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1

Ring chromosome 20 syndrome without deletions of the subtelomeric and CHRNA4--KCNQ2 genes loci.  

PubMed

Ring chromosome 20 (r(20)) syndrome is a rare disease characterized by refractory epilepsy, moderate mental retardation and particular electroencephalographic disorder with non-convulsive status epilepticus. Here, we report a new case of r(20) syndrome in a 12 year old female who presented minimal dysmorphism, generalised tonic-clonic and absence seizures refractory to medical therapy and behavioural troubles. Among 20 cytogenetically analysed cells, 14 (70%) exhibited a 46,XX,r(20)(p13q13.3) karyotype and 6 (30%) showed a normal 46,XX caryotype. Interphasic FISH using centromeric probe of chromosome 20 detects the presence of a chromosome 20 monosomy in 7% and a duplicated ring chromosome 20 in 8% of studied cells. Metaphase FISH using chromosome 20 telomeric probes and specific probes of CHRNA4 and KCNQ2 genes detects the absence of any deletion in the ring chromosome 20. Clinical symptoms of r(20) syndrome are attributed to telomeric partial monosomy generated by ring chromosome and causing an haploinsufficiency of two epilepsy genes CHRNA4 and KCNQ2. However, our patient presents the typical epilepsy disorder but no detectable deletion in the ring chromosome 20. We speculate that clinical features of ring chromosome 20 syndrome are caused by low mosaicism of chromosome 20 monosomy caused by the loss of the ring chromosome 20. PMID:17851150

Elghezal, Hatem; Hannachi, Hanene; Mougou, Soumaya; Kammoun, Hassene; Triki, Chahnez; Saad, Ali

2007-01-01

2

Ring chromosome 20 syndrome without deletions of the subtelomeric and CHRNA4–KCNQ2 genes loci  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ring chromosome 20 [r(20)] syndrome is a rare disease characterized by refractory epilepsy, moderate mental retardation and particular electroencephalographic disorder with non-convulsive status epilepticus. Here, we report a new case of r(20) syndrome in a 12 year old female who presented minimal dysmorphism, generalised tonic–clonic and absence seizures refractory to medical therapy and behavioural troubles.Among 20 cytogenetically analysed cells, 14

Hatem Elghezal; Hanene Hannachi; Soumaya Mougou; Hassene Kammoun; Chahnez Triki; Ali Saad

2007-01-01

3

Cognitive-behavioral features of Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome and other subtelomeric microdeletions.  

PubMed

Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) is a complex congenital malformation produced by a loss of genomic material at the locus 4p16.3. In addition to its dysmorphic features, the deletion produces a range of intellectual disability (ID). Many clinical aspects of WHS are well-characterized; however, the cognitive-behavioral characteristics have been rarely examined in a systematic fashion. The purpose of our study was to examine the cognitive-behavioral features of WHS and to compare them to children with other subtelomeric deletions that also produce ID. We recruited 45 children with subtelomeric deletions and examined their cognitive-behavioral abilities using a neuropsychological assessment battery composed of standardized instruments. Nineteen children were diagnosed with WHS and 26 children with one of three other subtelomeric deletions-11q25 (Jacobsen syndrome), deletion 2q37, and inversion duplication deletion 8p21-23. We found children with WHS to be more severely impacted cognitively than children from any of the other groups. Their overall adaptive behavior was lower as well. However, children with WHS exhibit strengths in socialization skills comparable to the levels attained by the other groups we assessed. Importantly, the proportion of children with WHS with autism or autistic-like features is significantly lower than the rates of autism found in the other subtelomeric disorders we examined. PMID:20981770

Fisch, Gene S; Grossfeld, Paul; Falk, Rena; Battaglia, Agatino; Youngblom, Janey; Simensen, Richard

2010-11-15

4

Diverse mutational mechanisms cause pathogenic subtelomeric rearrangements  

PubMed Central

Chromosome rearrangements are a significant cause of intellectual disability and birth defects. Subtelomeric rearrangements, including deletions, duplications and translocations of chromosome ends, were first discovered over 40 years ago and are now recognized as being responsible for several genetic syndromes. Unlike the deletions and duplications that cause some genomic disorders, subtelomeric rearrangements do not typically have recurrent breakpoints and involve many different chromosome ends. To capture the molecular mechanisms responsible for this heterogeneous class of chromosome abnormality, we coupled high-resolution array CGH with breakpoint junction sequencing of a diverse collection of subtelomeric rearrangements. We analyzed 102 breakpoints corresponding to 78 rearrangements involving 28 chromosome ends. Sequencing 21 breakpoint junctions revealed signatures of non-homologous end-joining, non-allelic homologous recombination between interspersed repeats and DNA replication processes. Thus, subtelomeric rearrangements arise from diverse mutational mechanisms. In addition, we find hotspots of subtelomeric breakage at the end of chromosomes 9q and 22q; these sites may correspond to genomic regions that are particularly susceptible to double-strand breaks. Finally, fine-mapping the smallest subtelomeric rearrangements has narrowed the critical regions for some chromosomal disorders. PMID:21729882

Luo, Yue; Hermetz, Karen E.; Jackson, Jodi M.; Mulle, Jennifer G.; Dodd, Anne; Tsuchiya, Karen D.; Ballif, Blake C.; Shaffer, Lisa G.; Cody, Jannine D.; Ledbetter, David H.; Martin, Christa L.; Rudd, M. Katharine

2011-01-01

5

Subtelomeric Deletion of Chromosome 10p15.3: Clinical Findings and Molecular Cytogenetic Characterization  

PubMed Central

We describe 19 unrelated individuals with submicroscopic deletions involving 10p15.3 characterized by chromosomal microarray (CMA). Interestingly, to our knowledge, only two individuals with isolated, submicroscopic 10p15.3 deletion have been reported to date; however, only limited clinical information is available for these probands and the deleted region has not been molecularly mapped. Comprehensive clinical history was obtained for 12 of the 19 individuals described in this study. Common features among these 12 individuals include: cognitive/behavioral/developmental differences (11/11), speech delay/language disorder (10/10), motor delay (10/10), craniofacial dysmorphism (9/12), hypotonia (7/11,), brain anomalies (4/6) and seizures (3/7). Parental studies were performed for nine of the 19 individuals; the 10p15.3 deletion was de novo in seven of the probands, not maternally inherited in one proband and inherited from an apparently affected mother in one proband. Molecular mapping of the 19 individuals reported in this study has identified two genes, ZMYND11 (OMIM# 608668) and DIP2C (OMIM# 611380) (UCSC Genome Browser), mapping within 10p15.3 which are most commonly deleted. Although no single gene has been identified which is deleted in all 19 individuals studied, the deleted region in all but one individual includes ZMYND11 and the deleted region in all but one other individual includes DIP2C. There is not a clearly identifiable phenotypic difference between these two individuals and the size of the deleted region does not generally predict clinical features. Little is currently known about these genes complicating a direct genotype/phenotype correlation at this time. These data however, suggest that ZMYND11 and/or DIP2C haploinsufficiency contributes to the clinical features associated with 10p15 deletions in probands described in this study. PMID:22847950

DeScipio, Cheryl; Conlin, Laura; Rosenfeld, Jill; Tepperberg, James; Pasion, Romela; Patel, Ankita; McDonald, Marie T; Aradhya, Swaroop; Ho, Darlene; Goldstein, Jennifer; McGuire, Marianne; Mulchandani, Surabhi; Medne, Livija; Rupps, Rosemarie; Serrano, Alvaro H.; Thorland, Erik C; Tsai, Anne C-H; Hilhorst-Hofstee, Yvonne; Ruivenkamp, Claudia AL; Van Esch, Hilde; Addor, Marie-Claude; Martinet, Danielle; Mason, Thornton B.A.; Clark, Dinah; Spinner, Nancy B; Krantz, Ian D

2012-01-01

6

De novo subtelomeric deletion of 15q associated with satellite translocation in a child with developmental delay and severe growth retardation.  

PubMed

We report on a case of satellited 15q with subtelomeric deletion in a girl with delayed development and severe growth retardation. The patient also has a triangular face, downturned angles of the mouth, micrognathia, and minor limb malformations including mild talipes equinovarus, genu recurvatum, and increased dorsiflexion of both limbs. Cytogenetic analysis using standard GTG banding showed a female karyotype with a satellited-like structure at the distal long arm of one chromosome 15. Silver staining of the nucleolar organizing region (AgNOR) confirmed the presence of a satellite DNA translocation at the lesion. Analysis using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) detected a subtelomeric deletion of the terminal 15q. Additional molecular analysis using microsatellite markers along the long arm of chromosome 15 defined a maximally deleted region at approximately 4.7 Mb. Haploinsufficiency of the IGF1R gene expression is thought to be the cause of growth delay in all 15q terminal deletion including our patient. PMID:17236205

Rujirabanjerd, Sinitdhorn; Suwannarat, Warapong; Sripo, Thanya; Dissaneevate, Pathikan; Permsirivanich, Wutichai; Limprasert, Pornprot

2007-02-01

7

Dysmorphic features in subtelomeric 20p13 deletion excluding JAG1: a recognizable microdeletion phenotype?  

PubMed

We report a 19 year-old patient carrying a terminal 20p microdeletion. She displayed clinical features resembling those of two other previously described patients. We suggest that a specific phenotype can be associated with this chromosomal anomaly. Mental retardation, epilepsy, and dysmorphic signs including low-set ears and overfolded helices seem highly characteristic of this syndrome and may define major diagnostic criteria of a recognizable phenotype. Delayed closure of fontanella, delayed permanent teeth eruption, visual disturbances, prominent ear lobes, prominent nasal root and ridge, thin upper lip and brachydactyly may represent inconstant minor criteria. PMID:22274139

Moutton, Sébastien; Rooryck, Caroline; Toutain, Jérôme; Cailley, Dorothée; Bouron, Julie; Villega, Frédéric; Taupiac, Emmanuelle; Lacombe, Didier; Arveiler, Benoît; Goizet, Cyril

2012-02-01

8

Deletion 22q13.3 syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deletion 22q13.3 syndrome (deletion 22q13 syndrome or Phelan-McDermid syndrome) is a chromosome microdeletion syndrome characterized by neonatal hypotonia, global developmental delay, normal to accelerated growth, absent to severely delayed speech, and minor dysmorphic features. The deletion occurs with equal frequency in males and females and has been reported in mosaic and non-mosaic forms. Due to lack of clinical recognition

Mary C Phelan

2008-01-01

9

Genetics Home Reference: 18q deletion syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... people of all ethnic backgrounds. What are the genetic changes related to 18q deletion syndrome? 18q deletion ... Center . Where can I find general information about genetic conditions? The Handbook provides basic information about genetics ...

10

A boy with a submicroscopic 22qter deletion, general overgrowth and features suggestive of FG syndrome.  

PubMed

Over recent years, submicroscopic subtelomeric rearrangements have been shown to be a significant cause of mental retardation and, therefore, such abnormalities should be considered in every child with moderate to severe retardation with additional features suggestive of a chromosomal abnormality. The FG syndrome is an X-linked recessive mental retardation syndrome with congenital hypotonia, relative macrocephaly, a characteristic facies and constipation. We describe a severely mentally retarded boy with a history of severe constipation, truncal hypotonia, facial dysmorphism, fetal pads, and joint laxity, leading to an initial diagnosis of FG syndrome at the age of 3 years. Clinical re-evaluation at the age of 6 years, when he showed signs of general overgrowth, initiated a telomere screen, and a submicroscopic 22q13.3 telomere deletion was detected. The features suggestive of FG syndrome in this boy with a 22q13.3--> qter deletion may indicate testing for submicroscopic 22qter deletions in patients with atypical features of FG syndrome without a definite X-linked family history. PMID:11149619

de Vries, B B; Bitner-Glindzicz, M; Knight, S J; Tyson, J; MacDermont, K D; Flint, J; Malcolm, S; Winter, R M

2000-12-01

11

Deletion 22q13.3 syndrome  

PubMed Central

The deletion 22q13.3 syndrome (deletion 22q13 syndrome or Phelan-McDermid syndrome) is a chromosome microdeletion syndrome characterized by neonatal hypotonia, global developmental delay, normal to accelerated growth, absent to severely delayed speech, and minor dysmorphic features. The deletion occurs with equal frequency in males and females and has been reported in mosaic and non-mosaic forms. Due to lack of clinical recognition and often insufficient laboratory testing, the syndrome is under-diagnosed and its true incidence remains unknown. Common physical traits include long eye lashes, large or unusual ears, relatively large hands, dysplastic toenails, full brow, dolicocephaly, full cheeks, bulbous nose, and pointed chin. Behavior is autistic-like with decreased perception of pain and habitual chewing or mouthing. The loss of 22q13.3 can result from simple deletion, translocation, ring chromosome formation and less common structural changes affecting the long arm of chromosome 22, specifically the region containing the SHANK3 gene. The diagnosis of deletion 22q13 syndrome should be considered in all cases of hypotonia of unknown etiology and in individuals with absent speech. Although the deletion can sometimes be detected by high resolution chromosome analysis, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) or array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) is recommended for confirmation. Differential diagnosis includes syndromes associated with hypotonia, developmental delay, speech delay and/or autistic-like affect (Prader-Willi, Angelman, Williams, Smith-Magenis, Fragile X, Sotos, FG, trichorhinophalangeal and velocardiofacial syndromes, autism spectrum disorders, cerebral palsy). Genetic counseling is recommended and parental laboratory studies should be considered to identify cryptic rearrangements and detect parental mosaicism. Prenatal diagnosis should be offered for future pregnancies in those families with inherited rearrangements. Individuals with deletion 22q13 should have routine examinations by the primary care physician as well as genetic evaluations with referral to specialists if neurological, gastrointestinal, renal, or other systemic problems are suspected. Affected individuals benefit from early intervention programs, intense occupational and communication therapies, adaptive exercise and sport programs, and other therapies to strengthen their muscles and increase their communication skills. No apparent life-threatening organic abnormalities accompany the diagnosis of deletion 22q13. PMID:18505557

Phelan, Mary C

2008-01-01

12

Genetics Home Reference: 2q37 deletion syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... Review: 2q37 Microdeletion Syndrome Genetic Testing Registry: Brachydactyly-Mental Retardation syndrome You might also find information on the ... deletion syndrome? Albright hereditary osteodystrophy-like ... retardation syndrome For more information about naming genetic conditions, ...

13

High throughput screening of human subtelomeric DNA for copy number changes using multiplex amplifiable probe hybridisation (MAPH)  

PubMed Central

Background: Subtelomeric regions of the human genome are gene rich, with a high level of sequence polymorphism. A number of clinical conditions, including learning disability, have been attributed to subtelomeric deletions or duplications, but screening for deletion in these regions using conventional cytogenetic methods and fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) is laborious. Here we report that a new method, multiplex amplifiable probe hybridisation (MAPH), can be used to screen for copy number at subtelomeric regions. Methods: We have constructed a set of MAPH probes with each subtelomeric region represented at least once, so that one gel lane can assay copy number at all chromosome ends in one person. Each probe has been sequenced and, where possible, its position relative to the telomere determined by comparison with mapped clones. Results: The sensitivity of the probes has been characterised on a series of cytogenetically verified positive controls and 83 normal controls were used to assess the frequency of polymorphic copy number with no apparent phenotypic effect. We have also used MAPH to test a cohort of 37 people selected from males referred for fragile X syndrome testing and found six changes that were confirmed by dosage PCR. Conclusions: MAPH can be used to screen subtelomeric regions of chromosomes for deletions and duplications before confirmation by FISH or dosage PCR. The high throughput nature of this technique allows it to be used for large scale screening of subtelomeric copy number, before confirmation by FISH. In practice, the availability of a rapid and efficient screen may allow subtelomeric analysis to be applied to a wider selection of patients than is currently possible using FISH alone. PMID:12414816

Hollox, E; Atia, T; Cross, G; Parkin, T; Armour, J

2002-01-01

14

Clinical studies on submicroscopic subtelomeric rearrangements: a checklist  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUNDSubmicroscopic subtelomeric chromosome defects have been found in 7.4% of children with moderate to severe mental retardation and in 0.5% of children with mild retardation. Effective clinical preselection is essential because of the technical complexities and cost of screening for subtelomere deletions.METHODSWe studied 29 patients with a known subtelomeric defect and assessed clinical variables concerning birth history, facial dysmorphism, congenital

B B A de Vries; S M White; S J L Knight; R Regan; T Homfray; I D Young; M Super; C McKeown; M Splitt; O W J Quarrell; A H Trainer; M F Niermeijer; S Malcolm; J Flint; J A Hurst; R M Winter

2001-01-01

15

Genetics Home Reference: 1p36 deletion syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... individuals are likely never diagnosed. What are the genetic changes related to 1p36 deletion syndrome? 1p36 deletion ... Center . Where can I find general information about genetic conditions? The Handbook provides basic information about genetics ...

16

Deletions and candidate genes in Williams syndrome  

SciTech Connect

Hemizygosity at the elastin locus (ELN) on chromosome 7q11.23 has recently been reported in several familial and sporadic cases of the developmental disorder, Williams syndrome (WS). Because the deletion is greater than the span of the ELN gene, a contiguous gene deletion syndrome has been suggested as the probable molecular basis for this condition. Thus far, neither the size of the deletion(s), nor other genes within it are known. We have analyzed samples from 27 sporadic WS patients by genotyping two multiallelic ELN intragenic polymorphisms, detectable by PCR amplification, and by Southern blotting for ELN gene dosage. Twenty four patients were hemizygous at the ELN locus while 3 showed no deletion or detectable rearrangement. Genotype studies on parental DNA were informative in 12 of the deletions. All 12 were due to de novo events, 8 in the maternal and 4 in the paternal chromosome. In an attempt to identify genes involved in WS we are also using a candidate gene approach. Delayed clearance of an exogenous calcium load with normal or slightly increased calcitonin levels in serum has been documented in WS patients suggesting a defective calcitonin action or calcium sensing function. The calcitonin receptor (CTR) gene is, therefore, a good candidate since CTR has a dual role as a hormonal receptor for calcitonin and an extracellular calcium sensor. We have mapped the CTR gene to chromosome 7q21.1 by PCR-SSCA of somatic cell hybrids and FISH analysis. Using two color FISH with probes for ELN and CTR, both loci are located on 7q at a distance of {approximately}10 Mb, CTR being telomeric. Our CTR probe does not detect any genomic abnormality by FISH or Southern blot in the patients` samples analyzed. We have identified a diallelic polymorphism in the CTR cDNA and are currently testing the hypothesis of an impaired CTR expression as responsible for some of the clinical features of WS by analysing the CTR transcripts by RT-PCR.

Perez Jurado, L.A.; Peoples, R.; Francke, U. [Stanford Univ. CA (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

17

Dermatoglyphic Profile in 22q Deletion Syndrome  

PubMed Central

A genetic subtype of schizophrenia has been described in 22q11 Deletion syndrome. Previous studies have described an excess of dermatoglyphic alterations in schizophrenia, such as low a–b ridge counts (ABRCs), a high frequency of ridge dissociations, and increased dermatoglyphic fluctuating asymmetry. Little is known however, about the dermatoglyphic profile of 22qDS subjects showing psychotic symptoms and its similarity to the previously reported anomalies in schizophrenia. We studied the palmar dermatoglyphics of 22 subjects with 22qDS of predominantly Caucasian origin, 15 of whom had psychotic illness, and in 84 healthy controls of similar ethnicity. We observed higher values for total ATD angle in cases than in controls (P = 0.04). In addition, there was an excess of radial figures in the hypothenar area in cases, especially in the left hand. Interestingly, greater fluctuating asymmetry, determined by the absolute difference between right and left ABRC, was observed in 22qDS subjects compared to controls (P = 0.05). However, no differences were found for ABRCs and frequency of dissociations. Despite the small sample size, the palmprints analyzed suggest the existence of an altered dermatoglyphic profile in 22qDS, involving: (i) ATD angle amplitude, (ii) presence of radial loops in the hypothenar area, and (iii) an increment of fluctuating asymmetry. The first two features are similar to those found in other genetic syndromes associated with low IQ, while high levels of fluctuating asymmetry have often been reported in schizophrenia. PMID:15211630

Martín, B.; Fañanás, L.; Gutiérrez, B.; Chow, E.W.C.; Bassett, A.S.

2011-01-01

18

Genetics Home Reference: 22q11.2 deletion syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... other disorders with overlapping features. What are the genetic changes related to 22q11.2 deletion syndrome? Most ... Center . Where can I find general information about genetic conditions? The Handbook provides basic information about genetics ...

19

The 2q37-deletion syndrome: an update of the clinical spectrum including overweight, brachydactyly and behavioural features in 14 new patients  

PubMed Central

The 2q37 locus is one of the most commonly deleted subtelomeric regions. Such a deletion has been identified in >100 patients by telomeric fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis and, less frequently, by array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH). A recognizable ‘2q37-deletion syndrome' or Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy-like syndrome has been previously described. To better map the deletion and further refine this deletional syndrome, we formed a collaboration with the Association of French Language Cytogeneticists to collect 14 new intellectually deficient patients with a distal or interstitial 2q37 deletion characterized by FISH and array-CGH. Patients exhibited facial dysmorphism (13/14) and brachydactyly (10/14), associated with behavioural problems, autism or autism spectrum disorders of varying severity and overweight or obesity. The deletions in these 14 new patients measured from 2.6 to 8.8?Mb. Although the major role of HDAC4 has been demonstrated, the phenotypic involvement of several other genes in the deleted regions is unknown. We further refined the genotype–phenotype correlation for the 2q37 deletion. To do this, we examined the smallest overlapping deleted region for candidate genes for skeletal malformations (facial dysmorphism and brachydactyly), overweight, behavioural problems and seizures, using clinical data, a review of the literature, and the Manteia database. Among the candidate genes identified, we focus on the roles of PRLH, PER2, TWIST2, CAPN10, KIF1A, FARP2, D2HGDH and PDCD1. PMID:23073310

Leroy, Camille; Landais, Emilie; Briault, Sylvain; David, Albert; Tassy, Olivier; Gruchy, Nicolas; Delobel, Bruno; Grégoire, Marie-José; Leheup, Bruno; Taine, Laurence; Lacombe, Didier; Delrue, Marie-Ange; Toutain, Annick; Paubel, Agathe; Mugneret, Francine; Thauvin-Robinet, Christel; Arpin, Stéphanie; Le Caignec, Cedric; Jonveaux, Philippe; Beri, Mylène; Leporrier, Nathalie; Motte, Jacques; Fiquet, Caroline; Brichet, Olivier; Mozelle-Nivoix, Monique; Sabouraud, Pascal; Golovkine, Nathalie; Bednarek, Nathalie; Gaillard, Dominique; Doco-Fenzy, Martine

2013-01-01

20

The 2q37-deletion syndrome: an update of the clinical spectrum including overweight, brachydactyly and behavioural features in 14 new patients.  

PubMed

The 2q37 locus is one of the most commonly deleted subtelomeric regions. Such a deletion has been identified in >100 patients by telomeric fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis and, less frequently, by array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH). A recognizable '2q37-deletion syndrome' or Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy-like syndrome has been previously described. To better map the deletion and further refine this deletional syndrome, we formed a collaboration with the Association of French Language Cytogeneticists to collect 14 new intellectually deficient patients with a distal or interstitial 2q37 deletion characterized by FISH and array-CGH. Patients exhibited facial dysmorphism (13/14) and brachydactyly (10/14), associated with behavioural problems, autism or autism spectrum disorders of varying severity and overweight or obesity. The deletions in these 14 new patients measured from 2.6 to 8.8?Mb. Although the major role of HDAC4 has been demonstrated, the phenotypic involvement of several other genes in the deleted regions is unknown. We further refined the genotype-phenotype correlation for the 2q37 deletion. To do this, we examined the smallest overlapping deleted region for candidate genes for skeletal malformations (facial dysmorphism and brachydactyly), overweight, behavioural problems and seizures, using clinical data, a review of the literature, and the Manteia database. Among the candidate genes identified, we focus on the roles of PRLH, PER2, TWIST2, CAPN10, KIF1A, FARP2, D2HGDH and PDCD1. PMID:23073310

Leroy, Camille; Landais, Emilie; Briault, Sylvain; David, Albert; Tassy, Olivier; Gruchy, Nicolas; Delobel, Bruno; Grégoire, Marie-José; Leheup, Bruno; Taine, Laurence; Lacombe, Didier; Delrue, Marie-Ange; Toutain, Annick; Paubel, Agathe; Mugneret, Francine; Thauvin-Robinet, Christel; Arpin, Stéphanie; Le Caignec, Cedric; Jonveaux, Philippe; Beri, Mylène; Leporrier, Nathalie; Motte, Jacques; Fiquet, Caroline; Brichet, Olivier; Mozelle-Nivoix, Monique; Sabouraud, Pascal; Golovkine, Nathalie; Bednarek, Nathalie; Gaillard, Dominique; Doco-Fenzy, Martine

2013-06-01

21

Human subtelomeric copy number gains suggest a DNA replication mechanism for formation: beyond breakage-fusion-bridge for telomere stabilization.  

PubMed

Constitutional deletions of distal 9q34 encompassing the EHMT1 (euchromatic histone methyltransferase 1) gene, or loss-of-function point mutations in EHMT1, are associated with the 9q34.3 microdeletion syndrome, also known as Kleefstra syndrome [MIM#610253]. We now report further evidence for genomic instability of the subtelomeric 9q34.3 region as evidenced by copy number gains of this genomic interval that include duplications, triplications, derivative chromosomes and complex rearrangements. Comparisons between the observed shared clinical features and molecular analyses in 20 subjects suggest that increased dosage of EHMT1 may be responsible for the neurodevelopmental impairment, speech delay, and autism spectrum disorders revealing the dosage sensitivity of yet another chromatin remodeling protein in human disease. Five patients had 9q34 genomic abnormalities resulting in complex deletion-duplication or duplication-triplication rearrangements; such complex triplications were also observed in six other subtelomeric intervals. Based on the specific structure of these complex genomic rearrangements (CGR) a DNA replication mechanism is proposed confirming recent findings in Caenorhabditis elegans telomere healing. The end-replication challenges of subtelomeric genomic intervals may make them particularly prone to rearrangements generated by errors in DNA replication. PMID:22890305

Yatsenko, Svetlana A; Hixson, Patricia; Roney, Erin K; Scott, Daryl A; Schaaf, Christian P; Ng, Yu-tze; Palmer, Robbin; Fisher, Richard B; Patel, Ankita; Cheung, Sau Wai; Lupski, James R

2012-12-01

22

Features of Two Cases with 18q Deletion Syndrome  

PubMed Central

The 18q Deletion syndrome is seen in 1 out of 10 000 live births. The main features of the syndrome are short stature, hearing loss, hypotonia, mental retardation, endocrine disorders and autoimmunity. Here, we present 2 patients with this syndrome admitted to our clinic who were found to have insulin resistance in addition to mental retardation, short stature, autoimmune thyroiditis and hearing loss. The need to perform a karyogram analysis in cases presenting with these features is emphasized. PMID:24637311

Özsu, Elif; Ye?iltepe Mutlu, Gül; Büte Yüksel, Ay?egül; Hatun, ?ükrü

2014-01-01

23

Deletions of the elastin gene in Williams Syndrome  

SciTech Connect

To investigate deletions in the elastin gene in patients with Williams Syndrome (WS), we screened 37 patients and their parents for deletions in the elastin gene by both fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using cosmid cELN272 containing the 5{prime} end of the elastin gene and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using a primer pair which amplifies intron 17 in the elastin gene, producing a polymorphic amplification product. Thirty-two patients have been investigated by both the FISH and PCR techniques, one patient was studied only by PCR, and 4 patients were studied only by FISH. Overall, 34 of 37 patients (92%) were deleted for the elastin gene. Using the PCR marker, 14 patients were informative and 12 were shown to be deleted [maternal (n=5) and paternal (n=7)]. Using cosmid cELN272, 33 of 36 patients demonstrated a deletion of chromosome 7q11.23. In one family, both the mother and daughter were deleted due to an apparently de novo deletion arising in the mother. Three patients were not deleted using the elastin cosmid; 2 of these patients have classic WS. Another non-deleted patient has the typical facial features and hypercalcemia but normal intelligence. These three patients will be important in delineating the critical region(s) responsible for the facial features, hypercalcemia, mental retardation and supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS). There was not an absolute correlation between deletions in elastin and SVAS, although these individuals may be at risk for other cardiovascular complications such as hypertention. Since the majority of WS patients are deleted for a portion of the elastin gene, most likely this marker will be an important diagnostic tool, although more patients will need to be studied. Those patients who are not deleted but clinically have WS will be missed using only this one marker. Expansion of the critical region to other loci and identification of additional markers will be essential for identifying all patients with WS.

Greenberg, F.; Nickerson, E.; McCaskill, C. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

24

Deletion involving D15S113 in a mother and son without Angelman syndrome: Refinement of the Angelman syndrome critical deletion region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deletions of 15q11-q13 typically result in Angelman syndrome when inherited from the mother and Prader-Willi syndrome when inherited from the father. The critical deletion region for Angelman syndrome has recently been restricted by a report of an Angelman syndrome patient with a deletion spanning less than 200 kb around the D15S113 locus. We report here on a mother and son

Ron C. Michaelis; Steven A. Skinner; Bonné A. Lethco; Richard J. Simensen; Timothy A. Donlon; Jack Tarleton; Mary C. Phelan

1995-01-01

25

Human subtelomeric copy number gains suggest a DNA replication mechanism for formation: beyond breakage – fusion - bridge for telomere stabilization  

PubMed Central

Constitutional deletions of distal 9q34 encompassing the EHMT1 (euchromatic histone methyltransferase 1) gene, or loss-of-function point mutations in EHMT1, are associated with the 9q34.3 microdeletion, also known as Kleefstra syndrome [MIM#610253]. We now report further evidence for genomic instability of the subtelomeric 9q34.3 region as evidenced by copy number gains of this genomic interval that include duplications, triplications, derivative chromosomes and complex rearrangements. Comparisons between the observed shared clinical features and molecular analyses in 20 subjects suggest that increased dosage of EHMT1 may be responsible for the neurodevelopmental impairment, speech delay, and autism spectrum disorders revealing the dosage sensitivity of yet another chromatin remodeling protein in human disease. Five patients had 9q34 genomic abnormalities resulting in complex deletion-duplication or duplication-triplication rearrangements; such complex triplications were also observed in six other subtelomeric intervals. Based on the specific structure of these complex genomic rearrangements (CGR) a DNA replication mechanism is proposed confirming recent findings in C elegans telomere healing. The end-replication challenges of subtelomeric genomic intervals may make them particularly prone to rearrangements generated by errors in DNA replication. PMID:22890305

Yatsenko, Svetlana A.; Hixson, Patricia; Roney, Erin K.; Scott, Daryl A.; Schaaf, Christian P.; Ng, Yu-tze; Palmer, Robbin; Fisher, Richard B.; Patel, Ankita; Cheung, Sau Wai; Lupski, James R.

2012-01-01

26

22q11 deletion syndrome: a genetic subtype of schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Schizophrenia is likely to be caused by several susceptibility genes and may have environmental factors that interact with susceptibility genes and\\/or nongenetic causes. Recent evidence supports the likelihood that 22q11 Deletion Syndrome (22qDS) represents an identifiable genetic subtype of schizophrenia. 22qDS is an under-recognized genetic syndrome associated with microdeletions on chromosome 22 and a variable expression that often includes mild

Anne S Bassett; Eva W. C Chow

1999-01-01

27

Delineation of 14q32.3 deletion syndrome.  

PubMed Central

A patient with a 14q32.3 terminal band deletion and cat cry is reported. Review of four other 14q32.3 deletion cases suggests the possible presence of a recognisable 14q32.3 terminal deletion syndrome, which is characterised by (1) apparently postnatal onset of small head size in comparison to body size, (2) high forehead with lateral hypertrichosis, (3) epicanthic folds, (4) broad nasal bridge, (5) high arched palate, (6) single palmar crease, and (7) mild to moderate developmental delay. Although none of the above seven features in unique to this syndrome, and indeed are quite common in other chromosomal disorders or genetic syndromes, patients with a terminal 14q32.3 deletion do show a recognisable facial gestalt. Interestingly, unlike ring chromosome 14, the 14q32.3 terminal deletion has rarely been reported, possibly because it is harder to detect, and an optimal chromosome preparation is required for its identification. Images PMID:9192277

Ortigas, A P; Stein, C K; Thomson, L L; Hoo, J J

1997-01-01

28

Large Contiguous Gene Deletions in Sjögren-Larsson Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Sjögren-Larsson syndrome (SLS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by ichthyosis, mental retardation, spasticity and mutations in the ALDH3A2 gene for fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase, an enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of fatty aldehyde to fatty acid. More than 70 mutations have been identified in SLS patients, including small deletions or insertions, missense mutations, splicing defects and complex nucleotide changes. We now describe 2 SLS patients whose disease is caused by large contiguous gene deletions of the ALDH3A2 locus on 17p11.2. The deletions were defined using long distance inverse PCR and microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization. A 24-year-old SLS female was homozygous for a 352-kb deletion involving ALDH3A2 and 4 contiguous genes including ALDH3A1, which codes for the major soluble protein in cornea. Although lacking corneal disease, she showed severe symptoms of SLS with uncommon deterioration in oral motor function and loss of ambulation. The other 19-month-old female patient was a compound heterozygote for a 1.44-Mb contiguous gene deletion and a missense mutation (c.407C>T, P136L) in ALDH3A2. These studies suggest that large gene deletions may account for up to 5% of the mutant alleles in SLS. Geneticists should consider the possibility of compound heterozygosity for large deletions in patients with SLS and other inborn errors of metabolism, which has implications for carrier testing and prenatal diagnosis. PMID:21684788

Engelstad, Holly; Carney, Gael; S'Aulis, Dana; Rise, Janae; Sanger, Warren G.; Rudd, M. Katharine; Richard, Gabriele; Carr, Christopher W.; Abdul-Rahman, Omar A.; Rizzo, William B.

2011-01-01

29

Developmental Trajectories in Syndromes with Intellectual Disability, with a Focus on Wolf-Hirschhorn and Its Cognitive-Behavioral Profile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few studies exist of developmental trajectories in children with intellectual disability, and none for those with subtelomeric deletions. We compared developmental trajectories of children with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome to other genetic disorders. We recruited 106 children diagnosed with fragile X, Williams-Beuren syndrome, or Wolf-Hirschhorn…

Fisch, Gene S.; Carpenter, Nancy; Howard-Peebles, Patricia N.; Holden, Jeanette J. A.; Tarleton, Jack; Simensen, Richard; Battaglia, Agatino

2012-01-01

30

Supporting Children with Genetic Syndromes in the Classroom: The Example of 22q Deletion Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An increasing number of children are likely to have a known genetic cause for their special educational needs. One such genetic condition is 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22qDS), a genetic syndrome associated with early speech and language difficulties, global and specific cognitive impairments, difficulties with attention and difficulties with…

Reilly, Colin; Stedman, Lindsey

2013-01-01

31

Deletion involving D15S113 in a mother and son without Angelman syndrome: Refinement of the Angelman syndrome critical deletion region  

SciTech Connect

Deletions of 15q11-q13 typically result in Angelman syndrome when inherited from the mother and Prader-Willi syndrome when inherited from the father. The critical deletion region for Angelman syndrome has recently been restricted by a report of an Angelman syndrome patient with a deletion spanning less than 200 kb around the D15S113 locus. We report here on a mother and son with a deletion of chromosome 15 that includes the D15S113 locus. The son has mild to moderate mental retardation and minor anomalies, while the mother has a borderline intellectual deficit and slightly downslanting palpebral fissures. Neither patient has the seizures, excessive laughter and hand clapping, ataxia or the facial anomalies which are characteristic of Angelman syndrome. The proximal boundary of the deletion in our patients lies between the D15S10 and The D15S113 loci. Our patients do not have Angelman syndrome, despite the deletion of the D15S113 marker. This suggests that the Angelman syndrome critical deletion region is now defined as the overlap between the deletion found in the previously reported Angelman syndrome patient and the region that is intact in our patients. 28 refs., 6 figs.

Michaelis, R.C.; Skinner, S.A.; Lethco, B.A. [Greenwood Genetic Center, SC (United States)] [and others

1995-01-02

32

Immunologic features of chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (DiGeorge syndrome\\/velocardiofacial syndrome)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To characterize immunologic function and clinical characteristics in patients with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome and determine whether there was significant change over time. Methods: This study characterized the laboratory and clinical features of the immunodeficiency in a cohort of 195 patients with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome and used cross-sectional and analysis of variance to compare the findings in different

Abbas F. Jawad; Donna M. McDonald-McGinn; Elaine Zackai; Kathleen E. Sullivan

2001-01-01

33

Bridging the Gene-Behavior Divide through Neuroimaging Deletion Syndromes: Velocardiofacial (22q11.2 Deletion) and Williams (7q11.23 Deletion) Syndromes  

PubMed Central

Investigating the relationship between genes and the neural substrates of complex human behavior promises to provide essential insight into the pathophysiology of mental disorders. One approach to this inquiry is through neuroimaging of individuals with microdeletion syndromes that manifest in specific neuropsychiatric phenotypes. Both Velocardiofacial Syndrome (VCFS) and Williams Syndrome (WS) involve haploinsufficiency of a relatively small set of identified genes on the one hand and association with distinct, clinically-relevant behavioral and cognitive profiles on the other hand. In VCFS, there is a deletion in chromosomal region 22q11.2 and a resultant predilection toward psychosis, poor arithmetic proficiency, and low performance intelligence quotients. In WS, there is a deletion in chromosomal region 7q11.23 and a resultant predilection toward hypersociability, non-social anxiety, impaired visuospatial construction, and often intellectual impairment. Structural and functional neuroimaging studies have begun not only to map these well-defined genetic alterations to systems-level brain abnormalities, but also to identify relationships between neural phenotypes and particular genes within the critical deletion regions. Though neuroimaging of both VCFS and WS presents specific, formidable methodological challenges, including comparison subject selection and accounting for neuroanatomical and vascular anomalies in patients, and many questions remain, the literature to date on these syndromes, reviewed herein, constitutes a fruitful “bottom-up” approach to defining gene-brain relationships. PMID:20206275

Eisenberg, Daniel Paul; Jabbi, Mbemba; Berman, Karen Faith

2010-01-01

34

Cardiac Defects and Results of Cardiac Surgery in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Specific types and subtypes of cardiac defects have been described in children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome as well as in other genetic syndromes. The conotruncal heart defects occurring in patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome include tetralogy of Fallot, pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect, truncus arteriosus, interrupted aortic…

Carotti, Adriano; Digilio, Maria Cristina; Piacentini, Gerardo; Saffirio, Claudia; Di Donato, Roberto M.; Marino, Bruno

2008-01-01

35

Conotruncal anomaly face syndrome is associated with a deletion within chromosome 22q11  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conotruncal anomaly face syndrome was described in a Japanese publication in 1976 and comprises dysmorphic facial appearance and outflow tract defects of the heart. The authors subsequently noted similarities to Shprintzen syndrome and DiGeorge syndrome. Chromosome analysis in five cases did not show a deletion at high resolution, but fluorescent in situ hybridisation using probe DO832 showed a deletion

J Burn; A Takao; D Wilson; I Cross; K Momma; R Wadey; P Scambler; J Goodship

1993-01-01

36

QUANTIFICATION OF 3D FACE SHAPE IN 22Q11.2 DELETION SYNDROME Katarzyna Wilamowska  

E-print Network

QUANTIFICATION OF 3D FACE SHAPE IN 22Q11.2 DELETION SYNDROME Katarzyna Wilamowska , Linda Shapiro is to develop a success- ful methodology for discriminating between 22q11.2 Dele- tion Syndrome affected information systems 1. INTRODUCTION 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is a common ge- netic condition

Washington at Seattle, University of

37

Characterization of deletions at 9p affecting the candidate regions for sex reversal and deletion 9p syndrome by MLPA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distal region on the short arm of chromosome 9 is of special interest for scientists interested in sex development as well as in the clinical phenotype of patients with the 9p deletion syndrome, characterized by mental retardation, trigonocephaly and other dysmorphic features. Specific genes responsible for different aspects of the phenotype have not been identified. Distal 9p deletions have

Michela Barbaro; Antonio Balsamo; Britt Marie Anderlid; Anne Grethe Myhre; Monia Gennari; Annalisa Nicoletti; Maria Carla Pittalis; Mikael Oscarson; Anna Wedell

2009-01-01

38

Mathematical Learning Disabilities in Children with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: A Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mathematical learning disabilities (MLD) occur frequently in children with specific genetic disorders, like Turner syndrome, fragile X syndrome and neurofibromatosis. This review focuses on MLD in children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS). This syndrome is the most common known microdeletion syndrome with a prevalence of at…

De Smedt, Bert; Swillen, Ann; Verschaffel, Lieven; Ghesquiere, Pol

2009-01-01

39

Structural Brain Abnormalities in Patients with Schizophrenia and 22q11 Deletion Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background 22q11 Deletion Syndrome is a genetic syndrome associated with an increased risk for developing schizophrenia. Brain abnormalities have been reported in 22q11 Deletion Syndrome, but little is known about whether differences in brain structure underlie the psychotic disorders associated with this syndrome. In the current study, we used magnetic resonance imaging to characterize the structural brain abnormalities found in adults who have both 22q11 Deletion Syndrome and schizophrenia. Methods Magnetic resonance imaging brain scans of 14 adults (7 male, 7 female) with 22q11 Deletion Syndrome and schizophrenia and 14 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers were analyzed to derive measures of gray matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid. Differences between the two groups were tested using student t tests. Results 22q11 Deletion Syndrome and schizophrenia subjects had significantly smaller total gray matter volume (t = 2.88, p < .01) and larger lateral ventricles (t = 4.08, p < .001) than healthy controls. Gray matter deficits were most prominent in the frontal and temporal lobes. Total white matter volumes did not differ between the two groups. Conclusions Findings from this 22q11 Deletion Syndrome and schizophrenia study are similar to those reported in other patients with schizophrenia, but only partially consistent with those reported in nonpsychotic children with 22q11 Deletion Syndrome. 22q11 Deletion Syndrome may provide a valuable genetic neurodevelop-mental model for investigating the relationship between abnormalities in brain development and the expression of schizophrenia. PMID:11839363

Chow, Eva W.C.; Zipursky, Robert B.; Mikulis, David J.; Bassett, Anne S.

2012-01-01

40

Thalamic reductions in children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome  

E-print Network

Thalamic reductions in children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome Joel P. Bish,1,CA Vy with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q) su¡er fromphysicalandbehavioraldysfunctions, includingneuroanatomi¢cits demon- strated in this group. NeuroReport15:1413^1415 c 2004 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Key words

Nguyen, Danh

41

Contiguous Gene Syndromes Due to Deletions in the Distal Short Arm of the Human X Chromosome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mendelian inherited disorders due to deletions of adjacent genes on a chromosome have been described as ``contiguous gene syndromes.'' Short stature, chondrodysplasia punctata, mental retardation, steroid sulfatase deficiency, and Kallmann syndrome have been found as isolated entities or associated in various combinations in 27 patients with interstitial and terminal deletions involving the distal short arm of the X chromosome. The

A. Ballabio; B. Bardoni; R. Carrozzo; G. Andria; D. Bick; L. Campbell; B. Hamel; M. A. Ferguson-Smith; G. Gimelli; M. Fraccaro; P. Maraschio; O. Zuffardi; S. Guioli; G. Camerino

1989-01-01

42

Delineation of the Inferior Longitudinal Fasciculus in Subjects with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome  

E-print Network

Delineation of the Inferior Longitudinal Fasciculus in Subjects with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome E11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11DS) represents a population at high risk for developing schizophrenia in adulthood. Learning disabilities and deficits in visual memory have been reported in children with 22q11DS

43

Autism, ADHD, Mental Retardation and Behavior Problems in 100 Individuals with 22q11 Deletion Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assessed the prevalence and type of associated neuropsychiatric problems in children and adults with 22q11 deletion syndrome. One-hundred consecutively referred individuals with 22q11 deletion syndrome were given in-depth neuropsychiatric assessments and questionnaires screens. Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and/or attention…

Niklasson, Lena; Rasmussen, Peder; Oskarsdottir, Solveig; Gillberg, Christopher

2009-01-01

44

Impaired multiple object tracking in children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome  

E-print Network

Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome; ADHD: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder;chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Journal of Neurodevelopmental DisordersDisorders 2012, 4:6 http://www.jneurodevdisorders.com/content/4/1/6 RESEARCH Open Access Impaired multiple object tracking in children with chromosome

Cabaral, Margarita H; Beaton, Elliott A; Stoddard, Joel; Simon, Tony J

2012-01-01

45

Domain specific attentional impairments in children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome  

E-print Network

Domain specific attentional impairments in children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome Joel cognitive characteristics of the chromosome 22q deletion syndrome (DS22q11.2) is visuospatial processing of children with this disorder using both an object-based attention task and an inhibition of return task

Nguyen, Danh

46

6Cognitive and Behavioral Characteristics of Children with Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome  

E-print Network

when iden- tifying this disorder Definition The chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (hereafter DS22q116Cognitive and Behavioral Characteristics of Children with Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome section we will present information with the aim of increasing early identification of the chromosome 22q

Nguyen, Danh

47

Classical Noonan syndrome is not associated with deletions of 22q11  

SciTech Connect

Deletions of 22q11 cause DiGeorge sequence (DGS), velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS), conotruncal anomaly face syndrome, and some isolated conotruncal heart anomalies. Demonstration of a 22q11 deletion in a patient with manifestations of DGS and Noonan syndrome (NS) has raised the question of whether NS is another of the chromosome 22 microdeletion syndromes. This prompted us to evaluate a cohort of patients with NS for evidence of 22q11 deletions. Five of 6 NS propositi studied in our laboratory with marker N25 (D22S75) did not have a 22q11 deletion. A 2-month-old infant with several findings suggestive of NS did have a 22q11 deletion, suggesting that a small number of 22q11 deletion propositi may present with a NS-like picture. However, most cases of NS must have another cause. 10 refs., 1 fig.

Robin, N.H.; Sellinger, B.; McDonald-McGinn, D. [Children`s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA (United States)] [and others

1995-03-13

48

Dandy-Walker syndrome and corpus callosum agenesis in 5p deletion.  

PubMed

5p deletion syndrome commonly known as cri du chat is well described in affected neonates with catlike cry and hypotonia. Karyotyping will usually show a deletion of the short arm of one chromosome 5 with variable breakpoints. Only a few cases have been reported prenatally, and the fetal form of the syndrome has not been clearly individualised. We report a new case of 5p deletion syndrome diagnosed prenatally in association with Dandy-Walker syndrome and agenesis of the corpus callosum. Other brain anomalies have been reported previously, but this unusual association suggests the use of a specific probe in the investigation of these malformations. PMID:15849798

Vialard, F; Robyr, R; Hillion, Y; Molina Gomes, D; Selva, J; Ville, Y

2005-04-01

49

Keratoconus in an adult with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.  

PubMed

22q11.2 Deletion syndrome is one of the most common microdeletional syndromes, with an incidence of 1:4000 live-births, and potentially affects every organ in the body. More than 180 associated clinical features have been reported and not one phenotypic feature is present in 100% of cases. Ocular manifestations reported based on early childhood examinations include eyelid hooding, strabismus, posterior embryotoxon, retinal vessel tortuosity and refractive errors. Keratoconus has been reported once before in association with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome in a young adult. We report the second case of keratoconus in association with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. PMID:25596286

Saffra, Norman; Reinherz, Benjamin

2015-01-01

50

Cat eye syndrome chromosome breakpoint clustering: identification of two intervals also associated with 22q11 deletion syndrome breakpoints  

Microsoft Academic Search

The supernumerary cat eye syndrome (CES) chromosome is dicentric, containing two copies of 22pter?q11.2. We have found that the duplication breakpoints are clustered in two intervals. The more proximal, most common interval is the 450–650 kb region between D22S427 and D22S36, which corresponds to the proximal deletion breakpoint interval found in the 22q11 deletion syndrome (DiGeorge\\/velocardiofacial syndrome). The more distal

K. E. McTaggart; M. L. Budarf; D. A. Driscoll; B. S. Emanuel; P. Ferreira; H. E. McDermid

1998-01-01

51

Syndrome of proximal interstitial deletion 4p15  

SciTech Connect

In this journal, Chitayat et al. reported on 2 boys and a girl with interstitial deletion in the short arm of chromosome 4, including p15.2p15.33. All 3 patients had a characteristic face distinct from that of Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome and multiple minor congenital anomalies. One patient had a congenitally enlarged penis. The authors noted that all had normal growth, and all had moderate psychomotor retardation (patient 1, developmental age of 4-6 years at age 9 years; patient 2, mental age 6 years at age 25 years; and patient 3, global delay with hypotonia, difficulties in both gross and fine motor development, and persistent delay in language skills). 5 refs., 1 fig.

Fryns, J.P. [Univ. of Leuven (Belgium)

1995-09-11

52

Growth hormone deficiency in 18q deletion syndrome  

SciTech Connect

The 18q- syndrome is one of the most common chromosomal deletion syndromes. Clinical characteristics are variable but may include: hypotonia, cleft palate, mental retardation and hearing impairment. Growth failure (GF) (<3% weight/height) is present in 80% of affected individuals. We evaluated growth hormone (GH) sufficiency in 15 patients with 18q- syndrome. Of these 15 patients, 10 have growth failure (<3% weight/height); of the remaining 5, 3 had normal growth parameters and 2 had growth along the 5%. Twelve patients failed to produce adequate GH following standard stimulation testing. Of these 12 patients with inadequate GH production, 2 had normal growth (above 3%). Of the 15, only 1 has normal GH production and normal growth parameters. Bone age was obtained on 1 patient with both GH deficiency and GF, and revealed significant delays. GH levels in response to GH releasing factor were normal in 3 out of 4 patients. MRI studies of GH-deficient patients indicated normal midline structures. Myelination in the few studied GH-deficient patients appeared delayed. The gene for myelin basic protein (MBP) is known to be located on the terminal portion of the long arm of chromosome 18. Neither the gene for GH, GH releasing factor nor GH releasing factor receptor is on chromosome 18. These genes are located on chromosomes 17, chromosome 20 and chromosome 7, respectively. Findings to date suggest that GH deficiency is common in individuals with 18q- syndrome. The etiology of this finding is unknown. We postulate that a gene(s) on chromosome 18q is involved in GH expression.

Ghidoni, P.D.; Cody, J.; Danney, J. [Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

53

Characterization of deletions at 9p affecting the candidate regions for sex reversal and deletion 9p syndrome by MLPA  

PubMed Central

The distal region on the short arm of chromosome 9 is of special interest for scientists interested in sex development as well as in the clinical phenotype of patients with the 9p deletion syndrome, characterized by mental retardation, trigonocephaly and other dysmorphic features. Specific genes responsible for different aspects of the phenotype have not been identified. Distal 9p deletions have also been reported in patients with 46,XY sex reversal, with or without 9p deletion syndrome. Within this region the strongest candidates for the gonadal dysgenesis phenotype are the DMRT genes; however, the genetic mechanism is not clear yet. Multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification represents a useful technique to evaluate submicroscopic interstitial or distal deletions that would help the definition of the minimal sex reversal region on 9p and could lead to the identification of gene(s) responsible of the 46,XY gonadal disorders of sex development (DSD). We designed a synthetic probe set that targets genes within the 9p23-9p24.3 region and analyzed a group of XY patients with impaired gonadal development. We characterized a deletion distal to the DMRT genes in a patient with isolated 46,XY gonadal DSD and narrowed down the breakpoint in a patient with a 46,XY del(9)(p23) karyotype with gonadal DSD and mild symptoms of 9p deletion syndrome. The results are compared with other patients described in the literature, and new aspects of sex reversal and the 9p deletion syndrome candidate regions are discussed. PMID:19417767

Barbaro, Michela; Balsamo, Antonio; Anderlid, Britt Marie; Myhre, Anne Grethe; Gennari, Monia; Nicoletti, Annalisa; Pittalis, Maria Carla; Oscarson, Mikael; Wedell, Anna

2009-01-01

54

More Clinical Overlap between 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome and CHARGE Syndrome than Often Anticipated  

PubMed Central

CHARGE (coloboma, heart defects, atresia of choanae, retardation of growth and development, genital hypoplasia, and ear abnormalities) and 22q11.2 deletion syndromes are variable, congenital malformation syndromes that show considerable phenotypic overlap. We further explored this clinical overlap and proposed recommendations for the genetic diagnosis of both syndromes. We described 2 patients clinically diagnosed with CHARGE syndrome, who were found to carry a 22q11.2 deletion, and searched the literature for more cases. In addition, we screened our cohort of CHD7 mutation carriers (n = 802) for typical 22q11.2 deletion features and studied CHD7 in 20 patients with phenotypically 22q11.2 deletion syndrome but without haploinsufficiency of TBX1. In total, we identified 5 patients with a clinical diagnosis of CHARGE syndrome and a proven 22q11.2 deletion. Typical 22q11.2 deletion features were found in 30 patients (30/802, 3.7%) of our CHD7 mutation-positive cohort. We found truncating CHD7 mutations in 5/20 patients with phenotypically 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Differentiating between CHARGE and 22q11.2 deletion syndromes can be challenging. CHD7 and TBX1 probably share a molecular pathway or have common target genes in affected organs. We strongly recommend performing CHD7 analysis in patients with a 22q11.2 deletion phenotype without TBX1 haploinsufficiency and conversely, performing a genome-wide array in CHARGE syndrome patients without a CHD7 mutation. PMID:23885230

Corsten-Janssen, N.; Saitta, S.C.; Hoefsloot, L.H.; McDonald-McGinn, D.M.; Driscoll, D.A.; Derks, R.; Dickinson, K.A.; Kerstjens-Frederikse, W.S.; Emanuel, B.S.; Zackai, E.H.; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, C.M.A.

2013-01-01

55

Velo-cardio-facial syndrome: Frequency and textent of 22q11 deletions  

SciTech Connect

Velo-cardio-facial (VCFS) or Shprintzen syndrome is associated with deletions in a region of chromosome 22q11.2 also deleted in DiGeorge anomaly and some forms of congenital heart disease. Due to the variability of phenotype, the evaluation of the incidence of deletions has been hampered by uncertainty of diagnosis. In this study, 54 patients were diagnosed with VCFS by a single group of clinicians using homogeneous clinical criteria independent of the deletion status. Cell lines of these patients were established and the deletion status evaluated for three loci within the commonly deleted region at 22q11.2 using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). In 81% of the patients all three loci were hemizygous. In one patient we observed a smaller interstitial deletion than that defined by the three loci. The phenotype of this patient was not different from that observed in patients with larger deletions. 22 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Lindsay, E.A.; Goldberg, R.; Jurecic, V. [and others

1995-07-03

56

Deletion mapping of 22q11 in CATCH22 syndrome: Identification of a second critical region  

SciTech Connect

The deletion at 22q11.2 implicates a variety of congenital anomaly syndromes, for which the acronym CATCH22 has been proposed . Most patients with these syndromes share the common large deletion spanning 1-2 Mb, while the phenotypic variability of the patients does not seem to correlate with the extent of the deletions. On the basis of the deletions of rare cases with unbalanced translocation, the shortest region of overlap (SRO) had been identified in the most-centromeric region of the common large deletion. One patient (ADU) has been reported to carry a balanced translocation with the breakpoint located in the SRO. Recently, three transcripts were identified at or very close to the ADU breakpoint (ADUBP), making them strong candidates for CATCH22 syndrome. Here, we describe one patient with a unique deletion at 22q11.2 revealed by quantitative hybridization and/or FISH with six DNA markers in the common large deletion. The patient was dizygous at loci within the SRO and hemizygous only at the most-telomeric locus in the common large deletion. This finding suggests that there must be another critical region in the common large deletion besides the breakpoint of the ADU and that haploinsufficiency of genes in this deletion may also play a major role in CATCH22 pathogenesis. 15 refs., 3 figs.

Kurahashi, Hiroki; Nakayama, Takahiro; Nishisho, Isamu [Osaka Univ. Medical School, Yokohama (Japan)] [and others

1996-06-01

57

Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in 22q11 Deletion Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Objective People with velo-cardio-facial syndrome or 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) have behavioral, cognitive and psychiatric problems. Approximately 30% of affected individuals develop schizophrenia-like psychosis. Glutamate dysfunction is thought to play a crucial role in schizophrenia. However, it is unknown if and how the glutamate system is altered in 22q11DS. People with 22q11DS are vulnerable for haploinsufficiency of PRODH, a gene that codes for an enzyme converting proline into glutamate. Therefore, it can be hypothesized that glutamatergic abnormalities may be present in 22q11DS. Method We employed proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) to quantify glutamate and other neurometabolites in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and hippocampus of 22 adults with 22q11DS (22q11DS SCZ+) and without (22q11DS SCZ?) schizophrenia and 23 age-matched healthy controls. Also, plasma proline levels were determined in the 22q11DS group. Results We found significantly increased concentrations of glutamate and myo-inositol in the hippocampal region of 22q11DS SCZ+ compared to 22q11DS SCZ?. There were no significant differences in levels of plasma proline between 22q11DS SCZ+ and 22q11DS SCZ?. There was no relationship between plasma proline and cerebral glutamate in 22q11DS. Conclusion This is the first in vivo 1H-MRS study in 22q11DS. Our results suggest vulnerability of the hippocampus in the psychopathology of 22q11DS SCZ+. Altered hippocampal glutamate and myo-inositol metabolism may partially explain the psychotic symptoms and cognitive impairments seen in this group of patients. PMID:21738766

da Silva Alves, Fabiana; Boot, Erik; Schmitz, Nicole; Nederveen, Aart; Vorstman, Jacob; Lavini, Christina; Pouwels, Petra; de Haan, Lieuwe; Linszen, Don; van Amelsvoort, Therese

2011-01-01

58

Velo-cardio-facial syndrome: Frequency and textent of 22q11 deletions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Velo-cardio-facial (VCFS) or Shprintzen syndrome is associated with deletions in a region of chromosome 22q11.2 also deleted in DiGeorge anomaly and some forms of congenital heart disease. Due to the variability of phenotype, the evaluation of the incidence of deletions has been hampered by uncertainty of diagnosis. In this study, 54 patients were diagnosed with VCFS by a single group

Elizabeth A. Lindsay; Rosalie Goldberg; Vesna Jurecic; Bernice Morrow; Christine Carlson; Raju S. Kucherlapati; Robert J. Shprintzen; Antonio Baldini

1995-01-01

59

Choanal atresia in a patient with the deletion (9p) syndrome  

SciTech Connect

The authors report on a child with choanal atresia and deletion 9p. A review of the literature documented one previous instance of choanal atresia in a patient with del(9p). Choanal atresia may be part of the spectrum of malformations in the deletion (9p) syndrome and its presence should prompt a search for this particular deletion as part of the differential diagnosis. 9 refs., 3 figs.

Shashi, V.; Golden, W.L.; Fryburg, J.S. [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

1994-01-01

60

A syndrome of short stature, microcephaly and speech delay is associated with duplications reciprocal to the common Sotos syndrome deletion  

PubMed Central

Genomic rearrangements are an increasingly recognized mechanism of human phenotypic variation and susceptibility to disease. Sotos syndrome is characterized by overgrowth, macrocephaly, developmental delay and advanced osseous maturation. Haploinsufficiency of NSD1, caused by inactivating point mutations or deletion copy number variants, is the only known cause of Sotos syndrome. A recurrent 2?Mb deletion has been described with variable frequency in different populations. In this study, we report two individuals of different ethnic and geographical backgrounds, with duplications reciprocal to the common Sotos syndrome deletion. Our findings provide evidence for the existence of a novel syndrome of short stature, microcephaly, delayed bone development, speech delay and mild or absent facial dysmorphism. The phenotype is remarkably opposite to that of Sotos syndrome, suggesting a role for NSD1 in the regulation of somatic growth in humans. PMID:19844260

Franco, Luis M; de Ravel, Thomy; Graham, Brett H; Frenkel, Stephanie M; Van Driessche, Jozef; Stankiewicz, Pawel; Lupski, James R; Vermeesch, Joris R; Cheung, Sau Wai

2010-01-01

61

Language Skills in 5-8-Year-Old Children with 22q11 Deletion Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Language impairment and delayed language onset have been described, although not investigated in detail, in children with 22q11 deletion syndrome. Aims: To investigate different areas of language: the ability to retell a narrative, phonology, syntax and receptive vocabulary in a group of 5-8-year-old children with 22q11 deletion

Persson, Christina; Niklasson, Lena; Oskarsdottir, Solveig; Johansson, Susanne; Jonsson, Radi; Soderpalm, Ewa

2006-01-01

62

Nasal dimple as part of the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome  

SciTech Connect

The phenotype of the 22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome is quite variable. We describe 2 patients with a 22q11.2 deletion and a dimpled nasal tip, which, we suggest can be the extreme of the broad or bulbous nose commonly found in the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, and should not be confused with the more severe nasal abnormalities seen in frontonasal dysplasia. 11 refs., 2 figs.

