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1

A rare subtelomeric deletion syndrome: Wolf Hirschhorn syndrome.  

PubMed

Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome is caused by a deletion of the distal portion of the short arm of chromosome 4, and is characterized by psychomotor retardation, seizures, congenital malformations, and typical facial appearance including 'Greek warrior helmet' appearance of the nose. The form and the severity of clinical manifestations vary according to the size and location of the deletion. Major complications are severe growth retardation, developmental delay, seizures, feeding difficulties due to hypotonia, and predisposition to respiratory infections. Patients will benefit from supportive therapy and special education. It is important in terms of prognosis to provide counseling to families in this respect. We present here a case with Wolf-Hirschhorn Syndrome in order to remind its rarity and the ability of the patients' progress in the areas of motor skills, speech, social interaction. PMID:25365852

Zorlu, P; Eksioglu, A S; Ozkan, M; Tos, T; Senel, S

2014-01-01

2

Fine-mapping subtelomeric deletions and duplications by comparative genomic hybridization in 42 individuals.  

PubMed

Human subtelomere regions contain numerous gene-rich segments and are susceptible to germline rearrangements. The availability of diagnostic test kits to detect subtelomeric rearrangements has resulted in the diagnosis of numerous abnormalities with clinical implications including congenital heart abnormalities and mental retardation. Several of these have been described as clinically recognizable syndromes (e.g., deletion of 1p, 3p, 5q, 6p, 9q, and 22q). Given this, fine-mapping of subtelomeric breakpoints is of increasing importance to the assessment of genotype-phenotype correlations in these recognized syndromes as well as to the identification of additional syndromes. We developed a BAC and cosmid-based DNA array (TEL array) with high-resolution coverage of 10 Mb-sized subtelomeric regions, and used it to analyze 42 samples from unrelated patients with subtelomeric rearrangements whose breakpoints were previously either unmapped or mapped at a lower resolution than that achievable with the TEL array. Six apparently recurrent subtelomeric breakpoint loci were localized to genomic regions containing segmental duplication, copy number variation, and sequence gaps. Small (1 Mb or less) candidate gene regions for clinical phenotypes in separate patients were identified for 3p, 6q, 9q, and 10p deletions as well as for a 19q duplication. In addition to fine-mapping nearly all of the expected breakpoints, several previously unidentified rearrangements were detected. PMID:18257100

DeScipio, Cheryl; Spinner, Nancy B; Kaur, Maninder; Yaeger, Dinah; Conlin, Laura K; Ambrosini, Anthony; Hu, Sufen; Shan, Simei; Krantz, Ian D; Riethman, Harold

2008-03-15

3

TBP as a candidate gene for mental retardation in patients with subtelomeric 6q deletions.  

PubMed

Monozygotic twin brothers with a subtelomeric 6q deletion presented with mental retardation, microcephaly, seizures, an enlarged cisterna magna, dimpling at elbows, a high arched palate and a thin upper lip. The same subtelomeric deletion was detected in the mother of the patients, presenting with a milder phenotype. We narrowed down the breakpoint to a region of approximately 100 kb and estimated the size of the terminal deletion to be 1.2 Mb. This region contains four known and seven putative genes. Comparison of the deletion with other reported patients showed TBP was the most plausible candidate gene for the mental retardation in this syndrome. We verified that the TBP gene expression was halved in our patients using real-time PCR. Cognitive and behavioural tests performed on previously described heterozygous tbp mice suggested that TBP is potentially involved in cognitive development. PMID:16773126

Rooms, Liesbeth; Reyniers, Edwin; Scheers, Stefaan; van Luijk, Rob; Wauters, Jan; Van Aerschot, Leen; Callaerts-Vegh, Zsuzsanna; D'Hooge, Rudi; Mengus, Gabrielle; Davidson, Irwin; Courtens, Winnie; Kooy, R Frank

2006-10-01

4

Array-CGH and clinical characterization in a patient with subtelomeric 6p deletion without ocular dysgenesis.  

PubMed

Subtelomeric terminal 6p deletion has been recognized as a clinically identifiable syndrome including facial dysmorphism, malformation of the anterior eye chamber, hearing loss, heart defects, and developmental delay. Genotype-phenotype correlations of previously published patients have strongly suggested anterior eye segment anomalies as one of the major malformations of the syndrome if the critical 6p25 region contains the FOXC 1 gene. In addition, the presence in this region of one or more genes involved in hearing loss has been hypothesized. We report a patient with a 47,XYY karyotype and submicroscopic terminal 6p deletion. Further characterization of the deletion with array comparative genome hybridization also revealed a cryptic microduplication on chromosome 19. The patient showed dysmorphic features, neuromotor retardation, and profound language impairment, in absence of hearing loss and structural eye anomalies. As far as we know this is the first reported terminal 6p25.1 deletion case without eye dysgenesis precisely characterized by array-CGH. Our result suggests that the genes in this region may not be obvious candidates for hearing loss and demonstrate the need for further elucidation of the function of the genes involved in eye developmental processes. PMID:22105932

Piccione, Maria; Antona, R; Salzano, E; Cavani, S; Malacarne, M; Morreale Bubella, R; Pierluigi, M; Viaggi, C D; Corsello, Giovanni

2012-01-01

5

Growth patterns of patients with 1p36 deletion syndrome.  

PubMed

1p36 deletion syndrome is one of the most common subtelomeric deletion syndromes. Obesity is frequently observed in patients with this syndrome. Thus, it is important to evaluate the growth status of an individual patient. For this purpose, we accumulated recorded growth data from 44 patients with this syndrome and investigated the growth patterns of patients. Most of the patients showed weight parameters within normal limits, whereas a few of these patients showed intrauterine growth delay and microcephaly. The length of the patients after birth was under the 50th centile in most patients. Many patients showed poor weight gain after birth, and only two female patients were overweight. These findings indicate two different phenotypes of the 1p36 deletion syndrome. The overweight patients with 1p36 deletion started excessive weight gain after two years of life. This characteristic of the patients with 1p36 deletion syndrome is similar to Prader-Willi syndrome. PMID:24750553

Sangu, Noriko; Shimojima, Keiko; Shimada, Shino; Ando, Tomohiro; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki

2014-05-01

6

Diverse mutational mechanisms cause pathogenic subtelomeric rearrangements  

PubMed Central

Chromosome rearrangements are a significant cause of intellectual disability and birth defects. Subtelomeric rearrangements, including deletions, duplications and translocations of chromosome ends, were first discovered over 40 years ago and are now recognized as being responsible for several genetic syndromes. Unlike the deletions and duplications that cause some genomic disorders, subtelomeric rearrangements do not typically have recurrent breakpoints and involve many different chromosome ends. To capture the molecular mechanisms responsible for this heterogeneous class of chromosome abnormality, we coupled high-resolution array CGH with breakpoint junction sequencing of a diverse collection of subtelomeric rearrangements. We analyzed 102 breakpoints corresponding to 78 rearrangements involving 28 chromosome ends. Sequencing 21 breakpoint junctions revealed signatures of non-homologous end-joining, non-allelic homologous recombination between interspersed repeats and DNA replication processes. Thus, subtelomeric rearrangements arise from diverse mutational mechanisms. In addition, we find hotspots of subtelomeric breakage at the end of chromosomes 9q and 22q; these sites may correspond to genomic regions that are particularly susceptible to double-strand breaks. Finally, fine-mapping the smallest subtelomeric rearrangements has narrowed the critical regions for some chromosomal disorders. PMID:21729882

Luo, Yue; Hermetz, Karen E.; Jackson, Jodi M.; Mulle, Jennifer G.; Dodd, Anne; Tsuchiya, Karen D.; Ballif, Blake C.; Shaffer, Lisa G.; Cody, Jannine D.; Ledbetter, David H.; Martin, Christa L.; Rudd, M. Katharine

2011-01-01

7

Subtelomeric FISH analysis in 76 patients with syndromic developmental delay/intellectual disability  

PubMed Central

Background Intellectual disability affects approximately 1 to 3% of the general population. The etiology is still poorly understood and it is estimated that one-half of the cases are due to genetic factors. Cryptic subtelomeric aberrations have been found in roughly 5 to 7% of all cases. Methods We performed a subtelomeric FISH analysis on 76 unrelated children with normal standard karyotype ascertained by developmental delay or intellectual disability, associated with congenital malformations, and/or facial dysmorphisms. Results Ten cryptic chromosomal anomalies have been identified in the whole cohort (13,16%), 8 in the group of patients characterized by developmental delay or intellectual disability associated with congenital malformations and facial dysmorphisms, 2 in patients with developmental delay or intellectual disability and facial dysmorphisms only. Conclusion We demonstrate that a careful clinical examination is a very useful tool for pre-selection of patients for genomic analysis, clearly enhancing the chromosomal anomaly detection rate. Clinical features of most of these patients are consistent with the corresponding emerging chromosome phenotypes, pointing out these new clinical syndromes associated with specific genomic imbalances. PMID:19490664

Belligni, Elga F; Biamino, Elisa; Molinatto, Cristina; Messa, Jole; Pierluigi, Mauro; Faravelli, Francesca; Zuffardi, Orsetta; Ferrero, Giovanni B; Silengo, Margherita Cirillo

2009-01-01

8

A subtelomeric non-LTR retrotransposon Hebe in the bdelloid rotifer Adineta vaga is subject to inactivation by deletions but not 5' truncations  

PubMed Central

Background Rotifers of the class Bdelloidea are microscopic freshwater invertebrates best known for: their capacity for anhydrobiosis; the lack of males and meiosis; and for the ability to capture genes from other non-metazoan species. Although genetic exchange between these animals might take place by non-canonical means, the overall lack of meiosis and syngamy should greatly impair the ability of transposable elements (TEs) to spread in bdelloid populations. Previous studies demonstrated that bdelloid chromosome ends, in contrast to gene-rich regions, harbour various kinds of TEs, including specialized telomere-associated retroelements, as well as DNA TEs and retrovirus-like retrotransposons which are prone to horizontal transmission. Vertically-transmitted retrotransposons have not previously been reported in bdelloids and their identification and studies of the patterns of their distribution and evolution could help in the understanding of the high degree of TE compartmentalization within bdelloid genomes. Results We identified and characterized a non-long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposon residing primarily in subtelomeric regions of the genome in the bdelloid rotifer Adineta vaga. Contrary to the currently prevailing views on the mode of proliferation of non-LTR retrotransposons, which results in frequent formation of 5'-truncated ('dead-on-arrival') copies due to the premature disengagement of the element-encoded reverse transcriptase from its template, this non-LTR element, Hebe, is represented only by non-5'-truncated copies. Most of these copies, however, were subject to internal deletions associated with microhomologies, a hallmark of non-homologous end-joining events. Conclusions The non-LTR retrotransposon Hebe from the bdelloid rotifer A. vaga was found to undergo frequent microhomology-associated deletions, rather than 5'-terminal truncations characteristic of this class of retrotransposons, and to exhibit preference for telomeric localization. These findings represent the first example of a vertically transmitted putatively deleterious TE in bdelloids, and may indicate the involvement of microhomology-mediated non-homologous end-joining in desiccation-induced double-strand break repair at the genome periphery. PMID:20359339

2010-01-01

9

A 4q35.2 subtelomeric deletion identified in a screen of patients with co-morbid psychiatric illness and mental retardation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cryptic structural abnormalities within the subtelomeric regions of chromosomes have been the focus of much recent research because of their discovery in a percentage of people with mental retardation (UK terminology: learning disability). These studies focused on subjects (largely children) with various severities of intellectual impairment with or without additional physical clinical features such as dysmorphisms. However it is

Ben S Pickard; Edward J Hollox; M Pat Malloy; David J Porteous; Douglas HR Blackwood; John AL Armour; Walter J Muir

2004-01-01

10

Genetics Home Reference: 22q11.2 deletion syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

22q11.2 deletion syndrome Related Chromosome(s) Related Gene(s) Related Condition(s) References Quick links to this topic MedlinePlus Health information Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center Information about ...

11

Genetics Home Reference: 2q37 deletion syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

2q37 deletion syndrome Related Chromosome(s) References Quick links to this topic MedlinePlus Health information Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center Information about genetic conditions and ...

12

Genetics Home Reference: 1p36 deletion syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

1p36 deletion syndrome Related Chromosome(s) References Quick links to this topic MedlinePlus Health information Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center Information about genetic conditions and ...

13

Genetics Home Reference: 22q13.3 deletion syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

22q13.3 deletion syndrome Related Chromosome(s) Related Gene(s) References Quick links to this topic MedlinePlus Health information Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center Information about genetic conditions ...

14

Genetics Home Reference: 16p11.2 deletion syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

16p11.2 deletion syndrome Related Chromosome(s) Related Condition(s) References Quick links to this topic MedlinePlus Health information Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center Information about genetic conditions ...

15

Large Deletions and Point Mutations Involving DOCK8 in the Autosomal Recessive Form of the Hyper-IgE Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background The genetic etiologies of the hyper-IgE syndromes are diverse. Approximately 60-70% of patients with hyper-IgE syndrome have dominant mutations in STAT3, and a single patient was reported to have a homozygous TYK2 mutation. In the remaining hyper-IgE syndrome patients, the genetic etiology has not yet been identified. Methods We performed genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism analysis for nine subjects with autosomal recessive hyper-IgE syndrome to locate copy number variations and homozygous haplotypes. Homozygosity mapping was performed with twelve subjects from seven additional families. The candidate gene was analyzed by genomic and cDNA sequencing to identify causative alleles in a total of 27 patients with autosomal recessive hyper-IgE syndrome. Findings Subtelomeric microdeletions were identified in six subjects at the terminus of chromosome 9p. In all patients the deleted interval involved DOCK8, encoding a protein implicated in the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. Sequencing of subjects without large deletions revealed 16 patients from nine unrelated families with distinct homozygous mutations in DOCK8 causing premature termination, frameshift, splice site disruption, single exon- and micro-deletions. DOCK8 deficiency was associated with impaired activation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Interpretation Autosomal recessive mutations in DOCK8 are responsible for many, though not all, cases of autosomal recessive hyper-IgE syndrome. DOCK8 disruption is associated with a phenotype of severe cellular immunodeficiency characterized by susceptibility to viral infections, atopic eczema, defective T cell activation and TH17 cell differentiation; and impaired eosinophil homeostasis and dysregulation of IgE. PMID:20004785

Engelhardt, Karin R.; McGhee, Sean; Winkler, Sabine; Sassi, Atfa; Woellner, Cristina; Lopez-Herrera, Gabriela; Chen, Andrew; Kim, Hong Sook; Lloret, Maria Garcia; Schulze, Ilka; Ehl, Stephan; Thiel, Jens; Pfeifer, Dietmar; Veelken, Hendrik; Niehues, Tim; Siepermann, Kathrin; Weinspach, Sebastian; Reisli, Ismail; Keles, Sevgi; Genel, Ferah; Kütükçüler, Necil; Camcio?lu, Yildiz; Somer, Ayper; Aydiner, Elif Karakoc; Barlan, Isil; Gennery, Andrew; Metin, Ayse; Degerliyurt, Aydan; Pietrogrande, Maria C.; Yeganeh, Mehdi; Baz, Zeina; Al-Tamemi, Salem; Klein, Christoph; Puck, Jennifer M.; Holland, Steven M.; McCabe, Edward R. B.; Grimbacher, Bodo; Chatila, Talal

2010-01-01

16

The 2q37-deletion syndrome: an update of the clinical spectrum including overweight, brachydactyly and behavioural features in 14 new patients.  

PubMed

The 2q37 locus is one of the most commonly deleted subtelomeric regions. Such a deletion has been identified in >100 patients by telomeric fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis and, less frequently, by array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH). A recognizable '2q37-deletion syndrome' or Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy-like syndrome has been previously described. To better map the deletion and further refine this deletional syndrome, we formed a collaboration with the Association of French Language Cytogeneticists to collect 14 new intellectually deficient patients with a distal or interstitial 2q37 deletion characterized by FISH and array-CGH. Patients exhibited facial dysmorphism (13/14) and brachydactyly (10/14), associated with behavioural problems, autism or autism spectrum disorders of varying severity and overweight or obesity. The deletions in these 14 new patients measured from 2.6 to 8.8?Mb. Although the major role of HDAC4 has been demonstrated, the phenotypic involvement of several other genes in the deleted regions is unknown. We further refined the genotype-phenotype correlation for the 2q37 deletion. To do this, we examined the smallest overlapping deleted region for candidate genes for skeletal malformations (facial dysmorphism and brachydactyly), overweight, behavioural problems and seizures, using clinical data, a review of the literature, and the Manteia database. Among the candidate genes identified, we focus on the roles of PRLH, PER2, TWIST2, CAPN10, KIF1A, FARP2, D2HGDH and PDCD1. PMID:23073310

Leroy, Camille; Landais, Emilie; Briault, Sylvain; David, Albert; Tassy, Olivier; Gruchy, Nicolas; Delobel, Bruno; Grégoire, Marie-José; Leheup, Bruno; Taine, Laurence; Lacombe, Didier; Delrue, Marie-Ange; Toutain, Annick; Paubel, Agathe; Mugneret, Francine; Thauvin-Robinet, Christel; Arpin, Stéphanie; Le Caignec, Cedric; Jonveaux, Philippe; Beri, Mylène; Leporrier, Nathalie; Motte, Jacques; Fiquet, Caroline; Brichet, Olivier; Mozelle-Nivoix, Monique; Sabouraud, Pascal; Golovkine, Nathalie; Bednarek, Nathalie; Gaillard, Dominique; Doco-Fenzy, Martine

2013-06-01

17

Severe Marfan syndrome due to FBN1 exon deletions.  

PubMed

Marfan syndrome is an autosomal dominant condition, with manifestations mainly in the skeletal, ocular, and cardiovascular systems. The disorder is caused by mutations in fibrillin-1 gene (FBN1). The majority of these are family-specific point mutations, with a small number being predicted to cause exon-skipping. To date, there have only been five reports of in-frame exon deletions in FBN1, with the largest of these spanning three exons. Mosaicism is rarely recorded and has only been reported in the unaffected, or mildly affected, parents of probands. Here, we report on the clinical histories of two children with exon deletions in FBN1. Both have severe Marfan syndrome with significant signs in infancy. One patient has a deletion of exon 33, which has not previously been reported. The other has the largest reported deletion, which spans 37 exons, and also represents the first reported case of mosaicism in a patient with Marfan syndrome. PMID:18412115

Blyth, Moira; Foulds, Nicola; Turner, Claire; Bunyan, David

2008-05-15

18

The 22q13.3 Deletion Syndrome (Phelan-McDermid Syndrome)  

PubMed Central

The 22q13.3 deletion syndrome, also known as Phelan-McDermid syndrome, is a contiguous gene disorder resulting from deletion of the distal long arm of chromosome 22. In addition to normal growth and a constellation of minor dysmorphic features, this syndrome is characterized by neurological deficits which include global developmental delay, moderate to severe intellectual impairment, absent or severely delayed speech, and neonatal hypotonia. In addition, more than 50% of patients show autism or autistic-like behavior, and therefore it can be classified as a syndromic form of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The differential diagnosis includes Angelman syndrome, velocardiofacial syndrome, fragile X syndrome, and FG syndrome. Over 600 cases of 22q13.3 deletion syndrome have been documented. Most are terminal deletions of ?100 kb to >9 Mb, resulting from simple deletions, ring chromosomes, and unbalanced translocations. Almost all of these deletions include the gene SHANK3 which encodes a scaffold protein in the postsynaptic densities of excitatory synapses, connecting membrane-bound receptors to the actin cytoskeleton. Two mouse knockout models and cell culture experiments show that SHANK3 is involved in the structure and function of synapses and support the hypothesis that the majority of 22q13.3 deletion syndrome neurological defects are due to haploinsufficiency of SHANK3, although other genes in the region may also play a role in the syndrome. The molecular connection to ASD suggests that potential future treatments may involve modulation of metabotropic glutamate receptors. PMID:22670140

Phelan, K.; McDermid, H.E.

2012-01-01

19

22q11 Deletion Syndrome in Adults With Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Genetic syndromes associated with deletions at chromosome 22q11 generally have been diagnosed during childhood based on a constellation of physical features. To investigate a reported association of velocardiofacial syndrome with psychotic disorders in adults, we assessed subjects with DSM-IV schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who were referred with two or more syndromal features (palatal, cardiac, facial, or other congenital anomalies, and/or learning difficulties). We report on 10 subjects (5 men and 5 women), mean age 27.2 (SD 6.0) years, who were found to have a 22q11 deletion at locus D22S75 using fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH). The mean age at onset of psychosis was 19.6 (SD 4.6) years. Symptoms and course of the psychotic illnesses were unremarkable, but additional signs such as temper outbursts were common. These adult subjects had significantly fewer major palatal (P = .0001) and conotruncal cardiac (P = .05) anomalies but the same high rate of learning difficulties as a sample with deletion 22q11 ascertained through a pediatric clinic [Lindsay et al. (1995): Am J Med Genet 57:514–522]. Minor congenital features and rate of transmitted cases were similar to those previously reported. These results replicate the association of a 22q11 deletion syndrome with schizophrenia and confirm the importance of ascertainment in influencing the phenotype found. The findings support a developmental gene in the 22q11 deletion region causing a complex phenotype which may include significant behavioral components that emerge over time. We support using the term “22q11 deletion syndrome (22DS),” which would encompass physical and psychiatric features, and could also be applied to describe a genetic subtype of schizophrenia. PMID:9674980

Bassett, Anne S.; Hodgkinson, Kathy; Chow, Eva W.C.; Correia, Susana; Scutt, Laura E.; Weksberg, Rosanna

2011-01-01

20

Mutator Phenotype of Werner Syndrome is Characterized by Extensive Deletions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Werner syndrome (WS) is a rare autosomalrecessive disorder characterized by the premature appearance of features of normal aging in young adults. The extensive phenotypic overlap between WS and normal aging suggests they may also share pathogenetic mechanisms. We reported previously that somatic cells from WS patients demonstrate a propensity to develop chromosomal aberrations, including translocations, inversions, and deletions, and that

Ken-Ichiro Fukuchi; George M. Martin; Raymond J. Monnat

1989-01-01

21

Del(18p) shown to be a cryptic translocation using a multiprobe FISH assay for subtelomeric chromosome rearrangements.  

PubMed Central

We have previously described a fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) assay for the simultaneous analysis of all human subtelomeric regions using a single microscope slide. Here we report the use of this multiprobe FISH assay in the study of a patient whose karyotype was reported by G banding analysis as 46,XX,del(18)(p11.2). Although the proband had some features suggestive of a chromosomal abnormality, relatively few of the specific features of del(18p) were present. She was a 37 year old female with mild distal spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), arthritis of the hands, an abnormal chest shape (pectus excavatum), and an unusual skin condition (keratosis pilaris). Reverse chromosome painting with degenerate oligonucleotide primer-polymerase chain reaction (DOP-PCR) amplified del(18p) chromosomes as a probe confirmed the abnormality as del(18p), with no evidence of any other chromosome involvement. Subsequently, the multiprobe FISH assay confirmed deletion of 18p subtelomeric sequence. However, the assay also showed that sequences corresponding to the 2p subtelomeric probe were present on the tip of the shortened 18p. The patient is therefore monosomic for 18p11.2-pter and trisomic for 2p25-pter, and the revised karyotype is 46,XX,der(18)t(2;18)(p25; p11.2). We believe that a proportion of all cases reported as telomeric deletions may be cryptic translocations involving other chromosome subtelomeric regions. Further studies such as this are necessary to define accurately the clinical characteristics associated with pure monosomy in chromosomal deletion syndromes. Images PMID:9733029

Horsley, S W; Knight, S J; Nixon, J; Huson, S; Fitchett, M; Boone, R A; Hilton-Jones, D; Flint, J; Kearney, L

1998-01-01

22

Human subtelomeric copy number gains suggest a DNA replication mechanism for formation: beyond breakage - fusion - bridge for telomere stabilization  

PubMed Central

Constitutional deletions of distal 9q34 encompassing the EHMT1 (euchromatic histone methyltransferase 1) gene, or loss-of-function point mutations in EHMT1, are associated with the 9q34.3 microdeletion, also known as Kleefstra syndrome [MIM#610253]. We now report further evidence for genomic instability of the subtelomeric 9q34.3 region as evidenced by copy number gains of this genomic interval that include duplications, triplications, derivative chromosomes and complex rearrangements. Comparisons between the observed shared clinical features and molecular analyses in 20 subjects suggest that increased dosage of EHMT1 may be responsible for the neurodevelopmental impairment, speech delay, and autism spectrum disorders revealing the dosage sensitivity of yet another chromatin remodeling protein in human disease. Five patients had 9q34 genomic abnormalities resulting in complex deletion-duplication or duplication-triplication rearrangements; such complex triplications were also observed in six other subtelomeric intervals. Based on the specific structure of these complex genomic rearrangements (CGR) a DNA replication mechanism is proposed confirming recent findings in C elegans telomere healing. The end-replication challenges of subtelomeric genomic intervals may make them particularly prone to rearrangements generated by errors in DNA replication. PMID:22890305

Yatsenko, Svetlana A.; Hixson, Patricia; Roney, Erin K.; Scott, Daryl A.; Schaaf, Christian P.; Ng, Yu-tze; Palmer, Robbin; Fisher, Richard B.; Patel, Ankita; Cheung, Sau Wai; Lupski, James R.

2012-01-01

23

Supporting Children with Genetic Syndromes in the Classroom: The Example of 22q Deletion Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An increasing number of children are likely to have a known genetic cause for their special educational needs. One such genetic condition is 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22qDS), a genetic syndrome associated with early speech and language difficulties, global and specific cognitive impairments, difficulties with attention and difficulties with…

Reilly, Colin; Stedman, Lindsey

2013-01-01

24

Deletion involving D15S113 in a mother and son without Angelman syndrome: Refinement of the Angelman syndrome critical deletion region  

SciTech Connect

Deletions of 15q11-q13 typically result in Angelman syndrome when inherited from the mother and Prader-Willi syndrome when inherited from the father. The critical deletion region for Angelman syndrome has recently been restricted by a report of an Angelman syndrome patient with a deletion spanning less than 200 kb around the D15S113 locus. We report here on a mother and son with a deletion of chromosome 15 that includes the D15S113 locus. The son has mild to moderate mental retardation and minor anomalies, while the mother has a borderline intellectual deficit and slightly downslanting palpebral fissures. Neither patient has the seizures, excessive laughter and hand clapping, ataxia or the facial anomalies which are characteristic of Angelman syndrome. The proximal boundary of the deletion in our patients lies between the D15S10 and The D15S113 loci. Our patients do not have Angelman syndrome, despite the deletion of the D15S113 marker. This suggests that the Angelman syndrome critical deletion region is now defined as the overlap between the deletion found in the previously reported Angelman syndrome patient and the region that is intact in our patients. 28 refs., 6 figs.

Michaelis, R.C.; Skinner, S.A.; Lethco, B.A. [Greenwood Genetic Center, SC (United States)] [and others

1995-01-02

25

Cardiac Defects and Results of Cardiac Surgery in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Specific types and subtypes of cardiac defects have been described in children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome as well as in other genetic syndromes. The conotruncal heart defects occurring in patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome include tetralogy of Fallot, pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect, truncus arteriosus, interrupted aortic…

Carotti, Adriano; Digilio, Maria Cristina; Piacentini, Gerardo; Saffirio, Claudia; Di Donato, Roberto M.; Marino, Bruno

2008-01-01

26

MODY type 2 in Greig cephalopolysyndactyly syndrome (GCPS) as part of a contiguous gene deletion syndrome.  

PubMed

Maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 2 (MODY2) is a form of monogenic diabetes, characterized by mild fasting hyperglycemia. MODY2 is caused by heterozygous mutations in the GCK gene that encodes the glucokinase enzyme. We describe the clinical features and the underlying genetic defect of MODY2 in a patient with atypical Greig cephalopolysyndactyly syndrome (GCPS). The patient presented with the limb formation and the craniofacial developmental abnormalities typical to GCPS, in addition to mental retardation and epilepsy (assigned as atypical syndrome). Fasting hyperglycemia in the diabetic range, impaired glucose tolerance, and lack of diabetes autoantibodies were compatible with MODY2. In order to delineate the genetic aberrations relevant both to MODY2 and Greig syndrome in this patient, we performed cytogenetic analysis, real-time PCR of the GCK gene, and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) array. Cytogenetic study has shown a microscopic detectable deletion in the 7p13-15 chromosomal region. Real-time PCR demonstrated a deletion of the GCK gene in the patient but not her parents, and CGH array revealed a deleted region of approximately 12 Mb in the 7p13-15 region. This deleted region included GLI3 and GCK genes (where heterozygous mutations cause GCPS and MODY2, respectively), and many other contiguous genes. Our patient manifests a unique form of MODY2, where GCK gene deletion is part of a large deleted segment in the 7p13-15 chromosomal region. PMID:22043488

Zung, Amnon; Petek, Erwin; Ben-Zeev, Bruria; Schwarzbraun, Thomas; Ben-Yehoshua, Sagi Josefsberg

2011-10-01

27

Mathematical Learning Disabilities in Children with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: A Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mathematical learning disabilities (MLD) occur frequently in children with specific genetic disorders, like Turner syndrome, fragile X syndrome and neurofibromatosis. This review focuses on MLD in children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS). This syndrome is the most common known microdeletion syndrome with a prevalence of at…

De Smedt, Bert; Swillen, Ann; Verschaffel, Lieven; Ghesquiere, Pol

2009-01-01

28

Type II diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance due to severe hyperinsulinism in patients with 1p36 deletion syndrome and a Prader-Willi-like phenotype  

PubMed Central

Background Deletion of the subtelomeric region of 1p36 is one of the most common subtelomeric deletion syndromes. In monosomy 1p36, the presence of obesity is poorly defined, and glucose metabolism deficiency is rarely reported. However, the presence of a typical Prader-Willi-like phenotype in patients with monosomy 1p36 is controversial. Case presentation In this report, we describe two female patients, one who is 6 years 2 months of age and another who is 10 years 1 month of age, both referred to our hospital for obesity and a Prader-Willi-like phenotype. These patients presented with severe obesity (body mass index [BMI] was 26.4 and 27.7, respectively), hyperphagia and developmental delay. Analysis of basal hormone levels showed normal thyroid function and adrenal function but considerable basal hyperinsulinism (the insulin levels were 54.5 and 49.2 ?U/ml, respectively). In patient 1, glycaemia was 75 mg/dl (HOMA-R 10.09), and the HbA1c level was 6.1%; in patient 2, glycaemia was 122 mg/dl, and the HbA1c level was 6.6% (HOMA-R 14.82). An oral glucose tolerance test demonstrated impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes mellitus with marked insulin resistance (the peak insulin level for each patient was 197 and 279 ?U/mL, respectively, while the 120’ insulin level of each patient was 167 and 234 ?U/mL, respectively). Conclusion some patients with monosomy 1p36 may show Prader-Willi-like physical and physiologic characteristics such as obesity and hyperinsulinism with impaired glucose metabolism, which can cause type II diabetes mellitus. Further studies are necessary to evaluate these findings. PMID:24479866

2014-01-01

29

A deletion and a duplication in distal 22q11.2 deletion syndrome region. Clinical implications and review  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Individuals affected with DiGeorge and Velocardiofacial syndromes present with both phenotypic diversity and variable expressivity. The most frequent clinical features include conotruncal congenital heart defects, velopharyngeal insufficiency, hypocalcemia and a characteristic craniofacial dysmorphism. The etiology in most patients is a 3 Mb recurrent deletion in region 22q11.2. However, cases of infrequent deletions and duplications with different sizes and locations

Luis Fernández; Julián Nevado; Fernando Santos; Damià Heine-Suñer; Victor Martinez-Glez; Sixto García-Miñaur; Rebeca Palomo; Alicia Delicado; Isidora López Pajares; María Palomares; Luis García-Guereta; Eva Valverde; Federico Hawkins; Pablo Lapunzina

2009-01-01

30

Autism, ADHD, Mental Retardation and Behavior Problems in 100 Individuals with 22q11 Deletion Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assessed the prevalence and type of associated neuropsychiatric problems in children and adults with 22q11 deletion syndrome. One-hundred consecutively referred individuals with 22q11 deletion syndrome were given in-depth neuropsychiatric assessments and questionnaires screens. Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and/or attention…

Niklasson, Lena; Rasmussen, Peder; Oskarsdottir, Solveig; Gillberg, Christopher

2009-01-01

31

Practical Guidelines for Managing Patients with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome  

E-print Network

Practical Guidelines for Managing Patients with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Anne S. Bassett, MD Sullivan, MD, PhD, Ann Swillen, PhD, Jacob Vorstman, MD, PhD, and The International 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Consortium** A 12-year-old boy currently is followed by multiple sub- specialists for problems

Nguyen, Danh

32

Phenotypical characterization of 13q deletion syndrome: Report of two cases  

PubMed Central

Patients with 13q deletion syndrome are characterized with different phenotypical features depending on the size and location of the deleted region on chromosome 13. These patients fall into three groups: In Group 1, deleted region is in the proximal and does not extend into q32; in Group 2, deleted region involves proximal to the q32 and in Group 3 q33-q34 is deleted. We present two cases with 13q syndrome with two different deleted region and different severity on clinical features: One case with interstitial deletion belongs to the Group 1 with mild mental retardation and minor malformations and the other case with terminal deletion belongs to Group 3 with moderate to severe mental retardation and major malformations. PMID:25400354

Bagherizadeh, Eiman; Shafaghati, Yousef; Hadipour, Fatemeh; Behjati, Farkhondeh

2014-01-01

33

Syndrome of proximal interstitial deletion 4p15  

SciTech Connect

In this journal, Chitayat et al. reported on 2 boys and a girl with interstitial deletion in the short arm of chromosome 4, including p15.2p15.33. All 3 patients had a characteristic face distinct from that of Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome and multiple minor congenital anomalies. One patient had a congenitally enlarged penis. The authors noted that all had normal growth, and all had moderate psychomotor retardation (patient 1, developmental age of 4-6 years at age 9 years; patient 2, mental age 6 years at age 25 years; and patient 3, global delay with hypotonia, difficulties in both gross and fine motor development, and persistent delay in language skills). 5 refs., 1 fig.

Fryns, J.P. [Univ. of Leuven (Belgium)

1995-09-11

34

The Schizophrenia Phenotype in 22q11 Deletion Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Objective This study investigated the schizophrenia phenotype in 24 subjects with 22q11 deletion syndrome (22qDS) and schizophrenia (22qDS-schizophrenia), a rare but relatively homogenous genetic subtype of schizophrenia associated with a microdeletion on chromosome 22. Individuals with 22qDS are at genetically high risk for schizophrenia. Method Standard measures of signs, symptoms, and course of schizophrenia were assessed in 16 adults with 22qDS-schizophrenia who did not meet criteria for mental retardation and in 46 adults with schizophrenia without evidence of 22qDS from a community familial sample. Results There were no significant differences in age at onset, lifetime or cross-sectional core positive and negative schizophrenic symptoms, or global functioning between the two groups of patients with schizophrenia. Patients with 22qDS-schizophrenia had higher excitement subscale scores and less lifetime substance use than the comparison patients with schizophrenia, but no significant differences in anxiety-depression symptom severity were found between the groups. Conclusions These findings indicate that the core clinical schizophrenia phenotype would not distinguish individuals with a 22qDS subtype from those with schizophrenia who did not have the 22qDS subtype. The results provide further support for the utility of 22qDS-schizophrenia as a neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia as well as support for prospective studies of individuals with 22qDS to help identify precursors of schizophrenia. PMID:12944331

Bassett, Anne S.; Chow, Eva W.C.; AbdelMalik, Philip; Gheorghiu, Mirona; Husted, Janice; Weksberg, Rosanna

2012-01-01

35

Tuber Cinereum Diverticula in a 28-Month-Old with Xq21 Deletion Syndrome  

PubMed Central

A developmentally delayed 28-month-old male toddler was referred to us for brain MRI. Imaging revealed corpus callosum dysgenesis, forniceal hypoplasia, vermian hypoplasia, and hypothalamic dysmorphism characterized by tuber cinereum diverticula. Subsequent chromosomal microarray showed an Xq21 deletion. We present a case of Xq21 deletion syndrome with midline brain anomalies and a novel hypothalamic malformation. PMID:25126438

2014-01-01

36

Language Skills in 5-8-Year-Old Children with 22q11 Deletion Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Language impairment and delayed language onset have been described, although not investigated in detail, in children with 22q11 deletion syndrome. Aims: To investigate different areas of language: the ability to retell a narrative, phonology, syntax and receptive vocabulary in a group of 5-8-year-old children with 22q11 deletion

Persson, Christina; Niklasson, Lena; Oskarsdottir, Solveig; Johansson, Susanne; Jonsson, Radi; Soderpalm, Ewa

2006-01-01

37

Social skills of children with 22q11 Deletion Syndrome: A social cognitive neuroscience approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 22q11 DS is the most common genetic deletion syndrome. The deletion is believed to result in the dysregulation of the dopamine, GABA, and glutamate systems which, in turn, affects the prefrontal cortex, associated circuitry, and cognitive abilities governed by these brain regions. Research suggests that 22q11 DS children experience attention and executive function deficits; clinical observation also suggests impaired

Karen Kiley-Brabeck

2004-01-01

38

Tuber cinereum diverticula in a 28-month-old with xq21 deletion syndrome.  

PubMed

A developmentally delayed 28-month-old male toddler was referred to us for brain MRI. Imaging revealed corpus callosum dysgenesis, forniceal hypoplasia, vermian hypoplasia, and hypothalamic dysmorphism characterized by tuber cinereum diverticula. Subsequent chromosomal microarray showed an Xq21 deletion. We present a case of Xq21 deletion syndrome with midline brain anomalies and a novel hypothalamic malformation. PMID:25126438

Whitehead, Matthew T; Vezina, Gilbert

2014-01-01

39

Maladaptive Behavior Differences in Prader-Willi Syndrome Due to Paternal Deletion versus Maternal Uniparental Disomy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared maladaptive behavior in 23 people with Prader-Willi syndrome due to paternal deletion and in 23 age- and gender-matched subjects with maternal uniparental disomy. Controlling for IQs, the deletion cases showed significantly higher maladaptive ratings, more symptom-related distress, and more behavior problems. Findings suggest a…

Dykens, Elisabeth M.; King, Bryan H.; Cassidy, Suzanne B.

1999-01-01

40

Diverse deletions in the growth hormone receptor gene cause growth hormone insensitivity syndrome.  

PubMed

Growth hormone insensitivity syndrome (GHIS; also known as Laron syndrome), is characterized by severe postnatal growth failure and normal growth hormone. The syndrome is frequently caused by point mutations in the growth hormone receptor gene (GHR). Here we report five families with GHIS and partial deletions of the GHR gene. The deletion breakpoints were sequenced and PCR-based diagnostic tests were developed. In a Cambodian family, a novel deletion removed part of exon 5 and 1.2 kb of the preceding intron. The deletion occurred by recombination within four identical nucleotides. In the mutant transcript, skipping of the truncated exon 5 leads to a frameshift and premature termination codon (PTC). A previously reported discontinuous deletion of GHR exons 3, 5, and 6 was identified in three Oriental Jewish families. An unaffected individual was heterozygous for the exon 5 and 6 deletion, but homozygously deleted for exon 3 suggesting that the exon 3 deletion is a polymorphism. The pathogenic deletion of exons 5 and 6 spans about 7.5 kb. Sequence analysis of the breakpoints revealed an imperfect junction between introns 4 and 6, with a four basepair insertion. A novel deletion of 13 nucleotides within exon 9 was identified in a Caucasian girl with GHIS who carries the I153T missense mutation on her other allele. The exon 9 deletion leads to a frameshift and PTC. The predicted protein retains the transmembrane domain and a short cytoplasmic tail. Four family members in three generations were carriers of this deletion, but only two of them were below normal for height, suggesting that this mutation by itself does not act as a dominant negative, as was reported for two other GHR mutations which lead to truncation of the intracellular domain. PMID:11013443

Gastier, J M; Berg, M A; Vesterhus, P; Reiter, E O; Francke, U

2000-10-01

41

Germline deletions in the EPCAM gene as a cause of Lynch syndrome - literature review  

PubMed Central

Lynch syndrome (clinically referred to as HNPCC – Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal Cancer) is a frequent, autosomal, dominantly-inherited cancer predisposition syndrome caused by various germline alterations that affect DNA mismatch repair genes, mainly MLH1 and MSH2. Patients inheriting this predisposition are susceptible to colorectal, endometrial and other extracolonic tumors. It has recently been shown that germline deletions of the last few exons of the EPCAM gene are involved in the etiology of Lynch syndrome. Such constitutional mutations lead to subsequent epigenetic silencing of a neighbouring gene, here, MSH2, causing Lynch syndrome. Thus, deletions of the last few exons of EPCAM constitute a distinct class of mutations associated with HNPCC. Worldwide, several investigators have reported families with EPCAM 3’end deletions. The risk of colorectal cancer in carriers of EPCAM deletions is comparable to situations when patients are MSH2 mutation carriers, and is associated with high expression levels of EPCAM in colorectal cancer stem cells. A lower risk of endometrial cancer was also reported. Until now the standard diagnostic tests for Lynch syndrome have contained analyses such as immunohistochemistry and tests for microsatellite instability of mismatch repair genes. The identification of EPCAM deletions or larger EPCAM-MSH2 deletions should be included in routine mutation screening, as this has implications for cancer predisposition. PMID:23938213

2013-01-01

42

6Cognitive and Behavioral Characteristics of Children with Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome  

E-print Network

6Cognitive and Behavioral Characteristics of Children with Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome, the phenotypic spectrum of DS22q11.2 is extremely wide and includes over 180 possible congenital anomalies). The actual incidence of DS22q11.2 is probably much higher, as the phenotypic expression of the syndrome

Nguyen, Danh

43

Mapping Cortical Morphology in Youth with Velocardiofacial (22q11.2 Deletion) Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS; 22q11.2 deletion syndrome) represents one of the highest known risk factors for schizophrenia. Insofar as up to 30% of individuals with this genetic disorder develop schizophrenia, VCFS constitutes a unique, etiologically homogeneous model for understanding the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Method:…

Kates, Wendy R.; Bansal, Ravi; Fremont, Wanda; Antshel, Kevin M.; Hao, Xuejun; Higgins, Anne Marie; Liu, Jun; Shprintzen, Robert J.; Peterson, Bradley S.

2011-01-01

44

Child with Deletion 9p Syndrome Presenting with Craniofacial Dysmorphism, Developmental Delay, and Multiple Congenital Malformations  

PubMed Central

A 4-month-old Sri Lankan male child case with a de novo terminal deletion in the p22?pter region of chromosome 9 is described. The child presented with craniofacial dysmorphism, developmental delay, and congenital malformations in agreement with the consensus phenotype. A distinctive feature observed in this child was complete collapse of the left lung due to malformation of lung tissue. Cytogenetic studies confirmed terminal deletion of the short arm of chromosome 9 distal to band p22 [46,XY,del(9)(p22?pter)]. This is the first reported case of a de novo deletion 9p syndrome associated with pulmonary hypoplasia. This finding contributes to the widening of the spectrum of phenotypic features associated with deletion 9p syndrome. PMID:23984121

Sirisena, Nirmala D.; Wijetunge, U. Kalpani S.; de Silva, Ramya; Dissanayake, Vajira H. W.

2013-01-01

45

Characterization of two novel genes, WBSCR20 and WBSCR22, deleted in Williams-Beuren syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS), due to a contiguous gene deletion of approximately 1.5 Mb at 7q11.23, is a complex developmental disorder with multisystemic manifestations including supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS) and a specific cognitive phenotype. Large repeats containing genes and pseudogenes flank the deletion breakpoints, and the mutation mechanism commonly appears to be unequal meiotic crossover. Except for elastin, hemizygosity of which

A. Doll; K.-H. Grzeschik

2001-01-01

46

Candidate Genes and the Behavioral Phenotype in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is an overwhelming evidence that children and adults with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) have a characteristic behavioral phenotype. In particular, there is a growing body of evidence that indicates an unequivocal association between 22q11.2DS and schizophrenia, especially in adulthood. Deletion of 22q11.2 is the third highest risk…

Prasad, Sarah E.; Howley, Sarah; Murphy, Kieran C.

2008-01-01

47

Deletion involving the TWIST locus and the HOXA cluster: a contiguous gene syndrome on 7p?  

PubMed

Deletion of TWIST on 7p21 leads to Saethre-Chotzen syndrome, whereas deletion of the HOXA cluster on 7p15.2 leads to hand-foot-genital syndrome. We report here a patient with 46,XY,del(7)(p15.2p21) who had craniosynostosis, maxillary hypoplasia, prominent ear crus, rectoperineal fistula, and hypoplastic fifth fingers. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization, we demonstrated the deletion to encompass the TWIST locus and the HOXA cluster. We suggest that many, if not all, of the features of this patient could be accounted for by combined haploinsufficiency of the TWIST and HOXA cluster. Hence, the patient's phenotype may define a new contiguous gene syndrome on 7p. PMID:15737130

Kosaki, Rika; Higuchi, Masataka; Mitsui, Norimasa; Matsushima, Kazushige; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Kosaki, Kenjiro

2005-03-01

48

Phenotypic and molecular assessment of seven patients with 6p25 deletion syndrome: Relevance to ocular dysgenesis and hearing impairment  

PubMed Central

Background Thirty-nine patients have been described with deletions involving chromosome 6p25. However, relatively few of these deletions have had molecular characterization. Common phenotypes of 6p25 deletion syndrome patients include hydrocephalus, hearing loss, and ocular, craniofacial, skeletal, cardiac, and renal malformations. Molecular characterization of deletions can identify genes that are responsible for these phenotypes. Methods We report the clinical phenotype of seven patients with terminal deletions of chromosome 6p25 and compare them to previously reported patients. Molecular characterization of the deletions was performed using polymorphic marker analysis to determine the extents of the deletions in these seven 6p25 deletion syndrome patients. Results Our results, and previous data, show that ocular dysgenesis and hearing impairment are the two most highly penetrant phenotypes of the 6p25 deletion syndrome. While deletion of the forkhead box C1 gene (FOXC1) probably underlies the ocular dysgenesis, no gene in this region is known to be involved in hearing impairment. Conclusions Ocular dysgenesis and hearing impairment are the two most common phenotypes of 6p25 deletion syndrome. We conclude that a locus for dominant hearing loss is present at 6p25 and that this locus is restricted to a region distal to D6S1617. Molecular characterization of more 6p25 deletion patients will aid in refinement of this locus and the identification of a gene involved in dominant hearing loss. PMID:15219231

Gould, Douglas B; Jaafar, Mohamad S; Addison, Mark K; Munier, Francis; Ritch, Robert; MacDonald, Ian M; Walter, Michael A

2004-01-01

49

Cognitive, Behavioural and Psychiatric Phenotype in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

22q11.2 Deletion syndrome has become an important model for understanding the pathophysiology of neurodevelopmental conditions,\\u000a particularly schizophrenia which develops in about 20–25% of individuals with a chromosome 22q11.2 microdeletion. From the\\u000a initial discovery of the syndrome, associated developmental delays made it clear that changes in brain development were a\\u000a key part of the expression. Once patients were followed through childhood

Nicole Philip; Anne Bassett

2011-01-01

50

Deletions of the COL4A5 gene in patients with Alport syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deletions of the COL4A5 gene in patients with Alport syndrome. Mutations in the COL4A5 gene encoding the ?5 chain of type IV collagen have been found in linkage with X-chromosomal Alport syndrome (AS). To identify COL4A5 mutations in patients from Germany with clinically defined AS, DNA from 20 unrelated patients was analyzed by conventional Southern blotting. By using full length

Kai-Olaf Netzer; Lutz Renders; Jing Zhou; Oliver Pullig; Karl Tryggvason; Manfred Weber

1992-01-01

51

Terminal chromosome 4q deletion syndrome in an infant with hearing impairment and moderate syndromic features: review of literature  

PubMed Central

Background Terminal deletions of chromosome 4q are associated with a broad spectrum of phenotypes including cardiac, craniofacial, digital, and cognitive impairment. The rarity of this syndrome renders genotype-phenotype correlation difficult, which is further complicated by the widely different phenotypes observed in patients sharing similar deletion intervals. Case presentation Herein, we describe a boy with congenital hearing impairment and a variety of moderate syndromic features that prompted SNP array analysis disclosing a heterozygous 6.9 Mb deletion in the 4q35.1q35.2 region, which emerged de novo in the maternal germ line. Conclusion In addition to the index patient, we review 35 cases from the literature and DECIPHER database to attempt genotype-phenotype correlations for a syndrome with great phenotypic variability. We delineate intervals with recurrent phenotypic overlap, particularly for cleft palate, congenital heart defect, intellectual disability, and autism spectrum disorder. Broad phenotypic presentation of the terminal 4q deletion syndrome is consistent with incomplete penetrance of the individual symptoms. PMID:24962056

2014-01-01

52

Children with Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Exhibit Impaired Spatial Working Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individuals with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) have been shown to have impairments in processing spatiotemporal information. The authors examined whether children with 22q11.2DS exhibit impairments in spatial working memory performance due to these weaknesses, even when controlling for maintenance of attention. Children with…

Wong, Ling M.; Riggins, Tracy; Harvey, Danielle; Cabaral, Margarita; Simon, Tony J.

2014-01-01

53

Domain Specific Attentional Impairments in Children with Chromosome 22Q11.2 Deletion Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the defining cognitive characteristics of the chromosome 22q deletion syndrome (DS22q11.2) is visuospatial processing impairments. The purpose of this study was to investigate and extend the specific attentional profile of children with this disorder using both an object-based attention task and an inhibition of return task. A group of…

Bish, Joel P.; Chiodo, Renee; Mattei, Victoria; Simon, Tony J.

2007-01-01

54

Alport syndrome caused by a 5? deletion within the COL4A5 gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fourteen Italian patients affected with X-linked Alport syndrome were analyzed by Southern blotting, using cDNA probes of the COL4A5 gene. One proband was shown to carry a large deletion (> 38 kb) that included the 5' part of the gene.

Alessandra Renieri; Marco Seri; Jeanne C. Myers; Taina Pihlajaniemi; Adalberto Sessa; Gianfranco Rizzoni; Mario Marchi

1992-01-01

55

Thalamic reductions in children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome  

E-print Network

Thalamic reductions in children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome Joel P. Bish,1,CA Vy-spatial processing, we compared the thalamic volume in children with 22q to typically developing controls. Children for a potential relationship between posterior thalamic reductions and the characteristic visuo-spatial de

Nguyen, Danh

56

Deletion of short arm of chromosome 18, Del(18p) syndrome.  

PubMed

Deletion of the short arm of chromosome 18 is a rare syndrome clinically presenting with variable mental retardation, growth retardation, low height, pectus excavatum, craniofacial malformations including long ear, ptosis, microcephaly and short neck. This case report presents with characteristic features along with rare feature of single nostril. PMID:24531606

Babaji, Prashant; Singh, Anurag; Lau, Himani; Lamba, G; Somasundaram, P

2014-01-01

57

EPCAM germ line deletions as causes of Lynch syndrome in Spanish patients.  

PubMed

The standard genetic test for Lynch syndrome (LS) frequently reveals an absence of pathogenic mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes known to be associated with LS. It was recently shown that germ line deletions in the last exons of EPCAM are involved in the etiology of LS. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of EPCAM deletions in a Spanish population and the clinical implications of deletion. Probands from 501 families suspected of having LS were enrolled in the study. Twenty-five cases with MSH2 loss were identified: 10 had mutations of MSH2, five had mutations of MSH6, and 10 did not show MSH2/MSH6 mutations. These 25 cases were analyzed for EPCAM deletions using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification, and deletions were mapped using long-range PCR analysis. One subject with no MSH2/MSH6 mutations had a large deletion in the EPCAM locus that extended for 8.7 kb and included exons 8 and 9. The tumor exhibited MSH2 promoter hypermethylation. EPCAM deletion analysis followed by MSH2 methylation testing of the tumor is a fast low-cost procedure that can be used to identify mutations that cause LS. We propose that this procedure be incorporated into clinical genetic analysis strategies and present a decision-support flow diagram for the diagnosis of LS. PMID:20864635

Guarinos, Carla; Castillejo, Adela; Barberá, Víctor-Manuel; Pérez-Carbonell, Lucía; Sánchez-Heras, Ana-Beatriz; Segura, Angel; Guillén-Ponce, Carmen; Martínez-Cantó, Ana; Castillejo, María-Isabel; Egoavil, Cecilia-Magdalena; Jover, Rodrigo; Payá, Artemio; Alenda, Cristina; Soto, José-Luís

2010-11-01

58

EPCAM Germ Line Deletions as Causes of Lynch Syndrome in Spanish Patients  

PubMed Central

The standard genetic test for Lynch syndrome (LS) frequently reveals an absence of pathogenic mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes known to be associated with LS. It was recently shown that germ line deletions in the last exons of EPCAM are involved in the etiology of LS. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of EPCAM deletions in a Spanish population and the clinical implications of deletion. Probands from 501 families suspected of having LS were enrolled in the study. Twenty-five cases with MSH2 loss were identified: 10 had mutations of MSH2, five had mutations of MSH6, and 10 did not show MSH2/MSH6 mutations. These 25 cases were analyzed for EPCAM deletions using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification, and deletions were mapped using long-range PCR analysis. One subject with no MSH2/MSH6 mutations had a large deletion in the EPCAM locus that extended for 8.7 kb and included exons 8 and 9. The tumor exhibited MSH2 promoter hypermethylation. EPCAM deletion analysis followed by MSH2 methylation testing of the tumor is a fast low-cost procedure that can be used to identify mutations that cause LS. We propose that this procedure be incorporated into clinical genetic analysis strategies and present a decision-support flow diagram for the diagnosis of LS. PMID:20864635

Guarinos, Carla; Castillejo, Adela; Barbera, Victor-Manuel; Perez-Carbonell, Lucia; Sanchez-Heras, Ana-Beatriz; Segura, Angel; Guillen-Ponce, Carmen; Martinez-Canto, Ana; Castillejo, Maria-Isabel; Egoavil, Cecilia-Magdalena; Jover, Rodrigo; Paya, Artemio; Alenda, Cristina; Soto, Jose-Luis

2010-01-01

59

Two novel gross deletions of TSC2 in Malaysian patients with tuberous sclerosis complex and TSC2/PKD1 contiguous deletion syndrome.  

PubMed

Tuberous sclerosis complex is an autosomal dominant neurocutaneous disorder affecting multiple organs. Tuberous sclerosis complex is caused by mutation in either one of the two disease-causing genes, TSC1 or TSC2, encoding for hamartin and tuberin, respectively. TSC2/PKD1 contiguous gene deletion syndrome is a very rare condition due to deletion involving both TSC2 and PKD1 genes. Tuberous sclerosis complex cannot be easily diagnosed since there is no pathognomonic feature, although there are consensus diagnostic criteria for that. Mutation analysis is useful and plays important roles. We report here two novel gross deletions of TSC2 gene in Malay patients with tuberous sclerosis complex and TSC2/PKD1 contiguous gene deletion syndrome, respectively. PMID:24683199

Ismail, Nur Farrah Dila; Nik Abdul Malik, Nik Mohd Ariff; Mohseni, Jafar; Rani, Abdulqawee Mahyoob; Hayati, Fatemeh; Salmi, Abdul Razak; Narazah, Mohd Yusof; Zabidi-Hussin, Z A M H; Silawati, Abdul Rashid; Keng, Wee Teik; Ngu, Lock Hock; Sasongko, Teguh Haryo

2014-05-01

60

Genotype/phenotype correlation in women with nonmosaic X chromosome deletions and Turner syndrome  

SciTech Connect

Turner syndrome is a complex human developmental disorder associated with the absence of the second sex chromosome (monosomy X). Cardinal features of the Turner phenotype include high intrauterine lethality, growth retardation, gonadal failure, and the variable presence of specific somatic abnormalities such as webbed neck, lymphedema, and skeletal abnormalities. Recent observations support the hypothesis that the phenotype associated with monosomy X results from haploid dosage of genes common the X and Y chromosomes that escape X-inactivation ({open_quotes}Turner genes{close_quotes}). Apart from a locus causing short stature that maps to the pseudoautosomal region on the distal short arm, the location of X-linked Turner genes is not known. Karyotype/phenotype correlations in women with partial X deletions have been inconsistent. However, previous studies have focused on sporadic sex chromosome aberrations and may have been confounded by occult mosaicism. In addition, mapping of deletions was limited by the resolution of cytogenetic techniques. I am reexamining genotype/phenotype correlations in partial X monosomy, focusing on a subset of cases in which mosaicism is highly unlikely (e.g., unbalanced X-autosome translocations, familial X deletions), and using molecular techniques to map deletions. I have collected eight cases of nonmosaic X deletions in women with varied manifestations of Turner syndrome. Cytogenetic data suggests that genes responsible for Turner anatomic abnormalities may lie within a critical region of the very proximal portion of the short arm (Xp11). Molecular characterization of the deletions is in progress. Methods include (1) fluorescence in situ hybridization of metaphase spreads from patient-derived cell lines, using cosmid probes that map to known locations on Xp, and (2) sequence tagged site (STS) content mapping of somatic cell hybrids retaining the deleted X chromosomes derived from these cell lines.

Zinn, A.R. [Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical School, Dallas, TX (United States)

1994-09-01

61

Deletion syndrome 22q13: what the dentist should know to manage children with Phelan-McDermid syndrome effectively.  

