996-10-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a multisystem disorder characterized by mental retardation, a specific neurobehavioral profile, characteristic facies, infantile hypercalcemia, cardiovascular abnormalities, progressive joint limitation, hermas, and soft skin. Recent studies have shown that hemizygosity at the elastin (ELN) gene locus on chromosome 7q is associated with WS. Furthermore, two FISH studies using cosmid recombinants containing the 5{prime} or the 3{prime} end of the ELN gene revealed deletion of the entire ELN gene in 90%-96% of classical WS cases. However, the size of the 7q11.23 deletions and the mechanism by which these deletions arise are not known. 15 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Identification of a Japanese Lynch syndrome patient with large deletion in the 3' region of the EPCAM gene.

    PubMed

    Eguchi, Hidetaka; Kumamoto, Kensuke; Suzuki, Okihide; Kohda, Masakazu; Tada, Yuhki; Okazaki, Yasushi; Ishida, Hideyuki

    2016-02-01

    Germline deletion of the 3' portion of the Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule (EPCAM) gene located 5' upstream of MutS Homolog 2 (MSH2) is a novel mechanism for its inactivation in Lynch syndrome. However, its contribution in Japanese Lynch syndrome patients is poorly understood. Moreover, somatic events inactivating the remaining allele of MSH2 in cancer tissue have not been elucidated in Lynch syndrome patients with such EPCAM deletions. We identified a Japanese Lynch syndrome patient with colon cancer who evidenced germline deletion of a 4130 bp fragment of EPCAM encompassing exons 8 and 9 (c.859-672_*2170del). In normal colonic mucosa, two known fusion-transcripts of EPCAM/MSH2 generated from the rearranged gene were observed and heterozygous methylation of the MSH2 gene promoter was detected. In cancer tissue, dense methylation of MSH2 was observed and MLPA analysis demonstrated somatic deletion of the remaining EPCAM allele including exon 9, indicating that somatic deletion of EPCAM is responsible for complete inactivation of MSH2. PMID:26613680

  18. The Contribution of Whole Gene Deletions and Large Rearrangements to the Mutation Spectrum in Inherited Tumor Predisposing Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Smith, Miriam J; Urquhart, Jill E; Harkness, Elaine F; Miles, Emma K; Bowers, Naomi L; Byers, Helen J; Bulman, Michael; Gokhale, Carolyn; Wallace, Andrew J; Newman, William G; Evans, D Gareth

    2016-03-01

    Heterozygous whole gene deletions (WGDs), and intragenic microdeletions, account for a significant proportion of mutations underlying cancer predisposition syndromes. We analyzed the frequency and genotype-phenotype correlations of microdeletions in 12 genes (BRCA1, BRCA2, TP53, MSH2, MLH1, MSH6, PMS2, NF1, NF2, APC, PTCH1, and VHL) representing seven tumor predisposition syndromes in 5,897 individuals (2,611 families) from our center. Overall, microdeletions accounted for 14% of identified mutations. As expected, smaller deletions or duplications were more common (12%) than WGDs (2.2%). Where a WGD was identified in the germline in NF2, the mechanism of somatic second hit was not deletion, as previously described for NF1. For neurofibromatosis type 1 and 2, we compared the mechanism of germline deletion. Unlike NF1, where three specific deletion sizes account for most germline WGDs, NF2 deletion breakpoints were different across seven samples tested. One of these deletions was 3.93 Mb and conferred a severe phenotype, thus refining the region for a potential NF2 modifier gene to a 2.04-Mb region on chromosome 22. The milder phenotype of NF2 WGDs may be due to the apparent absence of chromosome 22 loss as the second hit. These observations of WGD phenotypes will be helpful for interpreting incidental findings from microarray analysis and next-generation sequencing. PMID:26615784

  19. Syndrome of proximal interstitial deletion 4p15: Report of three cases and review of the literature

    SciTech Connect

    Chitayat, D.; Babul, R.; Teshima, I.E.

    1995-01-16

    We report on two boys and a girl with interstitial deletion in the short arm of chromosome 4 including the segment p15.2p15.33. All had normal growth with psychomotor retardation, multiple minor congenital anomalies, and a characteristic face distinct from that of the Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome. One of the patients had congenitally enlarged penis. These patients resemble some of the previously reported patients with similar cytogenetic abnormalities and suggests the recognition of a specific clinical chromosome deletion syndrome. 12 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Reciprocal deletion and duplication of 17p11.2-11.2: Korean patients with Smith-Magenis syndrome and Potocki-Lupski syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cha Gon; Park, Sang-Jin; Yun, Jun-No; Yim, Shin-Young; Sohn, Young Bae

    2012-12-01

    Deletion and duplication of the -3.7-Mb region in 17p11.2 result in two reciprocal syndrome, Smith-Magenis syndrome and Potocki-Lupski syndrome. Smith-Magenis syndrome is a well-known developmental disorder. Potocki-Lupski syndrome has recently been recognized as a microduplication syndrome that is a reciprocal disease of Smith-Magenis syndrome. In this paper, we report on the clinical and cytogenetic features of two Korean patients with Smith-Magenis syndrome and Potocki-Lupski syndrome. Patient 1 (Smith-Magenis syndrome) was a 2.9-yr-old boy who showed mild dysmorphic features, aggressive behavioral problems, and developmental delay. Patient 2 (Potocki-Lupski syndrome), a 17-yr-old boy, had only intellectual disabilities and language developmental delay. We used array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) and found a 2.6 Mb-sized deletion and a reciprocal 2.1 Mb-sized duplication involving the 17p11.2. These regions overlapped in a 2.1 Mb size containing 11 common genes, including RAI1 and SREBF. PMID:23255863

  1. An atypical case of fragile X syndrome caused by a deletion that includes the FMR1 gene.

    PubMed Central

    Quan, F; Zonana, J; Gunter, K; Peterson, K L; Magenis, R E; Popovich, B W

    1995-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome is the most common form of inherited mental retardation and results from the transcriptional inactivation of the FMR1 gene. In the vast majority of cases, this is caused by the expansion of an unstable CGG repeat in the first exon of the FMR1 gene. We describe here a phenotypically atypical case of fragile X syndrome, caused by a deletion that includes the entire FMR1 gene and > or = 9.0 Mb of flanking DNA. The proband, RK, was a 6-year-old mentally retarded male with obesity and anal atresia. A diagnosis of fragile X syndrome was established by the failure of RK's DNA to hybridize to a 558-bp PstI-XhoI fragment (pfxa3) specific for the 5'-end of the FMR1 gene. The analysis of flanking markers in the interval from Xq26.3-q28 indicated a deletion extending from between 160-500 kb distal and 9.0 Mb proximal to the FMR1 gene. High-resolution chromosome banding confirmed a deletion with breakpoints in Xq26.3 and Xq27.3. This deletion was maternally transmitted and arose as a new mutation on the grandpaternal X chromosome. The maternal transmission of the deletion was confirmed by FISH using a 34-kb cosmid (c31.4) containing most of the FMR1 gene. These results indicated that RK carried a deletion of the FMR1 region with the most proximal breakpoint described to date. This patient's unusual clinical presentation may indicate the presence of genes located in the deleted interval proximal to the FMR1 locus that are able to modify the fragile X syndrome phenotype. Images Figure 5 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:7726157

  2. A coalescence of two syndromes in a girl with terminal deletion and inverted duplication of chromosome 5

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Rearrangements involving chromosome 5p often result in two syndromes, Cri-du-chat (CdC) and Trisomy 5p, caused by a deletion and duplication, respectively. The 5p15.2 has been defined as a critical region for CdC syndrome; however, genotype-phenotype studies allowed isolation of particular characteristics such as speech delay, cat-like cry and mental retardation, caused by distinct deletions of 5p. A varied clinical outcome was also observed in patients with Trisomy 5p. Duplications of 5p10-5p13.1 manifest themselves in a more severe phenotype, while trisomy of regions distal to 5p13 mainly causes mild and indistinct features. Combinations of a terminal deletion and inverted duplication of 5p are infrequent in literature. Consequences of these chromosomal rearrangements differ, depending on size of deletion and duplication in particular cases, although authors mainly describe the deletion as the cause of the observed clinical picture. Case presentation Here we present a 5-month-old Slovenian girl, with de novo terminal deletion and inverted duplication of chromosome 5p. Our patient presents features of both CdC and Trisomy 5. The most prominent features observed in our patient are a cat-like cry and severe malformations of the right ear. Conclusion The cat-like cry, characteristic of CdC syndrome, is noted in our patient despite the fact that the deletion is not fully consistent with previously defined cat-like cry critical region in this syndrome. Features like dolichocephaly, macrocephaly and ear malformations, associated with duplication of the critical region of Trisomy 5p, are also present, although this region has not been rearranged in our case. Therefore, the true meaning of the described chromosomal rearrangements is discussed. PMID:24517234

  3. Deletion of small nuclear ribonucleoprotein polypeptide N (SNRPN) in Prader-Willi syndrome detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization: Two sibs with the typical phenotype without a cytogenetic deletion in chromosome 15q

    SciTech Connect

    Ishikawa, Tatsuya; Kibe, Tetsuya; Wada, Yoshiro

    1996-04-24

    The small nuclear ribonucleoprotein polypeptide N (SNRPN) gene is regarded as one of the candidates for Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). We describe two sibs with typical PWS presenting deletion of SNRPN detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Neither a cytogenetically detectable 15q12 deletion nor a deletion for the D15S11, D15S10, and GABRB3 cosmid probes were found in either patient. This implies a smaller deletion limited to the PWS critical region. FISH with a SNRPN probe will permit analysis of PWS patients with limited deletions not detectable with other probes. 22 refs., 1 fig.

  4. Temporal Lobe Anatomy and Psychiatric Symptoms in Velocardiofacial Syndrome (22Q11.2 Deletion Syndrome)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kates, Wendy R.; Miller, Adam M.; Abdulsabur, Nuria; Antshel, Kevin M.; Conchelos, Jena; Fremont, Wanda; Roizen, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association between mesial temporal lobe morphology, ratios of prefrontal cortex to amygdala and hippocampus volumes, and psychiatric symptomatology in children and adolescents with velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS). Method: Scores on behavioral rating scales and volumetric measures of the amygdala, hippocampus, and…

  5. Temporal Lobe Anatomy and Psychiatric Symptoms in Velocardiofacial Syndrome (22Q11.2 Deletion Syndrome)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kates, Wendy R.; Miller, Adam M.; Abdulsabur, Nuria; Antshel, Kevin M.; Conchelos, Jena; Fremont, Wanda; Roizen, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association between mesial temporal lobe morphology, ratios of prefrontal cortex to amygdala and hippocampus volumes, and psychiatric symptomatology in children and adolescents with velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS). Method: Scores on behavioral rating scales and volumetric measures of the amygdala, hippocampus, and…

  6. Kearns-Sayre syndrome case presenting a mitochondrial DNA deletion with unusual direct repeats and a rudimentary RNAse mitochondria ribonucleotide processing target sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Remes, A.M.; Hassinen, I.E. ); Peuhkurinen, K.J.; Herva, R.; Majamaa, K. )

    1993-04-01

    A mitochondrial DNA deletion in a case of Kearns-Sayre syndrome is described. The deletion is bracketed by direct repeats that were unusual in that one of them was located 11--13 nucleotides from the deletion seam and both were conserved, which should not occur in slip replication or illegitimate elongation. The deleted region was demarcated on the deletion side by sequences that could be predicted to form hairpin structures. The 5[prime]-side of the deletion was flanked by a sequence homologous to a 9-nucleotide piece of the conserved sequence block II of the D-loop. This arrangement around the deletion in Kearns-Sayre syndrome bears some resemblance to the arrangement in the Pearson marrow- pancreas syndrome described by A. Rotig et al. (1991, Genomics 10: 502--504). 10 refs., 1 fig.

  7. Sprengel anomaly in deletion 22q11.2 (DiGeorge/Velo-Cardio-Facial) syndrome.

    PubMed

    Radio, Francesca Clementina; Digilio, Maria Cristina; Capolino, Rossella; Dentici, Maria Lisa; Unolt, Marta; Alesi, Viola; Novelli, Antonio; Marino, Bruno; Dallapiccola, Bruno

    2016-03-01

    Sprengel anomaly (SA) is a rare skeletal defect characterized by uni- or bi-lateral elevation of the scapula. This anomaly is often isolated, although it can occur in association with other defects, including cervical spine malformations, cleft palate, and facial anomalies. Neural crest migration anomalies have been involved in the etiology of SA. Since the same embryological pathway accounts for some of the clinical features of deletion 22q11.2 syndrome (del22q11.2; DiGeorge/Velo-Cardio-Facial syndrome), we investigated the occurrence of SA in a consecutive series of 235 del22q11.2 patients aged more than 2 years, undergoing a complete clinical and orthopedic assessment of the dorsal and thoracic skeleton. In the present series, two patients were diagnosed with true SA. Present results and published reports suggest that scapular involvement including SA occurs in 1-2% of del22q11.2 individuals. Accordingly, this anomaly should be investigated as one of the possible skeletal findings of del22q11.2 syndrome, while this diagnosis should be excluded in patients presenting with SA associated with other defects. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26686844

  8. Incidence and prevalence of the 22q11 deletion syndrome: a population-based study in Western Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Oskarsdottir, S; Vujic, M; Fasth, A

    2004-01-01

    Backgound: Almost all cases of DiGeorge syndrome, velo-cardio-facial syndrome and conotruncal anomaly face syndrome result from a common deletion of chromosome 22q11.2. These syndromes are usually referred to as the 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), which has a wide phenotypic spectrum and an estimated incidence of one in 4000 births. Aims: To assess the incidence and prevalence of the 22q11 deletion syndrome in the Western Götaland Region of western Sweden Methods: Children below 16 years of age with 22q11DS in a well defined catchment area and population of the Western Götaland Region were recruited. Diagnosis of 22q11DS was confirmed using a FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridisation) test. Proven 22q11 deletion was the demonstration of one signal in 11 metaphase spreads with fair quality. Results: During the study period in the Western Götaland Region the mean annual incidence of 22q11DS was 14.1 per 100 000 live births. During the first five years the incidence was 18.1 per 100 000 live births for the whole region and 23.4 per 100 000 live births in Gothenburg, where a multidisciplinary specialist team for 22q11 DS is based. The prevalence was 13.2 per 100 000 children below 16 years of age in the whole region and 23.3 per 100 000 in Gothenburg. Conclusion: The number of individuals diagnosed depends on the experience and awareness of the syndrome among specialists who encounter these children and also the severity of the phenotype. The higher frequency of 22q11DS found in Gothenburg is an example of increased awareness. The true incidence and prevalence of this syndrome will only be found through population-based screening, but this would be too expensive and ethically questionable. Screening of specific risk populations would be more justified. PMID:14736631

  9. Detection of cryptic chromosomal abnormalities in unexplained mental retardation: A general strategy using hypervariable subtelomeric DNA polymorphisms

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkie, A.O.M.

    1993-09-01

    Given the availability of DNA from both parents, unusual segregation of hypervariable DNA polymorphisms (HVPs) in the offspring may be attributable to deletion, unbalanced chromosomal translocation, or uniparental disomy. The telomeric regions of chromosomes are rich in both genes and hypervariable minisatellite sequences and may also be particularly prone to cryptic breakage events. Here the author describes and analyzes a general approach to the detection of subtelomeric abnormalities and uniparental disomy in patients with unexplained mental retardation. With 29 available polymorphic systems, [approximately]50%-70% of these abnormalities could currently be detected. Development of subtelomeric HVPs physically localized with respect to their telomers should provide a valuable resource in routine diagnostics. 73 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. An interstitial deletion of 8q23.3-q24.22 associated with Langer-Giedion syndrome, Cornelia de Lange syndrome and epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Ping; Lin, Shuan-Pei; Liu, Yu-Peng; Chern, Schu-Rern; Wu, Peih-Shan; Su, Jun-Wei; Chen, Yu-Ting; Lee, Chen-Chi; Wang, Wayseen

    2013-10-15

    We present a 19-year-old male with laxity of skin and joints, sparse scalp hair, facial dysmorphism, epilepsy, multiple exostoses, scoliosis, gastroesophageal reflux, cardiovascular defects, and an 8q23.3-q24.22 deletion detected by array comparative genomic hybridization. The patient was previously misdiagnosed as having Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. However, his clinical findings are in fact correlated with trichorhinophalangeal syndrome type II/Langer-Giedion syndrome and Cornelia de Lange syndrome-4. We discuss the genotype-phenotype correlation and the consequence of haploinsufficiency of TRPS1, RAD21, EXT1 and KCNQ3 in this case. PMID:23933416

  11. Chromosome 17p13.3 deletion syndrome: aCGH characterization, prenatal findings and diagnosis, and literature review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Ping; Chang, Tung-Yao; Guo, Wan-Yuo; Wu, Pei-Chen; Wang, Liang-Kai; Chern, Schu-Rern; Wu, Peih-Shan; Su, Jun-Wei; Chen, Yu-Ting; Chen, Li-Feng; Wang, Wayseen

    2013-12-10

    We report a molecular cytogenetic characterization of 17p13.3 deletion syndrome by array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in a fetus with lissencephaly, corpus callosum dysgenesis, ventriculomegaly, microcephaly, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), polyhydramnios and single umbilical artery. aCGH analysis revealed a 3.17-Mb deletion at 17p13.3, or arr [hg19] 17p13.3 (0-3,165,530)×1. The qPCR assays revealed a maternal origin of the deletion. Metaphase FISH analysis detected the absence of the LIS1 probe signal on the aberrant chromosome 17. The karyotype was 46,XX,del(17)(p13.3). We review the literature of chromosome 17p13.3 deletion syndrome with prenatal findings and diagnosis, and suggest that prenatal ultrasound detection of central nervous system anomalies such as lissencephaly, corpus callosum dysgenesis/agenesis, ventriculomegaly and microcephaly associated with IUGR, polyhydramnios, congenital heart defects, abdominal wall defects and renal abnormalities should include a differential diagnosis of chromosome 17p13.3 deletion syndrome. PMID:24055730

  12. Mosaicism for the fragile X syndrome full mutation and deletions within the CGG repeat of the FMR1 gene.

    PubMed Central

    Milà, M; Castellví-Bel, S; Sánchez, A; Lázaro, C; Villa, M; Estivill, X

    1996-01-01

    The main mutation responsible for the fragile X syndrome is the expansion of an untranslated CGG repeat in the first exon of the FMR1 gene, associated with the hypermethylation of the proximal CpG island and the CGG repeat region, and repression of transcription of FMR1. Fragile X syndrome mosaicism has been described as the coexistence of the full mutation and the permutation. We present here two cases of mosaicism for the full mutation in the FMR1 gene and deletions involving the CGG repeat region. In one case the deletion removed 113 bp proximal to the CGG repeat and part of the repeat itself, leaving 30 pure repeats, and representing 17% of lymphocytes of the patient. The 5' breakpoint of this deletion falls outside the putative hotspot for deletions in the CGG region of FMR1. In the second case the deleted region only involved the CGG sequence (leaving 15 pure repeats), with normal sequences flanking the repeat; this deleted ("normal") FMR1 was estimated to be in about 31% of blood lymphocytes. This second case can be considered a true regression of the CGG FMR1 expansion to a normal sized allele, although in mosaic form. Images PMID:8730293

  13. Movement Disorders and Other Motor Abnormalities in Adults With 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Boot, Erik; Butcher, Nancy J; van Amelsvoort, Thérèse AMJ; Lang, Anthony E; Marras, Connie; Pondal, Margarita; Andrade, Danielle M; Fung, Wai Lun Alan; Bassett, Anne S

    2015-01-01

    Movement abnormalities are frequently reported in children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS), but knowledge in this area is scarce in the increasing adult population. We report on five individuals illustrative of movement disorders and other motor abnormalities in adults with 22q11.2DS. In addition to an increased susceptibility to neuropsychiatric disorders, seizures, and early-onset Parkinson disease, the underlying brain dysfunction associated with 22q11.2DS may give rise to an increased vulnerability to multiple movement abnormalities, including those influenced by medications. Movement abnormalities may also be secondary to treatable endocrine diseases and congenital musculoskeletal abnormalities. We propose that movement abnormalities may be common in adults with 22q11.2DS and discuss the implications and challenges important to clinical practice. PMID:25684639

  14. Molecular characterization of two proximal deletion breakpoint regions in both Prader-Willi and Angelman syndrome patients

    SciTech Connect

    Christian, S.L.; Huang, B.; Ledbetter, D.H.

    1995-07-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and Angelman syndrome (AS) are distinct mental retardation syndromes caused by paternal and maternal deficiencies, respectively, in chromosome 15q11{minus}q13. Approximately 70% of these patients have a large deletion of {approximately}4 Mb extending from D15S9 (ML34) through D15S12 (IR10A). To further characterize the deletion breakpoints proximal to D15S9, three new polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed that showed observed heterozygosities of 60%-87%. D15S541 and D15S542 were isolated for YAC A124A3 containing the D15S18 (IR39) locus. D15S543 was isolated from a cosmid cloned from the proximal right end of YAC 254B5 containing the D15S9 (ML34) locus. Gene-centromere mapping of these markers, using a panel of ovarian teratomas of known meiotic origin, extended the genetic map of chromosome 15 by 2-3 cM toward the centromere. Analysis of the more proximal S541/S542 markers on 53 Prader-Willi and 33 Angelman deletion patients indicated two classes of patients: 44% (35/80) of the informative patients were deleted for these markers (class I), while 56% (45/80) were not deleted (class II), with no difference between PWS and AS. In contrast, D15S543 was deleted in all informative patients (13/48) or showed the presence of a single allele (in 35/48 patients), suggesting that this marker is deleted in the majority of PWS and AS cases. These results confirm the presence of two common proximal deletion breakpoint regions in both Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes and are consistent with the same deletion mechanism being responsible for paternal and maternal deletions. One breakpoint region lies between D15S541/S542 and D15S543, with an additional breakpoint region being proximal to D15S541/S542. 46 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Hemizygosity for SMCHD1 in Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy Type 2: Consequences for 18p Deletion Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lemmers, Richard J L F; van den Boogaard, Marlinde L; van der Vliet, Patrick J; Donlin-Smith, Colleen M; Nations, Sharon P; Ruivenkamp, Claudia A L; Heard, Patricia; Bakker, Bert; Tapscott, Stephen; Cody, Jannine D; Tawil, Rabi; van der Maarel, Silvère M

    2015-07-01

    Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is most often associated with variegated expression in somatic cells of the normally repressed DUX4 gene within the D4Z4-repeat array. The most common form, FSHD1, is caused by a D4Z4-repeat array contraction to a size of 1-10 units (normal range 10-100 units). The less common form, FSHD2, is characterized by D4Z4 CpG hypomethylation and is most often caused by loss-of-function mutations in the structural maintenance of chromosomes hinge domain 1 (SMCHD1) gene on chromosome 18p. The chromatin modifier SMCHD1 is necessary to maintain a repressed D4Z4 chromatin state. Here, we describe two FSHD2 families with a 1.2-Mb deletion encompassing the SMCHD1 gene. Numerical aberrations of chromosome 18 are relatively common and the majority of 18p deletion syndrome (18p-) cases have, such as these FSHD2 families, only one copy of SMCHD1. Our finding therefore raises the possibility that 18p- cases are at risk of developing FSHD. To address this possibility, we combined genome-wide array analysis data with D4Z4 CpG methylation and repeat array sizes in individuals with 18p- and conclude that approximately 1:8 18p- cases might be at risk of developing FSHD. PMID:25820463

  16. Spontaneous 8bp Deletion in Nbeal2 Recapitulates the Gray Platelet Syndrome in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tomberg, Kärt; Khoriaty, Rami; Westrick, Randal J.; Fairfield, Heather E.; Reinholdt, Laura G.; Brodsky, Gary L.; Davizon-Castillo, Pavel; Ginsburg, David; Di Paola, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    During the analysis of a whole genome ENU mutagenesis screen for thrombosis modifiers, a spontaneous 8 base pair (bp) deletion causing a frameshift in exon 27 of the Nbeal2 gene was identified. Though initially considered as a plausible thrombosis modifier, this Nbeal2 mutation failed to suppress the synthetic lethal thrombosis on which the original ENU screen was based. Mutations in NBEAL2 cause Gray Platelet Syndrome (GPS), an autosomal recessive bleeding disorder characterized by macrothrombocytopenia and gray-appearing platelets due to lack of platelet alpha granules. Mice homozygous for the Nbeal2 8 bp deletion (Nbeal2gps/gps) exhibit a phenotype similar to human GPS, with significantly reduced platelet counts compared to littermate controls (p = 1.63 x 10−7). Nbeal2gps/gps mice also have markedly reduced numbers of platelet alpha granules and an increased level of emperipolesis, consistent with previously characterized mice carrying targeted Nbeal2 null alleles. These findings confirm previous reports, provide an additional mouse model for GPS, and highlight the potentially confounding effect of background spontaneous mutation events in well-characterized mouse strains. PMID:26950939

  17. Histone Modifier Genes Alter Conotruncal Heart Phenotypes in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Guo, Tingwei; Chung, Jonathan H; Wang, Tao; McDonald-McGinn, Donna M; Kates, Wendy R; Hawu?a, Wanda; Coleman, Karlene; Zackai, Elaine; Emanuel, Beverly S; Morrow, Bernice E

    2015-12-01

    We performed whole exome sequence (WES) to identify genetic modifiers on 184 individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), of whom 89 case subjects had severe congenital heart disease (CHD) and 95 control subjects had normal hearts. Three genes including JMJD1C (jumonji domain containing 1C), RREB1 (Ras responsive element binding protein 1), and SEC24C (SEC24 family member C) had rare (MAF < 0.001) predicted deleterious single-nucleotide variations (rdSNVs) in seven case subjects and no control subjects (p = 0.005; Fisher exact and permutation tests). Because JMJD1C and RREB1 are involved in chromatin modification, we investigated other histone modification genes. Eighteen case subjects (20%) had rdSNVs in four genes (JMJD1C, RREB1, MINA, KDM7A) all involved in demethylation of histones (H3K9, H3K27). Overall, rdSNVs were enriched in histone modifier genes that activate transcription (Fisher exact p = 0.0004, permutations, p = 0.0003, OR = 5.16); however, rdSNVs in control subjects were not enriched. This implicates histone modification genes as influencing risk for CHD in presence of the deletion. PMID:26608785

  18. Familial Angelman syndrome with a crossover in the critical deletion region

    SciTech Connect

    Nelen, M.R.; Van der Burgt, C.J.A.M.; Nillesen, W.N.; Smeets, H.J.M.; Vis, A.

    1994-09-01

    More than two thirds of the patients with Angelman syndrome (AS) carry a deletion or other chromosomal abnormality in the 15q11-13 region. A much less frequent cause (4%) is paternal uniparental disomy of the entire chromosome. In general no abnormalities are detectable in familial cases and an inherited submicroscopic deletion was described only once. Here a familial case of 2 sibs with AS is reported. No major cytogenetic or molecular abnormality was identified, but a recombination event had occurred in the AS critical region. The AS locus, D15S113, D15S10, D15S11, and D15S18 mapped proximal and the GABRB3 gene, D15S97, and GABRA5 gene, and D15S12 distal to the crossover site. This recombination within the AS critical region confirmed the exclusion of GABRB3 as a candidate gene for AS. Other markers and candidate genes can be tested genetically as well for a possible role in AS. 36 refs., 4 figs.

  19. A Turkish patient with large 17p11.2 deletion presenting with Smith Magenis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tug, E; Cine, N; Aydin, H

    2011-01-01

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS), which occurs as a result of an interstitial deletion within chromosome 17p11.2-p12, is a disorder that presents itself with minor dysmorphic features, brachydactyly, short stature, hypotonia, delayed speech, cognitive deficits and neurobehavioral problems including sleep disturbances and maladaptive repetitive and self-injurious behavior. We present a girl with full SMS phenotype. G-banding cytogenetic analysis showed normal 46,XX karyotype. Whole-genome array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) was performed due to the severity of the phenotype and the unusual features present in the patient. An interstitial deletion in 17p11.2-p12, approximately 4.73 Mb in size was determined. Characteristic physical and behavioral phenotype strongly suggested SMS. This, to the best of our knowledge is the first patient with SMS reported in Turkey. We emphasize the need for whole genome analysis in multiple congenital abnormalities/mental retardation disorders with unusual and severe phenotypes. PMID:21614983

  20. Biological Effects of COMT Haplotypes and Psychosis Risk in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gothelf, Doron; Law, Amanda J.; Frisch, Amos; Chen, Jingshan; Zarchi, Omer; Michaelovsky, Elena; Ren-Patterson, Renee; Lipska, Barbara K.; Carmel, Miri; Kolachana, Bhaskar; Weizman, Abraham; Weinberger, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    Background 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is the most common genetic syndrome associated with schizophrenia. The catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT) gene is located in the obligatory deletion region, and possible associations between COMT variants and neuropsychiatric manifestations in 22q11.2DS have been reported. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effect of COMT hemizygosity and molecular haplotypes on gene expression and enzyme activity and its association with psychotic symptoms in 22q11.2DS. Methods Lymphoblast samples were drawn from 53 individuals with 22q11.2DS and 16 typically developing controls. We measured COMT mRNA and protein expression and enzyme activity using standard procedures. The presence of a psychotic disorder and cognitive deficits were also evaluated using structured testing. Results There was a ~50% reduction in COMT mRNA, protein and enzyme activity levels in 22q11.2DS samples. Haplotype analysis revealed clear phenotypic differences between various Val-containing haplotypes on COMT-3?UTR extended mRNA, S-COMT and MB proteins and enzyme activity. The G variant of rs165599, a 3?UTR SNP, was associated with low levels of COMT expression and with the presence of psychosis and lower performance IQ scores in our 22q11.2DS sample. Finally, we demonstrate that the COMT rs74745580 ‘T’ mutation is associated with absent S-COMT expression and very low COMT activity in two 22q11.2DS individuals. Conclusions Our findings confirm a robust effect of COMT hemizygosity on COMT activity and show complex interactions of variants within the COMT gene that influence COMT biology and confound conclusions based on associations with the Val158Met genotype alone. PMID:23992923

  1. Social Skills and Associated Psychopathology in Children with Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: Implications for Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shashi, V.; Veerapandiyan, A.; Schoch, K.; Kwapil, T.; Keshavan, M.; Ip, E.; Hooper, S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although distinctive neuropsychological impairments have been delineated in children with chromosome 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), social skills and social cognition remain less well-characterised. Objective: To examine social skills and social cognition and their relationship with neuropsychological function/behaviour and…

  2. A Longitudinal Examination of the Psychoeducational, Neurocognitive, and Psychiatric Functioning in Children with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooper, Stephen R.; Curtiss, Kathleen; Schoch, Kelly; Keshavan, Matcheri S.; Allen, Andrew; Shashi, Vandana

    2013-01-01

    The present study sought to examine the longitudinal psychoeducational, neurocognitive, and psychiatric outcomes of children and adolescents with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), a population with a high incidence of major psychiatric illnesses appearing in late adolescence/early adulthood. Little is known of the developmental…

  3. Social Skills and Associated Psychopathology in Children with Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: Implications for Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shashi, V.; Veerapandiyan, A.; Schoch, K.; Kwapil, T.; Keshavan, M.; Ip, E.; Hooper, S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although distinctive neuropsychological impairments have been delineated in children with chromosome 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), social skills and social cognition remain less well-characterised. Objective: To examine social skills and social cognition and their relationship with neuropsychological function/behaviour and…

  4. Emotion Regulation and Development in Children with Autism and 22q13 Deletion Syndrome: Evidence for Group Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaser, Sarah E.; Shaw, Steven R.

    2011-01-01

    Emotion regulation (ER) abilities and developmental differences were investigated among 19 children with autism and 18 children with 22q13 Deletion Syndrome (a rare chromosomal disorder with certain autistic symptoms). The purpose of this study was to examine the phenotypic similarities between the two disorders. ER was measured by the Temperament…

  5. Emotion Regulation and Development in Children with Autism and 22q13 Deletion Syndrome: Evidence for Group Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaser, Sarah E.; Shaw, Steven R.

    2011-01-01

    Emotion regulation (ER) abilities and developmental differences were investigated among 19 children with autism and 18 children with 22q13 Deletion Syndrome (a rare chromosomal disorder with certain autistic symptoms). The purpose of this study was to examine the phenotypic similarities between the two disorders. ER was measured by the Temperament…

  6. Maladaptive Conflict Monitoring as Evidence for Executive Dysfunction in Children with Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bish, Joel P.; Ferrante, Samantha M.; McDonald-McGinn, Donna; Zackai, Elaine; Simon, Tony J.

    2005-01-01

    Using an adaptation of the Attentional Networks Test, we investigated aspects of executive control in children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (DS22q11.2), a common but not well understood disorder that produces non-verbal cognitive deficits and a marked incidence of psychopathology. The data revealed that children with DS22q11.2…

  7. Novel porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus strains in the United States with deletions in untranslated regions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Leyi; Zhang, Yan

    2015-12-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) still causes major problems for the swine industry worldwide. Here, we report the detection and genomic characterization of two novel PRRS virus (PRRSV) strains from the United States with deletions in untranslated regions (UTRs). The OH155-2015 strain has two single-nucleotide deletions in the 5' UTR, whereas the OH28372-2013 strain has a 13-nt deletion in the 3' UTR. In addition, OH155-2015 and OH28372-2013 have a unique deletion and mutations in the NSP2 and N gene, respectively. Our study highlights the importance of continued monitoring of PRRSV using whole-genome sequencing. PMID:26358265

  8. Histology of the Pharyngeal Constrictor Muscle in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome and Non-Syndromic Children with Velopharyngeal Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Widdershoven, Josine C. C.; Spruijt, Nicole E.; Spliet, Wim G. M.; Breugem, Corstiaan C.; Kon, Moshe; Mink van der Molen, Aebele B.

    2011-01-01

    Plastic surgeons aim to correct velopharyngeal insufficiency manifest by hypernasal speech with a velopharyngoplasty. The functional outcome has been reported to be worse in patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome than in patients without the syndrome. A possible explanation is the hypotonia that is often present as part of the syndrome. To confirm a myogenic component of the etiology of velopharyngeal insufficiency in children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, specimens of the pharyngeal constrictor muscle were taken from children with and without the syndrome. Histologic properties were compared between the groups. Specimens from the two groups did not differ regarding the presence of increased perimysial or endomysial space, fiber grouping by size or type, internalized nuclei, the percentage type I fibers, or the diameters of type I and type II fibers. In conclusion, a myogenic component of the etiology of velopharyngeal insufficiency in children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome could not be confirmed. PMID:21738760

  9. Deletion of Mitochondrial Porin Alleviates Stress Sensitivity in the Yeast Model of Shwachman-Diamond Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kanprasoet, Waruenada; Jensen, Laran T; Sriprach, Suwimon; Thitiananpakorn, Kanate; Rattanapornsompong, Khanti; Jensen, Amornrat Naranuntarat

    2015-12-20

    Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS) is a multi-system disorder characterized by bone marrow failure, pancreatic insufficiency, skeletal abnormalities, and increased risk of leukemic transformation. Most patients with SDS contain mutations in the Shwachman-Bodian-Diamond syndrome gene (SBDS), encoding a highly conserved protein that has been implicated in ribosome biogenesis. Emerging evidence also suggests a distinct role of SBDS beyond protein translation. Using the yeast model of SDS, we examined the underlying mechanisms that cause cells lacking Sdo1p, the yeast SBDS ortholog, to exhibit reduced tolerance to various stress conditions. Our analysis indicates that the environmental stress response (ESR), heat shock response (HSR), and endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response (UPR) of sdo1Δ cells are functional and that defects in these pathways do not produce the phenotypes observed in sdo1Δ yeast. Depletion of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was observed in sdo1Δ cells, and this is a probable cause of the mitochondrial insufficiency in SDS. Prior disruption of POR1, encoding the mitochondrial voltage dependent anion channel (VDAC), abrogated the effects of SDO1 deletion and substantially restored resistance to environmental stressors and protected against damage to mtDNA. Conversely, wild-type cells over-expressing POR1 exhibited growth impairment and increased stress sensitivity similar to that seen in sdo1Δ cells. Overall, our results suggest that specific VDAC inhibitors may have therapeutic benefits for SDS patients. PMID:26743985

  10. Identifying 22q11.2 deletion syndrome and psychosis using resting-state connectivity patterns.

    PubMed

    Scariati, Elisa; Schaer, Marie; Richiardi, Jonas; Schneider, Maude; Debbané, Martin; Van De Ville, Dimitri; Eliez, Stephan

    2014-11-01

    The clinical picture associated with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) includes mild mental retardation and an increased risk of schizophrenia. While the clinical phenotype has been related to structural brain network alterations, there is only scarce information about functional connectivity in 22q11DS. However, such studies could lead to a better comprehension of the disease and reveal potential biomarkers for psychosis. A connectivity decoding approach was used to discriminate between 42 patients with 22q11DS and 41 controls using resting-state connectivity. The same method was then applied within the 22q11DS group to identify brain connectivity patterns specifically related to the presence of psychotic symptoms. An accuracy of 84 % was achieved in differentiating patients with 22q11DS from controls. The discriminative connections were widespread, but predominantly located in the bilateral frontal and right temporal lobes, and were significantly correlated to IQ. An 88 % accuracy was obtained for identification of existing psychotic symptoms within the patients group. The regions containing most discriminative connections included the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), the left superior temporal and the right inferior frontal gyri. Functional connectivity alterations in 22q11DS affect mostly frontal and right temporal lobes and are related to the syndrome's mild mental retardation. These results also provide evidence that resting-state connectivity can potentially become a biomarker for psychosis and that ACC plays an important role in the development of psychotic symptoms. PMID:24562717

  11. Multi-disciplinary clinical study of Smith-Magenis syndrome (deletion 17p11.2)

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, F.; Lewis, R.A.; Potocki, L.

    1996-03-29

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a multiple congenital anomaly, mental retardation (MCA/MR) syndrome associated with deletion of chromosome 17 band p11.2. As part of a multi-disciplinary clinical, cytogenetic, and molecular approach to SMS, detailed clinical studies including radiographic neurologic, developmental, ophthalmologic, otolaryngologic, and audiologic evaluations were performed on 27 SMS patients. Significant findings include otolaryngologic abnormalities in 94%, eye abnormalities in 85%, sleep abnormalities (especially reduced REM sleep) in 75%, hearing impairment in 68% (approximately 65% conductive and 35% sensorineural), scoliosis in 65% brain abnormalities (predominantly ventriculomegaly) in 52%, cardiac abnormalities in at least 37%, renal anomalies (especially duplication of the collecting system) in 35%, low thyroxine levels in 29%, low immunoglobulin levels in 23%, and forearm abnormalities in 16%. The measured IQ ranged between 20-78, most patients falling in the moderate range of mental retardation at 40-54, although several patients scored in the mild or borderline range. The frequency of these many abnormalities in SMS suggests that patients should be evaluated thoroughly for associated complications both at the time of diagnosis and at least annually thereafter. 42 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. An interictal schizophrenia-like psychosis in an adult patient with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tastuzawa, Yasutaka; Sekinaka, Kanako; Suda, Tetsufumi; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Otabe, Hiroyuki; Nonoyama, Shigeaki; Yoshino, Aihide

    2015-01-01

    In addition to causing polymalformative syndrome, 22q11.2 deletion can lead to various neuropsychiatric disorders including mental retardation, psychosis, and epilepsy. However, few reports regarding epilepsy-related psychosis in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) exist. We describe the clinical characteristics and course of 22q11.2DS in a Japanese patient with comorbid mild mental retardation, childhood-onset localization-related epilepsy, and adult-onset, interictal schizophrenia-like psychosis. From a diagnostic viewpoint, early detection of impaired intellectual functioning and hyperprolinemia in patients with epilepsy with 22q11.2DS may be helpful in predicting the developmental timing of interictal psychosis. From a therapeutic viewpoint, special attention needs to be paid to phenytoin-induced hypocalcemia in this syndrome. PMID:25870791

  13. An interictal schizophrenia-like psychosis in an adult patient with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tastuzawa, Yasutaka; Sekikawa, Kanako; Suda, Tetsufumi; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Otabe, Hiroyuki; Nonoyama, Shigeaki; Yoshino, Aihide

    2015-01-01

    In addition to causing polymalformative syndrome, 22q11.2 deletion can lead to various neuropsychiatric disorders including mental retardation, psychosis, and epilepsy. However, few reports regarding epilepsy-related psychosis in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) exist. We describe the clinical characteristics and course of 22q11.2DS in a Japanese patient with comorbid mild mental retardation, childhood-onset localization-related epilepsy, and adult-onset, interictal schizophrenia-like psychosis. From a diagnostic viewpoint, early detection of impaired intellectual functioning and hyperprolinemia in patients with epilepsy with 22q11.2DS may be helpful in predicting the developmental timing of interictal psychosis. From a therapeutic viewpoint, special attention needs to be paid to phenytoin-induced hypocalcemia in this syndrome. PMID:25870791

  14. Social Cognition Dysfunction in Adolescents with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (Velo-Cardio-Facial Syndrome): Relationship with Executive Functioning and Social Competence/Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, L. E.; McCabe, K. L.; Melville, J. L.; Strutt, P. A.; Schall, U.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Social difficulties are often noted among people with intellectual disabilities. Children and adults with 22q.11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) often have poorer social competence as well as poorer performance on measures of executive and social-cognitive skills compared with typically developing young people. However, the relationship…

  15. Social Cognition Dysfunction in Adolescents with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (Velo-Cardio-Facial Syndrome): Relationship with Executive Functioning and Social Competence/Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, L. E.; McCabe, K. L.; Melville, J. L.; Strutt, P. A.; Schall, U.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Social difficulties are often noted among people with intellectual disabilities. Children and adults with 22q.11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) often have poorer social competence as well as poorer performance on measures of executive and social-cognitive skills compared with typically developing young people. However, the relationship…

  16. Psychiatric disorders in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome are prevalent but undertreated

    PubMed Central

    Tang, S. X.; Yi, J. J.; Calkins, M. E.; Whinna, D. A.; Kohler, C. G.; Souders, M. C.; McDonald-McGinn, D. M.; Zackai, E. H.; Emanuel, B. S.; Gur, R. C.; Gur, R. E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a common genetic disorder with high rates of psychosis and other psychopathologies, but few studies discuss treatment. Our aim was to characterize the prevalence and treatment of major psychiatric illnesses in a well-characterized sample of individuals with 22q11DS. Method This was a cross-sectional study of 112 individuals aged 8 to 45 years with a confirmed diagnosis of 22q11DS. Each participant was administered a modified Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children (K-SADS) and the Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes (SIPS). Phenotypes assessed were threshold and subthreshold psychosis, depression, mania, generalized and separation anxiety, obsessions/compulsions, inattention/hyperactivity and substance use. Histories of mental health care and current psychotropic treatment were obtained. Results Psychopathology was common, with 79% of individuals meeting diagnostic criteria for a disorder at the time of assessment. Diagnoses of psychosis were made in 11% of cases, attenuated positive symptom syndrome (APS) in 21%, and 47% experienced significant subthreshold symptoms. Peak occurrence of psychosis risk was during adolescence (62% of those aged 12–17 years). Criteria for a mood disorder were met by 14%, for anxiety disorder 34% and for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) 31%. Mental health care had been received by 63% of individuals in their lifetime, but only 40% continued therapy and 39% used psychotropics. Antipsychotics were used by 42% of participants with psychosis and none of the participants with APS. Half of those at risk for psychosis were receiving no mental health care. Conclusions Psychopathology is common in 22q11DS but is not adequately treated or clinically followed. Particular attention should be paid to subthreshold psychotic symptoms, especially in adolescents. PMID:24016317

  17. 18q deletion syndrome in a child with steroid-17,20-lyase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Chasalow, F I; Blethen, S L; Knight, S M; Taysi, K

    1986-06-01

    The del (18q) syndrome is characterised by poor growth, variable mental retardation, facial dysmorphism, and abnormalities of the genitalia. In genetic males, genital abnormalities vary from testicular ectopia, and microphallus to severe hypospadias. Genetic females frequently have hypoplasia of the labia minora. We describe a child with del (18q) syndrome and severe ambiguous genitalia. Serum testosterone after 4 doses of hCG (5000 IU/m2/dose) was only 50 ng/dL (expected greater than 300 ng/dL). When testicular tissue was incubated with [1,2-3H]progesterone and 17-hydroxy-[4-14C]progesterone, there was synthesis of 17-hydroxy-[1,2-3H]progesterone but no further metabolism of 17-hydroxyprogesterone to androgens. These data suggested the presence of steroid-17,20-lyase deficiency. In order to determine if steroid-17,20-lyase deficiency was a common feature in del (18q) syndrome we examined 6 other patients (3 girls; 3 boys) with a deletion of the long arm of chromosome 18 distal to band q21. All 6 had dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) levels which were lower than those of age-matched controls. Four had delayed puberty. Serum testosterone levels were also low in 2 of the 3 affected boys. These results together with the findings in the index case suggest that a structural or regulatory gene for steroid-17,20-lyase may be located on the long arm of chromosome 18, distal to band q21. PMID:3617117

  18. Molecular definition of the chromosome 7 deletion in Williams syndrome and parent-of-origin effects on growth

    SciTech Connect

    Perez Jurado, L.A.; Peoples, R.; Francke, U.

    1996-10-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a developmental disorder with variable phenotypic expression associated, in most cases, with a hemizygous deletion of part of chromosomal band 7q11.23 that includes the elastin gene (ELN). We have investigated the frequency and size of the deletions, determined the parental origin, and correlated the molecular results with the clinical findings in 65 WS patients. Hemizygosity at the ELN locus was established by typing of two intragenic polymorphisms, quantitative Southern analysis, and/or FISH. Polymorphic markers covering the deletion and flanking regions were ordered by a combination of genetic and physical mapping. Genotyping of WS patients and available parents for 13 polymorphisms revealed that of 65 clinically defined WS patients, 61 (94%) had a deletion of the ELN locus and were also hemizygous (or non-informative) at loci D7S489B, D7S2476, D7S613, D7S2472, and D7S1870. None of the four patients without ELN deletion was hemizygous at any of the polymorphic loci studied. All patients were heterozygous (or noninformative) for centromeric (D7S1816, D7S1483, and D7S653) and telomeric (D7S489A, D7S675, and D7S669) flanking loci. The genetic distance between the most-centromeric deleted locus, D7S489B, and the most-telomeric one, D7S1870, is 2 cM. The breakpoints cluster at {approximately}1 cM to either side of ELN. In 39 families informative for parental origin, all deletions were de novo, and 18 were paternally and 21 maternally derived. Comparison of clinical data, collected in a standardized quantifiable format, revealed significantly more severe growth retardation and microcephaly in the maternal deletion group. An imprinted locus, silent on the paternal chromosome and contributing to statural growth, may be affected by the deletion. 53 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Contribution of large genomic rearrangements in Italian Lynch syndrome patients: characterization of a novel alu-mediated deletion.

    PubMed

    Duraturo, Francesca; Cavallo, Angela; Liccardo, Raffaella; Cudia, Bianca; De Rosa, Marina; Diana, Giuseppe; Izzo, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Lynch syndrome is associated with germ-line mutations in the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes, mainly MLH1 and MSH2. Most of the mutations reported in these genes to date are point mutations, small deletions, and insertions. Large genomic rearrangements in the MMR genes predisposing to Lynch syndrome also occur, but the frequency varies depending on the population studied on average from 5 to 20%. The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of large rearrangements in the MLH1 and MSH2 genes in a well-characterised series of 63 unrelated Southern Italian Lynch syndrome patients who were negative for pathogenic point mutations in the MLH1, MSH2, and MSH6 genes. We identified a large novel deletion in the MSH2 gene, including exon 6 in one of the patients analysed (1.6% frequency). This deletion was confirmed and localised by long-range PCR. The breakpoints of this rearrangement were characterised by sequencing. Further analysis of the breakpoints revealed that this rearrangement was a product of Alu-mediated recombination. Our findings identified a novel Alu-mediated rearrangement within MSH2 gene and showed that large deletions or duplications in MLH1 and MSH2 genes are low-frequency mutational events in Southern Italian patients with an inherited predisposition to colon cancer. PMID:23484096

  20. Decreased DGCR8 Expression and miRNA Dysregulation in Individuals with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sellier, Chantal; Hwang, Vicki J.; Dandekar, Ravi; Durbin-Johnson, Blythe; Charlet-Berguerand, Nicolas; Ander, Bradley P.; Sharp, Frank R.; Angkustsiri, Kathleen; Simon, Tony J.; Tassone, Flora

    2014-01-01

    Deletion of the 1.5–3 Mb region of chromosome 22 at locus 11.2 gives rise to the chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), also known as DiGeorge and Velocardiofacial Syndromes. It is the most common micro-deletion disorder in humans and one of the most common multiple malformation syndromes. The syndrome is characterized by a broad phenotype, whose characterization has expanded considerably within the last decade and includes many associated findings such as craniofacial anomalies (40%), conotruncal defects of the heart (CHD; 70–80%), hypocalcemia (20–60%), and a range of neurocognitive anomalies with high risk of schizophrenia, all with a broad phenotypic variability. These phenotypic features are believed to be the result of a change in the copy number or dosage of the genes located in the deleted region. Despite this relatively clear genetic etiology, very little is known about which genes modulate phenotypic variations in humans or if they are due to combinatorial effects of reduced dosage of multiple genes acting in concert. Here, we report on decreased expression levels of genes within the deletion region of chromosome 22, including DGCR8, in peripheral leukocytes derived from individuals with 22q11DS compared to healthy controls. Furthermore, we found dysregulated miRNA expression in individuals with 22q11DS, including miR-150, miR-194 and miR-185. We postulate this to be related to DGCR8 haploinsufficiency as DGCR8 regulates miRNA biogenesis. Importantly we demonstrate that the level of some miRNAs correlates with brain measures, CHD and thyroid abnormalities, suggesting that the dysregulated miRNAs may contribute to these phenotypes and/or represent relevant blood biomarkers of the disease in individuals with 22q11DS. PMID:25084529

  1. Fine Mapping of the 1p36 Deletion Syndrome Identifies Mutation of PRDM16 as a Cause of Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Arndt, Anne-Karin; Schafer, Sebastian; Drenckhahn, Jorg-Detlef; Sabeh, M. Khaled; Plovie, Eva R.; Caliebe, Almuth; Klopocki, Eva; Musso, Gabriel; Werdich, Andreas A.; Kalwa, Hermann; Heinig, Matthias; Padera, Robert F.; Wassilew, Katharina; Bluhm, Julia; Harnack, Christine; Martitz, Janine; Barton, Paul J.; Greutmann, Matthias; Berger, Felix; Hubner, Norbert; Siebert, Reiner; Kramer, Hans-Heiner; Cook, Stuart A.; MacRae, Calum A.; Klaassen, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    Deletion 1p36 syndrome is recognized as the most common terminal deletion syndrome. Here, we describe the loss of a gene within the deletion that is responsible for the cardiomyopathy associated with monosomy 1p36, and we confirm its role in nonsyndromic left ventricular noncompaction cardiomyopathy (LVNC) and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). With our own data and publically available data from array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), we identified a minimal deletion for the cardiomyopathy associated with 1p36del syndrome that included only the terminal 14 exons of the transcription factor PRDM16 (PR domain containing 16), a gene that had previously been shown to direct brown fat determination and differentiation. Resequencing of PRDM16 in a cohort of 75 nonsyndromic individuals with LVNC detected three mutations, including one truncation mutant, one frameshift null mutation, and a single missense mutant. In addition, in a series of cardiac biopsies from 131 individuals with DCM, we found 5 individuals with 4 previously unreported nonsynonymous variants in the coding region of PRDM16. None of the PRDM16 mutations identified were observed in more than 6,400 controls. PRDM16 has not previously been associated with cardiac disease but is localized in the nuclei of cardiomyocytes throughout murine and human development and in the adult heart. Modeling of PRDM16 haploinsufficiency and a human truncation mutant in zebrafish resulted in both contractile dysfunction and partial uncoupling of cardiomyocytes and also revealed evidence of impaired cardiomyocyte proliferative capacity. In conclusion, mutation of PRDM16 causes the cardiomyopathy in 1p36 deletion syndrome as well as a proportion of nonsyndromic LVNC and DCM. PMID:23768516

  2. Subtypes in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome associated with behaviour and neurofacial morphology.