Gripp, K.W.; Reed, L.A. [Children`s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA (United States)] [Children`s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA (United States); Emanuel, B.S. [Children`s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA (United States)] [Children`s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA (United States); [Univ. of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States)] [and others

1997-03-31

63

The Neural Correlates of Non-Spatial Working Memory in Velocardiofacial Syndrome (22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS), also known as 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, is a neurogenetic disorder that is associated with both learning disabilities and a consistent neuropsychological phenotype, including deficits in executive function, visuospatial perception, and working memory. Anatomic imaging studies have identified significant…

Kates, Wendy R.; Krauss, Beth R.; AbdulSabur, Nuria; Colgan, Deirdre; Antshel, Kevin M.; Higgins, Anne Marie; Shprintzen, Robert J.

2007-01-01

64

Refinement of the Smith–Magenis syndrome critical region to ?950 kb and assessment of 17p11.2 deletions. Are all deletions created equally?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smith–Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a multiple congenital anomalies\\/mental retardation syndrome associated with an interstitial deletion of chromosome 17p11.2. SMS is thought to be a contiguous gene syndrome caused by haploinsufficiency of one or more genes in the associated deletion region. To date, no gene has been reported to contribute to the characteristics seen in the SMS phenotype. To expedite the

Christopher N Vlangos; Dwight K. C Yim; Sarah H Elsea

2003-01-01

65

Contiguous gene syndromes due to deletions in the distal short arm of the human X chromosome  

SciTech Connect

Mendelian inherited disorders to deletions of adjacent genes on a chromosome have been described as contiguous gene syndromes. Short stature, chondrodysplasia punctata, mental retardation, steroid sulfatase deficiency, and Kallmann syndrome have been found as isolated entities or associated in various combination in 27 patients with interstitial and terminal deletions involving the distal short are of the X chromosome. The use of cDNA and genomic probes from the Xp22-pter region allowed us to identify 12 different deletion intervals and to confirm, and further refine, the chromosomal assignment of X-linked recessive chondrodysplasia punctata and Kallmann syndrome genes. A putative pseudoautosomal gene affecting height and an X-linked nonspecific mental retardation gene have been tentatively assigned to specific intervals. The deletion panel described is a useful tool for mapping new sequences and orienting chromosome walks in the region.

Ballabio, A.; Andria, G. (Univ. of Reggio Calabria, Catanzaro (Italy)); Bardoni, B.; Fraccaro, M.; Maraschio, P.; Zuffardi, O.; Guioli, S.; Camerino, G. (Univ. of Pavia (Italy)); Carrozzo, R. (Univ. of Naples (Italy)); Bick, D.; Campbell, L. (Univ. of Texas, San Antonio (USA)); Hamel, B. (Univ. of Nijmegen (Netherlands)); Ferguson-Smith, M.A. (Univ. of Cambridge (England)); Gimelli, G. (G. Gaslini Institute, Genoa (Italy))

1989-12-01

66

Mapping Cortical Morphology in Youth with Velocardiofacial (22q11.2 Deletion) Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS; 22q11.2 deletion syndrome) represents one of the highest known risk factors for schizophrenia. Insofar as up to 30% of individuals with this genetic disorder develop schizophrenia, VCFS constitutes a unique, etiologically homogeneous model for understanding the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Method:…

Kates, Wendy R.; Bansal, Ravi; Fremont, Wanda; Antshel, Kevin M.; Hao, Xuejun; Higgins, Anne Marie; Liu, Jun; Shprintzen, Robert J.; Peterson, Bradley S.

2011-01-01

67

Severe visual impairment and retinal changes in a boy with a deletion of the gene for Nance-Horan syndrome.  

PubMed

We present the ophthalmologic findings in a boy with a deletion of Xp22 comprising the gene for Nance-Horan syndrome. Different mechanisms underlying the visual impairment in Nance-Horan syndrome are discussed. PMID:18018428

Mathys, R; Deconinck, H; Keymolen, K; Jansen, A; Van Esch, H

2007-01-01

68

Chromosome 20 deletions in myelodysplastic syndromes and Philadelphia-chromosome-negative myeloproliferative disorders: characterization by molecular cytogenetics of commonly deleted and retained regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deletion of the long arm of chromosome 20 is a recurrent abnormality observed in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and in Philadelphia-chromosome-negative\\u000a myeloproliferative disorders (MPD). Our objective was to characterize the deletion size among 38 MDS and MPD patients using\\u000a fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) probes and to define commonly deleted\\u000a and retained regions on chromosome 20.

Nathalie Douet-Guilbert; Audrey Basinko; Frédéric Morel; Marie-Josée Le Bris; Valérie Ugo; Patrick Morice; Christian Berthou; Marc De Braekeleer

2008-01-01

69

Comparative Mapping of the Region of Human Chromosome 7 Deleted in Williams Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Williams syndrome (WS) is a complex developmental disorder resulting from the deletion of a large (~1.5±2 Mb) segment of human chromosome 7q11.23.Physical mapping studies have revealed that this deleted region, which contains a number of known genes, is flanked by several large, nearly identical blocks of DNA. The presence of such highly related DNA segments in close physical proximity to

Udaya Desilva; Hillary Massa; Barbara J. Trask; Eric D. Green

1999-01-01

70

Neuroblastoma in a boy with MCA/MR syndrome, deletion 11q, and duplication 12q  

SciTech Connect

Deletion 11q23{r_arrow}qter and duplication 12q23{r_arrow}qter are described in a boy with neuroblastoma, multiple congenital anomalies, and mental retardation. The patient has clinical manifestations of 11q deletion and 12q duplication syndromes. The possible involvement of the segment 11q23{r_arrow}24 in the cause of the neuroblastoma is discussed. 18 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Koiffmann, C.P.; Vianna-Morgante, A.M.; Wajntal, A. [Univ. of Sao Paulo (Brazil)] [and others

1995-07-31

71

Presenting phenotype in 100 children with the 22q11 deletion syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate and describe the presenting phenotype of children with the 22q11 deletion syndrome and to describe common clinical features that could serve as guidelines in the clinical diagnostic process preceding genetic testing. A hospital-based study of 100 consecutive children and adolescents with 22q11 deletion was initiated. The patients were divided into two groups

Sólveig Óskarsdóttir; Christina Persson; Bengt O. Eriksson; Anders Fasth

2005-01-01

72

Candidate Genes and the Behavioral Phenotype in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is an overwhelming evidence that children and adults with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) have a characteristic behavioral phenotype. In particular, there is a growing body of evidence that indicates an unequivocal association between 22q11.2DS and schizophrenia, especially in adulthood. Deletion of 22q11.2 is the third highest risk…

Prasad, Sarah E.; Howley, Sarah; Murphy, Kieran C.

2008-01-01

73

Quantification by flow cytometry of chromosome-17 deletions in Smith-Magenis syndrome patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have used bivariate flow karyotyping to quantify the deletions involving chromosome 17 in sixteen patients with Smith-Magenis\\u000a syndrome (SMS). The fluorescence intensities of mitotic chromosomes stained with Hoechst 33258 and chromomycin were quantified\\u000a in a dual-beam flow cytometer. For each patient, the position of the peak representing the deleted chromosome 17 was compared\\u000a to those of the normal homologs

Barbara J. Trask; Heather Mefford; Ger van den Engh; Hillary F. Massa; Ramesh C. Juyal; Lorraine Potocki; Brenda Finucane; Dianne N. Abuelo; David R. Witt; Ellen Magenis; Antonio Baldini; Frank Greenberg; James R. Lupski; Pragna I. Patel

1996-01-01

74

Autosomal dominant {open_quotes}Opitz{close_quotes} GBBB syndrome due to a 22q11.2 deletion  

SciTech Connect

The classification of Opitz GBBB syndrome has been associated with the deletion of the DiGeorge chromosome region on human chromosome 22q11.2. The broad phenotype involved in this deletion syndrome has been referred to as the DiGeorge/velocardiofacial syndrome. The clinical description of the patient will influence the diagnosis of the syndrome. More cooperation between the clinicians and the molecular researchers is necessary in order to locate the gene(s) for these disorders. 11 refs.

McDonald-McGinn, D.M.; Emanuel, B.S.; Zackai, E.H. [Univ. of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

1996-08-23

75

Molecular definition of the smallest region of deletion overlap in the Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome  

SciTech Connect

Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS), associated with a deletion of chromosome 4p, is characterized by mental and growth retardation and typical dysmorphism. A girl with clinical features of WHS was found to carry a subtle deletion of chromosome 4p. Initially suggested by high-resolution chromosome analysis, her deletion was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with cosmid probes, E13, and Y2, of D4S113. To delineate this 4p deletion, the authors performed a series of FISH and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis by using probes from 4p16.3. A deletion of [approximately]2.5 Mb with the breakpoint at [approximately]80 kb distal to D4S43 was defined in this patient and appears to be the smallest WHS deletion so far identified. To further refine the WHS critical region, they have studied three unrelated patients with presumptive 4p deletions, two resulting from unbalanced segregations of parental chromosomal translocations and one resulting from an apparently de novo unbalanced translocation. Larger deletions were identified in two patients with WHS. One patient who did not clinically present with WHS had a smaller deletion that thus eliminates the distal 100-300 kb from the telomere as being part of the WHS region. This study has localized the WHS region to [approximately]2 MB between D4S43 and D4S142. 37 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Gandelman, K.Y.; Gibson, L.; Meyn, M.S.; Yang-Feng, T.L. (Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States))

1992-09-01

76

22q11 deletion syndrome and forensic research: can we go there?  

PubMed

Chromosome 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) encompasses velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS), DiGeorge syndrome (DGS), and conotruncal anomaly face syndrome (CTAFS). The disorder may represent the interface between genetics and brain-behavior relationships. As there is a strong relationship between the genetic syndrome and schizophrenia, individuals with the disorder are likely to be disproportionately represented in the criminal justice system. The purpose of this article is to review the 22q11DS in the context of forensic research. The existing literature regarding the syndrome and its relationship to schizophrenia is reviewed. A study design is presented to determine the prevalence of the syndrome in correctional facilities compared with expected community prevalence rates. Finally, a brief history of genetic research in correctional facilities is reviewed as a potential model to determine the feasibility of research involving 22q11DS. PMID:15809249

Harris, Victoria

2005-01-01

77

Further delineation of genotype-phenotype correlation in homozygous 2p21 deletion syndromes: first description of patients without cystinuria.  

PubMed

Homozygous contiguous gene deletion syndromes are rare. On 2p21, however, several overlapping homozygous gene deletion syndromes have been described, all presenting with cystinuria but otherwise distinct phenotypes. Hypotonia-cystinuria syndrome (HCS, OMIM606407) is characterized by infantile hypotonia, poor feeding, and growth hormone deficiency. Affected individuals carry homozygous deletions including the cystinuria gene SLC3A1 and the adjacent PREPL gene. Larger homozygous deletions in this region encompassing the PPM1B, SLC3A1, PREPL, and C2orf34 (CAMKMT) genes result in a more severe phenotype, the 2p21 deletion syndrome. A phenotype intermediate to HCS and the 2p21 deletion syndrome is termed atypical HCS and is caused by deletion of SLC3A1, PREPL, and C2orf34 (CAMKMT). Using high resolution SNP array molecular karyotyping we identified two siblings with a homozygous deletion of 83 kb partially encompassing the genes PREPL and C2orf34 (CAMKMT), but not the SLC3A1 gene. The affected siblings display a recognizable phenotype which is similar to atypical HCS with regard to growth failure and neuro-muscular features, but is characterized by lack of cystinuria. The patients also exhibit features which have not been reported to date such as cleft palate and genital abnormalities. In conclusion, we report the first patients with a homozygous 2p21 deletion syndrome without cystinuria and further delineate the complex genotype-phenotype correlations of homozygous microdeletion syndromes of this region. PMID:23794250

Bartholdi, Deborah; Asadollahi, Reza; Oneda, Beatrice; Schmitt-Mechelke, Thomas; Tonella, Paolo; Baumer, Alessandra; Rauch, Anita

2013-08-01

78

Phenotypic and molecular assessment of seven patients with 6p25 deletion syndrome: Relevance to ocular dysgenesis and hearing impairment  

PubMed Central

Background Thirty-nine patients have been described with deletions involving chromosome 6p25. However, relatively few of these deletions have had molecular characterization. Common phenotypes of 6p25 deletion syndrome patients include hydrocephalus, hearing loss, and ocular, craniofacial, skeletal, cardiac, and renal malformations. Molecular characterization of deletions can identify genes that are responsible for these phenotypes. Methods We report the clinical phenotype of seven patients with terminal deletions of chromosome 6p25 and compare them to previously reported patients. Molecular characterization of the deletions was performed using polymorphic marker analysis to determine the extents of the deletions in these seven 6p25 deletion syndrome patients. Results Our results, and previous data, show that ocular dysgenesis and hearing impairment are the two most highly penetrant phenotypes of the 6p25 deletion syndrome. While deletion of the forkhead box C1 gene (FOXC1) probably underlies the ocular dysgenesis, no gene in this region is known to be involved in hearing impairment. Conclusions Ocular dysgenesis and hearing impairment are the two most common phenotypes of 6p25 deletion syndrome. We conclude that a locus for dominant hearing loss is present at 6p25 and that this locus is restricted to a region distal to D6S1617. Molecular characterization of more 6p25 deletion patients will aid in refinement of this locus and the identification of a gene involved in dominant hearing loss. PMID:15219231

Gould, Douglas B; Jaafar, Mohamad S; Addison, Mark K; Munier, Francis; Ritch, Robert; MacDonald, Ian M; Walter, Michael A

2004-01-01

79

Is the autosomal dominant Opitz GBBB syndrome part of the DiGeorge/velocardiofacial syndrome with deletions of chromosome area 22q11.2?  

SciTech Connect

The classification of Opitz GBBB syndrome has been associated with the deletion of the DiGeorge chromosome region on human chromosome 22q11.2. The broad phenotype involved in this deletion syndrome is usually referred to as the DiGeorge/velocardiofacial syndrome. The clinical description of the patient will influence the diagnosis of the syndrome. More exact descriptions are necessary in order to locate the gene(s) for these disorders. 13 refs.

Wulfsberg, E.A. [Univ. of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)

1996-08-23

80

Prenatal diagnosis of interstitial deletion of 17(p11.2p11.2) (Smith-Magenis Syndrome)  

SciTech Connect

Interstitial deletion of 17p11.2 is associated with Smith-Magenis syndrome. This is a recognizable chromosomal deletion syndrome, characterized by brachycephaly, midface hypoplasia, growth and mental retardation, behavioral problems, and ocular abnormalities. Molecular analysis indicates it is a contiguous gene syndrome. Over 50 patients have been reported since the deletion was first described by Smith et al. [1982]. Cases include one with mosaicism and a familial example. None were prenatally diagnosed. The authors report on the prenatal detection of interstitial deletion of 17p11.2. 11 refs., 1 fig.

NONE

1994-01-15

81

A Nuclear Defect in the 4p16 Region Predisposes to Multiple Mitochondrial DNA Deletions in Families with Wolfram Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wolfram syndrome is a progressive neurodegenerative dis- order transmitted in an autosomal recessive mode. We re- port two Wolfram syndrome families harboring multiple deletions of mitochondrial DNA. The deletions reached per- centages as high as 85-90% in affected tissues such as the central nervous system of one patient, while in other tissues from the same patient and from other members

Antoni Barrientos; Víctor Volpini; Jordi Casademont; David Genís; Josep-Maria Manzanares; Isidre Ferrer; Jordi Corral; Francesc Cardellach; Alvaro Urbano-Márquez; Xavier Estivill; Virginia Nunes

82

Molecular analyses of 17p11.2 deletions in 62 Smith-Magenis syndrome patients  

SciTech Connect

Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a clinically recognizable, multiple congenital anomalies/mental retardation syndrome caused by an interstitial deletion involving band p11.2 of chromosome 17. Toward the molecular definition of the interval defining this microdeletion syndrome, 62 unrelated SMS patients in conjunction with 70 available unaffected parents were molecularly analyzed with respect to the presence or absence of 14 loci in the proximal region of the short arm of chromosome 17. A multifaceted approach was used to determine deletion status at the various loci that combined (1) FISH analysis, (2) PCR and Southern analysis of somatic cell hybrids retaining the deleted chromosome 17 from selected patients, and (3) genotype determination of patients for whom a parent(s) was available at four microsatellite marker loci and at four loci with associated RFLPs. The relative order of two novel anonymous markers and a new microsatellite marker was determined in 17p11.2. The results confirmed that the proximal deletion breakpoint in the majority of SMS patients is located between markers D17S58 (EW301) and D17S446 (FG1) within the 17p11.1-17p11.2 region. The common distal breakpoint was mapped between markers cCI17-638, which lies distal to D17S71, and cCI17-498, which lies proximal to the Charcot Marie-Tooth disease type 1A locus. The locus D17S258 was found to be deleted in all 62 patients, and probes from this region can be used for diagnosis of the SMS deletion by FISH. Ten patients demonstrated molecularly distinct deletions; of these, two patients had smaller deletions and will enable the definition of the critical interval for SMS. 49 refs.

Juyal, R.C.; Figuera, L.E.; Hauge, X. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)] [and others

1996-05-01

83

Risk of colorectal and endometrial cancers in EPCAM deletion-positive Lynch syndrome: a cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Lynch syndrome is caused by germline mutations in MSH2, MLH1, MSH6, and PMS2 mismatch-repair genes and leads to a high risk of colorectal and endometrial cancer. We previously showed that constitutional 3' end deletions of EPCAM can cause Lynch syndrome through epigenetic silencing of MSH2 in EPCAM-expressing tissues, resulting in tissue-specific MSH2 deficiency. We aim to establish the risk

Marlies JE Kempers; Roland P Kuiper; Charlotte W Ockeloen; Pierre O Chappuis; Pierre Hutter; Nils Rahner; Hans K Schackert; Verena Steinke; Elke Holinski-Feder; Monika Morak; Matthias Kloor; Reinhard Büttner; Eugene TP Verwiel; J Han van Krieken; Iris D Nagtegaal; Monique Goossens; Rachel S van der Post; Renée C Niessen; Rolf H Sijmons; Irma Kluijt; Frans BL Hogervorst; Edward M Leter; Johan JP Gille; Cora M Aalfs; Egbert JW Redeker; Frederik J Hes; Carli MJ Tops; Bernadette PM van Nesselrooij; Marielle E van Gijn; Encarna B Gómez García; Diana M Eccles; David J Bunyan; Sapna Syngal; Elena M Stoffel; Julie O Culver; Melanie R Palomares; Tracy Graham; Lea Velsher; Janos Papp; Edith Oláh; Tsun L Chan; Suet Y Leung; Lambertus ALM Kiemeney; Nicoline Hoogerbrugge; Marjolijn JL Ligtenberg

2011-01-01

84

Terminal chromosome 4q deletion syndrome in an infant with hearing impairment and moderate syndromic features: review of literature  

PubMed Central

Background Terminal deletions of chromosome 4q are associated with a broad spectrum of phenotypes including cardiac, craniofacial, digital, and cognitive impairment. The rarity of this syndrome renders genotype-phenotype correlation difficult, which is further complicated by the widely different phenotypes observed in patients sharing similar deletion intervals. Case presentation Herein, we describe a boy with congenital hearing impairment and a variety of moderate syndromic features that prompted SNP array analysis disclosing a heterozygous 6.9 Mb deletion in the 4q35.1q35.2 region, which emerged de novo in the maternal germ line. Conclusion In addition to the index patient, we review 35 cases from the literature and DECIPHER database to attempt genotype-phenotype correlations for a syndrome with great phenotypic variability. We delineate intervals with recurrent phenotypic overlap, particularly for cleft palate, congenital heart defect, intellectual disability, and autism spectrum disorder. Broad phenotypic presentation of the terminal 4q deletion syndrome is consistent with incomplete penetrance of the individual symptoms. PMID:24962056

2014-01-01

85

Strong correlation of elastin deletions, detected by FISH, with Williams syndrome: Evaluation of 235 patients  

SciTech Connect

Williams syndrome (WS) is generally characterized by mental deficiency, gregarious personality, dysmorphic facies, supravalvular aortic stenosis, and idiopathic infantile hypercalcemia. Patients with WS show allelic loss of elastin (ELN), exhibiting a submicroscopic deletion, at 7q11.23, detectable by FISH. Hemizygosity is likely the cause of vascular abnormalities in WS patients. A series of 235 patients was studied, and molecular cytogenetic deletions were seen in 96% of patients with classic WS. Patients included 195 solicited through the Williams Syndrome Association (WSA), plus 40 clinical cytogenetics cases referred by primary-care physicians. Photographs and medical records of most WSA subjects were reviewed, and patients were identified as {open_quotes}classic{open_quotes} (n = 114) or{open_quotes}uncertain{close_quotes} (n = 39). An additional 42 WSA patients were evaluated without clinical information. FISH was performed with biotinylated ELN cosmids on metaphase cells from immortalized lymphoblastoid lines from WSA patients and after high-resolution banding analysis on clinical referral patients. An alpha-satellite probe for chromosome 7 was included in hybridizations, as an internal control. Ninety-six percent of the patients with classic WS showed a deletion in one ELN allele; four of these did not show a deletion. Of the uncertain WS patients, only 3 of 39 showed a deletion. Of the 42 who were not classified phenotypically, because of lack of clinical information, 25 patients (60%) showed a deletion. Thirty-eight percent (15/40) of clinical cytogenetics cases showed an ELN deletion and no cytogenetic deletion by banded analysis. These results support the usefulness of FISH for the detection of elastin deletions as an initial diagnostic assay for WS. 14 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

Lowery, M.C.; Brothman, L.J.; Leonard, C.O. [Univ. of Utah Health Sciences Center, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)] [and others

1995-07-01

86

Subtypes in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Associated with Behaviour and Neurofacial Morphology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) has a complex phenotype with more than 180 characteristics, including cardiac anomalies, cleft palate, intellectual disabilities, a typical facial morphology, and mental health problems. However, the variable phenotype makes it difficult to predict clinical outcome, such as the high prevalence of psychosis among…

Sinderberry, Brooke; Brown, Scott; Hammond, Peter; Stevens, Angela F.; Schall, Ulrich; Murphy, Declan G. M.; Murphy, Kieran C.; Campbell, Linda E.

2013-01-01

87

Identification of Cryptic Rearrangements in Patients with 18q? Deletion Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The majority of patients with 18q2 syndrome appear cytogenetically to have a terminal deletion of the long arm of chromosome 18. These 18q2 patients are di- agnosed by use of standard cytogenetic banding tech- niques, which have resolution insufficient for precise ge- notyping. In our effort to obtain a thorough genotype, we have analyzed the DNA from 35 patients

Zoran Brkanac; Jannine D. Cody; Robin J. Leach; Barbara R. DuPont

1998-01-01

88

Domain Specific Attentional Impairments in Children with Chromosome 22Q11.2 Deletion Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the defining cognitive characteristics of the chromosome 22q deletion syndrome (DS22q11.2) is visuospatial processing impairments. The purpose of this study was to investigate and extend the specific attentional profile of children with this disorder using both an object-based attention task and an inhibition of return task. A group of…

Bish, Joel P.; Chiodo, Renee; Mattei, Victoria; Simon, Tony J.

2007-01-01

89

Children with Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Exhibit Impaired Spatial Working Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individuals with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) have been shown to have impairments in processing spatiotemporal information. The authors examined whether children with 22q11.2DS exhibit impairments in spatial working memory performance due to these weaknesses, even when controlling for maintenance of attention. Children with…

Wong, Ling M.; Riggins, Tracy; Harvey, Danielle; Cabaral, Margarita; Simon, Tony J.

2014-01-01

90

Deletions at the SOX10 gene locus cause Waardenburg syndromes type 2 and 4. Running title  

E-print Network

1 Deletions at the SOX10 gene locus cause Waardenburg syndromes type 2 and 4. Running title: SOX10 the genes encoding MITF and SNAI2 have been identified in WS2, whereas mutations of EDN3, EDNRB and SOX10, raising the possibility that other genes are involved or that some mutations within the known genes

Boyer, Edmond

91

Rieger syndrome with multiple chromosomal breaks and chromosome 4 deletion.  

PubMed

Rieger syndrome (RS) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder with variable expressivity and complete penetrance. Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome (ARS) shows genetic heterogeneity with mutations in several chromosomal loci being implicated including PITX2, FOXC1 and PAX6. Cytogenetic analysis was done in this case. Patient had de novo 46,XY,del(4q25-q27) karyotype with a high percentage (>35%) of chromosomal breaks. The breaks were on different chromosomes and not related to disease phenotype of RS. Such chromosomal breaks are diagnostic of chromosomal instability syndromes. Available literature does not report chromosomal breaks in RS or due to culture condition. Such a high percentage of chromosomal breaks are associated with development of certain cancers. In the present case we did not find any features consistent with any of the chromosomal instability syndromes like Fanconi's anaemia and Blooms syndrome, but such cases need to be under regular follow-up. Thus RS cases with multiple chromosomal breaks need regular follow-up and genetic counselling. PMID:21686867

Tanwar, Mukesh; Kumar, Rakesh; Goyal, Amita; Kumar, Manoj; Dada, Tanuj; Singh, Gurdeep; Sihota, Ramanjit; Dada, Rima

2009-01-01

92

Detection of deletions and cryptic translocations in Miller-Dieker syndrome by in situ hybridization.  

PubMed Central

Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using two cosmid probes (41A and P13) from the Miller-Dieker syndrome (MDS) critical region in 17p13.3 was performed in a blinded comparison of three MDS patients with submicroscopic deletions and in four normal relatives used as controls. The controls showed both chromosome 17 homologues labeled in 85%-95% of cells, while each patient showed only one homologue labeled in 75%-80% of cells. Two MDS patients with cryptic translocations were also studied. In one case, a patient and her mother had the same der(17) (p+), but the reciprocal product of the translocation could not be identified in the mother by G-banding (i.e., it was a "half-cryptic" translocation). FISH revealed a 3q;17p translocation. The other case involved a patient with apparently normal karyotype. Because a large molecular deletion was found, a translocation involving two G-negative telomeres (i.e., a "full-cryptic" translocation) was postulated. FISH studies on her father and normal brother showed an 8q;17p translocation. These studies demonstrate that in situ hybridization is an efficient method for deletion detection in Miller-Dieker syndrome. More important, parental studies by FISH on patients demonstrating molecular deletions and a normal karyotype may identify cryptic translocation events, which cannot be detected by other molecular genetic strategies. Similar in situ strategies for deletion detection can be developed for other microdeletion syndromes, such as Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome or DiGeorge syndrome. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:1897521

Kuwano, A; Ledbetter, S A; Dobyns, W B; Emanuel, B S; Ledbetter, D H

1991-01-01

93

Microarray analysis of the Df1 mouse model of the 22q11 deletion syndrome.  

PubMed

The 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS; DiGeorge/velo-cardio-facial syndrome) primarily affects the structures comprising the pharyngeal arches and pouches resulting in arch artery, cardiac, parathyroid, thymus, palatal and craniofacial defects. Tbx1 haploinsufficiency is thought to account for the main structural anomalies observed in the 22q11DS. The Df1 deleted mouse provides a model for 22q11DS, the deletion reflecting Tbx1 haploinsufficiency in the context of the deletion of 21 adjacent genes. We examined the expression of genes in Df1 embryos at embryonic day (E) 10.5, a stage when the arch-artery phenotype is fully penetrant. Our aims were threefold, with our primary aim to identify differentially regulated genes. Second, we asked whether any of the genes hemizygous in Df1 were dosage compensated to wild type levels, and third we investigated whether genes immediately adjacent to the deletion were dysregulated secondary to a position effect. Utilisation of oligonulceotide arrays allowed us to achieve our aims with 9 out of 12 Df1 deleted genes passing the stringent statistical filtering applied. Several genes involved in vasculogenesis and cardiogenesis were validated by real time quantitative PCR (RTQPCR), including Connexin 45, a gene required for normal vascular development, and Dnajb9 a gene implicated in microvascular differentiation. There was no evidence of any dosage compensation of deleted genes, suggesting this phenomenon is rare, and no dysregulation of genes mapping immediately adjacent to the deletion was detected. However Crkl, another gene implicated in the 22q11DS phenotype, was found to be downregulated by microarray and RTQPCR. PMID:15778864

Prescott, Katrina; Ivins, Sarah; Hubank, Mike; Lindsay, Elizabeth; Baldini, Antonio; Scambler, Peter

2005-05-01

94

Induced chromosome deletions cause hypersociability and other features of Williams–Beuren syndrome in mice  

PubMed Central

The neurodevelopmental disorder Williams–Beuren syndrome is caused by spontaneous ?1.5 Mb deletions comprising 25 genes on human chromosome 7q11.23. To functionally dissect the deletion and identify dosage-sensitive genes, we created two half-deletions of the conserved syntenic region on mouse chromosome 5G2. Proximal deletion (PD) mice lack Gtf2i to Limk1, distal deletion (DD) mice lack Limk1 to Fkbp6, and the double heterozygotes (D/P) model the complete human deletion. Gene transcript levels in brain are generally consistent with gene dosage. Increased sociability and acoustic startle response are associated with PD, and cognitive defects with DD. Both PD and D/P males are growth-retarded, while skulls are shortened and brains are smaller in DD and D/P. Lateral ventricle (LV) volumes are reduced, and neuronal cell density in the somatosensory cortex is increased, in PD and D/P. Motor skills are most impaired in D/P. Together, these partial deletion mice replicate crucial aspects of the human disorder and serve to identify genes and gene networks contributing to the neural substrates of complex behaviours and behavioural disorders. PMID:20049703

Li, Hong Hua; Roy, Madhuri; Kuscuoglu, Unsal; Spencer, Corinne M; Halm, Birgit; Harrison, Katharine C; Bayle, Joseph H; Splendore, Alessandra; Ding, Feng; Meltzer, Leslie A; Wright, Elena; Paylor, Richard; Deisseroth, Karl; Francke, Uta

2009-01-01

95

EPCAM germ line deletions as causes of Lynch syndrome in Spanish patients.  

PubMed

The standard genetic test for Lynch syndrome (LS) frequently reveals an absence of pathogenic mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes known to be associated with LS. It was recently shown that germ line deletions in the last exons of EPCAM are involved in the etiology of LS. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of EPCAM deletions in a Spanish population and the clinical implications of deletion. Probands from 501 families suspected of having LS were enrolled in the study. Twenty-five cases with MSH2 loss were identified: 10 had mutations of MSH2, five had mutations of MSH6, and 10 did not show MSH2/MSH6 mutations. These 25 cases were analyzed for EPCAM deletions using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification, and deletions were mapped using long-range PCR analysis. One subject with no MSH2/MSH6 mutations had a large deletion in the EPCAM locus that extended for 8.7 kb and included exons 8 and 9. The tumor exhibited MSH2 promoter hypermethylation. EPCAM deletion analysis followed by MSH2 methylation testing of the tumor is a fast low-cost procedure that can be used to identify mutations that cause LS. We propose that this procedure be incorporated into clinical genetic analysis strategies and present a decision-support flow diagram for the diagnosis of LS. PMID:20864635

Guarinos, Carla; Castillejo, Adela; Barberá, Víctor-Manuel; Pérez-Carbonell, Lucía; Sánchez-Heras, Ana-Beatriz; Segura, Angel; Guillén-Ponce, Carmen; Martínez-Cantó, Ana; Castillejo, María-Isabel; Egoavil, Cecilia-Magdalena; Jover, Rodrigo; Payá, Artemio; Alenda, Cristina; Soto, José-Luís

2010-11-01

96

Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) results from a 1.5-to 3.0-Mb deletion on the long arm  

E-print Network

Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) results from a 1.5- to 3.0-Mb deletion on the long in which a rela- tively small range of dopamine optimizes cognitive per- formance (Williams & Goldman modulates cognitive control in children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome Yukari Takarae, Linda

Nguyen, Danh

97

Mosaic partial deletion of the PTEN gene in a patient with Cowden syndrome.  

PubMed

Cowden syndrome is an autosomal dominant condition caused by pathogenic mutations in the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) gene. Only a small proportion of identified pathogenic mutations have been reported to be large deletions and rearrangements. We report on a female patient with a previous history of breast ductal carcinoma in situ who presented to our institution for management of gastrointestinal hamartomatous polyposis. Although several neoplastic predisposition syndromes were considered, genetic evaluation determined that the patient met clinical diagnostic criteria for Cowden syndrome. Array-based comparative genomic hybridization was performed and revealed a mosaic partial deletion of the PTEN gene. Follow-up clinical history including bilateral thyroid nodules, dermatological findings, and a new primary "triple-negative" adenocarcinoma of the contralateral breast are discussed. We highlight the need for recognition and awareness of mosaicism as it may provide an explanation for variable phenotypic presentations and may alter the genetic counseling risk assessment of affected individuals and family members. PMID:24609522

Salo-Mullen, Erin E; Shia, Jinru; Brownell, Isaac; Allen, Peter; Girotra, Monica; Robson, Mark E; Offit, Kenneth; Guillem, Jose G; Markowitz, Arnold J; Stadler, Zsofia K

2014-09-01

98

Subtelomeric chromosomal rearrangements in a large cohort of unexplained intellectually disabled individuals in Indonesia: A clinical and molecular study  

PubMed Central

CONTEXT: Unbalanced subtelomeric chromosomal rearrangements are often associated with intellectual disability (ID) and malformation syndromes. The prevalence of such rearrangements has been reported to be 5-9% in ID populations. AIMS: To study the prevalence of subtelomeric rearrangements in the Indonesian ID population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We tested 436 subjects with unexplained ID using multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification (MLPA) using the specific designed sets of probes to detect human subtelomeric chromosomal imbalances (SALSA P070 and P036D). If necessary, abnormal findings were confirmed by other MLPA probe kits, fluorescent in situ hybridization or Single Nucleotide Polymorphism array. RESULTS: A subtelomeric aberration was identified in 3.7% of patients (16/436). Details on subtelomeric aberrations and confirmation analyses are discussed. CONCLUSION: This is the first study describing the presence of subtelomeric rearrangements in individuals with ID in Indonesia. Furthermore, it shows that also in Indonesia such abnormalities are a prime cause of ID and that in developing countries with limited diagnostic services such as Indonesia, it is important and feasible to uncover the genetic etiology in a significant number of cases with ID. PMID:24019618

Mundhofir, Farmaditya E. P.; Nillesen, Willy M.; Van Bon, Bregje W. M.; Smeets, Dominique; Pfundt, Rolph; van de Ven-Schobers, Gaby; Ruiterkamp-Versteeg, Martina; Winarni, Tri I.; Hamel, Ben C. J.; Yntema, Helger G.; Faradz, Sultana M. H.

2013-01-01

99

Cryptic Transcription Mediates Repression of Subtelomeric Metal Homeostasis Genes  

E-print Network

Cryptic Transcription Mediates Repression of Subtelomeric Metal Homeostasis Genes Isabelle Toesca located in subtelomeric regions, and in particular of many metal homeostasis genes. Citation: Toesca I of Subtelomeric Metal Homeostasis Genes. PLoS Genet 7(6): e1002163. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1002163 Editor: Hiten

Chanfreau, Guillaume

100

Mitochondrial DNA deletion in a patient with combined features of Leigh and Pearson syndromes  

SciTech Connect

We describe a heteroplasmic 4237 bp mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletion in an 11 year old girl who has suffered from progressive illness since birth. She has some features of Leigh syndrome (global developmental delay with regression, brainstem dysfunction and lactic acidosis), together with other features suggestive of Pearson syndrome (history of pancytopenia and failure to thrive). The deletion was present at a level greater than 50% in skeletal muscle, but barely detectable in skin fibroblasts following Southern blot analysis, and only observed in blood following PCR analysis. The deletion spanned nt 9498 to nt 13734, and was flanked by a 12 bp direct repeat. Genes for cytochrome c oxidase subunit III, NADH dehydrogenase subunits 3, 4L, 4 and 5, and tRNAs for glycine, arginine, histidine, serine({sup AGY}) and leucine({sup CUN}) were deleted. Southern blotting also revealed an altered Apa I restriction site which was shown by sequence analysis to be caused by G{r_arrow}A nucleotide substitution at nt 1462 in the 12S rRNA gene. This was presumed to be a polymorphism. No abnormalities of mitochondrial ultrastructure, distribution or of respiratory chain enzyme complexes I-IV in skeletal muscle were observed. Mitochondrial disorders with clinical features overlapping more than one syndrome have been reported previously. This case further demonstrates the difficulty in correlating observed clinical features with a specific mitochondrial DNA mutation.

Blok, R.B.; Thorburn, D.R.; Danks, D.M. [Royal Children`s Hospital, Melbourne (Australia)] [and others

1994-09-01

101

Bilateral polymicrogyria: always think in chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndromes.  

PubMed

Polymicrogyria (PMG) is a malformation of cortical development due to an abnormal organisation. It is a heterogeneous disorder associated with genetic and acquired events, namely 22q11.2 deletion syndrome also known as DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) /velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS) among others. This association has been known since 1996 and more than 30 cases have been described. Neurological features include motor and cognitive impairment, epilepsy, microcephaly and spasticity. The authors present an 8-month old infant with minor dysmorphic features, microcephaly, global psychomotor retardation and epilepsy. Brain MRI revealed diffuse bilateral PMG. The 22q11.2 deletion was confirmed by fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH). The child had no other manifestation of DGS/VCFS. paediatricians, neuropaediatricians, development specialists and geneticists should be aware that in the presence of PMG, especially when bilateral, 22q11.2 deletion should be investigated, even in the absence of the typical features of DGS/VCFS. On the other hand, in children with 22q11.2 deletion, brain malformations should be ruled out. PMID:22674744

Castro, Ana; Rodrigues, Nádia; Pereira, Marco; Gonçalves, Cláudia

2011-01-01

102

Comparison of phenotype in uniparental disomy and deletion Prader-Willi syndrome: Sex specific differences  

SciTech Connect

Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) results primarily from either a paternal deletion of 15q11-q13 or maternal uniparental disomy (UPD) 15. Birth parameters and clinical presentation of 79 confirmed UPD cases and 43 deletion patients were compared in order to test whether any manifestations differ between the two groups. There were no major clinical differences between the two classes analyzed as a whole, other than the presence of hypopigmentation predominantly in the deletion group. However, there was a significant bias in sex-ratio (P<.001) limited to the UPD group with a predominance (68%) of males. An equal number of males and females was observed in the deletion group. When analyzed by sex, several significant differences between the UPD and deletion groups were observed. Female UPD patients were found to be less severely affected than female deletion patients in terms of length of gavage feeding and a later onset of hyperphagia. Although these traits are likely to be influenced by external factors, they may reflect a milder presentation of female UPD patients which could explain the observed sex bias by causing under-ascertainment of female UPD. Alternatively, there may be an effect of sex on either early trisomy 15 survival or the probability of somatic loss of a chromosome from a trisomic conceptus. 26 refs., 1 tab.

Mitchell, J.; Langlois, S.; Robinson, W.P. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)] [and others] [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada); and others

1996-10-16

103

Subtelomeric CTCF and cohesin binding site organization using improved subtelomere assemblies and a novel annotation pipeline  

PubMed Central

Mapping genome-wide data to human subtelomeres has been problematic due to the incomplete assembly and challenges of low-copy repetitive DNA elements. Here, we provide updated human subtelomere sequence assemblies that were extended by filling telomere-adjacent gaps using clone-based resources. A bioinformatic pipeline incorporating multiread mapping for annotation of the updated assemblies using short-read data sets was developed and implemented. Annotation of subtelomeric sequence features as well as mapping of CTCF and cohesin binding sites using ChIP-seq data sets from multiple human cell types confirmed that CTCF and cohesin bind within 3 kb of the start of terminal repeat tracts at many, but not all, subtelomeres. CTCF and cohesin co-occupancy were also enriched near internal telomere-like sequence (ITS) islands and the nonterminal boundaries of subtelomere repeat elements (SREs) in transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) and human embryonic stem cell (ES) lines, but were not significantly enriched in the primary fibroblast IMR90 cell line. Subtelomeric CTCF and cohesin sites predicted by ChIP-seq using our bioinformatics pipeline (but not predicted when only uniquely mapping reads were considered) were consistently validated by ChIP-qPCR. The colocalized CTCF and cohesin sites in SRE regions are candidates for mediating long-range chromatin interactions in the transcript-rich SRE region. A public browser for the integrated display of short-read sequence–based annotations relative to key subtelomere features such as the start of each terminal repeat tract, SRE identity and organization, and subtelomeric gene models was established. PMID:24676094

Stong, Nicholas; Deng, Zhong; Gupta, Ravi; Hu, Sufen; Paul, Shiela; Weiner, Amber K.; Eichler, Evan E.; Graves, Tina; Fronick, Catrina C.; Courtney, Laura; Wilson, Richard K.; Lieberman, Paul M.; Davuluri, Ramana V.; Riethman, Harold

2014-01-01

104

Greig cephalopolysyndactyly syndrome: Altered phenotype of a contiguous gene syndrome by the presence of a chromosomal deletion  

SciTech Connect

Greig cephalopolysyndactyly syndrome (GCPS) is characterized by craniofacial anomalies, broad thumbs and halluces, polydactyly of the hands and feet, and variable syndactyly. Intellectual abilities are usually normal. Inheritance is in an autosomal dominant fashion. The disorder has been mapped to chromosome 7p13, suggesting that the condition represents a contiguous gene syndrome (CGS). A male infant presented with multiple congenital anomalies, including omphalocele, dysgenesis of the corpus callosum, hydrocephalus, esotropia, broad thumbs and halluces, syndactyly, polydactyly of one foot, hypotonia and developmental delay. A de novo interstitial deletion of chromosome 7p was detected, 46,XY,del(7)(p13p15). Although clinical findings in this case were reminiscent of GCPS, and the chromosomal abnormality included the region assigned to the candidate gene for this syndrome, additional physical abnormalities were present, as well as cognitive deficits. Some of these features have been previously described in patients with chromosomal deletions of 7p. The chromosomal abnormality in our case provides supportive evidence of the gene locus in GCPS, and that GCPS represents a new CGS. However, a larger deletion, extending beyond the limits of the gene, significantly altered the phenotype. Isolation of the gene responsible for GCPS, and identification of additional patients with chromosomal abnormalities in this region of chromosome 7, should help to provide more accurate genotype-phenotype correlations.

Hersh, J.H.; Williams, P.G.; Yen, F.F. [Univ. of Louisville, KY (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

105

Inflammatory and noninflammatory arthropathy in patients with 18q deletion syndrome.  

PubMed

A 7-year-old girl with 18q deletion syndrome developed chronic progressive polyarticular inflammatory arthropathy. Atypical features of her arthritis included lack of morning stiffness, absence of pain and discomfort, normal acute-phase reactants, and the presence of clinodactyly, low-set thumbs, metatarsus adductus of her feet, and overriding nontender swollen toes. She had a positive antinuclear antibody test, negative rheumatoid factor and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide, and undetectable immunoglobulin A level. Magnetic resonance imaging of the right knee and the result of the synovial biopsy were consistent with synovitis. She was treated with naproxen, short course of prednisone, and methotrexate with good clinical response that plateaued over time. We analyzed the scarce reports of inflammatory arthropathy in 18q deletion syndrome and proposed an outline for investigating arthropathies in patients with chromosomal aberrations. PMID:22157270

Safi, Khalid H; Fathalla, Basil M

2012-01-01

106

Neuropsychological function in a child with 18p deletion syndrome: a case report.  

PubMed

We report the neuropsychological profile of a 4-year-old boy with the rare 18p deletion syndrome. We used a battery of standardized tests to assess his development in intellect, language, visuomotor integration, academic readiness, socialization, and emotional and behavioral health. The results showed borderline intellectual function except for low average nonverbal reasoning skills. He had stronger receptive than expressive language skills, although both were well below his age group. He had impaired visuomotor integration and pre-academic skills such as letter identification. Emotional and behavioral findings indicated mild aggressiveness, anxiety, low frustration tolerance, and executive function weaknesses, especially at home. Interestingly, he showed social strengths, responding to joint attention and sharing enjoyment with his examiner. With its assessment of development in many domains, this case report is among the first to characterize the neuropsychological and psychiatric function of a young child with 18p deletion syndrome. We discuss the implications of our findings for clinical practice. PMID:25237747

Willoughby, Brian L; Favero, Marcus; Mochida, Ganeshwaran H; Braaten, Ellen B

2014-09-01

107

Deletion of exons 2-4 in the BSND gene causes severe antenatal Bartter syndrome.  

PubMed

BSND gene mutations usually cause severe forms of antenatal Bartter syndrome and sensorineural deafness (SND). Chronic renal failure and transient hypercalciuria are reported as controversial symptoms of this syndrome. All twelve reported BSND mutations cause SND, whereas only two of the mutations give rise to normal glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and two other mutations cause hypercalciuria. The case we report here, where the patient presented with severe clinical symptoms and deletion on exons 2-4 of the BSND gene, has not been reported previously. Decreased GFR, along with hypercalciuria and difficulties in managing fluid and electrolyte requirements, are the reasons why this patient was brought to attention. PMID:18843510

Bircan, Zelal; Harputluoglu, Filiz; Jeck, Nikola

2009-04-01

108

Xp21 contiguous gene syndromes: Deletion quantitation with bivariate flow karyotyping allows mapping of patient breakpoints  

SciTech Connect

Bivariate flow karyotyping was used to estimate the deletion sizes for a series of patients with Xp21 contiguous gene syndromes. The deletion estimates were used to develop an approximate scale for the genomic map in Xp21. The bivariate flow karyotype results were compared with clinical and molecular genetic information on the extent of the patients' deletions, and these various types of data were consistent. The resulting map spans >15 Mb, from the telomeric interval between DXS41 (99-6) and DXS68 (1-4) to a position centromeric to the ornithine transcarbamylase locus. The deletion sizing was considered to be accurate to [plus minus]1 Mb. The map provides information on the relative localization of genes and markers within this region. For example, the map suggests that the adrenal hypoplasia congenita and glycerol kinase genes are physically close to each other, are within 1-2 Mb of the telomeric end of the Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) gene, and are nearer to the DMD locus than to the more distal marker DXS28 (C7). Information of this type is useful in developing genomic strategies for positional cloning in Xp21. These investigations demonstrate that the DNA from patients with Xp21 contiguous gene syndromes can be valuable reagents, not only for ordering loci and markers but also for providing an approximate scale to the map of the Xp21 region surrounding DMD. 44 refs., 3 figs.

McCabe, E.R.B.; Towbin, J.A. (Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)); Engh, G. van den; Trask, B.J. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States))

1992-12-01

109

Unequal interchromosomal rearrangements may result in elastin gene deletions causing the Williams-Beuren syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) is generally the consequence of an interstitial microdeletion at 7q11.23, which includes the elastin gene, thus causing hemizygosity at the elastin gene locus. The origin of the deletion has been reported by many authors to be maternal in ~60% and paternal in 40% of cases. Segregation analysis of grandparental markers flanking the microdeletion region in WBS patients

Fabrizio Dutly; Albert Schinzel

1996-01-01

110

22q11 deletions in isolated and syndromic patients with tetralogy of Fallot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tetralogy of Fallot (TF) is a congenital conotruncal heart defect commonly found in DiGeorge (DGS) and velo-cardio-facial (VCFS) syndromes. The deletion of chromosome 22q11 (de122q11) is a well established cause of DGS and VCFS, and it has been demonstrated also in sporadic or familial cases of TF. In order to investigate the prevalence of de122q11 in patients with TF, we

Francesca Amati; Aldo Mari; Maria Cristina Digilio; Rita Mingarelli; Bruno Marino; Aldo Giannotti; Giuseppe Novelli; Bruno Dallapiccola

1995-01-01

111

Mitochondrial DNA deletion with Kearns Sayre syndrome in a child with Addison disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kearns Sayre syndrome (KSS) is a multisystem disorder with a confounding variety of clinical manifestations, including ocular\\u000a myopathy, pigmentary retinopathy, heart block and ataxia. Endocrinopathies are common in KSS, including growth hormone deficiency,\\u000a hypogonadism, diabetes mellitus and hypoparathyroidism. ?A variety of deletions of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) are found in\\u000a most cases. We report on a 5-year-old boy with Addison disease

R. G. Boles; T. Roe; D. Senadheera; V. Mahnovski; L. J. C. Wong

1998-01-01

112

The Neuropsychology of 22q11 Deletion Syndrome. A Neuropsychiatric Study of 100 Individuals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary objective of this study was to study the impact of ASD/ADHD on general intellectual ability and profile, executive functions and visuo-motor skills in children and adults with 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS). A secondary aim was to study if gender, age, heart disease, ASD, ADHD or ASD in combination with ADHD had an impact on general…

Niklasson, Lena; Gillberg, Christopher

2010-01-01

113

Molecular definition of the chromosome 7 deletion in Williams syndrome and parent-of-origin effects on growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Williams syndrome (WS) is a developmental disorder with variable phenotypic expression associated, in most cases, with a hemizygous deletion of part of chromosomal band 7q11.23 that includes the elastin gene (ELN). We have investigated the frequency and size of the deletions, determined the parental origin, and correlated the molecular results with the clinical findings in 65 WS patients. Hemizygosity at

L. A. Perez-Jurado; R. Peoples; P. Kaplan; B. C. J. Hamel; U. Francke

1996-01-01

114

Distal Deletion of Chromosome 11q Encompassing Jacobsen Syndrome without Platelet Abnormality  

PubMed Central

Terminal 11q deletion, known as Jacobsen syndrome (JBS), is a rare genetic disorder associated with numerous dysmorphic features. We studied two cases with multiple congenital anomalies that were cytogenetically detected with deletions on 11q encompassing JBS region: 46,XX,der(11) del(11)(q24). Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis confirmed partial deletion of 11.8–11.9 Mb at 11q24.1q25 (case 1) and 13.9–14 Mb deletion at 11q23.3q25 together with 7.3–7.6 Mb duplication at 12q24.32q24.33 (case 2). Dysmorphism because of the partial duplication of 12q was not overtly decipherable over the Jacobsen phenotype except for a triangular facial profile. Aberrant chromosome 11 was inherited from phenotypically normal father, carrier of balanced translocation 46,XY,t(11;12)(q23.3; q24.32). In the present study, both cases had phenotypes that were milder than the ones described in literature despite having large deletion size. Most prominent features in classical JBS is thrombocytopenia, which was absent in both these cases. Therefore, detailed functional analysis of terminal 11q region is warranted to elucidate etiology of JBS and their clinical presentation. PMID:25288895

Sheth, Frenny J; Datar, Chaitanya; Andrieux, Joris; Pandit, Anand; Nayak, Darshana; Rahman, Mizanur; Sheth, Jayesh J

2014-01-01

115

MLL2 mosaic mutations and intragenic deletion-duplications in patients with Kabuki syndrome.  

PubMed

Kabuki syndrome (KS) is a rare multi-system disorder that can result in a variety of congenital malformations, typical dysmorphism and variable learning disability. It is caused by MLL2 point mutations in the majority of the cases and, rarely by deletions involving KDM6A. Nearly one third of cases remain unsolved. Here, we expand the known genetic basis of KS by presenting five typical patients with the condition, all of whom have novel MLL2 mutation types- two patients with mosaic small deletions, one with a mosaic whole-gene deletion, one with a multi-exon deletion and one with an intragenic multi-exon duplication. We recommend MLL2 dosage studies for all patients with typical KS, where traditional Sanger sequencing fails to identify mutations. The prevalence of such MLL2 mutations in KS may be comparable with deletions involving KDM6A. These findings may be helpful in understanding the mutational mechanism of MLL2 and the disease mechanism of KS. PMID:22901312

Banka, S; Howard, E; Bunstone, S; Chandler, K E; Kerr, B; Lachlan, K; McKee, S; Mehta, S G; Tavares, A L T; Tolmie, J; Donnai, D

2013-05-01

116

Genetic contributions to visuospatial cognition in Williams syndrome: insights from two contrasting partial deletion patients  

PubMed Central

Background Williams syndrome (WS) is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder arising from a hemizygotic deletion of approximately 27 genes on chromosome 7, at locus 7q11.23. WS is characterised by an uneven cognitive profile, with serious deficits in visuospatial tasks in comparison to relatively proficient performance in some other cognitive domains such as language and face processing. Individuals with partial genetic deletions within the WS critical region (WSCR) have provided insights into the contribution of specific genes to this complex phenotype. However, the combinatorial effects of different genes remain elusive. Methods We report on visuospatial cognition in two individuals with contrasting partial deletions in the WSCR: one female (HR), aged 11 years 9 months, with haploinsufficiency for 24 of the WS genes (up to GTF2IRD1), and one male (JB), aged 14 years 2 months, with the three most telomeric genes within the WSCR deleted, or partially deleted. Results Our in-depth phenotyping of the visuospatial domain from table-top psychometric, and small- and large-scale experimental tasks reveal a profile in HR in line with typically developing controls, albeit with some atypical features. These data are contrasted with patient JB’s atypical profile of strengths and weaknesses across the visuospatial domain, as well as with more substantial visuospatial deficits in individuals with the full WS deletion. Conclusions Our findings point to the contribution of specific genes to spatial processing difficulties associated with WS, highlighting the multifaceted nature of spatial cognition and the divergent effects of genetic deletions within the WSCR on different components of visuospatial ability. The importance of general transcription factors at the telomeric end of the WSCR, and their combinatorial effects on the WS visuospatial phenotype are also discussed. PMID:25057328

2014-01-01

117

Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome in Children with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome after Operative Intervention for Velopharyngeal Insufficiency  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Surgical treatment of velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI) in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome is often warranted. In this patient population, VPI is characterized by poor palatal elevation and muscular hypotonia with an intact palate. We hypothesize that 22q11.2 deletion patients are at greater risk of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) after surgical correction of VPI, due, in part, to their functional hypotonia, large velopharyngeal gap size, and the need to surgically obstruct the velopharynx. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome treated at a tertiary pediatric hospital between the years of 2002 and 2012. The incidence of VPI, need for surgery, post-operative polysomnogram, post-operative VPI assessment, and OSA treatments were evaluated. Results: Forty-three patients (18 males, 25 females, ages 1–14?years) fitting the inclusion criteria were identified. Twenty-eight patients were evaluated by speech pathology due to hypernasality. Twenty-one patients had insufficient velopharyngeal function and required surgery. Fifteen underwent pharyngeal flap surgery, three underwent sphincter pharyngoplasty, two underwent Furlow palatoplasty, and one underwent combined sphincter pharyngoplasty with Furlow palatoplasty. Of these, eight had post-operative snoring. Six of these underwent polysomnography (five underwent pharyngeal flap surgeries and one underwent sphincter pharyngoplasty). Four patients were found to have OSA based on the results of the polysomnography (average apnea/hypopnea index of 4.9 events/h, median?=?5.1, SD?=?2.1). Two required continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) due to moderate OSA. Conclusion: Surgery is often necessary to correct VPI in patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Monitoring for OSA should be considered after surgical correction of VPI due to a high occurrence in this population. Furthermore, families should be counseled of the risk of OSA after surgery and the potential need for treatment with CPAP. PMID:25157342

Crockett, David Jeffrey; Goudy, Steven L.; Chinnadurai, Sivakumar; Wootten, Christopher Todd

2014-01-01

118

Two 22q telomere deletions serendipitously detected by FISH.  

PubMed Central

Cryptic telomere deletions have been proposed to be a significant cause of idiopathic mental retardation. We present two unrelated subjects, with normal G banding analysis, in whom 22q telomere deletions were serendipitously detected at two different institutions using fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH). Both probands presented with several of the previously described features associated with 22q deletions, including hypotonia, developmental delay, and absence of speech. Our two cases increase the total number of reported 22q telomere deletions to 19, the majority of which were identified by cytogenetic banding analysis. With the limited sensitivity of routine cytogenetic studies (approximately 2-5 Mb), these two new cases suggest that the actual prevalence of 22q telomere deletions may be higher than currently documented. Of additional interest is the phenotypic overlap with Angelman syndrome (AS) as it raises the possibility of a 22q deletion in patients in whom AS has been ruled out. The use of telomeric probes as diagnostic reagents would be useful in determining an accurate prevalence of chromosome 22q deletions and could result in a significantly higher detection rate of subtelomeric rearrangements. Images PMID:9832042

Precht, K S; Lese, C M; Spiro, R P; Huttenlocher, P R; Johnston, K M; Baker, J C; Christian, S L; Kittikamron, K; Ledbetter, D H

1998-01-01

119

Interstitial deletion of 11(p11.2p12): A newly described contiguous gene deletion syndrome involving the gene for hereditary multiple exostoses  

SciTech Connect

Individuals with deletions of the proximal portion of the short arm of chromosome 11 share many manifestations including mental retardation, biparietal foramina, minor facial anomalies, and multiple cartilaginous exostoses. The finding of multiple exostoses in these patients is remarkable as the disorder hereditary multiple exostoses, which is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner, has recently been mapped by linkage to three regions, including proximal 11p. We report the clinical and molecular findings in an additional patient with an 11(p11.2p12) deletion. Cytogenetic and molecular analysis demonstrated a de novo, paternally derived deletion for markers which have been shown to be tightly linked to the 11p locus (EXT2). These data support the location of EXT2 within this region and also provide information regarding the ordering of polymorphic markers on 11p. Deletion 11(p11.2p12) is a rare, yet specific, deletion syndrome involving the EXT2 locus, a gene for parietal foramina, and a mental retardation locus, and therefore can be classified as a contiguous gene deletion syndrome. 24 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Potocki, L.; Shaffer, L.G. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)] [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)

1996-03-29

120

Oculo-facio-cardio-dental (OFCD) syndrome: The first Italian case of BCOR and co-occurring OTC gene deletion.  