PubMed

Deletion Syndrome 22q13 (or Phelan-McDermid Syndrome) is a very rare genetic disorder characterized by general neonatal hypotonia, absent to delayed speech, and global developmental delays. With only 600 cases reported worldwide, the disease remains largely under-diagnosed, but diagnosis is on the rise. Current thinking suggests that 22q13 Deletion Syndrome may be one of the principal causes of idiopathic mental retardation. Patients with Phelan-McDermid Syndrome, especially children, can be a challenge for dental professionals, as it is often associated with autism. Dentists see patients with all kinds of special needs, developmental conditions and disabilities. Children with Phelan-McDermid Syndrome need dental care just like every other child. As with other autism-related disorders, children with Phelan-McDermid Syndrome need sameness and continuity in their environment. The dental literature, however, offers very little information to aid the dentist in the management of these children. This article aims to make dentists aware of the disorder and provides tips and recommendations that dentists may find helpful to manage Phelan-McDermid children more effectively. PMID:25241497

Ivanoff, Chris; Ivanoff, Athena E

2014-01-01

62

Human Subtelomeric WASH Genes Encode a New Subclass of the WASP Family  

PubMed Central

Subtelomeres are duplication-rich, structurally variable regions of the human genome situated just proximal of telomeres. We report here that the most terminally located human subtelomeric genes encode a previously unrecognized third subclass of the Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein family, whose known members reorganize the actin cytoskeleton in response to extracellular stimuli. This new subclass, which we call WASH, is evolutionarily conserved in species as diverged as Entamoeba. We demonstrate that WASH is essential in Drosophila. WASH is widely expressed in human tissues, and human WASH protein colocalizes with actin in filopodia and lamellipodia. The VCA domain of human WASH promotes actin polymerization by the Arp2/3 complex in vitro. WASH duplicated to multiple chromosomal ends during primate evolution, with highest copy number reached in humans, whose WASH repertoires vary. Thus, human subtelomeres are not genetic junkyards, and WASH's location in these dynamic regions could have advantageous as well as pathologic consequences. PMID:18159949

Linardopoulou, Elena V; Parghi, Sean S; Friedman, Cynthia; Osborn, Gregory E; Parkhurst, Susan M; Trask, Barbara J

2007-01-01

63

An Amino Acid Deletion in SZT2 in a Family with Non-Syndromic Intellectual Disability  

PubMed Central

Autosomal recessive intellectual disability (ID) is characterized by extensive genetic heterogeneity. Recently, three mutations in SZT2 were reported in two unrelated children with unexplained infantile epileptic encephalopathy with severe ID. Here we report a European American family with three children having non-syndromic mild or moderate ID without seizures. Whole-exome sequencing of three affected siblings revealed a three base pair deletion (c.4202_4204delTTC) located in a 19 mb autozygous region on chromosome 1, leading to an amino acid deletion (p.Phe1401del) in SZT2. All three children were homozygous for the deletion and their parents were heterozygous as expected in autosomal recessive inheritance. SZT2 is highly expressed in neuronal tissues and regulates seizure threshold and neuronal excitation in mice. We conclude that the disruption of SZT2 with some residual function might lead to mild or moderate ID without seizures. PMID:24324832

Falcone, Michelle; Yariz, Kemal O.; Ross, David B.; Foster, Joseph; Menendez, Ibis; Tekin, Mustafa

2013-01-01

64

Neuropsychological function in a child with 18p deletion syndrome: a case report.  

PubMed

We report the neuropsychological profile of a 4-year-old boy with the rare 18p deletion syndrome. We used a battery of standardized tests to assess his development in intellect, language, visuomotor integration, academic readiness, socialization, and emotional and behavioral health. The results showed borderline intellectual function except for low average nonverbal reasoning skills. He had stronger receptive than expressive language skills, although both were well below his age group. He had impaired visuomotor integration and pre-academic skills such as letter identification. Emotional and behavioral findings indicated mild aggressiveness, anxiety, low frustration tolerance, and executive function weaknesses, especially at home. Interestingly, he showed social strengths, responding to joint attention and sharing enjoyment with his examiner. With its assessment of development in many domains, this case report is among the first to characterize the neuropsychological and psychiatric function of a young child with 18p deletion syndrome. We discuss the implications of our findings for clinical practice. PMID:25237747

Willoughby, Brian L; Favero, Marcus; Mochida, Ganeshwaran H; Braaten, Ellen B

2014-09-01

65

Atypical Angelman syndrome with macrocephaly due to a familial imprinting center deletion.  

PubMed

Two elderly brothers with severe intellectual disability were diagnosed with Angelman syndrome after a once-removed, 15-year-old cousin was found to have the syndrome due to a deletion of the imprinting center. For many years it was believed the brothers, who both have macrocephaly, were affected by nonsyndromic X-linked mental retardation. This was because, apart from absent speech and intellectual disability, the phenotype of the two men was not characteristic of Angelman syndrome. Conversely, the cousin, in addition to severe intellectual disability, language impairment, and ataxic gait, has microcephaly. None of the three have seizures, and so in the presence of the brothers' macrocephaly, Angelman syndrome was not considered until a diagnosis was made in the younger distant cousin. We report on a familial imprinting center deletion and the importance of considering the mild and atypical Angelman syndrome phenotypes within the differential diagnosis of intellectual handicap, particularly in clarifying the genetic risk to other family members. PMID:17975803

Ronan, Anne; Buiting, Karin; Dudding, Tracy

2008-01-01

66

Partial 12p deletion: a cause for a mental retardation, multiple congenital abnormality syndrome.  

PubMed Central

A severely mentally retarded man displayed the following main symptoms: short stature, microcephaly, antimongoloid slant of palpebral fissures, big ears with hyperplastic helices, imperfect dental enamel, short and webbed neck, short arms, short hands, brachymetaphalangy, short second fingers, broad thumbs, short metatarsal bones, and unusually big first toes. It seems almost certain that the syndrome was caused by a chromosome deletion involving about half of 12p which was present in all of the lymphocytes examined. Images PMID:1121016

Magnelli, N C; Therman, E

1975-01-01

67

Induced Chromosome Deletion in a Williams-Beuren Syndrome Mouse Model Causes Cardiovascular Abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: The Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) is a genetic disorder caused by a heterozygous ?1.5-Mb deletion. The aim of this study was to determine how the genetic changes in a Wbs mouse model alter Eln expression, blood pressure, vessel structure, and abdominal aortic wall dynamics in vivo. Methods: Elastin (ELN) transcript levels were quantified by qRT-PCR and blood pressure was measured

Craig J. Goergen; Hong-Hua Li; Uta Francke; Charles A. Taylor

2011-01-01

68

Unequal interchromosomal rearrangements may result in elastin gene deletions causing the Williams-Beuren syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) is generally the consequence of an interstitial microdeletion at 7q11.23, which includes the elastin gene, thus causing hemizygosity at the elastin gene locus. The origin of the deletion has been reported by many authors to be maternal in ~60% and paternal in 40% of cases. Segregation analysis of grandparental markers flanking the microdeletion region in WBS patients

Fabrizio Dutly; Albert Schinzel

1996-01-01

69

The Neuropsychology of 22q11 Deletion Syndrome. A Neuropsychiatric Study of 100 Individuals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary objective of this study was to study the impact of ASD/ADHD on general intellectual ability and profile, executive functions and visuo-motor skills in children and adults with 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS). A secondary aim was to study if gender, age, heart disease, ASD, ADHD or ASD in combination with ADHD had an impact on general…

Niklasson, Lena; Gillberg, Christopher

2010-01-01

70

First Report of a Single Exon Deletion in TCOF1 Causing Treacher Collins Syndrome.  

PubMed

Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) is a rare craniofacial disorder characterized by facial anomalies and ear defects. TCS is caused by mutations in the TCOF1 gene and follows autosomal dominant inheritance. Recently, mutations in the POLR1D and POLR1C genes have also been identified to cause TCS. However, in a subset of patients no causative mutation could be found yet. Inter- and intrafamilial phenotypic variability is high as is the variety of mainly family-specific mutations identified throughout TCOF1. No obvious correlation between pheno- and genotype could be observed. The majority of described point mutations, small insertions and deletions comprising only a few nucleotides within TCOF1 lead to a premature termination codon. We investigated a cohort of 112 patients with a tentative clinical diagnosis of TCS by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) to search for larger deletions not detectable with other methods used. All patients were selected after negative screening for mutations in TCOF1, POLR1D and POLR1C. In 1 patient with an unequivocal clinical diagnosis of TCS, we identified a 3.367 kb deletion. This deletion abolishes exon 3 and is the first described single exon deletion within TCOF1. On RNA level we observed loss of this exon which supposedly leads to haploinsufficiency of TREACLE, the nucleolar phosphoprotein encoded by TCOF1. PMID:22712005

Beygo, J; Buiting, K; Seland, S; Lüdecke, H-J; Hehr, U; Lich, C; Prager, B; Lohmann, D R; Wieczorek, D

2012-01-01

71

Distal Deletion of Chromosome 11q Encompassing Jacobsen Syndrome without Platelet Abnormality  

PubMed Central

Terminal 11q deletion, known as Jacobsen syndrome (JBS), is a rare genetic disorder associated with numerous dysmorphic features. We studied two cases with multiple congenital anomalies that were cytogenetically detected with deletions on 11q encompassing JBS region: 46,XX,der(11) del(11)(q24). Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis confirmed partial deletion of 11.8–11.9 Mb at 11q24.1q25 (case 1) and 13.9–14 Mb deletion at 11q23.3q25 together with 7.3–7.6 Mb duplication at 12q24.32q24.33 (case 2). Dysmorphism because of the partial duplication of 12q was not overtly decipherable over the Jacobsen phenotype except for a triangular facial profile. Aberrant chromosome 11 was inherited from phenotypically normal father, carrier of balanced translocation 46,XY,t(11;12)(q23.3; q24.32). In the present study, both cases had phenotypes that were milder than the ones described in literature despite having large deletion size. Most prominent features in classical JBS is thrombocytopenia, which was absent in both these cases. Therefore, detailed functional analysis of terminal 11q region is warranted to elucidate etiology of JBS and their clinical presentation. PMID:25288895

Sheth, Frenny J; Datar, Chaitanya; Andrieux, Joris; Pandit, Anand; Nayak, Darshana; Rahman, Mizanur; Sheth, Jayesh J

2014-01-01

72

Genetic contributions to visuospatial cognition in Williams syndrome: insights from two contrasting partial deletion patients  

PubMed Central

Background Williams syndrome (WS) is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder arising from a hemizygotic deletion of approximately 27 genes on chromosome 7, at locus 7q11.23. WS is characterised by an uneven cognitive profile, with serious deficits in visuospatial tasks in comparison to relatively proficient performance in some other cognitive domains such as language and face processing. Individuals with partial genetic deletions within the WS critical region (WSCR) have provided insights into the contribution of specific genes to this complex phenotype. However, the combinatorial effects of different genes remain elusive. Methods We report on visuospatial cognition in two individuals with contrasting partial deletions in the WSCR: one female (HR), aged 11 years 9 months, with haploinsufficiency for 24 of the WS genes (up to GTF2IRD1), and one male (JB), aged 14 years 2 months, with the three most telomeric genes within the WSCR deleted, or partially deleted. Results Our in-depth phenotyping of the visuospatial domain from table-top psychometric, and small- and large-scale experimental tasks reveal a profile in HR in line with typically developing controls, albeit with some atypical features. These data are contrasted with patient JB’s atypical profile of strengths and weaknesses across the visuospatial domain, as well as with more substantial visuospatial deficits in individuals with the full WS deletion. Conclusions Our findings point to the contribution of specific genes to spatial processing difficulties associated with WS, highlighting the multifaceted nature of spatial cognition and the divergent effects of genetic deletions within the WSCR on different components of visuospatial ability. The importance of general transcription factors at the telomeric end of the WSCR, and their combinatorial effects on the WS visuospatial phenotype are also discussed. PMID:25057328

2014-01-01

73

Tbx1 haploinsufficiency is linked to behavioral disorders in mice and humans: Implications for 22q11 deletion syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

About 35% of patients with 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), which includes DiGeorge and velocardiofacial syndromes, develops psychiatric disorders, mainly schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. We previously reported that mice carrying a multigene deletion (Df1) that models 22q11DS have reduced prepulse inhibition (PPI), a behavioral abnormality and schizophrenia endophenotype. Impaired PPI is associated with several psychiatric disorders, including those that occur in

Richard Paylor; Beate Glaser; Annalisa Mupo; Corinne Spencer; Angela Sobotka; Chelsey Sparks; Chul-Hee Choi; John Oghalai; Sarah Curran; Kieran C. Murphy; Stephen Monks; Nigel Williams; Michael C. O'Donovan; Michael J. Owen; Peter J. Scambler; Elizabeth Lindsay

2006-01-01

74

Safety of Live Viral Vaccines in Patients With Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (DiGeorge Syndrome\\/Velocardiofacial Syndrome)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The package inserts of live viral vaccines include immunodeficiency as a contraindication. Never- theless, patients with mild forms of immunodeficiency may benefit from vaccination. No published guidelines exist for the administration of these vaccines specifically to patients with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. This syndrome is also sometimes called DiGeorge syn- drome and is associated with thymic hypoplasia and diminished T-cell

Elena E. Perez; Aleksandra Bokszczanin; Elaine H. Zackai; Kathleen E. Sullivan

75

Subtelomeric chromosomal rearrangements in a large cohort of unexplained intellectually disabled individuals in Indonesia: A clinical and molecular study  

PubMed Central

CONTEXT: Unbalanced subtelomeric chromosomal rearrangements are often associated with intellectual disability (ID) and malformation syndromes. The prevalence of such rearrangements has been reported to be 5-9% in ID populations. AIMS: To study the prevalence of subtelomeric rearrangements in the Indonesian ID population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We tested 436 subjects with unexplained ID using multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification (MLPA) using the specific designed sets of probes to detect human subtelomeric chromosomal imbalances (SALSA P070 and P036D). If necessary, abnormal findings were confirmed by other MLPA probe kits, fluorescent in situ hybridization or Single Nucleotide Polymorphism array. RESULTS: A subtelomeric aberration was identified in 3.7% of patients (16/436). Details on subtelomeric aberrations and confirmation analyses are discussed. CONCLUSION: This is the first study describing the presence of subtelomeric rearrangements in individuals with ID in Indonesia. Furthermore, it shows that also in Indonesia such abnormalities are a prime cause of ID and that in developing countries with limited diagnostic services such as Indonesia, it is important and feasible to uncover the genetic etiology in a significant number of cases with ID. PMID:24019618

Mundhofir, Farmaditya E. P.; Nillesen, Willy M.; Van Bon, Bregje W. M.; Smeets, Dominique; Pfundt, Rolph; van de Ven-Schobers, Gaby; Ruiterkamp-Versteeg, Martina; Winarni, Tri I.; Hamel, Ben C. J.; Yntema, Helger G.; Faradz, Sultana M. H.

2013-01-01

76

Cryptic Transcription Mediates Repression of Subtelomeric Metal Homeostasis Genes  

E-print Network

Cryptic Transcription Mediates Repression of Subtelomeric Metal Homeostasis Genes Isabelle Toesca located in subtelomeric regions, and in particular of many metal homeostasis genes. Citation: Toesca I of Subtelomeric Metal Homeostasis Genes. PLoS Genet 7(6): e1002163. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1002163 Editor: Hiten

Chanfreau, Guillaume

77

Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome in Children with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome after Operative Intervention for Velopharyngeal Insufficiency  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Surgical treatment of velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI) in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome is often warranted. In this patient population, VPI is characterized by poor palatal elevation and muscular hypotonia with an intact palate. We hypothesize that 22q11.2 deletion patients are at greater risk of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) after surgical correction of VPI, due, in part, to their functional hypotonia, large velopharyngeal gap size, and the need to surgically obstruct the velopharynx. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome treated at a tertiary pediatric hospital between the years of 2002 and 2012. The incidence of VPI, need for surgery, post-operative polysomnogram, post-operative VPI assessment, and OSA treatments were evaluated. Results: Forty-three patients (18 males, 25 females, ages 1–14?years) fitting the inclusion criteria were identified. Twenty-eight patients were evaluated by speech pathology due to hypernasality. Twenty-one patients had insufficient velopharyngeal function and required surgery. Fifteen underwent pharyngeal flap surgery, three underwent sphincter pharyngoplasty, two underwent Furlow palatoplasty, and one underwent combined sphincter pharyngoplasty with Furlow palatoplasty. Of these, eight had post-operative snoring. Six of these underwent polysomnography (five underwent pharyngeal flap surgeries and one underwent sphincter pharyngoplasty). Four patients were found to have OSA based on the results of the polysomnography (average apnea/hypopnea index of 4.9 events/h, median?=?5.1, SD?=?2.1). Two required continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) due to moderate OSA. Conclusion: Surgery is often necessary to correct VPI in patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Monitoring for OSA should be considered after surgical correction of VPI due to a high occurrence in this population. Furthermore, families should be counseled of the risk of OSA after surgery and the potential need for treatment with CPAP. PMID:25157342

Crockett, David Jeffrey; Goudy, Steven L.; Chinnadurai, Sivakumar; Wootten, Christopher Todd

2014-01-01

78

Chromosome 1p36 deletions: the clinical phenotype and molecular characterization of a common newly delineated syndrome.  

PubMed Central

Deletions of the distal short arm of chromosome 1 (1p36) represent a common, newly delineated deletion syndrome, characterized by moderate to severe psychomotor retardation, seizures, growth delay, and dysmorphic features. Previous cytogenetic underascertainment of this chromosomal deletion has made it difficult to characterize the clinical and molecular aspects of the syndrome. Recent advances in cytogenetic technology, particularly FISH, have greatly improved the ability to identify 1p36 deletions and have allowed a clearer definition of the clinical phenotype and molecular characteristics of this syndrome. We have identified 14 patients with chromosome 1p36 deletions and have assessed the frequency of each phenotypic feature and clinical manifestation in the 13 patients with pure 1p36 deletions. The physical extent and parental origin of each deletion were determined by use of FISH probes on cytogenetic preparations and by analysis of polymorphic DNA markers in the patients and their available parents. Clinical examinations revealed that the most common features and medical problems in patients with this deletion syndrome include large anterior fontanelle (100%), motor delay/hypotonia (92%), moderate to severe mental retardation (92%), growth delay (85%), pointed chin (80%), eye/vision problems (75%), seizures (72%), flat nasal bridge (65%), clinodactyly and/or short fifth finger(s) (64%), low-set ear(s) (59%), ear asymmetry (57%), hearing deficits (56%), abusive behavior (56%), thickened ear helices (53%), and deep-set eyes (50%). FISH and DNA polymorphism analysis showed that there is no uniform region of deletion but, rather, a spectrum of different deletion sizes with a common minimal region of deletion overlap. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:9326330

Shapira, S K; McCaskill, C; Northrup, H; Spikes, A S; Elder, F F; Sutton, V R; Korenberg, J R; Greenberg, F; Shaffer, L G

1997-01-01

79

Deletion of locus D15S113 in a mother and son without features of Angelman syndrome  

SciTech Connect

Deletions of the proximal long arm of chromosome 15 result in Angelman syndrome when inherited from the mother and Prader-Willi syndrome when inherited from the father. The minimal critical deletion region for Angelman syndrome has been reported to include D15S74 (B1.5), D15S10 (TD3-21), and D15S113 (LS6-1). We report a mother and son who have deletions that include D15S113 but who do not have features of Angelman syndrome. D.H. is a 10-year-old white male referred for genetic evaluation due to mental retardation. He has mild to moderate mental retardation and minor dysmorphic features, including downslanting palpebral fissures, prominent nose, broad forehead, small chin, midface hypoplasia, and large ears. His mother (B.S.) has slightly downslanting palpebral fissures and a borderline intellectual deficit. Neither individual has the seizures, excessive laughter, hand clapping, ataxia or facial dysmorphism which are characteristic of Angelman syndrome. The linear order of probes mapping to 15q11-q13 is 15cen-D15S11-D15S13-D15S10-D15S113-GABRB3-D15S12-tel. The proximal border of the deletion in our patients lies between D15S10 and D15S113. The fact that these two individuals do not have Angelman syndrome, despite deletion of D15S113, suggests that the Angelman syndrome critical deletion region should be further refined to exclude the D15S113 locus. In addition, the findings of a more severe intellectual impairment in the son than in the mother suggests that the region immediately telomeric to the critical deletion region for Angelman syndrome may contain imprintable genes that influence intellectual function.

Michaelis, R.C.; Tarleton, J.C.; Donlon, T.A.; Simensen, R.J. [Greenwood Gneetic Center, SC (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

80

Identification of intragenic deletions and duplication in the FLCN gene in Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome.  

PubMed

Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHDS), caused by germline mutations in the folliculin (FLCN) gene, predisposes individuals to develop fibrofolliculomas, pulmonary cysts, spontaneous pneumothoraces, and kidney cancer. The FLCN mutation detection rate by bidirectional DNA sequencing in the National Cancer Institute BHDS cohort was 88%. To determine if germline FLCN intragenic deletions/duplications were responsible for BHDS in families lacking FLCN sequence alterations, 23 individuals from 15 unrelated families with clinically confirmed BHDS but no sequence variations were analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR (RQ-PCR) using primers for all 14 exons. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) assay and array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) were utilized to confirm and fine map the rearrangements. Long-range PCR followed by DNA sequencing was used to define the breakpoints. We identified six unique intragenic deletions in nine patients from six different BHDS families including four involving exon 1, one that spanned exons 2-5, and one that encompassed exons 7-14 of FLCN. Four of the six deletion breakpoints were mapped, revealing deletions ranging from 5688 to 9189 bp. In addition, one 1341 bp duplication, which included exons 10 and 11, was identified and mapped. This report confirms that large intragenic FLCN deletions can cause BHDS and documents the first large intragenic FLCN duplication in a BHDS patient. Additionally, we identified a deletion "hot spot" in the 5'-noncoding-exon 1 region that contains the putative FLCN promoter based on a luciferase reporter assay. RQ-PCR, MLPA and aCGH may be used for clinical molecular diagnosis of BHDS in patients who are FLCN mutation-negative by DNA sequencing. PMID:21412933

Benhammou, Jihane N; Vocke, Cathy D; Santani, Avni; Schmidt, Laura S; Baba, Masaya; Seyama, Kuniaki; Wu, Xiaolin; Korolevich, Susana; Nathanson, Katherine L; Stolle, Catherine A; Linehan, W Marston

2011-06-01

81

Diminutive somatic deletions in the 5q region lead to a phenotype atypical of classical 5q- syndrome  

PubMed Central

Classical 5q? syndrome is an acquired macrocytic anemia of the elderly. Similar to Diamond Blackfan anemia (DBA), an inherited red cell aplasia, the bone marrow is characterized by a paucity of erythroid precursors. RPS14 deletions in combination with other deletions in the region have been implicated as causative of the 5q? syndrome phenotype. We asked whether smaller, less easily detectable deletions could account for a syndrome with a modified phenotype. We employed single-nucleotide polymorphism array genotyping to identify small deletions in patients diagnosed with DBA and other anemias lacking molecular diagnoses. Diminutive mosaic deletions involving RPS14 were identified in a 5-year-old patient with nonclassical DBA and in a 17-year-old patient with myelodysplastic syndrome. Patients with nonclassical DBA and other hypoproliferative anemias may have somatically acquired 5q deletions with RPS14 haploinsufficiency not identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization or cytogenetic testing, thus refining the spectrum of disorders with 5q? deletions. PMID:23943650

Farrar, Jason E.; Atsidaftos, Eva; Muir, Ellen; Narla, Anupama; Markello, Thomas C.; Singh, Sharon A.; Landowski, Michael; Gazda, Hanna T.; Blanc, Lionel; Liu, Johnson M.; Ellis, Steven R.; Arceci, Robert J.; Ebert, Benjamin L.; Bodine, David M.; Lipton, Jeffrey M.

2013-01-01

82

Deletion at chromosome 16p13. 3 as a cause of Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome: Clinical aspects  

SciTech Connect

In the accompanying paper, a chromosomal localization of the Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome by cytogenetic investigations with fluorescence in situ hybridization techniques at chromosome 16p13.3 is described. The authors investigated 19 of these patients and their parents (a) to ascertain the parental origin of the chromosome with the deletion in families where such a deletion was detected, (b) to disclose whether uniparental disomy plays a role in etiology, and (c) to compare clinical features in patients with a deletion to those in individuals in whom deletions were not detectable. Molecular studies showed a copy of chromosome 16 from each parent in all 19 patients. Uniparental disomy was also excluded for five other chromosome arms known to be imprinted in mice. None of the probes used for determining the origin of the deleted chromosome proved to be informative. The clinical features were essentially the same in patients with and without visible deletion, with a possible exception for the incidence of microcephaly, angulation of thumbs and halluces, and partial duplication of the halluces. A small deletion at 16p13.3 may be found in some patients with Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome. Cytogenetically undetectable deletions, point mutations, mosaicism, heterogeneity, or phenocopy by a nongenetic cause are the most probable explanations for the absence of cytogenetic or molecular abnormalities in other patients with Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome. 26 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs.

Hennekam, R.C.M.; Tilanus, M.; Boogaard, M.J.H. van den (State Univ., Utrecht (Netherlands)); Hamel, B.C.J.; Voshart-van Heeren, H.; Mariman, E.C.M.; Beersum, S.E.C. van (University Hospital, Nijmegen (Netherlands)); Breuning, M.H. (Clinical Genetics Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands))

1993-02-01

83

Duplication 5q and deletion 9p due to a t(5;9)(q34;p23) in 2 cousins with features of Hunter-McAlpine syndrome and hypothyroidism.  

PubMed

We report on 2 similarly affected cousins with a compound imbalance resulting from a familial t(5;9)(q34;p23) and entailing both an ?17-Mb 5q terminal duplication and an ?12-Mb 9p terminal deletion as determined by G-banding, subtelomere FISH, and aCGH. The proband's karyotype was 46,XX,der(9)t(5;9)(q34;p23)mat.ish der(9)t(5;9)(q34;p23)(9pter-,5qter+).arr 5q34q35(163,328,000-180,629,000)×3, 9p24p23(194,000-12,664,000)×1. Her cousin had the same unbalanced karyotype inherited from his father. The clinical phenotype mainly consists of a distinct craniofacial dysmorphism featuring microcephaly, flat facies, down slanting palpebral fissures, small flat nose, long philtrum, and small mouth with thin upper lip. Additional remarkable findings were craniosynostosis of several sutures, craniolacunia and preaxial polydactyly in the proband and hypothyroidism in both subjects. The observed clinical constellation generally fits the phenotypic spectrum of the 5q distal duplication syndrome (known also as Hunter-McAlpine syndrome), except for the thyroid insufficiency which can likely be ascribed to the concurrent 9p deletion, as at least 4 other 9pter monosomic patients without chromosome 5 involvement had this hormonal disorder. The present observation further confirms the etiology of the HMS phenotype from gain of the 5q35?qter region, expands the clinical pictures of partial trisomy 5q and monosomy 9p, and provides a comprehensive list of 160 patients with 5q distal duplication. PMID:21063078

Vásquez-Velásquez, A I; García-Castillo, H A; González-Mercado, M G; Dávalos, I P; Raca, G; Xu, X; Dwyer, E; Rivera, H

2011-01-01

84

Disabilities and cognition in children and adolescents with 22q11 deletion syndrome.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate cognitive and other disabilities in children and adolescents with 22q11 deletion syndrome. Thirty-three children (15 females, 18 males; age range 3 to 19y, median 7y 6mo) with 22q11 deletion were investigated for growth, development, neurology, cognition, motor function, and participation (measured as handicap**). Half of the children had never crawled, although they had shuffled, and commencement of walking was delayed (mean 18mo, SD 6mo). Hypotonia was found in 25 and poor balance in 24 of the 33 children; 17 out of 27 had definite motor problems, including two with spastic hemiplegia. Intelligence quotient (IQ) range was 50 to 100. Eleven patients had an IQ below 70, and 15 between 70 and 84. Verbal IQ was higher than Performance IQ. Level of handicap within the study group was considered moderate, and all but one child had extra support at school. We conclude that children with 22q11 deletion syndrome have multiple neurological, motor, and cognitive problems. Although the severity and number of problems varies, the combination of impairments and disabilities results in a low level of participation. PMID:15739722

Oskarsdóttir, S; Belfrage, M; Sandstedt, E; Viggedal, G; Uvebrant, P

2005-03-01

85

Eye Gaze During Face Processing in Children and Adolescents with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a neurogenetic syndrome with high risk for the development of psychiatric disorder. There is interest in identifying reliable markers for measuring and monitoring socio-emotional impairments in 22q11DS during development. The current study investigated eye gaze as a potential marker during a…

Glaser, Bronwyn; Debbane, Martin; Ottet, Marie-Christine; Vuilleumier, Patrik; Zesiger, Pascal; Antonarakis, Stylianos E.; Eliez, Stephan

2010-01-01

86

Atypical Rett syndrome with selective FOXG1 deletion detected by comparative genomic hybridization: case report and review of literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rett syndrome is a severe neurodegenerative disorder characterized by acquired microcephaly, communication dysfunction, psychomotor regression, seizures and stereotypical hand movements. Mutations in methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2) are identified in most patients with classic Rett syndrome. Genetic studies in patients with a Rett variant have expanded the spectrum of underlying genetic etiologies. Recently, a deletion encompassing several genes in

Francois Dominique Jacob; Vijay Ramaswamy; John Andersen; Francois V Bolduc

2009-01-01

87

Memory in Intellectually Matched Groups of Young Participants with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome and Those with Schizophrenia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22qDS) and schizophrenia have genetic and neuropsychological similarities, but are likely to differ in memory profile. Confirming differences in memory function between the two disorders, and identifying their genetic determinants, can help to define genetic subtypes in both syndromes, identify genetic risk factors…

Kravariti, Eugenia; Jacobson, Clare; Morris, Robin; Frangou, Sophia; Murray, Robin M.; Tsakanikos, Elias; Habel, Alex; Shearer, Jo

2010-01-01

88

Overlapping Numerical Cognition Impairments in Children with Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion or Turner Syndromes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with one of two genetic disorders (chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome and Turner syndrome) as well typically developing controls, participated in three cognitive processing experiments. Two experiments were designed to test cognitive processes involved in basic aspects numerical cognition. The third was a test of simple manual motor…

Simon, T. J.; Takarae, Y.; DeBoer, T.; McDonald-McGinn, D. M.; Zackai, E. H.; Ross, J. L.

2008-01-01

89

Large deletions encompassing the TCOF1 and CAMK2A genes are responsible for Treacher Collins syndrome with intellectual disability.  

PubMed

Mandibulofacial dysostosis is part of a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders of craniofacial development, which lead to malar and mandibular hypoplasia. Treacher Collins syndrome is the major cause of mandibulofacial dysostosis and is due to mutations in the TCOF1 gene. Usually patients with Treacher Collins syndrome do not present with intellectual disability. Recently, the EFTUD2 gene was identified in patients with mandibulofacial dysostosis associated with microcephaly, intellectual disability and esophageal atresia. We report on two patients presenting with mandibulofacial dysostosis characteristic of Treacher Collins syndrome, but associated with unexpected intellectual disability, due to a large deletion encompassing several genes including the TCOF1 gene. We discuss the involvement of the other deleted genes such as CAMK2A or SLC6A7 in the cognitive development delay of the patients reported, and we propose the systematic investigation for 5q32 deletion when intellectual disability is associated with Treacher Collins syndrome. PMID:23695276

Vincent, Marie; Collet, Corinne; Verloes, Alain; Lambert, Laetitia; Herlin, Christian; Blanchet, Catherine; Sanchez, Elodie; Drunat, Séverine; Vigneron, Jacqueline; Laplanche, Jean-Louis; Puechberty, Jacques; Sarda, Pierre; Geneviève, David

2014-01-01

90

Williams-Beuren syndrome: phenotypic variability and deletions of chromosomes 7, 11, and 22 in a series of 52 patients.  

PubMed Central

Fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) and conventional chromosome analysis were performed on a series of 52 patients with classical Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS), suspected WBS, or supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS). In the classical WBS group, 22/23 (96%) had a submicroscopic deletion of the elastin locus on chromosome 7, but the remaining patient had a unique interstitial deletion of chromosome 11 (del(11)(q13.5q14.2)). In the suspected WBS group 2/22 (9%) patients had elastin deletions but a third patient had a complex karyotype including a ring chromosome 22 with a deletion of the long arm (r(22)(p11-->q13)). In the SVAS group, 1/7 (14%) had an elastin gene deletion, despite having normal development and minimal signs of WBS. Overall, some patients with submicroscopic elastin deletions have fewer features of Williams-Beuren syndrome than those with other cytogenetic abnormalities. These results, therefore, emphasise the importance of a combined conventional and molecular cytogenetic approach to diagnosis and suggest that the degree to which submicroscopic deletions of chromosome 7 extend beyond the elastin locus may explain some of the phenotypic variability found in Williams-Beuren syndrome. Images PMID:9004128

Joyce, C A; Zorich, B; Pike, S J; Barber, J C; Dennis, N R

1996-01-01

91

22q11 Deletion Syndrome and Multiple Complex Developmental Disorder: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11 DS) is a multisystemic condition that may also include neuropsychiatric disorders. We present a case of a 15-year-old boy that was evaluated for social difficulties, and anxiety with the above genetic abnormality. Clinical features were rather complex as different neuropsychiatric symptoms emerged from assessment and clinical evaluation. As a result we propose that Multiple Complex Developmental Disorder (MCDD) would be the best fitting comprehensive diagnosis to be added to the DSM-IV category of Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified. PMID:23519073

Scandurra, Valeria; Scordo, Maria R.; Canitano, Roberto; de Bruin, Esther I.

2013-01-01

92

Alagille syndrome with interstitial 20p deletion derived from maternal ins(7;20)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a 6-year-old Chinese boy with Alagille syndrome and an interstitial 20p deletion, with a karyotype of 46,XY,der(20)dir ins(7;20)(q11.23;p11.23p12.2 or p12.2p13)mat. He had a peculiar face and suffered from congenital heart disease, growth retardation, severe cholestasis, hepatosplenomegaly, and impaired renal function. The karyotype of his mother showed a balanced translocation, 46,XX,dir ins(7;20)(q11.23; p11.23p12.2 or p12.2p13), and her phenotype was

Pi-Hsien Li; San-Ging Shu; Ching-Shiang Chi; Feng-Chu Lo; Mei-Chin Wen

1996-01-01

93

Hypocalcemia in a Patient With Osteosarcoma and 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Summary Hypocalcemia is a rare complication of osteosarcoma, having been described in only 4 reports. We present the case of a 16-year-old male with metastatic osteosarcoma of the right humerus who was found to have severe asymptomatic hypocalcemia. Cytogenetic analysis of peripheral blood revealed a microdeletion in band 22q11.2. Following amputation of the tumor-bearing extremity, the patient’s calcium levels increased, but did not normalize. These findings suggested that the etiology of his hypocalcemia was osteoblastic utilization of calcium by the tumor, exacerbated by 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. PMID:18799940

Mussai, Francis J.; Cunningham, Lea C.; Rezvani, Geoffrey; Stratakis, Constantine A.; Reynolds, James C.; Nesterova, Galina; Henshaw, Robert M.; Levine, Jason E.; Helman, Lee J.; Arthur, Diane C.; Kim, Su Young

2009-01-01

94

Definition of 5q11.2 microdeletion syndrome reveals overlap with CHARGE syndrome and 22q11 deletion syndrome phenotypes.  

PubMed

Microdeletions of the 5q11.2 region are rare; in literature only two patients with a deletion in this region have been reported so far. In this study, we describe four additional patients and further define this new 5q11.2 microdeletion syndrome. A comparison of the features observed in all six patients with overlapping 5q11.2 deletions showed a phenotypic spectrum that overlaps with CHARGE syndrome and 22q11.2 deletion syndrome including choanal atresia, developmental delay, heart defects, external ear abnormalities, and short stature. No colobomas or abnormalities of semicircular canals and olfactory nerves were reported. Two male patients had genital abnormalities. We estimated a 2.0?Mb (53.0-55.0?Mb) Shortest Region of Overlap (SRO) for the main clinical characteristics of the syndrome. This region contains nine genes and two non-coding microRNAs. In this region DHX29 serves as the candidate gene as it encodes an ATP-dependent RNA-helicase that is involved in the initiation of RNA translation. Screening a small cohort of 14 patients who presented the main features, however, did not reveal any pathogenic abnormalities of DHX29. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25251717

Snijders Blok, Charlotte; Corsten-Janssen, Nicole; FitzPatrick, David R; Romano, Corrado; Fichera, Marco; Vitello, Girolamo Aurelio; Willemsen, Marjolein H; Schoots, Jeroen; Pfundt, Rolph; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Conny M A; Hoefsloot, Lies; Kleefstra, Tjitske

2014-11-01

95

A Comparative Study of Cognition and Brain Anatomy between Two Neurodevelopmental Disorders: 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome and Williams Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is associated with intellectual disability, poor social interaction and a high prevalence of psychosis. However, to date there have been no studies comparing cognition and neuroanatomical characteristics of 22q11DS with other syndromes to investigate if the cognitive strengths and difficulties and…

Campbell, Linda E.; Stevens, Angela; Daly, Eileen; Toal, Fiona; Azuma, Rayna; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Murphy, Declan G. M.; Murphy, Kieran C.

2009-01-01

96

Signature MicroRNA expression patterns identified in humans with 22q11.2 deletion/DiGeorge syndrome  

PubMed Central

Patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome have heterogeneous clinical presentations including immunodeficiency, cardiac anomalies, and hypocalcemia. The syndrome arises from hemizygous deletions of up to 3 Mb on chromosome 22q11.2, a region that contains 60 genes and 4 microRNAs. MicroRNAs are important post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression, with mutations in several microRNAs causal to specific human diseases. We characterized the microRNA expression patterns in the peripheral blood of patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (n=31) compared to normal controls (n=22). Eighteen microRNAs had a statistically significant differential expression (p<0.05), with miR-185 expressed at 0.4× normal levels. The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome cohort exhibited microRNA expression hyper-variability and group dysregulation. Selected microRNAs distinguished patients with cardiac anomalies, hypocalcemia, and/or low circulating T cell counts. In summary, microRNA profiling of chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome/DiGeorge patients revealed a signature microRNA expression pattern distinct from normal controls with clinical relevance. PMID:23454892

de la Morena, M. Teresa; Eitson, Jennifer L.; Dozmorov, Igor M.; Belkaya, Serkan; Hoover, Ashley R.; Anguiano, Esperanza; Pascual, M. Virginia; van Oers, Nicolai S.C.

2013-01-01

97

Familial deletion within NLGN4 associated with autism and Tourette syndrome.  

PubMed

Neuroligin 4 (NLGN4) is a member of a cell adhesion protein family that appears to play a role in the maturation and function of neuronal synapses. Mutations in the X-linked NLGN4 gene are a potential cause of autistic spectrum disorders, and mutations have been reported in several patients with autism, Asperger syndrome, and mental retardation. We describe here a family with a wide variation in neuropsychiatric illness associated with a deletion of exons 4, 5, and 6 of NLGN4. The proband is an autistic boy with a motor tic. His brother has Tourette syndrome and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Their mother, a carrier, has a learning disorder, anxiety, and depression. This family demonstrates that NLGN4 mutations can be associated with a wide spectrum of neuropsychiatric conditions and that carriers may be affected with milder symptoms. PMID:18231125

Lawson-Yuen, Amy; Saldivar, Juan-Sebastian; Sommer, Steve; Picker, Jonathan

2008-05-01

98

Intergenerational and intrafamilial phenotypic variability in 22q11.2 Deletion syndrome subjects  

PubMed Central

Background 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is a common microdeletion syndrome, which occurs in approximately 1:4000 births. Familial autosomal dominant recurrence of the syndrome is detected in about 8-28% of the cases. Aim of this study is to evaluate the intergenerational and intrafamilial phenotypic variability in a cohort of familial cases carrying a 22q11.2 deletion. Methods Thirty-two 22q11.2DS subjects among 26 families were enrolled. Results Second generation subjects showed a significantly higher number of features than their transmitting parents (212 vs 129, P?=?0.0015). Congenital heart defect, calcium-phosphorus metabolism abnormalities, developmental and speech delay were more represented in the second generation (P?syndrome. PMID:24383682

2014-01-01

99

Novel deletions involving the USH2A gene in patients with Usher syndrome and retinitis pigmentosa  

PubMed Central

Purpose The aim of the present work was to identify and characterize large rearrangements involving the USH2A gene in patients with Usher syndrome and nonsyndromic retinitis pigmentosa. Methods The multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) technique combined with a customized array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis was applied to 40 unrelated patients previously screened for point mutations in the USH2A gene in which none or only one pathologic mutation was identified. Results We detected six large deletions involving USH2A in six out of the 40 cases studied. Three of the patients were homozygous for the deletion, and the remaining three were compound heterozygous with a previously identified USH2A point mutation. In five of these cases, the patients displayed Usher type 2, and the remaining case displayed nonsyndromic retinitis pigmentosa. The exact breakpoint junctions of the deletions found in USH2A in four of these cases were characterized. Conclusions Our study highlights the need to develop improved efficient strategies of mutation screening based upon next generation sequencing (NGS) that reduce cost, time, and complexity and allow simultaneous identification of all types of disease-causing mutations in diagnostic procedures. PMID:25352746

Garcia-Garcia, Gema; Jaijo, Teresa; Aparisi, Maria J.; Larrieu, Lise; Faugere, Valerie; Blanco-Kelly, Fiona; Ayuso, Carmen; Roux, Anne-Francoise; Millan, Jose M.

2014-01-01

100

Autosomal recessive Wolfram syndrome associated with an 8.5 kb mtDNA single deletion  

SciTech Connect

Wolfram syndrome (MIM 222300) is characterized by optic atrophy, diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, neurosensory hearing loss, urinary tract abnormalities, and neurological dysfunction. The association of clinical manifestations in tissues and organs unrelated functionally or embryologically suggested the possibility of a mitochondrial implication in the disease, which has been demonstrated in two sporadic cases. Nonetheless, familial studies suggested an autosomal recessive mode of transmission, and recent data demonstrated linkage with markers on the short arm of human chromosome 4. The patient reported here, as well as her parents and unaffected sister, carried a heteroplasmic 8.5-kb deletion in mtDNA. The deletion accounted for 23% of mitochondrial genomes in lymphocytes from the patient and {approximately}5% in the tissues studied from members of her family. The presence of the deletion in the patient in a proportion higher than in her unaffected parents suggests a putative defect in a nuclear gene that acts at the mitochondrial level. 39 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Barrientos, A.; Casademont, J.; Cardellach, F. [Universitat de Barcelona (Spain)] [and others

1996-05-01

101

Gross deletions in TCOF1 are a cause of Treacher-Collins-Franceschetti syndrome.  

PubMed

Treacher-Collins-Franceschetti syndrome (TCS) is an autosomal dominant craniofacial disorder characterised by midface hypoplasia, micrognathia, downslanting palpebral fissures, eyelid colobomata, and ear deformities that often lead to conductive deafness. A total of 182 patients with signs consistent with a diagnosis of TCS were screened by DNA sequence and dosage analysis of the TCOF1 gene. In all, 92 cases were found to have a pathogenic mutation by sequencing and 5 to have a partial gene deletion. A further case had a novel in-frame deletion in the alternatively spliced exon 6A of uncertain pathogenicity. The majority of the pathogenic sequence changes were found to predict premature protein termination, however, four novel missense changes in the LIS1 homology motif at the 5' end of the gene were identified. The partial gene deletions of different sizes represent ~5.2% of all the pathogenic TCOF1 mutations identified, indicating that gene rearrangements account for a significant proportion of TCS cases. This is the first report of gene rearrangements resulting in TCS. These findings expand the TCOF1 mutation spectrum indicating that dosage analysis should be performed together with sequence analysis, a strategy that is predicted to have a sensitivity of 71% for patients in whom TCS is strongly suspected. PMID:22317976

Bowman, Michael; Oldridge, Michael; Archer, Caroline; O'Rourke, Anthony; McParland, Joanna; Brekelmans, Roel; Seller, Anneke; Lester, Tracy

2012-07-01

102

Williams-Beuren syndrome: phenotypic variability and deletions of chromosomes 7, 11, and 22 in a series of 52 patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) and conventional chromosome analysis were performed on a series of 52 patients with classical Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS), suspected WBS, or supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS). In the classical WBS group, 22\\/23 (96%) had a submicroscopic deletion of the elastin locus on chromosome 7, but the remaining patient had a unique interstitial deletion of chromosome 11 (del(11)(q13.5q14.2)).

C A Joyce; B Zorich; S J Pike; J C Barber; N R Dennis

1996-01-01

103

Identification of a Putative Transcription Factor Gene ( WBSCR11) That Is Commonly Deleted in Williams–Beuren Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Williams–Beuren syndrome (WBS) is a complex developmental disorder involving the hemizygous deletion of genes on chromosome 7q11.23. The cardiovascular aspects of the disorder are known to be caused by haploinsufficiency forELN,but the genes contributing to the other features of WBS are still undetermined. Fifteen genes have been shown to reside within the WBS deletion, and here we report the identification

Lucy R. Osborne; Tracey Campbell; Amy Daradich; Stephen W. Scherer; Lap-Chee Tsui

1999-01-01

104

Functional Gene-Expression Analysis Shows Involvement of Schizophrenia-Relevant Pathways in Patients with 22q11 Deletion Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

22q11 Deletion Syndrome (22q11DS) is associated with dysmorphology and a high prevalence of schizophrenia-like symptoms. Several genes located on chromosome 22q11 have been linked to schizophrenia. The deletion is thought to disrupt the expression of multiple genes involved in maturation and development of neurons and neuronal circuits, and neurotransmission. We investigated whole-genome gene expression of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMC's)

Nico J. M. van Beveren; Lianne C. Krab; Sigrid Swagemakers; Gabriella Buitendijk; Erik Boot; Peter van der Spek; Ype Elgersma; Therese A. M. J. van Amelsvoort

2012-01-01

105

Clinical management of myelodysplastic syndromes with interstitial deletion of chromosome 5q.  

PubMed

Deletions of the long (q) arm of chromosome 5 [del(5q)]occur in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) including, but not limited to, those who meet the WHO definition of the 5q- syndrome. Del(5q) MDS patients frequently have symptomatic anemia, and its treatment has traditionally consisted of RBC transfusions and, for some, iron chelation therapy. Erythropoietin, darbepoetin, hypomethylating agents, and lenalidomide can enhance erythropoiesis in MDS patients with anemia, increasing hemoglobin levels and abrogating RBC transfusion requirements. Lenalidomide is particularly active in treating the anemia of del(5q) MDS, which is especially relevant given the low response rate to erythropoietin in this group of patients. In a recent study of 43 MDS patients, 10 of 12 patients (83%) with del(5q) MDS achieved sustained RBC transfusion independence (or a > 2 g/dL increase in hemoglobin), compared with 57% of those with a normal karyotype and 12% of those with other karyotypic abnormalities. Complete cytogenetic remissions were achieved in 75% (nine of 12) of the del(5q) MDS patients, suggesting that lenalidomide targets a fundamental pathogenetic feature of MDS that is more pronounced in the presence of chromosomal 5q deletions. This review highlights some issues about the classification and treatment of del(5q) MDS. PMID:16735711

Nimer, Stephen D

2006-06-01

106

In frame fibrillin-1 gene deletion in autosomal dominant Weill-Marchesani syndrome.  

PubMed

Weill-Marchesani syndrome (WMS) is a connective tissue disorder characterised by short stature, brachydactyly, joint stiffness, and characteristic eye anomalies including microspherophakia, ectopia of the lenses, severe myopia, and glaucoma. Both autosomal recessive (AR) and autosomal dominant (AD) modes of inheritance have been described and a gene for AR WMS has recently been mapped to chromosome 19p13.3-p13.2. Here, we report on the exclusion of chromosome 19p13.3-p13.2 in a large AD WMS family and show that, despite clinical homogeneity, AD and AR WMS are genetically heterogeneous entities. Because two AD WMS families were consistent with linkage to chromosome 15q21.1, the fibrillin-1 gene was sequenced and a 24 nt in frame deletion within a latent transforming growth factor-beta1 binding protein (LTBP) motif of the fibrillin-1 gene was found in a AD WMS family (exon 41, 5074_5097del). This in frame deletion cosegregated with the disease and was not found in 186 controls. This study strongly suggests that AD WMS and Marfan syndrome are allelic conditions at the fibrillin-1 locus and adds to the remarkable clinical heterogeneity of type I fibrillinopathies. PMID:12525539

Faivre, L; Gorlin, R J; Wirtz, M K; Godfrey, M; Dagoneau, N; Samples, J R; Le Merrer, M; Collod-Beroud, G; Boileau, C; Munnich, A; Cormier-Daire, V

2003-01-01

107

Unusual presentation of Kallmannn syndrome with contiguous gene deletion in three siblings of a family.  

PubMed

We report the case of 3 brothers aged 34, 24, and 22 years, unmarried, who presented to our endocrinology clinic with absence of secondary sexual characters. There was no such history in other siblings, but their maternal uncle had similar complaints. On examination, all 3 had pre-pubertal appearance, voice, and genitalia along with anosmia and bimanual synkinesia. Cryptorchidism was noticed in 2 while third person had small hypoplastic testes. It was also noted that all 3 patients had icthyosis mainly involving trunk, back, and limbs. The hormonal assays were consistent with isolated hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. IQ testing revealed mental retardation in the 2 patients. Ultrasound showed ectopic right kidney in one patient, atrophic right kidney in the second patient while the third patient had normal kidneys. MRI brain of all the patients showed poorly visualized olfactory tract and bulb. Kallmann syndrome (KS) was diagnosed based on hormonal evaluation and MRI results. Of the four types of KS: Synkinesia, renal anomaly, and X-linked pedigree pattern in our patients pointed towards X-linked type 1 KS as the possible cause. But, icthyosis and mental retardation are not usual presentation of type 1 KS. They are usually seen as a result of contiguous gene deletion of KAL1, steroid sulfatase (STS), and mental retardation (MRX) gene on X chromosome. Hence, the possible gene defect in our cases is inherited defect in contiguous gene deletion. The contiguous gene deletion as the cause of KS in 3 patients of same family is very rare and worth reporting. Also, the significance of phenotype-genotypic association in Kallmann syndrome is discussed. PMID:23565415

Madhu, Sri Venkat; Kant, Saket; Holla, Vikram Venkappayya; Arora, Rakesh; Rathi, Sahaj

2012-12-01

108

An unusual clinical severity of 16p11.2 deletion syndrome caused by unmasked recessive mutation of CLN3.  

PubMed

With the introduction of array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) techniques in the diagnostic setting of patients with developmental delay and congenital malformations, many new microdeletion syndromes have been recognized. One of these recently recognized microdeletion syndromes is the 16p11.2 deletion syndrome, associated with variable clinical outcomes including developmental delay, autism spectrum disorder, epilepsy, and obesity, but also apparently normal phenotype. We report on a 16-year-old patient with developmental delay, exhibiting retinis pigmentosa with progressive visual failure from the age of 9 years, ataxia, and peripheral neuropathy. Chromosomal microarray analysis identified a 1.7-Mb 16p11.2 deletion encompassing the 593-kb common deletion (?29.5 to ?30.1?Mb; Hg18) and the 220-kb distal deletion (?28.74 to ?28.95?Mb; Hg18) that partially included the CLN3 gene. As the patient's clinical findings were different from usual 16p11.2 microdeletion phenotypes and showed some features reminiscent of juvenile neuronal ceroid-lipofuscinosis (JNCL, Batten disease, OMIM 204200), we suspected and confirmed a mutation of the remaining CLN3 allele. This case further illustrates that unmasking of hemizygous recessive mutations by chromosomal deletion represents one explanation for the phenotypic variability observed in chromosomal deletion disorders. PMID:23860047

Pebrel-Richard, Céline; Debost-Legrand, Anne; Eymard-Pierre, Eléonore; Greze, Victoria; Kemeny, Stéphan; Gay-Bellile, Mathilde; Gouas, Laetitia; Tchirkov, Andreï; Vago, Philippe; Goumy, Carole; Francannet, Christine

2014-03-01

109

Reciprocal Deletion and Duplication of 17p11.2-11.2: Korean Patients with Smith-Magenis Syndrome and Potocki-Lupski Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Deletion and duplication of the -3.7-Mb region in 17p11.2 result in two reciprocal syndrome, Smith-Magenis syndrome and Potocki-Lupski syndrome. Smith-Magenis syndrome is a well-known developmental disorder. Potocki-Lupski syndrome has recently been recognized as a microduplication syndrome that is a reciprocal disease of Smith-Magenis syndrome. In this paper, we report on the clinical and cytogenetic features of two Korean patients with Smith-Magenis syndrome and Potocki-Lupski syndrome. Patient 1 (Smith-Magenis syndrome) was a 2.9-yr-old boy who showed mild dysmorphic features, aggressive behavioral problems, and developmental delay. Patient 2 (Potocki-Lupski syndrome), a 17-yr-old boy, had only intellectual disabilities and language developmental delay. We used array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) and found a 2.6 Mb-sized deletion and a reciprocal 2.1 Mb-sized duplication involving the 17p11.2. These regions overlapped in a 2.1 Mb size containing 11 common genes, including RAI1 and SREBF. PMID:23255863

Lee, Cha Gon; Park, Sang-Jin; Yun, Jun-No; Yim, Shin-Young

2012-01-01

110

A coalescence of two syndromes in a girl with terminal deletion and inverted duplication of chromosome 5  

PubMed Central

Background Rearrangements involving chromosome 5p often result in two syndromes, Cri-du-chat (CdC) and Trisomy 5p, caused by a deletion and duplication, respectively. The 5p15.2 has been defined as a critical region for CdC syndrome; however, genotype-phenotype studies allowed isolation of particular characteristics such as speech delay, cat-like cry and mental retardation, caused by distinct deletions of 5p. A varied clinical outcome was also observed in patients with Trisomy 5p. Duplications of 5p10-5p13.1 manifest themselves in a more severe phenotype, while trisomy of regions distal to 5p13 mainly causes mild and indistinct features. Combinations of a terminal deletion and inverted duplication of 5p are infrequent in literature. Consequences of these chromosomal rearrangements differ, depending on size of deletion and duplication in particular cases, although authors mainly describe the deletion as the cause of the observed clinical picture. Case presentation Here we present a 5-month-old Slovenian girl, with de novo terminal deletion and inverted duplication of chromosome 5p. Our patient presents features of both CdC and Trisomy 5. The most prominent features observed in our patient are a cat-like cry and severe malformations of the right ear. Conclusion The cat-like cry, characteristic of CdC syndrome, is noted in our patient despite the fact that the deletion is not fully consistent with previously defined cat-like cry critical region in this syndrome. Features like dolichocephaly, macrocephaly and ear malformations, associated with duplication of the critical region of Trisomy 5p, are also present, although this region has not been rearranged in our case. Therefore, the true meaning of the described chromosomal rearrangements is discussed. PMID:24517234

2014-01-01

111

Cryptic subtelomeric rearrangements and studies of telomere length.  

E-print Network

??Study One: An estimated five percent of individuals with unexplained mental retardation (MR) have chromosomally unbalanced subtelomere regions. Around half of these individuals inherited the… (more)

Wise, Jasen Lee.

2009-01-01

112

Alport syndrome, mental retardation, midface hypoplasia, and elliptocytosis: a new X linked contiguous gene deletion syndrome?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a family with four members, a mother, two sons, and a daughter, who show clinical features consistent with X linked Alport syndrome. The two males presented with additional features including mental retardation, dysmorphic facies with marked midface hypoplasia, and elliptocytosis. The elliptocytosis was not associated with any detectable abnormalities in red cell membrane proteins; red cell membrane stability

J J Jonsson; A Renieri; P G Gallagher; C E Kashtan; E M Cherniske; M Bruttini; M Piccini; F Vitelli; A Ballabio; B R Pober

1998-01-01

113

Temporal Lobe Anatomy and Psychiatric Symptoms in Velocardiofacial Syndrome (22Q11.2 Deletion Syndrome)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To investigate the association between mesial temporal lobe morphology, ratios of prefrontal cortex to amygdala and hippocampus volumes, and psychiatric symptomatology in children and adolescents with velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS). Method: Scores on behavioral rating scales and volumetric measures of the amygdala, hippocampus, and…

Kates, Wendy R.; Miller, Adam M.; Abdulsabur, Nuria; Antshel, Kevin M.; Conchelos, Jena; Fremont, Wanda; Roizen, Nancy

2006-01-01

114

Alport syndrome and diffuse leiomyomatosis: Deletions in the 5? end of the COL4A5 collagen gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alport syndrome and diffuse leiomyomatosis: Deletions in the 5? end of the COL4A5 collagen gene. Alport syndrome (AS) is an hereditary glomerulonephritis that is mainly inherited as a dominant X-linked trait. Structural abnormalities in the type IV collagen ?5 chain gene (COL4A5), which maps to Xq22, have recently been detected in several patients with AS. The association of AS with

Corinne Antignac; Jing Zhou; Marek Sanak; Pierre Cochat; Bernard Roussel; Georges Deschênes; Françoise Gros; Bertrand Knebelmann; Marie-Claude Hors-Cayla; Karl Tryggvason; Marie-Claire Gubler

1992-01-01

115

An interstitial deletion of 8q23.3-q24.22 associated with Langer-Giedion syndrome, Cornelia de Lange syndrome and epilepsy.  

PubMed

We present a 19-year-old male with laxity of skin and joints, sparse scalp hair, facial dysmorphism, epilepsy, multiple exostoses, scoliosis, gastroesophageal reflux, cardiovascular defects, and an 8q23.3-q24.22 deletion detected by array comparative genomic hybridization. The patient was previously misdiagnosed as having Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. However, his clinical findings are in fact correlated with trichorhinophalangeal syndrome type II/Langer-Giedion syndrome and Cornelia de Lange syndrome-4. We discuss the genotype-phenotype correlation and the consequence of haploinsufficiency of TRPS1, RAD21, EXT1 and KCNQ3 in this case. PMID:23933416

Chen, Chih-Ping; Lin, Shuan-Pei; Liu, Yu-Peng; Chern, Schu-Rern; Wu, Peih-Shan; Su, Jun-Wei; Chen, Yu-Ting; Lee, Chen-Chi; Wang, Wayseen

2013-10-15

116

Children with Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Exhibit Impaired Spatial Working Memory  

PubMed Central

Individuals with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) have been shown to have impairments in processing spatiotemporal information. We examined whether children with 22q11.2DS exhibit impairments in spatial working memory performance due to these weaknesses, even when controlling for maintenance of attention. Children with 22q11.2DS (n = 47) and typically developing controls (n = 49) ages 6–15 years saw images within a grid and after a delay, then indicated the positions of the images in the correct temporal order. Children with 22q11.2DS made more spatial and temporal errors than controls. Females with 22q11.2DS made more spatial and temporal errors than males. These results extend findings of impaired spatiotemporal processing into the memory domain in 22q11.2DS by documenting their influence on working memory performance. PMID:24679349

Wong, Ling M; Riggins, Tracy; Harvey, Danielle; Cabaral, Margarita; Simon, Tony J.

