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Sample records for successful coronary revascularization

  1. Coronary revascularization: 2011.

    PubMed

    Butman, Samuel M

    2011-03-01

    Coronary revascularization is a proven method to alleviate the symptoms of ischemic heart disease and improve survival. There have been many improvements in surgical revascularization since its advent > 40 years ago and in balloon angioplasty since its first usage > 30 years ago. Patients will continue to benefit as these surgical techniques continue to undergo further improvements. This article is a testament to the many physicians, surgeons, scientists, industry leaders, and insurers who continue to reinvent how we provide cutting-edge procedures in the most cost-effective manner for our patients. PMID:21474897

  2. Revascularization Options: Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery and Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    PubMed

    Kappetein, A Pieter; van Mieghem, Nicolas M; Head, Stuart J

    2016-01-01

    Coronary artery bypass grafting (CAGB) is superior to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in reducing mortality in certain patients and improving the composite end points of angina, recurrent myocardial infarction, and repeat revascularization procedures. However, CABG is associated with a higher perioperative stroke risk. For patients with less complex disease or left main coronary disease, PCI is an acceptable alternative to CABG. Lesion complexity is an essential consideration for stenting, whereas patient comorbidity is an essential consideration for CABG. All patients with complex multivessel coronary artery disease should be reviewed by a heart team including a cardiac surgeon and interventional cardiologist. PMID:26567980

  3. Hybrid coronary revascularization: promising, but yet to take off.

    PubMed

    Panoulas, Vasileios F; Colombo, Antonio; Margonato, Alberto; Maisano, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid coronary revascularization (HCR) combines arterial coronary artery bypass surgery (most commonly minimally invasive) and percutaneous coronary intervention in the treatment of a particular subset of multivessel coronary artery disease. It was first introduced in the mid-1990s, and aspired to bring together the "best of both worlds": the excellent patency rates and survival benefits associated with the durable left internal mammary artery graft to the left anterior descending artery alongside the good patency rates of drug-eluting stents, which outlive saphenous vein grafts to non-left anterior descending vessels. Although in theory this is a very attractive revascularization strategy, several years later, only one small randomized controlled trial comparing HCR with coronary artery bypass grafting has recently emerged in the medical literature, raising concerns regarding HCR's role and generalizability. In the current review, we discuss HCR's rationale, the current evidence behind it, its limitations and procedural challenges. PMID:25572514

  4. Coronary revascularization in the elderly with stable angina

    PubMed Central

    Kozlov, Kirill Lenarovich; Bogachev, Aleksandr Andreevich

    2015-01-01

    A proportion of elderly with coronary artery disease is rapidly growing. They have more severe coronary artery disease, therefore, derive more benefit from revascularization and have a greater need for it. The elderly is a heterogeneous group, but compared to the younger cohort, the choice of the optimal revascularization method is much more complicated among them. In recent decades, results has improved dramatically both in surgery and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), even in very old persons. Despite the lack of evidence in elderly, it is obvious, that coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) has a more pronounced effect on long-term survival in price of more strokes, while PCI is certainly less invasive. Age itself is not a criterion for the selection of treatment strategy, but the elderly are often more interested in quality of life and personal independence instead of longevity. This article discusses the factors that influence the choice of the revascularization method in the elderly with stable angina and presents a complex algorithm for making an individual risk-benefit profile. As a consequence the features of CABG and PCI in elderly patients are exposed. Emphasis is centered on the frailty and non-medical factors, including psychosocial, as essential components in making the decision of what strategy to choose. Good communication with the patients and giving them unbiased information is encouraged. PMID:26512248

  5. Prognostic Value of Coronary Computed Tomography (CT) Angiography and Coronary Artery Calcium Score Performed Before Revascularization

    PubMed Central

    Fujimoto, Shinichiro; Kondo, Takeshi; Kumamaru, Kanako K; Shinozaki, Tomohiro; Takamura, Kazuhisa; Kawaguchi, Yuko; Matsumori, Rie; Hiki, Makoto; Miyauchi, Katsumi; Daida, Hiroyuki; Rybicki, Frank J

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiac events after revascularization are equally attributable to recurrence at site of culprit lesions and development of nonculprit lesions. We evaluated the hypothesis that coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography and coronary artery calcium score (CACS) performed before revascularization predicts cardiac events after treatment. Methods and Results Among 2238 consecutive patients without known coronary artery disease who underwent coronary CT angiography and CACS, 359 patients underwent revascularization within 30 days after CT; in 337 of 359 (93.9%) follow-up clinical information was available. In addition to known cardiac risk factors, CT findings were evaluated as predictors of cardiac events after revascularization: CACS and the presence of CT-verified high-risk plaque (CT-HRP). Improvement of predictive accuracy by including CT findings was evaluated from a discrimination (Harrell’s C-statistics) standpoint. During the follow-up period (median: 673, interquartile range: 47 to 1529 days), a total of 98 cardiac events occurred. Cox proportional hazard model revealed that age, diabetes, triglyceride, CACS, and nonculprit CT-HRP were significant predictors of overall cardiac events. Although not statistically significant, discriminatory power was greater for the model with CACS (C-stat: 63.2%) and the model with both CACS and CT-HRP (65.8%) compared to the model including neither CACS nor CT-HRP (60.7%). Conclusions High CACS and the presence of nonculprit CT-HRP performed before revascularization are significant predictors of cardiac events after revascularization. PMID:26296858

  6. [Coronary revascularization during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The bridge code].

    PubMed

    Serrano Moraza, A; Del Nogal Sáez, F; Alfonso Manterola, F

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac arrest is one of the major current challenges, due to both its high incidence and mortality and the fact that it leads to severe brain dysfunction in over half of the survivors. The so-called coronary origin Bridge Code is presented, based on the international resuscitation recommendations (2005, 2010). In accordance with a series of strict predictive criteria, this code makes it possible to: (1) select refractory CPR patients with a high or very high presumption of underlying coronary cause; (2) evacuate the patient using mechanical chest compressors [LucasTM, Autopulse®], maintaining coronary and brain perfusion pressures; (3) allow coronary revascularization access during resuscitation maneuvering (PTCA during ongoing CPR); (4) induce early hypothermia; and (5) facilitate post-cardiac arrest intensive care. In the case of treatment failure, the quality of hemodynamic support makes it possible to establish a second bridge to non-heart beating organ donation. PMID:22402193

  7. Coronary Artery Involvement of Williams Syndrome in Infants and Surgical Revascularization Strategy.

    PubMed

    Federici, Duccio; Ranghetti, Arianna; Merlo, Maurizio; Terzi, Amedeo; Di Dedda, Giovanni Battista; Marcora, Simona; Marrone, Chiara; Ciuffreda, Matteo; Seddio, Francesco; Galletti, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a genetic disorder due to deficiency of elastin gene expression. It is characterized by typical somatic abnormalities and a wide range of cardiovascular malformations. Coronary artery involvement is a frequent finding of the syndrome, particularly in those patients with severe supravalvular aortic stenosis. We present the case of an 11-month-old infant affected by WS who developed severe coronary artery disease 2 months after the surgical repair of supravalvular aortic stenosis. The clinical picture and successful surgical revascularization strategy is also described. PMID:26694280

  8. Medical Therapy and Coronary Revascularization for Patients With Stable Coronary Artery Disease and Unclassified Appropriateness Score.

    PubMed

    Shuvy, Mony; Guo, Helen; Wijeysundera, Harindra C; Feindel, Christopher M; Cohen, Eric A; Austin, Peter C; Kingsbury, Kori; Natarajan, Madhu K; Tu, Jack V; Ko, Dennis T

    2015-12-15

    Although the appropriate use criteria incorporate common clinical scenarios for coronary revascularization, a significant proportion of patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) cannot be assigned an appropriateness score. Our objective was to characterize these patients and to evaluate whether coronary revascularization is associated with improved outcomes. A population-based cohort of patients aged ?66 years, who underwent cardiac catheterization in Ontario, Canada, were included. Clinical characteristics were compared between patients with and without an appropriateness score. Clinical outcomes between coronary revascularization and medical therapy in patients with unclassified appropriateness score were compared using the inverse probability of treatment-weighted propensity method for confounder adjustment. Of the 19,228 patients with stable CAD, 11.2% (2,153 patients) were not assigned to an appropriateness score, mostly (92.9%) because of a lack of ischemic evaluation or a noninterpretable test. These patients were older, had higher rate of severe angina, and had more medical co-morbidities compared to patients with an appropriateness score. The 2-year rate of death or myocardial infarction in patients with unclassified appropriateness score was 15.3% in the revascularization group versus 20.7% in the medical therapy group. After propensity weighting, revascularization was associated with significantly lower hazard ratio (0.70; 95% confidence interval 0.61 to 0.79) for death or myocardial infarction compared with medical therapy. In conclusion, in patients aged ?66 years with stable CAD and unclassified appropriateness score, revascularization is associated with improved outcomes. PMID:26611121

  9. Alternative option in patients with multisegmental left anterior descending coronary artery disease for providing complete myocardial revascularization

    PubMed Central

    Gucu, Arif; Goncu, Tu?rul; Yavuz, Senol; Ozluk, Ozlem Arican; Eris, Cuneyt; Turk, Tamer; Ozyaz?c?oglu, Ahmet; Vural, Hakan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The basic aim of surgical interventions in patients with coronary artery disease is to complete myocardial revascularization. In such patients, however, complementary revascularization techniques may require in patients with multisegmental left anterior descending disease. Among the different procedures, we performed an alternative option in patients with multisegmental lad disease for providing complete myocardial revascularization. Methods: This study consists of retrospective analysis of consecutive eight patients between january 2008 and august 2013. In all patients, the surgical procedure consisted of standard aortic and right atrial cannulations followed by coronary artery bypass grafting with cardiopulmonary bypass. At the lesions of non-lad vessels distal anastomoses were performed with saphenous vein graft. After that lad arteriotomies were performed at the proximal and the distal segment of coronary stenosis, and a bridge was formed with a short segment valveless svg. The left internal mammary artery was anastomosed on the bridge. Results: This innovative technique was performed successfully in all the patients. There were no morbidity and in-hospital mortality. At follow-up 1 year control, all the patients have no complications. In 2 patients, control angiogram showed a patent lima to a bridge anastomosis. Conclusions: Although our series has a small group population, we advocate that this is a safe, easy, and efficient technique for providing complete revascularization in multisegmental lad disease. This technique could be performed with the good result and easy implementation. It perfuses both the proximal and the distal segments of the multisegmental lad stenoses. PMID:24482700

  10. Mode of Coronary Revascularization and Short term Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Khoso, Ashique Ali; Kazmi, Khawar Abbas; Tahir, Saqiba; Sharif, Hasanat; Awan, Safia

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective: Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery are two alternative methods for coronary revascularization, but it remains controversial as which one is associated with lower risks of worse clinical outcomes for chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. We determined the mode of coronary revascularization (PCI vs. CABG) which is associated with lower risk of mortality and morbidity in CKD patients. Methods: In this cross sectional study, 159 patients with CKD were enrolled from single center of coronary revascularization at Aga Khan University Hospital Karachi between January 2012 and August 2013. All patients with CKD underwent PCI or CABG. The primary outcome was in-hospital composite of death, myocardial infarction (MI), or stroke. We evaluated which mode of coronary revascularization was associated with reduced risks of clinical outcomes. Results: Out of 159 patients with CKD, 85 (53.5%) received PCI and 74 (46.5%) received CABG. The primary finding of this study is that more patients with moderate to severe CKD underwent PCI and more patients with mild to moderate CKD underwent CABG. In both these categories, no difference was observed in clinical outcomes. There are few factors like age, ST- elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) and number of coronary artery disease predicted PCI as treatment strategy in patients with moderate to severe CKD. Conclusion: Patients with moderate to severe CKD have similar rates of short term clinical outcomes whether they underwent PCI or CABG. Therefore, PCI can be acceptable and less invasive treatment option alternative to CABG, particularly in patients with moderate to severe CKD. PMID:25674104

  11. Closed chest hybrid coronary revascularization for multivessel disease - current concepts and techniques from a two-center experience.

    PubMed

    Bonaros, Nikolaos; Schachner, Thomas; Wiedemann, Dominik; Weidinger, Felix; Lehr, Eric; Zimrin, David; Friedrich, Guy; Bonatti, Johannes

    2011-10-01

    Hybrid coronary revascularization combining minimally invasive coronary surgery and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) allows sternal preserving treatment of multivessel coronary disease. The main principle of the technique includes placement of mammary artery graft to the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) and performance of PCI in non-LAD target vessels. This principle is based on increasing data showing equivalent results of PCI with coronary revascularization using saphenous vein grafts in selected patients. Providing that perioperative and long-term results are as good as the results of conventional surgical revascularization, this option seems to be quite appealing for patients and referring cardiologists. This concept has been designed to allow rapid rehabilitation and minimize periprocedural pain under concomitant preservation of the patient's body integrity. Robotically assisted endoscopic approaches for hybrid coronary revascularization set the pace for a closed-chest treatment of multivessel coronary disease. The time point of PCI, the use of different anticoagulation protocols as well as the stent selection are some of the variables, which affect outcome. We additionally report on the midterm results of 130 after-closed-chest hybrid-coronary procedures in two institutions. Hybrid procedures using robotic technology and PCI allow closed chest treatment of multivessel coronary artery disease. Single- and double-bypass grafts are feasible and simultaneous interventions can be performed. The overall safety of the procedure seems to be adequate and perioperative clinical results are satisfactory. Intermediate term survival and freedom from angina are excellent. PMID:21459599

  12. Left Subclavian Artery Revascularization in Preparation for Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Saum A; Shah, Noor; Labinskyy, Volodymyr; Lee, Leonard Y

    2016-01-01

    Coronary subclavian steal syndrome is a rare but important condition that occurs after a left internal mammary artery (LIMA) to coronary artery bypass in the setting of a stenotic left subclavian artery. The lack of blood flow through the subclavian artery causes the reversal of flow in the LIMA so that it essentially steals blood from the myocardium. In order to avoid this complication, many surgeons now opt to either revascularize the stenotic subclavian artery prior to coronary artery bypass grafting or to use an alternate vessel as the bypass graft. Here, we present the case of an asymptomatic patient with poor exercise tolerance who was recently diagnosed with both triple-vessel coronary disease and peripheral arterial disease, which was most notably characterized by occlusion of the left subclavian artery. This case demonstrates the surgical management of this complex clinical entity. PMID:26613584

  13. Revascularization for coronary artery disease in diabetes mellitus: Angioplasty, stents and coronary artery bypass grafting

    E-print Network

    Aronson, Doron

    Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) are prone to a diffuse and rapidly progressive form of atherosclerosis, which increases their likelihood of requiring revascularization. However, the unique pathophysiology of atherosclerosis ...

  14. Anatomic versus physiologic assessment of coronary artery disease. Role of coronary flow reserve, fractional flow reserve, and positron emission tomography imaging in revascularization decision-making.

    PubMed

    Gould, K Lance; Johnson, Nils P; Bateman, Timothy M; Beanlands, Rob S; Bengel, Frank M; Bober, Robert; Camici, Paolo G; Cerqueira, Manuel D; Chow, Benjamin J W; Di Carli, Marcelo F; Dorbala, Sharmila; Gewirtz, Henry; Gropler, Robert J; Kaufmann, Philipp A; Knaapen, Paul; Knuuti, Juhani; Merhige, Michael E; Rentrop, K Peter; Ruddy, Terrence D; Schelbert, Heinrich R; Schindler, Thomas H; Schwaiger, Markus; Sdringola, Stefano; Vitarello, John; Williams, Kim A; Gordon, Donald; Dilsizian, Vasken; Narula, Jagat

    2013-10-29

    Angiographic severity of coronary artery stenosis has historically been the primary guide to revascularization or medical management of coronary artery disease. However, physiologic severity defined by coronary pressure and/or flow has resurged into clinical prominence as a potential, fundamental change from anatomically to physiologically guided management. This review addresses clinical coronary physiology-pressure and flow-as clinical tools for treating patients. We clarify the basic concepts that hold true for whatever technology measures coronary physiology directly and reliably, here focusing on positron emission tomography and its interplay with intracoronary measurements. PMID:23954338

  15. Passive Leg Raising Correlates with Future Exercise Capacity after Coronary Revascularization.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shu-Chun; Wong, May-Kuen; Lin, Pyng-Jing; Tsai, Feng-Chun; Wen, Ming-Shien; Kuo, Chi-Tai; Hsu, Chih-Chin; Wang, Jong-Shyan

    2015-01-01

    Hemodynamic properties affected by the passive leg raise test (PLRT) reflect cardiac pumping efficiency. In the present study, we aimed to further explore whether PLRT predicts exercise intolerance/capacity following coronary revascularization. Following coronary bypass/percutaneous coronary intervention, 120 inpatients underwent a PLRT and a cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) 2-12 days during post-surgery hospitalization and 3-5 weeks after hospital discharge. The PLRT included head-up, leg raise, and supine rest postures. The end point of the first CPET during admission was the supra-ventilatory anaerobic threshold, whereas that during the second CPET in the outpatient stage was maximal performance. Bio-reactance-based non-invasive cardiac output monitoring was employed during PLRT to measure real-time stroke volume and cardiac output. A correlation matrix showed that stroke volume during leg raise (SVLR) during the first PLRT was positively correlated (R = 0.653) with the anaerobic threshold during the first CPET. When exercise intolerance was defined as an anaerobic threshold < 3 metabolic equivalents, SVLR / body weight had an area under curve value of 0.822, with sensitivity of 0.954, specificity of 0.593, and cut-off value of 1504·10-3mL/kg (positive predictive value 0.72; negative predictive value 0.92). Additionally, cardiac output during leg raise (COLR) during the first PLRT was related to peak oxygen consumption during the second CPET (R = 0.678). When poor aerobic fitness was defined as peak oxygen consumption < 5 metabolic equivalents, COLR / body weight had an area under curve value of 0.814, with sensitivity of 0.781, specificity of 0.773, and a cut-off value of 68.3 mL/min/kg (positive predictive value 0.83; negative predictive value 0.71). Therefore, we conclude that PLRT during hospitalization has a good screening and predictive power for exercise intolerance/capacity in inpatients and early outpatients following coronary revascularization, which has clinical significance. PMID:26360736

  16. Passive Leg Raising Correlates with Future Exercise Capacity after Coronary Revascularization

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shu-Chun; Wong, May-Kuen; Lin, Pyng-Jing; Tsai, Feng-Chun; Wen, Ming-Shien; Kuo, Chi-Tai; Hsu, Chih-Chin; Wang, Jong-Shyan

    2015-01-01

    Hemodynamic properties affected by the passive leg raise test (PLRT) reflect cardiac pumping efficiency. In the present study, we aimed to further explore whether PLRT predicts exercise intolerance/capacity following coronary revascularization. Following coronary bypass/percutaneous coronary intervention, 120 inpatients underwent a PLRT and a cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) 2–12 days during post-surgery hospitalization and 3–5 weeks after hospital discharge. The PLRT included head-up, leg raise, and supine rest postures. The end point of the first CPET during admission was the supra-ventilatory anaerobic threshold, whereas that during the second CPET in the outpatient stage was maximal performance. Bio-reactance-based non-invasive cardiac output monitoring was employed during PLRT to measure real-time stroke volume and cardiac output. A correlation matrix showed that stroke volume during leg raise (SVLR) during the first PLRT was positively correlated (R = 0.653) with the anaerobic threshold during the first CPET. When exercise intolerance was defined as an anaerobic threshold < 3 metabolic equivalents, SVLR / body weight had an area under curve value of 0.822, with sensitivity of 0.954, specificity of 0.593, and cut-off value of 1504·10-3mL/kg (positive predictive value 0.72; negative predictive value 0.92). Additionally, cardiac output during leg raise (COLR) during the first PLRT was related to peak oxygen consumption during the second CPET (R = 0.678). When poor aerobic fitness was defined as peak oxygen consumption < 5 metabolic equivalents, COLR / body weight had an area under curve value of 0.814, with sensitivity of 0.781, specificity of 0.773, and a cut-off value of 68.3 mL/min/kg (positive predictive value 0.83; negative predictive value 0.71). Therefore, we conclude that PLRT during hospitalization has a good screening and predictive power for exercise intolerance/capacity in inpatients and early outpatients following coronary revascularization, which has clinical significance. PMID:26360736

  17. Trends in Coronary Angiography, Revascularization, and Outcomes of Cardiogenic Shock Complicating Non-ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Kolte, Dhaval; Khera, Sahil; Dabhadkar, Kaustubh C; Agarwal, Shikhar; Aronow, Wilbert S; Timmermans, Robert; Jain, Diwakar; Cooper, Howard A; Frishman, William H; Menon, Venu; Bhatt, Deepak L; Abbott, J Dawn; Fonarow, Gregg C; Panza, Julio A

    2016-01-01

    Early revascularization is the mainstay of treatment for cardiogenic shock (CS) complicating acute myocardial infarction. However, data on the contemporary trends in management and outcomes of CS complicating non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) are limited. We used the 2006 to 2012 Nationwide Inpatient Sample databases to identify patients aged ?18 years with NSTEMI with or without CS. Temporal trends and differences in coronary angiography, revascularization, and outcomes were analyzed. Of 2,191,772 patients with NSTEMI, 53,800 (2.5%) had a diagnosis of CS. From 2006 to 2012, coronary angiography rates increased from 53.6% to 60.4% in patients with NSTEMI with CS (ptrend <0.001). Among patients who underwent coronary angiography, revascularization rates were significantly higher in patients with CS versus without CS (72.5% vs 62.6%, p <0.001). Patients with NSTEMI with CS had significantly higher risk-adjusted in-hospital mortality (odds ratio 10.09, 95% confidence interval 9.88 to 10.32) as compared to those without CS. In patients with CS, an invasive strategy was associated with lower risk-adjusted in-hospital mortality (odds ratio 0.43, 95% confidence interval 0.42 to 0.45). Risk-adjusted in-hospital mortality, length of stay, and total hospital costs decreased over the study period in patients with and without CS (ptrend <0.001). In conclusion, we observed an increasing trend in coronary angiography and decreasing trend in in-hospital mortality, length of stay, and total hospital costs in patients with NSTEMI with and without CS. Despite these positive trends, overall coronary angiography and revascularization rates remain less than optimal and in-hospital mortality unacceptably high in patients with NSTEMI and CS. PMID:26541908

  18. Platelet-larger cell ratio and the risk of periprocedural myocardial infarction after percutaneous coronary revascularization.

    PubMed

    Verdoia, Monica; Barbieri, Lucia; Schaffer, Alon; Cassetti, Ettore; Marino, Paolo; Bellomo, Giorgio; Sinigaglia, Fabiola; De Luca, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Periprocedural myocardial infarction (PMI) represents a frequent complication in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary revascularization. Despite great attention focused on pharmacological prevention of periprocedural damage, very little is known about using biomarkers to potentially predict the risk of PMI. Larger platelets have been associated with enhanced reactivity, increased cardiovascular risk, and higher rates of complications after coronary stenting. The platelet-larger cell ratio (P-LCR) identifies the largest-sized fraction of platelets, the proportion potentially more closely related to thrombotic events. The present study evaluated the relationship between P-LCR and PMI. We included 1,285 patients undergoing PCI. Myonecrosis biomarkers were dosed at intervals from 6 to 48 h after PCI. Periprocedural myonecrosis was defined as troponin I increase by three times the upper limit of normal (ULN) or by 50 % of an elevated baseline value, whereas PMI was defined as an increase in creatine kinase MB by 3 × ULN or 50 % of baseline. We grouped patients according to tertile values of P-LCR (<27.5; ?35.1). Higher P-LCR was associated with age (P = 0.01), diabetes (P = 0.001), previous cerebrovascular accidents (P = 0.007), therapy with statins (P < 0.001), angiotensin receptor blockers (P < 0.001), aspirin (P = 0.002), and nitrates (P = 0.01). P-LCR was related to hemoglobin levels (P < 0.001), and inversely related to platelet count (P < 0.001) and glycemia (P = 0.05). Patients with higher P-LCR had a lower presence of coronary thrombus (P = 0.003). Higher P-LCR values did not increase the risk of PMI (P = 0.10; adjusted odds ratio (OR) (95 % confidence interval (CI)) = 0.97 (0.69-1.38)), P = 0.89) or periprocedural myonecrosis (P = 0.96; adjusted OR (95 % CI) = 1.003 (0.76-1.32), P = 0.99). Results were confirmed even in higher-risk subgroups of patients. P-LCR does not increase the risk of periprocedural myocardial infarction and myonecrosis in patients undergoing coronary stenting. PMID:24297745

  19. Successful endovascular treatment of severe chronic mesenteric ischemia by concurrent triple-vessel mesenteric artery revascularization.

    PubMed

    Joseph, George; Agarwal, Sunil

    2015-01-01

    A 52-year-old man presenting with severely symptomatic chronic mesenteric ischemia had proximal occlusion of the celiac and superior mesenteric arteries and critical stenosis of the inferior mesenteric artery ostium. Concurrent percutaneous revascularization with stenting of all three mesenteric arteries was successfully achieved using techniques tailored to each lesion. Complete clinical recovery was observed at the six-month post-procedure follow-up. PMID:26071295

  20. Invasive treatment of non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome: cardiac catheterization/revascularization for all?

    PubMed

    Swahn, Eva; Alfredsson, Joakim

    2014-03-01

    Patients admitted to hospital with symptoms and signs of non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes have different risk profiles and are in need of an individualized approach that takes into consideration not only age and sex but also comorbidities such as diabetes, renal failure, hypertension, heart failure, peripheral artery disease, earlier revascularization, etc. According to evidence-based medicine and as documented in current guidelines, there is currently evidence for early catheterization and, if feasible, revascularization in high-risk patients, especially in men. Nevertheless, because of a lack of definitive evidence, there is uncertainty about treating women in the same way. Because women are usually older and have more comorbidities, they are frailer and revascularization should be indicated with greater caution. There is no evidence that catheterization as such is worse for women than for men; however, for both men and women with low risk, a less invasive approach, such as coronary computed tomography angiography, could be considered as a first diagnostic tool. PMID:24774397

  1. Hyaluronan Based Heparin Free Coated Open and Closed Extracorporeal Circuits for High Risk Coronary Revascularization

    PubMed Central

    Gunaydin, Serdar; Ucar, Halil Ibrahim; Serter, Tanzer; McCusker, Kevin; Ozcelik, Gokhan; Salman, Nevriye; Yorgancioglu, Ali Cem

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: This prospective randomized study compares the inflammatory response and fibrinolytic activation of fully coated/uncoated and open/closed extracorporeal circuits (ECC) in high risk patients. Over a 2-month period, 48 patients with EuroSCOREs 6 or greater undergoing coronary revascularization were pro spectively randomized to one of the four perfusion protocols: Group 1: Closed and totally hyaluronan based heparin free coated (Vision HFO-GBS-HF™, Gish Biomedical, Rancho Santa Margarita, CA) ECC with a soft-shell coated venous reservoir (SVR11S2-HFC™, Gish Biomedical) and a hard-shell cardiotomy (CAPVRF44, Gish Biomedical) (n = 12); Group 2: Closed and totally uncoated identical ECC with soft-shell uncoated venous reservoir and a hard-shell cardiotomy (n = 12); Group 3: Open, totally hyaluronan based heparin free coated ECC (n = 12); and Group 4: Control-open, uncoated ECC (n = 12). Blood samples were collected at T1: Baseline; T2: 15 minutes after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) initiation; T3: before cessation of CPB; T4: 15 minutes after protamine reversal, and T5: in the intensive care unit. Serum IL-6 levels were significantly lower at T2 in all study groups, at T3 for coated groups, and T4 for closed+coated group (p < .05 versus control). Creatine kinase M-band (MB) levels in coronary sinus blood demonstrated well preserved myocardium after CPB in both coated groups versus Control (p < .05). Neutrophil CD11b/CD18 levels were significantly lower for all study groups versus control at T2, for both coated groups at T3 and only for closed+coated group at T4 (p < .05). Postoperative hemorrhage (mL) was 510 ± 40 in closed+coated and 536 ± 40 in open+coated groups (control: 784 ± 48, p ? .05). No significant differences in thrombin-antithrombin complex and free plasma hemoglobin were observed. Desorbed protein amount on ECC (mg/dL) was 1.7 ± .01 in closed+coated, 2.01 ± .01 in open+coated, and 3.3 ± .015 in control groups (p ? .05). Use of a closed and completely heparin free coated ECC may reduce neutrophil degradation, cytokine release characterized by improved clinical outcomes including reduced blood loss, reduced requirement for inotropes, and reduced atrial fibrillation. PMID:21313926

  2. Safety and Efficacy of Caproamin Fides and Tranexamic Acid Versus Placebo in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Revascularization

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh Ghavidel, Alireza; Totonchi, Ziae; Chitsazan, Mitra; Gholampour Dehaki, Maziar; Jalili, Farshid; Farsad, Fariborz; Hejrati, Maral

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Excessive fibrinolysis contributes to post-cardiopulmonary bypass bleeding. Tranexamic Acid (TXA) and Caproamin Fides are synthetic lysine analogues that inhibit plasminogen-fibrin binding. The present study aimed to compare TXA and Caproamin Fides versus placebo in patients undergoing elective coronary artery revascularization. Methods: We analyzed perioperative data of 300 adult patients undergoing coronary artery revascularization. Patients were randomly allocated to receive TXA (n=100), Caproamin Fides (n=100) or placebo (n=100) during perioperative time. Mediastinal bleeding during the first 24 hours post-operation, transfusion requirement and post-surgical complications were assessed. Results: Most descriptive and intra-operative parameters were well comparable between the 3 study groups. Except for mean number of packed red blood cell (PRBC) units transfused during ICU stay (P=0.01), patients in the Caproamin Fides and TXA groups did not show any statistically significant differences regarding transfusion of blood products during peri-operative period. There was no evidence of a significant difference in mediastinal blood loss during the first 24 hours post-operation between the patients receiving TXA or placebo, while patients in the Caproamin Fides group had significantly lower mediastinal bleeding than the other 2 groups (Caproamin Fides vs. placebo, P=0.002, <0.001 and <0.001 at 6, 12 and 24 hours post-operation; Caproamin Fides vs. TXA, P=0.009, 0.003, <0.001 at 6, 12 and 24 hours post-operation). The incidence of postoperative complications were comparable between Caproamin Fides and TXA groups (P>0.05). Conclusion: In conclusion, Caproamin Fides seems to be superior to TXA regarding the blood saving effects in patients undergoing coronary artery revascularization. PMID:25320669

  3. Hypothesis of Long-Term Outcome after Coronary Revascularization in Japanese Patients Compared to Multiethnic Groups in the US

    PubMed Central

    Inohara, Taku; Kohsaka, Shun; Goto, Masashi; Furukawa, Yutaka; Fukushima, Masanori; Sakata, Ryuzo; Elayda, MacArthur; Wilson, James M.; Kimura, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Background Ethnicity has a significant impact on coronary artery disease (CAD). This study investigated the long-term outcomes of Japanese patients undergoing revascularization compared with US patients belonging to multiple ethnic groups. Methods and Results We evaluated clinical outcomes, based on ethnicity, of patients included in the Coronary Revascularization Demonstrating Outcome (CREDO-Kyoto) and the Texas (US) Heart Institute Research Database (THIRDBase) registries. For the analysis, we included 8871 patients from the CREDO-Kyoto registry (median follow-up period [FU], 3.5 years; interquartile range [IQR], 2.6–4.3) and 6717 patients from the THIRDBase registry (FU, 5.2 years; IQR, 3.8–6.5) who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention or bypass surgery. Cox proportional hazard models were constructed to compare the adjusted long-term outcomes for each ethnic group. A total of 8871 Japanese, 5170 Caucasians, 648 African-Americans, 817 Hispanics, and 82 Asian-Americans were identified. When adjusted, Japanese patients had significantly better outcomes than US patients, classified by ethnicity (Caucasians: hazard ratio [HR], 1.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.35–1.79; Hispanics: HR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.22–1.93; African-Americans: HR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.62–2.56), except for Asian-Americans (HR, 0.84; 95% CI. 0.38–1.89) who had outcomes similar to Japanese patients. Conclusion Our findings indicate better survival outcomes in re-vascularized Japanese CAD patients compared to major ethnic groups in the US, including Caucasian, Hispanic, and African-American CAD patients. The characteristics and outcomes of Japanese CAD patients were similar to those of Asian-Americans, despite the sample size limitations in the US dataset. PMID:26023784

  4. Impact of Chronic Total Occlusions and Coronary Revascularization on All-Cause Mortality and the Incidence of Ventricular Arrhythmias in Patients With Ischemic Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Raja, Vijay; Wiegn, Phi; Obel, Owen; Christakopoulos, Georgios; Christopoulos, George; Rangan, Bavana V; Roesle, Michele; Abdullah, Shuaib M; Luna, Michael; Addo, Tayo; Ayers, Colby; Garcia, Santiago; de Lemos, James A; Banerjee, Subhash; Brilakis, Emmanouil S

    2015-11-01

    Coronary chronic total occlusions (CTOs) have been associated with higher mortality in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy and implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs); yet the impact of CTO revascularization on subsequent clinical outcomes has not been studied. We evaluated the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy who also received an ICD for primary prevention of sudden death at the Dallas VA Medical Center from January 2002 to December 2013. On the basis of coronary angiography performed before device implantation, patients were divided into 3 groups: no CTOs, revascularized CTOs (with percutaneous coronary intervention or surgery), and unrevascularized CTOs. Primary and secondary outcomes were all-cause mortality and appropriate ICD therapy for sustained ventricular arrhythmias. A total of 307 patients (mean age 64.3 ± 8.1 years, 100% men) were included in the study. At least 1 CTO was present in 213 patients (69%) and was revascularized in 99 patients (32%). During a median follow-up of 4.1 years, 51 patients (17%) died and 98 (32%) had at least 1 episode of sustained ventricular arrhythmia. Mortality and incidence of ventricular arrhythmias were similar in the 3 study groups in both univariate and multivariate analyses. In conclusion, CTOs are commonly found in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy. In contrast to previous studies, the presence of a CTO was not associated with higher mortality or incidence of ventricular arrhythmias. In addition, revascularization of CTOs was not associated with improved outcomes in this high-risk cohort. PMID:26341182

  5. Trends in Outcomes of Revascularization for Left Main Coronary Disease or Three-Vessel Disease With the Routine Incorporation of Fractional Flow Reserve in Real Practice.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jung-Min; Yoon, Sung-Han; Roh, Jae-Hyung; Lee, Pil Hyung; Chang, Mineok; Park, Hyun Woo; Lee, Jong-Young; Kang, Soo-Jin; Park, Duk-Woo; Lee, Seung-Whan; Kim, Young-Hak; Lee, Cheol Whan; Han, Seungbong; Park, Seong-Wook; Park, Seung-Jung

    2015-10-15

    Impact of fractional flow reserve guidance on revascularization strategies and outcomes for severe coronary artery disease was unclear. We evaluate changes in treatment strategy and clinical outcomes and to compare the effectiveness between percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with second-generation drug-eluting stents and coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) in severe coronary artery disease patients before and after routine use of FFR. From January 2008 to December 2011, we enrolled 2,612 patients with significant left main coronary artery disease or 3-vessel disease. We obtained data of patients before (from January 2008 to December 2009) and after (January 2010 to December 2011) the routine use of FFR. We used propensity score matching to compare the rate of primary outcomes (death, myocardial infarction, stroke, or repeat revascularization [Major adverse cardiovascular and cerebral event; MACCE]) at 1 year. Introduction of routine FFR use reduced the proportion of patients receiving CABG from 54% to 43% (p <0.001). The risk of MACCE before routine FFR use was significantly higher in the PCI group than the CABG group (hazard ratio [HR] 1.82, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09 to 3.03, p = 0.021), whereas that after routine FFR use was not significantly different between the groups (HR 1.22, 95% CI 0.59 to 2.52, p = 0.59). The risk of MACCE in patients receiving revascularization lowered after routine FFR use compared with that before (HR 0.57, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.85, p = 0.005). In conclusion, routine incorporation of FFR resulted in improved PCI outcomes, comparable with concurrent CABG in patients with severe coronary artery disease who received revascularization. PMID:26318500

  6. Randomized Trial of Complete Versus Lesion-Only Revascularization in Patients Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for STEMI and Multivessel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gershlick, Anthony H.; Khan, Jamal Nasir; Kelly, Damian J.; Greenwood, John P.; Sasikaran, Thiagarajah; Curzen, Nick; Blackman, Daniel J.; Dalby, Miles; Fairbrother, Kathryn L.; Banya, Winston; Wang, Duolao; Flather, Marcus; Hetherington, Simon L.; Kelion, Andrew D.; Talwar, Suneel; Gunning, Mark; Hall, Roger; Swanton, Howard; McCann, Gerry P.

    2015-01-01

    Background The optimal management of patients found to have multivessel disease while undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (P-PCI) for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction is uncertain. Objectives CvLPRIT (Complete versus Lesion-only Primary PCI trial) is a U.K. open-label randomized study comparing complete revascularization at index admission with treatment of the infarct-related artery (IRA) only. Methods After they provided verbal assent and underwent coronary angiography, 296 patients in 7 U.K. centers were randomized through an interactive voice-response program to either in-hospital complete revascularization (n = 150) or IRA-only revascularization (n = 146). Complete revascularization was performed either at the time of P-PCI or before hospital discharge. Randomization was stratified by infarct location (anterior/nonanterior) and symptom onset (?3 h or >3 h). The primary endpoint was a composite of all-cause death, recurrent myocardial infarction (MI), heart failure, and ischemia-driven revascularization within 12 months. Results Patient groups were well matched for baseline clinical characteristics. The primary endpoint occurred in 10.0% of the complete revascularization group versus 21.2% in the IRA-only revascularization group (hazard ratio: 0.45; 95% confidence interval: 0.24 to 0.84; p = 0.009). A trend toward benefit was seen early after complete revascularization (p = 0.055 at 30 days). Although there was no significant reduction in death or MI, a nonsignificant reduction in all primary endpoint components was seen. There was no reduction in ischemic burden on myocardial perfusion scintigraphy or in the safety endpoints of major bleeding, contrast-induced nephropathy, or stroke between the groups. Conclusions In patients presenting for P-PCI with multivessel disease, index admission complete revascularization significantly lowered the rate of the composite primary endpoint at 12 months compared with treating only the IRA. In such patients, inpatient total revascularization may be considered, but larger clinical trials are required to confirm this result and specifically address whether this strategy is associated with improved survival. (Complete Versus Lesion-only Primary PCI Pilot Study [CvLPRIT]; ISRCTN70913605) PMID:25766941

  7. Quantification of Fat Mobilization in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Revascularization Using Off-pump and On-pump Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Ajzan, Ahmed; Modine, Thomas; Punjabi, Prakash; Ganeshalingam, Kandeepan; Philips, Gary; Gourlay, Terence

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: Fat mobilization during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is a recognized risk of the procedure. Intravascular mobilization of fat emboli subsequent to CPB has been implicated in some of its recognized pathophysiologies, particularly with regard to cerebral embolic injury. The aim of this study was to investigate whether fat mobilization is still a real issue in modern perfusion practice and to determine whether off pump coronary artery bypass techniques minimize this risk. Thirty patients undergoing routine elective coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery were divided into two groups. Group 1 patients underwent off pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) procedures, and group 2 underwent CABG supported with CPB. Blood samples were taken from the CPB patients at the beginning, middle, and end of the procedure, from the suction line, from the arterial line, and from the venous line for measurement of fat emboli present. Samples were taken at corresponding time-points from the OPCAB patients for similar measurements. Fat emboli were counted manually using Oil red O staining and light microscopy. The fat emboli were sized using calibrated microspheres as a visual size contrast. No fat emboli were observed in any of the blood samples taken from the OPCAB patients. There were fat emboli present in all samples taken during CPB from all sources. The count was highest in the suction system and lowest in the venous blood and tended to increase during CPB. There was an absence of large fat emboli in the venous blood, which tends to indicate that the larger fat emboli lodge in the microvasculature. OPCAB surgery eliminates the risk of fat embolization in patients undergoing coronary revascularization. The suction system is the major source of fat emboli during CPB, and despite the multiple filtration components of the CPB system, fat emboli of various and significant sizes do reach the patient. Fat embolization remains a risk in routine elective CABG surgery. Cardiotomy suction should be eliminated where possible. PMID:16921682

  8. Association of Lower Fractional Flow Reserve Values With Higher Risk of Adverse Cardiac Events for Lesions Deferred Revascularization Among Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Masrani Mehta, Shriti; Depta, Jeremiah P; Novak, Eric; Patel, Jayendrakumar S; Patel, Yogesh; Raymer, David; Facey, Gabrielle; Zajarias, Alan; Lasala, John M; Singh, Jasvindar; Bach, Richard G; Kurz, Howard I

    2015-01-01

    Background The safety of deferring revascularization based on fractional flow reserve (FFR) during acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is unclear. We evaluated the association of FFR and adverse cardiac events among patients with coronary lesions deferred revascularization based on FFR in the setting of ACS versus non-ACS. Methods and Results The study population (674 patients; 816 lesions) was divided into ACS (n=334) and non-ACS (n=340) groups based on the diagnosis when revascularization was deferred based on FFR values >0.80 between October 2002 and July 2010. The association and interaction between FFR and clinical outcomes was evaluated using Cox proportional hazards models within each group (mean follow-up of 4.5±2.1 years). Subsequent revascularization of a deferred lesion was classified as a deferred lesion intervention (DLI), whereas the composite of DLI or myocardial infarction (MI) attributed to a deferred lesion was designated as deferred lesion failure (DLF). In the non-ACS group, lower FFR values were not associated with any increase in adverse cardiac events. In the ACS group, every 0.01 decrease in FFR was associated with a significantly higher rate of cardiovascular death, MI, or DLI (hazard ratio [HR], 1.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03 to 1.12), MI or DLI (HR, 1.09; 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.14), DLF (HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.18), MI (HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.14), and DLI (HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.18). Conclusion Lower FFR values among ACS patients with coronary lesions deferred revascularization based on FFR are associated with a significantly higher rate of adverse cardiac events. This association was not observed in non-ACS patients. PMID:26289346

  9. Successful percutaneous coronary intervention for chronic total occlusion of right coronary artery in patient with dextrocardia.

    PubMed

    Munawar, Muhammad; Hartono, Beny; Iskandarsyah, Kurniawan; Nguyen, Thach N

    2013-07-01

    Situs inversus with dextrocardia is rare congenital anomaly. Coronary artery disease in such patients is quite rare. We reported a 52-year-old man with dextrocardia and chronic total occlusion at the proximal right coronary artery just after conus branch and severe stenosis at the proximal left anterior descending artery. He underwent successful percutaneous coronary intervention with stenting of total occluded right coronary artery and simultaneously stenting of the proximal left anterior descending artery. PMID:23456428

  10. National trends in utilization and outcomes of coronary revascularization procedures among people with and without type 2 diabetes in Spain (2001–2011)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetes is associated with a high risk of death due to coronary artery disease (CAD). People with diabetes suffering from CAD are frequently treated with revascularization procedures. We aim to compare trends in the use and outcomes of coronary revascularization procedures in diabetic and non-diabetic patients in Spain between 2001 and 2011. Methods We identified all patients who had undergone coronary revascularization procedures, percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) and coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgeries, using national hospital discharge data. Discharges were grouped by diabetes status: type 2 diabetes and no diabetes. The incidence of discharges attributed to coronary revascularization procedures were calculated stratified by diabetes status. We calculated length of stay and in-hospital mortality (IHM). We apply joinpoint log-linear regression to identify the years in which changes in tendency occurred in the use of PCI and CABG in diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Multivariate analysis was adjusted by age, sex, year and comorbidity (Charlson comorbidity index). Results From 2001 to 2011, 434,108 PCIs and 79,986 CABGs were performed. According to the results of the joinpoint analysis, we found that sex and age-adjusted use of PCI increased by 31.4% per year from 2001 to 2003, by 15.9% per year from 2003 to 2006 and by 3.8% per year from 2006 to 2011 in patients with diabetes. IHM among patients with diabetes who underwent a PCI did not change significantly over the entire study period (OR 0.99; 95% CI 0.97-1.00). Among patients with diabetes who underwent a CABG, the sex and age-adjusted CABG incidence rate increased by 10.4% per year from 2001 to 2003, and then decreased by 1.1% through 2011. Diabetic patients who underwent a CABG had a 0.67 (95% CI 0.63-0.71) times lower probability of dying during hospitalization than those without diabetes. Conclusions The annual percent change in PCI procedures increased in diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Higher comorbidity and the female gender are associated with a higher IHM in PCI procedures. In diabetic and non-diabetic patients, we found a decrease in the use of CABG procedures. IHM was higher in patients without diabetes than in those with diabetes. PMID:24383412

  11. Successful Coronary Stent Retrieval From a Pedal Artery

    SciTech Connect

    Mariano, Enrica Versaci, Francesco; Gandini, Roberto; Simonetti, Giovanni; Di Vito, Livio; Romeo, Francesco

    2008-05-15

    The purpose of this article is to report complications from a coronary drug-eluting stent lost in the peripheral circulation. We report the case of successful retrieval of a sirolimus coronary stent from a pedal artery in a young patient who underwent coronary angiography for previous anterior myocardial infarction. Recognition of stent embolization requires adequate removal of the device to avoid unwelcome clinical sequelae.