    PubMed

    Sinderberry, Brooke; Brown, Scott; Hammond, Peter; Stevens, Angela F; Schall, Ulrich; Murphy, Declan G M; Murphy, Kieran C; Campbell, Linda E

    2013-01-01

    22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) has a complex phenotype with more than 180 characteristics, including cardiac anomalies, cleft palate, intellectual disabilities, a typical facial morphology, and mental health problems. However, the variable phenotype makes it difficult to predict clinical outcome, such as the high prevalence of psychosis among adults with 22q11DS (~25-30% vs. ~1% in the general population). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether subtypes exist among people with 22q11DS, with a similar phenotype and an increased risk of developing mental health problems. Physical, cognitive and behavioural data from 50 children and adolescents with 22q11DS were included in a k-means cluster analysis. Two distinct phenotypes were identified: Type-1 presented with a more severe phenotype including significantly impaired verbal memory, lower intellectual and academic ability, as well as statistically significant reduced total brain volume. In addition, we identified a trend effect for reduced temporal grey matter. Type-1 also presented with autism-spectrum traits, whereas Type-2 could be described as having more 22q11DS-typical face morphology, being predominately affected by executive function deficits, but otherwise being relatively high functioning with regard to cognition and behaviour. The confirmation of well-defined subtypes in 22q11DS can lead to better prognostic information enabling early identification of people with 22q11DS at high risk of psychiatric disorders. The identification of subtypes in a group of people with a relatively homogenous genetic deletion such as 22q11DS is also valuable to understand clinical outcomes. PMID:22940165

  3. Mitochondrial Citrate Transporter-dependent Metabolic Signature in the 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Napoli, Eleonora; Tassone, Flora; Wong, Sarah; Angkustsiri, Kathleen; Simon, Tony J; Song, Gyu; Giulivi, Cecilia

    2015-09-18

    The congenital disorder 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22qDS), characterized by a hemizygous deletion of 1.5-3 Mb on chromosome 22 at locus 11.2, is the most common microdeletion disorder (estimated prevalence of 1 in 4000) and the second risk factor for schizophrenia. Nine of ?30 genes involved in 22qDS have the potential of disrupting mitochondrial metabolism (COMT, UFD1L, DGCR8, MRPL40, PRODH, SLC25A1, TXNRD2, T10, and ZDHHC8). Deficits in bioenergetics during early postnatal brain development could set the basis for a disrupted neuronal metabolism or synaptic signaling, partly explaining the higher incidence in developmental and behavioral deficits in these individuals. Here, we investigated whether mitochondrial outcomes and metabolites from 22qDS children segregated with the altered dosage of one or several of these mitochondrial genes contributing to 22qDS etiology and/or morbidity. Plasma metabolomics, lymphocytic mitochondrial outcomes, and epigenetics (histone H3 Lys-4 trimethylation and 5-methylcytosine) were evaluated in samples from 11 22qDS children and 13 age- and sex-matched neurotypically developing controls. Metabolite differences between 22qDS children and controls reflected a shift from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis (higher lactate/pyruvate ratios) accompanied by an increase in reductive carboxylation of ?-ketoglutarate (increased concentrations of 2-hydroxyglutaric acid, cholesterol, and fatty acids). Altered metabolism in 22qDS reflected a critical role for the haploinsufficiency of the mitochondrial citrate transporter SLC25A1, further enhanced by HIF-1?, MYC, and metabolite controls. This comprehensive profiling served to clarify the biochemistry of this disease underlying its broad, complex phenotype. PMID:26221035

  4. Overlap of juvenile polyposis syndrome and cowden syndrome due to de novo chromosome 10 deletion involving BMPR1A and PTEN: implications for treatment and surveillance.

    PubMed

    Alimi, Adebisi; Weeth-Feinstein, Lauren A; Stettner, Amy; Caldera, Freddy; Weiss, Jennifer M

    2015-06-01

    We describe a patient with a severe juvenile polyposis phenotype, due to a de novo deletion of chromosome 10q22.3-q24.1. He was initially diagnosed with Juvenile polyposis syndrome (JPS) at age four after presenting with hematochezia due to multiple colonic juvenile polyps. He then re-presented at 23 years with recurrent hematochezia from juvenile polyps in his ileoanal pouch. He is one of the earliest reported cases of JPS associated with a large deletion of chromosome 10. Since his initial diagnosis of JPS further studies have confirmed an association between JPS and mutations in BMPR1A in chromosome band 10q23.2, which is in close proximity to PTEN. Mutations in PTEN cause Cowden syndrome (CS) and other PTEN hamartoma tumor syndromes. Due to the chromosome 10 deletion involving contiguous portions of BMPR1A and PTEN in our patient, he may be at risk for CS associated cancers and features, in addition to the polyps associated with JPS. This case presents new challenges in developing appropriate surveillance algorithms to account for the risks associated with each syndrome and highlights the importance of longitudinal follow-up and transitional care between pediatric and adult gastroenterology for patients with hereditary polyposis syndromes. PMID:25846706

  5. Velo-Cardio-Facial syndrome and DiGeorge sequence with meningomyelocele and deletions of the 22q11 region

    SciTech Connect

    Nickel, R.E.; Pillers, D.M.; Merkens, M.; Magenis, R.E.; Zonana, J.; Driscoll, D.A.; Emanuel, B.S.

    1994-10-01

    Approximately 5% of children with neural tube defects (NTDs) have a congenital heart defect and/or cleft lip and palate. The cause of isolated meningomyelocele, congenital heart defects, or cleft lip and palate has been largely thought to be multifactorial. However, chromosomal, teratogenic, and single gene causes of combinations of NTDs with congenital heart defects and/or cleft lip and palate have been reported. We report on 3 patients with meningomyelocele, congenital heart defects, and 22q11 deletions. Two of the children had the clinical diagnosis of velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS); both have bifid uvula. The third child had DiGeorge sequence (DGS). The association of NTDs with 22q11 deletion has not been reported previously. An accurate diagnosis of the 22q11 deletion is critical as this micro-deletion and its associated clinical problems is transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait due to the inheritance of the deletion-bearing chromosome. We recommend that all children with NTDs and congenital heart defects, with or without cleft palate, have cytogenetic and molecular studies performed to detect 22q11 deletions. 31 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Intragenic deletions affecting two alternative transcripts of the IMMP2L gene in patients with Tourette syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bertelsen, Birgitte; Melchior, Linea; Jensen, Lars R; Groth, Camilla; Glenthøj, Birte; Rizzo, Renata; Debes, Nanette Mol; Skov, Liselotte; Brøndum-Nielsen, Karen; Paschou, Peristera; Silahtaroglu, Asli; Tümer, Zeynep

    2014-11-01

    Tourette syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by multiple motor and vocal tics, and the disorder is often accompanied by comorbidities such as attention-deficit hyperactivity-disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder. Tourette syndrome has a complex etiology, but the underlying environmental and genetic factors are largely unknown. IMMP2L (inner mitochondrial membrane peptidase, subunit 2) located on chromosome 7q31 is one of the genes suggested as a susceptibility factor in disease pathogenesis. Through screening of a Danish cohort comprising 188 unrelated Tourette syndrome patients for copy number variations, we identified seven patients with intragenic IMMP2L deletions (3.7%), and this frequency was significantly higher (P=0.0447) compared with a Danish control cohort (0.9%). Four of the seven deletions identified did not include any known exons of IMMP2L, but were within intron 3. These deletions were found to affect a shorter IMMP2L mRNA species with two alternative 5'-exons (one including the ATG start codon). We showed that both transcripts (long and short) were expressed in several brain regions, with a particularly high expression in cerebellum and hippocampus. The current findings give further evidence for the role of IMMP2L as a susceptibility factor in Tourette syndrome and suggest that intronic changes in disease susceptibility genes should be investigated further for presence of alternatively spliced exons. PMID:24549057

  7. Molecular Mechanisms Generating and Stabilizing Terminal 22q13 Deletions in 44 Subjects with Phelan/McDermid Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Beri, Silvana; De Agostini, Cristina; Novara, Francesca; Fichera, Marco; Grillo, Lucia; Galesi, Ornella; Vetro, Annalisa; Ciccone, Roberto; Bonati, Maria Teresa; Giglio, Sabrina; Guerrini, Renzo; Osimani, Sara; Marelli, Susan; Zucca, Claudio; Grasso, Rita; Borgatti, Renato; Mani, Elisa; Motta, Cristina; Molteni, Massimo; Romano, Corrado; Greco, Donatella; Reitano, Santina; Baroncini, Anna; Lapi, Elisabetta; Cecconi, Antonella; Arrigo, Giulia; Patricelli, Maria Grazia; Pantaleoni, Chiara; D'Arrigo, Stefano; Riva, Daria; Sciacca, Francesca; Dalla Bernardina, Bernardo; Zoccante, Leonardo; Darra, Francesca; Termine, Cristiano; Maserati, Emanuela; Bigoni, Stefania; Priolo, Emanuela; Bottani, Armand; Gimelli, Stefania; Bena, Frederique; Brusco, Alfredo; di Gregorio, Eleonora; Bagnasco, Irene; Giussani, Ursula; Nitsch, Lucio; Politi, Pierluigi; Martinez-Frias, Maria Luisa; Martínez-Fernández, Maria Luisa; Martínez Guardia, Nieves; Bremer, Anna; Anderlid, Britt-Marie; Zuffardi, Orsetta

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we used deletions at 22q13, which represent a substantial source of human pathology (Phelan/McDermid syndrome), as a model for investigating the molecular mechanisms of terminal deletions that are currently poorly understood. We characterized at the molecular level the genomic rearrangement in 44 unrelated patients with 22q13 monosomy resulting from simple terminal deletions (72%), ring chromosomes (14%), and unbalanced translocations (7%). We also discovered interstitial deletions between 17–74 kb in 9% of the patients. Haploinsufficiency of the SHANK3 gene, confirmed in all rearrangements, is very likely the cause of the major neurological features associated with PMS. SHANK3 mutations can also result in language and/or social interaction disabilities. We determined the breakpoint junctions in 29 cases, providing a realistic snapshot of the variety of mechanisms driving non-recurrent deletion and repair at chromosome ends. De novo telomere synthesis and telomere capture are used to repair terminal deletions; non-homologous end-joining or microhomology-mediated break-induced replication is probably involved in ring 22 formation and translocations; non-homologous end-joining and fork stalling and template switching prevail in cases with interstitial 22q13.3. For the first time, we also demonstrated that distinct stabilizing events of the same terminal deletion can occur in different early embryonic cells, proving that terminal deletions can be repaired by multistep healing events and supporting the recent hypothesis that rare pathogenic germline rearrangements may have mitotic origin. Finally, the progressive clinical deterioration observed throughout the longitudinal medical history of three subjects over forty years supports the hypothesis of a role for SHANK3 haploinsufficiency in neurological deterioration, in addition to its involvement in the neurobehavioral phenotype of PMS. PMID:21779178

  8. Molecular mechanisms generating and stabilizing terminal 22q13 deletions in 44 subjects with Phelan/McDermid syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bonaglia, Maria Clara; Giorda, Roberto; Beri, Silvana; De Agostini, Cristina; Novara, Francesca; Fichera, Marco; Grillo, Lucia; Galesi, Ornella; Vetro, Annalisa; Ciccone, Roberto; Bonati, Maria Teresa; Giglio, Sabrina; Guerrini, Renzo; Osimani, Sara; Marelli, Susan; Zucca, Claudio; Grasso, Rita; Borgatti, Renato; Mani, Elisa; Motta, Cristina; Molteni, Massimo; Romano, Corrado; Greco, Donatella; Reitano, Santina; Baroncini, Anna; Lapi, Elisabetta; Cecconi, Antonella; Arrigo, Giulia; Patricelli, Maria Grazia; Pantaleoni, Chiara; D'Arrigo, Stefano; Riva, Daria; Sciacca, Francesca; Dalla Bernardina, Bernardo; Zoccante, Leonardo; Darra, Francesca; Termine, Cristiano; Maserati, Emanuela; Bigoni, Stefania; Priolo, Emanuela; Bottani, Armand; Gimelli, Stefania; Bena, Frederique; Brusco, Alfredo; di Gregorio, Eleonora; Bagnasco, Irene; Giussani, Ursula; Nitsch, Lucio; Politi, Pierluigi; Martinez-Frias, Maria Luisa; Martínez-Fernández, Maria Luisa; Martínez Guardia, Nieves; Bremer, Anna; Anderlid, Britt-Marie; Zuffardi, Orsetta

    2011-07-01

    In this study, we used deletions at 22q13, which represent a substantial source of human pathology (Phelan/McDermid syndrome), as a model for investigating the molecular mechanisms of terminal deletions that are currently poorly understood. We characterized at the molecular level the genomic rearrangement in 44 unrelated patients with 22q13 monosomy resulting from simple terminal deletions (72%), ring chromosomes (14%), and unbalanced translocations (7%). We also discovered interstitial deletions between 17-74 kb in 9% of the patients. Haploinsufficiency of the SHANK3 gene, confirmed in all rearrangements, is very likely the cause of the major neurological features associated with PMS. SHANK3 mutations can also result in language and/or social interaction disabilities. We determined the breakpoint junctions in 29 cases, providing a realistic snapshot of the variety of mechanisms driving non-recurrent deletion and repair at chromosome ends. De novo telomere synthesis and telomere capture are used to repair terminal deletions; non-homologous end-joining or microhomology-mediated break-induced replication is probably involved in ring 22 formation and translocations; non-homologous end-joining and fork stalling and template switching prevail in cases with interstitial 22q13.3. For the first time, we also demonstrated that distinct stabilizing events of the same terminal deletion can occur in different early embryonic cells, proving that terminal deletions can be repaired by multistep healing events and supporting the recent hypothesis that rare pathogenic germline rearrangements may have mitotic origin. Finally, the progressive clinical deterioration observed throughout the longitudinal medical history of three subjects over forty years supports the hypothesis of a role for SHANK3 haploinsufficiency in neurological deterioration, in addition to its involvement in the neurobehavioral phenotype of PMS. PMID:21779178

  9. Deficits in Mental State Attributions in Individuals with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (Velo-Cardio-Facial Syndrome)

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Jennifer S.; Radoeva, Petya D.; Jalbrzikowski, Maria; Chow, Carolyn; Hopkins, Jessica; Tran, Wen-Ching; Mehta, Ami; Enrique, Nicole; Gilbert, Chelsea; Antshel, Kevin M.; Fremont, Wanda; Kates, Wendy R.; Bearden, Carrie E.

    2012-01-01

    Velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS; 22q11.2 deletion syndrome) results from a genetic mutation that increases risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). We compared Theory of Mind (ToM) skills in 63 individuals with VCFS (25% with an ASD diagnosis) and 43 typically-developing controls, and investigated the relationship of ToM to reciprocal social behavior. We administered a video-based task to assess mentalizing at two sites (UCLA and SUNY Upstate Medical University). The videos depicted interactions representing complex mental states (ToM condition), or simple movements (Random condition). Verbal descriptions of the videos were rated for Intentionality (i.e., mentalizing) and Appropriateness. Using Repeated Measures ANOVA, we assessed the effects of VCFS and ASD on Intentionality and Appropriateness, and the relationship of mentalizing to Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) scores. Results indicated that individuals with VCFS overall had lower Intentionality and Appropriateness scores than controls for ToM, but not for Random scenes. In the SUNY sample, individuals with VCFS, both with and without ASD, performed more poorly than controls on the ToM condition; however, in the UCLA sample, only individuals with VCFS without ASD performed significantly worse than controls on the ToM condition. Controlling for site and age, performance on the ToM condition was significantly correlated with SRS scores. Individuals with VCFS, regardless of an ASD diagnosis, showed impairments in the spontaneous attribution of mental states to abstract visual stimuli, which may underlie real-life problems with social interactions. A better understanding of the social deficits in VCFS is essential for the development of targeted behavioral interventions. PMID:22962003

  10. Identification of Chromosome Abnormalities in Subtelomeric Regions Using Multiplex Ligation Dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA) Technique in 100 Iranian Patients With Idiopathic Mental Retardation

    PubMed Central

    Behjati, Farkhondeh; Ghasemi Firouzabadi, Saghar; Sajedi, Firoozeh; Kahrizi, Kimia; Najafi, Mostafa; Ebrahimizade Ghasemlou, Behruz; Shafeghati, Yousef; Behnia, Fatemeh; Mohammadi Arya, Ali Reza; Karimi, Hossein; Hadipour, Fatemeh; Hadipour, Zahra; Jamali, Peyman; Kariminejad, Roxana; Darvish, Hossein; Bahman, Ideh; Bagherizadeh, Eiman; Najmabadi, Hossein; Vameghi, Roshanak

    2013-01-01

    Background Mental retardation/Developmental delay (MR/DD) is present in 1 - 3% of the general population (1, 2). MR is defined as a significant impairment of both cognitive (IQ < 70) and social adaptive functions, with onset before 18 years of age. Objectives The purpose was to determine the results of subtelomeric screening by the Multiplex Ligation Dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA) Technique in 100 selected patients with idiopathic mental retardation (IMR) in Iran. Materials and Methods A number of 100 patients with IMR, normal karyotypes and negative fragile-X and metabolic tests were screened for subtelomeric abnormalities using MLPA technique. Results Nine of 100 patients showed subtelomeric abnormalities with at least one of the two MLPA kits. Deletion in a single region was found in 3 patients, and in two different subtelomeric regions in 1 patient. Duplication was only single and was present in 2 patients. Three patients were found to have both a deletion and duplication.MLPA testing in the parental samples of 7 patients which was accessible showed that 4 patients were de novo, 2 patients had inherited from a clinically normal mother, and one had inherited from a clinically normal father. Screening with the two MLPA kits (SALSA P036 and SALSA P070) proved abnormality in only five of the 9 patients. Conclusions So, the prevalence rate of abnormal subtelomeres using MLPA technique in patients with idiopathic MR in our study was 5 - 9%, the higher limit referring to the positive results of one of the two MLPA kits, and the lower limit representing the results of positive double-checking with the two MLPA kits. PMID:24693374

  11. Hearing Loss in a Mouse Model of 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, Jennifer C.; Zinnamon, Fhatarah A.; Taylor, Ruth R.; Ivins, Sarah; Scambler, Peter J.; Forge, Andrew; Tucker, Abigail S.; Linden, Jennifer F.

    2013-01-01

    22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11DS) arises from an interstitial chromosomal microdeletion encompassing at least 30 genes. This disorder is one of the most significant known cytogenetic risk factors for schizophrenia, and can also cause heart abnormalities, cognitive deficits, hearing difficulties, and a variety of other medical problems. The Df1/+ hemizygous knockout mouse, a model for human 22q11DS, recapitulates many of the deficits observed in the human syndrome including heart defects, impaired memory, and abnormal auditory sensorimotor gating. Here we show that Df1/+ mice, like human 22q11DS patients, have substantial rates of hearing loss arising from chronic middle ear infection. Auditory brainstem response (ABR) measurements revealed significant elevation of click-response thresholds in 48% of Df1/+ mice, often in only one ear. Anatomical and histological analysis of the middle ear demonstrated no gross structural abnormalities, but frequent signs of otitis media (OM, chronic inflammation of the middle ear), including excessive effusion and thickened mucosa. In mice for which both in vivo ABR thresholds and post mortem middle-ear histology were obtained, the severity of signs of OM correlated directly with the level of hearing impairment. These results suggest that abnormal auditory sensorimotor gating previously reported in mouse models of 22q11DS could arise from abnormalities in auditory processing. Furthermore, the findings indicate that Df1/+ mice are an excellent model for increased risk of OM in human 22q11DS patients. Given the frequently monaural nature of OM in Df1/+ mice, these animals could also be a powerful tool for investigating the interplay between genetic and environmental causes of OM. PMID:24244619

  12. Premature death in adults with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bassett, A S; Chow, E W C; Husted, J; Hodgkinson, K A; Oechslin, E; Harris, L; Silversides, C

    2011-01-01

    Background 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is a multisystem disease with a prevalence of 1/4000. Variable expression of congenital and later onset features contributes to its under-recognition. Longevity in those surviving childhood is believed to be normal but data are limited. Methods We prospectively followed 264 subjects; 102 adults (>17 years) with 22q11.2DS (44 male (M), 58 female (F); mean (SD) age 33.6 (10.9) years) and their 162 unaffected siblings (77 M, 85 F; mean age 36.1 (12.2) years). We compared survival between groups using Kaplan–Meier estimates. Results Twelve (11.8%; 4 M, 8 F) individuals with 22q11.2DS and no siblings died (p<0.0001). Survival to ages 40 and 50 years was 89.9% and 73.9%, respectively. Median age at death was 41.5 (range 18.1–68.6) years. Deaths included two (7.7%) of 26 subjects with neither major congenital heart disease (CHD) nor schizophrenia. Four of six sudden and unexpected deaths occurred in individuals with no major CHD. There was no evidence of cancer or coronary artery disease or family history of sudden death in the 12 patients who died, six of whom had autopsies. Discussion Individuals with 22q11.2DS who survive childhood have diminished life expectancy and increased risk of sudden death not attributable to any single factor. Some sudden and/or premature deaths observed in the general population may represent undiagnosed 22q11.2DS. Increased recognition of the syndrome by family doctors, specialists and coroners will be essential to facilitate the tissue studies needed to determine underlying mechanisms. PMID:19246480

  13. Novel 5.712 kb mitochondrial DNA deletion in a patient with Pearson syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Park, Joonhong; Ryu, Hyejin; Jang, Woori; Chae, Hyojin; Kim, Myungshin; Kim, Yonggoo; Kim, Jiyeon; Lee, Jae Wook; Chung, Nack-Gyun; Cho, Bin; Suh, Byung Kyu

    2015-05-01

    Pearson marrow?pancreas syndrome (PS) is a progressive multi?organ disorder caused by deletions and duplications of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). PS is often fatal in infancy, and the majority of patients with PS succumb to the disease before reaching three?years?of?age, due to septicemia, metabolic acidosis or hepatocellular insufficiency. The present report describes the case of a four?month?old infant with severe normocytic normochromic anemia, vacuolization of hematopoietic precursors and metabolic acidosis. After extensive clinical investigation, the patient was diagnosed with PS, which was confirmed by molecular analysis of mtDNA. The molecular analysis detected a novel large?scale (5.712 kb) deletion spanning nucleotides 8,011 to 13,722 of mtDNA, which lacked direct repeats at the deletion boundaries. The present report is, to the best of our knowledge, the first case reported in South Korea. PMID:25543536

  14. Deletion 1q43-44 in a patient with clinical diagnosis of Warburg-Micro syndrome.

    PubMed

    Arroyo-Carrera, Ignacio; de Zaldívar Tristancho, María Solo; Bermejo-Sánchez, Eva; Martínez-Fernández, María Luisa; López-Lafuente, Amparo; MacDonald, Alexandra; Zúñiga, Ángel; Luis Gómez-Skarmeta, José; Luisa Martínez-Frías, María

    2015-06-01

    Warburg-Micro syndrome (WARBM) is an autosomal recessive syndrome characterized by microcephaly, microphthalmia, microcornea, congenital cataracts, optic atrophy and central nervous system malformations. This syndrome is caused by mutations in the RAB3GAP1/2 and RAB18 genes, part of the Rab family, and in the TBC1D20 gene, which contributes to lipid droplet formation/metabolism. Here we present a patient with clinical diagnosis of WARBM syndrome, who did not have mutations in either the RAB3GAP1/2 genes, in the main exons of RAB18, nor in the TBC1D20 gene. However, the analysis with CGH-array detected a 9.6 Mb deletion at 1q43-qter. We performed a genotype-phenotype correlation using 20 previously published patients in whom the coordinates of the deleted regions were defined. The comparative analysis revealed that the current patient and three of the other 20 patients share the loss of six genes, four of which are related with the family of G proteins, and are strongly expressed in the brain, retina, heart and kidney. Consequently, their haploinsufficiency may result in different combinations of clinical alterations, including some of those of WARBM syndrome. In addition, the haploinsufficiency of other genes may contribute to other defects and clinical variability. Additionally, for the genotype-phenotype correlation, one must also consider molecular pathways that can result in the observed alterations. To early confirm a genetic diagnosis is essential for the patient and family. The current patient was considered as having a recessive syndrome, but since he had a "de novo" deletion, there was not an increased recurrence risk. PMID:25899426

  15. High proportion of large genomic deletions and a genotype–phenotype update in 80 unrelated families with juvenile polyposis syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Aretz, S; Stienen, D; Uhlhaas, S; Stolte, M; Entius, M M; Loff, S; Back, W; Kaufmann, A; Keller, K‐M; Blaas, S H; Siebert, R; Vogt, S; Spranger, S; Holinski‐Feder, E; Sunde, L; Propping, P; Friedl, W

    2007-01-01

    Background In patients with juvenile polyposis syndrome (JPS) the frequency of large genomic deletions in the SMAD4 and BMPR1A genes was unknown. Methods Mutation and phenotype analysis was used in 80 unrelated patients of whom 65 met the clinical criteria for JPS (typical JPS) and 15 were suspected to have JPS. Results By direct sequencing of the two genes, point mutations were identified in 30 patients (46% of typical JPS). Using MLPA, large genomic deletions were found in 14% of all patients with typical JPS (six deletions in SMAD4 and three deletions in BMPR1A). Mutation analysis of the PTEN gene in the remaining 41 mutation negative cases uncovered a point mutation in two patients (5%). SMAD4 mutation carriers had a significantly higher frequency of gastric polyposis (73%) than did patients with BMPR1A mutations (8%) (p<0.001); all seven cases of gastric cancer occurred in families with SMAD4 mutations. SMAD4 mutation carriers with gastric polyps were significantly older at gastroscopy than those without (p<0.001). In 22% of the 23 unrelated SMAD4 mutation carriers, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) was also diagnosed clinically. The documented histologic findings encompassed a wide distribution of different polyp types, comparable with that described in hereditary mixed polyposis syndromes (HMPS). Conclusions Screening for large deletions raised the mutation detection rate to 60% in the 65 patients with typical JPS. A strong genotype‐phenotype correlation for gastric polyposis, gastric cancer, and HHT was identified, which should have implications for counselling and surveillance. Histopathological results in hamartomatous polyposis syndromes must be critically interpreted. PMID:17873119

  16. Analysis of 22q11.2 deletions by FISH in a series of velocardiofacial syndrome patients

    SciTech Connect

    Ravnan, J.B.; Golabi, M.; Lebo, R.V.

    1994-09-01

    Deletions in chromosome 22 band q11.2 have been associated with velocardiofacial (VCF or Shprintzen) syndrome and the DiGeorge anomaly. A study of VCF patients evaluated at the UCSF Medical Center was undertaken to correlate disease phenotype with presence or absence of a deletion. Patients referred for this study had at least two of the following: dysmorphic facial features, frequent ear infections or hearing loss, palate abnormalities, thymic hypoplasia, hypocalcemia, congenital heart defect, hypotonia, and growth or language delay. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using the DiGeorge critical region probe N25 was used to classify patients according to the presence or absence of a deletion in 22q11.2, and the results were compared to clinical characteristics. We have completed studies on 58 patients with features of VCF. Twenty-one patients (36%) were found to have a deletion in 22q11.2 by FISH. A retrospective study of archived slides from 14 patients originally studied only by prometaphase GTG banding found six patients had a deletion detected by FISH; of these, only two had a microscopically visible chromosome deletion. Our study of 11 sets of parents of children with the deletion found two clinically affected mothers with the deletion, including one with three of three children clinically affected. A few patients who did not fit the classical VCF description had a 22q11.2 deletion detected by FISH. These included one patient with both cleft lip and palate, and another with developmental delay and typical facial features but no cardiac or palate abnormalities. Both patients with the DiGeorge anomaly as part of VCF had the deletion. On the other hand, a number of patients diagnosed clinically with classical VCF did not have a detectable deletion. This raises the question whether they represent a subset of patients with a defect of 22q11.2 not detected by the N25 probe, or whether they represent a phenocopy of VCF.

  17. Neural substrates of inhibitory control deficits in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Montojo, C A; Jalbrzikowski, M; Congdon, E; Domicoli, S; Chow, C; Dawson, C; Karlsgodt, K H; Bilder, R M; Bearden, C E

    2015-04-01

    22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is associated with elevated levels of impulsivity, inattention, and distractibility, which may be related to underlying neurobiological dysfunction due to haploinsufficiency for genes involved in dopaminergic neurotransmission (i.e. catechol-O-methyltransferase). The Stop-signal task has been employed to probe the neural circuitry involved in response inhibition (RI); findings in healthy individuals indicate that a fronto-basal ganglia network underlies successful inhibition of a prepotent motor response. However, little is known about the neurobiological substrates of RI difficulties in 22q11DS. Here, we investigated this using functional magnetic resonance imaging while 45 adult participants (15 22q11DS patients, 30 matched controls) performed the Stop-signal task. Healthy controls showed significantly greater activation than 22q11DS patients within frontal cortical and basal ganglia regions during successful RI, whereas 22q11DS patients did not show increased neural activity relative to controls in any regions. Using the Barratt Impulsivity Scale, we also investigated whether neural dysfunction during RI was associated with cognitive impulsivity in 22q11DS patients. RI-related activity within left middle frontal gyrus and basal ganglia was associated with severity of self-reported cognitive impulsivity. These results suggest reduced engagement of RI-related brain regions in 22q11DS patients, which may be relevant to characteristic behavioral manifestations of the disorder. PMID:24177988

  18. Communication of Psychiatric Risk in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: A Pilot Project.

    PubMed

    Hart, Sarah J; Schoch, Kelly; Shashi, Vandana; Callanan, Nancy

    2016-02-01

    Individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) have an increased chance of developing a psychiatric disorder. While parents of children affected by 22q11.2DS typically receive counseling about risk for non-psychiatric health concerns, genetic counselors may be reluctant to discuss psychiatric risk. Further education of genetic counselors may be necessary to encourage discussion of psychiatric risk with these families. The goal of this project was to develop recommendations for genetic counselors to provide psychiatric risk information to families affected by 22q11.2DS. The recommendations were developed by synthesizing resources in the literature about risk communication. These recommendations were refined following an online focus group meeting with five health care professionals who were recruited for participation from 22q11.2DS clinics across the U.S.A. The focus group data revealed three themes related to discussion of psychiatric risk: 1) Stepwise approach, 2) Discussing treatment options and reducing risks, and 3) Addressing stigma. These recommendations may be used as a foundation for a future clinical protocol to encourage discussion about the risk for psychiatric illness at an earlier point in the diagnostic process for 22q11.2DS and to provide improved information, support and resources to affected families. PMID:26578232

  19. Prenatal Diagnosis of 4p and 4q Subtelomeric Microdeletion in De Novo Ring Chromosome 4

    PubMed Central

    Cine, Naci; Erdemoglu, Mahmut; Atay, Ahmet Engin; Simsek, Selda; Turkyilmaz, Aysegul; Fidanboy, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    Ring chromosomes are unusual abnormalities that are observed in prenatal diagnosis. A 23-year-old patient (gravida 1, para 0) referred for amniocentesis due to abnormal maternal serum screening result in the 16th week of second pregnancy. Cytogenetic analysis of cultured amniyotic fluid cells revealed out ring chromosome 4. Both maternal and paternal karyotypes were normal. Terminal deletion was observed in both 4p and 4q arms of ring chromosome 4 by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). However deletion was not observed in the WHS critical region of both normal and ring chromosome 4 by an additional FISH study. These results were confirmed by means of array-CGH showing terminal deletions on 4p16.3 (130 kb) and 4q35.2 (2.449 Mb). In the 21th week of pregnancy, no gross anomalia, except two weeks symmetric growth retardation, was present in the fetal ultrasonographic examination. According to our review of literature, this is the first prenatal case with 4p and 4q subtelomeric deletion of ring chromosome 4 without the involvement of WHS critical region. Our report describes the prenatal case with a ring chromosome 4 abnormality completely characterized by array-CGH which provided complementary data for genetic counseling of prenatal diagnosis. PMID:24455347

  20. Expanding the ocular phenotype of 14q terminal deletions: A novel presentation of microphthalmia and coloboma in ring 14 syndrome with associated 14q32.31 deletion and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Salter, Claire G; Baralle, Diana; Collinson, Morag N; Self, James E

    2016-04-01

    A variety of ocular anomalies have been described in the rare ring 14 and 14q terminal deletion syndromes, yet the character, prevalence, and extent of these anomalies are not well defined. Identification of these ocular anomalies can be central to providing diagnoses and facilitating optimal individual patient management. We report a child with a 14q32.31 terminal deletion and ring chromosome formation, presenting with severe visual impairment secondary to significant bilateral coloboma and microphthalmia. This patient is compared to previously reported patients with similar ocular findings and deletion sizes to further refine a locus for coloboma in the 14q terminal region. Those with ring formation and linear deletions are compared and the possibility of ring formation affecting the proximal 14q region is discussed. This report highlights the severity of ocular anomalies that can be associated with ring 14 and 14q terminal deletion syndromes and reveals the limited documentation of ocular examination in these two related syndromes. This suggests that many children with these genetic changes do not undergo an ophthalmology examination as part of their clinical assessment, yet it is only when this evaluation becomes routine that the true prevalence and extent of ocular involvement can be defined. This report therefore advocates for a thorough ophthalmological exam in children with ring 14 or 14q terminal deletion syndrome. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26773965

  1. Clinical and molecular characterization of a patient with 15q21.2q22.2 deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Velázquez-Wong, Ana C; Ruiz Esparza-Garrido, Ruth; Velázquez-Flores, Miguel Á; Huicochea-Montiel, Juan C; Cárdenas-Conejo, Alan; Miguez-Muñoz, Cristian P; Araujo-Solís, María A; Salamanca-Gómez, Fabio; Arenas-Aranda, Diego J

    2014-01-01

    We report on a 16-year-old girl with a complex phenotype, including intellectual disability, facial dysmorphisms, and obesity. During her infancy, she presented with weak sucking, global developmental delay, and later with excessive eating with central obesity. The girl was clinically diagnosed with probable Prader-Willi syndrome. Chromosomal analysis showed a de novo deletion 46,XX,del(15)(q21q22). However, the use of the Affymetrix CytoScan HD Array defined the exact breakpoints of the deleted 15q21q22 region. The imbalance, about 10.5 Mb in size, is to date the second largest deletion ever described in this chromosomal region. In addition, our patient carries a microdeletion in the 1q44 region and a gain in 9p24. The array result was arr[hg19] 9p24.1(6,619,823-6,749,335)×3, 1q44(248,688,586-248,795,277)×1, 15q21.2 q22.2(50,848,301-61,298,006)×1. Although our patient presents additional chromosomal alterations, we provide a correlation between the clinical findings and the phenotype of the 15q21 deletion syndrome. PMID:25661042

  2. Intelligence and Visual Motor Integration in 5-Year-Old Children with 22q11-Deletion Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duijff, Sasja; Klaassen, Petra; Beemer, Frits; Swanenburg de Veye, Henriette; Vorstman, Jacob; Sinnema, Gerben

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between intelligence and visual motor integration skills in 5-year-old children with 22q11-deletion syndrome (22q11DS) (N = 65, 43 females, 22 males; mean age 5.6 years (SD 0.2), range 5.23-5.99 years). Sufficient VMI skills seem a prerequisite for IQ testing. Since problems related to…

  3. Intelligence and Visual Motor Integration in 5-Year-Old Children with 22q11-Deletion Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duijff, Sasja; Klaassen, Petra; Beemer, Frits; Swanenburg de Veye, Henriette; Vorstman, Jacob; Sinnema, Gerben

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between intelligence and visual motor integration skills in 5-year-old children with 22q11-deletion syndrome (22q11DS) (N = 65, 43 females, 22 males; mean age 5.6 years (SD 0.2), range 5.23-5.99 years). Sufficient VMI skills seem a prerequisite for IQ testing. Since problems related to…

  4. A Single Amino Acid Deletion in the Matrix Protein of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Confers Resistance to a Polyclonal Swine Antibody with Broadly Neutralizing Activity

    PubMed Central

    Popescu, Luca N.; Monday, Nicholas; Calvert, Jay G.; Rowland, Raymond R. R.

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of virus neutralization (VN) activity in 176 pigs infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) identified one pig with broadly neutralizing activity. A Tyr-10 deletion in the matrix protein provided escape from broad neutralization without affecting homologous neutralizing activity. The role of the Tyr-10 deletion was confirmed through an infectious clone with a Tyr-10 deletion. The results demonstrate differences in the properties and specificities of VN responses elicited during PRRSV infection. PMID:25855739

  5. Constitutional 11q14-q22 chromosome deletion syndrome in a child with neuroblastoma MYCN single copy.

    PubMed

    Passariello, Annalisa; De Brasi, Daniele; Defferrari, Raffaella; Genesio, Rita; Tufano, Maria; Mazzocco, Katia; Capasso, Maria; Migliorati, Roberta; Martinsson, Tommy; Siani, Paolo; Nitsch, Lucio; Tonini, Gian Paolo

    2013-11-01

    Constitutional 11q deletion is a chromosome imbalance possibly found in MCA/MR patients analyzed for chromosomal anomalies. Its role in determining the phenotype depends on extension and position of deleted region. Loss of heterozygosity of 11q (region 11q23) is also associated with neuroblastoma, the most frequent extra cranial cancer in children. It represents one of the most frequent cytogenetic abnormalities observed in the tumor of patients with high-risk disease even if germline deletion of 11q in neuroblastoma is rare. Hereby, we describe a 18 months old girl presenting with trigonocephaly and dysmorphic facial features, including hypotelorism, broad depressed nasal bridge, micrognathia, synophrys, epicanthal folds, and with a stage 4 neuroblastoma without MYCN amplification, carrying a germline 11q deletion (11q14.1-q22.3), outside from Jacobsen syndrome and from neuroblastoma 11q critical regions. The role of 11q deletion in determining the clinical phenotype and its association with neuroblastoma development in the patient are discussed. PMID:24035971

  6. Brain and Behavior in Children with 22Q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: A Volumetric and Voxel-Based Morphometry MRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Linda E.; Daly, Eileen; Toal, Fiona; Stevens, Angela; Azuma, Rayna; Catani, Marco; Ng, Virginia; Van Amelsvoort, Therese; Chitnis, Xavier; Cutter, William; Murphy, Declan G. M.; Murphy, Kieran C.

    2006-01-01

    In people with velo-cardio-facial syndrome [or 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22qDS)], a single interstitial deletion of chromosome 22q11.2 causes a wide spectrum of cognitive deficits ranging from global learning difficulties to specific cognitive deficits. People with 22qDS are also at high risk of developing attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder…

  7. Brain and Behavior in Children with 22Q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: A Volumetric and Voxel-Based Morphometry MRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Linda E.; Daly, Eileen; Toal, Fiona; Stevens, Angela; Azuma, Rayna; Catani, Marco; Ng, Virginia; Van Amelsvoort, Therese; Chitnis, Xavier; Cutter, William; Murphy, Declan G. M.; Murphy, Kieran C.

    2006-01-01

    In people with velo-cardio-facial syndrome [or 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22qDS)], a single interstitial deletion of chromosome 22q11.2 causes a wide spectrum of cognitive deficits ranging from global learning difficulties to specific cognitive deficits. People with 22qDS are also at high risk of developing attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder…

  8. Detection and delineation of an unusual 17p11.2 deletion by array-CGH and refinement of the Smith-Magenis syndrome minimum deletion to approximately 650 kb.

    PubMed

    Schoumans, Jacqueline; Staaf, Johan; Jönsson, Göran; Rantala, Johanna; Zimmer, Kerstin Sars; Borg, Ake; Nordenskjöld, Magnus; Anderlid, Britt-Marie

    2005-01-01

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a multiple congenital anomaly/mental retardation syndrome and it is characterized by an interstitial deletion of chromosome 17p11.2. SMS patients have a distinct phenotype which is believed to be caused by haploinsufficiency of one or more genes in the associated deleted region. Five non-deletion patients with classical phenotypic features of SMS have been reported with mutations in the retinoic acid induced 1 (RAI1) gene, located within the SMS critical interval. Happloinsufficiency of the RAI1 gene is likely to be the responsible gene for the majority of the SMS features, but other deleted genes in the SMS region may modify the overall phenotype in the patients with 17p11.2 deletions. SMS is usually diagnosed in the clinical genetic setting by FISH analysis using commercially available probes. We detected a submicroscopic deletion in 17p11.2 using array-CGH with a resolution of approximately 1 Mb in a patient with the SMS phenotype, who was not deleted for the commercially available SMS microdeletion FISH probe. Delineation of the deletion was performed using a 32K tiling BAC-array, containing 32,500 BAC clones. The deletion in this patient was size mapped to 2.7 Mb and covered the RAI1 gene. This case enabled the refinement of the SMS minimum deletion to approximately 650 kb containing eight putative genes and one predicted gene. In addition, it demonstrates the importance to investigate deletion of RAI1 in SMS patients. PMID:16179224

  9. A Nomadic Subtelomeric Disease Resistance Gene Cluster in Common Bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The B4 resistance (R)-gene cluster, located in subtelomeric region of chromosome 4, is one of the largest clusters known in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, Pv). We sequenced 650 kb spanning this locus and annotated 97 genes, 26 of which correspond to Coiled-coil-Nucleotide-Binding-Site-Leucine-Rich...

  10. Transcription of subtelomere tandemly repetitive DNA in chicken embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Trofimova, Irina; Chervyakova, Darya; Krasikova, Alla

    2015-09-01

    Transcription of tandemly repetitive DNA in embryogenesis seems to be of special interest due to a crucial role of non-coding RNAs in many aspects of development. However, only a few data are available on tandem repeats transcription at subtelomere regions of chromosomes during vertebrate embryogenesis. To reduce this gap, we examined stage and tissue-specific pattern of subtelomeric PO41 (pattern of 41 bp) tandem repeat transcription during embryogenesis of chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus). Using whole-mount RNA fluorescent in situ hybridization and reverse transcription PCR with specific primers, we demonstrated that both strands of PO41 repeat are transcribed at each of the studied stages of chicken embryo development: from 7-8 HH to 20 HH stages. Subtelomere-derived transcripts localize in the nuclei of all cell types and throughout the all embryonic bodies: head, somites, tail, wings and buds. In embryo-dividing cells and cultured embryonic fibroblasts, PO41 RNAs envelop terminal regions of chromosomes. PO41-containing RNAs are predominantly single-stranded and can be polyadenylated, indicating appearance of non-nascent form of subtelomeric transcripts. PO41 repeat RNAs represent a rare example of ubiquitously transcribed non-coding RNAs, such as Xist/XIST RNA or telomere repeat-containing RNA. Distribution of PO41 repeat transcripts at different stages of embryo development and among cell types has extremely uniform pattern, indicating on possible universal functions of PO41 non-coding RNAs. PMID:26363798

  11. An interspersed repeated sequence specific for human subtelomeric regions.

    PubMed Central

    Rouyer, F; de la Chapelle, A; Andersson, M; Weissenbach, J

    1990-01-01

    A family of DNA loci (DNF28) from the pseudoautosomal region of the human sex chromosomes is characterized by a repeated element (STIR: subtelomeric interspersed repeat) which detects homologous sequences in the telomeric regions of human autosomes by in situ hybridization. Several STIR elements from both the pseudoautosomal region and terminal parts of autosomes were cloned and sequenced. A conserved 350 bp sequence and some characteristic structural differences between the autosomal and pseudoautosomal STIRs were observed. Screening of the DNA sequence databases with a consensus sequence revealed the presence of STIRs in several human loci localized in the terminal parts of different chromosomes. We mapped single copy probes flanking the cloned autosomal STIRs to the subtelomeric parts of six different chromosomes by in situ hybridization and genetic linkage analysis. The linkage data show a greatly increased recombination frequency in the subtelomeric regions of the chromosomes, especially in male meiosis. The STIR elements, specifically located in subtelomeric regions, could play a role in the peculiar recombination properties of these chromosomal regions, e.g. by promoting initiation of pairing at meiosis. PMID:2303040

  12. Enhanced maternal origin of the 22q11.2 deletion in velocardiofacial and DiGeorge syndromes.

    PubMed

    Delio, Maria; Guo, Tingwei; McDonald-McGinn, Donna M; Zackai, Elaine; Herman, Sean; Kaminetzky, Mark; Higgins, Anne Marie; Coleman, Karlene; Chow, Carolyn; Jalbrzikowski, Maria; Jarlbrzkowski, Maria; Bearden, Carrie E; Bailey, Alice; Vangkilde, Anders; Olsen, Line; Olesen, Charlotte; Skovby, Flemming; Werge, Thomas M; Templin, Ludivine; Busa, Tiffany; Philip, Nicole; Swillen, Ann; Vermeesch, Joris R; Devriendt, Koen; Schneider, Maude; Dahoun, Sophie; Eliez, Stephan; Schoch, Kelly; Hooper, Stephen R; Shashi, Vandana; Samanich, Joy; Marion, Robert; van Amelsvoort, Therese; Boot, Erik; Klaassen, Petra; Duijff, Sasja N; Vorstman, Jacob; Yuen, Tracy; Silversides, Candice; Chow, Eva; Bassett, Anne; Frisch, Amos; Weizman, Abraham; Gothelf, Doron; Niarchou, Maria; van den Bree, Marianne; Owen, Michael J; Suñer, Damian Heine; Andreo, Jordi Rosell; Armando, Marco; Vicari, Stefano; Digilio, Maria Cristina; Auton, Adam; Kates, Wendy R; Wang, Tao; Shprintzen, Robert J; Emanuel, Beverly S; Morrow, Bernice E

    2013-03-01

    Velocardiofacial and DiGeorge syndromes, also known as 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), are congenital-anomaly disorders caused by a de novo hemizygous 22q11.2 deletion mediated by meiotic nonallelic homologous recombination events between low-copy repeats, also known as segmental duplications. Although previous studies exist, each was of small size, and it remains to be determined whether there are parent-of-origin biases for the de novo 22q11.2 deletion. To address this question, we genotyped a total of 389 DNA samples from 22q11DS-affected families. A total of 219 (56%) individuals with 22q11DS had maternal origin and 170 (44%) had paternal origin of the de novo deletion, which represents a statistically significant bias for maternal origin (p = 0.0151). Combined with many smaller, previous studies, 465 (57%) individuals had maternal origin and 345 (43%) had paternal origin, amounting to a ratio of 1.35 or a 35% increase in maternal compared to paternal origin (p = 0.000028). Among 1,892 probands with the de novo 22q11.2 deletion, the average maternal age at time of conception was 29.5, and this is similar to data for the general population in individual countries. Of interest, the female recombination rate in the 22q11.2 region was about 1.6-1.7 times greater than that for males, suggesting that for this region in the genome, enhanced meiotic recombination rates, as well as other as-of-yet undefined 22q11.2-specific features, could be responsible for the observed excess in maternal origin. PMID:23453669

  13. Phenotypic and Molecular Convergence of 2q23.1 Deletion Syndrome with Other Neurodevelopmental Syndromes Associated with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Mullegama, Sureni V.; Alaimo, Joseph T.; Chen, Li; Elsea, Sarah H.