2014-01-01

117

Neuromotor deficits in children with the 22q11 deletion syndrome.  

PubMed

The 22q11 chromosomal deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is associated with a heterogeneous physical phenotype, neurocognitive deficits, and increased risk of later psychiatric illness. Sporadic clinical reports suggested motor differences, but quantitative studies of movement in children with 22q11DS are rare. If present in a majority of affected school-age children, characterization of neuromotor deficits may prove to be critical for intervention, neurocognitive test interpretation, and understanding etiology. We administered the Movement Assessment Battery for Children to 72 children ages 4.3 to 16.1, including 49 children confirmed positive for the 22q11 deletion and 23 control siblings. We predicted a higher frequency of global and domain impairment in manual dexterity, eye-hand coordination, and balance among affected children. Ninety-four percent of affected children had marked neuromotor deficits, and group scores differed broadly for both global and subarea measures. Secondary analyses showed no impairment differences between younger and older children with 22q11DS, and longitudinal trajectories for 12 affected children suggested stability of deficits over 3-year intervals. Neuromotor deficits in children with 22q11DS occur early in development, continue throughout the school-age years, should be considered in the interpretation of motor-based achievement and IQ tests, and require targeted and ongoing remediation throughout childhood and adolescence. Further studies examining the specificity of motor impairment to 22q11DS are needed. PMID:16991148

Sobin, Christina; Monk, Samantha H; Kiley-Brabeck, Karen; Khuri, Jananne; Karayiorgou, Maria

2006-12-01

118

Social skills and executive function deficits in children with the 22q11 Deletion Syndrome.  

PubMed

The 22q11 Deletion Syndrome (22q11DS) is among the most frequent gene deletion disorders, occurring once in every 6,000 live births. Descriptive reports have suggested marked social differences in affected children. Empirical studies are needed to verify possible social skills deficits among children with 22q11DS, and also to examine possible associations between their frequently reported executive function deficits and social anomalies. Fifty-two parents of affected children (n = 52) and participating control siblings (n=26) completed the Social Skills Rating System (SSRS) and Behavior Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). When compared with control siblings, children with 22q11DS had significantly lower SSRS ratings for Cooperation, Assertion, Responsibility, and Self-Control. Affected children had significantly higher BRIEF ratings for Initiation, Planning, Working Memory, and Monitoring. In affected children, global Social Skill was negatively correlated with BRIEF Global Composite scores. Initiation and Monitoring significantly predicted Social Skill. Children with 22q11DS have marked differences in social skill development which are associated with executive dysfunction. PMID:17362146

Kiley-Brabeck, Karen; Sobin, Christina

2006-01-01

119

Psychopathology and cognition in children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) have been reported to have high rates of cognitive and psychiatric problems. Aims To establish the nature and prevalence of psychiatric disorder and neurocognitive impairment in children with 22q11.2DS and test whether risk of psychopathology is mediated by the children’s intellectual impairment. Method Neurocognition and psychopathology were assessed in 80 children with 22q11.2DS (mean age 10.2 years, s.d. = 2.1) and 39 sibling controls (mean age 10.9 years, s.d. = 2.0). Results More than half (54%) of children with 22q11.2DS met diagnostic criteria for one or more DSM-IV-TR psychiatric disorder. These children had lower IQ (mean 76.8, s.d. = 13.0) than controls (mean 108.6, s.d. = 15.2) (P<0.001) and showed a range of neurocognitive impairments. Increased risk of psychopathology was not mediated by intellectual impairment. Conclusions 22q11.2DS is not related to a specific psychiatric phenotype in children. Moreover, the deletion has largely independent effects on IQ and risk of psychopathology, indicating that psychopathology in 22q11.2DS is not a non-specific consequence of generalised cognitive impairment. PMID:24115343

Niarchou, Maria; Zammit, Stanley; van Goozen, Stephanie H. M.; Thapar, Anita; Tierling, Hayley M.; Owen, Michael J.; van den Bree, Marianne B. M.

2014-01-01

120

Social Skills and Executive Function Deficits in Children With the 22q11 Deletion Syndrome  

PubMed Central

The 22q11 Deletion Syndrome (22q11DS) is among the most frequent gene deletion disorders, occurring once in every 6,000 live births. Descriptive reports have suggested marked social differences in affected children. Empirical studies are needed to verify possible social skills deficits among children with 22q11DS, and also to examine possible associations between their frequently reported executive function deficits and social anomalies. Fifty-two parents of affected children (n = 52) and participating control siblings (n = 26) completed the Social Skills Rating System (SSRS) and Behavior Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). When compared with control siblings, children with 22q11DS had significantly lower SSRS ratings for Cooperation, Assertion, Responsibility, and Self-Control. Affected children had significantly higher BRIEF ratings for Initiation, Planning, Working Memory, and Monitoring. In affected children, global Social Skill was negatively correlated with BRIEF Global Composite scores. Initiation and Monitoring significantly predicted Social Skill. Children with 22q11DS have marked differences in social skill development which are associated with executive dysfunction. PMID:17362146

Kiley-Brabeck, Karen; Sobin, Christina

2009-01-01

121

Delineation of 7q11.2 Deletions Associated with Williams–Beuren Syndrome and Mapping of a Repetitive Sequence to within and to Either Side of the Common Deletion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of Williams–Beuren syndrome (WBS) patients have been shown to have a microdeletion within 7q11.2 including the elastin gene locus. The extent of these deletions has, however, not been well characterized. Thirty-five deletion patients were tested for all polymorphic markers in the 7q11.2 region bounding ELN to define the extent of deletions associated with WBS. With only one exception,

W. P. Robinson; J. Waslynka; F. Bernasconi; M. Wang; S. Clark; D. Kotzot; A. Schinzel

1996-01-01

122

A Longitudinal Examination of the Psychoeducational, Neurocognitive, and Psychiatric Functioning in Children with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study sought to examine the longitudinal psychoeducational, neurocognitive, and psychiatric outcomes of children and adolescents with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), a population with a high incidence of major psychiatric illnesses appearing in late adolescence/early adulthood. Little is known of the developmental…

Hooper, Stephen R.; Curtiss, Kathleen; Schoch, Kelly; Keshavan, Matcheri S.; Allen, Andrew; Shashi, Vandana

2013-01-01

123

Social Skills and Associated Psychopathology in Children with Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: Implications for Interventions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Although distinctive neuropsychological impairments have been delineated in children with chromosome 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), social skills and social cognition remain less well-characterised. Objective: To examine social skills and social cognition and their relationship with neuropsychological function/behaviour and…

Shashi, V.; Veerapandiyan, A.; Schoch, K.; Kwapil, T.; Keshavan, M.; Ip, E.; Hooper, S.

2012-01-01

124

Emotion Regulation and Development in Children with Autism and 22q13 Deletion Syndrome: Evidence for Group Differences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emotion regulation (ER) abilities and developmental differences were investigated among 19 children with autism and 18 children with 22q13 Deletion Syndrome (a rare chromosomal disorder with certain autistic symptoms). The purpose of this study was to examine the phenotypic similarities between the two disorders. ER was measured by the Temperament…

Glaser, Sarah E.; Shaw, Steven R.

2011-01-01

125

Partial deletion of ANKRD11 results in the KBG phenotype distinct from the 16q24.3 microdeletion syndrome.  

PubMed

KBG syndrome (OMIM 148050) is a very rare genetic disorder characterized by macrodontia, distinctive craniofacial abnormalities, short stature, intellectual disability, skeletal, and neurologic involvement. Approximately 60 patients have been reported since it was first described in 1975. Recently mutations in ANKRD11 have been documented in patients with KBG syndrome, and it has been proposed that haploinsufficiency of ANKRD11 is the cause of this syndrome. In addition, copy number variation in the 16q24.3 region that includes ANKRD11 results in a variable phenotype that overlaps with KBG syndrome and also includes autism spectrum disorders and other dysmorphic facial features. In this report we present a 2½-year-old African American male with features highly suggestive of KBG syndrome. Genomic microarray identified an intragenic 154 kb deletion at 16q24.3 within ANKRD11. This child's mother was mosaic for the same deletion (present in approximately 38% of cells) and exhibited a milder phenotype including macrodontia, short stature and brachydactyly. This family provides additional evidence that ANKRD11 causes KBG syndrome, and the mild phenotype in the mosaic form suggests that KBG phenotypes might be dose dependent, differentiating it from the more variable 16q24.3 microdeletion syndrome. This family has additional features that might expand the phenotype of KBG syndrome. PMID:23494856

Khalifa, Mohamed; Stein, Jennifer; Grau, Lance; Nelson, Valery; Meck, Jeanne; Aradhya, Swaroop; Duby, John

2013-04-01

126

Periventricular heterotopia in 6q terminal deletion syndrome: role of the C6orf70 gene.  

PubMed

Periventricular nodular heterotopia is caused by defective neuronal migration that results in heterotopic neuronal nodules lining the lateral ventricles. Mutations in filamin A (FLNA) or ADP-ribosylation factor guanine nucleotide-exchange factor 2 (ARFGEF2) cause periventricular nodular heterotopia, but most patients with this malformation do not have a known aetiology. Using comparative genomic hybridization, we identified 12 patients with developmental brain abnormalities, variably combining periventricular nodular heterotopia, corpus callosum dysgenesis, colpocephaly, cerebellar hypoplasia and polymicrogyria, harbouring a common 1.2 Mb minimal critical deletion in 6q27. These anatomic features were mainly associated with epilepsy, ataxia and cognitive impairment. Using whole exome sequencing in 14 patients with isolated periventricular nodular heterotopia but no copy number variants, we identified one patient with periventricular nodular heterotopia, developmental delay and epilepsy and a de novo missense mutation in the chromosome 6 open reading frame 70 (C6orf70) gene, mapping in the minimal critical deleted region. Using immunohistochemistry and western blots, we demonstrated that in human cell lines, C6orf70 shows primarily a cytoplasmic vesicular puncta-like distribution and that the mutation affects its stability and subcellular distribution. We also performed in utero silencing of C6orf70 and of Phf10 and Dll1, the two additional genes mapping in the 6q27 minimal critical deleted region that are expressed in human and rodent brain. Silencing of C6orf70 in the developing rat neocortex produced periventricular nodular heterotopia that was rescued by concomitant expression of wild-type human C6orf70 protein. Silencing of the contiguous Phf10 or Dll1 genes only produced slightly delayed migration but not periventricular nodular heterotopia. The complex brain phenotype observed in the 6q terminal deletion syndrome likely results from the combined haploinsufficiency of contiguous genes mapping to a small 1.2 Mb region. Our data suggest that, of the genes within this minimal critical region, C6orf70 plays a major role in the control of neuronal migration and its haploinsufficiency or mutation causes periventricular nodular heterotopia. PMID:24056535

Conti, Valerio; Carabalona, Aurelie; Pallesi-Pocachard, Emilie; Parrini, Elena; Leventer, Richard J; Buhler, Emmanuelle; McGillivray, George; Michel, François J; Striano, Pasquale; Mei, Davide; Watrin, Françoise; Lise, Stefano; Pagnamenta, Alistair T; Taylor, Jenny C; Kini, Usha; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Novara, Francesca; Zuffardi, Orsetta; Dobyns, William B; Scheffer, Ingrid E; Robertson, Stephen P; Berkovic, Samuel F; Represa, Alfonso; Keays, David A; Cardoso, Carlos; Guerrini, Renzo

2013-11-01

127

Subtelomeric regions in mammalian cells are deficient in DNA double-strand break repair  

PubMed Central

We have previously demonstrated that double-strand breaks (DSBs) in regions near telomeres are much more likely to result in large deletions, gross chromosome rearrangements, and chromosome instability than DSBs at interstitial sites within chromosomes. In the present study, we investigated whether this response of subtelomeric regions to DSBs is a result of a deficiency in DSB repair by comparing the frequency of homologous recombination repair (HRR) and nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) at interstitial and telomeric sites following the introduction of DSBs by I-SceI endonuclease. We also monitored the frequency of small deletions, which have been shown to be the most common mutation at I-SceI-induced DSBs at interstitial sites. We observed no difference in the frequency of small deletions or HRR at interstitial and subtelomeric DSBs. However, the frequency of NHEJ was significantly lower at DSBs near telomeres compared to interstitial sites. The frequency of NHEJ was also lower at DSBs occurring at interstitial sites containing telomeric repeat sequences. We propose that regions near telomeres are deficient in classical NHEJ as a result of the presence of cis-acting telomere-binding proteins that cause DSBs to be processed as though they were telomeres, resulting in excessive resection, telomere loss, and eventual chromosome rearrangements by alternative NHEJ. PMID:21466975

Miller, Douglas; Reynolds, Gloria E.; Mejia, Ricardo; Stark, Jeremy M.; Murnane, John P.

2011-01-01

128

Monosomy 1p36 - a multifaceted and still enigmatic syndrome: four clinically diverse cases with shared white matter abnormalities.  

PubMed

Monosomy 1p36 is the most common subtelomeric deletion syndrome seen in humans. Uniform features of the syndrome include early developmental delay and consequent intellectual disability, muscular hypotonia, and characteristic dysmorphic facial features. The gene-rich nature of the chromosomal band, inconsistent deletion sizes and overlapping clinical features have complicated relevant genotype-phenotype correlations. We describe four patients with isolated chromosome 1p36 deletions. All patients shared white matter abnormalities, allowing us to narrow the critical region for white matter involvement to the deletion size of up to 2.5 Mb from the telomere. We hypothesise that there might be a gene(s) responsible for myelin development in the 1p36 subtelomeric region. Other significant clinical findings were progressive spastic paraparesis, epileptic encephalopathy, various skeletal anomalies, Prader-Willi-like phenotype, neoplastic changes - a haemangioma and a benign skin tumour, and in one case, sleep myoclonus, a clinical entity not previously described in association with 1p36 monosomy. Combined with prior studies, our results suggest that the clinical features seen in monosomy 1p36 have more complex causes than a classical contiguous gene deletion syndrome. PMID:24529875

Õiglane-Shlik, Eve; Puusepp, Sanna; Talvik, Inga; Vaher, Ulvi; Rein, Reet; Tammur, Pille; Reimand, Tiia; Teek, Rita; Žilina, Olga; Tomberg, Tiiu; Õunap, Katrin

2014-05-01

129

Identifying 22q11.2 deletion syndrome and psychosis using resting-state connectivity patterns.  

PubMed

The clinical picture associated with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) includes mild mental retardation and an increased risk of schizophrenia. While the clinical phenotype has been related to structural brain network alterations, there is only scarce information about functional connectivity in 22q11DS. However, such studies could lead to a better comprehension of the disease and reveal potential biomarkers for psychosis. A connectivity decoding approach was used to discriminate between 42 patients with 22q11DS and 41 controls using resting-state connectivity. The same method was then applied within the 22q11DS group to identify brain connectivity patterns specifically related to the presence of psychotic symptoms. An accuracy of 84 % was achieved in differentiating patients with 22q11DS from controls. The discriminative connections were widespread, but predominantly located in the bilateral frontal and right temporal lobes, and were significantly correlated to IQ. An 88 % accuracy was obtained for identification of existing psychotic symptoms within the patients group. The regions containing most discriminative connections included the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), the left superior temporal and the right inferior frontal gyri. Functional connectivity alterations in 22q11DS affect mostly frontal and right temporal lobes and are related to the syndrome's mild mental retardation. These results also provide evidence that resting-state connectivity can potentially become a biomarker for psychosis and that ACC plays an important role in the development of psychotic symptoms. PMID:24562717

Scariati, Elisa; Schaer, Marie; Richiardi, Jonas; Schneider, Maude; Debbané, Martin; Van De Ville, Dimitri; Eliez, Stephan

2014-11-01

130

Molecular definition of the chromosome 7 deletion in Williams syndrome and parent-of-origin effects on growth  

SciTech Connect

Williams syndrome (WS) is a developmental disorder with variable phenotypic expression associated, in most cases, with a hemizygous deletion of part of chromosomal band 7q11.23 that includes the elastin gene (ELN). We have investigated the frequency and size of the deletions, determined the parental origin, and correlated the molecular results with the clinical findings in 65 WS patients. Hemizygosity at the ELN locus was established by typing of two intragenic polymorphisms, quantitative Southern analysis, and/or FISH. Polymorphic markers covering the deletion and flanking regions were ordered by a combination of genetic and physical mapping. Genotyping of WS patients and available parents for 13 polymorphisms revealed that of 65 clinically defined WS patients, 61 (94%) had a deletion of the ELN locus and were also hemizygous (or non-informative) at loci D7S489B, D7S2476, D7S613, D7S2472, and D7S1870. None of the four patients without ELN deletion was hemizygous at any of the polymorphic loci studied. All patients were heterozygous (or noninformative) for centromeric (D7S1816, D7S1483, and D7S653) and telomeric (D7S489A, D7S675, and D7S669) flanking loci. The genetic distance between the most-centromeric deleted locus, D7S489B, and the most-telomeric one, D7S1870, is 2 cM. The breakpoints cluster at {approximately}1 cM to either side of ELN. In 39 families informative for parental origin, all deletions were de novo, and 18 were paternally and 21 maternally derived. Comparison of clinical data, collected in a standardized quantifiable format, revealed significantly more severe growth retardation and microcephaly in the maternal deletion group. An imprinted locus, silent on the paternal chromosome and contributing to statural growth, may be affected by the deletion. 53 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Perez Jurado, L.A.; Peoples, R.; Francke, U. [Stanford Univ. School of Medicine, CA (United States)] [and others

1996-10-01

131

Contribution of Large Genomic Rearrangements in Italian Lynch Syndrome Patients: Characterization of a Novel Alu-Mediated Deletion  

PubMed Central

Lynch syndrome is associated with germ-line mutations in the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes, mainly MLH1 and MSH2. Most of the mutations reported in these genes to date are point mutations, small deletions, and insertions. Large genomic rearrangements in the MMR genes predisposing to Lynch syndrome also occur, but the frequency varies depending on the population studied on average from 5 to 20%. The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of large rearrangements in the MLH1 and MSH2 genes in a well-characterised series of 63 unrelated Southern Italian Lynch syndrome patients who were negative for pathogenic point mutations in the MLH1, MSH2, and MSH6 genes. We identified a large novel deletion in the MSH2 gene, including exon 6 in one of the patients analysed (1.6% frequency). This deletion was confirmed and localised by long-range PCR. The breakpoints of this rearrangement were characterised by sequencing. Further analysis of the breakpoints revealed that this rearrangement was a product of Alu-mediated recombination. Our findings identified a novel Alu-mediated rearrangement within MSH2 gene and showed that large deletions or duplications in MLH1 and MSH2 genes are low-frequency mutational events in Southern Italian patients with an inherited predisposition to colon cancer. PMID:23484096

Duraturo, Francesca; Cavallo, Angela; Liccardo, Raffaella; Cudia, Bianca; De Rosa, Marina; Diana, Giuseppe; Izzo, Paola

2013-01-01

132

Fine mapping of the 1p36 deletion syndrome identifies mutation of PRDM16 as a cause of cardiomyopathy.  

PubMed

Deletion 1p36 syndrome is recognized as the most common terminal deletion syndrome. Here, we describe the loss of a gene within the deletion that is responsible for the cardiomyopathy associated with monosomy 1p36, and we confirm its role in nonsyndromic left ventricular noncompaction cardiomyopathy (LVNC) and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). With our own data and publically available data from array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), we identified a minimal deletion for the cardiomyopathy associated with 1p36del syndrome that included only the terminal 14 exons of the transcription factor PRDM16 (PR domain containing 16), a gene that had previously been shown to direct brown fat determination and differentiation. Resequencing of PRDM16 in a cohort of 75 nonsyndromic individuals with LVNC detected three mutations, including one truncation mutant, one frameshift null mutation, and a single missense mutant. In addition, in a series of cardiac biopsies from 131 individuals with DCM, we found 5 individuals with 4 previously unreported nonsynonymous variants in the coding region of PRDM16. None of the PRDM16 mutations identified were observed in more than 6,400 controls. PRDM16 has not previously been associated with cardiac disease but is localized in the nuclei of cardiomyocytes throughout murine and human development and in the adult heart. Modeling of PRDM16 haploinsufficiency and a human truncation mutant in zebrafish resulted in both contractile dysfunction and partial uncoupling of cardiomyocytes and also revealed evidence of impaired cardiomyocyte proliferative capacity. In conclusion, mutation of PRDM16 causes the cardiomyopathy in 1p36 deletion syndrome as well as a proportion of nonsyndromic LVNC and DCM. PMID:23768516

Arndt, Anne-Karin; Schafer, Sebastian; Drenckhahn, Jorg-Detlef; Sabeh, M Khaled; Plovie, Eva R; Caliebe, Almuth; Klopocki, Eva; Musso, Gabriel; Werdich, Andreas A; Kalwa, Hermann; Heinig, Matthias; Padera, Robert F; Wassilew, Katharina; Bluhm, Julia; Harnack, Christine; Martitz, Janine; Barton, Paul J; Greutmann, Matthias; Berger, Felix; Hubner, Norbert; Siebert, Reiner; Kramer, Hans-Heiner; Cook, Stuart A; MacRae, Calum A; Klaassen, Sabine

2013-07-11

133

Fine Mapping of the 1p36 Deletion Syndrome Identifies Mutation of PRDM16 as a Cause of Cardiomyopathy  

PubMed Central

Deletion 1p36 syndrome is recognized as the most common terminal deletion syndrome. Here, we describe the loss of a gene within the deletion that is responsible for the cardiomyopathy associated with monosomy 1p36, and we confirm its role in nonsyndromic left ventricular noncompaction cardiomyopathy (LVNC) and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). With our own data and publically available data from array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), we identified a minimal deletion for the cardiomyopathy associated with 1p36del syndrome that included only the terminal 14 exons of the transcription factor PRDM16 (PR domain containing 16), a gene that had previously been shown to direct brown fat determination and differentiation. Resequencing of PRDM16 in a cohort of 75 nonsyndromic individuals with LVNC detected three mutations, including one truncation mutant, one frameshift null mutation, and a single missense mutant. In addition, in a series of cardiac biopsies from 131 individuals with DCM, we found 5 individuals with 4 previously unreported nonsynonymous variants in the coding region of PRDM16. None of the PRDM16 mutations identified were observed in more than 6,400 controls. PRDM16 has not previously been associated with cardiac disease but is localized in the nuclei of cardiomyocytes throughout murine and human development and in the adult heart. Modeling of PRDM16 haploinsufficiency and a human truncation mutant in zebrafish resulted in both contractile dysfunction and partial uncoupling of cardiomyocytes and also revealed evidence of impaired cardiomyocyte proliferative capacity. In conclusion, mutation of PRDM16 causes the cardiomyopathy in 1p36 deletion syndrome as well as a proportion of nonsyndromic LVNC and DCM. PMID:23768516

Arndt, Anne-Karin; Schafer, Sebastian; Drenckhahn, Jorg-Detlef; Sabeh, M. Khaled; Plovie, Eva R.; Caliebe, Almuth; Klopocki, Eva; Musso, Gabriel; Werdich, Andreas A.; Kalwa, Hermann; Heinig, Matthias; Padera, Robert F.; Wassilew, Katharina; Bluhm, Julia; Harnack, Christine; Martitz, Janine; Barton, Paul J.; Greutmann, Matthias; Berger, Felix; Hubner, Norbert; Siebert, Reiner; Kramer, Hans-Heiner; Cook, Stuart A.; MacRae, Calum A.; Klaassen, Sabine

2013-01-01

134

Decreased DGCR8 Expression and miRNA Dysregulation in Individuals with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Deletion of the 1.5–3 Mb region of chromosome 22 at locus 11.2 gives rise to the chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), also known as DiGeorge and Velocardiofacial Syndromes. It is the most common micro-deletion disorder in humans and one of the most common multiple malformation syndromes. The syndrome is characterized by a broad phenotype, whose characterization has expanded considerably within the last decade and includes many associated findings such as craniofacial anomalies (40%), conotruncal defects of the heart (CHD; 70–80%), hypocalcemia (20–60%), and a range of neurocognitive anomalies with high risk of schizophrenia, all with a broad phenotypic variability. These phenotypic features are believed to be the result of a change in the copy number or dosage of the genes located in the deleted region. Despite this relatively clear genetic etiology, very little is known about which genes modulate phenotypic variations in humans or if they are due to combinatorial effects of reduced dosage of multiple genes acting in concert. Here, we report on decreased expression levels of genes within the deletion region of chromosome 22, including DGCR8, in peripheral leukocytes derived from individuals with 22q11DS compared to healthy controls. Furthermore, we found dysregulated miRNA expression in individuals with 22q11DS, including miR-150, miR-194 and miR-185. We postulate this to be related to DGCR8 haploinsufficiency as DGCR8 regulates miRNA biogenesis. Importantly we demonstrate that the level of some miRNAs correlates with brain measures, CHD and thyroid abnormalities, suggesting that the dysregulated miRNAs may contribute to these phenotypes and/or represent relevant blood biomarkers of the disease in individuals with 22q11DS. PMID:25084529

Sellier, Chantal; Hwang, Vicki J.; Dandekar, Ravi; Durbin-Johnson, Blythe; Charlet-Berguerand, Nicolas; Ander, Bradley P.; Sharp, Frank R.; Angkustsiri, Kathleen; Simon, Tony J.; Tassone, Flora

2014-01-01

135

Socioeconomic Status and Psychological Function in Children with Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: Implications for Genetic Counseling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to examine the association between parental socio-economic status (SES) and childhood neurocognition\\u000a and behavior in children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS). Although undoubtedly, the deletion of genes\\u000a in the 22q11.2 interval is primarily responsible for the psychological manifestations, little is known about the role of the\\u000a environment in either mitigating or contributing to

Vandana Shashi; Matcheri Keshavan; Jessica Kaczorowski; Kelly Schoch; Kathryn E. Lewandowski; Allyn McConkie-Rosell; Stephen R. Hooper; Thomas R. Kwapil

2010-01-01

136

Intragenic deletions affecting two alternative transcripts of the IMMP2L gene in patients with Tourette syndrome.  

PubMed

Tourette syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by multiple motor and vocal tics, and the disorder is often accompanied by comorbidities such as attention-deficit hyperactivity-disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder. Tourette syndrome has a complex etiology, but the underlying environmental and genetic factors are largely unknown. IMMP2L (inner mitochondrial membrane peptidase, subunit 2) located on chromosome 7q31 is one of the genes suggested as a susceptibility factor in disease pathogenesis. Through screening of a Danish cohort comprising 188 unrelated Tourette syndrome patients for copy number variations, we identified seven patients with intragenic IMMP2L deletions (3.7%), and this frequency was significantly higher (P=0.0447) compared with a Danish control cohort (0.9%). Four of the seven deletions identified did not include any known exons of IMMP2L, but were within intron 3. These deletions were found to affect a shorter IMMP2L mRNA species with two alternative 5'-exons (one including the ATG start codon). We showed that both transcripts (long and short) were expressed in several brain regions, with a particularly high expression in cerebellum and hippocampus. The current findings give further evidence for the role of IMMP2L as a susceptibility factor in Tourette syndrome and suggest that intronic changes in disease susceptibility genes should be investigated further for presence of alternatively spliced exons. PMID:24549057

Bertelsen, Birgitte; Melchior, Linea; Jensen, Lars R; Groth, Camilla; Glenthøj, Birte; Rizzo, Renata; Debes, Nanette Mol; Skov, Liselotte; Brøndum-Nielsen, Karen; Paschou, Peristera; Silahtaroglu, Asli; Tümer, Zeynep

2014-11-01

137

Molecular Mechanisms Generating and Stabilizing Terminal 22q13 Deletions in 44 Subjects with Phelan/McDermid Syndrome  

PubMed Central

In this study, we used deletions at 22q13, which represent a substantial source of human pathology (Phelan/McDermid syndrome), as a model for investigating the molecular mechanisms of terminal deletions that are currently poorly understood. We characterized at the molecular level the genomic rearrangement in 44 unrelated patients with 22q13 monosomy resulting from simple terminal deletions (72%), ring chromosomes (14%), and unbalanced translocations (7%). We also discovered interstitial deletions between 17–74 kb in 9% of the patients. Haploinsufficiency of the SHANK3 gene, confirmed in all rearrangements, is very likely the cause of the major neurological features associated with PMS. SHANK3 mutations can also result in language and/or social interaction disabilities. We determined the breakpoint junctions in 29 cases, providing a realistic snapshot of the variety of mechanisms driving non-recurrent deletion and repair at chromosome ends. De novo telomere synthesis and telomere capture are used to repair terminal deletions; non-homologous end-joining or microhomology-mediated break-induced replication is probably involved in ring 22 formation and translocations; non-homologous end-joining and fork stalling and template switching prevail in cases with interstitial 22q13.3. For the first time, we also demonstrated that distinct stabilizing events of the same terminal deletion can occur in different early embryonic cells, proving that terminal deletions can be repaired by multistep healing events and supporting the recent hypothesis that rare pathogenic germline rearrangements may have mitotic origin. Finally, the progressive clinical deterioration observed throughout the longitudinal medical history of three subjects over forty years supports the hypothesis of a role for SHANK3 haploinsufficiency in neurological deterioration, in addition to its involvement in the neurobehavioral phenotype of PMS. PMID:21779178

Beri, Silvana; De Agostini, Cristina; Novara, Francesca; Fichera, Marco; Grillo, Lucia; Galesi, Ornella; Vetro, Annalisa; Ciccone, Roberto; Bonati, Maria Teresa; Giglio, Sabrina; Guerrini, Renzo; Osimani, Sara; Marelli, Susan; Zucca, Claudio; Grasso, Rita; Borgatti, Renato; Mani, Elisa; Motta, Cristina; Molteni, Massimo; Romano, Corrado; Greco, Donatella; Reitano, Santina; Baroncini, Anna; Lapi, Elisabetta; Cecconi, Antonella; Arrigo, Giulia; Patricelli, Maria Grazia; Pantaleoni, Chiara; D'Arrigo, Stefano; Riva, Daria; Sciacca, Francesca; Dalla Bernardina, Bernardo; Zoccante, Leonardo; Darra, Francesca; Termine, Cristiano; Maserati, Emanuela; Bigoni, Stefania; Priolo, Emanuela; Bottani, Armand; Gimelli, Stefania; Bena, Frederique; Brusco, Alfredo; di Gregorio, Eleonora; Bagnasco, Irene; Giussani, Ursula; Nitsch, Lucio; Politi, Pierluigi; Martinez-Frias, Maria Luisa; Martínez-Fernández, Maria Luisa; Martínez Guardia, Nieves; Bremer, Anna; Anderlid, Britt-Marie; Zuffardi, Orsetta

2011-01-01

138

Characteristic Face: A Key Indicator for Direct Diagnosis of 22q11.2 Deletions in Chinese Velocardiofacial Syndrome Patients  

PubMed Central

Velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS) is a disease in human with an expansive phenotypic spectrum and diverse genetic mechanisms mainly associated with copy number variations (CNVs) on 22q11.2 or other chromosomes. However, the correlations between CNVs and phenotypes remain ambiguous. This study aims to analyze the types and sizes of CNVs in VCFS patients, to define whether correlations exist between CNVs and clinical manifestations in Chinese VCFS patients. In total, 55 clinically suspected Chinese VCFS patients and 100 normal controls were detected by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). The data from MLPA and all the detailed clinical features of the objects were documented and analyzed. A total of 44 patients (80.0%) were diagnosed with CNVs on 22q11.2. Among them, 43 (78.2%) presented with 22q11.2 heterozygous deletions, of whom 40 (93.0%) had typical 3-Mb deletion, and 3 (7.0%) exhibited proximal 1.5-Mb deletion; no patient was found with atypical deletion on 22q11.2. One patient (1.8%) presented with a 3-Mb duplication mapping to the typical 3-Mb region on 22q11.2, while none of the chromosomal abnormalities in the MLPA kit were found in the other 11 patients and 100 normal controls. All the 43 patients with 22q11.2 deletions displayed characteristic face and palatal anomalies; 37 of them (86.0%) had cognitive or behavioral disorders, and 23 (53.5%) suffered from immune deficiencies; 10 patients (23.3%) manifested congenital heart diseases. Interestingly, all patients with the characteristic face had 22q11.2 heterozygous deletions, but no difference in phenotypic spectrum was observed between 3-Mb and 1.5-Mb deletions. Our data suggest that the characteristic face can be used as a key indicator for direct diagnosis of 22q11.2 deletions in Chinese VCFS patients. PMID:23342150

Xu, Chen; Wang, Ke; Wang, Huijun; Zheng, Fengyun; Ma, Duan; Wang, Guomin

2013-01-01

139

A 1.1Mb deletion in distal 13q deletion syndrome region with congenital heart defect and postaxial polydactyly: additional support for a CHD locus at distal 13q34 region.  

PubMed

13q deletion syndrome is a rare genetic disorder, especially for group 3 deletion (13q33-q34 deletion). Previously we described a patient with congenital heart defect and mental retardation and proposed that a distal 6Mb region might contain the causative gene of congenital heart defect. Here we present a new patient with congenital heart defects (CHD), hand and foot anomalies and mild mental retardation. We identified a 1.1Mb deletion at chromosome 13q34 with high resolution SNP-array BeadChips (HumanOmni1-Quad, Illumina, USA). This chromosome region contains ten annotated genes, including GRK1, TFDP1, RASA3 and GAS6. To our knowledge, this represents the smallest 13q34 deletion identified to date. Our study provides additional support that distal 13q34 deletion region might contain key gene(s) responsible for cardiac development. PMID:23639964

Yang, Yi-Feng; Ai, Qi; Huang, Can; Chen, Jin-Lan; Wang, Jian; Xie, Li; Zhang, Wei-Zhi; Yang, Jin-Fu; Tan, Zhi-Ping

2013-10-01

140

Disrupted working memory circuitry and psychotic symptoms in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.  

PubMed

22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a recurrent genetic mutation that is highly penetrant for psychosis. Behavioral research suggests that 22q11DS patients exhibit a characteristic neurocognitive phenotype that includes differential impairment in spatial working memory (WM). Notably, spatial WM has also been proposed as an endophenotype for idiopathic psychotic disorder, yet little is known about the neurobiological substrates of WM in 22q11DS. In order to investigate the neural systems engaged during spatial WM in 22q11DS patients, we collected functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data while 41 participants (16 22q11DS patients, 25 demographically matched controls) performed a spatial capacity WM task that included manipulations of delay length and load level. Relative to controls, 22q11DS patients showed reduced neural activation during task performance in the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) and superior frontal sulcus (SFS). In addition, the typical increases in neural activity within spatial WM-relevant regions with greater memory load were not observed in 22q11DS. We further investigated whether neural dysfunction during WM was associated with behavioral WM performance, assessed via the University of Maryland letter-number sequencing (LNS) task, and positive psychotic symptoms, assessed via the Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes (SIPS), in 22q11DS patients. WM load activity within IPS and SFS was positively correlated with LNS task performance; moreover, WM load activity within IPS was inversely correlated with the severity of unusual thought content and delusional ideas, indicating that decreased recruitment of working memory-associated neural circuitry is associated with more severe positive symptoms. These results suggest that 22q11DS patients show reduced neural recruitment of brain regions critical for spatial WM function, which may be related to characteristic behavioral manifestations of the disorder. PMID:24567911

Montojo, C A; Ibrahim, A; Karlsgodt, K H; Chow, C; Hilton, A E; Jonas, R K; Vesagas, T K; Bearden, C E

2014-01-01

141

Hearing loss in a mouse model of 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome.  

PubMed

22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11DS) arises from an interstitial chromosomal microdeletion encompassing at least 30 genes. This disorder is one of the most significant known cytogenetic risk factors for schizophrenia, and can also cause heart abnormalities, cognitive deficits, hearing difficulties, and a variety of other medical problems. The Df1/+ hemizygous knockout mouse, a model for human 22q11DS, recapitulates many of the deficits observed in the human syndrome including heart defects, impaired memory, and abnormal auditory sensorimotor gating. Here we show that Df1/+ mice, like human 22q11DS patients, have substantial rates of hearing loss arising from chronic middle ear infection. Auditory brainstem response (ABR) measurements revealed significant elevation of click-response thresholds in 48% of Df1/+ mice, often in only one ear. Anatomical and histological analysis of the middle ear demonstrated no gross structural abnormalities, but frequent signs of otitis media (OM, chronic inflammation of the middle ear), including excessive effusion and thickened mucosa. In mice for which both in vivo ABR thresholds and post mortem middle-ear histology were obtained, the severity of signs of OM correlated directly with the level of hearing impairment. These results suggest that abnormal auditory sensorimotor gating previously reported in mouse models of 22q11DS could arise from abnormalities in auditory processing. Furthermore, the findings indicate that Df1/+ mice are an excellent model for increased risk of OM in human 22q11DS patients. Given the frequently monaural nature of OM in Df1/+ mice, these animals could also be a powerful tool for investigating the interplay between genetic and environmental causes of OM. PMID:24244619

Fuchs, Jennifer C; Zinnamon, Fhatarah A; Taylor, Ruth R; Ivins, Sarah; Scambler, Peter J; Forge, Andrew; Tucker, Abigail S; Linden, Jennifer F

2013-01-01

142

Default mode network connectivity and reciprocal social behavior in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.  

PubMed

22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a genetic mutation associated with disorders of cortical connectivity and social dysfunction. However, little is known about the functional connectivity (FC) of the resting brain in 22q11DS and its relationship with social behavior. A seed-based analysis of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data was used to investigate FC associated with the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), in (26) youth with 22qDS and (51) demographically matched controls. Subsequently, the relationship between PCC connectivity and Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) scores was examined in 22q11DS participants. Relative to 22q11DS participants, controls showed significantly stronger FC between the PCC and other default mode network (DMN) nodes, including the precuneus, precentral gyrus and left frontal pole. 22q11DS patients did not show age-associated FC changes observed in typically developing controls. Increased connectivity between PCC, medial prefrontal regions and the anterior cingulate cortex, was associated with lower SRS scores (i.e. improved social competence) in 22q11DS. DMN integrity may play a key role in social information processing. We observed disrupted DMN connectivity in 22q11DS, paralleling reports from idiopathic autism and schizophrenia. Increased strength of long-range DMN connectivity was associated with improved social functioning in 22q11DS. These findings support a 'developmental-disconnection' hypothesis of symptom development in this disorder. PMID:23912681

Schreiner, Matthew J; Karlsgodt, Katherine H; Uddin, Lucina Q; Chow, Carolyn; Congdon, Eliza; Jalbrzikowski, Maria; Bearden, Carrie E

2014-09-01

143

Myelodysplastic syndromes with 5q deletion: pathophysiology and role of lenalidomide.  

PubMed

Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a hematopoietic stem cell disorder primarily affecting CD34+ cells, characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis, often transforming into acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). A subset of patients has 5q deletion (del(5q)) as the culprit pathogenetic trigger. Del(5q) affects critical regions 5q31 and 5q33, leading to gene haplodeficiency with subsequent RPS14 haplodeficiency and P53 activation. Subsequent to P53 activation, erythroid cell apoptosis and ineffective erythropoiesis occur. Other pathogenetic elements include protein phosphatase 2a and CDC25C haplodeficiency and decreased miR-145 and miR-146a expression. Lenalidomide is an immunomodulatory agent that selectively suppresses the del(5q) clone. While the mechanism is not fully understood, it is associated with diverse molecular changes including stabilization of MDM2 with subsequent enhanced P53 degradation. Lenalidomide showed success in low- and intermediate-1-risk MDS as reported in the 002, 003, and 004 trials. However, in higher-risk MDS, the results of lenalidomide monotherapy were modest, mandating the use of combination therapy. The role and priority of lenalidomide varies between different guidelines, and accordingly, future efforts are necessary to reach a unified therapeutic algorithm. TP53 mutations are important predictors of AML progression and possible resistance to lenalidomide. It is recommended to identify TP53 mutation early in the disease since it may change the decision regarding choice of therapy. Challenges with lenalidomide therapy remain the long-term effects and timing of its discontinuation. PMID:24627193

Gaballa, Mahmoud R; Besa, Emmanuel C

2014-05-01

144

Prodromal and autistic symptoms in schizotypal personality disorder and 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.  

PubMed

Despite clear diagnostic distinctions, schizophrenia and autism share symptoms on several dimensions. Recent research has suggested the two disorders overlap in etiology, particularly with respect to inherited and noninherited genetic factors. Studying the relationship between psychotic-like and autistic-like symptoms in risk groups such as 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) and schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) has the potential to shed light on such etiologic factors; thus, the current study examined prodromal symptoms and autistic features in samples of 22q11DS and SPD subjects using standardized diagnostic measures, including the Structured Interview for Prodromal Symptoms (SIPS) and the Autism Diagnostic Inventory-Revised (ADI-R). Results showed that SPD subjects manifested significantly more severe childhood and current social as well as stereotypic autistic features, as well as more severe positive prodromal symptoms. The two groups did not differ on negative, disorganized, or general prodromal symptoms, but were distinguishable based on correlations between prodromal and autistic features; the relationships between childhood autistic features and current prodromal symptoms were stronger for the SPD group. The results suggest that childhood autistic features are less continuous with subsequent prodromal signs in 22q11DS patients relative to those with SPD, and the findings highlight the importance of studying the overlap in diagnostic phenomenology in groups at risk for developing psychosis and/or autism. PMID:22686870

Esterberg, Michelle L; Ousley, Opal Y; Cubells, Joseph F; Walker, Elaine F

2013-02-01

145

Turner syndrome and Xp deletions: clinical and molecular studies in 47 patients.  

PubMed

Although clinical features of Turner syndrome have primarily been explained by the dosage effects of SHOX (short stature homeobox-containing gene) and the putative lymphogenic gene together with chromosomal effects leading to nonspecific features, several matters remain to be determined, including modifying factors for the effects of SHOX haploinsufficiency, chromosomal location of the lymphogenic gene, and genetic factors for miscellaneous features such as multiple pigmented nevi. To clarify such unresolved issues, we examined clinical findings in 47 patients with molecularly defined Xp deletion chromosomes accompanied by the breakpoints on Xp21-22 (group 1; n = 19), those accompanied by the breakpoints on Xp11 (group 2; n = 16), i(Xq) or idic(X)(p11) chromosomes (group 3; n = 8), and interstitial Xp deletion chromosomes (group 4; n = 4). The deletion size of each patient was determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization and microsatellite analyses for 38 Xp loci including SHOX, which was deleted in groups 1-3 and preserved in group 4. The mean GH-untreated adult height was -2.2 SD in group 1 and -2.7 SD in group 2 (GH-untreated adult heights were scanty in group 3). The prevalence of spontaneous breast development in patients aged 12.8 yr or more (mean +/- 2 SD for B2 stage) was 11 of 11 in group 1, 7 of 12 in group 2, and 1 of 7 in group 3. The prevalence of wrist abnormality suggestive of Madelung deformity was 8 of 18 in group 1 and 2 of 23 in groups 2 and 3, and 9 of 18 in patients with spontaneous puberty and 1 of 23 in those without spontaneous puberty. The prevalence of short neck was 1 of 19 in group 1 and 7 of 24 in groups 2 and 3. Soft tissue and visceral anomalies were absent in group 1 preserving the region proximal to Duchenne muscular dystrophy and were often present in groups 2 and 3 missing the region distal to monoamine oxidase A (MAOA). Multiple pigmented nevi were observed in groups 1-3, with the prevalence of 0 of 7 in patients less than 10 yr of age and 15 of 36 in those 10 yr or older regardless of the presence or absence of spontaneous puberty. Turner phenotype was absent in group 4, including a fetus aborted at 21 wk gestation who preserved the region distal to MAOA. The results provide further support for the idea that clinical features in X chromosome aberrations are primarily explained by haploinsufficiency of SHOX and the lymphogenic gene and by the extent of chromosome imbalance in mitotic cells and pairing failure in meiotic cells. Furthermore, it is suggested that 1) expressivity of SHOX haploinsufficiency in the limb and faciocervical regions is primarily influenced by gonadal function status and the presence or absence of the lymphogenic gene, respectively; 2) the lymphogenic gene for soft tissue and visceral stigmata is located between Duchenne muscular dystrophy and MAOA; and 3) multiple pigmented nevi may primarily be ascribed to cooperation between a hitherto unknown genetic factor and an age-dependent factor other than gonadal E. PMID:11701728

Ogata, T; Muroya, K; Matsuo, N; Shinohara, O; Yorifuji, T; Nishi, Y; Hasegawa, Y; Horikawa, R; Tachibana, K

2001-11-01

146

Intelligence and Visual Motor Integration in 5-Year-Old Children with 22q11-Deletion Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between intelligence and visual motor integration skills in 5-year-old children with 22q11-deletion syndrome (22q11DS) (N = 65, 43 females, 22 males; mean age 5.6 years (SD 0.2), range 5.23-5.99 years). Sufficient VMI skills seem a prerequisite for IQ testing. Since problems related to…

Duijff, Sasja; Klaassen, Petra; Beemer, Frits; Swanenburg de Veye, Henriette; Vorstman, Jacob; Sinnema, Gerben

2012-01-01

147

An atypical 7q11.23 deletion in a normal IQ Williams–Beuren syndrome patient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Williams–Beuren syndrome (WBS; OMIM no. 194050) is a multisystemic neurodevelopmental disorder caused by a hemizygous deletion of 1.55 Mb on chromosome 7q11.23 spanning 28 genes. Haploinsufficiency of the ELN gene was shown to be responsible for supravalvular aortic stenosis and generalized arteriopathy, whereas LIMK1, CLIP2, GTF2IRD1 and GTF2I genes were suggested to be linked to the specific cognitive profile and

Giovanni Battista Ferrero; Cédric Howald; Lucia Micale; Elisa Biamino; Bartolomeo Augello; Carmela Fusco; Maria Giuseppina Turturo; Serena Forzano; Alexandre Reymond; Giuseppe Merla

2010-01-01

148

Associations between prepulse inhibition and executive visual attention in children with the 22q11 deletion syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 22q11 deletion syndrome (DS) results in the loss of approximately 30 gene copies and is associated with possible physical anomalies, varied learning disabilities, and a specific cluster of neurocognitive deficits, including primary impairment in working memory, executive visual attention, and sensorimotor processing. Retrospective studies have suggested that children with 22q11DS are at 25 times greater risk of developing schizophrenia,

C Sobin; K Kiley-Brabeck; M Karayiorgou

2005-01-01

149

Deletion of the acetylcholinesterase locus at 7q22 associated with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and acute myeloid leukaemia (AML)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genes for acetylcholinesterase (ACHE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BCHE) are located within regions subject to non-random chromosomal abnormalities in the myelodys-plastic syndromes (MDS) and acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). Acetylcholinesterase is mapped to 7q22, within the critical deleted region presumed to contain a myeloid specific tumour suppressor gene. Butyrylcholinesterase is mapped to 3q26: abnormalities at this region are associated with sub-types of

J. Stephenson; B. Czepulkowski; W. Hirst; G. J. Mufti

1996-01-01

150

Gender-Moderated Dorsolateral Prefrontal Reductions in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: Implications for Risk for Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the impact of the microdeletion on morphology of the prefrontal cortex in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11.2 DS), high-resolution, anatomic magnetic resonance imaging was performed on 19 children and adolescents with 22q11.2 DS (11 females, 8 males) and 18 unaffected controls (10 females, 8 males). Tissue volumes of the dorsolateral, dorsomedial, orbitolateral, and orbitomedial prefrontal cortex were measured. Tasks

Wendy R. Kates; Kevin Antshel; Rachael Willhite; Brandy A. Bessette; Nuria AbdulSabur; Anne Marie Higgins

2005-01-01

151

WBSCR14, a putative transcription factor gene deleted in Williams-Beuren syndrome: complete characterisation of the human gene and the mouse ortholog  

Microsoft Academic Search

Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder affecting several systems caused by a heterozygous deletion in the chromosomal region 7q11.23. A common interval that includes up to 17 genes reported so far is deleted in the great majority of patients. Elastin haploinsufficiency is responsible for the cardiovascular features, but the specific contribution of other deleted genes to the WBS phenotype

Oscar de Luis; M Carmen Valero; Luis A Pérez Jurado; LA Pérez Jurado

2000-01-01

152

Identical twins with deletion 16q syndrome: Evidence that 16q12.2-q13 is the critical band region  

Microsoft Academic Search

An interstitial deletion of the long arm of chromosome 16 has been identified in identical twins. These patients are strikingly similar phenotypically to previously reported cases of deletion 16q syndrome but differ chromosomally in that their deletion involves the 16q12.2-q13 rather than the 16q21. We propose that the 16q12.2-q13 is the “critical region” in the production of this rare but

F. F. B. Elder; J. W. Ferguson; L. H. Lockhart

1984-01-01

153

Increased risk for developmental delay in Saethre-Chotzen syndrome is associated with TWIST deletions: an improved strategy for TWIST mutation screening  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of patients with Saethre-Chotzen syndrome have mutations in the TWIST gene, which codes for a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor. Of the genetic alterations identified in TWIST, nonsense mutations, frameshifts secondary to small deletions or insertions, and large deletions implicate haploinsufficiency as the pathogenic mechanism. We identified three novel intragenic mutations and six deletions in our patients by using

Juanliang Cai; Barbara K. Goodman; Ankita S. Patel; John B. Mulliken; Lionel Van Maldergem; George E. Hoganson; William A. Paznekas; Ziva Ben-Neriah; Ruth Sheffer; Michael L. Cunningham; Donna L. Daentl; EthylinWang Jabs

2003-01-01

154

Constitutional 11q14-q22 chromosome deletion syndrome in a child with neuroblastoma MYCN single copy.  

PubMed

Constitutional 11q deletion is a chromosome imbalance possibly found in MCA/MR patients analyzed for chromosomal anomalies. Its role in determining the phenotype depends on extension and position of deleted region. Loss of heterozygosity of 11q (region 11q23) is also associated with neuroblastoma, the most frequent extra cranial cancer in children. It represents one of the most frequent cytogenetic abnormalities observed in the tumor of patients with high-risk disease even if germline deletion of 11q in neuroblastoma is rare. Hereby, we describe a 18 months old girl presenting with trigonocephaly and dysmorphic facial features, including hypotelorism, broad depressed nasal bridge, micrognathia, synophrys, epicanthal folds, and with a stage 4 neuroblastoma without MYCN amplification, carrying a germline 11q deletion (11q14.1-q22.3), outside from Jacobsen syndrome and from neuroblastoma 11q critical regions. The role of 11q deletion in determining the clinical phenotype and its association with neuroblastoma development in the patient are discussed. PMID:24035971

Passariello, Annalisa; De Brasi, Daniele; Defferrari, Raffaella; Genesio, Rita; Tufano, Maria; Mazzocco, Katia; Capasso, Maria; Migliorati, Roberta; Martinsson, Tommy; Siani, Paolo; Nitsch, Lucio; Tonini, Gian Paolo

2013-11-01

155

Analysis of subtelomeric silencing in Candida glabrata.  

PubMed

Analysis of gene function often involves detailed studies of when a given gene is expressed or silenced. Transposon mutagenesis is a powerful tool to generate insertional mutations that provide with a selectable marker and a reporter gene that can be used to analyze the transcriptional activity of a specific locus in a variety of microorganisms to study gene regulation. Then the reporter gene expression can be easily measured under different conditions to gain insight into the regulation of the particular locus of interest. We have used transposon mutagenesis as a tool to generate insertional mutations with a modified Tn7 transposon containing the reporter gene URA3 (Tn7-URA3) to study subtelomeric silencing in the opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida glabrata. This method consists of two major steps: an in vitro Tn7-URA3 mutagenesis of a plasmid containing the desired subtelomeric region to be analyzed, followed by homologous recombination into the target region of the C. glabrata genome. As an alternative, a fusion PCR protocol can also be used in which the URA3 reporter gene can be "fused" together with the 5' and 3' regions of the desired insertion point by a two step PCR protocol. This fusion product can be introduced into the C. glabrata genome by homologous recombination after transformation in the same way as the Tn7-URA3 mutagenesis products. Once the URA3 reporter gene has been introduced in the desired locus in the C. glabrata genome, a simple plate growth assay is performed to assess the expression of the reporter gene. PMID:21468995

Juárez-Reyes, Alejandro; De Las Peñas, Alejandro; Castaño, Irene

2011-01-01

156

Contiguous gene deletion of TBX5 and TBX3 leads to a varible phenotype with combined features of Holt-Oram and ulnar-mammary syndromes.  

PubMed

We report on a combination of congenital malformations in a mother and her fetus harboring a heterozygous deletion encompassing the TBX5 and TBX3 genes, which are disease-causing in Holt-Oram and ulnar-mammary syndromes, respectively. This contiguous gene syndrome is reminiscent of Okihiro syndrome and emphasizes the importance of array-CGH as a diagnostic tool in atypical syndromic presentations with intrafamilial variability. PMID:23713051

Alby, Caroline; Bessieres, Bettina; Bieth, Eric; Attie-Bitach, Tania; Fermont, Laurent; Citony, Isabelle; Razavi, Ferechté; Vekemans, Michel; Escande, Fabienne; Manouvrier, Sylvie; Malan, Valérie; Amiel, Jeanne

2013-07-01

157

The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome as a window into complex neuropsychiatric disorders over the lifespan.  

PubMed

Evidence is rapidly accumulating that rare, recurrent copy number variants represent large effect risk factors for neuropsychiatric disorders. 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) (velocardiofacial syndrome or DiGeorge syndrome) is the most common known contiguous gene deletion syndrome and is associated with diverse neuropsychiatric disorders across the life span. One of the most intriguing aspects of the syndrome is the variability in clinical and cognitive presentation: children with 22q11DS have high prevalence of autism spectrum, attention deficit, and anxiety disorders, as well as psychotic-like features, and up to 30% of adolescents and adults develop schizophrenia-like psychosis. Recently, cases of early-onset Parkinson's disease in adults have been reported, collectively suggesting a role for disrupted dopaminergic neurotransmission in the observed neuropsychiatric phenotypes. There is also some evidence that 22q11DS-associated autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia represent two unrelated phenotypic manifestations, consistent with a neuropsychiatric pleiotropy model. This genetic lesion thus provides a unique model for the discovery of specific genomic risk and (potentially) protective factors for neuropsychiatric disease. Here, we provide an overview of neuropsychiatric findings to date, which highlight the value of this syndrome in mapping the developmental trajectory of dimensional phenotypes that traverse multiple diagnostic categories. Potential sources of genetic variability that may contribute to the disorder's heterogeneous presentation are reviewed. Because of its known genetic etiology, animal models can readily be developed that recapitulate specific aspects of the syndrome. Future research directions involve translational models and potential for drug screenable targets in the context of this human model system. PMID:23992925

Jonas, Rachel K; Montojo, Caroline A; Bearden, Carrie E

2014-03-01

158

Enhanced Maternal Origin of the 22q11.2 Deletion in Velocardiofacial and DiGeorge Syndromes  

PubMed Central

Velocardiofacial and DiGeorge syndromes, also known as 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), are congenital-anomaly disorders caused by a de novo hemizygous 22q11.2 deletion mediated by meiotic nonallelic homologous recombination events between low-copy repeats, also known as segmental duplications. Although previous studies exist, each was of small size, and it remains to be determined whether there are parent-of-origin biases for the de novo 22q11.2 deletion. To address this question, we genotyped a total of 389 DNA samples from 22q11DS-affected families. A total of 219 (56%) individuals with 22q11DS had maternal origin and 170 (44%) had paternal origin of the de novo deletion, which represents a statistically significant bias for maternal origin (p = 0.0151). Combined with many smaller, previous studies, 465 (57%) individuals had maternal origin and 345 (43%) had paternal origin, amounting to a ratio of 1.35 or a 35% increase in maternal compared to paternal origin (p = 0.000028). Among 1,892 probands with the de novo 22q11.2 deletion, the average maternal age at time of conception was 29.5, and this is similar to data for the general population in individual countries. Of interest, the female recombination rate in the 22q11.2 region was about 1.6–1.7 times greater than that for males, suggesting that for this region in the genome, enhanced meiotic recombination rates, as well as other as-of-yet undefined 22q11.2-specific features, could be responsible for the observed excess in maternal origin. PMID:23453669

Delio, Maria; Guo, Tingwei; McDonald-McGinn, Donna M.; Zackai, Elaine; Herman, Sean; Kaminetzky, Mark; Higgins, Anne Marie; Coleman, Karlene; Chow, Carolyn; Jarlbrzkowski, Maria; Bearden, Carrie E.; Bailey, Alice; Vangkilde, Anders; Olsen, Line; Olesen, Charlotte; Skovby, Flemming; Werge, Thomas M.; Templin, Ludivine; Busa, Tiffany; Philip, Nicole; Swillen, Ann; Vermeesch, Joris R.; Devriendt, Koen; Schneider, Maude; Dahoun, Sophie; Eliez, Stephan; Schoch, Kelly; Hooper, Stephen R.; Shashi, Vandana; Samanich, Joy; Marion, Robert; van Amelsvoort, Therese; Boot, Erik; Klaassen, Petra; Duijff, Sasja N.; Vorstman, Jacob; Yuen, Tracy; Silversides, Candice; Chow, Eva; Bassett, Anne; Frisch, Amos; Weizman, Abraham; Gothelf, Doron; Niarchou, Maria; van den Bree, Marianne; Owen, Michael J.; Suner, Damian Heine; Andreo, Jordi Rosell; Armando, Marco; Vicari, Stefano; Digilio, Maria Cristina; Auton, Adam; Kates, Wendy R.; Wang, Tao; Shprintzen, Robert J.; Emanuel, Beverly S.; Morrow, Bernice E.