  12. Relation of Severe Coronary Artery Narrowing to Insulin or Thiazolidinedione Use in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (from the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes Study)

    PubMed Central

    Pop-Busui, Rodica; Lombardero, Manuel; Lavis, Victor; Forker, Alan; Green, Jennifer; Korytkowski, Mary; Sobel, Burton E.; Jones, Teresa L.Z.

    2009-01-01

    Patients with diabetes continue to die of coronary artery disease (CAD) at rates 2 to 4 times higher than patients without diabetes, despite advances in treatment of cardiovascular disease. The role of glycemic control therapies, independent of their glucose-lowering effects, on cardiovascular disease is a recurring question. We examined the association of glycemic control therapies with extent of CAD as measured by coronary angiogram obtained at baseline in 1,803 subjects in the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes (BARI 2D) trial who had type 2 diabetes mellitus, documented moderate to severe CAD, and no previous cardiac revascularization procedures. The association between glycemic control therapy use recorded at baseline and percent coronary artery stenosis and myocardial jeopardy index was analyzed by multiple regression models. Insulin use at study entry was associated with 23% fewer highly stenotic lesions (?70%) (p <0.001) and a significantly lower myocardial jeopardy index compared with subjects not on insulin, despite a worse cardiac risk factor profile, more unstable angina, and increased inflammatory markers in insulin users. Subjects taking thiazolidinediones (TZDs) for ?6 months had 17% fewer highly stenotic lesions (p = 0.02) and significantly lower C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels compared with those not taking TZDs. In conclusion, this cross-sectional study of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and CAD showed that treatment with insulin or TZDs was associated with fewer highly stenotic lesions, independent of disease duration, glycemic control, and other risk factors. PMID:19576321

  13. Long Segmental Reconstruction of Diffusely Diseased Left Anterior Descending Coronary Artery Using Left Internal Thoracic Artery with Extensive Endarterectomy.

    PubMed

    Heo, Woon; Min, Ho-Ki; Kang, Do Kyun; Lee, Sung Kwang; Jun, Hee Jae; Hwang, Youn-Ho

    2015-08-01

    In coronary artery bypass grafting, a diffusely diseased left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) is an obstacle to achieving complete revascularization, consequently leading to the possibility of a poor prognosis. Long segmental reconstruction with or without endarterectomy is a revascularization method for treating diffusely diseased coronary arteries. Herein, we report a successful case of long segmental reconstruction of a diffusely diseased LAD using a left internal thoracic artery onlay patch after endarterectomy. PMID:26290842

  14. Long Segmental Reconstruction of Diffusely Diseased Left Anterior Descending Coronary Artery Using Left Internal Thoracic Artery with Extensive Endarterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Woon; Min, Ho-Ki; Kang, Do Kyun; Lee, Sung Kwang; Jun, Hee Jae; Hwang, Youn-Ho

    2015-01-01

    In coronary artery bypass grafting, a diffusely diseased left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) is an obstacle to achieving complete revascularization, consequently leading to the possibility of a poor prognosis. Long segmental reconstruction with or without endarterectomy is a revascularization method for treating diffusely diseased coronary arteries. Herein, we report a successful case of long segmental reconstruction of a diffusely diseased LAD using a left internal thoracic artery onlay patch after endarterectomy. PMID:26290842

  15. Time trends in coronary revascularization procedures among people with COPD: analysis of the Spanish national hospital discharge data (2001–2011)

    PubMed Central

    de Miguel-Díez, Javier; Jiménez-García, Rodrigo; Hernández-Barrera, Valentín; Carrasco-Garrido, Pilar; Bueno, Héctor; Puente-Maestu, Luis; Jimenez-Trujillo, Isabel; Alvaro-Meca, Alejandro; Esteban-Hernandez, Jesús; de Andrés, Ana López

    2015-01-01

    Background People with COPD suffering from coronary artery disease are frequently treated with revascularization procedures. We aim to compare trends in the use and outcomes of these procedures in COPD and non-COPD patients in Spain between 2001 and 2011. Methods We identified all patients who had undergone percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs) and coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgeries, using national hospital discharge data. Discharges were grouped into: COPD and no COPD. Results From 2001 to 2011, 428,516 PCIs and 79,619 CABGs were performed. The sex and age-adjusted use of PCI increased by 21.27% per year from 2001 to 2004 and by 5.47% per year from 2004 to 2011 in patients with COPD. In-hospital mortality (IHM) among patients with COPD who underwent a PCI increased significantly from 2001 to 2011 (odds ratio 1.11; 95% confidence interval 1.03–1.20). Among patients with COPD who underwent a CABG, the sex and age-adjusted CABG incidence rate increased by 9.77% per year from 2001 to 2003, and then decreased by 3.15% through 2011. The probability of dying during hospitalization in patients who underwent a CABG did not change significantly in patients with and without COPD (odds ratio, 1.06; 95% confidence interval 0.96–1.17). Conclusion The annual percent change in PCI procedures increased in COPD and non-COPD patients. We found a decrease in the use of CABG procedures in both groups. IHM was higher in patients with COPD who underwent a PCI than in those without COPD. However, COPD did not increase the probability of dying during hospitalization in patients who underwent a CABG. PMID:26543361

  16. CT Angiography for Revascularization of CTO: Crossing the Borders of Diagnosis and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Opolski, Maksymilian P; Achenbach, Stephan

    2015-07-01

    Coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) is increasingly used to diagnose and rule out coronary artery disease. Beyond stenosis detection, the ability of CTA to visualize and characterize coronary atherosclerotic plaque, as well as to obtain 3-dimensional coronary vessel trajectories, has generated considerable interest in the context of pre-procedural planning for revascularization of chronic total occlusions (CTOs). Coronary CTA can characterize features that influence the success rate of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for CTOs such as the extent of calcification, vessel tortuosity, stump morphology, presence of multiple occlusions, and lesion length. Single features and combined scoring systems based on CTA may be used to grade the level of difficulty of the CTOs before PCI and have been shown to predict procedural success rates in several trials. In addition, the procedure itself may be facilitated by real-time integration of 3-dimensional CTA data and fluoroscopic images in the catheterization laboratory. Finally, the ability of coronary CTA to assess anatomy, perfusion, and viability in 1 single examination makes it a potential "one stop shop" that predicts not only the likelihood of successful PCI but also the clinical benefit of CTO revascularization. Further research is clearly needed, but many experienced sites have already integrated coronary CTA into the routine planning and guiding of CTO procedures. PMID:26183556

  17. Successful Retrieval of Uncoiled Coronary Guidewire Using Simple Balloon Method

    PubMed Central

    Ramalingam, Rangraj; Kharge, Jayashree; Nayak, Mohan; Manjunath, Cholenahally Nanjappa

    2015-01-01

    Breakage of angioplasty device in coronary artery can cause panic in the catheterization laboratory. These broken fragments may serve as a nidus for thrombus formation; hence, removal of these fragments becomes mandatory. Since the incidence of guidewire fracture during angioplasty are rarely reported, evidence-based approaches are not available for the management of such incidental conditions. Here, we report an interesting case of entrapment and unravelling of guidewire. We successfully retrieved unravelled guidewire using a noncompliant balloon inflated in the guiding catheter. Subsequently, the procedure was completed successfully with an implantation of a stent in the culprit lesion. We are of opinion that this novel technique is quite easy and less cumbersome than other described techniques reported earlier. PMID:26557557

  18. Early coronary revascularization improves 24 hour survival and neurological function after ischemic cardiac arrest. A randomized animal study

    PubMed Central

    Sideris, Georgios; Magkoutis, Nikolaos; Sharma, Alok; Rees, Jennifer; McKnite, Scott; Caldwell, Emily; Sarraf, Mohammad; Henry, Patrick; Lurie, Keith; Garcia, Santiago; Yannopoulos, Demetris

    2014-01-01

    Background Survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) remains poor. Acute coronary obstruction is a major cause of OHCA. We hypothesize that early coronary reperfusion will improve 24h-survival and neurological outcomes. Methods Total occlusion of the mid LAD was induced by balloon inflation in 27 pigs. After 5 minutes, VF was induced and left untreated for 8 minutes. If return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) was achieved within 15 minutes (21/27 animals) of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), animals were randomized to a total of either 45 minutes (group A) or 4 hours (group B) of LAD occlusion. Animals without ROSC after 15 minutes of CPR were classified as refractory VF (group C). In those pigs, CPR was continued up to 45 minutes of total LAD occlusion at which point reperfusion was achieved. CPR was continued until ROSC or another 10 minutes of CPR had been performed. Primary endpoints for groups A and B were 24-hour survival and cerebral performance category (CPC). Primary endpoint for group C was ROSC before or after reperfusion. Results Early compared to late reperfusion improved survival (10/11 versus 4/10, p= 0.02), mean CPC (1.4±0.7 versus 2.5±0.6, p= 0.017), LVEF (43±13 versus 32±9%, p=0.01), troponin I (37±28 versus 99±12, p=0,005) and CK-MB (11 ±4 versus 20.1±5, p=0.031) at 24-hr after ROSC. ROSC was achieved in 4/6 animals only after reperfusion in group C. Conclusions Early reperfusion after ischemic cardiac arrest improved 24h survival rate and neurological function. In animals with refractory VF, reperfusion was necessary to achieve ROSC. PMID:24200891

  19. Sex, clinical symptoms, and angiographic findings in patients with diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease (from the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation [BARI] 2 Diabetes trial).

    PubMed

    Tamis-Holland, Jacqueline E; Lu, Jiang; Bittner, Vera; Magee, Michelle F; Lopes, Neuza; Adler, Dale S; Kip, Kevin E; Schwartz, Leonard; Groenewoud, Yolanda A; Jacobs, Alice K

    2011-04-01

    Previous studies have reported differences in presenting symptoms and angiographic characteristics between women and men undergoing evaluation for suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). We examined the relation between symptoms and extent of CAD in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and known CAD enrolled in the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes (BARI 2D) trial. Of 1,775 patients (533 women, 30%, and 1,242 men, 70%), women were more likely than men to have angina (65% vs 56%, p <0.001) or an atypical angina/anginal equivalent (71% vs 58%, p <0.001). More women reported unstable angina (17% vs 13%, p = 0.047) or were in a higher Canadian Cardiology Society class compared to men (Canadian Cardiology Society classes II to IV 78% vs 68%, p = 0.002). Fewer women than men had no symptoms (14% vs 22%, p <0.001). Women had a lower mean myocardial jeopardy index (42.5 ± 24.3 vs 47.9 ± 24.3, p <0.001), smaller number of total significant lesions (2.3 ± 1.7 vs 2.7 ± 1.8, p <0.001), and fewer jeopardized left ventricular regions (p <0.001 for distribution) or long-term occlusions (29% vs 42%, p <0.001). After adjustment for relevant covariates, the odds of having CAD symptoms were still higher in women than men (odds ratio for angina 1.31, 95% confidence interval 1.02 to 1.69; odds ratio for atypical angina 1.52, 95% confidence interval 1.17 to 1.96). In conclusion, in a high-risk group of patients with known CAD and diabetes mellitus, women were more symptomatic than men but had less obstructive CAD. These data suggest that factors other than epicardial CAD severity influence symptom presentation in women in this population. PMID:21276585

  20. The Population-Based Risk of Need for Coronary Revascularization According to the Presence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and History of Coronary Heart Disease in the Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Chang Hee; Seo, Gi Hyeon; Suh, Sunghwan; Bae, Ji Cheol; Kim, Mee Kyoung; Hwang, You-Cheol; Kim, Jae Hyeon; Lee, Byung-Wan

    2015-01-01

    Background Whether diabetic patients without a history of coronary heart disease (CHD) have the same risk of CHD events as non-diabetic patients with a history of CHD remains controversial. This study aimed to determine whether type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a coronary heart disease (CHD) equivalent in the need for coronary revascularization procedures (RVs) in the Korean population. Methodology/Principal Findings We followed 2,168,698 subjects who had oral anti-diabetic drugs (OADs)-taking T2DM in 2008 and/or CHD in 2007–2008 (i.e., recent CHD). We used systematic datasets from the nationwide claims database of the Health Insurance Review and Assessment service of Korea, which is representative of the whole population of Korea, from January 2007 to December 2012. The primary study endpoint was the development of need for RVs (i.e., incident CHD) after January 2009 among three groups based on their status of T2DM and recent CHD, i.e., T2DM only, recent CHD only, and both T2DM and recent CHD. After adjustment for age and sex, patients with recent CHD only had 2.14 times the risk of incident CHD (95% CI, 2.11–2.18, P<0.001) compared with patients with T2DM only. Patients with both T2DM and recent CHD demonstrated approximately 2-fold increased risk of incident CHD compared with subjects with recent CHD only (95% CI, 1.75-1.82), while 4-fold increased risk compared with subjects with T2DM only (95% CI, 3.71-3.87). The risk of incident CHD also differed according to sex and age. Conclusions/Significance This analysis of data from the nationwide claims database revealed that T2DM did not have a recent CHD equivalent risk in the Korean population. These results suggest that an appropriate strategy for the CHD risk stratification in diabetic patients should be adopted to manage this population. PMID:26053222

  1. Coronary-to-Bronchial Artery Communication: Report of Two Patients Successfully Treated by Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Jarry, Genevieve; Bruaire, Jean-Pierre; Commeau, Philippe; Hermida, Jean-Sylvain; Leborgne, Laurent; Auquier, Marie-Anne; Delonca, Jean; Quiret, Jean-Claude; Remond, Alexandre

    1999-05-15

    We report two cases of coronary-to-bronchial artery communication responsible for coronary steal. In both cases the anastomosis originated from the proximal circumflex artery and developed because of bronchiectasis. In both cases closure of the anastomosis was achieved successfully by embolization. To date, the patients remained free from symptoms.

  2. Coronary artery surgery: now and in the next decade.

    PubMed

    Ennker, J C; Ennker, I C

    2012-01-01

    In coronary artery surgery the superiority of the internal mammary artery graft in 10-year survival was documented in 1986. In 1999 it was demonstrated that death, reoperation and percutaneous transluminary coronary angioplasty were more frequent in patients undergoing single rather than bilateral internal mammary artery grafting. Today coronary artery bypass grafting surgery is challenged by the success story of modern interventional cardiology. The Syntax Study, however, clearly underlined the better outcome for patients with triple-vessel and/or left main disease undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting in terms of repeat revascularization. Another point of ongoing discussion is the comparison between on-pump and off-pump coronary artery revascularization techniques. Even if mixed results exists in the literature, in experienced hands the combination of aortic no-touch and total arterial revascularization, probably leads to the superiority in off pump coronary artery bypass grafting in terms of significantly decreased rates of mortality, stroke, major adverse cardiac and cerebral vascular events. Coronary artery surgery in the next decade will be influenced by the further progression of minimally invasive surgical principles and by a variety of other factors. The role of robotics and hybrid surgery has yet to be defined. Alternatives within surgery will not only need to move to a less disruptive strategy (e.g. from on-pump to off-pump bypass) but also have to secure sustained innovation, as we can be sure that the current coronary artery bypass grafting activity will change substantially. PMID:23439278

  3. Woven Coronary Artery Disease Successfully Managed with Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: A New Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Alsancak, Yakup; Sezenoz, Burak; Turkoglu, Sedat; Abac?, Adnan

    2015-01-01

    Woven coronary artery is relatively rare and can be complicated in both acute and chronic phases. A few case reports have been published until now. Herein we report a case with right woven coronary artery managed with drug-eluted stent implantation without complication. PMID:26491572

  4. Transmyocardial Laser Revascularization

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Vascular Access for Hemodialysis Ventricular Assist Devices Transmyocardial Laser Revascularization | Share Like every other organ or tissue ... bypass surgery, there is a procedure called transmyocardial laser revascularization, also called TMLR or TMR. TMLR cannot ...

  5. Functional Testing Underlying Coronary Revascularisation

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-08-08

    Multivessel Coronary Artery Disease; Vessel Disease; Stable Angina; Unstable Angina or Stabilized Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction; Patients With ST-elevated Myocardial Infarction; Revascularization of Culprit Coronary Artery

  6. Leaking false aneurysm of right coronary saphenous vein graft: successful treatment by percutaneous coil embolisation

    PubMed Central

    Dimitri, W R; Reid, A W; Dunn, F G

    1992-01-01

    An unusual complication after aortocoronary bypass grafting (CABG) is described in which a false aneurysm of the saphenous vein graft to the right coronary artery (RCA) developed and caused profuse intermittent bleeding through the sternotomy wound. The aetiology of this condition is uncertain but it could occur whenever a suture line is present especially in the presence of infection. The diagnosis was made non-invasively by a contrast enhanced computed tomogram and was subsequently confirmed by selective coronary bypass angiography. The pseudoaneurysm was successfully obliterated by coil embolisation of the right coronary graft, which stopped the bleeding immediately and was followed by rapid wound healing. PMID:1467059

  7. Developing a new hybrid revascularization program: a road map for hospital managers and physician leaders.

    PubMed

    Harjai, Kishore J; Samy, Sanjay; Pennypacker, Barbara; Onofre, Bonnie; Stanfield, Pamela; Yaeger, Lynne; Stapleton, Dwight; Esrig, Barry C

    2012-12-01

    Hybrid coronary revascularization, which involves minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass surgery using the left internal mammary artery to left anterior descending and percutaneous coronary intervention using drug-eluting stents for the remaining diseased coronary vessels, is an innovative approach to decrease the morbidity of conventional surgery. Little information is available to guide hospital managers and physician leaders in implementing a hybrid revascularization program. In this article, we describe the people-process-technology issues that managers and leaders are likely to encounter as they develop a hybrid revascularization program in their practice. PMID:22861054

  8. Transmyocardial revascularization devices: technology update

    PubMed Central

    Kindzelski, Bogdan A; Zhou, Yifu; Horvath, Keith A

    2015-01-01

    Transmyocardial laser revascularization (TMR) emerged as treatment modality for patients with diffuse coronary artery disease not amendable to percutaneous or surgical revascularization. The procedure entails the creation of laser channels within ischemic myocardium in an effort to better perfuse these areas. Currently, two laser devices are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for TMR – holmium:yttrium–aluminum–garnet and CO2. The two devices differ in regard to energy outputs, wavelengths, ability to synchronize with the heart cycle, and laser–tissue interactions. These differences have led to studies showing different efficacies between the two laser devices. Over 50,000 procedures have been performed worldwide using TMR. Improvements in angina stages, quality of life, and perfusion of the myocardium have been demonstrated with TMR. Although several mechanisms for these improvements have been suggested, evidence points to new blood vessel formation, or angiogenesis, within the treated myocardium, as the major contributory factor. TMR has been used as sole therapy and in combination with coronary artery bypass grafting. Clinical studies have demonstrated that TMR is both safe and effective in angina relief long term. The objective of this review is to present the two approved laser devices and evidence for the safety and efficacy of TMR, along with future directions with this technology. PMID:25565905

  9. Impact of pre-procedural cardiopulmonary instability in patients with acute myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (from the Harmonizing Outcomes With Revascularization and Stents in Acute Myocardial Infarction Trial).

    PubMed

    Brener, Sorin J; Brodie, Bruce R; Guerchicoff, Alejandra; Witzenbichler, Bernhard; Guagliumi, Giulio; Xu, Ke; Mehran, Roxana; Stone, Gregg W

    2014-10-01

    Rapid reperfusion with primary percutaneous coronary intervention improves survival in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Preprocedural cardiopulmonary instability and adverse events (IAE) may delay reperfusion time and worsen prognosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relation between preprocedural cardiopulmonary IAE, door-to-balloon time (DBT), and outcomes in the Harmonizing Outcomes With Revascularization and Stents in AMI (HORIZONS-AMI) trial. Preprocedural cardiopulmonary IAE included sustained ventricular or supraventricular tachycardia or fibrillation requiring cardioversion or defibrillation, heart block or bradycardia requiring pacemaker implantation, severe hypotension requiring vasopressors or intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation, respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation, and cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Three-year outcomes of patients with and without IAE according to DBT were compared. Among 3,602 patients, 159 (4.4%) had ?1 IAE. DBT did not differ significantly in patients with and without IAE; however, patients with IAE were less likely to have Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) grade 3 flow after percutaneous coronary intervention. Mortality at 3 years was significantly higher in patients with versus those without IAE (17.0% vs 6.3%, p<0.0001), and IAE was an independent predictor of mortality, whereas DBT was not. However, a significant interaction was present such that 3-year mortality was reduced in patients with DBT<99 minutes (the median) versus ?99 minutes to a greater extent in patients with IAE (9.9% vs 20.7%, hazard ratio 0.43, 95% confidence interval 0.16 to 1.16) compared with those without IAE (5.0% vs 7.2%, hazard ratio 0.69, 95% confidence interval 0.50 to 0.95) (p for interaction=0.004). In conclusion, IAE before PCI is an independent predictor of death and identifies a high-risk group in whom faster reperfusion may be particularly important to improve survival. PMID:25118121

  10. Comparison of six risk scores in patients with triple vessel coronary artery disease undergoing PCI: competing factors influence mortality, myocardial infarction and target lesion revascularization

    PubMed Central

    Kovacic, Jason C.; Limaye, Atul M.; Sartori, Samantha; Lee, Paul; Patel, Roshan; Chandela, Sweta; Trost, Biana; Roy, Swathi; Harari, Rafael; Narechania, Birju; Karajgikar, Rucha; Kim, Michael C.; Krishnan, Prakash; Moreno, Pedro; Baber, Usman; Mehran, Roxana; Dangas, George; Kini, Annapoorna S.; Sharma, Samin K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To compare the discriminatory value of differing risk scores for predicting clinical outcomes following PCI in routine practice. Background Various risk scores predict outcomes after PCI. However, these scores consider markedly different factors, from purely anatomical (SYNTAX risk score [SRS]) to purely clinical (ACEF, modified ACEF [ACEFmod], NCDR), while other scores combine both elements (Clinical SYNTAX score [CSS], NY State Risk Score [NYSRS]). Methods Patients with triple vessel and/or LM disease with 12 month follow-up were studied from a single center PCI registry. Exclusion criteria included STEMI presentation, prior revascularization and shock. Clinical events at 12 months were compared to baseline risk scores, according to score tertiles and area under receiver-operating-characteristic curves (AUC). Results We identified 584 eligible patients (69.8±12.3yrs, 405 males). All scores were predictive of mortality, with the SRS being least predictive (AUC=0.66). The most accurate scores for mortality were the CSS and ACEF (AUC=0.76 for both: p=0.019 and 0.08 vs. SRS, respectively). For TLR, while the SRS trended toward being positively predictive (p=0.075), several scores trended towards a negative association, which reached significance for the NCDR (p=0.045). The SRS and CSS were the only scores predictive of MI (both p<0.05). No score was particularly accurate for predicting MACE (death+MI+TLR), with AUCs ranging from 0.53 (NCDR) to 0.63 (SRS). Conclusions Competing factors influence mortality, MI and TLR after PCI. An increasing burden of comorbidities is associated with mortality, whereas anatomical complexity predicts MI. By combining these outcomes to predict MACE, all scores show reduced utility. PMID:23703934

  11. Effect of Baseline Exercise Capacity on Outcomes in Patients With Stable Coronary Heart Disease (A Post Hoc Analysis of the Clinical Outcomes Utilizing Revascularization and Aggressive Drug Evaluation Trial).

    PubMed

    Padala, Santosh K; Sidhu, Mandeep S; Hartigan, Pamela M; Maron, David J; Teo, Koon K; Spertus, John A; Mancini, G B John; Sedlis, Steven P; Chaitman, Bernard R; Heller, Gary V; Weintraub, William S; Boden, William E

    2015-11-15

    The impact of baseline exercise capacity on clinical outcomes in patients with stable ischemic heart disease randomized to an initial strategy of optimal medical therapy (OMT) with or without percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the Clinical Outcomes Utilizing Revascularization and Aggressive Drug Evaluation (COURAGE) trial has not been studied. A post hoc analysis was performed in 1,052 patients of COURAGE (PCI + OMT: n = 527, OMT: n = 525) who underwent exercise treadmill testing at baseline. Patients were categorized into 2 exercise capacity groups based on metabolic equivalents (METs) achieved during baseline exercise treadmill testing (<7 METs: n = 464, ?7 METs: n = 588) and were followed for a median of 4.6 years. The primary composite end point of death or myocardial infarction was similar in the PCI + OMT group and the OMT group for patients with exercise capacity <7 METs (19.1% vs 16.1%, p = 0.31) and ?7 METs (13.3% vs 10.3%, p = 0.27). After adjusting for baseline covariates, the hazard ratio (99% confidence interval) for the primary end point for the PCI + OMT group versus the OMT group was 1.42 (0.90 to 2.23, p = 0.05) and for the exercise capacity subgroups of ?7 METs and <7 METs was 0.75 (0.46 to 1.22, p = 0.13). There was no statistically significant interaction between the original treatment arm allocation (PCI + OMT vs OMT) and baseline exercise capacity. In conclusion, there was no difference in the long-term clinical outcomes in patients with exercise capacity <7 METs compared with ?7 METs, irrespective of whether they were assigned to initial PCI. Patients with exercise capacity <7 METs did not derive a proportionately greater clinical benefit from PCI + OMT compared with those patients who received OMT alone. PMID:26410604

  12. Feasibility of, and success in adopting a low-fat diet in coronary patients.

    PubMed

    Hämäläinen, H; Paalosmaa-Puusa, P; Seppänen, R; Rastas, M; Knuts, L R; Voipio-Pulkki, L M

    2000-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of dietary counselling and the predictability of success in reducing fat intake to less than 20% of total energy in patients with symptomatic coronary heart disease. Forty-seven patients with coronary heart disease attended a 2-week in-house cardiac rehabilitation course with the main emphasis on individual dietary counselling by a nutritionist. Patients were followed up at 3 and 6 months. The dietary data were collected by means of 3-7 days food diaries. Mean fat intake decreased from 33.6 +/- 6.2% to 24.7 +/- 5.5% of total energy intake at 3 months and to 27.0 +/- 6.9% (p < 0.001) at 6 months. Only 13% of the patients were able to reduce their dietary fat intake as recommended. Thus, reduction of > or = 20% was considered a good response, while reduction of < 20% was classified as poor. Forty-seven percent (n = 22) of the patients were good and 53% (n = 25) poor responders. It was not possible to predict the success rate from the baseline data. After a 2-week intensive counselling period at the rehabilitation centre, half of the coronary patients were able to comply with a low-fat diet at home for 6 months. Long-term compliance requires further investigation. PMID:11201625

  13. Coronary Artery Disease and Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Aronson, Doron; Edelman, Elazer R

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Near-normal glycemic control does not reduce cardiovascular events. For many patients with 1- or 2-vessel coronary artery disease, there is little benefit from any revascularization procedure over optimal medical therapy. For multivessel coronary disease, randomized trials demonstrated the superiority of coronary artery bypass grafting over multivessel percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with treated DM. However, selection of the optimal myocardial revascularization strategy requires a multidisciplinary team approach ('heart team'). This review summarizes the current evidence regarding the effectiveness of various medical therapies and revascularization strategies in patients with DM. PMID:26567979

  14. Alternative Therapy for Medically Refractory Angina: Enhanced External Counterpulsation and Transmyocardial Laser Revascularization.

    PubMed

    Soran, Ozlem

    2016-01-01

    Medically refractory angina pectoris (RAP) is defined by presence of severe angina with objective evidence of ischemia and failure to relieve symptoms with coronary revascularization. Medication and invasive revascularization are the most common approaches for treating coronary artery disease (CAD). Although symptoms are eliminated or alleviated by these invasive approaches, the disease and its causes are present after treatment. New treatment approaches are needed to prevent the disease from progressing and symptoms from recurring. External enhanced counterpulsation therapy provides a treatment modality in the management of CAD and can complement invasive revascularization procedures. Data support that it should be considered a first-line treatment of RAP. PMID:26567978

  15. Balloon angioplasty in acute and chronic coronary artery disease

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, D.R. Jr.; Vlietstra, R.E. )

    1989-04-14

    Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty has grown exponentially since its introduction. Currently, selection criteria include single-vessel and multivessel disease, stable and unstable angina, and acute infarction. The outcome depends on specific patient and antiographic characteristics. In ideal lesions, success rates should be greater than 90%, with low morbidity and mortality. With more severe and diffuse multivessel disease, success rates are lower and complication rates are higher. In these cases, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty still offers a reasonable option, provided complete revascularization can be achieved or the angina-producing lesion dilated. Numerous issues remain unresolved, including (1) the role of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty vs coronary surgery (currently being tested), (2) restenosis, which occurs in approximately 30% of treated lesions, and (3) organizational adjustments such as training and certification to maintain high standards of care.

  16. Early detection of restenosis after successful percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty by exercise-redistribution thallium scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Wijns, W.; Serruys, P.W.; Reiber, J.H.; de Feyter, P.J.; van den Brand, M.; Simoons, M.L.; Hugenholtz, P.G.

    1985-02-01

    The value of exercise testing and thallium scintigraphy in predicting recurrence of angina pectoris and restenosis after a primary successful transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) was prospectively evaluated. In 89 patients, a symptom-limited exercise electrocardiogram (ECG) and thallium scintigraphy were performed 4 weeks after they had undergone successful PTCA. Thereafter, the patients were followed for 6.4 +/- 2.5 months (mean +/- standard deviation) or until recurrence of angina. They all underwent a repeat coronary angiography at 6 months or earlier if symptoms recurred. PTCA was considered successful if the patients had no symptoms and if the stenosis was reduced to less than 50% of the luminal diameter. Restenosis was defined as an increase of the stenosis to more than 50% luminal diameter. The ability of the thallium scintigram (presence of a reversible defect) to predict recurrence of angina was 66%, vs 38% for the exercise ECG (ST-segment depression or angina at peak workload). Restenosis was predicted in 74% of patients by thallium scintigraphy, but only in 50% of patients by the exercise ECG. Thus, thallium scintigraphy was highly predictive but the exercise ECG was not (p less than 0.005). These results suggest that restenosis had occurred to some extent already at 4 weeks after the PTCA in most patients in whom it was going to occur.

  17. Successful catheter ablation of a left anterior accessory pathway from the non-coronary cusp of the aortic valve.

    PubMed

    Laranjo, Sérgio; Oliveira, Mário; Trigo, Conceição

    2015-08-01

    Left anterior accessory pathways are considered to be rare findings. Catheter ablation of accessory pathways in this location remains a challenging target, and few reports about successful ablation of these accessory pathways are available. We describe our experience regarding a case of a manifest left anterior accessory pathway ablation using radiofrequency energy at the junction of the left coronary cusp with the non-coronary cusp. PMID:25249369

  18. Transmyocardial Laser Revascularization

    E-print Network

    Hansma, Paul

    Transmyocardial Laser Revascularization Max Wiedmann #12;What is TMR? · TMR is used to improve blood flow to heart muscle tissue (myocardial tissue). · This is done using a laser to create small with bypass surgery so no additional opening is required. · The surgeon uses the laser to create 20 to 40 1mm

  19. Coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Peter A

    2007-05-01

    Coronary heart disease is the most common cause of death in the general population and in patients with ESRD. The principles of cardiovascular risk assessment and management apply to both populations. Advances in noninvasive coronary artery imaging have improved early detection of subclinical disease. The goals of medical management of coronary disease are to modify the natural history of disease and to improve the symptoms of angina. Coronary revascularization poses a different risk and benefit equation in the ESRD population. In stable ESRD with multivessel coronary artery disease, coronary bypass surgery, despite the upfront risks of stroke, myocardial infarction, and chest wound infection, seems to be a favored approach. In patients with ESRD and acute coronary syndromes, percutaneous coronary intervention on the target vessel has been associated with the most favorable outcomes. This article explores the clinical issues with respect to coronary artery disease in patients with ESRD. PMID:17699471

  20. Transmyocardial laser revascularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aretz, H. Thomas

    1996-09-01

    Transmyocardial laser revascularization (TMR) for the treatment of medically unresponsive angina pectoris has been shown to be clinically effective. The mechanism of its action, however, is not quite understood. Over the last five years my collaborators and I have conducted a variety of in vivo and in vitro studies using different animal models, lasers and experimental protocols. The results seem to indicate that the mechanism of action of TMR is related to neovascularization rather than chronically patent channels, as originally proposed.

  1. Acute right ventricular failure caused by concomitant coronary and pulmonary embolism: successful treatment with endovascular coronary and pulmonary thrombectomy

    PubMed Central

    Koul, Sasha; Roijer, Anders; Holmqvist, Jasminka; Keussen, Inger; Cwikiel, Wojciech; Öhlin, Bertil; Erlinge, David

    2013-01-01

    Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is present in approximately 25% of the general population. PFO is characterized by intermittent shunting of blood from the right to the left atrium, especially in the context of increased right-sided filling pressures, with risk of paradoxical embolism. We describe a 69-year-old woman presenting with acute chest pain, severe dyspnoea, and acute inferolateral ST-segment elevation on the electrocardiogram. The patient was diagnosed with myocardial infarction and failure of the right cardiac ventricle, which was considered to be secondary to extensive pulmonary embolism leading to increased filling pressures and paradoxical coronary embolism. The patient underwent emergent percutaneous interventions with coronary thrombus extraction and pulmonary thrombus fragmentation and local thrombolysis. The patient was free of symptoms at follow up 6 months later and echocardiography showed substantially improved right ventricular function. We discuss issues related to the diagnosis, treatment, and secondary prevention for patients with concomitant pulmonary and coronary arterial thrombosis. PMID:24222822

  2. Surgical Treatment of Neonate With Congenital Left Main Coronary Artery Atresia.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Travis F; Samuel, Bennett P; Vettukattil, Joseph J; Haw, Marcus P

    2016-01-01

    Left main coronary artery atresia (LMCAA) is a rare congenital malformation with a nonspecific and varied clinical presentation. Ventricular dysfunction and mitral insufficiency are expected ischemic consequences in the neonatal period. Left internal mammary artery (LIMA) bypass grafting (CABG) is uncommon because of the technical difficulties in performing this procedure in neonates. We describe LMCAA revascularization with a LIMA graft and mitral valve repair in a 7-week-old neonate with successful outcome 1 year postoperatively. PMID:26694277

  3. Bioresorbable Vascular Scaffold Implantation for Successful Treatment of a Symptomatic Coronary Lesion in a 17-Year-Old Boy After Kawasaki Disease.

    PubMed

    Luu, Brigitte; Esmaeili, Anoosh; Schranz, Dietmar; Fichtlscherer, Stephan

    2015-10-01

    Coronary stenting is considered a promising treatment option for patients with coronary artery lesions caused by Kawasaki disease (KD). Here, we report the case of an adolescent with KD who successfully underwent implantation of a fully bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS) in a Kawasaki-related, highly obstructed coronary artery. Control coronary angiography 6 months later showed a remaining good result without restenosis or development of aneurysm. Cardial MRI and clinical follow-up revealed stable results at 6 and 18 months without any signs of ischemia. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a successful implantation of a fully bioresorbable vascular scaffold in a young adult with the history of KD. The case illustrates the feasibility and safety of BVS implantation for the treatment of KD. It remains to be confirmed by further studies, if this approach by this novel material might be a therapeutic alternative to coronary bypass grafting or other coronary interventions. PMID:26063383

  4. The history of arterial revascularization: from Kolesov to Tector and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Galvin, Sean D.

    2013-01-01

    Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is the one of the most effective revascularization strategies for patients with obstructive coronary artery disease. Total arterial revascularization using one or both internal thoracic and radial arteries has been shown to improve early outcomes and reduce long-term cardiovascular morbidity. Although CABG has evolved from an experimental procedure in the early 1900’s to become one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures, there is still significant variation in grafting strategies amongst surgeons. We review the history and development of CABG with a particular emphasis on the early pioneers and the evolution of arterial grafting. PMID:23977617

  5. Coronary Microvascular Dysfunction, Microvascular Angina, and Management.

    PubMed

    Löffler, Adrián I; Bourque, Jamieson M

    2016-01-01

    Recent analyses have found that coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) portends a poor prognosis in patients with and without obstructive epicardial coronary artery disease (CAD). Chest pain in the absence of epicardial CAD is a common entity. Angina caused by CMD, microvascular angina (MVA), is often indistinguishable from that caused by obstructive epicardial CAD. The recent emergence of noninvasive techniques that can identify CMD, such as stress positron-emission tomography (PET) and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) myocardial perfusion imaging, allow improved identification of MVA. Using these tools, higher risk patients with MVA can be differentiated from those at lower risk in the heterogeneous population historically labeled as cardiac syndrome X. Likewise, MVA can be diagnosed in those with obstructive epicardial CAD who have persistent angina despite successful revascularization. There is little evidence to support current treatment strategies for MVA and current literature has not clearly defined CMD or whether therapy improves prognosis. PMID:26694723

  6. Safety and Feasibility of the Coronary Orbital Atherectomy System via the Transradial Approach.

    PubMed

    Ruisi, Michael; Zachariah, Jips; Ratcliffe, Justin; Lala, Moinakhtar; Ruisi, Phillip; Huang, Yili; Diwan, Ravi; Daggubati, Ramesh; Patel, Tejas; Kwan, Tak W

    2015-11-01

    Technological innovations have enabled higher success rates with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of complex coronary lesions via the transradial approach. The orbital atherectomy system (OAS; Cardiovascular Systems, Inc) is the most recent innovation that abrades plaque using a rotation device for the facilitation of stent placement in heavily calcified lesions. Fifty patients with classic anginal symptoms and an abnormal stress test demonstrating ischemia underwent PCI using the coronary OAS. In all, 46 out of 50 patients received stents in the target lesion after orbital atherectomy. At follow-up, there were no major adverse cardiovascular events, including cardiac death, myocardial infarction, and need for target-vessel revascularization. Radial artery occlusion rate was 6% at 30 days. The use of the OAS via the radial approach may be a safe and feasible option to assist in the treatment of heavily calcified coronary lesions. PMID:26524211

  7. Revascularization in Severe Left Ventricular Dysfunction: Does Myocardial Viability Even Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Pahul; Sethi, Nishant; Kaur, Navneet; Kozman, Hani

    2015-01-01

    Left ventricular dysfunction is a powerful prognostic predictor in patients with coronary artery disease and increasing number of patients with CAD and ischemic left ventricular (LV) dysfunction is a major clinical problem. Congestive heart failure is a frequent complication which is associated with significant health care costs and two–third of cases have ischemic cardiomyopathy. In such patients, coronary revascularization can lead to symptomatic and prognostic improvement and reversal of LV remodeling which led to the concept of viable myocardium to select patients in whom recovery of LV function and improvement of prognosis will outweigh the risk of surgical revascularization. The aim of this review article is to understand the different modalities for assessing myocardial viability and clinical impact of revascularization in relation to the evidence of viability in patients with LV dysfunction. PMID:26157339

  8. Recovery of regional myocardial dysfunction after successful coronary angioplasty early after a non-Q wave myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Suryapranata, H.; Serruys, P.W.; Beatt, K.; De Feyter, P.J.; van den Brand, M.; Roelandt, J. )

    1990-08-01

    More aggressive therapy has been suggested for patients who have a non-Q wave myocardial infarction (MI) because of the frequency of subsequent unstable angina, recurrent MI, and high mortality rate compared to patients with Q wave MI. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of coronary angioplasty on regional myocardial function of the infarct zone in patients with angina early after a non-Q wave MI. The study population consisted of 36 patients undergoing successful coronary angioplasty within 30 days of a non-Q wave MI, in whom sequential left ventricular angiograms of adequate quality were obtained before the initial procedure and at follow-up angiography. The global ejection fraction increased significantly from 60 +/- 9% to 67 +/- 6% (p = 0.0003). This significant increase in the global ejection fraction was primarily due to a significant improvement in the regional myocardial function of the infarct zone. The results of the present study show not only that ischemic attacks early after a non-Q wave MI may lead to prolonged regional myocardial dysfunction but more important that this depressed myocardium has the potential to achieve normal contraction after successful coronary angioplasty.

  9. A successful patch angioplasty with auto-pulmonary wall for congenital coronary left main trunk occlusion in a young child.

    PubMed

    Terada, Takafumi; Sakurai, Hajime; Nonaka, Toshimichi; Sakurai, Takahisa; Sugiura, Junya; Taneichi, Tetsuyoshi; Ohtsuka, Ryohei

    2015-12-01

    Congenital occlusion of the left main coronary trunk is a life-threatening abnormality, and its optimal management remains controversial. This report describes a case of successful patch angioplasty with auto-pulmonary artery for a 12-year-old boy with congenital left main trunk occlusion. We divided the main pulmonary artery, harvested a pulmonary artery wall strip, and performed patch angioplasty of the occluded left main trunk ostium. We were able to clearly expose the left main trunk behind the pulmonary artery because the obstruction was divided for the patch material. The postoperative course was uneventful, and coronary angiography at 4 months after surgery showed excellent patency of the left main trunk. The auto-pulmonary arterial wall was easy to handle during angioplasty, and its favorable durability has been established both in the Ross procedures and in an arterial switch procedure. Therefore, we conclude that patch angioplasty using a piece of the pulmonary arterial wall represents a good alternative to conventional coronary artery bypass grafting. PMID:24113996

  10. Recurrent angina after coronary angioplasty: mechanisms, diagnostic and therapeutic options

    PubMed Central

    Izzo, Paolo; Macchi, Andrea; De Gennaro, Luisa; Gaglione, Antonio; Di Biase, Matteo

    2012-01-01

    Recurrent angina in patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention is defined as recurrence of chest pain or chest discomfort. Careful assessment is recommended to differentiate between non-cardiac and cardiac causes. In the case of the latter, recurrent angina occurrence can be related to structural (‘stretch pain’, in-stent restenosis, in-stent thrombosis, incomplete revascularization, progression of coronary atherosclerosis) or functional (coronary micro-vascular dysfunction, epicardial coronary spasm) causes. Even though a complete diagnostic algorithm has not been validated, ECG exercise testing, stress imaging and invasive assessment of coronary blood flow and coronary vaso-motion (i.e. coronary flow reserve, provocation testing for coronary spasm) may be required. When repeated coronary revascularization is not indicated, therapeutic approaches should aim at targeting the underlying mechanism for the patient’s symptoms using a variety of drugs currently available such as beta-blockers, calcium-channel blockers, ivabradine or ranolazine. PMID:24062904

  11. Antegrade filling of mammary graft by inappropriately revascularized artery.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Saeid; Samiei, Niloufar; Bassiri, Hossein Ali; Peighambari, M Mehdi; Peighambari, Shadi; Mestres, Carlos-A

    2016-01-01

    A 57-year-old man underwent multiple-arterial revascularization including a sequential left internal mammary artery graft to the diagonal branch and left anterior descending coronary artery. Twenty-one months later, repeat angiography due to a new onset of chest discomfort confirmed string sign and nonfunctional proximal left internal mammary artery, and antegrade filling of the distal leg of the sequential graft and the left anterior descending artery through the diagonal branch. This is a known but uncommon angiographic finding that confirms the importance of eventual competitive flow. PMID:24848517

  12. Successful radiofrequency catheter ablation of common atrial flutter at the bottom of a coronary sinus diverticulum.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Miyako; Tada, Hiroshi; Sekiguchi, Yukio; Aonuma, Kazutaka

    2012-11-01

    We describe a patient who underwent radiofrequency (RF) catheter ablation of cavo-tricuspid isthmus-dependent atrial flutter (AFL). Extensive ablation at the isthmus failed to terminate the AFL. A coronary sinus (CS) diverticulum arising from the proximal portion of the middle cardiac vein was found near the isthmus. An RF energy application at the bottom of the CS diverticulum resulted in completion of a bidirectional block line at the isthmus, as well as AFL termination. PMID:22331174

  13. Usefulness of the Left Anterior Descending Coronary Artery Wrapping Around the Left Ventricular Apex to Predict Adverse Clinical Outcomes in Patients With Anterior Wall ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (from the Harmonizing Outcomes With Revascularization and Stents in Acute Myocardial Infarction Trial).