    2015-01-01

    Roughly 20% of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are syndromic with a well-established genetic cause. Studying the genes involved can provide insight into the molecular and cellular mechanisms of ASD. 2q23.1 deletion syndrome (causative gene, MBD5) is a recently identified genetic neurodevelopmental disorder associated with ASD. Mutations in MBD5 have been found in ASD cohorts. In this study, we provide a phenotypic update on the prevalent features of 2q23.1 deletion syndrome, which include severe intellectual disability, seizures, significant speech impairment, sleep disturbance, and autistic-like behavioral problems. Next, we examined the phenotypic, molecular, and network/pathway relationships between nine neurodevelopmental disorders associated with ASD: 2q23.1 deletion Rett, Angelman, Pitt-Hopkins, 2q23.1 duplication, 5q14.3 deletion, Kleefstra, Kabuki make-up, and Smith-Magenis syndromes. We show phenotypic overlaps consisting of intellectual disability, speech delay, seizures, sleep disturbance, hypotonia, and autistic-like behaviors. Molecularly, MBD5 possibly regulates the expression of UBE3A, TCF4, MEF2C, EHMT1 and RAI1. Network analysis reveals that there could be indirect protein interactions, further implicating function for these genes in common pathways. Further, we show that when MBD5 and RAI1 are haploinsufficient, they perturb several common pathways that are linked to neuronal and behavioral development. These findings support further investigations into the molecular and pathway relationships among genes linked to neurodevelopmental disorders and ASD, which will hopefully lead to common points of regulation that may be targeted toward therapeutic intervention. PMID:25853262

  14. Phenotypic and molecular convergence of 2q23.1 deletion syndrome with other neurodevelopmental syndromes associated with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Mullegama, Sureni V; Alaimo, Joseph T; Chen, Li; Elsea, Sarah H

    2015-01-01

    Roughly 20% of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are syndromic with a well-established genetic cause. Studying the genes involved can provide insight into the molecular and cellular mechanisms of ASD. 2q23.1 deletion syndrome (causative gene, MBD5) is a recently identified genetic neurodevelopmental disorder associated with ASD. Mutations in MBD5 have been found in ASD cohorts. In this study, we provide a phenotypic update on the prevalent features of 2q23.1 deletion syndrome, which include severe intellectual disability, seizures, significant speech impairment, sleep disturbance, and autistic-like behavioral problems. Next, we examined the phenotypic, molecular, and network/pathway relationships between nine neurodevelopmental disorders associated with ASD: 2q23.1 deletion Rett, Angelman, Pitt-Hopkins, 2q23.1 duplication, 5q14.3 deletion, Kleefstra, Kabuki make-up, and Smith-Magenis syndromes. We show phenotypic overlaps consisting of intellectual disability, speech delay, seizures, sleep disturbance, hypotonia, and autistic-like behaviors. Molecularly, MBD5 possibly regulates the expression of UBE3A, TCF4, MEF2C, EHMT1 and RAI1. Network analysis reveals that there could be indirect protein interactions, further implicating function for these genes in common pathways. Further, we show that when MBD5 and RAI1 are haploinsufficient, they perturb several common pathways that are linked to neuronal and behavioral development. These findings support further investigations into the molecular and pathway relationships among genes linked to neurodevelopmental disorders and ASD, which will hopefully lead to common points of regulation that may be targeted toward therapeutic intervention. PMID:25853262

  15. Shugoshin forms a specialized chromatin domain at subtelomeres that regulates transcription and replication timing

    PubMed Central

    Tashiro, Sanki; Handa, Tetsuya; Matsuda, Atsushi; Ban, Takuto; Takigawa, Toru; Miyasato, Kazumi; Ishii, Kojiro; Kugou, Kazuto; Ohta, Kunihiro; Hiraoka, Yasushi; Masukata, Hisao; Kanoh, Junko

    2016-01-01

    A chromosome is composed of structurally and functionally distinct domains. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the formation of chromatin structure and the function of subtelomeres, the telomere-adjacent regions, remain obscure. Here we report the roles of the conserved centromeric protein Shugoshin 2 (Sgo2) in defining chromatin structure and functions of the subtelomeres in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. We show that Sgo2 localizes at the subtelomeres preferentially during G2 phase and is essential for the formation of a highly condensed subtelomeric chromatin body ‘knob'. Furthermore, the absence of Sgo2 leads to the derepression of the subtelomeric genes and premature DNA replication at the subtelomeric late origins. Thus, the subtelomeric specialized chromatin domain organized by Sgo2 represses both transcription and replication to ensure proper gene expression and replication timing. PMID:26804021

  16. Shugoshin forms a specialized chromatin domain at subtelomeres that regulates transcription and replication timing.

    PubMed

    Tashiro, Sanki; Handa, Tetsuya; Matsuda, Atsushi; Ban, Takuto; Takigawa, Toru; Miyasato, Kazumi; Ishii, Kojiro; Kugou, Kazuto; Ohta, Kunihiro; Hiraoka, Yasushi; Masukata, Hisao; Kanoh, Junko

    2016-01-01

    A chromosome is composed of structurally and functionally distinct domains. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the formation of chromatin structure and the function of subtelomeres, the telomere-adjacent regions, remain obscure. Here we report the roles of the conserved centromeric protein Shugoshin 2 (Sgo2) in defining chromatin structure and functions of the subtelomeres in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. We show that Sgo2 localizes at the subtelomeres preferentially during G2 phase and is essential for the formation of a highly condensed subtelomeric chromatin body 'knob'. Furthermore, the absence of Sgo2 leads to the derepression of the subtelomeric genes and premature DNA replication at the subtelomeric late origins. Thus, the subtelomeric specialized chromatin domain organized by Sgo2 represses both transcription and replication to ensure proper gene expression and replication timing. PMID:26804021

  17. Perceived burden and neuropsychiatric morbidities in adults with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Karas, D. J.; Costain, G.; Chow, E. W. C.; Bassett, A. S.

    2015-01-01

    Background 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is a common genetic subtype of intellectual disability (ID) remarkable for its constellation of congenital, developmental and later-onset features. Survival to adulthood is now the norm, and serious psychiatric illness is common in adults. However, little is known about the experiences and perceived needs of individuals with 22q11.2DS and their caregivers at time of transition from paediatric to adult models of care and beyond. Method We administered a mail survey to 84 caregivers of adults with 22q11.2DS and 34 adult patients themselves, inquiring about medical and social services, perceived burden and major challenges in adulthood in 22q11.2DS. Standard quantitative and qualitative methods were used to analyse the responses. Results Fifty-three (63.1%) caregivers and 20 (58.8%) adults with 22q11.2DS completed the survey. Perceived burden was high, with psychiatric illness and/or behavioural issues considered the most challenging aspects of adulthood in 22q11.2DS by the majority of caregivers (70.0%) and many patients themselves (42.9%). Irrespective of the extent of ID and the presence or absence of other major features, caregivers expressed dissatisfaction with medical and social services for adults, including at time of transition from paediatric care. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the subjective experiences of adults with 22q11.2DS and their caregivers and to identify their perceived needs for services. Better awareness of 22q11.2DS and its later-onset manifestations, early diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric illness, additional support at time of transition and dedicated clinics for adults with 22q11.2DS may help to improve patient outcomes and reduce caregiver burden. PMID:23106770

  18. A novel homozygous 5 bp deletion in FKBP10 causes clinically Bruck syndrome in an Indonesian patient.

    PubMed

    Setijowati, E D; van Dijk, F S; Cobben, J M; van Rijn, R R; Sistermans, E A; Faradz, S M H; Kawiyana, S; Pals, G

    2012-01-01

    We report an Indonesian patient with bone fragility and congenital joint contractures. The initial diagnosis was Osteogenesis Imperfecta type III (OI type III) based on clinical and radiological findings. Because of (i) absence of COL1A1/2 mutations, (ii) a consanguineous pedigree with a similarly affected sibling and (iii) the existence of congenital joint contractures with absence of recessive variants in PLOD2, mutation analysis was performed of the FKBP10 gene, recently associated with Bruck syndrome and/or recessive OI. A novel homozygous deletion in FKBP10 was discovered. Our report of the first Indonesian patient with clinically Bruck syndrome, confirms the role of causative recessive FKBP10 mutations in this syndrome. PMID:22085994

  19. A novel and de novo deletion in the OCRL1 gene associated with a severe form of Lowe syndrome.

    PubMed

    Peces, Ramón; Peces, Carlos; de Sousa, Erika; Vega, Cristina; Selgas, Rafael; Nevado, Julián

    2013-12-01

    The oculocerebrorenal syndrome of Lowe (OCRL) is an X-linked disorder. The mutation of the gene OCRL1 localized at Xq26.1, coding for the enzyme phosphatidylinositol (4,5) bisphosphate (PIP2P) 5-phosphatase, is responsible for the phenotypic characteristics of the disease. We report a 22-year-old male with a severe form of OCRL syndrome, diagnosed on the basis of congenital cataracts, severe psychomotor and cognitive deficits, and renal tubular dysfunction without Fanconi syndrome. The patient presented low molecular weight proteinuria, nephrocalcinosis, nephrolithiasis, rickets, and growth retardation and developed progressive renal failure. Genetic analysis showed a novel and de novo deletion of exons 10-13 in the OCRL1 gene. PMID:22821049

  20. Deletion 17p11.2 (Smith-Magenis syndrome) is relatively common among patients having mental retardation and myopia

    SciTech Connect

    Finucane, B.; Jaeger, E.R.; Freitag, S.K.

    1994-09-01

    We recently reported the finding of moderate to severe myopia in 6 of 10 patients with Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS). To investigate the prevalence of SMS among mentally retarded people having myopia, we surveyed a cohort of patients residing at a facility for individuals with mental retardation (MR). Of 547 institutionalized individuals with MR, 72 (13.2%) had moderate to high myopia defined as a visual acuity of minus 3 diopters or more. It should be noted that our institution does not specifically select for people with visual impairment; rather, the facility serves people with a primary diagnosis of MR. Sixty-five of 72 (90.3%) myopic individuals identified were available for cytogenetic analysis. Seventeen (26.2%) of these patients had trisomy 21. Down syndrome (DS) is well known to be associated with eye abnormalities, including myopia. Of 48 individuals with moderate to high myopia not having DS, 5 (10.4%) were shown to have deletions of 17p11.2. This is a high prevalence considering the relative rarity of SMS. By contrast, in a randomized sample of 48 patients without significant myopia at the same facility, we found no individuals with deletion 17p11.2. We conclude that the diagnosis of SMS should be considered in any non-Down syndrome individual having MR and myopia, and that ophthalmologists serving people with MR should be made aware of this deletion syndrome. Furthermore, our results suggest that significant numbers of people having SMS could be identified through selective institutional screening of patients having a combination of MR and moderate to severe myopia.

  1. Submicroscopic deletions at 16p13.3 in Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome: frequency and clinical manifestations in a North American population.

    PubMed Central

    Wallerstein, R; Anderson, C E; Hay, B; Gupta, P; Gibas, L; Ansari, K; Cowchock, F S; Weinblatt, V; Reid, C; Levitas, A; Jackson, L

    1997-01-01

    Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RTS) is a well delineated multiple congenital anomaly syndrome characterised by mental retardation, broad thumbs and toes, short stature, and specific facial features. The recent localisation of the disorder to 16p13.3 and subsequent identification of a submicroscopic deletion of this region in RTS patients led us to screen a large cohort of affected subjects using the RT1 probe. Among 64 patients with clinical evidence of RTS, seven (11%) had a deletion. Another patient had a translocation of the region without evidence of a deletion. The features of coloboma, growth retardation, naevus flammeus, and hypotonia have a positive predictive value for the presence of an RT1 deletion. Because of the relatively low frequency of deletions in RTS, the RT1 probe is useful in diagnostic confirmation, but has limited use as a screening tool. PMID:9132490

  2. De novo deletion of chromosome 11q12.3 in monozygotic twins affected by Poland Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Poland Syndrome (PS) is a rare disorder characterized by hypoplasia/aplasia of the pectoralis major muscle, variably associated with thoracic and upper limb anomalies. Familial recurrence has been reported indicating that PS could have a genetic basis, though the genetic mechanisms underlying PS development are still unknown. Case presentation Here we describe a couple of monozygotic (MZ) twin girls, both presenting with Poland Syndrome. They carry a de novo heterozygous 126 Kbp deletion at chromosome 11q12.3 involving 5 genes, four of which, namely HRASLS5, RARRES3, HRASLS2, and PLA2G16, encode proteins that regulate cellular growth, differentiation, and apoptosis, mainly through Ras-mediated signaling pathways. Conclusions Phenotype concordance between the monozygotic twin probands provides evidence supporting the genetic control of PS. As genes controlling cell growth and differentiation may be related to morphological defects originating during development, we postulate that the observed chromosome deletion could be causative of the phenotype observed in the twin girls and the deleted genes could play a role in PS development. PMID:24885342

  3. Intragenic Deletion in the LIFR Gene in a Long-Term Survivor with Stüve-Wiedemann Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hatagami Marques, Júlia; Lopes Yamamoto, Guilherme; de Cássia Testai, Larissa; da Costa Pereira, Alexandre; Kim, Chong Ae; Passos-Bueno, Maria R.; Romeo Bertola, Débora

    2015-01-01

    Stüve-Wiedemann syndrome (SWS, OMIM 601559) is a rare autosomal recessive bent-bone dysplasia, caused by loss-of-function mutations in the leukemia inhibitory factor receptor (LIFR) gene, which usually leads to early death. Only few patients with long-term survival have been described in the literature. We report on a 5-year-old boy from a consanguineous marriage with molecular analysis for the LIFR gene. Sanger and next-generation sequencing (NGS) of LIFR were performed. Copy number variation analysis with NGS showed a novel mutation as the cause for the syndrome: an intragenic homozygous deletion in LIFR, involving exons 15-20. Bridging PCR was carried out to confirm the intragenic deletion. This is the first description of a large deletion in LIFR, broadening the spectrum of mutations in SWS. Besides the reported allelic heterogeneity, further studies such as exome sequencing are required to identify a novel gene in order to confirm the locus heterogeneity in SWS. PMID:26279654

  4. Atypical cortical connectivity and visuospatial cognitive impairments are related in children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Tony J; Wu, Zhongle; Avants, Brian; Zhang, Hui; Gee, James C; Stebbins, Glenn T

    2008-01-01

    Background Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome is one of the most common genetic causes of cognitive impairment and developmental disability yet little is known about the neural bases of those challenges. Here we expand upon our previous neurocognitive studies by specifically investigating the hypothesis that changes in neural connectivity relate to cognitive impairment in children with the disorder. Methods Whole brain analyses of multiple measures computed from diffusion tensor image data acquired from the brains of children with the disorder and typically developing controls. We also correlated diffusion tensor data with performance on a visuospatial cognitive task that taps spatial attention. Results Analyses revealed four common clusters, in the parietal and frontal lobes, that showed complementary patterns of connectivity in children with the deletion and typical controls. We interpreted these results as indicating differences in connective complexity to adjoining cortical regions that are critical to the cognitive functions in which affected children show impairments. Strong, and similarly opposing patterns of correlations between diffusion values in those clusters and spatial attention performance measures considerably strengthened that interpretation. Conclusion Our results suggest that atypical development of connective patterns in the brains of children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome indicate a neuropathology that is related to the visuospatial cognitive impairments that are commonly found in affected individuals. PMID:18559106

  5. Metopic and sagittal synostosis in Greig cephalopolysyndactyly syndrome: five cases with intragenic mutations or complete deletions of GLI3.

    PubMed

    Hurst, Jane A; Jenkins, Dagan; Vasudevan, Pradeep C; Kirchhoff, Maria; Skovby, Flemming; Rieubland, Claudine; Gallati, Sabina; Rittinger, Olaf; Kroisel, Peter M; Johnson, David; Biesecker, Leslie G; Wilkie, Andrew O M

    2011-07-01

    Greig cephalopolysyndactyly syndrome (GCPS) is a multiple congenital malformation characterised by limb and craniofacial anomalies, caused by heterozygous mutation or deletion of GLI3. We report four boys and a girl who were presented with trigonocephaly due to metopic synostosis, in association with pre- and post-axial polydactyly and cutaneous syndactyly of hands and feet. Two cases had additional sagittal synostosis. None had a family history of similar features. In all five children, the diagnosis of GCPS was confirmed by molecular analysis of GLI3 (two had intragenic mutations and three had complete gene deletions detected on array comparative genomic hybridisation), thus highlighting the importance of trigonocephaly or overt metopic or sagittal synostosis as a distinct presenting feature of GCPS. These observations confirm and extend a recently proposed association of intragenic GLI3 mutations with metopic synostosis; moreover, the three individuals with complete deletion of GLI3 were previously considered to have Carpenter syndrome, highlighting an important source of diagnostic confusion. PMID:21326280

  6. Identification of the first intragenic deletion of the PITX2 gene causing an Axenfeld-Rieger Syndrome: case report

    PubMed Central

    de la Houssaye, Guillaume; Bieche, Ivan; Roche, Olivier; Vieira, Véronique; Laurendeau, Ingrid; Arbogast, Laurence; Zeghidi, Hatem; Rapp, Philippe; Halimi, Philippe; Vidaud, Michel; Dufier, Jean-Louis; Menasche, Maurice; Abitbol, Marc

    2006-01-01

    Background Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome (ARS) is characterized by bilateral congenital abnormalities of the anterior segment of the eye associated with abnormalities of the teeth, midface, and umbilicus. Most cases of ARS are caused by mutations in the genes encoding PITX2 or FOXC1. Here we describe a family affected by a severe form of ARS. Case presentation Two members of this family (father and daughter) presented with typical ARS and developed severe glaucoma. The ocular phenotype was much more severe in the daughter than in the father. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) detected an aggressive form of meningioma in the father. There was no mutation in the PITX2 gene, determined by exon screening. We identified an intragenic deletion by quantitative genomic PCR analysis and characterized this deletion in detail. Conclusion Our findings implicate the first intragenic deletion of the PITX2 gene in the pathogenesis of a severe form of ARS in an affected family. This study stresses the importance of a systematic search for intragenic deletions in families affected by ARS and in sporadic cases for which no mutations in the exons or introns of PITX2 have been found. The molecular genetics of some ARS pedigrees should be re-examined with enzymes that can amplify medium and large genomic fragments. PMID:17134502

  7. Smith-Magenis syndrome deletion: A case with equivocal cytogenetic findings resolved by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Juyal, R.C.; Patel, P.I.; Greenberg, F.

    1995-09-11

    The availability of markers for the 17p11.2 region has enabled the diagnosis of Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). SMS is typically associated with a discernible deletion of band 17p11.2 upon cytogenetic analysis at a resolution of 400-550 bands. We present a case that illustrates the importance of using FISH to confirm a cytogenetic diagnosis of del(17)(p11.2). Four independent cytogenetic analyses were performed with different conclusions. Results of low resolution analyses of amniocytes and peripheral blood lymphocytes were apparently normal, while high resolution analyses of peripheral blood samples in two laboratories indicated mosaicism for del(17)(p11.2). FISH clearly demonstrated a 17p deletion on one chromosome of all peripheral blood cells analyzed and ruled out mosaicism unambiguously. The deletion was undetectable by flow cytometric quantitation of chromosomal DNA content, suggesting that it is less than 2 Mb. We conclude that FISH should be used to detect the SMS deletion when routine chromosome analysis fails to detect it and to verify mosaicism. 23 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Occupational hydrocarbon exposure among fathers of Prader-Willi syndrome patients with and without deletions of 15q

    SciTech Connect

    Cassidy, S.B.; Gainey, A.J.; Butler, M.G.

    1989-06-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a multiple-anomaly disorder in which 50%-70% of cases are associated with a de novo interstitial deletion (del 15(q11-13)) on prometaphase cytogenetic analysis, the remainder having apparently normal chromosomes. In most instances, the paternally derived chromosome has become deleted in the affected child, suggesting the possibility of a predisposing environmental factor. Strakowski and Butler found an increased incidence of paternal periconceptional employment in hydrocarbon-exposing occupations in this population. This observation may suggest a causal relationship to PWS. To determine whether this association may distinguish the cytogenetically different groups, we identified 81 patients with the disorder who were physically and cytogenetically examined in three centers, and we compared the frequency of possible periconceptional occupational hydrocarbon exposure between fathers of patients who demonstrate a 15q deletion and those who do not. There was no statistically significant difference between the cytogenetically different groups. In both groups, approximately half of the fathers had been employed in hydrocarbon-exposing jobs. These findings suggest lack of etiologic heterogeneity between the cytogenetically different groups for PWS and affirm the need to seek submicroscopic deletions through molecular genetic studies. These data also provide additional evidence that hydrocarbon exposure among fathers of children with PWS may be causally related to the disorder, and they also suggest the need for more accurate assessment of exposure via a large, controlled study.

  9. Delineation of 2q32q35 Deletion Phenotypes: Two Apparent “Proximal” and “Distal” Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Juliet; Gregersen, Nerine; George, Alice M.; Love, Donald R.

    2013-01-01

    We report on three patients with interstitial deletions of the long arm of chromosome 2 involving bands 2q32.1–q35. They presented with wide-ranging phenotypic variation including facial dysmorphisms, cleft palate, learning difficulties, behavioural issues and severe heart defects. Microarray analysis confirmed an 8.6?Mb deletion in patients 1 and 2 and a 24.7?Mb deletion in patient 3. We discuss the genes involved in the deleted regions including MYO1B, GLS, FRZB, SATB2, and CPS1 and compare the phenotype with those reported in the literature. Taken together, these data suggest that there is a spectrum of disease severity such that patients with deletions encompassing the region of 2q32.1q32.2, which includes the FRZB gene, show an apparently milder phenotype compared to those that lie further distal in 2q32.3q35 that encompasses the SATB2 gene. PMID:23840981

  10. Intellectual Functioning in Relation to Autism and ADHD Symptomatology in Children and Adolescents with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hidding, E.; Swaab, H.; Sonneville, L. M. J.; Engeland, H.; Sijmens-Morcus, M. E. J.; Klaassen, P. W. J.; Duijff, S. N.; Vorstman, J. A. S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS; velo-cardio-facial syndrome) is associated with an increased risk of various disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). With this study, we aimed to investigate the relation between intellectual functioning and severity of ASD and ADHD…

  11. Intellectual Functioning in Relation to Autism and ADHD Symptomatology in Children and Adolescents with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hidding, E.; Swaab, H.; Sonneville, L. M. J.; Engeland, H.; Sijmens-Morcus, M. E. J.; Klaassen, P. W. J.; Duijff, S. N.; Vorstman, J. A. S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS; velo-cardio-facial syndrome) is associated with an increased risk of various disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). With this study, we aimed to investigate the relation between intellectual functioning and severity of ASD and ADHD…

  12. Individuals with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Are Impaired at Explicit, but Not Implicit, Discrimination of Local Forms Embedded in Global Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giersch, Anne; Glaser, Bronwyn; Pasca, Catherine; Chabloz, Mélanie; Debbané, Martin; Eliez, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) are impaired at exploring visual information in space; however, not much is known about visual form discrimination in the syndrome. Thirty-five individuals with 22q11.2DS and 41 controls completed a form discrimination task with global forms made up of local elements. Affected individuals…

  13. Individuals with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Are Impaired at Explicit, but Not Implicit, Discrimination of Local Forms Embedded in Global Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giersch, Anne; Glaser, Bronwyn; Pasca, Catherine; Chabloz, Mélanie; Debbané, Martin; Eliez, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) are impaired at exploring visual information in space; however, not much is known about visual form discrimination in the syndrome. Thirty-five individuals with 22q11.2DS and 41 controls completed a form discrimination task with global forms made up of local elements. Affected individuals…

  14. Prospective investigation of autism and genotype-phenotype correlations in 22q13 deletion syndrome and SHANK3 deficiency

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background 22q13 deletion syndrome, also known as Phelan-McDermid syndrome, is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by intellectual disability, hypotonia, delayed or absent speech, and autistic features. SHANK3 has been identified as the critical gene in the neurological and behavioral aspects of this syndrome. The phenotype of SHANK3 deficiency has been described primarily from case studies, with limited evaluation of behavioral and cognitive deficits. The present study used a prospective design and inter-disciplinary clinical evaluations to assess patients with SHANK3 deficiency, with the goal of providing a comprehensive picture of the medical and behavioral profile of the syndrome. Methods A serially ascertained sample of patients with SHANK3 deficiency (n = 32) was evaluated by a team of child psychiatrists, neurologists, clinical geneticists, molecular geneticists and psychologists. Patients were evaluated for autism spectrum disorder using the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-G. Results Thirty participants with 22q13.3 deletions ranging in size from 101 kb to 8.45 Mb and two participants with de novo SHANK3 mutations were included. The sample was characterized by high rates of autism spectrum disorder: 27 (84%) met criteria for autism spectrum disorder and 24 (75%) for autistic disorder. Most patients (77%) exhibited severe to profound intellectual disability and only five (19%) used some words spontaneously to communicate. Dysmorphic features, hypotonia, gait disturbance, recurring upper respiratory tract infections, gastroesophageal reflux and seizures were also common. Analysis of genotype-phenotype correlations indicated that larger deletions were associated with increased levels of dysmorphic features, medical comorbidities and social communication impairments related to autism. Analyses of individuals with small deletions or point mutations identified features related to SHANK3 haploinsufficiency, including ASD, seizures and abnormal EEG, hypotonia, sleep disturbances, abnormal brain MRI, gastroesophageal reflux, and certain dysmorphic features. Conclusions This study supports findings from previous research on the severity of intellectual, motor, and speech impairments seen in SHANK3 deficiency, and highlights the prominence of autism spectrum disorder in the syndrome. Limitations of existing evaluation tools are discussed, along with the need for natural history studies to inform clinical monitoring and treatment development in SHANK3 deficiency. PMID:23758760

  15. SHANK3 and IGF1 restore synaptic deficits in neurons from 22q13 deletion syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Shcheglovitov, Aleksandr; Shcheglovitova, Olesya; Yazawa, Masayuki; Portmann, Thomas; Shu, Rui; Sebastiano, Vittorio; Krawisz, Anna; Froehlich, Wendy; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Hallmayer, Joachim F; Dolmetsch, Ricardo E

    2013-11-14

    Phelan-McDermid syndrome (PMDS) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay, severely impaired speech, intellectual disability, and an increased risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). PMDS is caused by heterozygous deletions of chromosome 22q13.3. Among the genes in the deleted region is SHANK3, which encodes a protein in the postsynaptic density (PSD). Rare mutations in SHANK3 have been associated with idiopathic ASDs, non-syndromic intellectual disability, and schizophrenia. Although SHANK3 is considered to be the most likely candidate gene for the neurological abnormalities in PMDS patients, the cellular and molecular phenotypes associated with this syndrome in human neurons are unknown. We generated induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from individuals with PMDS and autism and used them to produce functional neurons. We show that PMDS neurons have reduced SHANK3 expression and major defects in excitatory, but not inhibitory, synaptic transmission. Excitatory synaptic transmission in PMDS neurons can be corrected by restoring SHANK3 expression or by treating neurons with insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1). IGF1 treatment promotes formation of mature excitatory synapses that lack SHANK3 but contain PSD95 and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors with fast deactivation kinetics. Our findings provide direct evidence for a disruption in the ratio of cellular excitation and inhibition in PMDS neurons, and point to a molecular pathway that can be recruited to restore it. PMID:24132240

  16. Rare copy number variants and congenital heart defects in the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mlynarski, Elisabeth E; Xie, Michael; Taylor, Deanne; Sheridan, Molly B; Guo, Tingwei; Racedo, Silvia E; McDonald-McGinn, Donna M; Chow, Eva W C; Vorstman, Jacob; Swillen, Ann; Devriendt, Koen; Breckpot, Jeroen; Digilio, Maria Cristina; Marino, Bruno; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Philip, Nicole; Simon, Tony J; Roberts, Amy E; Piotrowicz, Ma?gorzata; Bearden, Carrie E; Eliez, Stephan; Gothelf, Doron; Coleman, Karlene; Kates, Wendy R; Devoto, Marcella; Zackai, Elaine; Heine-Suñer, Damian; Goldmuntz, Elizabeth; Bassett, Anne S; Morrow, Bernice E; Emanuel, Beverly S

    2016-03-01

    The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS; velocardiofacial/DiGeorge syndrome; VCFS/DGS; MIM #192430; 188400) is the most common microdeletion syndrome. The phenotypic presentation of 22q11DS is highly variable; approximately 60-75 % of 22q11DS patients have been reported to have a congenital heart defect (CHD), mostly of the conotruncal type, and/or aortic arch defect. The etiology of the cardiac phenotypic variability is not currently known for the majority of patients. We hypothesized that rare copy number variants (CNVs) outside the 22q11.2 deleted region may modify the risk of being born with a CHD in this sensitized population. Rare CNV analysis was performed using Affymetrix SNP Array 6.0 data from 946 22q11DS subjects with CHDs (n = 607) or with normal cardiac anatomy (n = 339). Although there was no significant difference in the overall burden of rare CNVs, an overabundance of CNVs affecting cardiac-related genes was detected in 22q11DS individuals with CHDs. When the rare CNVs were examined with regard to gene interactions, specific cardiac networks, such as Wnt signaling, appear to be overrepresented in 22q11DS CHD cases but not 22q11DS controls with a normal heart. Collectively, these data suggest that CNVs outside the 22q11.2 region may contain genes that modify risk for CHDs in some 22q11DS patients. PMID:26742502

  17. Confirmation that the conotruncal anomaly face syndrome is associated with a deletion within 22q11.2

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuoka, Rumiko; Takao, Atsuyoshi; Kimura, Misa; Kondo, Chisato; Ando, Masahiko; Momma, Kazuo; Imamura, Shin-ichiro; Joh-o, Kunitaka; Ikeda, Kazuo; Nishibatake, Makoto

    1994-11-15

    The so-called {open_quotes}conotruncal anomaly face syndrome{close_quotes} (CTAFS) is characterized by a peculiar facial appearance associated with congenital heart disease (CHD), especially cardiac outflow tract defects such as tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), double outlet ring ventricle (DORV), and truncus arteriosus (TAC). CTAFS and the DiGeorge anomaly (DGA) have many similar phenotypic characteristics, suggesting that they share a common cause. In many cases DGA is known to be associated with monosomy for a region of chromosome 22q11.2. Fifty CTAFS patients and 10 DGA patients, 11 parents couples and 10 mothers of CTAFS patients, and 3 parents couples and 2 mothers of DGA patients were examined by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) using the N25 (D22S75) DGCR probe (Oncor). Monosomy for a region of 22q11.2 was found in 42 CTAFS, 9 DGA, 4 mothers, and 1 father who had CTAF without CHD. The remaining 8 CTAFS patients, 1 DGA patient and 1 mother who had questionable CTAF without CHD, showed no such chromosome abnormality. For the control, 60 patients who had CHD without CTAF or other know malformation syndromes were examined and had no deletion of 22q11.2. Therefore, we conclude that CTAFS is a part of the CATCH 22 syndrome; cardiac defects, abnormal faces, thymic hypoplasia, cleft palate, and hypocalcemia (CATCH) resulting from 22q11.2 deletions. 20 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Human homologue sequences to the Drosophila dishevelled segment-polarity gene are deleted in the DiGeorge syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Pizzuti, A.; Ratti, A.; Penso, D.; Silani, V.; Scarlato, G.

    1996-04-01

    DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) is a developmental defect of some of the neural crest derivatives. Most DGS patients show haploinsufficiency due to interstitial deletions of the proximal long arm of chromosome 22. Deletions of 22q11 have also been reported in patients with the velo-cardio-facial syndrome and familial conotruncal heart defects. It has been suggested that the wide phenotype spectrum associated with 22q11 monosomy is a consequence of contiguous-gene deletions. We report the isolation of human cDNAs homologous to the Drosophila dishevelled (dsh) segment-polarity gene. Sequences homologous to the 3{prime} UTR of these transcripts (DVL-22) were positioned within the DGS critical region and were found to be deleted in DGS patients. Human DVL mRNAs are expressed in several fetal and adult tissues, including the thymus and, at high levels, the heart. Two transcripts, 3.2 and 5 kb, were detected, in Northern blot analysis, with different expression patterns in the surveyed tissues when different cDNAs were used. The isolated cDNAs exhibit high amino acid homology with the mouse and Xenopus Dvl-1 gene, the only other vertebrate dsh homologues so far isolated. The pivotal role of dsh in fly development suggests an analogous key function in vertebrate embryogenesis of its homologue genes. Since DGS may be due to perturbation of differentiation mechanisms at decisive embryological stages, a Dsh-like gene in the small-region overlap (SRO) might be a candidate for the pathogenesis of this disorder. 52 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Human homologue sequences to the Drosophila dishevelled segment-polarity gene are deleted in the DiGeorge syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Pizzuti, A.; Novelli, G.; Mari, A.; Ratti, A.; Colosimo, A.; Amati, F.; Penso, D.; Sangiuolo, F.; Calabrese, G.; Palka, G.; Silani, V.; Gennarelli, M.; Mingarelli, R.; Scarlato, G.; Scambler, P.; Dallapiccola, B.

    1996-01-01

    DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) is a developmental defect of some of the neural crest derivatives. Most DGS patients show haploinsufficiency due to interstitial deletions of the proximal long arm of chromosome 22. Deletions of 22q11 have also been reported with patients with the velocardio-facial syndrome and familial conotruncal heart defects. It has been suggested that the wide phenotype spectrum associated with 22q11 monosomy is a consequence of contiguous-gene deletions. We report the isolation of human cDNAs homologous to the Drosophila dishevelled (dsh) segment-polarity gene. Sequences homologous to the 3' UTR of these transcripts (DVL-22) were positioned within the DGS critical region and were found to be deleted in DGS patients. Human DVL mRNAs are expressed in several fetal and adult tissues, including the thymus and, at high levels, the heart. Two transcripts, 3.2 and 5kb, were detected, in northern blot analysis, with different expression patterns in the surveyed tissues when different cDNAs were used. The isolated cDNAs exhibit high amino acid homology with the mouse and Xenopus Dvl-1 gene, the only other vertebrate dsh homologues so far isolated. The pivotal role of dsh in fly development suggests an analogous key function in vertebrate embryogenesis of its homologue genes. Since DGS may be due to perturbation of differentiation mechanisms at decisive embryological stages, a Dsh-like gene in the small-region overlap (SRO) might be a candidate for the pathogenesis of this disorder. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8644734

  20. Mother-Child Interaction as a Window to a Unique Social Phenotype in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome and in Williams Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Weisman, Omri; Feldman, Ruth; Burg-Malki, Merav; Keren, Miri; Geva, Ronny; Diesendruck, Gil; Gothelf, Doron

    2015-08-01

    Mother-child interactions in 22q11.2 Deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) and Williams syndrome (WS) were coded for maternal sensitivity/intrusiveness, child's expression of affect, levels of engagement, and dyadic reciprocity. WS children were found to express more positive emotions towards their mothers compared to 22q11.2DS children and those with developmental delay in a conflict interaction. During the same interaction, dyads of 22q11.2DS children were characterized by higher levels of maternal intrusiveness, lower levels of child's engagement and reduced reciprocity compared to dyads of typically developing children. Finally, 22q11.2DS children with the COMT Met allele showed less adaptive behaviors than children with the Val allele. Dyadic behaviors partially coincided with the distinct social phenotypes in these syndromes and are potential behavioral markers of psychopathological trajectory. PMID:25791124

  1. Evolution of seizures and electroencephalographical findings in 23 cases of deletion type Angelman syndrome.

    PubMed

    Uemura, Naoko; Matsumoto, Akiko; Nakamura, Miho; Watanabe, Kazuyoshi; Negoro, Tamiko; Kumagai, Toshiyuki; Miura, Kiyokuni; Ohki, Takashi; Mizuno, Seiji; Okumura, Akihisa; Aso, Kohzaburo; Hayakawa, Fumio; Kondo, Yoko

    2005-08-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a genetic disorder with characteristic clinical and EEG findings. We report here the results of long-term follow-up studies on the epileptic seizures and EEG findings of 23 cases of deletion type AS confirmed by FISH analysis, including seven cases previously reported by Matsumoto et al. in 1992. The age at last follow-up in 23 patients was from 1 to 37 years of age (average: 18.0 years), with 10 patients (43.5%) in their 20s, and five over 30. Epileptic seizures were seen in all patients, and the age at seizure onset ranged from 3 to 50 months (average: 21.7 months). Status epilepticus was seen in 11 patients (47.8%). The percentages of cases seizure-free for more than 3 years were 25% (4/16) at 10 years of age, 70% (7/10) at 20, and 80% (4/5) at 30. The EEG findings were classified into six patterns according to the previous report: N (no spike, including focal slow waves), HVS (diffuse high-voltage slow bursts with or without spikes), F (focal spikes or multifocal spikes), S (diffuse spike and waves), C (continuous diffuse spike and waves), Hy (hypsarrythmia or hypsarrhythmia like waves). Hy was noted at ages 0-2 years in two cases. C was observed from the ages 2 to 15 years, being most frequently noted at 3-6 years of age, and it was never seen after 16 years of age. S was observed from ages 1 to 21 years. F was seen from 2 to 21 years of age, and most frequently during the ages of 2-7 years. HVS was seen from 0 years, and still remained after the age of 20. After 22 years of age, all patients showed N pattern including focal slow waves. One of the two patients who had bilateral frontal dominant delta slow waves in their 30s, had a recent seizure. Even if the spikes disappear with age, when bi-frontal focal slow waves remain, seizures may occur even in patients over 30. PMID:15963670

  2. Single nucleotide polymorphism discovery in TBX1 in individuals with and without 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Heike, Carrie L.; Starr, Jacqueline R.; Rieder, Mark J.; Cunningham, Michael L.; Edwards, Karen L.; Stanaway, Ian; Crawford, Dana C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) have a wide range of clinical features. TBX1 has been proposed as a candidate gene for some of the features in this condition. Polymorphisms in the non-deleted TBX1, which may affect the function of the sole TBX1 gene in individuals with the 22q11.2DS, may be a key to understanding the phenotypic variability among individuals with a shared deletion. Comprehensive single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discovery by resequencing candidate genes can identify genetic variants that influence a given phenotype. The purpose of this study was to further characterize the sequence variability in TBX1 by identifying all common SNPs in this gene. METHODS We resequenced TBX1 in 29 children with a documented 22q11.2 deletion and 95 non-deleted, healthy individuals. We estimated allele frequencies, performed tagSNP selection, and inferred haplotypes. We also compared SNP frequencies between 22q11.2DS and control samples. RESULTS We identified 355 biallelic markers among the 190 chromosomes resequenced in the control panel. The vast majority of the markers identified were SNPs (n=331), and the remainder indels (n=24). We did not identify SNPs or indels in the cis- regulatory element (FOX–binding site) upstream of TBX1. In children with 22q11.2DS we detected 187 biallelic markers, six of which were indels. Four of the seven coding SNPs identified in the controls were identified in children with 22q11.2DS. CONCLUSIONS This comprehensive SNP discovery data can be used to select SNPs to genotype for future association studies assessing the role of TBX1 and phenotypic variability in individuals with 22q11.2DS. PMID:19645056

  3. Prenatal diagnosis of Nager syndrome in a 12-week-old fetus with a whole gene deletion of SF3B4 by chromosomal microarray.

    PubMed

    Lund, Ida Charlotte Bay; Vestergaard, Else Marie; Christensen, Rikke; Uldbjerg, Niels; Becher, Naja

    2016-01-01

    Less than one hundred cases of the acrofacial dysostosis, Nager syndrome, have been described. The cardinal features of Nager syndrome are micrognathia, midface retrusion and limb malformations, predominately of the radial ray of upper extremities. Within the past three years haploinsufficiency of SF3B4 has been confirmed as the major cause of Nager syndrome. Different loss-of-function point-mutations in SF3B4 have been found in approximately 2/3 of patients diagnosed with Nager syndrome. Whole gene deletions of SF3B4 have also been suggested to be the cause of Nager syndrome in SF3B4 point mutation negative patients. Only four prenatal cases displaying Nager-like features in the 2nd or 3rd trimester which have been genetically confirmed with SF3B4 point-mutation after birth have been described. We report a case of a 12-week-old fetus with micrognathia, malformed wrists, bilateral club foot and short long bones diagnosed prenatally by chromosomal microarray with a de novo 0.4 Mb deletion at chromosome 1q21.2 involving SF3B4. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Nager syndrome caused by a SF3B4 whole gene deletion. The case presented also shows that high-resolution chromosomal microarray in early pregnancy can confirm Nager syndrome caused by SF3B4-deletion prenatally. PMID:26679067

  4. Dandy-Walker malformation and Wisconsin syndrome: novel cases add further insight into the genotype-phenotype correlations of 3q23q25 deletions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Dandy-Walker malformation (DWM) is one of the commonest congenital cerebellar defects, and can be associated with multiple congenital anomalies and chromosomal syndromes. The occurrence of overlapping 3q deletions including the ZIC1 and ZIC4 genes in few patients, along with data from mouse models, have implicated both genes in the pathogenesis of DWM. Methods and results Using a SNP-array approach, we recently identified three novel patients carrying heterozygous 3q deletions encompassing ZIC1 and ZIC4. Magnetic resonance imaging showed that only two had a typical DWM, while the third did not present any defect of the DWM spectrum. SNP-array analysis in further eleven children diagnosed with DWM failed to identify deletions of ZIC1-ZIC4. The clinical phenotype of the three 3q deleted patients included multiple congenital anomalies and peculiar facial appearance, related to the localization and extension of each deletion. In particular, phenotypes resulted from the variable combination of three recognizable patterns: DWM (with incomplete penetrance); blepharophimosis, ptosis, and epicanthus inversus syndrome; and Wisconsin syndrome (WS), recently mapped to 3q. Conclusions Our data indicate that the 3q deletion is a rare defect associated with DWM, and suggest that the hemizygosity of ZIC1-ZIC4 genes is neither necessary nor sufficient per se to cause this condition. Furthermore, based on a detailed comparison of clinical features and molecular data from 3q deleted patients, we propose clinical diagnostic criteria and refine the critical region for WS. PMID:23679990

  5. Cardiac anomalies in individuals with the 18q deletion syndrome; report of a child with Ebstein anomaly and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    van Trier, Dorothée C; Feenstra, Ilse; Bot, Petra; de Leeuw, Nicole; Draaisma, Jos M Th

    2013-08-01

    Individuals with the 18q deletion syndrome are presented with various clinical characteristics, including cardiac anomalies in 24-36% of the reported cases. Nonetheless, genotype-phenotype correlations for cardiac anomalies in the 18q deletion syndrome have rarely been reported. We report on two girls with a terminal 18q deletion, one in whom an Ebstein anomaly and Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome were detected and the other with multiple valve stenosis and a ventricular septal defect. The genotype and cardiac abnormalities of these girls and 17 other individuals with a de novo 18qter deletion reported in the literature are reviewed. All 19 individuals shared a small overlapping deletion region between 18q22.3q23. The most common cardiac defects detected were pulmonary valve anomalies and atrial septal defects. Ebstein anomaly, a rare cardiac malformation, was diagnosed in two individuals. Additional molecularly based genotype-phenotype studies are needed in order to pinpoint candidate genes within this region that contribute to normal cardiac development. A careful cardiac evaluation consisting of physical examination, ECG and ultrasound examination should be performed in all individuals diagnosed with the 18q deletion syndrome. PMID:23707655

  6. Problem Behaviors Associated with Deletion Prader-Willi, Smith-Magenis, and Cri Du Chat Syndromes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, David J.; Boer, Harm

    1998-01-01

    Problem behaviors of 38 individuals with Cri-du-Chat syndrome, 55 individuals with Prader Willi syndrome, and 21 individuals with Smith-Magenis syndrome were investigated. All three disorders were Associated with greater ratings of problem behaviors (besides eating abnormalities and sleep abnormalities) than comparison groups. (Author/CR)

  7. Deletion 4q21/4q22 syndrome: two patients with de novo 4q21.3q23 and 4q13.2q23 deletions.

    PubMed

    Nowaczyk, M J; Teshima, I E; Siegel-Bartelt, J; Clarke, J T

    1997-04-14

    We report on 2 patients with de novo proximal interstitial deletions of the long arm of chromosomes 4: in one the deletion resulted in monosomy (4)(q21.3q23), in the other it produced monosomy (4)(q13.2q23). Review of 9 cases of deletions involving the 4q21/4q22 region reported previously detected a characteristic phenotype in 8 patients. This phenotype was present in our patients. We conclude that the deletion in the 4q21/4q22 region results in a specific clinical syndrome associated with central nervous system overgrowth that may be a result of anomalous imprinting in the 4q21/4q22 region. PMID:9098490

  8. Deletion 4q21/4q22 syndrome: Two patients with de novo 4q21.3q23 and 4q13.2q23 deletions

    SciTech Connect

    Nowaczyk, M.J.M.; Seigel-Bartelt, J.; Clarke, J.T.R.

    1997-04-14

    We report on 2 patients with de novo proximal interstitial deletions of the long arm of chromosome 4: in one the deletion resulted in monosomy (4)(q21.3q23), in the other it produced monosomy (4)(q13.2q23). Review of 9 cases of deletions involving the 4q21/ 4q22 region reported previously detected a characteristic phenotype in 8 patients. This phenotype was present in our patients. We conclude that the deletion in the 4q21/4q22 region results in a specific clinical syndrome associated with central nervous system overgrowth that may be a result of anomalous imprinting in the 4q21/4q22 region. 39 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Homozygous deletion of TRMT10A as part of a contiguous gene deletion in a syndrome of failure to thrive, delayed puberty, intellectual disability and diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Zung, Amnon; Kori, Michal; Burundukov, Ella; Ben-Yosef, Tamar; Tatoor, Yasmin; Granot, Esther

    2015-12-01

    Two recent reports describe a new syndrome of intellectual disability, short stature, microcephaly, and young onset diabetes or disturbed glucose metabolism in association with inactivating mutations in the TRMT10A gene. We investigated the clinical spectrum presented by a 17-year-old female with a homozygous contiguous gene deletion involving the TRMT10A gene. From infancy, she presented with failure to thrive and microcephaly. Puberty was characterized by a slow and an inconsistent course of progression. Concomitantly, gonadotropin levels fluctuated between low and high levels which were compatible with gonadal failure. Unlike the previous reports, the patient had ketoacidosis at onset of diabetes and islet cell autoantibodies. Nevertheless, glycemic control was excellent (HbA1C 5.0%-6.2%). RT-PCR and Western blot analysis demonstrated a complete abolishment of TRMT10A mRNA and its translated protein. In order to elucidate the nature of diabetes in this patient, endogenous insulin secretion and glycemic control were evaluated by a glucagon stimulation test and continuous glucose monitoring both during insulin treatment and off therapy. Endogenous insulin secretion still persisted 22 months after onset of diabetes and relatively normal glucose levels were kept over 3 days without insulin treatment. The fluctuating course of puberty and diabetes may reflect intermittent apoptotic damages due to sensitization of the relevant cells to various stress agents in the absence of functional TRMT10A. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26297882

  10. Atypical Association of Angelman Syndrome and Klinefelter Syndrome in a Boy with 47,XXY Karyotype and Deletion 15q11.2-q13.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Javier; Peciña, Ana; Alonso-Luengo, Olga; González-Meneses, Antonio; Vázquez, Rocío; Antiñolo, Guillermo; Borrego, Salud

    2014-01-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS, OMIM 105830) is a neurogenetic disorder with firm clinical diagnostic guidelines, characterized by severe developmental delay and speech impairment, balanced and behavioral disturbance as well as microcephaly, seizures, and a characteristic electroencephalogram (EEG). The majority of AS cases (70%) are caused by a 15q11.2-q13 deletion on the maternally derived chromosome. The frequency of AS has been estimated to be between 1/10000 and 1/20000. Klinefelter syndrome (KS) occurs due to the presence of an extra X chromosome (karyotype 47,XXY). The main features in KS are small testes, hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, gynecomastia, learning difficulties, and infertility. We present what is, to our knowledge, the first case of a patient with both KS and AS due to a 15q11.2-q13 deletion on the maternally derived chromosome and an extra X chromosome of paternal origin. He showed dysmorphic features, axial hypotonia, and delayed acquisition of motor skills. Early diagnosis is essential for optimal treatment of AS children; this is one of the earliest diagnosed cases of AS probably due to the presence of two syndromes. Clinical findings in this patient here described may be helpful to identify any other cases and to evaluate recurrence risks in these families. PMID:25379297

  11. Cryptic Transcription Mediates Repression of Subtelomeric Metal Homeostasis Genes

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Cesar F.; Sayani, Shakir; Chanfreau, Guillaume F.

    2011-01-01

    Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) prevents the accumulation of transcripts bearing premature termination codons. Here we show that Saccharomyces cerevisiae NMD mutants accumulate 5′–extended RNAs (CD-CUTs) of many subtelomeric genes. Using the subtelomeric ZRT1 and FIT3 genes activated in response to zinc and iron deficiency, respectively, we show that transcription of these CD-CUTs mediates repression at the bona fide promoters, by preventing premature binding of RNA polymerase II in conditions of metal repletion. Expression of the main ZRT1 CD-CUT is controlled by the histone deacetylase Rpd3p, showing that histone deacetylases can regulate expression of genes through modulation of the level of CD-CUTs. Analysis of binding of the transcriptional activator Zap1p and insertion of transcriptional terminators upstream from the Zap1p binding sites show that CD-CUT transcription or accumulation also interferes with binding of the transcriptional activator Zap1p. Consistent with this model, overexpressing Zap1p or using a constitutively active version of the Aft1p transcriptional activator rescues the induction defect of ZRT1 and FIT3 in NMD mutants. These results show that cryptic upstream sense transcription resulting in unstable transcripts degraded by NMD controls repression of a large number of genes located in subtelomeric regions, and in particular of many metal homeostasis genes. PMID:21738494

  12. Congenital adrenal hypoplasia, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, and glycerol kinase deficiency: importance of laboratory investigations in delineating a contiguous gene deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cole, D E; Clarke, L A; Riddell, D C; Samson, K A; Seltzer, W K; Salisbury, S

    1994-11-01

    We describe an infant with adrenal insufficiency who was subsequently diagnosed with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and hyperglycerolemia due to glycerol kinase deficiency. Karyotyping showed a deletion on the short arm of the X chromosome (p21.1 to p22.1). Molecular mapping revealed that the deletion extended from the 3' end of the DMD gene to a site telomeric to the loci for X-linked congenital adrenal hypoplasia and glycerol kinase deficiency. These results are diagnostic for an Xp21 contiguous gene deletion syndrome--so named because the deletion manifests as a distinctive cluster of otherwise unrelated single-gene disorders in the same individual. The Xp21 syndrome should be considered in any infant with adrenal insufficiency. Measurement of serum triglycerides (without glycerol blanking) and creatine kinase activity are simple screening tests that may facilitate early diagnosis and appropriate genetic counseling about risks of recurrence in subsequent offspring. PMID:7955386

  13. Heterozygous deletion of the Williams-Beuren syndrome critical interval in mice recapitulates most features of the human disorder.

    PubMed

    Segura-Puimedon, Maria; Sahún, Ignasi; Velot, Emilie; Dubus, Pierre; Borralleras, Cristina; Rodrigues, Ana J; Valero, María C; Valverde, Olga; Sousa, Nuno; Herault, Yann; Dierssen, Mara; Pérez-Jurado, Luis A; Campuzano, Victoria

    2014-12-15

    Williams-Beuren syndrome is a developmental multisystemic disorder caused by a recurrent 1.55-1.83 Mb heterozygous deletion on human chromosome band 7q11.23. Through chromosomal engineering with the cre-loxP system, we have generated mice with an almost complete deletion (CD) of the conserved syntenic region on chromosome 5G2. Heterozygous CD mice were viable, fertile and had a normal lifespan, while homozygotes were early embryonic lethal. Transcript levels of most deleted genes were reduced 50% in several tissues, consistent with gene dosage. Heterozygous mutant mice showed postnatal growth delay with reduced body weight and craniofacial abnormalities such as small mandible. The cardiovascular phenotype was only manifested with borderline hypertension, mildly increased arterial wall thickness and cardiac hypertrophy. The neurobehavioral phenotype revealed impairments in motor coordination, increased startle response to acoustic stimuli and hypersociability. Mutant mice showed a general reduction in brain weight. Cellular and histological abnormalities were present in the amygdala, cortex and hippocampus, including increased proportion of immature neurons. In summary, these mice recapitulate most crucial phenotypes of the human disorder, provide novel insights into the pathophysiological mechanisms of the disease such as the neural substrates of the behavioral manifestations, and will be valuable to evaluate novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:25027326

  14. A paternal deletion of MKRN3, MAGEL2 and NDN does not result in Prader–Willi syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kanber, Deniz; Giltay, Jacques; Wieczorek, Dagmar; Zogel, Corinna; Hochstenbach, Ron; Caliebe, Almuth; Kuechler, Alma; Horsthemke, Bernhard; Buiting, Karin

    2009-01-01

    The Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS) is caused by a 5–6?Mbp de novo deletion on the paternal chromosome 15, maternal uniparental disomy 15 or an imprinting defect. All three lesions lead to the lack of expression of imprinted genes that are active on the paternal chromosome only: MKRN3, MAGEL2, NDN, C15orf2, SNURF-SNRPN and more than 70 C/D box snoRNA genes (SNORDs). The contribution to PWS of any of these genes is unknown, because no single gene mutation has been described so far. We report on two patients with PWS who have an atypical deletion on the paternal chromosome that does not include MKRN3, MAGEL2 and NDN. In one of these patients, NDN has a normal DNA methylation pattern and is expressed. In another patient, the paternal alleles of these genes are deleted as the result of an unbalanced translocation 45,X,der(X)t(X;15)(q28;q11.2). This patient is obese and mentally retarded, but does not have PWS. We conclude that a deficiency of MKRN3, MAGEL2 and NDN is not sufficient to cause PWS. PMID:19066619

  15. [A bifid uvula in a patient with schizophrenia as a sign of 22q11 deletion syndrome].