2013-01-01

159

Platybasia in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Is Not Correlated with Speech Resonance  

PubMed Central

Background An abnormally obtuse cranial base angle, also known as platybasia, is a common finding in patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS). Platybasia increases the depth of the velopharynx and is therefore postulated to contribute to velopharyngeal dysfunction. Our objective was to determine the clinical significance of platybasia in 22q11DS by exploring the relationship between cranial base angles and speech resonance. Methods In this retrospective chart review at a tertiary hospital, 24 children (age, 4.0-13.1 years) with 22q11.2DS underwent speech assessments and lateral cephalograms, which allowed for the measurement of the cranial base angles. Results One patient (4%) had hyponasal resonance, 8 (33%) had normal resonance, 10 (42%) had hypernasal resonance on vowels only, and 5 (21%) had hypernasal resonance on both vowels and consonants. The mean cranial base angle was 136.5° (standard deviation, 5.3°; range, 122.3-144.8°). The Kruskal-Wallis test showed no significant relationship between the resonance ratings and cranial base angles (P=0.242). Cranial base angles and speech ratings were not correlated (Spearman correlation=0.321, P=0.126). The group with hypernasal resonance had a significantly more obtuse mean cranial base angle (138° vs. 134°, P=0.049) but did not have a greater prevalence of platybasia (73% vs. 56%, P=0.412). Conclusions In this retrospective chart review of patients with 22q11DS, cranial base angles were not correlated with speech resonance. The clinical significance of platybasia remains unknown. PMID:25075355

Kon, Moshe; Mink van der Molen, Aebele B

2014-01-01

160

Antibody deficiency in adults with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.  

PubMed

There are limited data on immunological disorders, infection profile, and autoimmunity among adults with the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) in the literature. To expand this knowledge base, we evaluated immunoglobulin levels, lymphocyte subsets, and T-cell function in 26 adults, consecutively referred to our 22q11.2DS multidisciplinary team. Their medical records were also reviewed with respect to frequency and severity of infections and autoimmune disorders. Six patients had low immunoglobulin levels; among these patients, one had a combined IgA and IgG1 deficiency, one had an isolated IgG3 deficiency, and four had a profound antibody deficiency comparable to common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). Three of the patients with profound antibody deficiency showed signs of reduced T-cell function measured as a low response to mitogen and/or antigen stimulation. The four patients with profound antibody deficiency suffered from more severe infections than the rest of the patient group. Three of them also had a history of both immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) and autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AHA). Our results suggest that a subgroup of individuals with 22q11.2DS can develop a severe antibody deficiency associated with lower respiratory tract infections and autoimmune conditions. Early diagnosis of hypogammaglobulinemia among these individuals is important in order to provide optimal treatment. We therefore recommend an immunological evaluation and follow-up among adults with 22q11.2DS who have a history of autoimmune conditions or recurrent infections. PMID:22786729

Björk, Aron H; Óskarsdóttir, Sólveig; Andersson, Bengt A; Friman, Vanda

2012-08-01

161

Duplication of the Miller-Dieker Critical Region in a Patient with a Subtelomeric Unbalanced Translocation t(10;17)(p15.3;p13.3)  

PubMed Central

Submicroscopic duplications in the Miller-Dieker critical region have been recently described as new genomic disorders. To date, only a few cases have been reported with overlapping 17p13.3 duplications in this region. Also, small deletions that affect chromosome region 10p14?pter are rarely described in the literature. In this study, we describe, to our knowledge for the first time, a 5-year-old female patient with intellectual disability who has an unbalanced 10;17 translocation inherited from the father. The girl was diagnosed by subtelomeric FISH and array-CGH, showing a 4.43-Mb heterozygous deletion on chromosome 10p that involved 14 genes and a 3.22-Mb single-copy gain on chromosome 17p, which includes the critical region of the Miller-Dieker syndrome and 61 genes. The patient's karyotype was established as 46,XX.arr 10p15.3p15.1(138,206–4,574,436)x1,17p13.3(87,009–3,312,600)x3. Because our patient exhibits a combination of 2 imbalances, she has phenotypic features of both chromosome abnormalities, which have been reported separately. Interestingly, the majority of patients who carry the deletion 10p have visual and auditory deficiencies that are attributed to loss of the GATA3 gene. However, our patient also presents severe hearing and visual problems even though GATA3 is present, suggesting the involvement of different genes that affect the development of the visual and auditory systems. PMID:23326253

Ruiz Esparza-Garrido, R.; Velazquez-Wong, A.C.; Araujo-Solis, M.A.; Huicochea-Montiel, J.C.; Velazquez-Flores, M.A.; Salamanca-Gomez, F.; Arenas-Aranda, D.J.

2012-01-01

162

A novel and de novo deletion in the OCRL1 gene associated with a severe form of Lowe syndrome.  

PubMed

The oculocerebrorenal syndrome of Lowe (OCRL) is an X-linked disorder. The mutation of the gene OCRL1 localized at Xq26.1, coding for the enzyme phosphatidylinositol (4,5) bisphosphate (PIP2P) 5-phosphatase, is responsible for the phenotypic characteristics of the disease. We report a 22-year-old male with a severe form of OCRL syndrome, diagnosed on the basis of congenital cataracts, severe psychomotor and cognitive deficits, and renal tubular dysfunction without Fanconi syndrome. The patient presented low molecular weight proteinuria, nephrocalcinosis, nephrolithiasis, rickets, and growth retardation and developed progressive renal failure. Genetic analysis showed a novel and de novo deletion of exons 10-13 in the OCRL1 gene. PMID:22821049

Peces, Ramón; Peces, Carlos; de Sousa, Erika; Vega, Cristina; Selgas, Rafael; Nevado, Julián

2013-12-01

163

Deletion 17p11.2 (Smith-Magenis syndrome) is relatively common among patients having mental retardation and myopia  

SciTech Connect

We recently reported the finding of moderate to severe myopia in 6 of 10 patients with Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS). To investigate the prevalence of SMS among mentally retarded people having myopia, we surveyed a cohort of patients residing at a facility for individuals with mental retardation (MR). Of 547 institutionalized individuals with MR, 72 (13.2%) had moderate to high myopia defined as a visual acuity of minus 3 diopters or more. It should be noted that our institution does not specifically select for people with visual impairment; rather, the facility serves people with a primary diagnosis of MR. Sixty-five of 72 (90.3%) myopic individuals identified were available for cytogenetic analysis. Seventeen (26.2%) of these patients had trisomy 21. Down syndrome (DS) is well known to be associated with eye abnormalities, including myopia. Of 48 individuals with moderate to high myopia not having DS, 5 (10.4%) were shown to have deletions of 17p11.2. This is a high prevalence considering the relative rarity of SMS. By contrast, in a randomized sample of 48 patients without significant myopia at the same facility, we found no individuals with deletion 17p11.2. We conclude that the diagnosis of SMS should be considered in any non-Down syndrome individual having MR and myopia, and that ophthalmologists serving people with MR should be made aware of this deletion syndrome. Furthermore, our results suggest that significant numbers of people having SMS could be identified through selective institutional screening of patients having a combination of MR and moderate to severe myopia.

Finucane, B.; Jaeger, E.R. [Elwyn, Inc. PA (United States); Freitag, S.K. [Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

1994-09-01

164

De novo deletion of chromosome 11q12.3 in monozygotic twins affected by Poland Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Poland Syndrome (PS) is a rare disorder characterized by hypoplasia/aplasia of the pectoralis major muscle, variably associated with thoracic and upper limb anomalies. Familial recurrence has been reported indicating that PS could have a genetic basis, though the genetic mechanisms underlying PS development are still unknown. Case presentation Here we describe a couple of monozygotic (MZ) twin girls, both presenting with Poland Syndrome. They carry a de novo heterozygous 126 Kbp deletion at chromosome 11q12.3 involving 5 genes, four of which, namely HRASLS5, RARRES3, HRASLS2, and PLA2G16, encode proteins that regulate cellular growth, differentiation, and apoptosis, mainly through Ras-mediated signaling pathways. Conclusions Phenotype concordance between the monozygotic twin probands provides evidence supporting the genetic control of PS. As genes controlling cell growth and differentiation may be related to morphological defects originating during development, we postulate that the observed chromosome deletion could be causative of the phenotype observed in the twin girls and the deleted genes could play a role in PS development. PMID:24885342

2014-01-01

165

A case of 9.7 Mb terminal Xp deletion including OA1 locus associated with contiguous gene syndrome.  

PubMed

Terminal or interstitial deletions of Xp (Xp22.2?Xpter) in males have been recognized as a cause of contiguous gene syndromes showing variable association of apparently unrelated clinical manifestations such as Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (SHOX), chondrodysplasia punctata (CDPX1), mental retardation (NLGN4), ichthyosis (STS), Kallmann syndrome (KAL1), and ocular albinism (GPR143). Here we present a case of a 13.5 yr old boy and sister with a same terminal deletion of Xp22.2 resulting in the absence of genes from the telomere of Xp to GPR143 of Xp22. The boy manifested the findings of all of the disorders mentioned above. We began a testosterone enanthate monthly replacement therapy. His sister, 11 yr old, manifested only Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis, and had engaged in growth hormone therapy for 3 yr. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a male with a 9.7 Mb terminal Xp deletion including the OA1 locus in Korea. PMID:23091330

Cho, Eun-Hae; Kim, Sook-Young; Kim, Jin-Kyung

2012-10-01

166

Genomic profiling in Down syndrome acute lymphoblastic leukemia identifies histone gene deletions associated with altered methylation profiles  

PubMed Central

Patients with Down syndrome (DS) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have distinct clinical and biological features. Whereas most DS-ALL cases lack the sentinel cytogenetic lesions that guide risk assignment in childhood ALL, JAK2 mutations and CRLF2 overexpression are highly enriched. To further characterize the unique biology of DS-ALL, we performed genome-wide profiling of 58 DS-ALL and 68 non-Down syndrome (NDS) ALL cases by DNA copy number, loss of heterozygosity, gene expression, and methylation analyses. We report a novel deletion within the 6p22 histone gene cluster as significantly more frequent in DS-ALL, occurring in 11 DS (22%) and only two NDS cases (3.1%) (Fisher’s exact p = 0.002). Homozygous deletions yielded significantly lower histone expression levels, and were associated with higher methylation levels, distinct spatial localization of methylated promoters, and enrichment of highly methylated genes for specific pathways and transcription factor binding motifs. Gene expression profiling demonstrated heterogeneity of DS-ALL cases overall, with supervised analysis defining a 45-transcript signature associated with CRLF2 overexpression. Further characterization of pathways associated with histone deletions may identify opportunities for novel targeted interventions. PMID:21647151

Loudin, Michael G.; Wang, Jinhua; Leung, Hon-Chiu Eastwood; Gurusiddappa, Sivashankarappa; Meyer, Julia; Condos, Gregory; Morrison, Debra; Tsimelzon, Anna; Devidas, Meenakshi; Heerema, Nyla A.; Carroll, Andrew J.; Plon, Sharon E.; Hunger, Stephen P.; Basso, Giuseppe; Pession, Andrea; Bhojwani, Deepa; Carroll, William L.; Rabin, Karen R.

2014-01-01

167

Otitis Media in a New Mouse Model for CHARGE Syndrome with a Deletion in the Chd7 Gene  

PubMed Central

Otitis media is a middle ear disease common in children under three years old. Otitis media can occur in normal individuals with no other symptoms or syndromes, but it is often seen in individuals clinically diagnosed with genetic diseases such as CHARGE syndrome, a complex genetic disease caused by mutation in the Chd7 gene and characterized by multiple birth defects. Although otitis media is common in human CHARGE syndrome patients, it has not been reported in mouse models of CHARGE syndrome. In this study, we report a mouse model with a spontaneous deletion mutation in the Chd7 gene and with chronic otitis media of early onset age accompanied by hearing loss. These mice also exhibit morphological alteration in the Eustachian tubes, dysregulation of epithelial proliferation, and decreased density of middle ear cilia. Gene expression profiling revealed up-regulation of Muc5ac, Muc5b and Tgf-?1 transcripts, the products of which are involved in mucin production and TGF pathway regulation. This is the first mouse model of CHARGE syndrome reported to show otitis media with effusion and it will be valuable for studying the etiology of otitis media and other symptoms in CHARGE syndrome. PMID:22539951

Tian, Cong; Yu, Heping; Yang, Bin; Han, Fengchan; Zheng, Ye; Bartels, Cynthia F.; Schelling, Deborah; Arnold, James E.; Scacheri, Peter C.; Zheng, Qing Yin

2012-01-01

168

Chromosome 7 short arm deletion and craniosynostosis a 7p-syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

A patient with craniosynostosis and a small deletion of part of the short arm of chromosome 7 is described. A review of the literature indicates that craniosynostosis has occurred in at least four of the five infants (the fifth having microcephaly) affected by structural changes (resulting in deletion) within the terminal region of the short arm of chromosome 7.

Elspeth McPherson; Judith GI Hall; Robert Hickman; Bradley T. Gong; Thomas H. Norwood; Holger Hoehn

1976-01-01

169

Delineation of 2q32q35 Deletion Phenotypes: Two Apparent "Proximal" and "Distal" Syndromes  

PubMed Central

We report on three patients with interstitial deletions of the long arm of chromosome 2 involving bands 2q32.1–q35. They presented with wide-ranging phenotypic variation including facial dysmorphisms, cleft palate, learning difficulties, behavioural issues and severe heart defects. Microarray analysis confirmed an 8.6?Mb deletion in patients 1 and 2 and a 24.7?Mb deletion in patient 3. We discuss the genes involved in the deleted regions including MYO1B, GLS, FRZB, SATB2, and CPS1 and compare the phenotype with those reported in the literature. Taken together, these data suggest that there is a spectrum of disease severity such that patients with deletions encompassing the region of 2q32.1q32.2, which includes the FRZB gene, show an apparently milder phenotype compared to those that lie further distal in 2q32.3q35 that encompasses the SATB2 gene. PMID:23840981

Taylor, Juliet; Gregersen, Nerine; George, Alice M.; Love, Donald R.

2013-01-01

170

Transcribed sequences encoded in the region involved in contiguous deletion syndrome that comprises X-linked stapes fixation and deafness.  

PubMed

We have used a direct cDNA selection protocol to isolate expressed sequences from yeast artificial chromosome clones that contain approximately 900 Kb of genomic DNA from Xq21 band that is deleted in contiguous gene syndromes comprising of mixed deafness associated with stapes fixation (DFN3). In addition to identifying Brn4 (POU3f4), a POU domain containing transcription factor that is involved in DFN3 phenotype, we have isolated seven short fragment cDNAs mapping to the deleted region. Some of the selected fragments showed X-chromosome specificity and hybridized to autosomal DNA fragments, indicating the presence of a low abundance interspersed repeat in the cDNAs or their homology to some uncharacterized family of genes. In conformity with the inertness of Xq21 band our results demonstrate that the region encodes far less than the average density of genes in other parts of the genome. PMID:9131020

Kandpal, G; Jacob, A N; Kandpal, R P

1996-11-01

171

Genetic Dosage Compensation in a Family with Velo-cardio-facial/DiGeorge/22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Cytogenetic studies of a male child carrying the 22q11.2 deletion common in patients with velo-cardio-facial/DiGeorge syndrome revealed an unexpected rearrangement of the 22q11.2 region in his normal appearing mother. The mother carries a 3 Mb deletion on one copy and a reciprocal, similar sized duplication on the other copy of chromosome 22q11.2 as revealed by fluorescence in situ hybridization and array comparative genome hybridization analysis. The most parsimonious mechanism for the rearrangement is a mitotic non-allelic homologous recombination event in a cell in the early embryo soon after fertilization. The normal phenotype of the mother can be explained by the theory of genetic dosage compensation. This is the second documented case of such an event for this or any genomic disorder. This finding helps to reinforce this phenomenon in a human model, and has significant implications for genetic counseling of future children. PMID:21337693

Alkalay, Avishai A.; Guo, Tingwei; Montagna, Cristina; Digilio, M. Cristina; Marino, Bruno; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Morrow, Bernice

2014-01-01

172

Human homologue sequences to the Drosophila dishevelled segment-polarity gene are deleted in the DiGeorge syndrome  

SciTech Connect

DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) is a developmental defect of some of the neural crest derivatives. Most DGS patients show haploinsufficiency due to interstitial deletions of the proximal long arm of chromosome 22. Deletions of 22q11 have also been reported in patients with the velo-cardio-facial syndrome and familial conotruncal heart defects. It has been suggested that the wide phenotype spectrum associated with 22q11 monosomy is a consequence of contiguous-gene deletions. We report the isolation of human cDNAs homologous to the Drosophila dishevelled (dsh) segment-polarity gene. Sequences homologous to the 3{prime} UTR of these transcripts (DVL-22) were positioned within the DGS critical region and were found to be deleted in DGS patients. Human DVL mRNAs are expressed in several fetal and adult tissues, including the thymus and, at high levels, the heart. Two transcripts, 3.2 and 5 kb, were detected, in Northern blot analysis, with different expression patterns in the surveyed tissues when different cDNAs were used. The isolated cDNAs exhibit high amino acid homology with the mouse and Xenopus Dvl-1 gene, the only other vertebrate dsh homologues so far isolated. The pivotal role of dsh in fly development suggests an analogous key function in vertebrate embryogenesis of its homologue genes. Since DGS may be due to perturbation of differentiation mechanisms at decisive embryological stages, a Dsh-like gene in the small-region overlap (SRO) might be a candidate for the pathogenesis of this disorder. 52 refs., 3 figs.

Pizzuti, A.; Ratti, A.; Penso, D.; Silani, V.; Scarlato, G. [Universita di Milano, Milan (Italy)] [and others

1996-04-01

173

20q13.2-q13.33 deletion syndrome: A case report  

PubMed Central

We report a 32-month-old female of Peruvian ethnicity identified with a rare 20q13.2-q13.33 deletion using microarray analysis. She presented with intellectual disability, absent speech, hypotonia, pre- and post-natal growth retardation and an abnormal face with a unilateral cleft lip. Clinical features and genetic findings with the loss of 30 genes, including GNAS, MC3R, CDH4 and TFAP2C, are described in relationship to the very few cases of 20q13 deletion reported in the literature. Deletion of this region may play an important role in neurodevelopment and function and in causing specific craniofacial features. PMID:25339993

Butler, Merlin G.; Usrey, Kelly M.; Roberts, Jennifer L.; Manzardo, Ann M.; Schroeder, Stephen R.

2014-01-01

174

Tbx1 haploinsufficiency is linked to behavioral disorders in mice and humans: implications for 22q11 deletion syndrome.  

PubMed

About 35% of patients with 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), which includes DiGeorge and velocardiofacial syndromes, develops psychiatric disorders, mainly schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. We previously reported that mice carrying a multigene deletion (Df1) that models 22q11DS have reduced prepulse inhibition (PPI), a behavioral abnormality and schizophrenia endophenotype. Impaired PPI is associated with several psychiatric disorders, including those that occur in 22q11DS, and recently, reduced PPI was reported in children with 22q11DS. Here, we have mapped PPI deficits in a panel of mouse mutants that carry deletions that partially overlap with Df1 and have defined a PPI critical region encompassing four genes. We then used single-gene mutants to identify the causative genes. We show that PPI deficits in Df1/+ mice are caused by haploinsufficiency of two genes, Tbx1 and Gnb1l. Mutation of either gene is sufficient to cause reduced PPI. Tbx1 is a transcription factor, the mutation of which is sufficient to cause most of the physical features of 22q11DS, but the gene had not been previously associated with the behavioral/psychiatric phenotype. A likely role for Tbx1 haploinsufficiency in psychiatric disease is further suggested by the identification of a family in which the phenotypic features of 22q11DS, including psychiatric disorders, segregate with an inactivating mutation of TBX1. One family member has Asperger syndrome, an autistic spectrum disorder that is associated with reduced PPI. Thus, Tbx1 and Gnb1l are strong candidates for psychiatric disease in 22q11DS patients and candidate susceptibility genes for psychiatric disease in the wider population. PMID:16684884

Paylor, Richard; Glaser, Beate; Mupo, Annalisa; Ataliotis, Paris; Spencer, Corinne; Sobotka, Angela; Sparks, Chelsey; Choi, Chul-Hee; Oghalai, John; Curran, Sarah; Murphy, Kieran C; Monks, Stephen; Williams, Nigel; O'Donovan, Michael C; Owen, Michael J; Scambler, Peter J; Lindsay, Elizabeth

2006-05-16

175

Dandy-Walker malformation and Wisconsin syndrome: novel cases add further insight into the genotype-phenotype correlations of 3q23q25 deletions  

PubMed Central

Background The Dandy-Walker malformation (DWM) is one of the commonest congenital cerebellar defects, and can be associated with multiple congenital anomalies and chromosomal syndromes. The occurrence of overlapping 3q deletions including the ZIC1 and ZIC4 genes in few patients, along with data from mouse models, have implicated both genes in the pathogenesis of DWM. Methods and results Using a SNP-array approach, we recently identified three novel patients carrying heterozygous 3q deletions encompassing ZIC1 and ZIC4. Magnetic resonance imaging showed that only two had a typical DWM, while the third did not present any defect of the DWM spectrum. SNP-array analysis in further eleven children diagnosed with DWM failed to identify deletions of ZIC1-ZIC4. The clinical phenotype of the three 3q deleted patients included multiple congenital anomalies and peculiar facial appearance, related to the localization and extension of each deletion. In particular, phenotypes resulted from the variable combination of three recognizable patterns: DWM (with incomplete penetrance); blepharophimosis, ptosis, and epicanthus inversus syndrome; and Wisconsin syndrome (WS), recently mapped to 3q. Conclusions Our data indicate that the 3q deletion is a rare defect associated with DWM, and suggest that the hemizygosity of ZIC1-ZIC4 genes is neither necessary nor sufficient per se to cause this condition. Furthermore, based on a detailed comparison of clinical features and molecular data from 3q deleted patients, we propose clinical diagnostic criteria and refine the critical region for WS. PMID:23679990

2013-01-01

176

Problem Behaviors Associated with Deletion Prader-Willi, Smith-Magenis, and Cri Du Chat Syndromes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problem behaviors of 38 individuals with Cri-du-Chat syndrome, 55 individuals with Prader Willi syndrome, and 21 individuals with Smith-Magenis syndrome were investigated. All three disorders were Associated with greater ratings of problem behaviors (besides eating abnormalities and sleep abnormalities) than comparison groups. (Author/CR)

Clarke, David J.; Boer, Harm

1998-01-01

177

Prenatal Diagnosis of 4p and 4q Subtelomeric Microdeletion in De Novo Ring Chromosome 4  

PubMed Central

Ring chromosomes are unusual abnormalities that are observed in prenatal diagnosis. A 23-year-old patient (gravida 1, para 0) referred for amniocentesis due to abnormal maternal serum screening result in the 16th week of second pregnancy. Cytogenetic analysis of cultured amniyotic fluid cells revealed out ring chromosome 4. Both maternal and paternal karyotypes were normal. Terminal deletion was observed in both 4p and 4q arms of ring chromosome 4 by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). However deletion was not observed in the WHS critical region of both normal and ring chromosome 4 by an additional FISH study. These results were confirmed by means of array-CGH showing terminal deletions on 4p16.3 (130?kb) and 4q35.2 (2.449?Mb). In the 21th week of pregnancy, no gross anomalia, except two weeks symmetric growth retardation, was present in the fetal ultrasonographic examination. According to our review of literature, this is the first prenatal case with 4p and 4q subtelomeric deletion of ring chromosome 4 without the involvement of WHS critical region. Our report describes the prenatal case with a ring chromosome 4 abnormality completely characterized by array-CGH which provided complementary data for genetic counseling of prenatal diagnosis. PMID:24455347

Cine, Naci; Erdemoglu, Mahmut; Atay, Ahmet Engin; Simsek, Selda; Turkyilmaz, Aysegul; Fidanboy, Mehmet

2013-01-01

178

A Saudi Patient with an Interstitial Deletion of Short Arm of Chromosome 3 (p13 to p21) and its Association with Joubert's Syndrome Features  

PubMed Central

We report a case of 4 weeks old girl with a de novo interstitial deletion of the short arm of chromosome 3 (p13-p21) and clinical findings typical of proximal 3p deletion together with heart defects, choanal atresia, ear anomalies, central nervous system anomalies, renal anomalies and associated Joubert's syndrome (JS). Family history is unremarkable and parenteral chromosomes were normal. The clinical manifestations of the patient are compared with those of 11 patients previously described with a proximal 3p deletion. The additional JS features associated with this syndrome were described. This is the first case report in English literature describing 3p deletion associated with additional JS features. PMID:24027747

Mersal, Ali Y.; Basha, Mahaboob K.; Brinji, Zaina S.; Avand, Ghazal

2013-01-01

179

A novel seven-base deletion of the CTSC gene identified in a Hungarian family with Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome.  

PubMed

Papillon-Lefévre syndrome (PLS; OMIM 245000) is a rare autosomal recessive condition characterized by symmetrical palmoplantar hyperkeratosis and periodontal inflammation, causing loss of both the deciduous and permanent teeth. PLS develops due to mutations in the cathepsin C gene, CTSC. Recently we have identified a Hungarian PLS family with two affected siblings. Direct sequencing of the coding regions of the CTSC gene revealed a novel seven-base deletion leading to frameshift and early stop codon in the fourth exon of the CTSC gene (c.681delCATACAT, p.T188fsX199). The affected family members carried the mutation in homozygous form, while the clinically unaffected family members carried the mutation in heterozygous form. The unrelated controls carried only the wild type sequence. In this paper we report a novel homozygous deletion of seven bases on the CTSC gene leading to the development of PLS. Since consanguineous marriage was unknown in the investigated family, the presence of the homozygous seven-base deletion of the CTSC gene may suggest that the parents are close relatives. PMID:23397598

Farkas, Katalin; Paschali, Ekaterine; Papp, Ferenc; Vályi, Péter; Széll, Márta; Kemény, Lajos; Nagy, Nikoletta; Csoma, Zsanett

2013-07-01

180

Converging levels of analysis on a genomic hotspot for psychosis: Insights from 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Schizophrenia is a devastating neurodevelopmental disorder that, despite extensive research, still poses a considerable challenge to attempts to unravel its heterogeneity, and the complex biochemical mechanisms by which it arises. While the majority of cases are of unknown etiology, accumulating evidence suggests that rare genetic mutations, such as 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22qDS), can play a significant role in predisposition to the illness. Up to 25% of individuals with 22qDS eventually develop schizophrenia; conversely, this deletion is estimated to account for 1–2% of schizophrenia cases overall. This locus of Chromosome 22q11.2 contains genes that encode for proteins and enzymes involved in regulating neurotransmission, neuronal development, myelination, micro RNA processing, and posttranslational protein modifications. As a consequence of the deletion, affected individuals exhibit cognitive dysfunction, structural and functional brain abnormalities, and neurodevelopmental anomalies that parallel many of the phenotypic characteristics of schizophrenia. As an illustration of the value of rare, highly penetrant genetic subtypes for elucidating pathological mechanisms of complex neuropsychiatric disorders, we provide here an overview of the cellular, network, and systems-level anomalies found in 22qDS, and review the intriguing evidence for this disorder’s association with schizophrenia. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled ‘Neurodevelopmental Disorders’. PMID:23098994

Schreiner, Matthew J.; Lazaro, Maria T.; Jalbrzikowski, Maria; Bearden, Carrie E.

2012-01-01

181

Heterozygous deletion of the Williams-Beuren syndrome critical interval in mice recapitulates most features of the human disorder.  

PubMed

Williams-Beuren syndrome is a developmental multisystemic disorder caused by a recurrent 1.55-1.83 Mb heterozygous deletion on human chromosome band 7q11.23. Through chromosomal engineering with the cre-loxP system, we have generated mice with an almost complete deletion (CD) of the conserved syntenic region on chromosome 5G2. Heterozygous CD mice were viable, fertile and had a normal lifespan, while homozygotes were early embryonic lethal. Transcript levels of most deleted genes were reduced 50% in several tissues, consistent with gene dosage. Heterozygous mutant mice showed postnatal growth delay with reduced body weight and craniofacial abnormalities such as small mandible. The cardiovascular phenotype was only manifested with borderline hypertension, mildly increased arterial wall thickness and cardiac hypertrophy. The neurobehavioral phenotype revealed impairments in motor coordination, increased startle response to acoustic stimuli and hypersociability. Mutant mice showed a general reduction in brain weight. Cellular and histological abnormalities were present in the amygdala, cortex and hippocampus, including increased proportion of immature neurons. In summary, these mice recapitulate most crucial phenotypes of the human disorder, provide novel insights into the pathophysiological mechanisms of the disease such as the neural substrates of the behavioral manifestations, and will be valuable to evaluate novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:25027326

Segura-Puimedon, Maria; Sahún, Ignasi; Velot, Emilie; Dubus, Pierre; Borralleras, Cristina; Rodrigues, Ana J; Valero, María C; Valverde, Olga; Sousa, Nuno; Herault, Yann; Dierssen, Mara; Pérez-Jurado, Luis A; Campuzano, Victoria

2014-12-15

182

Alport syndrome caused by a COL4A5 deletion and exonization of an adjacent AluY.  

PubMed

Mutation-induced activation of splice sites in intronic repetitive sequences has contributed significantly to the evolution of exon-intron structure and genetic disease. Such events have been associated with mutations within transposable elements, most frequently in mutation hot-spots of Alus. Here, we report a case of Alu exonization resulting from a 367-nt genomic COL4A5 deletion that did not encompass any recognizable transposed element, leading to the Alport syndrome. The deletion brought to proximity the 5' splice site of COL4A5 exon 33 and a cryptic 3' splice site in an antisense AluY copy in intron 32. The fusion exon was depleted of purines and purine-rich splicing enhancers, but had low levels of intramolecular secondary structure, was flanked by short introns and had strong 5' and Alu-derived 3' splice sites, apparently compensating poor composition and context of the new exon. This case demonstrates that Alu splice sites can be activated by outlying deletions, highlighting Alu versatility in shaping the exon-intron organization and expanding the spectrum of mutational mechanisms that introduce repetitive sequences in mRNAs. PMID:25333070

Nozu, Kandai; Iijima, Kazumoto; Ohtsuka, Yasufumi; Fu, Xue Jun; Kaito, Hiroshi; Nakanishi, Koichi; Vorechovsky, Igor

2014-09-01

183

Alport syndrome caused by a COL4A5 deletion and exonization of an adjacent AluY  

PubMed Central

Mutation-induced activation of splice sites in intronic repetitive sequences has contributed significantly to the evolution of exon–intron structure and genetic disease. Such events have been associated with mutations within transposable elements, most frequently in mutation hot-spots of Alus. Here, we report a case of Alu exonization resulting from a 367-nt genomic COL4A5 deletion that did not encompass any recognizable transposed element, leading to the Alport syndrome. The deletion brought to proximity the 5? splice site of COL4A5 exon 33 and a cryptic 3? splice site in an antisense AluY copy in intron 32. The fusion exon was depleted of purines and purine-rich splicing enhancers, but had low levels of intramolecular secondary structure, was flanked by short introns and had strong 5? and Alu-derived 3? splice sites, apparently compensating poor composition and context of the new exon. This case demonstrates that Alu splice sites can be activated by outlying deletions, highlighting Alu versatility in shaping the exon–intron organization and expanding the spectrum of mutational mechanisms that introduce repetitive sequences in mRNAs. PMID:25333070

Nozu, Kandai; Iijima, Kazumoto; Ohtsuka, Yasufumi; Fu, Xue Jun; Kaito, Hiroshi; Nakanishi, Koichi; Vorechovsky, Igor

2014-01-01

184

Identification of novel deletions of 15q11q13 in Angelman syndrome by array-CGH: molecular characterization and genotype–phenotype correlations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by mental retardation, absent speech, ataxia, and a happy disposition. Deletions of the 15q11q13 region are found in approximately 70% of AS patients. The deletions are sub-classified into class I and class II based on their sizes of ?6.8 and ?6.0, respectively, with two different proximal breakpoints and a common distal breakpoint.

Trilochan Sahoo; Carlos A Bacino; Jennifer R German; Chad A Shaw; Lynne M Bird; Virginia Kimonis; Irinia Anselm; Susan Waisbren; Arthur L Beaudet; Sarika U Peters

2007-01-01

185

Exon deletions of the EP300 and CREBBP genes in two children with Rubinstein–Taybi syndrome detected by aCGH  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate the utility of an exon coverage microarray platform in detecting intragenic deletions: one in exons 24–27 of the EP300 gene and another in exons 27 and 28 of the CREBBP gene in two patients with Rubinstein–Taybi syndrome (RSTS). RSTS is a heterogeneous disorder in which ?45–55% of cases result from deletion or mutations in the CREBBP gene and

Anne Chun-Hui Tsai; Cherilyn J Dossett; Carol S Walton; Andrea E Cramer; Patti A Eng; Beata A Nowakowska; Amber N Pursley; Pawel Stankiewicz; Joanna Wiszniewska; Sau Wai Cheung

2011-01-01

186

Deletions in GRID2 lead to a recessive syndrome of cerebellar ataxia and tonic upgaze in humans  

PubMed Central

Objective: To identify the genetic cause of a syndrome causing cerebellar ataxia and eye movement abnormalities. Methods: We identified 2 families with cerebellar ataxia, eye movement abnormalities, and global developmental delay. We performed genetic analyses including single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping, linkage analysis, array comparative genomic hybridization, quantitative PCR, and Sanger sequencing. We obtained eye movement recordings of mutant mice deficient for the ortholog of the identified candidate gene, and performed immunohistochemistry using human and mouse brain specimens. Results: All affected individuals had ataxia, eye movement abnormalities, most notably tonic upgaze, and delayed speech and cognitive development. Homozygosity mapping identified the disease locus on chromosome 4q. Within this region, a homozygous deletion of GRID2 exon 4 in the index family and compound heterozygous deletions involving GRID2 exon 2 in the second family were identified. Grid2-deficient mice showed larger spontaneous and random eye movements compared to wild-type mice. In developing mouse and human cerebella, GRID2 localized to the Purkinje cell dendritic spines. Brain MRI in 2 affected children showed progressive cerebellar atrophy, which was more severe than that of Grid2-deficient mice. Conclusions: Biallelic deletions of GRID2 lead to a syndrome of cerebellar ataxia and tonic upgaze in humans. The phenotypic resemblance and similarity in protein expression pattern between humans and mice suggest a conserved role for GRID2 in the synapse organization between parallel fibers and Purkinje cells. However, the progressive and severe cerebellar atrophy seen in the affected individuals could indicate an evolutionarily unique role for GRID2 in the human cerebellum. PMID:24078737

Hills, L. Benjamin; Masri, Amira; Konno, Kotaro; Kakegawa, Wataru; Lam, Anh-Thu N.; Lim-Melia, Elizabeth; Chandy, Nandini; Hill, R. Sean; Partlow, Jennifer N.; Al-Saffar, Muna; Nasir, Ramzi; Stoler, Joan M.; Barkovich, A. James; Watanabe, Masahiko; Yuzaki, Michisuke

2013-01-01

187

Bicuspid aortic valve and aortic coarctation are linked to deletion of the X chromosome short arm in Turner syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Congenital heart disease (CHD) is a cardinal feature of X chromosome monosomy, or Turner syndrome (TS). Haploinsufficiency for gene(s) located on Xp have been implicated in the short stature characteristic of the syndrome, but the chromosomal region related to the CHD phenotype has not been established. Design We used cardiac MRI to diagnose cardiovascular abnormalities in four non-mosaic karyotype groups based on 50-metaphase analyses: 45,X (n=152); 46,X,del(Xp) (n=15); 46,X,del(Xq) (n=4); and 46,X,i(Xq) (n=14) from peripheral blood cells. Results Bicuspid aortic valves (BAV) were found in 52/152 (34%) 45,X study subjects and aortic coarctation (COA) in 19/152 (12.5%). Isolated anomalous pulmonary veins (APV) were detected in 15/152 (10%) for the 45,X study group, and this defect was not correlated with the presence of BAV or COA. BAVs were present in 28.6% of subjects with Xp deletions and COA in 6.7%. APV were not found in subjects with Xp deletions. The most distal break associated with the BAV/COA trait was at cytologic band Xp11.4 and ChrX:41,500?000. One of 14 subjects (7%) with the 46,X,i(Xq) karyotype had a BAV and no cases of COA or APV were found in this group. No cardiovascular defects were found among four patients with Xq deletions. Conclusions The high prevalence of BAV and COA in subjects missing only the X chromosome short arm indicates that haploinsufficiency for Xp genes contributes to abnormal aortic valve and aortic arch development in TS. PMID:23825392

Bondy, Carolyn; Bakalov, Vladimir K; Cheng, Clara; Olivieri, Laura; Rosing, Douglas R; Arai, Andrew E

2013-01-01

188

Homozygous Deletion in KVLQT1 Associated With Jervell and Lange-Nielsen Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Long-QT (LQT) syndrome is a cardiac disorder that causes syncope, seizures, and sudden death from ventricular arrhythmias, specifically torsade de pointes. Both autosomal dominant LQT (Romano-Ward syndrome) and autosomal recessive LQT (Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome, JLNS) have been reported. Heterozygous mutations in 3 potassium channel genes, KVLQT1, KCNE1(minK), and HERG, and the cardiac sodium channel gene SCN5A cause autosomal dominant

Qiuyun Chen; Danmei Zhang; Robert L. Gingell; Arthur J. Moss; Carlo Napolitano; Silvia G. Priori; Peter J. Schwartz; Eileen Kehoe; Jennifer L. Robinson; Eric Schulze-Bahr; Qing Wang; Jeffrey A. Towbin

2010-01-01

189

Small mosaic deletion encompassing the snoRNAs and SNURF-SNRPN results in an atypical Prader-Willi syndrome phenotype.  

PubMed

Genetic analyses were performed in a male patient with suspected Prader-Willi syndrome who presented with hypogonadism, excessive eating, central obesity, small hands and feet and cognition within the low normal range. However, he had no neonatal hypotonia or feeding problems during infancy. Chromosome analysis showed a normal male karyotype. Further analysis with array-CGH identified a mosaic 847?kb deletion in 15q11-q13, including SNURF-SNRPN, the snoRNA gene clusters SNORD116 (HBII-85), SNORD115, (HBII-52), SNORD109 A and B (HBII-438A and B), SNORD64 (HBII-13), and NPAP1 (C15ORF2). MLPA confirmed the deletion and the results were compatible with a paternal origin. Metaphase-FISH verified the mosaicism with the deletion present in 58% of leukocytes analyzed. Three smaller deletions in this region have previously been reported in patients with Prader-Willi syndrome phenotype. All three deletions included SNORD116, but only two encompassed parts of SNURF-SNRPN, implicating SNORD116 as the major contributor to the Prader-Willi phenotype. Our case adds further information about genotype-phenotype correlation and supports the hypothesis that SNORD116 plays a major role in the pathogenesis of Prader-Willi syndrome. Furthermore, it examplifies diagnostic difficulties in atypical cases and illustrates the need for additional testing methods when Prader-Willi syndrome is suspected. PMID:24311433

Anderlid, Britt-Marie; Lundin, Johanna; Malmgren, Helena; Lehtihet, Mikael; Nordgren, Ann

2014-02-01

190

Pulmonary Extranodal Marginal Zone Lymphoma of Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Associated with Granulomatous Inflammation in a Child with Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (DiGeorge Syndrome)  

PubMed Central

Patients with immunodeficiency disorders have an increased incidence of lymphoproliferative disorders; however, only 4 such patients with DiGeorge/chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome have been reported. We report a case of a pulmonary Epstein-Barr virus–negative extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue in a child with this syndrome. PMID:22920507

Pongpruttipan, Tawatchai; Cook, James R.; Reyes-Mugica, Miguel; Spahr, Jonathan E.; Swerdlow, Steven H.

2013-01-01

191

Genes for the CPE Receptor ( CPETR1) and the Human Homolog of RVP1 ( CPETR2) Are Localized within the Williams–Beuren Syndrome Deletion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Williams–Beuren syndrome (WBS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder affecting multiple systems. Haploinsufficiency of genes deleted in chromosomal region 7q11.23 is the likely cause for this syndrome. We now report the localization of the genes for the CPE-R (Clostridium perfringensenterotoxin receptor,CPETR1) and the human homolog of RVP1 (rat ventral prostate 1 protein,CPETR2), both previously mapped to 7q11, to the WBS critical region.

Tamar Paperna; Risa Peoples; Yu-Ker Wang; Paige Kaplan; Uta Francke

1998-01-01

192

Identification of GTF2IRD1, a putative transcription factor within the Williams-Beuren syndrome deletion at 7q11.23  

Microsoft Academic Search

Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) is a microdeletion syndrome caused by haploinsufficiency of genes at 7q11.23. Here we describe the identification and characterization of a novel gene named GTF2IRD1, for GTF2I-repeat domain 1, within the WBS deletion region. Northern blot analysis revealed ubiquitous expression during development with two transcripts of 3.6 kb and 5.0 kb generated by alternative splicing. GTF2IRD1 encodes a

Y. Franke; R. J. Peoples; U. Francke

1999-01-01

193

Submicroscopic deletions at 16p13.3 in Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome: frequency and clinical manifestations in a North American population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RTS) is a well delineated multiple congenital anomaly syndrome characterised by mental retardation, broad thumbs and toes, short stature, and specific facial features. The recent localisation of the disorder to 16p13.3 and subsequent identification of a submicroscopic deletion of this region in RTS patients led us to screen a large cohort of affected subjects using the RT1 probe.

R Wallerstein; C E Anderson; B Hay; P Gupta; L Gibas; K Ansari; F S Cowchock; V Weinblatt; C Reid; A Levitas; L Jackson

1997-01-01

194

FACL4, a New Gene Encoding Long-Chain Acyl-CoA Synthetase 4, Is Deleted in a Family with Alport Syndrome, Elliptocytosis, and Mental Retardation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We observed a family in which two boys were diagnosed with Alport syndrome, elliptocytosis, and mental retardation and carried a large deletion of the Xq22.3–q23 region, encompassing the COL4A5 gene. This suggests the possibility of a new contiguous gene syndrome. In an attempt to characterize the genes contributing to this complex phenotype, we have isolated a gene encoding a new

Monica Piccini; Francesca Vitelli; Mirella Bruttini; Barbara R. Pober; Jon J. Jonsson; Marcello Villanova; Massimo Zollo; Giuseppe Borsani; Andrea Ballabio; Alessandra Renieri

1998-01-01

195

Expanded Prader-Willi syndrome due to chromosome 15q11.2-14 deletion: report and a review of literature.  

PubMed

We report on a male infant with de novo unbalanced t(5;15) translocation resulting in a 17.23?Mb deletion within 15q11.2-q14 and a 25.12?kb deletion in 5pter. The 15q11.2-q14 deletion encompassed the 15q11.2-q13 Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) critical region and the recently described 15q13.3 microdeletion syndrome region while the 5pter deletion contained no RefSeq genes. From our literature review, patients with similar deletions in chromosome 15q exhibit expanded phenotype of severe developmental delay, protracted feeding problem, absent speech, central visual impairment, congenital malformations and epilepsy in addition to those typical of PWS. The patient reported herein had previously unreported anomalies of mega cisterna magna, horseshoe kidney and the rare neonatal interstitial lung disease known as pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis. Precise breakpoint delineation by microarray is useful in patients with atypical PWS deletions to guide investigation and prognostication. PMID:23633107

Liu, Anthony P Y; Tang, Wing Fai; Lau, Elizabeth T; Chan, Kelvin Y K; Kan, Anita S Y; Wong, Kar Yin; Tso, Winnie W Y; Jalal, Khair; Lee, So Lun; Chau, Christy S K; Chung, Brian H Y

2013-06-01

196

Deletions in the 3' part of the NFIX gene including a recurrent Alu-mediated deletion of exon 6 and 7 account for previously unexplained cases of Marshall-Smith syndrome.  

PubMed

Marshall-Smith syndrome (MSS) is a very rare malformation syndrome characterized by typical craniofacial anomalies, abnormal osseous maturation, developmental delay, failure to thrive, and respiratory difficulties. Mutations in the nuclear factor 1/X gene (NFIX) were recently identified as the cause of MSS. In our study cohort of 17 patients with a clinical diagnosis of MSS, conventional sequencing of NFIX revealed frameshift and splice-site mutations in 10 individuals. Using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis, we identified a recurrent deletion of NFIX exon 6 and 7 in five individuals. We demonstrate this recurrent deletion is the product of a recombination between AluY elements located in intron 5 and 7. Two other patients had smaller deletions affecting exon 6. These findings show that MSS is a genetically homogeneous Mendelian disorder. RT-PCR experiments with newly identified NFIX mutations including the recurrent exon 6 and 7 deletion confirmed previous findings indicating that MSS-associated mutant mRNAs are not cleared by nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. Predicted MSS-associated mutant NFIX proteins consistently have a preserved DNA binding and dimerization domain, whereas they grossly vary in their C-terminal portion. This is in line with the hypothesis that MSS-associated mutations encode dysfunctional proteins that act in a dominant negative manner. PMID:24924640

Schanze, Denny; Neubauer, Dorothée; Cormier-Daire, Valerie; Delrue, Marie-Ange; Dieux-Coeslier, Anne; Hasegawa, Tomonobu; Holmberg, Eva E; Koenig, Rainer; Krueger, Gabriele; Schanze, Ina; Seemanova, Eva; Shaw, Adam C; Vogt, Julie; Volleth, Marianne; Reis, André; Meinecke, Peter; Hennekam, Raoul C M; Zenker, Martin

2014-09-01

197

Mesomelia-synostoses syndrome results from deletion of SULF1 and SLCO5A1 genes at 8q13.  

PubMed

Mesomelia-synostoses syndrome (MSS) or mesomelic dysplasia with acral synostoses Verloes-David-Pfeiffer type is a rare autosomal-dominant disorder characterized by mesomelic limb shortening, acral synostoses, and multiple congenital malformations. So far, five patients in four unrelated families have been reported worldwide with MMS. By using whole-genome oligonucleotide array CGH, we have identified an interstitial deletion at 8q13 in all patients. The deletions vary from 582 Kb to 738 Kb in size, but invariably encompass only two genes: SULF1, encoding the heparan sulfate 6-O-endosulfatase 1, and SLCO5A1, encoding the solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 5A1. SULF1 acts as a regulator of numerous growth factors in skeletal embryonic development whereas the function of SLCO5A1 is yet unknown. Breakpoint sequence analyses performed in two families showed nonrecurrent deletions. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed the highest levels of SULF1 transcripts in human osteoblasts and cartilage whereas SLCO5A1 was highly expressed in human fetal and adult brain and heart. Our results strongly suggest that haploinsufficiency of SULF1 contributes to this mesomelic chondrodysplasia, highlighting the critical role of endosulfatase in human skeletal development. Codeletion of SULF1 and SLCO5A1--which does not result from a low-copy repeats (LCRs)-mediated recombination event in at least two families--was found in all patients, so we suggest that haploinsufficiency of SULF1 combined with haploinsufficiency of SLCO5A1 (or the altered expression of a neighboring gene through position effect) could be necessary in the pathogenesis of MSS. PMID:20602915

Isidor, Bertrand; Pichon, Olivier; Redon, Richard; Day-Salvatore, Debra; Hamel, Antoine; Siwicka, Karolina A; Bitner-Glindzicz, Maria; Heymann, Dominique; Kjellén, Lena; Kraus, Cornelia; Leroy, Jules G; Mortier, Geert R; Rauch, Anita; Verloes, Alain; David, Albert; Le Caignec, Cédric

2010-07-01

198

Mesomelia-Synostoses Syndrome Results from Deletion of SULF1 and SLCO5A1 Genes at 8q13  

PubMed Central

Mesomelia-synostoses syndrome (MSS) or mesomelic dysplasia with acral synostoses Verloes-David-Pfeiffer type is a rare autosomal-dominant disorder characterized by mesomelic limb shortening, acral synostoses, and multiple congenital malformations. So far, five patients in four unrelated families have been reported worldwide with MMS. By using whole-genome oligonucleotide array CGH, we have identified an interstitial deletion at 8q13 in all patients. The deletions vary from 582 Kb to 738 Kb in size, but invariably encompass only two genes: SULF1, encoding the heparan sulfate 6-O-endosulfatase 1, and SLCO5A1, encoding the solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 5A1. SULF1 acts as a regulator of numerous growth factors in skeletal embryonic development whereas the function of SLCO5A1 is yet unknown. Breakpoint sequence analyses performed in two families showed nonrecurrent deletions. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed the highest levels of SULF1 transcripts in human osteoblasts and cartilage whereas SLCO5A1 was highly expressed in human fetal and adult brain and heart. Our results strongly suggest that haploinsufficiency of SULF1 contributes to this mesomelic chondrodysplasia, highlighting the critical role of endosulfatase in human skeletal development. Codeletion of SULF1 and SLCO5A1—which does not result from a low-copy repeats (LCRs)-mediated recombination event in at least two families—was found in all patients, so we suggest that haploinsufficiency of SULF1 combined with haploinsufficiency of SLCO5A1 (or the altered expression of a neighboring gene through position effect) could be necessary in the pathogenesis of MSS. PMID:20602915

Isidor, Bertrand; Pichon, Olivier; Redon, Richard; Day-Salvatore, Debra; Hamel, Antoine; Siwicka, Karolina A.; Bitner-Glindzicz, Maria; Heymann, Dominique; Kjellen, Lena; Kraus, Cornelia; Leroy, Jules G.; Mortier, Geert R.; Rauch, Anita; Verloes, Alain; David, Albert; Le Caignec, Cedric

2010-01-01

199

LIN7A depletion disrupts cerebral cortex development, contributing to intellectual disability in 12q21-deletion syndrome.  

PubMed

Interstitial deletion of 12q21 has been reported in four cases, which share several common clinical features, including intellectual disability (ID), low-set ears, and minor cardiac abnormalities. Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analysis using the Agilent Human Genome CGH 180K array was performed with the genomic DNA from a two-year-old Japanese boy with these symptoms, as well as hypoplasia of the corpus callosum. Consequently, a 14 Mb deletion at 12q21.2-q21.33 (nt. 77 203 574-91 264 613 bp), which includes 72 genes, was detected. Of these, we focused on LIN7A, which encodes a scaffold protein that is important for synaptic function, as a possible responsible gene for ID, and we analyzed its role in cerebral cortex development. Western blotting analyses revealed that Lin-7A is expressed on embryonic day (E) 13.5, and gradually increases in the mouse brain during the embryonic stage. Biochemical fractionation resulted in the enrichment of Lin-7A in the presynaptic fraction. Suppression of Lin-7A expression by RNAi, using in utero electroporation on E14.5, delayed neuronal migration on postnatal day (P) 2, and Lin-7A-deficient neurons remained in the lower zone of the cortical plate and the intermediate zone. In addition, when Lin-7A was silenced in cortical neurons in one hemisphere, axonal growth in the contralateral hemisphere was delayed; development of these neurons was disrupted such that one half did not extend into the contralateral hemisphere after leaving the corpus callosum. Taken together, LIN7A is a candidate gene responsible for 12q21-deletion syndrome, and abnormal neuronal migration and interhemispheric axon development may contribute to ID and corpus callosum hypoplasia, respectively. PMID:24658322

Matsumoto, Ayumi; Mizuno, Makoto; Hamada, Nanako; Nozaki, Yasuyuki; Jimbo, Eriko F; Momoi, Mariko Y; Nagata, Koh-ichi; Yamagata, Takanori

2014-01-01

200

A novel deletion in the iron-response element of the L-ferritin gene, causing hyperferritinaemia cataract syndrome.  

PubMed

A 47-year-old woman, presenting to her family physician with fatigue, was incidentally found to have persistently elevated ferritin. There was clinically no suggestion of iron overload, and laboratory testing showed transferrin saturation at the low end of the reference range. After ruling out acquired causes of hyperferritinaemia, as well as laboratory interference, further questioning revealed a history of bilateral early-onset cataracts, allowing a diagnosis of hyperferritinaemia cataract syndrome to be made. DNA sequencing of the 5' untranslated region of the L-ferritin gene revealed a novel 4-base deletion in the iron response element, within a region known to be crucial for binding iron regulatory protein. PMID:24936091

Garber, Ian; Pudek, Morris

2014-11-01

201

Serotonergic, noradrenergic and dopaminergic markers are related to cognitive function in adults with 22q11 deletion syndrome.  

PubMed

Patients with 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) have a high prevalence of psychiatric disorders and intellectual disability. At present the neurobiology underlying psychopathology in 22q11DS is still not understood. In the present study, we analyzed urinary serotonergic, dopaminergic and noradrenergic markers in 67 adults with 22q11DS. Levels of serotonin and the catecholamine metabolite homovanillic acid were significantly lower in the 22q11DS subjects compared to healthy controls. Within the 22q11DS group, levels of dopamine, homovanillic acid, norepinephrine, vanillyl mandelic acid and serotonin positively correlated with Full Scale Intelligence Quotient scores. Our results suggest that cognitive deficits in 22q11DS are associated with abnormal function of several neurotransmitters. PMID:24713114

Evers, Laurens J M; Curfs, Leopold M G; Bakker, Jaap A; Boot, Erik; da Silva Alves, Fabiana; Abeling, Nico; Bierau, Jörgen; Drukker, Marjan; van Amelsvoort, Therese A M J

2014-08-01

202

Two patients with duplication of 17p11.2: The reciprocal of the Smith-Magenis syndrome deletion?  

SciTech Connect

J.M. and H.G. are two unrelated male patients with developmental delay. Cytogenetic analysis detected a duplication of 17p11.2 in both patients. The extent of the duplicated region was determined using single copy DNA probes: cen-D17S58-D17S29-D17S258-D17S71-D17S445-D17S122-tel. Four of the six markers, D17S29, D17S258, D17S71, and D17S445, were duplicated by dosage analysis. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis of H.G., using cosmids for locus D17S29, confirmed the duplication in 17p11.2. Because the deletion that causes the Smith-Magenis syndrome involves the same region of 17p11.2 as the duplication in these patients, the mechanism may be similar to that proposed for the reciprocal deletion/ duplication event observed in Hereditary Neuropathy with Liability to Pressure Palsies (HNPP) and Charcot-Marie-Tooth Type 1A disease (CMT1A). 30 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Brown, A. [Greenwood Genetic Center, SC (United States)] [Greenwood Genetic Center, SC (United States); [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Phelan, M.C.; Rogers, R.C. [Greenwood Genetic Center, SC (United States)] [and others] [Greenwood Genetic Center, SC (United States); and others

1996-05-17

203

Socioeconomic Status and Psychological Function in Children with Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: Implications for Genetic Counseling  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study is to examine the association between parental socio-economic status (SES) and childhood neurocognition and behavior in children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS). Although undoubtedly, the deletion of genes in the 22q11.2 interval is primarily responsible for the psychological manifestations, little is known about the role of the environment in either mitigating or contributing to these problems. We examined the association of parental socio-economic status (SES) with cognition and behavior in children with 22q11DS (n=65) and matched healthy control subjects (n=52), since SES is a component of family resources. We found that in children with 22q11DS, higher SES correlated with better overall functioning (p<.01) and social skills (p<.01), and less frequent oppositional defiant behavior (p<.001). These findings were in contrast to the control subjects in whom SES correlated with cognition and achievement, but not behavior. Our results indicate that environmental factors influence the behavioral phenotype in children with 22q11DS, providing a framework for developing appropriate interventions. As such, genetic counseling for families with 22q11DS may include consideration of family resources and inclusion of other health professionals, such as social workers, to explore with the family available social supports and resources. PMID:20680421

Shashi, Vandana; Keshavan, Matcheri; Kaczorowski, Jessica; Schoch, Kelly; Lewandowski, Kathryn E.; McConkie-Rosell, Allyn; Hooper, Stephen R.; Kwapil, Thomas R.

2010-01-01

204

Polymicrogyria and deletion 22q11.2 syndrome: window to the etiology of a common cortical malformation.  

PubMed

Several brain malformations have been described in rare patients with the deletion 22q11.2 syndrome (DEL22q11) including agenesis of the corpus callosum, pachygyria or polymicrogyria (PMG), cerebellar anomalies and meningomyelocele, with PMG reported most frequently. In view of our interest in the causes of PMG, we reviewed clinical data including brain-imaging studies on 21 patients with PMG associated with deletion 22q11.2 and another 11 from the literature. We found that the cortical malformation consists of perisylvian PMG of variable severity and frequent asymmetry with a striking predisposition for the right hemisphere (P = 0.008). This and other observations suggest that the PMG may be a sequela of abnormal embryonic vascular development rather than a primary brain malformation. We also noted mild cerebellar hypoplasia or mega-cisterna magna in 8 of 24 patients. Although this was not the focus of the present study, mild cerebellar anomalies are probably the most common brain malformation associated with DEL22q11. PMID:17036343

Robin, Nathaniel H; Taylor, Clare J; McDonald-McGinn, Donna M; Zackai, Elaine H; Bingham, Peter; Collins, Kevin J; Earl, Dawn; Gill, Deepak; Granata, Tiziana; Guerrini, Renzo; Katz, Naomi; Kimonis, Virginia; Lin, Jean-Pierre; Lynch, David R; Mohammed, Shehla N; Massey, Roger F; McDonald, Marie; Rogers, R Curtis; Splitt, Miranda; Stevens, Cathy A; Tischkowitz, Marc D; Stoodley, Neil; Leventer, Richard J; Pilz, Daniela T; Dobyns, William B

2006-11-15

205

A 1.3-mb 7q11.23 atypical deletion identified in a cohort of patients with williams-beuren syndrome.  

PubMed

Williams-Beuren syndrome is a rare multisystem neurodevelopmental disorder caused by a 1.55-1.84-Mb hemizygous deletion on chromosome 7q11.23. The classical phenotype consists of characteristic facial features, supravalvular aortic stenosis, intellectual disability, overfriendliness, and visuospatial impairment. So far, 26-28 genes have been shown to contribute to the multisystem phenotype associated with Williams-Beuren syndrome. Among them, haploinsufficiency of the ELN gene has been shown to cause the cardiovascular anomalies. Identification of patients with atypical deletions has provided valuable information for genotype-phenotype correlation, in which other genes such as LIMK1,CLIP2, GTF2IRD1, or GTF2I have been correlated with specific cognitive profiles or craniofacial features. Here, we report the clinical and molecular characteristics of a patient with an atypical deletion that does not include the GTF2I gene and only partially includes the GTF2IRD1 gene. PMID:23653586

Delgado, L M; Gutierrez, M; Augello, B; Fusco, C; Micale, L; Merla, G; Pastene, E A

2013-03-01

206

Cryptic 17q22 deletion in a boy with a t(10;17)(p15.3;q22) translocation, multiple synostosis syndrome 1, and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.  