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Nobuaki; Maehara, Akiko; Brener, Sorin J; Généreux, Philippe; Witzenbichler, Bernhard; Guagliumi, Giulio; Peruga, Jan Z; Mehran, Roxana; Mintz, Gary S; Stone, Gregg W

    2015-12-01

    The association between anatomic features of the left anterior descending artery (LAD) and outcomes in patients with anterior ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) has not been fully investigated. We sought to clarify the impact of an LAD coronary artery wrapping around the left ventricular (LV) apex on clinical outcomes in patients with anterior STEMI. Harmonizing Outcomes with Revascularization and Stents in Acute Myocardial Infarction enrolled patients with STEMI presenting <12 hours after symptom onset who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention. Patients with a culprit lesion in the LAD were categorized as (1) LAD wrapping around the LV apex (wrap-around LAD, n = 871) versus (2) LAD not wrapping around the LV apex (non-wrap-around LAD, n = 224). Killip class ?II, dysrhythmia, and LV mural thrombi were more frequently observed in the wrap-around LAD group; LV ejection fraction was worse in the wrap-around LAD group (54.5% vs 58.7%, p = 0.006). At 3 years of follow-up, major adverse cardiac events (death, stroke, or stent thrombosis, 12.7% vs 5.4%, p = 0.002), death (6.6% vs 3.2%, p = 0.052), stroke (1.9% vs 0.5%, p = 0.12), stent thrombosis (5.6% vs 2.3%, p = 0.047), and severe heart failure (4.5% vs 1.4%, p = 0.03) were more common in patients with a wrap-around LAD versus those with a non-wrap-around LAD. Multivariate analysis indicated that a wrap-around LAD independently and significantly predicted major adverse cardiac events (hazard ratio 2.18, p = 0.02) and severe heart failure (odds ratio 3.31, p = 0.049) in patients with an anterior STEMI. In conclusion, a wrap-around LAD predicted adverse clinical outcomes at 3 years in patients with anterior STEMI who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention. PMID:26433272

  14. Successful Transfection of Genes Using AAV-2/9 Vector in Swine Coronary and Peripheral Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Pankajakshan, Divya; Makinde, Toluwalope O.; Gaurav, Rohit; Del Core, Michael; Hatzoudis, George; Pipinos, Iraklis; Agrawal, Devendra K.

    2011-01-01

    Background Gene therapy has attracted attention for its potential to treat several cardiovascular diseases. The use of adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors to facilitate therapeutic gene transfer to suppress intimal hyperplasia is a promising concept. The objective of this study was to analyze the in vivo transduction of a novel recombinant AAV-2/9 vector with SM22? promoter, containing ?-galactosidase gene (Lac Z) or green fluorescent protein (GFP) as reporter genes, to the medial layer smooth muscle cells (SMCs) of swine coronary and peripheral arteries. Methods The AAV2/9 vector containing SM22? (1×1013 pfu) were administered into carotid/femoral/coronary arteries of domestic swine using irrigating balloon catheter-based gene delivery. Following gene transfer, cryosections of arteries were processed for X-Gal and GFP analysis. Fluorescence microscopy and Western blotting were done to analyze the GFP expression in the SMCs. Results LacZ mRNA expression was visualized in the medial layer 7 days after vector administration. The GFP expression was detected at 7th day and lasted for at least 2 months showing the longer-lasting expression of the AAV2/9-vector. Control arteries did not show any expression of GFP or LacZ. There was no significant effect of AAV2/9 viral transduction on serum amylase, fibrinogen and serum CRP levels. Conclusion These finding support the use of AAV2/9 as a vector to effectively transduce a gene in SMCs of coronary and peripheral arteries without causing inflammation. PMID:21529824

  15. Impact of left ventricular function and the extent of ischemia and scar by stress myocardial perfusion imaging on prognosis and therapeutic risk reduction in diabetic patients with coronary artery disease: Results from the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes (BARI 2D) trial

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Leslee J.; Cerqueira, Manuel D.; Brooks, Maria M.; Althouse, Andrew D.; Sansing, Veronica V.; Beller, George A.; Pop-Busui, Rodica; Taillefer, Raymond; Chaitman, Bernard R.; Gibbons, Raymond J.; Heo, Jaekyeong; Iskandrian, Ami E.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes trial demonstrated similar long-term clinical effectiveness of revascularization (REV) and intensive medical (MED) therapy. Comparisons of post-intervention ischemic burden have not been explored but are relevant to treatment decisions. This study examined differences in 1-year stress myocardial perfusion SPECT (MPS) abnormalities by randomized treatment. Methods MPS was performed in 1,505 patients at 1-year following randomization. MPS images were analyzed (masked to treatment) by a Nuclear Core Laboratory using a quantitative percent (%) of total, ischemic, and scarred myocardium. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the relationship between MPS variables and trial endpoints. Results At 1-year, nearly all REV patients underwent the assigned procedure; while 16% of those randomized to MED received coronary REV. Patients randomized to REV exhibited fewer stress perfusion abnormalities than MED patients (P < .001). CABG patients had more frequent ischemic and scarred myocardium encumbering ?5% of the myocardium when compared to those receiving PCI. Patients randomized to MED had more extensive ischemia and the median % of the myocardium with perfusion abnormalities was lower following REV (3% vs 9%, P = .01). A total of 59% of REV patients had no inducible ischemia at 1-year compared to 49% of MED patients (P < .001). Within the CABG stratum, those randomized to MED had the greatest rate of ischemic (P = .032) and scarred (P = .017) perfusion abnormalities. At 1-year, more extensive and severe stress myocardial perfusion abnormalities were associated with higher 5-year rates of death and a combined endpoint of cardiac death or myocardial infarction (MI) rates (11.3%, 8.1%, 6.8%, for ?10%, 5%-9.9%, and 1-4.9% abnormal myocardium at stress, respectively, P < .001). In adjusted models, selected MPS variables were significantly associated with an increased hazard of cardiac death or MI (hazard ratio = 1.11 per 5% increase in abnormal myocardium at stress, P = .004). Conclusions Patient management strategies that focus on ischemia resolution can be useful to guide the efficacy of near-term therapeutic approaches. A 1-year post-therapeutic intervention myocardial perfusion scan provides important information regarding prognosis in stable CAD patients with diabetes. (J Nucl Cardiol 2012;19:658–69.) PMID:22527794

  16. Successful Covering of a Hepatic Artery Aneurysm with a Coronary Stent Graft

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, Hidetsugu; Urasawa, Kazushi; Oyama, Naotsugu; Kitabatake, Akira

    2004-09-15

    In a 54-year-old woman with liver cirrhosis who underwent orthotopic liver transplantation, the postoperative course was complicated by aneurysm formation in the hepatic artery. Abdominal ultrasonography showed a daily increase in the size of the aneurysm in spite of careful management including strict rest and continuous intravenous infusion of antihypertensive agents. Since the patient's poor systemic status was a major obstruction to operative resection, transcatheter therapy was thought more preferable. We evaluated the lesion with intravascular ultrasonography as an adjunct to angiography and a dissection with a flap was well visualized. The aneurysm was covered with a commercially available stent-graft, designed for treatment of the coronary artery. This is a rare case in which a Jostent was implanted into the hepatic artery after liver transplantation.

  17. Success and Challenges of a Community Healthy Lifestyles Intervention in Merseyside (UK) to Target Families at Risk from Coronary Heart Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peerbhoy, D.; Majumdar, A. J.; Wightman, N. A.; Brand, V. L.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To document the lifestyle health impacts (activity, diet and physiological), along with the operational success and challenges, of a programme for families presenting one or more coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factor. Design: Data are based on a wider evaluation of a government-funded community initiative conducted in a deprived area…

  18. Strategy of Revascularization for Critical Limb Ischemia Due to Infragenicular Lesions—Which Should Be Selected Firstly, Bypass Surgery or Endovascular Therapy?

    PubMed Central

    Iwasa, Kazuomi; Yamaoka, Terutoshi

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: In patients with peripheral arterial diseases (PADs) due to infra-popliteal (below the knee; BTK) lesions, we often encounter situations requiring the immediate selection of either of two revascularization methods, namely bypass surgery or endovascular therapy (EVT). However, the question of whether endovascular or surgical revascularization should be performed initially for critical limb ischemia (CLI) patients with BTK lesions has not been clarified. To assess the efficacy and durability of EVT or bypass as a first approach, we evaluated the short- and mid-term outcomes of the first revascularizations achieved using EVT (EVT First Group; EVT-first) compared with bypass (Bypass First Group; Bypass-first). To verify the validity of each initial revascularization, we explored factors influencing overall survival (OS) rates using multivariate analyses. Methods: A total of 169 consecutive BTK revascularization procedures (150 patients) for CLI conducted at our facility between November 2006 and July 2012 were analyzed. Patients undergoing revascularization were divided into two groups (EVT-first or Bypass-first), with 102 patients undergoing endovascular therapy first (EVT-first) and 51 undergoing bypass surgery first (Bypass-first). No statistically significant differences were noted between the two groups with respect to preoperative background including age, gender, and cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, coronary arterial disease (CAD), chronic heart failure (CHF), cerebrovascular disease, and hemodialysis). Technical success was defined as a single straight-line flow to the ankle after completion angiography of the first revascularization method. Hemodynamic success was defined as a postoperative skin perfusion pressure of the foot exceeding 40 mmHg. Results: The average age of patients was 76.0 years (range, 46–98 years; 65 men and 37 women) and 72.3 years (range, 43–93 years; 35 men and 13 women) in the EVT-first and Bypass-first groups, respectively. Patient follow-up ranged from 1 to 50 months (mean, 15 months). Respective technical and hemodynamic success rates were 96.2% and 66.7% for EVT-first and 100% and 94% for Bypass-first, respectively. Treatment was required an average of 1.5 times for EVT-first and 1.2 times for Bypass-first. Respective rates for other factors examined in the EVT-first and the Bypass-first groups were: major amputation rates 30 days post-procedure, 5.9%, and 3.9%; mortality rates 30 days post-procedure, 3.9%, and 0%; one-year AFS rates, 71.7%, and 79.5%; OS rates, 73.5% and 83.9%; and limb salvage rates, 88.8%, and 91.0%. Multivariate-analysis of all subjects in the two groups revealed that the OS rates were affected by four risk factors as follows: (1) age greater than 80 years, (2) CAD, (3) CHF, and (4) a non-ambulatory limb. Conclusion: For patients with CLI due to BTK lesions and whose saphenous veins are in poor condition or are in poor general condition having two or more of the four severe risk factors, the EVT-First procedure is effective and provides durable results. Overall survival in patients with CLI due to BTK lesions is worse when patients have more than two severe risk factors, which is non-ambulatory limb, aged less than 81 years, with CAD or with CHF. (This article is a translation of Jpn J Vasc Surg 2014; 23: 766–773.)

  19. [Coronary artery disease in diabetic patients].

    PubMed

    Henry, Patrick

    2008-09-30

    It is possible to decrease the rate of progression of coronary artery disease in diabetic patients by controlling all risk factors including hyperglycemia and by the prescription of statin and aspirin in high risk patients. After a coronary event, the management of the patient must be as optimal as possible in terms of pharmacological treatment and revascularization. "Ever more" is the key line in these patients. PMID:18839684

  20. Coronary artery disease and diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Aronson, Doron; Edelman, Elazer R.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a major determinant of the long-term prognosis among patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). DM is associated with a 2 to 4-fold increased mortality risk from heart disease. Furthermore, in patients with DM there is an increased mortality after MI, and worse overall prognosis with CAD. Near-normal glycemic control for a median of 3.5 to 5 years does not reduce cardiovascular events. Thus, the general goal of HbA1c <7% appears reasonable for the majority of patients. Iatrogenic hypoglycemia is the limiting factor in the glycemic management of diabetes, and is an independent cause of excess morbidity and mortality. Statins are effective in reducing major coronary events, stroke, and the need for coronary revascularization. Selection of the optimal myocardial revascularization strategy for patients with DM and multivessel coronary artery disease is crucial and requires a multidisciplinary team approach (‘heart team’). Large scale clinical trials have shown that for many patients with 1- or 2-vessel coronary artery disease, there is little prognostic benefit from any intervention over optimal medical therapy (OMT). PCI with drug-eluting or bare metal stents is appropriate for patients who remain symptomatic with OMT. Randomized trials comparing multivessel PCI to coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) have consistently demonstrated the superiority of CABG in reducing mortality, myocardial infarctions and need for repeat revascularizations. PMID:25091969

  1. Revascularization of the bronchial arteries in lung transplantation: an overview.

    PubMed

    Nørgaard, M A; Olsen, P S; Svendsen, U G; Pettersson, G

    1996-10-01

    Development of the surgical technique has minimized the incidence of airway problems associated with single as well as sequential bilateral lung transplantation. Although early results are good, long-term results remain unsatisfactory. The main problems after lung transplantation are pulmonary infections and the bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. The bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome is usually considered to be chronic rejection, but a multifactorial genesis including airway ischemia has been suggested. We reviewed the literature relevant to direct bronchial artery revascularization during lung transplantation. Although information is limited, there are good reasons to believe that reestablishment of the dual blood supply to the transplanted lung is beneficial not only for healing of the airway anastomoses, but also for the airway and the lung responses to pathologic conditions. In small series, methods of bronchial artery revascularization have proved successful and have been associated with good early results. We believe it is justified to test the impact of direct bronchial artery revascularization on outcome after lung transplantation in large clinical series. PMID:8823127

  2. Ablation velocity and thermal damage of myocardial tissue using a CO2 laser for transmyocardial laser revascularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachinopoulou, Anna; Beek, Johan F.; van Leeuwen, Ton G. J. M.; Beek, W. J.

    1999-02-01

    Transmyocardial Laser Revascularization (TMLR) is a new experimental method for relief of angina pectoris in patients with severe coronary artery disease. TMLR aims at revascularizing chronic hibernating myocardium by creating transmural channels. One of the working mechanism hypotheses is that the endocardial side of the channels remains open, enabling perfusion of the hibernating myocardium directly from the left ventricle. Although the working mechanism of TMLR is still unknown (perfusion through patent channels, induction of angiogenesis, relief of angina through destruction of sympatic innervation, others?), first clinical studies are successful. Currently, the Heart LaserTM and other CO2 lasers, XeCl Excimer laser and Ho:YAG laser are under investigation for TMLR. The initial attempts of TMR with needles were soon replaced by laser induced channels. Efforts were focused on developing a CO2 laser that could penetrate a beating heart during its relaxation phase. Later, the position of the beam could be fixed in the myocardial wall using lasers with fiber delivery systems and perforation was achieved within multiple cycles. Various researchers reported on both patent and non-patent channels after TMLR. Our belief is that the extent of laser induced thermal damage is one of the factors that determine the clinical outcome and the extent of angiogenesis (and, possibly, the patency of the channel). The purpose of this study is to present a simple theoretical model to predict the extent of thermal damage around a transmyocardial channel. In vitro experiments were performed on myocardial bovine tissue and damage was assessed. The results were used to determine the final parameters of the approximating theoretical equation. To evaluate our results, we compared our results to in vitro data using the Heart LaserTM from the literature. Ablation velocities were also measured and the results were compared to ablation velocity calculations using a model described by Ostegar et al.

  3. Comparative Effectiveness of Revascularization Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Weintraub, William S.; Grau-Sepulveda, Maria V.; Weiss, Jocelyn M.; O’Brien, Sean M.; Peterson, Eric D.; Kolm, Paul; Zhang, Zugui; Klein, Lloyd W.; Shaw, Richard E.; McKay, Charles; Ritzenthaler, Laura L.; Popma, Jeffrey J.; Messenger, John C.; Shahian, David M.; Grover, Frederick L.; Mayer, John E.; Shewan, Cynthia M.; Garratt, Kirk N.; Moussa, Issam D.; Dangas, George D.; Edwards, Fred H.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Questions persist concerning the comparative effectiveness of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG). The American College of Cardiology Foundation (ACCF) and the Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) collaborated to compare the rates of long-term survival after PCI and CABG. METHODS We linked the ACCF National Cardiovascular Data Registry and the STS Adult Cardiac Surgery Database to claims data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services for the years 2004 through 2008. Outcomes were compared with the use of propensity scores and inverse-probability-weighting adjustment to reduce treatment-selection bias. RESULTS Among patients 65 years of age or older who had two-vessel or three-vessel coronary artery disease without acute myocardial infarction, 86,244 underwent CABG and 103,549 underwent PCI. The median follow-up period was 2.67 years. At 1 year, there was no significant difference in adjusted mortality between the groups (6.24% in the CABG group as compared with 6.55% in the PCI group; risk ratio, 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.90 to 1.00). At 4 years, there was lower mortality with CABG than with PCI (16.4% vs. 20.8%; risk ratio, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.76 to 0.82). Similar results were noted in multiple subgroups and with the use of several different analytic methods. Residual confounding was assessed by means of a sensitivity analysis. CONCLUSIONS In this observational study, we found that, among older patients with multivessel coronary disease that did not require emergency treatment, there was a long-term survival advantage among patients who underwent CABG as compared with patients who underwent PCI. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.) PMID:22452338

  4. A successful treatment for concomitant injury of the coronary artery and tricuspid valve after blunt chest trauma.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Chizuo; Motohashi, Shinya; Takahashi, Yoshiki; Nakazawa, Satoshi; Kanazawa, Hiroshi

    2015-11-01

    A 63-year-old woman involved in an automobile accident was brought to our hospital with thoracic injury sustained by the impact of her vehicle's steering wheel. Cardiac auscultation revealed a grade III/VI systolic murmur and the electrocardiogram showed ST elevation in leads 2, 3 and aVF. A 2D echocardiogram revealed severe tricuspid regurgitation and a hypokinetic right ventricle. Coronary angiography revealed dissection of the proximal right coronary artery (RCA) with 90 % stenosis. Urgent CABG for the RCA and tricuspid valvuloplasty were performed, as the anterior leaflet of the tricuspid valve had prolapsed as a result of chordal rupture. Blunt thoracic trauma causing both tricuspid insufficiency and coronary artery dissection is a very rare and life-threatening situation. Prompt diagnosis and timely surgery enabled us to save this patient's life. PMID:24043608

  5. Coronary Artery Revascularization in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... CIRCULATIONAHA.113.007968 Extract Free Figures Only Free » Full Text Free PDF Free PPT Slides of All Figures ... manager Request Permissions Metrics Total Downloads Abstract: 823 Full-text: 4272 PDF: 663 Citing Articles Load citing article ...

  6. Stress Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging Reduces Revascularization, Hospital Readmission, and Recurrent Cardiac Testing in Intermediate Risk Patients with Acute Chest Pain: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Chadwick D.; Case, L. Douglas; Little, William C.; Mahler, Simon A.; Burke, Gregory L.; Harper, Erin N.; Lefebvre, Cedric; Hiestand, Brian; Hoekstra, James W.; Hamilton, Craig A.; Hundley, W. Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To determine the effect of stress cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging in an observation unit (OU) on revascularization, hospital readmission, and recurrent cardiac testing in intermediate risk patients with possible acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Background Intermediate risk patients commonly undergo hospital admission with high rates of coronary revascularization. It is unknown whether OU-based care with CMR is a more efficient alternative. Methods We randomized 105 intermediate risk participants with symptoms of ACS but without definite ACS based on the first electrocardiogram and troponin to usual care provided by Cardiologists and Internists (n=53) versus OU care with stress CMR (n=52). We determined the primary composite endpoint of coronary artery revascularization, hospital readmission, and recurrent cardiac testing at 90 days. The secondary endpoint was length of stay from randomization to index visit discharge; safety was measured as ACS after discharge. Results The median age of participants was 56 (range 35 to 91) years, 54% were men, and 20% had pre-existing coronary disease. Index hospital admission was avoided in 85% of the OU-CMR participants. The primary outcome occurred in 20 (38%) usual care versus 7 (13%) OU-CMR participants (hazard ratio 3.4, 95% CI 1.4 – 8.0, p = .006). The OU-CMR group experienced significant reductions in all components: revascularizations [15% vs 2%, p=0.03], hospital readmissions [23% vs 8%, p = .03], and recurrent cardiac testing [17% vs 4%, p = .03]. Median length of stay was 26 hours (IQR: 23 – 45) in the usual care group and 21 hours (IQR: 15 – 25) in the OU-CMR group (p < .001). ACS after discharge occurred in 3 (6%) usual care and no OU-CMR participants. Conclusions In this single center trial, management of intermediate risk patients with possible ACS in an OU with stress CMR reduced coronary artery revascularization, hospital readmissions, and recurrent cardiac testing without an increase in post-discharge ACS at 90 days. PMID:23664718

  7. The evolution of cerebral revascularization surgery.

    PubMed

    Hayden, Melanie G; Lee, Marco; Guzman, Raphael; Steinberg, Gary K

    2009-05-01

    Among the relatively few surgeons to be awarded the Nobel Prize was Alexis Carrel, a French surgeon and pioneer in revascularization surgery at the turn of the 20th century. The authors trace the humble beginnings of cerebral revascularization surgery through to the major developments that helped shape the modern practice of cerebral bypass surgery. They discuss the cornerstone studies in the development of this technique, including the Extracranial/Intracranial Bypass Study initiated in 1977. Recent innovations, including modern techniques to monitor cerebral blood flow, microanastomosis techniques, and ongoing trials that play an important role in the evolution of this field are also evaluated. PMID:19408995

  8. Coronary Angiography

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Coronary Angiography? Coronary angiography (an-jee-OG-rah-fee) is a test ... and narrows the coronary arteries. Overview During coronary angiography, special dye is released into the bloodstream. The ...

  9. Coronary Arteries

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and animations for grades K-6. The Coronary Arteries | Share Coronary Circulation The heart muscle, like every ... into two main coronary blood vessels (also called arteries). These coronary arteries branch off into smaller arteries, ...

  10. Successful percutaneous coronary intervention in a patient with combined deficiency of FV and FVIII due to novel compound heterozygous mutations in LMAN1.

    PubMed

    Patel, A J; Liu, H-H; Lager, R A; Malkovska, V; Zhang, B

    2013-07-01

    Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with congenital coagulation factor deficiencies presents a unique challenge. They are not only at increased risk of perioperative bleeding but can also suffer thrombosis of the stent as preventive anticoagulation and antiplatelet therapy is difficult. Several cases of successful PCI have been described in patients with haemophilia A and B, but there are no reports in patients with combined coagulation factor deficiencies. We used PCI to treat the coronary artery disease in a patient with the combined deficiency of factor V and factor VIII (F5F8D) and analysed the molecular basis of the disorder for this patient. A 68-year-old patient was admitted for urgent PCI with bare metal stent placement after the diagnosis of the F5F8D. Peripheral blood DNA was extracted for the sequence analysis of LMAN1 and MCFD2 genes. Mutations in LMAN1 was confirmed by molecular cloning of the PCR product and resequencing of the resulting clones. The patient underwent successful PCI with good long-term outcome. Our patient tolerated anticoagulation therapy well, with unfractionated heparin, and double antiplatelet therapy while he was initially supported with fresh frozen plasma and recombinant FVIII. Molecular analysis revealed that the patient carries unusual compound heterozygous frameshift mutations on the same microsatellite repeat region in exon 8 of LMAN1, one of which is a novel mutation (c.912delA). Our results suggest that patients with F5F8D can safely undergo PCI for coronary artery disease, with the treatment individualized to the specific patient. PMID:23557496

  11. Guidewire-Induced coronary perforation successfully treated with subcutaneous fat embolisation: A simple technique available to all.

    PubMed

    George, Sudhakar; Cotton, James; Wrigley, Ben

    2015-12-01

    A 62-year-old man presented with an anterior ST elevation myocardial infarction and underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention to an occluded diagonal artery. Following stenting, a type III distal guidewire-induced coronary perforation of the diagonal branch was recognized with extravasation of contrast into the pericardial space. Prolonged balloon inflations proximal to the site of the perforation were unsuccessful. Subcutaneous fat was therefore harvested from the patients upper thigh under local anesthetic and embolized through an Export catheter into the distal diagonal vessel, resulting in the immediate cessation of leak through the site of perforation. We discuss the technical aspects of this technique as well as alternative methods of distal embolization and the potential complications that must be considered. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26010175

  12. Clinical Outcomes of Revascularization Strategies for Patients With MVD/LMCA Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Meng-Kan; Su, Ya-Min; Cai, Xing-Xing; Gu, Zhou-Shan; Geng, Hai-Hua; Pan, Hai-Yan; Zhu, Jian-Hua; Pan, Min

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Hybrid coronary revascularization (HCR), a new minimally invasive procedure for patients requiring revascularization for multivessel coronary lesions, combines coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) for left anterior descending (LAD) lesions and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for non-LAD coronary lesions. However, available data related to outcomes comparing the 3 revascularization therapies is limited to small studies. We conducted a search in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library of Controlled Trials up to December 31, 2014, without language restriction. A total of 16 randomized trials (n=4858 patients) comparing HCR versus PCI or off-pump CABG (OPCAB) were included in this meta-analysis. The primary outcomes were major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE), all-cause death, myocardial infarction (MI), cerebrovascular events (CVE), and target vessel revascularization (TVR). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using random-effect and fixed-effect models. Ranking probabilities were used to calculate a summary numerical value: the surface under the cumulative ranking (SUCRA) curve. No significant differences were seen between the HCR and PCI in short term (in hospital and 30 days) with regard to MACCE (odds ratio [OR] = 0.51, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.00–2.35), all-cause death (OR = 2.09, 95% CI 0.34–7.66), MI (OR = 1.02, 95% CI 0.19–2.95), CVE (OR = 4.45, 95% CI 0.39–19.16), and TVR (OR = 6.99, 95% CI 0.17–39.39). However, OPCAB had lower MACCE than HCR (OR = 0.19, 95% CI 0.00–0.95). In midterm (1 year and 3 year), in comparison with HCR, PCI had higher all-cause death (OR = 5.66, 95% CI 0.00–13.88) and CVE (OR = 4.40, 95% CI 0.01–5.68), and lower MI (OR = 0.51, 95% CI 0.00–2.86), TVR (OR = 0.53, 95% CI 0.05–2.26), and thus the MACCE (OR = 0.51, 95% CI 0.00–2.35). Off-pump CABG presented a better outcome than HCR with significant lower MACCE (OR = 0.17, 95% CI 0.01–0.68). Surface under the cumulative ranking probabilities showed that HCR may be the superior strategy for MVD and LMCA disease when regarded to MACCE (SUCRA?=?0.84), MI (SUCRA?=?0.76) in short term, and regarded to MACCE (SUCRA?=?0.99), MI (SUCRA?=?0.94), and CVE (SUCRA?=?0.92) in midterm. Hybrid coronary revascularization seemed to be a feasible and acceptable option for treatment of LMCA disease and MVD. More powerful evidences are required to precisely evaluate risks and benefits of the 3 therapies for patients who have different clinical characteristics. PMID:26496289

  13. Comprehensive assessment of coronary fractional flow reserve

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Xiaolong; Fan, Guoxin; Zhu, Deqiu; Ma, Wanrong

    2015-01-01

    Fractional flow reserve (FFR) is considered nowadays as the gold standard for invasive assessment of physiologic stenosis significance and an indispensable tool for decision-making in coronary revascularization. Robust studies have shown that FFR is more effective in accurately identifying which lesions should be stented, and revascularization guided by FFR improves the outcome of coronary artery disease in patients. Therefore, FFR has been upgraded to a class A recommendation in current guidelines when the ischemic potential for specific target lesions is controversial. This article reviews the laboratory practice, functional evaluation of FFR as a gold standard and its emerging clinical application. In addition, novel noninvasive technologies of FFR measurement are discussed in depth. PMID:26170840

  14. Complete infarct-related artery revascularization in acute myocardial infarction patients. CORAMI Registry

    PubMed Central

    Mrevlje, Blaz; Janu?, Bogdan; Dziewierz, Artur; Rakowski, Tomasz; Legutko, Jacek; Bartu?, Stanis?aw; Dudek, Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction There are still limited data on the occurrence of multiple stenotic lesions within the infarct-related artery (IRA) in acute myocardial infarction (MI), and there is no consensus on the optimal treatment of this patient subgroup, which varies between centers and operators. Aim To analyse the clinical efficacy of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) strategy of culprit lesion only in patients with myocardial infarction. Material and methods Patients with acute MI with the presence of at least two significant lesions in the IRA – (1) the target culprit lesion which required immediate stenting (> 50–100% stenosis) and (2) a second distal critical lesion (70–90%) – were included in the registry. Both lesions in the IRA were considered to be independent lesions requiring two separate stent platforms to be covered (no overlap). The decision on the treatment strategy of either complete (CR) or culprit-lesion-only (CLO) revascularization was at the discretion of the operator. Results There were altogether 95 patients enrolled in the registry, 63 (66%) in the group with CR of the IRA and 32 (34%) with CLO revascularization, which did not differ in terms of baseline demographics. In-hospital and long-term outcomes were similar between the groups. Stent thrombosis at 1 year occurred in 1.6% in CR and in 6.2% in CLO groups respectively (statistically not significant). There were no patients from the CLO group who had a planned percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of the 2nd lesion in the IRA during 1-year observation. Conclusions At 1 year the clinical outcome was similar between those with complete and CLO PCI. Complete coverage of significant lesions did not increase the risk of stent thrombosis or need for repeated revascularization in long-term observation. PMID:26161098

  15. Noninvasive Stress Testing for Coronary Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Miller, Todd D; Askew, J Wells; Anavekar, Nandan S

    2016-01-01

    Stress testing remains the cornerstone for noninvasive assessment of patients with possible or known coronary artery disease (CAD). The most important application of stress testing is risk stratification. Most patients who present for evaluation of stable CAD are categorized as low risk by stress testing. These low-risk patients have favorable clinical outcomes and generally do not require coronary angiography. Standard exercise treadmill testing is the initial procedure of choice in patients with a normal or near-normal resting electrocardiogram who are capable of adequate exercise. Stress imaging is recommended for patients with prior revascularization, uninterpretable electrocardiograms, or inability to adequately exercise. PMID:26567975

  16. Recurrent angina caused by coronary subclavian steal syndrome confirmed by positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Rezende, Paulo Cury; da Costa, Leandro Menezes Alves; Scudeler, Thiago Luis; Nakamura, Debora; Giorgi, Maria Clementina P; Hueb, Whady

    2015-01-01

    Coronary subclavian steal syndrome is a rare cause of recurrent angina after coronary artery bypass grafting. Identification of the myocardial ischemic region is crucial because it guides revascularization interventions to improve symptoms and myocardial ischemia. Positron emission computed tomography (PET) with rubidium might be a helpful tool because it identifies ischemia, localizes more precisely the ischemic region, and evaluates coronary flow reserve. Here, we report a case of recurrence of angina after coronary artery bypass grafting caused by an obstruction in the left subclavian artery and consequently by coronary steal syndrome confirmed by PET. PMID:25952243

  17. Anomalous Right Coronary Artery: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Keswani, Amit N.; Dann, Kristen; Ramee, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Background Anomalous coronary arteries (ACAs) are rare but potentially life-threatening abnormalities of coronary circulation. Most variations are benign; however, some may lead to myocardial ischemia and/or sudden cardiac arrest. Case Report We present the case of a patient with a significant medical history of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, type 2 diabetes, obesity, and gastroesophageal reflux disease who presented to the emergency department with atypical chest pain. She underwent a cardiac catheterization that showed an anomalous right coronary artery originating near the anterior left coronary artery sinus and coursing between the pulmonary artery and aorta. The patient was deemed a poor surgical candidate, was discharged home on medical management with beta blocker therapy, and was instructed to restrict her physical activity. Conclusion Treatment of significant anomalies should be guided by the nature of the anomalous vessel. Symptomatic patients with ACAs have 3 treatment options: medical management, coronary angioplasty and stent deployment, or surgical correction. These treatment options remain controversial. Some clinicians advocate revascularization, but the long-term benefits of revascularization therapies have not yet been demonstrated. PMID:24940145

  18. Rotablation in the treatment of high-risk patients with heavily calcified left-main coronary lesions

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Meng-Hsiu; Yi, Hung-Tao; Tsao, Cheng-Rong; Chang, Wei-Chun; Su, Chieh-Shou; Liu, Tsun-Jui; Liang, Kae-Woei; Ting, Chih-Tai; Lee, Wen-Lieng

    2013-01-01

    Objective Heavily calcified left-main coronary diseases (LMCA) remain a formidable challenge for percutaneous interventions (PCI). This study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of using rotational atherectomy (RA) in treating such lesions in actual practice. Methods From February 2004 to March 2012, all consecutive patients who received RA for heavily-calcified LMCA lesions in our cath lab were enrolled. The relevant clinical and angiographic characteristics at the time of index PCI, as well as the clinical follow-up outcomes, were retrieved and analyzed. Results A total of 34 consecutive patients were recruited with a mean age 77.2 ± 10.2 years. There were 82.4% presented with acute coronary syndrome and 11.8% with cardiogenic shock. Chronic renal disease and diabetes were seen in 64.7% and 52.9%, respectively. Triple-vessel coronary disease was found in 76.5% of them. The mean SYNTAX score was 50 ± 15 and EuroSCORE II scale 5.6 ± 4.8. The angiographic success rate was 100% with a procedural success rate of 91.2%. The mean number of burrs per patient was 1.7 ± 0.5. Crossing-over stenting was used in 64.7%. Most stents were drug-eluting (67.6%). Intra-aortic ballon pump was used in 20.6% of the procedures. Three patients died during hospitalization, all due to presenting cardiogenic shock. No major complication occurred. Among 31 hospital survivors, the major adverse cardiac events (MACE) rate was 16.1%, all due to target lesion revascularization or target vessel revascularization. Conclusions In high-surgical-risk elderly patients, plaque modification with RA in PCI of heavily-calcified LMCA could be safely accomplished with a minimal complication rate and low out-of-hospital MACE. PMID:24133507

  19. Mechanical Revascularization for Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Single-Center, Retrospective Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Jeromel, Miran Milosevic, Z. V. Kocijancic, I. J. Lovric, D.; Svigelj, V. Zvan, B.

    2013-04-15

    BackgroundEndovascular mechanical revascularization (thrombectomy) is an increasingly used method for intracranial large vessel recanalization in acute stroke. The purpose of the study was to analyze the recanalization rate, clinical outcome, and complication rate in our stroke patients treated with mechanical revascularization. A total of 57 patients with large vessel stroke (within 3 h for anterior and 12 h for posterior circulation) were treated with mechanical revascularization at a single center during 24 months. The primary goal of endovascular treatment using different mechanical devices was recanalization of the occluded vessel. Recanalization rate (reported as thrombolysis in cerebral infarction [TICI] score), clinical outcome (reported as National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale [NIHSS] score and modified Rankin scale [mRS] score), as well as periprocedural complications were analyzed. The mean age of the patients was 63.1 {+-} 12.9 years, with baseline median NIHSS score of 14 (interquartile range, 9.5-19). Successful recanalization (TICI 2b or 3) was achieved in 41 (72 %) patients. Twenty patients (35 %) presented with favorable outcome (mRS {<=}2) 30 days after stroke. Overall, significant neurological improvement ({>=}4 NIHSS point reduction) occurred in 36 (63 %) patients. A clinically significant procedure-related adverse events (vessel disruption, peri/postprocedural intracranial bleeding) defined with decline in NIHSS of {>=}4 or death occurred in three (5 %) patients. The study showed a high recanalization rate with improved clinical outcome and a low rate of periprocedural complications in our stroke patients treated with mechanical revascularization. Therefore, we could conclude that endovascular revascularization (primary or in combination with a bridging thrombolysis) was an effective and safe procedure for intracranial large vessel recanalization in acute stroke.

  20. Retrieval of renal function by revascularization. Study of preoperative outcome predictors.

    PubMed Central

    Dean, R H; Englund, R; Dupont, W D; Meacham, P W; Plummer, W D; Pierce, R; Ezell, C

    1985-01-01

    Results of renal revascularization for retrieval of function in poorly functioning kidneys are variable, but criteria for prediction of benefit and patient selection for operation are ill-defined. This report examines preoperative parameters in 64 hypertensive patients who underwent successful revascularization of poorly functioning kidneys as defined by creatinine clearance less than or equal to 15 ml/min (measured by preoperative split renal function studies [SRFS]) or preoperative serum creatinine greater than or equal to 3.5 mg/dl (range: up to 8.9 mg/dl) to identify markers of value in prediction of a beneficial response in renal function. Ages ranged from 35 to 75 years. There were 35 men and 29 women. The renovascular lesion was atherosclerotic in 58 patients and fibrodysplastic in six. Total renal artery occlusion was present in 32 cases. No urine flow was detectable before surgery on SRFS from 13 kidneys. Kidney lengths ranged from 7.7 cm to 15.1 cm. Fifty-four unilateral and 10 bilateral revascularizations were performed. A beneficial blood pressure response to operation was observed in 94%. Benefit in excretory function was determined by comparison of preoperative and postoperative data which included SRFS parameters, renal length, serum creatinine, isotopically derived split functioning renal mass, and glomerular filtration rates. Overall, 56 patients could be classified in regard to functional response. Twenty-two patients received no or minimal benefit; nine patients received modest improvement, and 25 patients exhibited more marked improvement. Statistical evaluation of preoperative anatomic and functional parameters as predictors of functional response suggested that multiple variables influence the probability of function retrieval by revascularization. Useful among these predictive variables are the status of the distal vessel beyond the occlusion, the bilaterality of reconstructable disease in azotemic patients, the amount of residual renal mass available for revascularization, and the degree of hyperconcentration of nonreabsorbable solutes from the involved kidney after surgery. PMID:4037909

  1. Pulp Revascularization of Immature Permanent Teeth: A Review of the Literature and a Proposal of a New Clinical Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Namour, Mélanie

    2014-01-01

    Tissue engineering is a growing field. In the near future, it will probably be possible to generate a complete vital tooth from a single stem cell. Pulp revascularization is dependent on the ability of residual pulp and apical and periodontal stem cells to differentiate. These cells have the ability to generate a highly vascularized and a conjunctive rich living tissue. This one is able to colonize the available pulp space. Revascularization is a new treatment method for immature necrotic permanent teeth. Up to now, apexification procedures were applied for these teeth, using calcium dihydroxide or MTA to produce an artificial apical barrier. However, the pulp revascularization allows the stimulation of the apical development and the root maturation of immature teeth. Two pulp revascularization techniques are used in the literature, one using calcium dihydroxide and the second using a triple antibiotic paste. Based on these two different pulp revascularization protocols, which obtain the desired therapeutic success, the literature will be reviewed and analyzed according to the relevance of their choice of materials. Based on the literature, we propose a new relevant protocol and a new mixture of antibiotics. PMID:25383384

  2. Transmyocardial laser revascularization with a high-power (800 W) CO2 laser: clinical report with 50 cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Zheng; Zhang, Zhaoguang; Ye, Jianguang; Yu, Jianbo

    1999-09-01

    This paper reports the clinical experience in transmyocardial laser revascularization (TMLR) with high power CO2 laser and evaluates the preliminary results of TMLR. TMLR may improve angina pectoris and myocardial perfusion significantly. To switch on the laser in proper order may be helpful to shorten duration of surgery. A gentle removal of fat on the apex may increase the successful transmyocardial penetration.