    PubMed

    Vorstman, J A S; de Ranitz, A G S; Udink ten Cate, F E A; Beemer, F A; Kahn, R S

    2002-10-26

    A bifid uvula and nasal speech were observed in a 25-year-old woman who was referred because of psychotic complaints. Fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) research for the 22q11 deletion was carried out and the deletion was found. The 22q11-deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is characterised by somatic abnormalities including cardiovascular defects, velopharyngeal anomalies and typical facial characteristics. There is an increasing interest in the cognitive and psychiatric consequences of 22q11DS. There is a high prevalence of learning disabilities and the delayed development of language and speech. Mild mental retardation or borderline intellectual functioning is often reported. A broad range of psychiatric symptoms have been reported; a consistent finding is the development of a psychosis in a considerable proportion of 22q11DS patients from early adulthood onwards. It is important to consider the possibility of 22q11DS in psychiatric patients, as then early intervention strategies for later psychopathological abnormalities are possible, as well as the provision of genetic counselling. PMID:12428463

  16. 11p15 duplication and 13q34 deletion with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and factor VII deficiency.

    PubMed

    Jurkiewicz, Dorota; Kugaudo, Monika; Ta?ska, Anna; Wawrzkiewicz-Witkowska, Angelika; Tomaszewska, Agnieszka; Kucharczyk, Marzena; Cie?likowska, Agata; Ciara, El?bieta; Krajewska-Walasek, Ma?gorzata

    2015-06-01

    Here we report a patient with 11p15.4p15.5 duplication and 13q34 deletion presenting with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) and moderate deficiency of factor VII (FVII). The duplication was initially diagnosed on methylation-sensitive multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. Array comparative genome hybridization confirmed its presence and indicated a 13q34 distal deletion. The patient's clinical symptoms, including developmental delay and facial dysmorphism, were typical of BWS with paternal 11p15 trisomy. Partial 13q monosomy in this patient is associated with moderate deficiency of FVII and may also overlap with a few symptoms of paternal 11p15 trisomy such as developmental delay and some facial features. To our knowledge this is the first report of 11p15.4p15.5 duplication associated with deletion of 13q34 and FVII deficiency. Moreover, this report emphasizes the importance of detailed clinical as well as molecular examinations in patients with BWS features and developmental delay. PMID:26012727

  17. Converging levels of analysis on a genomic hotspot for psychosis: Insights from 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Schreiner, Matthew J.; Lazaro, Maria T.; Jalbrzikowski, Maria; Bearden, Carrie E.

    2012-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a devastating neurodevelopmental disorder that, despite extensive research, still poses a considerable challenge to attempts to unravel its heterogeneity, and the complex biochemical mechanisms by which it arises. While the majority of cases are of unknown etiology, accumulating evidence suggests that rare genetic mutations, such as 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22qDS), can play a significant role in predisposition to the illness. Up to 25% of individuals with 22qDS eventually develop schizophrenia; conversely, this deletion is estimated to account for 1–2% of schizophrenia cases overall. This locus of Chromosome 22q11.2 contains genes that encode for proteins and enzymes involved in regulating neurotransmission, neuronal development, myelination, micro RNA processing, and posttranslational protein modifications. As a consequence of the deletion, affected individuals exhibit cognitive dysfunction, structural and functional brain abnormalities, and neurodevelopmental anomalies that parallel many of the phenotypic characteristics of schizophrenia. As an illustration of the value of rare, highly penetrant genetic subtypes for elucidating pathological mechanisms of complex neuropsychiatric disorders, we provide here an overview of the cellular, network, and systems-level anomalies found in 22qDS, and review the intriguing evidence for this disorder’s association with schizophrenia. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled ‘Neurodevelopmental Disorders’. PMID:23098994

  18. Functional analysis of a chromosomal deletion associated with myelodysplastic syndromes using isogenic human induced pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Kotini, Andriana G; Chang, Chan-Jung; Boussaad, Ibrahim; Delrow, Jeffrey J; Dolezal, Emily K; Nagulapally, Abhinav B; Perna, Fabiana; Fishbein, Gregory A; Klimek, Virginia M; Hawkins, R David; Huangfu, Danwei; Murry, Charles E; Graubert, Timothy; Nimer, Stephen D; Papapetrou, Eirini P

    2015-01-01

    Chromosomal deletions associated with human diseases, such as cancer are common, but synteny issues complicate modeling of these deletions in mice. We use cellular reprogramming and genome engineering to functionally dissect the loss of chromosome 7q [del(7q)], a somatic cytogenetic abnormality present in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). We derive del(7q)- and isogenic karyotypically normal induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from hematopoietic cells of MDS patients and show that the del(7q) iPSCs recapitulate disease-associated phenotypes, including impaired hematopoietic differentiation. These disease phenotypes are rescued by spontaneous dosage correction and can be reproduced in karyotypically normal cells by engineering hemizygosity of defined chr7q segments, in a 20 Mb region. We use a phenotype-rescue screen to identify candidate haploinsufficient genes that might mediate the del(7q)- hematopoietic defect. Our approach highlights the utility of human iPSCs both for functional mapping of disease-associated large-scale chromosomal deletions and for discovery of haploinsufficient genes. PMID:25798938

  19. Overexpression of KLC2 due to a homozygous deletion in the non-coding region causes SPOAN syndrome.

    PubMed

    Melo, Uirá S; Macedo-Souza, Lucia I; Figueiredo, Thalita; Muotri, Alysson R; Gleeson, Joseph G; Coux, Gabriela; Armas, Pablo; Calcaterra, Nora B; Kitajima, João P; Amorim, Simone; Olávio, Thiago R; Griesi-Oliveira, Karina; Coatti, Giuliana C; Rocha, Clarissa R R; Martins-Pinheiro, Marinalva; Menck, Carlos F M; Zaki, Maha S; Kok, Fernando; Zatz, Mayana; Santos, Silvana

    2015-12-15

    SPOAN syndrome is a neurodegenerative disorder mainly characterized by spastic paraplegia, optic atrophy and neuropathy (SPOAN). Affected patients are wheelchair bound after 15 years old, with progressive joint contractures and spine deformities. SPOAN patients also have sub normal vision secondary to apparently non-progressive congenital optic atrophy. A potential causative gene was mapped at 11q13 ten years ago. Here we performed next-generation sequencing in SPOAN-derived samples. While whole-exome sequencing failed to identify the causative mutation, whole-genome sequencing allowed to detect a homozygous 216-bp deletion (chr11.hg19:g.66,024,557_66,024,773del) located at the non-coding upstream region of the KLC2 gene. Expression assays performed with patient's fibroblasts and motor neurons derived from SPOAN patients showed KLC2 overexpression. Luciferase assay in constructs with 216-bp deletion confirmed the overexpression of gene reporter, varying from 48 to 74%, as compared with wild-type. Knockdown and overexpression of klc2 in Danio rerio revealed mild to severe curly-tail phenotype, which is suggestive of a neuromuscular disorder. Overexpression of a gene caused by a small deletion in the non-coding region is a novel mechanism, which to the best of our knowledge, was never reported before in a recessive condition. Although the molecular mechanism of KLC2 up-regulation still remains to be uncovered, such example adds to the importance of non-coding regions in human pathology. PMID:26385635

  20. Advanced bone age in a girl with Wiedemann-Steiner syndrome and an exonic deletion in KMT2A (MLL).

    PubMed

    Mendelsohn, Bryce A; Pronold, Melissa; Long, Roger; Smaoui, Nizar; Slavotinek, Anne M

    2014-08-01

    Recognition of the gene implicated in a Mendelian disorder subsequently leads to an expansion of potential phenotypes associated with mutations in that gene as patients with features beyond the core phenotype are identified by sequencing. Here, we present a young girl with developmental delay, short stature despite a markedly advanced bone age, hypertrichosis without elbow hair, renal anomalies, and dysmorphic facial features, found to have a heterozygous, de novo, intragenic deletion encompassing exons 2-10 of the KMT2A (MLL) gene detected by whole exome sequencing. Heterozygous mutations in this gene were recently demonstrated to cause Wiedemann-Steiner syndrome (OMIM 605130). Importantly, retrospective analysis of this patient's chromosomal microarray revealed decreased copy number of two probes corresponding to exons 2 and 9 of the KMT2A gene, though this result was not reported by the testing laboratory in keeping with standard protocols for reportable size cutoffs for array comparative genomic hybridization. This patient expands the clinical phenotype associated with mutations in KMT2A to include variable patterns of hypertrichosis and a significantly advanced bone age with premature eruption of the secondary dentition despite her growth retardation. This patient also represents the first report of Wiedemann-Steiner syndrome due to an exonic deletion, supporting haploinsufficiency as a causative mechanism. Our patient also illustrates the need for sensitive guidelines for the reporting of chromosomal microarray findings that are below traditional reporting size cutoffs, but that impact exons or other genomic regions of known function. PMID:24818805

  1. Complete Genome Sequence of Type 1 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Strain E38, Isolated from South Korea with a Novel Deletion.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong-Min; Kwon, Young-Woo; Choi, Eun-Jin; Ouh, In-Ohk; Choe, Se-Eun; Lee, Jienny; Song, Jae-Young; Cha, Sang-Ho

    2015-01-01

    We report the complete genome sequence of the European type 1 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus E38 strain, isolated from South Korea with a novel deletion. It contains a 61-nucleotide discontinuous deletion of the Nsp2 and Nsp12 regions. This study will aid in understanding the genetic diversity of type 1 PRRSV and in manufacturing a construct based on Korean vaccine candidate development. PMID:26472832

  2. Complete Genome Sequence of Type 1 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Strain E38, Isolated from South Korea with a Novel Deletion

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeong-Min; Kwon, Young-Woo; Choi, Eun-Jin; Ouh, In-Ohk; Choe, Se-Eun; Lee, Jienny; Song, Jae-Young

    2015-01-01

    We report the complete genome sequence of the European type 1 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus E38 strain, isolated from South Korea with a novel deletion. It contains a 61-nucleotide discontinuous deletion of the Nsp2 and Nsp12 regions. This study will aid in understanding the genetic diversity of type 1 PRRSV and in manufacturing a construct based on Korean vaccine candidate development. PMID:26472832

  3. Epilepsy is a possible feature in Williams-Beuren syndrome patients harboring typical deletions of the 7q11.23 critical region.

    PubMed

    Nicita, Francesco; Garone, Giacomo; Spalice, Alberto; Savasta, Salvatore; Striano, Pasquale; Pantaleoni, Chiara; Spartà, Maria Valentina; Kluger, Gerhard; Capovilla, Giuseppe; Pruna, Dario; Freri, Elena; D'Arrigo, Stefano; Verrotti, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Seizures are rarely reported in Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS)-a contiguous-gene-deletion disorder caused by a 7q11.23 heterozygous deletion of 1.5-1.8?Mb-and no previous study evaluated electro-clinical features of epilepsy in this syndrome. Furthermore, it has been hypothesized that atypical deletion (e.g., larger than 1.8?Mb) may be responsible for a more pronounced neurological phenotypes, especially including seizures. Our objectives are to describe the electro-clinical features in WBS and to correlate the epileptic phenotype with deletion of the 7q11.23 critical region. We evaluate the electro-clinical features in one case of distal 7q11.23 deletion syndrome and in eight epileptic WBS (eWBS) patients. Additionally, we compare the deletion size-and deleted genes-of four epileptic WBS (eWBS) with that of four non-epileptic WBS (neWBS) patients. Infantile spasms, focal (e.g., motor and dyscognitive with autonomic features) and generalized (e.g., tonic-clonic, tonic, clonic, myoclonic) seizures were encountered. Drug-resistance was observed in one patient. Neuroimaging discovered one case of focal cortical dysplasia, one case of fronto-temporal cortical atrophy and one case of periventricular nodular heterotopia. Comparison of deletion size between eWBS and neWBS patients did not reveal candidate genes potentially underlying epilepsy. This is the largest series describing electro-clinical features of epilepsy in WBS. In WBS, epilepsy should be considered both in case of typical and atypical deletions, which do not involve HIP1, YWHAG or MAGI2. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26437767

  4. Central precocious puberty in a patient with X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita and Xp21 contiguous gene deletion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Ji Won; Kang, So Young; Kim, Gu Hwan; Yoo, Han Wook

    2013-01-01

    X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita is caused by the mutation of DAX-1 gene (dosage-sensitive sex reversal, adrenal hypoplasia critical region, on chromosome X, gene 1), and can occur as part of a contiguous gene deletion syndrome in association with glycerol kinase (GK) deficiency, Duchenne muscular dystrophy and X-linked interleukin-1 receptor accessory protein-like 1 (IL1RAPL1) gene deficiency. It is usually associated with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, although in rare cases, it has been reported to occur in normal puberty or even central precocious puberty. This study addresses a case in which central precocious puberty developed in a boy with X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita who had complete deletion of the genes DAX-1, GK and IL1RAPL1 (Xp21 contiguous gene deletion syndrome). Initially he was admitted for the management of adrenal crisis at the age of 2 months, and managed with hydrocortisone and florinef. At 45 months of age, his each testicular volumes of 4 mL and a penile length of 5 cm were noted, with pubic hair of Tanner stage 2. His bone age was advanced and a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulation test showed a luteinizing hormone peak of 8.26 IU/L, confirming central precocious puberty. He was then treated with a GnRH agonist, as well as steroid replacement therapy. In Korea, this is the first case of central precocious puberty developed in a male patient with X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita. PMID:24904859

  5. Central precocious puberty in a patient with X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita and Xp21 contiguous gene deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Koh, Ji Won; Kang, So Young; Kim, Gu Hwan; Yoo, Han Wook; Yu, Jeesuk

    2013-06-01

    X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita is caused by the mutation of DAX-1 gene (dosage-sensitive sex reversal, adrenal hypoplasia critical region, on chromosome X, gene 1), and can occur as part of a contiguous gene deletion syndrome in association with glycerol kinase (GK) deficiency, Duchenne muscular dystrophy and X-linked interleukin-1 receptor accessory protein-like 1 (IL1RAPL1) gene deficiency. It is usually associated with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, although in rare cases, it has been reported to occur in normal puberty or even central precocious puberty. This study addresses a case in which central precocious puberty developed in a boy with X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita who had complete deletion of the genes DAX-1, GK and IL1RAPL1 (Xp21 contiguous gene deletion syndrome). Initially he was admitted for the management of adrenal crisis at the age of 2 months, and managed with hydrocortisone and florinef. At 45 months of age, his each testicular volumes of 4 mL and a penile length of 5 cm were noted, with pubic hair of Tanner stage 2. His bone age was advanced and a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulation test showed a luteinizing hormone peak of 8.26 IU/L, confirming central precocious puberty. He was then treated with a GnRH agonist, as well as steroid replacement therapy. In Korea, this is the first case of central precocious puberty developed in a male patient with X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita. PMID:24904859

  6. 3 generation pedigree with paternal transmission of the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: Intrafamilial phenotypic variability.

    PubMed

    Vergaelen, Elfi; Swillen, Ann; Van Esch, Hilde; Claes, Stephan; Van Goethem, Gert; Devriendt, Koenraad

    2015-04-01

    In this case report, we present a paternal transmission of a classic 3 Mb 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2 DS) in a 3 generation family. In this family a young girl, her father, her uncle and her grandfather were diagnosed with this disorder. All carriers showed phenotypic expression, there were no unaffected siblings in the second or third generation. Presenting symptoms in the patient in first generation (grandfather) were psoriatic arthritis, thrombocytopenia and a right aortic arch. There was no intellectual disability. The second generation uncle was known with a severe intellectual disability, mild facial characteristics, a septal defect and a clubfoot, whereas the second generation father had a tetralogy of Fallot, no intellectual disability and minimal facial characteristics. The third generation daughter had a moderate intellectual disability, hypernasal speech, triphalangeal thumb, severe speech and language development delay, pronounced facial characteristics and a diagnosis of ADHD. It was notable that the expression in the two brothers of the second generation gives two very different clinical phenotypes with a severe intellectual disability in the oldest brother. This report describes a pronounced clinical variability in a 3 generation familial 22q11.2 deletion with paternal transmission. We can assume that several mechanisms play an important role in the heterogeneity and part of the answer should be found in the genetic background underlying the 22q11.2 deletion. In addition in this family the neuropsychiatric phenotype and intellectual disability seem to be associated with a lower level of social and occupational functioning while a congenital heart disease does not. This clinical report illustrates that a detailed description of these patients can be very informative and still increase the knowledge on this heterogeneous syndrome. For the clinicians working with these patients it emphasizes the need for a multidisciplinary approach that takes into account the individual needs. PMID:25655469

  7. Deletions in GRID2 lead to a recessive syndrome of cerebellar ataxia and tonic upgaze in humans

    PubMed Central

    Hills, L. Benjamin; Masri, Amira; Konno, Kotaro; Kakegawa, Wataru; Lam, Anh-Thu N.; Lim-Melia, Elizabeth; Chandy, Nandini; Hill, R. Sean; Partlow, Jennifer N.; Al-Saffar, Muna; Nasir, Ramzi; Stoler, Joan M.; Barkovich, A. James; Watanabe, Masahiko; Yuzaki, Michisuke

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To identify the genetic cause of a syndrome causing cerebellar ataxia and eye movement abnormalities. Methods: We identified 2 families with cerebellar ataxia, eye movement abnormalities, and global developmental delay. We performed genetic analyses including single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping, linkage analysis, array comparative genomic hybridization, quantitative PCR, and Sanger sequencing. We obtained eye movement recordings of mutant mice deficient for the ortholog of the identified candidate gene, and performed immunohistochemistry using human and mouse brain specimens. Results: All affected individuals had ataxia, eye movement abnormalities, most notably tonic upgaze, and delayed speech and cognitive development. Homozygosity mapping identified the disease locus on chromosome 4q. Within this region, a homozygous deletion of GRID2 exon 4 in the index family and compound heterozygous deletions involving GRID2 exon 2 in the second family were identified. Grid2-deficient mice showed larger spontaneous and random eye movements compared to wild-type mice. In developing mouse and human cerebella, GRID2 localized to the Purkinje cell dendritic spines. Brain MRI in 2 affected children showed progressive cerebellar atrophy, which was more severe than that of Grid2-deficient mice. Conclusions: Biallelic deletions of GRID2 lead to a syndrome of cerebellar ataxia and tonic upgaze in humans. The phenotypic resemblance and similarity in protein expression pattern between humans and mice suggest a conserved role for GRID2 in the synapse organization between parallel fibers and Purkinje cells. However, the progressive and severe cerebellar atrophy seen in the affected individuals could indicate an evolutionarily unique role for GRID2 in the human cerebellum. PMID:24078737

  8. RAI1 point mutations, CAG repeat variation, and SNP analysis in non-deletion Smith-Magenis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bi, Weimin; Saifi, G Mustafa; Girirajan, Santhosh; Shi, Xin; Szomju, Barbara; Firth, Helen; Magenis, R Ellen; Potocki, Lorraine; Elsea, Sarah H; Lupski, James R

    2006-11-15

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a multiple congenital anomalies/mental retardation disorder characterized by distinct craniofacial features and neurobehavioral abnormalities usually associated with an interstitial deletion in 17p11.2. Heterozygous point mutations in the retinoic acid induced 1 gene (RAI1) have been reported in nine SMS patients without a deletion detectable by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), implicating RAI1 haploinsufficiency as the cause of the major clinical features in SMS. All of the reported point mutations are unique and de novo. RAI1 contains a polymorphic CAG repeat and encodes a plant homeo domain (PHD) zinc finger-containing transcriptional regulator. We report a novel RAI1 frameshift mutation, c.3103delC, in a non-deletion patient with many SMS features. The deletion of a single cytosine occurs in a heptameric C-tract (CCCCCCC), the longest mononucleotide repeat in the RAI1 coding region. Interestingly, we had previously reported a frameshift mutation, c.3103insC, in the same mononucleotide repeat. Furthermore, all five single base frameshift mutations preferentially occurred in polyC but not polyG tracts. We also investigated the distribution of the polymorphic CAG repeats in both the normal population and the SMS patients as one potential molecular mechanism for variability of clinical expression. In this limited data set, there was no significant association between the length of CAG repeats and the SMS phenotype. However, we identified a 5-year-old girl with an apparent SMS phenotype who was a compound heterozygote for an RAI1 missense mutation inherited from her father and a polyglutamine repeat of 18 copies, representing the largest known CAG repeat in this gene, inherited from her mother. PMID:17041942

  9. Caregiver and adult patient perspectives on the importance of a diagnosis of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Costain, G.; Chow, E. W. C.; Ray, P. N.; Bassett, A. S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent advances in genetics are particularly relevant in the field of intellectual disability (ID), where sub-microscopic deletions or duplications of genetic material are increasingly implicated as known or suspected causal factors. Data-driven reports on the impact of providing an aetiological explanation in ID are needed to help justify widespread use of new and expensive genetic technologies. Methods We conducted a survey of caregivers on the value of a genetic/aetiologic diagnosis of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS), the most common microdeletion syndrome in ID. We also surveyed the opinion of a high-functioning subset of adults with 22q11.2DS themselves. We used standard quantitative and qualitative methods to analyse the responses. Results In total, 73 of 118 surveys were returned (61.9%). There was convergence of quantitative and qualitative results, and consistency between adult patient and caregiver responses. A definitive molecular diagnosis of 22q11.2DS was a critical event with diverse positive repercussions, even if occurring later in life. Frequently cited benefits included greater understanding and certainty, newfound sense of purpose and a platform for advocacy, and increased opportunities to optimise medical, social and educational needs. Conclusions This is the first study to characterise the impact of a diagnosis of this representative microdeletion syndrome on adult patients and their families. The results both validate and expand on the theoretical benefits proposed by clinicians and researchers. The use of genome-wide microarray technologies will provide an increasing number of molecular diagnoses. The importance of a diagnosis of 22q11.2DS demonstrated here therefore has implications for changing attitudes about molecular genetic diagnosis that could benefit individuals with ID of currently unknown cause and their families. PMID:22142442

  10. Reproductive Health Issues for Adults with a Common Genomic Disorder: 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Chrystal; Costain, Gregory; Ogura, Lucas; Silversides, Candice K.; Chow, Eva W.C.

    2015-01-01

    22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is the most common microdeletion syndrome in humans. Survival to reproductive age and beyond is now the norm. Several manifestations of this syndrome, such as congenital cardiac disease and neuropsychiatric disorders, may increase risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes in the general population. However, there are limited data on reproductive health in 22q11.2DS. We performed a retrospective chart review for 158 adults with 22q11.2DS (75 male, 83 female; mean age 34.3 years) and extracted key variables relevant to pregnancy and reproductive health. We present four illustrative cases as brief vignettes. There were 25 adults (21>age 35 years; 21 female) with a history of one or more pregnancies. Outcomes for women with 22q11.2DS, compared with expectations for the general population, showed a significantly elevated prevalence of small for gestational age liveborn offspring (p<0.001), associated mainly with infants with 22q11.2DS. Stillbirths also showed elevated prevalence (p<0.05). Not all observed adverse events appeared to be attributable to transmission of the 22q11.2 deletion. Recurring issues relevant to reproductive health in 22q11.2DS included the potential impact of maternal morbidities, inadequate social support, unsafe sexual practices, and delayed diagnosis of 22q11.2DS and/or lack of genetic counseling. These preliminary results emphasize the importance of early diagnosis and long term follow-up that could help facilitate genetic counseling for men and women with 22q11.2DS. We propose initial recommendations for pre-conception management, educational strategies, pre-natal planning, and preparation for possible high-risk pregnancy and/or delivery. PMID:25579115

  11. Reproductive Health Issues for Adults with a Common Genomic Disorder: 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chan, Chrystal; Costain, Gregory; Ogura, Lucas; Silversides, Candice K; Chow, Eva W C; Bassett, Anne S

    2015-10-01

    22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is the most common microdeletion syndrome in humans. Survival to reproductive age and beyond is now the norm. Several manifestations of this syndrome, such as congenital cardiac disease and neuropsychiatric disorders, may increase risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes in the general population. However, there are limited data on reproductive health in 22q11.2DS. We performed a retrospective chart review for 158 adults with 22q11.2DS (75 male, 83 female; mean age 34.3 years) and extracted key variables relevant to pregnancy and reproductive health. We present four illustrative cases as brief vignettes. There were 25 adults (21?>?age 35 years; 21 female) with a history of one or more pregnancies. Outcomes for women with 22q11.2DS, compared with expectations for the general population, showed a significantly elevated prevalence of small for gestational age liveborn offspring (p?deletion. Recurring issues relevant to reproductive health in 22q11.2DS included the potential impact of maternal morbidities, inadequate social support, unsafe sexual practices, and delayed diagnosis of 22q11.2DS and/or lack of genetic counseling. These preliminary results emphasize the importance of early diagnosis and long term follow-up that could help facilitate genetic counseling for men and women with 22q11.2DS. We propose initial recommendations for pre-conception management, educational strategies, prenatal planning, and preparation for possible high-risk pregnancy and/or delivery. PMID:25579115

  12. Genotype–Phenotype Association Studies of Chromosome 8p Inverted Duplication Deletion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Ryan; Youngblom, Janey; Gregg, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Individuals diagnosed with chromosome 8p inverted duplication deletion (invdupdel(8p)) manifest a wide range of clinical features and cognitive impairment. The purpose of this study is to employ array CGH technology to define more precisely the cytogenetic breakpoints and regions of copy number variation found in several individuals with invdupdel(8p), and compare these results with their neuropsychological characteristics. We examined the cognitive-behavioral features of two male and two female children, ages 3–15 years, with invdupdel(8p). We noted cognitive deficits that ranged from mild to severe, and adaptive behavior composites that ranged from significantly to substantially lower than adequate levels. CARS scores, a measure of autistic behavior, identified three children with autism or autistic-like features. Three of the four children exhibited attention deficits and hyperactivity consistent with a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of ADHD. One child showed extreme emotional lability. Interestingly, intellectual disability was not correlated with deletion size, nor was the deletion location associated with the autistic phenotype. On the other hand, the duplication length in 8p21.1/8p22 was associated with cognitive deficit. In addition, a small locus of over-expression in 8p21.3 was common for all three participants diagnosed as autistic. A limitation of the study is its small sample size. Further analyses of the deleted and over-expressed regions are needed to ascertain the genes involved in cognitive function and, possibly, autism. PMID:21259039

  13. In Vivo Growth of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Engineered Nsp2 Deletion Mutants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prior studies on PRRSV strain VR-2332 nonstructural protein 2 (nsp2) had shown that as much as 403 amino acids could be removed from the hypervariable region without losing virus viability in vitro. We utilized selected nsp2 deletion mutants to examine in vivo growth. Young swine (4 pigs/group; 5 co...

  14. Ectodermal dysplasia-like syndrome with mental retardation due to contiguous gene deletion: further clinical and molecular delineation of del(2q32) syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rifai, Laila; Port-Lis, Marylin; Tabet, Anne-Claude; Bailleul-Forestier, Isabelle; Benzacken, Brigitte; Drunat, Séverine; Kuzbari, Suzanne; Passemard, Sandrine; Verloes, Alain; Aboura, Azzedine

    2010-01-01

    We report on a patient with an interstitial deletion of the long arm of chromosome 2 at 2q31.2q33.2. She had prenatal and postnatal growth retardation, microcephaly, facial dysmorphism, cleft palate, camptodactyly, bilateral talipes equinovarus, severe intellectual disability, and ectodermal anomalies. She showed thin, atrophic skin, sparse, brittle, slowly growing hair, oligodontia with abnormally shaped teeth, normal sweating, and normal fingernails, consistent with a diagnosis of ectodermal dysplasia. Array CGH analysis (Agilent 44K) showed the deletion to span 26 Mb, between cytogenetic bands 2q31.2 and 2q33. The deletion leads to hemizygosity for the HOXD cluster and its regulatory elements, COL3A1/COL5A2, GTF3C3, CASP8, CASP10, and SABT2 could perhaps interfere with long range control of DLX1 and DLX2 expression. This girl confirms the existence of a clinically recognizable 2q32 microdeletion syndrome, as recently delineated by Van Buggenhout et al. and confirms a novel putative locus for ectodermal dysplasia on chromosome 2q31q33. We recommend considering cytogenetic and/or molecular screening for del(2q32) in patients with developmental disability and ectodermal dysplasia-like phenotype, including thin skin, oligodontia, dysplastic teeth, and sparse hair. PMID:20034071

  15. Epilepsy and Other Neuropsychiatric Manifestations in Children and Adolescents with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun-Hee; Yum, Mi-Sun; Lee, Beom-Hee; Kim, Hyo-Won; Lee, Hyun-Jeoung; Kim, Gu-Hwan; Lee, Yun-Jeong; Yoo, Han-Wook

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is the most common microdeletion syndrome. Epilepsy and other neuropsychiatric (NP) manifestations of this genetic syndrome are not uncommon, but they are also not well-understood. We sought to identify the characteristics of epilepsy and other associated NP manifestations in patients with 22q11.2DS. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 145 child and adolescent patients (72 males and 73 females) with genetically diagnosed 22q11.2DS. The clinical data included seizures, growth chart, psychological reports, development characteristics, school performance, other clinical manifestations, and laboratory findings. Results Of the 145 patients with 22q11.2DS, 22 (15.2%) had epileptic seizures, 15 (10.3%) had developmental delay, and 5 (3.4%) had a psychiatric illness. Twelve patients with epilepsy were classified as genetic epilepsy whereas the remaining were classified as structural, including three with malformations of cortical development. Patients with epilepsy were more likely to display developmental delay (odds ratio=3.98; 95% confidence interval=1.5-10.5; p=0.005), and developmental delay was more common in patients with structural epilepsy than in those with genetic epilepsy. Conclusions Patients with 22q11.2DS have a high risk of epilepsy, which in these cases is closely related to other NP manifestations. This implies that this specific genetic locus is critically linked to neurodevelopment and epileptogenesis. PMID:26754781

  16. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, yKu and subtelomeric core X sequences repress homologous recombination near telomeres as part of the same pathway.

    PubMed

    Marvin, Marcus E; Griffin, Craig D; Eyre, David E; Barton, David B H; Louis, Edward J

    2009-10-01

    Unlike in meiosis where recombination near telomeres is repressed, subtelomeric regions appear to recombine with each other frequently in vegetative cells with no detrimental consequences. To test whether or not such recombination is prevented in the core of chromosomes for maintenance of genome stability, we measured allelic homologous recombination (HR) along chromosome arms and between different ectopic locations. We found that there is an increase of recombination at telomeres in wild-type cells compared with sequences at proximal subtelomeric and interstitial regions of the genome. We also screened for mutations that result in an increase in HR between a telomeric sequence and a more internal sequence, which normally exhibit very low rates of HR. YKU80 was hit most frequently in our screen, and we show that the yKu heterodimer specifically represses HR in the vicinity of telomeres. This repression of HR is not explained solely by the role of yKu in maintaining telomere length, silencing, or tethering to the nuclear periphery. Analysis of mutant strains harboring deleted core X sequences revealed a role for this subtelomeric element in preventing telomeric recombination. Furthermore, core X bestowed this protection as part of the same pathway as yKu. Our findings implicate a role for both yKu and core X in stabilizing the genome against recombination events involving telomeric sequences. PMID:19652177

  17. Pleiotropy in microdeletion syndromes: Neurologic and spermatogenic abnormalities in mice homozygous for the p{sup 6H} deletion are likely due to dysfunction of a single gene

    SciTech Connect

    Rinchik, E.M.; Carpenter, D.A.; Handel, M.A.

    1995-07-03

    Variability and complexity of phenotypes observed in microdeletion syndromes can be due to deletion of a single gene whose product participates in several aspects of development or can be due to the deletion of a number of tightly linked genes, each adding its own effect to the syndrome. The p{sup 6H} deletion in mouse chromosome 7 presents a good model with which to address this question of multigene vs. single-gene pleiotropy. Mice homozygous for the p{sup 6H} deletion are diluted in pigmentation, are smaller than their littermates, and manifest a nervous jerky-gait phenotype. Male homozygotes are sterile and exhibit profound abnormalities in spermiogenesis. By using N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (EtNU) mutagenesis and a breeding protocol designed to recover recessive mutations expressed hemizygously opposite a large p-locus deletion, we have generated three noncomplementing mutations that map to the p{sup 6H} deletion. Each of these EtNU-induced mutations has adverse effects on the size, nervous behavior, and progression of spermiogenesis that characterize p{sup 6H} deletion homozygotes. Because etNU is thought to induce primarily intragenic (point) mutations in mouse stem-cell spermatogonia, we propose that the trio of phenotypes (runtiness, nervous jerky gait, and male sterility) expressed in p{sup 6H} deletion homozygotes is the result of deletion of a single highly pleiotropic gene. We also predict that a homologous single locus, quite possibly tightly linked and distal to the D15S12 (P) locus in human chromosome 15q11-q13, may be associated with similar developmental abnormalities in humans. 29 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Genetics Home Reference: Jacobsen syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 11, Jacobsen syndrome is also known as 11q terminal deletion disorder. The signs and symptoms of Jacobsen ... disorder 11q deletion syndrome 11q- deletion syndrome 11q terminal deletion disorder Jacobsen thrombocytopenia For more information about ...

  19. Systematic Screening for Subtelomeric Anomalies in a Clinical Sample of Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wassink, Thomas H.; Losh, Molly; Piven, Joseph; Sheffield, Val C.; Ashley, Elizabeth; Westin, Erik R.; Patil, Shivanand R.

    2007-01-01

    High-resolution karyotyping detects cytogenetic anomalies in 5-10% of cases of autism. Karyotyping, however, may fail to detect abnormalities of chromosome subtelomeres, which are gene rich regions prone to anomalies. We assessed whether panels of FISH probes targeted for subtelomeres could detect abnormalities beyond those identified by…

  20. Systematic Screening for Subtelomeric Anomalies in a Clinical Sample of Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wassink, Thomas H.; Losh, Molly; Piven, Joseph; Sheffield, Val C.; Ashley, Elizabeth; Westin, Erik R.; Patil, Shivanand R.

    2007-01-01

    High-resolution karyotyping detects cytogenetic anomalies in 5-10% of cases of autism. Karyotyping, however, may fail to detect abnormalities of chromosome subtelomeres, which are gene rich regions prone to anomalies. We assessed whether panels of FISH probes targeted for subtelomeres could detect abnormalities beyond those identified by…

  1. Mild Beckwith-Wiedemann and severe long-QT syndrome due to deletion of the imprinting center 2 on chromosome 11p.

    PubMed

    Gurrieri, Fiorella; Zollino, Marcella; Oliva, Antonio; Pascali, Vincenzo; Orteschi, Daniela; Pietrobono, Roberta; Camporeale, Antonella; Coll Vidal, Monica; Partemi, Sara; Brugada, Ramon; Bellocci, Fulvio; Neri, Giovanni

    2013-09-01

    We report on a young woman admitted to our Cardiology Unit because of an episode of cardiac arrest related to a long-QT syndrome (LQTS). This manifestation was part of a broader phenotype, which was recognized as a mild form of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS). Molecular analysis confirmed the diagnosis of BWS owing to a maternally inherited deletion of the centromeric imprinting center, or ICR2, an extremely rare genetic mechanism in BWS. The deletion interval (198?kb) also included exons 11-16 of the KCNQ1 gene, known to be responsible for LQTS at locus LQT1. No concomitant mutations were found in any other of the known LQT genes. The proposita's mother carries the same deletion in her paternal chromosome and shows manifestations of the Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS). This report describes the smallest BWS-causing ICR2 deletion and provides the first evidence that a paternal deletion of ICR2 leads to a SRS-like phenotype. In addition, our observation strongly suggests that in cases of LQTS due to mutation of the KCNQ1 gene (LQT1), an accurate clinical genetic evaluation should be done in order to program the most appropriate genetic tests. PMID:23511928

  2. Deletions in the 3' part of the NFIX gene including a recurrent Alu-mediated deletion of exon 6 and 7 account for previously unexplained cases of Marshall-Smith syndrome.

    PubMed

    Schanze, Denny; Neubauer, Dorothée; Cormier-Daire, Valerie; Delrue, Marie-Ange; Dieux-Coeslier, Anne; Hasegawa, Tomonobu; Holmberg, Eva E; Koenig, Rainer; Krueger, Gabriele; Schanze, Ina; Seemanova, Eva; Shaw, Adam C; Vogt, Julie; Volleth, Marianne; Reis, André; Meinecke, Peter; Hennekam, Raoul C M; Zenker, Martin

    2014-09-01

    Marshall-Smith syndrome (MSS) is a very rare malformation syndrome characterized by typical craniofacial anomalies, abnormal osseous maturation, developmental delay, failure to thrive, and respiratory difficulties. Mutations in the nuclear factor 1/X gene (NFIX) were recently identified as the cause of MSS. In our study cohort of 17 patients with a clinical diagnosis of MSS, conventional sequencing of NFIX revealed frameshift and splice-site mutations in 10 individuals. Using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis, we identified a recurrent deletion of NFIX exon 6 and 7 in five individuals. We demonstrate this recurrent deletion is the product of a recombination between AluY elements located in intron 5 and 7. Two other patients had smaller deletions affecting exon 6. These findings show that MSS is a genetically homogeneous Mendelian disorder. RT-PCR experiments with newly identified NFIX mutations including the recurrent exon 6 and 7 deletion confirmed previous findings indicating that MSS-associated mutant mRNAs are not cleared by nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. Predicted MSS-associated mutant NFIX proteins consistently have a preserved DNA binding and dimerization domain, whereas they grossly vary in their C-terminal portion. This is in line with the hypothesis that MSS-associated mutations encode dysfunctional proteins that act in a dominant negative manner. PMID:24924640

  3. Large-Scale Deletions and SMADIP1 Truncating Mutations in Syndromic Hirschsprung Disease with Involvement of Midline Structures

    PubMed Central

    Amiel, Jeanne; Espinosa-Parrilla, Yolanda; Steffann, Julie; Gosset, Philippe; Pelet, Anna; Prieur, Marguerite; Boute, Odile; Choiset, Agnès; Lacombe, Didier; Philip, Nicole; Le Merrer, Martine; Tanaka, Hajime; Till, Marianne; Touraine, Renaud; Toutain, Annick; Vekemans, Michel; Munnich, Arnold; Lyonnet, Stanislas

    2001-01-01

    Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) is a common malformation of neural-crest–derived enteric neurons that is frequently associated with other congenital abnormalities. The SMADIP1 gene recently has been recognized as disease causing in some patients with 2q22 chromosomal rearrangement, resulting in syndromic HSCR with mental retardation, with microcephaly, and with facial dysmorphism. We screened 19 patients with HSCR and mental retardation and eventually identified large-scale SMADIP1 deletions or truncating mutations in 8 of 19 patients. These results allow further delineation of the spectrum of malformations ascribed to SMADIP1 haploinsufficiency, which includes frequent features such as hypospadias and agenesis of the corpus callosum. Thus, SMADIP1, which encodes a transcriptional corepressor of Smad target genes, may play a role not only in the patterning of neural-crest–derived cells and of CNS but also in the development of midline structures in humans. PMID:11595972

  4. Isochromosome 15q of maternal origin in two Prader-Willi syndrome patients previously diagnosed erroneously as cytogenetic deletions

    SciTech Connect

    Saitoh, Shinji; Niikawa, Norio; Mutirangura, A.; Kuwano, A.; Ledbetter, D.H.

    1994-03-01

    Since a previous report on two Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) patients with t(15q;15q) was erroneous, the authors report new data and a corrected interpretation. Reexamination of the parental origin of their t(15q;15q) using polymorphic DNA markers that are mapped to various regions of 15q documented no molecular deletions at the 15q11-q13 region in either patient. Both patients were homozygous at all loci examined and their haplotypes on 15q coincided with one of those in their respective mothers. These results indicate that the presumed t(15q;15q) in each patient was actually an isochromosome 15q producing maternal uniparental disomy, consistent with genomic imprinting at the PWS locus. 30 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  5. Differential Gene Expression Reveals Mitochondrial Dysfunction in an Imprinting Center Deletion Mouse Model of Prader-Willi Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Weiwei; Coskun, Pinar E.; Nalbandian, Angèle; Knoblach, Susan; Resnick, James L.; Hoffman, Eric; Wallace, Douglas C.; Kimonis, Virginia E.

    2013-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic disorder caused by deficiency of imprinted gene expression from the paternal chromosome 15q11-15q13 and clinically characterized by neonatal hypotonia, short stature, cognitive impairment, hypogonadism, hyperphagia, morbid obesity and diabetes. Previous clinical studies suggest that a defect in energy metabolism may be involved in the pathogenesis of PWS. We focused our attention on the genes associated with energy metabolism and found that there were 95 and 66 mitochondrial genes differentially expressed in PWS muscle and brain, respectively. Assessment of enzyme activities of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes in the brain, heart, liver and muscle were assessed. We found the enzyme activities of the cardiac mitochondrial complexes II+III were upregulated in the imprinting center deletion (PWS-IC) mice compared to the wild type littermates. These studies suggest that differential gene expression, especially of the mitochondrial genes may contribute to the pathophysiology of PWS. PMID:24127921

  6. Multitasking Abilities in Adolescents With 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: Results From an Experimental Ecological Paradigm.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Maude; Eliez, Stephan; Birr, Julie; Menghetti, Sarah; Debbané, Martin; Van der Linden, Martial

    2016-03-01

    The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is associated with cognitive and functional impairments and increased risk for schizophrenia. We characterized multitasking abilities of adolescents with 22q11.2DS using an experimental naturalistic setting and examined whether multitasking impairments were associated with real-world functioning and negative symptoms. Thirty-nine adolescents (19 with 22q11.2DS and 20 controls) underwent the Multitasking Evaluation for Adolescents. Real-world functioning and clinical symptoms were assessed in participants with 22q11.2DS. Adolescents with 22q11.2DS performed poorly in the multitasking evaluation. Our data also suggest that multitasking abilities are related to adaptive functioning in the practical domain and negative symptoms. This study shows that adolescents with 22q11.2DS are characterized by multitasking impairments, which may be relevant for several aspects of the clinical phenotype. PMID:26914469

  7. Potential Novel Mechanism for Axenfeld-Rieger Syndrome: Deletion of a Distant Region Containing Regulatory Elements of PITX2

    PubMed Central

    Volkmann, Bethany A.; Zinkevich, Natalya S.; Mustonen, Aki; Schilter, Kala F.; Bosenko, Dmitry V.; Reis, Linda M.; Broeckel, Ulrich; Link, Brian A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. Mutations in PITX2 are associated with Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome (ARS), which involves ocular, dental, and umbilical abnormalities. Identification of cis-regulatory elements of PITX2 is important to better understand the mechanisms of disease. Methods. Conserved noncoding elements surrounding PITX2/pitx2 were identified and examined through transgenic analysis in zebrafish; expression pattern was studied by in situ hybridization. Patient samples were screened for deletion/duplication of the PITX2 upstream region using arrays and probes. Results. Zebrafish pitx2 demonstrates conserved expression during ocular and craniofacial development. Thirteen conserved noncoding sequences positioned within a gene desert as far as 1.1 Mb upstream of the human PITX2 gene were identified; 11 have enhancer activities consistent with pitx2 expression. Ten elements mediated expression in the developing brain, four regions were active during eye formation, and two sequences were associated with craniofacial expression. One region, CE4, located approximately 111 kb upstream of PITX2, directed a complex pattern including expression in the developing eye and craniofacial region, the classic sites affected in ARS. Screening of ARS patients identified an approximately 7600-kb deletion that began 106 to 108 kb upstream of the PITX2 gene, leaving PITX2 intact while removing regulatory elements CE4 to CE13. Conclusions. These data suggest the presence of a complex distant regulatory matrix within the gene desert located upstream of PITX2 with an essential role in its activity and provides a possible mechanism for the previous reports of ARS in patients with balanced translocations involving the 4q25 region upstream of PITX2 and the current patient with an upstream deletion. PMID:20881290

  8. Catechol-O-methyltransferase polymorphism modulates cognitive control in children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Takarae, Yukari; Schmidt, Linda; Tassone, Flora; Simon, Tony J.

    2009-01-01

    Dopamine plays a critical role in regulating neural activity in prefrontal cortex (PFC) and modulates cognition via a hypothesized inverse U function. We investigated PFC function in children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) in which one copy of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is deleted, thereby shifting them toward the lower end of dopamine turnover on the nonlinear function. A common polymorphism with valine to methionine substitution alters COMT activity that results in higher enzyme activity in the valine variant. Twenty-seven children with 22q11.2DS between 7 and 14 years old, and 21 age-matched typically developing children, performed a modified version of the Attention Network Test. Children with a single valine allele showed a reduction in response times when trials with incongruent flankers were repeated, whereas those who were hemizygous for the methionine allele did not show the same context-based response facilitation. Our results support that a single gene, COMT, could modulate PFC-dependent cognition. PMID:19246329

  9. Socioeconomic Status and Psychological Function in Children with Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: Implications for Genetic Counseling

    PubMed Central

    Shashi, Vandana; Keshavan, Matcheri; Kaczorowski, Jessica; Schoch, Kelly; Lewandowski, Kathryn E.; McConkie-Rosell, Allyn; Hooper, Stephen R.; Kwapil, Thomas R.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the association between parental socio-economic status (SES) and childhood neurocognition and behavior in children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS). Although undoubtedly, the deletion of genes in the 22q11.2 interval is primarily responsible for the psychological manifestations, little is known about the role of the environment in either mitigating or contributing to these problems. We examined the association of parental socio-economic status (SES) with cognition and behavior in children with 22q11DS (n=65) and matched healthy control subjects (n=52), since SES is a component of family resources. We found that in children with 22q11DS, higher SES correlated with better overall functioning (p<.01) and social skills (p<.01), and less frequent oppositional defiant behavior (p<.001). These findings were in contrast to the control subjects in whom SES correlated with cognition and achievement, but not behavior. Our results indicate that environmental factors influence the behavioral phenotype in children with 22q11DS, providing a framework for developing appropriate interventions. As such, genetic counseling for families with 22q11DS may include consideration of family resources and inclusion of other health professionals, such as social workers, to explore with the family available social supports and resources. PMID:20680421

  10. Two patients with duplication of 17p11.2: The reciprocal of the Smith-Magenis syndrome deletion?

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, A.; Phelan, M.C.; Rogers, R.C.

    1996-05-17

    J.M. and H.G. are two unrelated male patients with developmental delay. Cytogenetic analysis detected a duplication of 17p11.2 in both patients. The extent of the duplicated region was determined using single copy DNA probes: cen-D17S58-D17S29-D17S258-D17S71-D17S445-D17S122-tel. Four of the six markers, D17S29, D17S258, D17S71, and D17S445, were duplicated by dosage analysis. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis of H.G., using cosmids for locus D17S29, confirmed the duplication in 17p11.2. Because the deletion that causes the Smith-Magenis syndrome involves the same region of 17p11.2 as the duplication in these patients, the mechanism may be similar to that proposed for the reciprocal deletion/ duplication event observed in Hereditary Neuropathy with Liability to Pressure Palsies (HNPP) and Charcot-Marie-Tooth Type 1A disease (CMT1A). 30 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  11. A familial contiguous gene deletion syndrome at Xp22.3 characterized by severe learning disabilities and ADHD.

    PubMed

    Boycott, Kym M; Parslow, Malcolm I; Ross, Judith L; Miller, Ivan P; Bech-Hansen, N Torben; MacLeod, Patrick M

    2003-10-01

    We describe a mother and two sons with a 6-Mb terminal deletion of the short arm of the X chromosome. The breakpoint was localized to a region between DXS6837 and sAJ243947 in Xp22.33. The two boys were shown to be deleted for the SHOX and ARSE genes on their X chromosome. Both sons were short in stature and showed mild to moderate skeletal abnormalities. The most significant findings in the younger son were severe learning disabilities and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The older son tested in the mild mental retardation range and was also affected by ADHD. The VCX-A gene, implicated recently in X-linked nonspecific mental retardation, was found to be present in both boys. The mother's stature was greater than one standard deviation below her target height and she had only subtle radiographic evidence of Madelung deformity. Our findings indicate that loss of the Xp22.3 region is not always associated with the classic presentations of Léri-Weill syndrome, or chondrodysplasia punctata, and that one or more genes involved in learning and attention may reside in Xp22.3. PMID:12955766

  12. Performance on the Modified Card Sorting Test and Its Relation to Psychopathology in Adolescents and Young Adults with 22Q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockers, K.; Ousley, O.; Sutton, T.; Schoenberg, E.; Coleman, K.; Walker, E.; Cubells, J. F.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Approximately one-third of individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), a common genetic disorder highly associated with intellectual disabilities, may develop schizophrenia, likely preceded by a mild to moderate cognitive decline. Methods: We examined adolescents and young adults with 22q11DS for the presence of executive…

  13. Association of the Family Environment with Behavioural and Cognitive Outcomes in Children with Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, T. M.; Hersh, J.; Schoch, K.; Curtiss, K.; Hooper, S. R.; Shashi, V.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) are at risk for social-behavioural and neurocognitive sequelae throughout development. The current study examined the impact of family environmental characteristics on social-behavioural and cognitive outcomes in this paediatric population. Method: Guardians of children with 22q11DS…

  14. Abnormal response to the anorexic effect of GHS-R inhibitors and exenatide in male Snord116 deletion mouse model for Prader-Willi Syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic disease characterized by persistent hunger and hyperphagia. The lack of the Snord116 small nucleolar RNA cluster has been identified as the major contributor to PWS symptoms. The Snord116 deletion (Snord116del) mouse model manifested a subset of PWS symptoms ...