PubMed

We report on a boy who had multiple synostosis syndrome 1, an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by progressive symphalangism, multiple joint fusions, conductive deafness, and mild facial dysmorphism. In addition the boy developed delay of puberty, bone age, and closure of the epiphyseal lines of long bones with tall stature. These findings and decreased plasma LH and FSH levels at age 19 years were compatible with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. G-banded chromosomes showed a balanced translocation t(10;17)(p15.3;q22). Chromosomal FISH analysis, using a series of BAC clones surrounding the translocation breakpoints, detected a 2.2-3.9 Mb deletion at 17q22. The deletion encompassed NOG, a gene responsible for multiple synostosis syndrome 1. It was assumed that a gene for pituitary secretion of gonoadotropic hormones was deleted at the 17q22 segment. PMID:18449926

Shimizu, Reiko; Mitsui, Norimasa; Mori, Yasuhiro; Cho, Shogen; Yamamori, Shunji; Osawa, Makiko; Ohashi, Hirofumi

2008-06-01

207

A 1.3-Mb 7q11.23 Atypical Deletion Identified in a Cohort of Patients with Williams-Beuren Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Williams-Beuren syndrome is a rare multisystem neurodevelopmental disorder caused by a 1.55-1.84-Mb hemizygous deletion on chromosome 7q11.23. The classical phenotype consists of characteristic facial features, supravalvular aortic stenosis, intellectual disability, overfriendliness, and visuospatial impairment. So far, 26-28 genes have been shown to contribute to the multisystem phenotype associated with Williams-Beuren syndrome. Among them, haploinsufficiency of the ELN gene has been shown to cause the cardiovascular anomalies. Identification of patients with atypical deletions has provided valuable information for genotype-phenotype correlation, in which other genes such as LIMK1,CLIP2, GTF2IRD1, or GTF2I have been correlated with specific cognitive profiles or craniofacial features. Here, we report the clinical and molecular characteristics of a patient with an atypical deletion that does not include the GTF2I gene and only partially includes the GTF2IRD1 gene. PMID:23653586

Delgado, L.M.; Gutierrez, M.; Augello, B.; Fusco, C.; Micale, L.; Merla, G.; Pastene, E.A.

2013-01-01

208

A New Account of the Neurocognitive Foundations of Impairments in Space, Time, and Number Processing in Children with Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, I present an updated account that attempts to explain, in cognitive processing and neural terms, the nonverbal intellectual impairments experienced by most children with deletions of chromosome 22q11.2. Specifically, I propose that this genetic syndrome leads to early developmental changes in the structure and function of clearly…

Simon, Tony J.

2008-01-01

209

Relationship between Reaction Time, Fine Motor Control, and Visual-Spatial Perception on Vigilance and Visual-Motor Tasks in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11DS) is a common microdeletion disorder associated with mild to moderate intellectual disability and specific neurocognitive deficits, particularly in visual-motor and attentional abilities. Currently there is evidence that the visual-motor profile of 22q11DS is not entirely mediated by intellectual disability and…

Howley, Sarah A.; Prasad, Sarah E.; Pender, Niall P.; Murphy, Kieran C.

2012-01-01

210

Performance on the Modified Card Sorting Test and Its Relation to Psychopathology in Adolescents and Young Adults with 22Q11.2 Deletion Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Approximately one-third of individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), a common genetic disorder highly associated with intellectual disabilities, may develop schizophrenia, likely preceded by a mild to moderate cognitive decline. Methods: We examined adolescents and young adults with 22q11DS for the presence of executive…

Rockers, K.; Ousley, O.; Sutton, T.; Schoenberg, E.; Coleman, K.; Walker, E.; Cubells, J. F.

2009-01-01

211

Gene alterations involving the CRLF2-JAK pathway and recurrent gene deletions in Down syndrome-associated acute lymphoblastic leukemia in Japan.  

PubMed

In Western countries, gene alterations involving the CRLF2-JAK signaling pathway are identified in approximately 50-60% of patients with Down syndrome-associated acute lymphoblastic leukemia (DS-ALL), and this pathway is considered a potential therapeutic target. The frequency of BTG1 deletions in DS-ALL is controversial. IKZF1 deletions, found in 20-30% of DS-ALL patients, are associated with a poor outcome and EBF1 deletions are very rare (?2%). We analyzed 38 patients to determine the frequencies and clinical implications of CRLF2-JAK pathway genetic alterations and recurrent gene deletions in Japanese DS-ALL patients. We confirmed a high incidence of P2RY8-CRLF2 (29%) and JAK2 mutations (16%), though the frequency of P2RY8-CRLF2 was slightly lower than that in Western countries (?50%). BTG1 deletions were common in our cohort (25%). IKZF1 deletions were detected in 25% of patients and associated with shorter overall survival (OS). EBF1 deletions were found at an unexpectedly high frequency (16%), and at a significantly higher level in P2RY8-CRLF2-positive patients than in P2RY8-CRLF2-negative patients (44% vs. 4%, P=0.015). Deletions of CDKN2A/B and PAX5 were common in P2RY8-CRLF2-negative patients (48 and 39%, respectively) but not in P2RY8-CRLF2-positive patients (11% each). Associations between these genetic alterations and clinical characteristics were not observed except for inferior OS in patients with IKZF1 deletions. These results suggest that differences exist between the genetic profiles of DS-ALL patients in Japan and in Western countries, and that P2RY8-CRLF2 and EBF1 deletions may cooperate in leukemogenesis in a subset of Japanese DS-ALL patients. PMID:25044358

Hanada, Isamu; Terui, Kiminori; Ikeda, Fumika; Toki, Tsutomu; Kanezaki, Rika; Sato, Tomohiko; Kamio, Takuya; Kudo, Ko; Sasaki, Shinya; Takahashi, Yoshihiro; Hayashi, Yasuhide; Inukai, Takeshi; Kojima, Seiji; Koike, Kenichi; Kosaka, Yoshiyuki; Kobayashi, Masao; Imaizumi, Masue; Mitsui, Tetsuo; Hori, Hiroki; Hara, Junichi; Horibe, Keizo; Nagai, Jun-ichi; Goto, Hiroaki; Ito, Etsuro

2014-11-01

212

The effects of gender and catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val108\\/158Met polymorphism on emotion regulation in velo-cardio-facial syndrome (22q11.2 deletion syndrome): An fMRI study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS) is caused by a micro-deletion of over 40 genes at the q11.2 locus of chromosome 22 and is a risk factor for the development of schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders. COMT, one of the genes located in the deleted region, has been considered as a major candidate gene for genetic susceptibility in psychiatric diseases. Its functional polymorphism

Ioana L. Coman; Matthew H. Gnirke; Frank A. Middleton; Kevin M. Antshel; Wanda Fremont; Anne Marie Higgins; Robert J. Shprintzen; Wendy R. Kates

2010-01-01

213

The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS; also known as velocardiofacial syndrome1  

E-print Network

of the genetic and neural elements of the cognitive and psychiatric phenotypes. A detailed discussion of human syndrome phenotype Cognitive impairments. Most school-aged children with 22q11.2DS have lower than typical informa- tion S1 (table)). The phenotype of the disorder is highly variable10 and can affect multiple

Nguyen, Danh

214

Discussing the psychiatric manifestations of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: an exploration of clinical practice among medical geneticists  

PubMed Central

Purpose The aim of this study was to determine the frequency with which medical geneticists discuss the psychiatric manifestations of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) with families in relation to the frequency with which they discuss the other manifestations of the syndrome and to explore relationships between discussion of these features and stigma toward psychiatric disorders. Methods We surveyed medical geneticists in the United States and Canada regarding the frequency with which they discuss various features of 22q11DS with families in the context of four clinical scenarios in which only the age of the patient at diagnosis differed. Respondents also completed a 20-item validated psychometric measure of stigma towards psychiatric disorders. Results 308/546 medical geneticists completed the survey (56% response rate). Psychiatric disorders were discussed significantly less often than other features of 22q11DS (p<0.0001), but psychiatric disorders were discussed significantly more often when the patient was ? 13 years old (p<0.0001), than when the patient was younger. Geneticists who discussed psychiatric disorders the least had significantly higher levels of stigma towards psychiatric disorders (p=0.007). Conclusion Psychiatric risks are less often discussed with families during childhood. Education for physicians to help reduce stigma towards psychiatric disorders (which may impede discussion of psychiatric disorders) may warrant exploration in this population. PMID:23579435

Morris, Emily; Inglis, Angela; Friedman, Jan; Austin, Jehannine

2013-01-01

215

Deletion of PREPL, a Gene Encoding a Putative Serine Oligopeptidase, in Patients with Hypotonia-Cystinuria Syndrome  

PubMed Central

In 11 patients with a recessive congenital disorder, which we refer to as “the hypotonia-cystinuria syndrome,” microdeletion of part of the SLC3A1 and PREPL genes on chromosome 2p21 was found. Patients present with generalized hypotonia at birth, nephrolithiasis, growth hormone deficiency, minor facial dysmorphism, and failure to thrive, followed by hyperphagia and rapid weight gain in late childhood. Since loss-of-function mutations in SLC3A1 are known to cause isolated cystinuria type I, and since the expression of the flanking genes, C2orf34 and PPM1B, was normal, the extended phenotype can be attributed to the deletion of PREPL. PREPL is localized in the cytosol and shows homology with prolyl endopeptidase and oligopeptidase B. Substitution of the predicted catalytic residues (Ser470, Asp556, and His601) by alanines resulted in loss of reactivity with a serine hydrolase-specific probe. In sharp contrast to prolyl oligopeptidase and oligopeptidase B, which require both aminoterminal and carboxyterminal sequences for activity, PREPL activity appears to depend only on the carboxyterminal domain. Taken together, these results suggest that PREPL is a novel oligopeptidase, with unique structural and functional characteristics, involved in hypotonia-cystinuria syndrome. PMID:16385448

Jaeken, Jaak; Martens, Kevin; Francois, Inge; Eyskens, Francois; Lecointre, Claudine; Derua, Rita; Meulemans, Sandra; Slootstra, Jerry W.; Waelkens, Etienne; Zegher, Francis de; Creemers, John W. M.; Matthijs, Gert

2006-01-01

216

The mitochondrial ND1 m.3337G>A mutation associated to multiple mitochondrial DNA deletions in a patient with Wolfram syndrome and cardiomyopathy  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: {yields} We reported a patient with Wolfram syndrome and dilated cardiomyopathy. {yields} We detected the ND1 mitochondrial m.3337G>A mutation in 3 tested tissues (blood leukocytes, buccal mucosa and skeletal muscle). {yields} Long-range PCR amplification revealed the presence of multiple mitochondrial deletions in the skeletal muscle. {yields} The deletions remove several tRNA and protein-coding genes. -- Abstract: Wolfram syndrome (WFS) is a rare hereditary disorder also known as DIDMOAD (diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, and deafness). It is a heterogeneous disease and full characterization of all clinical and biological features of this disorder is difficult. The wide spectrum of clinical expression, affecting several organs and tissues, and the similarity in phenotype between patients with Wolfram syndrome and those with certain types of respiratory chain diseases suggests mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) involvement in Wolfram syndrome patients. We report a Tunisian patient with clinical features of moderate Wolfram syndrome including diabetes, dilated cardiomyopathy and neurological complications. The results showed the presence of the mitochondrial ND1 m.3337G>A mutation in almost homoplasmic form in 3 tested tissues of the proband (blood leukocytes, buccal mucosa and skeletal muscle). In addition, the long-range PCR amplifications revealed the presence of multiple deletions of the mitochondrial DNA extracted from the patient's skeletal muscle removing several tRNA and protein-coding genes. Our study reported a Tunisian patient with clinical features of moderate Wolfram syndrome associated with cardiomyopathy, in whom we detected the ND1 m.3337G>A mutation with mitochondrial multiple deletions.

Mezghani, Najla [Laboratoire de Genetique Moleculaire Humaine, Faculte de Medecine de Sfax, Universite de Sfax (Tunisia)] [Laboratoire de Genetique Moleculaire Humaine, Faculte de Medecine de Sfax, Universite de Sfax (Tunisia); Mnif, Mouna [Service d'endocrinologie, C.H.U. Habib Bourguiba de Sfax (Tunisia)] [Service d'endocrinologie, C.H.U. Habib Bourguiba de Sfax (Tunisia); Mkaouar-Rebai, Emna, E-mail: emna_mkaouar@mail2world.com [Laboratoire de Genetique Moleculaire Humaine, Faculte de Medecine de Sfax, Universite de Sfax (Tunisia)] [Laboratoire de Genetique Moleculaire Humaine, Faculte de Medecine de Sfax, Universite de Sfax (Tunisia); Kallel, Nozha [Service d'endocrinologie, C.H.U. Habib Bourguiba de Sfax (Tunisia)] [Service d'endocrinologie, C.H.U. Habib Bourguiba de Sfax (Tunisia); Salem, Ikhlass Haj [Laboratoire de Genetique Moleculaire Humaine, Faculte de Medecine de Sfax, Universite de Sfax (Tunisia)] [Laboratoire de Genetique Moleculaire Humaine, Faculte de Medecine de Sfax, Universite de Sfax (Tunisia); Charfi, Nadia; Abid, Mohamed [Service d'endocrinologie, C.H.U. Habib Bourguiba de Sfax (Tunisia)] [Service d'endocrinologie, C.H.U. Habib Bourguiba de Sfax (Tunisia); Fakhfakh, Faiza [Laboratoire de Genetique Moleculaire Humaine, Faculte de Medecine de Sfax, Universite de Sfax (Tunisia)] [Laboratoire de Genetique Moleculaire Humaine, Faculte de Medecine de Sfax, Universite de Sfax (Tunisia)

2011-07-29

217

First Report of a Single Exon Deletion in TCOF1 Causing Treacher Collins Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) is a rare craniofacial disorder characterized by facial anomalies and ear defects. TCS is caused by mutations in the TCOF1 gene and follows autosomal dominant inheritance. Recently, mutations in the POLR1D and POLR1C genes have also been identified to cause TCS. However, in a subset of patients no causative mutation could be found yet. Inter- and

J. Beygo; K. Buiting; S. Seland; H.-J. Lüdecke; U. Hehr; C. Lich; B. Prager; D. R. Lohmann; D. Wieczorek

2011-01-01

218

The internet is parents' main source of information about psychiatric manifestations of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS)?  

PubMed Central

With advances in laboratory technology, an increasing number of potentially pathogenic CNVs is recognised. The phenotypic effects of some CNVs are well characterised, however, it remains unclear how much information reaches the parents of affected children and by what route. The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (del22q11.2) is caused by the deletion of approximately 40 genes from the long arm of chromosome 22 and was first described in 1955 [1]. Our study reports the extent to which parents of an affected child are aware of the various manifestation of the condition and describes how they first learned about these potential problems. PMID:23707654

van den Bree, Marianne B.M.; Miller, Gregory; Mansell, Elizabeth; Thapar, Anita; Flinter, Frances; Owen, Michael J.

2013-01-01

219

Smaller and larger deletions of the Williams Beuren syndrome region implicate genes involved in mild facial phenotype, epilepsy and autistic traits.  

PubMed

Williams Beuren syndrome (WBS) is a multisystemic disorder caused by a hemizygous deletion of 1.5 Mb on chromosome 7q11.23 spanning 28 genes. A few patients with larger and smaller WBS deletion have been reported. They show clinical features that vary between isolated SVAS to the full spectrum of WBS phenotype, associated with epilepsy or autism spectrum behavior. Here we describe four patients with atypical WBS 7q11.23 deletions. Two carry ~3.5 Mb larger deletion towards the telomere that includes Huntingtin-interacting protein 1 (HIP1) and tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxigenase activation protein gamma (YWHAG) genes. Other two carry a shorter deletion of ~1.2 Mb at centromeric side that excludes the distal WBS genes BAZ1B and FZD9. Along with previously reported cases, genotype-phenotype correlation in the patients described here further suggests that haploinsufficiency of HIP1 and YWHAG might cause the severe neurological and neuropsychological deficits including epilepsy and autistic traits, and that the preservation of BAZ1B and FZD9 genes may be related to mild facial features and moderate neuropsychological deficits. This report highlights the importance to characterize additional patients with 7q11.23 atypical deletions comparing neuropsychological and clinical features between these individuals to shed light on the pathogenic role of genes within and flanking the WBS region. PMID:23756441

Fusco, Carmela; Micale, Lucia; Augello, Bartolomeo; Teresa Pellico, Maria; Menghini, Deny; Alfieri, Paolo; Cristina Digilio, Maria; Mandriani, Barbara; Carella, Massimo; Palumbo, Orazio; Vicari, Stefano; Merla, Giuseppe

2014-01-01

220

Novel deletion of the E3A ubiquitin protein ligase gene detected by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification in a patient with Angelman syndrome  

PubMed Central

Angelman syndrome (AS) is a severe neurobehavioural disorder caused by failure of expression of the maternal copy of the imprinted domain located on 15q11-q13. There are different mechanisms leading to AS: maternal microdeletion, uniparental disomy, defects in a putative imprinting centre, mutations of the E3 ubiquitin protein ligase (UBE3A) gene. However, some of suspected cases of AS are still scored negative to all the latter mutations. Recently, it has been shown that a proportion of negative cases bear large deletions overlapping one or more exons of the UBE3A gene. These deletions are difficult to detect by conventional gene-scanning methods due to the masking effect by the non-deleted allele. In this study, we have used for the first time multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) and comparative multiplex dosage analysis (CMDA) to search for large deletions affecting the UBE3A gene. Using this approach, we identified a novel causative deletion involving exon 8 in an affected sibling. Based on our results, we propose the use of MLPA as a fast, accurate and inexpensive test to detect large deletions in the UBE3A gene in a small but significant percentage of AS patients. PMID:21072004

Cali, Francesco; Ragalmuto, Alda; Chiavetta, Valeria; Calabrese, Giuseppe; Fichera, Marco; Vinci, Mirella; Ruggeri, Giuseppa; Schinocca, Pietro; Sturnio, Maurizio; Romano, Salvatore; Elia, Maurizio

2010-01-01

221

Phenotypic features in patients with 15q11.2(BP1-BP2) deletion: further delineation of an emerging syndrome.  

PubMed

15q11.2 deletions flanked by BP1 and BP2 of the Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome region have recently been linked to a range of neurodevelopment disorders including intellectual disability, speech and language delay, motor delay, autism spectrum disorders, epilepsy, and schizophrenia. Array CGH analysis of 14,605 patients referred for diagnostic cytogenetic testing found that 83 patients (0.57%) carried the 15q11.2(BP1-BP2) deletion. Phenotypic frequencies in the deleted cohort (n?=?83) were compared with frequencies in the non-deleted cohort (n?=?14,522); developmental delay, motor delay, and speech and language delay were all more prevalent in the deleted cohort. Notably, motor delay was significantly more common (OR?=?6.37). These data indicate that developmental delay, motor delay, and speech and language delay are common clinical features associated with this deletion, providing substantial evidence to support this CNV as a susceptibility locus for a spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24715682

Cafferkey, Michiala; Ahn, Joo Wook; Flinter, Frances; Ogilvie, Caroline

2014-08-01

222

Co-existence of other copy number variations with 22q11.2 deletion or duplication: a modifier for variable phenotypes of the syndrome?  

PubMed Central

Background The phenotype in patients with a 22q11.2 deletion or duplication can be extremely variable, and the causes of such as variations are not well known. Results We observed additional copy number variations (CNVs) in 2 of 15 cases with a 22q11.2 deletion or duplication. Both cases were newborn babies referred for severe congenital heart defects. The first case had a deletion with a size of approximately 1.56 Mb involving multiple genes including STS in the Xp22.31 region along with a 22q11.2 deletion. The second case had a duplication of 605 kb in the 15q13.3 region encompassing CHRNA7 and a deletion of 209 kb involving the RBFOX1 gene in the 16p13.2 region, in addition to 22q11.2 duplication. Discussion Our observations have shown that additional CNVs are not rare (2/15, 13%) in patients with a 22q11.2 deletion or duplication. We speculate that these CNVs may contribute to phenotype variations of 22q11.2 microdeletion/duplication syndromes as genomic modifiers. PMID:22487416

2012-01-01

223

Deletion of UBE3A in brothers with Angelman syndrome at the breakpoint with an inversion at 15q11.2.  

PubMed

Angelman syndrome (AS) is characterized by severe intellectual disability with ataxia, epilepsy, and behavioral uniqueness. The underlining molecular deficit is the absence of the maternal copy of the imprinted UBE3A gene due to maternal deletions, which is observed in 70-75% of cases, and can be detected using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) of the UBE3A region. Only a few familial AS cases have been reported with a complete deletion of UBE3A. Here, we report on siblings with AS caused by a microdeletion of 15q11.2-q12 encompassing UBE3A at the breakpoint of an inversion at 15q11.2 and 15q26.1. Karyotyping revealed an inversion of 15q, and FISH revealed the deletion of the UBE3A region. Array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) demonstrated a 467?kb deletion at 15q11.2-q12, encompassing only UBE3A, SNORD115, and PAR1, and a 53?kb deletion at 15q26.1, encompassing a part of SLCO3A1. Their mother had a normal karyotype and array CGH detected no deletion of 15q11.2-q12, so we assumed gonadal mosaicism. This report describes a rare type of familial AS detected using the D15S10 FISH test. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25099823

Kuroda, Yukiko; Ohashi, Ikuko; Saito, Toshiyuki; Nagai, Jun-Ichi; Ida, Kazumi; Naruto, Takuya; Wada, Takahito; Kurosawa, Kenji

2014-11-01

224

Neurocognitive development in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: comparison with youth having developmental delay and medical comorbidities.  

PubMed

The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) presents with medical and neuropsychiatric manifestations including neurocognitive deficits. Quantitative neurobehavioral measures linked to brain circuitry can help elucidate genetic mechanisms contributing to deficits. To establish the neurocognitive profile and neurocognitive 'growth charts', we compared cross-sectionally 137 individuals with 22q11DS ages 8-21 to 439 demographically matched non-deleted individuals with developmental delay (DD) and medical comorbidities and 443 typically developing (TD) participants. We administered a computerized neurocognitive battery that measures performance accuracy and speed in executive, episodic memory, complex cognition, social cognition and sensorimotor domains. The accuracy performance profile of 22q11DS showed greater impairment than DD, who were impaired relative to TD. Deficits in 22q11DS were most pronounced for face memory and social cognition, followed by complex cognition. Performance speed was similar for 22q11DS and DD, but 22q11DS individuals were differentially slower in face memory and emotion identification. The growth chart, comparing neurocognitive age based on performance relative to chronological age, indicated that 22q11DS participants lagged behind both groups from the earliest age assessed. The lag ranged from less than 1 year to over 3 years depending on chronological age and neurocognitive domain. The greatest developmental lag across the age range was for social cognition and complex cognition, with the smallest for episodic memory and sensorimotor speed, where lags were similar to DD. The results suggest that 22q11.2 microdeletion confers specific vulnerability that may underlie brain circuitry associated with deficits in several neuropsychiatric disorders, and therefore help identify potential targets and developmental epochs optimal for intervention. PMID:24445907

Gur, R E; Yi, J J; McDonald-McGinn, D M; Tang, S X; Calkins, M E; Whinna, D; Souders, M C; Savitt, A; Zackai, E H; Moberg, P J; Emanuel, B S; Gur, R C

2014-11-01

225

Familial DiGeorge/velocardiofacial syndrome with deletions of chromosome area 22q11.2: Report of five families with a review of the literature  

SciTech Connect

The DiGeorge (DG), velocardiofacial (VCF), and conotruncal anomaly-face (CTAF) syndromes were originally described as distinct disorders, although overlapping phenotypes have been recognized. It is now clear that all three syndromes result from apparently similar or identical 22q11.2 deletions, suggesting that they represent phenotypic variability of a single genetic syndrome. We report on 12 individuals in five families with del(22)(q11.2) by fluorescent in situ hybridization, and define the frequency of phenotypic abnormalities in those cases and in 70 individuals from 27 del(22)(q11.2) families from the literature. Common manifestations include mental impairment (97%), abnormal face (93%), cardiac malformations (681%), thymic (64%) and parathyroid (63%) abnormalities, and cleft palate or velopharyngeal insufficiency (48%). Familial DG, VCF, and CTAF syndromes due to del(22)(q11.2) show significant inter- and intrafamilial clinical variability consistent with the hypothesis that a single gene or group of tightly linked genes is the common cause of these syndromes. Up to 25% of 22q deletions are inherited, indicating that parents of affected children warrant molecular cytogenetic evaluation. We propose use of the compound term {open_quotes}DiGeorge/velocardiofacial (DGNCF) syndrome{close_quotes} in referring to this condition, as it calls attention to the phenotypic spectrum using historically familiar names. 41 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Leana-Cox, J.; Pangkanon, Suthipong; Eanet, K.R. [Univ. of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)] [and others

1996-11-11

226

Autistic Spectrum Disorders in Velo-cardio Facial Syndrome (22q11.2 Deletion)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extent to which the phenotype of children comorbid for velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS) and autism spectrum disorders\\u000a (ASD) differs from that of VCFS-only has not been studied. The sample consisted of 41 children (20 females) with VCFS, ranging\\u000a in age from 6.5 years to 15.8 years. Eight children with VCFS met formal DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for autism based upon\\u000a the ADI-R. These

Kevin M. Antshel; Alka Aneja; Leslie Strunge; Jena Peebles; Wanda P. Fremont; Kimberly Stallone; Nuria AbdulSabur; Anne Marie Higgins; Robert J. Shprintzen; Wendy R. Kates

2007-01-01

227

Molecular and cytogenetic analysis of familial Xp deletions  

SciTech Connect

Deletions involving the short arm of the X chromosome (del(Xp)) manifest phenotypes ranging from Turner syndrome to isolated short stature to normal. We have studied five familial cases of del(Xp), four with transmission over two generations and one over four generations, utilizing both high resolution chromosome banding and FISH with cosmid and YAC probes spanning the short arm of the X chromosome. Four of the families were ascertained because of short stature while the remaining family demonstrates normal stature and was ascertained through prenatal diagnosis. Consistent with existing data for a growth gene located within Xp22.33, the more terminal breakpoints in the female with normal stature is distal to CSF2RA. A correlation between genotype and phenotype amongst the families may reveal that this case is representative of an interstitial deletion and the other four cases have breakpoints distal to the growth gene locus possibly within the subtelomeric region of the chromosome. The proximal breakpoints are heterogenous; however, three of the families with short stature share a common proximal breakpoint which is located between two YAC probes 2-3 Mb apart in Xp22.12. The proximal break in the phenotypically normal female is in Xp11.4. Late replication studies in addition to methylation assays of the FMR1 locus reveal non-random X inactivation in these cases. This study shows the presence of a breakpoint distal to the CSF2RA locus in the family demonstrating normal stature confirming the location of a growth gene distal to this locus and within Xp22.33. The shared proximal breakpoint between the three families suggests a {open_quotes}hot spot{close_quotes} for chromatin breakage. The proximal breakpoint, Xp11.4, in the normal female patient excludes this region as an etiologic factor in Turner syndrome. Work is in progress using additional probes to further elucidate both the proximal and distal breakpoints.

Wandstrat, A.E.; Conroy, J.M.; Zurcher, V.L. [Case Western Reserve, Cleveland, OH (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

228

Cingulate gyral reductions are related to low executive functioning and psychotic symptoms in 22q 11.2 deletion syndrome.  

PubMed

A similar pattern of deficits in executive function and neuroanatomical abnormalities is shared between 22q 11.2 deletion syndrome (22q 11DS) and schizophrenia, suggesting that common cerebral alterations may lead to cognitive dysfunction and promote the appearance of psychotic symptoms in 22q 11DS individuals. Specifically, there is increasing evidence for involvement of the cingulate gyrus (CG) in executive dysfunction and the expression of positive symptoms in schizophrenia. The aim of our study is to examine CG morphology in a 22q 11DS population and its potential role as a cerebral marker of executive dysfunction and the manifestation of psychotic symptoms. Using region of interest (ROI)-based analysis, we compared CG volumes from 58 children and adults affected by 22q 11DS with 64 healthy age- and gender-matched controls. After covarying for total cranium grey matter and age, a bilateral reduced CG grey matter volume, driven by a decrease in anterior CG cortex, was observed among 22q 11DS patients. Further post hoc analyses suggest correlations between right CG cortical reductions, low-executive functioning and the occurrence of psychotic symptoms. The CG structural abnormalities observed in 22q 11DS are consistent with previous reports in schizophrenic patients and are associated with pre-morbid cognitive impairments. The mechanisms by which these changes may modulate executive functioning and the expression of psychosis are discussed. PMID:18616958

Dufour, Federico; Schaer, Marie; Debbané, Martin; Farhoumand, Riaz; Glaser, Bronwyn; Eliez, Stephan

2008-10-01

229

Hypoventilation in REM sleep in a case of 17p11.2 deletion (Smith-Magenis syndrome).  

PubMed

We describe a 2-year-old baby affected by Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS), due to 17p11.2 deletion, who presented repeated episodes of hemoglobin desaturation during REM sleep. The boy, aged 14 months, presented a phenotype characterized by psychomotor delay, right posterior plagiocephaly, telecanthus, strabismus, upslanting palpebral fissures, broad hypoplastic nasal bridge, short philtrum, deep ring shaped skin creases around the limbs, proximal syndactyly, bilateral hypoacusia. Polysomnographic (PSG) recording showed episodes of REM-related hypoventilation (hemoglobin desaturations without apneas or hypopneas). Sleep disorders are present in almost all the cases of SMS, but very few reports describe the sleep-related respiratory patterns. The finding of REM hypoventilation in SMS does not allow an unequivocal interpretation. It could reflect a subclinical restrictive respiratory impairment or, alternatively, an impairment of central respiratory control during REM sleep. In SMS children, respiratory abnormalities during sleep, and in particular during REM sleep, may cause sleep disruption, reduction of time spent in REM sleep, and daytime sleepiness. We therefore suggest that some sleep abnormalities described in SMS could be consequent to Sleep Disordered Breathing, and in particular to REM hypoventilation. Sleep studies in SMS should include the recording of respiratory parameters. PMID:20186811

Leoni, Chiara; Cesarini, Laura; Dittoni, Serena; Battaglia, Domenica; Novelli, Antonio; Bernardini, Laura; Losurdo, Anna; Vollono, Catello; Testani, Elisa; Della Marca, Giacomo; Zampino, Giuseppe

2010-03-01

230

A candidate gene approach to identify modifiers of the palatal phenotype in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome patients  

PubMed Central

Objective Palatal anomalies are one of the identifying features of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) affecting about one third of patients. To identify genetic variants that increase the risk of cleft or palatal anomalies in 22q11.2DS patients, we performed a candidate gene association study in 101 patients with 22q11.2DS genotyped with the Affymetrix genome-wide human SNP array 6.0. Methods Patients from Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, USA and Wilhelmina Children's Hospital Utrecht, The Netherlands were stratified based on palatal phenotype (overt cleft, submucosal cleft, bifid uvula). SNPs in 21 candidate genes for cleft palate were analyzed for genotype-phenotype association. In addition, TBX1 sequencing was carried out. Quality control and association analyses were conducted using the software package PLINK. Results Genotype and phenotype data of 101 unrelated patients (63 non-cleft subjects (62.4%), 38 cleft subjects (37.6%)) were analyzed. A Total of 39 SNPs on 10 genes demonstrated a p-value ?0.05 prior to correction. The most significant SNPs were found on FGF10. However none of the SNPs remained significant after correcting for multiple testing. Conclusions Although these results are promising, analysis of additional samples will be required to confirm that variants in these regions influence risk for cleft palate or palatal anomalies in 22q11.2DS patients. PMID:23121717

Widdershoven, Josine C.C.; Bowser, Mark; Sheridan, Molly B.; McDonald-McGinn, Donna M.; Zackai, Elaine H.; Solot, Cynthia B.; Kirschner, Richard E.; Beemer, Frits A.; Morrow, Bernice E.; Devoto, Marcella; Emanuel, Beverly S.

2014-01-01

231

Assessment of Parental Disclosure of a 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Diagnosis and Implications for Clinicians  

PubMed Central

Most children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) have an IQ in the range that may allow them to be capable of understanding a genetic diagnosis despite mild intellectual disabilities. However, there are no publications that relate to the disclosure of a 22q11DS diagnosis to the affected child, or the factors that influence parents’ disclosure to the child. A pilot study was conducted including eight semi-structured interviews with caregivers of children with 22q11DS, 10 to 17 years of age, to investigate the factors that influence how parents inform their children of the diagnosis. Six of eight participants had disclosed the diagnosis to the child, and most of these parents felt they could have benefited from additional advice from professionals to increase their confidence and success, as well as the child’s comprehension of the information. Those who had not informed the child were uncertain about the words to use, how to initiate the conversation, or were concerned about the child’s level of understanding. Our results demonstrate that genetics professionals should help prepare caregivers for conversations with their children about the diagnosis of 22q11DS, monitor the understanding of the diagnosis over time, and provide ongoing support. PMID:22936417

Faux, Dana; Eubanks, Sonja; Hooper, Stephen R.; Shashi, Vandana

2012-01-01

232

Dysregulation of presynaptic calcium and synaptic plasticity in a mouse model of 22q11 deletion syndrome  

PubMed Central

The 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is characterized by cognitive decline and increased risk of psychiatric disorders, mainly schizophrenia. The molecular mechanisms of neuronal dysfunction in cognitive symptoms of 22q11DS are poorly understood. Here we report that a mouse model of 22q11DS, the Df(16)1/+ mouse, exhibits substantially enhanced short- and long-term synaptic plasticity at hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses, which coincides with deficits in hippocampus-dependent spatial memory. These changes are evident in mature but not young animals. Electrophysiological, two-photon imaging and glutamate uncaging, and electron microscopic assays in acute brain slices showed that enhanced neurotransmitter release but not altered postsynaptic function or structure caused these changes. Enhanced neurotransmitter release in Df(16)1/+ mice coincided with altered calcium kinetics in CA3 presynaptic terminals and upregulated sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum calcium-ATPase type 2 (SERCA2). SERCA inhibitors rescued synaptic phenotypes of Df(16)1/+ mice. Thus, presynaptic SERCA2 upregulation may be a pathogenic event contributing to the cognitive symptoms of 22q11DS. PMID:21106823

Earls, Laurie R.; Bayazitov, lldar T.; Fricke, Robert G.; Berry, Raymond B.; Illingworth, Elizabeth; Mittleman, Guy; Zakharenko, Stanislav S.

2010-01-01

233

Opposing phenotypes in mice with Smith-Magenis deletion and Potocki -Lupski duplication syndromes suggest gene dosage effects on fluid consumption behavior  

PubMed Central

A quantitative long-term fluid consumption and fluid licking assay was performed in two mouse models with either an ~ 2Mb genomic deletion, Df(11)17, or the reciprocal duplication CNV, Dp(11)17, analogous to the human genomic rearrangements causing either Smith-Magenis syndrome [SMS; OMIM #182290] or Potocki-Lupski syndrome [PTLS; OMIM #610883], respectively. Both mouse strains display distinct quantitative alteration in fluid consumption compared to their wild-type littermates; several of these changes are diametrically opposing between the two chromosome engineered mouse models. Mice with duplication vs. deletion showed longer vs. shorter intervals between visits to the waterspout, generated more vs. less licks per visit and had higher vs. lower variability in the number of licks per lick-burst as compared to their respective wild-type littermates. These findings suggest that copy number variation can affect long-term fluid consumption behavior in mice. Other behavior differences were unique for either the duplication or deletion mutants; the deletion CNV resulted in increased variability of the licking rhythm, and the duplication CNV resulted in a significant slowing of the licking rhythm. Our findings document a readily quantitated complex behavioral response that can be directly and reciprocally influenced by a gene dosage effect. PMID:22991245

Heck, Detlef H.; Gu, Wenli; Cao, Ying; Qi, Shuhua; Lacaria, Melanie; Lupski, James R.

2012-01-01

234

Targeted Deletion of the Gene Encoding the La Autoantigen (Sjögren's Syndrome Antigen B) in B Cells or the Frontal Brain Causes Extensive Tissue Loss  

PubMed Central

La antigen (Sjögren's syndrome antigen B) is a phosphoprotein associated with nascent precursor tRNAs and other RNAs, and it is targeted by autoantibodies in patients with Sjögren's syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus, and neonatal lupus. Increased levels of La are associated with leukemias and other cancers, and various viruses usurp La to promote their replication. Yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe) genetically depleted of La grow and proliferate, whereas deletion from mice causes early embryonic lethality, raising the question of whether La is required by mammalian cells generally or only to surpass a developmental stage. We developed a conditional La allele and used it in mice that express Cre recombinase in either B cell progenitors or the forebrain. B cell Mb1Cre La-deleted mice produce no B cells. Consistent with ?CamKII Cre, which induces deletion in hippocampal CA1 cells in the third postnatal week and later throughout the neocortex, brains develop normally in La-deleted mice until ?5 weeks and then lose a large amount of forebrain cells and mass, with evidence of altered pre-tRNA processing. The data indicate that La is required not only in proliferating cells but also in nondividing postmitotic cells. Thus, La is essential in different cell types and required for normal development of various tissue types. PMID:24190965

Gaidamakov, Sergei; Maximova, Olga A.; Chon, Hyongi; Blewett, Nathan H.; Wang, Hongsheng; Crawford, Amanda K.; Day, Amanda; Tulchin, Natalie; Crouch, Robert J.; Morse, Herbert C.; Blitzer, Robert D.

2014-01-01

235

The mitochondrial ND1 m.3337G>A mutation associated to multiple mitochondrial DNA deletions in a patient with Wolfram syndrome and cardiomyopathy.  

PubMed

Wolfram syndrome (WFS) is a rare hereditary disorder also known as DIDMOAD (diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, and deafness). It is a heterogeneous disease and full characterization of all clinical and biological features of this disorder is difficult. The wide spectrum of clinical expression, affecting several organs and tissues, and the similarity in phenotype between patients with Wolfram syndrome and those with certain types of respiratory chain diseases suggests mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) involvement in Wolfram syndrome patients. We report a Tunisian patient with clinical features of moderate Wolfram syndrome including diabetes, dilated cardiomyopathy and neurological complications. The results showed the presence of the mitochondrial ND1 m.3337G>A mutation in almost homoplasmic form in 3 tested tissues of the proband (blood leukocytes, buccal mucosa and skeletal muscle). In addition, the long-range PCR amplifications revealed the presence of multiple deletions of the mitochondrial DNA extracted from the patient's skeletal muscle removing several tRNA and protein-coding genes. Our study reported a Tunisian patient with clinical features of moderate Wolfram syndrome associated with cardiomyopathy, in whom we detected the ND1 m.3337G>A mutation with mitochondrial multiple deletions. PMID:21723259

Mezghani, Najla; Mnif, Mouna; Mkaouar-Rebai, Emna; Kallel, Nozha; Salem, Ikhlass Haj; Charfi, Nadia; Abid, Mohamed; Fakhfakh, Faiza

2011-07-29

236

Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: prenatal diagnosis, array comparative genomic hybridization characterization using uncultured amniocytes and literature review.  

PubMed

We present prenatal diagnosis of de novo 22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome using uncultured amniocytes in a pregnancy with conotruncal heart malformations in the fetus. We discuss the genotype-phenotype correlation and the consequence of haploinsufficiency of TBX1, COMT, UFD1L, GNB1L and MED15 in the deleted region. We review the literature of chromosomal loci and genes responsible for conotruncal heart malformations and tetralogy of Fallot. PMID:23791650

Chen, Chih-Ping; Huang, Jian-Pei; Chen, Yi-Yung; Chern, Schu-Rern; Wu, Peih-Shan; Su, Jun-Wei; Chen, Yu-Ting; Chen, Wen-Lin; Wang, Wayseen

2013-09-15

237

Age-dependent clinical problems in a Norwegian national survey of patients with the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome display a wide phenotypic variation that is important for clinical follow-up.\\u000a In this national survey of 60 patients (ages 1 to 54 years) diagnosed by Fluorescence in situ hybridization test, data were\\u000a collected from medical records, a physical examination, and a semistructured interview. Ultrasound investigation of the kidneys\\u000a was also performed. In addition, multiplex ligation

Kari Lima; Ivar Følling; Kristin L. Eiklid; Solveig Natvig; Tore G. Abrahamsen

2010-01-01

238

Identification of the WBSCR9 gene, encoding a novel transcriptional regulator, in the Williams-Beuren syndrome deletion at 7q11.23  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have identified a novel gene (WBSCR9) within the common Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) deletion by interspecies sequence conservation. The WBSCR9 gene encodes a roughly 7-kb transcript with an open reading frame of 1483 amino acids and a predicted protein product size of 170.8 kDa. WBSCR9 is comprised of at least 20 exons extending over 60 kb. The transcript is expressed

R. J. Peoples; M. J. Cisco; P. Kaplan; U. Francke

1998-01-01

239

WBSCR14, a gene mapping to the Williams-Beuren syndrome deleted region, is a new member of the Mlx transcription factor network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) is a develop- mental disorder associated with haploinsufficiency of multiple genes at 7q11.23. Here, we report the functional characterization of WBS critical region gene 14 (WBSCR14), a gene contained in the WBS commonly deleted region. It encodes a basic-helix- loop-helix leucine zipper (bHLHZip) transcription factor of the Myc\\/Max\\/Mad superfamily. WBSCR14 is expressed in multiple tissues, including regions

Stefano Cairo; Giuseppe Merla; Fabrizia Urbinati; Andrea Ballabio; Alexandre Reymond

2001-01-01

240

Liebenberg syndrome is caused by a deletion upstream to the PITX1 gene resulting in transformation of the upper limbs to reflect lower limb characteristics.  

PubMed

Liebenberg syndrome (MIM 186550) is a very rare autosomal dominant condition characterized by three main features: dysplasia of all of the bony components of the elbow joint, abnormalities in the shape of carpal bones, and brachydactyly. In this paper, we report a Saudi Arabian family with Liebenberg syndrome. Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) revealed a 275-kb deletion within the cytogenetic band 5q31.1 which contains the H2AFY gene and 190,428bp of its downstream region. The deleted region is upstream to the PITX1 gene. The radiological features in the upper limbs of all affected members of the family were almost identical to the phenotype in the mouse model with ectopic expression of Pitx1 in the forelimbs. We therefore re-define the phenotype of Liebenberg syndrome as a transformation of the upper limbs to reflect lower limb characteristics and speculate that the area of deletion contains a regulatory sequence that suppresses the expression of PITX1 in the upper limb buds. PMID:23587911

Al-Qattan, Mohammad M; Al-Thunayan, Abdullah; Alabdulkareem, Ibrahim; Al Balwi, Mohammed

2013-07-15

241

Screening for single nucleotide variants, small indels and exon deletions with a next-generation sequencing based gene panel approach for Usher syndrome  

PubMed Central

Usher syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized both by deafness and blindness. For the three clinical subtypes of Usher syndrome causal mutations in altogether 12 genes and a modifier gene have been identified. Due to the genetic heterogeneity of Usher syndrome, the molecular analysis is predestined for a comprehensive and parallelized analysis of all known genes by next-generation sequencing (NGS) approaches. We describe here the targeted enrichment and deep sequencing for exons of Usher genes and compare the costs and workload of this approach compared to Sanger sequencing. We also present a bioinformatics analysis pipeline that allows us to detect single-nucleotide variants, short insertions and deletions, as well as copy number variations of one or more exons on the same sequence data. Additionally, we present a flexible in silico gene panel for the analysis of sequence variants, in which newly identified genes can easily be included. We applied this approach to a cohort of 44 Usher patients and detected biallelic pathogenic mutations in 35 individuals and monoallelic mutations in eight individuals of our cohort. Thirty-nine of the sequence variants, including two heterozygous deletions comprising several exons of USH2A, have not been reported so far. Our NGS-based approach allowed us to assess single-nucleotide variants, small indels, and whole exon deletions in a single test. The described diagnostic approach is fast and cost-effective with a high molecular diagnostic yield. PMID:25333064

Krawitz, Peter M; Schiska, Daniela; Kruger, Ulrike; Appelt, Sandra; Heinrich, Verena; Parkhomchuk, Dmitri; Timmermann, Bernd; Millan, Jose M; Robinson, Peter N; Mundlos, Stefan; Hecht, Jochen; Gross, Manfred

2014-01-01

242

Atlas-based white matter analysis in individuals with velo-cardio-facial syndrome (22q11.2 deletion syndrome) and unaffected siblings  

PubMed Central

Background Velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS, MIM#192430, 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome) is a genetic disorder caused by a deletion of about 40 genes at the q11.2 band of one copy of chromosome 22. Individuals with VCFS present with deficits in cognition and social functioning, high risk of psychiatric disorders, volumetric reductions in gray and white matter (WM) and some alterations of the WM microstructure. The goal of the current study was to characterize the WM microstructural differences in individuals with VCFS and unaffected siblings, and the correlation of WM microstructure with neuropsychological performance. We hypothesized that individuals with VCFS would have decreased indices of WM microstructure (fractional anisotropy (FA), axial diffusivity (AD) and radial diffusivity (RD)), particularly in WM tracts to the frontal lobe, and that these measures would be correlated with cognitive functioning. Methods Thirty-three individuals with VCFS (21 female) and 16 unaffected siblings (8 female) participated in DTI scanning and neuropsychological testing. We performed an atlas-based analysis, extracted FA, AD, and RD measures for 54 WM tracts (27 in each hemisphere) for each participant, and used MANOVAs to compare individuals with VCFS to siblings. For WM tracts that were statistically significantly different between VCFS and siblings (pFDR?

2012-01-01

243

The gene for replication factor C subunit 2 (RFC2) is within the 7q11.23 Williams syndrome deletion  

SciTech Connect

Williams syndrome (WS) is a developmental disorder with multiple system manifestations, including supraval var aortic stenosis (SVAS), peripheral pulmonic stenosis, connective tissue abnormalities, short stature, characteristic personality profile and cognitive deficits, and variable hypercalcemia in infancy. It is caused by heterozygosity for a chromosomal deletion of part of band 7q11.23 including the elastin locus (ELN). Since disruption of the ELN gene causes autosomal dominant SVAS, it is assumed that ELN haploinsufficiency is responsible for the cardiovascular features of WS. The deletion that extends from the ELN locus in both directions is {ge}200 kb in size, although estimates of {ge}2 Mb are suggested by high-resolution chromosome banding and physical mapping studies. We have searched for additional dosage-sensitive genes within the deletion that may be responsible for the noncardiovascular features. We report here that the gene for replication factor C subunit 2 (RFC2) maps within the WS deletion region and was found to be deleted in all of 18 WS patients studied. The protein product of RFC2 is part of a multimeric complex involved in DNA elongation during replication. 14 refs., 3 figs.

Peoples, R.; Perez-Jurado, L.; Francke, U.; Yu-Ker Wang [Stanford Univ. Medical Center, CA (United States); Kaplan, P. [Children`s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA (United States)

1996-06-01

244

A 45-bp insertion/deletion polymorphism of UCP2 gene is associated with metabolic syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Metabolic syndrome (MeS) is being recognized as a risk factor for insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease. The present study was aimed to find out the possible association between 45-bp I/D polymorphism of uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) and MeS. Methods DNA was extracted from peripheral blood of 151 subjects with and 149 subjects without MeS. 45-bp I/D variant of UCP2 was detected using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results Our finding showed that 45-bp I/D polymorphism was associated with protection against MeS (OR?=?0.56, 95%?CI?=?0.34-0.92, p?=?0.020 D/I vs DD and OR?=?0.54, 95%?CI?=?0.34-0.86, p?=?0.009; D/I + I/I vs D/D). The I allele decreased the risk of MeS (OR?=?0.62, 95%?CI?=?0.44-0.90, p?=?0.011) in comparison with D allele. Conclusion In conclusion, our result suggests that 45-bp I/D polymorphism is associated with the risk of MeS, which remains to be cleared. PMID:24398006

2014-01-01

245

Developmental trajectories in syndromes with intellectual disability, with a focus on Wolf-Hirschhorn and its cognitive-behavioral profile.  

PubMed

Few studies exist of developmental trajectories in children with intellectual disability, and none for those with subtelomeric deletions. We compared developmental trajectories of children with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome to other genetic disorders. We recruited 106 children diagnosed with fragile X, Williams-Beuren syndrome, or Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome, assessing their intellectual and adaptive behavior abilities. We retested 61 children 2 years later. We compared Time 1 and Time 2 difference scores related to genetic disorder, age, initial IQ, or adaptive behavior composite. Results show genetic disorder and initial IQ score were significant factors for IQ differences, but only genetic disorder affected adaptive behavior differences. Results suggest different gene-brain-behavior pathways likely exist for these genetic disorders. Different developmental trajectories will influence the type and intensity of intervention implemented by caregivers. PMID:22515830

Fisch, Gene S; Carpenter, Nancy; Howard-Peebles, Patricia N; Holden, Jeanette J A; Tarleton, Jack; Simensen, Richard; Battaglia, Agatino

2012-03-01

246

Intelligence and visual motor integration in 5-year-old children with 22q11-deletion syndrome.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between intelligence and visual motor integration skills in 5-year-old children with 22q11-deletion syndrome (22q11DS) (N = 65, 43 females, 22 males; mean age 5.6 years (SD 0.2), range 5.23-5.99 years). Sufficient VMI skills seem a prerequisite for IQ testing. Since problems related to these skills are reported in children with 22q11DS, weak VMI skills may contribute to the lower than average IQ scores commonly reported. To investigate if the correlation of VMI and IQ score was mainly influenced by problems with visual perception skills (VP), motor coordination skills (MC) or difficulties with the integration of both skills (VMI), a subgroup (n = 28) was also administered the Beery VMI supplemental developmental tests. Due to the narrow age range of this study, we were also able to provide an insight into the neurocognitive phenotype of 5-year olds with 22q11DS and the influence of gender, heart disease and origin of deletion on this phenotype. Results show a mean full scale IQ (FSIQ) = 73.0 (SD 10.4) and mean VMI = 86.2 (SD 8.4). A significant correlation between FSIQ and VMI was found (r = .45, p = .000), with most variation (26%) explained in the performance IQ score ((PIQ), r = .51, p = .000). VP correlated significantly with FSIQ (r = .44, p = .01) and PIQ (r = .49, p = .004). MC was not significantly correlated with IQ (FSIQ, r = .21, p = .15; PIQ, r = .28, p = .07), suggesting that problems with motor coordination do not influence results on IQ-tests in a significant way at this age. Girls scored significantly higher on FSIQ and PIQ than boys; cardiac anomalies were not predictive of FSIQ or VMI scores. The results of this study suggest a characteristic neurocognitive phenotype for 5-year olds with 22q11DS. Deficiencies in visual perception and/or processing are negatively correlated with IQ scores, whereas deficiencies in motor skills do not have a relevant negative impact at this age. These findings provide further insight into 22q11DS specific neurocognitive deficiencies. PMID:22119678

Duijff, Sasja; Klaassen, Petra; Beemer, Frits; Swanenburg de Veye, Henriette; Vorstman, Jacob; Sinnema, Gerben

2012-01-01

247

Systematic Screening for Subtelomeric Anomalies in a Clinical Sample of Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

High-resolution karyotyping detects cytogenetic anomalies in 5-10% of cases of autism. Karyotyping, however, may fail to detect abnormalities of chromosome subtelomeres, which are gene rich regions prone to anomalies. We assessed whether panels of FISH probes targeted for subtelomeres could detect abnormalities beyond those identified by…

Wassink, Thomas H.; Losh, Molly; Piven, Joseph; Sheffield, Val C.; Ashley, Elizabeth; Westin, Erik R.; Patil, Shivanand R.

2007-01-01

248

Isolation and sequence analysis of the wheat B genome subtelomeric DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Telomeric and subtelomeric regions are essential for genome stability and regular chromosome replication. In this work, we have characterized the wheat BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) clones containing Spelt1 and Spelt52 sequences, which belong to the subtelomeric repeats of the B\\/G genomes of wheats and Aegilops species from the section Sitopsis. RESULTS: The BAC library from Triticum aestivum cv. Renan

Elena A Salina; Ekaterina M Sergeeva; Irina G Adonina; Andrey B Shcherban; Dmitry A Afonnikov; Harry Belcram; Cecile Huneau; Boulos Chalhoub

2009-01-01

249

Developmental changes in multivariate neuroanatomical patterns that predict risk for psychosis in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome  

PubMed Central

The primary objective of the current prospective study was to examine developmental patterns of voxel-by-voxel gray and white matter volumes (GMV, WMV, respectively) that would predict psychosis in adolescents with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS), the most common known genetic risk factor for schizophrenia. We performed a longitudinal voxel-based morphometry analysis using structural T1 MRI scans from 19 individuals with 22q11.2DS and 18 typically developing individuals. In 22q11.2DS, univariate analysis showed that greater reduction in left dorsal prefrontal cortical (dPFC) GMV over time predicted greater psychotic symptoms at Time2. This dPFC region also showed significantly reduced volumes in 22q11.2DS compared to typically developing individuals at Time1 and 2, greater reduction over time in 22q11.2DS COMTMet compared to COMTVal, and greater reduction in those with greater decline in verbal IQ over time. Leave- one-out multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) on the other hand, showed that patterns of GM and WM morphometric changes over time in regions including but not limited to the dPFC predicted risk for psychotic symptoms (94.7-100% accuracy) significantly better than using univariate analysis (63.1%). Additional predictive brain regions included medial PFC and dorsal cingulum. This longitudinal prospective study shows novel evidence of morphometric spatial patterns predicting the development of psychotic symptoms in 22q11.2DS, and further elucidates the abnormal maturational processes in 22q11.2DS. The use of neuroimaging using MVPA may hold promise to predict outcome in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:20817203

Gothelf, Doron; Hoeft, Fumiko; Ueno, Takefumi; Sugiura, Lisa; Lee, Agatha D.; Thompson, Paul; Reiss, Allan L.

2010-01-01

250

Dysphagia and disrupted cranial nerve development in a mouse model of DiGeorge (22q11) deletion syndrome  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT We assessed feeding-related developmental anomalies in the LgDel mouse model of chromosome 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), a common developmental disorder that frequently includes perinatal dysphagia – debilitating feeding, swallowing and nutrition difficulties from birth onward – within its phenotypic spectrum. LgDel pups gain significantly less weight during the first postnatal weeks, and have several signs of respiratory infections due to food aspiration. Most 22q11 genes are expressed in anlagen of craniofacial and brainstem regions critical for feeding and swallowing, and diminished expression in LgDel embryos apparently compromises development of these regions. Palate and jaw anomalies indicate divergent oro-facial morphogenesis. Altered expression and patterning of hindbrain transcriptional regulators, especially those related to retinoic acid (RA) signaling, prefigures these disruptions. Subsequently, gene expression, axon growth and sensory ganglion formation in the trigeminal (V), glossopharyngeal (IX) or vagus (X) cranial nerves (CNs) that innervate targets essential for feeding, swallowing and digestion are disrupted. Posterior CN IX and X ganglia anomalies primarily reflect diminished dosage of the 22q11DS candidate gene Tbx1. Genetic modification of RA signaling in LgDel embryos rescues the anterior CN V phenotype and returns expression levels or pattern of RA-sensitive genes to those in wild-type embryos. Thus, diminished 22q11 gene dosage, including but not limited to Tbx1, disrupts oro-facial and CN development by modifying RA-modulated anterior-posterior hindbrain differentiation. These disruptions likely contribute to dysphagia in infants and young children with 22q11DS. PMID:24357327

Karpinski, Beverly A.; Maynard, Thomas M.; Fralish, Matthew S.; Nuwayhid, Samer; Zohn, Irene E.; Moody, Sally A.; LaMantia, Anthony-S.

2014-01-01

251

Dysphagia and disrupted cranial nerve development in a mouse model of DiGeorge (22q11) deletion syndrome.  

PubMed

We assessed feeding-related developmental anomalies in the LgDel mouse model of chromosome 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), a common developmental disorder that frequently includes perinatal dysphagia--debilitating feeding, swallowing and nutrition difficulties from birth onward--within its phenotypic spectrum. LgDel pups gain significantly less weight during the first postnatal weeks, and have several signs of respiratory infections due to food aspiration. Most 22q11 genes are expressed in anlagen of craniofacial and brainstem regions critical for feeding and swallowing, and diminished expression in LgDel embryos apparently compromises development of these regions. Palate and jaw anomalies indicate divergent oro-facial morphogenesis. Altered expression and patterning of hindbrain transcriptional regulators, especially those related to retinoic acid (RA) signaling, prefigures these disruptions. Subsequently, gene expression, axon growth and sensory ganglion formation in the trigeminal (V), glossopharyngeal (IX) or vagus (X) cranial nerves (CNs) that innervate targets essential for feeding, swallowing and digestion are disrupted. Posterior CN IX and X ganglia anomalies primarily reflect diminished dosage of the 22q11DS candidate gene Tbx1. Genetic modification of RA signaling in LgDel embryos rescues the anterior CN V phenotype and returns expression levels or pattern of RA-sensitive genes to those in wild-type embryos. Thus, diminished 22q11 gene dosage, including but not limited to Tbx1, disrupts oro-facial and CN development by modifying RA-modulated anterior-posterior hindbrain differentiation. These disruptions likely contribute to dysphagia in infants and young children with 22q11DS. PMID:24357327

Karpinski, Beverly A; Maynard, Thomas M; Fralish, Matthew S; Nuwayhid, Samer; Zohn, Irene E; Moody, Sally A; LaMantia, Anthony-S

2014-02-01

252

In-Frame Deletion and Missense Mutations of the C-Terminal Helicase Domain of SMARCA2 in Three Patients with Nicolaides-Baraitser Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Using high-resolution molecular karyotyping with SNP arrays to identify candidate genes for etiologically unexplained intellectual disability, we identified a 32-kb de novo in-frame deletion of the C-terminal helicase domain of the SMARCA2 gene in a patient with severe intellectual disability, epilepsy, sparse hair, prominent joints, and distinct facial anomalies. Sequencing of the gene in patients with a similar phenotype revealed de novo missense mutations in this domain in 2 further patients, pointing to a crucial role of the SMARCA2 C-terminal helicase domain. The clinical features observed in all 3 patients are typical of Nicolaides-Baraitser syndrome, an only rarely reported syndrome with mainly moderate to severe intellectual disability. Notably, one of our patients with a p.Gly1132Asp mutation showed typical morphological features but an exceptional good development with borderline overall IQ and learning difficulties, thus expanding the phenotypic spectrum of Nicolaides-Baraitser syndrome. PMID:22822383

Wolff, D.; Endele, S.; Azzarello-Burri, S.; Hoyer, J.; Zweier, M.; Schanze, I.; Schmitt, B.; Rauch, A.; Reis, A.; Zweier, C.