  3. Impact of the bifurcation angle on major cardiac events after cross-over single stent strategy in unprotected left main bifurcation lesions: 3-dimensional quantitative coronary angiographic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Amemiya, Kisaki; Domei, Takenori; Iwabuchi, Masashi; Shirai, Shinichi; Ando, Kenji; Goya, Masahiko; Yokoi, Hiroyoshi; Nobuyoshi, Masakiyo

    2014-01-01

    The impact of the bifurcation angle (BA) between the left main (LM) and the main branch on clinical outcomes after single stenting has never been documented. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the BA on clinical outcomes after single cross-over LM to left anterior descending artery (LAD) stenting. A total of 170 patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in unprotected LM bifurcation with successful single cross-over stenting from the LM into the LAD were enrolled. The main vessel angle between the LM and the LAD was computed in end-diastole before PCI with three-dimensional (3D) quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) software. The patients were classified into three groups according to tertiles of the main vessel angle. The cumulative incidence of major adverse cardiac event (MACE: cardiac death, myocardial infarction, any revascularization including target lesion revascularization) rates throughout a 12-month period were compared between the three groups. Baseline patient characteristics were not a significant difference between the three groups. Compared to the high angle group, the low angle group had a significantly higher incidence of MACE (p = 0.041). In conclusion, this study revealed that low BA between the LM and the LAD had an adverse clinical impact after single cross-over LM to LAD stenting. PMID:25628958

  4. Clinical Outcomes from Unselected “Real-World” Patients with Long Coronary Lesion Receiving 40?mm Biodegradable Polymer Coated Sirolimus-Eluting Stent

    PubMed Central

    Polavarapu, Anurag; Polavarapu, Raghava Sarma; Prajapati, Jayesh; Thakkar, Kamlesh; Raheem, Asif; Mayall, Tamanpreet; Thakkar, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Background. Long lesions being implanted with drug-eluting stents (DES) are associated with relatively high restenosis rates and higher incidences of adverse events. Objectives. We aimed to examine the safety and efficacy of the long (40?mm) biodegradable polymer coated Indolimus sirolimus-eluting stent (SES) in real-world patients with long coronary lesions. Methods. This study was observational, nonrandomized, retrospective, and carried out in real-world patients. A total of 258 patients were enrolled for the treatment of long coronary lesions, with 40?mm Indolimus. The primary endpoints in the study were incidence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE), a miscellany of cardiac death, myocardial infarction (MI), target lesion revascularization (TLR) or target vessel revascularization (TVR), and stent thrombosis (ST) up to 6-month follow-up. Results. The study population included higher proportion of males (74.4%) and average age was 53.2 ± 11.0 years. A total of 278 lesions were intervened successfully with 280 stents. The observed MACE at 6-month follow-up was 2.0%, which included 0.8% cardiac death and 1.2% MI. There were no TLR or TVR and ST observed during 6-month follow-up. Conclusions. The long (40?mm) Indolimus stent demonstrated low MACE rate and was proven to be safe and effective treatment for long lesions in “real-world” patients. PMID:26579328

  5. Serum protein profiles predict coronary artery disease in symptomatic patients referred for coronary angiography

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background More than a million diagnostic cardiac catheterizations are performed annually in the US for evaluation of coronary artery anatomy and the presence of atherosclerosis. Nearly half of these patients have no significant coronary lesions or do not require mechanical or surgical revascularization. Consequently, the ability to rule out clinically significant coronary artery disease (CAD) using low cost, low risk tests of serum biomarkers in even a small percentage of patients with normal coronary arteries could be highly beneficial. Methods Serum from 359 symptomatic subjects referred for catheterization was interrogated for proteins involved in atherogenesis, atherosclerosis, and plaque vulnerability. Coronary angiography classified 150 patients without flow-limiting CAD who did not require percutaneous intervention (PCI) while 209 required coronary revascularization (stents, angioplasty, or coronary artery bypass graft surgery). Continuous variables were compared across the two patient groups for each analyte including calculation of false discovery rate (FDR ? 1%) and Q value (P value for statistical significance adjusted to ? 0.01). Results Significant differences were detected in circulating proteins from patients requiring revascularization including increased apolipoprotein B100 (APO-B100), C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), myeloperoxidase (MPO), resistin, osteopontin, interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, IL-10 and N-terminal fragment protein precursor brain natriuretic peptide (NT-pBNP) and decreased apolipoprotein A1 (APO-A1). Biomarker classification signatures comprising up to 5 analytes were identified using a tunable scoring function trained against 239 samples and validated with 120 additional samples. A total of 14 overlapping signatures classified patients without significant coronary disease (38% to 59% specificity) while maintaining 95% sensitivity for patients requiring revascularization. Osteopontin (14 times) and resistin (10 times) were most frequently represented among these diagnostic signatures. The most efficacious protein signature in validation studies comprised osteopontin (OPN), resistin, matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP7) and interferon ? (IFN?) as a four-marker panel while the addition of either CRP or adiponectin (ACRP-30) yielded comparable results in five protein signatures. Conclusions Proteins in the serum of CAD patients predominantly reflected (1) a positive acute phase, inflammatory response and (2) alterations in lipid metabolism, transport, peroxidation and accumulation. There were surprisingly few indicators of growth factor activation or extracellular matrix remodeling in the serum of CAD patients except for elevated OPN. These data suggest that many symptomatic patients without significant CAD could be identified by a targeted multiplex serum protein test without cardiac catheterization thereby eliminating exposure to ionizing radiation and decreasing the economic burden of angiographic testing for these patients. PMID:23216991

  6. Cost-Effectiveness of New Cardiac and Vascular Rehabilitation Strategies for Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Spronk, Sandra; Bosch, Johanna L.; Ryjewski, Constance; Rosenblum, Judith; Kaandorp, Guido C.; White, John V.; Hunink, M. G. Myriam

    2008-01-01

    Objective Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) often hinders the cardiac rehabilitation program. The aim of this study was evaluating the relative cost-effectiveness of new rehabilitation strategies which include the diagnosis and treatment of PAD in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing cardiac rehabilitation. Data Sources Best-available evidence was retrieved from literature and combined with primary data from 231 patients. Methods We developed a Markov decision model to compare the following treatment strategies: 1. cardiac rehabilitation only; 2. ankle-brachial index (ABI) if cardiac rehabilitation fails followed by diagnostic work-up and revascularization for PAD if needed; 3. ABI prior to cardiac rehabilitation followed by diagnostic work-up and revascularization for PAD if needed. Quality-adjusted-life years (QALYs), life-time costs (US $), incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER), and gain in net health benefits (NHB) in QALY equivalents were calculated. A threshold willingness-to-pay of $75 000 was used. Results ABI if cardiac rehabilitation fails was the most favorable strategy with an ICER of $44 251 per QALY gained and an incremental NHB compared to cardiac rehabilitation only of 0.03 QALYs (95% CI: ?0.17, 0.29) at a threshold willingness-to-pay of $75 000/QALY. After sensitivity analysis, a combined cardiac and vascular rehabilitation program increased the success rate and would dominate the other two strategies with total lifetime costs of $30 246 a quality-adjusted life expectancy of 3.84 years, and an incremental NHB of 0.06 QALYs (95%CI:?0.24, 0.46) compared to current practice. The results were robust for other different input parameters. Conclusion ABI measurement if cardiac rehabilitation fails followed by a diagnostic work-up and revascularization for PAD if needed are potentially cost-effective compared to cardiac rehabilitation only. PMID:19065259

  7. Neurobehavioral and Life-Quality Changes after Cerebral Revascularization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Anne Dull; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Studied neuropsychological and life-quality changes six months after carotid endarterectomy, superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery bypass, multiple revascularization, and vertebrobasilar revascularization procedures. Compared changes with those in patients with recent severe spinal complaints and in patients for whom…

  8. How Do Hospitals Respond to Market Entry? Evidence from a Deregulated Market for Cardiac Revascularization.

    PubMed

    Li, Suhui; Dor, Avi

    2015-08-01

    Regulatory entry barriers to hospital service markets, namely Certificate of Need (CON) regulations, are enforced in many US states. Policy makers in other states are considering reinstating CON policies in tandem with service expansions mandated under the Affordable Care Act. Although previous studies examined the volume effects of CON, demand responses to actual entry into local hospital markets are not well understood. In this paper, we empirically examine the demand-augmenting, demand-redistribution, and risk-allocation effects of hospital entry by studying the cardiac revascularization markets in Pennsylvania, a state in which dynamic market entry occurred after repeal of CON in 1996. Results from interrupted time-series analyses indicate demand-augmenting effects for coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) and business-stealing effects for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) procedures: high entrant market share mitigated the declining incidence of CABG, but it had no significant effect on the rising trend in PCI use, among patients with coronary artery disease. We further find evidence that entry by new cardiac surgery centers tended to sort high-severity patients into the more invasive CABG procedure and low-severity patients into the less invasive PCI procedures. These findings underscore the importance of considering market-level strategic responses by hospitals when regulatory barriers are rescinded. PMID:24990327

  9. Robotically assisted totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass surgery

    PubMed Central

    Canale, Leonardo Secchin; Mick, Stephanie; Mihaljevic, Tomislav; Nair, Ravi

    2013-01-01

    Robotically assisted totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass surgery has emerged as a feasible and efficient alternative to conventional full sternotomy coronary artery bypass graft surgery in selected patients. This minimally invasive approach using the daVinci robotic system allows fine intrathoracic maneuvers and excellent view of the coronary arteries. Both on-pump and off-pump operations can be performed to treat single and multivessel disease. Hybrid approaches have the potential of offering complete revascularization with the “best of both worlds” from surgery (internal mammary artery anastomosis in less invasive fashion) and percutaneous coronary intervention (least invasive approach). In this article we review the indications, techniques, short and long term results, as well as current developments in totally endoscopic robotic coronary artery bypass operations. PMID:24251021

  10. [Myocardial revascularization surgery in an 87-year-old patient. A case report].

    PubMed

    Wajngarten, M; Jatene, F B; Bosisio, I B; Azul, L G; Pileggi, F J; Jatene, A D

    1989-09-01

    A 87 years old patient, with independent life style, presented unstable angina in spite of medication. Cineangiocoronariography demonstrated severe triarterial lesions, with good distal segments and preserved left ventricular contractility. Three saphenous vein grafts were performed. Some clinical measures were employed: a) manitol, furosemide and Ringer solution were infused two hours before and during surgery; the infusion was maintaned during the two postoperative days; b) limited use of nephrotoxic agents; c) adequate doses of medication; d) red cells infusion in spite of higher hematocrit levels than those present in younger patients; e) early start of respiratory physiotherapy and deambulation. Mean arterial pressure was maintained over 80 mm/Hg during surgery. During the period of extracorporeal circulation a hollow capillary membrane oxygenador was employed. Immediate postoperative course, up till six months, was free of coronary insufficiency symptoms. This case demonstrates the benefits of myocardial revascularization in elderly patients, respecting some peculiarities of the geriatric therapeutics. PMID:2629674

  11. Percutaneous coronary intervention in nonagenarians: pros and cons

    PubMed Central

    Biondi Zoccai, Giuseppe; Abbate, Antonio; D'Ascenzo, Fabrizio; Presutti, Davide; Peruzzi, Mariangela; Cavarretta, Elena; Marullo, Antonino G.M.; Lotrionte, Marzia; Frati, Giacomo

    2013-01-01

    Percutaneous coronary intervention is a mainstay in the management of symptomatic or high-risk coronary artery disease. The bulk of clinical evidence and experience underlying this fact relies, however, on relatively young patients. Indeed, few data of very limited quality are available which adequately define the risk-benefit and cost-benefit profile of coronary angioplasty and stenting in very old subjects, such as those of 90 years of age or older (i.e., nonagenarians). The aim of this review is to provide a concise, yet practical, synthesis of the available evidence on percutaneous coronary revascularization in the very elderly. The main arguments elaborated upon are to what extent we can extrapolate findings from studies including younger patients to nonagenarians, whether we should provide higher priority to prognosis or quality of life in such patients, and whether we can afford to allocate vast resources to care for such subjects in an era of financial constraints. Our review of 18 studies and 1082 patients suggest that percutaneous coronary intervention is feasible and associated with acceptable short- and long-term results in this population, which is nonetheless fraught with a high mortality risk irrespective of the revascularization procedure. Accordingly, the pros and cons of percutaneous coronary intervention should be carefully weighed when considering this treatment in nonagenarians. PMID:23610578

  12. Designer blood vessels and therapeutic revascularization

    PubMed Central

    Berglund, Joseph D; Galis, Zorina S

    2003-01-01

    Inadequate vascular perfusion leads to fatal heart attacks, chronic ulcers, and other serious clinical conditions. The body's capacity to restore vascular perfusion through angiogenesis and arteriogenesis is often impaired by pre-existing disease, and availability of native replacements for nonfunctional arteries is limited in many patients. Thus, recreating blood vessels of various calibres through novel engineering technologies has emerged as a radical option among therapeutic strategies for revascularization. Ranging from artificial, recycled or reassembled natural conduits to sophisticated microdevices, we refer to these as ‘designer blood vessels'. Our common efforts to continuously improve vascular replacement design have provided many clues about our own blood vessels, but nature's ability to create nonthrombogenic, immunocompatible, strong, yet biologically responsive blood vessels remains unparalleled. Just as art reproductions never equal the original masterpiece, designer blood vessels may never attain nature's perfection. Nevertheless, they will provide a valuable option as long as they come close enough and are available to many. PMID:14534146

  13. Predictors and Outcomes of Routine Versus Optimal Medical Therapy in Stable Coronary Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Chun, Soohun; Qiu, Feng; Austin, Peter C; Ko, Dennis T; Mamdani, Muhammad; Wijeysundera, Duminda N; Czarnecki, Andrew; Bennell, Maria C; Wijeysundera, Harindra C

    2015-09-01

    Although randomized studies have shown optimal medical therapy (OMT) to be as efficacious as revascularization in stable coronary heart disease (CHD), the application of OMT in routine practice is suboptimal. We sought to understand the predictors of receiving OMT in stable CHD and its impact on clinical outcomes. All patients with stable CHD based on coronary angiography from October 2008 to September 2011 were identified in Ontario, Canada. OMT was defined as concurrent use of ? blocker, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker, and statin. Aspirin use was not part of the OMT definition because of database limitations. Multivariable hierarchical logistic models identified predictors of OMT in the 12 months after angiography. Cox proportional hazard models with time-varying covariates for OMT and revascularization status examined differences in death and nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI). In these models, patients transitioned among 4 mutually exclusive treatment groups: no OMT and no revascularization, no OMT and revascularization, OMT and no revascularization, OMT and revascularization. Our cohort had 20,663 patients. Over a mean period of 2.5 years, 8.7% had died. Only 61% received OMT within 12 months. The strongest predictor of receiving OMT at 12 months was OMT before the angiogram (odds ratio 14.40, 95% confidence interval [CI] 13.17 to 15.75, p <0.001). Relative to no OMT and nonrevascularized patients, patients on OMT and revascularized had the greatest reduction in mortality (hazard ratio 0.52, 95% CI 0.45 to 0.60, p <0.001) and nonfatal MI (hazard ratio 0.74, 95% CI 0.64 to 0.84, p <0.001). In conclusion, our study highlights the low rate of OMT in stable CHD. Patients who received both OMT and revascularization achieved the greatest reduction in mortality and nonfatal MI. PMID:26119653

  14. Changes of the cutaneous flowmotion pattern after limb revascularization in patients with critical ischemia.

    PubMed

    Martini, Romeo; Ticcinelli, Valentina; Bagno, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The skin flowmotion of 13 patients suffering from critical limb ischemia (CLI) was studied with wavelet analysis (WA) of the laser Doppler signals (LDS). The WA selects six different frequency components (FCs), each relating to a specific cardiovascular system structures activities; FC I 1-2 Hz heart, FC II 0.2 Hz respiratory, FC III 0.1 Hz myogenic, FC IV 0.04 Hz, sympathetic, FC V 0.01 Hz, and FC VI 0.007 Hz endothelial. The aim of the study was to observe which FC changed after the limb revascularization. The LDS was measured at the dorsum of the foot, one week before and no later than 30 days after revascularisation. The absolute and relative amplitude and energy of the flowmotion WA FCs, the ankle brachial pressure index (ABI) and the transcutaneous pressure of oxygen (TcpO2) were assessed before and after revascularization. The results showed that after successful revascularization ABI and TcpO2 increased from 0.34 ± 0.10 to 0.54 ± 0.09 (p 0.0003) and from 20.3 ± 13.4 to 43.8 ± 18.7 mmHg (p 0.0002) whereas only the absolute amplitude and energy of the cardiac FC I increased from 0.57 ± 0.44 to 1.07 ± 0.69 (P 0.002) AU and 1.14 ± 1.78 AU2 to 3.54 ± 3.78 AU2 (p 0.004). In conclusion after limb revascularization the cardiac component of the flowmotion increased maybe because the cardiac stroke volume had more influence over the skin arterioles. PMID:23823124

  15. Clinical comparison of percutaneous coronary intervention with domestic drug-eluting stents versus off pump coronary artery bypass grafting in unprotected left main coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Yong; Xin, Xingli; Geng, Tao; Xu, Zesheng

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of our study was to compare the clinical outcomes of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with domestic drug-eluting stents (DES) and off pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) for the treatment of unprotected left main coronary artery (ULMCA) disease. Methods: A total of 227 patients with ULMCA disease and underwent revascularization was included. One hundred and six patients were treated with PCI with domestic DES implantation and 121 patients with off pump CABG. Clinical outcomes with respect to the major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) including death any cause, non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and target vessel revascularization (TVR) during hospitalization and at 12-month follow-up were recorded. Results: There was no significant difference between the domestic DES and off pump CABG groups in the risk of death, non-fatal MI, stroke, and TVR during hospitalization and at 12-month follow-up. Overall in-hospital MACCE in PCI versus CABG was 0.94% versus 5.78% (P<0.05). The overall MACCE at 12-month follow up in PCI versus CABG was in 3.77% versus 3.31% (P>0.05). Conclusions: Domestic DES is feasible and safety in the treatment of ULMCA lesions. When compared with off-pump CABG, domestic DES achieved similar completeness of revascularization, similar in-hospital and 12-month follow-up outcomes. A longer follow-up is needed. PMID:26550424

  16. Postprocedural anticoagulation for specific therapeutic indications after revascularization for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (from the Harmonizing Outcomes with Revascularization and Stents in Acute Myocardial Infarction Trial).

    PubMed

    Madhavan, Mahesh V; Généreux, Philippe; Kirtane, Ajay J; Xu, Ke; Witzenbichler, Bernhard; Mehran, Roxana; Stone, Gregg W

    2014-11-01

    Postprocedural anticoagulation (AC) after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) may be administered for a number of specific therapeutic indications (e.g. atrial fibrillation or left ventricular thrombus). However, the safety and effectiveness of such post-PCI AC for specific indications are not well defined. Thus, we sought to study outcomes after postprocedural AC for specific indications in patients undergoing primary PCI for STEMI in the Harmonizing Outcomes with Revascularization and Stents in Acute Myocardial Infarction trial. Patients who underwent primary PCI for STEMI in the Harmonizing Outcomes with Revascularization and Stents in Acute Myocardial Infarction trial were grouped according to whether they received specific indication AC. Adverse outcomes were assessed using propensity-adjusted multivariate analyses. After excluding patients who received post-PCI AC solely for routine prophylaxis, 410 patients (16.6%) received postprocedural AC for specific indications and 2,063 patients (83.4%) received no post-PCI AC. After propensity adjustment, use of postprocedural AC for specific indications was associated with higher rates of cardiac mortality, reinfarction, stent thrombosis, and major bleeding at 30 days compared with patients who received no AC post-PCI. In conclusion, in this large prospective study, use of postprocedural AC for specific indications after primary PCI for STEMI was independently associated with early rates of adverse ischemic and hemorrhagic outcomes. Post-PCI AC for specific indications was also associated with worse outcomes from 30 days to 3 years. Further studies are warranted to determine the optimal use of postprocedural AC after primary PCI in STEMI. PMID:25239828

  17. [Simultaneous carotid and vertebral revascularization in the aged].

    PubMed

    Illuminati, G; Caliò, F G; Bertagni, A; Piermattei, A; Vietri, F; Martinelli, V

    1997-09-01

    Five patients of a mean age of 76, have been submitted to combined vertebral and carotid artery revascularization for a severe vertebro-basilar insufficiency. Vertebral artery revascularization consisted of a transposition to the common carotid artery in one case and of a carotid-distal vertebral artery saphenous bypass graft. The associated carotid artery revascularization consisted of a carotid endarterectomy with patch in 4 cases and without patch in one case. There were no postoperative mortality and no postoperative stroke. Postoperative morbidity included a transitory revascularization syndrome, a myocardial ischemia and a Horner's syndrome. Complete relief of vertebrobasilar symptoms was obtained in 4 patients whereas in one patient only a mild positional vertigo persisted. All vascular reconstructions have been assessed with postoperative arteriography and duplex-scan every six months. At 11 months mean follow-up, all revascularizations are patent. Combined carotid and vertebral artery surgery is effective in well selected cases, and it does not enhance the risk of the two operations performed separately. It also eliminate the possibility of failure of isolated carotid revascularization for vertebrobasilar symptoms. PMID:9432582

  18. [Revascularization of the carotid and vertebral arteries in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Illuminati, G; Bezzi, M; D'Urso, A; Giacobbi, D; Ceccanei, G; Vietri, F

    2004-01-01

    From January 1994 to July 2004, 323 patients underwent 348 revascularization of carotid bifurcation for atherosclerotic stenoses. Eighty eight patients (group A) were 75 year-old or older, whereas 235 (group B) were younger than 75 years. Postoperative mortality/neurologic morbidity rate was 1% in group A, and 1.4% in group B. At 5 years, patency and freedom from symptoms/stroke were, respectively, 91% and 92% in group A, and 89% and 91% in group B. None of these differences was statistically significant. In the same time period, 26 internal carotid arteries were revascularized in 24 patients, 75 or more aged, for a symptomatic kinking. Postoperative mortality/morbidity rate was absent, whereas, at 5 years, patency and freedom from symptoms/stroke were, respectively, 88% and 92%. Twelve vertebral arteries were revascularized in 12 patients, 75 or more aged, for invalidating symptoms of vertebrobasilar insufficiency. Postoperative mortality/neurologic morbidity rate was absent. In one case postoperative recurrence of symptoms occurred, despite a patent revascularization. Patency and freedom from symptoms/stroke were 84% and 75%, at 5 years. Revascularization of carotid and vertebral arteries in the elderly can be accomplished with good results, superposable to those of standard revascularization of carotid bifurcation in a younger patients' population. PMID:15803810

  19. Invasive Testing for Coronary Artery Disease: FFR, IVUS, OCT, NIRS.

    PubMed

    Groves, Elliott M; Seto, Arnold H; Kern, Morton J

    2016-01-01

    Coronary angiography is the gold standard for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease and guides revascularization strategies. The emergence of new diagnostic modalities has provided clinicians with adjunctive physiologic and image-based data to help formulate treatment strategies. Fractional flow reserve can predict whether percutaneous intervention will benefit a patient. Intravascular ultrasonography and optical coherence tomography are intracoronary imaging modalities that facilitate the anatomic visualization of the vessel lumen and characterize plaques. Near-infrared spectroscopy can characterize plaque composition and potentially provide valuable prognostic information. This article reviews the indications, basic technology, and supporting clinical studies for these modalities. PMID:26567976

  20. The role of coronary artery disease in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Lala, Anuradha; Desai, Akshay S

    2014-04-01

    Enhanced survival following acute myocardial infarction and the declining prevalence of hypertension and valvular heart disease as contributors to incident heart failure (HF) have fueled the emergence of coronary artery disease (CAD) as the primary risk factor for HF development. Despite the acknowledged role of CAD in the development of HF, the role of coronary revascularization in reducing HF-associated morbidity and mortality remains controversial. The authors review key features of the epidemiology and pathophysiology of CAD in patients with HF as well as the emerging data from recent clinical trials that inform the modern approach to management. PMID:24656111

  1. The MGuard coronary stent: safety, efficacy, and clinical utility

    PubMed Central

    Gracida, Montserrat; Romaguera, Rafael; Jacobi, Francisco; Gómez-Hospital, Joan A; Cequier, Angel

    2015-01-01

    Atheromatous and thrombotic embolization during percutaneous coronary revascularization is a feared complication that may cause impaired myocardial reperfusion even with a patent epicardial vessel. The MGuard stent is a cobalt chromium bare metal stent with a porous net attached to its outer surface that has been designed to prevent thrombus fragmentation and distal embolization during stent implantation. This review summarizes the available evidence supporting the use of the MGuard stent in different scenarios such as lesions with high thrombus burden, saphenous vein graft interventions, coronary perforations, or carotid lesions. PMID:26425097

  2. Genetically Determined Height and Coronary Artery Disease

    E-print Network

    Nelson, Christopher P.; Hamby, Stephen E.; Saleheen, Danish; Hopewell, Jenna C.; Zeng, Lingyao; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Kanoni, Stavroula; Willenborg, Christina; Burgess, Stephen; Amouyel, Philippe; Anand, Sonia; Blankenberg, Stefan; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Clarke, Robert J.; Collins, Rory; Dedoussis, George; Farrall, Martin; Franks, Paul W.; Groop, Leif; Hall, Alistair S.; Hamsten, Anders; Hengstenberg, Christian; Hovingh, G. Kees; Ingelsson, Erik; Kathiresan, Sekar; Kee, Frank; König, Inke R.; Kooner, Jaspal; Lehtimäki, Terho; März, Winifred; McPherson, Ruth; Metspalu, Andres; Nieminen, Markku S.; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Palmer, Colin N.A.; Peters, Annette; Perola, Markus; Reilly, Muredach P.; Ripatti, Samuli; Roberts, Robert; Salomaa, Veikko; Shah, Svati H.; Schreiber, Stefan; Siegbahn, Agneta; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Veronesi, Giovani; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Willer, Cristen J.; Zalloua, Pierre A.; Erdmann, Jeanette; Deloukas, Panos; Watkins, Hugh; Schunkert, Heribert; Danesh, John; Thompson, John R.; Samani, Nilesh J.

    2015-04-23

    in the Sup- plementary Appendix. Details regarding the ascer- tainment of samples for each study are provided in the primary articles.5-7 All cases were required to have had a validated history of myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, or angio... in the Supplemen- tary Appendix); 73.8% of the cases and 49.8% of the controls were men. The average age was 57.3 years (range, 42.4 to 75.6), and 65% of the cases reported a history of myocardial infarction. Height-Associated Variants and CAD The individual ?3...

  3. Coronary Artery Fistula with Giant Aneurysm and Coronary Stenosis Treated by Transcatheter Embolization and Stent

    PubMed Central

    Piao, Zhe Hao; Jeong, Hae Chang; Park, Keun Ho; Sim, Doo Sun; Hong, Young Joon; Kim, Ju Han; Ahn, Youngkeun

    2015-01-01

    Coronary artery fistula (CAF) with giant aneurysm and accompanied by coronary artery stenosis is a very rare disease. Herein, we report a case of a 76-year-old woman having a complex coronary-to-pulmonary artery fistula associated with a giant aneurysm and accompanied by coronary artery stenosis. The patient was successfully treated using transcatheter coil embolization and coronary stent implantation. Eight years later, we performed a follow-up coronary angiogram, which revealed the CAF and the aneurysm were completely occluded and previous stent patency. PMID:26023314

  4. Flying solo: a single year-single surgeon community hospital replantation/ revascularization experience.

    PubMed

    Isenberg, J Scott

    2002-08-01

    A recent 12-month review of the emergent replantation/revascularization experience of a solo practice microsurgeon in a community hospital environment is presented. A total of 67 digits and/or hands/limbs were operated on in 51 patients with a success rate of 87 percent. There were nine failures, all in digits with crush-avulsion etiologies. These results support the position that the single microsurgeon practicing in a community hospital environment can provide levels of care for patients with amputated or devascularized digits and parts comparable to tertiary medical centers. PMID:12177817

  5. Technique of Coronary Transfer for TGA with Single Coronary Artery

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Ho; Jung, Jae Jun; Kim, Yong Han; Yang, Ji-Hyuk; Jun, Tae-Gook

    2014-01-01

    An eight-day-old neonate was diagnosed with dextro-transposition of the great arteries, atrial septal defect, patent ductus arteriosus, and a single sinus origin of the coronary arteries. The single coronary artery originated from the left sinus (sinus 2), had a proximal left circumflex arterial branch, and passed anteriorly to the right side of the aorta, further branching into the right coronary and left anterior descending arteries. We successfully performed an arterial switch operation and coronary transfer by tube graft reconstruction with autologous aortic tissue to treat the dextro-transposition of the great arteries and atrial septal defect with a single-sinus origin of the coronary arteries. PMID:25551074

  6. Coronary Sinus Lead Positioning.

    PubMed

    Roka, Attila; Borgquist, Rasmus; Singh, Jagmeet

    2015-12-01

    Although cardiac resynchronization therapy improves morbidity and mortality in patients with cardiomyopathy, heart failure, and electrical dyssynchrony, the rate of nonresponders using standard indications and implant techniques is still high. Optimal coronary sinus lead positioning is important to increase the chance of successful resynchronization. Patient factors such as cause of heart failure, type of dyssynchrony, scar burden, coronary sinus anatomy, and phrenic nerve capture may affect the efficacy of the therapy. Several modalities are under investigation. Alternative left ventricular lead implantation strategies are occasionally required when the transvenous route is not feasible or would result in a suboptimal lead position. PMID:26596808

  7. Coronary steal through anomalous internal mammary artery graft. Treated by ligation without sternotomy.

    PubMed Central

    Hijazi, A; Mazhar, R; Odeh, S; Qunnaby, I

    1996-01-01

    A patient who had undergone adequate coronary revascularization with a left internal mammary artery graft to the left anterior descending coronary artery and with saphenous vein grafts to the right coronary artery and to the 1st and 2nd obtuse marginal branches presented with early-onset recurrent angina. A repeat angiogram showed an abnormally large branch arising from the very proximal segment of the left internal mammary artery and supplying the whole lateral chest wall via many intercostal tributaries. Relief of symptoms was achieved by ligation of this branch, and the patient remains symptom free more than 6 years after the procedure. Images PMID:8885107

  8. Early and late results of re-operation for coronary artery disease: a 13-year experience.

    PubMed

    Osaka, S; Barratt-Boyes, B G; Brandt, P W; Kerr, A R; Whitlock, R M

    1988-07-01

    A second coronary artery bypass grafting procedure was performed for recurrent angina in 119 patients between 1970 and mid-1983. Angiographic findings were assessed and computerized using the Brandt myocardial scoring system. The myocardial score was similar prior to the first and second operations. Graft failure was the most common indication for re-operation, either alone (48%) or in combination with progression of coronary artery disease (29%) or incomplete revascularization (10%). Progression of coronary artery disease alone was an indication in 9% and previous incomplete revascularization alone in 4%. The completeness of revascularization at the end of operation was analysed using a new index, the myocardial score/graft coverage rate. This showed that revascularization was less complete at the second operation than at the first (P less than 0.0001). The hospital mortality at re-operation was 2.5% and the peri-operative myocardial infarction rate was 9.2%. The follow-up period was 54 months (range 10-160 months). Actuarial survival was 94% at 5 years and 74% at 10 years. The average onset of recurrent angina was earlier after the second operation than after the first (P = 0.001). Using a cumulative actuarial curve, survival at 8 years was 85%, a further 6% of patients had undergone a third or fourth operation, and a further 25% were in NYHA Classes III or IV. Therefore 54% achieved a good or excellent result. It was concluded that re-operation is a worthwhile procedure. PMID:3267082

  9. Clinical, anatomic, and procedural durability of carotid revascularization.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Kevin M; Ossi, Raid G; Brott, Thomas G; Meschia, James F

    2013-04-01

    Carotid endarterectomy and carotid angioplasty with stenting are 2 common approaches to revascularization. Phase III randomized clinical trials have focused on comparisons of periprocedural outcomes and composite outcomes that combine procedural events and clinical events during follow-up. The comparison of outcomes beyond the perioperative risk period, where the principal concern is durability, defined in clinical, anatomic, and procedural terms, has received less attention. The purpose of this review is to discuss factors that may influence durability and to compare the durability of carotid revascularization techniques beyond the perioperative period using data from randomized clinical trials. PMID:21917480

  10. Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin type 9, C-Reactive Protein, Coronary Severity, and Outcomes in Patients With Stable Coronary Artery Disease: A Prospective Observational Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-Jun; Li, Sha; Zhang, Yan; Xu, Rui-Xia; Guo, Yuan-Lin; Zhu, Cheng-Gang; Wu, Na-Qiong; Qing, Ping; Gao, Ying; Sun, Jing; Liu, Geng; Dong, Qian

    2015-12-01

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is suggested as a novel factor associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). However, few studies have comprehensively evaluated plasma PCSK9 with cardiovascular risk till now. Hence, we aimed to prospectively investigate the association between baseline PCSK9 and cardiovascular risk graded with number of risk factors (RFs), coronary severity, and outcomes in patients with stable CAD.Baseline characteristics and biomarkers were measured in 616 consecutive, nontreated patients with stable CAD. Coronary severity was measured using SYNTAX, Gensini, and Jeopardy scoring systems. Patients were then received treatment and followed for a median of 17 months. The primary endpoints were cardiac death, stroke, myocardial infarction (MI), post-discharge revascularization, or unstable angina (UA).Overall, follow-up data were obtained from 603 patients. A total of 72 (11.9%) patients presented with at least 1 major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE) (4 cardiac deaths, 4 strokes, 6 MIs, 28 revascularizations, and 30 UAs). At baseline, PCSK9 was increased with an increasing number of RFs and positively associated with coronary severity scores (P?coronary scores than those without (P?coronary scores were independently predictive for MACEs (P?revascularization-treated patients were found.Together, plasma PCSK9, as well as hs-CRP and coronary scores, could independently predict MACEs in patients with stable CAD. PMID:26717403

  11. Resistant spontaneous coronary artery spasm.

    PubMed

    Keskin, Kudret; ?ahin, Alparslan; Y?ld?z, Süleyman Sezai; Aksan, Gökhan

    2015-10-01

    Coronary artery spasm should always be suspected in patients who have myocardial infarction with normal coronary arteries. This case report presents a 33-year-old woman with anterior myocardial infarction, whose coronary angiograph revealed normal left anterior descending artery and new onset complete occlusion of the circumflex artery at the time of the procedure. Nitroglycerin up to 800 mcg was administered without success. In such resistant cases, when all efforts fail, including prompt recognition and application of vasodilator drugs, retracting the catheter and waiting may play a role. PMID:26536989

  12. Coronary heart disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Heart disease, Coronary heart disease, Coronary artery disease; Arteriosclerotic heart disease; CHD; CAD ... Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death in the United States for men and women. Coronary ...

  13. Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting? Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is ... bypass multiple coronary arteries during one surgery. Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Figure A shows the location of ...

  14. Experimental comparison of bone revascularization by musculocutaneous and cutaneous flaps

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, J.; Wood, M.B.

    1987-01-01

    Revascularization, one of the major components of bone healing, was examined in an experimental model. The radioactive microsphere technique demonstrated that after 4 weeks beneath a musculocutaneous flap, isolated bone segments had significant blood flow, whereas bone beneath a cutaneous flap did not. The muscle flap bone had a blood flow approximately half that of normal control bone. The muscle of the musculocutaneous flap had a blood flow three times that of the skin of the cutaneous flap. The bipedicle cutaneous flap used was designed to have a healthy blood supply, and at 4 weeks it had a blood flow twice that of control skin. Despite this, there was essentially no demonstrable blood flow in the cutaneous flap bone segments at 4 weeks. Only 3 of 17 bone segments underneath cutaneous flaps showed medullary vascularization, whereas 10 of 11 muscle flap bones did. All bone segments underneath muscle flaps showed osteoblasts and osteoclasts at 4 weeks; neither were seen in the cutaneous bone segments. The process of revascularization occurred through an intact cortex and penetrated into the cancellous bone. Because the bone segments were surrounded by an impervious barrier except for one cortical surface, the cellular activity seen is attributed to revascularization by the overlying flap. In this model, a muscle flap was superior to a cutaneous flap in revascularizing isolated bone segments at 4 weeks. This was documented by blood flow measured by the radioactive microsphere technique and by bone histology.

  15. Coronary Angioplasty

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Are the Risks Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Atherosclerosis Cardiac Catheterization Coronary Heart Disease Heart Attack Stents ... up inside your arteries. This condition is called atherosclerosis (ath-er-o-skler-O-sis). Atherosclerosis can ...

  16. Tailored PICA Revascularization for Unusual Ruptured Fusiform Vertebro-PICA Origin Aneurysms: Rationale and Case Illustrations

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    Ruptured fusiform aneurysms of the vertebral artery involving posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) origin are difficult to manage without sacrificing PICA. In this report, two very unusual cases are described which highlight different revascularization strategies that may be required. The first case initially appeared to be a small saccular PICA origin aneurysm, but detailed angiography showed a serpentine recanalization of a fusiform aneurysm. This was treated with PICA–PICA anastomosis and trapping of the aneurysm. The second case is a dissecting vertebral aneurysm with both PICA and the anterior spinal artery originating from the dome. PICA was found to be a bihemispheric variant, so no in situ bypass was available, and an occipital artery to PICA bypass was performed. The vertebral artery was occluded proximally only and follow-up angiography showed remodeling of the distal vertebral artery with the anterior spinal artery filling by retrograde flow from the distal vertebral artery. These cases illustrate both the anatomic variability of this region as well as the need to be familiar with multiple treatment strategies including revascularization techniques to be able to successfully treat these aneurysms.

  17. Pulp Revascularization- It’s your Future Whether you Know it or Not?

    PubMed Central

    Dudeja, Pooja Gupta; Grover, Shibani; Srivastava, Dhirendra; Sharma, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    Pulpal regeneration after tooth injury is not easy to accomplish. In teeth with immature apices and exposed vital pulp tissue, partial or complete pulpotomy is indicated to preserve pulpal function and allow continued root development. In many cases, injury causes loss of pulp vitality and arrested root development leading to a tooth with poor crown root ratio, a root with very thin walls, an open blunderbuss apex and development of apical pathosis. The ideal treatment in such cases would be to obtain further root development and thickening of dentinal walls by stimulating the regeneration of a functional pulp dentin complex. This outcome has been observed after reimplantation in avulsed immature permanent teeth but has been thought impossible in a necrotic infected tooth. This case series evaluates the efficacy of revascularization procedure in immature, non vital permanent teeth. Pulp regeneration was attempted in four patients at Department of Conservative Dentistry, ESIC Dental College, New Delhi using blood clotting approach. The cases were treated and followed up regularly at regular intervals ranging from 6 months to 3 years to assess the treatment response clinically and radiographically. The patients remained clinically asymptomatic with three out of four patients even responding positively to pulp responsiveness tests. Radiographic examination also revealed increased root formation and thickening of dentinal walls. It was concluded that the triad of a disinfected canal, a matrix (blood clot) in to which new tissue could grow and an effective coronal seal produced the desirable environment for successful revascularization. PMID:26023665

  18. Bioresorbable scaffolds for percutaneous coronary interventions

    PubMed Central

    Gogas, Bill D.

    2014-01-01

    Innovations in drug-eluting stents (DES) have substantially reduced rates of in-segment restenosis and early stent thrombosis, improving clinical outcomes following percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). However a fixed metallic implant in a vessel wall with restored patency and residual disease remains a precipitating factor for sustained local inflammation, in-stent neo-atherosclerosis and impaired vasomotor function increasing the risk for late complications attributed to late or very late stent thrombosis and late target lesion revascularization (TLR) (late catch-up). The quest for optimal coronary stenting continues by further innovations in stent design and by using biocompatible materials other than cobalt chromium, platinum chromium or stainless steel for engineering coronary implants. Bioresorbable scaffolds made of biodegradable polymers or biocorrodible metals with properties of transient vessel scaffolding, local drug-elution and future restoration of vessel anatomy, physiology and local hemodynamics have been recently developed. These devices have been utilized in selected clinical applications so far providing preliminary evidence of safety showing comparable performance with current generation drug-eluting stents (DES). Herein we provide a comprehensive overview of the current status of these technologies, we elaborate on the potential benefits of transient coronary scaffolds over permanent stents in the context of vascular reparation therapy, and we further focus on the evolving challenges these devices have to overcome to compete with current generation DES. Condensed Abstract:: The quest for optimizing percutaneous coronary interventions continues by iterative innovations in device materials beyond cobalt chromium, platinum chromium or stainless steel for engineering coronary implants. Bioresorbable scaffolds made of biodegradable polymers or biocorrodible metals with properties of transient vessel scaffolding; local drug-elution and future restoration of vessel anatomy, physiology and local hemodynamics were recently developed. These devices have been utilized in selected clinical applications providing preliminary evidence of safety showing comparable intermediate term clinical outcomes with current generation drug-eluting stents. PMID:25780795

  19. Fractional flow reserve-guided percutaneous coronary intervention: where to after FAME 2?

    PubMed Central

    van de Hoef, Tim P; Meuwissen, Martijn; Piek, Jan J

    2015-01-01

    Fractional flow reserve (FFR) is a well-validated clinical coronary physiological parameter derived from the measurement of coronary pressures and has drastically changed revascularization decision-making in clinical practice. Nonetheless, it is important to realize that FFR is a coronary pressure-derived estimate of coronary blood flow impairment. It is thereby not the same as direct measures of coronary flow impairment that determine the occurrence of signs and symptoms of myocardial ischemia. This consideration is important, since the FAME 2 study documented a limited discriminatory power of FFR to identify stenoses that require revascularization to prevent adverse events. The physiological difference between FFR and direct measures of coronary flow impairment may well explain the findings in FAME 2. This review aims to address the physiological background of FFR, its ambiguities, and its consequences for the application of FFR in clinical practice, as well as to reinterpret the diagnostic and prognostic characteristics of FFR in the light of the recent FAME 2 trial outcomes. PMID:26673639

  20. Tryptase and Coronary Heart Disease

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-10-23

    Acute Coronary Syndrome With ST Elevation on Electrocardiogram; Acute Coronary Syndrome Without ST Elevation on Electrocardiogram; Noncritical Coronary Artery Disease With Coronary Stenosis <50%; Aortic Aneurysms

  1. Percutaneous coronary intervention strategies and prognosis for graft lesions following coronary artery bypass grafting

    PubMed Central

    LIU, YIN; ZHOU, XIUJUN; JIANG, HUA; GAO, MINGDONG; WANG, LIN; SHI, YUTIAN; GAO, JING

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the prognosis of graft-percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and native vessel (NV)-PCI, drug-eluting stents (DESs) and bare-metal stents (BMSs) for the treatment of graft lesions following coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), and to determine the risk factors for major adverse cardiac events (MACEs). A total of 289 patients who underwent PCI following CABG between August 2005 and March 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. The effects on survival were compared among patients who underwent NV- and graft-PCI, and DES and BMS implantation. Additionally, the risk factors for MACEs following PCI for graft lesions were analyzed. The findings showed that MACE-free and revascularization-free survival rates were significantly higher in the NV-PCI group compared with those in the graft-PCI group. There were 63 cases (29.0%) of MACEs in the DES group and 25 cases (52.1%) in the BMS group. In patients undergoing NV-PCI, the DES group had significantly fewer MACEs and less target vessel revascularization (TVR) than the BMS group. In patients undergoing graft-PCI, the DES group showed a tendency for fewer MACEs and a lower incidence of cardiac mortality, myocardial infarction and TVR compared with the BMS group. Diabetes, an age of >70 years and graft-PCI were independent risk factors for MACEs in patients post-PCI. It is concluded that NV-PCI has superior long-term outcomes compared with graft-PCI, and should therefore be considered as the first-line treatment for graft disease following CABG. Despite this, graft-PCI remains a viable option. DESs are the first choice for graft-PCI due to their safety and efficacy and their association with reduced mortality and MACE rate. Diabetes, older age and graft-PCI are independent risk factors for MACEs in patients post-CABG who are undergoing revascularization. PMID:26136874

  2. Modifications of Coronary Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Albu, Jeanine; Gottlieb, Sheldon H.; August, Phyllis; Nesto, Richard W.; Orchard, Trevor J.

    2009-01-01

    In addition to the revascularization and glycemic management interventions assigned at random, the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes (BARI 2D) design includes the uniform control of major coronary artery disease risk factors, including dyslipidemia, hypertension, smoking, central obesity, and sedentary lifestyle. Target levels for risk factors were adjusted throughout the trial to comply with changes in recommended clinical practice guidelines. At present, the goals are low-density lipoprotein cholesterol <2.59 mmol/L (<100 mg/dL) with an optional goal of <1.81 mmol/L (<70 mg/dL); plasma triglyceride level <1.70 mmol/L (<150 mg/dL); blood pressure level <130 mm Hg systolic and <80 mm Hg diastolic; and smoking cessation treatment for all active smokers. Algorithms were developed for the pharmacologic management of dyslipidemia and hypertension. Dietary prescriptions for the management of glycemia, plasma lipid profiles, and blood pressure levels were adapted from existing clinical practice guidelines. Patients with a body mass index >25 were prescribed moderate caloric restriction; after the trial was under way, a lifestyle weight-management program was instituted. All patients were formally prescribed both endurance and resistance/flexibility exercises, individually adapted to their level of disability and fitness. Pedometers were distributed as a biofeedback strategy. Strategies to achieve the goals for risk factors were designed by BARI 2D working groups (lipid, cardiovascular and hypertension, and nonpharmacologic intervention) and the ongoing implementation of the strategies is monitored by lipid, hypertension, and lifestyle intervention management centers. PMID:16813737

  3. The Relationship between Proliferative Scars and Endothelial Function in Surgically Revascularized Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ziyrek, Murat; ?ahin, Sinan; Acar, Zeydin; ?en, Onur

    2015-01-01

    Background: Proliferative scars are benign fibrotic proliferations which demonstrate abnormal wound healing in response to skin injuries. As postulated in the “response to injury hypothesis”, atherosclerosis is also triggered by an endothelial injury. Keloid and atherosclerotic processes have many pathophysiological and cytological features in common. Aims: In this study, we investigated the relationship between proliferative scars and endothelial function in surgically revascularized patients. We aimed to test the hypothesis that atherosclerosis is a wound healing abnormality. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: Consecutive patients who were admitted to the cardiology outpatient clinic with a history of coronary artery bypass grafting operation were evaluated. Thirty-three patients with proliferative scars at the median sternotomy site formed the keloid group, and 36 age- and sex-matched patients with no proliferative scar at the median sternotomy site formed the control group. Endothelial function was evaluated by flow-mediated vasodilatation of the brachial artery via ultrasonograhic examination. Results: There is no signicant difference according to the demographic data, biochemical parameters, clinical parameters and number of grafts between keloid and control groups. Endothelial-dependent vasodila-tory response was lower in the keloid group than the control group (9.30±3.5 and 18.68±8.2, respectively; p=0.001). Conclusion: This study showed that endothalial dysfunction, which is strongly correlated with atherosclerosis, was more prominent in patients with proliferative scars. As proliferative scars and atherosclerosis have many features in common, we might conclude that atherosclerosis is a wound healing abnormality.

  4. Transmyocardial Revascularization Ameliorates Ischemia by Attenuating Paradoxical Catecholamine-Induced Vasoconstriction

    PubMed Central

    Le, D. Elizabeth; Powers, Eric R.; Bin, Jian-Ping; Leong-Poi, Howard; Goodman, N. Craig; Kaul, Sanjiv

    2007-01-01

    The mechanism by which transmyocardial revascularization (TMR) offers clinical benefit is controversial. We hypothesized that TMR ameliorates ischemia by reversing paradoxical catecholamine-induced vasoconstriction. Chronic ischemic cardiomyopathy was created in 11 dogs by placing ameroid constrictors on the proximal coronary arteries and their major branches. Six weeks later, 35 channels were created percutaneously in the left circumflex artery (LCx) region with the left anterior descending artery (LAD) region serving as control. At rest, wall thickening (WT) and myocardial blood flow (MBF) did not change in the treated region, while they deteriorated in the control bed. Contractile and MBF reserve increased in the treated region but deteriorated in the control region. There was diminished 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine uptake and significant reduction in noradrenergic nerves in the treated region compared to control region, with corresponding reduction in tissue tyrosine hydroxylase activity. We conclude that the absence of catecholamine-induced reduction in MBF reserve and contractile reserve in the TMR treated region with associated evidence of neuronal injury indicates that the relief of exercise-induced ischemia after TMR is most likely due to reversal of paradoxical catecholamine-induced vasoconstriction. These findings may have implications in selecting patients who would benefit from TMR. PMID:17386383

  5. Clinical and Radiographic Outcomes of Traumatized Immature Permanent Necrotic Teeth after Revascularization/Revitalization Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Saoud, Tarek Mohamed A.; Zaazou, Ashraf; Nabil, Ahmed; Moussa, Sybel; Lin, Louis M.; Gibbs, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Revascularization treatment is rapidly becoming an accepted alternative for the management of endodontic pathology in immature permanent teeth with necrotic dental pulps. However, the success and timing of clinical resolution of symptoms and of radiographic outcomes of interest, such as continued hard tissue deposition within the root, are largely unknown. Methods In this prospective cohort study, 20 teeth were treated with a standardized revascularization treatment protocol, and monitored for clinical and radiographic changes for one year. Standardized radiographs were collected at regular intervals and radiographic changes were quantified. Results All 20 treated teeth survived during the 12 month follow up period and all 20 also met the clinical criteria for success at 12 months. As a group, the treated teeth demonstrated a statistically significant increase in radiographic width and length, and a decrease in apical diameter, although the changes in many cases were quite small such that the clinical significance is unclear. The within-case percent change in apical diameter after 3 months was 16% and had increased to 79% by 12 months, with 55% (11/20) showing complete apical closure. The within-case percent change in root length averaged less than 1% at 3 months and increased to 5% at 12 months. The within-case percent change in root thickness averaged 3% at 3 months and 21% at 12 months. Conclusions Although clinical success was highly predictable with this procedure, clinically meaningful radiographic root thickening and lengthening is less predictable at one year of follow up. Apical closure is the most consistent radiographic finding. PMID:25443280

  6. Coronary artery disease performance measures and statin use in patients with recent percutaneous coronary intervention or recent coronary artery bypass grafting (from the NCDR PINNACLE registry).