  15. Social Cognitive Training in Adolescents with Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: Feasibility and Preliminary Effects of the Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shashi, V.; Harrell, W.; Eack, S.; Sanders, C.; McConkie-Rosell, A.; Keshavan, M. S.; Bonner, M. J.; Schoch, K.; Hooper, S. R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) often have deficits in social cognition and social skills that contribute to poor adaptive functioning. These deficits may be of relevance to the later occurrence of serious psychiatric illnesses such as schizophrenia. Yet, there are no evidence-based interventions to improve…

  16. Complete Genome Sequence of a Chinese Highly Pathogenic Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus That Has a Further Deletion in the Nsp2 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Guobiao; Li, Yingying; Tan, Feifei; Zhuang, Jinshan

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the complete genome of a Chinese highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) characterized by a further 29-amino acid (87 nucleotides) deletion in its Nsp2-coding region compared to the prototype of the HP-PRRSV JXA1 strain. PMID:26893437

  17. A New Account of the Neurocognitive Foundations of Impairments in Space, Time, and Number Processing in Children with Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Tony J.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, I present an updated account that attempts to explain, in cognitive processing and neural terms, the nonverbal intellectual impairments experienced by most children with deletions of chromosome 22q11.2. Specifically, I propose that this genetic syndrome leads to early developmental changes in the structure and function of clearly…

  18. Social Cognitive Training in Adolescents with Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: Feasibility and Preliminary Effects of the Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shashi, V.; Harrell, W.; Eack, S.; Sanders, C.; McConkie-Rosell, A.; Keshavan, M. S.; Bonner, M. J.; Schoch, K.; Hooper, S. R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) often have deficits in social cognition and social skills that contribute to poor adaptive functioning. These deficits may be of relevance to the later occurrence of serious psychiatric illnesses such as schizophrenia. Yet, there are no evidence-based interventions to improve…

  19. Discrepancies in Parent and Teacher Ratings of Social-Behavioral Functioning of Children with Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: Implications for Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shashi, Vandana; Wray, Emily; Schoch, Kelly; Curtiss, Kathleen; Hooper, Stephen R.

    2013-01-01

    Children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome exhibit high rates of social-behavioral problems, particularly in the internalizing domain, indicating an area in need of intervention. The current investigation was designed to obtain information regarding parent and teacher ratings of the social-emotional behavior of children with 22q11DS. Using the Child…

  20. Relationship between Reaction Time, Fine Motor Control, and Visual-Spatial Perception on Vigilance and Visual-Motor Tasks in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howley, Sarah A.; Prasad, Sarah E.; Pender, Niall P.; Murphy, Kieran C.

    2012-01-01

    22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11DS) is a common microdeletion disorder associated with mild to moderate intellectual disability and specific neurocognitive deficits, particularly in visual-motor and attentional abilities. Currently there is evidence that the visual-motor profile of 22q11DS is not entirely mediated by intellectual disability and…

  1. Performance on the Modified Card Sorting Test and Its Relation to Psychopathology in Adolescents and Young Adults with 22Q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockers, K.; Ousley, O.; Sutton, T.; Schoenberg, E.; Coleman, K.; Walker, E.; Cubells, J. F.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Approximately one-third of individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), a common genetic disorder highly associated with intellectual disabilities, may develop schizophrenia, likely preceded by a mild to moderate cognitive decline. Methods: We examined adolescents and young adults with 22q11DS for the presence of executive…

  2. A New Account of the Neurocognitive Foundations of Impairments in Space, Time, and Number Processing in Children with Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Tony J.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, I present an updated account that attempts to explain, in cognitive processing and neural terms, the nonverbal intellectual impairments experienced by most children with deletions of chromosome 22q11.2. Specifically, I propose that this genetic syndrome leads to early developmental changes in the structure and function of clearly…

  3. Association of the Family Environment with Behavioural and Cognitive Outcomes in Children with Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, T. M.; Hersh, J.; Schoch, K.; Curtiss, K.; Hooper, S. R.; Shashi, V.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) are at risk for social-behavioural and neurocognitive sequelae throughout development. The current study examined the impact of family environmental characteristics on social-behavioural and cognitive outcomes in this paediatric population. Method: Guardians of children with 22q11DS…

  4. Relationship between Reaction Time, Fine Motor Control, and Visual-Spatial Perception on Vigilance and Visual-Motor Tasks in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howley, Sarah A.; Prasad, Sarah E.; Pender, Niall P.; Murphy, Kieran C.

    2012-01-01

    22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11DS) is a common microdeletion disorder associated with mild to moderate intellectual disability and specific neurocognitive deficits, particularly in visual-motor and attentional abilities. Currently there is evidence that the visual-motor profile of 22q11DS is not entirely mediated by intellectual disability and…

  5. Cutaneous features in 17q21.31 deletion syndrome: a differential diagnosis for cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Burkitt Wright, Emma; Donnai, Dian; Johnson, Diana; Clayton-Smith, Jill

    2010-01-01

    Microdeletion of 17q21.31 causes a recurrent recognisable dysmorphic syndrome. Four further patients with 17q21.31 microdeletions are reported here where previously the diagnosis of cardio-facio-cutaneous (CFC) syndrome was suggested. These patients have significant similarities of facial gestalt to previously reported 17q21.31 microdeletion patients, but a striking feature that has not been emphasised previously is the large number of naevi and other pigmentary skin abnormalities that may be present. These features, together with a coarse facial appearance, relative macrocephaly and significant learning disabilities, had led to the previous diagnostic suggestion of CFC syndrome in each of these four cases. PMID:21084979

  6. Altered ultrasonic vocalization and impaired learning and memory in Angelman syndrome mouse model with a large maternal deletion from Ube3a to Gabrb3.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yong-Hui; Pan, Yanzhen; Zhu, Li; Landa, Luis; Yoo, Jong; Spencer, Corinne; Lorenzo, Isabel; Brilliant, Murray; Noebels, Jeffrey; Beaudet, Arthur L

    2010-01-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurobehavioral disorder associated with mental retardation, absence of language development, characteristic electroencephalography (EEG) abnormalities and epilepsy, happy disposition, movement or balance disorders, and autistic behaviors. The molecular defects underlying AS are heterogeneous, including large maternal deletions of chromosome 15q11-q13 (70%), paternal uniparental disomy (UPD) of chromosome 15 (5%), imprinting mutations (rare), and mutations in the E6-AP ubiquitin ligase gene UBE3A (15%). Although patients with UBE3A mutations have a wide spectrum of neurological phenotypes, their features are usually milder than AS patients with deletions of 15q11-q13. Using a chromosomal engineering strategy, we generated mutant mice with a 1.6-Mb chromosomal deletion from Ube3a to Gabrb3, which inactivated the Ube3a and Gabrb3 genes and deleted the Atp10a gene. Homozygous deletion mutant mice died in the perinatal period due to a cleft palate resulting from the null mutation in Gabrb3 gene. Mice with a maternal deletion (m-/p+) were viable and did not have any obvious developmental defects. Expression analysis of the maternal and paternal deletion mice confirmed that the Ube3a gene is maternally expressed in brain, and showed that the Atp10a and Gabrb3 genes are biallelically expressed in all brain sub-regions studied. Maternal (m-/p+), but not paternal (m+/p-), deletion mice had increased spontaneous seizure activity and abnormal EEG. Extensive behavioral analyses revealed significant impairment in motor function, learning and memory tasks, and anxiety-related measures assayed in the light-dark box in maternal deletion but not paternal deletion mice. Ultrasonic vocalization (USV) recording in newborns revealed that maternal deletion pups emitted significantly more USVs than wild-type littermates. The increased USV in maternal deletion mice suggests abnormal signaling behavior between mothers and pups that may reflect abnormal communication behaviors in human AS patients. Thus, mutant mice with a maternal deletion from Ube3a to Gabrb3 provide an AS mouse model that is molecularly more similar to the contiguous gene deletion form of AS in humans than mice with Ube3a mutation alone. These mice will be valuable for future comparative studies to mice with maternal deficiency of Ube3a alone. PMID:20808828

  7. Psychiatric Disorders and Intellectual Functioning throughout Development in Velocardiofacial (22q11.2 Deletion) Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Tamar; Gothelf, Doron; Glaser, Bronwyn; Debbane, Martin; Frisch, Amos; Kotler, Moshe; Weizman, Abraham; Eliez, Stephan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS) is associated with cognitive deficits and high rates of schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders. We report the data from two large cohorts of individuals with VCFS from Israel and Western Europe to characterize the neuropsychiatric phenotype from childhood to adulthood in a large sample.…

  8. Autistic Spectrum Disorders in Velo-Cardio Facial Syndrome (22q11.2 Deletion)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antshel, Kevin M.; Aneja, Alka; Strunge, Leslie; Peebles, Jena; Fremont, Wanda P.; Stallone, Kimberly; AbdulSabur, Nuria; Higgins, Anne Marie; Shprintzen, Robert J.; Kates, Wendy R.

    2007-01-01

    The extent to which the phenotype of children comorbid for velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) differs from that of VCFS-only has not been studied. The sample consisted of 41 children (20 females) with VCFS, ranging in age from 6.5 years to 15.8 years. Eight children with VCFS met formal DSM-IV diagnostic criteria…

  9. Preliminary structure and predictive value of attenuated negative symptoms in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Maude; Van der Linden, Martial; Glaser, Bronwyn; Rizzi, Eleonora; Dahoun, Sophie P; Hinard, Christine; Bartoloni, Lucia; Antonarakis, Stylianos E; Debbané, Martin; Eliez, Stephan

    2012-04-30

    Current research in schizophrenia suggests that negative symptoms cannot be considered a unitary construct and should be divided in two dimensions: lack of motivation and impoverishment of expression. In addition, negative symptoms are particularly related to decreased daily-life functioning. In the present study, we aimed to replicate these results in a sample of participants with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), a neurogenetic condition associated with high risk of developing schizophrenia. We also expected to observe an association between the COMT Val/Met polymorphism and negative symptoms. We examined the factorial structure of negative symptoms in a sample of 47 individuals with 22q11DS using the Structured Interview for Prodromal Symptoms (SIPS) and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). We also performed stepwise regression analyses to investigate the associations between negative symptoms, adaptive skills and the COMT Val/Met polymorphism. Negative symptoms were explained by a two-factor solution, namely the "amotivation and social withdrawal" and the "emotional withdrawal and expression" dimensions. The motivational dimension was significantly associated with daily-life functioning. Met carriers were rated as experiencing significantly more symptoms of amotivation. The results are interpreted in the light of existing cognitive models in the field of motivation and schizophrenia. PMID:22377578

  10. A defect in early myogenesis causes Otitis media in two mouse models of 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, Jennifer C.; Linden, Jennifer F.; Baldini, Antonio; Tucker, Abigail S.

    2015-01-01

    Otitis media (OM), the inflammation of the middle ear, is the most common disease and cause for surgery in infants worldwide. Chronic Otitis media with effusion (OME) often leads to conductive hearing loss and is a common feature of a number of craniofacial syndromes, such as 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11.2DS). OM is more common in children because the more horizontal position of the Eustachian tube (ET) in infants limits or delays clearance of middle ear effusions. Some mouse models with OM have shown alterations in the morphology and angle of the ET. Here, we present a novel mechanism in which OM is caused not by a defect in the ET itself but in the muscles that control its function. Our results show that in two mouse models of 22q11.2DS (Df1/+ and Tbx1+/?) presenting with bi- or unilateral OME, the fourth pharyngeal arch-derived levator veli palatini muscles were hypoplastic, which was associated with an earlier altered pattern of MyoD expression. Importantly, in mice with unilateral OME, the side with the inflammation was associated with significantly smaller muscles than the contralateral unaffected ear. Functional tests examining ET patency confirmed a reduced clearing ability in the heterozygous mice. Our findings are also of clinical relevance as targeting hypoplastic muscles might present a novel preventative measure for reducing the high rates of OM in 22q11.2DS patients. PMID:25452432

  11. Deletion of PREPL, a gene encoding a putative serine oligopeptidase, in patients with hypotonia-cystinuria syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jaeken, Jaak; Martens, Kevin; Francois, Inge; Eyskens, Francois; Lecointre, Claudine; Derua, Rita; Meulemans, Sandra; Slootstra, Jerry W; Waelkens, Etienne; de Zegher, Francis; Creemers, John W M; Matthijs, Gert

    2006-01-01

    In 11 patients with a recessive congenital disorder, which we refer to as "the hypotonia-cystinuria syndrome," microdeletion of part of the SLC3A1 and PREPL genes on chromosome 2p21 was found. Patients present with generalized hypotonia at birth, nephrolithiasis, growth hormone deficiency, minor facial dysmorphism, and failure to thrive, followed by hyperphagia and rapid weight gain in late childhood. Since loss-of-function mutations in SLC3A1 are known to cause isolated cystinuria type I, and since the expression of the flanking genes, C2orf34 and PPM1B, was normal, the extended phenotype can be attributed to the deletion of PREPL. PREPL is localized in the cytosol and shows homology with prolyl endopeptidase and oligopeptidase B. Substitution of the predicted catalytic residues (Ser470, Asp556, and His601) by alanines resulted in loss of reactivity with a serine hydrolase-specific probe. In sharp contrast to prolyl oligopeptidase and oligopeptidase B, which require both aminoterminal and carboxyterminal sequences for activity, PREPL activity appears to depend only on the carboxyterminal domain. Taken together, these results suggest that PREPL is a novel oligopeptidase, with unique structural and functional characteristics, involved in hypotonia-cystinuria syndrome. PMID:16385448

  12. Deletion of PREPL, a Gene Encoding a Putative Serine Oligopeptidase, in Patients with Hypotonia-Cystinuria Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jaeken, Jaak; Martens, Kevin; François, Inge; Eyskens, François; Lecointre, Claudine; Derua, Rita; Meulemans, Sandra; Slootstra, Jerry W.; Waelkens, Etienne; Zegher, Francis de; Creemers, John W. M.; Matthijs, Gert

    2006-01-01

    In 11 patients with a recessive congenital disorder, which we refer to as “the hypotonia-cystinuria syndrome,” microdeletion of part of the SLC3A1 and PREPL genes on chromosome 2p21 was found. Patients present with generalized hypotonia at birth, nephrolithiasis, growth hormone deficiency, minor facial dysmorphism, and failure to thrive, followed by hyperphagia and rapid weight gain in late childhood. Since loss-of-function mutations in SLC3A1 are known to cause isolated cystinuria type I, and since the expression of the flanking genes, C2orf34 and PPM1B, was normal, the extended phenotype can be attributed to the deletion of PREPL. PREPL is localized in the cytosol and shows homology with prolyl endopeptidase and oligopeptidase B. Substitution of the predicted catalytic residues (Ser470, Asp556, and His601) by alanines resulted in loss of reactivity with a serine hydrolase-specific probe. In sharp contrast to prolyl oligopeptidase and oligopeptidase B, which require both aminoterminal and carboxyterminal sequences for activity, PREPL activity appears to depend only on the carboxyterminal domain. Taken together, these results suggest that PREPL is a novel oligopeptidase, with unique structural and functional characteristics, involved in hypotonia-cystinuria syndrome. PMID:16385448

  13. A multilevel analysis of cognitive dysfunction and psychopathology associated with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome in children

    PubMed Central

    SIMON, TONY J.; BISH, JOEL P.; BEARDEN, CARRIE E.; DING, LIJUN; FERRANTE, SAMANTHA; NGUYEN, VY; GEE, JAMES C.; McDONALD–McGINN, DONNA M.; ZACKAI, ELAINE H.; EMANUEL, BEVERLY S.

    2006-01-01

    We present a multilevel approach to developing potential explanations of cognitive impairments and psychopathologies common to individuals with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Results presented support our hypothesis of posterior parietal dysfunction as a central determinant of characteristic visuospatial and numerical cognitive impairments. Converging data suggest that brain development anomalies, primarily tissue reductions in the posterior brain and changes to the corpus callosum, may affect parietal connectivity. Further findings indicate that dysfunction in “frontal” attention systems may explain some executive cognition impairments observed in affected children, and that there may be links between these domains of cognitive function and some of the serious psychiatric conditions, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism, and schizophrenia, that have elevated incidence rates in the syndrome. Linking the neural structure and the cognitive processing levels in this way enabled us to develop an elaborate structure/function mapping hypothesis for the impairments that are observed. We show also, that in the case of the catechol-O-methyltransferase gene, a fairly direct relationship between gene expression, cognitive function, and psychopathology exists in the affected population. Beyond that, we introduce the idea that variation in other genes may further explain the phenotypic variation in cognitive function and possibly the anomalies in brain development. PMID:16262991

  14. A defect in early myogenesis causes Otitis media in two mouse models of 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Jennifer C; Linden, Jennifer F; Baldini, Antonio; Tucker, Abigail S

    2015-04-01

    Otitis media (OM), the inflammation of the middle ear, is the most common disease and cause for surgery in infants worldwide. Chronic Otitis media with effusion (OME) often leads to conductive hearing loss and is a common feature of a number of craniofacial syndromes, such as 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11.2DS). OM is more common in children because the more horizontal position of the Eustachian tube (ET) in infants limits or delays clearance of middle ear effusions. Some mouse models with OM have shown alterations in the morphology and angle of the ET. Here, we present a novel mechanism in which OM is caused not by a defect in the ET itself but in the muscles that control its function. Our results show that in two mouse models of 22q11.2DS (Df1/+ and Tbx1(+/-)) presenting with bi- or unilateral OME, the fourth pharyngeal arch-derived levator veli palatini muscles were hypoplastic, which was associated with an earlier altered pattern of MyoD expression. Importantly, in mice with unilateral OME, the side with the inflammation was associated with significantly smaller muscles than the contralateral unaffected ear. Functional tests examining ET patency confirmed a reduced clearing ability in the heterozygous mice. Our findings are also of clinical relevance as targeting hypoplastic muscles might present a novel preventative measure for reducing the high rates of OM in 22q11.2DS patients. PMID:25452432

  15. The mitochondrial ND1 m.3337G>A mutation associated to multiple mitochondrial DNA deletions in a patient with Wolfram syndrome and cardiomyopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Mezghani, Najla; Mnif, Mouna; Mkaouar-Rebai, Emna; Kallel, Nozha; Salem, Ikhlass Haj; Charfi, Nadia; Abid, Mohamed; Fakhfakh, Faiza

    2011-07-29

    Highlights: {yields} We reported a patient with Wolfram syndrome and dilated cardiomyopathy. {yields} We detected the ND1 mitochondrial m.3337G>A mutation in 3 tested tissues (blood leukocytes, buccal mucosa and skeletal muscle). {yields} Long-range PCR amplification revealed the presence of multiple mitochondrial deletions in the skeletal muscle. {yields} The deletions remove several tRNA and protein-coding genes. -- Abstract: Wolfram syndrome (WFS) is a rare hereditary disorder also known as DIDMOAD (diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, and deafness). It is a heterogeneous disease and full characterization of all clinical and biological features of this disorder is difficult. The wide spectrum of clinical expression, affecting several organs and tissues, and the similarity in phenotype between patients with Wolfram syndrome and those with certain types of respiratory chain diseases suggests mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) involvement in Wolfram syndrome patients. We report a Tunisian patient with clinical features of moderate Wolfram syndrome including diabetes, dilated cardiomyopathy and neurological complications. The results showed the presence of the mitochondrial ND1 m.3337G>A mutation in almost homoplasmic form in 3 tested tissues of the proband (blood leukocytes, buccal mucosa and skeletal muscle). In addition, the long-range PCR amplifications revealed the presence of multiple deletions of the mitochondrial DNA extracted from the patient's skeletal muscle removing several tRNA and protein-coding genes. Our study reported a Tunisian patient with clinical features of moderate Wolfram syndrome associated with cardiomyopathy, in whom we detected the ND1 m.3337G>A mutation with mitochondrial multiple deletions.

  16. Compound heterozygosity of low-frequency promoter deletions and rare loss-of-function mutations in TXNL4A causes Burn-McKeown syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wieczorek, Dagmar; Newman, William G; Wieland, Thomas; Berulava, Tea; Kaffe, Maria; Falkenstein, Daniela; Beetz, Christian; Graf, Elisabeth; Schwarzmayr, Thomas; Douzgou, Sofia; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Daly, Sarah B; Williams, Simon G; Bhaskar, Sanjeev S; Urquhart, Jill E; Anderson, Beverley; O'Sullivan, James; Boute, Odile; Gundlach, Jasmin; Czeschik, Johanna Christina; van Essen, Anthonie J; Hazan, Filiz; Park, Sarah; Hing, Anne; Kuechler, Alma; Lohmann, Dietmar R; Ludwig, Kerstin U; Mangold, Elisabeth; Steenpaß, Laura; Zeschnigk, Michael; Lemke, Johannes R; Lourenco, Charles Marques; Hehr, Ute; Prott, Eva-Christina; Waldenberger, Melanie; Böhmer, Anne C; Horsthemke, Bernhard; O'Keefe, Raymond T; Meitinger, Thomas; Burn, John; Lüdecke, Hermann-Josef; Strom, Tim M

    2014-12-01

    Mutations in components of the major spliceosome have been described in disorders with craniofacial anomalies, e.g., Nager syndrome and mandibulofacial dysostosis type Guion-Almeida. The U5 spliceosomal complex of eight highly conserved proteins is critical for pre-mRNA splicing. We identified biallelic mutations in TXNL4A, a member of this complex, in individuals with Burn-McKeown syndrome (BMKS). This rare condition is characterized by bilateral choanal atresia, hearing loss, cleft lip and/or palate, and other craniofacial dysmorphisms. Mutations were found in 9 of 11 affected families. In 8 families, affected individuals carried a rare loss-of-function mutation (nonsense, frameshift, or microdeletion) on one allele and a low-frequency 34 bp deletion (allele frequency 0.76%) in the core promoter region on the other allele. In a single highly consanguineous family, formerly diagnosed as oculo-oto-facial dysplasia, the four affected individuals were homozygous for a 34 bp promoter deletion, which differed from the promoter deletion in the other families. Reporter gene and in vivo assays showed that the promoter deletions led to reduced expression of TXNL4A. Depletion of TXNL4A (Dib1) in yeast demonstrated reduced assembly of the tri-snRNP complex. Our results indicate that BMKS is an autosomal-recessive condition, which is frequently caused by compound heterozygosity of low-frequency promoter deletions in combination with very rare loss-of-function mutations. PMID:25434003

  17. A unique MSH2 exon 8 deletion accounts for a major portion of all mismatch repair gene mutations in Lynch syndrome families of Sardinian origin

    PubMed Central

    Borelli, Iolanda; Barberis, Marco A; Spina, Francesca; Cavalchini, Guido C Casalis; Vivanet, Caterina; Balestrino, Luisa; Micheletti, Monica; Allavena, Anna; Sala, Paola; Carcassi, Carlo; Pasini, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Lynch syndrome is an autosomal-dominant hereditary condition predisposing to the development of specific cancers, because of germline mutations in the DNA-mismatch repair (MMR) genes. Large genomic deletions represent a significant fraction of germline mutations, particularly among the MSH2 gene, in which they account for 20% of the mutational spectrum. In this study we analyzed 13 Italian families carrying MSH2 exon 8 deletions, 10 of which of ascertained Sardinian origin. The overrepresentation of Sardinians was unexpected, as families from Sardinia account for a small quota of MMR genes mutation tests performed in our laboratory. The hypothesis that such a result is owing to founder effects in Sardinia was tested by breakpoint junctions sequencing and haplotype analyses. Overall, five different exon eight deletions were identified, two of which recurrent in families, all apparently unrelated, of Sardinian origin (one in eight families, one in two families). The c.1277–1180_1386+2226del3516insCATTCTCTTTGAAAA deletion shares the same haplotype between all families and appears so far restricted to the population of South-West Sardinia, showing the typical features of a founder effect. The three non-Sardinian families showed three different breakpoint junctions and haplotypes, suggesting independent mutational events. This work has useful implications in genetic testing for Lynch syndrome. We developed a quick test for each of the identified deletions: this can be particularly useful in families of Sardinian origin, in which MSH2 exon 8 deletions may represent 50% of the overall mutational spectrum of the four MMR genes causing Lynch syndrome. PMID:22781090

  18. A unique MSH2 exon 8 deletion accounts for a major portion of all mismatch repair gene mutations in Lynch syndrome families of Sardinian origin.

    PubMed

    Borelli, Iolanda; Barberis, Marco A; Spina, Francesca; Casalis Cavalchini, Guido C; Vivanet, Caterina; Balestrino, Luisa; Micheletti, Monica; Allavena, Anna; Sala, Paola; Carcassi, Carlo; Pasini, Barbara

    2013-02-01

    Lynch syndrome is an autosomal-dominant hereditary condition predisposing to the development of specific cancers, because of germline mutations in the DNA-mismatch repair (MMR) genes. Large genomic deletions represent a significant fraction of germline mutations, particularly among the MSH2 gene, in which they account for 20% of the mutational spectrum. In this study we analyzed 13 Italian families carrying MSH2 exon 8 deletions, 10 of which of ascertained Sardinian origin. The overrepresentation of Sardinians was unexpected, as families from Sardinia account for a small quota of MMR genes mutation tests performed in our laboratory. The hypothesis that such a result is owing to founder effects in Sardinia was tested by breakpoint junctions sequencing and haplotype analyses. Overall, five different exon eight deletions were identified, two of which recurrent in families, all apparently unrelated, of Sardinian origin (one in eight families, one in two families). The c.1277-1180_1386+2226del3516insCATTCTCTTTGAAAA deletion shares the same haplotype between all families and appears so far restricted to the population of South-West Sardinia, showing the typical features of a founder effect. The three non-Sardinian families showed three different breakpoint junctions and haplotypes, suggesting independent mutational events. This work has useful implications in genetic testing for Lynch syndrome. We developed a quick test for each of the identified deletions: this can be particularly useful in families of Sardinian origin, in which MSH2 exon 8 deletions may represent 50% of the overall mutational spectrum of the four MMR genes causing Lynch syndrome. PMID:22781090

  19. Molecular and cytogenetic analysis of familial Xp deletions

    SciTech Connect

    Wandstrat, A.E.; Conroy, J.M.; Zurcher, V.L.

    1994-09-01

    Deletions involving the short arm of the X chromosome (del(Xp)) manifest phenotypes ranging from Turner syndrome to isolated short stature to normal. We have studied five familial cases of del(Xp), four with transmission over two generations and one over four generations, utilizing both high resolution chromosome banding and FISH with cosmid and YAC probes spanning the short arm of the X chromosome. Four of the families were ascertained because of short stature while the remaining family demonstrates normal stature and was ascertained through prenatal diagnosis. Consistent with existing data for a growth gene located within Xp22.33, the more terminal breakpoints in the female with normal stature is distal to CSF2RA. A correlation between genotype and phenotype amongst the families may reveal that this case is representative of an interstitial deletion and the other four cases have breakpoints distal to the growth gene locus possibly within the subtelomeric region of the chromosome. The proximal breakpoints are heterogenous; however, three of the families with short stature share a common proximal breakpoint which is located between two YAC probes 2-3 Mb apart in Xp22.12. The proximal break in the phenotypically normal female is in Xp11.4. Late replication studies in addition to methylation assays of the FMR1 locus reveal non-random X inactivation in these cases. This study shows the presence of a breakpoint distal to the CSF2RA locus in the family demonstrating normal stature confirming the location of a growth gene distal to this locus and within Xp22.33. The shared proximal breakpoint between the three families suggests a {open_quotes}hot spot{close_quotes} for chromatin breakage. The proximal breakpoint, Xp11.4, in the normal female patient excludes this region as an etiologic factor in Turner syndrome. Work is in progress using additional probes to further elucidate both the proximal and distal breakpoints.

  20. Reciprocal Effects on Neurocognitive and Metabolic Phenotypes in Mouse Models of 16p11.2 Deletion and Duplication Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Arbogast, Thomas; Ouagazzal, Abdel-Mouttalib; Chevalier, Claire; Kopanitsa, Maksym; Afinowi, Nurudeen; Migliavacca, Eugenia; Cowling, Belinda S.; Birling, Marie-Christine; Champy, Marie-France; Reymond, Alexandre; Herault, Yann

    2016-01-01

    The 16p11.2 600 kb BP4-BP5 deletion and duplication syndromes have been associated with developmental delay; autism spectrum disorders; and reciprocal effects on the body mass index, head circumference and brain volumes. Here, we explored these relationships using novel engineered mouse models carrying a deletion (Del/+) or a duplication (Dup/+) of the Sult1a1-Spn region homologous to the human 16p11.2 BP4-BP5 locus. On a C57BL/6N inbred genetic background, Del/+ mice exhibited reduced weight and impaired adipogenesis, hyperactivity, repetitive behaviors, and recognition memory deficits. In contrast, Dup/+ mice showed largely opposite phenotypes. On a F1 C57BL/6N × C3B hybrid genetic background, we also observed alterations in social interaction in the Del/+ and the Dup/+ animals, with other robust phenotypes affecting recognition memory and weight. To explore the dosage effect of the 16p11.2 genes on metabolism, Del/+ and Dup/+ models were challenged with high fat and high sugar diet, which revealed opposite energy imbalance. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that the majority of the genes located in the Sult1a1-Spn region were sensitive to dosage with a major effect on several pathways associated with neurocognitive and metabolic phenotypes. Whereas the behavioral consequence of the 16p11 region genetic dosage was similar in mice and humans with activity and memory alterations, the metabolic defects were opposite: adult Del/+ mice are lean in comparison to the human obese phenotype and the Dup/+ mice are overweight in comparison to the human underweight phenotype. Together, these data indicate that the dosage imbalance at the 16p11.2 locus perturbs the expression of modifiers outside the CNV that can modulate the penetrance, expressivity and direction of effects in both humans and mice. PMID:26872257

  1. Neurocognitive development in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: Comparison to youth with developmental delay and medical comorbidities

    PubMed Central

    Gur, Raquel E.; Yi, James J.; McDonald-McGinn, Donna M.; Tang, Sunny X.; Calkins, Monica E.; Whinna, Daneen; Souders, Margaret C.; Savitt, Adam; Zackai, Elaine H.; Moberg, Paul J.; Emanuel, Beverly S.; Gur, Ruben C.

    2015-01-01

    The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) presents with medical and neuropsychiatric manifestations including neurocognitive deficits. Quantitative neurobehavioral measures linked to brain circuitry can help elucidate genetic mechanisms contributing to deficits. To establish the neurocognitive profile and neurocognitive “growth charts”, we compared cross-sectionally 137 individuals with 22q11DS ages 8–21 to 439 demographically matched non-deleted individuals with developmental delay (DD) and medical comorbidities and 443 typically developing (TD) participants. We administered a computerized neurocognitive battery that measures performance accuracy and speed in executive, episodic memory, complex cognition, social cognition and sensorimotor domains. The accuracy performance profile of 22q11DS showed greater impairment than DD, who were impaired relative to TD. Deficits in 22q11DS were most pronounced for face memory and social cognition, followed by complex cognition. Performance speed was similar for 22q11DS and DD, but 22q11DS individuals were differentially slower in face memory and emotion identification. The growth chart, comparing neurocognitive age based on performance relative to chronological age, indicated that 22q11DS participants lagged behind both groups from the earliest age assessed. The lag ranged from less than a year to over three years depending on chronological age and neurocognitive domain. The greatest developmental lag across the age range was for social cognition and complex cognition, with the smallest for episodic memory and sensorimotor speed, where lags were similar to DD. The results suggest that 22q11.2 microdeletion confers specific vulnerability that may underlie brain circuitry associated with deficits in several neuropsychiatric disorders and thereby help identify potential targets and developmental epochs optimal for intervention. PMID:24445907

  2. Reciprocal Effects on Neurocognitive and Metabolic Phenotypes in Mouse Models of 16p11.2 Deletion and Duplication Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Arbogast, Thomas; Ouagazzal, Abdel-Mouttalib; Chevalier, Claire; Kopanitsa, Maksym; Afinowi, Nurudeen; Migliavacca, Eugenia; Cowling, Belinda S; Birling, Marie-Christine; Champy, Marie-France; Reymond, Alexandre; Herault, Yann

    2016-02-01

    The 16p11.2 600 kb BP4-BP5 deletion and duplication syndromes have been associated with developmental delay; autism spectrum disorders; and reciprocal effects on the body mass index, head circumference and brain volumes. Here, we explored these relationships using novel engineered mouse models carrying a deletion (Del/+) or a duplication (Dup/+) of the Sult1a1-Spn region homologous to the human 16p11.2 BP4-BP5 locus. On a C57BL/6N inbred genetic background, Del/+ mice exhibited reduced weight and impaired adipogenesis, hyperactivity, repetitive behaviors, and recognition memory deficits. In contrast, Dup/+ mice showed largely opposite phenotypes. On a F1 C57BL/6N × C3B hybrid genetic background, we also observed alterations in social interaction in the Del/+ and the Dup/+ animals, with other robust phenotypes affecting recognition memory and weight. To explore the dosage effect of the 16p11.2 genes on metabolism, Del/+ and Dup/+ models were challenged with high fat and high sugar diet, which revealed opposite energy imbalance. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that the majority of the genes located in the Sult1a1-Spn region were sensitive to dosage with a major effect on several pathways associated with neurocognitive and metabolic phenotypes. Whereas the behavioral consequence of the 16p11 region genetic dosage was similar in mice and humans with activity and memory alterations, the metabolic defects were opposite: adult Del/+ mice are lean in comparison to the human obese phenotype and the Dup/+ mice are overweight in comparison to the human underweight phenotype. Together, these data indicate that the dosage imbalance at the 16p11.2 locus perturbs the expression of modifiers outside the CNV that can modulate the penetrance, expressivity and direction of effects in both humans and mice. PMID:26872257

  3. A 5-year-old white girl with Prader-Willi syndrome and a submicroscopic deletion of chromosome 15q11q13

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, M.G.; Christian, S.L.; Kubota, T.; Ledbetter, D.H.

    1996-10-16

    We report on a 5-year-old white girl with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and a submicroscopic deletion of 15q11q13 of approximately 100-200 kb in size. High resolution chromosome analysis was normal but fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), Southern hybridization, and microsatellite data from the 15q11q13 region demonstrated that the deletion was paternal in origin and included the SNRPN, PAR-5, and PAR-7 genes from the proximal to distal boundaries of the deletion segment. SNRPN and PW71B methylation studies showed an abnormal pattern consistent with the diagnosis of PWS and supported the presence of a paternal deletion of 15q11q13 or an imprinting mutation. Biparental (normal) inheritance of PW71B (D15S63 locus) and a deletion of the SNRPN gene were observed by microsatellite, quantitative Southern hybridization, and/or FISH analyses. Our patient met the diagnostic criteria for PWS, but has no reported behavior problems, hyperphagia, or hypopigmentation. Our patient further supports SNRPN and possibly other genomic sequences which are deleted as the cause of the phenotype recognized in PWS patients. 21 refs., 7 figs.

  4. Novel deletion of the E3A ubiquitin protein ligase gene detected by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification in a patient with Angelman syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Calì, Francesco; Ragalmuto, Alda; Chiavetta, Valeria; Calabrese, Giuseppe; Fichera, Marco; Vinci, Mirella; Ruggeri, Giuseppa; Schinocca, Pietro; Sturnio, Maurizio; Romano, Salvatore; Elia, Maurizio

    2010-01-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a severe neurobehavioural disorder caused by failure of expression of the maternal copy of the imprinted domain located on 15q11-q13. There are different mechanisms leading to AS: maternal microdeletion, uniparental disomy, defects in a putative imprinting centre, mutations of the E3 ubiquitin protein ligase (UBE3A) gene. However, some of suspected cases of AS are still scored negative to all the latter mutations. Recently, it has been shown that a proportion of negative cases bear large deletions overlapping one or more exons of the UBE3A gene. These deletions are difficult to detect by conventional gene-scanning methods due to the masking effect by the non-deleted allele. In this study, we have used for the first time multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) and comparative multiplex dosage analysis (CMDA) to search for large deletions affecting the UBE3A gene. Using this approach, we identified a novel causative deletion involving exon 8 in an affected sibling. Based on our results, we propose the use of MLPA as a fast, accurate and inexpensive test to detect large deletions in the UBE3A gene in a small but significant percentage of AS patients. PMID:21072004

  5. Deletion of UBE3A in brothers with Angelman syndrome at the breakpoint with an inversion at 15q11.2.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Yukiko; Ohashi, Ikuko; Saito, Toshiyuki; Nagai, Jun-Ichi; Ida, Kazumi; Naruto, Takuya; Wada, Takahito; Kurosawa, Kenji

    2014-11-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is characterized by severe intellectual disability with ataxia, epilepsy, and behavioral uniqueness. The underlining molecular deficit is the absence of the maternal copy of the imprinted UBE3A gene due to maternal deletions, which is observed in 70-75% of cases, and can be detected using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) of the UBE3A region. Only a few familial AS cases have been reported with a complete deletion of UBE3A. Here, we report on siblings with AS caused by a microdeletion of 15q11.2-q12 encompassing UBE3A at the breakpoint of an inversion at 15q11.2 and 15q26.1. Karyotyping revealed an inversion of 15q, and FISH revealed the deletion of the UBE3A region. Array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) demonstrated a 467?kb deletion at 15q11.2-q12, encompassing only UBE3A, SNORD115, and PAR1, and a 53?kb deletion at 15q26.1, encompassing a part of SLCO3A1. Their mother had a normal karyotype and array CGH detected no deletion of 15q11.2-q12, so we assumed gonadal mosaicism. This report describes a rare type of familial AS detected using the D15S10 FISH test. PMID:25099823

  6. Phenotypic features in patients with 15q11.2(BP1-BP2) deletion: further delineation of an emerging syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cafferkey, Michiala; Ahn, Joo Wook; Flinter, Frances; Ogilvie, Caroline

    2014-08-01

    15q11.2 deletions flanked by BP1 and BP2 of the Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome region have recently been linked to a range of neurodevelopment disorders including intellectual disability, speech and language delay, motor delay, autism spectrum disorders, epilepsy, and schizophrenia. Array CGH analysis of 14,605 patients referred for diagnostic cytogenetic testing found that 83 patients (0.57%) carried the 15q11.2(BP1-BP2) deletion. Phenotypic frequencies in the deleted cohort (n?=?83) were compared with frequencies in the non-deleted cohort (n?=?14,522); developmental delay, motor delay, and speech and language delay were all more prevalent in the deleted cohort. Notably, motor delay was significantly more common (OR?=?6.37). These data indicate that developmental delay, motor delay, and speech and language delay are common clinical features associated with this deletion, providing substantial evidence to support this CNV as a susceptibility locus for a spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24715682

  7. Familial DiGeorge/velocardiofacial syndrome with deletions of chromosome area 22q11.2: Report of five families with a review of the literature

    SciTech Connect

    Leana-Cox, J.; Pangkanon, Suthipong; Eanet, K.R.

    1996-11-11

    The DiGeorge (DG), velocardiofacial (VCF), and conotruncal anomaly-face (CTAF) syndromes were originally described as distinct disorders, although overlapping phenotypes have been recognized. It is now clear that all three syndromes result from apparently similar or identical 22q11.2 deletions, suggesting that they represent phenotypic variability of a single genetic syndrome. We report on 12 individuals in five families with del(22)(q11.2) by fluorescent in situ hybridization, and define the frequency of phenotypic abnormalities in those cases and in 70 individuals from 27 del(22)(q11.2) families from the literature. Common manifestations include mental impairment (97%), abnormal face (93%), cardiac malformations (681%), thymic (64%) and parathyroid (63%) abnormalities, and cleft palate or velopharyngeal insufficiency (48%). Familial DG, VCF, and CTAF syndromes due to del(22)(q11.2) show significant inter- and intrafamilial clinical variability consistent with the hypothesis that a single gene or group of tightly linked genes is the common cause of these syndromes. Up to 25% of 22q deletions are inherited, indicating that parents of affected children warrant molecular cytogenetic evaluation. We propose use of the compound term {open_quotes}DiGeorge/velocardiofacial (DGNCF) syndrome{close_quotes} in referring to this condition, as it calls attention to the phenotypic spectrum using historically familiar names. 41 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Facial emotion perception by intensity in children and adolescents with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Leleu, Arnaud; Saucourt, Guillaume; Rigard, Caroline; Chesnoy, Gabrielle; Baudouin, Jean-Yves; Rossi, Massimiliano; Edery, Patrick; Franck, Nicolas; Demily, Caroline

    2016-03-01

    Difficulties in the recognition of emotions in expressive faces have been reported in people with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS). However, while low-intensity expressive faces are frequent in everyday life, nothing is known about their ability to perceive facial emotions depending on the intensity of expression. Through a visual matching task, children and adolescents with 22q11.2DS as well as gender- and age-matched healthy participants were asked to categorise the emotion of a target face among six possible expressions. Static pictures of morphs between neutrality and expressions were used to parametrically manipulate the intensity of the target face. In comparison to healthy controls, results showed higher perception thresholds (i.e. a more intense expression is needed to perceive the emotion) and lower accuracy for the most expressive faces indicating reduced categorisation abilities in the 22q11.2DS group. The number of intrusions (i.e. each time an emotion is perceived as another one) and a more gradual perception performance indicated smooth boundaries between emotional categories. Correlational analyses with neuropsychological and clinical measures suggested that reduced visual skills may be associated with impaired categorisation of facial emotions. Overall, the present study indicates greater difficulties for children and adolescents with 22q11.2DS to perceive an emotion in low-intensity expressive faces. This disability is subtended by emotional categories that are not sharply organised. It also suggests that these difficulties may be associated with impaired visual cognition, a hallmark of the cognitive deficits observed in the syndrome. These data yield promising tracks for future experimental and clinical investigations. PMID:26149605

  9. A novel CISD2 intragenic deletion, optic neuropathy and platelet aggregation defect in Wolfram syndrome type 2

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Wolfram Syndrome type 2 (WFS2) is considered a phenotypic and genotypic variant of WFS, whose minimal criteria for diagnosis are diabetes mellitus and optic atrophy. The disease gene for WFS2 is CISD2. The clinical phenotype of WFS2 differs from WFS1 for the absence of diabetes insipidus and psychiatric disorders, and for the presence of bleeding upper intestinal ulcers and defective platelet aggregation. After the first report of consanguineous Jordanian patients, no further cases of WFS2 have been reported worldwide. We describe the first Caucasian patient affected by WFS2. Case presentation The proband was a 17 year-old girl. She presented diabetes mellitus, optic neuropathy, intestinal ulcers, sensorineural hearing loss, and defective platelet aggregation to ADP. Genetic testing showed a novel homozygous intragenic deletion of CISD2 in the proband. Her brother and parents carried the heterozygous mutation and were apparently healthy, although they showed subclinical defective platelet aggregation. Long runs of homozygosity analysis from SNP-array data did not show any degree of parental relationship, but the microsatellite analysis confirmed the hypothesis of a common ancestor. Conclusion Our patient does not show optic atrophy, one of the main diagnostic criteria for WFS, but optic neuropathy. Since the “asymptomatic” optic atrophy described in Jordanian patients is not completely supported, we could suppose that the ocular pathology in Jordanian patients was probably optic neuropathy and not optic atrophy. Therefore, as optic atrophy is required as main diagnostic criteria of WFS, it might be that the so-called WFS2 could not be a subtype of WFS. In addition, we found an impaired aggregation to ADP and not to collagen as previously reported, thus it is possible that different experimental conditions or inter-patient variability can explain different results in platelet aggregation. Further clinical reports are necessary to better define the clinical spectrum of this syndrome and to re-evaluate its classification. PMID:25056293

  10. Identification of a homozygous deletion in the AP3B1 gene causing Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome, type 2

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Johannes; Bohn, Georg; Allroth, Anna; Boztug, Kaan; Brandes, Gudrun; Sandrock, Inga; Schäffer, Alejandro A.; Rathinam, Chozhavendan; Köllner, Inga; Beger, Carmela; Schilke, Reinhard; Welte, Karl; Grimbacher, Bodo; Klein, Christoph

    2006-01-01

    We report on the molecular etiology of an unusual clinical phenotype associating congenital neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, developmental delay, and hypopigmentation. Using genetic linkage analysis and targeted gene sequencing, we defined a homozygous genomic deletion in AP3B1, the gene encoding the ? chain of the adaptor protein-3 (AP-3) complex. The mutation leads to in-frame skipping of exon 15 and thus perturbs proper assembly of the heterotetrameric AP-3 complex. Consequently, trafficking of transmembrane lysosomal proteins is aberrant, as shown for CD63. In basal keratinocytes, the incorporated immature melanosomes were rapidly degraded in large phagolysosomes. Despite distinct ultramorphologic changes suggestive of aberrant vesicular maturation, no functional aberrations were detected in neutrophil granulocytes. However, a comprehensive immunologic assessment revealed that natural killer (NK) and NKT-cell numbers were reduced in AP-3-deficient patients. Our findings extend the clinical and molecular phenotype of human AP-3 deficiency (also known as Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome, type 2) and provide further insights into the role of the AP-3 complex for the innate immune system. (Blood. 2006;108:362-369) PMID:16537806

  11. Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome: novel FLCN frameshift deletion in daughter and father with renal cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Näf, Ernst; Laubscher, Dominik; Hopfer, Helmut; Streit, Markus; Matyas, Gabor

    2016-01-01

    Germline mutation of the FLCN gene causes Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHD), a rare autosomal dominant condition characterized by skin fibrofolliculomas, lung cysts, spontaneous pneumothorax and renal tumours. We identified a hitherto unreported pathogenic FLCN frameshift deletion c.563delT (p.Phe188Serfs*35) in a family of a 46-year-old woman presented with macrohematuria due to bilateral chromophobe renal carcinomas. A heritable renal cancer was suspected due to the bilaterality of the tumour and as the father of this woman had suffered from renal cancer. Initially, however, BHD was overlooked by the medical team despite the highly suggestive clinical presentation. We assume that BHD is underdiagnosed, at least partially, due to low awareness of this variable condition and to insufficient use of appropriate genetic testing. Our study indicates that BHD and FLCN testing should be routinely considered in patients with positive family or personal history of renal tumours. In addition, we demonstrate how patients and their families can play a driving role in initiating genetic diagnosis, presymptomatic testing of at-risk relatives, targeted disease management, and genetic counselling of rare diseases such as BHD. PMID:26342594

  12. Hypoventilation in REM sleep in a case of 17p11.2 deletion (Smith-Magenis syndrome).

    PubMed

    Leoni, Chiara; Cesarini, Laura; Dittoni, Serena; Battaglia, Domenica; Novelli, Antonio; Bernardini, Laura; Losurdo, Anna; Vollono, Catello; Testani, Elisa; Della Marca, Giacomo; Zampino, Giuseppe

    2010-03-01

    We describe a 2-year-old baby affected by Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS), due to 17p11.2 deletion, who presented repeated episodes of hemoglobin desaturation during REM sleep. The boy, aged 14 months, presented a phenotype characterized by psychomotor delay, right posterior plagiocephaly, telecanthus, strabismus, upslanting palpebral fissures, broad hypoplastic nasal bridge, short philtrum, deep ring shaped skin creases around the limbs, proximal syndactyly, bilateral hypoacusia. Polysomnographic (PSG) recording showed episodes of REM-related hypoventilation (hemoglobin desaturations without apneas or hypopneas). Sleep disorders are present in almost all the cases of SMS, but very few reports describe the sleep-related respiratory patterns. The finding of REM hypoventilation in SMS does not allow an unequivocal interpretation. It could reflect a subclinical restrictive respiratory impairment or, alternatively, an impairment of central respiratory control during REM sleep. In SMS children, respiratory abnormalities during sleep, and in particular during REM sleep, may cause sleep disruption, reduction of time spent in REM sleep, and daytime sleepiness. We therefore suggest that some sleep abnormalities described in SMS could be consequent to Sleep Disordered Breathing, and in particular to REM hypoventilation. Sleep studies in SMS should include the recording of respiratory parameters. PMID:20186811

  13. Targeted Deletion of the Gene Encoding the La Autoantigen (Sjögren's Syndrome Antigen B) in B Cells or the Frontal Brain Causes Extensive Tissue Loss

    PubMed Central

    Gaidamakov, Sergei; Maximova, Olga A.; Chon, Hyongi; Blewett, Nathan H.; Wang, Hongsheng; Crawford, Amanda K.; Day, Amanda; Tulchin, Natalie; Crouch, Robert J.; Morse, Herbert C.; Blitzer, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    La antigen (Sjögren's syndrome antigen B) is a phosphoprotein associated with nascent precursor tRNAs and other RNAs, and it is targeted by autoantibodies in patients with Sjögren's syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus, and neonatal lupus. Increased levels of La are associated with leukemias and other cancers, and various viruses usurp La to promote their replication. Yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe) genetically depleted of La grow and proliferate, whereas deletion from mice causes early embryonic lethality, raising the question of whether La is required by mammalian cells generally or only to surpass a developmental stage. We developed a conditional La allele and used it in mice that express Cre recombinase in either B cell progenitors or the forebrain. B cell Mb1Cre La-deleted mice produce no B cells. Consistent with ?CamKII Cre, which induces deletion in hippocampal CA1 cells in the third postnatal week and later throughout the neocortex, brains develop normally in La-deleted mice until ?5 weeks and then lose a large amount of forebrain cells and mass, with evidence of altered pre-tRNA processing. The data indicate that La is required not only in proliferating cells but also in nondividing postmitotic cells. Thus, La is essential in different cell types and required for normal development of various tissue types. PMID:24190965

  14. Mild Wolf-Hirschhorn phenotype and partial GH deficiency in a patient with a 4p terminal deletion.

    PubMed

    Titomanlio, L; Romano, A; Conti, A; Genesio, R; Salerno, M; De Brasi, D; Nitsch, L; Del Giudice, E

    2004-06-01

    Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) is caused by a variably-sized deletion of chromosome 4 involving band 4p16 whose typical craniofacial features are "Greek warrior helmet appearance" of the nose, microcephaly, and prominent glabella. Almost all patients show mental retardation and pre- and post-natal growth delay. Patient was born at term, after a pregnancy characterized by intra-uterine growth retardation (IUGR). Delivery was uneventful. Developmental delay was evident since the first months of life. At 2 years, he developed generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Because of short stature, low growth velocity and delayed bone age, at 4 years he underwent growth hormone (GH) evaluation. Peak GH after two provocative tests revealed a partial GH deficiency. Clinical observation at 7 years disclosed a distinctive facial appearance, with microcephaly, prominent eyes, and beaked nose. Brain MRI showed left temporal mesial sclerosis. GTG banded karyotype was normal. Because of mental retardation, subtelomeric fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis was performed, disclosing a relatively large deletion involving 4p16.2 --> pter (about 4.5 Mb), in the proband, not present in the parents. The smallest deletion detected in a WHS patient thus far includes two candidate genes, WHSC1 and WHSC2. Interestingly, that patient did not show shortness of stature, and that could be due to the haploinsufficiency of other genes localized in the flanking regions. Contribution of GH alterations and possible GH therapy should be further considered in WHS patients. PMID:15108211

  15. A deletion in FOXN1 is associated with a syndrome characterized by congenital hypotrichosis and short life expectancy in Birman cats.