2012-01-01

253

Syndromic encephalocele in a fetal case with a 1p35-pter deletion and a 14q32-qter duplication inherited from a maternal balanced translocation.  

PubMed

Occipital encephalocele belongs to the family of neural tube defects, which occur in one among 2000 to 5000 live births. Syndromic encephaloceles include Meckel-Gruber syndrome and various chromosomal abnormalities. We report on a fetal case (13 WG) with bilateral cleft lip and palate, choanal atresia, occipital encephalocele, bilateral club feet, bilateral multicystic kidneys, enlarged bladder and urethral atresia. The fetal chromosome analysis showed a maternally inherited unbalanced translocation between the short arm of chromosome 1 and the long arm of chromosome 14, resulting in 1p35-pter deletion and 14q32-qter duplication (46,XY,der(1),t(1;14)(p35;q32)). Since the chromosomal breakpoints have not previously been implicated in syndromic encephalocele, this observation is of interest for the identification of other genes responsible for occipital encephalocele. PMID:17385797

Thauvin-Robinet, C; Callier, P; Laurent, N; Rousseau, T; Masurel-Paulet, A; Marle, N; Huet, F; Sagot, P; Faivre, L; Mugneret, F

2007-06-01

254

Small terminal 10q26 deletion in a male patient with Noonan-like stigmata: diagnosis by cytogenetic and FISH analysis.  

PubMed

A male patient is reported with terminal 10q26 deletion, developmental retardation, special behaviour, and multiple clinical anomalies including hypotonia, short stature of postnatal onset, short webbed neck, craniofacial dysmorphism, pectus excavatum with widely spaced small nipples, cryptorchidism with scrotal hypoplasia, limb and musculoskeletal anomalies. The facial dysmorphism mainly consisted of trigonocephaly, a long, triangular and asymmetrical face, hypertelorism with pseudoepicanthus, broad nasal bridge, high-arched palate, retrognathia, low-set dysplastic auricles and, on ophthalmologic examination, strabismus, astigmatism and myopia. Some of these clinical stigmata were suggesting the diagnosis of Noonan syndrome. The extremities showed special features including shortening of proximal limbs, brachydactyly with syndactyly of toes II-III and left fingers III-IV, hypoplastic toenails and joint abnormalities. A diastasis of abdominal muscles was noted and, on X-rays a thoracic scoliosis and bilateral coxa valga were evidenced. Analyses of G- and T-banded chromosomes complemented by FISH analyses using different subtelomere probes detected a terminal 10q26 deletion. Subsequent FISH studies using different probes of the 10q26 region were performed in an attempt to closely define the breakpoint and the extent of the deletion and, thereby, to allow karyotype/phenotype comparison between this patient and a previously reported case with an apparently similar 10q26 deletion. PMID:12558112

Lukusa, T; Smeets, E; Vermeesch, J R; Fryns, J P

2002-01-01

255

Identification of Nine New RAI1-Truncating Mutations in Smith-Magenis Syndrome Patients without 17p11.2 Deletions  

PubMed Central

Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is an intellectual disability syndrome with sleep disturbance, self-injurious behaviors and dysmorphic features. It is estimated to occur in 1/25,000 births, and in 90% of cases it is associated with interstitial deletions of chromosome 17p11.2. RAI1 (retinoic acid induced 1; OMIM 607642) mutations are the second most frequent molecular etiology, with this gene being located in the SMS locus at 17p11.2. Here, we report 9 new RAI1-truncating mutations in nonrelated individuals referred for molecular analysis due to a possible SMS diagnosis. None of these patients carried a 17p11.2 deletion. The 9 mutations include 2 nonsense mutations and 7 heterozygous frameshift mutations leading to protein truncation. All mutations map in exon 3 of RAI1 which codes for more than 98% of the protein. RAI1 regulates gene transcription, and its targets are themselves involved in transcriptional regulation, cell growth and cell cycle regulation, bone and skeletal development, lipid and glucide metabolisms, neurological development, behavioral functions, and circadian activity. We report the clinical features of the patients carrying these deleterious mutations in comparison with those of patients carrying 17p11.2 deletions. PMID:24715852

Dubourg, C.; Bonnet-Brilhault, F.; Toutain, A.; Mignot, C.; Jacquette, A.; Dieux, A.; Gerard, M.; Beaumont-Epinette, M.-P.; Julia, S.; Isidor, B.; Rossi, M.; Odent, S.; Bendavid, C.; Barthelemy, C.; Verloes, A.; David, V.

2014-01-01

256

Mapping genetically controlled neural circuits of social behavior and visuo-motor integration by a preliminary examination of atypical deletions with Williams syndrome.  

PubMed

In this study of eight rare atypical deletion cases with Williams-Beuren syndrome (WS; also known as 7q11.23 deletion syndrome) consisting of three different patterns of deletions, compared to typical WS and typically developing (TD) individuals, we show preliminary evidence of dissociable genetic contributions to brain structure and human cognition. Univariate and multivariate pattern classification results of morphometric brain patterns complemented by behavior implicate a possible role for the chromosomal region that includes: 1) GTF2I/GTF2IRD1 in visuo-spatial/motor integration, intraparietal as well as overall gray matter structures, 2) the region spanning ABHD11 through RFC2 including LIMK1, in social cognition, in particular approachability, as well as orbitofrontal, amygdala and fusiform anatomy, and 3) the regions including STX1A, and/or CYLN2 in overall white matter structure. This knowledge contributes to our understanding of the role of genetics on human brain structure, cognition and pathophysiology of altered cognition in WS. The current study builds on ongoing research designed to characterize the impact of multiple genes, gene-gene interactions and changes in gene expression on the human brain. PMID:25105779

Hoeft, Fumiko; Dai, Li; Haas, Brian W; Sheau, Kristen; Mimura, Masaru; Mills, Debra; Galaburda, Albert; Bellugi, Ursula; Korenberg, Julie R; Reiss, Allan L

2014-01-01

257

Mapping Genetically Controlled Neural Circuits of Social Behavior and Visuo-Motor Integration by a Preliminary Examination of Atypical Deletions with Williams Syndrome  

PubMed Central

In this study of eight rare atypical deletion cases with Williams-Beuren syndrome (WS; also known as 7q11.23 deletion syndrome) consisting of three different patterns of deletions, compared to typical WS and typically developing (TD) individuals, we show preliminary evidence of dissociable genetic contributions to brain structure and human cognition. Univariate and multivariate pattern classification results of morphometric brain patterns complemented by behavior implicate a possible role for the chromosomal region that includes: 1) GTF2I/GTF2IRD1 in visuo-spatial/motor integration, intraparietal as well as overall gray matter structures, 2) the region spanning ABHD11 through RFC2 including LIMK1, in social cognition, in particular approachability, as well as orbitofrontal, amygdala and fusiform anatomy, and 3) the regions including STX1A, and/or CYLN2 in overall white matter structure. This knowledge contributes to our understanding of the role of genetics on human brain structure, cognition and pathophysiology of altered cognition in WS. The current study builds on ongoing research designed to characterize the impact of multiple genes, gene-gene interactions and changes in gene expression on the human brain. PMID:25105779

Hoeft, Fumiko; Dai, Li; Haas, Brian W.; Sheau, Kristen; Mimura, Masaru; Mills, Debra; Galaburda, Albert; Bellugi, Ursula

2014-01-01

258

Isolation of a transcription factor expressed in neural crest from the region of 22q11 deleted in DiGeorge syndrome  

SciTech Connect

Deletions within chromosome 22q11 cause a wide variety of birth defects including DiGeorge syndrome and Shprintzen syndrome. We have defined a commonly deleted region of over 2 Mb, and a critical region of 300 kb. A gene, TUPLE1, has been isolated from this critical region encoding a transcriptional regulator similar to the yeast HIR1 histone regulator gene. Since it has been suggested that DGS results from a defective neural crest, the expression of Tuple1 was examined in whole mouse and chick embryos, tissue sections and neural tube explants: Tuple1 is expressed in a dynamic pattern with high levels in regions containing migrating crest. Prior to crest migration Tuple1 is expressed in a rhombomere-specific expression pattern. Later Tuple1 is expressed in discrete domains within the developing neural tube. A remarkable feature of the experiments was the detection of a similar dynamic pattern with sense probe; i.e., there is an antisense Tuple1 transcript. This was confirmed using RPA. Tuple1 is being screened for mutations in non-deletion patients and constructs assembled for homologous recombination in ES cells. Tuple1 maps to MMU16 extending the homology of linkage with human chromosome 22. From these data we predict that the human homologue of the murine scid mutation maps to 22q11.

Wadey, R.; Roberts, C.; Daw, S. [and others

1994-09-01

259

Deletions of Yq11 associated with short stature and the Turner syndrome. Tentative mapping of a region associated with specific Turner stigmata to proximal interval 5.  

SciTech Connect

Turner syndrome is a complex human phenotype, commonly associated with a 45,X karyotype. Mapping the Turner phenotype is difficult since hidden mosaicisms, partial monosomy and complex rearrangements are present in many affected individuals. In addition, attempts to map the genes involved to the X chromosome have failed to yield a consistent localisation. An alternative approach to map and identify Turner genes is to study XY individuals, with sex chromosome abnormalities, who present with or without characteristic Turner stigmata. We report the analysis of 4 individuals with terminal deletions of Yq. The individuals were azoospermic males without phenotypic abnormalities (2 cases) and azoospermic males presenting with a specific subset of Turner stigmata (2 cases). Breakpoints in each of the cytogenetically detectable Yq deletions were mapped by Southern analysis and Y chromosome-specific sequence tagged sites (STS). Correlation between the patients phenotypes and the extent of their deletion indicate a critical region associated with specific Turner stigmata (cubitus valgus, shield chest, short fourth metacarpals) and growth retardation at Yq at proximal interval 5. These data provide evidence that the somatic features of the Turner syndrome are most likely caused by haploinsufficiency of genes at several loci.

McElreavey, K.; Barbaux, S.; Vilain, E. [Immunogenetique Humaine 25 rue du Dr. Roux, Paris (France)] [and others

1994-09-01

260

Identification of Nine New RAI1-Truncating Mutations in Smith-Magenis Syndrome Patients without 17p11.2 Deletions.  

PubMed

Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is an intellectual disability syndrome with sleep disturbance, self-injurious behaviors and dysmorphic features. It is estimated to occur in 1/25,000 births, and in 90% of cases it is associated with interstitial deletions of chromosome 17p11.2. RAI1 (retinoic acid induced 1; OMIM 607642) mutations are the second most frequent molecular etiology, with this gene being located in the SMS locus at 17p11.2. Here, we report 9 new RAI1-truncating mutations in nonrelated individuals referred for molecular analysis due to a possible SMS diagnosis. None of these patients carried a 17p11.2 deletion. The 9 mutations include 2 nonsense mutations and 7 heterozygous frameshift mutations leading to protein truncation. All mutations map in exon 3 of RAI1 which codes for more than 98% of the protein. RAI1 regulates gene transcription, and its targets are themselves involved in transcriptional regulation, cell growth and cell cycle regulation, bone and skeletal development, lipid and glucide metabolisms, neurological development, behavioral functions, and circadian activity. We report the clinical features of the patients carrying these deleterious mutations in comparison with those of patients carrying 17p11.2 deletions. PMID:24715852

Dubourg, C; Bonnet-Brilhault, F; Toutain, A; Mignot, C; Jacquette, A; Dieux, A; Gérard, M; Beaumont-Epinette, M-P; Julia, S; Isidor, B; Rossi, M; Odent, S; Bendavid, C; Barthélémy, C; Verloes, A; David, V

2014-02-01

261

Familial Williams-Beuren syndrome ascertained by screening rather than targeted diagnosis.  

PubMed

Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS), a contiguous gene deletion syndrome, mostly occurs sporadically. Although a few cases of familial WBS have been reported in the literature, molecular confirmation of the deletion has not been carried out in all of them. Here, we report on the eighth clinically and molecularly confirmed inherited WBS detected in a family with 'familial mental retardation.' A comprehensive screening approach to mental retardation that included stepwise karyotyping, assessment for fragile-X syndrome, subtelomeric rearrangements and known microdeletion/microduplication syndromes, and a genome-wide array-CGH study was applied. The father, the mother, and their daughter were all mentally handicapped with nonspecific clinical manifestations and dysmorphic features. The first child of the family died from multiple congenital anomalies. The father and his daughter, who had never been suspected to have WBS, were diagnosed as having a deletion of the WBS critical region. No other abnormalities were detected in the family. Unlike other previously reported cases, in which the disease was ascertained on the basis of clinical manifestations, the present report represents an example of the detection of cryptic chromosomal abnormalities in mental retardation patients by the stepwise application of high-throughput screening methods. PMID:22473150

Rafati, Maryam; Seyyedaboutorabi, Elaheh; Brujerdi, Razieh; Moossavi, Shirin; Ghaffari, Saeed Reza

2012-07-01

262

Two families with isolated cat cry without the cri-du-chat syndrome phenotype have an inherited 5p15.3 deletion: Delineation of the larynx malformation region  

SciTech Connect

The cri-du-chat syndrome is a contiguous gene syndrome that results from a deletion of the short arm of chromosome 5 (5p). Patients present with a cat-like cry at birth that is usually considered diagnostic of this syndrome. Additional features of the syndrome include failure to thrive, microcephaly, hypertelorism, epicanthal folds, hypotonia, and severe mental retardation. We report on two families in which the patients with 5p deletions have only the characteristic cat-like cry with normal to mildly delayed development. One family has three children with varying levels of developmental delay and a deletion of 5p15.3 that was inherited from the father. The second family has a mother and daughter both presenting with a cat-like cry and normal intelligence. A de novo deletion in a patient with isolated cat cry and mild developmental delay was also identified. The precise locations of the deletions in each family were determined by fluorescent in situ hybridization using lambda phage, cosmids, and YAC clones. Cryptic translocations and mosaicism were not detected in the parents transmitting the deletion. All of the deletion breakpoints map distal to the previously defined cri-du-chat critical region. A YAC contig has been constructed for the chromosomal region implicated in the larynx malformation. DNA clones mapping in this region will be useful diagnostic tools for delineating 5p deletions that result in the typical features of cri-du-chat syndrome with deletions that result in the isolated cat-like cry feature which is associated with a better prognosis.

Gersh, M.; Overhauser, J. [Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Pasztor, L.M. [Children`s Mercy Hospital, Kansas City, MO (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

263

A complex Xp11.22 deletion in a patient with syndromic autism: Exploration of FAM120C as a positional candidate gene for autism.  

PubMed

We present a male patient with sporadic Aarskog syndrome, cleft palate, mild intellectual disability, and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A submicroscopic discontiguous deletion was detected on chromosome Xp11.2 encompassing FGD1, FAM120C, and PHF8. That the deletion encompassed FGD1 (exons 2-8) explains the Aarskog features while the deletion of PHF8 most likely explains the cleft palate and mild intellectual disability. We identify FAM120C as a novel X-linked candidate gene for autism for two reasons: first, a larger deletion encompassing FAM120C segregates with autism in a previously reported family and second, there is recent evidence that FAM120C interacts with CYFIP1, part of the FMRP (Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein) network. In the current study, resequencing of FAM120C in 87 Belgian male patients with autism spectrum disorder identified no novel mutations. Expression of Fam120c in mouse tissues showed enriched expression in pituitary, cerebellum, cortex, and pancreatic islets of Langerhans. Additionally, we found a cortical expression pattern of Fam120c similar to that of Fmr1. In conclusion, FAM120C is a novel candidate gene for autism spectrum disorder based on genetic evidence and the brain expression pattern. Thereby we highlight a role for FMRP network genes in ASD. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25258334

De Wolf, Veerle; Crepel, An; Schuit, Frans; van Lommel, Leentje; Ceulemans, Berten; Steyaert, Jean; Seuntjens, Eve; Peeters, Hilde; Devriendt, Koen

2014-12-01

264

A large homozygous deletion in the SAMHD1 gene causes atypical Aicardi–Goutiéres syndrome associated with mtDNA deletions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aicardi–Goutiéres syndrome (AGS) is a genetic neurodegenerative disorder with clinical symptoms mimicking a congenital viral infection. Five causative genes have been described: three prime repair exonuclease1 (TREX1), ribonucleases H2A, B and C, and most recently SAM domain and HD domain 1 (SAMHD1). We performed a detailed clinical and molecular characterization of a family with autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder showing white

Esther Leshinsky-Silver; Gustavo Malinger; Liat Ben-Sira; Dvora Kidron; Sarit Cohen; Shani Inbar; Tali Bezaleli; Arie Levine; Chana Vinkler; Dorit Lev; Tally Lerman-Sagie

2011-01-01

265

Patient with dup(5)(q35.2-q35.3) reciprocal to the common Sotos syndrome deletion and review of the literature.  

PubMed

The recent implementation of array techniques in research and clinical practice has revealed the existence of recurrent reciprocal deletions and duplications in several genome loci. The most intriguing feature is that some reciprocal genomic events can result in opposite phenotypic outcome. One of such examples is 5q35.2-q35.3. Deletions in this locus lead to Sotos syndrome characterized by childhood overgrowth with advanced bone age, craniofacial dysmorphic features including macrocephaly, and learning difficulties; while duplications have been proposed to manifest in opposite phenotype related to growth. Here, we report a patient with 5q35.2-q35.3 duplication and compare her clinical phenotype with five previously described cases. Short stature since the birth, microcephaly, brachydactyly, delayed bone age, mild to moderate intellectual disability and mild facial dysmorphism seem to be characteristic features of 5q35.2-q35.3 duplication. PMID:23369838

Žilina, Olga; Reimand, Tiia; Tammur, Pille; Tillmann, Vallo; Kurg, Ants; Õunap, Katrin

2013-04-01

266

The 9p- deletion syndrome. Report of a patient with a 46, XX, 9P- constitution due to a paternal t(9p-;15+) translocation.  

PubMed

A new case of the 9p- chromosome-deletion syndrome is described. The 9p-chromosome, identified by the G-, R-, Q- and G11-banding techniques, showed mainly a deletion of bands p23 and p24. Routine chromosome analysis and banding studies in the parents revealed normal chromosomes in the mother and a balanced t (9p-; 15q+) translocation in the father. The main clinical features of the proband are narrow cranium, prominent forehead, flat occiput, hyperteloris, flat bridge of the nose, long upper lip, micrognathia, low-set and abnormal ears, short, broad neck, wide-set nipples, systolic murmur, umbilical hernia, diastasis musculi recti, short arms and broad thumbs, equinovarus adductus, hypotonia and psychomotor retardation. These clinical findings are compared with those of the three 9p- cases found in the literature. PMID:1204232

Orye, E; Verhaaren, H; Van den Bogaert-Van Heesvelde, A M

1975-11-01

267

Schizophrenia and chromosomal deletions  

SciTech Connect

Recent genetic linkage analysis studies have suggested the presence of a schizophrenia locus on the chromosomal region 22q11-q13. Schizophrenia has also been frequently observed in patients affected with velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS), a disorder frequently associated with deletions within 22q11.1. It has been hypothesized that psychosis in VCFS may be due to deletion of the catechol-o-methyl transferase gene. Prompted by these observations, we screened for 22q11 deletions in a population of 100 schizophrenics selected from the Maryland Epidemiological Sample. Our results show that there are schizophrenic patients carrying a deletion of 22q11.1 and a mild VCFS phenotype that might remain unrecognized. These findings should encourage a search for a schizophrenia-susceptibility gene within the deleted region and alert those in clinical practice to the possible presence of a mild VCFS phenotype associated with schizophrenia. 9 refs.

Lindsay, E.A.; Baldini, A. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Morris, M. A. [Univ. of Geneva School of Medicine, NY (United States)] [and others

1995-06-01

268

Self-Reported Speech Problems in Adolescents and Young Adults with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: A Cross-Sectional Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background Speech problems are a common clinical feature of the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. The objectives of this study were to inventory the speech history and current self-reported speech rating of adolescents and young adults, and examine the possible variables influencing the current speech ratings, including cleft palate, surgery, speech and language therapy, intelligence quotient, and age at assessment. Methods In this cross-sectional cohort study, 50 adolescents and young adults with the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (ages, 12-26 years, 67% female) filled out questionnaires. A neuropsychologist administered an age-appropriate intelligence quotient test. The demographics, histories, and intelligence of patients with normal speech (speech rating=1) were compared to those of patients with different speech (speech rating>1). Results Of the 50 patients, a minority (26%) had a cleft palate, nearly half (46%) underwent a pharyngoplasty, and all (100%) had speech and language therapy. Poorer speech ratings were correlated with more years of speech and language therapy (Spearman's correlation= 0.418, P=0.004; 95% confidence interval, 0.145-0.632). Only 34% had normal speech ratings. The groups with normal and different speech were not significantly different with respect to the demographic variables; a history of cleft palate, surgery, or speech and language therapy; and the intelligence quotient. Conclusions All adolescents and young adults with the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome had undergone speech and language therapy, and nearly half of them underwent pharyngoplasty. Only 34% attained normal speech ratings. Those with poorer speech ratings had speech and language therapy for more years. PMID:25276637

Vorstman, Jacob AS; Kon, Moshe; Mink van der Molen, Aebele B

2014-01-01

269

A Longitudinal Examination of the Psychoeducational, Neurocognitive, and Psychiatric Functioning in Children with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome  

PubMed Central

The present study sought to examine the longitudinal psychoeducational, neurocognitive, and psychiatric outcomes of children and adolescents with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), a population with a high incidence of major psychiatric illnesses appearing in late adolescence/early adulthood. Little is known of the developmental changes that occur in the early teen years, prior to the age of highest psychosis risk. Data were collected from 71 participants (42 subjects with 22q11DS and 29 control subjects) at Time 1 (T1) and Time 2 (T2), approximately 3.5 years later. The 22q11DS group was significantly lower functioning than controls on IQ, neurocognition, and academic achievement at both T1 and T2. Children with 22q11DS also showed significantly greater social-behavioral difficulties and psychiatric symptoms, and were more likely to meet criteria for psychiatric disorders at both time points. In evaluating change over time from T1 to T2, the 22q11DS group did not show significant changes in psychoeducational or psychiatric outcomes relative to the controls, however, lack of expected age-related gains in attention regulation were noted. Within the 22q11DS group, an increase in the Attenuated Prodrome for Schizophrenia (number of psychiatric symptoms) was noted from T1 to T2 and four children with 22q11DS met criteria for Psychosis for the first time. Predictors at T1 that uncovered psychopathology symptoms at T2 included full-scale IQ, externalizing symptoms, and problem social behaviors. Overall, younger adolescent and preadolescent children with 22q11DS in this study exhibited slowed growth in attention regulation, with an increase in subclinical symptoms of schizophrenia, suggestive of increasing impairments in domains that are relevant to the high risk of Schizophrenia. Early predictors of later psychopathology included both cognitive and behavioral abnormalities. These findings begin to elucidate the trajectory of changes in psychopathology in children with 22q11DS in the years leading up to the onset of major psychiatric illnesses. PMID:23506790

Hooper, Stephen R.; Curtiss, Kathleen; Schoch, Kelly; Keshavan, Matcheri S.; Allen, Andrew; Shashi, Vandana

2013-01-01

270

A longitudinal examination of the psychoeducational, neurocognitive, and psychiatric functioning in children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.  

PubMed

The present study sought to examine the longitudinal psychoeducational, neurocognitive, and psychiatric outcomes of children and adolescents with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), a population with a high incidence of major psychiatric illnesses appearing in late adolescence/early adulthood. Little is known of the developmental changes that occur in the early teen years, prior to the age of highest psychosis risk. Data were collected from 71 participants (42 subjects with 22q11DS and 29 control subjects) at Time 1 (T1) and Time 2 (T2), approximately 3.5 years later. The 22q11DS group was significantly lower functioning than controls on IQ, neurocognition, and academic achievement at both T1 and T2. Children with 22q11DS also showed significantly greater social-behavioral difficulties and psychiatric symptoms, and were more likely to meet criteria for psychiatric disorders at both time points. In evaluating change over time from T1 to T2, the 22q11DS group did not show significant changes in psychoeducational or psychiatric outcomes relative to the controls, however, lack of expected age-related gains in attention regulation were noted. Within the 22q11DS group, an increase in the Attenuated Prodrome for Schizophrenia (number of psychiatric symptoms) was noted from T1 to T2 and four children with 22q11DS met criteria for Psychosis for the first time. Predictors at T1 that uncovered psychopathology symptoms at T2 included full-scale IQ, externalizing symptoms, and problem social behaviors. Overall, younger adolescent and preadolescent children with 22q11DS in this study exhibited slowed growth in attention regulation, with an increase in subclinical symptoms of schizophrenia, suggestive of increasing impairments in domains that are relevant to the high risk of Schizophrenia. Early predictors of later psychopathology included both cognitive and behavioral abnormalities. These findings begin to elucidate the trajectory of changes in psychopathology in children with 22q11DS in the years leading up to the onset of major psychiatric illnesses. PMID:23506790

Hooper, Stephen R; Curtiss, Kathleen; Schoch, Kelly; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Allen, Andrew; Shashi, Vandana

2013-05-01

271

Prospective Control Abilities during Visuo-Manual Tracking in Children with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Compared to Age- and IQ-Matched Controls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To examine whether children with a 22q11.2 Deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) are able to use prospective control, 21 children with 22q11.2DS (mean age=9.6 [plus or minus] 1.9; mean FSIQ=73.05 [plus or minus] 10.2) and 21 control children (mean age=9.6 [plus or minus] 1.9; mean FSIQ=73.38 [plus or minus] 12.0) were asked to perform a visuo-manual…

Van Aken, Katrijn; Swillen, Ann; Beirinckx, Marc; Janssens, Luc; Caeyenberghs, Karen; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien

2010-01-01

272

Characterization and Expression Pattern of the frizzledGene Fzd9,the Mouse Homolog of FZD9Which Is Deleted in Williams–Beuren Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thefrizzledgene family is conserved from insects to mammals and codes for putativeWntreceptors that share a cysteine-rich extracellular domain and seven transmembrane domains. We previously identified a novelfrizzledgene,FZD3,now renamedFZD9,in the Williams–Beuren syndrome (WBS) deletion region at chromosomal band 7q11.23 and showed that its product can interact with theDrosophilawingless protein. Here, we report the characterization of the mouse homologFzd9.TheFzd9gene produces a 2.4-kb

Yu-Ker Wang; Ralf Spörle; Tamar Paperna; Klaus Schughart; Uta Francke

1999-01-01

273

Novel single base-pair deletion in exon 1 of XK gene leading to McLeod syndrome with chorea, muscle wasting, peripheral neuropathy, acanthocytosis and haemolysis  

PubMed Central

We present a 70-year-old male patient of Greek origin with choreatic movements of the tongue and face, lower limb muscle weakness, peripheral neuropathy, elevated creatinephosphokinase (CPK), acanthocytosis and haemolysis in the absence of Kell RBC antigens with an additional Factor IX-deficiency. Genetic testing for mutations in the three exons of the XK gene revealed a previously unreported hemizygous single base-pair frameshift deletion at exon 1 (c.229delC, p.Leu80fs). In conclusion, we hereby describe a rare phenotype of a patient with McLeod syndrome which was discovered coincidentally during routine blood group testing and consecutively genetically confirmed. PMID:24529944

Wiethoff, Sarah; Xiromerisiou, Georgia; Bettencourt, Conceicao; Kioumi, Anna; Tsiptsios, Iakovos; Tychalas, Athanasios; Evaggelia, Markousi; George, Kaltsounis; Makris, Vasileios; Hardy, John; Houlden, Henry

2014-01-01

274

The subtelomeric region is important for chromosome recognition and pairing during meiosis  

PubMed Central

The process of meiosis results in the formation of haploid daughter cells, each of which inherit a half of the diploid parental cells' genetic material. The ordered association of homologues (identical chromosomes) is a critical prerequisite for a successful outcome of meiosis. Homologue recognition and pairing are initiated at the chromosome ends, which comprise the telomere dominated by generic repetitive sequences, and the adjacent subtelomeric region, which harbours chromosome-specific sequences. In many organisms telomeres are responsible for bringing the ends of the chromosomes close together during early meiosis, but little is known regarding the role of the subtelomeric region sequence during meiosis. Here, the observation of homologue pairing between a pair of Hordeum chilense chromosomes lacking the subtelomeric region on one chromosome arm indicates that the subtelomeric region is important for the process of homologous chromosome recognition and pairing. PMID:25270583

Calderon, Maria del Carmen; Rey, Maria-Dolores; Cabrera, Adoracion; Prieto, Pilar

2014-01-01

275

Currarino Syndrome and HPE Microform Associated with a 2.7-Mb Deletion in 7q36.3 Excluding SHH Gene  

PubMed Central

Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is the most common forebrain defect in humans. It results from incomplete midline cleavage of the prosencephalon and can be caused by environmental and genetic factors. HPE is usually described as a continuum of brain malformations from the most severe alobar HPE to the middle interhemispheric fusion variant or syntelencephaly. A microform of HPE is limited to craniofacial features such as congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis and single central maxillary incisor, without brain malformation. Among the heterogeneous causes of HPE, point mutations and deletions in the SHH gene at 7q36 have been identified as well as extremely rare chromosomal rearrangements in the long-range enhancers of this gene. Here, we report a boy with an HPE microform associated with a Currarino syndrome. Array CGH detected a de novo 2.7-Mb deletion in the 7q36.3 region including the MNX1 gene, usually responsible for the Currarino triad but excluding SHH, which is just outside the deletion. This new case provides further evidence of the importance of the SHH long-range enhancers in the HPE spectrum. PMID:24550762

Coutton, C.; Poreau, B.; Devillard, F.; Durand, C.; Odent, S.; Rozel, C.; Vieville, G.; Amblard, F.; Jouk, P.-S.; Satre, V.

2014-01-01

276

Deletion of human GP1BB and SEPT5 is associated with Bernard-Soulier syndrome, platelet secretion defect, polymicrogyria, and developmental delay.  

PubMed

The bleeding disorder Bernard-Soulier syndrome (BSS) is caused by mutations in the genes coding for the platelet glycoprotein GPIb/IX receptor. The septin SEPT5 is important for active membrane movement such as vesicle trafficking and exocytosis in non-dividing cells (i.e. platelets, neurons). We report on a four-year-old boy with a homozygous deletion comprising not only glycoprotein Ib? (GP1BB) but also the SEPT5 gene, located 5' to GP1BB. He presented with BSS, cortical dysplasia (polymicrogyria), developmental delay, and platelet secretion defect. The homozygous deletion of GP1BB and SEPT5, which had been identified by PCR analyses, was confirmed by Southern analyses and denaturing HPLC (DHPLC). The parents were heterozygous for this deletion. Absence of GPIb? and SEPT5 proteins in the patient's platelets was illustrated using transmission electron microscopy. Besides decreased GPIb/IX expression, flow cytometry analyses revealed impaired platelet granule secretion. Because the bleeding disorder was extremely severe, the boy received bone marrow transplantation (BMT) from a HLA-identical unrelated donor. After successful engraftment of BMT, he had no more bleeding episodes. Interestingly, also his mental development improved strikingly after BMT. This report describes for the first time a patient with SEPT5 deficiency presenting with cortical dysplasia (polymicrogyria), developmental delay, and platelet secretion defect. PMID:21800012

Bartsch, Ingrid; Sandrock, Kirstin; Lanza, Francois; Nurden, Paquita; Hainmann, Ina; Pavlova, Anna; Greinacher, Andreas; Tacke, Uta; Barth, Michael; Busse, Anja; Oldenburg, Johannes; Bommer, Martin; Strahm, Brigitte; Superti-Furga, Andrea; Zieger, Barbara

2011-09-01

277

A familial Cri-du-Chat/5p deletion syndrome resulted from rare maternal complex chromosomal rearrangements (CCRs) and/or possible chromosome 5p chromothripsis.  

PubMed

Cri-du-Chat syndrome (MIM 123450) is a chromosomal syndrome characterized by the characteristic features, including cat-like cry and chromosome 5p deletions. We report a family with five individuals showing chromosomal rearrangements involving 5p, resulting from rare maternal complex chromosomal rearrangements (CCRs), diagnosed post- and pre-natally by comprehensive molecular and cytogenetic analyses. Two probands, including a 4½-year-old brother and his 2½-year- old sister, showed no diagnostic cat cry during infancy, but presented with developmental delay, dysmorphic and autistic features. Both patients had an interstitial deletion del(5)(p13.3p15.33) spanning ? 26.22 Mb. The phenotypically normal mother had de novo CCRs involving 11 breakpoints and three chromosomes: ins(11;5) (q23;p14.1p15.31),ins(21;5)(q21;p13.3p14.1),ins(21;5)(q21;p15.31p15.33),inv(7)(p22q32)dn. In addition to these two children, she had three first-trimester miscarriages, two terminations due to the identification of the 5p deletion and one delivery of a phenotypically normal daughter. The unaffected daughter had the maternal ins(11;5) identified prenatally and an identical maternal allele haplotype of 5p. Array CGH did not detect any copy number changes in the mother, and revealed three interstitial deletions within 5p15.33-p13.3, in the unaffected daughter, likely products of the maternal insertions ins(21;5). Chromothripsis has been recently reported as a mechanism drives germline CCRs in pediatric patients with congenital defects. We postulate that the unique CCRs in the phenotypically normal mother could resulted from chromosome 5p chromothripsis, that further resulted in the interstitial 5p deletions in the unaffected daughter. Further high resolution sequencing based analysis is needed to determine whether chromothripsis is also present as a germline structural variation in phenotypically normal individuals in this family. PMID:24143197

Gu, Heng; Jiang, Jian-hui; Li, Jian-ying; Zhang, Ya-nan; Dong, Xing-sheng; Huang, Yang-yu; Son, Xin-ming; Lu, Xinyan; Chen, Zheng

2013-01-01

278

A Familial Cri-du-Chat/5p Deletion Syndrome Resulted from Rare Maternal Complex Chromosomal Rearrangements (CCRs) and/or Possible Chromosome 5p Chromothripsis  

PubMed Central

Cri-du-Chat syndrome (MIM 123450) is a chromosomal syndrome characterized by the characteristic features, including cat-like cry and chromosome 5p deletions. We report a family with five individuals showing chromosomal rearrangements involving 5p, resulting from rare maternal complex chromosomal rearrangements (CCRs), diagnosed post- and pre-natally by comprehensive molecular and cytogenetic analyses. Two probands, including a 4½-year-old brother and his 2½-year- old sister, showed no diagnostic cat cry during infancy, but presented with developmental delay, dysmorphic and autistic features. Both patients had an interstitial deletion del(5)(p13.3p15.33) spanning ?26.22 Mb. The phenotypically normal mother had de novo CCRs involving 11 breakpoints and three chromosomes: ins(11;5) (q23;p14.1p15.31),ins(21;5)(q21;p13.3p14.1),ins(21;5)(q21;p15.31p15.33),inv(7)(p22q32)dn. In addition to these two children, she had three first-trimester miscarriages, two terminations due to the identification of the 5p deletion and one delivery of a phenotypically normal daughter. The unaffected daughter had the maternal ins(11;5) identified prenatally and an identical maternal allele haplotype of 5p. Array CGH did not detect any copy number changes in the mother, and revealed three interstitial deletions within 5p15.33-p13.3, in the unaffected daughter, likely products of the maternal insertions ins(21;5). Chromothripsis has been recently reported as a mechanism drives germline CCRs in pediatric patients with congenital defects. We postulate that the unique CCRs in the phenotypically normal mother could resulted from chromosome 5p chromothripsis, that further resulted in the interstitial 5p deletions in the unaffected daughter. Further high resolution sequencing based analysis is needed to determine whether chromothripsis is also present as a germline structural variation in phenotypically normal individuals in this family. PMID:24143197

Zhang, Ya-nan; Dong, Xing-sheng; Huang, Yang-yu; Son, Xin-ming; Lu, Xinyan; Chen, Zheng

2013-01-01

279

The Evolutionary Origin of Human Subtelomeric Homologies--or Where the Ends Begin  

PubMed Central

The subtelomeric regions of human chromosomes are comprised of sequence homologies shared between distinct subsets of chromosomes. In the course of developing a set of unique human telomere clones, we identified many clones containing such shared homologies, characterized by the presence of cross-hybridization signals on one or more telomeres in a fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay. We studied the evolutionary origin of seven subtelomeric clones by performing comparative FISH analysis on a primate panel that included great apes and Old World monkeys. All clones tested showed a single hybridization site in Old World monkeys that corresponded to one of the orthologous human sites, thus indicating the ancestral origin. The timing of the duplication events varied among the subtelomeric regions, from ?5 to ?25 million years ago. To examine the origin of and mechanism for one of these subtelomeric duplications, we compared the sequence derived from human 2q13—an ancestral fusion site of two great ape telomeric regions—with its paralogous subtelomeric sequences at 9p and 22q. These paralogous regions share large continuous homologies and contain three genes: RABL2B, forkhead box D4, and COBW-like. Our results provide further evidence for subtelomeric-mediated genomic duplication and demonstrate that these segmental duplications are most likely the result of ancestral unbalanced translocations that have been fixed in the genome during recent primate evolution. PMID:11875757

Martin, Christa Lese; Wong, Andrew; Gross, Alyssa; Chung, June; Fantes, Judy A.; Ledbetter, David H.

2002-01-01

280

Contribution of congenital heart disease to neuropsychiatric outcome in school-age children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.  

PubMed

Children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) present with congenital heart disease (CHD) and high prevalence of psychiatric disorders and neurocognitive deficits. Although CHD has been implicated in neurodevelopment, its role in the neuropsychiatric outcome in 22q11DS is poorly understood. We investigated whether CHD contributes to the high prevalence of psychiatric disorders and neurocognitive impairments in 22q11DS. Fifty-four children ages 8-14 years with 22q11DS and 16 age-matched non-deleted children with CHD participated. They were assessed using semi-structured interviews and a Computerized Neurocognitive Battery. CHD status was assessed using available medical records. Prevalence of psychiatric disorders and cognitive profiles were compared among the groups. There were no significant differences between the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the 22q11DS with and without CHD. In 22q11DS with CHD, the prevalence rates were 41% anxiety disorders, 37% ADHD and 71% psychosis spectrum. In 22q11DS without CHD, the rates were 33% anxiety disorders, 41% ADHD and 64% psychosis spectrum. In comparison, the non-deleted CHD group had lower rates of psychopathology (25% anxiety disorders, 6% ADHD, and 13% psychosis spectrum). Similarly, the 22q11DS groups, regardless of CHD status, had significantly greater neurocognitive deficits across multiple domains, compared to the CHD-only group. We conclude that CHD in this sample of children with 22q11.2DS does not have a major impact on the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and is not associated with increased neurocognitive deficits. These findings suggest that the 22q11.2 deletion status itself may confer significant neuropsychiatric vulnerability in this population. PMID:24265253

Yi, James J; Tang, Sunny X; McDonald-McGinn, Donna M; Calkins, Monica E; Whinna, Daneen A; Souders, Margaret C; Zackai, Elaine H; Goldmuntz, Elizabeth; Gaynor, James W; Gur, Ruben C; Emanuel, Beverly S; Gur, Raquel E

2014-03-01

281

Contribution of Congenital Heart Disease to Neuropsychiatric Outcome in School-Age Children with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) present with congenital heart disease (CHD) and high prevalence of psychiatric disorders and neurocognitive deficits. Although CHD has been implicated in neurodevelopment, its role in the neuropsychiatric outcome in 22q11DS is poorly understood. We investigated whether CHD contributes to the high prevalence of psychiatric disorders and neurocognitive impairments in 22q11DS. Fifty-four children ages 8–14 years with 22q11DS and 16 age-matched non-deleted children with CHD participated. They were assessed using semi-structured interviews and a Computerized Neurocognitive Battery. CHD status was assessed using available medical records. Prevalence of psychiatric disorders and cognitive profiles were compared among the groups. There were no significant differences between the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the 22q11DS with and without CHD. In 22q11DS with CHD, the prevalence rates were 41% anxiety disorders, 37% ADHD and 71% psychosis spectrum. In 22q11DS without CHD, the rates were 33% anxiety disorders, 41% ADHD and 64% psychosis spectrum. In comparison, the non-deleted CHD group had lower rates of psychopathology (25% anxiety disorders, 6% ADHD, and 13% psychosis spectrum). Similarly, the 22q11DS groups, regardless of CHD status, had significantly greater neurocognitive deficits across multiple domains, compared to the CHD-only group. We conclude that CHD in this sample of children with 22q11.2DS does not have a major impact on the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and is not associated with increased neurocognitive deficits. These findings suggest that the 22q11.2 deletion status itself may confer significant neuropsychiatric vulnerability in this population. PMID:24265253

Yi, James J.; Tang, Sunny X.; McDonald-McGinn, Donna M.; Calkins, Monica E.; Whinna, Daneen A.; Souders, Margaret C.; Zackai, Elaine H.; Goldmuntz, Elizabeth; Gaynor, James W.; Gur, Ruben C.; Emanuel, Beverly S.; Gur, Raquel E.

2014-01-01

282

TBX1 Mutation Identified by Exome Sequencing in a Japanese Family with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome-Like Craniofacial Features and Hypocalcemia  

PubMed Central

Background Although TBX1 mutations have been identified in patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS)-like phenotypes including characteristic craniofacial features, cardiovascular anomalies, hypoparathyroidism, and thymic hypoplasia, the frequency of TBX1 mutations remains rare in deletion-negative patients. Thus, it would be reasonable to perform a comprehensive genetic analysis in deletion-negative patients with 22q11.2DS-like phenotypes. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied three subjects with craniofacial features and hypocalcemia (group 1), two subjects with craniofacial features alone (group 2), and three subjects with normal phenotype within a single Japanese family. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis excluded chromosome 22q11.2 deletion, and genomewide array comparative genomic hybridization analysis revealed no copy number change specific to group 1 or groups 1+2. However, exome sequencing identified a heterozygous TBX1 frameshift mutation (c.1253delA, p.Y418fsX459) specific to groups 1+2, as well as six missense variants and two in-frame microdeletions specific to groups 1+2 and two missense variants specific to group 1. The TBX1 mutation resided at exon 9C and was predicted to produce a non-functional truncated protein missing the nuclear localization signal and most of the transactivation domain. Conclusions/Significance Clinical features in groups 1+2 are well explained by the TBX1 mutation, while the clinical effects of the remaining variants are largely unknown. Thus, the results exemplify the usefulness of exome sequencing in the identification of disease-causing mutations in familial disorders. Furthermore, the results, in conjunction with the previous data, imply that TBX1 isoform C is the biologically essential variant and that TBX1 mutations are associated with a wide phenotypic spectrum, including most of 22q11.2DS phenotypes. PMID:24637876

Kawai, Masahiko; Nagashima, Takeshi; Funayama, Ryo; Nakayama, Keiko; Nakashima, Shinichi; Kato, Fumiko; Fukami, Maki; Aoki, Yoko; Matsubara, Yoichi

2014-01-01

283

A Mouse Single-Copy Gene, Gtf2i,the Homolog of Human GTF2I,That Is Duplicated in the Williams–Beuren Syndrome Deletion Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have cloned and characterizedGtf2i,the mouse homolog of humanGTF2I(general transcription factor II-I), which encodes BAP-135, a target for Bruton's tyrosine kinase.GTF2Irepresents the telomeric and functional copy of a duplicated gene flanking the 2-Mb Williams–Beuren syndrome (WBS) common deletion at 7q11.23.GTF2Iis deleted in WBS, while a truncated centromeric pseudogene (GTF2IP1) is not deleted. In mouse, there appears to be only a

Yu-Ker Wang; Luis A. Pérez-Jurado; Uta Francke

1998-01-01

284

Frontonasal dysplasia, callosal agenesis, basal encephalocele, and eye anomalies syndrome with a partial 21q22.3 deletion.  

PubMed

We describe a girl with a phenotype characterized by frontonasal dysplasia, callosal agenesis, basal encephalocele, and eye anomalies who presents a 46,XX,r(21) karyotype. Array-comparative genomic hybridization using the Afflymetrix 100K DNA oligoarray set showed an interstitial deletion 21q22.3 of approximately 219 kb. Conventional karyotype of both parents was normal, and it was not possible to perform the molecular studies. In this report we raise the hypothesis that the deleted genes located at 21q22.3 could account to the phenotype. PMID:22628242

Guion-Almeida, Maria Leine; Richieri-Costa, Antonio; Jehee, Fernanda Sarquis; Passos-Bueno, Maria Rita Santos; Zechi-Ceide, Roseli Maria

2012-07-01

285

A syndromic form of Pierre Robin sequence is caused by 5q23 deletions encompassing FBN2 and PHAX.  

PubMed

Pierre Robin sequence (PRS) is an aetiologically distinct subgroup of cleft palate. We aimed to define the critical genomic interval from five different 5q22-5q31 deletions associated with PRS or PRS-associated features and assess each gene within the region as a candidate for the PRS component of the phenotype. Clinical array-based comparative genome hybridisation (aCGH) data were used to define a 2.08 Mb minimum region of overlap among four de novo deletions and one mother-son inherited deletion associated with at least one component of PRS. Commonly associated anomalies were talipes equinovarus (TEV), finger contractures and crumpled ear helices. Expression analysis of the orthologous genes within the PRS critical region in embryonic mice showed that the strongest candidate genes were FBN2 and PHAX. Targeted aCGH of the critical region and sequencing of these genes in a cohort of 25 PRS patients revealed no plausible disease-causing mutations. In conclusion, deletion of ?2 Mb on 5q23 region causes a clinically recognisable subtype of PRS. Haploinsufficiency for FBN2 accounts for the digital and auricular features. A possible critical region for TEV is distinct and telomeric to the PRS region. The molecular basis of PRS in these cases remains undetermined but haploinsufficiency for PHAX is a plausible mechanism. PMID:25195018

Ansari, Morad; Rainger, Jacqueline K; Murray, Jennie E; Hanson, Isabel; Firth, Helen V; Mehendale, Felicity; Amiel, Jeanne; Gordon, Christopher T; Percesepe, Antonio; Mazzanti, Laura; Fryer, Alan; Ferrari, Paola; Devriendt, Koenraad; Temple, I Karen; FitzPatrick, David R

2014-10-01

286

Familial co-segregation of Coffin-Lowry syndrome inherited from the mother and autosomal dominant Waardenburg type IV syndrome due to deletion of EDNRB inherited from the father.  

PubMed

We report an African-American family that was identified after the proposita was referred for diagnostic evaluation at 4½ months with a history of Hirschsprung and dysmorphic features typical of Waardenburg syndrome (WS). Family evaluation revealed that the father had heterochromidia irides and hypertelorism supporting the clinical diagnosis of WS; however, examination of the mother revealed characteristic facial and digital features of Coffin-Lowry syndrome (CLS). Molecular testing of the mother identified a novel 2 bp deletion (c.865_866delCA) in codon 289 of RPS6KA3 leading to a frame-shift and premature termination of translation 5 codons downstream (NM_004586.2:p.Gln289ValfsX5). This deletion also was identified in the proposita and her three sisters with a clinical suspicion of CLS, all of whom as carriers for this X-linked disorder had very subtle manifestations. The molecular confirmation of WS type 4 (Shah-Waardenburg; WS4) was not as straightforward. To evaluate WS types 1-4, multiple sequential molecular tests were requested, including Sanger sequencing of all exons, and deletion/duplication analysis using MLPA for PAX3, MITF, SOX10, EDN3 and EDNRB. Although sequencing did not identify any disease causing variants, MLPA identified a heterozygous deletion of the entire EDNRB in the father. This deletion was also found in the proposita and the oldest child. Since the heterozygous deletion was the only change identified in EDNRB, this family represents one of the few cases of an autosomal dominant inheritance of WS4 involving the endothelin pathway. Altogether, clinical evaluation of the family revealed one child to be positive for WS4 and two positive for CLS, while two children were positive for both diseases simultaneously (including the proposita) while another pair test negative for either disease. This kinship is an example of the coincidence of two conditions co-segregating in one family, with variable phenotypes requiring molecular testing to confirm the clinical diagnoses. PMID:25118007

Loupe, Jacob; Sampath, Srirangan; Lacassie, Yves

2014-10-01

287

Tis7 deletion reduces survival and induces intestinal anastomotic inflammation and obstruction in high-fat diet-fed mice with short bowel syndrome.  

PubMed

Effective therapies are limited for patients with parenteral nutrition-dependent short bowel syndrome. We previously showed that intestinal expression of the transcriptional coregulator tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate-induced sequence 7 (tis7) is markedly increased during the adaptive response following massive small bowel resection and tis7 plays a role in normal gut lipid metabolism. Here, we further explore the functional implications of tis7 deletion in intestinal lipid metabolism and the adaptive response following small bowel resection. Intestinal tis7 transgenic (tis7(tg)), tis7(-/-), and wild-type (WT) littermates were subjected to 50% small bowel resection. Mice were fed a control or a high-saturated-fat (42% energy) diet for 21 days. Survival, body weight recovery, lipid absorption, mucosal lipid analysis, and the morphometric adaptive response were analyzed. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to identify tis7 downstream gene targets. Postresection survival was markedly reduced in high-fat, but not control, diet-fed tis7(-/-) mice. Decreased survival was associated with anastomotic inflammation and intestinal obstruction postresection. High-fat, but not control, diet-fed tis7(-/-) mice had increased intestinal IL-6 expression. Intestinal lipid trafficking was altered in tis7(-/-) compared with WT mice postresection. In contrast, high-fat diet-fed tis7(tg) mice had improved survival postresection compared with WT littermates. High-fat diet feeding in the setting of tis7 deletion resulted in postresection anastomotic inflammation and small bowel obstruction. Tolerance of a calorie-rich, high-fat diet postresection may require tis7 and its target genes. The presence of luminal fat in the setting of tis7 deletion promotes an intestinal inflammatory response postresection. PMID:25059825

Garcia, Amy M; Wakeman, Derek; Lu, Jianyun; Rowley, Christopher; Geisman, Taylor; Butler, Catherine; Bala, Shashi; Swietlicki, Elzbieta A; Warner, Brad W; Levin, Marc S; Rubin, Deborah C

2014-09-15

288

Discrepancies in Parent and Teacher Ratings of Social-Behavioral Functioning of Children with Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: Implications for Assessment  

PubMed Central

Children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome exhibit high rates of social-behavioral problems, creating an area in need of intervention. This study obtained parent and teacher ratings on the CBCL/TRF of 67 children with 22q11DS and 57 controls. Results indicated significant differences in social-behavioral functioning of children with 22q11DS compared to controls, depending on rater type. Parents reported greater internalizing, withdrawal, and social problems in children with 22q11DS while teachers perceived few differences between groups. Correlational analyses indicated weak concordance between parent and teacher reports, with no significant correlations on three summary scales. The findings support the use of multiple informants when evaluating the social-behavioral functioning of children with 22q11DS, and suggest that interpretations based on one informant/setting should be made cautiously. PMID:24245728

Wray, E; Shashi, V; Schoch, K; Curtiss, K; Hooper, SR

2014-01-01

289

Association between autism spectrum disorder in individuals with velocardiofacial (22q11.2 deletion) syndrome and PRODH and COMT genotypes.  

PubMed

Velocardiofacial (VCFS; 22q11.2 deletion) syndrome is a genetic disorder that results from a hemizygous deletion of the q11.2 region on chromosome 22, and is associated with greatly increased risk for psychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia. There is emerging evidence for the involvement of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and proline dehydrogenase (oxidase) 1 (PRODH) in the psychiatric phenotype of individuals with VCFS. Here, we tested the hypothesis that PRODH and COMT are associated with ASD in youths with VCFS. We found that individuals with VCFS and the low-activity alleles of both PRODH and COMT (rs4819756A and rs4680A) were more likely to present with ASD as compared with individuals with VCFS and the high-activity alleles of these genes [P<0.05; odds ratio=6.0 (95% confidence interval=1.27-28.26; N=87)]. Our results suggest that PRODH and COMT may interact to contribute to the ASD phenotype in individuals with VCFS. PMID:25325218

Radoeva, Petya D; Coman, Ioana L; Salazar, Cynthia A; Gentile, Karen L; Higgins, Anne Marie; Middleton, Frank A; Antshel, Kevin M; Fremont, Wanda; Shprintzen, Robert J; Morrow, Bernice E; Kates, Wendy R

2014-12-01

290

DHFR 19-bp Deletion and SHMT C1420T Polymorphisms and Metabolite Concentrations of the Folate Pathway in Individuals with Down Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background: Down syndrome (DS) results from the presence and expression of three copies of the genes located on chromosome 21. Studies have shown that, in addition to overexpression of the Cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS) gene, polymorphisms in genes involved in folate/homocysteine (Hcy) metabolism may also influence the concentrations of metabolites of this pathway. Aim: Investigate the association between Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) 19-base pair (bp) deletion and Serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT) C1420T polymorphisms and serum folate and plasma Hcy and methylmalonic acid (MMA) concentrations in 85 individuals with DS. Methods: Molecular analysis of the DHFR 19-bp deletion and SHMT C1420T polymorphisms was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) by difference in the size of fragments and real-time PCR allelic discrimination, respectively. Serum folate was quantified by chemiluminescence and plasma Hcy and MMA by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Results: Individuals with DHFR DD/SHMT TT genotypes presented increased folate concentrations (p=0.004) and the DHFR II/SHMT TT genotypes were associated with increased MMA concentrations (p=0.008). In addition, the MMA concentrations were negatively associated with age (p=0.04). Conclusion: There is an association between DHFR DD/SHMT TT and DHFR II/SHMT TT combined genotypes and folate and MMA concentrations in individuals with DS. PMID:23421317

Mendes, Cristiani Cortez; Raimundo, Aline Maria Zanchetta de Aquino; Oliveira, Luciana Dutra; Zampieri, Bruna Lancia; Marucci, Gustavo Henrique; Biselli, Joice Matos; Goloni-Bertollo, Eny Maria; Eberlin, Marcos Nogueira; Haddad, Renato; Riccio, Maria Francesca; Vannucchi, Helio; Carvalho, Valdemir Melechco

2013-01-01

291

Familial cases of a submicroscopic Xp22.2 deletion: genotype-phenotype correlation in microphthalmia with linear skin defects syndrome  

PubMed Central

Purpose Microphthalmia with linear skin defects syndrome (MLS or MIDAS, OMIM #309801) is a rare X-linked male-lethal disorder characterized by microphthalmia or other ocular anomalies and skin lesions limited to the face and neck. However, inter- and intrafamilial variability is high. Here we report a familial case of MLS. Methods A mother and daughter with MLS underwent a complete ophthalmological examination, and extensive imaging, including anterior segment pictures, corneal topography and keratometry, autofluorescence, infrared reflectance and red free images, as well as spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. The mother also underwent full-field flash electroretinography. In addition, high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization analysis was performed in both as well as in the maternal grandparents of the proband. Results Microphthalmia and retinal abnormalities were noted in the proband and the mother, whereas only the mother presented with scars of the typical neonatal linear skin defects. Array comparative genomic hybridization analysis revealed a 185–220 kb deletion on chromosome band Xp22.2 including the entire HCCS gene. Conclusions The identification of a deletion including HCCS led to the diagnosis of MLS in these patients. Retinal abnormalities can be part of the ocular manifestations of MLS. PMID:23401659

Vergult, Sarah; Leroy, Bart; Claerhout, Ilse

2013-01-01

292

Chromosomal deletion 4p15.32----p14 in a Treacher Collins syndrome patient: exclusion of the disease locus from and mapping of anonymous DNA sequences to this region.  

PubMed

Treacher Collins syndrome is an autosomal dominant condition of bilateral craniofacial abnormalities of structures derived from the first and second branchial arches. A patient with severe manifestations of Treacher Collins syndrome and a de novo chromosomal deletion in region 4p15.32----p14 was identified. Anonymous DNA sequences of loci D4S18, D4S19, D4S20, D4S22, and D4S23 were mapped to the deleted region. DNA probes previously mapped to loci on chromosome 4p (D4S10, D4S15, D4S16, D4S26, D4S35, D4S95, D4S144, RAF1P1, QDPR, and HOX7) were not deleted in this patient. Linkage analysis between the D4S18, D4S23, and QDPR loci and Treacher Collins syndrome in eight families excluded the Treacher Collins syndrome locus from the region of the deletion. PMID:1684950

Jabs, E W; Coss, C A; Hayflick, S J; Whitmore, T E; Pauli, R M; Kirkpatrick, S J; Meyers, D A; Goldberg, R; Day, D W; Rosenbaum, K N

1991-09-01

293

De novo 10q22 interstitial deletion  

PubMed Central

We describe a 4 month old male with a de novo interstitial deletion of chromosome 10q22. His clinical features included growth deficiency, developmental delay, ocular hypertelorism, posteriorly rotated ears, retrognathia, and fifth finger clinodactyly. He later developed dental lamina cysts of the alveolar ridge. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an interstitial deletion of 10q22. ???Keywords: chromosome 10; interstitial deletion; deletion 10q; multiple congenital anomaly (MCA) syndrome PMID:9950372

Cook, L.; Weaver, D.; Hartsfield, J.; Vance, G.