PubMed

Oculo-facio-cardio-dental (OFCD) syndrome is a rare genetic disorder affecting ocular, facial, dental and cardiac systems. The syndrome is an X-linked dominant trait and it might be lethal in males. This syndrome is usually caused by mutations in the BCL6 interacting co-repressor gene (BCOR). We described a female child with mild phenotype of oculo-facio-cardio-dental syndrome. Array-comparative genomic hybridization (a-CGH) analysis revealed a de novo heterozygous deletion in the Xp11.4 region of approximately 2.3Mb, involving BCOR and ornithine carbamoyl-transferase (OTC) genes. The deletion observed was subsequently confirmed by real time PCR. In this study we report a first case with co-occurrence of BCOR and OTC genes completely deleted in OFCD syndrome. PMID:25620158

Di Stefano, C; Lombardo, B; Fabbricatore, C; Munno, C; Caliendo, I; Gallo, F; Pastore, L

2015-04-01

121

RAI1 variations in Smith–Magenis syndrome patients without 17p11.2 deletions  

PubMed Central

Background: Smith–Magenis syndrome (SMS) (OMIM No 182290) is a mental retardation syndrome characterised by behavioural abnormalities, including self injurious behaviours, sleep disturbance, and distinct craniofacial and skeletal anomalies. It is usually associated with deletion involving 17p11.2 and is estimated to occur in 1/25 000 births. Heterozygous frameshift mutations leading to protein truncation in retinoic acid induced 1 gene (RAI1) have been identified in individuals with phenotypic features consistent with SMS. RAI1 lies within the 17p11.2 locus, but these patients did not have 17p11.2 deletions. Objective: Analysis of four individuals with features consistent with SMS for variations in RAI1, using a polymerase chain reaction and sequencing strategy. None of these patients carry 17p11.2 deletions. Results: Two patients had small deletions in RAI1 resulting in frameshift and premature truncation of the protein. Missense mutations were identified in the other two. Orthologs across other genomes showed that these missense mutations occurred in identically conserved regions of the gene. The mutations were de novo, as all parental samples were normal. Several polymorphisms were also observed, including new and reported SNPs. The patients' clinical features differed from those found in 17p11.2 deletion by general absence of short stature and lack of visceral anomalies. All four patients had developmental delay, reduced motor and cognitive skills, craniofacial and behavioural anomalies, and sleep disturbance. Seizures, not previously thought to be associated with RAI1 mutations, were observed in one patient of the cohort. Conclusions: Haploinsufficiency of the RAI1 gene is associated with most features of SMS, including craniofacial, behavioural, and neurological signs and symptoms. PMID:15788730

Girirajan, S; Elsas, L; Devriendt, K; Elsea, S

2005-01-01

122

22q11 deletion syndrome: a review of the neuropsychiatric features and their neurobiological basis  

PubMed Central

The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is caused by an autosomal dominant microdeletion of chromosome 22 at the long arm (q) 11.2 band. The 22q11DS is among the most clinically variable syndromes, with more than 180 features related with the deletion, and is associated with an increased risk of psychiatric disorders, accounting for up to 1%–2% of schizophrenia cases. In recent years, several genes located on chromosome 22q11 have been linked to schizophrenia, including those encoding catechol-O-methyltransferase and proline dehydrogenase, and the interaction between these and other candidate genes in the deleted region is an important area of research. It has been suggested that haploinsufficiency of some genes within the 22q11.2 region may contribute to the characteristic psychiatric phenotype and cognitive functioning of schizophrenia. Moreover, an extensive literature on neuroimaging shows reductions of the volumes of both gray and white matter, and these findings suggest that this reduction may be predictive of increased risk of prodromal psychotic symptoms in 22q11DS patients. Experimental and standardized cognitive assessments alongside neuroimaging may be important to identify one or more endophenotypes of schizophrenia, as well as a predictive prodrome that can be preventively treated during childhood and adolescence. In this review, we summarize recent data about the 22q11DS, in particular those addressing the neuropsychiatric and cognitive phenotypes associated with the deletion, underlining the recent advances in the studies about the genetic architecture of the syndrome. PMID:24353423

Squarcione, Chiara; Torti, Maria Chiara; Di Fabio, Fabio; Biondi, Massimo

2013-01-01

123

Renal Failure Associated with APECED and Terminal 4q Deletion: Evidence of Autoimmune Nephropathy  

PubMed Central

Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the autoimmune regulator gene (AIRE). Terminal 4q deletion is also a rare cytogenetic abnormality that causes a variable syndrome of dysmorphic features, mental retardation, growth retardation, and heart and limb defects. We report a 12-year-old Saudi boy with mucocutaneous candidiasis, hypoparathyroidism, and adrenocortical failure consistent with APECED. In addition, he has dysmorphic facial features, growth retardation, and severe global developmental delay. Patient had late development of chronic renal failure. The blastogenesis revealed depressed lymphocytes' response to Candida albicans at 38% when compared to control. Chromosome analysis of the patient revealed 46,XY,del(4)(q33). FISH using a 4p/4q subtelomere DNA probe assay confirmed the deletion of qter subtelomere on chromosome 4. Parental chromosomes were normal. The deleted array was further defined using array CGH. AIRE full gene sequencing revealed a homozygous mutation namely 845_846insC. Renal biopsy revealed chronic interstitial nephritis with advanced fibrosis. In addition, there was mesangial deposition of C3, C1q, and IgM. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first paper showing evidence of autoimmune nephropathy by renal immunofluorescence in a patient with APECED and terminal 4q deletion. PMID:21197407

Al-Owain, Mohammed; Kaya, Namik; Al-Zaidan, Hamad; Bin Hussain, Ibrahim; Al-Manea, Hadeel; Al-Hindi, Hindi; Kennedy, Shelley; Iqbal, M. Anwar; Al-Mojalli, Hamad; Al-Bakheet, Albandary; Puel, Anne; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Al-Muhsen, Saleh

2010-01-01

124

Deletion of locus D15S113 in a mother and son without features of Angelman syndrome  

SciTech Connect

Deletions of the proximal long arm of chromosome 15 result in Angelman syndrome when inherited from the mother and Prader-Willi syndrome when inherited from the father. The minimal critical deletion region for Angelman syndrome has been reported to include D15S74 (B1.5), D15S10 (TD3-21), and D15S113 (LS6-1). We report a mother and son who have deletions that include D15S113 but who do not have features of Angelman syndrome. D.H. is a 10-year-old white male referred for genetic evaluation due to mental retardation. He has mild to moderate mental retardation and minor dysmorphic features, including downslanting palpebral fissures, prominent nose, broad forehead, small chin, midface hypoplasia, and large ears. His mother (B.S.) has slightly downslanting palpebral fissures and a borderline intellectual deficit. Neither individual has the seizures, excessive laughter, hand clapping, ataxia or facial dysmorphism which are characteristic of Angelman syndrome. The linear order of probes mapping to 15q11-q13 is 15cen-D15S11-D15S13-D15S10-D15S113-GABRB3-D15S12-tel. The proximal border of the deletion in our patients lies between D15S10 and D15S113. The fact that these two individuals do not have Angelman syndrome, despite deletion of D15S113, suggests that the Angelman syndrome critical deletion region should be further refined to exclude the D15S113 locus. In addition, the findings of a more severe intellectual impairment in the son than in the mother suggests that the region immediately telomeric to the critical deletion region for Angelman syndrome may contain imprintable genes that influence intellectual function.

Michaelis, R.C.; Tarleton, J.C.; Donlon, T.A.; Simensen, R.J. [Greenwood Gneetic Center, SC (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

125

CHILD syndrome caused by a deletion of exons 6-8 of the NSDHL gene.  

PubMed

The X-linked dominant CHILD syndrome (congenital hemidysplasia with ichthyosiform nevus and limb defects) is a rare developmental defect characterized by a strictly lateralized inflammatory nevus. In the majority of cases, the right side of the body is affected. Ipsilateral hypoplastic lesions may involve the brain, skeletal structures, lungs, heart or kidneys. We describe a case of CHILD syndrome involving the left side of the body. Absence of metacarpal, metatarsal and phalangeal bones of the left hand and foot resulted in oligodactyly, with only 3 fingers and 1 toe. An ipsilateral inflammatory epidermal nevus with hyperkeratosis, parakeratosis, acanthosis and perivascular lymphohistiocytic infiltrate was strictly confined to the left half of the patient's body. The phenotype was shown to be associated with a deletion of exons 6-8 of the X-linked NSDHL gene, confirming that CHILD syndrome is due to loss of function of an enzyme involved in cholesterol biosynthesis. PMID:16088165

Kim, C A; Konig, A; Bertola, D R; Albano, L M J; Gattás, G J F; Bornholdt, D; Leveleki, L; Happle, R; Grzeschik, K-H

2005-01-01

126

No relationship between the size of the deletion and the level of developmental delay in cri-du-chat syndrome.  

PubMed

Molecular cytogenetic and developmental assessment was performed on 50 individuals with cri-du-chat syndrome. Fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis was used to confirm a terminal deletion karyotype and map more precisely the location of the deletion breakpoint. We identified terminal deletion breakpoints mapping from 5p15.2 to 5p13. Developmental assessment was performed using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales test. Composite Vineland Scores ranged from 20-75. In general, the communication score was higher than the composite score. Comparison of the size of the deletion with the composite Vineland score, as well as the Vineland Communication score, demonstrated that there was no correlation between the size of the deletion and the level of developmental delay. These results demonstrate that patients with cri-du-chat syndrome show high variability in the level of developmental achievement. PMID:10440832

Marinescu, R C; Johnson, E I; Dykens, E M; Hodapp, R M; Overhauser, J

1999-09-01

127

Overlapping Numerical Cognition Impairments in Children with Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion or Turner Syndromes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with one of two genetic disorders (chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome and Turner syndrome) as well typically developing controls, participated in three cognitive processing experiments. Two experiments were designed to test cognitive processes involved in basic aspects numerical cognition. The third was a test of simple manual motor…

Simon, T. J.; Takarae, Y.; DeBoer, T.; McDonald-McGinn, D. M.; Zackai, E. H.; Ross, J. L.

2008-01-01

128

Memory in Intellectually Matched Groups of Young Participants with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome and Those with Schizophrenia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22qDS) and schizophrenia have genetic and neuropsychological similarities, but are likely to differ in memory profile. Confirming differences in memory function between the two disorders, and identifying their genetic determinants, can help to define genetic subtypes in both syndromes, identify genetic risk factors…

Kravariti, Eugenia; Jacobson, Clare; Morris, Robin; Frangou, Sophia; Murray, Robin M.; Tsakanikos, Elias; Habel, Alex; Shearer, Jo

2010-01-01

129

Eye Gaze During Face Processing in Children and Adolescents with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a neurogenetic syndrome with high risk for the development of psychiatric disorder. There is interest in identifying reliable markers for measuring and monitoring socio-emotional impairments in 22q11DS during development. The current study investigated eye gaze as a potential marker during a…

Glaser, Bronwyn; Debbane, Martin; Ottet, Marie-Christine; Vuilleumier, Patrik; Zesiger, Pascal; Antonarakis, Stylianos E.; Eliez, Stephan

2010-01-01

130

Molecular definition of the 22q11 deletions in velo-cardio-facial syndrome  

SciTech Connect

Velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS) is a common genetic disorder among individuals with cleft plate and is associated with hemizygous deletions in human chromosome 22q11. Toward the molecular definition of the deletions, we constructed a physical map of 22q11 in the form of overlapping YACs. The physical map covers >9 cM of genetic distance, estimated to span 5 Mb of DNA, and contains a total of 64 markers. Eleven highly polymorphic short tandem-repeat polymorphic (STRP) markers were placed on the physical map, and 10 of these were unambiguously ordered. The 11 polymorphic markers were used to type the DNA from a total of 61 VCFS patients and 49 unaffected relatives. Comparison of levels of heterozygosity of these markers in VCFS patients and their unaffected relatives revealed that four of these markers are commonly hemizygous among VCFS patients. To confirm these results and to define further the breakpoints in VCFS patients, 15 VCFS individuals and their unaffected parents were genotyped for the 11 STRP markers. Haplotypes generated from this study revealed that 82% of the patients have deletions that can be defined by the STRP markers. The results revealed that all patients who have a deletion share a common proximal breakpoint, while there are two distinct distal breakpoints. Markers D22S941 and D22S944 appear to be consistently hemizygous in patients with deletions. Both of these markers are located on a single nonchimeric YAC that is 400 kb long. The results show that the parental origin of the deleted chromosome does not have any effect on the phenotypic manifestation. 58 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Morrow, B.; Carlson, C.; Gupta, R.D. [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States)] [and others

1995-06-01

131

Fifty microdeletions among 112 cases of sotos syndrome: Low copy repeats possibly mediate the common deletion  

SciTech Connect

Sotos syndrome (SoS) is an autosomal dominant overgrowth syndrome with characteristic craniofacial dysmorphic features and various degrees of mental retardation. We previously showed that haploin sufficiency of the NSD1 gene is the major cause of SoS, and submicroscopic deletions at 5q35, including NSD1, were found in about a half (20/42) of our patients examined. Since the first report, an additional 70 SoS cases consisting of 53 Japanese and 17 non-Japanese have been analyzed. We found 50 microdeletions (45 percent) and 16 point mutations (14 percent) among all the 112 cases. A large difference in the frequency of microdeletions between Japanese and non-Japanese patients was noted: 49 (52 percent) of the 95 Japanese patients and only one (6 percent) of the 17 non-Japanese had microdeletions. A sequence-based physical map was constructed to characterize the microdeletions. Most of the microdeletions were confirmed to be identical by FISH analysis. We identified highly homologous sequences, i.e., possible low copy repeats (LCRs), in regions flanking proximal and distal breakpoints of the common deletion. This suggests that LCRs may mediate the deletion. Such LCRs seem to be present in different populations. Thus the different frequency of microdeletions between Japanese and non-Japanese cases in our study may have been caused by patient-selection bias.

Kurotaki, Naohiro; Harada, Naoki; Shimokawa, Osamu; Miyake, Noriko; Kawame, Hiroshi; Uetake, Kimiaki; Makita, Yoshio; Kondoh, Tatsuro; Ogata, Tsutomu; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Nagai, Toshiro; Ozaki, Takao; Touyama, Mayumi; Shenhav, Ruthie; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Medne, Livija; Shiihara, Takashi; Ohtsu, Shigeyuki; Kato, Zen-ichiro; Okamoto, Nobuhiko; Nishimoto, Junji; Lev, Dorit; Miyoshi, Yoko; Ishikiriyama, Satoshi; Sonoda, Tohru; Sakazume, Satoru; Fukushima, Yoshimitsu; Kurosawa, Kenji; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Yoshiura, Koh-ichiro; Ohta, Tohru; Kishino, Tatsuya; Niikawa, Norio; Matsumoto, Naomichi

2003-04-15

132

Molecular definition of the shortest region of deletion overlap in the Langer-Giedion syndrome  

PubMed Central

The Langer-Giedion syndrome (LGS), which is characterized by craniofacial dysmorphism and skeletal abnormalities, is caused by a genetic defect in 8q24.1. We have used 13 anonymous DNA markers from an 8q24.1-specific microdissection library, as well as c-myc and thyroglobulin gene probes, to map the deletion breakpoints in 16 patients with LGS. Twelve patients had a cytogenetically visible deletion, two patients had an apparently balanced translocation, and two patients had an apparently normal karyotype. In all cases except one translocation patient, loss of genetic material was detected. The DNA markers fall into 10 deletion intervals. Clone L48 (D8S51) defines the shortest region of deletion overlap (SRO), which is estimated to be less than 2 Mbp. Three clones–pl7-2.3EE (D8S43), L24 (D8S45), and L40 (D8S49)–which flank the SRO recognize evolutionarily conserved sequences. ImagesFigure 1Figure 3Figure 4 PMID:1836105

Lüdecke, Hermann-Josef; Johnson, Carey; Wagner, Michael J.; Wells, Dan E.; Turleau, Catherine; Tommerup, Niels; Latos-Bielenska, Anna; Sandig, Klaus-Rainer; Meinecke, Peter; Zabel, Bernhard; Horsthemke, Bernhard

1991-01-01

133

Large deletions encompassing the TCOF1 and CAMK2A genes are responsible for Treacher Collins syndrome with intellectual disability.  

PubMed

Mandibulofacial dysostosis is part of a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders of craniofacial development, which lead to malar and mandibular hypoplasia. Treacher Collins syndrome is the major cause of mandibulofacial dysostosis and is due to mutations in the TCOF1 gene. Usually patients with Treacher Collins syndrome do not present with intellectual disability. Recently, the EFTUD2 gene was identified in patients with mandibulofacial dysostosis associated with microcephaly, intellectual disability and esophageal atresia. We report on two patients presenting with mandibulofacial dysostosis characteristic of Treacher Collins syndrome, but associated with unexpected intellectual disability, due to a large deletion encompassing several genes including the TCOF1 gene. We discuss the involvement of the other deleted genes such as CAMK2A or SLC6A7 in the cognitive development delay of the patients reported, and we propose the systematic investigation for 5q32 deletion when intellectual disability is associated with Treacher Collins syndrome. PMID:23695276

Vincent, Marie; Collet, Corinne; Verloes, Alain; Lambert, Laetitia; Herlin, Christian; Blanchet, Catherine; Sanchez, Elodie; Drunat, Séverine; Vigneron, Jacqueline; Laplanche, Jean-Louis; Puechberty, Jacques; Sarda, Pierre; Geneviève, David

2014-01-01

134

Large deletions encompassing the TCOF1 and CAMK2A genes are responsible for Treacher Collins syndrome with intellectual disability  

PubMed Central

Mandibulofacial dysostosis is part of a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders of craniofacial development, which lead to malar and mandibular hypoplasia. Treacher Collins syndrome is the major cause of mandibulofacial dysostosis and is due to mutations in the TCOF1 gene. Usually patients with Treacher Collins syndrome do not present with intellectual disability. Recently, the EFTUD2 gene was identified in patients with mandibulofacial dysostosis associated with microcephaly, intellectual disability and esophageal atresia. We report on two patients presenting with mandibulofacial dysostosis characteristic of Treacher Collins syndrome, but associated with unexpected intellectual disability, due to a large deletion encompassing several genes including the TCOF1 gene. We discuss the involvement of the other deleted genes such as CAMK2A or SLC6A7 in the cognitive development delay of the patients reported, and we propose the systematic investigation for 5q32 deletion when intellectual disability is associated with Treacher Collins syndrome. PMID:23695276

Vincent, Marie; Collet, Corinne; Verloes, Alain; Lambert, Laetitia; Herlin, Christian; Blanchet, Catherine; Sanchez, Elodie; Drunat, Séverine; Vigneron, Jacqueline; Laplanche, Jean-Louis; Puechberty, Jacques; Sarda, Pierre; Geneviève, David

2014-01-01

135

Alu-mediated deletion of SOX10 regulatory elements in Waardenburg syndrome type 4  

PubMed Central

Waardenburg syndrome type 4 (WS4) is a rare neural crest disorder defined by the combination of Waardenburg syndrome (sensorineural hearing loss and pigmentation defects) and Hirschsprung disease (intestinal aganglionosis). Three genes are known to be involved in this syndrome, that is, EDN3 (endothelin-3), EDNRB (endothelin receptor type B), and SOX10. However, 15–35% of WS4 remains unexplained at the molecular level, suggesting that other genes could be involved and/or that mutations within known genes may have escaped previous screenings. Here, we searched for deletions within recently identified SOX10 regulatory sequences and describe the first characterization of a WS4 patient presenting with a large deletion encompassing three of these enhancers. Analysis of the breakpoint region suggests a complex rearrangement involving three Alu sequences that could be mediated by a FosTes/MMBIR replication mechanism. Taken together with recent reports, our results demonstrate that the disruption of highly conserved non-coding elements located within or at a long distance from the coding sequences of key genes can result in several neurocristopathies. This opens up new routes to the molecular dissection of neural crest disorders. PMID:22378281

Bondurand, Nadége; Fouquet, Virginie; Baral, Viviane; Lecerf, Laure; Loundon, Natalie; Goossens, Michel; Duriez, Benedicte; Labrune, Philippe; Pingault, Veronique

2012-01-01

136

Parental origin of chromosome 4p deletion in Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome.  

PubMed

We report on molecular studies in 7 patients with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHC) not showing an obvious chromosome 4p deletion. Analysis of a set of polymorphic probes mapping in the 4p16.3 region showed the absence of paternal haplotypes in 5 cases, and maternal haplotypes in 2. These observations corroborate evidence for preferential paternal origin of the de novo 4p chromosome deletion. The overall results of molecular studies suggest that the preponderance of paternally derived WHC could be due, rather than to imprinting of this region, to an excess of structural rearrangements in the male meiosis, related to differences between the mechanisms of sperm and egg production. PMID:7904122

Dallapiccola, B; Mandich, P; Bellone, E; Selicorni, A; Mokin, V; Ajmar, F; Novelli, G

1993-11-01

137

A Comparative Study of Cognition and Brain Anatomy between Two Neurodevelopmental Disorders: 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome and Williams Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is associated with intellectual disability, poor social interaction and a high prevalence of psychosis. However, to date there have been no studies comparing cognition and neuroanatomical characteristics of 22q11DS with other syndromes to investigate if the cognitive strengths and difficulties and…

Campbell, Linda E.; Stevens, Angela; Daly, Eileen; Toal, Fiona; Azuma, Rayna; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Murphy, Declan G. M.; Murphy, Kieran C.

2009-01-01

138

Comparison of facial features of DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) due to deletion 10p13-10pter with DGS due to 22q11 deletion  

SciTech Connect

DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) is a congenital anomaly consisting of cardiac defects, aplasia or hypoplasia of the thymus and parathroid glands, and dysmorphic facial features. The majority of DGS cases have a submicroscopic deletion within chromosome 22q11. However there have been a number of reports of DGS in association with other chromosomal abnormalities including four cases with chromosome 10p deletions. We describe a further 10p deletion case and suggest that the facial features in children with DGS due to deletions of 10p are different from those associated with chromosome 22 deletions. The propositus was born at 39 weeks gestation to unrelated caucasian parents, birth weight 2580g (10th centile) and was noted to be dysmorphic and cyanosed shortly after birth. The main dysmorphic facial features were a broad nasal bridge with very short palpebral fissures. Echocardiography revealed a large subsortic VSD and overriding aorta. She had a low ionised calcium and low parathroid hormone level. T cell subsets and PHA response were normal. Abdominal ultrasound showed duplex kidneys and on further investigation she was found to have reflux and raised plasma creatinine. She had an anteriorly placed anus. Her karyotype was 46,XX,-10,+der(10)t(3;10)(p23;p13)mat. The dysmorphic facial features in this baby are strikingly similar to those noted by Bridgeman and Butler in child with DGS as the result of a 10p deletion and distinct from the face seen in children with DiGeorge syndrome resulting from interstitial chromosome 22 deletions.

Goodship, J.; Lynch, S.; Brown, J. [Univ. of Newcastle, Tyne (United Kingdom)] [and others

1994-09-01

139

Detection and delineation of an unusual 17p11.2 deletion by array-CGH and refinement of the Smith–Magenis syndrome minimum deletion to ~650 kb  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smith–Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a multiple congenital anomaly\\/mental retardation syndrome and it is characterized by an interstitial deletion of chromosome 17p11.2. SMS patients have a distinct phenotype which is believed to be caused by haploinsufficiency of one or more genes in the associated deleted region. Five non-deletion patients with classical phenotypic features of SMS have been reported with mutations in

Jacqueline Schoumans; Johan Staaf; Göran Jönsson; Johanna Rantala; Kerstin Sars Zimmer; Åke Borg; Magnus Nordenskjöld; Britt-Marie Anderlid

2005-01-01

140

Mathematical learning disabilities in children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: a review.  

PubMed

Mathematical learning disabilities (MLD) occur frequently in children with specific genetic disorders, like Turner syndrome, fragile X syndrome and neurofibromatosis. This review focuses on MLD in children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS). This syndrome is the most common known microdeletion syndrome with a prevalence of at least 1:4000 to 1:6000 live births. Although the clinical presentation of 22q11DS is quite variable, its major characteristics include velopharyngeal abnormalities, congenital cardiac anomalies, mild facial dysmorphism and learning difficulties. Children with 22q11DS show considerable difficulties in mathematics, despite relatively normal reading performance. While fact retrieval seems to be preserved, impairments in procedural calculation and word problem solving are particularly prominent. Children with 22q11DS also have substantial difficulties in understanding and representing numerical quantities, possibly related to poor visuospatial attention, which all might stem from their underlying abnormalities in the inferior parietal cortex. This review ends with a discussion on how research on genetic disorders might aid our understanding of MLD in general. PMID:19213009

De Smedt, Bert; Swillen, Ann; Verschaffel, Lieven; Ghesquière, Pol

2009-01-01

141

Molecular screening for 22Q11.2 deletion syndrome in patients with congenital heart disease.  

PubMed

Few studies have investigated the prevalence of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) among patients with isolated heart defects or nonconotruncal heart defects. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by length polymorphism restriction fragment analysis (RFLP) is useful for low-cost molecular diagnosis and screening. This cross-sectional study included 392 patients with congenital heart disease, described clinical features, and performed PCR-RFLP for analysis of polymorphism in three loci with a high heterozygosity rate located in the typically deleted region of 1.5 megabases. Heterozygosity excluded 22q11.2DS. Patients with homozygosity for the three markers underwent multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for the final diagnosis, estimating the prevalence of 22q11.2DS. The use of PCR-RFLP excluded 22q11.2DS in 81.6 % (n = 320) of 392 patients. Of the remaining 72 patients, 65 underwent MLPA, showing 22q11.2DS in five cases (prevalence, 1.27 %). Four of these five patients underwent FISH, confirming the MLPA results. All five patients with the deletion had heart diseases commonly found with 22q11.2DS (interrupted aortic arch, persistent truncus arteriosus, tetralogy of Fallot, and ventricular septal defect plus atrial septal defect). Two patients had congenital extracardiac anomaly (one with arched palate and micrognathia and one with hypertelorism). Three patients reported recurrent respiratory infections, and one patient reported hypocalcemia. All were underweight or short in stature for their age. This study contributed to showing the prevalence of 22q11.2DS in patients with any congenital heart disease, with or without other features of the syndrome. Patients with 22q11.2DS may not have all the major features of the syndrome, and those that are found may be due to the heart defect. PMID:24880467

Huber, Janaína; Peres, Vivian Catarino; de Castro, Alexandre Luz; dos Santos, Tiago Jeronimo; da Fontoura Beltrão, Lauro; de Baumont, Angélica Cerveira; Cossio, Silvia Liliana; Dalberto, Tiago Pires; Riegel, Mariluce; Cañedo, Andrés Delgado; Schaan, Beatriz D'Agord; Pellanda, Lucia Campos

2014-12-01

142

Signature MicroRNA expression patterns identified in humans with 22q11.2 deletion/DiGeorge syndrome  

PubMed Central

Patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome have heterogeneous clinical presentations including immunodeficiency, cardiac anomalies, and hypocalcemia. The syndrome arises from hemizygous deletions of up to 3 Mb on chromosome 22q11.2, a region that contains 60 genes and 4 microRNAs. MicroRNAs are important post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression, with mutations in several microRNAs causal to specific human diseases. We characterized the microRNA expression patterns in the peripheral blood of patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (n=31) compared to normal controls (n=22). Eighteen microRNAs had a statistically significant differential expression (p<0.05), with miR-185 expressed at 0.4× normal levels. The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome cohort exhibited microRNA expression hyper-variability and group dysregulation. Selected microRNAs distinguished patients with cardiac anomalies, hypocalcemia, and/or low circulating T cell counts. In summary, microRNA profiling of chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome/DiGeorge patients revealed a signature microRNA expression pattern distinct from normal controls with clinical relevance. PMID:23454892

de la Morena, M. Teresa; Eitson, Jennifer L.; Dozmorov, Igor M.; Belkaya, Serkan; Hoover, Ashley R.; Anguiano, Esperanza; Pascual, M. Virginia; van Oers, Nicolai S.C.

2013-01-01

143

Exclusion of 22q11 deletion in Noonan syndrome with Tetralogy of Fallot  

SciTech Connect

We read with interest the report of Robin et al. [1995] published in recent issue of the Journal. The authors described 6 patients with Noonan syndrome (NS) who underwent molecular evaluation for submicroscopic deletion of chromosome band 22q11. None of those patients presented with conotruncal heart defects. Evidence for 22q11 hemizygosity was demonstrated in only one patient. This patient had NS-like manifestations without clinical manifestations of DiGeorge (DG) or velo-cardio-facial (VCF) syndromes. The molecular results obtained in the other 5 patients led the authors to conclude that classical NS is not due to del(22)(q11), even if some patients with del(22)(q11) may present NS-like manifestations. 12 refs., 1 tab.

Digilio, M.C.; Marino, B.; Giannotti, A. [Bambino Gesu Hospital, Rome (Italy); Dallapiccola, B. [Univ. of Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy)]|[Casa Sollievo Sofferenza Hospital, San Giovanni Rotondo (Italy)

1996-04-24

144

Intergenerational and intrafamilial phenotypic variability in 22q11.2 Deletion syndrome subjects  

PubMed Central

Background 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is a common microdeletion syndrome, which occurs in approximately 1:4000 births. Familial autosomal dominant recurrence of the syndrome is detected in about 8-28% of the cases. Aim of this study is to evaluate the intergenerational and intrafamilial phenotypic variability in a cohort of familial cases carrying a 22q11.2 deletion. Methods Thirty-two 22q11.2DS subjects among 26 families were enrolled. Results Second generation subjects showed a significantly higher number of features than their transmitting parents (212 vs 129, P?=?0.0015). Congenital heart defect, calcium-phosphorus metabolism abnormalities, developmental and speech delay were more represented in the second generation (P?syndrome. PMID:24383682

2014-01-01

145

Complete physical map of the common deletion region in Williams syndrome and identification and characterization of three novel genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Williams syndrome (WS) is a contiguous gene deletion disorder caused by haploinsufficiency of genes at 7q11.23 . We have shown\\u000a that hemizygosity of elastin is responsible for one feature of WS, supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS). We have also implicated LIM-kinase 1 hemizygosity as a contributing factor to impaired visual-spatial constructive cognition in WS. However, the common WS deletion\\u000a region has

Xun Meng; Xiaojun Lu; Zhizhong Li; Eric D. Green; Hillary Massa; Barbara J. Trask; Colleen A. Morris; Mark T. Keating

1998-01-01

146

Hypoplastic left heart syndrome and 21q22.3 deletion.  

PubMed

Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is a rare congenital heart defect (CHD), associated with extracardiac anomalies in the 15-28% of cases, in the setting of chromosomal anomalies, mendelian disorders, and organ defects. We report on a syndromic female newborn with HLHS and terminal 21q22.3 deletion (del 21q22.3), investigated by Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) using a panel of 26 contiguous BAC probes. Although rare, del 21q22.3 has been described in two additional patients with HLHS. In order to investigate the frequency and role of this chromosomal imbalance in the pathogenesis of left-sided obstructive heart defects, we screened for del 21q22.3 a series of syndromic and non-syndromic children with HLHS, aortic coarctation and valvular aortic stenosis, consecutively admitted to our hospital in a three-year period. Although none of the 56 analyzed patients were hemizygous for this region, the present case report and published patients argue that del 21q22 should be added to the list of chromosomal imbalances associated with HLHS. Accordingly, the presence of a cardiac locus mapping in the critical region cannot be excluded. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25663264

Ciocca, Laura; Digilio, M Cristina; Lombardo, Antonietta; D'Elia, Gemma; Baban, Anwar; Capolino, Rossella; Petrocchi, Stefano; Russo, Serena; Sirleto, Pietro; Roberti, M Cristina; Marino, Bruno; Angioni, Adriano; Dallapiccola, Bruno

2015-03-01

147

Submicroscopic deletion of chromosome 16p13.3 in patients with Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome.  

PubMed

The Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RTS) is a well-defined entity characterized by growth and mental retardation, broad thumbs and halluces, and typical face. The RTS locus was assigned to 16p13.3, and interstitial submicroscopic deletions of this region (RT1 cosmid, D16S237) were initially identified in 25% of RTS patients. The gene for the human CREB binding protein, the transcriptional coactivator CBP, is included in the RT1 cosmid, and mutations in CBP have recently been identified in nondeleted RTS patients. We investigated 30 French patients with RTS. Among these patients, 3 had the RT1 microdeletion (frequency 10%). There is no obvious phenotypic difference between the patients with and without the RT1 deletion. The RT1 probe appears useful for confirmation of the diagnosis but is of little interest as a screening tool. By pooling data including the previous series and our current series, the cumulative frequency of the 16p13.3 microdeletion is 11.9% (19 in 159). This frequency of approximately 12% deleted patients appears more accurate than the 25% previously reported. Molecular investigations of CBP are in process in our series to clarify the cause of RTS. PMID:9677064

Taine, L; Goizet, C; Wen, Z Q; Petrij, F; Breuning, M H; Aymé, S; Saura, R; Arveiler, B; Lacombe, D

1998-07-01

148

Autosomal recessive Wolfram syndrome associated with an 8.5 kb mtDNA single deletion  

SciTech Connect

Wolfram syndrome (MIM 222300) is characterized by optic atrophy, diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, neurosensory hearing loss, urinary tract abnormalities, and neurological dysfunction. The association of clinical manifestations in tissues and organs unrelated functionally or embryologically suggested the possibility of a mitochondrial implication in the disease, which has been demonstrated in two sporadic cases. Nonetheless, familial studies suggested an autosomal recessive mode of transmission, and recent data demonstrated linkage with markers on the short arm of human chromosome 4. The patient reported here, as well as her parents and unaffected sister, carried a heteroplasmic 8.5-kb deletion in mtDNA. The deletion accounted for 23% of mitochondrial genomes in lymphocytes from the patient and {approximately}5% in the tissues studied from members of her family. The presence of the deletion in the patient in a proportion higher than in her unaffected parents suggests a putative defect in a nuclear gene that acts at the mitochondrial level. 39 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Barrientos, A.; Casademont, J.; Cardellach, F. [Universitat de Barcelona (Spain)] [and others

1996-05-01

149

Highly restricted deletion of the SNORD116 region is implicated in Prader-Willi Syndrome.  

PubMed

The SNORD116 locus lies in the 15q11-13 region of paternally expressed genes implicated in Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS), a complex disease accompanied by obesity and severe neurobehavioural disturbances. Cases of PWS patients with a deletion encompassing the SNORD116 gene cluster, but preserving the expression of flanking genes, have been described. We report a 23-year-old woman who presented clinical criteria of PWS, including the behavioural and nutritional features, obesity, developmental delay and endocrine dysfunctions with hyperghrelinemia. We found a paternally transmitted highly restricted deletion of the SNORD116 gene cluster, the shortest described to date (118?kb). This deletion was also present in the father. This finding in a human case strongly supports the current hypothesis that lack of the paternal SNORD116 gene cluster has a determinant role in the pathogenesis of PWS. Moreover, targeted analysis of the SNORD116 gene cluster, complementary to SNRPN methylation analysis, should be carried out in subjects with a phenotype suggestive of PWS. PMID:24916642

Bieth, Eric; Eddiry, Sanaa; Gaston, Véronique; Lorenzini, Françoise; Buffet, Alexandre; Conte Auriol, Françoise; Molinas, Catherine; Cailley, Dorothée; Rooryck, Caroline; Arveiler, Benoit; Cavaillé, Jérome; Salles, Jean Pierre; Tauber, Maïthé

2015-02-01

150

Qualitative MRI Findings in Adults with 22q11 Deletion Syndrome and Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Background A genetic syndrome associated with schizophrenia, 22q11 deletion syndrome (22qDS), may represent a genetic subtype of schizophrenia (22qDS-Sz). Structural brain changes are common in schizophrenia and may involve developmental anomalies, but there are no data yet for 22qDS-Sz. The objective of this study was to assess brain structure in adults with 22qDS-Sz using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods Brain and arterial MRI scans of 11 adults with 22qDS-Sz (mean age = 28.4 years, SD = 6.5) were systematically assessed by a neuroradiologist for qualitative anomalies. Results A high frequency of abnormalities were found: T2 white matter bright foci (BF), 90%; developmental midline anomalies, 45%; cerebral atrophy or ventricular enlargement, 54%; mild cerebellar atrophy, 36%; skull base abnormalities, 55%; and minor vascular abnormalities, 36%. Conclusions BF and skull base abnormalities, especially in association with neurodevelopmental midline abnormalities, may be distinguishing MRI features for a genetic subtype of schizophrenia involving a deletion on chromosome 22. PMID:10578458

Chow, Eva W.C.; Mikulis, David J.; Zipursky, Robert B.; Scutt, Laura E.; Weksberg, Rosanna; Bassett, Anne S.

2012-01-01

151

Reciprocal deletion and duplication of 17p11.2-11.2: Korean patients with Smith-Magenis syndrome and Potocki-Lupski syndrome.  

PubMed

Deletion and duplication of the -3.7-Mb region in 17p11.2 result in two reciprocal syndrome, Smith-Magenis syndrome and Potocki-Lupski syndrome. Smith-Magenis syndrome is a well-known developmental disorder. Potocki-Lupski syndrome has recently been recognized as a microduplication syndrome that is a reciprocal disease of Smith-Magenis syndrome. In this paper, we report on the clinical and cytogenetic features of two Korean patients with Smith-Magenis syndrome and Potocki-Lupski syndrome. Patient 1 (Smith-Magenis syndrome) was a 2.9-yr-old boy who showed mild dysmorphic features, aggressive behavioral problems, and developmental delay. Patient 2 (Potocki-Lupski syndrome), a 17-yr-old boy, had only intellectual disabilities and language developmental delay. We used array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) and found a 2.6 Mb-sized deletion and a reciprocal 2.1 Mb-sized duplication involving the 17p11.2. These regions overlapped in a 2.1 Mb size containing 11 common genes, including RAI1 and SREBF. PMID:23255863

Lee, Cha Gon; Park, Sang-Jin; Yun, Jun-No; Yim, Shin-Young; Sohn, Young Bae

2012-12-01

152

Reciprocal Deletion and Duplication of 17p11.2-11.2: Korean Patients with Smith-Magenis Syndrome and Potocki-Lupski Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Deletion and duplication of the -3.7-Mb region in 17p11.2 result in two reciprocal syndrome, Smith-Magenis syndrome and Potocki-Lupski syndrome. Smith-Magenis syndrome is a well-known developmental disorder. Potocki-Lupski syndrome has recently been recognized as a microduplication syndrome that is a reciprocal disease of Smith-Magenis syndrome. In this paper, we report on the clinical and cytogenetic features of two Korean patients with Smith-Magenis syndrome and Potocki-Lupski syndrome. Patient 1 (Smith-Magenis syndrome) was a 2.9-yr-old boy who showed mild dysmorphic features, aggressive behavioral problems, and developmental delay. Patient 2 (Potocki-Lupski syndrome), a 17-yr-old boy, had only intellectual disabilities and language developmental delay. We used array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) and found a 2.6 Mb-sized deletion and a reciprocal 2.1 Mb-sized duplication involving the 17p11.2. These regions overlapped in a 2.1 Mb size containing 11 common genes, including RAI1 and SREBF. PMID:23255863

Lee, Cha Gon; Park, Sang-Jin; Yun, Jun-No; Yim, Shin-Young

2012-01-01

153

Prospective screening for subtelomeric rearrangements in children with mental retardation of unknown aetiology: the Amsterdam experience  

PubMed Central

Objective: The frequency of subtelomeric rearrangements in patients with unexplained mental retardation (MR) is uncertain, as most studies have been retrospective and case retrieval may have been biased towards cases more likely to have a chromosome anomaly. To ascertain the frequency of cytogenetic anomalies, including subtelomeric rearrangements, we prospectively screened a consecutive cohort of cases with unexplained MR in an academic tertiary centre. Methods: Inclusion criteria were: age <18 years at referral, IQ<85, no aetiological diagnosis after complete examination, which included karyotyping with high resolution banding (HRB). Results: In 266 karyotyped children, anomalies were detected in 20 (7.5%, seven numerical, 13 structural); 39 cases were analysed by FISH for specific interstitial microdeletions, and anomalies were found in nine (23%). FISH analyses for subtelomeric microdeletions were performed in 184 children (44% moderate-profound MR, 51% familial MR), and one rearrangement (0.5%) was identified in a non-familial MR female with mild MR (de novo deletion 12q24.33-qter). The number of probable polymorphisms was considerable: 2qter (n=7), Xpter (n=3), and Ypter (n=1). A significantly higher total number of malformations and minor anomalies was present in the cytogenetic anomaly group compared to the group without cytogenetic anomalies. Conclusions: The total frequency of cytogenetic anomalies in this prospective study was high (1:10), but the frequency of subtelomeric rearrangements was low. The most likely explanations are the high quality of HRB cytogenetic studies and the lack of clinical selection bias. Conventional cytogenetic analyses, combined with targeted microdeletion testing, remain the single most effective way of additional investigation in mentally retarded children, also in a tertiary centre. PMID:12161591

van Karnebeek, C D M; Koevoets, C; Sluijter, S; Bijlsma, E; Smeets, D; Redeker, E; Hennekam, R; Hoovers, J

2002-01-01

154

An unusual clinical severity of 16p11.2 deletion syndrome caused by unmasked recessive mutation of CLN3  

PubMed Central

With the introduction of array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) techniques in the diagnostic setting of patients with developmental delay and congenital malformations, many new microdeletion syndromes have been recognized. One of these recently recognized microdeletion syndromes is the 16p11.2 deletion syndrome, associated with variable clinical outcomes including developmental delay, autism spectrum disorder, epilepsy, and obesity, but also apparently normal phenotype. We report on a 16-year-old patient with developmental delay, exhibiting retinis pigmentosa with progressive visual failure from the age of 9 years, ataxia, and peripheral neuropathy. Chromosomal microarray analysis identified a 1.7-Mb 16p11.2 deletion encompassing the 593-kb common deletion (?29.5 to ?30.1?Mb; Hg18) and the 220-kb distal deletion (?28.74 to ?28.95?Mb; Hg18) that partially included the CLN3 gene. As the patient's clinical findings were different from usual 16p11.2 microdeletion phenotypes and showed some features reminiscent of juvenile neuronal ceroid-lipofuscinosis (JNCL, Batten disease, OMIM 204200), we suspected and confirmed a mutation of the remaining CLN3 allele. This case further illustrates that unmasking of hemizygous recessive mutations by chromosomal deletion represents one explanation for the phenotypic variability observed in chromosomal deletion disorders. PMID:23860047

Pebrel-Richard, Céline; Debost-Legrand, Anne; Eymard-Pierre, Eléonore; Greze, Victoria; Kemeny, Stéphan; Gay-Bellile, Mathilde; Gouas, Laetitia; Tchirkov, Andreï; Vago, Philippe; Goumy, Carole; Francannet, Christine

2014-01-01

155

Detection of classical 17p11.2 deletions, an atypical deletion and RAI1 alterations in patients with features suggestive of Smith-Magenis syndrome.  

PubMed

Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a complex disorder whose clinical features include mild to severe intellectual disability with speech delay, growth failure, brachycephaly, flat midface, short broad hands, and behavioral problems. SMS is typically caused by a large deletion on 17p11.2 that encompasses multiple genes including the retinoic acid induced 1, RAI1, gene or a mutation in the RAI1 gene. Here we have evaluated 30 patients with suspected SMS and identified SMS-associated classical 17p11.2 deletions in six patients, an atypical deletion of ~139 kb that partially deletes the RAI1 gene in one patient, and RAI1 gene nonsynonymous alterations of unknown significance in two unrelated patients. The RAI1 mutant proteins showed no significant alterations in molecular weight, subcellular localization and transcriptional activity. Clinical features of patients with or without 17p11.2 deletions and mutations involving the RAI1 gene were compared to identify phenotypes that may be useful in diagnosing patients with SMS. PMID:21897445

Vieira, Gustavo H; Rodriguez, Jayson D; Carmona-Mora, Paulina; Cao, Lei; Gamba, Bruno F; Carvalho, Daniel R; de Rezende Duarte, Andréa; Santos, Suely R; de Souza, Deise H; DuPont, Barbara R; Walz, Katherina; Moretti-Ferreira, Danilo; Srivastava, Anand K

2012-02-01

156

Detection of classical 17p11.2 deletions, an atypical deletion and RAI1 alterations in patients with features suggestive of Smith–Magenis syndrome  

PubMed Central

Smith–Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a complex disorder whose clinical features include mild to severe intellectual disability with speech delay, growth failure, brachycephaly, flat midface, short broad hands, and behavioral problems. SMS is typically caused by a large deletion on 17p11.2 that encompasses multiple genes including the retinoic acid induced 1, RAI1, gene or a mutation in the RAI1 gene. Here we have evaluated 30 patients with suspected SMS and identified SMS-associated classical 17p11.2 deletions in six patients, an atypical deletion of ?139?kb that partially deletes the RAI1 gene in one patient, and RAI1 gene nonsynonymous alterations of unknown significance in two unrelated patients. The RAI1 mutant proteins showed no significant alterations in molecular weight, subcellular localization and transcriptional activity. Clinical features of patients with or without 17p11.2 deletions and mutations involving the RAI1 gene were compared to identify phenotypes that may be useful in diagnosing patients with SMS. PMID:21897445

Vieira, Gustavo H; Rodriguez, Jayson D; Carmona-Mora, Paulina; Cao, Lei; Gamba, Bruno F; Carvalho, Daniel R; de Rezende Duarte, Andréa; Santos, Suely R; de Souza, Deise H; DuPont, Barbara R; Walz, Katherina; Moretti-Ferreira, Danilo; Srivastava, Anand K

2012-01-01

157

7q11.23 deletions in Williams syndrome arise as a consequence of unequal meiotic crossover  

SciTech Connect

Williams syndrome (WS) is a multisystem disorder characterized by mental retardation, a specific neurobehavioral profile, characteristic facies, infantile hypercalcemia, cardiovascular abnormalities, progressive joint limitation, hermas, and soft skin. Recent studies have shown that hemizygosity at the elastin (ELN) gene locus on chromosome 7q is associated with WS. Furthermore, two FISH studies using cosmid recombinants containing the 5{prime} or the 3{prime} end of the ELN gene revealed deletion of the entire ELN gene in 90%-96% of classical WS cases. However, the size of the 7q11.23 deletions and the mechanism by which these deletions arise are not known. 15 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Urban, Z.; Csiszar, K.; Boyd, C.D. [and others

1996-10-01

158

Further evidence for high rates of schizophrenia in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.  

PubMed

22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is associated with high rates of psychotic disorder, particularly schizophrenia. The deletion is considered to be a biological model for understanding this debilitating psychiatric disorder. It is unclear whether the psychotic manifestations in 22q11.2DS are similar to those in schizophrenia patients without the deletion. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), a positional candidate gene for schizophrenia, resides within the 22q11.2 region. It remains unknown whether hemizygosity for this gene is associated with risk of psychotic disorder. This study includes 83 adults with 22q11.2DS, 90 non-deleted individuals with schizophrenia, and 316 normal controls. Psychopathology was assessed using the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry, the Schedules for the Assessment of Positive and Negative Symptoms and the Global Assessment Scale. Schizotypy was assessed with the Kings Schizotypy Questionnaire and Oxford Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Emotions. IQ estimates were also obtained. Adults with 22q11.2DS were genotyped for a number of COMT polymorphisms as well as the Ashkenazi risk haplotype. This study confirms high rates of psychotic disorder (29%) in individuals with 22q11.2DS of which the majority had schizophrenia (22%). There does not appear to be a differential expression of schizophrenic symptom clusters in 22q11.2DS in relation to sporadic schizophrenia, though schizophrenia in 22q11.2DS seems to be less severe in terms of global assessment scores. Psychosis proneness seems to be of genetic origin in 22q11.2DS as individuals with 22q11.2DS without schizophrenia had higher schizotypy scores than normal controls. Finally, COMT was not associated with schizophrenia status or schizotypy. PMID:24534796

Monks, Stephen; Niarchou, Maria; Davies, Aimée R; Walters, James T R; Williams, Nigel; Owen, Michael J; van den Bree, Marianne B M; Murphy, Kieran C

2014-03-01

159

Syndrome of proximal interstitial deletion 4p15: Report of three cases and review of the literature  

SciTech Connect

We report on two boys and a girl with interstitial deletion in the short arm of chromosome 4 including the segment p15.2p15.33. All had normal growth with psychomotor retardation, multiple minor congenital anomalies, and a characteristic face distinct from that of the Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome. One of the patients had congenitally enlarged penis. These patients resemble some of the previously reported patients with similar cytogenetic abnormalities and suggests the recognition of a specific clinical chromosome deletion syndrome. 12 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Chitayat, D.; Babul, R.; Teshima, I.E. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)] [and others

1995-01-16

160

White matter abnormalities in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: Preliminary associations with the Nogo-66 receptor gene and symptoms of psychosis  

E-print Network

White matter abnormalities in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: Preliminary associations with the Nogo-66 of the internal capsule (ALIC), fornix, and uncinate fasciculus (UF) of individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome% of individuals with 22q11.2DS developing schizophrenia in adulthood, we hypothesized reduc- tion in structural

161

Temporal Lobe Anatomy and Psychiatric Symptoms in Velocardiofacial Syndrome (22Q11.2 Deletion Syndrome)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To investigate the association between mesial temporal lobe morphology, ratios of prefrontal cortex to amygdala and hippocampus volumes, and psychiatric symptomatology in children and adolescents with velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS). Method: Scores on behavioral rating scales and volumetric measures of the amygdala, hippocampus, and…

Kates, Wendy R.; Miller, Adam M.; Abdulsabur, Nuria; Antshel, Kevin M.; Conchelos, Jena; Fremont, Wanda; Roizen, Nancy

2006-01-01

162

AZF and DAZ gene copy-specific deletion analysis in maturation arrest and Sertoli cell-only syndrome.  

PubMed

Deletions of the AZFc region in Yq11.2, which include the DAZ gene family, are responsible for most cases of male infertility and were associated with severe oligozoospermia and also with a variable testicular pathology. To uncover the functional contribution of DAZ to human spermatogenesis, a DAZ gene copy-specific deletion analysis was previously established and showed that DAZ1/DAZ2 deletions associate with oligozoospermia. In this study we applied the same screening method to 50 control fertile males and 91 non-obstructive azoospermic males, 39 with Sertoli cell-only syndrome (SCOS) and 52 with meiotic arrest (MA). Samples were also screened with 24 sequence-tagged sites to the different AZF regions, including 114 control fertile males. After biopsy (testicular sperm extraction, TESE), residual spermiogenesis was found in 57.7% MA and 30.8% SCOS cases (incomplete syndromes). DAZ1/DAZ2 deletions were associated with the testicular phenotype of residual spermiogenesis as they were only found in two patients (8%) with incomplete MA. Differences between incomplete (23.3%) and complete (4.5%) MA cases regarding AZFc and DAZ1/DAZ2 deletion frequencies, and between incomplete (58.3%) and complete (11.1%) SCOS cases for AZFc deletions, suggest that incomplete syndromes might represent an aggravation of the oligozoospermic phenotype. As successful TESE was achieved in 87.5% of MA cases with AZFc and DAZ1/DAZ2 deletions and in 58.3% of SCOS cases with AZFc deletions, the present results also suggest that these molecular markers might be used for the establishment of a prognosis before TESE. PMID:15347736

Ferrás, C; Fernandes, S; Marques, C J; Carvalho, F; Alves, C; Silva, J; Sousa, M; Barros, A

2004-10-01

163

RAI1 is a novel polyglutamine encoding gene that is deleted in Smith–Magenis syndrome patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human chromosomal band 17p11.2 is a genetically unstable interval. It has been shown to be deleted in patients suffering from Smith–Magenis syndrome. Previous efforts of physical and transcriptional mapping in 17p11.2 and subsequent genomic sequencing of the candidate interval allowed the identification of new genes that might be responsible for the Smith–Magenis syndrome. In this report, one of these

Peter Seranski; Céline Hoff; Uwe Radelof; Steffen Hennig; Richard Reinhardt; Charles E Schwartz; Nina S Heiss; Annemarie Poustka

2001-01-01

164

Ventricular tachycardia in a Brugada syndrome patient caused by a novel deletion in SCN5A  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to identify the molecular mechanism behind ventricular tachycardia in a patient with Brugada syndrome. Arrhythmias in patients with Brugada syndrome often occur during sleep. However, a 28-year-old man with no previously documented arrhythmia or syncope who experienced shortness of breath and chest pain during agitation is described. An electrocardiogram revealed monomorphic ventricular tachycardia; after he was converted to nodal rhythm, he spontaneously went into sinus rhythm, and showed classic Brugada changes with coved ST elevation in leads V1 to V2. Mutation analysis of SCN5A revealed a novel mutation, 3480 deletion T frame shift mutation, resulting in premature truncation of the protein. Heterologous expression of this truncated protein in human embryonic kidney 293 cells showed a markedly reduced protein expression level. By performing whole-cell patch clamp experiments using human embryonic kidney 293 cells transfected with the mutated SCN5A, no current could be recorded. Hence, the results suggest that the patient suffered from haploinsufficiency of Nav1.5, and that this mutation was the cause of his Brugada syndrome. PMID:19279983

Tfelt-Hansen, Jacob; Jespersen, Thomas; Hofman-Bang, Jacob; Rasmussen, Hanne Borger; Cedergreen, Pernille; Skovby, Flemming; Abriel, Hugues; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Olesen, Soren-Peter; Christiansen, Michael; Haunso, Stig

2009-01-01

165

Partial NSD1 deletions cause 5% of Sotos syndrome and are readily identifiable by multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification  

PubMed Central

Background: Most cases of Sotos syndrome are caused by intragenic NSD1 mutations or 5q35 microdeletions. It is uncertain whether allelic or genetic heterogeneity underlies the residual cases and it has been proposed that other mechanisms, such as 11p15 defects, might be responsible for Sotos cases without NSD1 mutations or 5q35 microdeletions. Objective: To develop a multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification (MLPA) assay to screen NSD1 for exonic deletions/duplications. Methods: Analysis was undertaken of 18 classic Sotos syndrome cases in which NSD1 mutations and 5q35 microdeletions were excluded. Long range polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to characterise the mechanism of generation of the partial NSD1 deletions. Results: Eight unique partial NSD1 deletions were identified: exons 1–2 (n = 4), exons 3–5, exons 9–13, exons 19–21, and exon 22. Using long range PCR six of the deletions were confirmed and the precise breakpoints in five cases characterised. This showed that three had arisen through Alu-Alu recombination and two from non-homologous end joining. Conclusions: MLPA is a robust, inexpensive, simple technique that reliably detects both 5q35 microdeletions and partial NSD1 deletions that together account for ?15% of Sotos syndrome. PMID:16140999

Douglas, J; Tatton-Brown, K; Coleman, K; Guerrero, S; Berg, J; Cole, T; FitzPatrick, D; Gillerot, Y; Hughes, H; Pilz, D; Raymond, F; Temple, I; Irrthum, A; Schouten, J; Rahman, N

2005-01-01

166

High frequency of COH1 intragenic deletions and duplications detected by MLPA in patients with Cohen syndrome  

PubMed Central

Cohen syndrome is a rare, clinically variable autosomal recessive disorder characterized by mental retardation, postnatal microcephaly, facial dysmorphisms, ocular abnormalities and intermittent neutropenia. Mutations in the COH1 gene have been found in patients from different ethnic origins. However, a high percentage of patients have only one or no mutated allele. To investigate whether COH1 copy number changes account for missed mutations, we used multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) to test a group of 14 patients with Cohen syndrome. This analysis has allowed us to identify multi-exonic deletions in 11 alleles and duplications in 4 alleles. Considering our previous study, COH1 copy number variations represent 42% of total mutated alleles. To our knowledge, COH1 intragenic duplications have never been reported in Cohen syndrome. The three duplications encompassed exons 4–13, 20–30 and 57–60, respectively. Interestingly, four deletions showed the same exon coverage (exons 6–16) with respect to a deletion recently reported in a large Greek consanguineous family. Haplotype analysis suggested a possible founder effect in the Mediterranean basin. The use of MLPA was therefore crucial in identifying mutated alleles undetected by traditional techniques and in defining the extent of the deletions/duplications. Given the high percentage of identified copy number variations, we suggest that this technique could be used as the initial screening method for molecular diagnosis of Cohen syndrome. PMID:20461111

Parri, Veronica; Katzaki, Eleni; Uliana, Vera; Scionti, Francesca; Tita, Rossella; Artuso, Rosangela; Longo, Ilaria; Boschloo, Renske; Vijzelaar, Raymon; Selicorni, Angelo; Brancati, Francesco; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Zelante, Leopoldo; Hamel, Christian P; Sarda, Pierre; Lalani, Seema R; Grasso, Rita; Buoni, Sabrina; Hayek, Joussef; Servais, Laurent; de Vries, Bert B A; Georgoudi, Nelly; Nakou, Sheena; Petersen, Michael B; Mari, Francesca; Renieri, Alessandra; Ariani, Francesca

2010-01-01

167

High frequency of COH1 intragenic deletions and duplications detected by MLPA in patients with Cohen syndrome.  

PubMed

Cohen syndrome is a rare, clinically variable autosomal recessive disorder characterized by mental retardation, postnatal microcephaly, facial dysmorphisms, ocular abnormalities and intermittent neutropenia. Mutations in the COH1 gene have been found in patients from different ethnic origins. However, a high percentage of patients have only one or no mutated allele. To investigate whether COH1 copy number changes account for missed mutations, we used multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) to test a group of 14 patients with Cohen syndrome. This analysis has allowed us to identify multi-exonic deletions in 11 alleles and duplications in 4 alleles. Considering our previous study, COH1 copy number variations represent 42% of total mutated alleles. To our knowledge, COH1 intragenic duplications have never been reported in Cohen syndrome. The three duplications encompassed exons 4-13, 20-30 and 57-60, respectively. Interestingly, four deletions showed the same exon coverage (exons 6-16) with respect to a deletion recently reported in a large Greek consanguineous family. Haplotype analysis suggested a possible founder effect in the Mediterranean basin. The use of MLPA was therefore crucial in identifying mutated alleles undetected by traditional techniques and in defining the extent of the deletions/duplications. Given the high percentage of identified copy number variations, we suggest that this technique could be used as the initial screening method for molecular diagnosis of Cohen syndrome. PMID:20461111

Parri, Veronica; Katzaki, Eleni; Uliana, Vera; Scionti, Francesca; Tita, Rossella; Artuso, Rosangela; Longo, Ilaria; Boschloo, Renske; Vijzelaar, Raymon; Selicorni, Angelo; Brancati, Francesco; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Zelante, Leopoldo; Hamel, Christian P; Sarda, Pierre; Lalani, Seema R; Grasso, Rita; Buoni, Sabrina; Hayek, Joussef; Servais, Laurent; de Vries, Bert B A; Georgoudi, Nelly; Nakou, Sheena; Petersen, Michael B; Mari, Francesca; Renieri, Alessandra; Ariani, Francesca

2010-10-01

168

Social Skills and Associated Psychopathology in Children with Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: Implications for Interventions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Although distinctive neuropsychological impairments have been delineated in children with chromosome 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), social skills and social cognition remain less well-characterised. Objective: To examine social skills and social cognition and their relationship with neuropsychological function/behaviour and…

Shashi, V.; Veerapandiyan, A.; Schoch, K.; Kwapil, T.; Keshavan, M.; Ip, E.; Hooper, S.

2012-01-01

169

A Longitudinal Examination of the Psychoeducational, Neurocognitive, and Psychiatric Functioning in Children with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study sought to examine the longitudinal psychoeducational, neurocognitive, and psychiatric outcomes of children and adolescents with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), a population with a high incidence of major psychiatric illnesses appearing in late adolescence/early adulthood. Little is known of the developmental…

Hooper, Stephen R.; Curtiss, Kathleen; Schoch, Kelly; Keshavan, Matcheri S.; Allen, Andrew; Shashi, Vandana

2013-01-01

170

Small Deletions of SATB2 Cause Some of the Clinical Features of the 2q33.1 Microdeletion Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Recurrent deletions of 2q32q33 have recently been reported as a new microdeletion syndrome. Clinical features of this syndrome include severe mental retardation, growth retardation, dysmorphic features, thin and sparse hair, feeding difficulties and cleft or high palate. The commonly deleted region contains at least seven genes. Haploinsufficiency of one of these genes, SATB2, a DNA-binding protein that regulates gene expression, has been implicated as causative in the cleft or high palate of individuals with 2q32q33 microdeletion syndrome. In this study we describe three individuals with smaller microdeletions of this region, within 2q33.1. The deletions ranged in size from 173.1 kb to 185.2 kb and spanned part of SATB2. Review of clinical records showed similar clinical features among these individuals, including severe developmental delay and tooth abnormalities. Two of the individuals had behavioral problems. Only one of the subjects presented here had a cleft palate, suggesting reduced penetrance for this feature. Our results suggest that deletion of SATB2 is responsible for several of the clinical features associated with 2q32q33 microdeletion syndrome. PMID:19668335

Rosenfeld, Jill A.; Ballif, Blake C.; Lucas, Ann; Spence, Edward J.; Powell, Cynthia; Aylsworth, Arthur S.; Torchia, Beth A.; Shaffer, Lisa G.

2009-01-01

171

Atypical development of the executive attention network in children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome  

E-print Network

Atypical development of the executive attention network in children with chromosome 22q11 in youth with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS). However, how this impairment is modified by other factors, particularly age, is unknown. Forty-six typically developing and 53 children with 22q11

Nguyen, Danh

172

Emotion Regulation and Development in Children with Autism and 22q13 Deletion Syndrome: Evidence for Group Differences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emotion regulation (ER) abilities and developmental differences were investigated among 19 children with autism and 18 children with 22q13 Deletion Syndrome (a rare chromosomal disorder with certain autistic symptoms). The purpose of this study was to examine the phenotypic similarities between the two disorders. ER was measured by the Temperament…

Glaser, Sarah E.; Shaw, Steven R.

2011-01-01

173

Maladaptive Conflict Monitoring as Evidence for Executive Dysfunction in Children with Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using an adaptation of the Attentional Networks Test, we investigated aspects of executive control in children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (DS22q11.2), a common but not well understood disorder that produces non-verbal cognitive deficits and a marked incidence of psychopathology. The data revealed that children with DS22q11.2…

Bish, Joel P.; Ferrante, Samantha M.; McDonald-McGinn, Donna; Zackai, Elaine; Simon, Tony J.

2005-01-01

174

Children with Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Exhibit Impaired Spatial Working Memory  

PubMed Central

Individuals with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) have been shown to have impairments in processing spatiotemporal information. We examined whether children with 22q11.2DS exhibit impairments in spatial working memory performance due to these weaknesses, even when controlling for maintenance of attention. Children with 22q11.2DS (n = 47) and typically developing controls (n = 49) ages 6–15 years saw images within a grid and after a delay, then indicated the positions of the images in the correct temporal order. Children with 22q11.2DS made more spatial and temporal errors than controls. Females with 22q11.2DS made more spatial and temporal errors than males. These results extend findings of impaired spatiotemporal processing into the memory domain in 22q11.2DS by documenting their influence on working memory performance. PMID:24679349

Wong, Ling M; Riggins, Tracy; Harvey, Danielle; Cabaral, Margarita; Simon, Tony J.