    PubMed

    Abitbol, Marie; Bossé, Philippe; Thomas, Anne; Tiret, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    An autosomal recessive syndrome characterized by congenital hypotrichosis and short life expectancy has been described in the Birman cat breed (Felis silvestris catus). We hypothesized that a FOXN1 (forkhead box N1) loss-of-function allele, associated with the nude phenotype in humans, mice and rats, may account for the syndrome observed in Birman cats. To the best of our knowledge, spontaneous mutations in FOXN1 have never been described in non-human, non-rodent mammalian species. We identified a recessive c.1030_1033delCTGT deletion in FOXN1 in Birman cats. This 4-bp deletion was associated with the syndrome when present in two copies. Percentage of healthy carriers in our French panel of genotyped Birman cats was estimated to be 3.2%. The deletion led to a frameshift and a premature stop codon at position 547 in the protein. In silico, the truncated FOXN1 protein was predicted to lack the activation domain and critical parts of the forkhead DNA binding domain, both involved in the interaction between FOXN1 and its targets, a mandatory step to promote normal hair and thymic epithelial development. Our results enlarge the panel of recessive FOXN1 loss-of-function alleles described in mammals. A DNA test is available; it will help owners avoid matings at risk and should prevent the dissemination of this morbid mutation in domestic felines. PMID:25781316

  16. A Deletion in FOXN1 Is Associated with a Syndrome Characterized by Congenital Hypotrichosis and Short Life Expectancy in Birman Cats

    PubMed Central

    Abitbol, Marie; Bossé, Philippe; Thomas, Anne; Tiret, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    An autosomal recessive syndrome characterized by congenital hypotrichosis and short life expectancy has been described in the Birman cat breed (Felis silvestris catus). We hypothesized that a FOXN1 (forkhead box N1) loss-of-function allele, associated with the nude phenotype in humans, mice and rats, may account for the syndrome observed in Birman cats. To the best of our knowledge, spontaneous mutations in FOXN1 have never been described in non-human, non-rodent mammalian species. We identified a recessive c.1030_1033delCTGT deletion in FOXN1 in Birman cats. This 4-bp deletion was associated with the syndrome when present in two copies. Percentage of healthy carriers in our French panel of genotyped Birman cats was estimated to be 3.2%. The deletion led to a frameshift and a premature stop codon at position 547 in the protein. In silico, the truncated FOXN1 protein was predicted to lack the activation domain and critical parts of the forkhead DNA binding domain, both involved in the interaction between FOXN1 and its targets, a mandatory step to promote normal hair and thymic epithelial development. Our results enlarge the panel of recessive FOXN1 loss-of-function alleles described in mammals. A DNA test is available; it will help owners avoid matings at risk and should prevent the dissemination of this morbid mutation in domestic felines. PMID:25781316

  17. The gene for replication factor C subunit 2 (RFC2) is within the 7q11.23 Williams syndrome deletion

    SciTech Connect

    Peoples, R.; Perez-Jurado, L.; Francke, U.; Yu-Ker Wang; Kaplan, P.

    1996-06-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a developmental disorder with multiple system manifestations, including supraval var aortic stenosis (SVAS), peripheral pulmonic stenosis, connective tissue abnormalities, short stature, characteristic personality profile and cognitive deficits, and variable hypercalcemia in infancy. It is caused by heterozygosity for a chromosomal deletion of part of band 7q11.23 including the elastin locus (ELN). Since disruption of the ELN gene causes autosomal dominant SVAS, it is assumed that ELN haploinsufficiency is responsible for the cardiovascular features of WS. The deletion that extends from the ELN locus in both directions is {ge}200 kb in size, although estimates of {ge}2 Mb are suggested by high-resolution chromosome banding and physical mapping studies. We have searched for additional dosage-sensitive genes within the deletion that may be responsible for the noncardiovascular features. We report here that the gene for replication factor C subunit 2 (RFC2) maps within the WS deletion region and was found to be deleted in all of 18 WS patients studied. The protein product of RFC2 is part of a multimeric complex involved in DNA elongation during replication. 14 refs., 3 figs.

  18. Real-Time Evolution of a Subtelomeric Gene Family in Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Matthew Z.; Wigen, Lauren J.; Burrack, Laura S.; Berman, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Subtelomeric regions of the genome are notable for high rates of sequence evolution and rapid gene turnover. Evidence of subtelomeric evolution has relied heavily on comparisons of historical evolutionary patterns to infer trends and frequencies of these events. Here, we describe evolution of the subtelomeric TLO gene family in Candida albicans during laboratory passaging for over 4000 generations. C. albicans is a commensal and opportunistic pathogen of humans and the TLO gene family encodes a subunit of the Mediator complex that regulates transcription and affects a range of virulence factors. We identified 16 distinct subtelomeric recombination events that altered the TLO repertoire. Ectopic recombination between subtelomeres on different chromosome ends occurred approximately once per 5000 generations and was often followed by loss of heterozygosity, resulting in the complete loss of one TLO gene sequence with expansion of another. In one case, recombination within TLO genes produced a novel TLO gene sequence. TLO copy number changes were biased, with some TLOs preferentially being copied to novel chromosome arms and other TLO genes being frequently lost. The majority of these nonreciprocal recombination events occurred either within the 3′ end of the TLO coding sequence or within a conserved 50-bp sequence element centromere-proximal to TLO coding sequence. Thus, subtelomeric recombination is a rapid mechanism of generating genotypic diversity through alterations in the number and sequence of related gene family members. PMID:25956943

  19. Gastrointestinal involvement in patients affected with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Giardino, Giuliana; Cirillo, Emilia; Maio, Filomena; Gallo, Vera; Esposito, Tiziana; Naddei, Roberta; Grasso, Fiorentino; Pignata, Claudio

    2014-03-01

    OBJECTIVE. Enteropathy is a very common feature in patients with primary immunodeficiencies. In patients with Del22 gastrointestinal (GI) alterations, including feeding disorders and congenital abnormalities have been often reported, mostly in the first year of life. MATERIAL AND METHODS. Aim of this monocentric study is to better define the GI involvement in a cohort of 26 patients affected with Del22 syndrome. Anamnestic information was retrospectively collected for each patient. Weight and height parameters at the time of the screening were recorded. Plasma levels of hemoglobin, iron, ferritin, albumin, total protein, calcium, phosphorus, transaminase levels, antigliadin (AGA) IgA and IgG, and antitissue transglutaminase (anti-TGase) titers were measured. RESULTS. A GI involvement was identified in the 58% of patients. The prominent problems were abdominal pain, vomiting, gastroesophageal reflux and chronic constipation. Weight deficiency, short stature and failure to thrive were reported in 54, 42, and 30% of the patients, respectively. The evidence of sideropenic anemia, in keeping with hypoproteinemia, impaired acid steatocrit or cellobiose/mannitol test suggested an abnormal intestinal permeability. In this cohort, a high prevalence of AGA IgA and IgG positivity was observed. Celiac disease (CD) was suspected in three patients, and in one of them confirmed by histology. In this patient, a long-lasting gluten-free diet failed to restore the intestinal architecture. CONCLUSIONS. In conclusion, GI involvement is a very common feature in Del22 patients. A better characterization of GI involvement would be very useful to improve the management of these patients. PMID:24344832

  20. Effect of lenalidomide treatment on clonal architecture of myelodysplastic syndromes without 5q deletion.

    PubMed

    Chesnais, Virginie; Renneville, Aline; Toma, Andrea; Lambert, Jérôme; Passet, Marie; Dumont, Florent; Chevret, Sylvie; Lejeune, Julie; Raimbault, Anna; Stamatoullas, Aspasia; Rose, Christian; Beyne-Rauzy, Odile; Delaunay, Jacques; Solary, Eric; Fenaux, Pierre; Dreyfus, François; Preudhomme, Claude; Kosmider, Olivier; Fontenay, Michaela

    2016-02-11

    Non-del(5q) transfusion-dependent low/intermediate-1 myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients achieve an erythroid response with lenalidomide in 25% of cases. Addition of an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent could improve response rate. The impact of recurrent somatic mutations identified in the diseased clone in response to lenalidomide and the drug's effects on clonal evolution remain unknown. We investigated recurrent mutations by next-generation sequencing in 94 non-del(5q) MDS patients randomized in the GFM-Len-Epo-08 clinical trial to lenalidomide or lenalidomide plus epoetin ?. Clonal evolution was analyzed after 4 cycles of treatment in 42 cases and reanalyzed at later time points in 18 cases. The fate of clonal architecture of single CD34(+)CD38(-) hematopoietic stem cells was also determined in 5 cases. Mutation frequency was >10%: SF3B1 (74.5%), TET2 (45.7%), DNMT3A (20.2%), and ASXL1 (19.1%). Analysis of variant allele frequencies indicated a decrease of major mutations in 15 of 20 responders compared with 10 of 22 nonresponders after 4 cycles. The decrease in the variant allele frequency of major mutations was more significant in responders than in nonresponders (P < .001). Genotyping of single CD34(+)CD38(-) cell-derived colonies showed that the decrease in the size of dominant subclones could be associated with the rise of founding clones or of hematopoietic stem cells devoid of recurrent mutations. These effects remained transient, and disease escape was associated with the re-emergence of the dominant subclones. In conclusion, we show that, although the drug initially modulates the distribution of subclones, loss of treatment efficacy coincides with the re-expansion of the dominant subclone. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01718379. PMID:26626993

  1. A cognitive decline precedes the onset of psychosis in patients with the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Vorstman, Jacob A.S.; Breetvelt, Elemi J; Duijff, Sasja N.; Eliez, Stephan; Schneider, Maude; Jalbrzikowski, Maria; Armando, Marco; Vicari, Stefano; Shashi, Vandana; Hooper, Stephen R.; Chow, Eva W.C.; Fung, Wai Lun Alan; Butcher, Nancy J.; Young, Donald A.; McDonald-McGinn, Donna M.; Vogels, Annick; van Amelsvoort, Therese; Gothelf, Doron; Weinberger, Ronnie; Weizman, Abraham; Klaassen, Petra WJ; Koops, Sanne; Kates, Wendy R.; Antshel, Kevin M.; Simon, Tony J.; Ousley, Opal Y.; Swillen, Ann; Gur, Raquel E.; Bearden, Carrie E.; Kahn, René S.; Bassett, Anne S.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) have an elevated (25%) risk for developing schizophrenia. Recent reports have suggested that a subgroup of children with 22q11DS display a substantial decline in cognitive abilities, starting at a young age. Objective To determine whether early cognitive decline is associated with risk of psychotic disorder in 22q11DS. Design, setting and participants As part of an international research consortium initiative, we used the largest dataset of intelligence (IQ) measurements in subjects with 22q11DS reported to date in order to investigate longitudinal IQ trajectories and the risk of subsequent psychotic illness. A total of 829 subjects with a confirmed hemizygous 22q11.2 deletion, recruited through 12 international clinical research sites, were included. Both psychiatric assessment and longitudinal IQ measurements were available for a subset of 411 subjects (388 with ≥1 assessment at age 8 to 24 years). Main outcome measures Diagnosis of a psychotic disorder, longitudinal IQ trajectory and initial IQ, as well as timing of the last psychiatric assessment with respect to the last IQ test. Results On average, children with 22q11DS showed a mild decline in full scale IQ (7 points) with increasing age, particularly in the domain of verbal IQ (9 points). In those who developed psychotic illness (47/388) this decline was significantly steeper (p<0.0001). Those with a negative deviation from the average cognitive trajectory observed in 22q11DS were at significantly increased risk for the development of a psychotic disorder (OR=2.49, 95% CI 1.24–5.00, p=0.01). The divergence of verbal IQ trajectories between those who subsequently developed a psychotic disorder and those who did not was distinguishable from the age of 11 years onwards. Conclusions and relevance In 22q11DS early cognitive decline is a robust indicator of the risk of developing a psychotic illness. These findings mirror those observed in idiopathic schizophrenia. The results provide further support for investigations of 22q11DS as a genetic model for elucidating neurobiological mechanisms underlying the development of psychosis. PMID:25715178

  2. A patient with the classic features of Phelan-McDermid syndrome and a high immunoglobulin E level caused by a cryptic interstitial 0.72-Mb deletion in the 22q13.2 region.

    PubMed

    Simenson, Kristi; Õiglane-Shlik, Eve; Teek, Rita; Kuuse, Kati; Õunap, Katrin

    2014-03-01

    Phelan-McDermid syndrome, also known as the 22q13 deletion syndrome, is a chromosomal microdeletion syndrome characterized by neonatal hypotonia, normal growth, profound developmental delay, absent or delayed speech, and minor dysmorphic features. Almost all of the 22q13 deletions published so far have been described as terminal. It is believed that the SHANK3 gene is the major candidate gene for the neurologic features of the syndrome. Here we describe a patient with a 0.72-Mb interstitial 22q13.2 deletion, intellectual disability, autistic behavior, epilepsy, mild dysmorphic features, and no deletion in the SHANK3 gene. The patient also has urticarial rash and an elevated level of immunoglobulin E, the latter has previously been described only once in a patient with monosomy 22q13.2-qter and SHANK3 gene deletion. To our knowledge, this is one of the smallest interstitial deletion in this region which has been published up to now. Although the patient has the classic phenotype of the 22q13 terminal deletion syndrome, the etiology for the neurologic and immunological features must be due to genes located more proximal to SHANK3 and this is also supported by other previously published cases of interstitial 22q13.2 deletions. The deleted area in our patient is gene-rich (26 genes), containing several known genes with different functions. Two of them-NFAM1 and TNFRSF13C are involved in immune system functioning. We suggest the haploinsufficiency of these genes might be related to hyper IgE syndrome in our patient. PMID:24375995

  3. An affected core drives network integration deficits of the structural connectome in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Váša, František; Griffa, Alessandra; Scariati, Elisa; Schaer, Marie; Urben, Sébastien; Eliez, Stephan; Hagmann, Patric

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a genetic disease known to lead to cerebral structural alterations, which we study using the framework of the macroscopic white-matter connectome. We create weighted connectomes of 44 patients with 22q11DS and 44 healthy controls using diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging, and perform a weighted graph theoretical analysis. After confirming global network integration deficits in 22q11DS (previously identified using binary connectomes), we identify the spatial distribution of regions responsible for global deficits. Next, we further characterize the dysconnectivity of the deficient regions in terms of sub-network properties, and investigate their relevance with respect to clinical profiles. We define the subset of regions with decreased nodal integration (evaluated using the closeness centrality measure) as the affected core (A-core) of the 22q11DS structural connectome. A-core regions are broadly bilaterally symmetric and consist of numerous network hubs — chiefly parietal and frontal cortical, as well as subcortical regions. Using a simulated lesion approach, we demonstrate that these core regions and their connections are particularly important to efficient network communication. Moreover, these regions are generally densely connected, but less so in 22q11DS. These specific disturbances are associated to a rerouting of shortest network paths that circumvent the A-core in 22q11DS, “de-centralizing” the network. Finally, the efficiency and mean connectivity strength of an orbito-frontal/cingulate circuit, included in the affected regions, correlate negatively with the extent of negative symptoms in 22q11DS patients, revealing the clinical relevance of present findings. The identified A-core overlaps numerous regions previously identified as affected in 22q11DS as well as in schizophrenia, which approximately 30–40% of 22q11DS patients develop. PMID:26870660

  4. Whole-genome SNP association in the horse: identification of a deletion in myosin Va responsible for Lavender Foal Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Samantha A; Gabreski, Nicole; Miller, Donald; Brisbin, Abra; Brown, Helen E; Streeter, Cassandra; Mezey, Jason; Cook, Deborah; Antczak, Douglas F

    2010-04-01

    Lavender Foal Syndrome (LFS) is a lethal inherited disease of horses with a suspected autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. LFS has been primarily diagnosed in a subgroup of the Arabian breed, the Egyptian Arabian horse. The condition is characterized by multiple neurological abnormalities and a dilute coat color. Candidate genes based on comparative phenotypes in mice and humans include the ras-associated protein RAB27a (RAB27A) and myosin Va (MYO5A). Here we report mapping of the locus responsible for LFS using a small set of 36 horses segregating for LFS. These horses were genotyped using a newly available single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip containing 56,402 discriminatory elements. The whole genome scan identified an associated region containing these two functional candidate genes. Exon sequencing of the MYO5A gene from an affected foal revealed a single base deletion in exon 30 that changes the reading frame and introduces a premature stop codon. A PCR-based Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay was designed and used to investigate the frequency of the mutant gene. All affected horses tested were homozygous for this mutation. Heterozygous carriers were detected in high frequency in families segregating for this trait, and the frequency of carriers in unrelated Egyptian Arabians was 10.3%. The mapping and discovery of the LFS mutation represents the first successful use of whole-genome SNP scanning in the horse for any trait. The RFLP assay can be used to assist breeders in avoiding carrier-to-carrier matings and thus in preventing the birth of affected foals. PMID:20419149

  5. First molecular diagnosis of Donohue syndrome in Africa: novel unusual insertion/deletion mutation in the INSR gene.

    PubMed

    Siala-Sahnoun, Olfa; Dhieb, Dhoha; Ben Thabet, Afef; Hmida, Nedia; Belguith, Neila; Fakhfakh, Faiza

    2016-03-01

    Donohue syndrome (DS) is a very rare autosomal recessive disease affecting less than one in a million life births. It represents the most severe form of insulin resistance due to mutations involving the insulin receptor (IR) gene "INSR". DS is characterized by pre- and postnatal growth retardation with failure-to-thrive, lipoatrophy, acanthosis nigricans, hypertrichosis, and dysmorphic features. An exhaustive INSR gene sequencing was performed after PCR amplification of coding exons and introns boundaries. Bioinformatic tools, including ESEfinder, MFOLD and Proter software were also used to predict the impact of INSR mutation on INSR on gene expression as well as on the protein structure and function. The results have shown a novel unusual c.3003_3012delinsGGAAG (p.S1001_D1004delinsRE) insertion/deletion (indel) mutation within the exon 16 in the three patients, which represent the fourth indel mutation within the INSR gene. The mutation modifies the secondary structure of DNA and RNA, as well as the composition of exonic splicing enhancers of exon 16. Moreover, despite the conservation of the secondary structure of the IR, the p.S1001_D1004delinsRE in-frame mutation is accompanied by the loss of four amino acids replaced by two residues of different nature and hydrophobicity level in the juxtamembrane domain of the receptor. The results have confirmed the role of the juxtamembrane domain of IR involved in a crucial interaction of the IR with cellular effectors essentially the IR substrate 1 (IRS-1), the SHC and the Nck proteins that ensure the signal mediated by the insulin transduction pathway in target cells. Our findings have also proven the genotype/phenotype correlation between INSR mutation and DS phenotype severity. PMID:26874853

  6. An affected core drives network integration deficits of the structural connectome in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Váša, František; Griffa, Alessandra; Scariati, Elisa; Schaer, Marie; Urben, Sébastien; Eliez, Stephan; Hagmann, Patric

    2016-01-01

    Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a genetic disease known to lead to cerebral structural alterations, which we study using the framework of the macroscopic white-matter connectome. We create weighted connectomes of 44 patients with 22q11DS and 44 healthy controls using diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging, and perform a weighted graph theoretical analysis. After confirming global network integration deficits in 22q11DS (previously identified using binary connectomes), we identify the spatial distribution of regions responsible for global deficits. Next, we further characterize the dysconnectivity of the deficient regions in terms of sub-network properties, and investigate their relevance with respect to clinical profiles. We define the subset of regions with decreased nodal integration (evaluated using the closeness centrality measure) as the affected core (A-core) of the 22q11DS structural connectome. A-core regions are broadly bilaterally symmetric and consist of numerous network hubs - chiefly parietal and frontal cortical, as well as subcortical regions. Using a simulated lesion approach, we demonstrate that these core regions and their connections are particularly important to efficient network communication. Moreover, these regions are generally densely connected, but less so in 22q11DS. These specific disturbances are associated to a rerouting of shortest network paths that circumvent the A-core in 22q11DS, "de-centralizing" the network. Finally, the efficiency and mean connectivity strength of an orbito-frontal/cingulate circuit, included in the affected regions, correlate negatively with the extent of negative symptoms in 22q11DS patients, revealing the clinical relevance of present findings. The identified A-core overlaps numerous regions previously identified as affected in 22q11DS as well as in schizophrenia, which approximately 30-40% of 22q11DS patients develop. PMID:26870660

  7. Dysphagia and disrupted cranial nerve development in a mouse model of DiGeorge (22q11) deletion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Karpinski, Beverly A.; Maynard, Thomas M.; Fralish, Matthew S.; Nuwayhid, Samer; Zohn, Irene E.; Moody, Sally A.; LaMantia, Anthony-S.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT We assessed feeding-related developmental anomalies in the LgDel mouse model of chromosome 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), a common developmental disorder that frequently includes perinatal dysphagia – debilitating feeding, swallowing and nutrition difficulties from birth onward – within its phenotypic spectrum. LgDel pups gain significantly less weight during the first postnatal weeks, and have several signs of respiratory infections due to food aspiration. Most 22q11 genes are expressed in anlagen of craniofacial and brainstem regions critical for feeding and swallowing, and diminished expression in LgDel embryos apparently compromises development of these regions. Palate and jaw anomalies indicate divergent oro-facial morphogenesis. Altered expression and patterning of hindbrain transcriptional regulators, especially those related to retinoic acid (RA) signaling, prefigures these disruptions. Subsequently, gene expression, axon growth and sensory ganglion formation in the trigeminal (V), glossopharyngeal (IX) or vagus (X) cranial nerves (CNs) that innervate targets essential for feeding, swallowing and digestion are disrupted. Posterior CN IX and X ganglia anomalies primarily reflect diminished dosage of the 22q11DS candidate gene Tbx1. Genetic modification of RA signaling in LgDel embryos rescues the anterior CN V phenotype and returns expression levels or pattern of RA-sensitive genes to those in wild-type embryos. Thus, diminished 22q11 gene dosage, including but not limited to Tbx1, disrupts oro-facial and CN development by modifying RA-modulated anterior-posterior hindbrain differentiation. These disruptions likely contribute to dysphagia in infants and young children with 22q11DS. PMID:24357327

  8. Whole-Genome SNP Association in the Horse: Identification of a Deletion in Myosin Va Responsible for Lavender Foal Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Samantha A.; Gabreski, Nicole; Miller, Donald; Brisbin, Abra; Brown, Helen E.; Streeter, Cassandra; Mezey, Jason; Cook, Deborah; Antczak, Douglas F.

    2010-01-01

    Lavender Foal Syndrome (LFS) is a lethal inherited disease of horses with a suspected autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. LFS has been primarily diagnosed in a subgroup of the Arabian breed, the Egyptian Arabian horse. The condition is characterized by multiple neurological abnormalities and a dilute coat color. Candidate genes based on comparative phenotypes in mice and humans include the ras-associated protein RAB27a (RAB27A) and myosin Va (MYO5A). Here we report mapping of the locus responsible for LFS using a small set of 36 horses segregating for LFS. These horses were genotyped using a newly available single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip containing 56,402 discriminatory elements. The whole genome scan identified an associated region containing these two functional candidate genes. Exon sequencing of the MYO5A gene from an affected foal revealed a single base deletion in exon 30 that changes the reading frame and introduces a premature stop codon. A PCR–based Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR–RFLP) assay was designed and used to investigate the frequency of the mutant gene. All affected horses tested were homozygous for this mutation. Heterozygous carriers were detected in high frequency in families segregating for this trait, and the frequency of carriers in unrelated Egyptian Arabians was 10.3%. The mapping and discovery of the LFS mutation represents the first successful use of whole-genome SNP scanning in the horse for any trait. The RFLP assay can be used to assist breeders in avoiding carrier-to-carrier matings and thus in preventing the birth of affected foals. PMID:20419149

  9. In-Frame Deletion and Missense Mutations of the C-Terminal Helicase Domain of SMARCA2 in Three Patients with Nicolaides-Baraitser Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, D.; Endele, S.; Azzarello-Burri, S.; Hoyer, J.; Zweier, M.; Schanze, I.; Schmitt, B.; Rauch, A.; Reis, A.; Zweier, C.

    2012-01-01

    Using high-resolution molecular karyotyping with SNP arrays to identify candidate genes for etiologically unexplained intellectual disability, we identified a 32-kb de novo in-frame deletion of the C-terminal helicase domain of the SMARCA2 gene in a patient with severe intellectual disability, epilepsy, sparse hair, prominent joints, and distinct facial anomalies. Sequencing of the gene in patients with a similar phenotype revealed de novo missense mutations in this domain in 2 further patients, pointing to a crucial role of the SMARCA2 C-terminal helicase domain. The clinical features observed in all 3 patients are typical of Nicolaides-Baraitser syndrome, an only rarely reported syndrome with mainly moderate to severe intellectual disability. Notably, one of our patients with a p.Gly1132Asp mutation showed typical morphological features but an exceptional good development with borderline overall IQ and learning difficulties, thus expanding the phenotypic spectrum of Nicolaides-Baraitser syndrome. PMID:22822383

  10. Chromosome breakage in Prader-Willi and Angelman syndrome deletions may involve recombination between a repeat at the proximal and distal breakpoints

    SciTech Connect

    Amos-Landgraf J.; Nicholls, R.D.; Gottlieb, W.

    1994-09-01

    Prader-Willi (PWS) and Angelman (AS) syndromes most commonly arise from large deletions of 15q11-q13. Deletions in PWS are paternal in origin, while those in AS are maternal in origin, clearly demonstrating genomic imprinting in these clinically distinct neurobehavioural disorders. In at least 90% of PWS and AS deletion patients, the same 4 Mb region within 15q11-q13 is deleted with breakpoints clustering in single YAC clones at the proximal and distal ends. To study the mechanism of chromosome breakage in PWS and AS, we have previously isolated 25 independent clones from these three YACs using Alu-vector PCR. Four clones were selected that appear to detect a low copy repeat that is located in the proximal and distal breakpoint regions of chromosome 15q11-q13. Three clones detect the same 4 HindIII bands in genomic DNA, all from 15q11-q13, with differing intensities for the probes located at the proximal or distal breakpoints region, respectively. This suggests that these probes detect related members of a low-copy repeat at either location. Moreover, the 254RL2 probe detects a novel HindIII band in two unrelated PWS deletion patients, suggesting that this may represent a breakpoint fragment, with recombination occurring within a similar interval in both patients. A fourth clone, 318RL3 detects 5 bands in HindIII-digested genomic DNA, all from 15q11-q13. This YAC endclone itself is not deleted in PWS and AS deletion patients, as seen by an invariant strong band. Two other strong bands are variably intact or deleted in different PWS or AS deletion patients, suggesting a relationship of this sequence to the breakpoints. Moreover, PCR using 318RL3 primers from the distal 93C9 YAC led to the isolation of a related clone with 96% identity, demonstrating the existence of a low-copy repeat with members close to the proximal and distal breakpoints. Taken together, our data suggest a complex, low-copy repeat with members at both the proximal and distal boundaries.

  11. 35-Year Follow-Up of a Case of Ring Chromosome 2: Array-CGH Analysis and Literature Review of the Ring Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sarri, Catherine; Douzgou, Sofia; Kontos, Haris; Anagnostopoulou, Katherine; Tümer, Zeynep; Grigoriadou, Maria; Petersen, Michael B; Kokotas, Haris; Merou, Konstantina; Pandelia, Efi; Giouroukou, Elena; Papanikolaou, Katerina; Côté, Gilbert B; Gyftodimou, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    Côté et al. [1981] suggested that ring chromosomes with or without deletions share a common pattern of phenotypic anomalies, regardless of which chromosome is involved. The phenotype of this 'general ring syndrome' consists of growth failure without malformations, few or no minor anomalies, and mild to moderate mental retardation. We reconsidered the ring chromosome 2 case previously published by Côté et al. [1981], and we characterized it by array CGH, polymorphic markers as well as subtelomere MLPA and FISH analysis. A terminal deletion (q37.3qter) of maternal origin of the long arm of the ring chromosome 2 was detected and confirmed by all the above-mentioned methods. Ring chromosome 2 cases are exceedingly rare. Only 18 cases, including the present one, have been published so far, and our patient is the longest reported survivor, with a 35-year follow-up, and the third case characterized by array-CGH analysis. PMID:25997743

  12. Two New Cases of 1p21.3 Deletions and an Unbalanced Translocation t(8;12) among Individuals with Syndromic Obesity.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Carla S; Moller Dos Santos, Mauren F; Alonso, Luis G; Koiffmann, Celia P

    2015-07-01

    Obesity is a highly heritable but genetically heterogeneous disorder. Various well-known microdeletion syndromes (e.g. 1p36, 2q37, 6q16, 9q34, 17p11.2) can cause this phenotype along with intellectual disability (ID) and other findings. Chromosomal microarrays have identified 'new' microdeletion/duplication syndromes often associated with obesity. We report on 2 unrelated patients with an overlapping region of deletion at 1p21.3p21.2, and a third patient with a de novo recurrent unbalanced translocation der(8)t(8;12)(p23.1;p13.31), detected by 180K array CGH in a prospective cohort of syndromic obesity patients. Deletion of 1p21.3 is a rare condition, and there have been only 11 cases of the same recurrent translocation between chromosomes 8 and 12 [t(8;12)] reported to date. The former has been associated with ID, autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) and mild dysmorphic features, and in 4 patients who were obese or had a tendency to obesity, a minimal overlapping region of 2 genes, DPYD and MIR137, was detected; t(8;12) has recently been recognized to cause a childhood obesity syndrome due to duplication of the GNB3 gene. Thus, our findings add to the existing literature on the clinical description of these new syndromes, providing additional support that these loci are associated with syndromic obesity. We suggest that heterozygous loss of MIR137 may contribute to obesity as well as ID and ASD. PMID:26279650

  13. Two New Cases of 1p21.3 Deletions and an Unbalanced Translocation t(8;12) among Individuals with Syndromic Obesity

    PubMed Central

    D'Angelo, Carla S.; Moller dos Santos, Mauren F.; Alonso, Luis G.; Koiffmann, Celia P.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a highly heritable but genetically heterogeneous disorder. Various well-known microdeletion syndromes (e.g. 1p36, 2q37, 6q16, 9q34, 17p11.2) can cause this phenotype along with intellectual disability (ID) and other findings. Chromosomal microarrays have identified ‘new’ microdeletion/duplication syndromes often associated with obesity. We report on 2 unrelated patients with an overlapping region of deletion at 1p21.3p21.2, and a third patient with a de novo recurrent unbalanced translocation der(8)t(8;12)(p23.1;p13.31), detected by 180K array CGH in a prospective cohort of syndromic obesity patients. Deletion of 1p21.3 is a rare condition, and there have been only 11 cases of the same recurrent translocation between chromosomes 8 and 12 [t(8;12)] reported to date. The former has been associated with ID, autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) and mild dysmorphic features, and in 4 patients who were obese or had a tendency to obesity, a minimal overlapping region of 2 genes, DPYD and MIR137, was detected; t(8;12) has recently been recognized to cause a childhood obesity syndrome due to duplication of the GNB3 gene. Thus, our findings add to the existing literature on the clinical description of these new syndromes, providing additional support that these loci are associated with syndromic obesity. We suggest that heterozygous loss of MIR137 may contribute to obesity as well as ID and ASD. PMID:26279650

  14. Review of Disrupted Sleep Patterns in Smith-Magenis Syndrome and Normal Melatonin Secretion in a Patient with an Atypical Interstitial 17p11.2 Deletion

    PubMed Central

    Boudreau, Eilis A.; Johnson, Kyle P.; Jackman, Angela R.; Blancato, Jan; Huizing, Marjan; Bendavid, Claude; Jones, MaryPat; Chandrasekharappa, Settara C.; Lewy, Alfred J.; Smith, Ann C. M.; Magenis, R. Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a disorder characterized by multiple congenital anomalies and behavior problems, including abnormal sleep patterns. It is most commonly due to a 3.5 Mb interstitial deletion of chromosome 17 band p11.2. Secretion of melatonin, a hormone produced by the pineal gland, is the body’s signal for nighttime darkness. Published reports of 24-hour melatonin secretion patterns in two independent SMS cohorts (US & France) document an inverted endogenous melatonin pattern in virtually all cases (96%), suggesting that this finding is pathognomic for the syndrome. We report on a woman with SMS due to an atypical large proximal deletion (∼6Mb; cen<->TNFRSFproteinB) of chromosome band (17)(p11.1p11.2) who presents with typical sleep disturbances but a normal pattern of melatonin secretion. We further describe a melatonin light suppression test in this patient. This is the second reported patient with a normal endogenous melatonin rhythm in SMS associated with an atypical large deletion. These two patients are significant because they suggest that the sleep disturbances in SMS cannot be solely attributed to the abnormal diurnal melatonin secretion versus the normal nocturnal pattern. PMID:19530184

  15. Deletions of Yq11 associated with short stature and the Turner syndrome. Tentative mapping of a region associated with specific Turner stigmata to proximal interval 5.

    SciTech Connect

    McElreavey, K.; Barbaux, S.; Vilain, E.

    1994-09-01

    Turner syndrome is a complex human phenotype, commonly associated with a 45,X karyotype. Mapping the Turner phenotype is difficult since hidden mosaicisms, partial monosomy and complex rearrangements are present in many affected individuals. In addition, attempts to map the genes involved to the X chromosome have failed to yield a consistent localisation. An alternative approach to map and identify Turner genes is to study XY individuals, with sex chromosome abnormalities, who present with or without characteristic Turner stigmata. We report the analysis of 4 individuals with terminal deletions of Yq. The individuals were azoospermic males without phenotypic abnormalities (2 cases) and azoospermic males presenting with a specific subset of Turner stigmata (2 cases). Breakpoints in each of the cytogenetically detectable Yq deletions were mapped by Southern analysis and Y chromosome-specific sequence tagged sites (STS). Correlation between the patients phenotypes and the extent of their deletion indicate a critical region associated with specific Turner stigmata (cubitus valgus, shield chest, short fourth metacarpals) and growth retardation at Yq at proximal interval 5. These data provide evidence that the somatic features of the Turner syndrome are most likely caused by haploinsufficiency of genes at several loci.

  16. Age-dependent clinical problems in a Norwegian national survey of patients with the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lima, Kari; Følling, Ivar; Eiklid, Kristin L; Natvig, Solveig; Abrahamsen, Tore G

    2010-08-01

    Patients with the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome display a wide phenotypic variation that is important for clinical follow-up. In this national survey of 60 patients (ages 1 to 54 years) diagnosed by Fluorescence in situ hybridization test, data were collected from medical records, a physical examination, and a semistructured interview. Ultrasound investigation of the kidneys was also performed. In addition, multiplex ligation probe amplification assay was performed to detect deletion size. Phenotypic features leading to the genetic diagnosis were noted. The patients showed a variety of organ malformations including 39 with heart anomalies. Only 20 individuals had been diagnosed with 22q11.2 DS in the first year of life. Four patients had renal and five males had genital malformations. The increased infection susceptibility (excluding otitis media) and most feeding difficulties subsided during early childhood. Speech difficulties started early and were a major problem for many patients at least until 10 years of age. Ten patients developed kyphoscoliosis in late childhood. In teenagers and adults, abnormal social behavior, learning disabilities, and psychiatric symptoms dominated. Our study which also includes adult patients emphasizes a marked change in challenges in individuals with the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome with increasing age. PMID:20186429

  17. Isolation of a transcription factor expressed in neural crest from the region of 22q11 deleted in DiGeorge syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Wadey, R.; Roberts, C.; Daw, S.

    1994-09-01

    Deletions within chromosome 22q11 cause a wide variety of birth defects including DiGeorge syndrome and Shprintzen syndrome. We have defined a commonly deleted region of over 2 Mb, and a critical region of 300 kb. A gene, TUPLE1, has been isolated from this critical region encoding a transcriptional regulator similar to the yeast HIR1 histone regulator gene. Since it has been suggested that DGS results from a defective neural crest, the expression of Tuple1 was examined in whole mouse and chick embryos, tissue sections and neural tube explants: Tuple1 is expressed in a dynamic pattern with high levels in regions containing migrating crest. Prior to crest migration Tuple1 is expressed in a rhombomere-specific expression pattern. Later Tuple1 is expressed in discrete domains within the developing neural tube. A remarkable feature of the experiments was the detection of a similar dynamic pattern with sense probe; i.e., there is an antisense Tuple1 transcript. This was confirmed using RPA. Tuple1 is being screened for mutations in non-deletion patients and constructs assembled for homologous recombination in ES cells. Tuple1 maps to MMU16 extending the homology of linkage with human chromosome 22. From these data we predict that the human homologue of the murine scid mutation maps to 22q11.

  18. Mapping Genetically Controlled Neural Circuits of Social Behavior and Visuo-Motor Integration by a Preliminary Examination of Atypical Deletions with Williams Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hoeft, Fumiko; Dai, Li; Haas, Brian W.; Sheau, Kristen; Mimura, Masaru; Mills, Debra; Galaburda, Albert; Bellugi, Ursula

    2014-01-01

    In this study of eight rare atypical deletion cases with Williams-Beuren syndrome (WS; also known as 7q11.23 deletion syndrome) consisting of three different patterns of deletions, compared to typical WS and typically developing (TD) individuals, we show preliminary evidence of dissociable genetic contributions to brain structure and human cognition. Univariate and multivariate pattern classification results of morphometric brain patterns complemented by behavior implicate a possible role for the chromosomal region that includes: 1) GTF2I/GTF2IRD1 in visuo-spatial/motor integration, intraparietal as well as overall gray matter structures, 2) the region spanning ABHD11 through RFC2 including LIMK1, in social cognition, in particular approachability, as well as orbitofrontal, amygdala and fusiform anatomy, and 3) the regions including STX1A, and/or CYLN2 in overall white matter structure. This knowledge contributes to our understanding of the role of genetics on human brain structure, cognition and pathophysiology of altered cognition in WS. The current study builds on ongoing research designed to characterize the impact of multiple genes, gene-gene interactions and changes in gene expression on the human brain. PMID:25105779

  19. Deletions and de novo mutations of SOX11 are associated with a neurodevelopmental disorder with features of Coffin–Siris syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hempel, Annmarie; Pagnamenta, Alistair T; Blyth, Moira; Mansour, Sahar; McConnell, Vivienne; Kou, Ikuyo; Ikegawa, Shiro; Tsurusaki, Yoshinori; Matsumoto, Naomichi; Lo-Castro, Adriana; Plessis, Ghislaine; Albrecht, Beate; Battaglia, Agatino; Taylor, Jenny C; Howard, Malcolm F; Keays, David; Sohal, Aman Singh; Kühl, Susanne J; Kini, Usha; McNeill, Alisdair

    2016-01-01

    Background SOX11 is a transcription factor proposed to play a role in brain development. The relevance of SOX11 to human developmental disorders was suggested by a recent report of SOX11 mutations in two patients with Coffin–Siris syndrome. Here we further investigate the role of SOX11 variants in neurodevelopmental disorders. Methods We used array based comparative genomic hybridisation and trio exome sequencing to identify children with intellectual disability who have deletions or de novo point mutations disrupting SOX11. The pathogenicity of the SOX11 mutations was assessed using an in vitro gene expression reporter system. Loss-of-function experiments were performed in xenopus by knockdown of Sox11 expression. Results We identified seven individuals with chromosome 2p25 deletions involving SOX11. Trio exome sequencing identified three de novo SOX11 variants, two missense (p.K50N; p.P120H) and one nonsense (p.C29*). The biological consequences of the missense mutations were assessed using an in vitro gene expression system. These individuals had microcephaly, developmental delay and shared dysmorphic features compatible with mild Coffin–Siris syndrome. To further investigate the function of SOX11, we knocked down the orthologous gene in xenopus. Morphants had significant reduction in head size compared with controls. This suggests that SOX11 loss of function can be associated with microcephaly. Conclusions We thus propose that SOX11 deletion or mutation can present with a Coffin–Siris phenotype. PMID:26543203

  20. Review of disrupted sleep patterns in Smith-Magenis syndrome and normal melatonin secretion in a patient with an atypical interstitial 17p11.2 deletion.

    PubMed

    Boudreau, Eilis A; Johnson, Kyle P; Jackman, Angela R; Blancato, Jan; Huizing, Marjan; Bendavid, Claude; Jones, Marypat; Chandrasekharappa, Settara C; Lewy, Alfred J; Smith, Ann C M; Magenis, R Ellen

    2009-07-01

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a disorder characterized by multiple congenital anomalies and behavior problems, including abnormal sleep patterns. It is most commonly due to a 3.5 Mb interstitial deletion of chromosome 17 band p11.2. Secretion of melatonin, a hormone produced by the pineal gland, is the body's signal for nighttime darkness. Published reports of 24-hr melatonin secretion patterns in two independent SMS cohorts (US and France) document an inverted endogenous melatonin pattern in virtually all cases (96%), suggesting that this finding is pathognomic for the syndrome. We report on a woman with SMS due to an atypical large proximal deletion ( approximately 6Mb; cen<->TNFRSFproteinB) of chromosome band (17)(p11.2p11.2) who presents with typical sleep disturbances but a normal pattern of melatonin secretion. We further describe a melatonin light suppression test in this patient. This is the second reported patient with a normal endogenous melatonin rhythm in SMS associated with an atypical large deletion. These two patients are significant because they suggest that the sleep disturbances in SMS cannot be solely attributed to the abnormal diurnal melatonin secretion versus the normal nocturnal pattern. PMID:19530184

  1. Identification of Nine New RAI1-Truncating Mutations in Smith-Magenis Syndrome Patients without 17p11.2 Deletions

    PubMed Central

    Dubourg, C.; Bonnet-Brilhault, F.; Toutain, A.; Mignot, C.; Jacquette, A.; Dieux, A.; Gérard, M.; Beaumont-Epinette, M.-P.; Julia, S.; Isidor, B.; Rossi, M.; Odent, S.; Bendavid, C.; Barthélémy, C.; Verloes, A.; David, V.

    2014-01-01

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is an intellectual disability syndrome with sleep disturbance, self-injurious behaviors and dysmorphic features. It is estimated to occur in 1/25,000 births, and in 90% of cases it is associated with interstitial deletions of chromosome 17p11.2. RAI1 (retinoic acid induced 1; OMIM 607642) mutations are the second most frequent molecular etiology, with this gene being located in the SMS locus at 17p11.2. Here, we report 9 new RAI1-truncating mutations in nonrelated individuals referred for molecular analysis due to a possible SMS diagnosis. None of these patients carried a 17p11.2 deletion. The 9 mutations include 2 nonsense mutations and 7 heterozygous frameshift mutations leading to protein truncation. All mutations map in exon 3 of RAI1 which codes for more than 98% of the protein. RAI1 regulates gene transcription, and its targets are themselves involved in transcriptional regulation, cell growth and cell cycle regulation, bone and skeletal development, lipid and glucide metabolisms, neurological development, behavioral functions, and circadian activity. We report the clinical features of the patients carrying these deleterious mutations in comparison with those of patients carrying 17p11.2 deletions. PMID:24715852

  2. Identification of Nine New RAI1-Truncating Mutations in Smith-Magenis Syndrome Patients without 17p11.2 Deletions.

    PubMed

    Dubourg, C; Bonnet-Brilhault, F; Toutain, A; Mignot, C; Jacquette, A; Dieux, A; Gérard, M; Beaumont-Epinette, M-P; Julia, S; Isidor, B; Rossi, M; Odent, S; Bendavid, C; Barthélémy, C; Verloes, A; David, V

    2014-02-01

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is an intellectual disability syndrome with sleep disturbance, self-injurious behaviors and dysmorphic features. It is estimated to occur in 1/25,000 births, and in 90% of cases it is associated with interstitial deletions of chromosome 17p11.2. RAI1 (retinoic acid induced 1; OMIM 607642) mutations are the second most frequent molecular etiology, with this gene being located in the SMS locus at 17p11.2. Here, we report 9 new RAI1-truncating mutations in nonrelated individuals referred for molecular analysis due to a possible SMS diagnosis. None of these patients carried a 17p11.2 deletion. The 9 mutations include 2 nonsense mutations and 7 heterozygous frameshift mutations leading to protein truncation. All mutations map in exon 3 of RAI1 which codes for more than 98% of the protein. RAI1 regulates gene transcription, and its targets are themselves involved in transcriptional regulation, cell growth and cell cycle regulation, bone and skeletal development, lipid and glucide metabolisms, neurological development, behavioral functions, and circadian activity. We report the clinical features of the patients carrying these deleterious mutations in comparison with those of patients carrying 17p11.2 deletions. PMID:24715852

  3. Detection of deleted mitochondrial genomes in cytochrome-c oxidase-deficient muscle fibers of a patient with Kearns-Sayre syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Mita, S.; Schmidt, B.; Schon, E.A.; DiMauro, S.; Bonilla, E. )

    1989-12-01

    Using in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry, the authors studied a muscle biopsy sample from a patient with Kearns-Sayre syndrome (KSS) who had a deletion of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and partial deficiency of cytochrome-c oxidase. They sought a relationship between COX deficiency and abnormalities of mtDNA at the single-fiber level. COX deficiency clearly correlated with a decrease of normal mtDNA and, conversely, deleted mtDNA was more abundant in COX-deficient fibers, especially ragged-red fibers. The distribution of mtRNA has a similar pattern, suggesting that deleted mtDNA is transcribed. Immunocytochemistry showed that the nuclear DNA-encoded subunit IV of COX was present but that the mtDNA-encoded subunit II was markedly diminished in COX-deficient ragged-red fibers. Because the mtDNA deletion in this patient did not comprise the gene encoding COX subunit II, COX deficiency may have resulted from lack of translation of mtRNA encoding all three mtDNA-encoded subunits of COX.

  4. Deletion of 11q12.3-11q13.1 in a patient with intellectual disability and childhood facial features resembling Cornelia de Lange syndrome.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Martine Isabel; Jespersgaard, Cathrine; Nazaryan, Lusine; Ravn, Kirstine; Brøndum-Nielsen, Karen; Bisgaard, Anne-Marie; Tümer, Zeynep

    2015-11-01

    Deletions within 11q12.3-11q13.1 are very rare and to date only two cases have been described in the literature. In this study we describe a 23-year-old male patient with intellectual disability, behavioral problems, dysmorphic features, dysphagia, gastroesophageal reflux and skeletal abnormalities. Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS, OMIM #122470; #300590; #610759; #300882; #614701) was suggested as a differential diagnosis in childhood although he lacked some of the features typical for this disorder. He does not have a mutation in any of the five known CdLS genes (NIPBL, SMC1A, SMC3, HDAC8, RAD21), but a 1.6Mb deletion at chromosome region 11q12.3-11q13.1 was detected by chromosome microarray. The deletion contains several genes including PPP2R5B, which has been associated with intellectual disability and overgrowth; NRXN2, which has been associated with intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder; and CDCA5, which is part of the cohesin pathway, as are all the five known CdLS genes. It is therefore possible that deletion of CDCA5 may account for some of the CdLS like features of the present case. PMID:26164757

  5. Inefficient search of large-scale space in Williams syndrome: further insights on the role of LIMK1 deletion in deficits of spatial cognition.

    PubMed

    Smith, Alastair D; Gilchrist, Iain D; Hood, Bruce; Tassabehji, May; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette

    2009-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a genetic disorder associated with impairments of spatial cognition. This has primarily been studied in small-scale space, and rarely in large-scale environments. In order to fully characterise the spatial deficits in WS, and also to address claims that the deletion of LIM-kinase 1 (LIMK1) on chromosome 7 is responsible for those deficits, we report an automated large-scale search task for humans that places the participant egocentrically within the search space. Search locations were defined as lights and switches embedded in the floor, and participants attempted to locate a hidden target by pressing the switch at potential locations. We compared individuals with WS to patients with smaller deletions (including LIMK1) in the critical region on chromosome 7. Whilst partial-deletion participants performed efficiently on the task, participants with WS demonstrated inefficient search profiles: their search slopes were steeper and they made significantly more erroneous revisits to previously inspected locations. Our findings indicate that spatial deficits associated with WS also affect large-scale spatial processing and suggest that hemizygous deletion of LIMK1 is not sufficient to account for any of the spatial deficits associated with WS. PMID:19662944

  6. Somatic and germ-line mosaicism of deletion 15q11.2-q13 in a mother of dyzigotic twins with Angelman syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Javier; Fernández, Raquel; Madruga, Marcos; Bernabeu-Wittel, José; Antiñolo, Guillermo; Borrego, Salud

    2014-02-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS, OMIM105830) is a neurogenetic disorder caused by different genetic mechanisms. Determining the genetic mechanism is essential to establish the recurrence risk and the accuracy of genetic/reproductive counseling. The majority of AS patients present with a deletion of the 15q11.2-q13 region on the maternally derived chromosome. The other genetic mechanisms are: paternal disomy of chromosome 15, imprinting center defects, and mutations in the ubiquitin-protein ligase E3A gene (UBE3A). Different recurrence risks are associated with each specific genetic mechanism involved. We report on the study of dizygotic twins with classic phenotypic AS due to deletion of the same maternally derived chromosome 15. The mother presented with hypopigmented macular lesions on the inner side of both arms. Fibroblast culture studies of the maternal hypopigmented skin areas from both arms showed mosaicism for a normal cell line and for a second cell line with a 15q11.2-q13 deletion. This family represents the first demonstrated case of maternal somatic and germ line mosaicism for 15q11.2-q13 deletion as the cause of AS. PMID:24311297

  7. A complex Xp11.22 deletion in a patient with syndromic autism: exploration of FAM120C as a positional candidate gene for autism.