1999-01-01

294

Study of two patients with craniosynostosis and deletions of 11q: One with features of Saethre-Chotzen syndrome and the other with concomitant partial trisomy 4q  

SciTech Connect

Partial monosomy 11q is associated with metopic craniosynostosis and trigonocephaly. Prominant features in the over 30 reported cases include downslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthal folds, hypertelorism, ptosis, wide/depressed nasal bridge, low set malformed ears, downturned mouth, micro/retrognathia, digital and cardiac anomalies and psychomotor retardation. We evaluated two patients referred for abnormal head shape. The first carried a diagnosis of Saethre-Chotzen syndrome due to brachycephaly, facial asymmetry, ptosis, cupped ears, sundactyly of 2nd and 3rd digits, developmental delay, and VSD. Karyotype revealed 46,XY,del(11)(q24.1{yields}qter). No abnormality was noted of chromosome 7p, where the Saethre-Chotzen syndrome locus has been mapped. This suggests genetic heterogeneity for this condition. The second patient had no prior diagnosis. He had trigonocephaly, bilateral cryptorchidism and inguinal hernias. He also had hypotelorism, epicanthal folds, synophrys, posteriorly rotated ears, horizontal crease below his lower lip, unilateral single palmar crease, mild soft tissue syndactyly and a shawl scrotum. His karyotype of 46,XY,-11,+der(11)t(4;11)(q31.3;q25) revealed both partial 11q monosomy and partial 4q trisomy (the latter associated with cryptorchidism, horizontal chin crease and single palmar crease). Deletions of 11q appear to produce a wide spectrum of defects, which may even mimic other known craniosynostotic conditions. Study of these patients may lead to the identification of new genes involved in craniofacial morphogenesis.

Morsey, S. [Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)]|[Kennedy-Krieger Institute, Baltimore, MD (United States); Lewanda, A.F. [Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)]|[Children`s National Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States); Reid, C.S. [Cooper Hospitsl/Univ. Medical Center, Camden, NJ (United States)

1994-09-01

295

Imprinted expression of UBE3A in non-neuronal cells from a Prader-Willi syndrome patient with an atypical deletion.  

PubMed

Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and Angelman syndrome (AS) are two neurodevelopmental disorders most often caused by deletions of the same region of paternally inherited and maternally inherited human chromosome 15q, respectively. AS is a single gene disorder, caused by the loss of function of the ubiquitin ligase E3A (UBE3A) gene, while PWS is still considered a contiguous gene disorder. Rare individuals with PWS who carry atypical microdeletions on chromosome 15q have narrowed the critical region for this disorder to a 108 kb region that includes the SNORD116 snoRNA cluster and the Imprinted in Prader-Willi (IPW) non-coding RNA. Here we report the derivation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from a PWS patient with an atypical microdeletion that spans the PWS critical region. We show that these iPSCs express brain-specific portions of the transcripts driven by the PWS imprinting center, including the UBE3A antisense transcript (UBE3A-ATS). Furthermore, UBE3A expression is imprinted in most of these iPSCs. These data suggest that UBE3A imprinting in neurons only requires UBE3A-ATS expression, and no other neuron-specific factors. These data also suggest that a boundary element lying within the PWS critical region prevents UBE3A-ATS expression in non-neural tissues. PMID:24363065

Martins-Taylor, Kristen; Hsiao, Jack S; Chen, Pin-Fang; Glatt-Deeley, Heather; De Smith, Adam J; Blakemore, Alexandra I F; Lalande, Marc; Chamberlain, Stormy J

2014-05-01

296

Association between insertion/deletion polymorphism in angiotensin-converting enzyme gene and acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome: a meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background A previous meta-analysis reported a positive association between an insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism in the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene (ACE) and the risk of acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Here, we updated this meta-analysis and additionally assessed the association of this polymorphism with ALI/ARDS mortality. Methods We searched electronic databases through October 2011 for the terms “angiotensin-converting enzyme gene”, “acute lung injury”, and “acute respiratory distress syndrome,” and reviewed all studies that reported the relationship of the I/D polymorphism in ACE with ALI/ARDS in humans. Seven studies met the inclusion criteria, comprising 532 ALI/ARDS patients, 3032 healthy controls, and 1432 patients without ALI/ARDS. We used three genetic models: the allele, dominant, and recessive models. Results The ACE I/D polymorphism was not associated with susceptibility to ALI/ARDS for any genetic model. However, the ACE I/D polymorphism was associated with the mortality risk of ALI/ARDS in Asian subjects ( Pallele?

2012-01-01

297

Amelioration of the typical cognitive phenotype in a patient with the 5pter deletion associated with Cri-du-chat syndrome in addition to a partial duplication of CTNND2.  

PubMed

Cri-du-chat is a rare congenital syndrome characterized by intellectual disability, severe speech/developmental delay, dysmorphic features, and additional syndromic findings. The etiology of this disorder is well known, and is attributed to a large deletion on chromosome 5 that typically ranges from band 5p15.2 to the short arm terminus. This region contains CTNND2, a gene encoding a neuronal-specific protein, delta-catenin, which plays a critical role in cellular motility and brain function. The exact involvement of CTNND2 in the cognitive functionality of individuals with Cri-du-chat has not been fully deciphered, but it is thought to be significant. This report describes an 8-year-old African-American female with a complex chromosome 5 abnormality and a relatively mild case of cri-du-chat syndrome. Because of the surprisingly mild cognitive phenotype, although a karyotype had confirmed the 5p deletion at birth, an oligo-SNP microarray was obtained to further characterize her deletion. The array revealed a complex rearrangement, including a breakpoint in the middle of CTNND2, which resulted in a partial deletion and partial duplication of that gene. The array also verified the expected 5p terminal deletion. Although the patient has a significant deletion in CTNND2, half of the gene (including the promoter region) is not only preserved, but is duplicated. The patient's milder cognitive and behavioral presentation, in conjunction with her atypical 5p alteration, provides additional evidence for the role of CTNND2 in the cognitive phenotype of individuals with Cri-du-chat. PMID:24677774

Sardina, Jennifer M; Walters, Allyson R; Singh, Kathryn E; Owen, Renius X; Kimonis, Virginia E

2014-07-01

298

Clinical and genetic characterization of chanarin-dorfman syndrome patients: first report of large deletions in the ABHD5 gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Chanarin-Dorfman syndrome (CDS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by nonbullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma (NCIE) and an intracellular accumulation of triacylglycerol (TG) droplets in most tissues. The clinical phenotype involves multiple organs and systems, including liver, eyes, ears, skeletal muscle and central nervous system (CNS). Mutations in ABHD5\\/CGI58 gene are associated with CDS. METHODS: Eight CDS patients belonging

Chiara Redaelli; Rosalind A Coleman; Laura Moro; Catherine Dacou-Voutetakis; Solaf Mohamed Elsayed; Daniele Prati; Agostino Colli; Donatella Mela; Roberto Colombo; Daniela Tavian

2010-01-01

299

Central 22q11.2 deletions.  

PubMed

22q11.2 deletion syndrome is one of the most common microdeletion syndromes. Most patients have a deletion resulting from a recombination of low copy repeat blocks LCR22-A and LCR22-D. Loss of the TBX1 gene is considered the most important cause of the phenotype. A limited number of patients with smaller, overlapping deletions distal to the TBX1 locus have been described in the literature. In these patients, the CRKL gene is deleted. Haploinsufficiency of this gene has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. To distinguish these deletions (comprising the LCR22-B to LCR22-D region) from the more distal 22q11.2 deletions (located beyond LCR22-D), we propose the term "central 22q11.2 deletions". In the present study we report on 27 new patients with such a deletion. Together with information on previously published cases, we review the clinical findings of 52 patients. The prevalence of congenital heart anomalies and the frequency of de novo deletions in patients with a central deletion are substantially lower than in patients with a common or distal 22q11.2 deletion. Renal and urinary tract malformations, developmental delays, cognitive impairments and behavioral problems seem to be equally frequent as in patients with a common deletion. None of the patients had a cleft palate. Patients with a deletion that also encompassed the MAPK1 gene, located just distal to LCR22-D, have a different and more severe phenotype, characterized by a higher prevalence of congenital heart anomalies, growth restriction and microcephaly. Our results further elucidate genotype-phenotype correlations in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome spectrum. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25123976

Rump, Patrick; de Leeuw, Nicole; van Essen, Anthonie J; Verschuuren-Bemelmans, Corien C; Veenstra-Knol, Hermine E; Swinkels, Mariëlle E M; Oostdijk, Wilma; Ruivenkamp, Claudia; Reardon, Willie; de Munnik, Sonja; Ruiter, Mariken; Frumkin, Ayala; Lev, Dorit; Evers, Christina; Sikkema-Raddatz, Birgit; Dijkhuizen, Trijnie; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Conny M

2014-11-01

300

Parental somatic and germ-line mosaicism for a multiexon deletion with unusual endpoints in a type III collagen (COL3Al) allele produces ehlers-danlos syndrome type IV in the heterozygous offspring  

SciTech Connect

Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) type IV is a dominantly inherited disorder that results from mutation in the type III collagen gene (COL3A1). The authors studied the structure of the COL3A1 gene of an individual with EDS type IV and that of her phenotypically normal parents. The proband was heterozygous for a 2-kb deletion in COL3A1, while her father was mosaic for the same deletion in somatic and germ cells. In fibroblasts from the father, approximately two-fifths of the COL3A1 alleles carried the deletion, but only 10% of the COL3A1 alleles in white blood cells were of the mutant species. The deletion in the mutant allele extended from intron 7 into intron 11. There was a 12-bp direct repeat in intron 7 and intron 11, the latter about 60 bp 5' to the junction. At the breakpoint there was a duplication of 10 bp from intron 11 separated by an insertion of 4 bp contained within the duplicated sequence. The father was mosaic for the deletion so that the gene rearrangement occurred during his early embryonic development prior to lineage allocation. These findings suggest that at least some of the deletions seen in human genes may occur during replication, rather than as a consequence of meiotic crossing-over, and that they thus have a risk for recurrence when observed de novo. 71 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

McGookey Milewicz, D.; Witz, A.M.; Byers, P.H. (Univ of Washington, Seattle (United States)); Smith, A.C.M.; Manchester, D.K.; Waldstein, G. (Children's Hospital, Denver, CO (United States))

1993-07-01

301

Global deficits in development, function, and gene expression in the endocrine pancreas in a deletion mouse model of Prader-Willi syndrome  

PubMed Central

Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a multisystem disorder caused by genetic loss of function of a cluster of imprinted, paternally expressed genes. Neonatal failure to thrive in PWS is followed by childhood-onset hyperphagia and obesity among other endocrine and behavioral abnormalities. PWS is typically assumed to be caused by an unknown hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction, but the underlying pathogenesis remains unknown. A transgenic deletion mouse model (TgPWS) has severe failure to thrive, with very low levels of plasma insulin and glucagon in fetal and neonatal life prior to and following onset of progressive hypoglycemia. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that primary deficits in pancreatic islet development or function may play a fundamental role in the TgPWS neonatal phenotype. Major pancreatic islet hormones (insulin, glucagon) were decreased in TgPWS mice, consistent with plasma levels. Immunohistochemical analysis of the pancreas demonstrated disrupted morphology of TgPWS islets, with reduced ?- and ?-cell mass arising from an increase in apoptosis. Furthermore, in vivo and in vitro studies show that the rate of insulin secretion is significantly impaired in TgPWS ?-cells. In TgPWS pancreas, mRNA levels for genes encoding all pancreatic hormones, other secretory factors, and the ISL1 transcription factor are upregulated by either a compensatory response to plasma hormone deficiencies or a primary effect of a deleted gene. Our findings identify a cluster of imprinted genes required for the development, survival, coordinate regulation of genes encoding hormones, and secretory function of pancreatic endocrine cells, which may underlie the neonatal phenotype of the TgPWS mouse model. PMID:21343540

Stefan, Mihaela; Simmons, Rebecca A.; Bertera, Suzanne; Trucco, Massimo; Esni, Farzad; Drain, Peter

2011-01-01

302

Large de novo deletion of 7p15.1 to 7p12.1 involving the imprinted gene GRB10 associated with a complex phenotype including features of Beckwith Wiedemann syndrome.  

PubMed

We present an infant with a de novo cytogenetically visible interstitial deletion of approximately 21.9Mb involving chromosome bands 7p15.1-7p12.1, with the loss of 119 genes confirmed by array CGH. The infant had a ventricular septal defect, hand and skull anomalies, and hyperglycaemia compatible with haploinsufficiency of TBX20, GLI3, and GCK genes, respectively. In addition, the infant had some features reminiscent of Beckwith Wiedemann syndrome including macroglossia, umbilical hernia, and a relatively large birth weight and we speculate that this is due to the deletion of GRB10, an imprinted gene on chromosome 7. This report illustrates how knowledge of genes within a deleted interval facilitates optimal medical management, can explain observed phenotypes, and stimulates research questions. PMID:20933618

Naik, Swati; Riordan-Eva, Elliott; Thomas, N Simon; Poole, Rebecca; Ashton, Mark; Crolla, John A; Temple, I Karen

2011-01-01

303

Inv dup del(4)(:p13-->p16.3::p16.3-->qter) in a girl without typical manifestations of Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome.  

PubMed

We report on a 4-year-old girl who presented with microcephaly, multiple minor anomalies of face and limbs, congenital heart defect, hypotonia, neuropsychomotor delay, deafness and seizures. A GTG-banded karyotype identified an additional fragment of unknown origin on the terminal region of 4p. Parental karyotypes were normal. FISH analysis using a whole chromosome paint probe for chromosome 4 and subtelomere probes showed a signal on the entire add (4) chromosome and loss of the 4p subtelomere region, respectively. Additional analysis using microsatellite markers for chromosome 4 and whole-genome array comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) identified a duplication of the region 4p13 --> 4p16.3. Her karyotype was thus interpreted as an inverted duplication with terminal deletion of 4p: 46,XX,der(4)(:p13 --> p16.3::p16.3 --> qter). The clinical features of our patient differed from those typically observed in Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome and were more compatible with duplication 4(p14 --> p16.3), with preservation of the WHS critical region. PMID:19449429

Paskulin, Giorgio A; Riegel, Mariluce; Cotter, Philip D; Kiss, Andrea; Rosa, Rafael F M; Zen, Paulo R G; Mombach, Rômulo; Graziadio, Carla

2009-06-01

304

The Subtelomeric khipu Satellite Repeat from Phaseolus vulgaris: Lessons Learned from the Genome Analysis of the Andean Genotype G19833  

PubMed Central

Subtelomeric regions in eukaryotic organisms are known for harboring species-specific tandemly repeated satellite sequences. However, studies on the molecular organization and evolution of subtelomeric repeats are scarce, especially in plants. Khipu is a satellite DNA of 528-bp repeat unit, specific of the Phaseolus genus, with a subtelomeric distribution in common bean, P. vulgaris. To investigate the genomic organization and the evolution of khipu, we performed genome-wide analysis on the complete genome sequence of the common bean genotype G19833. We identified 2,460 khipu units located at most distal ends of the sequenced regions. Khipu units are arranged in discrete blocks of 2–55 copies and are heterogeneously distributed among the different chromosome ends of G19833 (from 0 to 555 khipus units per chromosome arm). Phylogenetically related khipu units are spread between numerous chromosome ends, suggesting frequent exchanges between non-homologous subtelomeres. However, most subclades contain numerous khipu units from only one or few chromosome ends indicating that local duplication is also driving khipu expansion. Unexpectedly, we also identified 81 khipu units located at centromeres. All the centromeric khipu units belong to a single divergent clade also comprised of a few units from several subtelomeres, suggesting that a few sequence exchanges between centromeres and subtelomeres took place in the common bean genome. The divergence and low copy number of these centromeric units from the subtelomeric units could explain why they were not detected by FISH (Fluorescence in situ Hybridization) although it can not be excluded that these centromeric units may have resulted from errors in the pseudomolecule assembly. Altogether our data highlight extensive sequence exchanges in subtelomeres between non-homologous chromosomes in common bean and confirm that subtelomeres represent one of the most dynamic and rapidly evolving regions in eukaryotic genomes. PMID:24137164

Richard, Manon M. S.; Chen, Nicolas W. G.; Thareau, Vincent; Pflieger, Stephanie; Blanchet, Sophie; Pedrosa-Harand, Andrea; Iwata, Aiko; Chavarro, Carolina; Jackson, Scott A.; Geffroy, Valerie

2013-01-01

305

Association of the family environment with behavioural and cognitive outcomes in children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) are at risk for social-behavioural and neurocognitive sequelae throughout development. The current study examined the impact of family environmental characteristics on social-behavioural and cognitive outcomes in this pediatric population. Method Guardians of children with 22q11DS were recruited through two medical genetics clinics. Con senting guardians were asked to complete several questionnaires regarding their child's social, emotional and behavioural functioning, as well as family social environment and parenting styles. Children with 22q11DS were asked to undergo a cognitive assessment, including IQ and achievement testing, and measures of attention, executive function and memory. Results Modest associations were found between aspects of the family social environment and parenting styles with social-behavioural and cognitive/academic outcomes. Regression models indicated that physical punishment, socioeconomic status, parental control and family organisation significantly predicted social-behavioural and cognitive outcomes in children with 22q11DS. Conclusion Characteristics of the family social environment and parenting approaches appear to be associated with functional outcomes of children with 22q11DS. Understanding the impact of environmental variables on developmental outcomes can be useful in determining more effective targets for intervention. This will be important in order to improve the quality of life of individuals affected by 22q11DS. PMID:23742203

Allen, T. M.; Hersh, J.; Schoch, K.; Curtiss, K.; Hooper, S. R.; Shashi, V.

2014-01-01

306

Hes1 expression is reduced in Tbx1 null cells and is required for the development of structures affected in 22q11 deletion syndrome  

PubMed Central

22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is characterised by aberrant development of the pharyngeal apparatus and the heart with haploinsufficiency of the transcription factor TBX1 being considered the major underlying cause of the disease. Tbx1 mutations in mouse phenocopy the disorder. In order to identify the transcriptional dysregulation in Tbx1-expressing lineages we optimised fluorescent-activated cell sorting of ?-galactosidase expressing cells (FACS-Gal) to compare the expression profile of Df1/Tbx1lacZ (effectively Tbx1 null) and Tbx1 heterozygous cells isolated from mouse embryos. Hes1, a major effector of Notch signalling, was identified as downregulated in Tbx1?/? mutants. Hes1 mutant mice exhibited a partially penetrant range of 22q11DS-like defects including pharyngeal arch artery (PAA), outflow tract, craniofacial and thymic abnormalities. Similar to Tbx1 mice, conditional mutagenesis revealed that Hes1 expression in embryonic pharyngeal ectoderm contributes to thymus and pharyngeal arch artery development. These results suggest that Hes1 acts downstream of Tbx1 in the morphogenesis of pharyngeal-derived structures. PMID:20122914

van Bueren, Kelly Lammerts; Papangeli, Irinna; Rochais, Francesca; Pearce, Kerra; Roberts, Catherine; Calmont, Amelie; Szumska, Dorota; Kelly, Robert G.; Bhattacharya, Shoumo; Scambler, Peter J.

2010-01-01

307

Candidate gene analysis using genomic quantitative PCR: identification of ADAMTS13 large deletions in two patients with Upshaw-Schulman syndrome  

PubMed Central

Direct sequencing is a popular method to discover mutations in candidate genes responsible for hereditary diseases. A certain type of mutation, however, can be missed by the method. Here, we report a comprehensive genomic quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to complement the weakness of direct sequencing. Upshaw-Schulman syndrome (USS) is a recessively inherited disease associated with severe deficiency of plasma ADAMTS13 activity. We previously analyzed ADAMTS13 in 47 USS patients using direct sequencing, and 44 of them had either homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations. Then, we sought to reveal more extensive defects of ADAMTS13 in the remaining three patients. We quantified copy numbers of each ADAMTS13 exon in the patients by using genomic qPCR. Each primer pair was designed to contain at least one of the two primers used in direct sequencing, to avoid missing any exonic deletions. The qPCR demonstrated heterozygous loss of exons 7 and 8 in one patient and exon 27 in the other, and further analysis revealed c.746_987+373del1782 and c.3751_3892+587del729, respectively. Genomic qPCR provides an effective method for identifying extensive defects of the target genes. PMID:24936513

Eura, Yuka; Kokame, Koichi; Takafuta, Toshiro; Tanaka, Ryojiro; Kobayashi, Hikaru; Ishida, Fumihiro; Hisanaga, Shuichi; Matsumoto, Masanori; Fujimura, Yoshihiro; Miyata, Toshiyuki

2014-01-01

308

Isolation and characterisation of GTF2IRD2, a novel fusion gene and member of the TFII-I family of transcription factors, deleted in Williams–Beuren syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Williams–Beuren syndrome (WBS) is a developmental disorder with characteristic physical, cognitive and behavioural traits caused by a microdeletion of ?1.5 Mb on chromosome 7q11.23. In total, 24 genes have been described within the deleted region to date. We have isolated and characterised a novel human gene, GTF2IRD2, mapping to the WBS critical region thought to harbour genes important for the

Hannah J Tipney; Timothy A Hinsley; Andrew Brass; Kay Metcalfe; Dian Donnai; May Tassabehji

2004-01-01

309

Parental somatic and germ-line mosaicism for a multiexon deletion with unusual endpoints in a type III collagen (COL3Al) allele produces ehlers-danlos syndrome type IV in the heterozygous offspring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) type IV is a dominantly inherited disorder that results from mutation in the type III collagen gene (COL3A1). The authors studied the structure of the COL3A1 gene of an individual with EDS type IV and that of her phenotypically normal parents. The proband was heterozygous for a 2-kb deletion in COL3A1, while her father was mosaic for

D. McGookey Milewicz; A. M. Witz; P. H. Byers; A. C. M. Smith; D. K. Manchester; G. Waldstein

1993-01-01

310

Cortical Gyrification in Velo-Cardio-Facial (22q11.2 Deletion) Syndrome: A Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS) has been identified as an important risk factor for psychoses, with upto 32% of individuals with VCFS developing a psychotic illness. Individuals with VCFS thus form a unique group to identify and explore early symptoms and biological correlates of psychosis. In this study, we examined if cortical gyrification pattern, i.e. gyrification index (GI) can be a potential neurobiological marker for psychosis. Method GIs of 91 individuals with VCFS were compared with 29 siblings and 54 controls. Further, 58 participants with VCFS, 21 siblings and 18 normal controls were followed up after 3 years and longitudinal changes in GI were compared. Additionally, we also correlated longitudinal changes in GI in individuals with VCFS with prodromal symptoms of psychosis on the Scale of Prodromal Symptoms (SOPS). Result Individuals with VCFS had significantly lower GIs as compared to their siblings and normal controls. Longitudinal examination of GI did not reveal any significant group-time interactions between the three groups. Further, longitudinal change in GI scores in the VCFS group was negatively correlated with positive prodromal symptoms, with the left occipital region reaching statistical significance. Conclusion The study confirms previous reports that individuals with VCFS have reduced cortical folding as compared to normal controls. However over a period of three years, there is no difference in the rate of change of GI among both individuals with VCFS and normal controls. Finally, our results suggest that neuroanatomical alterations in areas underlying visual processing may be an early marker for psychosis. PMID:22365148

Kunwar, Arun; Ramanathan, Seethalakshmi; Nelson, Joshua; Antshel, Kevin M.; Fremont, Wanda; Higgins, Anne Marie; Shprintzen, Robert J.; Kates, Wendy R.

2012-01-01

311

In Search of the Optimal Surgical Treatment for Velopharyngeal Dysfunction in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background Patients with the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22qDS) and velopharyngeal dysfunction (VPD) tend to have residual VPD following surgery. This systematic review seeks to determine whether a particular surgical procedure results in superior speech outcome or less morbidity. Methodology/ Principal Findings A combined computerized and hand-search yielded 70 studies, of which 27 were deemed relevant for this review, reporting on a total of 525 patients with 22qDS and VPD undergoing surgery for VPD. All studies were levels 2c or 4 evidence. The methodological quality of these studies was assessed using criteria based on the Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias. Heterogeneous groups of patients were reported on in the studies. The surgical procedure was often tailored to findings on preoperative imaging. Overall, 50% of patients attained normal resonance, 48% attained normal nasal emissions scores, and 83% had understandable speech postoperatively. However, 5% became hyponasal, 1% had obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and 17% required further surgery. There were no significant differences in speech outcome between patients who underwent a fat injection, Furlow or intravelar veloplasty, pharyngeal flap pharyngoplasty, Honig pharyngoplasty, or sphincter pharyngoplasty or Hynes procedures. There was a trend that a lower percentage of patients attained normal resonance after a fat injection or palatoplasty than after the more obstructive pharyngoplasties (11–18% versus 44–62%, p?=?0.08). Only patients who underwent pharyngeal flaps or sphincter pharyngoplasties incurred OSA, yet this was not statistically significantly more often than after other procedures (p?=?0.25). More patients who underwent a palatoplasty needed further surgery than those who underwent a pharyngoplasty (50% versus 7–13%, p?=?0.03). Conclusions/ Significance In the heterogeneous group of patients with 22qDS and VPD, a grade C recommendation can be made to minimize the morbidity of further surgery by choosing to perform a pharyngoplasty directly instead of only a palatoplasty. PMID:22470558

Spruijt, Nicole E.; ReijmanHinze, Judith; Hens, Greet; Vander Poorten, Vincent; Mink van der Molen, Aebele B.

2012-01-01

312

Reduced Fronto-Temporal and Limbic Connectivity in the 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: Vulnerability Markers for Developing Schizophrenia?  

PubMed Central

The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a widely recognized genetic model allowing the study of neuroanatomical biomarkers that underlie the risk for developing schizophrenia. Recent advances in magnetic resonance image analyses enable the examination of structural connectivity integrity, scarcely used in the 22q11DS field. This framework potentially provides evidence for the disconnectivity hypothesis of schizophrenia in this high-risk population. In the present study, we quantify the whole brain white matter connections in 22q11DS using deterministic tractography. Diffusion Tensor Imaging was acquired in 30 affected patients and 30 age- and gender-matched healthy participants. The Human Connectome technique was applied to register white matter streamlines with cortical anatomy. The number of fibers (streamlines) was used as a measure of connectivity for comparison between groups at the global, lobar and regional level. All statistics were corrected for age and gender. Results showed a 10% reduction of the total number of fibers in patients compared to controls. After correcting for this global reduction, preserved connectivity was found within the right frontal and right parietal lobes. The relative increase in the number of fibers was located mainly in the right hemisphere. Conversely, an excessive reduction of connectivity was observed within and between limbic structures. Finally, a disproportionate reduction was shown at the level of fibers connecting the left fronto-temporal regions. We could therefore speculate that the observed disruption to fronto-temporal connectivity in individuals at risk of schizophrenia implies that fronto-temporal disconnectivity, frequently implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, could precede the onset of symptoms and, as such, constitutes a biomarker of the vulnerability to develop psychosis. On the contrary, connectivity alterations in the limbic lobe play a role in a wide range of psychiatric disorders and therefore seem to be less specific in defining schizophrenia. PMID:23533586

Ottet, Marie-Christine; Schaer, Marie; Cammoun, Leila; Schneider, Maude; Debbane, Martin; Thiran, Jean-Philippe; Eliez, Stephan

2013-01-01

313

The human Nav1.5 F1486 deletion associated with long QT syndrome leads to impaired sodium channel inactivation and reduced lidocaine sensitivity  

PubMed Central

The deletion of phenylalanine 1486 (F1486del) in the human cardiac voltage-gated sodium channel (hNav1.5) is associated with fatal long QT (LQT) syndrome. In this study we determined how F1486del impairs the functional properties of hNav1.5 and alters action potential firing in heterologous expression systems (human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells) and their native cardiomyocyte background. Cells expressing hNav1.5-F1486del exhibited a loss-of-function alteration, reflected by an 80% reduction of peak current density, and several gain-of-function alterations, including reduced channel inactivation, enlarged window current, substantial augmentation of persistent late sodium current and an increase in ramp current. We also observed substantial action potential duration (APD) prolongation and prominent early afterdepolarizations (EADs) in neonatal cardiomyocytes expressing the F1486del channels, as well as in computer simulations of myocyte activity. In addition, lidocaine sensitivity was dramatically reduced, which probably contributed to the poor therapeutic outcome observed in the patient carrying the hNav1.5-F1486del mutation. Therefore, despite the significant reduction in peak current density, the F1486del mutation also leads to substantial gain-of-function alterations that are sufficient to cause APD prolongation and EADs, the predominant characteristic of LQTs. These data demonstrate that hNav1.5 mutations can have complex functional consequences and highlight the importance of identifying the specific molecular defect when evaluating potential treatments for individuals with prolonged QT intervals. PMID:22826127

Song, Weihua; Xiao, Yucheng; Chen, Hanying; Ashpole, Nicole M; Piekarz, Andrew D; Ma, Peilin; Hudmon, Andy; Cummins, Theodore R; Shou, Weinian

2012-01-01

314

Autism spectrum disorders and hyperactive/impulsive behaviors in Japanese patients with Prader-Willi syndrome: a comparison between maternal uniparental disomy and deletion cases.  

PubMed

This study aims to compare maternal uniparental disomy 15 (mUPD) and a paternal deletion of 15q11-13 (DEL) of Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) in regard to autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Forty-five Japanese individuals with PWS were recruited from a single recruitment center. The participants consisted of 22 children (aged from 6 to 12) and 23 adolescents (aged from 13 to 19). Six children and seven adolescents were confirmed as having mUPD. Sixteen children and 16 adolescents were confirmed as having DEL. Under blindness to the participants' genotypes, a single psychologist carried out behavioral and psychological assessments, including the Wechsler Intelligence Scales, Pervasive Developmental Disorders Autism Society Japan Rating Scale (PARS), and ADHD-Rating Scale-IV (ADHD-RS-IV). Two comparisons were made: one between mUPD and DEL children and another between mUPD and DEL adolescents. In children, no significant differences were found between mUPD and DEL participants in terms of autistic (PARS childhood, P = 0.657) and impulsive behaviors (ADHD-RS-IV hyperactive/impulsive, P = 0.275). In adolescents, mUPD patients showed significantly more autistic symptomatology (PARS adolescent, P = 0.027) and significantly more impulsive behavior (ADHD-RS-IV hyperactive/impulsive, P = 0.01) than DEL patients. Our findings about Japanese PWS patients were consistent with previous researches from western countries not focused on Asian patients, indicating that mUPD cases would be more prone to ASD than DEL cases, regardless of ethnoregional differences. In addition, our data suggested that the behavioral difference between mUPD and DEL cases in terms of autistic and impulsive symptoms tend to be unrecognizable in their childhood. PMID:24850752

Ogata, Hiroyuki; Ihara, Hiroshi; Murakami, Nobuyuki; Gito, Masao; Kido, Yasuhiro; Nagai, Toshiro

2014-09-01

315

Abnormal response to the anorexic effect of GHS-R inhibitors and exenatide in male Snord116 deletion mouse model for Prader-Willi syndrome.  

PubMed

Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic disease characterized by persistent hunger and hyperphagia. The lack of the Snord116 small nucleolar RNA cluster has been identified as the major contributor to PWS symptoms. The Snord116 deletion (Snord116del) mouse model manifested a subset of PWS symptoms including hyperphagia and hyperghrelinemia. In this study, male Snord116del mice were characterized and tested for their acute and chronic responses to anorexic substances related to the ghrelin pathway. In comparison with their wild-type littermates, the food intake rate of Snord116del mice was 14% higher when fed ad libitum, and 32% to 49% higher within 12 hours after fasting. Fasted Snord116del mice were less sensitive to the acute anorexic effect of competitive antagonist [d-Lys(3)]-GHRP6, YIL-781, and reverse agonist [d-Arg(1),d-Phe(5),d-Trp(7,9),Leu(11)]-substance P (SPA) of ghrelin receptor GHS-R. All 3 GHS-R inhibitors failed to inhibit chronic food intake of either Snord116del or wild-type mice due to rapid adaptation. Although fasted Snord116del mice had normal sensitivity to the acute anorexic effect of glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist exenatide, those fed ad libitum required a higher dose and more frequent delivery to achieve ?15% suppression of long-term food intake in comparison with wild-type mice. Ghrelin, however, is unlikely to be essential for the anorexic effect of exenatide in fed mice, as shown by the fact that exenatide did not reduce ghrelin levels in fed mice and food intake of ghrelin(-/-) mice fed ad libitum could be suppressed by exenatide. In conclusion, this study suggests that GHS-R may not be an effective therapeutic target, and in contrast, exenatide may produce anorexic effect in PWS individuals. PMID:24735326

Lin, Dahe; Wang, Qi; Ran, Haiying; Liu, Kai; Wang, Yao; Wang, Juanjuan; Liu, Yazhen; Chen, Ruichuan; Sun, Yuxiang; Liu, Runzhong; Ding, Feng

2014-07-01

316

Chemotherapy refractory testicular germ cell tumor is associated with a variant in Armadillo Repeat gene deleted in Velco-Cardio-Facial syndrome (ARVCF)  

PubMed Central

Introduction: There is evidence that inherited genetic variation affects both testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) treatment outcome and risks of late-complications arising from cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Using a candidate gene approach, we examined associations of three genes involved in the cisplatin metabolism pathway, GSTP1, COMT, and TPMT, with TGCT outcome and cisplatin-induced neurotoxicity. Materials and Methods: Our study population includes a subset of patients (n = 137) from a genome-wide association study at the University of Pennsylvania that evaluates inherited genetic susceptibility to TGCT. All patients in our study had at least one course of cisplatin-based chemotherapy with at least 1 year of follow-up. A total of 90 markers in GSTP1, COMT, and TPMT and their adjacent genomic regions (±20 kb) were analyzed for associations with refractory TGCT after first course of chemotherapy, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), peripheral neuropathy, and ototoxicity. Results: After adjustment for multiple comparisons, one Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs2073743, in the flanking region (±20 kb) of COMT was associated with refractory TGCT after initial chemotherapy. This SNP lies within the intron region of the Armadillo Repeat gene deleted in Velco-Cardio-Facial syndrome (ARVCF). The G allele of rs2073743 predisposed patients to refractory disease with a relative risk of 2.6 (95% CI 1.1, 6.3; P = 0.03). Assuming recessive inheritance, patients with the GG genotype had 22.7 times higher risk (95% CI 3.3, 155.8; P = 0.04) of developing refractory disease when compared to those with the GC or CC genotypes. We found no association of our candidate genes with peripheral neuropathy, ototoxicity, PFS and OS. Discussion: This is the first study to suggest that germline genetic variants of ARVCF may affect TGCT outcome. The result of this study is hypothesis generating and should be validated in future studies. PMID:23248619

Fung, Chunkit; Vaughn, David J.; Mitra, Nandita; Ciosek, Stephanie L.; Vardhanabhuti, Saran; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Kanetsky, Peter A.

2012-01-01

317

Simultaneous Copy Number Losses within Multiple Subtelomeric Regions in Early-Onset Type2 Diabetes Mellitus  

PubMed Central

Genetic factors play very important roles in the onset and progression of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the genetic factors correlating with T2DM onset have not as yet been fully clarified. We previously found that copy number losses in the subtelomeric region on chromosome 4p16.3 were detected in early-onset Japanese T2DM patients (onset age <35 years) at a high frequency. Herein, we additionally found two novel copy number losses within the subtelomeric regions on chromosomes 16q24.2-3 and 22q13.31-33, which have significant associations with early-onset Japanese T2DM. The associations were statistically significant by Fisher's exact tests with P values of 5.19×10?3 and 1.81×10?3 and odds ratios of 5.7 and 4.4 for 16q24.2-3 and 22q13.31-33, respectively. Furthermore, copy number variation (CNV) analysis of the whole genome using the CNV BeadChip system verified simultaneous copy number losses in all three subtelomeric regions in 11 of our 100 T2DM subjects, while none of 100 non-diabetic controls showed the copy number losses in all three regions. Our results suggest that the mechanism underlying induction of CNVs is involved in the pathogenesis of early-onset T2DM. Thus, copy number losses within multiple subtelomeric regions are strongly associated with early-onset T2DM and examination of simultaneous CNVs in these three regions may lead to the development of an accurate and selective procedure for detecting genetic susceptibility to T2DM. PMID:24709989

Kodama, Shinjiro; Yamada, Tetsuya; Imai, Junta; Sawada, Shojiro; Takahashi, Kei; Tsukita, Sohei; Kaneko, Keizo; Uno, Kenji; Ishigaki, Yasushi; Oka, Yoshitomo; Katagiri, Hideki

2014-01-01

318

Toward closing rice telomere gaps: mapping and sequence characterization of rice subtelomere regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the collective efforts of the international community to sequence the complete rice genome, telomeric regions of most chromosome arms remain uncharacterized. In this report we present sequence data from subtelomere regions obtained by analyzing telomeric clones from two 8.8 × genome equivalent 10-kb libraries derived from partial restriction digestion with HaeIII or Sau3AI (OSJNPb HaeIII and OSJNPc Sau3AI). Seven telomere clones

Tae-Jin Yang; Yeisoo Yu; Song-Bin Chang; Hans de Jong; Chang-Sik Oh; Sang-Nag Ahn; Eric Fang; Rod A. Wing

2005-01-01

319

Locus-specific control of DNA resection and suppression of subtelomeric VSG recombination by HAT3 in the African trypanosome.  

PubMed

The African trypanosome, Trypanosoma brucei, is a parasitic protozoan that achieves antigenic variation through DNA-repair processes involving Variant Surface Glycoprotein (VSG) gene rearrangements at subtelomeres. Subtelomeric suppression of DNA repair operates in eukaryotes but little is known about these controls in trypanosomes. Here, we identify a trypanosome histone acetyltransferase (HAT3) and a deacetylase (SIR2rp1) required for efficient RAD51-dependent homologous recombination. HAT3 and SIR2rp1 were required for RAD51-focus assembly and disassembly, respectively, at a chromosome-internal locus and a synthetic defect indicated distinct contributions to DNA repair. Although HAT3 promoted chromosome-internal recombination, it suppressed subtelomeric VSG recombination, and these locus-specific effects were mediated through differential production of ssDNA by DNA resection; HAT3 promoted chromosome-internal resection but suppressed subtelomeric resection. Consistent with the resection defect, HAT3 was specifically required for the G2-checkpoint response at a chromosome-internal locus. HAT3 also promoted resection at a second chromosome-internal locus comprising tandem-duplicated genes. We conclude that HAT3 and SIR2rp1 can facilitate temporally distinct steps in DNA repair. HAT3 promotes ssDNA formation and recombination at chromosome-internal sites but has the opposite effect at a subtelomeric VSG. These locus-specific controls reveal compartmentalization of the T. brucei genome in terms of the DNA-damage response and suppression of antigenic variation by HAT3. PMID:25300492

Glover, Lucy; Horn, David

2014-11-10

320

Locus-specific control of DNA resection and suppression of subtelomeric VSG recombination by HAT3 in the African trypanosome  

PubMed Central

The African trypanosome, Trypanosoma brucei, is a parasitic protozoan that achieves antigenic variation through DNA-repair processes involving Variant Surface Glycoprotein (VSG) gene rearrangements at subtelomeres. Subtelomeric suppression of DNA repair operates in eukaryotes but little is known about these controls in trypanosomes. Here, we identify a trypanosome histone acetyltransferase (HAT3) and a deacetylase (SIR2rp1) required for efficient RAD51-dependent homologous recombination. HAT3 and SIR2rp1 were required for RAD51-focus assembly and disassembly, respectively, at a chromosome-internal locus and a synthetic defect indicated distinct contributions to DNA repair. Although HAT3 promoted chromosome-internal recombination, it suppressed subtelomeric VSG recombination, and these locus-specific effects were mediated through differential production of ssDNA by DNA resection; HAT3 promoted chromosome-internal resection but suppressed subtelomeric resection. Consistent with the resection defect, HAT3 was specifically required for the G2-checkpoint response at a chromosome-internal locus. HAT3 also promoted resection at a second chromosome-internal locus comprising tandem-duplicated genes. We conclude that HAT3 and SIR2rp1 can facilitate temporally distinct steps in DNA repair. HAT3 promotes ssDNA formation and recombination at chromosome-internal sites but has the opposite effect at a subtelomeric VSG. These locus-specific controls reveal compartmentalization of the T. brucei genome in terms of the DNA-damage response and suppression of antigenic variation by HAT3. PMID:25300492

Glover, Lucy; Horn, David

2014-01-01

321

Esophageal atresia, hypoplasia of zygomatic complex, microcephaly, cup-shaped ears, congenital heart defect, and mental retardation--new MCA/MR syndrome in two affected sibs and a mildly affected mother?  

PubMed

The previously undescribed combination of esophageal atresia, hypoplasia of the zygomatic complex, microcephaly, cup-shaped ears, congenital heart defect, and mental retardation was diagnosed in two siblings of different sexes, with the brother being more severely affected. The mother presented with zygomatic arch hypoplasia of the right side only. We discuss major differential diagnoses: Goldenhar, Feingold, CHARGE, and Treacher Collins syndromes show a few overlapping clinical features, but these diagnoses are unlikely as the clinical findings are unusual for Goldenhar syndrome and mutational screening of the MYCN, the CHD7, and the TCOF1 genes did not reveal any abnormalities. Autosomal recessive oto-facial syndrome, hypomandibular faciocranial dysostosis, and Ozkan syndromes were clinically excluded. A microdeletion 22q11.2 was excluded by FISH analysis, a microdeletion 2p23-p24 by microsatellite analyses, a subtelomeric chromosomal aberration by MLPA, and a small genomic deletion/duplication by CGH array. As X-inactivation studies did not show skewed X-inactivation in the mother, we consider X-chromosomal recessive inheritance of this condition less likely. We discuss autosomal dominant inheritance with variable expressivity or mosaicism in the mother as the likely genetic mechanism in this new multiple congenital anomaly/mental retardation (MCA/MR) syndrome. PMID:17497718

Wieczorek, Dagmar; Shaw-Smith, Charles; Kohlhase, Jürgen; Schmitt, Wolfgang; Buiting, Karin; Coffey, Alison; Howard, Eleanor; Hehr, Ute; Gillessen-Kaesbach, Gabriele

2007-06-01

322

Sex chromosome differentiation in Humulus japonicus Siebold & Zuccarini, 1846 (Cannabaceae) revealed by fluorescence in situ hybridization of subtelomeric repeat  

PubMed Central

Abstract Humulus japonicus Siebold et Zucc (Japanese hop) is a dioecious species of the family Cannabaceae. The chromosome number is 2n = 16 = 14 + XX for females and 2n = 17 = 14 + XY1Y2 for male. To date, no fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) markers have been established for the identification of Humulus japonicus sex chromosomes. In this paper, we report a method for the mitotic and meiotic sex chromosome differentiation in Humulus japonicus by FISH for HJSR, a high copy subtelomeric repeat. The signal is present in the subtelomeric region of one arm of the X chromosome. We demonstrate that males have two Y chromosomes that differ in FISH signal with the HJSR probe. Indeed, the HJSR probe hybridizes to a subtelomeric region on both arms of chromosome Y1 but not of chromosome Y2. The orientation and position of pseudoautosomal regions (PAR1 and PAR2) were also determined. PMID:24260665

Alexandrov, Oleg S.; Divashuk, Mikhail G.; Yakovin, Nikolay A.; Karlov, Gennady I.

2012-01-01

323

Isolation and sequence analysis of the wheat B genome subtelomeric DNA  

PubMed Central

Background Telomeric and subtelomeric regions are essential for genome stability and regular chromosome replication. In this work, we have characterized the wheat BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) clones containing Spelt1 and Spelt52 sequences, which belong to the subtelomeric repeats of the B/G genomes of wheats and Aegilops species from the section Sitopsis. Results The BAC library from Triticum aestivum cv. Renan was screened using Spelt1 and Spelt52 as probes. Nine positive clones were isolated; of them, clone 2050O8 was localized mainly to the distal parts of wheat chromosomes by in situ hybridization. The distribution of the other clones indicated the presence of different types of repetitive sequences in BACs. Use of different approaches allowed us to prove that seven of the nine isolated clones belonged to the subtelomeric chromosomal regions. Clone 2050O8 was sequenced and its sequence of 119 737 bp was annotated. It is composed of 33% transposable elements (TEs), 8.2% Spelt52 (namely, the subfamily Spelt52.2) and five non-TE-related genes. DNA transposons are predominant, making up 24.6% of the entire BAC clone, whereas retroelements account for 8.4% of the clone length. The full-length CACTA transposon Caspar covers 11 666 bp, encoding a transposase and CTG-2 proteins, and this transposon accounts for 40% of the DNA transposons. The in situ hybridization data for 2050O8 derived subclones in combination with the BLAST search against wheat mapped ESTs (expressed sequence tags) suggest that clone 2050O8 is located in the terminal bin 4BL-10 (0.95-1.0). Additionally, four of the predicted 2050O8 genes showed significant homology to four putative orthologous rice genes in the distal part of rice chromosome 3S and confirm the synteny to wheat 4BL. Conclusion Satellite DNA sequences from the subtelomeric regions of diploid wheat progenitor can be used for selecting the BAC clones from the corresponding regions of hexaploid wheat chromosomes. It has been demonstrated for the first time that Spelt52 sequences were involved in the evolution of terminal regions of common wheat chromosomes. Our research provides new insights into the microcollinearity in the terminal regions of wheat chromosomes 4BL and rice chromosome 3S. PMID:19732459

Salina, Elena A; Sergeeva, Ekaterina M; Adonina, Irina G; Shcherban, Andrey B; Afonnikov, Dmitry A; Belcram, Harry; Huneau, Cecile; Chalhoub, Boulos

2009-01-01

324

S5: Potential for cross-hybridization among sub-telomeric probes The sequences of inter-genic probes used in the ChIp-chip experiments were downloaded from  

E-print Network

S5: Potential for cross-hybridization among sub-telomeric probes The sequences of inter search (blastclust algorithm) to identify sub-telomeric probes with high sequence similarity. The plots below show the number of sub-telomeric probes that have a sequence identity of 70% (A), 75% (B) and 80

Babu, M. Madan

325

Fine-Scale Comparative Mapping of the Human 7q11.23 Region and the Orthologous Region on Mouse Chromosome 5G: The Low-Copy Repeats That Flank the Williams–Beuren Syndrome Deletion Arose at Breakpoint Sites of an Evolutionary Inversion(s)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Williams–Beuren syndrome (WBS) is a developmental disorder caused by haploinsufficiency for genes deleted in chromosome band 7q11.23. A common deletion including at least 16–17 genes has been defined in the great majority of patients. We have completed a physical and transcription map of the WBS region based on analysis of high-throughput genome sequence data and assembly of a BAC\\/PAC\\/YAC contig,

M. Carmen Valero; Oscar de Luis; Jesús Cruces; Luis A. Pérez Jurado

2000-01-01

326

FGFR2 exon IIIa and IIIc mutations in Crouzon, Jackson-Weiss, and Pfeiffer syndromes: Evidence for missense changes, insertions, and a deletion due to alternative RNA splicing  

SciTech Connect

Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) mutations have been associated with the craniosynostotic conditions Crouzon, Jackson-Weiss, and Pfeiffer syndromes. Previously, mutations were described in the exons IIIa and IIIc, which form the extracellular, third immunoglobulin-like domain (IgM) and adjacent linker regions, both of which are normally involved in ligand binding. For all three conditions, mutations were found in exon IIIc. Only in Crouzon syndrome were mutations identified in exon IIIa. In this study, 39 cases with one of these three conditions were screened for exon IIIa or IIIc mutations. Eleven mutations are reported in 17 unrelated cases. Mutations in exon IIIa are identified for not only Crouzon but also Jackson-Weiss and Pfeiffer syndromes. Four mutations in either exon IIIa or exon IIIc reported only in Crouzon syndrome are present also in one of the other two syndromes. Two insertions, one in exon IIIa in a Crouzon syndrome patient and the other in exon IIIc in a Pfeiffer syndrome patient, were observed. The latter mutation has the same alternative RNA splicing effect as a reported synonymous mutation for Crouzon syndrome. A missense mutation was detected in one Pfeiffer syndrome family in which two members had craniosynostosis without limb anomalies. The inter- and intrafamilial variability in expression of FGFR2 mutations suggests that these three syndromes, presumed to be clinically distinct, are instead representative of a spectrum of related craniosynostotic and digital disorders. 16 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Meyers, G.A.; Przylepa, K.A.; Scott, A.F. [Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD (United States)] [and others

1996-03-01

327

Molecular analysis of two patients with a duplicated 17p11.2 indicates that this entity may be the reciprocal of the deletion seen in Smith-Magenis syndrome  

SciTech Connect

J.M. and H.G. are two unrelated patients that presented at an early age with developmental delay and failure to thrive. Clinical features specific to J.M. include unusual facies, global developmental delay, and clinodactyly of the fifth toe. A cytogenetic analysis of H.G. was performed on amniocytes obtained due to a low MSAFP conducted as part of a routine screening. In both J.M. and H.G., a duplication of chromosome 17p11.2 was discovered. The extent of the duplicated region was determined using single copy DNA probes: cen-D17S58-D17S29-D17S258-D17S71-D17S445-tel. All of the markers were found to be duplicated by dosage analysis except for D17S58. FISH analysis of H.G., using the Smith-Magenis diagnostic probe obtained from ONCOR, also detected a duplication in 17p11.2. The chromosome containing the duplication could be the result of unequal crossing over due to a misalignment of the two chromosomes during meiosis I. It has been shown that the markers deleted in Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) patients are the same as those markers duplicated in J.M. and H.G. Therefore, the chromosomal duplication in 17p11.2 observed in these two patients could be the reciprocal of the chromosomal deletion seen in Smith-Magenis syndrome patients. Interestingly, a similar reciprocal duplication/deletion event is observed for CMT1A and HNPP (hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies) just distal to the SMS region.

Brown, A.; Schwartz, C.; Rogers, R.C. [Greenwood Genetic Center, SC (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

328

A Generalized Deletion Machine  

E-print Network

In this work we prescribe a more generalized quantum-deleting machine (input state dependent). The fidelity of deletion is dependent on some machine parameters such that on alteration of machine parameters we get back to standard deleting machines. We also carried out a various comparative study of various kinds of quantum deleting machines. We also plotted graphs, making a comparative study of fidelity of deletion of the deletion machines, obtained as particular cases on changing the machine parameters of our machine.

Indranil Chakrabarty; Satyabrata Adhikari

2005-11-22

329

Chromosomal microarray mapping suggests a role for BSX and Neurogranin in neurocognitive and behavioral defects in the 11q terminal deletion disorder (Jacobsen syndrome)  

PubMed Central

We performed a prospective analysis on 14 11q- patients to determine the relationship between the degree of cognitive impairment and relative deletion size. Seventeen measures of cognitive function were assessed. All nine patients with a deletion of at least 12.1 Mb had severe global cognitive impairment, with full-scale IQ <50, whereas all five patients with smaller deletions, ?11.8 Mb, demonstrated mild cognitive impairment, with a full-scale IQ of 63 or higher (p < 0.001). Among these five patients, the two patients with the larger deletions (11.4, 11.8 Mb) had a selective impairment in freedom from distractability compared to the three patients with smaller deletions (?9.1 Mb). We propose the presence of a proximal critical region that contains a gene for global cognitive function and a distal critical region that contains a gene essential for auditory attention, which may be necessary for optimizing intellectual function. The proximal critical region is 300 kb and contains three annotated genes. One of these genes, BSX, encodes a brain-specific homeobox protein that in gene-targeted mice has been shown previously to have a role in regulating locomotory behavior via BSX-expressing neurons in the hypothalamus. The distal critical region, ~2.2 Mb, contains 18 annotated genes. One gene in this region, Neurogranin, has been demonstrated previously in mice to be critical for synapse plasticity and long-term potentiation. Taken together, our results implicate the presence of at least two loci in distal 11q that when deleted, cause global and selective deficits in neurocognitive function. These findings have important implications for genetic counseling and potential gene-specific therapies. PMID:18855024

Coldren, C. D.; Lai, Z.; Shragg, P.; Rossi, E.; Glidewell, S. C.; Zuffardi, O.; Mattina, T.; Ivy, D. D.; Curfs, L. M.; Mattson, S. N.; Riley, E. P.; Treier, M.

2011-01-01

330

A disease causing deletion of 29 base pairs in intron 15 in the MKS1 gene is highly associated with the campomelic variant of the Meckel-Gruber syndrome.  

PubMed

Meckel-Gruber syndrome (MKS) is an autosomal recessive disorder causing severe defects in the developing central nervous system and other organs. Recently, mutations in the MKS1 gene have been identified as disease causing in individuals of Finnish MKS families. The primary aim of the present study was to assess the frequency of the 'Finnish founder mutation' (29 bp IVS15-7_35) in the MKS1 gene in 20 aborted fetuses with a diagnosis of MKS. The secondary aim was to screen for novel mutations in the coding sequence of the MKS1 gene of MKS fetuses and to obtain genotype-phenotype correlations where possible. Furthermore, we evaluated the carrier rate of a deletion of 29 bp in intron 15 of the MKS1 gene in a German population. To identify and characterize mutations in the MKS1 gene, sequence analyses and quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction studies were performed. We could identify the same type of mutation, a deletion of 29 bp in intron 15 of the MKS1 gene, in 8 out of the 20 cases studied. Six out of the eight cases with such a mutation displayed the campomelic variant of MKS. The carrier frequency among 519 healthy German individuals was 1:260. This deletion in the MKS1 gene is highly associated with a distinct subtype of the MKS, namely the campomelic variant. In individuals of European origin suffering from the campomelic MKS variant, the described deletion is highly likely to be causative. Regarding the results of our study, the incidence of MKS in Germany can be estimated as 1:135,000. In families with a known mutation in the MKS1 gene, it is now possible to offer an early prenatal testing, for example with chorionic villus sampling and mutation analysis. PMID:17935508

Auber, B; Burfeind, P; Herold, S; Schoner, K; Simson, G; Rauskolb, R; Rehder, H

2007-11-01

331

Microhomology-mediated deletion and gene conversion in African trypanosomes.  

PubMed

Antigenic variation in African trypanosomes is induced by DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). In these protozoan parasites, DSB repair (DSBR) is dominated by homologous recombination (HR) and microhomology-mediated end joining (MMEJ), while non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) has not been reported. To facilitate the analysis of chromosomal end-joining, we established a system whereby inter-allelic repair by HR is lethal due to loss of an essential gene. Analysis of intrachromosomal end joining in individual DSBR survivors exclusively revealed MMEJ-based deletions but no NHEJ. A survey of microhomologies typically revealed sequences of between 5 and 20?bp in length with several mismatches tolerated in longer stretches. Mean deletions were of 54?bp on the side closest to the break and 284?bp in total. Break proximity, microhomology length and GC-content all favored repair and the pattern of MMEJ described above was similar at several different loci across the genome. We also identified interchromosomal gene conversion involving HR and MMEJ at different ends of a duplicated sequence. While MMEJ-based deletions were RAD51-independent, one-sided MMEJ was RAD51 dependent. Thus, we describe the features of MMEJ in Trypanosoma brucei, which is analogous to micro single-strand annealing; and RAD51 dependent, one-sided MMEJ. We discuss the contribution of MMEJ pathways to genome evolution, subtelomere recombination and antigenic variation. PMID:20965968

Glover, Lucy; Jun, Junho; Horn, David

2011-03-01

332

Wolf syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the initial description in 1965 of Wolf syndrome, or deletion of the short arm of chromosome number four, over one hundred cases have been reported. Much less, however, has been published on the radiologic findings in this disorder. We report a case with both typical and unusual features of the 4p- syndrome, including “bottle opener” deformity of the clavicles,

D. S. Katz; T. H. Smith

1991-01-01

333

DNA Break Site at Fragile Subtelomeres Determines Probability and Mechanism of Antigenic Variation in African Trypanosomes  

PubMed Central

Antigenic variation in African trypanosomes requires monoallelic transcription and switching of variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) genes. The transcribed VSG, always flanked by ‘70 bp’-repeats and telomeric-repeats, is either replaced through DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair or transcriptionally inactivated. However, little is known about the subtelomeric DSBs that naturally trigger antigenic variation in Trypanosoma brucei, the subsequent DNA damage responses, or how these responses determine the mechanism of VSG switching. We found that DSBs naturally accumulate close to both transcribed and non-transcribed telomeres. We then induced high-efficiency meganuclease-mediated DSBs and monitored DSB-responses and DSB-survivors. By inducing breaks at distinct sites within both transcribed and silent VSG transcription units and assessing local DNA resection, histone modification, G2/M-checkpoint activation, and both RAD51-dependent and independent repair, we reveal how breaks at different sites trigger distinct responses and, in ‘active-site’ survivors, different switching mechanisms. At the active site, we find that promoter-adjacent breaks typically failed to trigger switching, 70 bp-repeat-adjacent breaks almost always triggered switching through 70 bp-repeat recombination (?60% RAD51-dependent), and telomere-repeat-adjacent breaks triggered switching through loss of the VSG expression site (25% of survivors). Expression site loss was associated with G2/M-checkpoint bypass, while 70 bp-repeat-recombination was associated with DNA-resection, ?H2A-focus assembly and a G2/M-checkpoint. Thus, the probability and mechanism of antigenic switching are highly dependent upon the location of the break. We conclude that 70 bp-repeat-adjacent and telomere-repeat-adjacent breaks trigger distinct checkpoint responses and VSG switching pathways. Our results show how subtelomere fragility can generate the triggers for the major antigenic variation mechanisms in the African trypanosome. PMID:23555264

Glover, Lucy; Alsford, Sam; Horn, David

2013-01-01

334

Detection of a complete autoimmune regulator gene deletion and two additional novel mutations in a cohort of patients with atypical phenotypic variants of autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1 (APS-1) is characterised by multiple autoimmune diseases. Detection of autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene mutations facilitates timely and precise diagnosis. Design: AIRE mutation detection was performed in a cohort of 11 patients. Two did not meet clinical APS-1 criteria and several started with atypical presentation. Methods: Sequencing and TaqMan genotyping were used to identify AIRE

Katarina Trebusak Podkrajsek; Tatjana Milenkovic ´; Roelof J Odink; Hedi L Claasen-van der Grinten; Nina Bratanic; Tinka Hovnik; Tadej Battelino

2008-01-01

335

Targeted Deletion of the PEX2 Peroxisome Assembly Gene in Mice Provides a Model for Zellweger Syndrome, a Human Neuronal Migration Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zellweger syndrome is a peroxisomal bio- genesis disorder that results in abnormal neuronal mi- gration in the central nervous system and severe neuro- logic dysfunction. The pathogenesis of the multiple severe anomalies associated with the disorders of per- oxisome biogenesis remains unknown. To study the re- lationship between lack of peroxisomal function and organ dysfunction, the PEX2 peroxisome assembly gene

Phyllis L. Faust; Mary E. Hatten

2010-01-01

336

Predicting Reading Comprehension Academic Achievement in Late Adolescents with Velo-Cardio-Facial (22q11.2 Deletion) Syndrome (VCFS): A Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The primary objective of the current study was to examine the childhood predictors of adolescent reading comprehension in velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS). Although much research has focused on mathematics skills among individuals with VCFS, no studies have examined predictors of reading comprehension. Methods: 69 late adolescents…

Antshel, K.; Hier, B.; Fremont, W.; Faraone, S. V.; Kates, W.