    PubMed

    Bandeali, Salman J; Gosch, Kensey; Alam, Mahboob; Kayani, Waleed T; Jneid, Hani; Fiocchi, Fran; Wilson, James M; Chan, Paul S; Deswal, Anita; Maddox, Thomas M; Virani, Salim S

    2015-04-15

    The association between coronary revascularization strategy (percutaneous coronary intervention [PCI] or coronary artery bypass grafting [CABG]) and compliance with coronary artery disease (CAD) performance measures is not well studied. Our analysis studied patients enrolled in the Practice Innovation and Clinical Excellence registry, who underwent coronary revascularization using PCI or CABG in the 12 months before their most recent outpatient visit in 2011. We compared the attainment of CAD performance measures and statin use in eligible patients with PCI and CABG using hierarchical logistic regression models. Our study cohort consisted of 112,969 patients (80,753 with PCI and 32,216 with CABG). After adjustment for site and patient characteristics, performance measure compliance for tobacco use query (odds ratio [OR] 0.80; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.76 to 0.86), antiplatelet therapy (OR 0.9; 95% CI 0.86 to 0.94) and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker therapy (OR 0.89; 95% CI 0.84 to 0.94) was lower in CABG compared with patients with PCI. Patients who underwent recent CABG had higher rates of ?-blocker (OR 1.25; 95% CI 1.16 to 1.33) and statin treatment (OR 1.37; 95% CI 1.31 to 1.43) compared with patients with PCI. Of the 79 practice sites, 15 (19%) had ?75% of their patients with CAD (CABG or PCI) meeting 75% to 100% of all eligible CAD performance measures. In conclusion, gaps persist in compliance with specific CAD performance measures in patients with recent PCI or CABG, and 1 in 5 practices had ?75% compliance of eligible CAD performance measures in the most of their patients. PMID:25721483

  7. Multivessel transradial percutaneous coronary angioplasty in a single coronary artery originating from the right sinus of Valsalva

    PubMed Central

    Madhavan, Suresh; Kumary, V. Sudha; Akhil, P. C.; Cardoz, Joseph; George, Raju

    2015-01-01

    Percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with an anomalous coronary artery is technically challenging. Selective cannulation and coaxial positioning in the anomalous artery and optimum stability during the procedure are pivotal for successful completion of the procedure. Selection of the appropriate guide catheter is of paramount importance in these situations. In patients with congenital coronary artery anomalies, increasing use of multidetector computed tomography for cardiac imaging may yield diagnostic information not obtained with coronary angiography. Axial, multiplanar, and three-dimensional volume-rendered reconstructions aid in detecting and interpreting such anomalies and in selecting appropriate hardware during percutaneous coronary intervention in these patients. We report a case of successful stent implantation in the right coronary artery and proximal circumflex coronary artery in a patient with a single coronary artery arising from the right sinus of Valsalva. PMID:26424956

  8. Interposition vein graft for giant coronary aneurysm repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Firstenberg, M. S.; Azoury, F.; Lytle, B. W.; Thomas, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    Coronary aneurysms in adults are rare. Surgical treatment is often concomitant to treating obstructing coronary lesions. However, the ideal treatment strategy is poorly defined. We present a case of successful treatment of a large coronary artery aneurysm with a reverse saphenous interposition vein graft. This modality offers important benefits over other current surgical and percutaneous techniques and should be considered as an option for patients requiring treatment for coronary aneurysms.

  9. Coronary Sinus Lead Extraction.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Edmond M; Wilkoff, Bruce L

    2015-12-01

    Expanded indications for cardiac resynchronization therapy and the increasing incidence of cardiac implantable electronic device infection have led to an increased need for coronary sinus (CS) lead extraction. The CS presents unique anatomical obstacles to successful lead extraction. Training and facility requirements for CS lead extraction should mirror those for other leads. Here we review the indications, technique, and results of CS lead extraction. Published success rates and complications are similar to those reported for other leads, although multiple techniques may be required. Re-implantation options may be limited, which should be incorporated into pre-procedural decision making. PMID:26596810

  10. Impact of daily lifestyle on coronary heart disease

    PubMed Central

    WAN, YAN-FANG; MA, XIAO-LI; YUAN, CHEN; FEI, LING; YANG, JING; ZHANG, JUN

    2015-01-01

    Limited data are available with regard to the impact of daily lifestyle choices in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) who have undergone stent placement. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of daily lifestyle factors in patients with CHD following stent implantation. Between March 2005 and March 2006, 129 consecutive patients with CHD were admitted to Cangzhou Central Hospital at Hebei Medical University (Cangzhou, China). The patients underwent coronary stenting and participated in a 7-year clinical follow-up that analyzed the impact of their daily lifestyle choices on CHD following the stent placement. Rates of dinner satiety [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.121–10.97, P=0.005], smoking (95% CI, 4.05–34.90, P=2.01×10?7) and heavy alcohol use (95% CI, 1.32–11.05, P=0.006) were significantly higher in the repeated (re)-revascularization group when compared with the non-revascularization group. In addition, the exercise rate was significantly lower in the re-revascularization group when compared with the non-revascularization group (95% CI, 0.02–0.65, P=0.005). However, no statistically significant differences were observed between the groups with regard to sleeping patterns (95% CI, 0.03–0.71, P=0.270) or anxiety rates (P=0.289). A coronary angiography performed during re-revascularization revealed in-stent restenosis in 26% of the patients, stenoses at the entrance to or exit from the stent in 29% of the patients and new lesions in 19% of the patients. Furthermore, original lesions exhibited deterioration in 26% of the patients. The clinical endpoint was reached in 55% of the patients between 3 and 5 years of the follow-up period. In conclusion, poor daily lifestyle habits can increase the in-stent restenosis rate, accelerate the progression of the original lesion and promote the emergence of new lesions in patients with CHD following stent placement. PMID:26622449

  11. Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection with Cardiac Tamponade

    PubMed Central

    Lundstrom, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is a rare cause of acute coronary syndrome. Clinical presentation ranges from chest pain alone to ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction, ventricular fibrillation, and sudden death. The treatment of patients with spontaneous coronary artery dissection is challenging because the disease pathophysiology is unclear, optimal treatment is unknown, and short- and long-term prognostic data are minimal. We report the case of a 70-year-old woman who presented with an acute ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction secondary to a spontaneous dissection of the left anterior descending coronary artery. She was treated conservatively. Cardiac tamponade developed 16 hours after presentation. Repeat coronary angiography revealed extension of the dissection. Medical therapy was continued after the hemopericardium was aspirated. The patient remained asymptomatic 3 years after hospital discharge. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of spontaneous coronary artery dissection in association with cardiac tamponade that was treated conservatively and had a successful outcome. PMID:26504447

  12. Gender gap in acute coronary heart disease: Myth or reality?

    PubMed Central

    Claassen, Mette; Sybrandy, Kirsten C; Appelman, Yolande E; Asselbergs, Folkert W

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate potential gender differences in the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, cardiovascular disease (CVD) management, and prognosis in acute coronary syndrome (ACS). METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed through Medline using pre-specified keywords. An additional search was performed, focusing specifically on randomized controlled clinical trials in relation to therapeutic intervention and prognosis. In total, 92 relevant articles were found. RESULTS: Women with CVD tended to have more hypertension and diabetes at the time of presentation, whereas men were more likely to smoke. Coronary angiography and revascularization by percutaneous coronary intervention were performed more often in men. Women were at a greater risk of short-term mortality and complications after revascularization. Interestingly, women under 40 years presenting with ACS were at highest risk of cardiovascular death compared with men of the same age, irrespective of risk factors. This disadvantage disappeared in older age. The long-term mortality risk of ACS was similar in men and women, and even in favor of women. CONCLUSION: Mortality rates are higher among young women with ACS, but this difference tends to disappear with age, and long-term prognosis is even better among older women. PMID:22379536

  13. Emergency polytetrafluoroethylene-covered stent implantation to treat right coronary artery perforation during percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Yorgun, Hikmet; Canpolat, Ugur; Aytemir, Kudret; Oto, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Coronary artery perforations are life-threatening complications with a poor outcome. Historically, if the perforation was not controlled using conservative methods such as prolonged balloon inflation and protamine administration, emergency cardiac surgery has been performed. However, several percutaneous methods including covered stents and embolization materials have emerged as therapeutic options to manage coronary perforations. We report a case of right coronary artery perforation after high pressure stent post-dilatation that was successfully sealed with a polytetrafluoroethylene-covered stent. PMID:23224929

  14. [Coronary vessel ectasia: coronary artery disease with a high thromboembolic risk].

    PubMed

    Bernard, F; Revel, F; Monsegu, J; Duriez, P; Langlade, S; Ollivier, J P

    1998-03-01

    Coronary dystrophy is characterized by the presence of successively stenotic and ectatic or even aneurysmal zones in the coronary network. The authors report a new case of coronary ectatic dystrophy presenting in with myocardial infarction. They review the literature and suggest the various aetiologies, the main one being atherosclerosis. The management of this particular form of atherosclerosis is dominated by the thromboembolic risk related to these aneurysmal zones responsible for myocardial infarction, justifying long-term anticoagulant therapy. PMID:9772942

  15. Novel drug-eluting stents in the treatment of de novo coronary lesions

    PubMed Central

    Capodanno, Davide; Dipasqua, Fabio; Tamburino, Corrado

    2011-01-01

    Due to safety concerns in recent years, much effort has been devoted to improving the outcomes associated with drug-eluting stents (DESs). This review summarizes the current status of methodological and technical achievements reported in second-generation DES. Novel stents are described based on the component (the platform, the polymer, and the drug) that has undergone the most significant changes compared to earlier generation DES. An overview of the currently available evidence on the use of novel coronary devices in patients undergoing coronary revascularization is also reviewed. PMID:21415924

  16. Transradial Coronary Intervention Versus Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting for Unprotected Left Main and/or Multivessel Disease in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fei; Zhou, Yu Jie; Wang, Zhi Jian; Yan, Zhen Xian; Liu, Xiao Li; Shen, Hua

    2016-01-01

    The overall safety and efficacy of transradial coronary intervention (TRI) versus coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) for patients with unprotected left main (UPLM) disease and/or multivessel coronary disease (MVD) presenting with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) have not been established. Consecutive patients with ACS undergoing TRI with drug-eluting stent (n = 1431) or CABG (n = 651) for UPLM and/or MVD were included. A propensity-score matching was performed to adjust for differences in baseline characteristics between the 2 cohorts, yielding 524 pairs of matched patients. Median clinical follow-up was 32 months. After propensity-score adjustment, no significant difference was observed between the TRI and CABG groups in all-cause mortality (4.0% vs 5.2%; P = .375). Transradial coronary intervention was favored by a significant increase in the incidence of stroke in the CABG group (0.4% vs 1.9%; P = .020), whereas a significantly increased target vessel revascularization rate (16.8% vs 6.3%; P < .0001) observed in the TRI group favored CABG. Composite outcome (death/myocardial infarction/stroke) was comparable between the TRI and the CABG groups (8.0% vs 11.5%; P = .061). Clinical outcomes of TRI on UPLM and/or MVD for patients with ACS are comparable to CABG in composite safety outcomes with the advantage to TRI for avoiding a stroke. PMID:25818105

  17. Cangrelor: A Review in Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    PubMed

    Keating, Gillian M

    2015-08-01

    Cangrelor (Kengrexal(®), Kengreal(™)) is an intravenously administered P2Y12 receptor inhibitor. It is direct-acting and reversible, with a very rapid onset and offset of action. The randomized, double-blind, multinational, phase III CHAMPION PHOENIX trial compared the efficacy of intravenous cangrelor with that of oral clopidogrel in patients requiring percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for stable angina pectoris, a non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome or ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (MI). The primary composite efficacy endpoint of death from any cause, MI, ischaemia-drive revascularization or stent thrombosis in the 48 h following randomization occurred in significantly fewer cangrelor than clopidogrel recipients. The rate of severe or life-threatening non-coronary artery bypass graft-related, GUSTO-defined bleeding at 48 h did not significantly differ between cangrelor and clopidogrel recipients. In conclusion, intravenous cangrelor is an important new option for use in patients undergoing PCI who have not been treated with oral P2Y12 inhibitors. PMID:26201463

  18. [Two cases of acute coronary syndrome after intake of Clavis Panax].

    PubMed

    Atar, Asl? ?nci; Er, Okan; Güven, Abdullah; Eryonucu, Beyhan

    2012-04-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is an epidemic in today's world. It is one of the most common causes of hospitalization and death. Therefore, remedies to control or heal the disease are continuously sought. In addition to scientifically researched therapies, patients frequently utilize alternative medicine. However, effective and toxic doses, metabolisms, and drug interactions of the herbs and herbal nutrition supplements are largely unknown. Herein, we present two cases with acute coronary syndrome. The first case was admitted with a diagnosis of acute inferior myocardial infaction (MI) and a stent was implanted to the occluded right coronary artery (RCA). There was a 50% stenosis in his left anterior descending artery (LAD). He was admitted with a diagnosis of non-ST elevation MI (NSTEMI) 6 months later. In the coronary angiogram, there was stent restenosis in RCA, the lesion in LAD had become thrombotic and progressed to a stenosis of 90%. He was referred to surgical revascularization. The second case was admitted for acute inferior MI and a stent was implanted to the occluded circumflex artery. Two months later, he was hospitalized for NSTEMI. Progression of coronary plaques to stenosis and stent restenosis was detected and he was referred to surgical revascularization. Both patients used the product sold as Clavis Panax, which contains panax ginseng, tribulus terrestris, and oat, after their first coronary intervention. Intake of a mixture of plant extracts may have serious consequences in humans as drug interactions and side effects are unknown. PMID:22864326

  19. The ‘Perfect Storm’ and Acute Coronary Syndrome Onset: Do Psychosocial Factors Play a Role?

    PubMed Central

    Burg, Matthew M.; Edmondson, Donald; Shimbo, Daichi; Shaffer, Jonathan; Kronish, Ian M.; Whang, William; Alcántara, Carmela; Schwartz, Joseph E.; Muntner, Paul; Davidson, Karina W.

    2013-01-01

    The revolution in cardiac care over the past two decades, characterized by emergent revascularization, drug eluting stents, anti-platelet medications, and advanced imaging has had little impact on overall ACS recurrence, or ACS prevention. The “Perfect Storm” refers to a confluence of events and processes, including atherosclerotic plaque, coronary flow dynamics, hemostatic and fibrinolytic function, metabolic and inflammatory conditions, neurohormonal dysregulation, and environmental events that give rise to, and result in an ACS event. In this article we illustrate the limits of the traditional main effect research model, giving a brief description of the current state of knowledge regarding the development of atherosclerotic plaque and the rupturing of these plaques that defines an ACS event. We then apply the Perfect Storm conceptualization to describe a program of research concerning a psychosocial vulnerability factor that contributes to increased risk of recurrent ACS and early mortality, and that has defied our efforts to identify underlying pathophysiology and successfully mount efforts to fully mitigate this risk. PMID:23621970

  20. Recent advances in the management of chronic stable angina II. Anti-ischemic therapy, options for refractory angina, risk factor reduction, and revascularization

    PubMed Central

    Kones, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The objectives in treating angina are relief of pain and prevention of disease progression through risk reduction. Mechanisms, indications, clinical forms, doses, and side effects of the traditional antianginal agents – nitrates, ?-blockers, and calcium channel blockers – are reviewed. A number of patients have contraindications or remain unrelieved from anginal discomfort with these drugs. Among newer alternatives, ranolazine, recently approved in the United States, indirectly prevents the intracellular calcium overload involved in cardiac ischemia and is a welcome addition to available treatments. None, however, are disease-modifying agents. Two options for refractory angina, enhanced external counterpulsation and spinal cord stimulation (SCS), are presented in detail. They are both well-studied and are effective means of treating at least some patients with this perplexing form of angina. Traditional modifiable risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD) – smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, and obesity – account for most of the population-attributable risk. Individual therapy of high-risk patients differs from population-wide efforts to prevent risk factors from appearing or reducing their severity, in order to lower the national burden of disease. Current American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines to lower risk in patients with chronic angina are reviewed. The Clinical Outcomes Utilizing Revascularization and Aggressive Drug Evaluation (COURAGE) trial showed that in patients with stable angina, optimal medical therapy alone and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with medical therapy were equal in preventing myocardial infarction and death. The integration of COURAGE results into current practice is discussed. For patients who are unstable, with very high risk, with left main coronary artery lesions, in whom medical therapy fails, and in those with acute coronary syndromes, PCI is indicated. Asymptomatic patients with CAD and those with stable angina may defer intervention without additional risk to see if they will improve on optimum medical therapy. For many patients, coronary artery bypass surgery offers the best opportunity for relieving angina, reducing the need for additional revascularization procedures and improving survival. Optimal medical therapy, percutaneous coronary intervention, and surgery are not competing therapies, but are complementary and form a continuum, each filling an important evidence-based need in modern comprehensive management. PMID:20859545

  1. Early Surgery after Coronary Revascularization: A Fine Line Between Bleeding and Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    De Biase, C; Capuano, E; De Luca, S; D’Anna, C; Luciano, R; Piscione, F; Trimarco, B; Galasso, G

    2015-01-01

    Management of PCI patients undergoing early surgery is still a matter of debate. Noteworthy, PCI patients require a dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT), with aspirine and a thienopiridine (clopidogrel, prasugrel, ticagrelor), because of the high risk of stent thrombosis (ST), myocardial infarction (MI) and death, especially within the first month. Indeed, the number of surgical interventions after PCI is actually increasing, and physicians are looking for the best antiplatelet therapy management, in order to reduce both, bleeding and thrombosis risk. In this paper, current guidelines therapy management and new optional strategies to reduce the cardiovascular risk, related to early surgery, are discussed. PMID:25674544

  2. Early surgery after coronary revascularization: a fine line between bleeding and thrombosis.

    PubMed

    De Biase, C; Capuano, E; De Luca, S; D'Anna, C; Luciano, R; Piscione, F; Trimarco, B; Galasso, G

    2015-01-01

    Management of PCI patients undergoing early surgery is still a matter of debate. Noteworthy, PCI patients require a dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT), with aspirine and a thienopiridine (clopidogrel, prasugrel, ticagrelor), because of the high risk of stent thrombosis (ST), myocardial infarction (MI) and death, especially within the first month. Indeed, the number of surgical interventions after PCI is actually increasing, and physicians are looking for the best antiplatelet therapy management, in order to reduce both, bleeding and thrombosis risk. In this paper, current guidelines therapy management and new optional strategies to reduce the cardiovascular risk, related to early surgery, are discussed. PMID:25674544

  3. High-risk percutaneous coronary intervention in a patient with a single coronary artery presenting as STEMI and cardiogenic shock.

    PubMed

    Abdelsalam, Murad; Krishnan, Mrinalini; Banga, Sandeep; Bachinsky, William B

    2015-01-01

    Cardiogenic shock due to ST elevation myocardial infarction in a patient with a single coronary artery involving the sole vessel is a rare presentation. This can be clinically and angiographically challenging. Proper recognition of the topography of diseased vessels and a systematic guarded approach can lead to procedural success. We report a case of an 81-year-old woman who presented with chest pain followed by a near syncope associated with an acute myocardial infarction. Coronary angiography revealed a single proximally occluded right coronary artery and an anomalous left main coronary artery (originating from the proximal right coronary artery) and occluded distal left circumflex artery. The right coronary artery was successfully stented following predilation without compromising the anomalous left main origin. The flow in the chronically occluded left circumflex artery (originating from the anomalous left main) which was depended on the retrograde supply from right coronary artery through collaterals, was also re-established. PMID:26275407

  4. Revascularization of Ischemic Skeletal Muscle by Estrogen-Related Receptor-?

    PubMed Central

    Matsakas, Antonios; Yadav, Vikas; Lorca, Sabina; Evans, Ronald M.; Narkar, Vihang A.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Oxidative myofibers in the skeletal muscles express high levels of angiogenic factors, have dense vasculature, and promptly revascularize during ischemia. Estrogen-related receptor-gamma (ERR?) activates genes that govern metabolic and vascular features typical to oxidative myofibers. Therefore, ERR?-dependent remodeling of the myofibers may promote neoangiogenesis and restoration of blood perfusion in skeletal muscle ischemia. Objective To investigate the muscle fiber type remodeling by ERR? and its role in the vascular recovery of ischemic muscle. Methods and Results Using immunohistology, we show that skeletal muscle-specific transgenic overexpression of ERR? increases the proportions of oxidative and densely vascularized type IIA and IIX myofibers and decreases glycolytic and less vascularized type IIB myofibers. This myofiber remodeling results in a higher basal blood flow in the transgenic skeletal muscle. By applying unilateral hind limb ischemia to transgenic and wild-type mice, we found accelerated revascularization (fluorescent microangiography), restoration of blood perfusion (laser Doppler flowmetry), and muscle repair (Evans blue dye exclusion) in transgenic compared to wild-type ischemic muscles. This ameliorative effect is linked to enhanced neoangiogenesis (CD31 staining and microfil perfusion) by ERR?. Using cultured muscle cells in which ERR? is inactivated, we show that the receptor is dispensable for the classical hypoxic response of transcriptional upregulation and secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor A. Rather, the ameliorative effect of ERR? is linked to the receptor-mediated increase in oxidative myofibers that inherently express and secrete high levels of angiogenic factors. Conclusions The ERR? is a hypoxia-independent inducer of neoangiogenesis that can promote reparative revascularization. PMID:22415017

  5. Coronary Artery Disease - Coronary Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Coronary Artery Disease - Coronary Heart Disease Updated:Aug 7,2015 ... for the buildup of plaque in the heart’s arteries that could lead to heart attack. But what ...

  6. Tagged MRI and PET in severe CAD: discrepancy between preoperative inotropic reserve and intramyocardial functional outcome after revascularization.

    PubMed

    Mazzadi, Alejandro N; Janier, Marc F; Brossier, Benjamin; André-Fouët, Xavier; Revel, Didier; Croisille, Pierre

    2004-11-01

    In severe coronary artery disease (CAD), it has been shown that intramyocardial inotropic reserve as assessed with tagged magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is uniformly distributed among positron emission tomography (PET) patterns reflecting normal or concomitant reductions in perfusion and glucose metabolism. This preliminary study aimed to delineate the relationship between preoperative values of intramyocardial inotropic reserve (in different PET patterns of perfusion and glucose uptake) and intramyocardial functional outcome after surgical revascularization in severe CAD. Twelve patients underwent preoperative tagged MRI (baseline, 10 microg.kg(-1).min(-1) of dobutamine), H2 15O/[18F]fluorodeoxyglucose PET imaging, and postoperative resting tagged MRI. Regional midmyocardial circumferential shortening (Ecc, in %) and PET patterns (normal, match viable, mismatch viable, and infarcted) were assessed in three tagged MRI/PET short-axis slices. Ecc at baseline ranged from 12 +/- 6 to 8 +/- 5 and 4 +/- 4% in normal, match-viable, and infarcted regions, respectively (P <0.05) and was 8 +/- 5% in mismatch-viable regions. Of the 429 regions studied, 187 showed preoperative inotropic reserve with dobutamine, but 238 showed postoperative functional improvement. Postoperative functional improvement was less common in infarcted regions (41 vs. approximately 60% in the other PET patterns), but the extent of improvement was similar among PET patterns (approximately 6%). Postoperative functional improvement occurred in 53% of all (normal, match viable, and mismatch viable) regions without inotropic reserve. In severe CAD, revascularization affords greater intramyocardial functional benefit than expected from the evaluation of intramyocardial inotropic reserve with low-dose dobutamine. Postoperative functional improvement in PET-viable regions without inotropic reserve suggests that factors other than regionally enhanced perfusion contribute to such functional improvement. PMID:15231499

  7. Technology Transfer Center | Success Stories

    Cancer.gov

    SKIP ALL NAVIGATION SKIP TO SUB MENU Search Site Standard Forms & Agreements Co-Development & Resources Careers & Training Intellectual Property & Inventions About TTC Overview Role of TTC Success Stories Paclitaxel-Eluting Coronary Stent System Laser

  8. Resource Use Trajectories for Aged Medicare Beneficiaries with Complex Coronary Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Federspiel, Jerome J; Stearns, Sally C; D'Arcy, Laura P; Geissler, Kimberley H; Beadles, Christopher A; Crespin, Daniel J; Carey, Timothy S; Rossi, Joseph S; Sheridan, Brett C

    2013-01-01

    Objective To use coronary revascularization choice to illustrate the application of a method simulating a treatment's effect on subsequent resource use. Data Sources Medicare inpatient and outpatient claims from 2002 to 2008 for patients receiving multivessel revascularization for symptomatic coronary disease in 2003–2004. Study Design This retrospective cohort study of 102,877 beneficiaries assessed survival, days in institutional settings, and Medicare payments for up to 6 years following receipt of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Methods A three-part estimator designed to provide robust estimates of a treatment's effect in the setting of mortality and censored follow-up was used. The estimator decomposes the treatment effect into effects attributable to survival differences versus treatment-related intensity of resource use. Principal Findings After adjustment, on average CABG recipients survived 23 days longer, spent an 11 additional days in institutional settings, and had cumulative Medicare payments that were $12,834 higher than PCI recipients. The majority of the differences in institutional days and payments were due to intensity rather than survival effects. Conclusions In this example, the survival benefit from CABG was modest and the resource implications were substantial, although further adjustments for treatment selection are needed. PMID:23347002

  9. Coronary artery computed tomography as the first-choice imaging diagnostics in patients with high pre-test probability of coronary artery disease (CAT-CAD)

    PubMed Central

    Rudzi?ski, Piotr N.; Demkow, Marcin; Dzieli?ska, Zofia; Pr?gowski, Jerzy; Witkowski, Adam; Ru?y??o, Witold; K?pka, Cezary

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The primary diagnostic examination performed in patients with a high pre-test probability of coronary artery disease (CAD) is invasive coronary angiography. Currently, approximately 50% of all invasive coronary angiographies do not end with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) because of the absence of significant coronary artery lesions. It is desirable to eliminate such situations. There is an alternative, non-invasive method useful for exclusion of significant CAD, which is coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). Aim We hypothesize that use of CCTA as the first choice method in the diagnosis of patients with high pre-test probability of CAD may reduce the number of invasive coronary angiographies not followed by interventional treatment. Coronary computed tomography angiography also seems not to be connected with additional risks and costs of the diagnosis. Confirmation of these assumptions may impact cardiology guidelines. Material and methods One hundred and twenty patients with indications for invasive coronary angiography determined by current ESC guidelines regarding stable CAD are randomized 1 : 1 to classic invasive coronary angiography group and the CCTA group. Results All patients included in the study are monitored for the occurrence of possible end points during the diagnostic and therapeutic cycle (from the first imaging examination to either complete revascularization or disqualification from the invasive treatment), or during the follow-up period. Conclusions Based on the literature, it appears that the use of modern CT systems in patients with high pre-test probability of CAD, as well as appropriate clinical interpretation of the imaging study by invasive cardiologists, enables precise planning of invasive therapeutic procedures. Our randomized study will provide data to verify these assumptions. PMID:26677376

  10. Prevalence and outcomes of coronary artery ectasia associated with isolated congenital coronary artery fistula.

    PubMed

    Vinograd, Cheryl A; Ostermayer, Stefan; Lytrivi, Irene D; Ko, H Helen; Parness, Ira; Geiger, Miwa; Panesar, Laurie E; Love, Barry; Srivastava, Shubhika

    2014-07-01

    Isolated congenital coronary artery fistula (CAF) is rare and varies with respect to size and hemodynamic significance. The prevalence of coronary artery ectasia in association with isolated congenital CAF, regardless of size, and after closure of large fistulae has not been systematically evaluated in the literature. This study aimed to characterize the demographic and echocardiographic differences between patients with large and small fistulae and to describe outcomes with respect to coronary ectasia in those who underwent closure. This is a retrospective review of an echocardiographic database that identified patients coded for CAF (1995 to 2012) and excluded those associated with complex cardiac disease and/or coronary anomalies and cardiomyopathy. Small fistulae were noted to arise mostly from the left anterior descending artery, drain into the pulmonary artery, and have a very low incidence of ectasia (n = 3 of 92), with a mean coronary artery diameter z score in these 3 patients of 3.45 ± 1.15. Larger fistulae had a female predominance, with most originating from the right coronary artery and draining into the right atrium; among the 12 patients who underwent procedural closure of large CAF, all feeding coronary arteries remained ectatic after closure, with a mean coronary artery diameter z score of 9.54 ± 5.66 after a total mean follow-up time of 3.95 ± 4.07 years. In conclusion, the occurrence of coronary dilatation justifies long-term follow-up irrespective of fistula size and successful closure of large CAF. PMID:24819906

  11. [Noninvasive diagnostic of coronary artery disease].

    PubMed

    Zuber, Michel; Zellweger, Michael; Bremerich, Jens; Auf der Mauer, Christoph; Buser, Peter T

    2009-04-01

    Noninvasive imaging of coronary artery disease has extensively evolved during the last decade. Today, at least four imaging techniques with excellent image quality such as echocardiography, myocardial perfusion scintigraphy and PET, cardiac magnetic resonance and cardiac CT are widely available in order to estimate the risk for future ischemic events, to corroborate the suspected diagnosis of coronary artery disease, to demonstrate the extent and localisation of myocardial ischemia, to diagnose myocardial infarction and measure it's size, to identify the myocardium at risk during acute ischemia, to differentiate between viable and nonviable myocardium and thereby provide the basis for indications of revascularisations, to follow revascularized patients over long time, to assess the risk for sudden cardiac death and the development of heart failure after myocardial infarction and to depict atheromatosis and atherosclerosis of the coronary artery tree. Echocardiography is the most widely used imaging method in cardiology. It provides excellent information on morphology and function of nearly all cardiac structures. Stress echocardiography has been proven to be a reliable tool for the demonstration of myocardial ischemia and for the acquisition of prognostic data. Newer ultrasound techniques may further improve investigator dependence and thereby reproducibility. The completeness of echocardiography will always depend on acoustic windows, which are given in a specific patient. Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy provides the largest database especially on prognosis in coronary artery disease. It has been the for the depictions of ischemic and infarcted myocardium. Radiation exposure will always be an issue. Newer hybrid techniques combining nuclear methods with cardiac CT may add arguments, which will be needed for clinical decision-making. Cardiac magnetic resonance has evolved as an important tool in the diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases. It is investigator independent, does not apply any biologically hazardous energy and has the largest potential for tissue characterization due to its high contrast resolution. It therefore is an excellent technique to investigate all the aspects of coronary artery disease. Its availability is increasing, however in order to fully utilize its large potential an optimal collaboration among -specialist (cardiologists, radiologists, physicists) is mandatory. Cardiac CT has evolved as an excellent method for the depiction of the coronary arteries. Due to its high spatial and time resolution it provides high quality luminography of the coronaries and newer technique are also -investigating plaque composition of diseased coronary arteries. Overestimation of coronary artery stenosis in calcified vessels is an inherent problem of the technique and the risk of radiation exposure has to be weighted against the benefit of non-invasively depicting the coronary arteries. It will be the future task of all specialists in this field to define the most efficient and cost-effective way to apply these excellent techniques for the investigation of all the different aspects of patients with coronary artery disease. PMID:19358135

  12. Usefulness of Everolimus-Eluting Coronary Stent Implantation in Patients on Maintenance Hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Ikari, Yuji; Kyono, Hiroyuki; Isshiki, Takaaki; Ishizuka, Shuichi; Nasu, Kenya; Sano, Koichi; Okada, Hisayuki; Sugano, Teruyasu; Uehara, Yoshiki

    2015-09-15

    The outcomes of second-generation drug-eluting stent (DES) are unknown in patients on maintenance hemodialysis (HD) although HD has been reported as a strong predictor of adverse outcome after the first-generation DES implantation. The OUCH-PRO Study is a prospective multicenter single-arm registry design to study clinical and angiographic outcomes after everolimus-eluting stent (EES). Patients who underwent maintenance HD were prospectively enrolled at the time of elective coronary intervention using EES. Quantitative coronary angiography was performed in an independent core laboratory. The primary end point was the occurrence of target vessel failure (TVF) defined as cardiac death, myocardial infarction (MI), and target vessel revascularization at 1 year. A total of 123 patients were enrolled and 161 EES were implanted. The TVF rate at 1 year was 18% (4% cardiac death, 0% MI, 17% target vessel revascularization). No stent thrombosis was documented. Other clinical events at 1 year were 3% noncardiac death, 3% stroke, and 9% non-target-vessel revascularization. Late lumen loss in stent was 0.37 ± 0.63 mm at 8 months. In conclusion, EES had a high TVF rate and great late lumen loss in patients on HD compared with previous huge EES data in non-HD patients. PMID:26219496

  13. “Obesity paradox” in coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Akin, Ibrahim; Nienaber, Christoph A

    2015-01-01

    Obesity used to be among the more neglected public health problems, but has unfolded as a growing medical and socioeconomic burden of epidemic proportions. Morbid obesity is linked to traditional cardiovascular risk factors like, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and diabetes, and suspected to incur increased morbidity and mortality in the Western and even third world populations. This patient cohort is also at greater risk to develop coronary artery disease. Recent population-based registries revealed that 43% and 24% of all cases of coronary revascularization were carried out in overweight and obese patients, respectively. However, despite evidence of a positive correlation between obesity and increased cardiovascular morbidity, some authors have described a better clinical outcome in overweight and obese patients, a phenomenon they coined “obesity paradoxon”. Thus, there is an ongoing debate in light of conflicting data and the possibility of confounding bias causing misconception and challenging the “obesity paradox”. In this review article we present the current evidence and throughly discuss the validity of the “obesity paradoxon” in a variety of clinical settings. PMID:26516414

  14. Direct Revascularization With the Angiosome Concept for Lower Limb Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Tzu-Yen; Huang, Ting-Shuo; Wang, Yao-Chang; Huang, Pin-Fu; Yu, Hsiu-Chin; Yeh, Chi-Hsiao

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The angiosome concept provides practical information regarding the vascular anatomy of reconstructive and vascular surgery for the treatment of peripheral arterial occlusive disease and, particularly, critical lower limb ischemia. The aim of the study was to confirm the efficacy of direct revascularization with the angiosome concept (DR) for lower limb ischemia. Complementary manual searches were performed through the Pubmed, Cochrane Library, and EMBASE databases. We searched all randomized and nonrandomized studies (NRSs) comparing DR with indirect revascularization (IR) (without the angiosome concept) for lower limb ischemia. Only 9 nonrandomized controlled retrospective cohort studies were found and included. Trials published in any language were included. Primary endpoints were time to limb amputation and time to wound healing. Data extraction and trial quality assessment were performed by two authors independently. A third author was consulted for disagreements settlement and quality assurance. Five NRSs involving 779 lower limbs revealed that DR significantly improved the overall survival of limbs (hazard ratio [HR] 0.61; 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?0.46–0.80; P?

  15. Stent mal-apposition with resorption of intramural hematoma with spontaneous coronary artery dissection

    PubMed Central

    Lempereur, Mathieu; Fung, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is an infrequent cause of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Conservative management is typically recommended but revascularization may be necessary if ongoing ischemia or adverse anatomical characteristics are present. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of SCAD can be fraught with challenges, and intracoronary imaging with optical coherence tomography (OCT) may provide insights on optimizing the acute results and identify long-term stent-related adverse events. We report three cases of SCAD treated with drug-eluting stents (DES) with OCT follow-up showing stent mal-apposition at different stages of follow-up. The clinical significance of these OCT findings and management options are discussed. PMID:26331116

  16. Reduced cerebral embolic signals in beating heart coronary surgery detected by transcranial Doppler ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Watters, M P; Cohen, A M; Monk, C R; Angelini, G D; Ryder, I G

    2000-05-01

    Cerebral emboli detected by transcranial Doppler imaging were recorded in 20 patients undergoing multiple-vessel coronary artery bypass surgery, either with or without cardiopulmonary bypass, in a prospective unblinded comparative study. Emboli were recorded continuously from the time of pericardial incision until 10 min after the last aortic instrumentation. The numbers of coronary grafts and of aortic clampings were also documented. Patients undergoing revascularization with cardiopulmonary bypass had more emboli (median 79, range 38-876) per case compared with patients having off-pump surgery (median 3, range 0-18). No clinically detectable neurological deficits were seen in either group. Beating heart surgery is associated with fewer emboli than coronary surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Further research is necessary to determine whether a smaller number of emboli alters the incidence of neurological deficit after cardiac surgery. PMID:10844840

  17. [Invasive therapeutic strategies in acute heart failure complicating coronary artery disease: effectiveness and boundaries].

    PubMed

    Poerner, Tudor C; Ferrari, Markus; Brehm, Bernhard R; Figulla, Hans R

    2006-11-01

    Acute heart failure and especially its most severe form, cardiogenic shock, remain the final common pathway to death in a substantial number of patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI). Several studies demonstrated that mechanical reperfusion of occluded coronary arteries by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery improves survival in patients with acute MI and cardiogenic shock. There is strong evidence that intraaortic balloon pump (IABP) support and ventricular assist devices can stabilize hemodynamics in these patients so that revascularization procedures can be safely performed. This article provides an overview of the therapeutic strategies for acute MI with cardiogenic shock, with focus on the role and particularities of different devices used as mechanical circulatory support in these patients. PMID:17149680

  18. Coronary Obstruction Following Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Henrique Barbosa; Sarmento-Leite, Rogério; Siqueira, Dimytri A. A.; Carvalho, Luiz Antônio; Mangione, José Armando; Rodés-Cabau, Josep; Perin, Marco A.; de Brito, Fábio Sandoli

    2014-01-01

    Background Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) was established as an important alternative for high-risk patients with severe aortic stenosis. However, there are few data in the literature regarding coronary obstruction, that although rare, is a potentially fatal complication. Objective Evaluate this complication in Brazil. Methods We evaluated all patients presenting coronary obstruction from the Brazilian Registry of TAVI. Main baseline and procedural characteristics, management of the complication, and clinical outcomes were collected from all patients. Results From 418 consecutive TAVI procedures, coronary obstruction occurred in 3 cases (incidence of 0.72%). All patients were women, without prior coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), and with mean age of 85 ± 3 years, logistic EuroSCORE of 15 ± 6% and STS-PROM score of 9 ± 4%. All of the cases were performed with balloon-expandable Sapien XT prosthesis. In one patient, with pre-procedural computed tomography data, coronary arteries presented a low height and a narrow sinus of Valsalva. All patients presented with clinically significant severe maintained hypotension, immediately after valve implantation, and even though coronary angioplasty with stent implantation was successfully performed in all cases, patients died during hospitalization, being two periprocedurally. Conclusion Coronary obstruction following TAVI is a rare but potentially fatal complication, being more frequent in women and with the balloon-expandable prosthesis. Anatomical factors might be related with its increased occurrence, highlighting the importance of a good pre-procedural evaluation of the patients in order to avoid this severe complication. PMID:24652089

  19. Immediate and midterm follow-up results of excimer laser application in complex percutaneous coronary interventions: Report from a single center experience

    PubMed Central

    Tarsia, Giandomenico; Viceconte, Nicola; Takagi, Kensuke; Biscione, Carmine; Del Prete, Giuseppe; Polosa, Domenico; Osanna, Roccoaldo; Lisanti, Pasquale

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the efficacy and safety of laser-assisted percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) in an unselected population. Methods One hundred consecutive patients, who underwent a laser assisted PCI between January 2008 and March 2012, were included in the present study. Fifty-one patients underwent laser ablation for thrombus vaporization (Group 1), 36 patients for neointima/plaque debulking (Group 2) and 13 patients for lesion compliance modification in calcified lesions (Group 3). Results The rate of in-hospital serious events was 2%. The cumulative laser success was 82%, and it was significantly higher for Group 1 and Group 2 in comparison with Group 3 (p = 0.001). Furthermore, the need for repeat revascularization was significantly higher in the Group 3 compared with the others two groups (46% vs. 8% for Group 1 and 11% for Group 2, p = 0.03). The MACE rate was 14%. There was a trend toward a higher MACE rate in the Group 3 compared with others two groups (p = 0.05). Conclusions Laser ablation is an effective and safe tool for complex PCI. Patients underwent laser for thrombus vaporization or for neointima/plaque debulking had better immediate success and better outcome at follow-up than patients underwent laser for lesion compliance modification. PMID:24265882

  20. Real-World Use and Appropriateness of Coronary Interventions for Chronic Total Occlusion (from a Japanese Multicenter Registry).

    PubMed

    Inohara, Taku; Kohsaka, Shun; Miyata, Hiroaki; Ueda, Ikuko; Hayashida, Kentaro; Maekawa, Yuichiro; Kawamura, Akio; Numasawa, Yohei; Suzuki, Masahiro; Noma, Shigetaka; Nishi, Yutaro; Fukuda, Keiichi

    2015-09-15

    Little is known about the outcomes and indications of chronic total occlusion percutaneous coronary intervention (CTO-PCI), other than in high-volume centers. We sought to provide a real-world overview of the clinical outcomes and appropriateness of PCI for CTO. The analysis included 4,950 consecutive PCIs for nonacute indications registered in the multicenter Japanese PCI registry in collaboration with the US National Cardiovascular Data Registry (Cath-PCI). Data included demographics, clinical outcomes (procedural success and complication rates), and the indication appropriateness, based on the 2012 appropriate use criteria for revascularization. The overall procedural success and major adverse cardiac event rates of 501 cases with CTO-PCI (10.1%) were 76% and 3.2%, respectively. Based on the criteria, mapping failures occurred in 2,521 procedures; the remaining 2,429 PCIs were successfully mapped. The CTO-PCIs were performed for more appropriate indications than PCIs for lesions without CTO. The rate of inappropriate indications was significantly lower in CTO-PCIs than in non-CTO-PCIs (23.0% vs 31.4%, p = 0.04). Only 17% of CTO-PCIs were directly assigned to CTO-specific scenarios because such scenarios are only intended for "Lone" CTO; the rest of the CTO-PCI cases were secondarily mapped to non-CTO-specific scenarios. In conclusion, as many as 10% of the elective PCIs were performed for CTO lesions in a contemporary multicenter Japanese PCI registry; CTO-PCI was associated with lower procedural success and higher complication rates than non-CTO-PCI. Its indication was relatively appropriate; however, our findings emphasize the need for more rigorous evaluation in terms of the present insufficient CTO-related clinical scenarios. PMID:26183792

  1. Complete rupture of the anterolateral papillary muscle caused by coronary spasm.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Masataka; Fukui, Toshihiro; Mahara, Keitaro; Takanashi, Shuichiro

    2015-12-01

    Papillary muscle rupture usually occurs as a catastrophic complication of acute myocardial infarction in patients with coronary artery stenosis; it is therefore less common in patients without coronary artery stenosis. We report the case of a 67-year old woman without coronary artery stenosis who suffered an acute anterolateral papillary muscle rupture and was successfully treated with mitral valve replacement. Evidence of coronary spasm was found on a coronary vasomotion test, suggesting that a high sensitivity to coronary spasm may explain a mechanism of isolated papillary muscle infarction. PMID:26330339

  2. The Utility of Carotid Ultrasonography in Identifying Severe Coronary Artery Disease in Asymptomatic Type 2 Diabetic Patients Without History of Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Irie, Yoko; Katakami, Naoto; Kaneto, Hideaki; Nishio, Mayu; Kasami, Ryuichi; Sakamoto, Ken’ya; Umayahara, Yutaka; Sumitsuji, Satoru; Ueda, Yasunori; Kosugi, Keisuke; Shimomura, Iichiro

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Although many studies have shown that carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) is associated with coronary artery disease (CAD), it remains inconclusive whether assessment of carotid IMT is useful as a screening test for asymptomatic but severe CAD in diabetic patients. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 333 asymptomatic type 2 diabetic patients without history of CAD underwent exercise electrocardiogram or myocardial perfusion scintigraphy for detection of silent myocardial ischemia, and those whose test results were positive were subjected to coronary computed tomography angiography or coronary angiography. The ability of carotid IMT to identify severe CAD corresponding to treatment with revascularization was examined by receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses. RESULTS Among the 333 subjects, 17 were treated with revascularization. A multiple logistic regression analysis showed that maximum IMT was an independent predictor of severe CAD even after adjustment for conventional risk factors. ROC curve analyses revealed that the addition of maximum IMT to conventional risk factors significantly improved the prediction ability for severe CAD (from area under the curve, 0.67 to 0.79; P = 0.039). The greatest sensitivity and specificity were obtained when the cut-off value of maximum IMT was set at 2.45 mm (pretest probability, 5%; posttest probability, 11%; sensitivity, 71%). When we applied age-specific cut-off values, the sensitivity of screening further increased in both the nonelderly (pretest probability, 6%; posttest probability, 10%; sensitivity, 100%) and the elderly subjects (pretest probability, 5%; posttest probability, 15%; sensitivity, 100%). CONCLUSIONS Our study suggests that carotid maximum IMT is useful for screening asymptomatic type 2 diabetic patients with severe CAD equivalent to revascularization. PMID:23404302

  3. [High-frequency rotational atherectomy in coronary heart disease].