2014-01-01

175

Spontaneous deletion in the FMR-1 gene in a patient with fragile X syndrome and cherubism  

SciTech Connect

Fragile X mental retardation results from the transcriptional inactivation of the FMR-1 gene and is commonly caused by the expansion of an unstable CGG trinucleotide repeat located in the first exon of the FMR-1 gene. We describe here a two generation fragile X family in which expansion of the CGG repeat may have resulted in a deletion of a least portion of the FMR-1 gene. One member of this family, AB, carries an apparent deletion of the FMR-1 gene and presents with mental retardation and also cherubism, a feature not usually associated with fragile X syndrome. Cherubism is a condition characterized by a swelling of the lower face and is caused by giant cell lesions of the mandible and maxilla, and often the anterior ends of the ribs. The size of the CGG repeat region in this family was determined by Southern analysis of BglII, EcoRI, and PstI digested genomic DNA, isolated from peripheral blood lymphocytes, using a 558 bp PstI-Xhol fragment specific for the 5{prime}-end of the FMR-1 gene. SB and TB, the mother and maternal half-brother of AB, respectively, were both found to carry an expanded FMR-1 allele with greater than 200 CGG repeats. Negligible hybridization was observed in the DNA of AB. In addition, no amplification was observed when the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed using primers flanking the CGG repeat region. These results are consistent with a deletion of at least the 5{prime} portion of the FMR-1 gene in the majority of peripheral blood lymphocytes. Further work is underway using FMR-1 cDNA probes and additional PCR primers to determine the nature of the molecular lesion in AB`s DNA and determine the relationship of this lesion to his cherubism.

Popovich, B.W.; Anoe, K.S.; Johnson, D.B. [Oregon Health Sciences Univ., Portland, OR (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

176

Intragenic deletion in the LARGE gene causes Walker-Warburg syndrome  

PubMed Central

Intragenic homozygous deletions in the Large gene are associated with a severe neuromuscular phenotype in the myodystrophy (myd) mouse. These mutations result in a virtual lack of glycosylation of ?-dystroglycan. Compound heterozygous LARGE mutations have been reported in a single human patient, manifesting with mild congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD) and severe mental retardation. These mutations are likely to retain some residual LARGE glycosyltransferase activity as indicated by residual ?-dystroglycan glycosylation in patient cells. We hypothesized that more severe LARGE mutations are associated with a more severe CMD phenotype in humans. Here we report a 63-kb intragenic LARGE deletion in a family with Walker-Warburg syndrome (WWS), which is characterized by CMD, and severe structural brain and eye malformations. This finding demonstrates that LARGE gene mutations can give rise to a wide clinical spectrum, similar as for other genes that have a role in the post-translational modification of the ?-dystroglycan protein. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00439-007-0362-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:17436019

van Reeuwijk, Jeroen; Grewal, Prabhjit K.; Salih, Mustafa A. M.; Beltrán-Valero de Bernabé, Daniel; McLaughlan, Jenny M.; Michielse, Caroline B.; Herrmann, Ralf; Hewitt, Jane E.; Steinbrecher, Alice; Seidahmed, Mohamed Z.; Shaheed, Mohamed M.; Abomelha, Abdullah; Brunner, Han G.; Voit, Thomas

2007-01-01

177

Psychopathology and cognition in children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) have been reported to have high rates of cognitive and psychiatric problems. Aims To establish the nature and prevalence of psychiatric disorder and neurocognitive impairment in children with 22q11.2DS and test whether risk of psychopathology is mediated by the children’s intellectual impairment. Method Neurocognition and psychopathology were assessed in 80 children with 22q11.2DS (mean age 10.2 years, s.d. = 2.1) and 39 sibling controls (mean age 10.9 years, s.d. = 2.0). Results More than half (54%) of children with 22q11.2DS met diagnostic criteria for one or more DSM-IV-TR psychiatric disorder. These children had lower IQ (mean 76.8, s.d. = 13.0) than controls (mean 108.6, s.d. = 15.2) (P<0.001) and showed a range of neurocognitive impairments. Increased risk of psychopathology was not mediated by intellectual impairment. Conclusions 22q11.2DS is not related to a specific psychiatric phenotype in children. Moreover, the deletion has largely independent effects on IQ and risk of psychopathology, indicating that psychopathology in 22q11.2DS is not a non-specific consequence of generalised cognitive impairment. PMID:24115343

Niarchou, Maria; Zammit, Stanley; van Goozen, Stephanie H. M.; Thapar, Anita; Tierling, Hayley M.; Owen, Michael J.; van den Bree, Marianne B. M.

2014-01-01

178

Isolation of expressed sequences from the region commonly deleted in Velo-cardio-facial syndrome  

SciTech Connect

Velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS) is a relatively common autosomal dominant genetic disorder characterized by cleft palate, cardiac abnormalities, learning disabilities and a characteristic facial dysmorphology. Most VCFS patients have interstitial deletions of 22q11 of 1-2 mb. In an effort to isolate the gene(s) responsible for VCFS we have utilized a hybrid selection protocol to recover expressed sequences from three non-overlapping YACs comprising almost 1 mb of the commonly deleted region. Total yeast genomic DNA or isolated YAC DNA was immobilized on Hybond-N filters, blocked with yeast and human ribosomal and human repetitive sequences and hybridized with a mixture of random primed short fragment cDNA libraries. Six human short fragment libraries derived from total fetus, fetal brain, adult brain, testes, thymus and spleen have been used for the selections. Short fragment cDNAs retained on the filter were passed through a second round of selection and cloned into lambda gt10. cDNAs shown to originate from the YACs and from chromosome 22 are being used to isolate full length cDNAs. Three genes known to be present on these YACs, catechol-O-methyltransferase, tuple 1 and clathrin heavy chain have been recovered. Additionally, a gene related to the murine p120 gene and a number of novel short cDNAs have been isolated. The role of these genes in VCFS is being investigated.

Sirotkin, H.; Morrow, B.; DasGupta, R. [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

179

A Turkish patient with large 17p11.2 deletion presenting with Smith Magenis syndrome.  

PubMed

Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS), which occurs as a result of an interstitial deletion within chromosome 17p11.2-p12, is a disorder that presents itself with minor dysmorphic features, brachydactyly, short stature, hypotonia, delayed speech, cognitive deficits and neurobehavioral problems including sleep disturbances and maladaptive repetitive and self-injurious behavior. We present a girl with full SMS phenotype. G-banding cytogenetic analysis showed normal 46,XX karyotype. Whole-genome array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) was performed due to the severity of the phenotype and the unusual features present in the patient. An interstitial deletion in 17p11.2-p12, approximately 4.73 Mb in size was determined. Characteristic physical and behavioral phenotype strongly suggested SMS. This, to the best of our knowledge is the first patient with SMS reported in Turkey. We emphasize the need for whole genome analysis in multiple congenital abnormalities/mental retardation disorders with unusual and severe phenotypes. PMID:21614983

Tug, E; Cine, N; Aydin, H

2011-01-01

180

Delineation of 7q11.2 Deletions Associated with Williams–Beuren Syndrome and Mapping of a Repetitive Sequence to within and to Either Side of the Common Deletion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of Williams–Beuren syndrome (WBS) patients have been shown to have a microdeletion within 7q11.2 including the elastin gene locus. The extent of these deletions has, however, not been well characterized. Thirty-five deletion patients were tested for all polymorphic markers in the 7q11.2 region bounding ELN to define the extent of deletions associated with WBS. With only one exception,

W. P. Robinson; J. Waslynka; F. Bernasconi; M. Wang; S. Clark; D. Kotzot; A. Schinzel

1996-01-01

181

Detection of deletions at 7q11.23 in Williams-Beuren syndrome by polymorphic markers  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION: Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS; OMIM 194050) is caused by a hemizygous contiguous gene microdeletion at 7q11.23. Supravalvular aortic stenosis, mental retardation, overfriendliness, and ocular and renal abnormalities comprise typical symptoms in WBS. Although fluorescence in situ hybridization is widely used for diagnostic confirmation, microsatellite DNA markers are considered highly informative and easily manageable. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to test the microsatellite markers for the diagnosis of Williams-Beuren syndrome, to determine the size and parental origin of microdeletion, compare the clinical characteristics between patients with different sizes of the deletion and parental origin. METHODS: We studied 97 patients with clinical diagnosis of Williams-Beuren syndrome using five microsatellite markers: D7S1870, D7S489, D7S613, D7S2476 and D7S489_A. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Using five markers together, the result was informative in all patients. The most informative marker was D7S1870 (78.4%), followed by D7S613 (75.3%), D7S489 (70.1%) and D7S2476 (62.9%). The microdeletion was present in 84 (86.6%) patients and absent in 13 (13.4%) patients. Maternal deletions were found in 52.4% of patients and paternal deletions in 47.6% of patients. The observed size of deletions was 1.55 Mb in 76/84 patients (90.5%) and 1.84 Mb in 8/84 patients (9.5%). SVAS as well as ocular and urinary abnormalities were more frequent in the patients with a deletion. There were no clinical differences in relation to either the size or parental origin of the deletion. CONCLUSION: Using these five selected microsatellite markers was informative in all patients, thus can be considered an alternative method for molecular diagnosis in Williams-Beuren syndrome. PMID:21808859

Dutra, Roberta Lelis; de Campos Pieri, Patrícia; Teixeira, Ana Carolina Dias; Honjo, Rachel Sayuri; Bertola, Debora Romeo; Kim, Chong Ae

2011-01-01

182

An interictal schizophrenia-like psychosis in an adult patient with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome  

PubMed Central

In addition to causing polymalformative syndrome, 22q11.2 deletion can lead to various neuropsychiatric disorders including mental retardation, psychosis, and epilepsy. However, few reports regarding epilepsy-related psychosis in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) exist. We describe the clinical characteristics and course of 22q11.2DS in a Japanese patient with comorbid mild mental retardation, childhood-onset localization-related epilepsy, and adult-onset, interictal schizophrenia-like psychosis. From a diagnostic viewpoint, early detection of impaired intellectual functioning and hyperprolinemia in patients with epilepsy with 22q11.2DS may be helpful in predicting the developmental timing of interictal psychosis. From a therapeutic viewpoint, special attention needs to be paid to phenytoin-induced hypocalcemia in this syndrome.

Tastuzawa, Yasutaka; Sekikawa, Kanako; Suda, Tetsufumi; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Otabe, Hiroyuki; Nonoyama, Shigeaki; Yoshino, Aihide

2015-01-01

183

An interictal schizophrenia-like psychosis in an adult patient with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.  

PubMed

In addition to causing polymalformative syndrome, 22q11.2 deletion can lead to various neuropsychiatric disorders including mental retardation, psychosis, and epilepsy. However, few reports regarding epilepsy-related psychosis in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) exist. We describe the clinical characteristics and course of 22q11.2DS in a Japanese patient with comorbid mild mental retardation, childhood-onset localization-related epilepsy, and adult-onset, interictal schizophrenia-like psychosis. From a diagnostic viewpoint, early detection of impaired intellectual functioning and hyperprolinemia in patients with epilepsy with 22q11.2DS may be helpful in predicting the developmental timing of interictal psychosis. From a therapeutic viewpoint, special attention needs to be paid to phenytoin-induced hypocalcemia in this syndrome. PMID:25870791

Tastuzawa, Yasutaka; Sekikawa, Kanako; Suda, Tetsufumi; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Otabe, Hiroyuki; Nonoyama, Shigeaki; Yoshino, Aihide

2015-01-01

184

Molecular characterisation of the 22q13 deletion syndrome supports the role of haploinsufficiency of SHANK3/PROSAP2 in the major neurological symptoms  

PubMed Central

Methods: The 22q13 deletion syndrome (MIM 606232) is characterised by moderate to profound mental retardation, delay/absence of expressive speech, hypotonia, normal to accelerated growth, and mild dysmorphic features. We have determined the deletion size and parent of origin in 56 patients with this syndrome. Results: Similar to other terminal deletion syndromes, there was an overabundance of paternal deletions. The deletions vary widely in size, from 130 kb to over 9 Mb; however all 45 cases that could be specifically tested for the terminal region at the site of SHANK3 were deleted for this gene. The molecular structure of SHANK3 was further characterised. Comparison of clinical features to deletion size showed few correlations. Some measures of developmental assessment did correlate to deletion size; however, all patients showed some degree of mental retardation and severe delay or absence of expressive speech, regardless of deletion size. Conclusion: Our analysis therefore supports haploinsufficiency of the gene SHANK3, which codes for a structural protein of the postsynaptic density, as a major causative factor in the neurological symptoms of 22q13 deletion syndrome. PMID:12920066

Wilson, H; Wong, A; Shaw, S; Tse, W; Stapleton, G; Phelan, M; Hu, S; Marshall, J; McDermid, H

2003-01-01

185

Periventricular heterotopia in 6q terminal deletion syndrome: role of the C6orf70 gene.  

PubMed

Periventricular nodular heterotopia is caused by defective neuronal migration that results in heterotopic neuronal nodules lining the lateral ventricles. Mutations in filamin A (FLNA) or ADP-ribosylation factor guanine nucleotide-exchange factor 2 (ARFGEF2) cause periventricular nodular heterotopia, but most patients with this malformation do not have a known aetiology. Using comparative genomic hybridization, we identified 12 patients with developmental brain abnormalities, variably combining periventricular nodular heterotopia, corpus callosum dysgenesis, colpocephaly, cerebellar hypoplasia and polymicrogyria, harbouring a common 1.2 Mb minimal critical deletion in 6q27. These anatomic features were mainly associated with epilepsy, ataxia and cognitive impairment. Using whole exome sequencing in 14 patients with isolated periventricular nodular heterotopia but no copy number variants, we identified one patient with periventricular nodular heterotopia, developmental delay and epilepsy and a de novo missense mutation in the chromosome 6 open reading frame 70 (C6orf70) gene, mapping in the minimal critical deleted region. Using immunohistochemistry and western blots, we demonstrated that in human cell lines, C6orf70 shows primarily a cytoplasmic vesicular puncta-like distribution and that the mutation affects its stability and subcellular distribution. We also performed in utero silencing of C6orf70 and of Phf10 and Dll1, the two additional genes mapping in the 6q27 minimal critical deleted region that are expressed in human and rodent brain. Silencing of C6orf70 in the developing rat neocortex produced periventricular nodular heterotopia that was rescued by concomitant expression of wild-type human C6orf70 protein. Silencing of the contiguous Phf10 or Dll1 genes only produced slightly delayed migration but not periventricular nodular heterotopia. The complex brain phenotype observed in the 6q terminal deletion syndrome likely results from the combined haploinsufficiency of contiguous genes mapping to a small 1.2 Mb region. Our data suggest that, of the genes within this minimal critical region, C6orf70 plays a major role in the control of neuronal migration and its haploinsufficiency or mutation causes periventricular nodular heterotopia. PMID:24056535

Conti, Valerio; Carabalona, Aurelie; Pallesi-Pocachard, Emilie; Parrini, Elena; Leventer, Richard J; Buhler, Emmanuelle; McGillivray, George; Michel, François J; Striano, Pasquale; Mei, Davide; Watrin, Françoise; Lise, Stefano; Pagnamenta, Alistair T; Taylor, Jenny C; Kini, Usha; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Novara, Francesca; Zuffardi, Orsetta; Dobyns, William B; Scheffer, Ingrid E; Robertson, Stephen P; Berkovic, Samuel F; Represa, Alfonso; Keays, David A; Cardoso, Carlos; Guerrini, Renzo

2013-11-01

186

Multi-disciplinary clinical study of Smith-Magenis syndrome (deletion 17p11.2)  

SciTech Connect

Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a multiple congenital anomaly, mental retardation (MCA/MR) syndrome associated with deletion of chromosome 17 band p11.2. As part of a multi-disciplinary clinical, cytogenetic, and molecular approach to SMS, detailed clinical studies including radiographic neurologic, developmental, ophthalmologic, otolaryngologic, and audiologic evaluations were performed on 27 SMS patients. Significant findings include otolaryngologic abnormalities in 94%, eye abnormalities in 85%, sleep abnormalities (especially reduced REM sleep) in 75%, hearing impairment in 68% (approximately 65% conductive and 35% sensorineural), scoliosis in 65% brain abnormalities (predominantly ventriculomegaly) in 52%, cardiac abnormalities in at least 37%, renal anomalies (especially duplication of the collecting system) in 35%, low thyroxine levels in 29%, low immunoglobulin levels in 23%, and forearm abnormalities in 16%. The measured IQ ranged between 20-78, most patients falling in the moderate range of mental retardation at 40-54, although several patients scored in the mild or borderline range. The frequency of these many abnormalities in SMS suggests that patients should be evaluated thoroughly for associated complications both at the time of diagnosis and at least annually thereafter. 42 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Greenberg, F.; Lewis, R.A.; Potocki, L. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)] [and others] [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); and others

1996-03-29

187

Molecular definition of the chromosome 7 deletion in Williams syndrome and parent-of-origin effects on growth  

SciTech Connect

Williams syndrome (WS) is a developmental disorder with variable phenotypic expression associated, in most cases, with a hemizygous deletion of part of chromosomal band 7q11.23 that includes the elastin gene (ELN). We have investigated the frequency and size of the deletions, determined the parental origin, and correlated the molecular results with the clinical findings in 65 WS patients. Hemizygosity at the ELN locus was established by typing of two intragenic polymorphisms, quantitative Southern analysis, and/or FISH. Polymorphic markers covering the deletion and flanking regions were ordered by a combination of genetic and physical mapping. Genotyping of WS patients and available parents for 13 polymorphisms revealed that of 65 clinically defined WS patients, 61 (94%) had a deletion of the ELN locus and were also hemizygous (or non-informative) at loci D7S489B, D7S2476, D7S613, D7S2472, and D7S1870. None of the four patients without ELN deletion was hemizygous at any of the polymorphic loci studied. All patients were heterozygous (or noninformative) for centromeric (D7S1816, D7S1483, and D7S653) and telomeric (D7S489A, D7S675, and D7S669) flanking loci. The genetic distance between the most-centromeric deleted locus, D7S489B, and the most-telomeric one, D7S1870, is 2 cM. The breakpoints cluster at {approximately}1 cM to either side of ELN. In 39 families informative for parental origin, all deletions were de novo, and 18 were paternally and 21 maternally derived. Comparison of clinical data, collected in a standardized quantifiable format, revealed significantly more severe growth retardation and microcephaly in the maternal deletion group. An imprinted locus, silent on the paternal chromosome and contributing to statural growth, may be affected by the deletion. 53 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Perez Jurado, L.A.; Peoples, R.; Francke, U. [Stanford Univ. School of Medicine, CA (United States)] [and others

1996-10-01

188

Detection of cryptic chromosomal abnormalities in unexplained mental retardation: A general strategy using hypervariable subtelomeric DNA polymorphisms  

SciTech Connect

Given the availability of DNA from both parents, unusual segregation of hypervariable DNA polymorphisms (HVPs) in the offspring may be attributable to deletion, unbalanced chromosomal translocation, or uniparental disomy. The telomeric regions of chromosomes are rich in both genes and hypervariable minisatellite sequences and may also be particularly prone to cryptic breakage events. Here the author describes and analyzes a general approach to the detection of subtelomeric abnormalities and uniparental disomy in patients with unexplained mental retardation. With 29 available polymorphic systems, [approximately]50%-70% of these abnormalities could currently be detected. Development of subtelomeric HVPs physically localized with respect to their telomers should provide a valuable resource in routine diagnostics. 73 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

Wilkie, A.O.M.

1993-09-01

189

181 Deletion of 7q11.23 Genes and Williams Syndrome JULIE R. KORENBERG, LI DAI, URSULA BELLUGI, ANNA P. PASLEY, DEBRA L. MILLS,  

E-print Network

1544 181 Deletion of 7q11.23 Genes and Williams Syndrome JULIE R. KORENBERG, LI DAI, URSULA BELLUGI, ANNA P. PASLEY, DEBRA L. MILLS, ALBERT GALABURDA, ALLAN REISS, AND BARBARA R. POBER Williams syndrome [WS; also Williams­Beuren syndrome (WBS)] is a neurodevelopmental condition that is caused

Bellugi, Ursula

190

Socioeconomic Status and Psychological Function in Children with Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: Implications for Genetic Counseling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to examine the association between parental socio-economic status (SES) and childhood neurocognition\\u000a and behavior in children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS). Although undoubtedly, the deletion of genes\\u000a in the 22q11.2 interval is primarily responsible for the psychological manifestations, little is known about the role of the\\u000a environment in either mitigating or contributing to

Vandana Shashi; Matcheri Keshavan; Jessica Kaczorowski; Kelly Schoch; Kathryn E. Lewandowski; Allyn McConkie-Rosell; Stephen R. Hooper; Thomas R. Kwapil

2010-01-01

191

Intragenic deletions affecting two alternative transcripts of the IMMP2L gene in patients with Tourette syndrome.  

PubMed

Tourette syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by multiple motor and vocal tics, and the disorder is often accompanied by comorbidities such as attention-deficit hyperactivity-disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder. Tourette syndrome has a complex etiology, but the underlying environmental and genetic factors are largely unknown. IMMP2L (inner mitochondrial membrane peptidase, subunit 2) located on chromosome 7q31 is one of the genes suggested as a susceptibility factor in disease pathogenesis. Through screening of a Danish cohort comprising 188 unrelated Tourette syndrome patients for copy number variations, we identified seven patients with intragenic IMMP2L deletions (3.7%), and this frequency was significantly higher (P=0.0447) compared with a Danish control cohort (0.9%). Four of the seven deletions identified did not include any known exons of IMMP2L, but were within intron 3. These deletions were found to affect a shorter IMMP2L mRNA species with two alternative 5'-exons (one including the ATG start codon). We showed that both transcripts (long and short) were expressed in several brain regions, with a particularly high expression in cerebellum and hippocampus. The current findings give further evidence for the role of IMMP2L as a susceptibility factor in Tourette syndrome and suggest that intronic changes in disease susceptibility genes should be investigated further for presence of alternatively spliced exons. PMID:24549057

Bertelsen, Birgitte; Melchior, Linea; Jensen, Lars R; Groth, Camilla; Glenthøj, Birte; Rizzo, Renata; Debes, Nanette Mol; Skov, Liselotte; Brøndum-Nielsen, Karen; Paschou, Peristera; Silahtaroglu, Asli; Tümer, Zeynep

2014-11-01

192

A nuclear defect in the 4p16 region predisposes to multiple mitochondrial DNA deletions in families with Wolfram syndrome.  

PubMed Central

Wolfram syndrome is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder transmitted in an autosomal recessive mode. We report two Wolfram syndrome families harboring multiple deletions of mitochondrial DNA. The deletions reached percentages as high as 85-90% in affected tissues such as the central nervous system of one patient, while in other tissues from the same patient and from other members of the family, the percentages of deleted mitochondrial DNA genomes were only 1-10%. Recently, a Wolfram syndrome gene has been linked to markers on 4p16. In both families linkage between the disease locus and 4p16 markers gave a maximum multipoint lod score of 3.79 at theta = 0 (P<0.03) with respect to D4S431. In these families, the syndrome was caused by mutations in this nucleus-encoded gene which deleteriously interacts with the mitochondrial genome. This is the first evidence of the implication of both genomes in a recessive disease. PMID:8601620

Barrientos, A; Volpini, V; Casademont, J; Genís, D; Manzanares, J M; Ferrer, I; Corral, J; Cardellach, F; Urbano-Márquez, A; Estivill, X; Nunes, V

1996-01-01

193

Deletions of the elastin gene at 7q11.23 occur in {approximately}90% of patients with Williams syndrome  

SciTech Connect

To investigate the frequency of deletions of the elastin gene in patients with Williams syndrome (WS), we screened 44 patients by both FISH and PCR amplification of a dinucleotide repeat polymorphism. FISH was performed using cosmids containing either the 5{prime} or the 3{prime} end of the elastin gene. PCR analysis was performed on the patients and their parents with a (CA){sub n} repeat polymorphism found in intron 17 of the elastin locus. Of the 44 patients screened, 91% were shown to be deleted by FISH. Using the DNA polymorphism, both maternally (39%) and paternally (61%) derived deletions were found. Four patients were not deleted for elastin but have clinical features of WS. Since deletions of elastin cannot account for several features found in WS, these patients will be valuable in further delineation of the critical region responsible for the WS phenotype. Although PCR can be useful for determining the parental origin of the deletion, our results demonstrate that FISH analysis of the elastin locus provides a more rapid and informative test to confirm a clinical diagnosis of WS. The presence of two copies of the elastin locus in a patient does not, however, rule out WS as a diagnosis. 25 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Nickerson, E.; Greenberg, F.; McCaskill, C.; Shaffer, L.G. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Keating, M.T. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City (United States)

1995-05-01

194

Velo-Cardio-Facial syndrome and DiGeorge sequence with meningomyelocele and deletions of the 22q11 region  

SciTech Connect

Approximately 5% of children with neural tube defects (NTDs) have a congenital heart defect and/or cleft lip and palate. The cause of isolated meningomyelocele, congenital heart defects, or cleft lip and palate has been largely thought to be multifactorial. However, chromosomal, teratogenic, and single gene causes of combinations of NTDs with congenital heart defects and/or cleft lip and palate have been reported. We report on 3 patients with meningomyelocele, congenital heart defects, and 22q11 deletions. Two of the children had the clinical diagnosis of velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS); both have bifid uvula. The third child had DiGeorge sequence (DGS). The association of NTDs with 22q11 deletion has not been reported previously. An accurate diagnosis of the 22q11 deletion is critical as this micro-deletion and its associated clinical problems is transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait due to the inheritance of the deletion-bearing chromosome. We recommend that all children with NTDs and congenital heart defects, with or without cleft palate, have cytogenetic and molecular studies performed to detect 22q11 deletions. 31 refs., 3 figs.

Nickel, R.E.; Pillers, D.M.; Merkens, M.; Magenis, R.E.; Zonana, J. [Oregon Health Sciences Univ., Portland, OR (United States); Driscoll, D.A.; Emanuel, B.S. [Univ. of Pennsylvania Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

1994-10-01

195

Lynch-like syndrome: Characterization and comparison with EPCAM deletion carriers.  

PubMed

Colorectal cancers (CRCs) with microsatellite instability-high (MSI+) but without detectable germline mutation or hypermethylation in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes can be classified as Lynch-like syndrome (LLS). The underlying mechanism and clinical significances of LLS are largely unknown. We measured MSI and MMR protein expression in 4,765 consecutive CRC cases. Among these, MSI+ cases were further classified based on clinical parameters, germline sequencing of MMR genes or polymerase ? (POLE) and ? (POLD1) and promoter methylation analysis of MLH1 and MSH2. We found that MSI+ and MMR protein-deficient CRCs comprised 6.3% (N?=?302) of this cohort. On the basis of germline sequencing of 124 cases, we identified 54 LS with MMR germline mutation (LS-MMR), 15 LS with EPCAM deletions (LS-EPCAM) and 55 LLS patients. Of the 55 LLS patients, six (10.9%) had variants of unknown significance in the genes tested, and one patient had a novel somatic mutation (p.S459P) in POLE. In patients with biallelic deletions of EPCAM, all tumors and their matched normal mucosa showed promoter hypermethylation of MSH2. Finally, we found that patients with LLS and LS-EPCAM shared clinical features that differed from LS-MMR patients, including lower frequency of fulfillment of the revised Bethesda guidelines (83.6 and 86.7% vs. 98.1% for LS-MMR) and older mean age at CRC diagnosis (52.6 and 52.7 years vs. 43.9 years for LS-MMR). We identified somatic mutation in POLE as a rare underlying cause for MMR deficiency in LLS. The similarity between LLS and LS-EPCAM suggests LLS as a subset of familial MSI+ CRC. PMID:25110875

Kang, So Young; Park, Cheol Keun; Chang, Dong Kyung; Kim, Jong Won; Son, Hee Jung; Cho, Yong Beom; Yun, Seong Hyeon; Kim, Hee Cheol; Kwon, Moosik; Kim, Kyoung-Mee

2015-04-01

196

Deficits in Mental State Attributions in Individuals with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (Velo-Cardio-Facial Syndrome)  

PubMed Central

Velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS; 22q11.2 deletion syndrome) results from a genetic mutation that increases risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). We compared Theory of Mind (ToM) skills in 63 individuals with VCFS (25% with an ASD diagnosis) and 43 typically-developing controls, and investigated the relationship of ToM to reciprocal social behavior. We administered a video-based task to assess mentalizing at two sites (UCLA and SUNY Upstate Medical University). The videos depicted interactions representing complex mental states (ToM condition), or simple movements (Random condition). Verbal descriptions of the videos were rated for Intentionality (i.e., mentalizing) and Appropriateness. Using Repeated Measures ANOVA, we assessed the effects of VCFS and ASD on Intentionality and Appropriateness, and the relationship of mentalizing to Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) scores. Results indicated that individuals with VCFS overall had lower Intentionality and Appropriateness scores than controls for ToM, but not for Random scenes. In the SUNY sample, individuals with VCFS, both with and without ASD, performed more poorly than controls on the ToM condition; however, in the UCLA sample, only individuals with VCFS without ASD performed significantly worse than controls on the ToM condition. Controlling for site and age, performance on the ToM condition was significantly correlated with SRS scores. Individuals with VCFS, regardless of an ASD diagnosis, showed impairments in the spontaneous attribution of mental states to abstract visual stimuli, which may underlie real-life problems with social interactions. A better understanding of the social deficits in VCFS is essential for the development of targeted behavioral interventions. PMID:22962003

Ho, Jennifer S.; Radoeva, Petya D.; Jalbrzikowski, Maria; Chow, Carolyn; Hopkins, Jessica; Tran, Wen-Ching; Mehta, Ami; Enrique, Nicole; Gilbert, Chelsea; Antshel, Kevin M.; Fremont, Wanda; Kates, Wendy R.; Bearden, Carrie E.

2012-01-01

197

Deficits in mental state attributions in individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (velo-cardio-facial syndrome).  

PubMed

Velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS; 22q11.2 deletion syndrome) results from a genetic mutation that increases risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). We compared Theory of Mind (ToM) skills in 63 individuals with VCFS (25% with an ASD diagnosis) and 43 typically developing controls, and investigated the relationship of ToM to reciprocal social behavior. We administered a video-based task to assess mentalizing at two sites University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) and State University of New York (SUNY) Upstate Medical University. The videos depicted interactions representing complex mental states (ToM condition), or simple movements (Random condition). Verbal descriptions of the videos were rated for Intentionality (i.e. mentalizing) and Appropriateness. Using Repeated Measures analysis of variance (ANOVA), we assessed the effects of VCFS and ASD on Intentionality and Appropriateness, and the relationship of mentalizing to Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) scores. Results indicated that individuals with VCFS overall had lower Intentionality and Appropriateness scores than controls for ToM but not for Random scenes. In the SUNY sample, individuals with VCFS, both with and without ASD, performed more poorly than controls on the ToM condition; however, in the UCLA sample, only individuals with VCFS without ASD performed significantly worse than controls on the ToM condition. Controlling for site and age, performance on the ToM condition was significantly correlated with SRS scores. Individuals with VCFS, regardless of an ASD diagnosis, showed impairments in the spontaneous attribution of mental states to abstract visual stimuli, which may underlie real-life problems with social interactions. A better understanding of the social deficits in VCFS is essential for the development of targeted behavioral interventions. PMID:22962003

Ho, Jennifer S; Radoeva, Petya D; Jalbrzikowski, Maria; Chow, Carolyn; Hopkins, Jessica; Tran, Wen-Ching; Mehta, Ami; Enrique, Nicole; Gilbert, Chelsea; Antshel, Kevin M; Fremont, Wanda; Kates, Wendy R; Bearden, Carrie E

2012-12-01

198

HIGH COLORECTAL AND LOW ENDOMETRIAL CANCER RISK IN EPCAM DELETION-POSITIVE LYNCH SYNDROME: A COHORT STUDY  

PubMed Central

Summary BACKGROUND Lynch syndrome is caused by germline mutations in mismatch repair genes (MSH2, MLH1, MSH6 or PMS2), which lead to a high risk of predominantly colorectal and endometrial cancer. Recently, we found that also constitutional 3? end deletions of EPCAM can cause Lynch syndrome through epigenetic silencing of MSH2 in EPCAM expressing tissues. This results in a tissue specific MSH2-deficiency, which may evoke a different cancer risk and spectrum. To optimize the care for EPCAM deletion carriers we studied their cancer risk and spectrum. METHODS Clinical data of 194 carriers from 41 EPCAM families were systematically collected and compared to those of 431 carriers from 91 families with mutations in MLH1, MSH2, or MSH6. FINDINGS EPCAM deletion carriers exhibited a 75% [95%CI 65–85%] cumulative risk of colorectal cancer before the age of 70 years, with a mean age at diagnosis of 43 years, which is comparable to that of carriers of a combined EPCAM-MSH2 deletion (69% [95%CI 47-91%], p=0·8609) or of a mutation in MSH2 (77% [95%CI 64-90%], p=0·5892) or MLH1 (79% [95%CI 68-90%], p=0·5492) and higher than that of MSH6 mutation carriers (50% [95%CI 38-62%], p<0·0001). In contrast, women with EPCAM deletions (n=87) exhibited a 12% [95%CI 0-27%] cumulative risk of endometrial cancer, which is significantly lower than in carriers of a combined EPCAM-MSH2 deletion (55% [95%CI 20-90%], p<0·0001) or of a mutation in MSH2 (51% [95%CI 33-69%], p=0·0006) or MSH6 (34% [95%CI 20-48%], p=0·0309) and lower than in MLH1 (33% [95%CI 15-51%] p=0·1193) mutation carriers. This risk seems to be restricted to large deletions that extend close to the MSH2 gene promoter. Overall, a relatively high incidence of duodenal (n=3) and pancreatic (n=4) cancers was observed. INTERPRETATION EPCAM deletion carriers do have a high risk of colorectal cancer. Only those with deletions extending close to the MSH2 promoter have an increased risk of endometrial cancer. These results underscore the impact of mosaic MSH2-deficiency on cancer risk and are indicative for a protocol revision for surveillance and preventive surgery in EPCAM deletion carriers. PMID:21145788

Kempers, Marlies JE; Kuiper, Roland P; Ockeloen, Charlotte W; Chappuis, Pierre O; Hutter, Pierre; Rahner, Nils; Schackert, Hans K; Steinke, Verena; Holinski-Feder, Elke; Morak, Monika; Kloor, Matthias; Büttner, Reinhard; Verwiel, Eugene TP; van Krieken, J. Han; Nagtegaal, Iris D; Goossens, Monique; van der Post, Rachel S.; Niessen, Renée C; Sijmons, Rolf H; Kluijt, Irma; Hogervorst, Frans BL; Leter, Edward M; Gille, Johan JP; Aalfs, Cora M; Redeker, Egbert JW; Hes, Frederik J; Tops, Carli MJ; van Nesselrooij, Bernadette PM; van Gijn, Marielle E; García, Encarna B Gómez; Eccles, Diana M; Bunyan, David J; Syngal, Sapna; Stoffel, Elena M; Culver, Julie O; Palomares, Melanie R; Graham, Tracy; Velsher, Lea; Papp, Janos; Oláh, Edith; Chan, Tsun L; Leung, Suet Y; van Kessel, Ad Geurts; Kiemeney, Lambertus ALM; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn JL

2013-01-01

199

Molecular Mechanisms Generating and Stabilizing Terminal 22q13 Deletions in 44 Subjects with Phelan/McDermid Syndrome  

PubMed Central

In this study, we used deletions at 22q13, which represent a substantial source of human pathology (Phelan/McDermid syndrome), as a model for investigating the molecular mechanisms of terminal deletions that are currently poorly understood. We characterized at the molecular level the genomic rearrangement in 44 unrelated patients with 22q13 monosomy resulting from simple terminal deletions (72%), ring chromosomes (14%), and unbalanced translocations (7%). We also discovered interstitial deletions between 17–74 kb in 9% of the patients. Haploinsufficiency of the SHANK3 gene, confirmed in all rearrangements, is very likely the cause of the major neurological features associated with PMS. SHANK3 mutations can also result in language and/or social interaction disabilities. We determined the breakpoint junctions in 29 cases, providing a realistic snapshot of the variety of mechanisms driving non-recurrent deletion and repair at chromosome ends. De novo telomere synthesis and telomere capture are used to repair terminal deletions; non-homologous end-joining or microhomology-mediated break-induced replication is probably involved in ring 22 formation and translocations; non-homologous end-joining and fork stalling and template switching prevail in cases with interstitial 22q13.3. For the first time, we also demonstrated that distinct stabilizing events of the same terminal deletion can occur in different early embryonic cells, proving that terminal deletions can be repaired by multistep healing events and supporting the recent hypothesis that rare pathogenic germline rearrangements may have mitotic origin. Finally, the progressive clinical deterioration observed throughout the longitudinal medical history of three subjects over forty years supports the hypothesis of a role for SHANK3 haploinsufficiency in neurological deterioration, in addition to its involvement in the neurobehavioral phenotype of PMS. PMID:21779178

Beri, Silvana; De Agostini, Cristina; Novara, Francesca; Fichera, Marco; Grillo, Lucia; Galesi, Ornella; Vetro, Annalisa; Ciccone, Roberto; Bonati, Maria Teresa; Giglio, Sabrina; Guerrini, Renzo; Osimani, Sara; Marelli, Susan; Zucca, Claudio; Grasso, Rita; Borgatti, Renato; Mani, Elisa; Motta, Cristina; Molteni, Massimo; Romano, Corrado; Greco, Donatella; Reitano, Santina; Baroncini, Anna; Lapi, Elisabetta; Cecconi, Antonella; Arrigo, Giulia; Patricelli, Maria Grazia; Pantaleoni, Chiara; D'Arrigo, Stefano; Riva, Daria; Sciacca, Francesca; Dalla Bernardina, Bernardo; Zoccante, Leonardo; Darra, Francesca; Termine, Cristiano; Maserati, Emanuela; Bigoni, Stefania; Priolo, Emanuela; Bottani, Armand; Gimelli, Stefania; Bena, Frederique; Brusco, Alfredo; di Gregorio, Eleonora; Bagnasco, Irene; Giussani, Ursula; Nitsch, Lucio; Politi, Pierluigi; Martinez-Frias, Maria Luisa; Martínez-Fernández, Maria Luisa; Martínez Guardia, Nieves; Bremer, Anna; Anderlid, Britt-Marie; Zuffardi, Orsetta

2011-01-01

200

Characteristic Face: A Key Indicator for Direct Diagnosis of 22q11.2 Deletions in Chinese Velocardiofacial Syndrome Patients  

PubMed Central

Velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS) is a disease in human with an expansive phenotypic spectrum and diverse genetic mechanisms mainly associated with copy number variations (CNVs) on 22q11.2 or other chromosomes. However, the correlations between CNVs and phenotypes remain ambiguous. This study aims to analyze the types and sizes of CNVs in VCFS patients, to define whether correlations exist between CNVs and clinical manifestations in Chinese VCFS patients. In total, 55 clinically suspected Chinese VCFS patients and 100 normal controls were detected by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). The data from MLPA and all the detailed clinical features of the objects were documented and analyzed. A total of 44 patients (80.0%) were diagnosed with CNVs on 22q11.2. Among them, 43 (78.2%) presented with 22q11.2 heterozygous deletions, of whom 40 (93.0%) had typical 3-Mb deletion, and 3 (7.0%) exhibited proximal 1.5-Mb deletion; no patient was found with atypical deletion on 22q11.2. One patient (1.8%) presented with a 3-Mb duplication mapping to the typical 3-Mb region on 22q11.2, while none of the chromosomal abnormalities in the MLPA kit were found in the other 11 patients and 100 normal controls. All the 43 patients with 22q11.2 deletions displayed characteristic face and palatal anomalies; 37 of them (86.0%) had cognitive or behavioral disorders, and 23 (53.5%) suffered from immune deficiencies; 10 patients (23.3%) manifested congenital heart diseases. Interestingly, all patients with the characteristic face had 22q11.2 heterozygous deletions, but no difference in phenotypic spectrum was observed between 3-Mb and 1.5-Mb deletions. Our data suggest that the characteristic face can be used as a key indicator for direct diagnosis of 22q11.2 deletions in Chinese VCFS patients. PMID:23342150

Xu, Chen; Wang, Ke; Wang, Huijun; Zheng, Fengyun; Ma, Duan; Wang, Guomin

2013-01-01

201

Novel 5.712 kb mitochondrial DNA deletion in a patient with Pearson syndrome: A case report.  

PubMed

Pearson marrow?pancreas syndrome (PS) is a progressive multi?organ disorder caused by deletions and duplications of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). PS is often fatal in infancy, and the majority of patients with PS succumb to the disease before reaching three?years?of?age, due to septicemia, metabolic acidosis or hepatocellular insufficiency. The present report describes the case of a four?month?old infant with severe normocytic normochromic anemia, vacuolization of hematopoietic precursors and metabolic acidosis. After extensive clinical investigation, the patient was diagnosed with PS, which was confirmed by molecular analysis of mtDNA. The molecular analysis detected a novel large?scale (5.712 kb) deletion spanning nucleotides 8,011 to 13,722 of mtDNA, which lacked direct repeats at the deletion boundaries. The present report is, to the best of our knowledge, the first case reported in South Korea. PMID:25543536

Park, Joonhong; Ryu, Hyejin; Jang, Woori; Chae, Hyojin; Kim, Myungshin; Kim, Yonggoo; Kim, Jiyeon; Lee, Jae Wook; Chung, Nack-Gyun; Cho, Bin; Suh, Byung Kyu

2015-05-01

202

Disrupted working memory circuitry and psychotic symptoms in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome?  

PubMed Central

22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a recurrent genetic mutation that is highly penetrant for psychosis. Behavioral research suggests that 22q11DS patients exhibit a characteristic neurocognitive phenotype that includes differential impairment in spatial working memory (WM). Notably, spatial WM has also been proposed as an endophenotype for idiopathic psychotic disorder, yet little is known about the neurobiological substrates of WM in 22q11DS. In order to investigate the neural systems engaged during spatial WM in 22q11DS patients, we collected functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data while 41 participants (16 22q11DS patients, 25 demographically matched controls) performed a spatial capacity WM task that included manipulations of delay length and load level. Relative to controls, 22q11DS patients showed reduced neural activation during task performance in the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) and superior frontal sulcus (SFS). In addition, the typical increases in neural activity within spatial WM-relevant regions with greater memory load were not observed in 22q11DS. We further investigated whether neural dysfunction during WM was associated with behavioral WM performance, assessed via the University of Maryland letter–number sequencing (LNS) task, and positive psychotic symptoms, assessed via the Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes (SIPS), in 22q11DS patients. WM load activity within IPS and SFS was positively correlated with LNS task performance; moreover, WM load activity within IPS was inversely correlated with the severity of unusual thought content and delusional ideas, indicating that decreased recruitment of working memory-associated neural circuitry is associated with more severe positive symptoms. These results suggest that 22q11DS patients show reduced neural recruitment of brain regions critical for spatial WM function, which may be related to characteristic behavioral manifestations of the disorder. PMID:24567911

Montojo, C.A.; Ibrahim, A.; Karlsgodt, K.H.; Chow, C.; Hilton, A.E.; Jonas, R.K.; Vesagas, T.K.; Bearden, C.E.

2014-01-01

203

22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: Attitudes towards Disclosing the Risk of Psychiatric Illness  

PubMed Central

22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11.2DS) is a common microdeletion syndrome with multisystem features. There is a strong association with psychiatric disorders. One in every four to five patients develop schizophrenia. Despite studies showing that early diagnosis and treatment are likely to lead to improved outcome, genetic counselors may be reluctant to discuss the risk of psychiatric illness. The aim of this research was to explore parental attitudes and genetic counselors’ perspectives and practice regarding disclosure of the clinical manifestations of 22q11.2DS, particularly the risk of psychiatric illness. We delivered a questionnaire to genetic counselors via established list-serves, 54 of which were completed. We also conducted interviews with four parents of adults with 22q11.2DS and schizophrenia. The majority of counselors and parents felt that the increased risk to develop a psychiatric illness is important to disclose. However, in the initial counseling session when the diagnosis was made in infancy genetic counselors were significantly less likely to discuss the risk of psychiatric disorders compared to other later onset features such as hypothyroidism (41 % vs. 83 %, p=0.001). When the diagnosis of 22q11.2DS was made in infancy, counselors’ responses in regard to timing of disclosure about psychiatric illnesses were fairly evenly divided between infancy, childhood and adolescence. In contrast, for other major features of 22q11.2DS, disclosure would predominantly be in infancy. The respondents reported that the discussion of psychiatric issues with parents was challenging due to the stigma associated with mental illness. Some also noted limited knowledge about psychiatric illness and treatment. These results suggest that genetic counselors could benefit from further education regarding psychiatric illness in 22q11.2DS and best strategies for discussing this important subject with parents and patients. PMID:22833231

Martin, Nicole; Mikhaelian, Marina; Cytrynbaum, Cheryl; Shuman, Cheryl; Chitayat, David A.; Weksberg, Rosanna

2012-01-01

204

Hearing Loss in a Mouse Model of 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome  

PubMed Central

22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11DS) arises from an interstitial chromosomal microdeletion encompassing at least 30 genes. This disorder is one of the most significant known cytogenetic risk factors for schizophrenia, and can also cause heart abnormalities, cognitive deficits, hearing difficulties, and a variety of other medical problems. The Df1/+ hemizygous knockout mouse, a model for human 22q11DS, recapitulates many of the deficits observed in the human syndrome including heart defects, impaired memory, and abnormal auditory sensorimotor gating. Here we show that Df1/+ mice, like human 22q11DS patients, have substantial rates of hearing loss arising from chronic middle ear infection. Auditory brainstem response (ABR) measurements revealed significant elevation of click-response thresholds in 48% of Df1/+ mice, often in only one ear. Anatomical and histological analysis of the middle ear demonstrated no gross structural abnormalities, but frequent signs of otitis media (OM, chronic inflammation of the middle ear), including excessive effusion and thickened mucosa. In mice for which both in vivo ABR thresholds and post mortem middle-ear histology were obtained, the severity of signs of OM correlated directly with the level of hearing impairment. These results suggest that abnormal auditory sensorimotor gating previously reported in mouse models of 22q11DS could arise from abnormalities in auditory processing. Furthermore, the findings indicate that Df1/+ mice are an excellent model for increased risk of OM in human 22q11DS patients. Given the frequently monaural nature of OM in Df1/+ mice, these animals could also be a powerful tool for investigating the interplay between genetic and environmental causes of OM. PMID:24244619

Fuchs, Jennifer C.; Zinnamon, Fhatarah A.; Taylor, Ruth R.; Ivins, Sarah; Scambler, Peter J.; Forge, Andrew; Tucker, Abigail S.; Linden, Jennifer F.

2013-01-01

205

Deletion of KDM6A, a histone demethylase interacting with MLL2, in three patients with Kabuki syndrome.  

PubMed

Kabuki syndrome (KS) is a rare genetic disease that causes developmental delay and congenital anomalies. Since the identification of MLL2 mutations as the primary cause of KS, such mutations have been identified in 56%-76% of affected individuals, suggesting that there may be additional genes associated with KS. Here, we describe three KS individuals with de novo partial or complete deletions of an X chromosome gene, KDM6A, that encodes a histone demethylase that interacts with MLL2. Although KDM6A escapes X inactivation, we found a skewed X inactivation pattern, in which the deleted X chromosome was inactivated in the majority of the cells. This study identifies KDM6A mutations as another cause of KS and highlights the growing role of histone methylases and histone demethylases in multiple-congenital-anomaly and intellectual-disability syndromes. PMID:22197486

Lederer, Damien; Grisart, Bernard; Digilio, Maria Cristina; Benoit, Valérie; Crespin, Marianne; Ghariani, Sophie Claire; Maystadt, Isabelle; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Verellen-Dumoulin, Christine

2012-01-13

206

Deletion of KDM6A, a Histone Demethylase Interacting with MLL2, in Three Patients with Kabuki Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Kabuki syndrome (KS) is a rare genetic disease that causes developmental delay and congenital anomalies. Since the identification of MLL2 mutations as the primary cause of KS, such mutations have been identified in 56%–76% of affected individuals, suggesting that there may be additional genes associated with KS. Here, we describe three KS individuals with de novo partial or complete deletions of an X chromosome gene, KDM6A, that encodes a histone demethylase that interacts with MLL2. Although KDM6A escapes X inactivation, we found a skewed X inactivation pattern, in which the deleted X chromosome was inactivated in the majority of the cells. This study identifies KDM6A mutations as another cause of KS and highlights the growing role of histone methylases and histone demethylases in multiple-congenital-anomaly and intellectual-disability syndromes. PMID:22197486

Lederer, Damien; Grisart, Bernard; Digilio, Maria Cristina; Benoit, Valérie; Crespin, Marianne; Ghariani, Sophie Claire; Maystadt, Isabelle; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Verellen-Dumoulin, Christine

2012-01-01

207

Lynch Syndrome-Associated Extracolonic Tumors Are Rare in Two Extended Families With the Same EPCAM Deletion  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES The Lynch syndrome (LS) is an inherited cancer syndrome showing a preponderance of colorectal cancer (CRC) in context with endometrial cancer and several other extracolonic cancers, which is due to pathogenic mutations in the mismatch repair (MMR) genes, MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2. Some families were found to show a LS phenotype without an identified MMR mutation, although there was microsatellite instability and absence of MSH2 expression by immunohistochemistry. Studies of a subset of these families found a deletion at the 3? end of the epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EPCAM) gene, causing transcription read-through resulting in silencing of MSH2 through hypermethylation of its promoter. The tumor spectrum of such families appears to differ from classical LS. METHODS Our study of two large families (USA Family R and Dutch Family A) with an EPCAM deletion was carried out using each institution’s standard family study protocol. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood and EPCAM deletion analysis was performed. RESULTS Both families were found to harbor the same deletion at the 3? end of EPCAM. Analysis showed that the deletion originated from a common ancestor. Family R and Family A members showed segregation of CRC with the presence of this EPCAM mutation. Compared with classic LS, there were almost no extracolonic cancers. CONCLUSIONS Members of Family R and Family A, all with the same EPCAM deletion, predominantly presented with CRC but no LS-associated endometrial cancer, confirming findings seen in other, smaller, LS families with EPCAM mutations. In these EPCAM mutation carriers, cancer surveillance should be focused on CRC. PMID:21769135

Lynch, Henry T.; Riegert-Johnson, Douglas L.; Snyder, Carrie; Lynch, Jane F.; Hagenkord, Jill; Boland, C. Richard; Rhees, Jennifer; Thibodeau, Stephen N.; Boardman, Lisa A.; Davies, Janine; Kuiper, Roland P.; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn J.L.

2013-01-01

208

Expression Analysis and Protein Localization of the Human HPC1\\/Syntaxin 1A, a Gene Deleted in Williams Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The HPC-1\\/syntaxin 1A (STX1A) gene maps to the Williams syndrome (WS) commonly deleted region on chromosome 7q11.23 and encodes a protein implicated in the docking of synaptic vesicles with the presynaptic plasma membrane. To assess the potential role of STX1A in the WS phenotype, we carried out expression studies at the RNA and protein levels, in fetal and adult human

A. Botta; F. Sangiuolo; L. Calza; L. Giardino; S. Potenza; G. Novelli; B. Dallapiccola

1999-01-01

209

Intelligence and Visual Motor Integration in 5-Year-Old Children with 22q11-Deletion Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between intelligence and visual motor integration skills in 5-year-old children with 22q11-deletion syndrome (22q11DS) (N = 65, 43 females, 22 males; mean age 5.6 years (SD 0.2), range 5.23-5.99 years). Sufficient VMI skills seem a prerequisite for IQ testing. Since problems related to…

Duijff, Sasja; Klaassen, Petra; Beemer, Frits; Swanenburg de Veye, Henriette; Vorstman, Jacob; Sinnema, Gerben

2012-01-01

210

Smith-Magenis syndrome deletion: A case with equivocal cytogenetic findings resolved by fluorescence in situ hybridization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The availability of markers for the 17p11.2 region has enabled the diagnosis of Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). SMS is typically associated with a discernible deletion of band 17p11.2 upon cytogenetic analysis at a resolution of 400-550 bands. We present a case that illustrates the importance of using FISH to confirm a cytogenetic diagnosis of del(17)(p11.2).

Ramesh C. Juyal; P. I. Patel; F. Greenberg; James R. Lupski; Barbara J. Trask; Ger van den Engh; Elizabeth A. Lindsay; Heather Christy; Ken-Shiung Chen; Antonio Baldini; Lisa G. Shaffer

1995-01-01

211

WBSCR14, a putative transcription factor gene deleted in Williams-Beuren syndrome: complete characterisation of the human gene and the mouse ortholog  

Microsoft Academic Search

Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder affecting several systems caused by a heterozygous deletion in the chromosomal region 7q11.23. A common interval that includes up to 17 genes reported so far is deleted in the great majority of patients. Elastin haploinsufficiency is responsible for the cardiovascular features, but the specific contribution of other deleted genes to the WBS phenotype

Oscar de Luis; M Carmen Valero; Luis A Pérez Jurado; LA Pérez Jurado

2000-01-01

212

Myelodysplastic syndromes with 5q deletion: pathophysiology and role of lenalidomide.  

PubMed

Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a hematopoietic stem cell disorder primarily affecting CD34+ cells, characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis, often transforming into acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). A subset of patients has 5q deletion (del(5q)) as the culprit pathogenetic trigger. Del(5q) affects critical regions 5q31 and 5q33, leading to gene haplodeficiency with subsequent RPS14 haplodeficiency and P53 activation. Subsequent to P53 activation, erythroid cell apoptosis and ineffective erythropoiesis occur. Other pathogenetic elements include protein phosphatase 2a and CDC25C haplodeficiency and decreased miR-145 and miR-146a expression. Lenalidomide is an immunomodulatory agent that selectively suppresses the del(5q) clone. While the mechanism is not fully understood, it is associated with diverse molecular changes including stabilization of MDM2 with subsequent enhanced P53 degradation. Lenalidomide showed success in low- and intermediate-1-risk MDS as reported in the 002, 003, and 004 trials. However, in higher-risk MDS, the results of lenalidomide monotherapy were modest, mandating the use of combination therapy. The role and priority of lenalidomide varies between different guidelines, and accordingly, future efforts are necessary to reach a unified therapeutic algorithm. TP53 mutations are important predictors of AML progression and possible resistance to lenalidomide. It is recommended to identify TP53 mutation early in the disease since it may change the decision regarding choice of therapy. Challenges with lenalidomide therapy remain the long-term effects and timing of its discontinuation. PMID:24627193

Gaballa, Mahmoud R; Besa, Emmanuel C

2014-05-01

213

Neural substrates of inhibitory control deficits in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome†.  

PubMed

22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is associated with elevated levels of impulsivity, inattention, and distractibility, which may be related to underlying neurobiological dysfunction due to haploinsufficiency for genes involved in dopaminergic neurotransmission (i.e. catechol-O-methyltransferase). The Stop-signal task has been employed to probe the neural circuitry involved in response inhibition (RI); findings in healthy individuals indicate that a fronto-basal ganglia network underlies successful inhibition of a prepotent motor response. However, little is known about the neurobiological substrates of RI difficulties in 22q11DS. Here, we investigated this using functional magnetic resonance imaging while 45 adult participants (15 22q11DS patients, 30 matched controls) performed the Stop-signal task. Healthy controls showed significantly greater activation than 22q11DS patients within frontal cortical and basal ganglia regions during successful RI, whereas 22q11DS patients did not show increased neural activity relative to controls in any regions. Using the Barratt Impulsivity Scale, we also investigated whether neural dysfunction during RI was associated with cognitive impulsivity in 22q11DS patients. RI-related activity within left middle frontal gyrus and basal ganglia was associated with severity of self-reported cognitive impulsivity. These results suggest reduced engagement of RI-related brain regions in 22q11DS patients, which may be relevant to characteristic behavioral manifestations of the disorder. PMID:24177988

Montojo, C A; Jalbrzikowski, M; Congdon, E; Domicoli, S; Chow, C; Dawson, C; Karlsgodt, K H; Bilder, R M; Bearden, C E

2015-04-01

214

Evidence of gray matter reduction and dysfunction in chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.  

PubMed

Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is associated with cognitive deficits and morphometric brain abnormalities in childhood and a markedly elevated risk of schizophrenia in adolescence/early adulthood. Determining the relationship between neurocognition and neuroimaging findings would yield crucial information about childhood neurodevelopment and provide a basis for the study of the trajectory that occurs on the pathway to psychosis. We compared morphometric brain findings between non-psychotic children with 22q11DS (n = 22) and healthy controls (n = 16), and examined the association between neurocognitive functioning and morphometric brain findings. Volumetric regional gray matter differences between the 22q11DS and control subjects were measured, and correlations of the regional gray matter volumes and neurocognition were performed. Children with 22q11DS demonstrated reductions in gray matter in several brain regions, chiefly the frontal cortices, the cingulate gyrus and the cerebellum. The volumetric reductions in these salient areas were associated with poor performance in sustained attention, executive function and verbal memory; however, the relation of brain volume with cognitive performance did not differ between the patient and control groups. Thus, children with 22q11DS demonstrate gray matter reductions in multiple brain regions that are thought to be relevant to schizophrenia. The correlation of these volumetric reductions with poor neurocognition indicates that these brain regions may mediate higher neurocognitive functions implicated in schizophrenia. PMID:19962860

Shashi, Vandana; Kwapil, Thomas R; Kaczorowski, Jessica; Berry, Margaret N; Santos, Cesar S; Howard, Timothy D; Goradia, Dhruman; Prasad, Konasale; Vaibhav, Diwadkar; Rajarethinam, Rajaprabhakaran; Spence, Edward; Keshavan, Matcheri S

2010-01-30

215

Thrombocytopenia-absent radius (TAR) syndrome: A clinical genetic series of 14 further cases. Impact of the associated 1q21.1 deletion on the genetic counselling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thrombocytopenia-absent radius Syndrome (TAR) is a rare congenital malformation syndrome of complicated transmission. 1q21.1 deletion is necessary but not sufficient for its expression. We report the result of a French multicentric clinical study, and we emphasized on the role of the associated 1q21.1 deletion in the diagnosis and the genetic counselling of our patients. We gathered information on 14 patients

Ali Houeijeh; Joris Andrieux; Pascale Saugier-Veber; Albert David; Alice Goldenberg; Dominique Bonneau; Marc Fouassier; Hubert Journel; Jelana Martinovic; Fabienne Escande; Louise Devisme; Sophie Bisiaux; Caroline Chaffiotte; Mathilde Baux; Jean-Pierre Kerckaert; Muriel Holder-Espinasse; Sylvie Manouvrier-Hanu

2011-01-01

216

Reduced penetrance of craniofacial anomalies as a function of deletion size and genetic background in a chromosome engineered partial mouse model for Smith-Magenis syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a multiple congenital anomaly\\/mental retardation syndrome associated with del(17)(p11.2p11.2). The phenotype is variable even in patients with deletions of the same size. RAI1 has been recently suggested as a major gene for majority of the SMS phenotypes, but its role in the full spec- trum of the phenotype remains unclear. Df(11)17\\/1 mice contain a heterozygous deletion

Jiong Yan; Victoria W. Keener; Weimin Bi; Katherina Walz; Allan Bradley; Monica J. Justice; James R. Lupski

2004-01-01

217

Brain and Behavior in Children with 22Q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: A Volumetric and Voxel-Based Morphometry MRI Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In people with velo-cardio-facial syndrome [or 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22qDS)], a single interstitial deletion of chromosome 22q11.2 causes a wide spectrum of cognitive deficits ranging from global learning difficulties to specific cognitive deficits. People with 22qDS are also at high risk of developing attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder…

Campbell, Linda E.; Daly, Eileen; Toal, Fiona; Stevens, Angela; Azuma, Rayna; Catani, Marco; Ng, Virginia; Van Amelsvoort, Therese; Chitnis, Xavier; Cutter, William; Murphy, Declan G. M.; Murphy, Kieran C.

2006-01-01

218

Cryptic FMR1 mosaic deletion in a phenotypically normal mother of a boy with Fragile X Syndrome: case report.  