    PubMed

    De Wolf, Veerle; Crepel, An; Schuit, Frans; van Lommel, Leentje; Ceulemans, Berten; Steyaert, Jean; Seuntjens, Eve; Peeters, Hilde; Devriendt, Koen

    2014-12-01

    We present a male patient with sporadic Aarskog syndrome, cleft palate, mild intellectual disability, and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A submicroscopic discontiguous deletion was detected on chromosome Xp11.2 encompassing FGD1, FAM120C, and PHF8. That the deletion encompassed FGD1 (exons 2-8) explains the Aarskog features while the deletion of PHF8 most likely explains the cleft palate and mild intellectual disability. We identify FAM120C as a novel X-linked candidate gene for autism for two reasons: first, a larger deletion encompassing FAM120C segregates with autism in a previously reported family and second, there is recent evidence that FAM120C interacts with CYFIP1, part of the FMRP (Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein) network. In the current study, resequencing of FAM120C in 87 Belgian male patients with autism spectrum disorder identified no novel mutations. Expression of Fam120c in mouse tissues showed enriched expression in pituitary, cerebellum, cortex, and pancreatic islets of Langerhans. Additionally, we found a cortical expression pattern of Fam120c similar to that of Fmr1. In conclusion, FAM120C is a novel candidate gene for autism spectrum disorder based on genetic evidence and the brain expression pattern. Thereby we highlight a role for FMRP network genes in ASD. PMID:25258334

  8. Two families with isolated cat cry without the cri-du-chat syndrome phenotype have an inherited 5p15.3 deletion: Delineation of the larynx malformation region

    SciTech Connect

    Gersh, M.; Overhauser, J.; Pasztor, L.M.

    1994-09-01

    The cri-du-chat syndrome is a contiguous gene syndrome that results from a deletion of the short arm of chromosome 5 (5p). Patients present with a cat-like cry at birth that is usually considered diagnostic of this syndrome. Additional features of the syndrome include failure to thrive, microcephaly, hypertelorism, epicanthal folds, hypotonia, and severe mental retardation. We report on two families in which the patients with 5p deletions have only the characteristic cat-like cry with normal to mildly delayed development. One family has three children with varying levels of developmental delay and a deletion of 5p15.3 that was inherited from the father. The second family has a mother and daughter both presenting with a cat-like cry and normal intelligence. A de novo deletion in a patient with isolated cat cry and mild developmental delay was also identified. The precise locations of the deletions in each family were determined by fluorescent in situ hybridization using lambda phage, cosmids, and YAC clones. Cryptic translocations and mosaicism were not detected in the parents transmitting the deletion. All of the deletion breakpoints map distal to the previously defined cri-du-chat critical region. A YAC contig has been constructed for the chromosomal region implicated in the larynx malformation. DNA clones mapping in this region will be useful diagnostic tools for delineating 5p deletions that result in the typical features of cri-du-chat syndrome with deletions that result in the isolated cat-like cry feature which is associated with a better prognosis.

  9. Deletion of the steroid-binding domain of the human androgen receptor gene in one family with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome: Evidence for further genetic heterogeneity in this syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, T.R.; Lubahn, D.B.; Wilson, E.M.; Joseph, D.R.; French, F.S.; Migeon, C.J. )

    1988-11-01

    The cloning of a cDNA for the human androgen receptor gene has resulted in the availability for cDNA probes that span various parts of the gene, including the entire steroid-binding domain and part of the DNA-binding domain, as well as part of the 5' region of the gene. The radiolabeled probes were used to screen for androgen receptor mutations on Southern blots prepared by restriction endonuclease digestion of genomic DNA from human subjects with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS). In this investigation, the authors considered only patients presenting complete AIS and with the androgen receptor (-) form as the most probably subjects to show a gene deletion. One subject from each of six unrelated families with the receptor (-) form of complete AIS and 10 normal subjects were studied. In the 10 normal subjects and in 5 of the 6 patients, identical DNA restriction fragment patterns were observed with EcoRI and BamHI. Analysis of other members of this family confirmed the apparent gene deletion. The data provide direct proof that complete AIS in some families can result from a deletion of the androgen receptor structural gene. However, other families do not demonstrate such a deletion, suggesting that point mutations may also result in the receptor (-) form of complete AIS, adding further to the genetic heterogeneity of this syndrome.

  10. Genomic analysis and pathogenic characteristics of Type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus nsp2 deletion strains isolated in Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hwan-Won; Nam, Eeuri; Lee, Yoo Jin; Noh, Yun-Hee; Lee, Seung-Chul; Yoon, In-Joong; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Kang, Shien-Young; Choi, Young-Ki; Lee, Changhee

    2014-06-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a globally ubiquitous swine virus that exhibits genetic and pathogenic heterogeneity among isolates. The present study was conducted to determine the complete genome sequence and pathogenicity of two Korean type 2 PRRSV nonstructural protein 2 (nsp2) deletion mutants, CA-2 and KNU-12-KJ4. The full-length genomes of CA-2 and KNU-12-KJ4 were determined to be 15,018 and 15,019 nucleotides in length, excluding the poly(A) tail, respectively, which were 393- or 392-nucleotide shorter than that of the type 2 NA prototype strain VR-2332 due to the presence of notable large deletions within the nsp2 gene. The genomes of CA-2 and KNU-12-KJ4 consisted of a 189- or 190-nucleotide 5' untranslated region (UTR), a 14,677-nucleotide protein-coding region, and a 151-nucleotide 3' UTR. Whole genome evaluation revealed that the nucleotide sequences of CA-2 and KNU-12-KJ4 are most similar to each other (10.7% sequence divergence), and then to the Korean strain CA-1 (11.3% sequence divergence) and the US strain MN184C (13.1% sequence divergence), respectively. To evaluate the in vitro immunity of nsp2 deletion variants, we sought to explore alteration of inflammatory cytokine and chemokine expression in PAM-pCD163 cells infected with each virus strain using quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Cytokine genes including IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-?, and chemokines such as MCP-1 and RANTES were found to be significantly elevated in nsp2 deletion virus-infected PAM cells. In contrast, expression of interferons (IFN-?, ?, and ?) and antiviral genes including ISG-15, -54, and -56 were unchanged or down-regulated in PAM cells infected with the nsp2 deletion mutants. Animal studies to assess the pathogenicity of nsp2 deletion PRRSVs demonstrated that both CA-2 and KNU-12-KJ4 strains notably produce weight loss in infected pigs. Furthermore, the nsp2 deletion mutants replicated well in pigs with significantly increased and prolonged viremia kinetics. Taken together, our results indicate that, among the three isolates, the outcome of in vitro and in vivo infection by CA-2 and KNU-12-KJ4 is comparable, suggesting that the large nsp2 deletion may be one of the viral genetic determinants contributing to PRRSV pathogenicity. PMID:24646599

  11. A role for CTCF and cohesin in subtelomere chromatin organization, TERRA transcription, and telomere end protection

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Zhong; Wang, Zhuo; Stong, Nick; Plasschaert, Robert; Moczan, Aliah; Chen, Horng-Shen; Hu, Sufeng; Wikramasinghe, Priyankara; Davuluri, Ramana V; Bartolomei, Marisa S; Riethman, Harold; Lieberman, Paul M

    2012-01-01

    The contribution of human subtelomeric DNA and chromatin organization to telomere integrity and chromosome end protection is not yet understood in molecular detail. Here, we show by ChIP-Seq that most human subtelomeres contain a CTCF- and cohesin-binding site within ∼1–2 kb of the TTAGGG repeat tract and adjacent to a CpG-islands implicated in TERRA transcription control. ChIP-Seq also revealed that RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) was enriched at sites adjacent to the CTCF sites and extending towards the telomere repeat tracts. Mutation of CTCF-binding sites in plasmid-borne promoters reduced transcriptional activity in an orientation-dependent manner. Depletion of CTCF by shRNA led to a decrease in TERRA transcription, and a loss of cohesin and RNAPII binding to the subtelomeres. Depletion of either CTCF or cohesin subunit Rad21 caused telomere-induced DNA damage foci (TIF) formation, and destabilized TRF1 and TRF2 binding to the TTAGGG proximal subtelomere DNA. These findings indicate that CTCF and cohesin are integral components of most human subtelomeres, and important for the regulation of TERRA transcription and telomere end protection. PMID:23010778

  12. Rhabdoid tumor predisposition syndrome caused by SMARCB1 constitutional deletion: prenatal detection of new case of recurrence in siblings due to gonadal mosaicism.

    PubMed

    Gigante, Laura; Paganini, Irene; Frontali, Marina; Ciabattoni, Serena; Sangiuolo, Federica Carla; Papi, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Rhabdoid tumors are aggressive malignancies that show loss-of-function mutations of SMARCB1 gene, a member of the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex controlling gene transcription. One-third of patients affected by rhabdoid tumor harbor a germ-line mutation of SMARCB1 defining a rhabdoid tumor predisposition syndrome. The occurrence of a second somatic mutation determines the development of neoplasia in a two-hit model. Most germ-line mutations occur de novo, and few cases of recurrence in a sibship have been described. Here we report on a new Italian family with recurrence of SMARCB1 germ-line deletion in two siblings due to gonadal mosaicism. The deletion was identified in the 9-month-old proband with malignant rhabdoid tumor of the right kidney and disseminated metastases. Testing of both parents confirmed the de novo origin of the mutation, but recurrence was then detected prenatally in a new pregnancy. This is the sixth family with malignant rhabdoid tumor predisposition syndrome with the recurrence of the same germ-line SMARCB1 mutation in the sibship but not in healthy parents, suggesting that gonadal mosaicism is a less rare event than supposed. The clinical outcome in our patient confirms previous data of poorer outcome in patients with rhabdoid tumor predisposition syndrome. PMID:26342593

  13. Differential splicing of human androgen receptor pre-mRNA in X-linked reifenstein syndrome, because of a deletion involving a putative branch site

    SciTech Connect

    Ris-Stalpers, C.; Verleun-Mooijman, M.C.T.; Blaeij, T.J.P. de; Brinkmann, A.O.; Degenhart, H.J.; Trapman, J. )

    1994-04-01

    The analysis of the androgen receptor (AR) gene, mRNA, and protein in a subject with X-linked Reifenstein syndrome (partial androgen insensitivity) is reported. The presence of two mature AR transcripts in genital skin fibroblasts of the patient is established, and, by reverse transcriptase-PCR and RNase transcription analysis, the wild-type transcript and a transcript in which exon 3 sequences are absent without disruption of the translational reading frame are identified. Sequencing and hybridization analysis show a deletion of >6 kb in intron 2 of the human AR gene, starting 18 bp upstream of exon 3. The deletion includes the putative branch-point sequence (BPS) but not the acceptor splice site on the intron 2/exon 3 boundary. The deletion of the putative intron 2 BPS results in 90% inhibition of wild-type splicing. The mutant transcript encodes an AR protein lacking the second zinc finger of the DNA-binding domain. Western/immunoblotting analysis is used to show that the mutant AR protein is expressed in genital skin fibroblasts of the patient. The residual 10% wild-type transcript can be the result of the use of a cryptic BPS located 63 bp upstream of the intron 2/exon 3 boundary of the mutant AR gene. The mutated AR protein has no transcription-activating potential and does not influence the transactivating properties of the wild-type AR, as tested in cotransfection studies. It is concluded that the partial androgen-insensitivity syndrome of this patient is the consequence of the limited amount of wild-type AR protein expressed in androgen target cells, resulting from the deletion of the intron 2 putative BPS. 42 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Co-existence of 9p deletion and Silver-Russell syndromes in a patient with maternally inherited cryptic complex chromosome rearrangement involving chromosomes 4, 9, and 11.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jie; Sathanoori, Malini; Kochmar, Sally; Madan-Khetarpal, Suneeta; McGuire, Marianne; Surti, Urvashi

    2013-01-01

    We report a patient with a maternally inherited unbalanced complex chromosomal rearrangement (CCR) involving chromosomes 4, 9, and 11 detected by microarray comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). This patient presents with clinical features of 9p deletion syndrome and Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS). Chromosome analysis performed in 2000 showed what appeared to be a simple terminal deletion of chromosome 9p22.1. aCGH performed in 2010 revealed a 1.63?Mb duplication at 4q28.3, a 15.48?Mb deletion at 9p24.3p22.3, and a 1.95?Mb duplication at 11p15.5. FISH analysis revealed a derivative chromosome 9 resulting from an unbalanced translocation between chromosomes 9 and 11, a chromosome 4 fragment inserted near the breakpoint of the translocation. The 4q28.3 duplication does not contain any currently known genes. The 9p24.3p22.3 deletion region contains 36 OMIM genes including a 3.5?Mb critical region for the 9p-phenotype. The 11p15.5 duplication contains 49 OMIM genes including H19 and IGF2. Maternal aCGH was normal. However, maternal chromosomal and FISH analyses revealed an apparently balanced CCR involving chromosomes 4, 9, and 11. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a patient with maternally inherited trans-duplication of the entire imprinting control region 1 (ICR1) among the 11p15.5 duplications reported in SRS patients. This report supports the hypothesis that the trans-duplication of the maternal copy of ICR1 alone is sufficient for the clinical manifestation of SRS and demonstrates the usefulness of combining aCGH with karyotyping and FISH for detecting cryptic genomic imbalances. PMID:23225375

  15. Schizophrenia and chromosomal deletions

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsay, E.A.; Baldini, A.; Morris, M. A.

    1995-06-01

    Recent genetic linkage analysis studies have suggested the presence of a schizophrenia locus on the chromosomal region 22q11-q13. Schizophrenia has also been frequently observed in patients affected with velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS), a disorder frequently associated with deletions within 22q11.1. It has been hypothesized that psychosis in VCFS may be due to deletion of the catechol-o-methyl transferase gene. Prompted by these observations, we screened for 22q11 deletions in a population of 100 schizophrenics selected from the Maryland Epidemiological Sample. Our results show that there are schizophrenic patients carrying a deletion of 22q11.1 and a mild VCFS phenotype that might remain unrecognized. These findings should encourage a search for a schizophrenia-susceptibility gene within the deleted region and alert those in clinical practice to the possible presence of a mild VCFS phenotype associated with schizophrenia. 9 refs.

  16. Utero-vaginal aplasia (Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome) associated with deletions in known DiGeorge or DiGeorge-like loci

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome is characterized by congenital aplasia of the uterus and the upper part of the vagina in women showing normal development of secondary sexual characteristics and a normal 46, XX karyotype. The uterovaginal aplasia is either isolated (type I) or more frequently associated with other malformations (type II or Müllerian Renal Cervico-thoracic Somite (MURCS) association), some of which belong to the malformation spectrum of DiGeorge phenotype (DGS). Its etiology remains poorly understood. Thus the phenotypic manifestations of MRKH and DGS overlap suggesting a possible genetic link. This would potentially have clinical consequences. Methods We searched DiGeorge critical chromosomal regions for chromosomal anomalies in a cohort of 57 subjects with uterovaginal aplasia (55 women and 2 aborted fetuses). For this candidate locus approach, we used a multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) assay based on a kit designed for investigation of the chromosomal regions known to be involved in DGS. The deletions detected were validated by Duplex PCR/liquid chromatography (DP/LC) and/or array-CGH analysis. Results We found deletions in four probands within the four chromosomal loci 4q34-qter, 8p23.1, 10p14 and 22q11.2 implicated in almost all cases of DGS syndrome. Conclusion Uterovaginal aplasia appears to be an additional feature of the broad spectrum of the DGS phenotype. The DiGeorge critical chromosomal regions may be candidate loci for a subset of MRKH syndrome (MURCS association) individuals. However, the genes mapping at the sites of these deletions involved in uterovaginal anomalies remain to be determined. These findings have consequences for clinical investigations, the care of patients and their relatives, and genetic counseling. PMID:21406098

  17. A 3.7 Mb Deletion Encompassing ZEB2 Causes a Novel Polled and Multisystemic Syndrome in the Progeny of a Somatic Mosaic Bull

    PubMed Central

    Capitan, Aurélien; Allais-Bonnet, Aurélie; Pinton, Alain; Marquant-Le Guienne, Brigitte; Le Bourhis, Daniel; Grohs, Cécile; Bouet, Stéphan; Clément, Laëtitia; Salas-Cortes, Laura; Venot, Eric; Chaffaux, Stéphane; Weiss, Bernard; Delpeuch, Arnaud; Noé, Guy; Rossignol, Marie-Noëlle; Barbey, Sarah; Dozias, Dominique; Cobo, Emilie; Barasc, Harmonie; Auguste, Aurélie; Pannetier, Maëlle; Deloche, Marie-Christine; Lhuilier, Emeline; Bouchez, Olivier; Esquerré, Diane; Salin, Gérald; Klopp, Christophe; Donnadieu, Cécile; Chantry-Darmon, Céline; Hayes, Hélène; Gallard, Yves; Ponsart, Claire; Boichard, Didier; Pailhoux, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Polled and Multisystemic Syndrome (PMS) is a novel developmental disorder occurring in the progeny of a single bull. Its clinical spectrum includes polledness (complete agenesis of horns), facial dysmorphism, growth delay, chronic diarrhea, premature ovarian failure, and variable neurological and cardiac anomalies. PMS is also characterized by a deviation of the sex-ratio, suggesting male lethality during pregnancy. Using Mendelian error mapping and whole-genome sequencing, we identified a 3.7 Mb deletion on the paternal bovine chromosome 2 encompassing ARHGAP15, GTDC1 and ZEB2 genes. We then produced control and affected 90-day old fetuses to characterize this syndrome by histological and expression analyses. Compared to wild type individuals, affected animals showed a decreased expression of the three deleted genes. Based on a comparison with human Mowat-Wilson syndrome, we suggest that deletion of ZEB2, is responsible for most of the effects of the mutation. Finally sperm-FISH, embryo genotyping and analysis of reproduction records confirmed somatic mosaicism in the founder bull and male-specific lethality during the first third of gestation. In conclusion, we identified a novel locus involved in bovid horn ontogenesis and suggest that epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition plays a critical role in horn bud differentiation. We also provide new insights into the pathogenicity of ZEB2 loss of heterozygosity in bovine and humans and describe the first case of male-specific lethality associated with an autosomal locus in a non-murine mammalian species. This result sets PMS as a unique model to study sex-specific gene expression/regulation. PMID:23152852

  18. A Longitudinal Examination of the Psychoeducational, Neurocognitive, and Psychiatric Functioning in Children with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hooper, Stephen R.; Curtiss, Kathleen; Schoch, Kelly; Keshavan, Matcheri S.; Allen, Andrew; Shashi, Vandana

    2013-01-01

    The present study sought to examine the longitudinal psychoeducational, neurocognitive, and psychiatric outcomes of children and adolescents with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), a population with a high incidence of major psychiatric illnesses appearing in late adolescence/early adulthood. Little is known of the developmental changes that occur in the early teen years, prior to the age of highest psychosis risk. Data were collected from 71 participants (42 subjects with 22q11DS and 29 control subjects) at Time 1 (T1) and Time 2 (T2), approximately 3.5 years later. The 22q11DS group was significantly lower functioning than controls on IQ, neurocognition, and academic achievement at both T1 and T2. Children with 22q11DS also showed significantly greater social-behavioral difficulties and psychiatric symptoms, and were more likely to meet criteria for psychiatric disorders at both time points. In evaluating change over time from T1 to T2, the 22q11DS group did not show significant changes in psychoeducational or psychiatric outcomes relative to the controls, however, lack of expected age-related gains in attention regulation were noted. Within the 22q11DS group, an increase in the Attenuated Prodrome for Schizophrenia (number of psychiatric symptoms) was noted from T1 to T2 and four children with 22q11DS met criteria for Psychosis for the first time. Predictors at T1 that uncovered psychopathology symptoms at T2 included full-scale IQ, externalizing symptoms, and problem social behaviors. Overall, younger adolescent and preadolescent children with 22q11DS in this study exhibited slowed growth in attention regulation, with an increase in subclinical symptoms of schizophrenia, suggestive of increasing impairments in domains that are relevant to the high risk of Schizophrenia. Early predictors of later psychopathology included both cognitive and behavioral abnormalities. These findings begin to elucidate the trajectory of changes in psychopathology in children with 22q11DS in the years leading up to the onset of major psychiatric illnesses. PMID:23506790

  19. The 30-Amino-Acid Deletion in the Nsp2 of Highly Pathogenic Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Emerging in China Is Not Related to Its Virulence?

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Lei; Zhang, Jialong; Zeng, Jingwen; Yin, Shuoyan; Li, Yanhua; Zheng, Linying; Guo, Xin; Ge, Xinna; Yang, Hanchun

    2009-01-01

    During the past 2 years, an atypical clinical outbreak, caused by a highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) with a unique 30-amino-acid deletion in its Nsp2-coding region, was pandemic in China. In this study, we generated four full-length infectious cDNA clones: a clone of the highly virulent PRRSV strain JXwn06 (pWSK-JXwn), a clone of the low-virulence PRRSV strain HB-1/3.9 (pWSK-HB-1/3.9), a chimeric clone in which the Nsp2 region containing the 30-amino-acid deletion was replaced by the corresponding region of the low-virulence PRRSV strain HB-1/3.9 (pWSK-JXwn-HB1nsp2), and a mutated HB-1/3.9 clone with the same deletion in Nsp2 as JXwn06 (pWSK-HB1-ND30). We also investigated the pathogenicities of the rescued viruses (designated RvJXwn, RvJXwn-HB1nsp2, RvHB-1/3.9, and RvHB1-ND30, respectively) in specific-pathogen-free piglets in order to determine the role of the 30-amino-acid deletion in the virulence of the highly pathogenic PRRSV. All the rescued viruses could replicate stably in MARC-145 cells. Our findings indicated that RvJXwn-HB1nsp2 retained high virulence for piglets, like RvJXwn and the parental virus JXwn06, although the survival time of piglets infected with RvJXwn-HB1nsp2 was obviously prolonged. RvHB1-ND30 exhibited low virulence for piglets, like RvHB-1/3.9 and the parental virus HB-1/3.9. Therefore, we conclude that the 30-amino-acid deletion is not related to the virulence of the highly pathogenic PRRSV emerging in China. PMID:19244318

  20. Novel single base-pair deletion in exon 1 of XK gene leading to McLeod syndrome with chorea, muscle wasting, peripheral neuropathy, acanthocytosis and haemolysis

    PubMed Central

    Wiethoff, Sarah; Xiromerisiou, Georgia; Bettencourt, Conceição; Kioumi, Anna; Tsiptsios, Iakovos; Tychalas, Athanasios; Evaggelia, Markousi; George, Kaltsounis; Makris, Vasileios; Hardy, John; Houlden, Henry

    2014-01-01

    We present a 70-year-old male patient of Greek origin with choreatic movements of the tongue and face, lower limb muscle weakness, peripheral neuropathy, elevated creatinephosphokinase (CPK), acanthocytosis and haemolysis in the absence of Kell RBC antigens with an additional Factor IX-deficiency. Genetic testing for mutations in the three exons of the XK gene revealed a previously unreported hemizygous single base-pair frameshift deletion at exon 1 (c.229delC, p.Leu80fs). In conclusion, we hereby describe a rare phenotype of a patient with McLeod syndrome which was discovered coincidentally during routine blood group testing and consecutively genetically confirmed. PMID:24529944

  1. Prospective Control Abilities during Visuo-Manual Tracking in Children with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Compared to Age- and IQ-Matched Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Aken, Katrijn; Swillen, Ann; Beirinckx, Marc; Janssens, Luc; Caeyenberghs, Karen; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien

    2010-01-01

    To examine whether children with a 22q11.2 Deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) are able to use prospective control, 21 children with 22q11.2DS (mean age=9.6 [plus or minus] 1.9; mean FSIQ=73.05 [plus or minus] 10.2) and 21 control children (mean age=9.6 [plus or minus] 1.9; mean FSIQ=73.38 [plus or minus] 12.0) were asked to perform a visuo-manual…

  2. Prospective Control Abilities during Visuo-Manual Tracking in Children with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Compared to Age- and IQ-Matched Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Aken, Katrijn; Swillen, Ann; Beirinckx, Marc; Janssens, Luc; Caeyenberghs, Karen; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien

    2010-01-01

    To examine whether children with a 22q11.2 Deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) are able to use prospective control, 21 children with 22q11.2DS (mean age=9.6 [plus or minus] 1.9; mean FSIQ=73.05 [plus or minus] 10.2) and 21 control children (mean age=9.6 [plus or minus] 1.9; mean FSIQ=73.38 [plus or minus] 12.0) were asked to perform a visuo-manual…

  3. Chromosome 20p inverted duplication deletion identified in a Thai female adult with mental retardation, obesity, chronic kidney disease and characteristic facial features.

    PubMed

    Trachoo, Objoon; Assanatham, Montira; Jinawath, Natini; Nongnuch, Arkom

    2013-06-01

    We report on a 21-year-old Thai woman presenting with mental retardation, developmental delays, selective mutism, distinctive facial features, sensorineural hearing loss, single right kidney, uterine didelphys and obesity. A longitudinal clinical course beginning in childhood revealed excessive weight gain, poor language skills and poor school performance. Chronic kidney disease stage 4, with elevated blood pressure, was first noted in adulthood. Array comparative genomic hybridization detected a copy loss at 20p13 co-existing with a copy gain at 20p13-20p11.22. A conventional cytogenetic study revealed the complex structural rearrangement of chromosome 20 [der (20) dup (20) (p11.2p13) del (20) (p13.pter)]. A FISH analysis, using probes against duplication and deletion regions, confirmed that there was an inverted duplication of p11.2-p13 and a deletion in the subtelomere region. Previous reports have identified this cytogenetic characterization in a Caucasian boy. Therefore, this is the first reported case of chromosome 20p inverted duplication deletion syndrome in an adult from the Southeast Asian population group. PMID:23542666

  4. Currarino Syndrome and HPE Microform Associated with a 2.7-Mb Deletion in 7q36.3 Excluding SHH Gene

    PubMed Central

    Coutton, C.; Poreau, B.; Devillard, F.; Durand, C.; Odent, S.; Rozel, C.; Vieville, G.; Amblard, F.; Jouk, P.-S.; Satre, V.

    2014-01-01

    Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is the most common forebrain defect in humans. It results from incomplete midline cleavage of the prosencephalon and can be caused by environmental and genetic factors. HPE is usually described as a continuum of brain malformations from the most severe alobar HPE to the middle interhemispheric fusion variant or syntelencephaly. A microform of HPE is limited to craniofacial features such as congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis and single central maxillary incisor, without brain malformation. Among the heterogeneous causes of HPE, point mutations and deletions in the SHH gene at 7q36 have been identified as well as extremely rare chromosomal rearrangements in the long-range enhancers of this gene. Here, we report a boy with an HPE microform associated with a Currarino syndrome. Array CGH detected a de novo 2.7-Mb deletion in the 7q36.3 region including the MNX1 gene, usually responsible for the Currarino triad but excluding SHH, which is just outside the deletion. This new case provides further evidence of the importance of the SHH long-range enhancers in the HPE spectrum. PMID:24550762

  5. Currarino Syndrome and HPE Microform Associated with a 2.7-Mb Deletion in 7q36.3 Excluding SHH Gene.

    PubMed

    Coutton, C; Poreau, B; Devillard, F; Durand, C; Odent, S; Rozel, C; Vieville, G; Amblard, F; Jouk, P-S; Satre, V

    2014-01-01

    Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is the most common forebrain defect in humans. It results from incomplete midline cleavage of the prosencephalon and can be caused by environmental and genetic factors. HPE is usually described as a continuum of brain malformations from the most severe alobar HPE to the middle interhemispheric fusion variant or syntelencephaly. A microform of HPE is limited to craniofacial features such as congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis and single central maxillary incisor, without brain malformation. Among the heterogeneous causes of HPE, point mutations and deletions in the SHH gene at 7q36 have been identified as well as extremely rare chromosomal rearrangements in the long-range enhancers of this gene. Here, we report a boy with an HPE microform associated with a Currarino syndrome. Array CGH detected a de novo 2.7-Mb deletion in the 7q36.3 region including the MNX1 gene, usually responsible for the Currarino triad but excluding SHH, which is just outside the deletion. This new case provides further evidence of the importance of the SHH long-range enhancers in the HPE spectrum. PMID:24550762

  6. Contiguous gene syndrome due to an interstitial deletion in Xp22.3 in a boy with ichthyosis, chondrodysplasia punctata, mental retardation and ADHD.

    PubMed

    Lonardo, Fortunato; Parenti, Giancarlo; Luquetti, Daniela Varela; Annunziata, Ida; Della Monica, Matteo; Perone, Lucia; De Gregori, Manuela; Zuffardi, Orsetta; Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola; Andria, Generoso; Scarano, Gioacchino

    2007-01-01

    Microdeletions of Xp22.3 can result in contiguous gene syndromes, showing the variable association of apparently unrelated clinical manifestations such as ichthyosis, chondrodysplasia punctata, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, anosmia, ocular albinism, short stature and mental retardation. We report on a boy with ichthyosis, dysmorphic features and mental retardation with ADHD. The patient was born at term after a pregnancy complicated by threatened abortion; decreased fetal movements and low estriol serum levels were reported during the last trimester. The boy was referred to us at the age of 13 years. He presented with aggressive and hyperactive behavior. He had dry hair, a flat face, bilateral lens opacities, a small nose with hypoplastic tip, alae nasi and nares, a high-arched palate with a very small cleft, mixed dentition with 7 unerupted permanent teeth, left sensorineural and right mixed hearing loss with a calcified plaque of the tympanic membrane, marked shortness of terminal phalanges of hands and feet, ichthyosis of trunk and limbs. The genomic interval between AFM248th5 and KAL1 was investigated. PCR analysis showed a deletion in Xp22.3, with the distal breakpoint between the marker AFM248th5 and PABX and the proximal one between DXS278 and KAL1. Array-CGH and FISH analysis confirmed the interstitial deletion (of about 5.5 Mb) and refined the breakpoints. We discuss the phenotype of our patient in relationship to the deleted segment and the possibility of mental retardation and ADHD genes in the region. PMID:17591464

  7. A Familial Cri-du-Chat/5p Deletion Syndrome Resulted from Rare Maternal Complex Chromosomal Rearrangements (CCRs) and/or Possible Chromosome 5p Chromothripsis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ya-nan; Dong, Xing-sheng; Huang, Yang-yu; Son, Xin-ming; Lu, Xinyan; Chen, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Cri-du-Chat syndrome (MIM 123450) is a chromosomal syndrome characterized by the characteristic features, including cat-like cry and chromosome 5p deletions. We report a family with five individuals showing chromosomal rearrangements involving 5p, resulting from rare maternal complex chromosomal rearrangements (CCRs), diagnosed post- and pre-natally by comprehensive molecular and cytogenetic analyses. Two probands, including a 4½-year-old brother and his 2½-year- old sister, showed no diagnostic cat cry during infancy, but presented with developmental delay, dysmorphic and autistic features. Both patients had an interstitial deletion del(5)(p13.3p15.33) spanning ?26.22 Mb. The phenotypically normal mother had de novo CCRs involving 11 breakpoints and three chromosomes: ins(11;5) (q23;p14.1p15.31),ins(21;5)(q21;p13.3p14.1),ins(21;5)(q21;p15.31p15.33),inv(7)(p22q32)dn. In addition to these two children, she had three first-trimester miscarriages, two terminations due to the identification of the 5p deletion and one delivery of a phenotypically normal daughter. The unaffected daughter had the maternal ins(11;5) identified prenatally and an identical maternal allele haplotype of 5p. Array CGH did not detect any copy number changes in the mother, and revealed three interstitial deletions within 5p15.33-p13.3, in the unaffected daughter, likely products of the maternal insertions ins(21;5). Chromothripsis has been recently reported as a mechanism drives germline CCRs in pediatric patients with congenital defects. We postulate that the unique CCRs in the phenotypically normal mother could resulted from chromosome 5p chromothripsis, that further resulted in the interstitial 5p deletions in the unaffected daughter. Further high resolution sequencing based analysis is needed to determine whether chromothripsis is also present as a germline structural variation in phenotypically normal individuals in this family. PMID:24143197

  8. A familial Cri-du-Chat/5p deletion syndrome resulted from rare maternal complex chromosomal rearrangements (CCRs) and/or possible chromosome 5p chromothripsis.

    PubMed

    Gu, Heng; Jiang, Jian-hui; Li, Jian-ying; Zhang, Ya-nan; Dong, Xing-sheng; Huang, Yang-yu; Son, Xin-ming; Lu, Xinyan; Chen, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Cri-du-Chat syndrome (MIM 123450) is a chromosomal syndrome characterized by the characteristic features, including cat-like cry and chromosome 5p deletions. We report a family with five individuals showing chromosomal rearrangements involving 5p, resulting from rare maternal complex chromosomal rearrangements (CCRs), diagnosed post- and pre-natally by comprehensive molecular and cytogenetic analyses. Two probands, including a 4½-year-old brother and his 2½-year- old sister, showed no diagnostic cat cry during infancy, but presented with developmental delay, dysmorphic and autistic features. Both patients had an interstitial deletion del(5)(p13.3p15.33) spanning ? 26.22 Mb. The phenotypically normal mother had de novo CCRs involving 11 breakpoints and three chromosomes: ins(11;5) (q23;p14.1p15.31),ins(21;5)(q21;p13.3p14.1),ins(21;5)(q21;p15.31p15.33),inv(7)(p22q32)dn. In addition to these two children, she had three first-trimester miscarriages, two terminations due to the identification of the 5p deletion and one delivery of a phenotypically normal daughter. The unaffected daughter had the maternal ins(11;5) identified prenatally and an identical maternal allele haplotype of 5p. Array CGH did not detect any copy number changes in the mother, and revealed three interstitial deletions within 5p15.33-p13.3, in the unaffected daughter, likely products of the maternal insertions ins(21;5). Chromothripsis has been recently reported as a mechanism drives germline CCRs in pediatric patients with congenital defects. We postulate that the unique CCRs in the phenotypically normal mother could resulted from chromosome 5p chromothripsis, that further resulted in the interstitial 5p deletions in the unaffected daughter. Further high resolution sequencing based analysis is needed to determine whether chromothripsis is also present as a germline structural variation in phenotypically normal individuals in this family. PMID:24143197

  9. A novel deletion in the splice donor site of MLH1 exon 6 in a Japanese colon cancer patient with Lynch syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Junya; Sato, Yuri; Kita, Mizuho; Nomura, Sachio; Yamamoto, Noriko; Kato, Yo; Ishikawa, Yuichi; Arai, Masami

    2015-10-01

    Lynch syndrome is an autosomal dominantly inherited disease that is characterized by a predisposition to cancers, mainly colorectal cancer. Germline mutations of DNA mismatch repair genes such as MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2 have been described in patients with Lynch syndrome. Here, we report deletion of 2 bp in the splice donor site of the MLH1 exon 6 (c.545+4_545+5delCA) in a 48-year-old Japanese woman with Lynch syndrome. RT-PCR direct sequencing analysis revealed that this mutation led to an increase in the level of an MLH1 transcript in which exon 6 was skipped, and may cause a frameshift (p.E153FfsX8). Therefore, this mutation appears to be pathogenic and is responsible for Lynch syndrome. Additionally, analysis of the patient's tumor cells indicated microsatellite instability high phenotype and loss of the MLH1 and PMS2 proteins. To our knowledge, this is a germline splice site mutation of MLH1 that has not been reported previously. PMID:26185136

  10. Integrated analysis of clinical signs and literature data for the diagnosis and therapy of a previously undescribed 6p21.3 deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zollino, Marcella; Gurrieri, Fiorella; Orteschi, Daniela; Marangi, Giuseppe; Leuzzi, Vincenzo; Neri, Giovanni

    2011-02-01

    A de novo 0.3?Mb deletion on 6p21.3 was detected by array-comparative genomic hybridization in a girl with mental retardation, drug-resistant seizures, facial dysmorphisms, gut malrotation and abnormal pancreas segmentation. Consistent with phenotypic manifestations is haploinsufficiency of SYNGAP1, which was recently demonstrated to cause non-syndromic mental retardation, and of the flanking genes CuTA, a likely modulator of the processing and trafficking of secretory proteins in the human brain, and hPHF1, involved in HOX gene silencing. Mutations of both CuTA and hPHF1 were never reported as causative of human diseases. Similarly, the present syndromic condition was not previously described and it can be regarded as a human model confirming the suggested biological properties of the genes included in the deletion interval. In addition, experimental evidence that SYNGAP1 and CuTA are involved in the secretory pathway in neurons, through glutamate and acetylcholinesterase signalling, prompted us to consider modulation of the glutamate pathway as target of a therapeutic strategy for seizure control. PMID:21119708

  11. Molecular cytogenetic determination of a deletion/duplication of 1q that results in a trisomy 18 syndrome-like phenotype

    SciTech Connect

    Mewar, R.; Harrison, W.; Weaver, D.D.; Palmer, C.; Davee, M.A.; Overhauser, J.

    1994-08-15

    We report on an infant who presented at birth with some characteristics of trisomy 18 syndrome, including low birth weight, facial abnormalities, overlapping fingers, and congenital heart defects. On chromosome analysis, no additional chromosome 18 was observed and both chromosome 18 homologues appeared normal. However, a small piece of chromosomal material of unknown origin was detected at the tip of the long arm of chromosome 1. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using whole chromosome 18 painting probes disclosed no additional hybridization at the telomere of 1q, suggesting that the material was derived from another chromosome. Further chromosome painting experiments suggested that the telomeric addition was of chromosome 1 origin. To identify subchromosomal regions involved in the rearrangement, additional FISH analyses were performed using single copy and repetitive DNA probes mapping different portions of chromosome 1. The analyses showed that probes mapping to 1q34-43 were duplicated in the derivative chromosome 1. In addition, a DNA probe mapping to 1q44 was found to be deleted from the derivative chromosome 1. Our composite analysis suggests that a deletion and a duplication of chromosome 1q can result in some of the clinical findings usually associated with trisomy 16 syndrome. These results demonstrate the usefulness of FISH analysis when karyotype analysis is not consistent with the clinical description. 23 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Molecular analysis of the Retinoic Acid Induced 1 gene (RAI1) in patients with suspected Smith-Magenis syndrome without the 17p11.2 deletion.

    PubMed

    Vilboux, Thierry; Ciccone, Carla; Blancato, Jan K; Cox, Gerald F; Deshpande, Charu; Introne, Wendy J; Gahl, William A; Smith, Ann C M; Huizing, Marjan

    2011-01-01

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a complex neurobehavioral disorder characterized by multiple congenital anomalies. The syndrome is primarily ascribed to a ∼3.7 Mb de novo deletion on chromosome 17p11.2. Haploinsufficiency of multiple genes likely underlies the complex clinical phenotype. RAI1 (Retinoic Acid Induced 1) is recognized as a major gene involved in the SMS phenotype. Extensive genetic and clinical analyses of 36 patients with SMS-like features, but without the 17p11.2 microdeletion, yielded 10 patients with RAI1 variants, including 4 with de novo deleterious mutations, and 6 with novel missense variants, 5 of which were familial. Haplotype analysis showed two major RAI1 haplotypes in our primarily Caucasian cohort; the novel RAI1 variants did not occur in a preferred haplotype. RNA analysis revealed that RAI1 mRNA expression was significantly decreased in cells of patients with the common 17p11.2 deletion, as well as in those with de novo RAI1 variants. Expression levels varied in patients with familial RAI1 variants and in non-17p11.2 deleted patients without identified RAI1 defects. No correlation between SNP haplotype and RAI1 expression was found. Two clinical features, ocular abnormalities and polyembolokoilomania (object insertion), were significantly correlated with decreased RAI1 expression. While not significantly correlated, the presence of hearing loss, seizures, hoarse voice, childhood onset of obesity and specific behavioral aspects and the absence of immunologic abnormalities and cardiovascular or renal structural anomalies, appeared to be specific for the de novo RAI1 subgroup. Recognition of the combination of these features will assist in referral for RAI1 analysis of patients with SMS-like features without detectable microdeletion of 17p11.2. Moreover, RAI1 expression emerged as a genetic target for development of therapeutic interventions for SMS. PMID:21857958

  13. Transcriptome Profiling of Peripheral Blood in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Reveals Functional Pathways Related to Psychosis and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Jalbrzikowski, Maria; Lazaro, Maria T.; Gao, Fuying; Huang, Alden; Chow, Carolyn; Geschwind, Daniel H.

    2015-01-01

    Background 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11DS) represents one of the greatest known genetic risk factors for the development of psychotic illness, and is also associated with high rates of autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) in childhood. We performed integrated genomic analyses of 22q11DS to identify genes and pathways related to specific phenotypes. Methods We used a high-resolution aCGH array to precisely characterize deletion breakpoints. Using peripheral blood, we examined differential expression (DE) and networks of co-expressed genes related to phenotypic variation within 22q11DS patients. Whole-genome transcriptional profiling was performed using Illumina Human HT-12 microarrays. Data mining techniques were used to validate our results against independent samples of both peripheral blood and brain tissue from idiopathic psychosis and ASD cases. Results Eighty-five percent of 22q11DS individuals (N = 39) carried the typical 3 Mb deletion, with significant variability in deletion characteristics in the remainder of the sample (N = 7). DE analysis and weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) identified expression changes related to psychotic symptoms in patients, including a module of co-expressed genes which was associated with psychosis in 22q11DS and involved in pathways associated with transcriptional regulation. This module was enriched for brain-expressed genes, was not related to antipsychotic medication use, and significantly overlapped with transcriptional changes in idiopathic schizophrenia. In 22q11DS-ASD, both DE and WGCNA analyses implicated dysregulation of immune response pathways. The ASD-associated module showed significant overlap with genes previously associated with idiopathic ASD. Conclusion These findings further support the use of peripheral tissue in the study of major mutational models of diseases affecting the brain, and point towards specific pathways dysregulated in 22q11DS carriers with psychosis and ASD. PMID:26201030

  14. The 29-Nucleotide Deletion Present in Human but Not in Animal Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronaviruses Disrupts the Functional Expression of Open Reading Frame 8?

    PubMed Central

    Oostra, Monique; de Haan, Cornelis A. M.; Rottier, Peter J. M.

    2007-01-01

    One of the most striking and dramatic genomic changes observed in the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) isolated from humans soon after its zoonotic transmission from palm civets was the acquisition of a characteristic 29-nucleotide deletion. This occurred in open reading frame 8 (ORF8), one of the accessory genes unique to the SARS-CoV. The function of ORF8 and the significance of the deletion are unknown. The intact ORF8 present in animal and some early human isolates encodes a 122-amino-acid polypeptide (8ab+), which we expressed in cells using the vaccinia virus T7 expression system. It was found to contain a cleavable signal sequence, which directs the precursor to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mediates its translocation into the lumen. The cleaved protein became N-glycosylated, assembled into disulfide-linked homomultimeric complexes, and remained stably in the ER. The 29-nucleotide deletion splits ORF8 into two ORFs, 8a and 8b, encoding 39- and 84-residue polypeptides. The 8a polypeptide is likely to remain in the cytoplasm, as it is too small for its signal sequence to function and will therefore be directly released from the ribosome. However, we could not confirm this experimentally due to the lack of proper antibodies. ORF8b appeared not to be expressed in SARS-CoV-infected cells or when expressed from mRNA's mimicking mRNA8. This was due to the context of the internal AUG initiation codon, as we demonstrated after placing the ORF8b immediately behind the T7 promoter. A soluble, unmodified and monomeric 8b protein was now expressed in the cytoplasm, which was highly unstable and rapidly degraded. Clearly, the 29-nucleotide deletion disrupts the proper expression of the SARS-CoV ORF8, the implications of which are discussed. PMID:17928347

  15. In-frame multi-exon deletion of SMC1A in a severely affected female with Cornelia de Lange Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hoppman-Chaney, Nicole; Jang, Jin Sung; Jen, Jin; Babovic-Vuksanovic, Dusica; Hodge, Jennelle C

    2012-01-01

    Cornelia de Lange Syndrome (CdLS) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder characterized by dysmorphic facial features, cleft palate, limb defects, growth retardation, and developmental delay. Approximately 60% of patients with CdLS have an identifiable mutation in the NIPBL gene at 5p13.2. Recently, an X-linked form of CdLS with a generally milder phenotype was attributed to mutation of the structural maintenance of chromosomes 1A gene (SMC1A) at Xp11.22. Relatively few CdLS patients with mutations in SMC1A are known; female carriers have minor facial dysmorphism and cognitive deficiency without major structural abnormalities. To date, all mutations identified in SMC1A are missense or small in-frame deletions that preserve the open reading frame of the gene and likely have a dominant-negative effect. We report on a female with monosomy X mosaicism and a phenotype suggestive of a severe form of CdLS who presented with growth and mental retardation, multiple congenital anomalies, and facial dysmorphism. Array CGH confirmed mosaic monosomy X and identified a novel deletion of SMC1A spanning multiple exons, suggesting a possible loss-of-function effect. Sequencing of both genomic and cDNA demonstrated an 8,152?bp deletion of genomic DNA from exon 13 to intron 16. Although a loss-of-function effect cannot be excluded, the resulting mRNA remains in-frame and is expressed in peripheral blood lymphocytes, suggesting a dominant-negative effect. We hypothesize that the size of this deletion compared to previously reported mutations may account for this patient's severe CdLS phenotype. The presence of mosaic monosomy X may also modify the phenotype. PMID:22106055

  16. Contribution of Congenital Heart Disease to Neuropsychiatric Outcome in School-Age Children with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Yi, James J.; Tang, Sunny X.; McDonald-McGinn, Donna M.; Calkins, Monica E.; Whinna, Daneen A.; Souders, Margaret C.; Zackai, Elaine H.; Goldmuntz, Elizabeth; Gaynor, James W.; Gur, Ruben C.; Emanuel, Beverly S.; Gur, Raquel E.

    2014-01-01

    Children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) present with congenital heart disease (CHD) and high prevalence of psychiatric disorders and neurocognitive deficits. Although CHD has been implicated in neurodevelopment, its role in the neuropsychiatric outcome in 22q11DS is poorly understood. We investigated whether CHD contributes to the high prevalence of psychiatric disorders and neurocognitive impairments in 22q11DS. Fifty-four children ages 8–14 years with 22q11DS and 16 age-matched non-deleted children with CHD participated. They were assessed using semi-structured interviews and a Computerized Neurocognitive Battery. CHD status was assessed using available medical records. Prevalence of psychiatric disorders and cognitive profiles were compared among the groups. There were no significant differences between the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the 22q11DS with and without CHD. In 22q11DS with CHD, the prevalence rates were 41% anxiety disorders, 37% ADHD and 71% psychosis spectrum. In 22q11DS without CHD, the rates were 33% anxiety disorders, 41% ADHD and 64% psychosis spectrum. In comparison, the non-deleted CHD group had lower rates of psychopathology (25% anxiety disorders, 6% ADHD, and 13% psychosis spectrum). Similarly, the 22q11DS groups, regardless of CHD status, had significantly greater neurocognitive deficits across multiple domains, compared to the CHD-only group. We conclude that CHD in this sample of children with 22q11.2DS does not have a major impact on the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and is not associated with increased neurocognitive deficits. These findings suggest that the 22q11.2 deletion status itself may confer significant neuropsychiatric vulnerability in this population. PMID:24265253

  17. Frontonasal dysplasia, callosal agenesis, basal encephalocele, and eye anomalies syndrome with a partial 21q22.3 deletion.

    PubMed

    Guion-Almeida, Maria Leine; Richieri-Costa, Antonio; Jehee, Fernanda Sarquis; Passos-Bueno, Maria Rita Santos; Zechi-Ceide, Roseli Maria

    2012-07-01

    We describe a girl with a phenotype characterized by frontonasal dysplasia, callosal agenesis, basal encephalocele, and eye anomalies who presents a 46,XX,r(21) karyotype. Array-comparative genomic hybridization using the Afflymetrix 100K DNA oligoarray set showed an interstitial deletion 21q22.3 of approximately 219 kb. Conventional karyotype of both parents was normal, and it was not possible to perform the molecular studies. In this report we raise the hypothesis that the deleted genes located at 21q22.3 could account to the phenotype. PMID:22628242

  18. Environment-responsive transcription factors bind subtelomeric elements and regulate gene silencing

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Jennifer J; Miller, Leslie R; Kreisberg, Richard; Vazquez, Laura; Wan, Yakun; Aitchison, John D

    2011-01-01

    Subtelomeric chromatin is subject to evolutionarily conserved complex epigenetic regulation and is implicated in numerous aspects of cellular function including formation of heterochromatin, regulation of stress response pathways and control of lifespan. Subtelomeric DNA is characterized by the presence of specific repeated segments that serve to propagate silencing or to protect chromosomal regions from spreading epigenetic control. In this study, analysis of genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation and expression data, suggests that several yeast transcription factors regulate subtelomeric silencing in response to various environmental stimuli through conditional association with proto-silencing regions called X elements. In this context, Oaf1p, Rox1p, Gzf1p and Phd1p control the propagation of silencing toward centromeres in response to stimuli affecting stress responses and metabolism, whereas others, including Adr1p, Yap5p and Msn4p, appear to influence boundaries of silencing, regulating telomere-proximal genes in Y′ elements. The factors implicated here are known to control adjacent genes at intrachromosomal positions, suggesting their dual functionality. This study reveals a path for the coordination of subtelomeric silencing with cellular environment, and with activities of other cellular processes. PMID:21206489

  19. Copy-Number Variation of the Glucose Transporter Gene SLC2A3 and Congenital Heart Defects in the 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mlynarski, Elisabeth E.; Sheridan, Molly B.; Xie, Michael; Guo, Tingwei; Racedo, Silvia E.; McDonald-McGinn, Donna M.; Gai, Xiaowu; Chow, Eva W.C.; Vorstman, Jacob; Swillen, Ann; Devriendt, Koen; Breckpot, Jeroen; Digilio, Maria Cristina; Marino, Bruno; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Philip, Nicole; Simon, Tony J.; Roberts, Amy E.; Piotrowicz, Ma?gorzata; Bearden, Carrie E.; Eliez, Stephan; Gothelf, Doron; Coleman, Karlene; Kates, Wendy R.; Devoto, Marcella; Zackai, Elaine; Heine-Suñer, Damian; Shaikh, Tamim H.; Bassett, Anne S.; Goldmuntz, Elizabeth; Morrow, Bernice E.; Emanuel, Beverly S.