    PubMed

    Erbel, R; O'Neil, W; Auth, D; Haude, M; Nixdorff, U; Dietz, U; Rupprecht, H J; Tschollar, W; Meyer, J

    1989-03-31

    Percutaneous high frequency coronary rotational ablation (PTCR) was used in 10 patients with significant coronary artery disease. PTCR removes arteriosclerotic material from the vessel wall. A diamond-coated (60-80 micron) brass burr-drill, fastened to a flexible drive shaft rotating and tracking along a central coaxial guide wire, was used. The turbine rotates the drive shaft in excess of 150,000-190,000 revolutions per minute. PTCR was successful in all patients, but in three additional percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) was then successfully performed. Coronary dissection occurred only once, requiring surgery which was successful. No vessel perforation was observed. All vessels were open on the coronary angiograms performed after 24 hours. The main indication for PTCR seems to be a rigid and longer lesion which can not be dilated with the balloon catheter. PMID:2522386

  4. [Rescue endovascular revascularization in two patients with bilateral atherosclerotic renal artery occlusion].

    PubMed

    Basile, Carlo; Bruno, Andrea; Giambersio, Silvia; Libutti, Pasquale; Lisi, Piero; Zurlo, Maria Teresa; Antonelli, Maurizio; Chimienti, Domenico; Petronelli, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Renal artery stenosis is found in 2% and 40% of general and high cardiovascular risk populations, respectively. Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (ARAS) has become an increasingly recognized clinical condition, especially in older or otherwise atherosclerosis-prone populations. This increase in prevalence has led to a dramatically increased use of percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty. Randomized trials have failed to demonstrate any superiority of renal revascularization over medical therapy as far as control of hypertension, mortality or cardiovascular events is concerned. However, in this report we present two cases in which rescue endovascular revascularization in patients affected by bilateral ARAS permitted withdrawal from hemodialysis treatment and the restoration of a certain degree of renal function. In conclusion, for certain carefully-selected high-risk patients, renal revascularization may still have an important role. The two cases presented in this article are good examples of the extraordinary benefit that endovascular revascularization can bestow. PMID:23832459

  5. [In hospital observation of patients with acute coronary syndrome without ST elevation and multivessels coronary artery disease treated with early invasive strategy. Comparison of results of percutaneous coronary intervention and coronary artery by-pass grafting].

    PubMed

    Szygu?a-Jurkiewicz, Bozena; Wilczek, Krzysztof; Szafron, Bartosz; Przybylski, Roman; Chudzik, Bartosz; Osuch, Marcin; Zebala, Marian; Polo?ski, Lech

    2004-08-01

    Acute coronary syndromes (ACS) without persistent ST-segment elevation are the main cause of hospitalization, morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to compare clinical and angiographic parameters as well as in-hospital results of treating 307 consecutive patients with ACS without persistent ST-segment elevation with either PCI or CABG. Inclusion criteria were: rest angina within the last 24 hours, ST-segment depression (> 0.5 mm), T-wave inversion (> 1 mm) in at least two leads, positive serum cardiac markers. PCI was performed in 75.9% of patients and 24.1% of patients underwent CABG. Both groups did not differ as to age, sex, history of diabetes, arterial hypertension, heart failure, smoking and ejection fraction. Positive troponin was significantly more frequent in the PCI group. 51% of PCI patients and 80% of CABG patients had complete revascularization (p = 0.00001). Independent predictors of in-hospital death in the CABG group were: inability to determine culprit vessel during coronary angiography due to lesions' severity (OR 13.65; 95% CI 9.40-15.20; p = 0.007) and heart failure (OR 15.58; 95% CI 12.29-18.01; p = 0.003). In the PCI group these independent predictors were: Braunwald's IIIC unstable angina (OR 5.48; 95% CI 3.10-7.17; p = 0.04) and diabetes (OR 2.22; 95% CI 1.07-3.90; p = 0.003). In-hospital mortality rate was significantly higher in the CABG group (8.1% vs 1.7% p < 0.01). Patients with multivessel coronary artery disease and ACS without ST-segment elevation treated with PCI have better in-hospital outcome than patients assigned to CABG, but the rate of complete revascularization is lower. PMID:15675265

  6. Control of lipids at baseline in the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes (BARI 2D) trial.

    PubMed

    Pambianco, Georgia; Lombardero, Manuel; Bittner, Vera; Forker, Alan; Kennedy, Frank; Krishnaswami, Ashok; Mooradian, Arshag D; Pop-Busui, Rodica; Rana, Jamal S; Rodriguez, Annabelle; Steffes, Michael; Orchard, Trevor J

    2009-01-01

    In order to examine lipids, a major treatment parameter in those with diabetes and heart disease, the authors analyzed baseline data from the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes (BARI 2D) trial. The study consisted of 2368 participants with type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease from 49 sites in 6 countries (2295 provided lipid measurements). Fifty-nine percent of participants had a low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level < 100 mg/dL. Levels of total, LDL, and non-high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and triglycerides differed by age group (younger than 55, 55-64, and 65 years and older); they were lowest in those aged 65 years. Women had higher total, LDL, and non-HDL cholesterol values. Education was associated with lower total, LDL, and non-HDL cholesterol levels. LDL cholesterol and triglyceride values were lower in the United States and Canada. Adjustment for age, sex, education level, randomization year, and medication did not eliminate these differences. Geographic variation was seen and was not fully accounted for by demographic or treatment characteristics (all P values < .05). PMID:19301686

  7. Coronary Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Coronary Heart Disease? Español Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a ... the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Celebrating American Heart Month: NIH Advancing Heart Research 02/07/2014 ...

  8. Counseling the Coronary Patient

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semmler, Caryl; Semmler, Maynard

    1974-01-01

    The article discusses counseling sessions designed to a) help the coronary patient adjust to cardiovascular disease, b) diminish patient anxieties and fears, and c) educate the patient and family members on controlling risk factors to deter another coronary attack. (JS)

  9. Coronary artery disease

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... heart muscle itself. Damage to or blockage of a coronary artery can result in injury to the heart. Normally, blood flows through a coronary artery unimpeded. However, a process called atherosclerosis ...

  10. Association between Aspirin Therapy and Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Non-Obstructive Coronary Artery Disease: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, In-Chang; Jeon, Joo-Yeong; Kim, Younhee; Kim, Hyue Mee; Yoon, Yeonyee E.; Lee, Seung-Pyo; Kim, Hyung-Kwan; Sohn, Dae-Won; Sung, Jidong; Kim, Yong-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Background Presence of non-obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) is associated with increased prescription of cardiovascular preventive medications including aspirin. However, the association between aspirin therapy with all-cause mortality and coronary revascularization in this population has not been investigated. Methods and Findings Among the cohort of individuals who underwent coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) from 2007 to 2011, 8372 consecutive patients with non-obstructive CAD (1-49% stenosis) were identified. Patients with statin or aspirin prescription before CCTA, and those with history of revascularization before CCTA were excluded. We analyzed the differences of all-cause mortality and a composite of mortality and late coronary revascularization (>90 days after CCTA) between aspirin users (n=3751; 44.8%) and non-users. During a median of 828 (interquartile range 385–1,342) days of follow-up, 221 (2.6%) mortality cases and 295 (3.5%) cases of composite endpoint were observed. Annualized mortality rates were 0.97% in aspirin users versus 1.28% in non-users, and annualized rates of composite endpoint were 1.56% versus 1.48%, respectively. Aspirin therapy was associated with significantly lower risk of all-cause mortality (adjusted HR 0.649; 95% CI 0.492–0.857; p=0.0023), but not with the composite endpoint (adjusted HR 0.841; 95% CI 0.662–1.069; p=0.1577). Association between aspirin and lower all-cause mortality was limited to patients with age ?65 years, diabetes, hypertension, decreased renal function, and higher levels of coronary artery calcium score, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. Conclusions Among the patients with non-obstructive CAD documented by CCTA, aspirin is associated with lower all-cause mortality only in those with higher risk. PMID:26035823

  11. Global Positioning System Use in the Community to Evaluate Improvements in Walking After Revascularization

    PubMed Central

    Gernigon, Marie; Le Faucheur, Alexis; Fradin, Dominique; Noury-Desvaux, Bénédicte; Landron, Cédric; Mahe, Guillaume; Abraham, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Revascularization aims at improving walking ability in patients with arterial claudication. The highest measured distance between 2 stops (highest-MDCW), the average walking speed (average-WSCW), and the average stop duration (average-DSCW) can be measured by global positioning system, but their evolution after revascularization is unknown. We included 251 peripheral artery diseased patients with self-reported limiting claudication. The patients performed a 1-hour stroll, recorded by a global positioning system receiver. Patients (n?=?172) with confirmed limitation (highest-MDCW <2000m) at inclusion were reevaluated after 6 months. Patients revascularized during the follow-up period were compared with reference patients (ie, with unchanged lifestyle medical or surgical status). Other patients (lost to follow-up or treatment change) were excluded (n?=?89). We studied 44 revascularized and 39 reference patients. Changes in highest-MDCW (+442 vs. +13 m) and average-WSCW (+0.3 vs. ?0.2?km?h?1) were greater in revascularized than in reference patients (both P?revascularized patients, 13 (29.5%) had a change in average-WSCW, but not in highest-MDCW, greater than the mean + 1 standard deviation of the change observed for reference patients. Revascularization may improve highest-MDCW and/or average-WSCW. This first report of changes in community walking ability in revascularized patients suggests that, beyond measuring walking distances, average-WSCW measurement is essential to monitor these changes. Applicability to other surgical populations remains to be evaluated. Registration: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01141361 PMID:25950694

  12. Impact of multiple complex plaques on short- and long-term clinical outcomes in patients presenting with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (from the Harmonizing Outcomes With Revascularization and Stents in Acute Myocardial Infarction [HORIZONS-AMI] Trial).

    PubMed

    Keeley, Ellen C; Mehran, Roxana; Brener, Sorin J; Witzenbichler, Bernhard; Guagliumi, Giulio; Dudek, Dariusz; Kornowski, Ran; Dressler, Ovidiu; Fahy, Martin; Xu, Ke; Grines, Cindy L; Stone, Gregg W

    2014-05-15

    It is not known whether the extent and severity of nonculprit coronary lesions correlate with outcomes in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) referred for primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We sought to quantify complex plaques in patients with STEMI referred for primary PCI and to determine their effect on short- and long-term clinical outcomes by examining the core laboratory database for plaque analysis from the Harmonizing Outcomes With Revascularization and Stents in Acute Myocardial Infarction study. Baseline demographic, angiographic, and procedural details were compared between patients with single versus multiple complex plaques who underwent single-vessel PCI. Multivariable analysis was performed for predictors of long-term major adverse cardiac events (MACEs), a combined end point of death, reinfarction, ischemic target-vessel revascularization, or stroke, and for death alone. Single-vessel PCI was performed in 3,137 patients (87%): 2,174 (69%) had multiple complex plaques and 963 (31%) had a single complex plaque. Compared with those with a single complex plaque, patients with multiple complex plaques were older (p <0.0001) and had more co-morbidities. The presence of multiple complex plaques was an independent predictor of 3-year MACE (hazard ratio 1.58, 95% confidence interval 1.26 to 1.98, p <0.0001), and death alone (hazard ratio 1.68, 95% confidence interval 1.05 to 2.70, p = 0.03). In conclusion, multiple complex plaques are present in the majority of patients with STEMI who underwent primary PCI, and their presence is an independent predictor of short- and long-term MACE, including death (Harmonizing Outcomes With Revascularization and Stents in Acute Myocardial Infarction; NCT00433966). PMID:24703369

  13. Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for Coronary Thrombo-embolism during Balloon Mitral Valvuloplasty in a Pregnant Woman.

    PubMed

    Chikkabasavaiah, Nagamani; Rajendran, Ravindran; P, Beeresha; B, Ramesh

    2016-02-01

    Coronary embolism as a cause of acute myocardial infarction is considered rarer than it actually is because of the difficulties associated with its documentation. Equally rare is the event of a clot embolising to the coronary artery during balloon mitral valvuloplasty (BMV). We had a unique and a rare opportunity to encounter, recognise, document and successfully manage this rare complication during BMV in a pregnant woman. PMID:26602228

  14. Coronary vasculitis with acute myocardial infarction in a young woman with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Caracciolo, Eugene A; Marcu, Constantin B; Ghantous, Andre; Donohue, Thomas J; Hutchinson, Gordon

    2004-04-01

    Myocardial infarction in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is most commonly a consequence of atherosclerosis. Coronary vasculitis with aneurysms is a rare cause of myocardial ischemia in SLE. We present a case of a 22-year-old woman with a 4-year history of SLE who was admitted with acute onset of chest pain. Although initially treated for lupus pericarditis, she was subsequently found to have an acute myocardial infarction. Cardiac catheterization revealed multiple areas of aneurysmal coronary dilatation and only moderate stenoses of the secondary branches.In view of the angiographic findings, coronary revascularization was not indicated. Anticoagulant therapy was initiated as a result of the presence of large aneurysmal coronary dilatations, which are predisposed to in situ thrombosis and distal embolization. The coronary vasculitis was treated with immunosuppressive therapy. Measures aimed at secondary prevention of coronary artery disease, including optimization of lipid profile, blood pressure control, and prevention of left ventricular postinfarct remodeling, were initiated and continued indefinitely. PMID:17043468

  15. Optimal Use of Available Claims to Identify a Medicare Population Free of Coronary Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Kent, Shia T; Safford, Monika M; Zhao, Hong; Levitan, Emily B; Curtis, Jeffrey R; Kilpatrick, Ryan D; Kilgore, Meredith L; Muntner, Paul

    2015-11-01

    We examined claims-based approaches for identifying a study population free of coronary heart disease (CHD) using data from 8,937 US blacks and whites enrolled during 2003-2007 in a prospective cohort study linked to Medicare claims. Our goal was to minimize the percentage of persons at study entry with self-reported CHD (previous myocardial infarction or coronary revascularization). We assembled 6 cohorts without CHD claims by requiring 6 months, 1 year, or 2 years of continuous Medicare fee-for-service insurance coverage prior to study entry and using either a fixed-window or all-available look-back period. We examined adding CHD-related claims to our "base algorithm," which included claims for myocardial infarction and coronary revascularization. Using a 6-month fixed-window look-back period, 17.8% of participants without claims in the base algorithm reported having CHD. This was reduced to 3.6% using an all-available look-back period and adding other CHD claims to the base algorithm. Among cohorts using all-available look-back periods, increasing the length of continuous coverage from 6 months to 1 or 2 years reduced the sample size available without lowering the percentage of persons with self-reported CHD. This analysis demonstrates approaches for developing a CHD-free cohort using Medicare claims. PMID:26443420

  16. Perioperative myocardial infarction in patients undergoing myocardial revascularization surgery

    PubMed Central

    Pretto, Pericles; Martins, Gerez Fernandes; Biscaro, Andressa; Kruczan, Dany David; Jessen, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Perioperative myocardial infarction adversely affects the prognosis of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft and its diagnosis was hampered by numerous difficulties, because the pathophysiology is different from the traditional instability atherosclerotic and the clinical difficulty to be characterized. Objective To identify the frequency of perioperative myocardial infarction and its outcome in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft. Methods Retrospective cohort study performed in a tertiary hospital specialized in cardiology, from May 01, 2011 to April 30, 2012, which included all records containing coronary artery bypass graft records. To confirm the diagnosis of perioperative myocardial infarction criteria, the Third Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction was used. Results We analyzed 116 cases. Perioperative myocardial infarction was diagnosed in 28 patients (24.1%). Number of grafts and use and cardiopulmonary bypass time were associated with this diagnosis and the mean age was significantly higher in this group. The diagnostic criteria elevated troponin I, which was positive in 99.1% of cases regardless of diagnosis of perioperative myocardial infarction. No significant difference was found between length of hospital stay and intensive care unit in patients with and without this complication, however patients with perioperative myocardial infarction progressed with worse left ventricular function and more death cases. Conclusion The frequency of perioperative myocardial infarction found in this study was considered high and as a consequence the same observed average higher troponin I, more cases of worsening left ventricular function and death. PMID:25859867

  17. Design of the Carotid Revascularization Endarterectomy vs. Stenting Trial (CREST)

    PubMed Central

    Sheffet, Alice J.; Roubin, Gary; Howard, George; Howard, Virginia; Moore, Wesley; Meschia, James F.; Hobson, Robert W.; Brott, Thomas G.

    2009-01-01

    Rationale Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and medical therapy were shown superior to medical therapy alone for symptomatic (?50%) and asymptomatic (?60%) stenosis. Carotid angioplasty stenting (CAS) offers a less invasive alternative. Establishing safety, efficacy, and durability of CAS requires rigorous comparison with CEA in symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. Aims The objective is to compare the efficacy of CAS versus CEA in patients with symptomatic (?50%) or asymptomatic (?60%) extracranial carotid stenosis. Design The Carotid Revascularization Endarterectomy vs. Stenting Trial (CREST) is a prospective, randomized, parallel, two-arm, multi-center trial with blinded endpoint adjudication. Primary endpoints are analyzed using standard time-to-event statistical modeling with adjustment for major baseline covariates. Primary analysis is on an intent-to-treat basis. Study Outcomes The primary outcome is the occurrence of any stroke, myocardial infarction, or death during a 30-day peri-procedural period, and ipsilateral stroke during follow-up of up to four years. Secondary outcomes include restenosis and health-related quality of life. PMID:20088993

  18. Relation of C-reactive protein to coronary plaque characteristics on grayscale, radiofrequency intravascular ultrasound, and cardiovascular outcome in patients with acute coronary syndrome or stable angina pectoris (from the ATHEROREMO-IVUS study).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jin M; Oemrawsingh, Rohit M; Garcia-Garcia, Hector M; Akkerhuis, K Martijn; Kardys, Isabella; de Boer, Sanneke P M; Langstraat, Jannette S; Regar, Evelyn; van Geuns, Robert-Jan; Serruys, Patrick W; Boersma, Eric

    2014-11-15

    The relation between C-reactive protein (CRP) and coronary atherosclerosis is not fully understood. This study aims to investigate the associations among high-sensitivity CRP, coronary plaque burden, and the presence of high-risk coronary lesions as measured by intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and 1-year cardiovascular outcome. Between 2008 and 2011, grayscale and virtual histology IVUS imaging of a nonculprit coronary artery was performed in 581 patients who underwent coronary angiography for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) or stable angina pectoris. Primary end point consisted of 1-year major adverse cardiac events (MACEs), defined as all-cause mortality, ACS, or unplanned coronary revascularization. After adjustment for established cardiac risk factors, baseline CRP levels were independently associated with higher coronary plaque burden (p = 0.002) and plaque volume (p = 0.002) in the imaged coronary segment. CRP was also independently associated with the presence of large lesions (plaque burden ?70%; p = 0.030) but not with the presence of stenotic lesions (minimal luminal area ?4.0 mm(2); p = 0.62) or IVUS virtual histology-derived thin-cap fibroatheroma lesions (p = 0.36). Cumulative incidence of 1-year MACE was 9.7%. CRP levels >3 mg/L were independently associated with a higher incidence of MACE (hazard ratio 2.17, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01 to 4.67, p = 0.046) and of all-cause mortality and ACS only (hazard ratio 3.58, 95% CI 1.04 to 13.0, p = 0.043), compared with CRP levels <1 mg/L. In conclusion, in patients who underwent coronary angiography, high-sensitivity CRP is a marker of coronary plaque burden but is not related to the presence of virtual histology-derived thin-cap fibroatheroma lesions and stenotic lesions. CRP levels >3 mg/L are predictive for adverse cardiovascular outcome at 1 year. PMID:25248815

  19. Short-Term and Long-Term Outcomes After Polytetrafluoroethylene-Covered Stent Implantation for the Treatment of Coronary Perforation.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Hiroyoshi; Tanaka, Kentaro; Ruparelia, Neil; Takagi, Kensuke; Yabushita, Hiroto; Watanabe, Yusuke; Mitomo, Satoru; Matsumoto, Takahiro; Naganuma, Toru; Fujino, Yusuke; Ishiguro, Hisaaki; Tahara, Satoko; Kurita, Naoyuki; Nakamura, Shotaro; Hozawa, Koji; Nakamura, Sunao

    2015-12-15

    This study sought to evaluate the short-term and 3-year outcomes of polytetrafluoroethylene-covered stent (PCS) for patients with coronary perforation. Implantation of a PCS has improved the immediate clinical outcomes of patients with coronary perforation. However, there are few reports regarding long-term outcomes. We evaluated a total of 57 patients who were treated with PCS for coronary perforation from April 2004 to March 2015 at a single high-volume center in Japan. Landmark analysis was performed at 30 days to determine short-term and long-term outcomes. Major adverse cardiac events (MACE) were defined as death, myocardial infarction, target vessel revascularization, and requirement for surgical repair. Of 285 patients who experienced coronary perforation, 57 patients (20%) were treated with PCS. The MACE rates were 28% at 30 days, 22% at 1 year, and 38% at 3 years. 30-day MACE was mainly driven by high rates of myocardial infarction (18%) and surgical repair (16%). The rates of target lesion revascularization were 8% and 12% at 1 and 3 years, respectively. Definite stent thrombosis was reported in 2 patients during the follow-up period. In conclusion, despite the relatively high incidence of MACE during early stage of follow-up, implantation of a PCS provides acceptable late clinical outcomes. PMID:26602072

  20. Sequential vs simultaneous revascularization in patients undergoing liver transplantation: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jia-Zhong; Liu, Yang; Wang, Jin-Long; Lu, Le; Zhang, Ya-Fei; Lu, Hong-Wei; Li, Yi-Ming

    2015-01-01

    AIM: We undertook this meta-analysis to investigate the relationship between revascularization and outcomes after liver transplantation. METHODS: A literature search was performed using MeSH and key words. The quality of the included studies was assessed using the Jadad Score and the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Heterogeneity was evaluated by the ?2 and I2 tests. The risk of publication bias was assessed using a funnel plot and Egger’s test, and the risk of bias was assessed using a domain-based assessment tool. A sensitivity analysis was conducted by reanalyzing the data using different statistical approaches. RESULTS: Six studies with a total of 467 patients were included. Ischemic-type biliary lesions were significantly reduced in the simultaneous revascularization group compared with the sequential revascularization group (OR = 4.97, 95%CI: 2.45-10.07; P < 0.00001), and intensive care unit (ICU) days were decreased (MD = 2.00, 95%CI: 0.55-3.45; P = 0.007) in the simultaneous revascularization group. Although warm ischemia time was prolonged in simultaneous revascularization group (MD = -25.84, 95%CI: -29.28-22.40; P < 0.00001), there were no significant differences in other outcomes between sequential and simultaneous revascularization groups. Assessment of the risk of bias showed that the methods of random sequence generation and blinding might have been a source of bias. The sensitivity analysis strengthened the reliability of the results of this meta-analysis. CONCLUSION: The results of this study indicate that simultaneous revascularization in liver transplantation may reduce the incidence of ischemic-type biliary lesions and length of stay of patients in the ICU. PMID:26078582

  1. Robotic totally endoscopic multivessel coronary artery bypass grafting: procedure development, challenges, results.

    PubMed

    Bonatti, Johannes; Lee, Jeffrey D; Bonaros, Nikolaos; Schachner, Thomas; Lehr, Eric J

    2012-01-01

    Closed-chest totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass grafting (TECAB) is feasible using robotic technology. During the early phases, TECAB was restricted to single bypass grafts to the left anterior descending artery system. Because most patients referred for coronary artery bypass surgery have multivessel disease, development of endoscopic multiple bypass grafting is mandatory. Experimental work on multivessel TECAB was carried out in the early 2000s, and first clinical cases were already performed. With further technological development of operating robots, double, triple, and quadruple TECAB has become feasible both on the arrested heart and on the beating heart. To date, 161 cases of multivessel TECAB using the da Vinci telemanipulation systems are published in the literature. The main advances enabling multivessel TECAB were the availability of a robotic endostabilizer for beating heart procedures and increased surgeon skills using remote access heart-lung machine perfusion and endo-cardioplegia. Both internal mammary arteries can be harvested and both radial artery and vein graft can be used in multivessel TECAB. Y-grafting and sequential grafting are feasible. Multivessel endoscopic surgical revascularization can be combined with percutaneous coronary interventions in advanced hybrid coronary revascularization. Time requirements for multivessel TECAB are significant, and conversion rates to larger thoracic incisions are higher than those observed for single-vessel TECAB. Clinical short- and long-term outcomes, however, seem to meet the standards of open coronary bypass surgery through sternotomy. The main advantages of multivessel TECAB are a completely preserved sternum, use of double internal mammary artery even in risk groups, and a remarkably short recovery time. PMID:22576029

  2. Percutaneous coronary intervention in heavily calcified lesions using rotational atherectomy and paclitaxel-eluting stents: outcomes at one year.

    PubMed

    García de Lara, Juan; Pinar, Eduardo; Ramón Gimeno, Juan; Hurtado, José Antonio; Lacunza, Javier; Valdesuso, Raúl; Valdés Chávarri, Mariano

    2010-01-01

    Heavily calcified lesions present a challenge for percutaneous coronary intervention. With rotational atherectomy, it is possible to treat these lesions and paclitaxel-eluting stents (PESs) reduce the risk of restenosis over the long term. This retrospective study investigated clinical outcomes with rotational atherectomy and PESs in 50 consecutive patients with heavily calcified lesions. Mortality and target lesion revascularization at 1 year (median, 14 months; interquartile range, 8.75-25.5 months) were recorded. Some 52% of patients were aged over 70 years, 68% were male, 52% had acute coronary syndrome, 80% had multivessel disease and 44% were receiving abciximab. Two patients died in hospital, three died during follow-up (one cardiac death) and 3 (6%) underwent target lesion revascularization. At 1 year, the survival rate free of cardiac death was 94% and the survival rate free of target lesion revascularization was 94%. These findings demonstrate that the combination of rotational atherectomy and PESs gives excellent results in heavily calcified lesions. PMID:20089233

  3. Clinical experience in the detection of coronary artery disease with myocardial contrast echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Porter, Thomas R; Xie, Feng

    2002-07-01

    Myocardial contrast enhancement following intravenous infusions or injections of perfluorocarbon-containing microbubbles has now been observed consistently in humans. Currently, the major challenge facing us is interpreting accurately what we see. The myocardial contrast patterns we observe have, thus far, been shown to detect myocardial perfusion abnormalities during dipyridamole, adenosine, and dobutamine stress echocardiography. They also have been shown to detect zones of no reflow following coronary revascularization in patients with acute myocardial infarction. These preliminary data will require validation in larger multicenter clinical studies. PMID:12174204

  4. Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery: The Past, Present, and Future of Myocardial Revascularisation

    PubMed Central

    Chedrawy, Edgar G.

    2014-01-01

    The development of the heart-lung machine ushered in the era of modern cardiac surgery. Coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) remains the most common operation performed by cardiac surgeons today. From its infancy in the 1950s till today, CABG has undergone many developments both technically and clinically. Improvements in intraoperative technique and perioperative care have led to CABG being offered to a more broad patient profile with less complications and adverse events. Our review outlines the rich history and promising future of myocardial revascularization. PMID:25374960

  5. Acute Coronary Syndromes: Unstable Angina and Non-ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Basra, Sukhdeep S; Virani, Salim S; Paniagua, David; Kar, Biswajit; Jneid, Hani

    2016-01-01

    Non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACS) encompass the clinical entities of unstable angina and non-ST elevation myocardial infarction. Several advances have occurred over the past decade, including the emergence of new antiplatelet and antithrombotic therapies and novel treatment strategies, leading to marked improvements in mortality. However, there has also been an increased incidence in NSTE-ACS as a result of the use of high-sensitivity troponins and the increase in cardiovascular risk factors. This article provides a focused update on contemporary management strategies pertaining to antiplatelet, antithrombotic, and anti-ischemic therapies and to revascularization strategies in patients with ACS. PMID:26567973

  6. [Inpatient rehabilitation improves implementation of therapeutic guidelines for secondary prevention in patients with coronary heart disease].

    PubMed

    Baessler, A; Fischer, M; Hengstenberg, C; Holmer, S; Hubauer, U; Huf, V; Mell, S; Klein, G; Riegger, G; Schunkert, H

    2001-09-01

    In Germany, measures for secondary prevention in patients with coronary artery disease are poorly utilized. We therefore investigated whether a cardiac in-hospital rehabilitation and education program may enhance the implementation of respective guidelines in patients with severe coronary artery disease (CAD). Specifically, we developed a case-control design in siblings with severe CAD in order to achieve optimal matching for patients with or without participation in the rehabilitation program. By the screening of more than 200,000 patient charts in 15 cardiac rehabilitation clinics, we identified 1500 families in which at least two siblings suffered from severe coronary artery disease. In 268 such sibling pairs, siblings were discordant with respect to participation in a 3-4 week cardiac in-hospital rehabilitation program. The coronary risk profile was studied, first, retrospectively at the time of hospitalization for acute MI or revascularization procedures and, secondly, prospectively at the time of follow-up (on average 5.2 years later). At the time of the acute cardiac event, both groups showed an equal risk factor distribution suggesting appropriate matching. However, at follow-up the number of individuals taking antihypertensive medication and displaying effective antihypertensive treatment (< or = 140/90 mmHg) was significantly higher in the rehabilitation group (92.2 vs. 82.1%, p < 0.01; 59.7 vs. 37.2%). Accordingly, rehabilitation siblings presented with significantly lower systolic (137 +/- 1 vs. 145 +/- 1 mmHg; p < 0.01) and diastolic blood pressure (82 +/- 1 vs. 85 +/- 1 mmHg; p < 0.01). The utilization of CSE inhibitors was also significantly higher in siblings participating in the rehabilitation program (57.5 vs. 43.1%; p < 0.01), leading to significantly lower blood lipid levels in these siblings (total cholesterol 225 +/- 3 vs. 236 +/- 3 mg/dL, p < 0.01; LDL cholesterol 148 +/- 3 vs. 158 +/- 3 mg/dL, p < 0.01). Moreover, participation in the cardiac rehabilitation stimulated markedly more smokers to quit (80.8 vs. 57.6%, p < 0.01). Additionally, there was a strong temporal trend from 1997 until 2000 towards improved control of arterial hypertension in rehabilitation siblings. In parallel, the utilization of CSE inhibitors increased over time and LDL cholesterol decreased. These favorable temporal trends were also observed in siblings not participating in the rehabilitation program, however, to a lesser extent. Taken together, in the last four years, the implementation of secondary preventive strategies in patients with cardiac disease improved. Siblings who participated in a rehabilitation program displayed a better control of cardiovascular risk factors as compared to those not participating in such a program. Thus, an in-hospital cardiac rehabilitation program may successfully encourage the implementation of measures for secondary prevention and enhance the treatment of coronary risk factors. PMID:11677801

  7. Drug-coated balloons for coronary and peripheral interventional procedures.

    PubMed

    Wöhrle, Jochen

    2012-10-01

    Paclitaxel-coated balloon (PCB) angioplasty reduces neointimal proliferation, restenosis, and clinical need for target lesion revascularization (TLR). PCB was superior for coronary restenosis in bare-metal and drug-eluting stents compared with uncoated balloon angioplasty and was noninferior compared with paclitaxel-eluting stents. PCB angioplasty should be considered for treatment of coronary in-stent restenosis. For de novo lesions, PCB plus endothelial progenitor cell capturing stents reduced restenosis and TLR in early reports. Among patients with de novo lesions and diabetes, the combination of PCB plus bare-metal stent revealed similar results in lesions compared with paclitaxel-eluting stents. The early results for PCB in small vessels are also very encouraging. Dual antiplatelet therapy duration may be shorter with PCB angioplasty compared with drug-eluting stents. Nevertheless, the risk for thrombotic vessel occlusion is minimized. Considering peripheral arterial disease, PCB angioplasty for femoropopliteal lesions was superior to uncoated balloon angioplasty. Registries indicate PCB to also be effective in lesions below the knee. Since there is no certain class effect, efficacy and safety have to be demonstrated for different types of PCB for coronary and peripheral interventions. PMID:22825918

  8. What Causes Coronary Microvascular Disease?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Angina Atherosclerosis Coronary Heart Disease Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors ... Microvascular Disease? The same risk factors that cause atherosclerosis may cause coronary microvascular disease. Atherosclerosis is a ...

  9. Physiologic determinants of coronary blood flow during external cardiac massage.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, J A; Maier, G W; Newton, J R; Glower, D D; Tyson, G S; Spratt, J A; Rankin, J S; Olsen, C O

    1988-03-01

    Adequate coronary blood flow is a major determinant for successful resuscitation from cardiopulmonary arrest. To develop compression techniques that optimize coronary blood flow, we implanted in eight dogs electromagnetic flow probes that measured circumflex coronary blood flow and ascending aortic blood flow. Micromanometers measured left ventricular and aortic pressures. Each dog was anesthetized and intubated, and the heart was fibrillated electrically. High-impulse manual chest compressions were performed with the dog in the supine position, and compression rate was varied from 60/min to 150/min. Antegrade coronary blood flow occurred primarily during artificial diastole, and there was a brief period of retrograde coronary blood flow with compression during artificial systole. Cardiac output and diastolic aortic pressure increased with compression rate, significantly augmenting peak coronary blood flow velocity. However, diastolic perfusion time decreased linearly with compression rate and limited coronary perfusion at rates greater than 120/min. As a result, net coronary blood flow during high-impulse manual chest compression was determined primarily by diastolic aortic pressure and diastolic perfusion time. Coronary blood flow was optimized in this model at a compression rate of 120/min. PMID:3343860

  10. Histopathological examination of specimens removed during directional coronary atherectomy in patients presenting with crescendo angina show mural thrombus.

    PubMed

    Bellamy, C M; Grech, E D; Ashworth, M T; Ramsdale, D R

    1993-02-01

    Thrombus formation over a fissured coronary atheromatous plaque has been shown by post mortem histological examination to be the pathophysiological mechanism responsible for myocardial ischaemia in those patients who died following a crescendo pattern of angina. Histological examination of plaques responsible for a crescendo pattern of angina in patients who do not die has not been available until recently. We describe two patients who presented with a crescendo pattern of angina. A new technique of coronary revascularization, directional coronary atherectomy, produced symptomatic relief and resolution of myocardial ischaemia. Histological examination of material from the stenosis responsible for their myocardial ischaemia, obtained using this technique, confirmed thrombus formation overlying a fissured atheromatous plaque. PMID:8506189

  11. Beyond FAMOUS-NSTEMI: the evolving role of fractional flow reserve in patients with acute coronary syndromes.

    PubMed

    Nerlekar, Nitesh; Layland, Jamie

    2015-08-01

    Fractional flow reserve (FFR) is a well-established method of assessing haemodynamically significant coronary artery stenoses that has demonstrated improved outcomes when used to guide revascularization decisions in patients with stable coronary artery disease. However, the role of FFR in the setting of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) remains uncertain. The recently published FAMOUS-NSTEMI trial was a pilot study that demonstrated the safety of routine FFR in ACS patients as well as its impact upon refining management decisions in patients with stenoses of varying severity in nonculprit arteries. The goal of this review is to summarize the current literature of the utility of FFR in the ACS population and highlight the role that the results of FAMOUS-NSTEMI may have on future study and management in this area. PMID:26247267

  12. Assessment of coronary thrombolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Geltman, E.M.; Abendschein, D.R.; Devries, S.R.

    1987-02-01

    The efficacy of coronary thrombolysis may be assessed by several invasive and noninvasive means, including coronary angiography, contrast and radionuclide angiography, thallium 201 or /sup 99m/Tc-pyrophosphate scintigraphy, positron emission tomography, cardiac ultrasonography, electrocardiography, and analysis of plasma creatine kinase activity. Each technique has its own strengths and limitations, but when used in concert these methods may provide insight into the physiology of coronary reperfusion and the efficacy of reperfusion in individual patients and populations. 104 references.

  13. Comparison of clinical outcomes between culprit vessel only and multivessel percutaneous coronary intervention for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients with multivessel coronary diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Kwang Sun; Park, Hyun Woo; Park, Soo Ho; Shon, Ho Sun; Ryu, Keun Ho; Lee, Dong Gyu; Bashir, Mohamed EA; Lee, Ju Hee; Kim, Sang Min; Lee, Sang Yeub; Bae, Jang Whan; Hwang, Kyung Kuk; Kim, Dong Woon; Cho, Myeong Chan; Ahn, Young Keun; Jeong, Myung Ho; Kim, Chong Jin; Park, Jong Seon; Kim, Young Jo; Jang, Yang Soo; Kim, Hyo Soo; Seung, Ki Bae

    2015-01-01

    Background The clinical significance of complete revascularization for ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients during admission is still debatable. Methods A total of 1406 STEMI patients from the Korean Myocardial Infarction Registry with multivessel diseases without cardiogenic shock who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) were analyzed. We used propensity score matching (PSM) to control differences of baseline characteristics between culprit only intervention (CP) and multivessel percutaneous coronary interventions (MP), and between double vessel disease (DVD) and triple vessel disease (TVD). The major adverse cardiac event (MACE) was analyzed for one year after discharge. Results TVD patients showed higher incidence of MACE (14.2% vs. 8.6%, P = 0.01), any cause of revascularization (10.6% vs. 5.9%, P = 0.01), and repeated PCI (9.5% vs. 5.7%, P = 0.02), as compared to DVD patients during one year after discharge. MP reduced MACE effectively (7.3% vs. 13.8%, P = 0.03), as compared to CP for one year, but all cause of death (1.6% vs. 3.2%, P = 0.38), MI (0.4% vs. 0.8%, P = 1.00), and any cause of revascularization (5.3% vs. 9.7%, P = 0.09) were comparable in the two treatment groups. Conclusions STEMI patients with TVD showed higher rate of MACE, as compared to DVD. MP performed during PPCI or ad hoc during admission for STEMI patients without cardiogenic shock showed lower rate of MACE in this large scaled database. Therefore, MP could be considered as an effective treatment option for STEMI patients without cardiogenic shock. PMID:26089843

  14. Percutaneous Closure of a Coronary Artery-to-Vein Graft Anastomotic Pseudoaneurysm Presenting as Acute Coronary Syndrome after Recent Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Suresh; Gupta, Kamal; Wiley, Mark; Parashara, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    Pseudoaneurysm formation has been reported in degenerated coronary artery saphenous vein bypass grafts, as well as in native coronary arteries after interventional procedures or blunt trauma. In contrast, pseudoaneurysm formation arising from the anastomotic site of native coronary vessels soon after coronary artery bypass grafting is rare, and neither the clinical presentation of this phenomenon nor its treatment is well described. We present the case of a 63-year-old man, a recent coronary artery bypass grafting patient, who presented with acute coronary syndrome due to a large and expanding pseudoaneurysm of the saphenous vein-to-ramus intermedius artery graft anastomosis. After several attempts, we successfully treated the pseudoaneurysm by means of percutaneous coil embolization. To our knowledge, this is the first report of acute coronary syndrome secondary to a pseudoaneurysm at the coronary artery–saphenous vein graft anastomosis. In addition, this appears to be the first report of the percutaneous treatment of such a pseudoaneurysm by means of coil embolization. PMID:26175645

  15. Nanoparticle drug- and gene-eluting stents for the prevention and treatment of coronary restenosis.

    PubMed

    Yin, Rui-Xing; Yang, De-Zhai; Wu, Jin-Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has become the most common revascularization procedure for coronary artery disease. The use of stents has reduced the rate of restenosis by preventing elastic recoil and negative remodeling. However, in-stent restenosis remains one of the major drawbacks of this procedure. Drug-eluting stents (DESs) have proven to be effective in reducing the risk of late restenosis, but the use of currently marketed DESs presents safety concerns, including the non-specificity of therapeutics, incomplete endothelialization leading to late thrombosis, the need for long-term anti-platelet agents, and local hypersensitivity to polymer delivery matrices. In addition, the current DESs lack the capacity for adjustment of the drug dose and release kinetics appropriate to the disease status of the treated vessel. The development of efficacious therapeutic strategies to prevent and inhibit restenosis after PCI is critical for the treatment of coronary artery disease. The administration of drugs using biodegradable polymer nanoparticles as carriers has generated immense interest due to their excellent biocompatibility and ability to facilitate prolonged drug release. Despite the potential benefits of nanoparticles as smart drug delivery and diagnostic systems, much research is still required to evaluate potential toxicity issues related to the chemical properties of nanoparticle materials, as well as to their size and shape. This review describes the molecular mechanism of coronary restenosis, the use of DESs, and progress in nanoparticle drug- or gene-eluting stents for the prevention and treatment of coronary restenosis. PMID:24465275

  16. Nanoparticle Drug- and Gene-eluting Stents for the Prevention and Treatment of Coronary Restenosis

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Rui-Xing; Yang, De-Zhai; Wu, Jin-Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has become the most common revascularization procedure for coronary artery disease. The use of stents has reduced the rate of restenosis by preventing elastic recoil and negative remodeling. However, in-stent restenosis remains one of the major drawbacks of this procedure. Drug-eluting stents (DESs) have proven to be effective in reducing the risk of late restenosis, but the use of currently marketed DESs presents safety concerns, including the non-specificity of therapeutics, incomplete endothelialization leading to late thrombosis, the need for long-term anti-platelet agents, and local hypersensitivity to polymer delivery matrices. In addition, the current DESs lack the capacity for adjustment of the drug dose and release kinetics appropriate to the disease status of the treated vessel. The development of efficacious therapeutic strategies to prevent and inhibit restenosis after PCI is critical for the treatment of coronary artery disease. The administration of drugs using biodegradable polymer nanoparticles as carriers has generated immense interest due to their excellent biocompatibility and ability to facilitate prolonged drug release. Despite the potential benefits of nanoparticles as smart drug delivery and diagnostic systems, much research is still required to evaluate potential toxicity issues related to the chemical properties of nanoparticle materials, as well as to their size and shape. This review describes the molecular mechanism of coronary restenosis, the use of DESs, and progress in nanoparticle drug- or gene-eluting stents for the prevention and treatment of coronary restenosis. PMID:24465275

  17. Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest and Acute Coronary Syndromes: Reviewing Post-Resuscitation Care Strategies.