PubMed

BackgroundIncreasing number of case reports of mosaic mutations and deletions have better armed clinicians and geneticists with more accurate and focused prenatal diagnoses. Since mosaicism means a significant increase of recurrence risk, detailed parental profiling is essential for risk assessments.Case presentationWe here describe a clinically unaffected mother with a son who had fragile X syndrome (FXS) caused by a large deletion that includes the entire FMR1. To assess the recurrence risk regarding her second pregnancy, a series of genetic tests were conducted to establish this mother¿s status. Routine single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array and fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) analyses detected two normal FMR1 copies in her blood. However, in-depth studies across the deleted region revealed varying proportions of mosaic deletion in her somatic tissues: lowest in the blood, moderately higher in the skin, urine sediment and menstrual discharge and highest in her eyebrow. Further FISH analysis of her skin-derived fibroblasts confirmed mosaicism of 13%.ConclusionTo our knowledge, this is the first characterized case of a female who was mosaic for an FMR1 deletion and extensive investigation of her mosaic status provided valuable information for her reproduction choices. Our case report may also alert clinicians and geneticists that a cryptic mosaicism with somatic heterogeneity should be carefully considered in families with children having clinically defined `de novo¿ mutations, to avoid a second pregnancy with identical genetic abnormalities. PMID:25421229

Luo, Shiyu; Huang, Wen; Xia, Qiuping; Xia, Yan; Du, Qian; Wu, Lingqian; Duan, Ranhui

2014-11-25

219

The 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome as a Window into Complex Neuropsychiatric Disorders Over the Lifespan  

PubMed Central

Evidence is rapidly accumulating that rare, recurrent copy number variants (CNVs) represent large effect risk factors for neuropsychiatric disorders. 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11DS; Velo-Cardio-Facial Syndrome (VCFS) or DiGeorge Syndrome) is the most common known contiguous gene deletion syndrome, and is associated with diverse neuropsychiatric disorders across the lifespan. One of the most intriguing aspects of the syndrome is the variability in clinical and cognitive presentation: children with 22q11DS have high prevalence of autism spectrum (ASD), attention deficit, and anxiety disorders, as well as psychotic-like features, and up to 30% of adolescents and adults develop schizophrenia-like psychosis. Recently, cases of early-onset Parkinson’s Disease in adults have been reported, collectively suggesting a role for disrupted dopaminergic neurotransmission in the observed neuropsychiatric phenotypes. There is also some evidence that 22q11DS-associated ASD and schizophrenia represent two unrelated phenotypic manifestations, consistent with a neuropsychiatric pleiotropy model. This genetic lesion thus provides a unique model for the discovery of specific genomic risk and (potentially) protective factors for neuropsychiatric disease. Here we provide an overview of neuropsychiatric findings to date, which highlight the value of this syndrome in mapping the developmental trajectory of dimensional phenotypes that traverse multiple diagnostic categories. Potential sources of genetic variability that may contribute to the disorder’s heterogeneous presentation are reviewed. Because of its known genetic etiology, animal models can readily be developed that recapitulate specific aspects of the syndrome. Future research directions involve translational models and potential for drug screenable targets in the context of this human model system. PMID:23992925

Jonas, Rachel K.; Montojo, Caroline A.; Bearden, Carrie E.

2013-01-01

220

Phenotypic and molecular convergence of 2q23.1 deletion syndrome with other neurodevelopmental syndromes associated with autism spectrum disorder.  

PubMed

Roughly 20% of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are syndromic with a well-established genetic cause. Studying the genes involved can provide insight into the molecular and cellular mechanisms of ASD. 2q23.1 deletion syndrome (causative gene, MBD5) is a recently identified genetic neurodevelopmental disorder associated with ASD. Mutations in MBD5 have been found in ASD cohorts. In this study, we provide a phenotypic update on the prevalent features of 2q23.1 deletion syndrome, which include severe intellectual disability, seizures, significant speech impairment, sleep disturbance, and autistic-like behavioral problems. Next, we examined the phenotypic, molecular, and network/pathway relationships between nine neurodevelopmental disorders associated with ASD: 2q23.1 deletion Rett, Angelman, Pitt-Hopkins, 2q23.1 duplication, 5q14.3 deletion, Kleefstra, Kabuki make-up, and Smith-Magenis syndromes. We show phenotypic overlaps consisting of intellectual disability, speech delay, seizures, sleep disturbance, hypotonia, and autistic-like behaviors. Molecularly, MBD5 possibly regulates the expression of UBE3A, TCF4, MEF2C, EHMT1 and RAI1. Network analysis reveals that there could be indirect protein interactions, further implicating function for these genes in common pathways. Further, we show that when MBD5 and RAI1 are haploinsufficient, they perturb several common pathways that are linked to neuronal and behavioral development. These findings support further investigations into the molecular and pathway relationships among genes linked to neurodevelopmental disorders and ASD, which will hopefully lead to common points of regulation that may be targeted toward therapeutic intervention. PMID:25853262

Mullegama, Sureni V; Alaimo, Joseph T; Chen, Li; Elsea, Sarah H

2015-01-01

221

A case of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome with Peters anomaly, congenital glaucoma, and heterozygous mutation in CYP1B1.  

PubMed

We read with interest the recent publication by Tarlan and colleagues 1 describing a patient with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome and ocular features of right microphthalmia and left anterior segment dysgenesis. While anterior segment dysgenesis disorders are occasionally reported with 22q11.2 deletions, 2-5 this remains a rare association. We report here an 8-year-old patient with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome and bilateral Peters anomaly with congenital glaucoma; in addition, our patient was found to have a single heterozygous mutation in CYP1B1, c.83C?>?T, p.(Ser28Trp). PMID:24024747

Reis, Linda M; Tyler, Rebecca C; Zori, Roberto; Burgess, Jennifer; Mueller, Jennifer; Semina, Elena V

2015-03-01

222

Homologous recombination of a flanking repeat gene cluster is a mechanism for a common contiguous gene deletion syndrome.  

PubMed

Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS), caused by del(17)p11.2, represents one of the most frequently observed human microdeletion syndromes. We have identified three copies of a low-copy-number repeat (SMS-REPs) located within and flanking the SMS common deletion region and show that SMS-REP represents a repeated gene cluster. We have isolated a corresponding cDNA clone that identifies a novel junction fragment from 29 unrelated SMS patients and a different-sized junction fragment from a patient with dup(17)p11.2. Our results suggest that homologous recombination of a flanking repeat gene cluster is a mechanism for this common microdeletion syndrome. PMID:9326934

Chen, K S; Manian, P; Koeuth, T; Potocki, L; Zhao, Q; Chinault, A C; Lee, C C; Lupski, J R

1997-10-01

223

Prenatal Diagnosis of 4p and 4q Subtelomeric Microdeletion in De Novo Ring Chromosome 4  

PubMed Central

Ring chromosomes are unusual abnormalities that are observed in prenatal diagnosis. A 23-year-old patient (gravida 1, para 0) referred for amniocentesis due to abnormal maternal serum screening result in the 16th week of second pregnancy. Cytogenetic analysis of cultured amniyotic fluid cells revealed out ring chromosome 4. Both maternal and paternal karyotypes were normal. Terminal deletion was observed in both 4p and 4q arms of ring chromosome 4 by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). However deletion was not observed in the WHS critical region of both normal and ring chromosome 4 by an additional FISH study. These results were confirmed by means of array-CGH showing terminal deletions on 4p16.3 (130?kb) and 4q35.2 (2.449?Mb). In the 21th week of pregnancy, no gross anomalia, except two weeks symmetric growth retardation, was present in the fetal ultrasonographic examination. According to our review of literature, this is the first prenatal case with 4p and 4q subtelomeric deletion of ring chromosome 4 without the involvement of WHS critical region. Our report describes the prenatal case with a ring chromosome 4 abnormality completely characterized by array-CGH which provided complementary data for genetic counseling of prenatal diagnosis. PMID:24455347

Cine, Naci; Erdemoglu, Mahmut; Atay, Ahmet Engin; Simsek, Selda; Turkyilmaz, Aysegul; Fidanboy, Mehmet

2013-01-01

224

Platybasia in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Is Not Correlated with Speech Resonance  

PubMed Central

Background An abnormally obtuse cranial base angle, also known as platybasia, is a common finding in patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS). Platybasia increases the depth of the velopharynx and is therefore postulated to contribute to velopharyngeal dysfunction. Our objective was to determine the clinical significance of platybasia in 22q11DS by exploring the relationship between cranial base angles and speech resonance. Methods In this retrospective chart review at a tertiary hospital, 24 children (age, 4.0-13.1 years) with 22q11.2DS underwent speech assessments and lateral cephalograms, which allowed for the measurement of the cranial base angles. Results One patient (4%) had hyponasal resonance, 8 (33%) had normal resonance, 10 (42%) had hypernasal resonance on vowels only, and 5 (21%) had hypernasal resonance on both vowels and consonants. The mean cranial base angle was 136.5° (standard deviation, 5.3°; range, 122.3-144.8°). The Kruskal-Wallis test showed no significant relationship between the resonance ratings and cranial base angles (P=0.242). Cranial base angles and speech ratings were not correlated (Spearman correlation=0.321, P=0.126). The group with hypernasal resonance had a significantly more obtuse mean cranial base angle (138° vs. 134°, P=0.049) but did not have a greater prevalence of platybasia (73% vs. 56%, P=0.412). Conclusions In this retrospective chart review of patients with 22q11DS, cranial base angles were not correlated with speech resonance. The clinical significance of platybasia remains unknown. PMID:25075355

Kon, Moshe; Mink van der Molen, Aebele B

2014-01-01

225

Dynamic reprogramming of transcription factors to and from the subtelomere  

PubMed Central

Transcription factors are most commonly thought of as proteins that regulate expression of specific genes, independently of the order of those genes along the chromosome. By screening genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) profiles in yeast, we find that more than 10% of DNA-binding transcription factors concentrate at the subtelomeric regions near to chromosome ends. None of the proteins identified were previously implicated in regulation at telomeres, yet genomic and proteomic studies reveal that a subset of factors show many interactions with established telomere binding complexes. For many factors, the subtelomeric binding pattern is dynamic and undergoes flux toward or away from the telomere as physiological conditions shift. We find that subtelomeric binding is dependent on environmental conditions and correlates with the induction of gene expression in response to stress. Taken together, these results underscore the importance of genome structure in understanding the regulatory dynamics of transcriptional networks. PMID:19372386

Mak, H. Craig; Pillus, Lorraine; Ideker, Trey

2009-01-01

226

Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification detection of an unknown large deletion of the CREB-binding protein gene in a patient with Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome.  

PubMed

Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant congenital disorder characterized by postnatal growth retardation, psychomotor developmental delay, skeletal anomalies, peculiar facial morphology, and tumorigenesis. Mutations in the gene encoding the cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB, also known as CREBBP or CBP) on chromosome 16p13.3 have been identified. In addition, some patients with low intelligence quotients and autistic features bear large deletions. Based on these observations, we used multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification to search for large deletions affecting the CREBBP gene in a Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome patient. We identified a novel heterozygote deletion removing five exons (exons 17-21), encoding the histone acetyltransferase domain. We propose the use of multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification as a fast, accurate and cheap test for detecting large deletions in the CREBBP gene in the sub-group of Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome patients with low intelligence quotients and autistic features. PMID:23315884

Calì, F; Failla, P; Chiavetta, V; Ragalmuto, A; Ruggeri, G; Schinocca, P; Schepis, C; Romano, V; Romano, C

2013-01-01

227

Deletion 17p11.2 (Smith-Magenis syndrome) is relatively common among patients having mental retardation and myopia  

SciTech Connect

We recently reported the finding of moderate to severe myopia in 6 of 10 patients with Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS). To investigate the prevalence of SMS among mentally retarded people having myopia, we surveyed a cohort of patients residing at a facility for individuals with mental retardation (MR). Of 547 institutionalized individuals with MR, 72 (13.2%) had moderate to high myopia defined as a visual acuity of minus 3 diopters or more. It should be noted that our institution does not specifically select for people with visual impairment; rather, the facility serves people with a primary diagnosis of MR. Sixty-five of 72 (90.3%) myopic individuals identified were available for cytogenetic analysis. Seventeen (26.2%) of these patients had trisomy 21. Down syndrome (DS) is well known to be associated with eye abnormalities, including myopia. Of 48 individuals with moderate to high myopia not having DS, 5 (10.4%) were shown to have deletions of 17p11.2. This is a high prevalence considering the relative rarity of SMS. By contrast, in a randomized sample of 48 patients without significant myopia at the same facility, we found no individuals with deletion 17p11.2. We conclude that the diagnosis of SMS should be considered in any non-Down syndrome individual having MR and myopia, and that ophthalmologists serving people with MR should be made aware of this deletion syndrome. Furthermore, our results suggest that significant numbers of people having SMS could be identified through selective institutional screening of patients having a combination of MR and moderate to severe myopia.

Finucane, B.; Jaeger, E.R. [Elwyn, Inc. PA (United States); Freitag, S.K. [Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

1994-09-01

228

Otitis Media in a New Mouse Model for CHARGE Syndrome with a Deletion in the Chd7 Gene  

PubMed Central

Otitis media is a middle ear disease common in children under three years old. Otitis media can occur in normal individuals with no other symptoms or syndromes, but it is often seen in individuals clinically diagnosed with genetic diseases such as CHARGE syndrome, a complex genetic disease caused by mutation in the Chd7 gene and characterized by multiple birth defects. Although otitis media is common in human CHARGE syndrome patients, it has not been reported in mouse models of CHARGE syndrome. In this study, we report a mouse model with a spontaneous deletion mutation in the Chd7 gene and with chronic otitis media of early onset age accompanied by hearing loss. These mice also exhibit morphological alteration in the Eustachian tubes, dysregulation of epithelial proliferation, and decreased density of middle ear cilia. Gene expression profiling revealed up-regulation of Muc5ac, Muc5b and Tgf-?1 transcripts, the products of which are involved in mucin production and TGF pathway regulation. This is the first mouse model of CHARGE syndrome reported to show otitis media with effusion and it will be valuable for studying the etiology of otitis media and other symptoms in CHARGE syndrome. PMID:22539951

Tian, Cong; Yu, Heping; Yang, Bin; Han, Fengchan; Zheng, Ye; Bartels, Cynthia F.; Schelling, Deborah; Arnold, James E.; Scacheri, Peter C.; Zheng, Qing Yin

2012-01-01

229

Individuals with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Are Impaired at Explicit, but Not Implicit, Discrimination of Local Forms Embedded in Global Structures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) are impaired at exploring visual information in space; however, not much is known about visual form discrimination in the syndrome. Thirty-five individuals with 22q11.2DS and 41 controls completed a form discrimination task with global forms made up of local elements. Affected individuals…

Giersch, Anne; Glaser, Bronwyn; Pasca, Catherine; Chabloz, Mélanie; Debbané, Martin; Eliez, Stephan

2014-01-01

230

A case of 9.7 Mb terminal Xp deletion including OA1 locus associated with contiguous gene syndrome.  

PubMed

Terminal or interstitial deletions of Xp (Xp22.2?Xpter) in males have been recognized as a cause of contiguous gene syndromes showing variable association of apparently unrelated clinical manifestations such as Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (SHOX), chondrodysplasia punctata (CDPX1), mental retardation (NLGN4), ichthyosis (STS), Kallmann syndrome (KAL1), and ocular albinism (GPR143). Here we present a case of a 13.5 yr old boy and sister with a same terminal deletion of Xp22.2 resulting in the absence of genes from the telomere of Xp to GPR143 of Xp22. The boy manifested the findings of all of the disorders mentioned above. We began a testosterone enanthate monthly replacement therapy. His sister, 11 yr old, manifested only Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis, and had engaged in growth hormone therapy for 3 yr. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a male with a 9.7 Mb terminal Xp deletion including the OA1 locus in Korea. PMID:23091330

Cho, Eun-Hae; Kim, Sook-Young; Kim, Jin-Kyung

2012-10-01

231

De novo deletion of chromosome 11q12.3 in monozygotic twins affected by Poland Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Poland Syndrome (PS) is a rare disorder characterized by hypoplasia/aplasia of the pectoralis major muscle, variably associated with thoracic and upper limb anomalies. Familial recurrence has been reported indicating that PS could have a genetic basis, though the genetic mechanisms underlying PS development are still unknown. Case presentation Here we describe a couple of monozygotic (MZ) twin girls, both presenting with Poland Syndrome. They carry a de novo heterozygous 126 Kbp deletion at chromosome 11q12.3 involving 5 genes, four of which, namely HRASLS5, RARRES3, HRASLS2, and PLA2G16, encode proteins that regulate cellular growth, differentiation, and apoptosis, mainly through Ras-mediated signaling pathways. Conclusions Phenotype concordance between the monozygotic twin probands provides evidence supporting the genetic control of PS. As genes controlling cell growth and differentiation may be related to morphological defects originating during development, we postulate that the observed chromosome deletion could be causative of the phenotype observed in the twin girls and the deleted genes could play a role in PS development. PMID:24885342

2014-01-01

232

Atypical cortical connectivity and visuospatial cognitive impairments are related in children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome is one of the most common genetic causes of cognitive impairment and developmental disability yet little is known about the neural bases of those challenges. Here we expand upon our previous neurocognitive studies by specifically investigating the hypothesis that changes in neural connectivity relate to cognitive impairment in children with the disorder. Methods Whole brain analyses of multiple measures computed from diffusion tensor image data acquired from the brains of children with the disorder and typically developing controls. We also correlated diffusion tensor data with performance on a visuospatial cognitive task that taps spatial attention. Results Analyses revealed four common clusters, in the parietal and frontal lobes, that showed complementary patterns of connectivity in children with the deletion and typical controls. We interpreted these results as indicating differences in connective complexity to adjoining cortical regions that are critical to the cognitive functions in which affected children show impairments. Strong, and similarly opposing patterns of correlations between diffusion values in those clusters and spatial attention performance measures considerably strengthened that interpretation. Conclusion Our results suggest that atypical development of connective patterns in the brains of children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome indicate a neuropathology that is related to the visuospatial cognitive impairments that are commonly found in affected individuals. PMID:18559106

Simon, Tony J; Wu, Zhongle; Avants, Brian; Zhang, Hui; Gee, James C; Stebbins, Glenn T

2008-01-01

233

A Case of 9.7 Mb Terminal Xp Deletion Including OA1 Locus Associated with Contiguous Gene Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Terminal or interstitial deletions of Xp (Xp22.2?Xpter) in males have been recognized as a cause of contiguous gene syndromes showing variable association of apparently unrelated clinical manifestations such as Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (SHOX), chondrodysplasia punctata (CDPX1), mental retardation (NLGN4), ichthyosis (STS), Kallmann syndrome (KAL1), and ocular albinism (GPR143). Here we present a case of a 13.5 yr old boy and sister with a same terminal deletion of Xp22.2 resulting in the absence of genes from the telomere of Xp to GPR143 of Xp22. The boy manifested the findings of all of the disorders mentioned above. We began a testosterone enanthate monthly replacement therapy. His sister, 11 yr old, manifested only Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis, and had engaged in growth hormone therapy for 3 yr. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a male with a 9.7 Mb terminal Xp deletion including the OA1 locus in Korea. PMID:23091330

Cho, Eun-Hae; Kim, Sook-Young

2012-01-01

234

Smith-Magenis syndrome deletion: A case with equivocal cytogenetic findings resolved by fluorescence in situ hybridization  

SciTech Connect

The availability of markers for the 17p11.2 region has enabled the diagnosis of Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). SMS is typically associated with a discernible deletion of band 17p11.2 upon cytogenetic analysis at a resolution of 400-550 bands. We present a case that illustrates the importance of using FISH to confirm a cytogenetic diagnosis of del(17)(p11.2). Four independent cytogenetic analyses were performed with different conclusions. Results of low resolution analyses of amniocytes and peripheral blood lymphocytes were apparently normal, while high resolution analyses of peripheral blood samples in two laboratories indicated mosaicism for del(17)(p11.2). FISH clearly demonstrated a 17p deletion on one chromosome of all peripheral blood cells analyzed and ruled out mosaicism unambiguously. The deletion was undetectable by flow cytometric quantitation of chromosomal DNA content, suggesting that it is less than 2 Mb. We conclude that FISH should be used to detect the SMS deletion when routine chromosome analysis fails to detect it and to verify mosaicism. 23 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Juyal, R.C.; Patel, P.I.; Greenberg, F. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)] [and others

1995-09-11

235

The NPHP1 Gene Deletion Associated with Juvenile Nephronophthisis Is Present in a Subset of Individuals with Joubert Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Joubert syndrome (JS) is an autosomal recessive multisystem disease characterized by cerebellar vermis hypoplasia with prominent superior cerebellar peduncles (the “molar tooth sign” [MTS] on axial magnetic resonance imaging), mental retardation, hypotonia, irregular breathing pattern, and eye-movement abnormalities. Some individuals with JS have retinal dystrophy and/or progressive renal failure characterized by nephronophthisis (NPHP). Thus far, no mutations in the known NPHP genes, particularly the homozygous deletion of NPHP1 at 2q13, have been identified in subjects with JS. A cohort of 25 subjects with JS and either renal and/or retinal complications and 2 subjects with only juvenile NPHP were screened for mutations in the NPHP1 gene by standard methods. Two siblings affected with a mild form of JS were found to have a homozygous deletion of the NPHP1 gene identical, by mapping, to that in subjects with NPHP alone. A control subject with NPHP and with a homozygous NPHP1 deletion was also identified, retrospectively, as having a mild MTS and borderline intelligence. The NPHP1 deletion represents the first molecular defect associated with JS in a subset of mildly affected subjects. Cerebellar malformations consistent with the MTS may be relatively common in patients with juvenile NPHP without classic symptoms of JS. PMID:15138899

Parisi, Melissa A.; Bennett, Craig L.; Eckert, Melissa L.; Dobyns, William B.; Gleeson, Joseph G.; Shaw, Dennis W. W.; McDonald, Ruth; Eddy, Allison; Chance, Phillip F.; Glass, Ian A.

2004-01-01

236

Prospective investigation of autism and genotype-phenotype correlations in 22q13 deletion syndrome and SHANK3 deficiency  

PubMed Central

Background 22q13 deletion syndrome, also known as Phelan-McDermid syndrome, is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by intellectual disability, hypotonia, delayed or absent speech, and autistic features. SHANK3 has been identified as the critical gene in the neurological and behavioral aspects of this syndrome. The phenotype of SHANK3 deficiency has been described primarily from case studies, with limited evaluation of behavioral and cognitive deficits. The present study used a prospective design and inter-disciplinary clinical evaluations to assess patients with SHANK3 deficiency, with the goal of providing a comprehensive picture of the medical and behavioral profile of the syndrome. Methods A serially ascertained sample of patients with SHANK3 deficiency (n = 32) was evaluated by a team of child psychiatrists, neurologists, clinical geneticists, molecular geneticists and psychologists. Patients were evaluated for autism spectrum disorder using the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-G. Results Thirty participants with 22q13.3 deletions ranging in size from 101 kb to 8.45 Mb and two participants with de novo SHANK3 mutations were included. The sample was characterized by high rates of autism spectrum disorder: 27 (84%) met criteria for autism spectrum disorder and 24 (75%) for autistic disorder. Most patients (77%) exhibited severe to profound intellectual disability and only five (19%) used some words spontaneously to communicate. Dysmorphic features, hypotonia, gait disturbance, recurring upper respiratory tract infections, gastroesophageal reflux and seizures were also common. Analysis of genotype-phenotype correlations indicated that larger deletions were associated with increased levels of dysmorphic features, medical comorbidities and social communication impairments related to autism. Analyses of individuals with small deletions or point mutations identified features related to SHANK3 haploinsufficiency, including ASD, seizures and abnormal EEG, hypotonia, sleep disturbances, abnormal brain MRI, gastroesophageal reflux, and certain dysmorphic features. Conclusions This study supports findings from previous research on the severity of intellectual, motor, and speech impairments seen in SHANK3 deficiency, and highlights the prominence of autism spectrum disorder in the syndrome. Limitations of existing evaluation tools are discussed, along with the need for natural history studies to inform clinical monitoring and treatment development in SHANK3 deficiency. PMID:23758760

2013-01-01

237

Human homologue sequences to the Drosophila dishevelled segment-polarity gene are deleted in the DiGeorge syndrome  

SciTech Connect

DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) is a developmental defect of some of the neural crest derivatives. Most DGS patients show haploinsufficiency due to interstitial deletions of the proximal long arm of chromosome 22. Deletions of 22q11 have also been reported in patients with the velo-cardio-facial syndrome and familial conotruncal heart defects. It has been suggested that the wide phenotype spectrum associated with 22q11 monosomy is a consequence of contiguous-gene deletions. We report the isolation of human cDNAs homologous to the Drosophila dishevelled (dsh) segment-polarity gene. Sequences homologous to the 3{prime} UTR of these transcripts (DVL-22) were positioned within the DGS critical region and were found to be deleted in DGS patients. Human DVL mRNAs are expressed in several fetal and adult tissues, including the thymus and, at high levels, the heart. Two transcripts, 3.2 and 5 kb, were detected, in Northern blot analysis, with different expression patterns in the surveyed tissues when different cDNAs were used. The isolated cDNAs exhibit high amino acid homology with the mouse and Xenopus Dvl-1 gene, the only other vertebrate dsh homologues so far isolated. The pivotal role of dsh in fly development suggests an analogous key function in vertebrate embryogenesis of its homologue genes. Since DGS may be due to perturbation of differentiation mechanisms at decisive embryological stages, a Dsh-like gene in the small-region overlap (SRO) might be a candidate for the pathogenesis of this disorder. 52 refs., 3 figs.

Pizzuti, A.; Ratti, A.; Penso, D.; Silani, V.; Scarlato, G. [Universita di Milano, Milan (Italy)] [and others

1996-04-01

238

Segregation of a novel homozygous 6 nucleotide deletion in GLUT2 gene in a Fanconi-Bickel syndrome family.  

PubMed

Fanconi-Bickel syndrome (FBS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by hepatorenal glycogen accumulation, proximal renal tubular dysfunction, impaired utilization of glucose and galactose, rickets, and severe short stature. It has been shown to be caused by mutations in GLUT2 gene, a member of the facilitative glucose transporter family. Here, we report an Iranian family with 2 affected siblings. The clinical findings in the patients include developmental delay, failure to thrive, hepatomegaly, enlarged kidneys and rickets. A novel 6 nucleotide deletion (c.1061_1066del6, p.V355_S356del2) is shown to be segregated with the disease in this family. PMID:25523092

Abbasi, Farzaneh; Azizi, Faezeh; Javaheri, Mona; Mosallanejad, Asieh; Ebrahim-Habibi, Azadeh; Ghafouri-Fard, Soudeh

2015-02-15

239

Subtelomeric proteins negatively regulate telomere elongation in budding yeast  

PubMed Central

The Tbf1 and Reb1 proteins are present in yeast subtelomeric regions. We establish in this work that they inhibit telomerase-dependent lengthening of telomere. For example, tethering the N-terminal domain of Tbf1 and Reb1 in a subtelomeric region shortens that telomere proportionally to the number of domains bound. We further identified a 90 amino-acid long sequence within the N-terminal domain of Tbf1 that is necessary but not sufficient for its length regulation properties. The role of the subtelomeric factors in telomere length regulation is antagonized by TEL1 and does not correlate with a global telomere derepression. We show that the absence of TEL1 induces an alteration in the structure of telomeric chromatin, as defined biochemically by an increased susceptibility to nucleases and a greater heterogeneity of products. We propose that the absence of TEL1 modifies the organization of the telomeres, which allows Tbf1 and Reb1 to cis-inhibit telomerase. The involvement of subtelomeric factors in telomere length regulation provides a possible mechanism for the chromosome-specific length setting observed at yeast and human telomeres. PMID:16467854

Berthiau, Anne-Sophie; Yankulov, Krassimir; Bah, Amadou; Revardel, Emmanuelle; Luciano, Pierre; Wellinger, Raymund J; Géli, Vincent; Gilson, Eric

2006-01-01

240

Problem Behaviors Associated with Deletion Prader-Willi, Smith-Magenis, and Cri Du Chat Syndromes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problem behaviors of 38 individuals with Cri-du-Chat syndrome, 55 individuals with Prader Willi syndrome, and 21 individuals with Smith-Magenis syndrome were investigated. All three disorders were Associated with greater ratings of problem behaviors (besides eating abnormalities and sleep abnormalities) than comparison groups. (Author/CR)

Clarke, David J.; Boer, Harm

1998-01-01

241

Deletion 4q21/4q22 syndrome: Two patients with de novo 4q21.3q23 and 4q13.2q23 deletions  

SciTech Connect

We report on 2 patients with de novo proximal interstitial deletions of the long arm of chromosome 4: in one the deletion resulted in monosomy (4)(q21.3q23), in the other it produced monosomy (4)(q13.2q23). Review of 9 cases of deletions involving the 4q21/ 4q22 region reported previously detected a characteristic phenotype in 8 patients. This phenotype was present in our patients. We conclude that the deletion in the 4q21/4q22 region results in a specific clinical syndrome associated with central nervous system overgrowth that may be a result of anomalous imprinting in the 4q21/4q22 region. 39 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Nowaczyk, M.J.M.; Seigel-Bartelt, J.; Clarke, J.T.R. [Hospital for Sick Children and Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)] [and others] [Hospital for Sick Children and Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada); and others

1997-04-14

242

Facial dysgenesis: a novel facial syndrome with chromosome 7 deletion p15.1-21.1.  

PubMed

We describe a female neonate with a unique constellation of features including anophthalmia and cryptophthalmos, temporal remnant "eye tags," bilateral cleft lip, unilateral cleft palate, a proboscis with absent nasal septum, choanal atresia, micrognathia, square stoma, and bilateral external auditory canal atresia. Gross brain structure, pituitary function, limbs, trunk, and genitalia were normal. Skeletal survey, echocardiogram and abdominal viscera were unremarkable except for a split central sinus of the right kidney. BAER exam indicated she could hear and temporal CT confirmed the presence of cochlea and possible ossicles. Cytogenetic evaluation revealed an interstitial deletion at chromosome 7p15.1-21.1. TWIST, a gene encoding a transcription factor involved in craniofacial development, is deleted by FISH analysis. The absence of a mutation on the non-deleted allele of TWIST as determined by sequencing virtually eliminates complete loss of the TWIST gene as the cause of this patient's severe phenotype. The HOXA gene cluster also encodes transcription factors that are crucial for directing cephalad to caudad somatic fetal development. HOXA1, the most telomeric of the 13 members of the HOXA gene cluster, is located at the centromeric boundary of the patient's chromosome 7 deletion. By FISH analysis, neither allele of HOXA1 is deleted and sequencing reveals no mutations. Haploinsufficiency or complete loss of the HOXA1 gene also does not appear to cause this patient's severe phenotype. Previous reports of chromosome 7p15-21 deletions do not have phenotypes similar to this patient. PMID:12548740

Hoover-Fong, Julie E; Cai, J; Cargile, C B; Thomas, G H; Patel, A; Griffin, C A; Jabs, E W; Hamosh, A

2003-02-15

243

Thrombocytopenia-absent radius (TAR) syndrome: a clinical genetic series of 14 further cases. impact of the associated 1q21.1 deletion on the genetic counselling.  

PubMed

Thrombocytopenia-absent radius Syndrome (TAR) is a rare congenital malformation syndrome of complicated transmission. 1q21.1 deletion is necessary but not sufficient for its expression. We report the result of a French multicentric clinical study, and we emphasized on the role of the associated 1q21.1 deletion in the diagnosis and the genetic counselling of our patients. We gathered information on 14 patients presenting with TAR syndrome and referred for genetic counselling in six different university hospitals (8 foetuses, 1 child and 5 adults). Clinical or pathology details, as well as skeletal X-rays were analyzed. Genetic studies were performed by Array-CGH, and Quantitative Multiplex PCR. We demonstrated the very variable phenotypes of TAR syndrome. Female:male ratio was ?2:1. All patients presented with bilateral radial aplasia/hypoplasia with preserved thumbs. Phocomelia and lower limb anomalies were present in 28% of the cases. We reported the first case of cystic hygroma on affected foetus. 1q21.1 deletions ranging from 330 to 1100 kb were identified in all affected patients. Most of them were inherited from one healthy parent (80%). The identification of a 1q21.1 deletion allowed confirmation of TAR syndrome diagnosis, particularly in foetuses and in atypical phenotypes. Additionally, it allowed accurate genetic counselling, especially when it occurred de novo. These findings allowed discussing the diagnostic criteria and management towards TAR syndrome. PMID:21635976

Houeijeh, Ali; Andrieux, Joris; Saugier-Veber, Pascale; David, Albert; Goldenberg, Alice; Bonneau, Dominique; Fouassier, Marc; Journel, Hubert; Martinovic, Jelana; Escande, Fabienne; Devisme, Louise; Bisiaux, Sophie; Chaffiotte, Caroline; Baux, Mathilde; Kerckaert, Jean-Pierre; Holder-Espinasse, Muriel; Manouvrier-Hanu, Sylvie

2011-01-01

244

Heterozygous deletion of the Williams-Beuren syndrome critical interval in mice recapitulates most features of the human disorder.  

PubMed

Williams-Beuren syndrome is a developmental multisystemic disorder caused by a recurrent 1.55-1.83 Mb heterozygous deletion on human chromosome band 7q11.23. Through chromosomal engineering with the cre-loxP system, we have generated mice with an almost complete deletion (CD) of the conserved syntenic region on chromosome 5G2. Heterozygous CD mice were viable, fertile and had a normal lifespan, while homozygotes were early embryonic lethal. Transcript levels of most deleted genes were reduced 50% in several tissues, consistent with gene dosage. Heterozygous mutant mice showed postnatal growth delay with reduced body weight and craniofacial abnormalities such as small mandible. The cardiovascular phenotype was only manifested with borderline hypertension, mildly increased arterial wall thickness and cardiac hypertrophy. The neurobehavioral phenotype revealed impairments in motor coordination, increased startle response to acoustic stimuli and hypersociability. Mutant mice showed a general reduction in brain weight. Cellular and histological abnormalities were present in the amygdala, cortex and hippocampus, including increased proportion of immature neurons. In summary, these mice recapitulate most crucial phenotypes of the human disorder, provide novel insights into the pathophysiological mechanisms of the disease such as the neural substrates of the behavioral manifestations, and will be valuable to evaluate novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:25027326

Segura-Puimedon, Maria; Sahún, Ignasi; Velot, Emilie; Dubus, Pierre; Borralleras, Cristina; Rodrigues, Ana J; Valero, María C; Valverde, Olga; Sousa, Nuno; Herault, Yann; Dierssen, Mara; Pérez-Jurado, Luis A; Campuzano, Victoria

2014-12-15

245

Characterization of two novel porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus isolates with deletions in the GP2 gene.  

PubMed

Two newly emerged, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) strains (Henan-A10 and A11) were isolated from the sera of aborting sows. Interestingly, both of the isolates could replicate in primary porcine alveolar macrophage (PAM) cells but not in MARC-145 cells. A phylogenetic tree based on the complete genome was constructed and the results showed that Henan-A10 and A11 were most closely related to other highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) strains. However, genomic sequence analysis showed that Henan-A10 and A11 shared only 96.8-97.8% nucleotide identity with the representative HP-PRRSV strain JXA1. Notably, a 10 amino acids deletion in the GP2 endodomain was identified for the first time. A full-length, infectious cDNA clone of HuN4-F112 (attenuated strain from a HP-PRRSV) was used to construct a chimeric clone with the corresponding deletion in GP2. We found that the deletion did not affect viral growth in MARC-145 cells, indicating that the endodomain of PRRSV GP2 may be variable. PMID:25669596

Chen, Jia-Zeng; Peng, Jin-Mei; Bai, Yun; Wang, Qian; Liu, Yi-Min; Zhang, Qiu-Yue; Chang, Dan; Zhang, Wu-Chao; Zhao, Hong-Yuan; Ye, Chao; An, Tong-Qing; Cai, Xue-Hui; Tian, Zhi-Jun; Tong, Guang-Zhi

2015-04-17

246

A novel seven-base deletion of the CTSC gene identified in a Hungarian family with Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome.  

PubMed

Papillon-Lefévre syndrome (PLS; OMIM 245000) is a rare autosomal recessive condition characterized by symmetrical palmoplantar hyperkeratosis and periodontal inflammation, causing loss of both the deciduous and permanent teeth. PLS develops due to mutations in the cathepsin C gene, CTSC. Recently we have identified a Hungarian PLS family with two affected siblings. Direct sequencing of the coding regions of the CTSC gene revealed a novel seven-base deletion leading to frameshift and early stop codon in the fourth exon of the CTSC gene (c.681delCATACAT, p.T188fsX199). The affected family members carried the mutation in homozygous form, while the clinically unaffected family members carried the mutation in heterozygous form. The unrelated controls carried only the wild type sequence. In this paper we report a novel homozygous deletion of seven bases on the CTSC gene leading to the development of PLS. Since consanguineous marriage was unknown in the investigated family, the presence of the homozygous seven-base deletion of the CTSC gene may suggest that the parents are close relatives. PMID:23397598

Farkas, Katalin; Paschali, Ekaterine; Papp, Ferenc; Vályi, Péter; Széll, Márta; Kemény, Lajos; Nagy, Nikoletta; Csoma, Zsanett

2013-07-01

247

Lenalidomide promotes p53 degradation by inhibiting MDM2 auto-ubiquitination in myelodysplastic syndrome with chromosome 5q deletion.  

PubMed

Allelic deletion of the RPS14 gene is a key effector of the hypoplastic anemia in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and chromosome 5q deletion (del(5q)). Disruption of ribosome integrity liberates free ribosomal proteins to bind to and trigger degradation of mouse double minute 2 protein (MDM2), with consequent p53 transactivation. Herein we show that p53 is overexpressed in erythroid precursors of primary bone marrow del(5q) MDS specimens accompanied by reduced cellular MDM2. More importantly, we show that lenalidomide (Len) acts to stabilize MDM2, thereby accelerating p53 degradation. Biochemical and molecular analyses showed that Len inhibits the haplodeficient protein phosphatase 2A catalytic domain alpha (PP2Ac?) phosphatase resulting in hyperphosphorylation of inhibitory serine-166 and serine-186 residues on MDM2, and displaces binding of RPS14 to suppress MDM2 autoubiquitination whereas PP2Ac? overexpression promotes drug resistance. Bone marrow specimens from del(5q) MDS patients resistant to Len overexpressed PP2Ac? accompanied by restored accumulation of p53 in erythroid precursors. Our findings indicate that Len restores MDM2 functionality in the 5q- syndrome to overcome p53 activation in response to nucleolar stress, and therefore may warrant investigation in other disorders of ribosomal biogenesis. PMID:22525275

Wei, S; Chen, X; McGraw, K; Zhang, L; Komrokji, R; Clark, J; Caceres, G; Billingsley, D; Sokol, L; Lancet, J; Fortenbery, N; Zhou, J; Eksioglu, E A; Sallman, D; Wang, H; Epling-Burnette, P K; Djeu, J; Sekeres, M; Maciejewski, J P; List, A

2013-02-28

248

Large deletion causing von Hippel-Lindau disease and hereditary breast cancer syndrome  

PubMed Central

Patients with intragenic mutations of the VHL gene have a typical disease presentation. However in cases of large VHL gene deletions which involve other genes in the proximity of the VHL gene a presentation of the disease can be different. To investigate whether large VHL deletions that remove the FANCD2 gene have an effect on the disease phenotype, we studied a family with a 50 kb large deletion encompassing these two genes. Four patients in this family were affected by VHL-related lesions. However one carrier of the deletion also had bilateral ductal breast cancer at age 46 and 49. Both tumors were of ~2 cm in diameter. On one side lymph nodes were affected. One tumor was ER- and PR-negative (HER2 s unknown) and the second was ER- and PR-positive, and HER2-negative. Our study suggests that a deletion of FANCD2 gene, an important gene in the DNA repair pathway, may be associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, but further studies are needed in this regard. PMID:25093046

2014-01-01

249

Delineation of 7q11.2 deletions associated with Williams-Beuren syndrome and mapping of a repetitive sequence to within and to either side of the common deletion  

SciTech Connect

The majority of Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) patients have been shown to have a microdeletion within 7q11.2 including the elastin gene locus. The extent of these deletions has, however, not been well characterized. Thirty-five deletion patients were tested for all polymorphic markers in the 7q11.2 region bounding ELN to define the extent of deletions associated with WBS. With only one exception, ELN, D7S1870, and one copy of the D7S489 locus (D7S489U) were always included in the deletions. One patient showed lack of maternal inheritance at D7S1870 and not at ELN or D7S489U. A product corresponding to D7S489U was amplified form YAC 743G6 and from the P1 clone RMC07P008, thereby localizing both to within the common deletion. The boundary of the deleted region on the proximal (centromeric) side is D7S653 and on the distal side is D7S675, neither of which were ever included in the deletion. One locus, D7S489L, was variably deleted in patients, indicating a minimum of two common breakpoints on the proximal side. At least one additional repeat amplified by D7S489 (D7S489M) was localized to a YAC contig mapping distal to the mologous to several cDNA clones in the GenBank database and contains an Alu sequence. It is possible that this and/or other repetitive sequences in this region could play a role in the mechanism of deletion. 26 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Robinson, W.P.; Waslynka, J.; Wang, M.; Clark, S. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)] [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada); [Univ. of Zurich (Switzerland)] [and others

1996-05-15

250

Prenatal detection of TAR syndrome in a fetus with compound inheritance of an RBM8A SNP and a 334?kb deletion: a case report.  

PubMed

Thrombocytopenia?absent radius syndrome (TAR) is a rare genetic disorder that is characterized by the absence of the radius bone in each forearm and a markedly reduced platelet count that results in life?threatening bleeding episodes (thrombocytopenia). Tar syndrome has been associated with a deletion of a segment of 1q21.1 cytoband. The 1q21.1 deletion syndrome phenotype includes Tar and other features such as mental retardation, autism and microcephaly. This study describes a case of a prenatally diagnosed fetus with compound inheritance of a small (334 kb) deletion, as detected by array?comparative genomic hybridization, and a 5' untranslated region (UTR) low?frequency allele (rs139428292) in gene RBM8A as detected by Sanger sequencing. The study describes the first case of prenatal analysis of TAR syndrome in a fetus with compound inheritance of a 334?kb deletion in the 1q21.1 region and a low?frequency 5' UTR single nucleotide polymorphism, and provides confirmation of the causal nature of the RBM8A gene in the diagnosis of TAR syndrome. PMID:24220582

Papoulidis, Ioannis; Oikonomidou, Eirini; Orru, Sandro; Siomou, Elisavet; Kontodiou, Maria; Eleftheriades, Makarios; Bacoulas, Vasilios; Cigudosa, Juan C; Suela, Javier; Thomaidis, Loretta; Manolakos, Emmanouil

2014-01-01

251

Genotype-phenotype association studies of chromosome 8p inverted duplication deletion syndrome.  

PubMed

Individuals diagnosed with chromosome 8p inverted duplication deletion (invdupdel(8p)) manifest a wide range of clinical features and cognitive impairment. The purpose of this study is to employ array CGH technology to define more precisely the cytogenetic breakpoints and regions of copy number variation found in several individuals with invdupdel(8p), and compare these results with their neuropsychological characteristics. We examined the cognitive-behavioral features of two male and two female children, ages 3-15 years, with invdupdel(8p). We noted cognitive deficits that ranged from mild to severe, and adaptive behavior composites that ranged from significantly to substantially lower than adequate levels. CARS scores, a measure of autistic behavior, identified three children with autism or autistic-like features. Three of the four children exhibited attention deficits and hyperactivity consistent with a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of ADHD. One child showed extreme emotional lability. Interestingly, intellectual disability was not correlated with deletion size, nor was the deletion location associated with the autistic phenotype. On the other hand, the duplication length in 8p21.1/8p22 was associated with cognitive deficit. In addition, a small locus of over-expression in 8p21.3 was common for all three participants diagnosed as autistic. A limitation of the study is its small sample size. Further analyses of the deleted and over-expressed regions are needed to ascertain the genes involved in cognitive function and, possibly, autism. PMID:21259039

Fisch, Gene S; Davis, Ryan; Youngblom, Janey; Gregg, Jeff

2011-05-01

252

In Vivo Growth of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Engineered Nsp2 Deletion Mutants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Prior studies on PRRSV strain VR-2332 nonstructural protein 2 (nsp2) had shown that as much as 403 amino acids could be removed from the hypervariable region without losing virus viability in vitro. We utilized selected nsp2 deletion mutants to examine in vivo growth. Young swine (4 pigs/group; 5 co...

253

A genome-wide study of de novo deletions identifies a candidate locus for non-syndromic isolated cleft lip/palate risk  

PubMed Central

Background Copy number variants (CNVs) may play an important part in the development of common birth defects such as oral clefts, and individual patients with multiple birth defects (including clefts) have been shown to carry small and large chromosomal deletions. In this paper we investigate de novo deletions defined as DNA segments missing in an oral cleft proband but present in both unaffected parents. We compare de novo deletion frequencies in children of European ancestry with an isolated, non-syndromic oral cleft to frequencies in children of European ancestry from randomly sampled trios. Results We identified a genome-wide significant 62 kilo base (kb) non-coding region on chromosome 7p14.1 where de novo deletions occur more frequently among oral cleft cases than controls. We also observed wider de novo deletions among cleft lip and palate (CLP) cases than seen among cleft palate (CP) and cleft lip (CL) cases. Conclusions This study presents a region where de novo deletions appear to be involved in the etiology of oral clefts, although the underlying biological mechanisms are still unknown. Larger de novo deletions are more likely to interfere with normal craniofacial development and may result in more severe clefts. Study protocol and sample DNA source can severely affect estimates of de novo deletion frequencies. Follow-up studies are needed to further validate these findings and to potentially identify additional structural variants underlying oral clefts. PMID:24528994

2014-01-01

254

Endothelial deletion of murine Jag1 leads to valve calcification and congenital heart defects associated with Alagille syndrome  

PubMed Central

The Notch signaling pathway is an important contributor to the development and homeostasis of the cardiovascular system. Not surprisingly, mutations in Notch receptors and ligands have been linked to a variety of hereditary diseases that impact both the heart and the vasculature. In particular, mutations in the gene encoding the human Notch ligand jagged 1 result in a multisystem autosomal dominant disorder called Alagille syndrome, which includes tetralogy of Fallot among its more severe cardiac pathologies. Jagged 1 is expressed throughout the developing embryo, particularly in endothelial cells. Here, we demonstrate that endothelial-specific deletion of Jag1 leads to cardiovascular defects in both embryonic and adult mice that are reminiscent of those in Alagille syndrome. Mutant mice display right ventricular hypertrophy, overriding aorta, ventricular septal defects, coronary vessel abnormalities and valve defects. Examination of mid-gestational embryos revealed that the loss of Jag1, similar to the loss of Notch1, disrupts endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition during endocardial cushion formation. Furthermore, adult mutant mice exhibit cardiac valve calcifications associated with abnormal matrix remodeling and induction of bone morphogenesis. This work shows that the endothelium is responsible for the wide spectrum of cardiac phenotypes displayed in Alagille Syndrome and it demonstrates a crucial role for Jag1 in valve morphogenesis. PMID:23095891

Hofmann, Jennifer J.; Briot, Anais; Enciso, Josephine; Zovein, Ann C.; Ren, Shuxun; Zhang, Zhen W.; Radtke, Freddy; Simons, Michael; Wang, Yibin; Iruela-Arispe, M. Luisa

2012-01-01

255

Submicroscopic subtelomeric aberrations in Chinese patients with unexplained developmental delay\\/mental retardation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Subtelomeric imbalance is widely accepted as related to developmental delay\\/mental retardation (DD\\/MR). Fine mapping of aberrations in gene-enriched subtelomeric regions provides essential clues for localizing critical regions, and provides a strategy for identifying new candidate genes. To date, no large-scale study has been conducted on subtelomeric aberrations in DD\\/MR patients in mainland China. METHODS: This study included 451 Chinese

Ye Wu; Taoyun Ji; Jingmin Wang; Jing Xiao; Huifang Wang; Jie Li; Zhijie Gao; Yanling Yang; Bin Cai; Liwen Wang; Zhongshu Zhou; Lili Tian; Xiaozhu Wang; Nan Zhong; Jiong Qin; Xiru Wu; Yuwu Jiang

2010-01-01

256

An 11p15 Imprinting Centre Region 2 Deletion in a Family with Beckwith Wiedemann Syndrome Provides Insights into Imprinting Control at CDKN1C  

PubMed Central

We report a three generation family with Beckwith Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) in whom we have identified a 330 kb deletion within the KCNQ1 locus, encompassing the 11p15.5 Imprinting Centre II (IC2). The deletion arose on the paternal chromosome in the first generation and was only associated with BWS when transmitted maternally to subsequent generations. The deletion on the maternal chromosome was associated with a lower median level of CDKN1C expression in the peripheral blood of affected individuals when compared to a cohort of unaffected controls (p<0.05), however was not significantly different to the expression levels in BWS cases with loss of methylation (LOM) within IC2 (p<0.78). Moreover the individual with a deletion on the paternal chromosome did not show evidence of elevated CDKN1C expression or features of Russell Silver syndrome. These observations support a model invoking the deletion of enhancer elements required for CDKN1C expression lying within or close to the imprinting centre and importantly extend and validate a single observation from an earlier study. Analysis of 94 cases with IC2 loss of methylation revealed that KCNQ1 deletion is a rare cause of loss of maternal methylation, occurring in only 3% of cases, or in 1.5% of BWS overall. PMID:22205991

Algar, Elizabeth; Dagar, Vinod; Sebaj, Menka; Pachter, Nicholas

2011-01-01

257

An 11p15 imprinting centre region 2 deletion in a family with Beckwith Wiedemann syndrome provides insights into imprinting control at CDKN1C.  

PubMed

We report a three generation family with Beckwith Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) in whom we have identified a 330 kb deletion within the KCNQ1 locus, encompassing the 11p15.5 Imprinting Centre II (IC2). The deletion arose on the paternal chromosome in the first generation and was only associated with BWS when transmitted maternally to subsequent generations. The deletion on the maternal chromosome was associated with a lower median level of CDKN1C expression in the peripheral blood of affected individuals when compared to a cohort of unaffected controls (p<0.05), however was not significantly different to the expression levels in BWS cases with loss of methylation (LOM) within IC2 (p<0.78). Moreover the individual with a deletion on the paternal chromosome did not show evidence of elevated CDKN1C expression or features of Russell Silver syndrome. These observations support a model invoking the deletion of enhancer elements required for CDKN1C expression lying within or close to the imprinting centre and importantly extend and validate a single observation from an earlier study. Analysis of 94 cases with IC2 loss of methylation revealed that KCNQ1 deletion is a rare cause of loss of maternal methylation, occurring in only 3% of cases, or in 1.5% of BWS overall. PMID:22205991

Algar, Elizabeth; Dagar, Vinod; Sebaj, Menka; Pachter, Nicholas

2011-01-01

258

Velocardiofacial syndrome in father and daughter: What is the mechanism for the deletion 22(q11.2q11.2) in only the daughter?  

SciTech Connect

E.G. had marked feeding difficulty noted at birth; the cause was determined to be a paralyzed palate. In 1992 chromosome studies were performed because of the provisional diagnosis of velocardiofacial syndrome, and a small interstitial deletion of chromosome 22 was found. Recently the family was seen in our Genetics Clinic. The father had unusual facial features shared by his daughter, a paralyzed upper lip and a history of repaired Tetralogy of Fallot. His chromosomes appeared normal. FISH studies were performed on the child`s peripheral blood using the ONCOR DiGeorge region probe (D22S75) and the deletion verified. However, the father`s chromosomes were not deleted for the ONCOR probe (D22S75) and probe DO832 sent to us by Peter Scambler. Skin cells were then obtained and no deletion was detected in a total of 66 cells examined using both probes. Several questions arise from these data: does the father have velocardiofacial syndrome? Does he have occult mosaicism? Does he have a molecular deletion not detected by the probes used? And was this deletion somehow {open_quotes}amplified{close_quotes} in his daughter?

Magenis, R.E.; Gunter, K.; Toth-Fejel, S. [Oregon Health Sciences Univ., Portland, OR (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

259

Deletion of exons 2–4 in the BSND gene causes severe antenatal Bartter syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

BSND gene mutations usually cause severe forms of antenatal Bartter syndrome and sensorineural deafness (SND). Chronic renal failure\\u000a and transient hypercalciuria are reported as controversial symptoms of this syndrome. All twelve reported BSND mutations cause SND, whereas only two of the mutations give rise to normal glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and two other\\u000a mutations cause hypercalciuria. The case we report

Zelal Bircan; Filiz Harputluoglu; Nikola Jeck

2009-01-01

260

Submicroscopic deletions of 11q24-25 in individuals without Jacobsen syndrome: re-examination of the critical region by high-resolution array-CGH  

PubMed Central

Background Jacobsen syndrome is a rare contiguous gene disorder that results from a terminal deletion of the long arm of chromosome 11. It is typically characterized by intellectual disability, a variety of physical anomalies and a distinctive facial appearance. The 11q deletion has traditionally been identified by routine chromosome analysis. Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) has offered new opportunities to identify and refine chromosomal abnormalities in regions known to be associated with clinical syndromes. Results Using the 1 Mb BAC array (Spectral Genomics), we screened 70 chromosomally normal children with idiopathic intellectual disability (ID) and congenital abnormalities, and identified five cases with submicroscopic abnormalities believed to contribute to their phenotypes. Here, we provide detailed molecular cytogenetic descriptions and clinical presentation of two unrelated subjects with de novo submicroscopic deletions within chromosome bands 11q24-25. In subject 1 the chromosome rearrangement consisted of a 6.18 Mb deletion (from 128.25–134.43 Mb) and an adjacent 5.04 Mb duplication (from 123.15–128.19 Mb), while in subject 2, a 4.74 Mb interstitial deletion was found (from 124.29–129.03 Mb). Higher resolution array analysis (385 K Nimblegen) was used to refine all breakpoints. Deletions of the 11q24-25 region are known to be associated with Jacobsen syndrome (JBS: OMIM 147791). However, neither of the subjects had the typical features of JBS (trigonocephaly, platelet disorder, heart abnormalities). Both subjects had ID, dysmorphic features and additional phenotypic abnormalities: subject 1 had a kidney abnormality, bilateral preauricular pits, pectus excavatum, mild to moderate conductive hearing loss and behavioral concerns; subject 2 had macrocephaly, an abnormal MRI with delayed myelination, fifth finger shortening and squaring of all fingertips, and sensorineural hearing loss. Conclusion Two individuals with ID who did not have the typical clinical features of Jacobsen syndrome were found to have deletions within the JBS region at 11q24-25. Their rearrangements facilitate the refinement of the JBS critical region and suggest that a) deletion of at least 3 of the 4 platelet function critical genes (ETS-1, FLI-1 and NFRKB and JAM3) is necessary for thrombocytopenia; b) one of the critical regions for heart abnormalities (conotruncal heart defects) may lie within 129.03 – 130.6 Mb; c) deletions of KCNJ1 and ADAMTS15 may contribute to the renal anomalies in Jacobsen Syndrome; d) the critical region for MRI abnormalities involves a region from 124.6 – 129.03 Mb. Our results reiterate the benefits of array-CGH for description of new phenotype/genotype associations and refinement of previously established ones. PMID:19000322

Tyson, Christine; Qiao, Ying; Harvard, Chansonette; Liu, Xudong; Bernier, Francois P; McGillivray, Barbara; Farrell, Sandra A; Arbour, Laura; Chudley, Albert E; Clarke, Lorne; Gibson, William; Dyack, Sarah; McLeod, Ross; Costa, Teresa; VanAllen, Margot I; Yong, Siu-li; Graham, Gail E; MacLeod, Patrick; Patel, Millan S; Hurlburt, Jane; Holden, Jeanette JA; Lewis, Suzanne ME; Rajcan-Separovic, Evica

2008-01-01

261

A New Account of the Neurocognitive Foundations of Impairments in Space, Time, and Number Processing in Children with Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, I present an updated account that attempts to explain, in cognitive processing and neural terms, the nonverbal intellectual impairments experienced by most children with deletions of chromosome 22q11.2. Specifically, I propose that this genetic syndrome leads to early developmental changes in the structure and function of clearly…

Simon, Tony J.

2008-01-01

262

Discrepancies in Parent and Teacher Ratings of Social-Behavioral Functioning of Children with Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: Implications for Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome exhibit high rates of social-behavioral problems, particularly in the internalizing domain, indicating an area in need of intervention. The current investigation was designed to obtain information regarding parent and teacher ratings of the social-emotional behavior of children with 22q11DS. Using the Child…

Shashi, Vandana; Wray, Emily; Schoch, Kelly; Curtiss, Kathleen; Hooper, Stephen R.

2013-01-01

263

Relationship between Reaction Time, Fine Motor Control, and Visual-Spatial Perception on Vigilance and Visual-Motor Tasks in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11DS) is a common microdeletion disorder associated with mild to moderate intellectual disability and specific neurocognitive deficits, particularly in visual-motor and attentional abilities. Currently there is evidence that the visual-motor profile of 22q11DS is not entirely mediated by intellectual disability and…

Howley, Sarah A.; Prasad, Sarah E.; Pender, Niall P.; Murphy, Kieran C.

2012-01-01

264

Abnormal response to the anorexic effect of GHS-R inhibitors and exenatide in male Snord116 deletion mouse model for Prader-Willi Syndrome  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic disease characterized by persistent hunger and hyperphagia. The lack of the Snord116 small nucleolar RNA cluster has been identified as the major contributor to PWS symptoms. The Snord116 deletion (Snord116del) mouse model manifested a subset of PWS symptoms ...

265

Association of the Family Environment with Behavioural and Cognitive Outcomes in Children with Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) are at risk for social-behavioural and neurocognitive sequelae throughout development. The current study examined the impact of family environmental characteristics on social-behavioural and cognitive outcomes in this paediatric population. Method: Guardians of children with 22q11DS…

Allen, T. M.; Hersh, J.; Schoch, K.; Curtiss, K.; Hooper, S. R.; Shashi, V.

2014-01-01

266

Performance on the Modified Card Sorting Test and Its Relation to Psychopathology in Adolescents and Young Adults with 22Q11.2 Deletion Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Approximately one-third of individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), a common genetic disorder highly associated with intellectual disabilities, may develop schizophrenia, likely preceded by a mild to moderate cognitive decline. Methods: We examined adolescents and young adults with 22q11DS for the presence of executive…

Rockers, K.; Ousley, O.; Sutton, T.; Schoenberg, E.; Coleman, K.; Walker, E.; Cubells, J. F.

2009-01-01

267

DiGeorge syndrome with isolated aortic coarctation and isolated ventricular septal defect in three sibs with a 22q11 deletion of maternal origin.  

PubMed

DiGeorge syndrome was diagnosed in an infant who had an interrupted aortic arch, hypoparathyroidism, and low T lymphocyte numbers. Two siblings had heart defects that are not commonly described in DiGeorge syndrome (a membranous ventricular septal defect and coarctation of the aorta respectively). These siblings did not have evidence of thymic dysfunction or hypoparathyroidism. Chromosome analysis showed that the mother, whose cardiovascular examination was normal, and her three offspring with heart defects had a 22q11 interstitial deletion, which was confirmed by molecular analysis. This family suggests that 22q11 deletions can cause apparently isolated heart defects and that the range of these defects may be wider than previously recognised. Once the genes that are deleted in this family are characterised they will be useful candidate genes in the investigation of isolated cardiac malformations. PMID:1747284

Wilson, D I; Cross, I E; Goodship, J A; Coulthard, S; Carey, A H; Scambler, P J; Bain, H H; Hunter, A S; Carter, P E; Burn, J

1991-10-01

268

Serotonergic, noradrenergic and dopaminergic markers are related to cognitive function in adults with 22q11 deletion syndrome.  