2014-01-01

337

Screening for 22q11 deletions in a schizophrenia population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the recognition that adults with velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS), which is associated with hemizygous interstitial deletions of chromosome 22q11, frequently show psychotic symptoms, deletion of the 22q11.2 region has been proposed as a common genetic abnormality associated with schizophrenia. In studies of schizophrenia patients, such deletions have been detected in more than 1% of schizophrenics, indicating the likely presence of

T. Arinami; T. Ohtsuki; K. Takase; H. Shimizu; T. Yoshikawa; H. Horigome; J. Nakayama; M. Toru

2001-01-01

338

Autistic and psychiatric findings associated with the 3q29 microdeletion syndrome: case report and review.  

PubMed

The screening of individuals with mild dysmorphic features and mental retardation using whole genome scanning technologies has resulted in the delineation of several previously unrecognized microdeletion syndromes. Microdeletion of 3q29 has been recently described as one such new syndrome. The clinical phenotype is variable despite an almost identical submicroscopic deletion size in most cases. We report on two individuals that further expand the clinical presentation of this rare disorder and compare the findings with earlier reports to refine the 3q29 microdeletion syndrome phenotype. The propositi are a 10-year-old female and a 15-year-old male, who have in common intellectual disabilities, a history of autism and psychiatric symptoms ranging from bipolar disorder presenting with increasing suicidal ideation to aggressive behavior and general anxiety. Other shared physical findings include asymmetric face, high-nasal bridge, crowded/dysplastic teeth, and tapered fingers. Oligonucleotide array-based chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) using a genome-wide SNP array identified a de novo subtelomeric microdeletion of chromosome region 3q29 ranging from 1.6 to 2.1?Mb. The region of overlap encompasses 20 RefSeq genes, including FBX045, DLG1, and PAK2. These genes are related to neuronal postsynaptic membrane function and PTEN signaling, suggesting a role for synaptic connectivity dysfunction in the etiology of autism in these children. The novel clinical presentation of our patients expands the clinical spectrum of the 3q29 microdeletion syndrome and provides additional insights into the pathophysiology of autism and psychiatric disorders. PMID:20830797

Quintero-Rivera, Fabiola; Sharifi-Hannauer, Pantea; Martinez-Agosto, Julian A

2010-10-01

339

Gomez-Lopez-Hernandez syndrome (cerebello-trigeminal-dermal dysplasia): description of an additional case and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Gomez-Lopez-Hernandez syndrome is a very rare genetic disorder with a distinct phenotype (OMIM 601853). To our knowledge there have been seven cases documented to date. We report on an additional male patient now aged 15 8/12 years with synostosis of the lambdoid suture, partial scalp alopecia, corneal opacity, mental retardation and striking phenotypic features (e.g., brachyturricephaly, hypertelorism, midface hypoplasia and low-set ears) consistent with Gomez-Lopez-Hernandez syndrome. In early childhood the patient demonstrated aggressive behavior and raging periods. He also had seizures that were adequately controlled by medication. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed rhombencephalosynapsis, i.e., a rare fusion of the cerebellar hemispheres, also consistent with Gomez-Lopez-Hernandez syndrome. In addition a lipoma of the quadrigeminal plate was observed, a feature not previously described in the seven patients reported in the literature. Cytogenetic and subtelomere analyses were inconspicuous. Microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) testing revealed five aberrations (partial deletions of 1p21.1, 8q24.23, 10q11.2, Xq26.3 and partial duplication of 19p13.2), which, however, have been classified as normal variants. Array-CGH has not been published in the previously reported children. The combination of certain craniofacial features, including partial alopecia, and the presence of rhombencephalosynapsis in the MRI are suggestive of Gomez-Lopez-Hernandez syndrome. Children with this syndrome should undergo a certain social pediatric protocol including EEG diagnostics, ophthalmological investingation, psychological testing, management of behavioral problems and genetic counseling. PMID:17483961

Schell-Apacik, Chayim Can; Cohen, Monika; Vojta, Stepan; Ertl-Wagner, Birgit; Klopocki, Eva; Heinrich, Uwe; von Voss, Hubertus

2008-01-01

340

Post vaccine acute disseminated encephalomyelitis as the first manifestation of chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome in a 15-month old baby: A case report.  

PubMed

We describe a case of a 15-month-old female child admitted to our hospital because of fever, rash, neurological signs (oscillation between states of irritability and drowsiness), palpebral edema and drooping eyelid, appeared 10 days after the vaccination for measles, mumps and rubella. Brain MRI images showed multiple bilateral hyperintense lesions in the white matter typical of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), an autoimmune demyelinating disorder with inflammatory lesions of the central nervous system, due to viral antigens or vaccines. In the mean time, because of patient's vague phenotypic manifestations, suggestive of a genetic defect, array comparative genomic hybridization was carried out which showed the presence of a microdeletion 22q11.21, linked to the DiGeorge syndrome. Our case suggests that pediatric cases of post-vaccination ADEM, in which neurological signs persist, should be investigated for genetic phenotypical features, in order to exclude the presence of a genetic syndrome or disease. PMID:25171844

Valenzise, Mariella; Cascio, Antonio; Wasniewska, Malgorzata; Zirilli, Giuseppina; Catena, Maria Ausilia; Arasi, Stefania

2014-09-29

341

Insertion\\/Deletion Polymorphism and Serum Activity of the Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme in Turkish Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study determined the allelic frequency and genotypic distribution of an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) polymorphism\\u000a and serum ACE activity in Turkish patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). A colorimetric assay measured serum\\u000a ACE activity in 73 of 97 subjects. Frequencies for II, ID, and DD genotypes were 19.6, 53.6, and 26.8% in the OSAS group and\\u000a 15, 38, and

Candan OgusSerap; Serap Ket; Turker Bilgen; Ibrahim Keser; Aykut Cilli; Ayse Yesim Gocmen; Ozgur Tosun; Saadet Gumuslu

2010-01-01

342

Subtelomeric repetitive elements determine TERRA regulation by Rap1/Rif and Rap1/Sir complexes in yeast  

PubMed Central

Telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA) has been implicated in the control of heterochromatin and telomerase. We demonstrate that yeast TERRA is regulated by telomere-binding proteins in a chromosome-end-specific manner that is dependent on subtelomeric repetitive DNA elements. At telomeres that contain only X-elements, the Rap1 carboxy-terminal domain recruits the Sir2/3/4 and Rif1/2 complexes to repress transcription in addition to promoting Rat1-nuclease-dependent TERRA degradation. At telomeres that contain Y? elements, however, Rap1 represses TERRA through recruitment of Rif1 and Rif2. Our work emphasizes the importance of subtelomeric DNA in the control of telomeric protein composition and telomere transcription. PMID:21525956

Iglesias, Nahid; Redon, Sophie; Pfeiffer, Verena; Dees, Martina; Lingner, Joachim; Luke, Brian

2011-01-01

343

Uveitis in DiGeorge syndrome: a case of autoimmune ocular inflammation in a patient with deletion 22q11.2  

PubMed Central

Purpose Del22q11.2, also known as DiGeorge syndrome, has a spectrum of ocular, facial and systemic features. Despite features of T cell dysfunction, infection and autoimmunity (including juvenile idiopathic arthritis), uveitis has not been described in patients with DiGeorge syndrome. Methods We describe a case of a 25-year-old male with bilateral granulomatous panuveitis who after initial investigation and treatment for an infectious cause was determined to have autoimmune-related uveitis with evidence on clinical, laboratory and imaging assessments suggestive of ocular sarcoidosis. Results The patient was found to have a normal T cell count and T cell proliferative response that was compared to a control patient, and phenotypes determined by flow cytometry were normal. However, the CD4/CD8 ratio in this patient was slightly lower than normal and the number of CD28 negative T cells, in both CD4 and CD8 populations, were significantly higher than a control. Conclusions The significance of these T cell abnormalities is unknown in the context of this patient’s uveitis but is suggestive of a role in autoimmunity, which is a known phenomenon in del22q11.2 syndrome, although autoimmune-related uveitis is not a previously described feature. PMID:20141355

Gottlieb, Chloe; Li, Zhuqing; Uzel, Gulbu; Nussenblatt, Robert B; Sen, H Nida

2010-01-01

344

Autism multiplex family with 16p11.2p12.2 microduplication syndrome in monozygotic twins and distal 16p11.2 deletion in their brother  

PubMed Central

The pericentromeric region of chromosome 16p is rich in segmental duplications that predispose to rearrangements through non-allelic homologous recombination. Several recurrent copy number variations have been described recently in chromosome 16p. 16p11.2 rearrangements (29.5–30.1?Mb) are associated with autism, intellectual disability (ID) and other neurodevelopmental disorders. Another recognizable but less common microdeletion syndrome in 16p11.2p12.2 (21.4 to 28.5–30.1?Mb) has been described in six individuals with ID, whereas apparently reciprocal duplications, studied by standard cytogenetic and fluorescence in situ hybridization techniques, have been reported in three patients with autism spectrum disorders. Here, we report a multiplex family with three boys affected with autism, including two monozygotic twins carrying a de novo 16p11.2p12.2 duplication of 8.95?Mb (21.28–30.23?Mb) characterized by single-nucleotide polymorphism array, encompassing both the 16p11.2 and 16p11.2p12.2 regions. The twins exhibited autism, severe ID, and dysmorphic features, including a triangular face, deep-set eyes, large and prominent nasal bridge, and tall, slender build. The eldest brother presented with autism, mild ID, early-onset obesity and normal craniofacial features, and carried a smaller, overlapping 16p11.2 microdeletion of 847?kb (28.40–29.25?Mb), inherited from his apparently healthy father. Recurrent deletions in this region encompassing the SH2B1 gene were recently reported in early-onset obesity and in individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders associated with phenotypic variability. We discuss the clinical and genetic implications of two different 16p chromosomal rearrangements in this family, and suggest that the 16p11.2 deletion in the father predisposed to the formation of the duplication in his twin children. PMID:22234155

Tabet, Anne-Claude; Pilorge, Marion; Delorme, Richard; Amsellem, Frederique; Pinard, Jean-Marc; Leboyer, Marion; Verloes, Alain; Benzacken, Brigitte; Betancur, Catalina

2012-01-01

345

Low thymic output in the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome measured by CCR9+CD45RA+ T cell counts and T cell receptor rearrangement excision circles  

PubMed Central

Thymic hypoplasia is a frequent feature of the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, but we know little about patients' age-related thymic output and long-term consequences for their immune system. We measured the expression of T cell receptor rearrangement excision circles (TREC) and used flow cytometry for direct subtyping of recent thymic emigrant (RTE)-related T cells in 43 patients (aged 1–54 years; median 9 years) from all over Norway and in age-matched healthy controls. Thymic volumes were estimated by ultrasound in patients. TREC levels correlated well with RTE-related T cells defined by co-expression of CD3, CD45RA and CCR9 (r = 0·84) as well as with the CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subtypes. RTE-related T cell counts also paralleled age-related TREC reductions. CD45RA+ T cells correlated well with absolute counts of CD4+ (r = 0·87) and CD8+ (r = 0·75) RTE-related T cells. Apart from CD45RA? T cells, all T cell subsets were lower in patients than in controls. Thymic volumes correlated better with RTE-related cells (r = 0·46) than with TREC levels (r = 0·38). RTE-related T cells and TREC levels also correlated well (r = 0·88) in patients without an identifiable thymus. Production of RTEs is impaired in patients with a 22q11.2 deletion, and CCR9 appears to be a good marker for RTE-related T cells. PMID:20491792

Lima, K; Abrahamsen, T G; Foelling, I; Natvig, S; Ryder, L P; Olaussen, R W

2010-01-01

346

Conditional Deletion of Cytochrome P450 Reductase in Osteoprogenitor Cells Affects Long Bone and Skull Development in Mice Recapitulating Antley-Bixler Syndrome: Role of a Redox Enzyme in Development  

PubMed Central

NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the primary electron donor for cytochromes P450, dehydrocholesterol reductase, heme oxygenase, and squalene monooxygenase. Human patients with specific mutations in POR exhibit severe developmental malformations including disordered steroidogenesis, sexual ambiguities and various bone defects, similar to those seen in patients with Antley-Bixler syndrome (ABS). To probe the role of POR during bone development, we generated a conditional knockout mouse (CKO) by cross breeding Porlox/lox and Dermo1 Cre mice. CKO mice were smaller than their littermate controls and exhibited significant craniofacial and long bone abnormalities. Differential staining of the CKO mice skull bases shows premature fusion of the sphenooccipital and basioccipital-exoccipital synchondroses. Class III malocclusion was noted in adult knockout mice with an unusual overgrowth of the lower incisors. Shorter long bones were observed along with a reduction in the bone volume fraction, measured by microCT, in the Por-deleted mice compared to age- and sex-matched littermate controls. Concerted up- or down-regulation of proteins in the FGF signaling pathway observed by immunohistochemistry in the tibia samples of CKO mice compared to wild type controls shows a decrease in the FGF signaling pathway. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a mouse model that recapitulates both skull and long bone defects upon Por deletion, offering an approach to study the sequelae of POR mutations. This unique model demonstrates that P450 metabolism in bone itself is potentially important for proper bone development, and that an apparent link exists between the POR and FGF signaling pathways, begging the question of how an oxidation-reduction flavoprotein affects developmental and cellular signaling processes. PMID:24086598

Panda, Satya P.; Guntur, Anyonya R.; Polusani, Srikanth R.; Fajardo, Roberto J.; Gakunga, Peter T.; Roman, Linda J.; Masters, Bettie Sue

2013-01-01

347

Interstitial deletion of chromosome 9, int del(9)(9q22.31-q31.2), including the genes causing multiple basal cell nevus syndrome and Robinow\\/brachydactyly 1 syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a child with a de novo interstitial deletion, 46,XY, int del(9)(9q22.31-q31.2). Cytogenetic and molecular analysis defined the boundaries of the lost region, of paternal origin, from D9S1796 to D9S938. The clinical picture included macrocephaly, frontal bossing, bilateral epicanthus, down-slanted palpebral fissures, low-set ears, hypoplastic nostrils, micrognathia, scoliosis, right single palmar crease, small nails, slender fingers, bilaterally flexed 5th

Carla Olivieri; Paola Maraschio; Desiree Caselli; Carla Martini; Giampiero Beluffi; Emanuela Maserati; Cesare Danesino

2003-01-01

348

A Novel Isolate with Deletion in GP3 Gene of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus from Mid-Eastern China  

PubMed Central

PRRSV strain SH1211 was isolated from the lung tissue of a piglet on a large-scale pig farm with approximately 30% morbidity and 50% mortality in mid-eastern China in 2012. The full-length genome of SH1211 was 15 313?nt in size, excluding the polyadenylated sequences, and shared 94.9% nucleotide sequence identity with the HP-PRRSV strain, JXA1. The GP2 and GP5 proteins of SH1211 shared only 91.5% and 85.1% amino acid sequence identities with those of the JXA1, respectively. A deletion at amino acid positions 68 and 69 was identified in the GP3 protein of SH1211, compared with the GP3 of Type-2 PRRSV isolates. A phylogenetic tree based on the nucleotide sequence of the complete genome showed that SH1211 is the most closely related to other HP-PRRSV strains isolated in China. However, phylogenetic analysis based on the GP2 and GP5 proteins showed that SH1211 is the most closely related to the QYYZ strain. A recombination analysis indicated that SH1211 might have been generated through recombination events between the JXA1 and QYYZ in which the GP2 and GP5 coding sequences were exchanged. Thus, SH1211 is a novel PRRSV strain with significant variation. Our analysis of SH1211 provides insight into the role of genetic variation in the antigenicity of PRRSVs in China. PMID:24693538

Wang, Hai; Bai, Juan; Zhang, Lili; Jiang, Ping

2014-01-01

349

9q22 Deletion - First Familial Case  

PubMed Central

Background Only 29 cases of constitutional 9q22 deletions have been published and all have been sporadic. Most associate with Gorlin syndrome or nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS, MIM #109400) due to haploinsufficiency of the PTCH1 gene (MIM *601309). Methods and Results We report two mentally retarded female siblings and their cognitively normal father, all carrying a similar 5.3 Mb microdeletion at 9q22.2q22.32, detected by array CGH (244 K). The deletion does not involve the PTCH1 gene, but instead 30 other gene,s including the ROR2 gene (MIM *602337) which causing both brachydactyly type 1 (MIM #113000) and Robinow syndrome (MIM #268310), and the immunologically active SYK gene (MIM *600085). The deletion in the father was de novo and FISH analysis of blood lymphocytes did not suggest mosaicism. All three patients share similar mild dysmorphic features with downslanting palpebral fissures, narrow, high bridged nose with small nares, long, deeply grooved philtrum, ears with broad helix and uplifted lobuli, and small toenails. All have significant dysarthria and suffer from continuous middle ear and upper respiratory infections. The father also has a funnel chest and unilateral hypoplastic kidney but the daughters have no malformations. Conclusions This is the first report of a familial constitutional 9q22 deletion and the first deletion studied by array-CGH which does not involve the PTCH1 gene. The phenotype and penetrance are variable and the deletion found in the cognitively normal normal father poses a challenge in genetic counseling. PMID:21693067

2011-01-01

350

Precise sequence complementarity between yeast chromosome ends and two classes of just-subtelomeric sequences.  

PubMed

The terminal regions (last 20 kb) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosomes universally contain blocks of precise sequence similarity to other chromosome terminal regions. The left and right terminal regions are distinct in the sense that the sequence similarities between them are reverse complements. Direct sequence similarity occurs between the left terminal regions and also between the right terminal regions, but not between any left ends and right ends. With minor exceptions the relationships range from 80% to 100% match within blocks. The regions of similarity are composites of familiar and unfamiliar repeated sequences as well as what could be considered "single-copy" (or better "two-copy") sequences. All terminal regions were compared with all other chromosomes, forward and reverse complement, and 768 comparisons are diagrammed. It appears there has been an extensive history of sequence exchange or copying between terminal regions. The subtelomeric sequences fall into two classes. Seventeen of the chromosome ends terminate with the Y' repeat, while 15 end with the 800-nt "X2" repeats just adjacent to the telomerase simple repeats. The just-subterminal repeats are very similar to each other except that chromosome 1 right end is more divergent. PMID:9600891

Britten, R J

1998-05-26

351

Suppression of subtelomeric VSG switching by Trypanosoma brucei TRF requires its TTAGGG repeat-binding activity  

PubMed Central

Trypanosoma brucei causes human African trypanosomiasis and regularly switches its major surface antigen, VSG, in the bloodstream of its mammalian host to evade the host immune response. VSGs are expressed exclusively from subtelomeric loci, and we have previously shown that telomere proteins TbTIF2 and TbRAP1 play important roles in VSG switching and VSG silencing regulation, respectively. We now discover that the telomere duplex DNA-binding factor, TbTRF, also plays a critical role in VSG switching regulation, as a transient depletion of TbTRF leads to significantly more VSG switching events. We solved the NMR structure of the DNA-binding Myb domain of TbTRF, which folds into a canonical helix-loop-helix structure that is conserved to the Myb domains of mammalian TRF proteins. The TbTRF Myb domain tolerates well the bulky J base in T. brucei telomere DNA, and the DNA-binding affinity of TbTRF is not affected by the presence of J both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, we find that point mutations in TbTRF Myb that significantly reduced its in vivo telomere DNA-binding affinity also led to significantly increased VSG switching frequencies, indicating that the telomere DNA-binding activity is critical for TbTRF's role in VSG switching regulation. PMID:25313155

Jehi, Sanaa E.; Li, Xiaohua; Sandhu, Ranjodh; Ye, Fei; Benmerzouga, Imaan; Zhang, Mingjie; Zhao, Yanxiang; Li, Bibo

2014-01-01

352

Beyond Widespread Mecp2 Deletions to Model Rett Syndrome: Conditional Spatio-Temporal Knockout, Single-Point Mutations and Transgenic Rescue Mice  

PubMed Central

Rett syndrome (RTT) is one of the leading causes of intellectual disabilities in women. In addition to a few autistic features, characteristic symptoms that distinguish from classical autism include stereotypic hand movements, motor coordination deficits, breathing abnormalities, seizures and loss of acquired speech as well as purposeful hand use. RTT is highly associated with MECP2, the gene encoding for the transcription factor that binds methylated Cytosine in C-p-G islands in DNA, controlling gene expression and chromatin remodeling. In this review, we will briefly discuss current perspectives on MeCP2 function, and then will describe in detail novel mouse models of RTT based on loss-of-function of Mecp2 and their use for establishing rescue models, wherein we pay close attention to behavioral and morphological phenotypes. PMID:23946910

Li, Wei; Pozzo-Miller, Lucas

2012-01-01

353

A rare de novo duplication of chromosome 21q22.12 -> q22.3 with other concomitant deletion and duplication of small fragments in 21q associated with Down syndrome: Prenatal diagnosis, molecular cytogenetic characterization  

PubMed Central

Background Karyotyping is considered the gold standard for the genome-wide detection of genomic imbalances in prenatal diagnosis, but it has a number of inherent limitations, namely the time required to culture cell and the limited resolution(5?~?10 Mb). Although fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) can also be used as a rapid prenatal diagnosis for common aneuploidies, it is labor intensive, requires prior knowledge of the regions of interest, and can only be used to diagnose one or a few genomic regions simultaneously. Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) can overcome the resolution, the locus-specific, and the time limitations of the karyotyping and FISH techniques and is currently the most powerful method for detecting chromosomal alterations in pre and postnatal clinical cases. Several investigations have suggested that the aCGH testing should be considered a first-tier test for the diagnosis of cytogenetic aberrations in the fetus. Results This study used karyotyping, FISH, sequence-tagged site (STS) analysis and aCGH to diagnose a case of de novo duplication of chromosome 21q22.12???q22.3 with other concomitant deletion and duplication of small fragments in 21q associated with Down syndrome prenatally. Conclusions FISH, aCGH and STS analysis are useful in prenatal investigation of the nature of de novo alterations of small fragments of the chromosome. PMID:23497671

2013-01-01

354

Miller-Dieker Syndrome with der(17)t(12;17)(q24.33;p13.3)pat Presenting with a Potential Risk of Mis-identification as a de novo Submicroscopic Deletion of 17p13.3  

PubMed Central

Miller-Dieker syndrome involves a severe type of lissencephaly, which is caused by defects in the lissencephaly gene (LIS1). We report the case of a female infant with der(17)t(12;17)(q24.33;p13.3)pat caused by an unbalanced segregation of the parental balanced translocation of 17p with other chromosomes. The proband presented with facial dysmorphism, arthrogryposis, and intrauterine growth retardation. Most cases of Miller-Dieker syndrome have a de novo deletion involving 17p13.3. When Miller-Dieker syndrome is caused by an unbalanced translocation, mild-to-severe phenotypes occur according to the extension of the involved partner chromosome. However, a pure partial monosomy derived from a paternal balanced translocation is relatively rare. In this case, the submicroscopic cryptic deletion in the proband was initially elucidated by FISH, and karyotype analysis did not reveal additional chromosome abnormalities such as translocation. However, a family history of recurrent pregnancy abnormalities strongly suggested familial translocation. Sequential G-banding and FISH analysis of the father's chromosomes showed that the segment of 17p13.3?pter was attached to the 12qter. Thus, we report a case that showed resemblance to the findings in cases of a nearly pure 17p deletion, derived from t(12;17), and delineated by whole genome array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). If such cases are incorrectly diagnosed as Miller-Dieker syndrome caused by de novo 17p13.3 deletion, the resultant improper genetic counseling may make it difficult to exactly predict the potential risk of recurrent lissencephaly for successive pregnancies. PMID:21239872

Kim, Young Jin; Byun, Shin Yun; Jo, Seon A; Shin, Yong Beom; Cho, Eun Hae; Lee, Eun Yup

2011-01-01

355

Deletion of the cardiolipin-specific phospholipase Cld1 rescues growth and life span defects in the tafazzin mutant: implications for Barth syndrome.  

PubMed

Cardiolipin (CL) that is synthesized de novo is deacylated to monolysocardiolipin (MLCL), which is reacylated by tafazzin. Remodeled CL contains mostly unsaturated fatty acids. In eukaryotes, loss of tafazzin leads to growth and respiration defects, and in humans, this results in the life-threatening disorder Barth syndrome. Tafazzin deficiency causes a decrease in the CL/MLCL ratio and decreased unsaturated CL species. Which of these biochemical outcomes contributes to the physiological defects is not known. Yeast cells have a single CL-specific phospholipase, Cld1, that can be exploited to distinguish between these outcomes. The cld1? mutant has decreased unsaturated CL, but the CL/MLCL ratio is similar to that of wild type cells. We show that cld1? rescues growth, life span, and respiratory defects of the taz1? mutant. This suggests that defective growth and respiration in tafazzin-deficient cells are caused by the decreased CL/MLCL ratio and not by a deficiency in unsaturated CL. CLD1 expression is increased during respiratory growth and regulated by the heme activator protein transcriptional activation complex. Overexpression of CLD1 leads to decreased mitochondrial respiration and growth and instability of mitochondrial DNA. However, ATP concentrations are maintained by increasing glycolysis. We conclude that transcriptional regulation of Cld1-mediated deacylation of CL influences energy metabolism by modulating the relative contribution of glycolysis and respiration. PMID:24318983

Ye, Cunqi; Lou, Wenjia; Li, Yiran; Chatzispyrou, Iliana A; Hüttemann, Maik; Lee, Icksoo; Houtkooper, Riekelt H; Vaz, Frédéric M; Chen, Shuliang; Greenberg, Miriam L

2014-02-01

356

Jacobsen syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jacobsen syndrome is a MCA\\/MR contiguous gene syndrome caused by partial deletion of the long arm of chromosome 11. To date, over 200 cases have been reported. The prevalence has been estimated at 1\\/100,000 births, with a female\\/male ratio 2:1. The most common clinical features include pre- and postnatal physical growth retardation, psychomotor retardation, and characteristic facial dysmorphism (skull deformities,

Teresa Mattina; Concetta Simona Perrotta; Paul Grossfeld

2009-01-01

357

9q22 Deletion - First Familial Case  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Only 29 cases of constitutional 9q22 deletions have been published and all have been sporadic. Most associate with Gorlin\\u000a syndrome or nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS, MIM #109400) due to haploinsufficiency of the PTCH1 gene (MIM *601309).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods and Results  We report two mentally retarded female siblings and their cognitively normal father, all carrying a similar 5.3 Mb microdeletion\\u000a at

Linda Siggberg; Maarit Peippo; Marjatta Sipponen; Taina Miikkulainen; Keiko Shimojima; Toshiyuki Yamamoto; Jaakko Ignatius; Sakari Knuutila

2011-01-01

358

NFKBIA Deletion in Glioblastomas  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Amplification and activating mutations of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) oncogene are molecular hallmarks of glioblastomas. We hypothesized that deletion of NFKBIA (encoding nuclear factor of ?-light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor-?), an inhibitor of the EGFR-signaling pathway, promotes tumorigenesis in glioblastomas that do not have alterations of EGFR. METHODS We analyzed 790 human glioblastomas for deletions, mutations, or expression of NFKBIA and EGFR. We studied the tumor-suppressor activity of NFKBIA in tumor-cell culture. We compared the molecular results with the outcome of glioblastoma in 570 affected persons. RESULTS NFKBIA is often deleted but not mutated in glioblastomas; most deletions occur in nonclassical subtypes of the disease. Deletion of NFKBIA and amplification of EGFR show a pattern of mutual exclusivity. Restoration of the expression of NFKBIA attenuated the malignant phenotype and increased the vulnerability to chemotherapy of cells cultured from tumors with NFKBIA deletion; it also reduced the viability of cells with EGFR amplification but not of cells with normal gene dosages of both NFKBIA and EGFR. Deletion and low expression of NFKBIA were associated with unfavorable outcomes. Patients who had tumors with NFKBIA deletion had outcomes that were similar to those in patients with tumors harboring EGFR amplification. These outcomes were poor as compared with the outcomes in patients with tumors that had normal gene dosages of NFKBIA and EGFR. A two-gene model that was based on expression of NFKBIA and O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase was strongly associated with the clinical course of the disease. CONCLUSIONS Deletion of NFKBIA has an effect that is similar to the effect of EGFR amplification in the pathogenesis of glioblastoma and is associated with comparatively short survival. PMID:21175304

Bredel, Markus; Scholtens, Denise M.; Yadav, Ajay K.; Alvarez, Angel A.; Renfrow, Jaclyn J.; Chandler, James P.; Yu, Irene L.Y.; Carro, Maria S.; Dai, Fangping; Tagge, Michael J.; Ferrarese, Roberto; Bredel, Claudia; Phillips, Heidi S.; Lukac, Paul J.; Robe, Pierre A.; Weyerbrock, Astrid; Vogel, Hannes; Dubner, Steven; Mobley, Bret; He, Xiaolin; Scheck, Adrienne C.; Sikic, Branimir I.; Aldape, Kenneth D.; Chakravarti, Arnab; Harsh, Griffith R.

2013-01-01

359

Williams-Beuren Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS; also called Williams syndrome) is a multisystem developmental disorder that is almost always\\u000a associated with an approx 1.5-Mb deletion of chromosome 7q11.23 (OMIM no. 194050). The deletion was identified in 1993 based\\u000a on the observation of phenotypic overlap with supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS), a distinct autosomal dominant disorder\\u000a affecting the cardiovascular system (1). It has since been

Stephen W. Scherer; Lucy R. Osborne

360

Effect of large targeted deletions on the mitotic stability of an extra chromosome mediating drug resistance in Leishmania  

PubMed Central

A mitotically stable linear extra chromosome obtained in a Leishmania donovani strain rendered mycophenolic acid-resistant has been physically mapped. This 290-kb chromosome has an inverted duplicated structure around a central inversion region, and is derived from a conservative amplification event of a ?140-kb subtelomeric end of chromosome 19. Large-sized targeted deletions of the central region were performed through homologous recombination using three specific transfection vectors. The size of the extra chromosome was thus successfully reduced from 290 to 260, 200 and 120 kb respectively. The mitotic stability of these chromosomes was then analysed in drug-free cultures over >140 days. Results differed according to the deletion created. By contrast with the smallest deletion the two largest deletions altered mitotic stability, leading to progressive loss of the size-reduced chromosomes with similar kinetics in both mutants. The 30-kb region common to both deletions may therefore be considered as involved in mitotic stability. A 44-kb contig covering this region could be assembled and sequenced. The analysis of this sequence did not reveal any sequence elements typical of centromeric DNA. By contrast, its enrichment in homopolymer tracts suggests that this region might contain an origin of replication. PMID:11470881

Dubessay, Pascal; Ravel, Christophe; Bastien, Patrick; Lignon, Marie-Francoise; Ullman, Buddy; Pages, Michel; Blaineau, Christine

2001-01-01

361

Myasthenia gravis with concomitant severe paraspinal muscle degeneration and mitochondrial DNA4977 deletion.  

PubMed

Recent reports have discussed the many causes of dropped head syndrome and bent spine syndrome. We described a case of myasthenia gravis with concomitant severe degeneration of spinal muscle, mitochondrial DNA4977 deletion and sensorineural deafness. These associations were thought to be independent, however this is an important case to consider the etiology of bent spine syndrome. PMID:17541228

Wakata, Nobuo; Konno, Shinngo; Nomoto, Nobuatsu; Sugimoto, Hideki; Nemoto, Hiroshi; Kurihara, Teruyuki; Kishi, Masahiko

2007-01-01

362

Cytogenetic and molecular characterization of a three-generation family with chromosome 5p terminal deletion.  

PubMed

Terminal or interstitial deletion on the short arm of chromosome 5 is associated with a genetic disorder, cri-du-chat syndrome (cat cry syndrome), which is characterized by a cat-like cry in infancy, facial dysmorphism, microcephaly, and mental retardation. There is a high degree of variation in clinical presentations of patients with cri-du-chat syndrome, which is usually associated with different sizes and locations of deletions in chromosome 5p. Most patients with a 5p deletion have de novo mutations; familial 5p deletion is rare in literature. Here, we report a three-generation family with a 5p terminal deletion. The terminal 5p deletion (5p15.2-pter) in this family was confirmed and characterized by karyotyping analysis, fluorescent in situ hybridization, array comparative genome hybridization, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Although the affected family members apparently share deletions of the same size, there are some variations in mental symptoms within this family. Two affected females manifest moderate mental retardation and psychotic symptoms such as delusion of persecution, auditory hallucination, self-talking, and self-laughing, which are rare in cri-du-chat syndrome. In contrast, the other three affected males express mild-to-moderate mental retardation but no psychotic symptoms. Our study suggests that other factors besides the size and location of 5p deletions may modify the mental presentations of patients with 5p deletions. PMID:18400035

Fang, J-S; Lee, K-F; Huang, C-T; Syu, C-L; Yang, K-J; Wang, L-H; Liao, D-L; Chen, C-H

2008-06-01

363

Velo-Cardio-Facial Syndrome: 30 Years of Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Velo-cardio-facial syndrome is one of the names that has been attached to one of the most common multiple anomaly syndromes in humans. The labels DiGeorge sequence, 22q11 deletion syndrome, conotruncal anomalies face syndrome, CATCH 22, and Sedlackova syndrome have all been attached to the same disorder. Velo-cardio-facial syndrome has an…

Shprintzen, Robert J.

2008-01-01

364

Inverted duplication with terminal deletion of 5p and no cat-like cry.  

PubMed

We report on a 6-year-old boy referred for cytogenetics study. A few non-specific features were observed in the newborn: hypotonia, failure to thrive, seizures, pre-auricular skin tags. Cat-like cry was not identified. No remarkable facial dysmorphism, gastrointestinal, respiratory or cardiac abnormalities were identified. At age 4 years, speech and motor skill delays were apparent. Karyotyping and FISH analysis revealed a de novo rearranged chromosome 5p, with subtelomeric deletion of 5p and a duplication of the cri-du-chat critical region. Array CGH using sub-megabase resolution tiling-set (SMRT) array followed by FISH analysis with labeled BACs showed a deletion of 5pter to 5p15.31 (0-6.9 Mb) and an inverted duplication of the greater part of 5p15.31 to the distal end of 5p14.3 (6.9-19.9 Mb). Although very rare, inverted duplications with terminal deletion (inv dup del) have been reported at different chromosomal ends. Our finding adds a second patient of inv dup del 5p to this growing list, and the potential causative mechanisms for this rearrangement are discussed. Review of the mapping information of cri-du-chat patients and the comparison with a previously reported patient suggested that the critical region for cat-like cry is located within a 0.6 Mb region. PMID:18266247

Wang, Jia-Chi; Coe, Bradley P; Lomax, Brenda; MacLeod, Patrick M; Parslow, Malcolm I; Schein, Jacqueline E; Lam, Wan L; Eydoux, Patrice

2008-05-01

365

Telomeric gene deletion and intrachromosomal amplification in antimony-resistant Leishmania.  

PubMed

Antimonials are still the mainstay of treatment against leishmaniasis but drug resistance is increasing. We carried out short read next-generation sequencing (NGS) and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) of three independent Leishmania major antimony-resistant mutants. Copy number variations were consistently detected with both NGS and CGH. A major attribute of antimony resistance was a novel terminal deletion of variable length (67?kb to 204?kb) of the polyploid chromosome 31 in the three mutants. Terminal deletions in two mutants occurred at the level of inverted repeated sequences. The AQP1 gene coding for an aquaglyceroporin was part of the deleted region and its transfection into resistant mutants reverted resistance to SbIII. We also highlighted an intrachromosomal amplification of a subtelomeric locus on chromosome 34 in one mutant. This region encoded for ascorbate-dependent peroxidase (APX) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH). Overexpression of these genes in revertant backgrounds demonstrated resistance to SbIII and protection from reactive oxygen species (ROS). Generation of a G6PDH null mutant in one revertant exhibited SbIII sensitivity and a decreased protection of ROS. Our genomic analyses and functional validation highlighted novel genomic rearrangements, functionally important resistant loci and the implication of new genes in antimony resistance in Leishmania. PMID:23421749

Mukherjee, Angana; Boisvert, Sébastien; Monte-Neto, Rubens Lima do; Coelho, Adriano C; Raymond, Frederic; Mukhopadhyay, Rita; Corbeil, Jacques; Ouellette, Marc

2013-04-01

366

Interstitial deletion of the short arm of chromosome 5 in a mother and three children.  

PubMed Central

An interstitial deletion (5) (p13p15.1) was found in a mentally retarded woman and three of her four children. The variable manifestation of this chromosomal defect and the relevance of this particular deletion to the cri du chat syndrome are discussed. To our knowledge the only other reported case of inherited 5p deletion from an affected parent involved the terminal segment of the 5p15.3 band. Images PMID:6512838

Walker, J L; Blank, C E; Smith, B A

1984-01-01

367

Molecular cytogenetic analysis of five 2q37 deletions: refining the brachydactyly candidate region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deletions of the 2q37 region are associated with a recognizable pattern of MCA\\/MR so-called the AHO-like syndrome. Brachydactyly is a variable but characteristic feature of this clinical entity. Here we report on five cases of cytogenetically visible de novo deletions of this 2q37 chromosome region. Using FISH, we characterized at the molecular level the breakpoints of these deletions using a

M. Chaabouni; M. Le Merrer; O. Raoul; M. Prieur; M. C. de Blois; A. Philippe; M. Vekemans; S. P. Romana

2006-01-01

368

Molecular network analysis of phosphotyrosine and lipid metabolism in hepatic PTP1b deletion mice  

E-print Network

Metabolic syndrome describes a set of obesity-related disorders that increase diabetes, cardiovascular, and mortality risk. Studies of liver-specific protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1b (PTP1b) deletion mice (L-PTP1b[superscript ...

Miraldi, Emily R.

369

Genetic Counseling for the 22q11.2 Deletion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because of advances in palliative medical care, children with the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome are surviving into adulthood. An increase in reproductive fitness will likely follow necessitating enhanced access to genetic counseling for these patients and their families. Primary care physicians/obstetric practitioners are in a unique position to…

McDonald-McGinn, Donna M.; Zackai, Elaine H.

2008-01-01

370

Interdigitated deletion complexes on mouse chromosome 5 induced by irradiation of embryonic stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromosome deletions have several applications in the genetic analysis of complex organisms. They can be used as reagents in region-directed mutagenesis, for mapping of simple or complex traits, or to identify biological consequences of segmental haploidy, the latter being relevant to human contiguous gene syndromes and imprinting. We have generated three deletion complexes in ES (Embryonic Stem) cells that collectively

J. C. Schimenti; B J Libby; R A Bergstrom; L A Wilson; D Naf; L M Tarantino; A Alavizadeh; A Lengeling; M Bucan

2000-01-01

371

Transmitted deletions of medial 5p and learning difficulties; does the cadherin cluster only become penetrant when flanking genes are deleted?  

PubMed

The central portion of the short arm of chromosome 5 is unusual in that large, cytogenetically visible interstitial deletions segregate in families with and without phenotypic consequences. Here we present a family in which a transmitted interstitial deletion of 5p13.3 to 5p14.3 co-segregated with learning and/or behavioral difficulties in six family members. Facial dysmorphism was not striking but a father and daughter both had lacrimal fistulae. The deletion was 12.23 Mb in size (chr5:20,352,535-32,825,775) and contained fifteen known protein coding genes. Five of these (GOLPH3; MTMR12; ZFR; SUB1; and NPR3) and an ultra-conserved microRNA (hsa-miR-579) were present in an 883 kb candidate gene region in 5p13.3 that was deleted in the present family but not in previously reported overlapping benign deletions. Members of the cadherin precursor gene cluster, with brain specific expression, were deleted in both affected and benign deletion families. The candidate genes in 5p13.3 may be sufficient to account for the consistent presence or absence of phenotype in medial 5p deletions. However, we consider the possibility of position effects in which CDH6, and/or other cadherin genes, become penetrant when adjacent genes, or modifiers of gene expression, are also deleted. This could account for the absence of intellectual disability in benign deletions of the cadherin cluster, the cognitive phenotype in medial 5p deletion syndrome and the greater severity of intellectual disability in patients with cri-du-chat syndrome and deletions of 5p15 that extend into the region deleted in the present family. PMID:21965044

Barber, John C K; Huang, Shuwen; Bateman, Mark S; Collins, Amanda L

2011-11-01

372

PAX3 gene deletion detected by microarray analysis in a girl with hearing loss  

PubMed Central

Deletions of the PAX3 gene have been rarely reported in the literature. Mutations of this gene are a common cause of Waardenburg syndrome type 1 and 3. We report a 16?year old female presenting hearing loss and normal intellectual development, without major features of Waardenburg syndrome type 1, and without family history of the syndrome. Her phenotype, however, overlaps with features of craniofacial-deafness-hand syndrome. Microarray analysis showed ~862?kb de novo deletion at 2q36.1 including PAX3. The above findings suggest that the rearrangement found in our patient appeared de novo and with high probability is a cause of her phenotype. PMID:24839464

2014-01-01

373

Mitochondrial DNA deletion in human oocytes and embryos.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions are present in both human oocytes and embryos. It has been found that these tissues contain a mtDNA mutation which is present in high amounts in patients with Kearns-Sayre syndrome (KSS) and progressive external ophthalmoplegia. In the present study, the frequency of this KSS deletion was investigated in human oocytes and embryos. Using a nested primer polymerase chain chian reaction (PCR) strategy, the frequency of the KSS deletion in 74 human oocytes and 137 embryos was found to be 32.8 and 8.0% respectively. Using a 'long PCR-short PCR' nested primer strategy, the frequency of the KSS deletion in 181 human oocytes and 104 embryos was found to be 47.0 and 20.2% respectively. There was no statistical correlation between the age of the patients at the time of oocyte retrieval and the presence of the deleted molecules. There was a statistical difference between the presence of the deleted molecules in oocytes versus embryos using either technique (P < 0.0001). The relevance of these findings to the accumulation of low levels of deleted mtDNA in both oocytes and embryos is discussed in this study. PMID:9783850

Brenner, C A; Wolny, Y M; Barritt, J A; Matt, D W; Munné, S; Cohen, J

1998-09-01

374

Fetal phenotype associated with the 22q11 deletion.  

PubMed

The 22q11 deletion syndrome is one of the most common human microdeletion syndromes, with a wide spectrum of abnormalities. The fetal phenotype associated with the 22q11 deletion is poorly described in the literature. A national retrospective study was performed from 74 feto-pathological examinations. The objectives were to evaluate the circumstances of the 22q11 deletion diagnosis and to describe fetal anomalies. Post mortem examinations were performed after 66 terminations of pregnancy and eight fetal deaths. The series included nine fetuses from the first trimester, 55 from the second trimester, and ten from the third trimester. A 22q11 FISH analysis was recommended for 57 fetuses after multidisciplinary prenatal diagnostic counseling and for 17 fetuses by a fetal pathologist. Conotruncal heart defects were the most common anomalies (65 fetuses), followed by thymus defects (62 fetuses), and malformations of the urinary tract (25 fetuses). This study identified several unusual and severe features rarely described in the literature. Neurological abnormalities were described in ten fetuses, with seven neural tube defects and five arhinencephalies. This series also included lethal malformations: two hypoplastic left heart syndromes, two bilateral renal agenesis, and one tracheal agenesis. Genetic analysis for a 22q11 deletion is usually indicated when a congenital conotruncal heart and/or thymus defect is detected, but might also be useful in case of other lethal or severe malformations that initially led to the termination of pregnancy. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25111715

Noël, Anne-Claire; Pelluard, Fanny; Delezoide, Anne-Lise; Devisme, Louise; Loeuillet, Laurence; Leroy, Brigitte; Martin, Alain; Bouvier, Raymonde; Laquerriere, Annie; Jeanne-Pasquier, Corinne; Bessieres-Grattagliano, Betty; Mechler, Charlotte; Alanio, Elisabeth; Leroy, Camille; Gaillard, Dominique

2014-11-01

375

Phenotypic variability of atypical 22q11.2 deletions not including TBX1.  

PubMed

Interstitial deletions of the chromosome 22q11.2 region are the most common microdeletions in humans. The TBX1 gene is considered to be the major candidate gene for the main features in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, including congenital heart malformations, (para)thyroid hypoplasia, and craniofacial abnormalities. We report on eight patients with atypical deletions of chromosome 22q11.2. These deletions comprise the distal part of the common 22q11.2 deleted region but do not encompass the TBX1 gene. Ten similar patients with overlapping distal 22q11.2 deletions have been reported previously. The clinical features of these patients are described and compared to those found in the classic 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. We discuss the possible roles of a position effect or haploinsufficiency of distally located genes (e.g., CRKL) in the molecular pathogenesis of the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. PMID:22893440

Verhagen, Judith M A; Diderich, Karin E M; Oudesluijs, Grétel; Mancini, Grazia M S; Eggink, Alex J; Verkleij-Hagoort, Anna C; Groenenberg, Irene A L; Willems, Patrick J; du Plessis, Frederik A; de Man, Stella A; Srebniak, Malgorzata I; van Opstal, Diane; Hulsman, Lorette O M; van Zutven, Laura J C M; Wessels, Marja W

2012-10-01

376

Genetic Modifiers of the Physical Malformations in Velo-Cardio-Facial Syndrome/DiGeorge Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Velo-cardio-facial syndrome/DiGeorge syndrome (VCFS/DGS), the most common micro-deletion disorder in humans, is characterized by craniofacial, parathyroid, and thymic defects as well as cardiac outflow tract malformations. Most patients have a similar hemizygous 3 million base pair deletion on 22q11.2. Studies in mouse have shown that "Tbx1", a…

Aggarwal, Vimla S.; Morrow, Bernice E.

2008-01-01

377

Overlapping deletions spanning the proximal two-thirds of the mouse t complex  

PubMed Central

Chromosome deletion complexes in model organisms serve as valuable genetic tools for the functional and physical annotation of complex genomes. Among their many roles, deletions can serve as mapping tools for simple or quantitative trait loci (QTLs), genetic reagents for regional mutagenesis experiments, and, in the case of mice, models of human contiguous gene deletion syndromes. Deletions also are uniquely suited for identifying regions of the genome containing haploinsufficient or imprinted loci. Here we describe the creation of new deletions at the proximal end of mouse Chromosome (Chr) 17 by using the technique of ES cell irradiation and the extensive molecular characterization of these and previously isolated deletions that, in total, cover much of the mouse t complex. The deletions are arranged in five overlapping complexes that collectively span about 25 Mbp. Furthermore, we have integrated each of the deletion complexes with physical data from public and private mouse genome sequences, and our own genetic data, to resolve some discrepancies. These deletions will be useful for characterizing several phenomena related to the t complex and t haplotypes, including transmission ratio distortion, male infertility, and the collection of t haplotype embryonic lethal mutations. The deletions will also be useful for mapping other loci of interest on proximal Chr 17, including T-associated sex reversal (Tas) and head-tilt (het). The new deletions have thus far been used to localize the recently identified t haplolethal (Thl1) locus to an approximately 1.3-Mbp interval. PMID:14724736

Bergstrom, David E.; Bergstrom, Rebecca A.; Munroe, Robert J.; Lee, Barbara K.; Browning, Victoria L.; You, Yun; Eicher, Eva M.; Schimenti, John C.

2008-01-01

378

Deletion (X)(q26. 1[r arrow]q28) in a proband and her mother: Molecular characterization and phenotypic-karyotypic deductions  

SciTech Connect

During a routine pernatal diagnosis the authors detected a female fetus with an apparent terminal deletion of an X chromosome with a karyotype 46,X,del(X)(q25); the mother, who later underwent premature ovarian failure, had the same Xq deletion. To further delineate this familial X deletion and to determine whether the deletion was truly terminal or, rather, interstitial (retaining a portion of the terminal Xq28), the authors used a combination of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and Southern analyses. RFLP analyses and dosage estimation by densitometry were performed with a panel of nine probes (DXS3, DXS17, DXS11, DXS42, DXS86, DXS144E, DXS105, DXS304, and DXS52) that span the region Xq21 to subtelomeric Xq28. They detected a deletion involving the five probes spanning Xq26-Xq28. FISH with a cosmid probe (CLH 128) that defined Xq28 provided further evidence of a deletion in that region. Analysis with the X chromosome-specific cocktail probes spanning Xpter-qter showed hybridization signal all along the abnormal X, excluding the possibility of a cryptic translocation. However, sequential FISH with the X [alpha]-satellite probe DXZ1 and a probe for total human telomeres showed the presence of telomeres on both the normal and deleted X chromosomes. From the molecular and FISH analyses they interpret the deletion in this family as 46,X,del(X)(pter[r arrow]q26::qter). In light of previous phenotypic-karyotypic correlations, it can be deduced that this region contains a locus responsible for ovarian maintenance. 32 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Tharapel, A.T.; Simpson, J.L.; Martens, P.R.; Wilroy, R.S. Jr.; Llerena, J.C. Jr. (Univ. of Tennessee, Memphis (United States)); Anderson, K.P.; Schwartz, C.E. (Greenwood Genetics Center, SC (United States))

1993-03-01

379

Jacobsen syndrome  

PubMed Central

Jacobsen syndrome is a MCA/MR contiguous gene syndrome caused by partial deletion of the long arm of chromosome 11. To date, over 200 cases have been reported. The prevalence has been estimated at 1/100,000 births, with a female/male ratio 2:1. The most common clinical features include pre- and postnatal physical growth retardation, psychomotor retardation, and characteristic facial dysmorphism (skull deformities, hypertelorism, ptosis, coloboma, downslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthal folds, broad nasal bridge, short nose, v-shaped mouth, small ears, low set posteriorly rotated ears). Abnormal platelet function, thrombocytopenia or pancytopenia are usually present at birth. Patients commonly have malformations of the heart, kidney, gastrointestinal tract, genitalia, central nervous system and skeleton. Ocular, hearing, immunological and hormonal problems may be also present. The deletion size ranges from ~7 to 20 Mb, with the proximal breakpoint within or telomeric to subband 11q23.3 and the deletion extending usually to the telomere. The deletion is de novo in 85% of reported cases, and in 15% of cases it results from an unbalanced segregation of a familial balanced translocation or from other chromosome rearrangements. In a minority of cases the breakpoint is at the FRA11B fragile site. Diagnosis is based on clinical findings (intellectual deficit, facial dysmorphic features and thrombocytopenia) and confirmed by cytogenetics analysis. Differential diagnoses include Turner and Noonan syndromes, and acquired thrombocytopenia due to sepsis. Prenatal diagnosis of 11q deletion is possible by amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling and cytogenetic analysis. Management is multi-disciplinary and requires evaluation by general pediatrician, pediatric cardiologist, neurologist, ophthalmologist. Auditory tests, blood tests, endocrine and immunological assessment and follow-up should be offered to all patients. Cardiac malformations can be very severe and require heart surgery in the neonatal period. Newborns with Jacobsen syndrome may have difficulties in feeding and tube feeding may be necessary. Special attention should be devoted due to hematological problems. About 20% of children die during the first two years of life, most commonly related to complications from congenital heart disease, and less commonly from bleeding. For patients who survive the neonatal period and infancy, the life expectancy remains unknown. PMID:19267933

Mattina, Teresa; Perrotta, Concetta Simona; Grossfeld, Paul

2009-01-01

380

Novel large-range mitochondrial DNA deletions and fatal multisystemic disorder with prominent hepatopathy  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expanded array of mtDNA deletions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pearson syndrome with prominent hepatopathy associated with single mtDNA deletions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Detection of deletions in fibroblasts and blood avoids muscle and liver biopsy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Look for mtDNA deletions before to study nuclear genes related to mtDNA depletion. -- Abstract: Hepatic involvement in mitochondrial cytopathies rarely manifests in adulthood, but is a common feature in children. Multiple OXPHOS enzyme defects in children with liver involvement are often associated with dramatically reduced amounts of mtDNA. We investigated two novel large scale deletions in two infants with a multisystem disorder and prominent hepatopathy. Amount of mtDNA deletions and protein content were measured in different post-mortem tissues. The highest levels of deleted mtDNA were in liver, kidney, pancreas of both patients. Moreover, mtDNA deletions were detected in cultured skin fibroblasts in both patients and in blood of one during life. Biochemical analysis showed impairment of mainly complex I enzyme activity. Patients manifesting multisystem disorders in childhood may harbour rare mtDNA deletions in multiple tissues. For these patients, less invasive blood specimens or cultured fibroblasts can be used for molecular diagnosis. Our data further expand the array of deletions in the mitochondrial genomes in association with liver failure. Thus analysis of mtDNA should be considered in the diagnosis of childhood-onset hepatopathies.

Bianchi, Marzia; Rizza, Teresa; Verrigni, Daniela [Unit of Molecular Medicine for Neuromuscular and Neurodegenerative Diseases, 'Bambino Gesu' Children's Hospital, Rome (Italy)] [Unit of Molecular Medicine for Neuromuscular and Neurodegenerative Diseases, 'Bambino Gesu' Children's Hospital, Rome (Italy); Martinelli, Diego [Division of Metabolism, 'Bambino Gesu' Children's Hospital, Rome (Italy)] [Division of Metabolism, 'Bambino Gesu' Children's Hospital, Rome (Italy); Tozzi, Giulia; Torraco, Alessandra; Piemonte, Fiorella [Unit of Molecular Medicine for Neuromuscular and Neurodegenerative Diseases, 'Bambino Gesu' Children's Hospital, Rome (Italy)] [Unit of Molecular Medicine for Neuromuscular and Neurodegenerative Diseases, 'Bambino Gesu' Children's Hospital, Rome (Italy); Dionisi-Vici, Carlo [Division of Metabolism, 'Bambino Gesu' Children's Hospital, Rome (Italy)] [Division of Metabolism, 'Bambino Gesu' Children's Hospital, Rome (Italy); Nobili, Valerio [Gastroenterology and Liver Unit, 'Bambino Gesu' Children's Hospital, Rome (Italy)] [Gastroenterology and Liver Unit, 'Bambino Gesu' Children's Hospital, Rome (Italy); Francalanci, Paola; Boldrini, Renata; Callea, Francesco [Dept. Pathology, 'Bambino Gesu' Children's Hospital, Rome (Italy)] [Dept. Pathology, 'Bambino Gesu' Children's Hospital, Rome (Italy); Santorelli, Filippo Maria [UOC Neurogenetica e Malattie Neuromuscolari, Fondazione Stella Maris, Pisa (Italy)] [UOC Neurogenetica e Malattie Neuromuscolari, Fondazione Stella Maris, Pisa (Italy); Bertini, Enrico [Unit of Molecular Medicine for Neuromuscular and Neurodegenerative Diseases, 'Bambino Gesu' Children's Hospital, Rome (Italy)] [Unit of Molecular Medicine for Neuromuscular and Neurodegenerative Diseases, 'Bambino Gesu' Children's Hospital, Rome (Italy); and others

2011-11-18

381

Autism multiplex family with 16p11.2p12.2 microduplication syndrome in monozygotic twins and distal 16p11.2 deletion in their brother  

E-print Network

Autism multiplex family with 16p11.2p12.2 microduplication syndrome in monozygotic twins and distal Unit, Bondy, France Running title: Duplication 16p11.2p12.2 in twins with autism Corresponding author recently in chromosome 16p. 16p11.2 rearrangements (29.5-30.1 Mb) are associated with autism, intellectual

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

382

A Large-Scale Mitochondrial DNA Deletion Causing Progressive Ataxia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mitochondrial diseases are characterized by heteroplasmic mitochondrial DNA mutations and multisystemic dysfunction. Base substitutions of mitochondrial DNA have been reported in mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS), 1,2 myoclonus epilepsy with ragged red fibers (MERRF), 3 and other neuromuscular disorders.4 Heteroplasmic mitochondrial DNA deletions are usually detected in chronic external ophthalmoplegia, including Kearns-Sayre syndrome, 5 and on rare

Shigeko Saitoh; Mariko Y. Momoi; Takehiro Ohki; Takanori Yamagata; Tomohiko Tsuru; Masashi Mizuguchi; Kunimasa Arima

1998-01-01

383

Mother and daughter with a terminal Xp deletion: Implication of chromosomal mosaicism and X-inactivation in the high clinical variability of the microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS) syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS or MIDAS) syndrome is a rare X-linked dominant inherited disorder with male lethality, associated with segmental aneuploidy of the Xp22.2 region in most of the cases. However, we recently described heterozygous sequence alterations in a single gene, HCCS, in females with MLS. Beside the classical MLS phenotype, occasional features such as sclerocornea, agenesis

Isabella Wimplinger; Anita Rauch; Ulrike Orth; Ulrich Schwarzer; Udo Trautmann; Kerstin Kutsche

2007-01-01

384

Amniotic band syndrome.  

PubMed

Amniotic band syndrome is an uncommon congenital disorder without any genetic or hereditary disposition. It involves fetal entrapment in strands of amniotic tissue and causes an array of deletions and deformations. Primary treatment is plastic and reconstructive surgery after birth with in utero fetal surgery also coming in vogue. PMID:24426485

Shetty, Prathvi; Menezes, Leo Theobald; Tauro, Leo Francis; Diddigi, Kumar Arun

2013-10-01

385

Williams-Beuren Syndrome: A Model of Recurrent Genomic Mutation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Williams-Beuren syndrome is a segmental aneusomy syndrome with manifestations affecting the vascular, connective tissue, endocrine and central nervous systems. Most patients show a similar heterozygous ?1.5 Mb deletion at 7q11.23 that contains a number of reported genes. Deletion mapping in the few atypical patients with smaller deletions suggested that additive effects of haploinsufficiency for two or more genes might be

Luis Alberto Pérez Jurado

2003-01-01