    2015-01-01

    The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS; velocardiofacial/DiGeorge syndrome; VCFS/DGS) is the most common microdeletion syndrome and the phenotypic presentation is highly variable. Approximately 65% of individuals with 22q11DS have a congenital heart defect (CHD), mostly of the conotruncal type, and/or an aortic arch defect. The etiology of this phenotypic variability is not currently known. We hypothesized that copy-number variants (CNVs) outside the 22q11.2 deleted region might increase the risk of being born with a CHD in this sensitized population. Genotyping with Affymetrix SNP Array 6.0 was performed on two groups of subjects with 22q11DS separated by time of ascertainment and processing. CNV analysis was completed on a total of 949 subjects (cohort 1, n = 562; cohort 2, n = 387), 603 with CHDs (cohort 1, n = 363; cohort 2, n = 240) and 346 with normal cardiac anatomy (cohort 1, n = 199; cohort 2, n = 147). Our analysis revealed that a duplication of SLC2A3 was the most frequent CNV identified in the first cohort. It was present in 18 subjects with CHDs and 1 subject without (p = 3.12 × 10?3, two-tailed Fisher’s exact test). In the second cohort, the SLC2A3 duplication was also significantly enriched in subjects with CHDs (p = 3.30 × 10?2, two-tailed Fisher’s exact test). The SLC2A3 duplication was the most frequent CNV detected and the only significant finding in our combined analysis (p = 2.68 × 10?4, two-tailed Fisher’s exact test), indicating that the SLC2A3 duplication might serve as a genetic modifier of CHDs and/or aortic arch anomalies in individuals with 22q11DS. PMID:25892112

  20. Copy-Number Variation of the Glucose Transporter Gene SLC2A3 and Congenital Heart Defects in the 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mlynarski, Elisabeth E; Sheridan, Molly B; Xie, Michael; Guo, Tingwei; Racedo, Silvia E; McDonald-McGinn, Donna M; Gai, Xiaowu; Chow, Eva W C; Vorstman, Jacob; Swillen, Ann; Devriendt, Koen; Breckpot, Jeroen; Digilio, Maria Cristina; Marino, Bruno; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Philip, Nicole; Simon, Tony J; Roberts, Amy E; Piotrowicz, Ma?gorzata; Bearden, Carrie E; Eliez, Stephan; Gothelf, Doron; Coleman, Karlene; Kates, Wendy R; Devoto, Marcella; Zackai, Elaine; Heine-Suñer, Damian; Shaikh, Tamim H; Bassett, Anne S; Goldmuntz, Elizabeth; Morrow, Bernice E; Emanuel, Beverly S

    2015-05-01

    The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS; velocardiofacial/DiGeorge syndrome; VCFS/DGS) is the most common microdeletion syndrome and the phenotypic presentation is highly variable. Approximately 65% of individuals with 22q11DS have a congenital heart defect (CHD), mostly of the conotruncal type, and/or an aortic arch defect. The etiology of this phenotypic variability is not currently known. We hypothesized that copy-number variants (CNVs) outside the 22q11.2 deleted region might increase the risk of being born with a CHD in this sensitized population. Genotyping with Affymetrix SNP Array 6.0 was performed on two groups of subjects with 22q11DS separated by time of ascertainment and processing. CNV analysis was completed on a total of 949 subjects (cohort 1, n = 562; cohort 2, n = 387), 603 with CHDs (cohort 1, n = 363; cohort 2, n = 240) and 346 with normal cardiac anatomy (cohort 1, n = 199; cohort 2, n = 147). Our analysis revealed that a duplication of SLC2A3 was the most frequent CNV identified in the first cohort. It was present in 18 subjects with CHDs and 1 subject without (p = 3.12 × 10(-3), two-tailed Fisher's exact test). In the second cohort, the SLC2A3 duplication was also significantly enriched in subjects with CHDs (p = 3.30 × 10(-2), two-tailed Fisher's exact test). The SLC2A3 duplication was the most frequent CNV detected and the only significant finding in our combined analysis (p = 2.68 × 10(-4), two-tailed Fisher's exact test), indicating that the SLC2A3 duplication might serve as a genetic modifier of CHDs and/or aortic arch anomalies in individuals with 22q11DS. PMID:25892112

  1. The 15q13.3 deletion syndrome: Deficient α(7)-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated neurotransmission in the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Stephen I; Burket, Jessica A; Benson, Andrew D; Urbano, Maria R

    2016-01-01

    Array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) has led to the identification of microdeletions of the proximal region of chromosome 15q between breakpoints (BP) 3 or BP4 and BP5 encompassing CHRNA7, the gene encoding the α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) subunit. Phenotypic manifestations of persons with these microdeletions are variable and some heterozygous carriers are seemingly unaffected, consistent with their variable expressivity and incomplete penetrance. Nonetheless, the 15q13.3 deletion syndrome is associated with several neuropsychiatric disorders, including idiopathic generalized epilepsy, intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and schizophrenia. Haploinsufficient expression of CHRNA7 in this syndrome has highlighted important roles the α7nAChR plays in the developing brain and normal processes of attention, cognition, memory and behavior throughout life. Importantly, the existence of the 15q13.3 deletion syndrome contributes to an emerging literature supporting clinical trials therapeutically targeting the α7nAChR in disorders such as ASDs and schizophrenia, including the larger population of patients with no evidence of haploinsufficient expression of CHRNA7. Translational clinical trials will be facilitated by the existence of positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of the α7nAChR that act at sites on the receptor distinct from the orthosteric site that binds acetylcholine and choline, the receptor's endogenous ligands. PAMs lack intrinsic efficacy by themselves, but act where and when the endogenous ligands are released in response to relevant social and cognitive provocations to increase the likelihood they will result in α7nAChR ion channel activation. PMID:26257138

  2. Longitudinal Follow-up of Autism Spectrum Features and Sensory Behaviors in Angelman Syndrome by Deletion Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Sarika U.; Horowitz, Lucia; Barbieri-Welge, Rene; Taylor, Julie Lounds; Hundley, Rachel J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurogenetic disorder characterized by severe intellectual disability, lack of speech, and low threshold for laughter; it is considered a "syndromic" form of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Previous studies have indicated overlap of ASD and AS, primarily in individuals with larger (approximately 6 Mb) Class…

  3. Longitudinal Follow-up of Autism Spectrum Features and Sensory Behaviors in Angelman Syndrome by Deletion Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Sarika U.; Horowitz, Lucia; Barbieri-Welge, Rene; Taylor, Julie Lounds; Hundley, Rachel J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurogenetic disorder characterized by severe intellectual disability, lack of speech, and low threshold for laughter; it is considered a "syndromic" form of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Previous studies have indicated overlap of ASD and AS, primarily in individuals with larger (approximately 6 Mb) Class…

  4. Caregiver and Adult Patient Perspectives on the Importance of a Diagnosis of 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costain, G.; Chow, E. W. C.; Ray, P. N.; Bassett, A. S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Recent advances in genetics are particularly relevant in the field of intellectual disability (ID), where sub-microscopic deletions or duplications of genetic material are increasingly implicated as known or suspected causal factors. Data-driven reports on the impact of providing an aetiological explanation in ID are needed to help…

  5. A syndromic form of Pierre Robin sequence is caused by 5q23 deletions encompassing FBN2 and PHAX.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Morad; Rainger, Jacqueline K; Murray, Jennie E; Hanson, Isabel; Firth, Helen V; Mehendale, Felicity; Amiel, Jeanne; Gordon, Christopher T; Percesepe, Antonio; Mazzanti, Laura; Fryer, Alan; Ferrari, Paola; Devriendt, Koenraad; Temple, I Karen; FitzPatrick, David R

    2014-10-01

    Pierre Robin sequence (PRS) is an aetiologically distinct subgroup of cleft palate. We aimed to define the critical genomic interval from five different 5q22-5q31 deletions associated with PRS or PRS-associated features and assess each gene within the region as a candidate for the PRS component of the phenotype. Clinical array-based comparative genome hybridisation (aCGH) data were used to define a 2.08 Mb minimum region of overlap among four de novo deletions and one mother-son inherited deletion associated with at least one component of PRS. Commonly associated anomalies were talipes equinovarus (TEV), finger contractures and crumpled ear helices. Expression analysis of the orthologous genes within the PRS critical region in embryonic mice showed that the strongest candidate genes were FBN2 and PHAX. Targeted aCGH of the critical region and sequencing of these genes in a cohort of 25 PRS patients revealed no plausible disease-causing mutations. In conclusion, deletion of ?2 Mb on 5q23 region causes a clinically recognisable subtype of PRS. Haploinsufficiency for FBN2 accounts for the digital and auricular features. A possible critical region for TEV is distinct and telomeric to the PRS region. The molecular basis of PRS in these cases remains undetermined but haploinsufficiency for PHAX is a plausible mechanism. PMID:25195018

  6. Caregiver and Adult Patient Perspectives on the Importance of a Diagnosis of 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costain, G.; Chow, E. W. C.; Ray, P. N.; Bassett, A. S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Recent advances in genetics are particularly relevant in the field of intellectual disability (ID), where sub-microscopic deletions or duplications of genetic material are increasingly implicated as known or suspected causal factors. Data-driven reports on the impact of providing an aetiological explanation in ID are needed to help…

  7. 16p11.2 Deletion Syndrome Mice Display Sensory and Ultrasonic Vocalization Deficits During Social Interactions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mu; Mahrt, Elena J; Lewis, Freeman; Foley, Gillian; Portmann, Thomas; Dolmetsch, Ricardo E; Portfors, Christine V; Crawley, Jacqueline N

    2015-10-01

    Recurrent deletions and duplications at chromosomal region 16p11.2 are variably associated with speech delay, autism spectrum disorder, developmental delay, schizophrenia, and cognitive impairments. Social communication deficits are a primary diagnostic symptom of autism. Here we investigated ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) in young adult male 16p11.2 deletion mice during a novel three-phase male-female social interaction test that detects vocalizations emitted by a male in the presence of an estrous female, how the male changes its calling when the female is suddenly absent, and the extent to which calls resume when the female returns. Strikingly fewer vocalizations were detected in two independent cohorts of 16p11.2 heterozygous deletion males (+/-) during the first exposure to an unfamiliar estrous female, as compared to wildtype littermates (+/+). When the female was removed, +/+ emitted calls, but at a much lower level, whereas +/- males called minimally. Sensory and motor abnormalities were detected in +/-, including higher nociceptive thresholds, a complete absence of acoustic startle responses, and hearing loss in all +/- as confirmed by lack of auditory brainstem responses to frequencies between 8 and 100 kHz. Stereotyped circling and backflipping appeared in a small percentage of individuals, as previously reported. However, these sensory and motor phenotypes could not directly explain the low vocalizations in 16p11.2 deletion mice, since (a) +/- males displayed normal abilities to emit vocalizations when the female was subsequently reintroduced, and (b) +/- vocalized less than +/+ to social odor cues delivered on an inanimate cotton swab. Our findings support the concept that mouse USVs in social settings represent a response to social cues, and that 16p11.2 deletion mice are deficient in their initial USVs responses to novel social cues. Autism Res 2015, 8: 507-521. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25663600

  8. A translocation between Xq21.33 and 22q13.33 causes an intragenic SHANK3 deletion in a woman with Phelan-McDermid syndrome and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism.

    PubMed

    Misceo, D; Rødningen, O K; Barøy, T; Sorte, H; Mellembakken, J R; Strømme, P; Fannemel, M; Frengen, E

    2011-02-01

    Chromosome 22q13 monosomy has been described as a contiguous gene syndrome. Localized in the critical region, SHANK3 is likely to play a key role in the expression of the clinical phenotype. SHANK3 mutations have also been reported in autistic patients without a syndromic phenotype. We report on a 20-year-old woman with mental retardation carrying a de novo translocation between chromosome Xq21.33 and 22q13.33, associated with a duplication on Xq21.33 and deletion on 22q13.33. As a child her development was characterized by disturbed social interaction, stereotypic hand movements and ritualistic behavior and she was considered at one time to have autistic features. All these traits match the 22q13 deletion syndrome (Phelan-McDermid syndrome, OMIM 606232), likely due to the deletion overlapping the last two exons of the SHANK3 gene. Our patient harbors the smallest and most distal SHANK3 deletion described to date, yet resulting in the full spectrum of the Phelan-McDermid syndrome. In addition, she has hypergonadotropic hypogonadism with low estrogen level, high FSH level, and irregular menstruation. Intriguingly, chromosome translocations affecting the chromosome band Xq21 can result in premature ovarian failure. PMID:21271662

  9. The Subtelomeric khipu Satellite Repeat from Phaseolus vulgaris: Lessons Learned from the Genome Analysis of the Andean Genotype G19833

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Manon M. S.; Chen, Nicolas W. G.; Thareau, Vincent; Pflieger, Stéphanie; Blanchet, Sophie; Pedrosa-Harand, Andrea; Iwata, Aiko; Chavarro, Carolina; Jackson, Scott A.; Geffroy, Valérie

    2013-01-01

    Subtelomeric regions in eukaryotic organisms are known for harboring species-specific tandemly repeated satellite sequences. However, studies on the molecular organization and evolution of subtelomeric repeats are scarce, especially in plants. Khipu is a satellite DNA of 528-bp repeat unit, specific of the Phaseolus genus, with a subtelomeric distribution in common bean, P. vulgaris. To investigate the genomic organization and the evolution of khipu, we performed genome-wide analysis on the complete genome sequence of the common bean genotype G19833. We identified 2,460 khipu units located at most distal ends of the sequenced regions. Khipu units are arranged in discrete blocks of 2–55 copies and are heterogeneously distributed among the different chromosome ends of G19833 (from 0 to 555 khipus units per chromosome arm). Phylogenetically related khipu units are spread between numerous chromosome ends, suggesting frequent exchanges between non-homologous subtelomeres. However, most subclades contain numerous khipu units from only one or few chromosome ends indicating that local duplication is also driving khipu expansion. Unexpectedly, we also identified 81 khipu units located at centromeres. All the centromeric khipu units belong to a single divergent clade also comprised of a few units from several subtelomeres, suggesting that a few sequence exchanges between centromeres and subtelomeres took place in the common bean genome. The divergence and low copy number of these centromeric units from the subtelomeric units could explain why they were not detected by FISH (Fluorescence in situ Hybridization) although it can not be excluded that these centromeric units may have resulted from errors in the pseudomolecule assembly. Altogether our data highlight extensive sequence exchanges in subtelomeres between non-homologous chromosomes in common bean and confirm that subtelomeres represent one of the most dynamic and rapidly evolving regions in eukaryotic genomes. PMID:24137164

  10. Familial co-segregation of Coffin-Lowry syndrome inherited from the mother and autosomal dominant Waardenburg type IV syndrome due to deletion of EDNRB inherited from the father.

    PubMed

    Loupe, Jacob; Sampath, Srirangan; Lacassie, Yves

    2014-10-01

    We report an African-American family that was identified after the proposita was referred for diagnostic evaluation at 4½ months with a history of Hirschsprung and dysmorphic features typical of Waardenburg syndrome (WS). Family evaluation revealed that the father had heterochromidia irides and hypertelorism supporting the clinical diagnosis of WS; however, examination of the mother revealed characteristic facial and digital features of Coffin-Lowry syndrome (CLS). Molecular testing of the mother identified a novel 2 bp deletion (c.865_866delCA) in codon 289 of RPS6KA3 leading to a frame-shift and premature termination of translation 5 codons downstream (NM_004586.2:p.Gln289ValfsX5). This deletion also was identified in the proposita and her three sisters with a clinical suspicion of CLS, all of whom as carriers for this X-linked disorder had very subtle manifestations. The molecular confirmation of WS type 4 (Shah-Waardenburg; WS4) was not as straightforward. To evaluate WS types 1-4, multiple sequential molecular tests were requested, including Sanger sequencing of all exons, and deletion/duplication analysis using MLPA for PAX3, MITF, SOX10, EDN3 and EDNRB. Although sequencing did not identify any disease causing variants, MLPA identified a heterozygous deletion of the entire EDNRB in the father. This deletion was also found in the proposita and the oldest child. Since the heterozygous deletion was the only change identified in EDNRB, this family represents one of the few cases of an autosomal dominant inheritance of WS4 involving the endothelin pathway. Altogether, clinical evaluation of the family revealed one child to be positive for WS4 and two positive for CLS, while two children were positive for both diseases simultaneously (including the proposita) while another pair test negative for either disease. This kinship is an example of the coincidence of two conditions co-segregating in one family, with variable phenotypes requiring molecular testing to confirm the clinical diagnoses. PMID:25118007

  11. Exonic Deletions in AUTS2 Cause a Syndromic Form of Intellectual Disability and Suggest a Critical Role for the C Terminus

    PubMed Central

    Beunders, Gea; Voorhoeve, Els; Golzio, Christelle; Pardo, Luba M.; Rosenfeld, Jill A.; Talkowski, Michael E.; Simonic, Ingrid; Lionel, Anath C.; Vergult, Sarah; Pyatt, Robert E.; van de Kamp, Jiddeke; Nieuwint, Aggie; Weiss, Marjan M.; Rizzu, Patrizia; Verwer, Lucilla E.N.I.; van Spaendonk, Rosalina M.L.; Shen, Yiping; Wu, Bai-lin; Yu, Tingting; Yu, Yongguo; Chiang, Colby; Gusella, James F.; Lindgren, Amelia M.; Morton, Cynthia C.; van Binsbergen, Ellen; Bulk, Saskia; van Rossem, Els; Vanakker, Olivier; Armstrong, Ruth; Park, Soo-Mi; Greenhalgh, Lynn; Maye, Una; Neill, Nicholas J.; Abbott, Kristin M.; Sell, Susan; Ladda, Roger; Farber, Darren M.; Bader, Patricia I.; Cushing, Tom; Drautz, Joanne M.; Konczal, Laura; Nash, Patricia; de Los Reyes, Emily; Carter, Melissa T.; Hopkins, Elizabeth; Marshall, Christian R.; Osborne, Lucy R.; Gripp, Karen W.; Thrush, Devon Lamb; Hashimoto, Sayaka; Gastier-Foster, Julie M.; Astbury, Caroline; Ylstra, Bauke; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Posthuma, Danielle; Menten, Björn; Mortier, Geert; Scherer, Stephen W.; Eichler, Evan E.; Girirajan, Santhosh; Katsanis, Nicholas; Groffen, Alexander J.; Sistermans, Erik A.

    2013-01-01

    Genomic rearrangements involving AUTS2 (7q11.22) are associated with autism and intellectual disability (ID), although evidence for causality is limited. By combining the results of diagnostic testing of 49,684 individuals, we identified 24 microdeletions that affect at least one exon of AUTS2, as well as one translocation and one inversion each with a breakpoint within the AUTS2 locus. Comparison of 17 well-characterized individuals enabled identification of a variable syndromic phenotype including ID, autism, short stature, microcephaly, cerebral palsy, and facial dysmorphisms. The dysmorphic features were more pronounced in persons with 3? AUTS2 deletions. This part of the gene is shown to encode a C-terminal isoform (with an alternative transcription start site) expressed in the human brain. Consistent with our genetic data, suppression of auts2 in zebrafish embryos caused microcephaly that could be rescued by either the full-length or the C-terminal isoform of AUTS2. Our observations demonstrate a causal role of AUTS2 in neurocognitive disorders, establish a hitherto unappreciated syndromic phenotype at this locus, and show how transcriptional complexity can underpin human pathology. The zebrafish model provides a valuable tool for investigating the etiology of AUTS2 syndrome and facilitating gene-function analysis in the future. PMID:23332918

  12. A 600 kb deletion syndrome at 16p11.2 leads to energy imbalance and neuropsychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Zufferey, Flore; Sherr, Elliott H; Beckmann, Noam D; Hanson, Ellen; Maillard, Anne M; Hippolyte, Loyse; Macé, Aurélien; Ferrari, Carina; Kutalik, Zoltán; Andrieux, Joris; Aylward, Elizabeth; Barker, Mandy; Bernier, Raphael; Bouquillon, Sonia; Conus, Philippe; Delobel, Bruno; Faucett, W Andrew; Goin-Kochel, Robin P; Grant, Ellen; Harewood, Louise; Hunter, Jill V; Lebon, Sébastien; Ledbetter, David H; Martin, Christa Lese; Männik, Katrin; Martinet, Danielle; Mukherjee, Pratik; Ramocki, Melissa B; Spence, Sarah J; Steinman, Kyle J; Tjernagel, Jennifer; Spiro, John E; Reymond, Alexandre; Beckmann, Jacques S; Chung, Wendy K; Jacquemont, Sébastien

    2012-01-01

    Background The recurrent ∼600 kb 16p11.2 BP4-BP5 deletion is among the most frequent known genetic aetiologies of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and related neurodevelopmental disorders. Objective To define the medical, neuropsychological, and behavioural phenotypes in carriers of this deletion. Methods We collected clinical data on 285 deletion carriers and performed detailed evaluations on 72 carriers and 68 intrafamilial non-carrier controls. Results When compared to intrafamilial controls, full scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ) is two standard deviations lower in carriers, and there is no difference between carriers referred for neurodevelopmental disorders and carriers identified through cascade family testing. Verbal IQ (mean 74) is lower than non-verbal IQ (mean 83) and a majority of carriers require speech therapy. Over 80% of individuals exhibit psychiatric disorders including ASD, which is present in 15% of the paediatric carriers. Increase in head circumference (HC) during infancy is similar to the HC and brain growth patterns observed in idiopathic ASD. Obesity, a major comorbidity present in 50% of the carriers by the age of 7 years, does not correlate with FSIQ or any behavioural trait. Seizures are present in 24% of carriers and occur independently of other symptoms. Malformations are infrequently found, confirming only a few of the previously reported associations. Conclusions The 16p11.2 deletion impacts in a quantitative and independent manner FSIQ, behaviour and body mass index, possibly through direct influences on neural circuitry. Although non-specific, these features are clinically significant and reproducible. Lastly, this study demonstrates the necessity of studying large patient cohorts ascertained through multiple methods to characterise the clinical consequences of rare variants involved in common diseases. PMID:23054248

  13. Cloning the Alagille syndrome chromosome region (AGSCR) at 20p11.23-p12.1 into YACs and identification of molecular deletions

    SciTech Connect

    Hansmann, I.; Kammer, S. von der; Loffler, C.

    1994-09-01

    Alagille syndrome, a complex congenital disorder, is one of the most frequent causes of chronic cholestasis in childhood. It follows an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance with reduced penetrance and variable expression, and is characterized by 5 major symptoms, i.e. intrahepatic biliary hypoplasia, pulmonary stenosis, vertebral and eye anomalies as well as characteristic facial features. The disease locus for AGS was assigned earlier by us to an approx. 3-5 Mb segment within 20p11.23-p12.1 by molecular mapping the SRO of 10 probands with interstitial deletions. In order to clone the respective candidate gene(s), isolation of YACs and construction of an overlapping clone map to the SRO was performed. Loci within and flanking the SRO were transferred into STSs by sequencing and selection of appropriate primers, and 18 STSs were used to screen the regular and Mega-YAC libraries. More than 90 YACs were isolated and analyzed so far by STS content mapping, FISH and PFGE. A rather deep YAC contig was established spanning more than 7 Mb around the AGSCR and also covering the SRO. To reduce the size of the SRO, about 50 AGS probands with a normal karyotype were screened for molecular deletions using 5 microdissection probes and 25 microsatellites for the AGSCR. Deletions were detected in about 10% of these patients generating a new SRO, which appears to be smaller than 500 kb. These cosmids are presently being screened for new microsatellites, and for conserved and/or expressed sequences to identify the candidate gene(s) for AGS.

  14. A case of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome caused by a cryptic 11p15 deletion encompassing the centromeric imprinted domain of the BWS locus.

    PubMed

    Zollino, Marcella; Orteschi, Daniela; Marangi, Giuseppe; De Crescenzo, Agostina; Pecile, Vanna; Riccio, Andrea; Neri, Giovanni

    2010-06-01

    BACKGROUND Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is a clinically variable and genetically heterogeneous disorder, providing evidence that imprinted genes play key roles in the control of fetal growth. Clinically, diagnostic criteria include macrosomia, macroglossia, abdominal wall defects, neonatal hypoglycaemia, visceromegalies and hemihyperplasia. Component clinical manifestations also include renal abnormalities, adrenocortical cytomegaly and a characteristic facial appearance, with midface hypoplasia and ear anomalies. Genetically, BWS is associated with disturbances within two different domains on 11p15 that are controlled by distinct imprinting control regions (ICR), ICR1 and ICR2. The majority of patients have abnormalities within ICR2. In particular, loss of maternal methylation accounts for 50-60% of cases, and is associated with reduction in the expression of the CDKN1C gene, a member of the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor family acting as negative regulator of cell proliferation. Mutations in CDKN1C are detected in another 5-10% of subjects with sporadic BWS. Chromosome deletions affecting ICR2 are uncommon. METHODS AND FINDINGS We report on a patient with BWS in which a de novo 11p15 deletion was detected by array comparative genomic hybridisation. Clinically, the patient presented with mild mental retardation and minor physical anomalies. The deletion, that was demonstrated to be maternal in origin by SNP array, encompassed ICR2 and several flanking genes, including CDKN1C. A normal methylation pattern of ICR1 was observed. CONCLUSIONS This observation provides evidence that, among the genetic defects associated with BWS, a 11p15 microdeletion encompassing ICR2 identifies a peculiar clinical phenotype, with high recurrence risk in offspring of female carriers. It also supports the model of two independent domains within the BWS locus. PMID:19843502

  15. The distal 8p deletion (8)(p23.1): A common syndrome associated with cogenital heart defect and mental retardation?

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, B.L.; Schneider, G.H.; Sabatino, D.E.

    1994-09-01

    We describe the clinical manifestations and molecular cytogenetic analysis of three patients with a similar distal deletion: del(8)(p23.1). Case 1: A nine-year-old girl who was the product of a normal pregnancy, with family history of recurrent miscarriages. She has an ASD, development delay and dysmorphic features. Case 2: A three-month-old female who died with a hypoplastic left heart and dysmorphic features. Her non-identical twin sister is healthy. No further family history is available. Case 3: A four-year-old boy who was the product of a normal pregnancy with family history of mental retardation. He has bifid uvula, delayed speech and language, and no major malformations or dysmorphic features. High resolution G and R banding revealed in all three patients del(8)(p23.1), but the breakpoint for case 1 and 2 was proximal to 8p23.1 and for case 3 distal to 8p23.1. FISH studies with a chromosome 8 paint probe confirmed that no other rearrangement was involved. Chromosome analysis of the parents of case 3 and mother of case 1 were normal; the remaining parents were not available for study. Eight individual patients and three members in one family with del(8)(p23.1) have been reported in the past five years. Major congenital anomalies, especially congenital heart defect, is most often associated with a breakpoint proximal to 8p23.1 Three patients were detected within a three year period in this study and five cases were found within a four year period by another group, suggesting that the distal 8p deletion may be a relatively common syndrome. This small deletion is easily overlooked (i.e. case 1 and 3 were reported as normal at amniocentesis) and can be associated with few or no major congenital anomalies.

  16. Tis7 deletion reduces survival and induces intestinal anastomotic inflammation and obstruction in high-fat diet-fed mice with short bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Amy M; Wakeman, Derek; Lu, Jianyun; Rowley, Christopher; Geisman, Taylor; Butler, Catherine; Bala, Shashi; Swietlicki, Elzbieta A; Warner, Brad W; Levin, Marc S; Rubin, Deborah C

    2014-09-15

    Effective therapies are limited for patients with parenteral nutrition-dependent short bowel syndrome. We previously showed that intestinal expression of the transcriptional coregulator tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate-induced sequence 7 (tis7) is markedly increased during the adaptive response following massive small bowel resection and tis7 plays a role in normal gut lipid metabolism. Here, we further explore the functional implications of tis7 deletion in intestinal lipid metabolism and the adaptive response following small bowel resection. Intestinal tis7 transgenic (tis7(tg)), tis7(-/-), and wild-type (WT) littermates were subjected to 50% small bowel resection. Mice were fed a control or a high-saturated-fat (42% energy) diet for 21 days. Survival, body weight recovery, lipid absorption, mucosal lipid analysis, and the morphometric adaptive response were analyzed. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to identify tis7 downstream gene targets. Postresection survival was markedly reduced in high-fat, but not control, diet-fed tis7(-/-) mice. Decreased survival was associated with anastomotic inflammation and intestinal obstruction postresection. High-fat, but not control, diet-fed tis7(-/-) mice had increased intestinal IL-6 expression. Intestinal lipid trafficking was altered in tis7(-/-) compared with WT mice postresection. In contrast, high-fat diet-fed tis7(tg) mice had improved survival postresection compared with WT littermates. High-fat diet feeding in the setting of tis7 deletion resulted in postresection anastomotic inflammation and small bowel obstruction. Tolerance of a calorie-rich, high-fat diet postresection may require tis7 and its target genes. The presence of luminal fat in the setting of tis7 deletion promotes an intestinal inflammatory response postresection. PMID:25059825

  17. DHFR 19-bp Deletion and SHMT C1420T Polymorphisms and Metabolite Concentrations of the Folate Pathway in Individuals with Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Cristiani Cortez; Raimundo, Aline Maria Zanchetta de Aquino; Oliveira, Luciana Dutra; Zampieri, Bruna Lancia; Marucci, Gustavo Henrique; Biselli, Joice Matos; Goloni-Bertollo, Eny Maria; Eberlin, Marcos Nogueira; Haddad, Renato; Riccio, Maria Francesca; Vannucchi, Hélio; Carvalho, Valdemir Melechco

    2013-01-01

    Background: Down syndrome (DS) results from the presence and expression of three copies of the genes located on chromosome 21. Studies have shown that, in addition to overexpression of the Cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) gene, polymorphisms in genes involved in folate/homocysteine (Hcy) metabolism may also influence the concentrations of metabolites of this pathway. Aim: Investigate the association between Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) 19-base pair (bp) deletion and Serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT) C1420T polymorphisms and serum folate and plasma Hcy and methylmalonic acid (MMA) concentrations in 85 individuals with DS. Methods: Molecular analysis of the DHFR 19-bp deletion and SHMT C1420T polymorphisms was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) by difference in the size of fragments and real-time PCR allelic discrimination, respectively. Serum folate was quantified by chemiluminescence and plasma Hcy and MMA by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Results: Individuals with DHFR DD/SHMT TT genotypes presented increased folate concentrations (p=0.004) and the DHFR II/SHMT TT genotypes were associated with increased MMA concentrations (p=0.008). In addition, the MMA concentrations were negatively associated with age (p=0.04). Conclusion: There is an association between DHFR DD/SHMT TT and DHFR II/SHMT TT combined genotypes and folate and MMA concentrations in individuals with DS. PMID:23421317

  18. Whole-Genome Sequencing and Integrative Genomic Analysis Approach on Two 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Family Trios for Genotype to Phenotype Correlations.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jonathan H; Cai, Jinlu; Suskin, Barrie G; Zhang, Zhengdong; Coleman, Karlene; Morrow, Bernice E

    2015-08-01

    The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) affects 1:4,000 live births and presents with highly variable phenotype expressivity. In this study, we developed an analytical approach utilizing whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and integrative analysis to discover genetic modifiers. Our pipeline combined available tools in order to prioritize rare, predicted deleterious, coding and noncoding single-nucleotide variants (SNVs), and insertion/deletions from WGS. We sequenced two unrelated probands with 22q11DS, with contrasting clinical findings, and their unaffected parents. Proband P1 had cognitive impairment, psychotic episodes, anxiety, and tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), whereas proband P2 had juvenile rheumatoid arthritis but no other major clinical findings. In P1, we identified common variants in COMT and PRODH on 22q11.2 as well as rare potentially deleterious DNA variants in other behavioral/neurocognitive genes. We also identified a de novo SNV in ADNP2 (NM_014913.3:c.2243G>C), encoding a neuroprotective protein that may be involved in behavioral disorders. In P2, we identified a novel nonsynonymous SNV in ZFPM2 (NM_012082.3:c.1576C>T), a known causative gene for TOF, which may act as a protective variant downstream of TBX1, haploinsufficiency of which is responsible for congenital heart disease in individuals with 22q11DS. PMID:25981510

  19. Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 and brachydactyly mental retardation syndrome caused by a novel mutation in AGXT and a terminal deletion of chromosome 2.

    PubMed

    Tammachote, Rachaneekorn; Kingsuwannapong, Nelawat; Tongkobpetch, Siraprapa; Srichomthong, Chalurmpon; Yeetong, Patra; Kingwatanakul, Pornchai; Monico, Carla G; Suphapeetiporn, Kanya; Shotelersuk, Vorasuk

    2012-09-01

    Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGXT) gene, located on chromosome 2q37. Mutant AGXT leads to excess production and excretion of oxalate, resulting in accumulation of calcium oxalate in the kidney, and progressive loss of renal function. Brachydactyly mental retardation syndrome (BDMR) is an autosomal dominant disorder, caused by haploinsufficiency of histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4), also on chromosome 2q37. It is characterized by skeletal abnormalities and developmental delay. Here, we report on a girl who had phenotypes of both PH1 and BDMR. PCR-sequencing of the coding regions of AGXT showed a novel missense mutation, c.32C>G (p.Pro11Arg) inherited from her mother. Functional analyses demonstrated that it reduced the enzymatic activity to 31% of the wild-type and redirected some percentage of the enzyme away from the peroxisome. Microsatellite and array-CGH analyses indicated that the proband had a paternal de novo telomeric deletion of chromosome 2q, which included HDAC4. To our knowledge, this is the first report of PH1 and BDMR, with a novel AGXT mutation and a de novo telomeric deletion of chromosome 2q. PMID:22821680

  20. Association between autism spectrum disorder in individuals with velocardiofacial (22q11.2 deletion) syndrome and PRODH and COMT genotypes.

    PubMed

    Radoeva, Petya D; Coman, Ioana L; Salazar, Cynthia A; Gentile, Karen L; Higgins, Anne Marie; Middleton, Frank A; Antshel, Kevin M; Fremont, Wanda; Shprintzen, Robert J; Morrow, Bernice E; Kates, Wendy R

    2014-12-01

    Velocardiofacial (VCFS; 22q11.2 deletion) syndrome is a genetic disorder that results from a hemizygous deletion of the q11.2 region on chromosome 22, and is associated with greatly increased risk for psychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia. There is emerging evidence for the involvement of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and proline dehydrogenase (oxidase) 1 (PRODH) in the psychiatric phenotype of individuals with VCFS. Here, we tested the hypothesis that PRODH and COMT are associated with ASD in youths with VCFS. We found that individuals with VCFS and the low-activity alleles of both PRODH and COMT (rs4819756A and rs4680A) were more likely to present with ASD as compared with individuals with VCFS and the high-activity alleles of these genes [P<0.05; odds ratio=6.0 (95% confidence interval=1.27-28.26; N=87)]. Our results suggest that PRODH and COMT may interact to contribute to the ASD phenotype in individuals with VCFS. PMID:25325218

  1. Common and specific impairments in attention functioning in girls with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion, fragile X or Turner syndromes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS), fragile X syndrome (FXS), and Turner syndrome (TS) are complex and variable developmental syndromes caused by different genetic abnormalities; yet, they share similar cognitive impairments in the domains of numbers, space, and time. The atypical development of foundational neural networks that underpin the attentional system is thought to result in further impairments in higher-order cognitive functions. The current study investigates whether children with similar higher-order cognitive impairments but different genetic disorders also show similar impairments in alerting, orienting, and executive control of attention. Methods Girls with 22q11.2DS, FXS, or TS and typically developing (TD) girls, aged 7 to 15 years, completed an attention network test, a flanker task with alerting and orienting cues. Exploration of reaction times and accuracy allowed us to test for potential commonalities in attentional functioning in alerting, orienting, and executive control. Linear regression models were used to test whether the predictors of group and chronological age were able to predict differences in attention indices. Results Girls with 22q11.2DS, FXS, or TS demonstrated unimpaired function of the alerting system and impaired function of the executive control system. Diagnosis-specific impairments were found such that girls with FXS made more errors and had a reduced orienting index, while girls with 22q11.2DS showed specific age-related deficits in the executive control system. Conclusions These results suggest that the control but not the implementation of attention is selectively impaired in girls with 22q11.2DS, TS or FXS. Additionally, the age effect on executive control in girls with 22q11.2DS implies a possible altered developmental trajectory. PMID:24628892

  2. Characterization and rescue of telomeric abnormalities in ICF syndrome type I fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Yehezkel, Shiran; Shaked, Rony; Sagie, Shira; Berkovitz, Ron; Shachar-Bener, Hofit; Segev, Yardena; Selig, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in the human DNA methyltransferase 3B (DNMT3B) gene lead to ICF (immunodeficiency, centromeric region instability, and facial anomalies) syndrome type I. We have previously described a telomere-related phenotype in cells from these patients, involving severe hypomethylation of subtelomeric regions, abnormally short telomeres and high levels of telomeric-repeat-containing RNA (TERRA). Here we demonstrate that ICF-patient fibroblasts carry abnormally short telomeres at a low population doubling (PD) and enter senescence prematurely. Accordingly, we attempted to rescue the senescence phenotype by ectopic expression of human telomerase, which led to elongated telomeres with hypomethylated subtelomeres. The senescence phenotype was overcome under these conditions, thus dissociating subtelomeric-DNA hypomethylation per se from the senescence phenotype. In addition, we examined whether the subtelomeric methylation could be restored by expression of a normal copy of full length DNMT3B1 in ICF fibroblasts. Ectopic expression of DNMT3B1 failed to rescue the abnormal hypomethylation at subtelomeres. However, partial rescue of subtelomeric-hypomethylation was achieved by co-expression of DNMT3B1 together with DNA methyltransferase 3-like (DNMT3L), encoding a protein that functions as a stimulator of DNMT3A and DNMT3B. DNMT3B1 and DNMT3L are predominantly expressed during early embryonic development, suggesting that de novo subtelomeric DNA methylation during crucial stages of human embryonic development may be necessary for setting and maintaining normal telomere length. PMID:23450006

  3. Are Angelman and Prader-Willi syndromes more similar than we thought? Food-related behavior problems in Angelman, Cornelia de Lange, fragile X, Prader-Willi and 1p36 deletion syndromes.

    PubMed

    Welham, Alice; Lau, Johnny; Moss, Joanna; Cullen, Jenny; Higgs, Suzanne; Warren, Gemma; Wilde, Lucy; Marr, Abby; Cook, Faye; Oliver, Chris

    2015-03-01

    Food-related behavior problems are well documented in Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), with impaired satiety, preoccupation with food and negative food-related behaviors (such as taking and storing food) frequently reported as part of the behavioral phenotype of older children and adults. Food-related behavior problems in other genetic neurodevelopmental syndromes remain less well studied, including those seen in Angelman Syndrome (AS), the 'sister imprinted disorder' of PWS. Food-related behavior problems were assessed in 152 participants each with one of five genetic neurodevelopmental syndromes – PWS, AS, 1p36 deletion, Cornelia de Lange, and fragile X. Predictably, levels of food-related behavior problems reported in participants with PWS significantly exceeded those of at least one other groups in most areas (impaired satiety; preoccupation with food; taking and storing food; composite negative behavior). However, in some areas people with AS were reported to display food-related problems at least as severe as those with PWS, with the AS group reported to display significantly more food-related behavior problems than at least one comparison group on measures of taking and storing food, composite negative behaviors, impaired satiety and preoccupation with food. Over 50% of participants in the AS group scored above the median point of the distribution of PWS scores on a measure of taking and storing food. These findings indicate further investigation of eating problems in AS are warranted and have implications for current theoretical interpretations of the behavioral differences between AS and PWS. PMID:25691410

  4. MicroRNA Dysregulation, Gene Networks, and Risk for Schizophrenia in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Merico, Daniele; Costain, Gregory; Butcher, Nancy J.; Warnica, William; Ogura, Lucas; Alfred, Simon E.; Brzustowicz, Linda M.; Bassett, Anne S.

    2014-01-01

    The role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the etiology of schizophrenia is increasingly recognized. Microdeletions at chromosome 22q11.2 are recurrent structural variants that impart a high risk for schizophrenia and are found in up to 1% of all patients with schizophrenia. The 22q11.2 deletion region overlaps gene DGCR8, encoding a subunit of the miRNA microprocessor complex. We identified miRNAs overlapped by the 22q11.2 microdeletion and for the first time investigated their predicted target genes, and those implicated by DGCR8, to identify targets that may be involved in the risk for schizophrenia. The 22q11.2 region encompasses seven validated or putative miRNA genes. Employing two standard prediction tools, we generated sets of predicted target genes. Functional enrichment profiles of the 22q11.2 region miRNA target genes suggested a role in neuronal processes and broader developmental pathways. We then constructed a protein interaction network of schizophrenia candidate genes and interaction partners relevant to brain function, independent of the 22q11.2 region miRNA mechanisms. We found that the predicted gene targets of the 22q11.2 deletion miRNAs, and targets of the genome-wide miRNAs predicted to be dysregulated by DGCR8 hemizygosity, were significantly represented in this schizophrenia network. The findings provide new insights into the pathway from 22q11.2 deletion to expression of schizophrenia, and suggest that hemizygosity of the 22q11.2 region may have downstream effects implicating genes elsewhere in the genome that are relevant to the general schizophrenia population. These data also provide further support for the notion that robust genetic findings in schizophrenia may converge on a reasonable number of final pathways. PMID:25484875

  5. 40 Mb duplication in chromosome band 5p13.1p15.33 with 800 kb terminal deletion in a foetus with mild phenotypic features.

    PubMed

    Izzo, A; Genesio, R; Ronga, V; Nocera, V; Marullo, L; Cicatiello, R; Sglavo, G; Paladini, D; Conti, A; Nitsch, L

    2012-02-01

    Large duplication of the short arm of chromosome 5 is a rare condition normally associated to severe phenotype anomalies including heart and brain malformations. We report a prenatal case of a large 5p duplication with sub-telomeric deletion in a foetus with very mild phenotypic abnormalities. Foetal ultrasonographic examination at 22 weeks of gestation showed short femur, clubfeet, pielectasy, and facial dysmorphisms. Chromosome investigations revealed an inverted duplication of the short arm of chromosome 5 from 5p13.1 to 5p15.33 and a 800 kb deletion at 5pter. The absence of severe anomalies such as cardiac and cerebral defects, observed so far in all large 5p duplications, and the comparison to previous cases described both in literature and in DECIPHER database suggest that the critical region for the severe phenotype in 5p duplication syndrome might be smaller than that previously described, excluding half of the 5p13 band. This might help in prenatal genetic counselling. PMID:22269966

  6. Whole-Genome Sequencing Suggests Schizophrenia Risk Mechanisms in Humans with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Merico, Daniele; Zarrei, Mehdi; Costain, Gregory; Ogura, Lucas; Alipanahi, Babak; Gazzellone, Matthew J.; Butcher, Nancy J.; Thiruvahindrapuram, Bhooma; Nalpathamkalam, Thomas; Chow, Eva W. C.; Andrade, Danielle M.; Frey, Brendan J.; Marshall, Christian R.; Scherer, Stephen W.; Bassett, Anne S.

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome 22q11.2 microdeletions impart a high but incomplete risk for schizophrenia. Possible mechanisms include genome-wide effects of DGCR8 haploinsufficiency. In a proof-of-principle study to assess the power of this model, we used high-quality, whole-genome sequencing of nine individuals with 22q11.2 deletions and extreme phenotypes (schizophrenia, or no psychotic disorder at age >50 years). The schizophrenia group had a greater burden of rare, damaging variants impacting protein-coding neurofunctional genes, including genes involved in neuron projection (nominal P = 0.02, joint burden of three variant types). Variants in the intact 22q11.2 region were not major contributors. Restricting to genes affected by a DGCR8 mechanism tended to amplify between-group differences. Damaging variants in highly conserved long intergenic noncoding RNA genes also were enriched in the schizophrenia group (nominal P = 0.04). The findings support the 22q11.2 deletion model as a threshold-lowering first hit for schizophrenia risk. If applied to a larger and thus better-powered cohort, this appears to be a promising approach to identify genome-wide rare variants in coding and noncoding sequence that perturb gene networks relevant to idiopathic schizophrenia. Similarly designed studies exploiting genetic models may prove useful to help delineate the genetic architecture of other complex phenotypes. PMID:26384369

  7. Whole-Genome Sequencing Suggests Schizophrenia Risk Mechanisms in Humans with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Merico, Daniele; Zarrei, Mehdi; Costain, Gregory; Ogura, Lucas; Alipanahi, Babak; Gazzellone, Matthew J; Butcher, Nancy J; Thiruvahindrapuram, Bhooma; Nalpathamkalam, Thomas; Chow, Eva W C; Andrade, Danielle M; Frey, Brendan J; Marshall, Christian R; Scherer, Stephen W; Bassett, Anne S

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome 22q11.2 microdeletions impart a high but incomplete risk for schizophrenia. Possible mechanisms include genome-wide effects of DGCR8 haploinsufficiency. In a proof-of-principle study to assess the power of this model, we used high-quality, whole-genome sequencing of nine individuals with 22q11.2 deletions and extreme phenotypes (schizophrenia, or no psychotic disorder at age >50 years). The schizophrenia group had a greater burden of rare, damaging variants impacting protein-coding neurofunctional genes, including genes involved in neuron projection (nominal P = 0.02, joint burden of three variant types). Variants in the intact 22q11.2 region were not major contributors. Restricting to genes affected by a DGCR8 mechanism tended to amplify between-group differences. Damaging variants in highly conserved long intergenic noncoding RNA genes also were enriched in the schizophrenia group (nominal P = 0.04). The findings support the 22q11.2 deletion model as a threshold-lowering first hit for schizophrenia risk. If applied to a larger and thus better-powered cohort, this appears to be a promising approach to identify genome-wide rare variants in coding and noncoding sequence that perturb gene networks relevant to idiopathic schizophrenia. Similarly designed studies exploiting genetic models may prove useful to help delineate the genetic architecture of other complex phenotypes. PMID:26384369

  8. Imprinted expression of UBE3A in non-neuronal cells from a Prader–Willi syndrome patient with an atypical deletion

    PubMed Central

    Martins-Taylor, Kristen; Hsiao, Jack S.; Chen, Pin-Fang; Glatt-Deeley, Heather; De Smith, Adam J.; Blakemore, Alexandra I.F.; Lalande, Marc; Chamberlain, Stormy J.

    2014-01-01

    Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS) and Angelman syndrome (AS) are two neurodevelopmental disorders most often caused by deletions of the same region of paternally inherited and maternally inherited human chromosome 15q, respectively. AS is a single gene disorder, caused by the loss of function of the ubiquitin ligase E3A (UBE3A) gene, while PWS is still considered a contiguous gene disorder. Rare individuals with PWS who carry atypical microdeletions on chromosome 15q have narrowed the critical region for this disorder to a 108 kb region that includes the SNORD116 snoRNA cluster and the Imprinted in Prader–Willi (IPW) non-coding RNA. Here we report the derivation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from a PWS patient with an atypical microdeletion that spans the PWS critical region. We show that these iPSCs express brain-specific portions of the transcripts driven by the PWS imprinting center, including the UBE3A antisense transcript (UBE3A-ATS). Furthermore, UBE3A expression is imprinted in most of these iPSCs. These data suggest that UBE3A imprinting in neurons only requires UBE3A-ATS expression, and no other neuron-specific factors. These data also suggest that a boundary element lying within the PWS critical region prevents UBE3A-ATS expression in non-neural tissues. PMID:24363065

  9. Delineation of the clinically recognizable 17q22 contiguous gene deletion syndrome in a patient carrying the smallest microdeletion known to date.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Fernández, María Luisa; Fernández-Toral, Joaquin; Llano-Rivas, Isabel; Bermejo-Sánchez, Eva; MacDonald, Alexandra; Martínez-Frías, María Luisa

    2015-09-01

    We describe a patient with a 1.34 Mb microdeletion at chromosome band 17q22, which is also present in his affected mother. To better delineate this microdeletion syndrome, we compare the clinical and molecular characteristics of 10 previously reported cases and our patient. Of these, the present patient has the smallest deletion which includes five genes: MMD, TMEM100, PCTP, ANKFN1, and NOG. We compare the clinical manifestations described in relation to NOG, since this is the only gene whose loss is shared by our patient and the other eight patients. Previously, the clinical patterns associated with NOG mutations have been included under the general term "NOG-related symphalangism spectrum disorder (NOG-SSD)." Based on our analyses, and considering that there is a clinical correlation observed in cases with a "17q22 microdeletion including NOG" of which the main characteristics can be contributed to loss of this gene, we propose that the clinical patterns observed in these patients should be named as NOG-spectrum disorder-contiguous gene syndrome (NOGSD-CGS). This designation is important for clinicians because when a patient has defects concordant with alterations of NOG but also presents other anomalies not related to this gene, they would be able to suspect the existence of a microdeletion affecting 17q22, therefore, allowing an early diagnosis. This will also enable the clinician to provide the family with adequate information about the prognosis and the risk of reoccurrence in future potential offspring. PMID:25899082

  10. Cytogenetic follow-up by karyotyping and fluorescence in situ hybridization: implications for monitoring patients with myelodysplastic syndrome and deletion 5q treated with lenalidomide

    PubMed Central

    Göhring, Gudrun; Giagounidis, Aristoteles; Büsche, Guntram; Hofmann, Winfried; Kreipe, Hans Heinrich; Fenaux, Pierre; Hellström-Lindberg, Eva; Schlegelberger, Brigitte

    2011-01-01

    In patients with low and intermediate risk myelodysplastic syndrome and deletion 5q (del(5q)) treated with lenalidomide, monitoring of cytogenetic response is mandatory, since patients without cytogenetic response have a significantly increased risk of progression. Therefore, we have reviewed cytogenetic data of 302 patients. Patients were analyzed by karyotyping and fluorescence in situ hybridization. In 85 patients, del(5q) was only detected by karyotyping. In 8 patients undergoing karyotypic evolution, the del(5q) and additional chromosomal aberrations were only detected by karyotyping. In 3 patients, del(5q) was only detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization, but not by karyotyping due to a low number of metaphases. Karyotyping was significantly more sensitive than fluorescence in situ hybridization in detecting the del(5q) clone. In conclusion, to optimize therapy control of myelodysplastic syndrome patients with del(5q) treated with lenalidomide and to identify cytogenetic non-response or progression as early as possible, fluorescence in situ hybridization alone is inadequate for evaluation. Karyotyping must be performed to optimally evaluate response. (clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01099267 and NCT00179621) PMID:21109690

  11. Imprinted expression of UBE3A in non-neuronal cells from a Prader-Willi syndrome patient with an atypical deletion.

    PubMed

    Martins-Taylor, Kristen; Hsiao, Jack S; Chen, Pin-Fang; Glatt-Deeley, Heather; De Smith, Adam J; Blakemore, Alexandra I F; Lalande, Marc; Chamberlain, Stormy J

    2014-05-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and Angelman syndrome (AS) are two neurodevelopmental disorders most often caused by deletions of the same region of paternally inherited and maternally inherited human chromosome 15q, respectively. AS is a single gene disorder, caused by the loss of function of the ubiquitin ligase E3A (UBE3A) gene, while PWS is still considered a contiguous gene disorder. Rare individuals with PWS who carry atypical microdeletions on chromosome 15q have narrowed the critical region for this disorder to a 108 kb region that includes the SNORD116 snoRNA cluster and the Imprinted in Prader-Willi (IPW) non-coding RNA. Here we report the derivation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from