PubMed

Patients with 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) have a high prevalence of psychiatric disorders and intellectual disability. At present the neurobiology underlying psychopathology in 22q11DS is still not understood. In the present study, we analyzed urinary serotonergic, dopaminergic and noradrenergic markers in 67 adults with 22q11DS. Levels of serotonin and the catecholamine metabolite homovanillic acid were significantly lower in the 22q11DS subjects compared to healthy controls. Within the 22q11DS group, levels of dopamine, homovanillic acid, norepinephrine, vanillyl mandelic acid and serotonin positively correlated with Full Scale Intelligence Quotient scores. Our results suggest that cognitive deficits in 22q11DS are associated with abnormal function of several neurotransmitters. PMID:24713114

Evers, Laurens J M; Curfs, Leopold M G; Bakker, Jaap A; Boot, Erik; da Silva Alves, Fabiana; Abeling, Nico; Bierau, Jörgen; Drukker, Marjan; van Amelsvoort, Therese A M J

2014-08-01

269

Cutaneous features in 17q21.31 deletion syndrome: a differential diagnosis for cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome  

PubMed Central

Microdeletion of 17q21.31 causes a recurrent recognisable dysmorphic syndrome. Four further patients with 17q21.31 microdeletions are reported here where previously the diagnosis of cardio-facio-cutaneous (CFC) syndrome was suggested. These patients have significant similarities of facial gestalt to previously reported 17q21.31 microdeletion patients, but a striking feature that has not been emphasised previously is the large number of naevi and other pigmentary skin abnormalities that may be present. These features, together with a coarse facial appearance, relative macrocephaly and significant learning disabilities, had led to the previous diagnostic suggestion of CFC syndrome in each of these four cases. PMID:21084979

Burkitt Wright, Emma; Donnai, Dian; Johnson, Diana; Clayton-Smith, Jill

2010-01-01

270

Rhabdomyosarcoma, Wilms tumor, and deletion of the patched gene in Gorlin syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background A 5-year-old year girl with a medical history of mental retardation, physical abnormalities and a known interstitial deletion of chromosome 9q22–q32 presented with a palpable suprapubic mass. During ultrasound investigation, a left renal mass was also detected. The patient underwent surgical removal of both neoplasms, which were diagnosed as a rhabdomyosarcoma and a Wilms tumor. Seven years later, she

Mariana M Cajaiba; Allen E Bale; Mayra Alvarez-Franco; Joseph McNamara; Miguel Reyes-Múgica

2006-01-01

271

Genotype–Phenotype Association Studies of Chromosome 8p Inverted Duplication Deletion Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals diagnosed with chromosome 8p inverted duplication deletion (invdupdel(8p)) manifest a wide range of clinical features\\u000a and cognitive impairment. The purpose of this study is to employ array CGH technology to define more precisely the cytogenetic\\u000a breakpoints and regions of copy number variation found in several individuals with invdupdel(8p), and compare these results\\u000a with their neuropsychological characteristics. We examined the

Gene S. Fisch; Ryan Davis; Janey Youngblom; Jeff Gregg

2011-01-01

272

Two patients with duplication of 17p11.2: The reciprocal of the Smith-Magenis syndrome deletion?  

SciTech Connect

J.M. and H.G. are two unrelated male patients with developmental delay. Cytogenetic analysis detected a duplication of 17p11.2 in both patients. The extent of the duplicated region was determined using single copy DNA probes: cen-D17S58-D17S29-D17S258-D17S71-D17S445-D17S122-tel. Four of the six markers, D17S29, D17S258, D17S71, and D17S445, were duplicated by dosage analysis. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis of H.G., using cosmids for locus D17S29, confirmed the duplication in 17p11.2. Because the deletion that causes the Smith-Magenis syndrome involves the same region of 17p11.2 as the duplication in these patients, the mechanism may be similar to that proposed for the reciprocal deletion/ duplication event observed in Hereditary Neuropathy with Liability to Pressure Palsies (HNPP) and Charcot-Marie-Tooth Type 1A disease (CMT1A). 30 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Brown, A. [Greenwood Genetic Center, SC (United States)] [Greenwood Genetic Center, SC (United States); [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Phelan, M.C.; Rogers, R.C. [Greenwood Genetic Center, SC (United States)] [and others] [Greenwood Genetic Center, SC (United States); and others

1996-05-17

273

Reciprocal duplication of the Williams-Beuren syndrome deletion on chromosome 7q11.23 is associated with schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Background Several copy number variants (CNVs) have been implicated as susceptibility factors for schizophrenia (SZ). Some of these same CNV also increase risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD), suggesting an etiologic overlap between these conditions. Recently, de novo duplications of a region on chromosome 7q11.23 were associated with ASD. The reciprocal deletion of this region causes Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS). Methods We assayed an Ashkenazi Jewish cohort of 554 SZ cases and 1014 controls for copy number variation (CNV), using a high-density genome-wide array. An excess of large rare and de novo CNV were observed, including a 1.4 Mb duplication on chromosome 7q11.23 identified in two unrelated patients. To test whether this 7q11.23 duplication is also associated with SZ, we obtained data for 14,387 SZ cases and 28,139 controls from seven additional studies with high-resolution genome-wide CNV detection. We performed a meta-analysis, correcting for study population of origin, to assess whether the 7q11.23 duplication is associated with SZ. Results We find duplications at 7q11.23 in 11 of 14,387 SZ cases with only 1 in 28,139 controls (unadjusted odds ratio, 21.52, 95% CI: 3.13-922.6, p-value 5.5×10-5; adjusted odds ratio 10.8, 95% CI: 1.46-79.62, p-value 0.007). Of three SZ duplication carriers with available detailed retrospective data, all show social anxiety and language delay premorbid to SZ onset, consistent with both human studies and animal models of the 7q11.23 duplication. Conclusion We have identified a new CNV associated with SZ. Reciprocal duplication of the Williams syndrome deletion at chromosome 7q11.23 confers an approximately 10-fold increase in risk for SZ. PMID:23871472

Mulle, Jennifer Gladys; Pulver, Ann E.; McGrath, John M.; Wolyniec, Paula; Dodd, Anne F.; Cutler, David J.; Sebat, Jonathan; Malhotra, Dheeraj; Nestadt, Gerald; Conrad, Donald F.; Hurles, Matthew; Barnes, Chris P.; Ikeda, Masashi; Iwata, Nakao; Levinson, Douglas F.; Gejman, Pablo V.; Sanders, Alan R.; Duan, Jubao; Mitchell, Adele A.; Peter, Inga; Sklar, Pamela; O’Dushlaine, Colm T.; Grozeva, Detelina; O’Donovan, Michael C.; Owen, Michael J.; Hultman, Christina M.; Kähler, Anna K.; Sullivan, Patrick F.; Kirov, George; Warren, Stephen T.

2013-01-01

274

A Physical Map, Including a BAC/PAC Clone Contig, of the Williams-Beuren Syndrome–Deletion Region at 7q11.23  

PubMed Central

Summary Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) is a developmental disorder caused by haploinsufficiency for genes in a 2-cM region of chromosome band 7q11.23. With the exception of vascular stenoses due to deletion of the elastin gene, the various features of WBS have not yet been attributed to specific genes. Although ?16 genes have been identified within the WBS deletion, completion of a physical map of the region has been difficult because of the large duplicated regions flanking the deletion. We present a physical map of the WBS deletion and flanking regions, based on assembly of a bacterial artificial chromosome/P1-derived artificial chromosome contig, analysis of high-throughput genome-sequence data, and long-range restriction mapping of genomic and cloned DNA by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Our map encompasses 3 Mb, including 1.6 Mb within the deletion. Two large duplicons, flanking the deletion, of ?320 kb contain unique sequence elements from the internal border regions of the deletion, such as sequences from GTF2I (telomeric) and FKBP6 (centromeric). A third copy of this duplicon exists in inverted orientation distal to the telomeric flanking one. These duplicons show stronger sequence conservation with regard to each other than to the presumptive ancestral loci within the common deletion region. Sequence elements originating from beyond 7q11.23 are also present in these duplicons. Although the duplicons are not present in mice, the order of the single-copy genes in the conserved syntenic region of mouse chromosome 5 is inverted relative to the human map. A model is presented for a mechanism of WBS-deletion formation, based on the orientation of duplicons' components relative to each other and to the ancestral elements within the deletion region. PMID:10631136

Peoples, Risa; Franke, Yvonne; Wang, Yu-Ker; Pérez-Jurado, Luis; Paperna, Tamar; Cisco, Michael; Francke, Uta

2000-01-01

275

A physical map, including a BAC/PAC clone contig, of the Williams-Beuren syndrome--deletion region at 7q11.23.  

PubMed

Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) is a developmental disorder caused by haploinsufficiency for genes in a 2-cM region of chromosome band 7q11.23. With the exception of vascular stenoses due to deletion of the elastin gene, the various features of WBS have not yet been attributed to specific genes. Although >/=16 genes have been identified within the WBS deletion, completion of a physical map of the region has been difficult because of the large duplicated regions flanking the deletion. We present a physical map of the WBS deletion and flanking regions, based on assembly of a bacterial artificial chromosome/P1-derived artificial chromosome contig, analysis of high-throughput genome-sequence data, and long-range restriction mapping of genomic and cloned DNA by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Our map encompasses 3 Mb, including 1.6 Mb within the deletion. Two large duplicons, flanking the deletion, of >/=320 kb contain unique sequence elements from the internal border regions of the deletion, such as sequences from GTF2I (telomeric) and FKBP6 (centromeric). A third copy of this duplicon exists in inverted orientation distal to the telomeric flanking one. These duplicons show stronger sequence conservation with regard to each other than to the presumptive ancestral loci within the common deletion region. Sequence elements originating from beyond 7q11.23 are also present in these duplicons. Although the duplicons are not present in mice, the order of the single-copy genes in the conserved syntenic region of mouse chromosome 5 is inverted relative to the human map. A model is presented for a mechanism of WBS-deletion formation, based on the orientation of duplicons' components relative to each other and to the ancestral elements within the deletion region. PMID:10631136

Peoples, R; Franke, Y; Wang, Y K; Pérez-Jurado, L; Paperna, T; Cisco, M; Francke, U

2000-01-01

276

A recurrent deletion syndrome at chromosome bands 2p11.2-2p12 flanked by segmental duplications at the breakpoints and including REEP1.  

PubMed

We identified an identical and recurrent 9.4-Mbp deletion at chromosome bands 2p11.2-2p12, which occurred de novo in two unrelated patients. It is flanked at the distal and proximal breakpoints by two homologous segmental duplications consisting of low copy repeat (LCR) blocks in direct orientation, which have >99% sequence identity. Despite the fact that the deletion was almost 10?Mbp in size, the patients showed a relatively mild clinical phenotype, that is, mild-to-moderate intellectual disability, a happy disposition, speech delay and delayed motor development. Their phenotype matches with that of previously described patients. The 2p11.2-2p12 deletion includes the REEP1 gene that is associated with spastic paraplegia and phenotypic features related to this are apparent in most 2p11.2-2p12 deletion patients, but not in all. Other hemizygous genes that may contribute to the clinical phenotype include LRRTM1 and CTNNA2. We propose a recurrent but rare 2p11.2-2p12 deletion syndrome based on (1) the identical, non-random localisation of the de novo deletion breakpoints in two unrelated patients and a patient from literature, (2) the patients' phenotypic similarity and their phenotypic overlap with other 2p deletions and (3) the presence of highly identical LCR blocks flanking both breakpoints, consistent with a non-allelic homologous recombination (NAHR)-mediated rearrangement. PMID:24986827

Stevens, Servi J C; Blom, Eveline W; Siegelaer, Ingrid T J; Smeets, Eric E J G L

2015-04-01

277

Microarray CGH analyses of chromosomal 20q deletions in patients with hematopoietic malignancies.  

PubMed

The chromosomal abnormality del(20q) is mostly found in various myeloid disorders, including myelodysplastic syndromes, myeloproliferative neoplasms, and acute myeloid leukemia. Here, microarray comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analyses of 14 patients cytogenetically confirmed to carry the del(20q) aberration in their bone marrow demonstrated that all deletions were interstitial and both the proximal and distal breakpoints varied among individuals. The centromeric breakpoints were located in the 20q11.21-12 region, and the telomeric breakpoints, in the 20q13.13-13.33 region. The extent of the deletion ranged from 11.2 to 27.3 Mb, and the commonly deleted region (CDR) was estimated to be 7.2 Mb in size. Two commonly retained regions were present, the proximal region adjacent to the centromere (20q11.1-11.21) and a subtelomeric one (20q13.33). The CDR of our study was more distal than reported previously. Furthermore, in three patients fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) demonstrated that del(20q) cells were detected at a higher frequency in the karyotype analyses than by interphase FISH and aCGH analyses. As the size and breakpoints of del(20q) have been reported to vary among patients, the presence of one or more tumor suppressor genes in the CDR has been suggested. Our study will contribute to the identification of candidate tumor suppressor genes on 20q. PMID:22429594

Okada, Michiko; Suto, Yumiko; Hirai, Momoki; Shiseki, Masayuki; Usami, Akemi; Okajima, Kaori; Teramura, Masanao; Mori, Naoki; Motoji, Toshiko

2012-01-01

278

A defect in early myogenesis causes Otitis media in two mouse models of 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome.  

PubMed

Otitis media (OM), the inflammation of the middle ear, is the most common disease and cause for surgery in infants worldwide. Chronic Otitis media with effusion (OME) often leads to conductive hearing loss and is a common feature of a number of craniofacial syndromes, such as 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11.2DS). OM is more common in children because the more horizontal position of the Eustachian tube (ET) in infants limits or delays clearance of middle ear effusions. Some mouse models with OM have shown alterations in the morphology and angle of the ET. Here, we present a novel mechanism in which OM is caused not by a defect in the ET itself but in the muscles that control its function. Our results show that in two mouse models of 22q11.2DS (Df1/+ and Tbx1(+/-)) presenting with bi- or unilateral OME, the fourth pharyngeal arch-derived levator veli palatini muscles were hypoplastic, which was associated with an earlier altered pattern of MyoD expression. Importantly, in mice with unilateral OME, the side with the inflammation was associated with significantly smaller muscles than the contralateral unaffected ear. Functional tests examining ET patency confirmed a reduced clearing ability in the heterozygous mice. Our findings are also of clinical relevance as targeting hypoplastic muscles might present a novel preventative measure for reducing the high rates of OM in 22q11.2DS patients. PMID:25452432

Fuchs, Jennifer C; Linden, Jennifer F; Baldini, Antonio; Tucker, Abigail S

2015-04-01

279

A defect in early myogenesis causes Otitis media in two mouse models of 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Otitis media (OM), the inflammation of the middle ear, is the most common disease and cause for surgery in infants worldwide. Chronic Otitis media with effusion (OME) often leads to conductive hearing loss and is a common feature of a number of craniofacial syndromes, such as 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11.2DS). OM is more common in children because the more horizontal position of the Eustachian tube (ET) in infants limits or delays clearance of middle ear effusions. Some mouse models with OM have shown alterations in the morphology and angle of the ET. Here, we present a novel mechanism in which OM is caused not by a defect in the ET itself but in the muscles that control its function. Our results show that in two mouse models of 22q11.2DS (Df1/+ and Tbx1+/?) presenting with bi- or unilateral OME, the fourth pharyngeal arch-derived levator veli palatini muscles were hypoplastic, which was associated with an earlier altered pattern of MyoD expression. Importantly, in mice with unilateral OME, the side with the inflammation was associated with significantly smaller muscles than the contralateral unaffected ear. Functional tests examining ET patency confirmed a reduced clearing ability in the heterozygous mice. Our findings are also of clinical relevance as targeting hypoplastic muscles might present a novel preventative measure for reducing the high rates of OM in 22q11.2DS patients. PMID:25452432

Fuchs, Jennifer C.; Linden, Jennifer F.; Baldini, Antonio; Tucker, Abigail S.

2015-01-01

280

Discussing the psychiatric manifestations of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: an exploration of clinical practice among medical geneticists  

PubMed Central

Purpose The aim of this study was to determine the frequency with which medical geneticists discuss the psychiatric manifestations of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) with families in relation to the frequency with which they discuss the other manifestations of the syndrome and to explore relationships between discussion of these features and stigma toward psychiatric disorders. Methods We surveyed medical geneticists in the United States and Canada regarding the frequency with which they discuss various features of 22q11DS with families in the context of four clinical scenarios in which only the age of the patient at diagnosis differed. Respondents also completed a 20-item validated psychometric measure of stigma towards psychiatric disorders. Results 308/546 medical geneticists completed the survey (56% response rate). Psychiatric disorders were discussed significantly less often than other features of 22q11DS (p<0.0001), but psychiatric disorders were discussed significantly more often when the patient was ? 13 years old (p<0.0001), than when the patient was younger. Geneticists who discussed psychiatric disorders the least had significantly higher levels of stigma towards psychiatric disorders (p=0.007). Conclusion Psychiatric risks are less often discussed with families during childhood. Education for physicians to help reduce stigma towards psychiatric disorders (which may impede discussion of psychiatric disorders) may warrant exploration in this population. PMID:23579435

Morris, Emily; Inglis, Angela; Friedman, Jan; Austin, Jehannine

2013-01-01

281

The mitochondrial ND1 m.3337G>A mutation associated to multiple mitochondrial DNA deletions in a patient with Wolfram syndrome and cardiomyopathy  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: {yields} We reported a patient with Wolfram syndrome and dilated cardiomyopathy. {yields} We detected the ND1 mitochondrial m.3337G>A mutation in 3 tested tissues (blood leukocytes, buccal mucosa and skeletal muscle). {yields} Long-range PCR amplification revealed the presence of multiple mitochondrial deletions in the skeletal muscle. {yields} The deletions remove several tRNA and protein-coding genes. -- Abstract: Wolfram syndrome (WFS) is a rare hereditary disorder also known as DIDMOAD (diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, and deafness). It is a heterogeneous disease and full characterization of all clinical and biological features of this disorder is difficult. The wide spectrum of clinical expression, affecting several organs and tissues, and the similarity in phenotype between patients with Wolfram syndrome and those with certain types of respiratory chain diseases suggests mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) involvement in Wolfram syndrome patients. We report a Tunisian patient with clinical features of moderate Wolfram syndrome including diabetes, dilated cardiomyopathy and neurological complications. The results showed the presence of the mitochondrial ND1 m.3337G>A mutation in almost homoplasmic form in 3 tested tissues of the proband (blood leukocytes, buccal mucosa and skeletal muscle). In addition, the long-range PCR amplifications revealed the presence of multiple deletions of the mitochondrial DNA extracted from the patient's skeletal muscle removing several tRNA and protein-coding genes. Our study reported a Tunisian patient with clinical features of moderate Wolfram syndrome associated with cardiomyopathy, in whom we detected the ND1 m.3337G>A mutation with mitochondrial multiple deletions.

Mezghani, Najla [Laboratoire de Genetique Moleculaire Humaine, Faculte de Medecine de Sfax, Universite de Sfax (Tunisia)] [Laboratoire de Genetique Moleculaire Humaine, Faculte de Medecine de Sfax, Universite de Sfax (Tunisia); Mnif, Mouna [Service d'endocrinologie, C.H.U. Habib Bourguiba de Sfax (Tunisia)] [Service d'endocrinologie, C.H.U. Habib Bourguiba de Sfax (Tunisia); Mkaouar-Rebai, Emna, E-mail: emna_mkaouar@mail2world.com [Laboratoire de Genetique Moleculaire Humaine, Faculte de Medecine de Sfax, Universite de Sfax (Tunisia)] [Laboratoire de Genetique Moleculaire Humaine, Faculte de Medecine de Sfax, Universite de Sfax (Tunisia); Kallel, Nozha [Service d'endocrinologie, C.H.U. Habib Bourguiba de Sfax (Tunisia)] [Service d'endocrinologie, C.H.U. Habib Bourguiba de Sfax (Tunisia); Salem, Ikhlass Haj [Laboratoire de Genetique Moleculaire Humaine, Faculte de Medecine de Sfax, Universite de Sfax (Tunisia)] [Laboratoire de Genetique Moleculaire Humaine, Faculte de Medecine de Sfax, Universite de Sfax (Tunisia); Charfi, Nadia; Abid, Mohamed [Service d'endocrinologie, C.H.U. Habib Bourguiba de Sfax (Tunisia)] [Service d'endocrinologie, C.H.U. Habib Bourguiba de Sfax (Tunisia); Fakhfakh, Faiza [Laboratoire de Genetique Moleculaire Humaine, Faculte de Medecine de Sfax, Universite de Sfax (Tunisia)] [Laboratoire de Genetique Moleculaire Humaine, Faculte de Medecine de Sfax, Universite de Sfax (Tunisia)

2011-07-29

282

Malan syndrome: Sotos-like overgrowth with de novo NFIX sequence variants and deletions in six new patients and a review of the literature.  

PubMed

De novo monoallelic variants in NFIX cause two distinct syndromes. Whole gene deletions, nonsense variants and missense variants affecting the DNA-binding domain have been seen in association with a Sotos-like phenotype that we propose is referred to as Malan syndrome. Frameshift and splice-site variants thought to avoid nonsense-mediated RNA decay have been seen in Marshall-Smith syndrome. We report six additional patients with Malan syndrome and de novo NFIX deletions or sequence variants and review the 20 patients now reported. The phenotype is characterised by moderate postnatal overgrowth and macrocephaly. Median height and head circumference in childhood are 2.0 and 2.3 standard deviations (SD) above the mean, respectively. There is overlap of the facial phenotype with NSD1-positive Sotos syndrome in some cases including a prominent forehead, high anterior hairline, downslanting palpebral fissures and prominent chin. Neonatal feeding difficulties and/or hypotonia have been reported in 30% of patients. Developmental delay/learning disability have been reported in all cases and are typically moderate. Ocular phenotypes are common, including strabismus (65%), nystagmus (25% ) and optic disc pallor/hypoplasia (25%). Other recurrent features include pectus excavatum (40%) and scoliosis (25%). Eight reported patients have a deletion also encompassing CACNA1A, haploinsufficiency of which causes episodic ataxia type 2 or familial hemiplegic migraine. One previous case had episodic ataxia and one case we report has had cyclical vomiting responsive to pizotifen. In individuals with this contiguous gene deletion syndrome, awareness of possible later neurological manifestations is important, although their penetrance is not yet clear. PMID:25118028

Klaassens, Merel; Morrogh, Deborah; Rosser, Elisabeth M; Jaffer, Fatima; Vreeburg, Maaike; Bok, Levinus A; Segboer, Tim; van Belzen, Martine; Quinlivan, Ros M; Kumar, Ajith; Hurst, Jane A; Scott, Richard H

2015-05-01

283

Autosomal recessive Wolfram syndrome associated with an 8.5 kb mtDNA single deletion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wolfram syndrome (MIM 222300) is characterized by optic atrophy, diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, neurosensory hearing loss, urinary tract abnormalities, and neurological dysfunction. The association of clinical manifestations in tissues and organs unrelated functionally or embryologically suggested the possibility of a mitochondrial implication in the disease, which has been demonstrated in two sporadic cases. Nonetheless, familial studies suggested an autosomal recessive

A. Barrientos; J. Casademont; F. Cardellach

1996-01-01

284

Autistic Spectrum Disorders in Velo-Cardio Facial Syndrome (22q11.2 Deletion)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The extent to which the phenotype of children comorbid for velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) differs from that of VCFS-only has not been studied. The sample consisted of 41 children (20 females) with VCFS, ranging in age from 6.5 years to 15.8 years. Eight children with VCFS met formal DSM-IV diagnostic criteria…

Antshel, Kevin M.; Aneja, Alka; Strunge, Leslie; Peebles, Jena; Fremont, Wanda P.; Stallone, Kimberly; AbdulSabur, Nuria; Higgins, Anne Marie; Shprintzen, Robert J.; Kates, Wendy R.

2007-01-01

285

Psychiatric Disorders and Intellectual Functioning throughout Development in Velocardiofacial (22q11.2 Deletion) Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS) is associated with cognitive deficits and high rates of schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders. We report the data from two large cohorts of individuals with VCFS from Israel and Western Europe to characterize the neuropsychiatric phenotype from childhood to adulthood in a large sample.…

Green, Tamar; Gothelf, Doron; Glaser, Bronwyn; Debbane, Martin; Frisch, Amos; Kotler, Moshe; Weizman, Abraham; Eliez, Stephan

2009-01-01

286

Practical Guidelines for Managing Patients with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome  

E-print Network

Syndrome Consortium** A 12-year-old boy currently is followed by multiple sub- specialists for problems dextroscoliosis requiring growing rod placement at age 11 years with subse- quent rod extension at ages 11, the boy had mild delays in achieving mo- tor milestones, sitting at 11 months and walking at 18 months

Nguyen, Danh

287

Clinical heterogeneity in mitochondrial DNA deletion disorders: a diagnostic challenge of Pearson syndrome.  

PubMed

The clinical presentation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) disorders is quite diverse. Very often, the initial symptoms do not fit a specific disease, and diagnosis is difficult to make. We describe a patient who presented with macrocytic anemia. Extensive biochemical and clinical work-up failed to provide an etiology for the macrocytic anemia. The patient over the course of 6 years developed gait problems, exercise intolerance, episodic vomiting, short stature, dermatological problems, and recurrent infection. At age 8 years she had encephalopathy with ataxia and dysphagia. The presence of elevated lactate, bilateral basal ganglia calcification, and ragged red fibers led to mtDNA mutational analysis. A novel 4.4-kb deletion from nucleotide position 10,560 to nucleotide position 14, 980 was identified in muscle biopsy. The same heteroplasmic mtDNA deletion was present in blood, buccal cells, and hair follicles, but not in mother's blood, consistent with sporadic mutation in the patient. This case emphasizes the importance of considering mtDNA disorder in patients with multisystemic symptoms that cannot be explained by a specific diagnosis. PMID:11102933

Lacbawan, F; Tifft, C J; Luban, N L; Schmandt, S M; Guerrera, M; Weinstein, S; Pennybacker, M; Wong, L J

2000-11-27

288

Compound heterozygosity of low-frequency promoter deletions and rare loss-of-function mutations in TXNL4A causes Burn-McKeown syndrome.  

PubMed

Mutations in components of the major spliceosome have been described in disorders with craniofacial anomalies, e.g., Nager syndrome and mandibulofacial dysostosis type Guion-Almeida. The U5 spliceosomal complex of eight highly conserved proteins is critical for pre-mRNA splicing. We identified biallelic mutations in TXNL4A, a member of this complex, in individuals with Burn-McKeown syndrome (BMKS). This rare condition is characterized by bilateral choanal atresia, hearing loss, cleft lip and/or palate, and other craniofacial dysmorphisms. Mutations were found in 9 of 11 affected families. In 8 families, affected individuals carried a rare loss-of-function mutation (nonsense, frameshift, or microdeletion) on one allele and a low-frequency 34 bp deletion (allele frequency 0.76%) in the core promoter region on the other allele. In a single highly consanguineous family, formerly diagnosed as oculo-oto-facial dysplasia, the four affected individuals were homozygous for a 34 bp promoter deletion, which differed from the promoter deletion in the other families. Reporter gene and in vivo assays showed that the promoter deletions led to reduced expression of TXNL4A. Depletion of TXNL4A (Dib1) in yeast demonstrated reduced assembly of the tri-snRNP complex. Our results indicate that BMKS is an autosomal-recessive condition, which is frequently caused by compound heterozygosity of low-frequency promoter deletions in combination with very rare loss-of-function mutations. PMID:25434003

Wieczorek, Dagmar; Newman, William G; Wieland, Thomas; Berulava, Tea; Kaffe, Maria; Falkenstein, Daniela; Beetz, Christian; Graf, Elisabeth; Schwarzmayr, Thomas; Douzgou, Sofia; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Daly, Sarah B; Williams, Simon G; Bhaskar, Sanjeev S; Urquhart, Jill E; Anderson, Beverley; O'Sullivan, James; Boute, Odile; Gundlach, Jasmin; Czeschik, Johanna Christina; van Essen, Anthonie J; Hazan, Filiz; Park, Sarah; Hing, Anne; Kuechler, Alma; Lohmann, Dietmar R; Ludwig, Kerstin U; Mangold, Elisabeth; Steenpaß, Laura; Zeschnigk, Michael; Lemke, Johannes R; Lourenco, Charles Marques; Hehr, Ute; Prott, Eva-Christina; Waldenberger, Melanie; Böhmer, Anne C; Horsthemke, Bernhard; O'Keefe, Raymond T; Meitinger, Thomas; Burn, John; Lüdecke, Hermann-Josef; Strom, Tim M

2014-12-01

289

UBE2A deficiency syndrome: a report of two unrelated cases with large Xq24 deletions encompassing UBE2A gene.  

PubMed

Intragenic mutations of the UBE2A gene, as well as larger deletions of Xq24 encompassing UBE2A have in recent years been associated with a syndromic form of X-linked intellectual disability called UBE2A deficiency syndrome or X-linked intellectual disability type Nascimento (OMIM#300860). Common clinical features in these patients include moderate to severe intellectual disability (ID), heart defects, dysmorphic features such as high forehead, synophrys, prominent supraorbital ridges, almond-shaped and deep-set eyes, wide mouth, myxedematous appearance, hirsutism, onychodystrophy, and genital anomalies. This study investigates clinical and molecular data of two unrelated, affected males with chromosome Xq24 deletions encompassing UBE2A. Both have been followed from birth until two years of age. A review of the previously published patients with deletions encompassing UBE2A is provided. Besides the common features, the two boys show anomalies not previously described, such as retinal coloboma, esophageal atresia with esophageal fistula, long fingers, camptodactyly, clinodactyly, and long broad toes. Analyses of the phenotype-genotype correlations suggest considerable prevalence of heart defects in the group of patients with larger deletions of Xq24 in comparison to the patients having intragenic UBE2A mutations. However, further studies are needed in order to establish statistically reliable phenotype-genotype correlations of this syndrome. PMID:25287747

Thunstrom, Sofia; Sodermark, Liv; Ivarsson, Liz; Samuelsson, Lena; Stefanova, Margarita

2015-01-01

290

Systematic Screening for Subtelomeric Anomalies in a Clinical Sample of Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

High-resolution karyotyping detects cytogenetic anomalies in 5-10% of cases of autism. Karyotyping, however, may fail to detect abnormalities of chromosome subtelomeres, which are gene rich regions prone to anomalies. We assessed whether panels of FISH probes targeted for subtelomeres could detect abnormalities beyond those identified by…

Wassink, Thomas H.; Losh, Molly; Piven, Joseph; Sheffield, Val C.; Ashley, Elizabeth; Westin, Erik R.; Patil, Shivanand R.

2007-01-01

291

Smaller and larger deletions of the Williams Beuren syndrome region implicate genes involved in mild facial phenotype, epilepsy and autistic traits  

PubMed Central

Williams Beuren syndrome (WBS) is a multisystemic disorder caused by a hemizygous deletion of 1.5?Mb on chromosome 7q11.23 spanning 28 genes. A few patients with larger and smaller WBS deletion have been reported. They show clinical features that vary between isolated SVAS to the full spectrum of WBS phenotype, associated with epilepsy or autism spectrum behavior. Here we describe four patients with atypical WBS 7q11.23 deletions. Two carry ?3.5?Mb larger deletion towards the telomere that includes Huntingtin-interacting protein 1 (HIP1) and tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxigenase activation protein gamma (YWHAG) genes. Other two carry a shorter deletion of ?1.2?Mb at centromeric side that excludes the distal WBS genes BAZ1B and FZD9. Along with previously reported cases, genotype–phenotype correlation in the patients described here further suggests that haploinsufficiency of HIP1 and YWHAG might cause the severe neurological and neuropsychological deficits including epilepsy and autistic traits, and that the preservation of BAZ1B and FZD9 genes may be related to mild facial features and moderate neuropsychological deficits. This report highlights the importance to characterize additional patients with 7q11.23 atypical deletions comparing neuropsychological and clinical features between these individuals to shed light on the pathogenic role of genes within and flanking the WBS region. PMID:23756441

Fusco, Carmela; Micale, Lucia; Augello, Bartolomeo; Teresa Pellico, Maria; Menghini, Deny; Alfieri, Paolo; Cristina Digilio, Maria; Mandriani, Barbara; Carella, Massimo; Palumbo, Orazio; Vicari, Stefano; Merla, Giuseppe

2014-01-01

292

A 5-year-old white girl with Prader-Willi syndrome and a submicroscopic deletion of chromosome 15q11q13  

SciTech Connect

We report on a 5-year-old white girl with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and a submicroscopic deletion of 15q11q13 of approximately 100-200 kb in size. High resolution chromosome analysis was normal but fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), Southern hybridization, and microsatellite data from the 15q11q13 region demonstrated that the deletion was paternal in origin and included the SNRPN, PAR-5, and PAR-7 genes from the proximal to distal boundaries of the deletion segment. SNRPN and PW71B methylation studies showed an abnormal pattern consistent with the diagnosis of PWS and supported the presence of a paternal deletion of 15q11q13 or an imprinting mutation. Biparental (normal) inheritance of PW71B (D15S63 locus) and a deletion of the SNRPN gene were observed by microsatellite, quantitative Southern hybridization, and/or FISH analyses. Our patient met the diagnostic criteria for PWS, but has no reported behavior problems, hyperphagia, or hypopigmentation. Our patient further supports SNRPN and possibly other genomic sequences which are deleted as the cause of the phenotype recognized in PWS patients. 21 refs., 7 figs.

Butler, M.G. [Vanderbilt Univ. Medical Center, Nashville, TN (United States)] [Vanderbilt Univ. Medical Center, Nashville, TN (United States); Christian, S.L.; Kubota, T.; Ledbetter, D.H. [National Inst. of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)] [National Inst. of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)

1996-10-16

293

Proline and COMT Status Affect Visual Connectivity in Children with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Individuals with the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) are at increased risk for schizophrenia and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). Given the prevalence of visual processing deficits in these three disorders, a causal relationship between genes in the deleted region of chromosome 22 and visual processing is likely. Therefore, 22q11DS may represent a unique model to understand the neurobiology of visual processing deficits related with ASD and psychosis. Methodology We measured Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) during a texture segregation task in 58 children with 22q11DS and 100 age-matched controls. The C1 component was used to index afferent activity of visual cortex area V1; the texture negativity wave provided a measure for the integrity of recurrent connections in the visual cortical system. COMT genotype and plasma proline levels were assessed in 22q11DS individuals. Principal Findings Children with 22q11DS showed enhanced feedforward activity starting from 70 ms after visual presentation. ERP activity related to visual feedback activity was reduced in the 22q11DS group, which was seen as less texture negativity around 150 ms post presentation. Within the 22q11DS group we further demonstrated an association between high plasma proline levels and aberrant feedback/feedforward ratios, which was moderated by the COMT158 genotype. Conclusions These findings confirm the presence of early visual processing deficits in 22q11DS. We discuss these in terms of dysfunctional synaptic plasticity in early visual processing areas, possibly associated with deviant dopaminergic and glutamatergic transmission. As such, our findings may serve as a promising biomarker related to the development of schizophrenia among 22q11DS individuals. PMID:21998713

Magnée, Maurice J. C. M.; Lamme, Victor A. F.; de Sain-van der Velden, Monique G. M.; Vorstman, Jacob A. S.; Kemner, Chantal

2011-01-01

294

Neurocognitive development in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: comparison with youth having developmental delay and medical comorbidities.  

PubMed

The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) presents with medical and neuropsychiatric manifestations including neurocognitive deficits. Quantitative neurobehavioral measures linked to brain circuitry can help elucidate genetic mechanisms contributing to deficits. To establish the neurocognitive profile and neurocognitive 'growth charts', we compared cross-sectionally 137 individuals with 22q11DS ages 8-21 to 439 demographically matched non-deleted individuals with developmental delay (DD) and medical comorbidities and 443 typically developing (TD) participants. We administered a computerized neurocognitive battery that measures performance accuracy and speed in executive, episodic memory, complex cognition, social cognition and sensorimotor domains. The accuracy performance profile of 22q11DS showed greater impairment than DD, who were impaired relative to TD. Deficits in 22q11DS were most pronounced for face memory and social cognition, followed by complex cognition. Performance speed was similar for 22q11DS and DD, but 22q11DS individuals were differentially slower in face memory and emotion identification. The growth chart, comparing neurocognitive age based on performance relative to chronological age, indicated that 22q11DS participants lagged behind both groups from the earliest age assessed. The lag ranged from less than 1 year to over 3 years depending on chronological age and neurocognitive domain. The greatest developmental lag across the age range was for social cognition and complex cognition, with the smallest for episodic memory and sensorimotor speed, where lags were similar to DD. The results suggest that 22q11.2 microdeletion confers specific vulnerability that may underlie brain circuitry associated with deficits in several neuropsychiatric disorders, and therefore help identify potential targets and developmental epochs optimal for intervention. PMID:24445907

Gur, R E; Yi, J J; McDonald-McGinn, D M; Tang, S X; Calkins, M E; Whinna, D; Souders, M C; Savitt, A; Zackai, E H; Moberg, P J; Emanuel, B S; Gur, R C

2014-11-01

295

White matter microstructural abnormalities in girls with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, Fragile X or Turner syndrome as evidenced by diffusion tensor imaging  

PubMed Central

Children with chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11.2DS), Fragile X Syndrome (FXS), or Turner Syndrome (TS) are considered to belong to distinct genetic groups, as each disorder is caused by separate genetic alterations. Even so, they have similar cognitive and behavioral dysfunctions, particularly in visuospatial and numerical abilities. To assess evidence for common underlying neural microstructural alterations, we set out to determine whether these groups have partially overlapping white matter abnormalities, relative to typically developing controls. We scanned 101 female children between 7 and 14 years old: 25 with 22q11.2DS, 18 with FXS, 17 with TS, and 41 aged-matched controls using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Anisotropy and diffusivity measures were calculated and all brain scans were nonlinearly aligned to population and site-specific templates. We performed voxel-based statistical comparisons of the DTI-derived metrics between each disease group and the controls, while adjusting for age. Girls with 22q11.2DS showed lower fractional anisotropy (FA) than controls in the association fibers of the superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculi, the splenium of the corpus callosum, and the corticospinal tract. FA was abnormally lower in girls with FXS in the posterior limbs of the internal capsule, posterior thalami, and precentral gyrus. Girls with TS had lower FA in the inferior longitudinal fasciculus, right internal capsule and left cerebellar peduncle. Partially overlapping neurodevelopmental anomalies were detected in all three neurogenetic disorders. Altered white matter integrity in the superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculi and thalamic to frontal tracts may contribute to the behavioral characteristics of all of these disorders. PMID:23602925

Villalon, Julio; Jahanshad, Neda; Beaton, Elliott; Toga, Arthur W.; Thompson, Paul M.; Simon, Tony J.

2014-01-01

296

Delineation of a contiguous gene syndrome with multiple exostoses, enlarged parietal foramina, craniofacial dysostosis, and mental retardation, caused by deletions on the short arm of chromosome 11  

SciTech Connect

A contiguous gene syndrome due to deletions of the proximal short arm of chromosome 11 is described in eight patients belonging to four families. The main clinical features are multiple exostoses, enlarged parietal foramina, craniofacial dysostosis, and mental retardation. The patients have cytogenetic and/or molecular deletions of chromosome 11p11-p13. These deletions are located between the centromere and D11S914 in a region of {approximately}20 cM. The present study confirms the presence of a multiple exostoses gene on chromosome 11p. Furthermore, it suggests that the gene for isolated foramina parietalia permagna and genes associated with craniofacial dysostosis and mental retardation reside in the same chromosomal region. 31 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Bartsch, O.; Werner, W.; Hinkel, G.K. [Univ. Hospital Dresden (Germany); Van Hul, W.; Willems, P.J. [Univ. of Antwerp (Belgium)] [and others

1996-04-01

297

A Williams syndrome patient with a familial t(6;7) translocation and deletion of the elastin gene  

SciTech Connect

Discovery of a {open_quotes}balanced{close_quotes} reciprocal translocation [46,XX,t(6;7)(q11.2;q11.23)] on routine amniocentesis prompted clinical and cytogenetic study of additional family members. The same t(6;7) translocation was found in the clincally normal father and in a sibling with Williams syndrome (WS). WS had been diagnosed previously according to clinical criteria including distinctive facial features, supravalvar aortic stenosis requiring surgical repair, dental abnormalties and developmental delay. A clinically normal female was delivered and the translocation was confirmed with a cord blood specimen. Hemizygosity for the gene, elastin, (which has been mapped to the chromosome 7 translocation breakpoint, 7q11.23, in this family) appears to be a cause of WS. We therefore investigated whether the t(6;7) in the phenotypically normal father represented more than a simple reciprocal translocation. FISH using a chromosome 7 specific library revealed no differences between the cytogenetically identical, yet phenotypically distinct, father and son. Hybridization with a cosmid MR127D4 containing elastin sequence showed that the WS patient was missing one allele from the derivative chromosome 7 whereas both his mother and father had two copies of the elastin gene. This family indicates that the de novo loss of one copy of the elastin gene produces the recognizable phenotype of Williams syndrome. Molecular characterization (with additional probes) of the extent of this de novo deletion near the translocation breakpoint is in progress. This information will be valuable for defining the WS-critical region and will lead to a better understanding of the molecular basis for WS.

Pober, B.R.; Gibson, L.H.; Yang-Feng, T.L. [Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

298

A novel CISD2 intragenic deletion, optic neuropathy and platelet aggregation defect in Wolfram syndrome type 2  

PubMed Central

Background Wolfram Syndrome type 2 (WFS2) is considered a phenotypic and genotypic variant of WFS, whose minimal criteria for diagnosis are diabetes mellitus and optic atrophy. The disease gene for WFS2 is CISD2. The clinical phenotype of WFS2 differs from WFS1 for the absence of diabetes insipidus and psychiatric disorders, and for the presence of bleeding upper intestinal ulcers and defective platelet aggregation. After the first report of consanguineous Jordanian patients, no further cases of WFS2 have been reported worldwide. We describe the first Caucasian patient affected by WFS2. Case presentation The proband was a 17 year-old girl. She presented diabetes mellitus, optic neuropathy, intestinal ulcers, sensorineural hearing loss, and defective platelet aggregation to ADP. Genetic testing showed a novel homozygous intragenic deletion of CISD2 in the proband. Her brother and parents carried the heterozygous mutation and were apparently healthy, although they showed subclinical defective platelet aggregation. Long runs of homozygosity analysis from SNP-array data did not show any degree of parental relationship, but the microsatellite analysis confirmed the hypothesis of a common ancestor. Conclusion Our patient does not show optic atrophy, one of the main diagnostic criteria for WFS, but optic neuropathy. Since the “asymptomatic” optic atrophy described in Jordanian patients is not completely supported, we could suppose that the ocular pathology in Jordanian patients was probably optic neuropathy and not optic atrophy. Therefore, as optic atrophy is required as main diagnostic criteria of WFS, it might be that the so-called WFS2 could not be a subtype of WFS. In addition, we found an impaired aggregation to ADP and not to collagen as previously reported, thus it is possible that different experimental conditions or inter-patient variability can explain different results in platelet aggregation. Further clinical reports are necessary to better define the clinical spectrum of this syndrome and to re-evaluate its classification. PMID:25056293

2014-01-01

299

Perioperative risk factors in patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome requiring surgery for velopharyngeal dysfunction.  

PubMed

Objective : To determine the prevalence of cardiac, cervical spine, and carotid artery abnormalities in patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) undergoing surgery for velopharyngeal dysfunction (VPD), associations between the presence of these abnormalities, and whether these abnormalities caused changes in surgical management or perioperative complications. Design : Retrospective review. Setting : Tertiary pediatric hospital. Patients : Seventy patients with 22q11.2DS with complete preoperative cervical vascular and spine imaging and cardiac evaluation between 1998 and 2011. Main Outcome Measures : Incidence of cardiac, cervical spine, and vascular abnormalities; related perioperative complications; and resulting changes in surgical, anesthetic, or perioperative management plan. Results : Cardiac abnormalities occurred in 45 patients (64.3%), and 8 patients required cardiac anesthesia. Thirty-eight patients (54.3%) had at least one vascular abnormality of the neck, and 14% had medial deviation of the internal carotid artery. Surgery was not performed in one patient, and the surgical plan was altered in three patients because of carotid anomalies. Cervical spine abnormalities were found in 24 patients (34.3%); 8 patients demonstrated radiographic evidence of cervical instability and were treated with spinal precautions during surgery. The presence of one anomaly was not predictive of any other finding, and there were no complications related to the heart, cervical spine, or carotid arteries. Conclusions : Anomalies of the heart, cervical spine, and cervical vasculature occur frequently in 22q11.2DS, vary drastically in severity, and are impossible to predict based on other features of the syndrome. Preoperative diagnosis of these comorbidities with routine imaging can minimize the risk of avoidable surgical complications. PMID:24805875

Stransky, Carrie; Basta, Marten; McDonald-McGinn, Donna M; Solot, Cynthia B; Drummond, Denis; Zackai, Elaine; LaRossa, Don; Kirschner, Richard; Jackson, Oksana

2015-03-01

300

9q31.1q31.3 deletion in two patients with similar clinical features: a newly recognized microdeletion syndrome?  

PubMed

Interstitial deletions of the long arm of chromosome 9 are rare and most patients have been detected by conventional cytogenetic techniques. Disparities in size and localization are large and no consistent region of overlap has been delineated. We report two similar de novo deletions of 6.3 Mb involving the 9q31.1q31.3 region, identified in two monozygotic twins and one unrelated patient through array-CGH analysis. By cloning the deletion breakpoints, we could show that these deletions are not mediated by segmental duplications. The patients displayed a distinct clinical phenotype characterized by mild intellectual disability, short stature with high body mass index, thick hair, arched eyebrows, flat profile with broad chin and mild prognathism, broad, and slightly overhanging tip of the nose, short neck with cervical gibbus. The twin patients developed a metabolic syndrome (type 2 diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, vascular hypertension) during the third decade of life. Although long-term follow-up and collection of additional patients will be needed to obtain a better definition of the phenotype, our findings characterize a previously undescribed syndromic disorder associated with haploinsufficiency of the chromosome 9q31.1q31.3 region. PMID:24376033

Mucciolo, M; Magini, P; Marozza, A; Mongelli, P; Mencarelli, M A; Hayek, G; Tavalazzi, F; Mari, F; Seri, M; Renieri, A; Graziano, C

2014-03-01

301

Opposing phenotypes in mice with Smith-Magenis deletion and Potocki-Lupski duplication syndromes suggest gene dosage effects on fluid consumption behavior.  

PubMed

A quantitative long-term fluid consumption and fluid-licking assay was performed in two mouse models with either an ?2?Mb genomic deletion, Df(11)17, or the reciprocal duplication copy number variation (CNV), Dp(11)17, analogous to the human genomic rearrangements causing either Smith-Magenis syndrome [SMS; OMIM #182290] or Potocki-Lupski syndrome [PTLS; OMIM #610883], respectively. Both mouse strains display distinct quantitative alterations in fluid consumption compared to their wild-type littermates; several of these changes are diametrically opposing between the two chromosome engineered mouse models. Mice with duplication versus deletion showed longer versus shorter intervals between visits to the waterspout, generated more versus less licks per visit and had higher versus lower variability in the number of licks per lick-burst as compared to their respective wild-type littermates. These findings suggest that copy number variation can affect long-term fluid consumption behavior in mice. Other behavioral differences were unique for either the duplication or deletion mutants; the deletion CNV resulted in increased variability of the licking rhythm, and the duplication CNV resulted in a significant slowing of the licking rhythm. Our findings document a readily quantitated complex behavioral response that can be directly and reciprocally influenced by a gene dosage effect. PMID:22991245

Heck, Detlef H; Gu, Wenli; Cao, Ying; Qi, Shuhua; Lacaria, Melanie; Lupski, James R

2012-11-01

302

Targeted Deletion of the Gene Encoding the La Autoantigen (Sjögren's Syndrome Antigen B) in B Cells or the Frontal Brain Causes Extensive Tissue Loss  

PubMed Central

La antigen (Sjögren's syndrome antigen B) is a phosphoprotein associated with nascent precursor tRNAs and other RNAs, and it is targeted by autoantibodies in patients with Sjögren's syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus, and neonatal lupus. Increased levels of La are associated with leukemias and other cancers, and various viruses usurp La to promote their replication. Yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe) genetically depleted of La grow and proliferate, whereas deletion from mice causes early embryonic lethality, raising the question of whether La is required by mammalian cells generally or only to surpass a developmental stage. We developed a conditional La allele and used it in mice that express Cre recombinase in either B cell progenitors or the forebrain. B cell Mb1Cre La-deleted mice produce no B cells. Consistent with ?CamKII Cre, which induces deletion in hippocampal CA1 cells in the third postnatal week and later throughout the neocortex, brains develop normally in La-deleted mice until ?5 weeks and then lose a large amount of forebrain cells and mass, with evidence of altered pre-tRNA processing. The data indicate that La is required not only in proliferating cells but also in nondividing postmitotic cells. Thus, La is essential in different cell types and required for normal development of various tissue types. PMID:24190965

Gaidamakov, Sergei; Maximova, Olga A.; Chon, Hyongi; Blewett, Nathan H.; Wang, Hongsheng; Crawford, Amanda K.; Day, Amanda; Tulchin, Natalie; Crouch, Robert J.; Morse, Herbert C.; Blitzer, Robert D.

2014-01-01

303

Volumetric, connective, and morphologic changes in the brains of children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: an integrative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome is a highly prevalent genetic disorder whose manifestations include developmental disability and sometimes mental retardation. The few studies that have examined brain morphology in different samples from this population have found similar general patterns, mostly using region of interest measures. We employed voxel-based techniques to concurrently examine specific morphologic changes in multiple brain tissue measures. Results

Tony J. Simon; Lijun Ding; Joel P. Bish; Donna M. McDonald-McGinn; Elaine H. Zackai; James Gee

2005-01-01

304

Identification of the WBSCR9 gene, encoding a novel transcriptional regulator, in the Williams-Beuren syndrome deletion at 7q11.23  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have identified a novel gene (WBSCR9) within the common Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) deletion by interspecies sequence conservation. The WBSCR9 gene encodes a roughly 7-kb transcript with an open reading frame of 1483 amino acids and a predicted protein product size of 170.8 kDa. WBSCR9 is comprised of at least 20 exons extending over 60 kb. The transcript is expressed

R. J. Peoples; M. J. Cisco; P. Kaplan; U. Francke

1998-01-01

305

Applicability of the Nonverbal Learning Disability Paradigm for Children With 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is the most common microdeletion in humans. Nonverbal learning disability (NLD) has been used to describe the strengths and deficits of children with 22q11DS, but the applicability of the label for this population has seldom been systematically evaluated. The goal of the current study was to address how well the NLD diagnosis characterizes children and adolescents with 22q11DS. A total of 74 children and adolescents with 22q11DS were given neurocognitive, socioemotional, and academic assessments to measure aspects of NLD. Of the cohort, 20% met at least 7 of 9 assessed criteria for NLD; 25% showed verbal skills exceeding their nonverbal skills as assessed by an IQ test; and 24% showed the good rote verbal capacity commonly associated with NLD. Hypothesizing that if the entire cohort did not show consistent NLD characteristics, the descriptor might be more accurate for a distinct subgroup, the authors used latent class analysis to divide participants into three subgroups. However, the lines along which the groups broke out were more related to general functioning level than to NLD criteria. All three groups showed a heightened risk for psychiatric illness, highlighting the importance of careful mental health monitoring for all children with 22q11DS. PMID:22572413

Schoch, Kelly; Harrell, Waverly; Hooper, Stephen R.; Ip, Edward H.; Saldana, Santiago; Kwapil, Thomas R.; Shashi, Vandana

2014-01-01

306

Atlas-based white matter analysis in individuals with velo-cardio-facial syndrome (22q11.2 deletion syndrome) and unaffected siblings  

PubMed Central

Background Velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS, MIM#192430, 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome) is a genetic disorder caused by a deletion of about 40 genes at the q11.2 band of one copy of chromosome 22. Individuals with VCFS present with deficits in cognition and social functioning, high risk of psychiatric disorders, volumetric reductions in gray and white matter (WM) and some alterations of the WM microstructure. The goal of the current study was to characterize the WM microstructural differences in individuals with VCFS and unaffected siblings, and the correlation of WM microstructure with neuropsychological performance. We hypothesized that individuals with VCFS would have decreased indices of WM microstructure (fractional anisotropy (FA), axial diffusivity (AD) and radial diffusivity (RD)), particularly in WM tracts to the frontal lobe, and that these measures would be correlated with cognitive functioning. Methods Thirty-three individuals with VCFS (21 female) and 16 unaffected siblings (8 female) participated in DTI scanning and neuropsychological testing. We performed an atlas-based analysis, extracted FA, AD, and RD measures for 54 WM tracts (27 in each hemisphere) for each participant, and used MANOVAs to compare individuals with VCFS to siblings. For WM tracts that were statistically significantly different between VCFS and siblings (pFDR?

2012-01-01

307

Screening for single nucleotide variants, small indels and exon deletions with a next-generation sequencing based gene panel approach for Usher syndrome.  

PubMed

Usher syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized both by deafness and blindness. For the three clinical subtypes of Usher syndrome causal mutations in altogether 12 genes and a modifier gene have been identified. Due to the genetic heterogeneity of Usher syndrome, the molecular analysis is predestined for a comprehensive and parallelized analysis of all known genes by next-generation sequencing (NGS) approaches. We describe here the targeted enrichment and deep sequencing for exons of Usher genes and compare the costs and workload of this approach compared to Sanger sequencing. We also present a bioinformatics analysis pipeline that allows us to detect single-nucleotide variants, short insertions and deletions, as well as copy number variations of one or more exons on the same sequence data. Additionally, we present a flexible in silico gene panel for the analysis of sequence variants, in which newly identified genes can easily be included. We applied this approach to a cohort of 44 Usher patients and detected biallelic pathogenic mutations in 35 individuals and monoallelic mutations in eight individuals of our cohort. Thirty-nine of the sequence variants, including two heterozygous deletions comprising several exons of USH2A, have not been reported so far. Our NGS-based approach allowed us to assess single-nucleotide variants, small indels, and whole exon deletions in a single test. The described diagnostic approach is fast and cost-effective with a high molecular diagnostic yield. PMID:25333064

Krawitz, Peter M; Schiska, Daniela; Krüger, Ulrike; Appelt, Sandra; Heinrich, Verena; Parkhomchuk, Dmitri; Timmermann, Bernd; Millan, Jose M; Robinson, Peter N; Mundlos, Stefan; Hecht, Jochen; Gross, Manfred

2014-09-01

308

A Deletion in FOXN1 Is Associated with a Syndrome Characterized by Congenital Hypotrichosis and Short Life Expectancy in Birman Cats  

PubMed Central

An autosomal recessive syndrome characterized by congenital hypotrichosis and short life expectancy has been described in the Birman cat breed (Felis silvestris catus). We hypothesized that a FOXN1 (forkhead box N1) loss-of-function allele, associated with the nude phenotype in humans, mice and rats, may account for the syndrome observed in Birman cats. To the best of our knowledge, spontaneous mutations in FOXN1 have never been described in non-human, non-rodent mammalian species. We identified a recessive c.1030_1033delCTGT deletion in FOXN1 in Birman cats. This 4-bp deletion was associated with the syndrome when present in two copies. Percentage of healthy carriers in our French panel of genotyped Birman cats was estimated to be 3.2%. The deletion led to a frameshift and a premature stop codon at position 547 in the protein. In silico, the truncated FOXN1 protein was predicted to lack the activation domain and critical parts of the forkhead DNA binding domain, both involved in the interaction between FOXN1 and its targets, a mandatory step to promote normal hair and thymic epithelial development. Our results enlarge the panel of recessive FOXN1 loss-of-function alleles described in mammals. A DNA test is available; it will help owners avoid matings at risk and should prevent the dissemination of this morbid mutation in domestic felines. PMID:25781316

Abitbol, Marie; Bossé, Philippe; Thomas, Anne; Tiret, Laurent

2015-01-01

309

The gene for replication factor C subunit 2 (RFC2) is within the 7q11.23 Williams syndrome deletion  

SciTech Connect

Williams syndrome (WS) is a developmental disorder with multiple system manifestations, including supraval var aortic stenosis (SVAS), peripheral pulmonic stenosis, connective tissue abnormalities, short stature, characteristic personality profile and cognitive deficits, and variable hypercalcemia in infancy. It is caused by heterozygosity for a chromosomal deletion of part of band 7q11.23 including the elastin locus (ELN). Since disruption of the ELN gene causes autosomal dominant SVAS, it is assumed that ELN haploinsufficiency is responsible for the cardiovascular features of WS. The deletion that extends from the ELN locus in both directions is {ge}200 kb in size, although estimates of {ge}2 Mb are suggested by high-resolution chromosome banding and physical mapping studies. We have searched for additional dosage-sensitive genes within the deletion that may be responsible for the noncardiovascular features. We report here that the gene for replication factor C subunit 2 (RFC2) maps within the WS deletion region and was found to be deleted in all of 18 WS patients studied. The protein product of RFC2 is part of a multimeric complex involved in DNA elongation during replication. 14 refs., 3 figs.

Peoples, R.; Perez-Jurado, L.; Francke, U.; Yu-Ker Wang [Stanford Univ. Medical Center, CA (United States); Kaplan, P. [Children`s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA (United States)

1996-06-01

310

A cognitive decline precedes the onset of psychosis in patients with the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome  

PubMed Central

Importance Patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) have an elevated (25%) risk for developing schizophrenia. Recent reports have suggested that a subgroup of children with 22q11DS display a substantial decline in cognitive abilities, starting at a young age. Objective To determine whether early cognitive decline is associated with risk of psychotic disorder in 22q11DS. Design, setting and participants As part of an international research consortium initiative, we used the largest dataset of intelligence (IQ) measurements in subjects with 22q11DS reported to date in order to investigate longitudinal IQ trajectories and the risk of subsequent psychotic illness. A total of 829 subjects with a confirmed hemizygous 22q11.2 deletion, recruited through 12 international clinical research sites, were included. Both psychiatric assessment and longitudinal IQ measurements were available for a subset of 411 subjects (388 with ?1 assessment at age 8 to 24 years). Main outcome measures Diagnosis of a psychotic disorder, longitudinal IQ trajectory and initial IQ, as well as timing of the last psychiatric assessment with respect to the last IQ test. Results On average, children with 22q11DS showed a mild decline in full scale IQ (7 points) with increasing age, particularly in the domain of verbal IQ (9 points). In those who developed psychotic illness (47/388) this decline was significantly steeper (p<0.0001). Those with a negative deviation from the average cognitive trajectory observed in 22q11DS were at significantly increased risk for the development of a psychotic disorder (OR=2.49, 95% CI 1.24–5.00, p=0.01). The divergence of verbal IQ trajectories between those who subsequently developed a psychotic disorder and those who did not was distinguishable from the age of 11 years onwards. Conclusions and relevance In 22q11DS early cognitive decline is a robust indicator of the risk of developing a psychotic illness. These findings mirror those observed in idiopathic schizophrenia. The results provide further support for investigations of 22q11DS as a genetic model for elucidating neurobiological mechanisms underlying the development of psychosis. PMID:25715178

Vorstman, Jacob A.S.; Breetvelt, Elemi J; Duijff, Sasja N.; Eliez, Stephan; Schneider, Maude; Jalbrzikowski, Maria; Armando, Marco; Vicari, Stefano; Shashi, Vandana; Hooper, Stephen R.; Chow, Eva W.C.; Fung, Wai Lun Alan; Butcher, Nancy J.; Young, Donald A.; McDonald-McGinn, Donna M.; Vogels, Annick; van Amelsvoort, Therese; Gothelf, Doron; Weinberger, Ronnie; Weizman, Abraham; Klaassen, Petra WJ; Koops, Sanne; Kates, Wendy R.; Antshel, Kevin M.; Simon, Tony J.; Ousley, Opal Y.; Swillen, Ann; Gur, Raquel E.; Bearden, Carrie E.; Kahn, René S.; Bassett, Anne S.

2015-01-01

311

Deletions Involving Long-Range Conserved Nongenic Sequences Upstream and Downstream of FOXL2 as a Novel Disease-Causing Mechanism in Blepharophimosis Syndrome  

PubMed Central

The expression of a gene requires not only a normal coding sequence but also intact regulatory regions, which can be located at large distances from the target genes, as demonstrated for an increasing number of developmental genes. In previous mutation studies of the role of FOXL2 in blepharophimosis syndrome (BPES), we identified intragenic mutations in 70% of our patients. Three translocation breakpoints upstream of FOXL2 in patients with BPES suggested a position effect. Here, we identified novel microdeletions outside of FOXL2 in cases of sporadic and familial BPES. Specifically, four rearrangements, with an overlap of 126 kb, are located 230 kb upstream of FOXL2, telomeric to the reported translocation breakpoints. Moreover, the shortest region of deletion overlap (SRO) contains several conserved nongenic sequences (CNGs) harboring putative transcription-factor binding sites and representing potential long-range cis-regulatory elements. Interestingly, the human region orthologous to the 12-kb sequence deleted in the polled intersex syndrome in goat, which is an animal model for BPES, is contained in this SRO, providing evidence of human-goat conservation of FOXL2 expression and of the mutational mechanism. Surprisingly, in a fifth family with BPES, one rearrangement was found downstream of FOXL2. In addition, we report nine novel rearrangements encompassing FOXL2 that range from partial gene deletions to submicroscopic deletions. Overall, genomic rearrangements encompassing or outside of FOXL2 account for 16% of all molecular defects found in our families with BPES. In summary, this is the first report of extragenic deletions in BPES, providing further evidence of potential long-range cis-regulatory elements regulating FOXL2 expression. It contributes to the enlarging group of developmental diseases caused by defective distant regulation of gene expression. Finally, we demonstrate that CNGs are candidate regions for genomic rearrangements in developmental genes. PMID:15962237

Beysen, D.; Raes, J.; Leroy, B. P.; Lucassen, A.; Yates, J. R. W.; Clayton-Smith, J.; Ilyina, H.; Brooks, S. Sklower; Christin-Maitre, S.; Fellous, M.; Fryns, J. P.; Kim, J. R.; Lapunzina, P.; Lemyre, E.; Meire, F.; Messiaen, L. M.; Oley, C.; Splitt, M.; Thomson, J.; Peer, Y. Van de; Veitia, R. A.; De Paepe, A.; De Baere, E.