    PubMed

    Randhawa, Varinder K; Nagpal, A Dave; Lavi, Shahar

    2015-12-01

    Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) carries an enormous global burden of mortality and morbidity. The post-cardiac arrest syndrome consists of complex pathophysiological changes that result in hypoxic brain injury, myocardial and peripheral organ dysfunction, and the systemic ischemia-reperfusion response. We review common cardiac arrest cases to highlight key management issues and recommendations in post-resuscitation care, including therapeutic hypothermia, coronary angiography and revascularization, and circulatory support. Guidelines still suggest mild therapeutic hypothermia be administered for OHCA over targeted temperature management preventing pyrexia. Similarly, early invasive coronary angiography is particularly beneficial when there is ST-elevation on the post-resuscitation electrocardiogram, but might be considered in the absence of ST-elevation if there is no noncardiac cause to explain the OHCA. However, there remain a large number of unanswered questions that require ongoing research. PMID:26243352

  18. Comparative Effectiveness Study of Self-Directed Walking Exercise, Lower Extremity Revascularization, and Functional Decline in Peripheral Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, Mary M.; Kibbe, Melina; Guralnik, Jack M.; Pearce, William H.; Tian, Lu; Liao, Yihua; Zhao, Lihui; Criqui, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Among individuals with peripheral artery disease (PAD), we compared annual change in six-minute walk performance between participants who neither underwent lower extremity revascularization nor walked for exercise (Group 1, reference), those who walked regularly for exercise (Group 2), and those who underwent lower extremity revascularization (Group 3). Methods Participants were recruited from Chicago-area vascular laboratories and followed annually. Change in six-minute walk was calculated beginning at the study visit preceding lower extremity revascularization or exercise behavior and continuing for one additional year after the therapy was reported. Results adjust for age, sex, race, comorbidities, and other confounders. Results Of 348 PAD participants, 43 underwent revascularization during a median follow-up of 84 months. Adjusted annual declines in six-minute walk were Group 1: ?96.6 feet/year, Group 2: ?49.9 feet/year, and Group 3: ?32.6 feet/year(p<.001). Forty-one percent of revascularizations were not associated with ankle brachial index (ABI) improvement. When Group 3 was limited to participants with ABI improvement of ? 0.15 after revascularization, annual adjusted changes in six-minute walk were Group 1:?97.7 feet/year; Group 2:?46.5 feet/year, and Group 3:+68.1 feet/year (P value<.001). When Group 3 was limited to participants without ABI improvement ? 0.15 after revascularization, annual adjusted changes in six-minute walk were Group 1:?99.2 feet/year, Group 2:?48.0 feet/year; and Group 3:?61.7 feet/year. (P value<.001). Conclusion A large proportion of PAD participants did not have an ABI improvement of at least 0.15 at their follow-up study visit after revascularization. The benefits of lower extremity revascularization in patients with PAD appear closely tied to improvements in the ABI after revascularization. PMID:23352363

  19. Acute Coronary Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Take note of these common signs of an acute coronary syndrome: Chest pain or discomfort, which may involve pressure, tightness ... 9-1-1. They’re not being alarmist.” Chest pain caused by acute coronary syndromes can come on suddenly, as is the case ...

  20. Visualization of Coronary Arteries from Intravenous Angiograms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selzer, Robert H.

    1985-01-01

    Under most circumstances, the coronary arteries are not satisfactorily visualized in intravenous angiograms. The objective of this study is to develop computer image enhancement methods that will improve the quality of the latent coronary images to a degree sufficient to detect an obstructive lesion. Such a technique, if successful, could be used as a first step alternative to conventional coronary angiography for individuals with ambiguous noninvasive cardiac tests. The determination of no lesion from the intravenous procedure would relieve the need for the conventional angiogram, while verification of an obstructive lesion could be followed by a conventional angiogram. The nature of the imaging problem and a description of the methods and initial processing results are described in this paper.

  1. Comparison of Outcomes of Patients With ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Treated by Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Analyzed by Age Groups (<75, 75 to 85, and >85 Years); (Results from the Bremen STEMI Registry).

    PubMed

    Fach, Andreas; Bünger, Stefanie; Zabrocki, Robert; Schmucker, Johannes; Conradi, Paulina; Garstka, Daniela; Fiehn, Eduard; Hambrecht, Rainer; Wienbergen, Harm

    2015-12-15

    As old patients, who were treated by percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), are regularly excluded or underrepresented in randomized trials, data on treatment and outcomes of this patient group at high risk have to be collected by registries. The study population of the German Bremen STEMI Registry was divided into the age groups G1: <75 years (n = 4,108, young), G2: 75 to 85 years (n = 1,032, old), and G3: >85 years (n = 216, very old) and was evaluated for clinical management and course. PCI failure (Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction flow 0 or 1 after PCI) was observed more often with increasing age. Patients >85 years without successful PCI had a very high inhospital mortality (40.0% without PCI success vs 18.1% with PCI success, p <0.05). Despite a reduced rate of periinterventional treatment with glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors in elderly patients of G2 and G3, inhospital bleedings (Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction/Bleeding Academic Research Consortium ?2) occurred more frequently in these patients (G1: 5.4% vs G2: 11.0% vs G3: 19.6%, p <0.0001). Mortality rates during inhospital and long-term course increased with increasing age. In a multivariate analysis successful PCI was associated with improved outcomes in all age groups; even in very old patients successful PCI was associated with a significantly lower inhospital mortality rate (odds ratio 0.26, 95% confidence interval 0.08 to 0.81) and a trend toward a lower 1-year mortality. In conclusion, the present "real-world" data demonstrate an elevated rate of PCI failure, bleeding complications, and mortality in elderly patients treated by primary PCI for STEMI. However, a beneficial effect of successful PCI on mortality was observed in all age groups, even in very old patients, indicating the crucial role of revascularization therapy. PMID:26602071

  2. Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio and the Extent of Coronary Artery Disease: Results From a Large Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Verdoia, Monica; Barbieri, Lucia; Di Giovine, Gabriella; Marino, Paolo; Suryapranata, Harry; De Luca, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    The neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), an inflammatory biomarker, may be of predictive and prognostic value for cardiovascular (CV) events. We evaluated the relationship of NLR with the prevalence and extent of coronary artery disease (CAD) in consecutive patients undergoing elective or urgent coronary angiography. Our population (n = 3738 patients) was divided into NLR quartiles. Higher NLR was associated with aging and established CV risk factors, previous percutaneous coronary revascularization, acute presentation, and more complex pharmacological therapy. The NLR was related to platelet count, white blood cell count, creatinine, glycemia, uric acid, and C-reactive protein (all P = .001) levels but inversely related to hemoglobin (P < .001), total cholesterol (P = .005), and triglycerides (P < .001) levels. The NLR was associated with multivessel disease (P < .001), anterior descending, right coronary arteries (P < .001) or circumflex branch lesions (P = .01), percentage of stenosis (P < .001), coronary calcification (P < .001), and intracoronary thrombus (P < .001) but inversely with in-stent restenosis (P < .001) and thrombolysis in myocardial infarction flow (P = .04). The NLR was directly related to the prevalence of CAD (P = .001) and severe CAD (P < .001). In patients undergoing coronary angiography, the NLR is independently associated with the prevalence and severity of CAD. PMID:25818102

  3. [Psychological adaptation in coronary patients].

    PubMed

    Egger, J

    1984-08-31

    Summarizing some essential results from empirical investigations about the individual adaptation and coping with coronary heart diseases five principles are formulated: It ist not possible to predict the individual reactions to a coronary disease from the knowledge of the pathophysiological aspects. The behaviour pattern of these patients are different and complex determined. The individual reactions to the outbreak of the disease equally depend on familial, occupational, social and public health care factors on one side and on intrapsychical factors of the patient on the other side (i.e. personality structure, psychological status before the event etc.). The fact of a coronary or myocardial disease does not necessarily lead to a life-crisis or maladaptation. For the patient's style of life positive and/or negative effects of the disease can be differentiated. The patient's appraisal of a therapeutic success depends therefore on the intraindividual reinforcement-value of such a success. Adaptation and coping strategies are not uniform in phenomenological or time aspects. The emotional, cognitive and behavioural patterns primarily tend to help to cope with anxiety and uncertainty (f.i. denial, depression, aggression, building up a new identity). In the patient's mind a myocardial infarction is not necessarily the most important event in his actual life-situation. Concerning the heart disease fears about the own capacity of work and financial outcome are dominant. They are followed by concerns about the medical prognosis or course of disease, family life and partnership, satisfaction with future life and its meaning, and aspects of the social or ecological environment. Over all these patients show relatively optimistic prospects to their own future. PMID:6495749

  4. [Pregnancy and coronary artery dissection].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Quintana, Efrén; Rodríguez-González, Fayna

    2015-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction during pregnancy is associated with high maternal and fetal mortality. Coronary atherosclerosis is the most common cause due to an increase in the age of the patients and the association with cardiovascular risk factors such as smoking, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, preeclampsia, and the existence of family history of coronary disease. However, thrombosis, coronary dissection or coronary vasospasms are other causes that may justify it. We report the case of a 33 weeks pregnant first-time mother, without cardiovascular risk factors, who presented an acute coronary event in the context of atherosclerotic disease and coronary dissection after percutaneous coronary intervention. PMID:25795261

  5. Coronary Balloon Angioplasty in a Severe Takotsubo Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    UDROIU, Cristian A.; ZORMAN, Darko; VINEREANU, Dragos

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT We reported a patient with Takotsubo syndrome, with severe symptoms, prolonged angina with hemodynamic compromise, in the context of severe coronary artery spasm, without response to full medical treatment, which was successfully managed with coronary balloon angioplasty. A 49-year old woman was admitted with chest pain, ECG changes and elevated myocardial necrosis markers suggestive for acute coronary syndrome. First coronary angiography revealed normal epicardial arteries and typical left ventricular apical ballooning, strongly suggestive for Takotsubo syndrome. Forty-eight hours later, with standard medical treatment, patient developed again severe angina with hemodynamic consequences. Second angiography showed total occlusive spasm of one coronary artery, without response to full medical treatment. Coronary balloon angioplasty was performed with final good result. Two month later, angiography revealed normal coronary arteries and normal ventricular shape. The patient is currently asymptomatic. As far as we know, no other examples of similar cases were published in medical literature. Therefore, interventional treatment can be taken into consideration for some particular types of patients with Takotsubo syndrome, non-responsive to medical treatment; despite of balloon angioplasty or stenting of coronary vasospasm is not a standard of care. PMID:24371496

  6. Regional systems-of-care for primary percutaneous coronary intervention in ST-elevation myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Jacob Thorsted; Mæng, Michael

    2015-12-01

    ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is a critical, time-dependent condition requiring immediate reperfusion of the coronary arteries to minimize mortality and morbidity. The preferred method of revascularization is a primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) if this can be performed in a timely manner. This requires an effective and well-organized setup from symptom onset to revascularization. Such regional networks for the diagnosis and treatment of STEMI patients have been proven to be very effective in achieving the treatment goals stipulated by the international guidelines. Several trials have provided evidence that prehospital ECG recording and early diagnosis combined with direct referral to a primary PCI center reduces treatment delay considerably. In-hospital awareness with early notification of the PCI operator and technicians and admission directly to the catheterization laboratory also reduces time to treatment. There is solid evidence that the reduction in treatment delay achieved by dedicated STEMI networks is associated with a lower mortality and morbidity. Regional STEMI networks are now implemented in many countries with highly varying geographical challenges and healthcare systems, allowing patients everywhere to receive optimal treatment with primary PCI. PMID:26230884

  7. Nonantithrombotic medical options in acute coronary syndromes: old agents and new lines on the horizon.

    PubMed

    Soukoulis, Victor; Boden, William E; Smith, Sidney C; O'Gara, Patrick T

    2014-06-01

    Acute coronary syndromes (ACS) constitute a spectrum of clinical presentations ranging from unstable angina and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction to ST-segment myocardial infarction. Myocardial ischemia in this context occurs as a result of an abrupt decrease in coronary blood flow and resultant imbalance in the myocardial oxygen supply-demand relationship. Coronary blood flow is further compromised by other mechanisms that increase coronary vascular resistance or reduce coronary driving pressure. The goals of treatment are to decrease myocardial oxygen demand, increase coronary blood flow and oxygen supply, and limit myocardial injury. Treatments are generally divided into disease-modifying agents or interventions that improve hard clinical outcomes and other strategies that can reduce ischemia. In addition to traditional drugs such as ?-blockers and inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, newer agents have expanded the number of molecular pathways targeted for treatment of ACS. Ranolazine, trimetazidine, nicorandil, and ivabradine are medications that have been shown to reduce myocardial ischemia through diverse mechanisms and have been tested in limited fashion in patients with ACS. Attenuating the no-reflow phenomenon and reducing the injury compounded by acute reperfusion after a period of coronary occlusion are active areas of research. Additionally, interventions aimed at ischemic pre- and postconditioning may be useful means by which to limit myocardial infarct size. Trials are also underway to examine altered metabolic and oxygen-related pathways in ACS. This review will discuss traditional and newer anti-ischemic therapies for patients with ACS, exclusive of revascularization, antithrombotic agents, and the use of high-intensity statins. PMID:24902977

  8. Electrocardiographic Left Ventricular Hypertrophy as a Predictor for Nonsignificant Coronary Artery Disease in Patients With Non-ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Misumida, Naoki; Kobayashi, Akihiro; Saeed, Madeeha; Fox, John T; Kanei, Yumiko

    2016-01-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) can lead to subendocardial ischemia by altering the coronary blood flow and its transmural myocardial distribution in the setting of increased oxygen demand. We hypothesized that electrocardiographic LVH predicts nonsignificant coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). We performed a retrospective analysis of 406 consecutive patients with NSTEMI who underwent coronary angiography. The LVH was diagnosed using Sokolow-Lyon and Cornell voltage criteria. Nonsignificant CAD was defined as stenosis less than 50% in the left main and 70% in any other coronary arteries. Of the 406 patients, 100 (25%) patients had electrocardiographic LVH and 99 (24%) patients had nonsignificant CAD. Patients with electrocardiographic LVH had a higher prevalence of nonsignificant CAD (32% vs 22%, P = .04) and a lower rate of in-hospital revascularization (45% vs 69%, P < .001) than those without LVH. On multivariate analysis, electrocardiographic LVH was an independent predictor of nonsignificant CAD (odds ratio 1.94; 95% confidence interval 1.12-3.35; P = .02). In conclusion, electrocardiographic LVH is an independent predictor of nonsignificant CAD and associated with a lower rate of in-hospital revascularization in patients with NSTEMI. PMID:25735856

  9. Isolated perforation of left coronary cusp after blunt chest trauma.

    PubMed

    Maini, Rohit; Dadu, Razvan T; Addison, Daniel; Cunningham, Luke; Hamzeh, Ihab; Wall, Matthew; Lakkis, Nasser; Tabbaa, Rashed

    2015-01-01

    Left coronary cusp perforation is an extremely rare consequence of blunt chest trauma. A 22-year-old male presented after a motor vehicle accident with dyspnea. Transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) and transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE) showed moderate to severe aortic regurgitation with prolapsing right coronary cusp. In the operating room he was found to have a left coronary cusp tear near the annulus and an enlarged right cusp. The patient recovered well after successful aortic valve replacement with a mechanical valve. Traumatic aortic regurgitation with left cusp perforation is serious and surgical intervention may be lifesaving if performed timely. PMID:25802765

  10. Isolated Perforation of Left Coronary Cusp after Blunt Chest Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Maini, Rohit; Dadu, Razvan T.; Addison, Daniel; Cunningham, Luke; Hamzeh, Ihab; Wall, Matthew; Lakkis, Nasser; Tabbaa, Rashed

    2015-01-01

    Left coronary cusp perforation is an extremely rare consequence of blunt chest trauma. A 22-year-old male presented after a motor vehicle accident with dyspnea. Transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) and transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE) showed moderate to severe aortic regurgitation with prolapsing right coronary cusp. In the operating room he was found to have a left coronary cusp tear near the annulus and an enlarged right cusp. The patient recovered well after successful aortic valve replacement with a mechanical valve. Traumatic aortic regurgitation with left cusp perforation is serious and surgical intervention may be lifesaving if performed timely. PMID:25802765

  11. Drug-eluting coronary stents – focus on improved patient outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Jaffery, Zehra; Prasad, Amit; Lee, John H; White, Christopher J

    2011-01-01

    The development of stent has been a major advance in the treatment of obstructive coronary artery disease since the introduction of balloon angioplasty. Subsequently, neointimal hyperplasia within the stent leading to in-stent restenosis emerged as a major obstacle in long-term success of percutaneous coronary intervention. Recent introduction of drug-eluting stents is a major breakthrough to tackle this problem. This review article summarizes stent technology, reviews progress of drug-eluting stents and discusses quality of life, patient satisfaction, and acceptability of percutaneous coronary intervention. PMID:22915977

  12. [Coronary thrombosis--pathogenic basis of acute coronary syndromes].

    PubMed

    Dúbrava, J; Cagán, S

    1994-02-01

    Acute coronary syndromes (unstable angina pectoris, acute myocardial infarction, sudden heart death) present an important part of cardiovascular and total morbidity and mortality. The common pathogenetic mechanism of them is the break of integrity of "stable" atherosclerotic plaque through fissure or rupture with following dynamic occlusion of coronary artery. In dynamic occlusion take part coronary vasoconstriction and dominant coronary thrombogenesis. Summary review of pathogenesis of coronary thrombosis aimed at origin of "unstable" atherosclerosis plaque, importance of vessel wall factors, rheologic factors and thrombocytes is presented in the paper. Morphologic and structural characteristics of "primary" atherosclerotic plaque and of coronary artery lesions in concrete acute coronary syndromes are described. From the point of view of clinical practice the authors draw attention to the basic importance of thrombin and residual thrombosis in acute coronary syndromes. Presented pathogenetic aspects of coronary thrombogenesis justify newer therapeutic approaches, which are in the phase of intensive research. PMID:8140759

  13. Comments on the 2015 ESC Guidelines for the Management of Acute Coronary Syndromes in Patients Presenting Without Persistent ST-segment Elevation.

    PubMed

    Barrabes, J

    2015-12-01

    Patients who have undergone angioplasty with stenting can be reintegrated into normal life at an early stage, thanks to the absence of sequelae associated with the procedure itself. Consequently, these patients can be involved earlier in the second stage of cardiac rehabilitation. Although rehabilitation for coronary patients follows the general guidelines used for all patients, which were developed with the secondary prevention of coronary artery atherosclerosis in mind, the specific form of rehabilitation adopted for each individual with ischemic heart disease will depend on the patient's circumstances, including the revascularization technique used. Regular physical exercise (i.e. physical training), in itself, has substantial cardiovascular benefits for both primary and secondary cardiovascular prevention. In patients who have had a myocardial infarction, training decreases mortality, increases functional capacity and improves ventricular function and remodeling. It is also thought to boost the collateral circulation. In addition, training improves endothelial function and stimulates the circulation of stem cells. It has been shown that physical training after percutaneous revascularization decreases the number of cardiac events. Moreover, in patients with stable angina, it results in fewer events than percutaneous revascularization. PMID:26675197

  14. Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... t help, you may need coronary artery bypass surgery. The surgery creates a new path for blood to flow ... more than one bypass. The results of the surgery usually are excellent. Many people remain symptom-free ...

  15. Coronary Artery Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common type of heart disease. It is the leading cause of death ... both men and women. CAD happens when the arteries that supply blood to heart muscle become hardened ...

  16. Intraoperative Assessment and Quantification of Coronary Artery Graft Patency Performed on or off Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Rauch, Eric D.; Leach, Christopher; Barnes, Terry; Driscoll, Kurt; Strutz, Kurt; Holt, David W.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: Within the last 10 years, the incorporation of off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB) into many surgical practices has grown. OPCAB requires the surgeon to operate on a beating heart, and it is generally accepted that OPCAB procedures are more technically demanding. Concerns of possible incomplete revascularizations and decreased graft patency have been noted in the literature. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare on-pump and off-pump intraoperative coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) flow parameters. Intraoperative flow studies conducted with the Butterfly (Medi-Stim Norge AS, Oslo, Norway) flow meter were analyzed retrospectively on 74 patients. Comparisons were completed between patient groups having had their revascularizations performed on or off cardiopulmonary bypass. Our study revealed significant differences in the mean flow rate through saphenous vein grafts (SVG) to the obtuse marginal artery (OM; p = .014), to the diagonal artery (Diag; p = .003), to the right coronary artery (RCA; p = .001), and to the posterior descending artery (PDA; p = .001). Total blood product use showed significantly increased use of both platelets (PLTs) and cryoprecipitate (Cryo) in the on-pump group (p = .027 and .012, respectively). No differences were found for transfusions of red blood cells (RBCs) or fresh frozen plasma (FFP). Additional findings showed a significantly decreased median length of stay (LOS) for the off-pump group. The on-pump patients had a median hospital stay of 7 days (range, 4–24 days), whereas the off-pump patients had a median stay of 6 days (range, 3–22 days; p = .049). Although we were able to show some significance in the mean flow data supporting increased graft flow with the on-pump technique, we were not able to show an overall increase in all recorded flow characteristics to support one method over another. PMID:17672187

  17. Integrative physiology of coronary microcirculation.

    PubMed

    Kajiya, F; Goto, M

    1999-06-01

    Coronary microvessels play a crucial role for mechanoenergetic interaction between blood flow and myocardial function, which is not uniform transmurally. Thus, highly organized vascular regulations are required for matching local blood flow with myocardial energy requirement. Recently, new technologies to investigate in vivo coronary microcirculation with new knowledge of the signaling molecules for vascular regulation have revolutionized our abilities to understand the integrative regulation of coronary microcirculation. In this review, the mechanical aspects of the interaction between coronary blood flow and myocardium, coronary arte-rial tree and its roles in myocardial blood flow regulation, hierarchical and dynamic control of coronary flow, capillary network and function, function of venous drainage system, and molecular and cellular aspects of integrative coronary blood flow regulation are discussed, focusing on their integrational roles in maintaining coronary microvascular function and cell signaling. PMID:10529484

  18. Treatment of acute cervical internal carotid artery dissection using the Solitaire FR revascularization device.

    PubMed

    To, Chiu Yuen; Badr, Yaser; Richards, Boyd

    2012-01-01

    During treatment of a right internal carotid artery terminus aneurysm, an acute iatrogenic flow limiting dissection was caused in the cervical internal carotid. The true lumen was catheterized using a Mirage 0.008 microwire over an Excelsior SL-10 microcatheter, which was exchanged for a Marksman microcatheter. A 6 mm×30 mm Solitaire FR revascularization device was then deployed across the dissection as a salvage technique. PMID:23257942

  19. Treatment of acute cervical internal carotid artery dissection using the Solitaire FR revascularization device.

    PubMed

    To, Chiu Yuen; Badr, Yaser; Richards, Boyd

    2013-11-01

    During treatment of a right internal carotid artery terminus aneurysm, an acute iatrogenic flow limiting dissection was caused in the cervical internal carotid. The true lumen was catheterized using a Mirage 0.008 microwire over an Excelsior SL-10 microcatheter, which was exchanged for a Marksman microcatheter. A 6 mm × 30 mm Solitaire FR revascularization device was then deployed across the dissection as a salvage technique. PMID:23299103

  20. Left main coronary artery compression in pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), chest pain is most likely due to right ventricular demand ischemia. We report a patient with idiopathic PAH who developed severe angina due to extrinsic compression of the left main coronary artery (LMCA) from a dilated pulmonary artery trunk. The diagnosis was verified by electrocardiogram after exercise, coronary angiography including intravascular ultrasound, and cardiac multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). The origin of the LMCA was high in the left coronary sinus, facilitating extrinsic compression. The patient was successfully treated by percutaneous coronary intervention with stent implantation in the LMCA. Extrinsic compression of the LMCA is a severe and potentially fatal complication that should be considered in all patients with PAH and angina. MDCT is the method of choice for first-line diagnosis. PMID:26697183

  1. The clopidogrel after surgery for coronary artery disease (CASCADE) randomized controlled trial: clopidogrel and aspirin versus aspirin alone after coronary bypass surgery [NCT00228423

    PubMed Central

    Kulik, Alexander; Le May, Michel; Wells, George A; Mesana, Thierry G; Ruel, Marc

    2005-01-01

    Background Saphenous vein graft disease remains a major limitation of coronary artery bypass graft surgery. The process of saphenous vein intimal hyperplasia begins just days after surgical revascularization, setting the stage for graft atherosclerotic disease and its sequalae. Clopidogrel improves outcomes in patients with atherosclerotic disease, and is effective at reducing intimal hyperplasia in animal models of thrombosis. Therefore, the goal of this study will be to evaluate the efficacy of clopidogrel and aspirin therapy versus aspirin alone in the prevention of saphenous vein graft intimal hyperplasia following coronary artery bypass surgery. Methods Patients undergoing multi-vessel coronary artery bypass grafting and in whom at least two saphenous vein grafts will be used are eligible for the study. Patients will be randomized to receive daily clopidogrel 75 mg or placebo, in addition to daily aspirin 162 mg, for a one year duration starting on the day of surgery (as soon as postoperative bleeding has been excluded). At the end of one year, all patients will undergo coronary angiography and intravascular ultrasound assessment of one saphenous vein graft as selected by randomization. The trial will be powered to test the hypothesis that clopidogrel and aspirin will reduce vein graft intimal hyperplasia by 20% compared to aspirin alone at one year following bypass surgery. Discussion This trial is the first prospective human study that will address the question of whether clopidogrel therapy improves outcomes and reduces saphenous vein graft intimal hyperplasia following cardiac surgery. Should the combination of clopidogrel and aspirin reduce the process of vein graft intimal hyperplasia, the results of this study will help redefine modern antiplatelet management of coronary artery bypass patients. PMID:16219100

  2. Impact of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention on Exercise-Induced Repolarization Changes in Patients With Stable Coronary Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Juki?, Anita; Carevi?, Vedran; Zekanovi?, Dražen; Stojanovi?-Stipi?, Sanda; Runji?, Frane; Ljubkovi?, Marko; Fabijani?, Damir

    2015-09-15

    Recent reports suggest T peak to T end (Tpe) interval and Tpe/QT ratio as valuable indicators of increased arrhythmogenic risk in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). We aimed to examine the exercise-induced changes in these indexes in patients with stable CAD, before and after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Forty patients were consecutively included in the interventional group (n = 20), with significant lesions (?75% luminal narrowing) suitable for PCI and in the control group (n = 20), with no significant coronary artery lesions (<50% luminal narrowing). One day before and 30 days after the coronarography, all patients performed treadmill exercise stress testing, and the electrocardiographic (ECG) indexes of repolarization were assessed during baseline and at peak exercise intensity. In the control group, the QT interval, QTc (QT-corrected) interval, Tpe interval, and Tpe/QT ratio measured at peak exercise significantly decreased from baseline values (p = 0.001, p = 0.004, p <0.001, and p = 0.017, respectively). Conversely, in interventional patients before the PCI, an increase in the Tpe interval and the Tpe/QT ratio was observed at exercise (p = 0.009, and p <0.001, respectively), with only the QT interval exhibiting a significant decrease from baseline (p <0.001). Thirty days after the PCI, all the ECG arrhythmogenic indexes measured at peak exercise significantly decreased from baseline values, thus assuming the same trend as detected in controls. In conclusion, restoration of blood supply normalized exercise-induced repolarization changes, suggesting that revascularization of previously ischemic myocardium lowers the cardiac arrhythmogenic potential in patients with stable CAD. PMID:26174604

  3. Revascularization Technique for the Treatment of External Inflammatory Root Resorption: A Report of 3 Cases.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Cristina N; Pinto, Shirley S; Sassone, Luciana M; Hirata, Raphael; Fidel, Sandra R

    2015-09-01

    The current external inflammatory root resorption treatment protocol, which uses calcium hydroxide dressing, usually comprises multiple and long-term applications. In addition to the need for multiple appointments for calcium hydroxide replacement, the long-term maintenance of this compound in the root canal weakens dental structures. A modification of this therapy would be advisable. In this clinical investigation, 3 patients with external inflammatory root resorption were submitted to revascularization therapy protocol usually used in teeth with necrotic pulp and open apices. The teeth were treated with revascularization therapy protocol, which consisted of disinfecting the root canal system with triantibiotic paste, filling it with blood clot, and sealing of the root canal with mineral trioxide aggregate and bonded resin restoration. During the follow-up, the pathologic process was arrested with tissue repair in pre-existing radiolucent areas. Reduced mobility was observed in the treated teeth. The 3 cases were followed up for 30, 18, and 15 months, respectively. All teeth remained asymptomatic and retained function and physiological mobility. The therapy used in the revascularization procedure was efficient in the treatment of external inflammatory root resorption, reducing the number of appointments and increasing patient compliance. PMID:26074180

  4. Small islets transplantation superiority to large ones: implications from islet microcirculation and revascularization.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenjuan; Zhao, Ruxing; Liu, Jidong; Tian, Meng; Lu, Yiran; He, Tianyi; Cheng, Meng; Liang, Kai; Li, Xia; Wang, Xiangdong; Sun, Yu; Chen, Li

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic islet transplantation is a promising therapy to regain glycemic control in diabetic patients. The selection of ideal grafts is the basis to guarantee short-term effectivity and longevity of the transplanted islets. Contradictory to the traditional notion, recent findings implied the superiority of small islets for better transplantation outcomes rather than the large and intact ones. However, the mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Recent evidences emphasized the major impact of microcirculation on islet ? -cell mass and function. And potentials in islet graft revascularization are crucial for their survival and preserved function in the recipient. In this study, we verified the distinct histological phenotype and functionality of small islets versus large ones both in vitro and in vivo. With efforts to exploring the differences in microcirculation and revascularization of islet grafts, we further evaluated local expressions of angiotensin and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) at different levels. Our findings reveal that, apart from the higher density of insulin-producing ? -cells, small islets express less angiotensin and more angiotrophic VEGF-A. We therefore hypothesized a logical explanation of the small islet superiority for transplantation outcome from the aspects of facilitated microcirculation and revascularization intrinsically in small islets. PMID:24829922

  5. Results of distal revascularization in elderly patients for critical ischemia of the lower limbs.

    PubMed

    Illuminati, G; Calio, F G; Bertagni, A; Piermattei, A; Vietri, F; Martinelli, V

    1999-04-01

    Thirty eight patients over 75 years of age were operated upon of 40 distal arterial revascularizations for critical ischaemia of the lower limbs. Arterial reconstruction was proposed to ambulatory, self sufficient patients, with a patent artery of the leg or the foot in continuity with pedal arch, at arteriography. The revascularized artery was the peroneal in 14 cases, the anterior tibial in 11, the posterior tibial in 9, the dorsalis pedis in 5, and the external plantar artery in 1 case. Postoperative mortality was 2.6%. No postoperative arterial occlusion occurred and no postoperative amputation needed to be performed. The mean follow-up of 37 patients surviving operation was 21 months (ext. 2-52 months). At 36 months interval, patients' survival was 43%, primary patency rate was 57%, and limb salvage rate was 76%, at life-table analysis. Distal revascularization enables a good number of elderly patients in critical ischaemia of the lower limb, to enjoy an active, independent life, with a viable limb. PMID:10352735

  6. Patient-Specific Three-Dimensional Aortocoronary Model for Percutaneous Coronary Intervention of a Totally Occluded Anomalous Right Coronary Artery.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hirotoshi; Saito, Naritatsu; Tatsushima, Syojiro; Tazaki, Junichi; Toyota, Toshiaki; Imai, Masao; Watanabe, Shin; Yamamoto, Erika; Bao, Bingyuan; Nakatsuma, Kenji; Watanabe, Hiroki; Shizuta, Satoshi; Kimura, Takeshi

    2015-07-01

    Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for anomalous coronary arteries is often difficult because the support provided by the guide catheter is insufficient. We encountered a patient with severe three-vessel coronary disease including a totally occluded anomalous right coronary artery (RCA) originating from the left sinus of Valsalva. Initial PCI for the anomalous RCA via the transradial approach failed. Therefore, we constructed a three-dimensional (3D) aortocoronary model and conducted an in vitro simulation to plan the second PCI and found that a Judkins left (JL) 3.5 guide catheter in the power position yielded maximum backup support for the anomalous RCA. Thus, the second PCI was conducted using an 8 Fr JL 3.5 guide catheter in the power position via the transfemoral approach. The procedure was smooth and successful, without any adverse events. Our experience suggests that case-specific 3D models are useful for strategic planning of complex PCIs. PMID:26136288

  7. [A case of ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy, mitral regurgitation and congestive heart failure successfully treated by Batista operation, coronary artery bypass grafting and mitral valve replacement; usefulness of myocardial scintigraphy].

    PubMed

    Okoshi, T; Ueda, K; Neya, K; Suzuki, Y; Nakajima, H; Akasaka, T; Kaminaga, T

    2002-01-01

    A 75-year-old man diagnosed as having ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy, congestive heart failure and mitral regurgitation underwent left ventricle volume reduction operation (Batista), coronary bypass grafting and mitral valve replacement because myocardial infarction had developed at lateral, inferior and small area of apex wall, not at interventricular septum. Left ventricular endodiastolic volume index and left ventricular endosystolic volume index decreased from pre-operative values of 155, and 128 ml/m2 to post-operative values of 113, and 82 ml/m2, respectively. Left ventricular ejection fraction increased from a pre-operative value of 17% to a post-operative value of 27%. This evaluation was performed by myocardial scintigraphy (quantitative gated spect: QGS). This method was bloodless and useful for determination of indication of left ventricle volume reduction surgery including Batista operation and pre- and post-operative evaluation of this type of surgery. Today, Batista operation is, generally speaking, performed for non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy. In this case, however, Batista operation was applied to ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy and was very effective. PMID:11797415

  8. The Association between Antidepressant Medications and Coronary Heart Disease in Brazil: A Cross-Sectional Analysis on the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brazil)

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, Andrew H.; Brunoni, Andre R.; Bittencourt, Marcio S.; Nunes, Maria A.; Benseñor, Isabela M.; Lotufo, Paulo A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have highlighted associations between use of antidepressant medications and coronary heart disease (CHD). Tricyclic antidepressants (TCA) are not recommended in patients with CHD as they may increase morbidity and mortality. However, this class of antidepressants is freely prescribed in public health pharmacies, while access to other classes of antidepressants is restricted in Brazil. Here, we examine the associations between antidepressant use and prevalent CHD in a large cohort from Brazil. Methods: Participants included 14,994 civil servants aged 35–74?years from the baseline assessment of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). CHD (n?=?710) included stable angina, myocardial infarction, and coronary revascularization. Univariate (unadjusted) and multivariate (adjusted) logistic regression analyses were conducted to estimate odds ratios and confidence intervals. Results: After full adjustment for covariates, TCA use (n?=?156) was associated with a twofold increase in prevalent CHD, relative to non-use (n?=?14,076). Additional sensitivity analysis revealed a threefold association for myocardial infarction (OR: 2.96, 95% CI: 1.41–6.21) and coronary revascularization (OR: 2.92, 95% CI: 1.28–6.66). There were no significant associations between antidepressant use and stable angina pectoris. Conclusion: Findings highlight a strong association between TCA use and prevalent CHD. While the cross-sectional design is an important limitation of the present study, findings have important implications for the treatment of cardiac patients in Brazil. PMID:25657993

  9. Design and Rationale of the Femoral Closure versus Radial Compression Devices Related to Percutaneous Coronary Interventions (FERARI) Study

    PubMed Central

    Behnes, Michael; Ünsal, Melike; Hoffmann, Ursula; Fastner, Christian; El-Battrawy, Ibrahim; Lang, Siegfried; Mashayekhi, Kambis; Lehmann, Ralf; Borggrefe, Martin; Akin, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Bleeding events after percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) are associated with patients’ age, gender, and the presence of chronic kidney disease, antithrombotic treatment, as well as arterial access site. Patients being treated by PCI using radial access site are associated with an improved prognosis. However, the safety of femoral closure devices has never been compared to radial compression devices following PCI. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the safety of femoral closure compared to radial compression devices in patients treated by PCI envisaging access site bleedings as well as short- and long-term prognostic outcomes. METHODS The Femoral Closure versus Radial Compression Devices Related to Percutaneous Coronary Interventions (FERARI) study is a single-center observational study comparing 400 consecutive patients undergoing PCI either using radial compression devices (TR Band™) or femoral closure devices (Angio-Seal™) at the corresponding access site. The primary outcome consists of the occurrence of vascular complications at the arterial access site, including major bleedings as defined by common classification systems. Secondary outcomes consist of the occurrence of adverse cardiac events, including all-cause mortality, target lesion revascularization, and target vessel revascularization during 30 days and 12 months of follow-up. RESULTS Study enrollment was initiated in February 2014. The enrollment phase is expected to last until May 2015. CONCLUSIONS The FERARI study intends to comparatively evaluate the safety and prognostic outcome of patients being treated by radial or femoral arterial closure devices following PCI during daily clinical practice. PMID:26568686

  10. Use of Anticoagulants and Antiplatelet Agents in Stable Outpatients with Coronary Artery Disease and Atrial Fibrillation. International CLARIFY Registry

    PubMed Central

    Fauchier, Laurent; Greenlaw, Nicola; Ferrari, Roberto; Ford, Ian; Fox, Kim M.; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Tendera, Michal; Steg, Ph. Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Background Few data are available regarding the use of antithrombotic strategies in coronary artery disease patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) in everyday practice. We sought to describe the prevalence of AF and its antithrombotic management in a contemporary population of patients with stable coronary artery disease. Methods and Findings CLARIFY is an international, prospective, longitudinal registry of outpatients with stable coronary artery disease, defined as prior (?12 months) myocardial infarction, revascularization procedure, coronary stenosis >50%, or chest pain associated with evidence of myocardial ischemia. Overall, 33,428 patients were screened, of whom 32,954 had data available for analysis at baseline; of these 2,229 (6.7%) had a history of AF. Median (interquartile range) CHA2DS2-VASc score was 4 (3, 5). Oral anticoagulation alone was used in 25.7%, antiplatelet therapy alone in 52.8% (single 41.8%, dual 11.0%), and both in 21.5%. OAC use was independently associated with permanent AF (p<0.001), CHA2DS2-VASc score (p=0.006), pacemaker (p<0.001), stroke (p=0.04), absence of angina (p=0.004), decreased left ventricular ejection fraction (p<0.001), increased waist circumference (p=0.005), and longer history of coronary artery disease (p=0.008). History of percutaneous coronary intervention (p=0.004) and no/partial reimbursement for cardiovascular medication (p=0.01, p<0.001, respectively) were associated with reduced oral anticoagulant use. Conclusions In this contemporary cohort of patients with stable coronary artery disease and AF, most of whom are theoretical candidates for anticoagulation, oral anticoagulants were used in only 47.2%. Half of the patients received antiplatelet therapy alone and one-fifth received both antiplatelets and oral anticoagulants. Efforts are needed to improve adherence to guidelines in these patients. Trial Registration ISRCTN registry of clinical trials: ISRCTN43070564. PMID:25915904

  11. Endovascular Revascularization of Chronically Thrombosed Arteriovenous Fistulas and Grafts for Hemodialysis: A Retrospective Study in 15 Patients With 18 Access Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Weng Meijui; Chen, Matt Chiung-Yu; Chi Wenche; Liu Yichun; Liang, Huei-Lung; Pan, Huay-Ben

    2011-04-15

    The current study retrospectively evaluated whether endovascular revascularization of chronically thrombosed and long-discarded vascular access sites for hemodialysis was feasible. Technical and clinical success rates, postintervention primary and secondary patency rates, and complications were reported. During a 1-year period, we reviewed a total of 924 interventions performed for dysfunction and/or failed hemodialysis vascular access sites and permanent catheters in 881 patients. In patients whose vascular access-site problems were considered untreatable or were considered treatable with a high risk of failure and access-site abandonment, we attempted to revascularize (resurrect) the chronically occluded and long-discarded (mummy) vascular access sites. We attempted to resurrect a total of 18 mummy access sites (mean age 46.6 {+-} 38.7 months; range 5-144) in 15 patients (8 women and 7 men; mean age 66.2 {+-} 11.5 years; age range 50-85) and had an overall technical success rate of 77.8%. Resurrection failure occurred in 3 fistulas and in 1 straight graft. The clinical success rate was 100% at 2 months after resurrection. In the 14 resurrected vascular access sites, 6 balloon-assisted maturation procedures were required in 5 fistulas; after access-site maturation, a total of 22 interventions were performed to maintain access-site patency. The mean go-through time for successful resurrection procedures was 146.6 {+-} 34.3 min (range 74-193). Postmaturation primary patency rates were 71.4 {+-} 12.1% at 30 days, 57.1 {+-} 13.2% at 60 days, 28.6 {+-} 13.4% at 90 days, and 19 {+-} 11.8% at 180 days. Postmaturation secondary patency rates were 100% at 30, 60, and 90 days and 81.8 {+-} 11.6% at 180 days. There were 2 major complications consisting of massive venous ruptures in 2 mummy access sites during balloon dilation; in both cases, prolonged balloon inflation failed to achieve hemostasis, but percutaneous N-butyl cyanoacrylate glue seal-off was performed successfully. Percutaneous resurrection of mummy vascular access sites for hemodialysis is technically feasible with high clinical success rates. In selected patients, resurrection of mummy access sites provides long-discarded access sites one more chance to be used for hemodialysis in an effort to preserve potential extremity sites for future access-site placement and to prevent long-term catheter indwelling.

  12. Practice of coronary angioplasty

    SciTech Connect

    Ischinger, T.

    1986-01-01

    This book is written for the cardiologist who performs invasive procedures. Although the book is not meant to substitute for onsite training, the content includes indications, techniques, risks, limitations, complications, and useful tips. The illustrations are good, and include well-reproduced coronary angiograms and angioplasty images, thoughtfully prepared graphics, and tables that summarize large amounts of data in understandable form.