2005-01-01

312

Genetic Contributions to Changes of Fiber Tracts of Ventral Visual Stream in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) represent a population at high risk for developing schizophrenia, as well as learning disabilities. Deficits in visuo-spatial memory are thought to underlie some of the cognitive disabilities. Neuronal substrates of visuo-spatial memory include the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF) and the inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), two tracts that comprise the ventral visual stream. Diffusion Tensor Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DT-MRI) is an established method to evaluate white matter (WM) connections in vivo. DT-MRI scans of nine 22q11.2DS young adults and nine matched healthy subjects were acquired. Tractography of the IFOF and the ILF was performed. DT-MRI indices, including Fractional anisotropy (FA) (measure of WM changes), axial diffusivity (AD, measure of axonal changes) and radial diffusivity (RD, measure of myelin changes) of each of the tracts and each group were measured and compared. The 22q11.2DS group showed statistically significant reductions of FA in IFOF in the left hemisphere. Additionally, reductions of AD were found in the IFOF and the ILF in both hemispheres. These findings might be the consequence of axonal changes, which is possibly due to fewer, thinner, or less organized fibers. No changes in RD were detected in any of the tracts delineated, which is in contrast to findings in schizophrenia patients where increases in RD are believed to be indicative of demyelination. We conclude that reduced axonal changes may be key to understanding the underlying pathology of WM leading to the visuo-spatial phenotype in 22q11.2DS. PMID:23612843

Kikinis, Zora; Makris, Nikos; Finn, Christine T.; Bouix, Sylvain; Lucia, Diandra; Coleman, Michael J.; Tworog-Dube, Erica; Kikinis, Ron; Kucherlapati, Raju; Shenton, Martha E.; Kubicki, Marek

2013-01-01

313

Whole-Genome SNP Association in the Horse: Identification of a Deletion in Myosin Va Responsible for Lavender Foal Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Lavender Foal Syndrome (LFS) is a lethal inherited disease of horses with a suspected autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. LFS has been primarily diagnosed in a subgroup of the Arabian breed, the Egyptian Arabian horse. The condition is characterized by multiple neurological abnormalities and a dilute coat color. Candidate genes based on comparative phenotypes in mice and humans include the ras-associated protein RAB27a (RAB27A) and myosin Va (MYO5A). Here we report mapping of the locus responsible for LFS using a small set of 36 horses segregating for LFS. These horses were genotyped using a newly available single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip containing 56,402 discriminatory elements. The whole genome scan identified an associated region containing these two functional candidate genes. Exon sequencing of the MYO5A gene from an affected foal revealed a single base deletion in exon 30 that changes the reading frame and introduces a premature stop codon. A PCR–based Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR–RFLP) assay was designed and used to investigate the frequency of the mutant gene. All affected horses tested were homozygous for this mutation. Heterozygous carriers were detected in high frequency in families segregating for this trait, and the frequency of carriers in unrelated Egyptian Arabians was 10.3%. The mapping and discovery of the LFS mutation represents the first successful use of whole-genome SNP scanning in the horse for any trait. The RFLP assay can be used to assist breeders in avoiding carrier-to-carrier matings and thus in preventing the birth of affected foals. PMID:20419149

Brooks, Samantha A.; Gabreski, Nicole; Miller, Donald; Brisbin, Abra; Brown, Helen E.; Streeter, Cassandra; Mezey, Jason; Cook, Deborah; Antczak, Douglas F.

2010-01-01

314

Ranbp1, Deleted in DiGeorge/22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome, is a Microcephaly Gene That Selectively Disrupts Layer 2/3 Cortical Projection Neuron Generation.  

PubMed

Ranbp1, a Ran GTPase-binding protein implicated in nuclear/cytoplasmic trafficking, is included within the DiGeorge/22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11.2 DS) critical region associated with behavioral impairments including autism and schizophrenia. Ranbp1 is highly expressed in the developing forebrain ventricular/subventricular zone but has no known obligate function during brain development. We assessed the role of Ranbp1 in a targeted mouse mutant. Ranbp1(-/-) mice are not recovered live at birth, and over 60% of Ranbp1(-/-) embryos are exencephalic. Non-exencephalic Ranbp1(-/-) embryos are microcephalic, and proliferation of cortical progenitors is altered. At E10.5, radial progenitors divide more slowly in the Ranpb1(-/-) dorsal pallium. At E14.5, basal, but not apical/radial glial progenitors, are compromised in the cortex. In both E10.5 apical and E14.5 basal progenitors, M phase of the cell cycle appears selectively retarded by loss of Ranpb1 function. Ranbp1(-/-)-dependent proliferative deficits substantially diminish the frequency of layer 2/3, but not layer 5/6 cortical projection neurons. Ranbp1(-/-) cortical phenotypes parallel less severe alterations in LgDel mice that carry a deletion parallel to many (but not all) 22q11.2 DS patients. Thus, Ranbp1 emerges as a microcephaly gene within the 22q11.2 deleted region that may contribute to altered cortical precursor proliferation and neurogenesis associated with broader 22q11.2 deletion. PMID:25452572

Paronett, Elizabeth M; Meechan, Daniel W; Karpinski, Beverly A; LaMantia, Anthony-Samuel; Maynard, Thomas M

2014-12-01

315

ES2, a gene deleted in DiGeorge syndrome, encodes a nuclear protein and is expressed during early mouse development, where it shares an expression domain with a Goosecoid-like gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

ES2 is a gene deleted in DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) and velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS) which has homologs in species as distant as Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila. The function of ES2 is unknown, and the predicted protein sequence does not contain motifs which suggest a particular role in the developmental defects present in DGS and VCFS. Here we show that the mouse

Elizabeth A. Lindsay; Emma L. Harvey; Peter J. Scambler; Antonio Baldini

1998-01-01

316

Spontaneous Kearns-Sayre/chronic external ophthalmoplegia plus syndrome associated with a mitochondrial DNA deletion: a slip-replication model and metabolic therapy.  

PubMed Central

The muscle mitochondria of a patient with Kearns-Sayre/chronic external ophthalmoplegia plus syndrome were found to be completely deficient in respiratory complex I activity and partially deficient in complex IV and V activities. Treatment of the patient with coenzyme Q10 and succinate resulted in clinical improvement of respiratory function, consistent with the respiratory deficiencies. Restriction enzyme analysis of the muscle mtDNA revealed a 4.9-kilobase deletion in 50% of the mtDNA molecules. Polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated that the deletion was present in the patient's muscle but not in her lymphocytes or platelets. Furthermore, the deletion was not present in the muscle or platelets of two sisters. Hence, the mutation probably occurred in the patient's somatic cells. Direct sequencing of polymerase chain reaction-amplified DNA revealed a 4977-base-pair deletion removing four genes for subunits of complex I, one gene for complex IV, two genes for complex V, and five genes for tRNAs, which paralleled the respiratory enzymes affected in the disease. A 13-base-pair direct repeat was observed upstream from both breakpoints. Relative to the direction of heavy-strand replication, the first repeat was retained and the second repeat was deleted, suggesting a slip-replication mechanism. Sequence analysis of the human mtDNA revealed many direct repeats of 10 base pairs or greater, indicating that this mechanism could account for other reported deletions. We postulate that the prevalence of direct repeats in the mtDNA is a consequence of the guanine-cytosine bias of the heavy and light strands. Images PMID:2554297

Shoffner, J M; Lott, M T; Voljavec, A S; Soueidan, S A; Costigan, D A; Wallace, D C

1989-01-01

317

The polymorphic subtelomeric regions of Plasmodium falciparum chromosomes contain arrays of repetitive sequence elements.  

PubMed Central

The human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum exhibits a high degree of chromosomal polymorphism, which may contribute to its ability to evade host defenses. The analysis of parasite chromosomes has revealed that these polymorphisms are confined to the subtelomeric regions, which are transcriptionally silent and contain repetitive sequence elements. Several subtelomeric repetitive elements have been isolated and mapped by using P. falciparum yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) clones. Structural analysis of parasite telomeric and subtelomeric YAC clones demonstrated that these repetitive elements are conserved between P. falciparum chromosome ends. We suggest that these subtelomeric elements promote chromosome pairing in P. falciparum and facilitate meiotic recombination and gene conversion between telomere-proximal genes. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8290573

de Bruin, D; Lanzer, M; Ravetch, J V

1994-01-01

318

Two families with isolated cat cry without the cri-du-chat syndrome phenotype have an inherited 5p15.3 deletion: Delineation of the larynx malformation region  

SciTech Connect

The cri-du-chat syndrome is a contiguous gene syndrome that results from a deletion of the short arm of chromosome 5 (5p). Patients present with a cat-like cry at birth that is usually considered diagnostic of this syndrome. Additional features of the syndrome include failure to thrive, microcephaly, hypertelorism, epicanthal folds, hypotonia, and severe mental retardation. We report on two families in which the patients with 5p deletions have only the characteristic cat-like cry with normal to mildly delayed development. One family has three children with varying levels of developmental delay and a deletion of 5p15.3 that was inherited from the father. The second family has a mother and daughter both presenting with a cat-like cry and normal intelligence. A de novo deletion in a patient with isolated cat cry and mild developmental delay was also identified. The precise locations of the deletions in each family were determined by fluorescent in situ hybridization using lambda phage, cosmids, and YAC clones. Cryptic translocations and mosaicism were not detected in the parents transmitting the deletion. All of the deletion breakpoints map distal to the previously defined cri-du-chat critical region. A YAC contig has been constructed for the chromosomal region implicated in the larynx malformation. DNA clones mapping in this region will be useful diagnostic tools for delineating 5p deletions that result in the typical features of cri-du-chat syndrome with deletions that result in the isolated cat-like cry feature which is associated with a better prognosis.

Gersh, M.; Overhauser, J. [Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Pasztor, L.M. [Children`s Mercy Hospital, Kansas City, MO (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

319

Mapping Genetically Controlled Neural Circuits of Social Behavior and Visuo-Motor Integration by a Preliminary Examination of Atypical Deletions with Williams Syndrome  

PubMed Central

In this study of eight rare atypical deletion cases with Williams-Beuren syndrome (WS; also known as 7q11.23 deletion syndrome) consisting of three different patterns of deletions, compared to typical WS and typically developing (TD) individuals, we show preliminary evidence of dissociable genetic contributions to brain structure and human cognition. Univariate and multivariate pattern classification results of morphometric brain patterns complemented by behavior implicate a possible role for the chromosomal region that includes: 1) GTF2I/GTF2IRD1 in visuo-spatial/motor integration, intraparietal as well as overall gray matter structures, 2) the region spanning ABHD11 through RFC2 including LIMK1, in social cognition, in particular approachability, as well as orbitofrontal, amygdala and fusiform anatomy, and 3) the regions including STX1A, and/or CYLN2 in overall white matter structure. This knowledge contributes to our understanding of the role of genetics on human brain structure, cognition and pathophysiology of altered cognition in WS. The current study builds on ongoing research designed to characterize the impact of multiple genes, gene-gene interactions and changes in gene expression on the human brain. PMID:25105779

Hoeft, Fumiko; Dai, Li; Haas, Brian W.; Sheau, Kristen; Mimura, Masaru; Mills, Debra; Galaburda, Albert; Bellugi, Ursula

2014-01-01

320

Isolation of a transcription factor expressed in neural crest from the region of 22q11 deleted in DiGeorge syndrome  

SciTech Connect

Deletions within chromosome 22q11 cause a wide variety of birth defects including DiGeorge syndrome and Shprintzen syndrome. We have defined a commonly deleted region of over 2 Mb, and a critical region of 300 kb. A gene, TUPLE1, has been isolated from this critical region encoding a transcriptional regulator similar to the yeast HIR1 histone regulator gene. Since it has been suggested that DGS results from a defective neural crest, the expression of Tuple1 was examined in whole mouse and chick embryos, tissue sections and neural tube explants: Tuple1 is expressed in a dynamic pattern with high levels in regions containing migrating crest. Prior to crest migration Tuple1 is expressed in a rhombomere-specific expression pattern. Later Tuple1 is expressed in discrete domains within the developing neural tube. A remarkable feature of the experiments was the detection of a similar dynamic pattern with sense probe; i.e., there is an antisense Tuple1 transcript. This was confirmed using RPA. Tuple1 is being screened for mutations in non-deletion patients and constructs assembled for homologous recombination in ES cells. Tuple1 maps to MMU16 extending the homology of linkage with human chromosome 22. From these data we predict that the human homologue of the murine scid mutation maps to 22q11.

Wadey, R.; Roberts, C.; Daw, S. [and others

1994-09-01

321

Identification of Nine New RAI1-Truncating Mutations in Smith-Magenis Syndrome Patients without 17p11.2 Deletions  

PubMed Central

Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is an intellectual disability syndrome with sleep disturbance, self-injurious behaviors and dysmorphic features. It is estimated to occur in 1/25,000 births, and in 90% of cases it is associated with interstitial deletions of chromosome 17p11.2. RAI1 (retinoic acid induced 1; OMIM 607642) mutations are the second most frequent molecular etiology, with this gene being located in the SMS locus at 17p11.2. Here, we report 9 new RAI1-truncating mutations in nonrelated individuals referred for molecular analysis due to a possible SMS diagnosis. None of these patients carried a 17p11.2 deletion. The 9 mutations include 2 nonsense mutations and 7 heterozygous frameshift mutations leading to protein truncation. All mutations map in exon 3 of RAI1 which codes for more than 98% of the protein. RAI1 regulates gene transcription, and its targets are themselves involved in transcriptional regulation, cell growth and cell cycle regulation, bone and skeletal development, lipid and glucide metabolisms, neurological development, behavioral functions, and circadian activity. We report the clinical features of the patients carrying these deleterious mutations in comparison with those of patients carrying 17p11.2 deletions. PMID:24715852

Dubourg, C.; Bonnet-Brilhault, F.; Toutain, A.; Mignot, C.; Jacquette, A.; Dieux, A.; Gérard, M.; Beaumont-Epinette, M.-P.; Julia, S.; Isidor, B.; Rossi, M.; Odent, S.; Bendavid, C.; Barthélémy, C.; Verloes, A.; David, V.

2014-01-01

322

Identification of Nine New RAI1-Truncating Mutations in Smith-Magenis Syndrome Patients without 17p11.2 Deletions.  

PubMed

Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is an intellectual disability syndrome with sleep disturbance, self-injurious behaviors and dysmorphic features. It is estimated to occur in 1/25,000 births, and in 90% of cases it is associated with interstitial deletions of chromosome 17p11.2. RAI1 (retinoic acid induced 1; OMIM 607642) mutations are the second most frequent molecular etiology, with this gene being located in the SMS locus at 17p11.2. Here, we report 9 new RAI1-truncating mutations in nonrelated individuals referred for molecular analysis due to a possible SMS diagnosis. None of these patients carried a 17p11.2 deletion. The 9 mutations include 2 nonsense mutations and 7 heterozygous frameshift mutations leading to protein truncation. All mutations map in exon 3 of RAI1 which codes for more than 98% of the protein. RAI1 regulates gene transcription, and its targets are themselves involved in transcriptional regulation, cell growth and cell cycle regulation, bone and skeletal development, lipid and glucide metabolisms, neurological development, behavioral functions, and circadian activity. We report the clinical features of the patients carrying these deleterious mutations in comparison with those of patients carrying 17p11.2 deletions. PMID:24715852

Dubourg, C; Bonnet-Brilhault, F; Toutain, A; Mignot, C; Jacquette, A; Dieux, A; Gérard, M; Beaumont-Epinette, M-P; Julia, S; Isidor, B; Rossi, M; Odent, S; Bendavid, C; Barthélémy, C; Verloes, A; David, V

2014-02-01

323

Molecular dissection of a contiguous gene syndrome: Frequent submicroscopic deletions, evolutionarily conserved sequences, and a hypomethylated island in the Miller-Dieker chromosome region  

SciTech Connect

The Miller-Dieker syndrome (MDS), composed of characteristic facial abnormalities and a severe neuronal migration disorder affecting the cerebral cortex, is caused by visible or submicroscopic deletions of chromosome band 17p13. Twelve anonymous DNA markers were tested against a panel of somatic cell hybrids containing 17p deletions from seven MDS patients. All patients, including three with normal karyotypes, are deleted for a variable set of 5-12 markers. Two highly polymorphic VNTR (variable number of tandem repeats) probes, YNZ22 and YNH37, are codeleted in all patients tested and make molecular diagnosis for this disorder feasible. By pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, YNZ22 and YNH37 were shown to be within 30 kilobases (kb) of each other. Cosmid clones containing both VNTR sequences were identified, and restriction mapping showed them to be <15 kb apart. Three overlapping cosmids spanning >100 kb were completely deleted in all patients, providing a minimum estimate of the size of the MDS critical region. A hypomethylated island and evolutionarily conserved sequences were identified within this 100-kb region, indications of the presence of one or more expressed sequences potentially involved in the pathophysiology of this disorder. The conserved sequences were mapped to mouse chromosome 11 by using mouse-rat somatic cell hybrids, extending the remarkable homology between human chromosome 17 and mouse chromosome 11 by 30 centimorgans, into the 17p telomere region.

Ledbetter, D.H.; Ledbetter, S.A.; vanTuinen, P.; Summers, K.M.; Robinson, T.J.; Nakamura, Yusuke; Wolff, R.; White, R.; Barker, D.F.; Wallace, M.R.; Collins, F.S.; Dobyns, W.B. (Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (USA))

1989-07-01

324

A novel human homologue of the Drosophila frizzled wnt receptor gene binds wingless protein and is in the Williams syndrome deletion at 7q11.23.  

PubMed

Williams syndrome (WS) is a developmental disorder with a characteristic personality and cognitive profile that is associated, in most cases, with a 2 Mb deletion of part of chromosome band 7q11.23. By applying CpG island cloning methods to cosmids from the deletion region, we have identified a new gene, called FZD3. Dosage blotting of DNA from 11 WS probands confirmed that it is located within the commonly deleted region. Sequence comparisons revealed that FZD3, encoding a 591 amino acid protein, is a novel member of a seven transmembrane domain receptor family that are mammalian homologs of the Drosophila tissue polarity gene frizzled. FZD3 is expressed predominantly in brain, testis, eye, skeletal muscle and kidney. Recently, frizzled has been identified as the receptor for the wingless (wg) protein in Drosophila. We show that Drosophila as well as human cells, when transfected with FZD3 expression constructs, bind Wg protein. In mouse, the wg homologous Wnt1 gene is involved in early development of a large domain of the central nervous system encompassing much of the midbrain and rostral metencephalon. The potential function of FZD3 in transmitting a Wnt protein signal in the human brain and other tissues suggests that heterozygous deletion of the FZD3 gene could contribute to the WS phenotype. PMID:9147651

Wang, Y K; Samos, C H; Peoples, R; Pérez-Jurado, L A; Nusse, R; Francke, U

1997-03-01

325

A 3.7 Mb Deletion Encompassing ZEB2 Causes a Novel Polled and Multisystemic Syndrome in the Progeny of a Somatic Mosaic Bull  

PubMed Central

Polled and Multisystemic Syndrome (PMS) is a novel developmental disorder occurring in the progeny of a single bull. Its clinical spectrum includes polledness (complete agenesis of horns), facial dysmorphism, growth delay, chronic diarrhea, premature ovarian failure, and variable neurological and cardiac anomalies. PMS is also characterized by a deviation of the sex-ratio, suggesting male lethality during pregnancy. Using Mendelian error mapping and whole-genome sequencing, we identified a 3.7 Mb deletion on the paternal bovine chromosome 2 encompassing ARHGAP15, GTDC1 and ZEB2 genes. We then produced control and affected 90-day old fetuses to characterize this syndrome by histological and expression analyses. Compared to wild type individuals, affected animals showed a decreased expression of the three deleted genes. Based on a comparison with human Mowat-Wilson syndrome, we suggest that deletion of ZEB2, is responsible for most of the effects of the mutation. Finally sperm-FISH, embryo genotyping and analysis of reproduction records confirmed somatic mosaicism in the founder bull and male-specific lethality during the first third of gestation. In conclusion, we identified a novel locus involved in bovid horn ontogenesis and suggest that epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition plays a critical role in horn bud differentiation. We also provide new insights into the pathogenicity of ZEB2 loss of heterozygosity in bovine and humans and describe the first case of male-specific lethality associated with an autosomal locus in a non-murine mammalian species. This result sets PMS as a unique model to study sex-specific gene expression/regulation. PMID:23152852

Capitan, Aurélien; Allais-Bonnet, Aurélie; Pinton, Alain; Marquant-Le Guienne, Brigitte; Le Bourhis, Daniel; Grohs, Cécile; Bouet, Stéphan; Clément, Laëtitia; Salas-Cortes, Laura; Venot, Eric; Chaffaux, Stéphane; Weiss, Bernard; Delpeuch, Arnaud; Noé, Guy; Rossignol, Marie-Noëlle; Barbey, Sarah; Dozias, Dominique; Cobo, Emilie; Barasc, Harmonie; Auguste, Aurélie; Pannetier, Maëlle; Deloche, Marie-Christine; Lhuilier, Emeline; Bouchez, Olivier; Esquerré, Diane; Salin, Gérald; Klopp, Christophe; Donnadieu, Cécile; Chantry-Darmon, Céline; Hayes, Hélène; Gallard, Yves; Ponsart, Claire; Boichard, Didier; Pailhoux, Eric

2012-01-01

326

Utero-vaginal aplasia (Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome) associated with deletions in known DiGeorge or DiGeorge-like loci  

PubMed Central

Background Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome is characterized by congenital aplasia of the uterus and the upper part of the vagina in women showing normal development of secondary sexual characteristics and a normal 46, XX karyotype. The uterovaginal aplasia is either isolated (type I) or more frequently associated with other malformations (type II or Müllerian Renal Cervico-thoracic Somite (MURCS) association), some of which belong to the malformation spectrum of DiGeorge phenotype (DGS). Its etiology remains poorly understood. Thus the phenotypic manifestations of MRKH and DGS overlap suggesting a possible genetic link. This would potentially have clinical consequences. Methods We searched DiGeorge critical chromosomal regions for chromosomal anomalies in a cohort of 57 subjects with uterovaginal aplasia (55 women and 2 aborted fetuses). For this candidate locus approach, we used a multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) assay based on a kit designed for investigation of the chromosomal regions known to be involved in DGS. The deletions detected were validated by Duplex PCR/liquid chromatography (DP/LC) and/or array-CGH analysis. Results We found deletions in four probands within the four chromosomal loci 4q34-qter, 8p23.1, 10p14 and 22q11.2 implicated in almost all cases of DGS syndrome. Conclusion Uterovaginal aplasia appears to be an additional feature of the broad spectrum of the DGS phenotype. The DiGeorge critical chromosomal regions may be candidate loci for a subset of MRKH syndrome (MURCS association) individuals. However, the genes mapping at the sites of these deletions involved in uterovaginal anomalies remain to be determined. These findings have consequences for clinical investigations, the care of patients and their relatives, and genetic counseling. PMID:21406098

2011-01-01

327

16q subtelomeric deletion in proband with congenital malformations and mental retardation.  

PubMed

We present a female child with mild mental retardation and congenital malformations. After fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) we found only abnormal karyotype in all cells. We used rapid FISH and original DNA probes--PAC62.10.1 and PAC20.19.N, specific for segments of chromosome 16q24. Karyotype of proband 46,XX.ish del(16)(q24.2:) (PAC20.19.N,PAC62.10.1-). Parent karyotypes are normal. This case may suggest the presence of clinical picture 16q- with defined clinical polymorphism at small telomeric loss, and also its necessary of the use of molecular-cytogenetic techniques in genetic departments. PMID:11394378

Vorsanova, S G; Yurov, Y B; Kolotii, A D; Demidova, I A; Novikova, I M

2000-01-01

328

A Novel Deletion Mutation of SLC16A2 Encoding Monocarboxylate Transporter (MCT) 8 in a 26-year-old Japanese Patient with Allan-Herndon-Dudley Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Allan-Herndon-Dudley Syndrome (AHDS), an X linked condition, is characterized by congenital hypotonia that progresses to spasticity with severe psychomotor delays, in combination with altered thyroid hormone levels, in particular, high serum T3 levels. Recently, this disease was proved to be caused by mutations in SLC16A2 coding for the monocarboxylate thyroid hormone transporter 8 (MCT8). Here we describe a 26-year -old Japanese patient with AHDS who had deletion of exon 3 of SLC16A2. PMID:24170966

Yamamoto, Sayaka; Okuhara, Koji; Tonoki, Hidefumi; Iizuka, Susumu; Nihei, Noriko; Tajima, Toshihiro

2013-01-01

329

A Novel Deletion Mutation of SLC16A2 Encoding Monocarboxylate Transporter (MCT) 8 in a 26-year-old Japanese Patient with Allan-Herndon-Dudley Syndrome.  

PubMed

Allan-Herndon-Dudley Syndrome (AHDS), an X linked condition, is characterized by congenital hypotonia that progresses to spasticity with severe psychomotor delays, in combination with altered thyroid hormone levels, in particular, high serum T3 levels. Recently, this disease was proved to be caused by mutations in SLC16A2 coding for the monocarboxylate thyroid hormone transporter 8 (MCT8). Here we describe a 26-year -old Japanese patient with AHDS who had deletion of exon 3 of SLC16A2. PMID:24170966

Yamamoto, Sayaka; Okuhara, Koji; Tonoki, Hidefumi; Iizuka, Susumu; Nihei, Noriko; Tajima, Toshihiro

2013-10-01

330

Prospective Control Abilities during Visuo-Manual Tracking in Children with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Compared to Age- and IQ-Matched Controls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To examine whether children with a 22q11.2 Deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) are able to use prospective control, 21 children with 22q11.2DS (mean age=9.6 [plus or minus] 1.9; mean FSIQ=73.05 [plus or minus] 10.2) and 21 control children (mean age=9.6 [plus or minus] 1.9; mean FSIQ=73.38 [plus or minus] 12.0) were asked to perform a visuo-manual…

Van Aken, Katrijn; Swillen, Ann; Beirinckx, Marc; Janssens, Luc; Caeyenberghs, Karen; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien

2010-01-01

331

The 30-Amino-Acid Deletion in the Nsp2 of Highly Pathogenic Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Emerging in China Is Not Related to Its Virulence?  

PubMed Central

During the past 2 years, an atypical clinical outbreak, caused by a highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) with a unique 30-amino-acid deletion in its Nsp2-coding region, was pandemic in China. In this study, we generated four full-length infectious cDNA clones: a clone of the highly virulent PRRSV strain JXwn06 (pWSK-JXwn), a clone of the low-virulence PRRSV strain HB-1/3.9 (pWSK-HB-1/3.9), a chimeric clone in which the Nsp2 region containing the 30-amino-acid deletion was replaced by the corresponding region of the low-virulence PRRSV strain HB-1/3.9 (pWSK-JXwn-HB1nsp2), and a mutated HB-1/3.9 clone with the same deletion in Nsp2 as JXwn06 (pWSK-HB1-ND30). We also investigated the pathogenicities of the rescued viruses (designated RvJXwn, RvJXwn-HB1nsp2, RvHB-1/3.9, and RvHB1-ND30, respectively) in specific-pathogen-free piglets in order to determine the role of the 30-amino-acid deletion in the virulence of the highly pathogenic PRRSV. All the rescued viruses could replicate stably in MARC-145 cells. Our findings indicated that RvJXwn-HB1nsp2 retained high virulence for piglets, like RvJXwn and the parental virus JXwn06, although the survival time of piglets infected with RvJXwn-HB1nsp2 was obviously prolonged. RvHB1-ND30 exhibited low virulence for piglets, like RvHB-1/3.9 and the parental virus HB-1/3.9. Therefore, we conclude that the 30-amino-acid deletion is not related to the virulence of the highly pathogenic PRRSV emerging in China. PMID:19244318

Zhou, Lei; Zhang, Jialong; Zeng, Jingwen; Yin, Shuoyan; Li, Yanhua; Zheng, Linying; Guo, Xin; Ge, Xinna; Yang, Hanchun

2009-01-01

332

CCR2 Gene Deletion and Pharmacologic Blockade Ameliorate a Severe Murine Experimental Autoimmune Neuritis Model of Guillain-Barré Syndrome  

PubMed Central

The molecular determinants and signaling pathways responsible for hematogenous leukocyte trafficking during peripheral neuroinflammation are incompletely elucidated. Chemokine ligand/receptor pair CCL2/CCR2 has been pathogenically implicated in the acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). We evaluated the role of CCR2 in peripheral neuroinflammation utilizing a severe murine experimental autoimmune neuritis (sm-EAN) model. Sm-EAN was induced in 8–12 week old female SJL CCR2 knockout (CCR2KO), heterozygote (CCR2HT) and wild type (CCR2WT) mice, and daily neuromuscular severity scores and weights recorded. In vitro and in vivo splenocyte proliferation and cytokine expression assays, and sciatic nerve Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, TLR4 and CCL2 expression assays were performed to evaluate systemic and local innate immune activation at disease onset. Motor nerve electrophysiology and sciatic nerve histology were also performed to characterize the inflammatory neuropathy at expected peak severity. To further determine the functional relevance of CCR2 in sm-EAN, 20 mg/kg CCR2 antagonist, RS 102895 was administered daily for 5 days to a cohort of CCR2WT mice following sm-EAN disease onset, with efficacy compared to 400 mg/kg human intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg). CCR2KO mice were relatively resistant to sm-EAN compared to CCR2WT and CCR2HT mice, associated with attenuated peripheral nerve demyelinating neuritis. Partial CCR2 gene deletion did not confer any protection against sm-EAN. CCR2KO mice demonstrated similar splenocyte activation or proliferation profiles, as well as TLR2, TLR4 and CCL2 expression to CCR2WT or CCR2HT mice, implying a direct role for CCR2 in sm-EAN pathogenesis. CCR2 signaling blockade resulted in rapid, near complete recovery from sm-EAN following disease onset. RS 102895 was significantly more efficacious than IVIg. CCR2 mediates pathogenic hematogenous monocyte trafficking into peripheral nerves, with consequential demyelination in sm-EAN. CCR2 is amenable to pharmacologic blockade, making it a plausible drug target for GBS. PMID:24632828

Yuan, Furong; Yosef, Nejla; Lakshmana Reddy, Chetan; Huang, Ailing; Chiang, Sharon C.; Tithi, Hafiza Rahman; Ubogu, Eroboghene E.

2014-01-01

333

A Longitudinal Examination of the Psychoeducational, Neurocognitive, and Psychiatric Functioning in Children with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome  

PubMed Central

The present study sought to examine the longitudinal psychoeducational, neurocognitive, and psychiatric outcomes of children and adolescents with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), a population with a high incidence of major psychiatric illnesses appearing in late adolescence/early adulthood. Little is known of the developmental changes that occur in the early teen years, prior to the age of highest psychosis risk. Data were collected from 71 participants (42 subjects with 22q11DS and 29 control subjects) at Time 1 (T1) and Time 2 (T2), approximately 3.5 years later. The 22q11DS group was significantly lower functioning than controls on IQ, neurocognition, and academic achievement at both T1 and T2. Children with 22q11DS also showed significantly greater social-behavioral difficulties and psychiatric symptoms, and were more likely to meet criteria for psychiatric disorders at both time points. In evaluating change over time from T1 to T2, the 22q11DS group did not show significant changes in psychoeducational or psychiatric outcomes relative to the controls, however, lack of expected age-related gains in attention regulation were noted. Within the 22q11DS group, an increase in the Attenuated Prodrome for Schizophrenia (number of psychiatric symptoms) was noted from T1 to T2 and four children with 22q11DS met criteria for Psychosis for the first time. Predictors at T1 that uncovered psychopathology symptoms at T2 included full-scale IQ, externalizing symptoms, and problem social behaviors. Overall, younger adolescent and preadolescent children with 22q11DS in this study exhibited slowed growth in attention regulation, with an increase in subclinical symptoms of schizophrenia, suggestive of increasing impairments in domains that are relevant to the high risk of Schizophrenia. Early predictors of later psychopathology included both cognitive and behavioral abnormalities. These findings begin to elucidate the trajectory of changes in psychopathology in children with 22q11DS in the years leading up to the onset of major psychiatric illnesses. PMID:23506790

Hooper, Stephen R.; Curtiss, Kathleen; Schoch, Kelly; Keshavan, Matcheri S.; Allen, Andrew; Shashi, Vandana

2013-01-01

334

Renal-retinal syndromes: association of retinal anomalies and recessive nephronophthisis in patients with homozygous deletion of the NPH1 locus.  

PubMed

Tapeto-retinal degeneration is frequent in patients with nephronophthisis. Association of the most severe forms of tapeto-retinal dystrophy with NPH identifies a syndrome described first by Senior et al and Loken et al. This syndrome is distinct on molecular grounds from pure renal nephronophthisis (NPH1), which has its gene locus mapped on chromosome 2q13. We describe three families with large homozygous deletion of the NPH1 locus in which mild to moderate ocular lesions due to tapeto-retinal degeneration coexisted and were correlated to renal defects. This new association of NPH1 with retinal dystrophy is characterized by focal lesions of retina and is pauci-symptomatic in clinical presentation. For this reason it may remain unrecognized in most NPH1 patients. PMID:9856524

Caridi, G; Murer, L; Bellantuono, R; Sorino, P; Caringella, D A; Gusmano, R; Ghiggeri, G M

1998-12-01

335

Chromosome 20p inverted duplication deletion identified in a Thai female adult with mental retardation, obesity, chronic kidney disease and characteristic facial features.  

PubMed

We report on a 21-year-old Thai woman presenting with mental retardation, developmental delays, selective mutism, distinctive facial features, sensorineural hearing loss, single right kidney, uterine didelphys and obesity. A longitudinal clinical course beginning in childhood revealed excessive weight gain, poor language skills and poor school performance. Chronic kidney disease stage 4, with elevated blood pressure, was first noted in adulthood. Array comparative genomic hybridization detected a copy loss at 20p13 co-existing with a copy gain at 20p13-20p11.22. A conventional cytogenetic study revealed the complex structural rearrangement of chromosome 20 [der (20) dup (20) (p11.2p13) del (20) (p13.pter)]. A FISH analysis, using probes against duplication and deletion regions, confirmed that there was an inverted duplication of p11.2-p13 and a deletion in the subtelomere region. Previous reports have identified this cytogenetic characterization in a Caucasian boy. Therefore, this is the first reported case of chromosome 20p inverted duplication deletion syndrome in an adult from the Southeast Asian population group. PMID:23542666

Trachoo, Objoon; Assanatham, Montira; Jinawath, Natini; Nongnuch, Arkom

2013-06-01

336

Schizophrenia and chromosomal deletions  

SciTech Connect

Recent genetic linkage analysis studies have suggested the presence of a schizophrenia locus on the chromosomal region 22q11-q13. Schizophrenia has also been frequently observed in patients affected with velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS), a disorder frequently associated with deletions within 22q11.1. It has been hypothesized that psychosis in VCFS may be due to deletion of the catechol-o-methyl transferase gene. Prompted by these observations, we screened for 22q11 deletions in a population of 100 schizophrenics selected from the Maryland Epidemiological Sample. Our results show that there are schizophrenic patients carrying a deletion of 22q11.1 and a mild VCFS phenotype that might remain unrecognized. These findings should encourage a search for a schizophrenia-susceptibility gene within the deleted region and alert those in clinical practice to the possible presence of a mild VCFS phenotype associated with schizophrenia. 9 refs.

Lindsay, E.A.; Baldini, A. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Morris, M. A. [Univ. of Geneva School of Medicine, NY (United States)] [and others

1995-06-01

337

A Physical Map of the Mouse shaker-2Region Contains Many of the Genes Commonly Deleted in Smith–Magenis Syndrome (del17p11.2p11.2)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the construction of a physical map of the region of mouse chromosome 11 that encompassesshaker-2(sh2), a model for the human nonsyndromic deafnessDFNB3. DFNB3maps within the common deletion region of Smith–Magenis syndrome (SMS), del(17)(p11.2p11.2). Eleven of the genes mapping within the SMS common deletion region have murine homologs on thesh2physical map. The gene order in this region is not

Frank J. Probst; Ken-Shiung Chen; Qi Zhao; Aihui Wang; Thomas B. Friedman; James R. Lupski; Sally A. Camper

1999-01-01

338

Selective overexpression of Comt in prefrontal cortex rescues schizophrenia-like phenotypes in a mouse model of 22q11 deletion syndrome  

PubMed Central

The 22q11.2 microdeletion is one of the highest genetic risk factors for schizophrenia. It is not well understood which interactions of deleted genes in 22q11.2 regions are responsible for the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, but catechol-O-methytransferase (COMT) is among the candidates. Df1/+ mice are 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) model mice with a hemizygous deletion of 18 genes in the 22q11-related region. Df1/+ mice showed enhanced response to the dopamine D1 agonist, SKF38393, and the N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist, MK801, which can be normalized by a GABAA receptor agonist, bretazenil, or a GABAA ?2/?3 receptor agonist, SL651498. Here, we demonstrated the curing effects of virus-mediated reintroduction of Comt to the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in Df1/+ mice. In contrast, both Comt overexpression and Comt inhibition caused an abnormal responsiveness to Bretazenil, a GABAA receptor agonist in control mice. Comt overexpression increased MK801-induced interneuronal activation and GABA release in the PFC. The expression levels of GABA-related genes such as Gabrb2 (GABAAreceptor ?2), Gad2 (glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (Gad65)) and Reln (Reelin) correlate with a Comt expression level in PFC. Our data suggest that Comt-mediated regulation of GABAergic system might be involved in the behavioral pathogenesis of Df1/+ mice. PMID:22872161

Kimoto, S; Muraki, K; Toritsuka, M; Mugikura, S; Kajiwara, K; Kishimoto, T; Illingworth, E; Tanigaki, K

2012-01-01

339

Currarino Syndrome and HPE Microform Associated with a 2.7-Mb Deletion in 7q36.3 Excluding SHH Gene  

PubMed Central

Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is the most common forebrain defect in humans. It results from incomplete midline cleavage of the prosencephalon and can be caused by environmental and genetic factors. HPE is usually described as a continuum of brain malformations from the most severe alobar HPE to the middle interhemispheric fusion variant or syntelencephaly. A microform of HPE is limited to craniofacial features such as congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis and single central maxillary incisor, without brain malformation. Among the heterogeneous causes of HPE, point mutations and deletions in the SHH gene at 7q36 have been identified as well as extremely rare chromosomal rearrangements in the long-range enhancers of this gene. Here, we report a boy with an HPE microform associated with a Currarino syndrome. Array CGH detected a de novo 2.7-Mb deletion in the 7q36.3 region including the MNX1 gene, usually responsible for the Currarino triad but excluding SHH, which is just outside the deletion. This new case provides further evidence of the importance of the SHH long-range enhancers in the HPE spectrum. PMID:24550762

Coutton, C.; Poreau, B.; Devillard, F.; Durand, C.; Odent, S.; Rozel, C.; Vieville, G.; Amblard, F.; Jouk, P.-S.; Satre, V.

2014-01-01

340

Molecular analysis of the Retinoic Acid Induced 1 gene (RAI1) in patients with suspected Smith-Magenis syndrome without the 17p11.2 deletion.  

PubMed

Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a complex neurobehavioral disorder characterized by multiple congenital anomalies. The syndrome is primarily ascribed to a ?3.7 Mb de novo deletion on chromosome 17p11.2. Haploinsufficiency of multiple genes likely underlies the complex clinical phenotype. RAI1 (Retinoic Acid Induced 1) is recognized as a major gene involved in the SMS phenotype. Extensive genetic and clinical analyses of 36 patients with SMS-like features, but without the 17p11.2 microdeletion, yielded 10 patients with RAI1 variants, including 4 with de novo deleterious mutations, and 6 with novel missense variants, 5 of which were familial. Haplotype analysis showed two major RAI1 haplotypes in our primarily Caucasian cohort; the novel RAI1 variants did not occur in a preferred haplotype. RNA analysis revealed that RAI1 mRNA expression was significantly decreased in cells of patients with the common 17p11.2 deletion, as well as in those with de novo RAI1 variants. Expression levels varied in patients with familial RAI1 variants and in non-17p11.2 deleted patients without identified RAI1 defects. No correlation between SNP haplotype and RAI1 expression was found. Two clinical features, ocular abnormalities and polyembolokoilomania (object insertion), were significantly correlated with decreased RAI1 expression. While not significantly correlated, the presence of hearing loss, seizures, hoarse voice, childhood onset of obesity and specific behavioral aspects and the absence of immunologic abnormalities and cardiovascular or renal structural anomalies, appeared to be specific for the de novo RAI1 subgroup. Recognition of the combination of these features will assist in referral for RAI1 analysis of patients with SMS-like features without detectable microdeletion of 17p11.2. Moreover, RAI1 expression emerged as a genetic target for development of therapeutic interventions for SMS. PMID:21857958

Vilboux, Thierry; Ciccone, Carla; Blancato, Jan K; Cox, Gerald F; Deshpande, Charu; Introne, Wendy J; Gahl, William A; Smith, Ann C M; Huizing, Marjan

2011-01-01

341

A role for CTCF and cohesin in subtelomere chromatin organization, TERRA transcription, and telomere end protection  

PubMed Central

The contribution of human subtelomeric DNA and chromatin organization to telomere integrity and chromosome end protection is not yet understood in molecular detail. Here, we show by ChIP-Seq that most human subtelomeres contain a CTCF- and cohesin-binding site within ?1–2?kb of the TTAGGG repeat tract and adjacent to a CpG-islands implicated in TERRA transcription control. ChIP-Seq also revealed that RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) was enriched at sites adjacent to the CTCF sites and extending towards the telomere repeat tracts. Mutation of CTCF-binding sites in plasmid-borne promoters reduced transcriptional activity in an orientation-dependent manner. Depletion of CTCF by shRNA led to a decrease in TERRA transcription, and a loss of cohesin and RNAPII binding to the subtelomeres. Depletion of either CTCF or cohesin subunit Rad21 caused telomere-induced DNA damage foci (TIF) formation, and destabilized TRF1 and TRF2 binding to the TTAGGG proximal subtelomere DNA. These findings indicate that CTCF and cohesin are integral components of most human subtelomeres, and important for the regulation of TERRA transcription and telomere end protection. PMID:23010778

Deng, Zhong; Wang, Zhuo; Stong, Nick; Plasschaert, Robert; Moczan, Aliah; Chen, Horng-Shen; Hu, Sufeng; Wikramasinghe, Priyankara; Davuluri, Ramana V; Bartolomei, Marisa S; Riethman, Harold; Lieberman, Paul M

2012-01-01

342

Longitudinal Follow-up of Autism Spectrum Features and Sensory Behaviors in Angelman Syndrome by Deletion Class  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurogenetic disorder characterized by severe intellectual disability, lack of speech, and low threshold for laughter; it is considered a "syndromic" form of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Previous studies have indicated overlap of ASD and AS, primarily in individuals with larger (approximately 6 Mb) Class…

Peters, Sarika U.; Horowitz, Lucia; Barbieri-Welge, Rene; Taylor, Julie Lounds; Hundley, Rachel J.

2012-01-01

343

A Prospective Cross-Sectional Study of Speech in Patients with the 22q11 Deletion Syndrome.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated a consecutive series of 65 participants (ages 3-33) with a confirmed 22q11.2 deletion, to ascertain the frequency and severity of articulation difficulties, velopharyngeal impairment (VPI), and intelligibility. The majority had VPI; over half to such a degree that surgery had been performed or was considered necessary.…

Persson, Christina; Lohmander, Anette; Jonsson, Radi; Oskarsdottir, Solveig; Soderpalm, Ewa

2003-01-01

344

Autism Spectrum Disorders and Symptoms in Children with Molecularly Confirmed 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we assessed the presence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) among children with a confirmed 22q11.2 deletion (n = 98). The children's caregivers completed screening measures of ASD behaviors, and for those whose scores indicated significant levels of these behaviors, a standardized diagnostic interview (Autism Diagnostic…

Fine, Sarah E.; Weissman, Alison; Gerdes, Marsha; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer; Zackai, Elaine H.; McDonald-McGinn, Donna M.; Emanuel, Beverly S.

2005-01-01

345

Caregiver and Adult Patient Perspectives on the Importance of a Diagnosis of 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Recent advances in genetics are particularly relevant in the field of intellectual disability (ID), where sub-microscopic deletions or duplications of genetic material are increasingly implicated as known or suspected causal factors. Data-driven reports on the impact of providing an aetiological explanation in ID are needed to help…

Costain, G.; Chow, E. W. C.; Ray, P. N.; Bassett, A. S.

2012-01-01

346

Identification, Characterization, and Precise Mapping of a Human Gene Encoding a Novel Membrane-Spanning Protein from the 22q11 Region Deleted in Velo–Cardio–Facial Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Velo–cardio–facial syndrome (VCFS) and DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) are characterized by a wide spectrum of phenotypes including cleft palate, conotruncal heart defects, and facial dysmorphology. Hemizygosity for a portion of chromosome 22q11 has been detected in 80– 85% of VCFS\\/DGS patients. Using a cDNA selection protocol, we have identified a new gene, TMVCF (transmembrane protein deleted in VCFS), which maps to

Howard Sirotkin; Bernice Morrow; Bruno Saint-Jore; Anne Puech; Ruchira Das Gupta; Sankhavaram R. Patanjali; Arthur Skoultchi; Sherman M. Weissman; Raju Kucherlapati

1997-01-01

347

Exonic deletions in AUTS2 cause a syndromic form of intellectual disability and suggest a critical role for the C terminus.  

PubMed

Genomic rearrangements involving AUTS2 (7q11.22) are associated with autism and intellectual disability (ID), although evidence for causality is limited. By combining the results of diagnostic testing of 49,684 individuals, we identified 24 microdeletions that affect at least one exon of AUTS2, as well as one translocation and one inversion each with a breakpoint within the AUTS2 locus. Comparison of 17 well-characterized individuals enabled identification of a variable syndromic phenotype including ID, autism, short stature, microcephaly, cerebral palsy, and facial dysmorphisms. The dysmorphic features were more pronounced in persons with 3'AUTS2 deletions. This part of the gene is shown to encode a C-terminal isoform (with an alternative transcription start site) expressed in the human brain. Consistent with our genetic data, suppression of auts2 in zebrafish embryos caused microcephaly that could be rescued by either the full-length or the C-terminal isoform of AUTS2. Our observations demonstrate a causal role of AUTS2 in neurocognitive disorders, establish a hitherto unappreciated syndromic phenotype at this locus, and show how transcriptional complexity can underpin human pathology. The zebrafish model provides a valuable tool for investigating the etiology of AUTS2 syndrome and facilitating gene-function analysis in the future. PMID:23332918

Beunders, Gea; Voorhoeve, Els; Golzio, Christelle; Pardo, Luba M; Rosenfeld, Jill A; Talkowski, Michael E; Simonic, Ingrid; Lionel, Anath C; Vergult, Sarah; Pyatt, Robert E; van de Kamp, Jiddeke; Nieuwint, Aggie; Weiss, Marjan M; Rizzu, Patrizia; Verwer, Lucilla E N I; van Spaendonk, Rosalina M L; Shen, Yiping; Wu, Bai-lin; Yu, Tingting; Yu, Yongguo; Chiang, Colby; Gusella, James F; Lindgren, Amelia M; Morton, Cynthia C; van Binsbergen, Ellen; Bulk, Saskia; van Rossem, Els; Vanakker, Olivier; Armstrong, Ruth; Park, Soo-Mi; Greenhalgh, Lynn; Maye, Una; Neill, Nicholas J; Abbott, Kristin M; Sell, Susan; Ladda, Roger; Farber, Darren M; Bader, Patricia I; Cushing, Tom; Drautz, Joanne M; Konczal, Laura; Nash, Patricia; de Los Reyes, Emily; Carter, Melissa T; Hopkins, Elizabeth; Marshall, Christian R; Osborne, Lucy R; Gripp, Karen W; Thrush, Devon Lamb; Hashimoto, Sayaka; Gastier-Foster, Julie M; Astbury, Caroline; Ylstra, Bauke; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Posthuma, Danielle; Menten, Björn; Mortier, Geert; Scherer, Stephen W; Eichler, Evan E; Girirajan, Santhosh; Katsanis, Nicholas; Groffen, Alexander J; Sistermans, Erik A

2013-02-01

348

Familiar Hypopigmentation Syndrome in Sheep Associated with Homozygous Deletion of the Entire Endothelin Type-B Receptor Gene  

PubMed Central

In humans, rodents and horses, pigmentary anomalies in combination with other disorders, notably intestinal aganglionosis, are associated with variants of the endothelin type-B receptor gene (EDNRB). In an inbred Cameroon sheep flock, five white lambs with light blue eyes were sired from the same ram and died within a few hours up to a few days after birth, some of them with signs of intestinal obstruction. The aim of this study was to investigate if the observed hypopigmentation and a possible lethal condition were associated with a molecular change at the ovine EDNRB locus, and to check if such a genetic alteration also occurs in other Cameroon sheep flocks. Sequence analysis revealed a deletion of about 110 kb on sheep chromosome 10, comprising the entire EDNRB gene, on both chromosomes in the two available hypopigmented lambs and on a single chromosome in the two dams and three other unaffected relatives. This micro-chromosomal deletion was also confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR and by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Genotyping of a total of 127 Cameroon sheep in 7 other flocks by duplex PCR did not identify additional carriers of the deletion. Although both hypopigmented lambs available for post-mortem examination had a considerably dilated cecum and remaining meconium, histopathological examination of intestinal samples showed morphologically normal ganglion cells in appropriate number and distribution. This is to our knowledge the first description of an ENDRB gene deletion and associated clinical signs in a mammalian species different from humans and rodents. In humans and rats it is postulated that the variable presence and severity of intestinal aganglionosis and other features in individuals with EDNRB deletion is due to a variable genetic background and multiple gene interactions. Therefore the here analyzed sheep are a valuable animal model to test these hypotheses in another species. PMID:23300849

Lühken, Gesine; Fleck, Katharina; Pauciullo, Alfredo; Huisinga, Maike; Erhardt, Georg

2012-01-01

349

A gene deleted in Kallmann's syndrome shares homology with neural cell adhesion and axonal path-finding molecules  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kallmann's syndrome (clinically characterized by hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and inability to smell) is caused by a defect in the migration of olfactory neurons, and neurons producing hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone. A gene has now been isolated from the critical region on Xp22.3 to which the syndrome locus has been assigned: this gene escapes X inactivation, has a homologue on the Y chromosome,

Brunella Franco; Silvana Guioli; Antonella Pragliola; Barbara Incerti; Barbara Bardoni; Rossana Tonlorenzi; Romeo Carrozzo; Elena Maestrini; Maura Pieretti; Patricia Taillon-Miller; Carolyn J. Brown; Huntington F. Willard; Charles Lawrence; M. Graziella Persico; Giovanna Camerino; Andrea Ballabio

1991-01-01

350

A Transgene Insertion Creating a Heritable Chromosome Deletion Mouse Model of Prader-Willi and Angelman Syndromes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and Angelman syndrome (AS) result from the loss of function of imprinted genes in human chromosome 15q11-q13. The central part of mouse chromosome 7 is homologous to human 15q11-q13, with conservation of both gene order and imprinted features. We report here the characterization of a transgene insertion (Epstein-Barr virus Latent Membrane Protein 2A, LMP2A) into mouse chromosome

J. M. Gabriel; M. Merchant; T. Ohta; Y. Ji; R. G. Caldwell; M. J. Ramsey; J. D. Tucker; R. Longnecker; R. D. Nicholls

1999-01-01

351

Submicroscopic deletion of chromosome region 16p13.3 in a Japanese patient with Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome  

SciTech Connect

In a series of 25 Japanese patients with Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome, we screened, by high-resolution GTG banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization of a cosmid probe (RT1, D16S237), for microdeletions associated with this syndrome. In one patient, a microdeletion was demonstrated by in situ hybridization, but none were detected by high-resolution banding. 11 refs., 2 figs.

Masuno, Mitsuo; Imaizumi, Kiyoshi; Kurosawa, Kenji; Makita, Yoshio; Kuroki, Yoshikazu [Kanagawa Children`s Medical Center, Yokohama (Japan); Petrij, F.; Dauwerse, H.G.; Breuning, M.H. [Leiden Univ. (Netherlands)

1994-12-01

352

Hypercalciuria and kidney calcifications in terminal 4q deletion syndrome: further evidence for a putative gene on 4q.  

PubMed

We report a newborn girl with a de novo terminal 4q deletion (q31.3 --> qter) and a characteristic phenotype of minor facial anomalies, cleft palate, congenital heart defect, abnormalities of hands and feet, and postnatal onset of growth deficiency. Laboratory studies showed excessive urinary calcium excretion on standard milk formula and on oral calcium load. Blood measurements of parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, bicarbonate, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, chlorine, potassium, and urinary measurements of phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, chlorine, potassium were normal for age. At 2 months of life, ultrasonography showed kidney calcifications. Clinical and laboratory data support the diagnosis of absorptive hypercalciuria or abnormal regulation of calcium-sensing receptors in the renal tubules. The evidence of hypercalciuria and kidney calcifications associated with 4q terminal deletion strengthens the hypothesis that a putative gene for hypercalciuria is located on the terminal segment of chromosome 4q. PMID:15057984

Giuffrè, Mario; La Placa, Simona; Carta, Maurizio; Cataliotti, Antonella; Marino, Maria; Piccione, Maria; Pusateri, Francesco; Meli, Ferdinando; Corsello, Giovanni

2004-04-15

353

Common and specific impairments in attention functioning in girls with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion, fragile X or Turner syndromes  

PubMed Central

Background Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS), fragile X syndrome (FXS), and Turner syndrome (TS) are complex and variable developmental syndromes caused by different genetic abnormalities; yet, they share similar cognitive impairments in the domains of numbers, space, and time. The atypical development of foundational neural networks that underpin the attentional system is thought to result in further impairments in higher-order cognitive functions. The current study investigates whether children with similar higher-order cognitive impairments but different genetic disorders also show similar impairments in alerting, orienting, and executive control of attention. Methods Girls with 22q11.2DS, FXS, or TS and typically developing (TD) girls, aged 7 to 15 years, completed an attention network test, a flanker task with alerting and orienting cues. Exploration of reaction times and accuracy allowed us to test for potential commonalities in attentional functioning in alerting, orienting, and executive control. Linear regression models were used to test whether the predictors of group and chronological age were able to predict differences in attention indices. Results Girls with 22q11.2DS, FXS, or TS demonstrated unimpaired function of the alerting system and impaired function of the executive control system. Diagnosis-specific impairments were found such that girls with FXS made more errors and had a reduced orienting index, while girls with 22q11.2DS showed specific age-related deficits in the executive control system. Conclusions These results suggest that the control but not the implementation of attention is selectively impaired in girls with 22q11.2DS, TS or FXS. Additionally, the age effect on executive control in girls with 22q11.2DS implies a possible altered developmental trajectory. PMID:24628892

2014-01-01

354

A case of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome caused by a cryptic 11p15 deletion encompassing the centromeric imprinted domain of the BWS locus.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is a clinically variable and genetically heterogeneous disorder, providing evidence that imprinted genes play key roles in the control of fetal growth. Clinically, diagnostic criteria include macrosomia, macroglossia, abdominal wall defects, neonatal hypoglycaemia, visceromegalies and hemihyperplasia. Component clinical manifestations also include renal abnormalities, adrenocortical cytomegaly and a characteristic facial appearance, with midface hypoplasia and ear anomalies. Genetically, BWS is associated with disturbances within two different domains on 11p15 that are controlled by distinct imprinting control regions (ICR), ICR1 and ICR2. The majority of patients have abnormalities within ICR2. In particular, loss of maternal methylation accounts for 50-60% of cases, and is associated with reduction in the expression of the CDKN1C gene, a member of the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor family acting as negative regulator of cell proliferation. Mutations in CDKN1C are detected in another 5-10% of subjects with sporadic BWS. Chromosome deletions affecting ICR2 are uncommon. METHODS AND FINDINGS We report on a patient with BWS in which a de novo 11p15 deletion was detected by array comparative genomic hybridisation. Clinically, the patient presented with mild mental retardation and minor physical anomalies. The deletion, that was demonstrated to be maternal in origin by SNP array, encompassed ICR2 and several flanking genes, including CDKN1C. A normal methylation pattern of ICR1 was observed. CONCLUSIONS This observation provides evidence that, among the genetic defects associated with BWS, a 11p15 microdeletion encompassing ICR2 identifies a peculiar clinical phenotype, with high recurrence risk in offspring of female carriers. It also supports the model of two independent domains within the BWS locus. PMID:19843502

Zollino, Marcella; Orteschi, Daniela; Marangi, Giuseppe; De Crescenzo, Agostina; Pecile, Vanna; Riccio, Andrea; Neri, Giovanni

2010-06-01

355

Identification of genes from a 500-kb region at 7q11.23 that is commonly deleted in Williams syndrome patients  

SciTech Connect

Williams syndrome (WS) is a multisystem developmental disorder caused by the deletion of contiguous genes at 7q11.23. Hemizygosity of the elastin (ELN) gene can account for the vascular and connective tissue abnormalities observed in WS patients, but the genes that contribute to features such as infantile hypercalcemia, dysmorphic facies, and mental retardation remain to be identified. In addition, the size of the genomic interval commonly deleted in WS patients has not been established. In this study we report the characterization of a 500-kb region that was determined to be deleted in our collection of WS patients. A detailed physical map consisting of cosmid, P1 artificial chromosomes, and yeast artificial chromosomes was constructed and used for gene isolation experiments. Using the techniques of direct cDNA selection and genomic DNA sequencing, a three known genes (ELN, LIMK1, and RFC2), a novel gene (WSCR1) with homology to RNA-binding proteins, a gene with homology to restin, and four other putative transcription units were identified. LIMK1 is a protein kinase with two repeats of the LIM/double zinc finger motif, and it is highly expressed in brain. RFC2 is the 40-kDa ATP-binding sub-unit of replication factor C, which is known to play a role in the elongation of DNA catalyzed by DNA polymerase {delta} and {epsilon}. LIMK1 and WSCR1 may be particularly relevant when explaining cognitive defects observed in WS patients. 56 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Osborne, L.R.; Rommens, J.; Tsui, Lap-Chee [Hospital for Sick Children, Ontario (Canada)] [Hospital for Sick Children, Ontario (Canada); [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)] [and others

1996-09-01

356

The distal 8p deletion (8)(p23.1): A common syndrome associated with cogenital heart defect and mental retardation?  

SciTech Connect

We describe the clinical manifestations and molecular cytogenetic analysis of three patients with a similar distal deletion: del(8)(p23.1). Case 1: A nine-year-old girl who was the product of a normal pregnancy, with family history of recurrent miscarriages. She has an ASD, development delay and dysmorphic features. Case 2: A three-month-old female who died with a hypoplastic left heart and dysmorphic features. Her non-identical twin sister is healthy. No further family history is available. Case 3: A four-year-old boy who was the product of a normal pregnancy with family history of mental retardation. He has bifid uvula, delayed speech and language, and no major malformations or dysmorphic features. High resolution G and R banding revealed in all three patients del(8)(p23.1), but the breakpoint for case 1 and 2 was proximal to 8p23.1 and for case 3 distal to 8p23.1. FISH studies with a chromosome 8 paint probe confirmed that no other rearrangement was involved. Chromosome analysis of the parents of case 3 and mother of case 1 were normal; the remaining parents were not available for study. Eight individual patients and three members in one family with del(8)(p23.1) have been reported in the past five years. Major congenital anomalies, especially congenital heart defect, is most often associated with a breakpoint proximal to 8p23.1 Three patients were detected within a three year period in this study and five cases were found within a four year period by another group, suggesting that the distal 8p deletion may be a relatively common syndrome. This small deletion is easily overlooked (i.e. case 1 and 3 were reported as normal at amniocentesis) and can be associated with few or no major congenital anomalies.

Wu, B.L.; Schneider, G.H.; Sabatino, D.E. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

357

A familial GLI2 deletion (2q14.2) not associated with the holoprosencephaly syndrome phenotype.  

PubMed

Molecular alterations of the GLI2 gene in 2q14.2 are associated with features from the holoprosencephaly spectrum. However, the phenotype is extremely variable, ranging from unaffected mutation heterozygotes to isolated or combined pituitary hormone deficiency, and to patients with a phenotype that overlaps with holoprosencephaly, including abnormal pituitary gland formation/function, craniofacial dysmorphisms, branchial arch anomalies, and polydactyly. Although many point mutations within the GLI2 gene have been identified, large (sub) microscopic deletions affecting 2q14.2 are rare. We report on a family with a 4.3?Mb deletion in 2q14 affecting GLI2 without any dysmorphologic features belonging to the holoprosencephaly spectrum. This family confirms the incomplete penetrance of genomic disturbances affecting the GLI2 gene. However, the family presented here is unique as none of the three identified individuals with a GLI2 deletion showed any typical signs of holoprosencephaly, whereas all patients reported so far were referred for genetic testing because at least one member exhibited holoprosencephaly and related features. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25820550

Kordaß, Ulrike; Schröder, Carmen; Elbracht, Miriam; Soellner, Lukas; Eggermann, Thomas

2015-05-01

358

Anatomy and evolution of telomeric and subtelomeric regions in the human protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi  

PubMed Central

Background The subtelomeres of many protozoa are highly enriched in genes with roles in niche adaptation. T. cruzi trypomastigotes express surface proteins from Trans-Sialidase (TS) and Dispersed Gene Family-1 (DGF-1) superfamilies which are implicated in host cell invasion. Single populations of T. cruzi may express different antigenic forms of TSs. Analysis of TS genes located at the telomeres suggests that chromosome ends could have been the sites where new TS variants were generated. The aim of this study is to characterize telomeric and subtelomeric regions of T. cruzi available in TriTrypDB and connect the sequences of telomeres to T. cruzi working draft sequence. Results We first identified contigs carrying the telomeric repeat (TTAGGG). Of 49 contigs identified, 45 have telomeric repeats at one end, whereas in four contigs the repeats are located internally. All contigs display a conserved telomeric junction sequence adjacent to the hexamer repeats which represents a signature of T. cruzi chromosome ends. We found that 40 telomeric contigs are located on T. cruzi chromosome-sized scaffolds. In addition, we were able to map several telomeric ends to the chromosomal bands separated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The subtelomeric sequence structure varies widely, mainly as a result of large differences in the relative abundance and organization of genes encoding surface proteins (TS and DGF-1), retrotransposon hot spot genes (RHS), retrotransposon elements, RNA-helicase and N-acetyltransferase genes. While the subtelomeric regions are enriched in pseudogenes, they also contain complete gene sequences matching both known and unknown expressed genes, indicating that these regions do not consist of nonfunctional DNA but are instead functional parts of the expressed genome. The size of the subtelomeric regions varies from 5 to 182?kb; the smaller of these regions could have been generated by a recent chromosome breakage and telomere healing event. Conclusions The lack of synteny in the subtelomeric regions suggests that genes located in these regions are subject to recombination, which increases their variability, even among homologous chromosomes. The presence of typical subtelomeric genes can increase the chance of homologous recombination mechanisms or microhomology-mediated end joining, which may use these regions for the pairing and recombination of free ends. PMID:22681854

2012-01-01

359

The Subtelomeric khipu Satellite Repeat from Phaseolus vulgaris: Lessons Learned from the Genome Analysis of the Andean Genotype G19833  

PubMed Central

Subtelomeric regions in eukaryotic organisms are known for harboring species-specific tandemly repeated satellite sequences. However, studies on the molecular organization and evolution of subtelomeric repeats are scarce, especially in plants. Khipu is a satellite DNA of 528-bp repeat unit, specific of the Phaseolus genus, with a subtelomeric distribution in common bean, P. vulgaris. To investigate the genomic organization and the evolution of khipu, we performed genome-wide analysis on the complete genome sequence of the common bean genotype G19833. We identified 2,460 khipu units located at most distal ends of the sequenced regions. Khipu units are arranged in discrete blocks of 2–55 copies and are heterogeneously distributed among the different chromosome ends of G19833 (from 0 to 555 khipus units per chromosome arm). Phylogenetically related khipu units are spread between numerous chromosome ends, suggesting frequent exchanges between non-homologous subtelomeres. However, most subclades contain numerous khipu units from only one or few chromosome ends indicating that local duplication is also driving khipu expansion. Unexpectedly, we also identified 81 khipu units located at centromeres. All the centromeric khipu units belong to a single divergent clade also comprised of a few units from several subtelomeres, suggesting that a few sequence exchanges between centromeres and subtelomeres took place in the common bean genome. The divergence and low copy number of these centromeric units from the subtelomeric units could explain why they were not detected by FISH (Fluorescence in situ Hybridization) although it can not be excluded that these centromeric units may have resulted from errors in the pseudomolecule assembly. Altogether our data highlight extensive sequence exchanges in subtelomeres between non-homologous chromosomes in common bean and confirm that subtelomeres represent one of the most dynamic and rapidly evolving regions in eukaryotic genomes. PMID:24137164

Richard, Manon M. S.; Chen, Nicolas W. G.; Thareau, Vincent; Pflieger, Stéphanie; Blanchet, Sophie; Pedrosa-Harand, Andrea; Iwata, Aiko; Chavarro, Carolina; Jackson, Scott A.; Geffroy, Valérie

2013-01-01

360

The Subtelomeric khipu Satellite Repeat from Phaseolus vulgaris: Lessons Learned from the Genome Analysis of the Andean Genotype G19833.  

PubMed

Subtelomeric regions in eukaryotic organisms are known for harboring species-specific tandemly repeated satellite sequences. However, studies on the molecular organization and evolution of subtelomeric repeats are scarce, especially in plants. Khipu is a satellite DNA of 528-bp repeat unit, specific of the Phaseolus genus, with a subtelomeric distribution in common bean, P. vulgaris. To investigate the genomic organization and the evolution of khipu, we performed genome-wide analysis on the complete genome sequence of the common bean genotype G19833. We identified 2,460 khipu units located at most distal ends of the sequenced regions. Khipu units are arranged in discrete blocks of 2-55 copies and are heterogeneously distributed among the different chromosome ends of G19833 (from 0 to 555 khipus units per chromosome arm). Phylogenetically related khipu units are spread between numerous chromosome ends, suggesting frequent exchanges between non-homologous subtelomeres. However, most subclades contain numerous khipu units from only one or few chromosome ends indicating that local duplication is also driving khipu expansion. Unexpectedly, we also identified 81 khipu units located at centromeres. All the centromeric khipu units belong to a single divergent clade also comprised of a few units from several subtelomeres, suggesting that a few sequence exchanges between centromeres and subtelomeres took place in the common bean genome. The divergence and low copy number of these centromeric units from the subtelomeric units could explain why they were not detected by FISH (Fluorescence in situ Hybridization) although it can not be excluded that these centromeric units may have resulted from errors in the pseudomolecule assembly. Altogether our data highlight extensive sequence exchanges in subtelomeres between non-homologous chromosomes in common bean and confirm that subtelomeres represent one of the most dynamic and rapidly evolving regions in eukaryotic genomes. PMID:24137164

Richard, Manon M S; Chen, Nicolas W G; Thareau, Vincent; Pflieger, Stéphanie; Blanchet, Sophie; Pedrosa-Harand, Andrea; Iwata, Aiko; Chavarro, Carolina; Jackson, Scott A; Geffroy, Valérie

2013-01-01

361

MicroRNA Dysregulation, Gene Networks, and Risk for Schizophrenia in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome  

PubMed Central

The role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the etiology of schizophrenia is increasingly recognized. Microdeletions at chromosome 22q11.2 are recurrent structural variants that impart a high risk for schizophrenia and are found in up to 1% of all patients with schizophrenia. The 22q11.2 deletion region overlaps gene DGCR8, encoding a subunit of the miRNA microprocessor complex. We identified miRNAs overlapped by the 22q11.2 microdeletion and for the first time investigated their predicted target genes, and those implicated by DGCR8, to identify targets that may be involved in the risk for schizophrenia. The 22q11.2 region encompasses seven validated or putative miRNA genes. Employing two standard prediction tools, we generated sets of predicted target genes. Functional enrichment profiles of the 22q11.2 region miRNA target genes suggested a role in neuronal processes and broader developmental pathways. We then constructed a protein interaction network of schizophrenia candidate genes and interaction partners relevant to brain function, independent of the 22q11.2 region miRNA mechanisms. We found that the predicted gene targets of the 22q11.2 deletion miRNAs, and targets of the genome-wide miRNAs predicted to be dysregulated by DGCR8 hemizygosity, were significantly represented in this schizophrenia network. The findings provide new insights into the pathway from 22q11.2 deletion to expression of schizophrenia, and suggest that hemizygosity of the 22q11.2 region may have downstream effects implicating genes elsewhere in the genome that are relevant to the general schizophrenia population. These data also provide further support for the notion that robust genetic findings in schizophrenia may converge on a reasonable number of final pathways. PMID:25484875

Merico, Daniele; Costain, Gregory; Butcher, Nancy J.; Warnica, William; Ogura, Lucas; Alfred, Simon E.; Brzustowicz, Linda M.; Bassett, Anne S.

2014-01-01

362

Atypical Chédiak-Higashi syndrome with attenuated phenotype: three adult siblings homozygous for a novel LYST deletion and with neurodegenerative disease  

PubMed Central

Background Mutations in LYST, a gene encoding a putative lysosomal trafficking protein, cause Chédiak-Higashi syndrome (CHS), an autosomal recessive disorder typically characterized by infantile-onset hemophagocytic syndrome and immunodeficiency, and oculocutaneous albinism. A small number of reports of rare, attenuated forms of CHS exist, with affected individuals exhibiting progressive neurodegenerative disease beginning in early adulthood with cognitive decline, parkinsonism, features of spinocerebellar degeneration, and peripheral neuropathy, as well as subtle pigmentary abnormalities and subclinical or absent immune dysfunction. Methods In a consanguineous Pakistani kindred with clinical phenotypes consistent with attenuated CHS, we performed SNP array-based homozygosity mapping and whole gene sequencing of LYST. Results We identified three individuals homozygous for a novel six base pair in-frame deletion in LYST (c.9827_9832ATACAA), predicting the loss of asparagine and threonine residues from the LYST transcript (p.Asn3276_Thr3277del), and segregating with the phenotype in this family. Conclusions We further characterize the neurologic features of the attenuated form of CHS, and discuss pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying the neurodegenerative components of CHS. Attenuated CHS is phenotypically heterogenous and should be considered when young adults develop neurodegenerative disease and have pigmentary abnormalities. We briefly discuss surveillance and management of patients with CHS-related neurodegeneration. PMID:23521865

2013-01-01

363

Novel mutations including deletions of the entire OFD1 gene in 30 families with type 1 orofaciodigital syndrome: a study of the extensive clinical variability.  

PubMed

OFD1, now recognized as a ciliopathy, is characterized by malformations of the face, oral cavity and digits, and is transmitted as an X-linked condition with lethality in males. Mutations in OFD1 also cause X-linked Joubert syndrome (JBTS10) and Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome type 2 (SGBS2). We have studied 55 sporadic and six familial cases of suspected OFD1. Comprehensive mutation analysis in OFD1 revealed mutations in 37 female patients from 30 families; 22 mutations have not been previously described including two heterozygous deletions spanning OFD1 and neighbouring genes. Analysis of clinical findings in patients with mutations revealed that oral features are the most reliable diagnostic criteria. A first, detailed evaluation of brain MRIs from seven patients with cognitive defects illustrated extensive variability with the complete brain phenotype consisting of complete agenesis of the corpus callosum, large single or multiple interhemispheric cysts, striking cortical infolding of gyri, ventriculomegaly, mild molar tooth malformation and moderate to severe cerebellar vermis hypoplasia. Although the OFD1 gene apparently escapes X-inactivation, skewed inactivation was observed in seven of 14 patients. The direction of skewing did not correlate with disease severity, reinforcing the hypothesis that additional factors contribute to the extensive intrafamilial variability. PMID:23033313

Bisschoff, Izak J; Zeschnigk, Christine; Horn, Denise; Wellek, Brigitte; Rieß, Angelika; Wessels, Maja; Willems, Patrick; Jensen, Peter; Busche, Andreas; Bekkebraten, Jens; Chopra, Maya; Hove, Hanne Dahlgaard; Evers, Christina; Heimdal, Ketil; Kaiser, Ann-Sophie; Kunstmann, Erdmut; Robinson, Kristina Lagerstedt; Linné, Maja; Martin, Patricia; McGrath, James; Pradel, Winnie; Prescott, Katrina E; Roesler, Bernd; Rudolf, Gorazd; Siebers-Renelt, Ulrike; Tyshchenko, Nataliya; Wieczorek, Dagmar; Wolff, Gerhard; Dobyns, William B; Morris-Rosendahl, Deborah J

2013-01-01

364

LPAC syndrome associated with deletion of the full exon 4 in a ABCB4 genetic mutation in a patient with hepatitis C.  

PubMed

Low-phospholipid-associated cholelithiasis syndrome (LPAC) is associated with ABCB4 genetic mutation. ABCB4 encodes MDR3 protein, involved in biliary phosphatidylcholine excretion.Higher prevalence in women, biliary symptoms in young adults and ursodesoxycholic acid (UDCA) response are the main features. We report the case of a 48-year-old man with hepatitis C, genotype 1b, fibrosis F3, null responder to Peg-IFN-alpha-2b/ribavirin and nephritic colic. In 2011 he developed jaundice, pruritus and epigastric pain.He showed increased serum levels of AST, ALT, GGT, bilirubin and alpha-fetoprotein, and viral load (14,600,000 IU/mL). Pancreatic- CT, endoscopic ultrasonography and echo-Doppler showed noncirrhotic chronic liver disease. The episode resolved spontaneously and one year later he suffered a similar episode. UDCA was started with excellent response. An immunohistochemistry study and sequencing of ABCB4 did not find alteration. MLPA® technique detected heterozygous deletion of the full exon 4 confirming LPAC syndrome diagnosis. PMID:25544413

Fombuena, Blanca; Ampuero, Javier; Álvarez, Luis; Aparcero, Reyes; Llorca, Rocío; Millán, Raquel; Pastor, Helena; Andueza, Sara; Barbu, Veronique; Romero-Gómez, Manuel

2014-12-01

365

High frequency of COH1 intragenic deletions and duplications detected by MLPA in patients with Cohen syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cohen syndrome is a rare, clinically variable autosomal recessive disorder characterized by mental retardation, postnatal microcephaly, facial dysmorphisms, ocular abnormalities and intermittent neutropenia. Mutations in the COH1 gene have been found in patients from different ethnic origins. However, a high percentage of patients have only one or no mutated allele. To investigate whether COH1 copy number changes account for missed

Veronica Parri; Eleni Katzaki; Vera Uliana; Francesca Scionti; Rossella Tita; Rosangela Artuso; Ilaria Longo; Renske Boschloo; Raymon Vijzelaar; Angelo Selicorni; Francesco Brancati; Bruno Dallapiccola; Leopoldo Zelante; Christian P Hamel; Pierre Sarda; Seema R Lalani; Rita Grasso; Sabrina Buoni; Joussef Hayek; Laurent Servais; Bert B A de Vries; Nelly Georgoudi; Sheena Nakou; Michael B Petersen; Francesca Mari; Alessandra Renieri; Francesca Ariani

2010-01-01

366

Angelman syndrome and severe infections in a patient with de novo 15q11.2-q13.1 deletion and maternally inherited 2q21.3 microdeletion.  

PubMed

Angelman syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by mental retardation, severe speech disorder, facial dysmorphism, secondary microcephaly, ataxia, seizures, and abnormal behaviors such as easily provoked laughter. It is most frequently caused by a de novo maternal deletion of chromosome 15q11-q13 (about 70-90%), but can also be caused by paternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 15q11-q13 (3-7%), an imprinting defect (2-4%) or in mutations in the ubiquitin protein ligase E3A gene UBE3A mostly leading to frame shift mutation. In addition, for patients with overlapping clinical features (Angelman-like syndrome), mutations in methyl-CpG binding protein 2 gene MECP2 and cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 gene CDKL5 as well as a microdeletion of 2q23.1 including the methyl-CpG binding domain protein 5 gene MBD5 have been described. Here, we describe a patient who carries a de novo 5Mb-deletion of chromosome 15q11.2-q13.1 known to be associated with Angelman syndrome and a further, maternally inherited deletion 2q21.3 (~364kb) of unknown significance. In addition to classic features of Angelman syndrome, she presented with severe infections in the first year of life, a symptom that has not been described in patients with Angelman syndrome. The 15q11.2-q13.1 deletion contains genes critical for Prader-Willi syndrome, the Angelman syndrome causing genes UBE3A and ATP10A/C, and several non-imprinted genes: GABRB3 and GABRA5 (both encoding subunits of GABA A receptor), GOLGA6L2, HERC2 and OCA2 (associated with oculocutaneous albinism II). The deletion 2q21.3 includes exons of the genes RAB3GAP1 (associated with Warburg Micro syndrome) and ZRANB3 (not disease-associated). Despite the normal phenotype of the mother, the relevance of the 2q21.3 microdeletion for the phenotype of the patient cannot be excluded, and further case reports will need to address this point. PMID:23124039

Neubert, Gerda; von Au, Katja; Drossel, Katrin; Tzschach, Andreas; Horn, Denise; Nickel, Renate; Kaindl, Angela M

2013-01-10

367

Confirmation that the conotruncal anomaly face syndrome is associated with a deletion within 22q11.2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The so-called {open_quotes}conotruncal anomaly face syndrome{close_quotes} (CTAFS) is characterized by a peculiar facial appearance associated with congenital heart disease (CHD), especially cardiac outflow tract defects such as tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), double outlet ring ventricle (DORV), and truncus arteriosus (TAC). CTAFS and the DiGeorge anomaly (DGA) have many similar phenotypic characteristics, suggesting that they share a common cause. In many

Rumiko Matsuoka; Atsuyoshi Takao; Misa Kimura; Chisato Kondo; Masahiko Ando; Kazuo Momma; Shin-ichiro Imamura; Kunitaka Joh-o; Kazuo Ikeda; Makoto Nishibatake

1994-01-01

368

Targeted deletion of collagen v in tendons and ligaments results in a classic ehlers-danlos syndrome joint phenotype.  

PubMed

Collagen V mutations underlie classic Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, and joint hypermobility is an important clinical manifestation. We define the function of collagen V in tendons and ligaments, as well as the role of alterations in collagen V expression in the pathobiology in classic Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. A conditional Col5a1(flox/flox) mouse model was bred with Scleraxis-Cre mice to create a targeted tendon and ligament Col5a1-null mouse model, Col5a1(?ten/?ten). Targeting was specific, resulting in collagen V-null tendons and ligaments. Col5a1(?ten/?ten) mice demonstrated decreased body size, grip weakness, abnormal gait, joint laxity, and early-onset osteoarthritis. These gross changes were associated with abnormal fiber organization, as well as altered collagen fibril structure with increased fibril diameters and decreased fibril number that was more severe in a major joint stabilizing ligament, the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), than in the flexor digitorum longus tendon. The ACL also had a higher collagen V content than did the flexor digitorum longus tendon. The collagen V-null ACL and flexor digitorum longus tendon both had significant alterations in mechanical properties, with ACL exhibiting more severe changes. The data demonstrate critical differential regulatory roles for collagen V in tendon and ligament structure and function and suggest that collagen V regulatory dysfunction is associated with an abnormal joint phenotype, similar to the hypermobility phenotype in classic Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. PMID:25797646

Sun, Mei; Connizzo, Brianne K; Adams, Sheila M; Freedman, Benjamin R; Wenstrup, Richard J; Soslowsky, Louis J; Birk, David E

2015-05-01

369

Investigation of 305 patients with myelodysplastic syndromes and 20q deletion for associated cytogenetic and molecular genetic lesions and their prognostic impact.  

PubMed

In patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), sole 20q deletion [del(20q)] is a recurrent favourable abnormality. We studied additional molecular and cytogenetic lesions and their prognostic impact in 305 MDS patients with del(20q) (229 males/76 females; 29-90 years). All patients were investigated by cytomorphology and chromosome banding analysis (CBA), subsets by fluorescence in situ hybridization, molecular mutation screening, and array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). By aCGH (n = 30), the minimal common deleted region (CDR) was flanked by PTPRT (20q13·11) and EYA2 (20q13·12). 210 (68·9%) patients had 'early MDS' without blast increase, 95 (31·1%) 'advanced' MDS with blast increase (5-19%). Additional chromosomal abnormalities (ACAs) were detected in 88/305 (28·9%) patients. Patients with advanced MDS more frequently had ACAs (P = 0·003) and had a higher mean number of ACAs (P = 0·020) and of molecular mutations (P = 0·060). Spliceosome mutations were frequent (U2AF1: n = 31/155; 20·0%; SRSF2: n = 31/159; 19·5%; SF3B1mut: n = 8/159; 5·0%). ASXL1mut (25/153; 16·3%) were associated with advanced MDS (P = 0·001). Presence of ?3 ACAs (P = 0·003) and ASXL1mut (P = 0·002) were associated with worse 2-year survival. In conclusion, the cytogenetic subgroup of MDS with del(20q) has a good prognosis but may be further subclassified by additional cytogenetic and molecular lesions. U2AF1mut is overrepresented in MDS with del(20q), and ASXL1mut is prognostically adverse. PMID:24372512

Bacher, Ulrike; Haferlach, Torsten; Schnittger, Susanne; Zenger, Melanie; Meggendorfer, Manja; Jeromin, Sabine; Roller, Andreas; Grossmann, Vera; Krauth, Maria-Theresa; Alpermann, Tamara; Kern, Wolfgang; Haferlach, Claudia

2014-03-01

370

B9D1 is revealed as a novel Meckel syndrome (MKS) gene by targeted exon-enriched next-generation sequencing and deletion analysis  

PubMed Central

Meckel syndrome (MKS) is an embryonic lethal, autosomal recessive disorder characterized by polycystic kidney disease, central nervous system defects, polydactyly and liver fibrosis. This disorder is thought to be associated with defects in primary cilia; therefore, it is classed as a ciliopathy. To date, six genes have been commonly associated with MKS (MKS1, TMEM67, TMEM216, CEP290, CC2D2A and RPGRIP1L). However, mutation screening of these genes revealed two mutated alleles in only just over half of our MKS cohort (46 families), suggesting an even greater level of genetic heterogeneity. To explore the full genetic complexity of MKS, we performed exon-enriched next-generation sequencing of 31 ciliopathy genes in 12 MKS pedigrees using RainDance microdroplet-PCR enrichment and IlluminaGAIIx next-generation sequencing. In family M456, we detected a splice-donor site change in a novel MKS gene, B9D1. The B9D1 protein is structurally similar to MKS1 and has been shown to be of importance for ciliogenesis in Caenorhabditis elegans. Reverse transcriptase–PCR analysis of fetal RNA revealed, hemizygously, a single smaller mRNA product with a frameshifting exclusion of B9D1 exon 4. ArrayCGH showed that the second mutation was a 1.713 Mb de novo deletion completely deleting the B9D1 allele. Immunofluorescence analysis highlighted a significantly lower level of ciliated patient cells compared to controls, confirming a role for B9D1 in ciliogenesis. The fetus inherited an additional likely pathogenic novel missense change to a second MKS gene, CEP290; p.R2210C, suggesting oligogenic inheritance in this disorder. PMID:21493627

Hopp, Katharina; Heyer, Christina M.; Hommerding, Cynthia J.; Henke, Susan A.; Sundsbak, Jamie L.; Patel, Shail; Patel, Priyanka; Consugar, Mark B.; Czarnecki, Peter G.; Gliem, Troy J.; Torres, Vicente E.; Rossetti, Sandro; Harris, Peter C.

2011-01-01

371

Are Angelman and Prader-Willi syndromes more similar than we thought? Food-related behavior problems in Angelman, Cornelia de Lange, Fragile X, Prader-Willi and 1p36 deletion syndromes.  

PubMed

Food-related behavior problems are well documented in Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), with impaired satiety, preoccupation with food and negative food-related behaviors (such as taking and storing food) frequently reported as part of the behavioral phenotype of older children and adults. Food-related behavior problems in other genetic neurodevelopmental syndromes remain less well studied, including those seen in Angelman Syndrome (AS), the 'sister imprinted disorder' of PWS. Food-related behavior problems were assessed in 152 participants each with one of five genetic neurodevelopmental syndromes - PWS, AS, 1p36 deletion, Cornelia de Lange, and fragile X. Predictably, levels of food-related behavior problems reported in participants with PWS significantly exceeded those of at least one other groups in most areas (impaired satiety; preoccupation with food; taking and storing food; composite negative behavior). However, in some areas people with AS were reported to display food-related problems at least as severe as those with PWS, with the AS group reported to display significantly more food-related behavior problems than at least one comparison group on measures of taking and storing food, composite negative behaviors, impaired satiety and preoccupation with food. Over 50% of participants in the AS group scored above the median point of the distribution of PWS scores on a measure of taking and storing food. These findings indicate further investigation of eating problems in AS are warranted and have implications for current theoretical interpretations of the behavioral differences between AS and PWS. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25691410

Welham, Alice; Lau, Johnny; Moss, Joanna; Cullen, Jenny; Higgs, Suzanne; Warren, Gemma; Wilde, Lucy; Marr, Abby; Cook, Faye; Oliver, Chris

2015-03-01

372

Refinement of a 400-kb Critical Region Allows Genotypic Differentiation between Isolated Lissencephaly, Miller-Dieker Syndrome, and Other Phenotypes Secondary to Deletions of 17p13.3  

PubMed Central

Deletions of 17p13.3, including the LIS1 gene, result in the brain malformation lissencephaly, which is characterized by reduced gyration and cortical thickening; however, the phenotype can vary from isolated lissencephaly sequence (ILS) to Miller-Dieker syndrome (MDS). At the clinical level, these two phenotypes can be differentiated by the presence of significant dysmorphic facial features and a more severe grade of lissencephaly in MDS. Previous work has suggested that children with MDS have a larger deletion than those with ILS, but the precise boundaries of the MDS critical region and causative genes other than LIS1 have never been fully determined. We have completed a physical and transcriptional map of the 17p13.3 region from LIS1 to the telomere. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization, we have mapped the deletion size in 19 children with ILS, 11 children with MDS, and 4 children with 17p13.3 deletions not involving LIS1. We show that the critical region that differentiates ILS from MDS at the molecular level can be reduced to 400 kb. Using somatic cell hybrids from selected patients, we have identified eight genes that are consistently deleted in patients classified as having MDS. In addition, deletion of the genes CRK and 14-3-3? delineates patients with the most severe lissencephaly grade. On the basis of recent functional data and the creation of a mouse model suggesting a role for 14-3-3? in cortical development, we suggest that deletion of one or both of these genes in combination with deletion of LIS1 may contribute to the more severe form of lissencephaly seen only in patients with MDS. PMID:12621583

Cardoso, Carlos; Leventer, Richard J.; Ward, Heather L.; Toyo-oka, Kazuhito; Chung, June; Gross, Alyssa; Martin, Christa L.; Allanson, Judith; Pilz, Daniela T.; Olney, Ann H.; Mutchinick, Osvaldo M.; Hirotsune, Shinji; Wynshaw-Boris, Anthony; Dobyns, William B.; Ledbetter, David H.

2003-01-01

373

Deletion (2)(q37)  

SciTech Connect

We report on a 5-month-old girl with widely spaced nipples, redundant nuchal skin, coarctation of the aorta, anal atresia with distal fistula, postnatal growth retardation, hypotonia, and sparse scalp hair. Initial clinical assessment suggested the diagnosis of Ullrich-Turner syndrome. Chromosome analysis showed a 46,XX,del(2)(q37) karyotype in peripheral lymphocytes. We compare her findings to those of other reported patients with terminal deletions of 2q. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Stratton, R.F.; Tolworthy, J.A.; Young, R.S. [South Texas Genetics Center, San Antonio, TX (United States)

1994-06-01

374

Redundant roles for histone H3 N-terminal lysine residues in subtelomeric gene repression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed Central

The transcription of genes located in subtelomeric regions of yeast chromosomes is repressed relative to the rest of the genome. This repression requires wild-type nucleosome levels but not the telomere silencing factors Sir2, Sir3, Sir4, and Rap1. Subtelomeric heterochromatin is characterized by the absence of acetylation or methylation of histone H3 lysine residues, but it is not known whether histone H3 hypoacetylation or hypomethylation is a prerequisite for the establishment of subtelomeric heterochromatin. We have systematically mutated the N-terminal tails of histone H3 and H4 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and characterized the effects each mutant has on genome-wide expression. Our results show that subtelomeric transcriptional repression is dependent on the histone H3 N-terminal domain, but not the histone H4 N-terminal domain. Mutating lysine-4, lysine-9, lysine-14, lysine-18, lysine-23, and lysine-27 to glycine in histone H3 is also sufficient to significantly reduce subtelomeric gene repression. Individual histone H3 lysine mutations, however, have little effect on subtelomeric gene repression or genome-wide expression, indicating that these six lysine residues have redundant functions. We propose that acetylation and methylation of histone H3 N-terminal lysine residues act as redundant mechanisms to demarcate regions of euchromatin from heterochromatin. PMID:15280228

Martin, Amy M; Pouchnik, Derek J; Walker, Jennifer L; Wyrick, John J

2004-01-01

375

Characteristics and outcome of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) with isolated 20q deletion: a report on 62 cases.  

PubMed

Isolated 20q deletion is common in MDS and considered of good prognosis, but no large series have been reported. We compared characteristics of 62 MDS patients with isolated del 20q, 36 patients with del 20q and other cytogenetic abnormalities, and 1335 MDS patients without del20q. Significant differences between MDS with isolated del 20q and patients without del 20q were lower platelet count (mean 144 vs. 196 G/l, p=0.005), lower marrow blast count (mean 3.9% vs. 5.6%, p=0.0008), and higher reticulocyte count (mean 72.5 vs. 51.7 G/l, p=0.04). Ten (16%) patients with isolated del 20q had Hb>12 g/dl and platelets <100 G/l, compared to 7.3% of patients without del 20q (p=0.025). Review of marrow slides of those 10 patients showed that could be readily identified as MDS prior to cytogenetics. Fourteen percent of patients with isolated del 20q progressed to AML compared to 11% with one and 24% with several additional abnormalities. Median survival was 54 months in patients with isolated del 20q, not reached and 12 months for del 20q with one and several additional abnormalities, respectively (p=0.035) confirming the favorable prognosis of del 20q without complex abnormalities. PMID:21396711

Braun, Thorsten; de Botton, Stéphane; Taksin, Anne-Laure; Park, Sophie; Beyne-Rauzy, Odile; Coiteux, Valérie; Sapena, Rosa; Lazareth, Anne; Leroux, Geneviève; Guenda, Khaled; Cassinat, Bruno; Fontenay, Michaela; Vey, Norbert; Guerci, Agnès; Dreyfus, François; Bordessoule, Dominique; Stamatoullas, Aspasia; Castaigne, Sylvie; Terré, Christine; Eclache, Virginie; Fenaux, Pierre; Adès, Lionel

2011-07-01

376

The effect of hypocalcemia in early childhood on autism-related social and communication skills in patients with 22q11 deletion syndrome.  

PubMed

22q11 deletion syndrome (22qDS), also known as DiGeorge syndrome, is a copy number variant disorder that has a diverse clinical presentation including hypocalcaemia, learning disabilities, and psychiatric disorders. Many patients with 22q11DS present with signs that overlap with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) yet the possible physiological mechanisms that link 22q11DS with ASD are unknown. We hypothesized that early childhood hypocalcemia influences the neurobehavioral phenotype of 22q11DS. Drawing on a longitudinal cohort of 22q11DS patients, we abstracted albumin-adjusted serum calcium levels from 151 participants ranging in age from newborn to 19.5 years (mean 2.5 years). We then examined a subset of 20 infants and toddlers from this group for the association between the lowest calcium level on record and scores on the Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales-Developmental Profile Infant-Toddler Checklist (CSBS-DP ITC). The mean (SD) age at calcium testing was 6.2 (8.5) months, whereas the mean (SD) age at the CSBS-DP ITC assessment was 14.7 (3.8) months. Lower calcium was associated with significantly greater impairment in the CSBS-DP ITC Social (p < 0.05), Speech (p < 0.01), and Symbolic domains (p < 0.05), in regression models adjusted for sex, age at blood draw, and age at the psychological assessment. Nevertheless, these findings are limited by the small sample size of children with combined data on calcium and CSBS-DP ITC, and hence will require replication in a larger cohort with longitudinal assessments. Considering the role of calcium regulation in neurodevelopment and neuroplasticity, low calcium during early brain development could be a risk factor for adverse neurobehavioral outcomes. PMID:25267002

Muldoon, Meghan; Ousley, Opal Y; Kobrynski, Lisa J; Patel, Sheena; Oster, Matthew E; Fernandez-Carriba, Samuel; Cubells, Joseph F; Coleman, Karlene; Pearce, Bradley D

2014-09-30

377

The FUN30 Chromatin Remodeler, Fft3, Protects Centromeric and Subtelomeric Domains from Euchromatin Formation  

PubMed Central

The chromosomes of eukaryotes are organized into structurally and functionally discrete domains. This implies the presence of insulator elements that separate adjacent domains, allowing them to maintain different chromatin structures. We show that the Fun30 chromatin remodeler, Fft3, is essential for maintaining a proper chromatin structure at centromeres and subtelomeres. Fft3 is localized to insulator elements and inhibits euchromatin assembly in silent chromatin domains. In its absence, euchromatic histone modifications and histone variants invade centromeres and subtelomeres, causing a mis-regulation of gene expression and severe chromosome segregation defects. Our data strongly suggest that Fft3 controls the identity of chromatin domains by protecting these regions from euchromatin assembly. PMID:21437270

Strålfors, Annelie; Walfridsson, Julian; Bhuiyan, Hasanuzzaman; Ekwall, Karl

2011-01-01

378

Expanding the spectrum of microdeletion 4q21 syndrome: a partial phenotype with incomplete deletion of the minimal critical region and a new association with cleft palate and Pierre Robin sequence.  

PubMed

Microdeletion 4q21 syndrome has been described in about a dozen patients with deletions ranging from 3.2 to 15.1 MB with similar features including the distinctive facial characteristics of broad forehead, hypertelorism, and prominent front teeth, with severe growth delay, developmental delay, and neonatal hypotonia. A 1.37 MB minimal critical region has been described that accounts for this shared phenotype and includes five known genes: PRKG2, RASGEF1B, HNRNPD, HNRPDL, and ENOPH1. We report on two new patients found through single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarray testing that expand the reported phenotype. Patient 1 has a novel deletion of 2.0 MB, the smallest reported deletion, which involves only a partial deletion of the minimal critical region, including the genes HNRNPD, HNRPDL, and ENOPH1. She shares much of the typical phenotype including moderate developmental delay, unusual facial features, small hands and feet, but not any growth delay or neonatal hypotonia. This patient allows further genotype-phenotype correlation of the genes in the minimal critical region, and supports that heterozygous loss of PRKG2 leads to the growth delay. Patient 2 has a novel 3.4 MB deletion that includes the entire critical region, and has typical features, but also presented with cleft palate and Pierre Robin sequence, which have not been previously described. A gene reported to be associated with inherited cleft palate, SCD5, is in the deleted region in this patient, which suggests it may be playing a role in palate formation. Taken together, these patients allow for an expansion of the microdeletion 4q21 syndrome and provide candidate genes for particular features of the phenotype. PMID:23913759

Bhoj, Elizabeth; Halbach, Sara; McDonald-McGinn, Donna; Tan, Christopher; Lande, Rachel; Waggoner, Darrel; Zackai, Elaine

2013-09-01

379

Simultaneous Copy Number Losses within Multiple Subtelomeric Regions in Early-Onset Type2 Diabetes Mellitus  

PubMed Central

Genetic factors play very important roles in the onset and progression of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the genetic factors correlating with T2DM onset have not as yet been fully clarified. We previously found that copy number losses in the subtelomeric region on chromosome 4p16.3 were detected in early-onset Japanese T2DM patients (onset age <35 years) at a high frequency. Herein, we additionally found two novel copy number losses within the subtelomeric regions on chromosomes 16q24.2-3 and 22q13.31-33, which have significant associations with early-onset Japanese T2DM. The associations were statistically significant by Fisher's exact tests with P values of 5.19×10?3 and 1.81×10?3 and odds ratios of 5.7 and 4.4 for 16q24.2-3 and 22q13.31-33, respectively. Furthermore, copy number variation (CNV) analysis of the whole genome using the CNV BeadChip system verified simultaneous copy number losses in all three subtelomeric regions in 11 of our 100 T2DM subjects, while none of 100 non-diabetic controls showed the copy number losses in all three regions. Our results suggest that the mechanism underlying induction of CNVs is involved in the pathogenesis of early-onset T2DM. Thus, copy number losses within multiple subtelomeric regions are strongly associated with early-onset T2DM and examination of simultaneous CNVs in these three regions may lead to the development of an accurate and selective procedure for detecting genetic susceptibility to T2DM. PMID:24709989

Kodama, Shinjiro; Yamada, Tetsuya; Imai, Junta; Sawada, Shojiro; Takahashi, Kei; Tsukita, Sohei; Kaneko, Keizo; Uno, Kenji; Ishigaki, Yasushi; Oka, Yoshitomo; Katagiri, Hideki

2014-01-01

380

Deviant dynamics of EEG resting state pattern in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome adolescents: A vulnerability marker of schizophrenia?  

PubMed

Previous studies have repeatedly found altered temporal characteristics of EEG microstates in schizophrenia. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether adolescents affected by the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), known to have a 30 fold increased risk to develop schizophrenia, already show deviant EEG microstates. If this is the case, temporal alterations of EEG microstates in 22q11DS individuals could be considered as potential biomarkers for schizophrenia. We used high-density (204 channel) EEG to explore between-group microstate differences in 30 adolescents with 22q11DS and 28 age-matched controls. We found an increased presence of one microstate class (class C) in the 22q11DS adolescents with respect to controls that was associated with positive prodromal symptoms (hallucinations). A previous across-age study showed that the class C microstate was more present during adolescence and a combined EEG-fMRI study associated the class C microstate with the salience resting state network, a network known to be dysfunctional in schizophrenia. Therefore, the increased class C microstates could be indexing the increased risk of 22q11DS individuals to develop schizophrenia if confirmed by our ongoing longitudinal study comparing both the adult 22q11DS individuals with and without schizophrenia, as well as schizophrenic individuals with and without 22q11DS. PMID:24962438

Tomescu, Miralena I; Rihs, Tonia A; Becker, Robert; Britz, Juliane; Custo, Anna; Grouiller, Frédéric; Schneider, Maude; Debbané, Martin; Eliez, Stephan; Michel, Christoph M

2014-08-01

381

Association of the family environment with behavioural and cognitive outcomes in children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) are at risk for social-behavioural and neurocognitive sequelae throughout development. The current study examined the impact of family environmental characteristics on social-behavioural and cognitive outcomes in this pediatric population. Method Guardians of children with 22q11DS were recruited through two medical genetics clinics. Con senting guardians were asked to complete several questionnaires regarding their child's social, emotional and behavioural functioning, as well as family social environment and parenting styles. Children with 22q11DS were asked to undergo a cognitive assessment, including IQ and achievement testing, and measures of attention, executive function and memory. Results Modest associations were found between aspects of the family social environment and parenting styles with social-behavioural and cognitive/academic outcomes. Regression models indicated that physical punishment, socioeconomic status, parental control and family organisation significantly predicted social-behavioural and cognitive outcomes in children with 22q11DS. Conclusion Characteristics of the family social environment and parenting approaches appear to be associated with functional outcomes of children with 22q11DS. Understanding the impact of environmental variables on developmental outcomes can be useful in determining more effective targets for intervention. This will be important in order to improve the quality of life of individuals affected by 22q11DS. PMID:23742203

Allen, T. M.; Hersh, J.; Schoch, K.; Curtiss, K.; Hooper, S. R.; Shashi, V.

2014-01-01

382

Is monosomy 5 an uncommon aberration? Fluorescence in situ hybridization reveals translocations and deletions in myelodysplastic syndromes or acute myelocytic leukemia.  

PubMed

Acquired loss of material from chromosome 5 in bone marrow cells is common in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and acute myelocytic leukemia (AML). In this study, we have applied fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses with probes for the three regions 5p15.2, 5q31, 5q33-q34, and whole chromosome 5 painting probes (WCP 5) to investigate what further information could be gained regarding the cytogenetic abnormalities of chromosome 5 in 35 patients with MDS or AML. With FISH, a del(5q) was found in all patients except for two. Translocations of material from chromosome 5 were found in 10 patients. Among 16 patients with clones of monosomy 5 seen by cytogenetics, 14 had deletions or translocations. Different breakpoints on chromosome 5 were observed. In conclusion, the extended FISH analyses yielded additional information about chromosome 5 abnormalities in 60% of the patients. Of interest is the finding of a high proportion of translocations and that monosomy 5 occurs less often than is generally believed. PMID:12699885

Bram, Susanne; Swolin, Birgitta; Rödjer, Stig; Stockelberg, Dick; Ogärd, Inger; Bäck, Hans

2003-04-15

383

Deletion of protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 4 (PTPN4) in twins with a Rett syndrome-like phenotype.  

PubMed

Rett syndrome (RTT), a neurodevelopmental disorder that predominantly affects females, is primarily caused by variants in MECP2. Variants in other genes such as CDKL5 and FOXG1 are usually associated with individuals who manifest distinct phenotypes that may overlap with RTT. Individuals with phenotypes suggestive of RTT are typically screened for variants in MECP2 and then subsequently the other genes dependent on the specific phenotype. Even with this screening strategy, there are individuals in whom no causative variant can be identified, suggesting that there are other novel genes that contribute to the RTT phenotype. Here we report a de novo deletion of protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 4 (PTPN4) in identical twins with a RTT-like phenotype. We also demonstrate the reduced expression of Ptpn4 in a Mecp2 null mouse model of RTT, as well as the activation of the PTPN4 promoter by MeCP2. Our findings suggest that PTPN4 should be considered for addition to the growing list of genes that warrant screening in individuals with a RTT-like phenotype.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 26 November 2014; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2014.249. PMID:25424712

Williamson, Sarah L; Ellaway, Carolyn J; Peters, Greg B; Pelka, Gregory J; Tam, Patrick Pl; Christodoulou, John

2014-11-26

384

Candidate gene analysis using genomic quantitative PCR: identification of ADAMTS13 large deletions in two patients with Upshaw-Schulman syndrome  

PubMed Central

Direct sequencing is a popular method to discover mutations in candidate genes responsible for hereditary diseases. A certain type of mutation, however, can be missed by the method. Here, we report a comprehensive genomic quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to complement the weakness of direct sequencing. Upshaw-Schulman syndrome (USS) is a recessively inherited disease associated with severe deficiency of plasma ADAMTS13 activity. We previously analyzed ADAMTS13 in 47 USS patients using direct sequencing, and 44 of them had either homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations. Then, we sought to reveal more extensive defects of ADAMTS13 in the remaining three patients. We quantified copy numbers of each ADAMTS13 exon in the patients by using genomic qPCR. Each primer pair was designed to contain at least one of the two primers used in direct sequencing, to avoid missing any exonic deletions. The qPCR demonstrated heterozygous loss of exons 7 and 8 in one patient and exon 27 in the other, and further analysis revealed c.746_987+373del1782 and c.3751_3892+587del729, respectively. Genomic qPCR provides an effective method for identifying extensive defects of the target genes. PMID:24936513

Eura, Yuka; Kokame, Koichi; Takafuta, Toshiro; Tanaka, Ryojiro; Kobayashi, Hikaru; Ishida, Fumihiro; Hisanaga, Shuichi; Matsumoto, Masanori; Fujimura, Yoshihiro; Miyata, Toshiyuki

2014-01-01

385

Molecular characterization of near-complete trisomy 17p syndrome from inverted duplication in association with cryptic deletion of 17pter.  

PubMed

Trisomy of the short arm of chromosome 17 (T17P) is a genomic disorder presenting with growth retardation, motor and mental retardation and constitutional physical anomalies including congenital heart defects. Here we report a case of near-complete T17P of which the genomic dosage aberrations were delineated by chromosomal microarray along with conventional diagnostic modalities. A 9-year-old Korean boy was admitted because of esophageal obstruction. He showed clinical manifestations of T17P, along with atypical features of scoliosis, corpus callosum agenesis, and seizure. Chromosome analyses revealed an inverted duplication of the chromosomal segment between 17p11.2 and 17p13.3. Chromosomal microarray revealed a duplication of the most of the short arm of chromosome 17 (size ~19.09 Mb) along with a cryptic deletion of a small segment of 17p terminal end (17pter) (~261 Kb). This is the first report of molecular characterization of near-complete T17P from inverted duplication in association with 17pter microdeletion. The fine delineation of the extent of genomic aberration by SNP-based microarray could help us better understand the molecular mechanism and genotype-phenotype correlations in T17P syndrome. PMID:24393711

Park, Chang-Hun; Kim, Hee-Jin; Lee, Seung-Tae; Seo, Jeong Meen; Kim, Sun-Hee

2014-03-10

386

Induced chromosome deletions cause hypersociability and other features of  

E-print Network

Induced chromosome deletions cause hypersociability and other features of Williams­Beuren syndrome; haploinsufficiency phenotypes; mouse chromosome deletion models; Williams syndrome DOI emmm.200900003 Received October 14, 2008 Accepted December 4, 2008 The neurodevelopmental disorder Williams­Beuren syndrome

Schnitzer, Mark

387

Insertion/deletion polymorphism of angiotensin-1 converting enzyme is associated with metabolic syndrome in Hungarian adults.  

PubMed

The aim of our study was to evaluate whether any association exists between metabolic syndrome (MS) and ACE I/D and AGT M235T gene polymorphisms in Hungarians as an example of European Caucasian population. Study subjects of our cross-sectional study were recruited from the Hungarian General Practitioners' Morbidity Sentinel Stations Program. The study population (n = 1762) approximates very well the age and sex distribution of the general Hungarian population. MS was defined according to the latest diagnostic criteria proposed by the International Diabetes Federation. The frequency of DD genotype (31.36% vs. 25.42%, p = 0.006) and the frequency of D allele (0.56 vs. 0.51, p = 0.006) were significantly higher in the metabolic group than in the non-metabolic group. The distribution of the AGT M235T polymorphism was similar in each group investigated. Association was shown in the case of patients in whom central obesity was combined with elevated TG and low HDL cholesterol level (p = 0.024 and p = 0.022). It suggests that ACE I/D polymorphism is likely to be involved in lipid metabolism. PMID:21330420

Fiatal, Szilvia; Szigethy, Endre; Széles, György; Tóth, Réka; Adány, Róza

2011-12-01

388

Locus-specific control of DNA resection and suppression of subtelomeric VSG recombination by HAT3 in the African trypanosome  

PubMed Central

The African trypanosome, Trypanosoma brucei, is a parasitic protozoan that achieves antigenic variation through DNA-repair processes involving Variant Surface Glycoprotein (VSG) gene rearrangements at subtelomeres. Subtelomeric suppression of DNA repair operates in eukaryotes but little is known about these controls in trypanosomes. Here, we identify a trypanosome histone acetyltransferase (HAT3) and a deacetylase (SIR2rp1) required for efficient RAD51-dependent homologous recombination. HAT3 and SIR2rp1 were required for RAD51-focus assembly and disassembly, respectively, at a chromosome-internal locus and a synthetic defect indicated distinct contributions to DNA repair. Although HAT3 promoted chromosome-internal recombination, it suppressed subtelomeric VSG recombination, and these locus-specific effects were mediated through differential production of ssDNA by DNA resection; HAT3 promoted chromosome-internal resection but suppressed subtelomeric resection. Consistent with the resection defect, HAT3 was specifically required for the G2-checkpoint response at a chromosome-internal locus. HAT3 also promoted resection at a second chromosome-internal locus comprising tandem-duplicated genes. We conclude that HAT3 and SIR2rp1 can facilitate temporally distinct steps in DNA repair. HAT3 promotes ssDNA formation and recombination at chromosome-internal sites but has the opposite effect at a subtelomeric VSG. These locus-specific controls reveal compartmentalization of the T. brucei genome in terms of the DNA-damage response and suppression of antigenic variation by HAT3. PMID:25300492

Glover, Lucy; Horn, David

2014-01-01

389

Locus-specific control of DNA resection and suppression of subtelomeric VSG recombination by HAT3 in the African trypanosome.  

PubMed

The African trypanosome, Trypanosoma brucei, is a parasitic protozoan that achieves antigenic variation through DNA-repair processes involving Variant Surface Glycoprotein (VSG) gene rearrangements at subtelomeres. Subtelomeric suppression of DNA repair operates in eukaryotes but little is known about these controls in trypanosomes. Here, we identify a trypanosome histone acetyltransferase (HAT3) and a deacetylase (SIR2rp1) required for efficient RAD51-dependent homologous recombination. HAT3 and SIR2rp1 were required for RAD51-focus assembly and disassembly, respectively, at a chromosome-internal locus and a synthetic defect indicated distinct contributions to DNA repair. Although HAT3 promoted chromosome-internal recombination, it suppressed subtelomeric VSG recombination, and these locus-specific effects were mediated through differential production of ssDNA by DNA resection; HAT3 promoted chromosome-internal resection but suppressed subtelomeric resection. Consistent with the resection defect, HAT3 was specifically required for the G2-checkpoint response at a chromosome-internal locus. HAT3 also promoted resection at a second chromosome-internal locus comprising tandem-duplicated genes. We conclude that HAT3 and SIR2rp1 can facilitate temporally distinct steps in DNA repair. HAT3 promotes ssDNA formation and recombination at chromosome-internal sites but has the opposite effect at a subtelomeric VSG. These locus-specific controls reveal compartmentalization of the T. brucei genome in terms of the DNA-damage response and suppression of antigenic variation by HAT3. PMID:25300492

Glover, Lucy; Horn, David

2014-11-10

390

An examination of the relationship of anxiety and intelligence to adaptive functioning in children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome  

PubMed Central

Objective This study investigates the relationship between anxiety symptoms and adaptive function in children with Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11.2DS). Methods Seventy-eight children ages 7-14 years with 22q11.2DS and 36 typically developing (TD) children without known genetic syndromes participated in a larger study of neurocognition. Parents completed questionnaires about their child’s anxiety symptoms (Behavior Assessment System for Children, 2nd ed.: BASC-2 and Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale: SCAS) and adaptive functioning (BASC-2 and Adaptive Behavior Assessment System, 2nd ed.: ABAS-II). Within the 22q11.2DS group, different DSM-IV anxiety domains were also analyzed using SCAS subscales. Results Based on parent report, 19% of children with 22q11.2DS had a prior diagnosis of an anxiety disorder vs. 58% with at least one elevated anxiety score (BASC-2 and/or SCAS). Mean BASC-2 anxiety scores were significantly higher in 22q11.2DS (55.6+12.5) than TD (48.3+10; p=0.003) and a greater percentage of children with 22q11.DS (37%) had elevated BASC-2 anxiety scores compared with TD (14%; p=0.01). Higher anxiety scores were related to lower adaptive function (r=?0.27, p=0.015) but there was no relationship between WISC-IV FSIQ and BASC-2 adaptive skills (r=?0.06, p=0.6) in the 22q11.2DS group. For the individual SCAS anxiety subscales, panic-agoraphobia (r=?0.38, p=0.03), physical injury (r=?0.34, p=0.05), and obsessive compulsive disorder (r=?0.47, p=0.005) were significantly negatively related to adaptive function in 22q11.2DS. Conclusions Despite known risk, anxiety is under-identified in children with 22q11.2DS. The presence of anxiety symptoms, but not intelligence levels, in children with 22q11.2DS is negatively correlated with adaptive function and impacts everyday living skills. PMID:23117596

Angkustsiri, Kathleen; Leckliter, Ingrid; Tartaglia, Nicole; Beaton, Elliott A.; Enriquez, Janice; Simon, Tony J.

2012-01-01

391

Deletion of Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products Exacerbates Lymphoproliferative Syndrome and Lupus Nephritis in B6-MRL Fas lpr/j Mice.  

PubMed

The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a pattern recognition receptor that interacts with advanced glycation end products, but also with C3a, CpG DNA oligonucleotides, and alarmin molecules such as HMGB1 to initiate a proinflammatory reaction. Systemic lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune disorder associated with the accumulation of RAGE ligands. We generated mice invalidated for RAGE in the lupus-prone B6-MRL Fas lpr/j background to determine the role of RAGE in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus. We compared the phenotype of these mice with that of their wild-type and B6-MRL Fas lpr/j littermates. Lymphoproliferative syndrome, production of anti-dsDNA Abs, lupus nephritis, and accumulation of CD3(+)B220(+)CD4(-)CD8(-) autoreactive T cells (in the peripheral blood and the spleen) were significantly increased in B6-MRL Fas lpr/j RAGE(-/-) mice compared with B6-MRL Fas lpr/j mice (respectively p < 0.005, p < 0.05, p < 0.001, and p < 0.001). A large proportion of autoreactive T cells from B6-MRL Fas lpr/j mice expressed RAGE at their surface. Time course studies of annexin V expression revealed that autoreactive T cells in the spleen of B6-MRL Fas lpr/j-RAGE(-/-) mice exhibited a delay in apoptosis and expressed significantly less activated caspase 3 (39.5 ± 4.3%) than T cells in B6-MRL Fas lpr/j mice (65.5 ± 5.2%) or wild-type mice (75.3 ± 2.64%) (p = 0.02). We conclude that the deletion of RAGE in B6-MRL Fas lpr/j mice promotes the accumulation of autoreactive CD3(+)B220(+)CD4(-)CD8(-) T cells, therefore exacerbating lymphoproliferative syndrome, autoimmunity, and organ injury. This suggests that RAGE rescues the apoptosis of T lymphocytes when the death receptor Fas/CD95 is dysfunctional. PMID:25762779

Goury, Antoine; Meghraoui-Kheddar, Aïda; Belmokhtar, Karim; Vuiblet, Vincent; Ortillon, Jeremy; Jaisson, Stéphane; Devy, Jerôme; Le Naour, Richard; Tabary, Thierry; Cohen, Jacques H M; Schmidt, Ann-Marie; Rieu, Philippe; Touré, Fatouma

2015-04-15

392

Autism spectrum disorders and hyperactive/impulsive behaviors in Japanese patients with Prader–Willi syndrome: A comparison between maternal uniparental disomy and deletion cases  

PubMed Central

This study aims to compare maternal uniparental disomy 15 (mUPD) and a paternal deletion of 15q11-13 (DEL) of Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS) in regard to autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Forty-five Japanese individuals with PWS were recruited from a single recruitment center. The participants consisted of 22 children (aged from 6 to 12) and 23 adolescents (aged from 13 to 19). Six children and seven adolescents were confirmed as having mUPD. Sixteen children and 16 adolescents were confirmed as having DEL. Under blindness to the participants' genotypes, a single psychologist carried out behavioral and psychological assessments, including the Wechsler Intelligence Scales, Pervasive Developmental Disorders Autism Society Japan Rating Scale (PARS), and ADHD-Rating Scale-IV (ADHD-RS-IV). Two comparisons were made: one between mUPD and DEL children and another between mUPD and DEL adolescents. In children, no significant differences were found between mUPD and DEL participants in terms of autistic (PARS childhood, P?=?0.657) and impulsive behaviors (ADHD-RS-IV hyperactive/impulsive, P?=?0.275). In adolescents, mUPD patients showed significantly more autistic symptomatology (PARS adolescent, P?=?0.027) and significantly more impulsive behavior (ADHD-RS-IV hyperactive/impulsive, P?=?0.01) than DEL patients. Our findings about Japanese PWS patients were consistent with previous researches from western countries not focused on Asian patients, indicating that mUPD cases would be more prone to ASD than DEL cases, regardless of ethnoregional differences. In addition, our data suggested that the behavioral difference between mUPD and DEL cases in terms of autistic and impulsive symptoms tend to be unrecognizable in their childhood. © 2014 The Authors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24850752

Ogata, Hiroyuki; Ihara, Hiroshi; Murakami, Nobuyuki; Gito, Masao; Kido, Yasuhiro; Nagai, Toshiro

2014-01-01

393

Coordinated interaction of Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule and deleted in colorectal cancer with dynamic TUBB3 mediates Netrin-1-induced axon branching.  

PubMed

Modulation of actin and microtubule (MT) dynamics in neurons is implicated in guidance cue-dependent axon outgrowth, branching and pathfinding. Although the role of MTs in axon guidance has been well known, how extracellular guidance signals engage MT behavior in axon branching remains unclear. Previously, we have shown that TUBB3, the most dynamic ?-tubulin isoform in neurons, directly binds to deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC) to regulate MT dynamics in Netrin-1-mediated axon guidance. Here, we report that TUBB3 directly interacted with another Netrin-1 receptor Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule (DSCAM) and Netrin-1 increased this interaction in primary neurons. MT dynamics were required for Netrin-1-promoted association of DSCAM with TUBB3. Knockdown of either DSCAM or DCC or addition of a function blocking anti-DCC antibody mutually blocked Netrin-1-induced interactions, suggesting that DSCAM interdependently coordinated with DCC in Netrin-1-induced binding to TUBB3. Both DSCAM and DCC were partially colocalized with TUBB3 in the axon branch and the axon branching point of primary neurons and Netrin-1 increased these colocalizations. Netrin-1 induced the interaction of endogenous DSCAM with polymerized TUBB3 in primary neurons and Src family kinases (SFKs) were required for regulating this binding. Knockdown of DSCAM only, DCC only or both was sufficient to block Netrin-1-induced axon branching of E15 mouse cortical neurons. Knocking down TUBB3 inhibited Netrin-1 induced axon branching as well. These results suggest that DSCAM collaborates with DCC to regulate MT dynamics via direct binding to dynamic TUBB3 in Netrin-1-induced axon branching. PMID:25754961

Huang, H; Shao, Q; Qu, C; Yang, T; Dwyer, T; Liu, G

2015-05-01

394

Craniofacial dysmorphology in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome by 3D laser surface imaging and geometric morphometrics: Illuminating the developmental relationship to risk for psychosis.  

PubMed

Persons with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) are characterized inter alia by facial dysmorphology and greatly increased risk for psychotic illness. Recent studies indicate facial dysmorphology in adults with schizophrenia. This study evaluates the extent to which the facial dysmorphology of 22q11.2DS is similar to or different from that evident in schizophrenia. Twenty-one 22q11.2DS-sibling control pairs were assessed using 3D laser surface imaging. Geometric morphometrics was applied to 30 anatomical landmarks, 480 geometrically homologous semi-landmarks on curves and 1720 semi-landmarks interpolated on each 3D facial surface. Principal component (PC) analysis of overall shape space indicated PC2 to strongly distinguish 22q11.2DS from controls. Visualization of PC2 indicated 22q11.2DS and schizophrenia to be similar in terms of overall widening of the upper face, lateral displacement of the eyes/orbits, prominence of the cheeks, narrowing of the lower face, narrowing of nasal prominences and posterior displacement of the chin; they differed in terms of facial length (increased in 22q11.2DS, decreased in schizophrenia), mid-face and nasal prominences (displaced upwards and outwards in 22q11.2DS, less prominent in schizophrenia); lips (more prominent in 22q11.2DS; less prominent in schizophrenia) and mouth (open mouth posture in 22q11.2DS; closed mouth posture in schizophrenia). These findings directly implicate dysmorphogenesis in a cerebral-craniofacial domain that is common to 22q11.2DS and schizophrenia and which may repay further clinical and genetic interrogation in relation to the developmental origins of psychotic illness. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25691406

Prasad, Sarah; Katina, Stanislav; Hennessy, Robin J; Murphy, Kieran C; Bowman, Adrian W; Waddington, John L

2015-03-01

395

Rieger syndrome locus: a new reciprocal translocation t(4;12)(q25;q15) and a deletion del(4)(q25q27) both break between markers D4S2945 and D4S193.  

PubMed Central

Rieger syndrome (RS) is an autosomal dominant disorder of morphogenesis characterised by malformation of the anterior segment of the eye, dental hypoplasia, and failure of the periumbilical skin to involute. RS has been mapped to the 4q25-q27 chromosomal segment by a series of cytogenetic studies as well as by genetic linkage to DNA markers. It was first localised to chromosome 4q based on an association with a constitutional deletion of 4q23-q27. In this paper we localise the proximal breakpoint of this deletion from the original patient, and we describe a new family with a de novo balanced reciprocal translocation t(4;12)(q25;q15) segregating with full RS in two generations. Using FISH and the P1 artificial chromosomes (PACs) as probes, we have physically localised both the deletion and the translocation breakpoints between genetic markers which are known to be stro