  13. Cost-effectiveness modelling of percutaneous coronary interventions in stable coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Beresniak, Ariel; Caruba, Thibaut; Sabatier, Brigitte; Juillière, Yves; Dubourg, Olivier; Danchin, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a cost-effectiveness model comparing drug eluting stents (DES) vs bare metal stent (BMS) in patients suffering of stable coronary artery disease. Using a 2-years time horizon, two simulation models have been developed: BMS first line strategy and DES first line strategy. Direct medical costs were estimated considering ambulatory and hospital costs. The effectiveness endpoint was defined as treatment success, which is the absence of major adverse cardiac events. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses were carried out using 10000 Monte-Carlo simulations. DES appeared slightly more efficacious over 2 years (60% of success) when compared to BMS (58% of success). Total costs over 2 years were estimated at 9303 € for the DES and at 8926 € for bare metal stent. Hence, corresponding mean cost-effectiveness ratios showed slightly lower costs (P < 0.05) per success for the BMS strategy (15520 €/success), as compared to the DES strategy (15588 €/success). Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio is 18850 € for one additional percent of success. The sequential strategy including BMS as the first option appears to be slightly less efficacious but more cost-effective compared to the strategy including DES as first option. Future modelling approaches should confirm these results as further comparative data in stable coronary artery disease and long-term evidence become available. PMID:26516413

  14. Immediate Postoperative Complications in Patients Undergoing CABG; Investigating the Role of Prior Coronary Stenting

    PubMed Central

    Negargar, Sohrab; Anvari, Shahriar; Abbasi, Kyomars; Enamzadeh, Elgar

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Approximately 15 to 30% of patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) will require repeated revascularization. There is an ongoing debate concerning the impact of prior PCI on subsequent coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. This study sought to compare immediate post-CABG complications between patients with and without previous coronary stenting. Methods: A total of 556 CABG candidates including 73 patients with previous coronary stenting and 483 patients without prior stenting were enrolled in this retrospective-prospective study. Demographic information, cardiac markers (CK-MB, Troponin T), and postoperative data including inotrope administration, intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) use, bleeding, pathological electrocardiography (ECG) changes, and overall complications were compared between the two groups. Results: The mean age of the patients in stented group was significantly higher than that in unstented group (63.49±7.71 vs. 61.37±9.80 years, p=0.05). The mean serum level of Troponin T 12 h postoperation was significantly higher in the same group (323.26±33.16 vs. 243.30±11.52 ng/dL; p=0.03). Comparing the stented and unstented groups, the rates of inotrope use (17.8% vs. 7.2%; p=0.003), significant bleeding (15.1% vs. 4.3%; p=0.001), and overall complications (32.9% vs. 11.6%; odds ratio: 3.74 with 95% confidence interval of 2.13-6.55, p<0.001) were significantly higher in the former group. The association between overall complications and prior stenting was independent (odd ratio: 3.06). No significant connections were found between postoperative complications and stent number or type. Conclusion: A positive history of previous coronary stenting significantly increases the risk of immediate post-CABG complications. PMID:25610554

  15. Prevalence of unrecognized diabetes, prediabetes and metabolic syndrome in patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention

    PubMed Central

    Balakrishnan, Revathi; Berger, Jeffrey S.; Tully, Lisa; Vani, Anish; Shah, Binita; Burdowski, Joseph; Fisher, Edward; Schwartzbard, Arthur; Sedlis, Steven; Weintraub, Howard; Underberg, James A.; Danoff, Ann; Slater, James A.; Gianos, Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus (DM) and metabolic syndrome are important targets for secondary prevention in cardiovascular disease. However, the prevalence in patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention is not well defined. We aimed to analyse the prevalence and characteristics of patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention with previously unrecognized prediabetes, diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Methods Data were collected from 740 patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention between November 2010 and March 2013 at a tertiary referral center. Prevalence of DM and prediabetes was evaluated using Haemoglobin A1c (A1c ? 6.5% for DM, A1c 5.7–6.4% for prediabetes). A modified definition was used for metabolic syndrome [three or more of the following criteria: body mass index ?30 kg/m2; triglycerides ? 150 mg/dL; high density lipoprotein <40 mg/dL in men and <50 mg/dL in women; systolic blood pressure ? 130 mmHg and/or diastolic ? 85 mmHg; and A1c ? 5.7% or on therapy]. Results Mean age was 67 years, median body mass index was 28.2 kg/m2 and 39% had known DM. Of those without known DM, 8.3% and 58.5% met A1c criteria for DM and for prediabetes at time of percutaneous coronary intervention. Overall, 54.9% met criteria for metabolic syndrome (69.2% of patients with DM and 45.8% of patients without DM). Conclusion Among patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention, a substantial number were identified with a new DM, prediabetes, and/or metabolic syndrome. Routine screening for an abnormal glucometabolic state at the time of revascularization may be useful for identifying patients who may benefit from additional targeting of modifiable risk factors. PMID:25728823

  16. Long-term outcome of provisional side-branch T-stenting for the treatment of unprotected distal left main coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Leonardo; Altamura, Luca; Corvo, Pierfrancesco; De Persio, Giovanni; Ghini, Anna S; Petrolini, Alessandro; Aurigemma, Cristina; Tomai, Fabrizio

    2011-05-01

    Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) on distal left main (LM) remains an independent predictor of poor outcome. The strategy of implanting one stent on the main branch (MB), with provisional stenting on the side-branch (SB) only when required (provisional T-stenting), has become the default approach to most bifurcation lesions. This prospective registry sought to investigate the long-term safety and efficacy of provisional SB T-stenting for the treatment of unprotected distal LM disease in patients undergoing PCI. From January 2006 to May 2009, 107 consecutive patients affected by unprotected distal LM disease underwent PCI at our center with the intent to use a provisional SB-stenting technique. We evaluated the rate of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) at long-term follow-up (up to 12-41 months). Procedural success was obtained in 98% of patients. A final kissing balloon inflation was performed in 95% and intravascular ultrasound in 83% of patients. Additional stenting on the SB after provisional stenting on MB was required in 29% of lesions. Long-term follow-up (3.5 years; 25-75th percentile and 1.1-4.5 years) was completed in 97% of patients. The cumulative incidence of MACE was 32.7%: all-cause death was 15.8%, nonfatal myocardial infarction 8.4%, and target vessel revascularization 21.5%. At multivariable analysis, age (hazard ratio, 2.08; 95% confidence interval: 2.01-3.32, P = 0.03), European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (HR 1.20, 95% CI: 1.04-1.33, P = 0.02), and diabetes mellitus (HR 3.48, 95% CI: 1.12-6.87, P = 0.01) were identified as independent predictors of MACE. In patients with unprotected distal LM disease undergoing PCI, a provisional strategy of stenting the MB only is associated with good long-term clinical outcomes. PMID:21413124

  17. Myocardial infarction determined by technetium-99m pyrophosphate single-photon tomography complicating elective coronary artery bypass grafting for angina pectoris

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, R.J.; Gladstone, P.J.; Tremblay, P.C.; Feindel, C.M.; Salter, D.R.; Lipton, I.H.; Ogilvie, R.R.; David, T.E.

    1989-06-15

    The incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) complicating coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) has previously been based on concordance of electrocardiographic, enzymatic and scintigraphic criteria. Technetium-99m pyrophosphate (Tc-PPi) single-photon emission computed tomography now enables detection of AMI with high sensitivity and specificity. Using this technique, perioperative AMI was detected in 12 of 58 patients (21%) undergoing successful elective CABG for stable angina pectoris. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to compare the predictive value of preoperative (New York Heart Association class, left ventricular ejection fraction and use of beta blockers) and intraoperative (number of grafts constructed, use of internal mammary anastomoses, use of sequential saphenous vein grafts, smallest grafted distal vessel lumen caliber and aortic cross-clamp time) variables. Preoperative New York Association class (p = 0.04) and smallest grafted distal vessel lumen caliber (p = 0.03) were significant multivariate predictors of perioperative AMI. Only 1 perioperative patient with AMI (and 1 pyrophosphate-negative patient) developed new Q waves. Serum creatine kinase-MB was higher in patients with AMI by repeated measures analysis of variance (p = 0.0003). Five AMIs occurred in myocardial segments revascularized using sequential saphenous vein grafts, and 7 in segments perfused by significantly stenosed epicardial vessels with distal lumen diameter and perfusion territory considered too small to warrant CABG. At 6-month follow-up, the mean left ventricular ejection fraction increased from 0.61 to 0.65 in Tc-PPI-negative patients (p = 0.01), but not in perioperative patients with AMI.

  18. Patient Specific Multiscale Simulations of Blood Flow in Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bangalore Ramachandra, Abhay; Sankaran, Sethuraman; Kahn, Andrew M.; Marsden, Alison L.

    2013-11-01

    Coronary artery bypass surgery is performed to revascularize blocked coronary arteries in roughly 400,000 patients per year in the US.While arterial grafts offer superior patency, vein grafts are used in more than 70% of procedures, as most patients require multiple grafts. Vein graft failure (approx. 50% within 10 years) remains a major clinical issue. Mounting evidence suggests that hemodynamics plays a key role as a mechano-biological stimulus contributing to graft failure. However, quantifying relevant hemodynamic quantities (e.g. wall shear stress) invivo is not possible directly using clinical imaging techniques. We numerically compute graft hemodynamics in a cohort of 3-D patient specific models using a stabilized finite element method. The 3D flow domain is coupled to a 0D lumped parameter circulatory model. Boundary conditions are tuned to match patient specific blood pressures, stroke volumes & heart rates. Results reproduce clinically observed coronary flow waveforms. We quantify differences in multiple hemodynamic quantities between arterial & venous grafts & discuss possible correlations between graft hemodynamics & clinically observed graft failure.Such correlations will provide further insight into mechanisms of graft failure and may lead to improved clinical outcomes.

  19. Revascularization of decellularized lung scaffolds: principles and progress.

    PubMed

    Stabler, Collin T; Lecht, Shimon; Mondrinos, Mark J; Goulart, Ernesto; Lazarovici, Philip; Lelkes, Peter I

    2015-12-01

    There is a clear unmet clinical need for novel biotechnology-based therapeutic approaches to lung repair and/or replacement, such as tissue engineering of whole bioengineered lungs. Recent studies have demonstrated the feasibility of decellularizing the whole organ by removal of all its cellular components, thus leaving behind the extracellular matrix as a complex three-dimensional (3D) biomimetic scaffold. Implantation of decellularized lung scaffolds (DLS), which were recellularized with patient-specific lung (progenitor) cells, is deemed the ultimate alternative to lung transplantation. Preclinical studies demonstrated that, upon implantation in rodent models, bioengineered lungs that were recellularized with airway and vascular cells were capable of gas exchange for up to 14 days. However, the long-term applicability of this concept is thwarted in part by the failure of current approaches to reconstruct a physiologically functional, quiescent endothelium lining the entire vascular tree of reseeded lung scaffolds, as inferred from the occurrence of hemorrhage into the airway compartment and thrombosis in the vasculature in vivo. In this review, we explore the idea that successful whole lung bioengineering will critically depend on 1) preserving and/or reestablishing the integrity of the subendothelial basement membrane, especially of the ultrathin respiratory membrane separating airways and capillaries, during and following decellularization and 2) restoring vascular physiological functionality including the barrier function and quiescence of the endothelial lining following reseeding of the vascular compartment. We posit that physiological reconstitution of the pulmonary vascular tree in its entirety will significantly promote the clinical translation of the next generation of bioengineered whole lungs. PMID:26408553

  20. Ventricular tachycardic storm with a chronic total coronary artery occlusion treated with percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Mixon, Timothy A

    2015-04-01

    A 66-year-old man with a history of coronary artery disease was evaluated due to ventricular tachycardic (VT) storm. The patient continued to have frequent recurrences of VT despite treatment with amiodarone and lidocaine. Since the ventricular arrhythmia could be related to myocardial ischemia related to a chronic total occlusion (CTO) of the right coronary artery, the patient underwent successful percutaneous coronary intervention of the CTO, followed by implantable cardioverter defibrillator implantation. He had no further episodes of VT during his hospital stay. After 9 months of follow-up, he had no further chest pain or clinically apparent recurrent ischemia. Interrogation of his defibrillator has shown brief nonsustained episodes of ventricular tachycardia, but the patient has not required delivery of a shock. The temporal association between treatment of the CTO and resolution of the VT, as well as the lack of recurrence of sustained VT, suggest a causative link between underlying ischemia produced by a chronically occluded coronary artery and provocation of VT and lend supportive evidence to this treatment approach. PMID:25829653

  1. Types of Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Types of Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting There are several types of coronary ... for you based on your needs. Traditional Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Traditional CABG is used when at ...

  2. Usefulness and safety of vorapaxar in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (from the TRACER Trial).

    PubMed

    Valgimigli, Marco; Tricoci, Pierluigi; Huang, Zhen; Aylward, Philip E; Armstrong, Paul W; Van de Werf, Frans; Leonardi, Sergio; White, Harvey D; Widimsky, Petr; Harrington, Robert A; Cequier, Angel; Chen, Edmond; Lokhnygina, Yuliya; Wallentin, Lars; Strony, John; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Moliterno, David J

    2014-09-01

    The therapeutic potential of vorapaxar in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is unknown. This prespecified analysis of a postrandomization subgroup evaluated the effects of vorapaxar compared with placebo among Thrombin Receptor Antagonist for Clinical Event Reduction in Acute Coronary Syndrome (TRACER) participants undergoing PCI, focusing on the implanted stent type (drug-eluting stent [DES] vs bare-metal stent [BMS]). Among 12,944 recruited patients, 7,479 (57.8%) underwent PCI during index hospitalization, and 3,060 (40.9%) of those patients received exclusively BMS, whereas 4,015 (53.7%) received DES. The median (twenty-fifth, seventy-fifth percentiles) duration of thienopyridine therapy was 133 days (47, 246) with BMS and 221 days (88, 341) with DES. At 2 years among patients undergoing PCI, the primary (cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, recurrent ischemia with rehospitalization, or urgent coronary revascularization) and secondary (cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke) end points did not differ between vorapaxar and placebo groups, which was consistent with the treatment effect observed in the overall study population (p value for interaction = 0.540). However, the treatment effect trended greater (p value for interaction = 0.069) and the risk for bleeding in patients taking vorapaxar versus placebo appeared attenuated in BMS-only recipients. After adjustment for confounders, the interaction was no longer significant (p value = 0.301). The covariate that mostly explained the stent-type-by-treatment interaction was the duration of clopidogrel therapy. In conclusion, among patients with PCI, the effect of vorapaxar is consistent with the overall TRACER results. Patients who received a BMS underwent shorter courses of clopidogrel therapy and displayed trends toward greater ischemic benefit from vorapaxar and lesser bleeding risk, compared with patients who received a DES. PMID:25129064

  3. How does coronary stent implantation impact on the status of the microcirculation during primary percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction?

    PubMed Central

    De Maria, Giovanni Luigi; Cuculi, Florim; Patel, Niket; Dawkins, Sam; Fahrni, Gregor; Kassimis, George; Choudhury, Robin P.; Forfar, John C.; Prendergast, Bernard D.; Channon, Keith M.; Kharbanda, Rajesh K.; Banning, Adrian P.

    2015-01-01

    Aims Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) is the optimal treatment for patients presenting with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). An elevated index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR) reflects microvascular function and when measured after PPCI, it can predict an adverse clinical outcome. We measured coronary microvascular function in STEMI patients and compared sequential changes before and after stent implantation. Methods and results In 85 STEMI patients, fractional flow reserve, coronary flow reserve, and IMR were measured using a pressure wire (Certus, St Jude Medical, St Paul, MN, USA) immediately before and after stent implantation. Stenting significantly improved all of the measured parameters of coronary physiology including IMR from 67.7 [interquartile range (IQR): 56.2–95.8] to 36.7 (IQR: 22.7–59.5), P < 0.001. However, after stenting, IMR remained elevated (>40) in 28 (32.9%) patients. In 15 of these patients (17.6% of the cohort), only a partial reduction in IMR occurred and these patients were more likely to be late presenters (pain to wire time >6 h). The extent of jeopardized myocardium [standardized beta: ?0.26 (IMR unit/Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation score unit), P: 0.009] and pre-stenting IMR [standardized beta: ?0.34 (IMR unit), P: 0.001] predicted a reduction in IMR after stenting (?IMR = post-stenting IMR ? pre-stenting IMR), whereas thrombotic burden [standardized beta: 0.24 (IMR unit/thrombus score unit), P: 0.01] and deployed stent volume [standardized beta: 0.26 (IMR unit/mm3 of stent), P: 0.01] were associated with a potentially deleterious increase in IMR. Conclusion Improved perfusion of the myocardium by stent deployment during PPCI is not universal. The causes of impaired microvascular function at the completion of PPCI treatment are heterogeneous, but can reflect a later clinical presentation and/or the location and extent of the thrombotic burden. PMID:26254178

  4. [Qualitative ultrasound analysis as a preliminary step in revascularization of the femoro-popliteal axis].

    PubMed

    Mascoli, F; Mari, F; Taddia, M C; Gresta, E; Donini, A; Occhionorelli, S; Anania, G; Vettorello, G F; Rubbini, M; Bresadola, V

    1990-05-31

    The Authors report on the use of non-invasive techniques in the preliminary evaluation of revascularization of the femoral-popliteal axis. The study of this pathology, for which surgery has become less and less frequent, being limited to the more serious cases, has greatly benefited by the use of H/R echography and of Doppler. These techniques, which remain complementary to angiography, have proved very important and reliable for their capacity to visualize the arterial lumen, an important element for the pre- and post surgical evaluation of vascular recanalization and of the relationship of continuity and continuity with the nearby structures. PMID:2201929

  5. Bowel necrosis following endovascular revascularization for chronic mesenteric ischemia: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Endovascular revascularization has recently been established as a less invasive treatment method for chronic mesenteric ischemia. However, intestinal necrosis caused by distal embolization following this procedure has not been emphasized. Case presentation The present report describes a 59-year-old man who was treated with endovascular revascularization for chronic mesenteric ischemia. After the procedure, he was diagnosed with intestinal necrosis caused by distal embolization. Despite emergent bowel resection, he died on postoperative day 109. Conclusion Although endovascular revascularization for chronic mesenteric ischemia is less invasive and may be suitable for high-risk patients, attention should be paid to avoid embolic complications that can cause intestinal infarction possibly leading to a fatal condition. PMID:23865626

  6. Prospective randomized clinical study of arterial pumps used for routine on pump coronary bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Keyser, Andreas; Hilker, Michael K; Diez, Claudius; Philipp, Alois; Foltan, Maik; Schmid, Christof

    2011-05-01

    In a number of studies, centrifugal blood pumps--in comparison with roller pumps--have been shown to attenuate trauma to blood components. Nevertheless, the impact of these results on the postoperative course needs to be discussed controversially. In a prospective randomized study, 240 consecutive adult patients underwent elective myocardial revascularization with cardiopulmonary bypass employing five different pumps (Roller, Avecor, Sarns, Rotaflow, Bio-Medicus). We analyzed clinical course, blood loss, damage of blood components, and impairment of the hemostatic system. The study population was homogenous with respect to age, gender, myocardial function, and operative data. No differences were found with respect to time of ventilation, duration of intensive care stay, hospitalization, and laboratory data. The choice of arterial pump during standard extracorporeal bypass for elective coronary artery bypass grafting is no matter of concern. PMID:21269302

  7. Randomized trial of the effects of exercise training after coronary artery bypass surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Froelicher, V.; Jensen, D.; Sullivan, M.

    1985-04-01

    Fifty-three male volunteers who had undergone coronary artery bypass surgery were randomized to a medically supervised exercise program (N = 28) or to usual community care (N = 25). They were tested initially and at one year with exercise tests for thallium scintigraphy, maximal oxygen uptake, and electrocardiography. Approximately one third of the patients had signs and/or symptoms of ischemia consistent with incomplete or unsuccessful revascularization. Over the year there were five dropouts, but no major complications occurred. The exercisers attended an average of 82% of the sessions (three times a week) and trained at 80% of their maximal heart rate. Both the exercisers with and those without angina had significant increases in estimated and measured oxygen uptake and significant declines in submaximal and resting heart rate. There was a trend toward improved thallium scans in the exercised patients with angina.

  8. Balloon catheter coronary angioplasty

    SciTech Connect

    Angelini, P.

    1987-01-01

    The author has produced a reference and teaching book on balloon angioplasty. Because it borders in surgery and is performed on an awake patient without circulatory assistance, it is a complex and demanding procedure that requires thorough knowledge before it is attempted. The text is divided into seven sections. The first section describes coronary anatomy and pathophysiology, defines the objectives and mechanisms of the procedure and lists four possible physiologic results. The next section describes equipment in the catheterization laboratory, catheters, guidewires and required personnel. The following section is on the procedure itself and includes a discussion of examination, testing, technique and follow-up. The fourth section details possible complications that can occur during the procedure, such as coronary spasms, occlusion, thrombosis, perforations and ruptures, and also discusses cardiac surgery after failed angioplasty. The fifth section details complex or unusual cases that can occur. The sixth and seventh sections discuss radiation, alternative procedures and the future of angioplasty.

  9. XIENCE PRIME Everolimus Eluting Coronary Stent System (EECSS) China Single-Arm Study

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-07-31

    Angioplasty; Cardiovascular Disease; Chronic Coronary Occlusion; Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG); Coronary Artery Disease; Coronary Heart Disease; Coronary Restenosis; Myocardial Infarction; Myocardial Ischemia; Stent Thrombosis; Vascular Disease

  10. Depression and Coronary Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Karina W.

    2012-01-01

    There are exciting findings in the field of depression and coronary heart disease. Whether diagnosed or simply self-reported, depression continues to mark very high risk for a recurrent acute coronary syndrome or for death in patients with coronary heart disease. Many intriguing mechanisms have been posited to be implicated in the association between depression and heart disease, and randomized controlled trials of depression treatment are beginning to delineate the types of depression management strategies that may benefit the many coronary heart disease patients with depression. PMID:23227360

  11. Acute coronary syndrome caused by left main coronary artery compression between the aortic root and massive dilation of the left atrium.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Wang, Yan

    2015-02-01

    Left main compression by pulmonary artery dilation has been reported previously. Percutaneous or surgical interventions are treatment options. We report on a 78-year-old man with exertional chest pain and dyspnea. Coronary angiography revealed significant ostial left main artery stenosis. Intravascular ultrasound showed no atherosclerotic plaque but did reveal a rhythmic external compression between the aortic root and another lucent structure. The patient underwent successful stenting of the lesion. Subsequently, 64-slice multidetector coronary computed tomography found the source of compression to be an enlarged left atrium. The patient remains free of coronary insufficiency after 18 months of follow-up. PMID:25661561

  12. [Position paper of the Italian Society of Invasive Cardiology (SICI-GISE) on indications for coronary angiography in patients with stable angina].

    PubMed

    Marchese, Alfredo; Rossini, Roberta; Basile, Marco; Bedogni, Francesco; Danzi, Gian Battista; Musumeci, Giuseppe; Paradies, Valeria; Piccaluga, Emanuela; Sardella, Gennaro; Varbella, Ferdinando; Giordano, Arturo; Berti, Sergio

    2015-10-01

    Available data suggest a steep increase in stable coronary artery disease with age. Its prevalence reaches a peak of almost 12-14% in men aged 65-84 years with an annual mortality ranging from 1.2% to 2.4%. The diagnosis of stable angina is primarily based on history and therefore relies on clinical judgment. In addition, its diagnosis can be extremely challenging because of the frequent transition from unstable to stable angina. Current European guidelines on the management of stable coronary artery disease give increased importance to the pre-test probability, which strongly affects the diagnostic algorithms. Imaging techniques play a greater role in the diagnosis of stable angina than in the past. Conversely, despite recent advances in technology and in the physiological assessment of coronary stenosis, an ever decreasing relevance is conferred to coronary angiography. Another difficult and controversial issue relates to the prognostic benefit of myocardial revascularization. The aim of this position paper is to review the most relevant clinical aspects of the European guidelines on the management of stable coronary artery disease. PMID:26444218

  13. Prognosis of patients with coronary artery disease treated in different therapy units at department of cardiology: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Cong; Yao, Yuyu; Wang, Xin; Yu, Chaojun; Ma, Genshan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a major health problem in global. Benefit from different care unit for various type of CAD is remaining unknown. We investigate if coronary care unit (CCU) reduces the incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs). Method: 806 CAD patients including stable angina (SA) and acute coronary syndrome (ACS) who treated in department of cardiology were involved in the study as two groups. Each group involved two subgroups according to the therapy unit including CCU and normal unit. 12-48 months follow-up was carried out. The primary end point was all cause mortality. Results: For SA, death from any cause occurred in 1.0% of the patients in the normal group (1 of 108), as compared with 5.1% in the CCU group (3 of 59) (hazard ratio [HR], 0.164; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.017 to 1.580; P=0.118). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that there were no significant differences between the two subgroups with respect to the risk of death (P=0.074), revascularization (P=0.660), stroke (P=0.497), heart failure (P=0.658) and hemorrhage (P=0.096). For ACS, death occurred in 1.9% of the patients in the normal subgroup (5 of 267), as compared with 1.3% in the CCU subgroup (5 of 372) (HR, 1.403; 95% CI, 0.406-4.846; P=0.593). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that there were no significant differences between the two subgroups with respect to the risk of death (P=0.591), revascularization (P=0.996), stroke (P=0.425), heart failure (P=0.625). Conclusion: CAD patients treated in CCU obtain little benefits compared with normal. PMID:26629060

  14. Goal-setting behaviour and coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Rimé, B; Bonami, M

    1976-09-01

    In order to test Dunbar's (1943) theory about goal-setting behaviour in cardiovascular subjects, measures of performance and goal levels were taken on 25 coronary subjects, 25 hypertensive subjects and a control group of 25 fracture subjects. Ths hypertensive pattern of goal-setting behaviour appeared not significantly discriminated from that of control subjects, although the data were in the direction predicted by Dunbar, hypertensive subjects being higher for success and for low goals. For coronary subjects, the results were in complete agreement with the tested theory, these subjects showing a significantly higher rate of high goals than control subjects, and recording a higher rate of failure. PMID:1009291

  15. Incidence of stroke and acute renal failure in patients of postoperative atrial fibrillation after myocardial revascularization

    PubMed Central

    Barbieri, Lucas Regatieri; Sobral, Marcelo Luiz Peixoto; Gerônimo, Glaucio Mauren da Silva; dos Santos, Gilmar Geraldo; Sbaraíni, Evandro; Dorfman, Fabio Kirzner; Stolf, Noedir Antônio Groppo

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Postoperative atrial fibrillation is the most common arrhythmia in cardiac surgery, its incidence range between 20% and 40%. Objective Quantify the occurrence of stroke and acute renal insufficiency after myocardial revascularization surgery in patients who had atrial fibrillation postoperatively. Methods Cohort longitudinal bidirectional study, performed at Portuguese Beneficent Hospital (SP), with medical chart survey of patients undergoing myocardial revascularization surgery between June 2009 to July 2010. From a total of 3010 patients were weaned 382 patients that presented atrial fibrillation preoperatively and/or associated surgeries. The study was conducted in accordance with national and international following resolutions: ICH Harmonized Tripartite Guidelines for Good Clinical Practice - 1996; CNS196/96 Resolution, and Declaration of Helsinki. Results The 2628 patients included in this study were divided into two groups: Group I, who didn't show postoperative atrial fibrillation, with 2302 (87.6%) patients; and group II, with 326 (12.4%) who developed postoperative atrial fibrillation. The incidence of stroke in patients was 1.1% without postoperative atrial fibrillation vs. 4% with postoperative atrial fibrillation (P<0.001). Postoperative acute renal failure was observed in 12% of patients with postoperative atrial fibrillation and 2.4% in the group without postoperative atrial fibrillation (P<0.001), that is a relation 5 times greater. Conclusion In this study there was a high incidence of stroke and acute renal failure in patients with postoperative atrial fibrillation, with rates higher than those reported in the literature. PMID:24598947

  16. A new technology for revascularization of cerebral embolism using liquid jet impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodama, Tetsuya; Takayama, Kazuyoshi; Uenohara, Hiroshi

    1997-12-01

    Revascularization time is the dominant factor in the treatment of acute cerebral embolism. In this paper we describe a rapid revascularization therapy using liquid jets generated by the interaction of gas bubbles with shock waves, which impact on the thrombi. The interaction of a shock wave with a gas bubble attached to an artificial thrombus which was inserted into a tube model of a cerebral artery was investigated. The shock wave was generated by detonating a microexplosive pellet. The overpressure of the shock wave was (n = 7) and (n = 3). The initial air bubble radii were varied from 0.87 mm to 2.18 mm. The subsequent collapse of the bubble was photographed using a high-speed framing camera, and the liquid jet penetrating into the artificial thrombus was visualized using x-ray photography. The penetration depth of the liquid jet increased with increasing bubble size. There was an optimal separation distance between the bubble and the shock wave source to obtain the maximum penetration depth. Liquid jets have the potential to penetrate through thrombi in as little as a few microseconds, and with very efficient ablation.

  17. Assessment of Silent Neuronal Injury Following Coronary Angiography and Intervention in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Aykan, Ahmet Ça?r?; Gökdeniz, Tayyar; Bekta?, Hüseyin; Boyac?, Faruk; Gül, ?lker; Hatem, Engin; Kalayc?o?lu, Ezgi; Turan, Turhan; Çevirme, Deniz; Çelik, ?ükrü

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the incidence and predictors of silent neuronal injury (SNI) after coronary angiography (CAG) and intervention by serial measurement of serum neuron-specific enolase (NSE) in patients presented with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Ninety-eight consecutive patients presented with ACS and underwent CAG and intervention were included in the study. The NSE levels significantly increased after CAG and intervention compared to baseline levels (22.03 ± 27.70 and 10.08 ± 3.15 consecutively). Left ventricular ejection fraction in the SNI+ group was significantly lower than that in the SNI- group (43.71% ± 12.51%, 50.84% ± 9.34%, P = .002). Maximal creatinine kinase myocardial band, troponin I, and SYNTAX score of the SNI+ group were significantly higher than those of the SNI- group (103.83 ± 99.22, 51.92 ± 78.33, P = .006; 50.04 ± 66.18, 19.18 ± 30.50, P = .002; 103.83 ± 99.22, 51.92 ± 78.33, P = .006; and 50.04 ± 66.18, 19.18 ± 30.50, P = .002 successively). SYNTAX score and performing percutaneous coronary intervention were the independent predictors of SNI (P = .009, odds ratio [OR] = 1.06, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.014-1.107, P = .036, OR = 4.262, 95% CI = 1.097-16.56). Percutaneous coronary intervention and coronary artery lesion complexity may increase the risk of SNI in patients with ACS. PMID:24798685

  18. Ranolazine versus placebo in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy and persistent chest pain or dyspnea despite optimal medical and revascularization therapy: randomized, double-blind crossover pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Shammas, Nicolas W; Shammas, Gail A; Keyes, Kathleen; Duske, Shawna; Kelly, Ryan; Jerin, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) may continue to experience persistent chest pain and/or dyspnea despite pharmacologic therapy and revascularization. We hypothesized that ranolazine would reduce anginal symptoms or dyspnea in optimally treated ICM patients. Methods In this randomized, double-blind, crossover-design pilot study, 28 patients with ICM (ejection fraction less or equal 40%) were included after providing informed consent. A total of 24 patients completed both placebo and ranolazine treatments and were analyzed. All patients were on treatment with a beta blocker, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (or angiotensin receptor blocker), and at least one additional antianginal drug. After randomization, patients received up to 1,000 mg ranolazine orally twice a day, as tolerated, versus placebo. The primary end point was change in angina as assessed by the Seattle Angina Questionnaire (SAQ), or in dyspnea as assessed by the Rose Dyspnea Scale (RDS). Change in the RDS and SAQ score from baseline was compared, for ranolazine and placebo, using the Wilcoxon signed rank test or paired t-test. Results Patients had the following demographic and clinical variables: mean age of 71.5 years; male (82.1%); prior coronary bypass surgery (67.9%); prior coronary percutaneous intervention (85.7%); prior myocardial infarction (82.1%); diabetes (67.9%); and mean ejection fraction of 33.1%. No statistical difference was seen between baseline RDS score and that after placebo or ranolazine (n=20) (P?0.05). There was however, an improvement in anginal frequency (8/10 patients) (P=0.058), quality of life (8/10 patients) (P=0.048), and mean score of all components of the SAQ questionnaire (n=10) (P=0.047) with ranolazine compared with placebo. Conclusion In optimally treated ICM patients with continued chest pain or dyspnea, ranolazine possibly had a positive impact on quality of life, a reduction in anginal frequency, and an overall improvement in the mean SAQ component score compared with baseline. Ranolazine did not change the dyspnea score compared with baseline. PMID:25848292

  19. Acute coronary occlusion during percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty.

    PubMed Central

    Shiu, M F; Silverton, N P; Oakley, D; Cumberland, D

    1985-01-01

    Two hundred and forty percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty procedures were performed in three centres over a two year period. Acute occlusion of the vessel undergoing angioplasty was seen on 20 (8%) occasions. The cause of occlusion was determined angiographically and in some cases confirmed at the time of emergency open heart surgery. The mechanism of coronary occlusion was arterial dissection in six cases, persisting coronary arterial spasm in seven, and coronary thrombosis in four. In three patients the mechanism could not be determined. Immediate reintroduction of a balloon dilatation catheter was attempted in 10 patients and resulted in restoration of adequate coronary flow in six. The remaining 14 patients underwent open heart surgery as an emergency procedure. Images PMID:3160376

  20. Percutaneous coronary intervention with anomalous origin of right coronary artery: case reports and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Li-Feng; Luo, Song-Hui; Li, Jian-Jun

    2013-01-01

    Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in an anomalous right coronary artery (RCA) can be technically difficult because selective cannulation of the vessel may not be easy. We thereby present two cases with unstable angina pectoris of anomalous originated RCA. The PCI were successfully performed in two patients with a special guiding wire manipulating skill which we called “gone with the flow” combined with balloon anchoring technology, providing excellent angiographic visualization and sound guide support for stent delivery throughout the procedure without severe cardiovascular adverse effects. Our primary data suggested that PCI for geriatric patients with an anomalous origin of RCA accompanied by severe atherosclerotic lesions might also be a safe, available, and feasible strategy. PMID:23888182

  1. Update: Acute coronary syndromes (IX). Secondary prevention strategies for acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Quiles, Juan; Miralles-Vicedo, Beatriz

    2014-10-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the main health problem in Europe and the rest of the world and is the leading cause of death and health care expenditure. By reducing mortality and ischemic event recurrence, prevention strategies play a fundamental role in patients who have had an acute coronary syndrome. Although these prevention strategies have focused with great success on high-risk individuals, they should also be used in the general population, which is showing an increase in the prevalence of obesity, diabetes mellitus, and other comorbidities that may reverse this trend toward reduced mortality. The present article consists of an up-to-date review of the main cardiovascular prevention measures, particularly the new developments of the last year, as well as the particularities of these measures when they are targeted at patients with a prior acute coronary syndrome. PMID:25262131

  2. The Coronary Patient in Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuster, B.

    1971-01-01

    The coronary patient, as he pertains to industry particularly NASA, is discussed. Concepts of precoronary care, acute attacks which may develop while on the job, and the return of the cardiac patient to work are covered. Major emphasis was on the prevention of sudden death due to coronary disease.

  3. Living with Coronary Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and obesity, and others. Living With and Managing Coronary Artery Disease 08/13/2011 This video—presented by the ... part of the National Institutes of Health—describes coronary artery disease (CAD), its symptoms and complications, and ways to ...

  4. Wire mesh allows more revascularization than a strut in impaction bone grafting: an animal study in goats.

    PubMed

    Bolder, Stefan B T; Schreurs, B Willem; Verdonschot, Nico; Veth, Rene P H; Buma, Pieter

    2004-06-01

    Segmental defects can be reconstructed with a cortical strut or a metal wire mesh when using bone impaction grafting in the femur. We hypothesized that structural grafts would negatively influence revascularization of the underlying impacted grafts compared with an open wire mesh. A standardized large medial wall defect was reconstructed with a strut or a mesh in six goats per group. In all femurs impaction grafting was done in combination with a cemented collarless double-tapered highly polished Exeter stem. After 6 weeks the femurs were harvested. A high rate of periprosthetic fractures was observed (three of seven and two of six for the strut and mesh groups, respectively). Histologic analysis showed different revascularization and tissue ingrowth patterns for both reconstruction techniques. In the strut group, fibrous tissue ingrowth was limited to the edges of the defect. Medially behind the strut no or limited fibrous tissue ingrowth was found. In the mesh group, fibrous tissue and blood vessels penetrated the mesh and a superficial zone of revascularized grafts was observed. Although revascularization, concomitant graft resorption and bone incorporation may compromise the short-term stability of the stem after surgery, the long-term stability of the stem probably is best guaranteed by graft incorporation. PMID:15232463

  5. Efficacy of one- vs. two-stent implantation for coronary bifurcation lesions in diabetic patients utilizing AIR2 as an endpoint

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhizhong; Jin, Guozhen; Qi, Yuzhen; Shan, Shoujie; Zhang, Junjie; Ye, Fei; Tian, Nailiang; Chen, Jiupei; Chen, Shaoliang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to assess the long term outcomes (all-cause death, myocardial infarction, target vessel revascularization, and silent restenosis at 12 months) of one-stent vs. two-stent implantation due to coronary bifurcation lesionsin diabetic patients using AIR2 as a new endpoint. Methods and Results: A total of 178 diabetic patients with true coronary bifurcation lesions underwent percutaneous coronary intervention in the DK-Crush trials. All patients were stratified based on the stent placement strategy: one-stent group (n=76) and two-stent group (n=102). Results showed the primary endpoint, AIR2, in one-stent group was twice that in two-stent group (32.9% vs. 16.7%, P=0.013). The incidence of silent restenosis at 12 months was also significantly higher in one-stent group (19.7% versus 4.9%, P=0.003). Moreover, Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed the cumulative AIR2-free survival rate after a 12-month follow-up was markedly lower in one-stent group than in two-stent group. Interestingly, MACEs, including death, myocardial infarction and repeat revascularization, were not comparable between 2 groups (13.2% vs. 12.7%, P=0.935). Likewise, the incidence of definite or probable ST in one-stent group was also similar to that in two-stent group (2.6% vs. 4.9%, P=0.761). Conclusion: Our study indicates that, in terms of the AIR2 as a combined clinical and angiographic endpoint, two-stent implantation is superior to one-stent implantation for the treatment of coronary bifurcation intervention in diabetic patients. PMID:26380025

  6. A lotus root-like appearance in both the left anterior descending and right coronary arteries.

    PubMed

    Kadowaki, Hiromu; Taguchi, Eiji; Kotono, Yoshihiro; Suzuyama, Hiroto; Yoshida, Masayoshi; Miyamoto, Shinzo; Sakamoto, Tomohiro; Nishigami, Kazuhiro; Nakao, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    A 60-year-old man was referred to our hospital because of dyspnea on exertion. He was diagnosed with heart failure due to an old myocardial infarction. Myocardial stress perfusion scintigraphy revealed inducible myocardial ischemia. Coronary angiography revealed hazy slit lesions in both the left anterior descending (LAD) and right coronary arteries (RCA). We first performed percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) on the LAD lesion. Subsequently, we performed PCI for the RCA lesion using multiple imaging modalities. We observed a lotus root-like appearance in both the LAD and RCA, and PCI was successful for both vessels. We describe this rare case in detail. PMID:25142445

  7. Spontaneous coronary artery dissection in a 22-year-old man on lisdexamfetamine

    PubMed Central

    Afzal, Aasim M.; Sarmast, Syed A.; Weber, Nicholas A.

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a rare cause of coronary events and sudden cardiac death. SCAD can present with a wide spectrum of clinical presentations and as an entity remains underrecognized. Several risk factors, such as female gender, peripartum and early postpartum state, and atherosclerotic disease, have been attributed to SCAD. Amphetamine use has been attributed to an increased risk for coronary artery events. We present a case of a 22-year-old man on lisdexamfetamine and no other significant medical history who presented with SCAD and was successfully treated with medical management. PMID:26130892

  8. Long-term results of infrainguinal revascularization with polytetrafluoroethylene: a ten-year experience.

    PubMed

    Quiñones-Baldrich, W J; Prego, A A; Ucelay-Gomez, R; Freischlag, J A; Ahn, S S; Baker, J D; Machleder, H I; Moore, W S

    1992-08-01

    Two hundred fifty-eight patients underwent 322 infrainguinal revascularizations with use of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) between 1978 and 1988. The indication was limb salvage in 190 (59%) reconstructions. Two hundred nineteen (68%) were above-knee, and 75 (23%) were below-knee femoropopliteal bypasses. Twenty-eight (8.6%) were femoral-infrapopliteal bypasses, all done for limb salvage. Follow-up ranged from 24 to 144 months (mean, 66 months). The perioperative mortality rate (1 to 30 days) was 3.4% (9 patients), with no significant difference according to indication (2.9% vs 3.7%). Actuarial primary patency at 8 years for the entire series of femoropopliteal bypasses was 53% (above knee 53%; below knee 39%; p less than 0.05), and improved with additional procedures for a secondary patency of 72%. Femoropopliteal bypasses done for severe claudication had an 8-year actuarial primary patency of 63%, compared with 38% for limb salvage (p less than 0.02). Actuarial limb salvage in the latter group at 8 years was 66%. Femoral-infrapopliteal reconstructions with PTFE had a significantly lower primary patency at 3 years (22%, with a 37% limb salvage). Sixty-four percent of the failures for all reconstructions (N = 111) occurred within 12 months, with remarkable stabilization of patency curves beyond that interval. This experience represents the largest reported series of PTFE reconstruction with longest follow-up to date and may serve as a basis for comparison of other conduits. These results suggest an important role for PTFE in femoropopliteal revascularization and a limited role of this prosthetic conduit in femoral-infrapopliteal arterial reconstructions. PMID:1495144

  9. Management of Vascular Risk Factors in the Carotid Revascularization Endarterectomy Versus Stenting Trial (CREST)

    PubMed Central

    Meschia, James F.; Voeks, Jenifer H.; Leimgruber, Pierre P.; Mantese, Vito A.; Timaran, Carlos H.; Chiu, David; Demaerschalk, Bart M.; Howard, Virginia J.; Hughes, Susan E.; Longbottom, Mary; Howard, Annie Green; Brott, Thomas G.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Carotid Revascularization Endarterectomy Versus Stenting Trial (CREST) is a multicenter randomized trial of stenting versus endarterectomy in patients with symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid disease. This study assesses management of vascular risk factors. Methods and Results Management was provided by the patient's physician, with biannual monitoring results collected by the local site. Therapeutic targets were low?density lipoprotein, cholesterol <100 mg/dL, systolic blood pressure <140 mm Hg, fasting blood glucose <126 mg/dL, and nonsmoking status. Optimal control was defined as achieving all 4 goals concurrently. Generalized estimating equations were used to compare risk factors at baseline with those observed in scheduled follow?up visits for up to 48 months. In the analysis cohort of 2210, significant improvements in risk?factor control were observed across risk factors for all follow?up visits compared with baseline. At 48 months, achievement of the low?density lipoprotein cholesterol goal improved from 59.1% to 73.6% (P<0.001), achievement of the systolic blood pressure goal improved from 51.6% to 65.1% (P<0.001), achievement of the glucose goal improved from 74.9% to 80.7% (P=0.0101), and nonsmoking improved from 74.4% to 80.9% (P<0.0001). The percentage with optimal risk?factor control also improved significantly, from 16.7% to 36.2% (P<0.001), but nearly 2 of 3 study participants did not achieve optimal control during the study. Conclusions Site?based risk?factor control improved significantly in the first 6 months and over the long term in CREST but was often suboptimal. Intensive medical management should be considered for future trials of carotid revascularization. Clinical Trial Registration URL: ClinicalTrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00004732. PMID:25428209

  10. Human nerve xenografting in nude mouse: Experimental study of graft revascularization

    SciTech Connect

    Duprez, K.; Bour, C.; Merle, M.; Duprez, A. )

    1991-01-01

    In the nude mouse, the congenital absence of T lymphocytes makes it possible to implant human nerve grafts without rejection or iatrogenic modifications (by immunosuppression) of human and murine tissues. Medial antebrachial cutaneous nerves were harvested from human cadavers 1-18 hours after death. These nerve grafts were implanted using different techniques in nude mice. All the grafts were macroscopically and microscopically revascularized 3 days after implantation. The modifications in time of this vascularization could be studied with precision through the use of repeated biopsies. The absence of human blood group antigens on the neovessel endothelium suggested a murine origin for angiogenesis. In situ DNA hybridizations with human and mouse DNA confirmed this origin. The topography of the revascularization (maximal in the perineurium and endoneurium) and the almost complete absence of human cells other than Schwann cells in the grafts at the peak of angiogenesis (26 days after grafting) suggested that Schwann cells had a determining role in graft vascularization. The irradiation of the nerve grafts with a dose of 30 grays before implantation did not modify significantly their histologic appearance compared to the control group, whereas an irradiation of 60 grays led to massive lesions. The neurotization of murine axons led to chimerical structures of normal histologic appearance, with vascularization similar to that observed in nonneurotized nerves. Through chimerism (human Schwann cells, murine vessels and axons) this model makes it possible to dissociate the respective role of the host and of the nerve graft in angiogenesis and suggests the existence of growth factors produced by the human Schwann cells.

  11. Invited Review: “Percutaneous revascularization for ischemic nephropathy: Past, Present and Future”

    PubMed Central

    Textor, Stephen C.; Misra, Sanjay; Oderich, Gustavo

    2012-01-01

    Occlusion of the renal arteries can threaten the viability of the kidney when severe, in addition to accelerating hypertension and circulatory congestion. Renal artery stenting procedures have evolved from a treatment mainly for renovascular hypertension to a maneuver capable of recovering threatened renal function in patients with “ischemic nephropathy” and improving management of congestive heart failure. Improved catheter design and techniques have reduced, but not eliminated hazards associated with renovascular stenting. Expanded use of endovascular stent grafts to treat abdominal aortic aneurysms has introduced a new indication for renal artery stenting to protect the renal circulation when grafts cross the origins of the renal arteries. Although controversial, prospective randomized trials to evaluate the added benefit of revascularization to current medical therapy for atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis until now have failed to identify major benefits regarding either renal function or blood pressure control. These studies have been limited by selection bias and have been harshly criticized. While studies of tissue oxygenation using blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) MR establish that kidneys can adapt to reduced blood flow to some degree, more severe occlusive disease leads to cortical hypoxia associated with microvascular rarefication, inflammatory injury and fibrosis. Current research is directed toward identifying pathways of irreversible kidney injury due to vascular occlusion and to increase the potential for renal repair after restoring renal artery patency. The role of nephrologists likely will focus upon recognizing the limits of renal adaptation to vascular disease and identifying kidneys truly at risk for ischemic injury at a time point when renal revascularization can still be of benefit to recovering kidney function. PMID:23151953

  12. Transcatheter Embolization of a Coronary Fistula Originating from the Left Anterior Descending Artery by Using N-Butyl 2-Cyanoacrylate

    SciTech Connect

    Karagoz, Tevfik; Celiker, Alpay E-mail: tkaraqoz@hacettepe.edu.tr; Cil, Barbaros; Cekirge, Saruhan

    2004-11-15

    In this report, we describe a successful percutaneous transcatheter n-butyl 2-cyanoacrylate embolization of a coronary fistula originating from the left anterior descending artery in an adolescent with unexpected recurrent attacks of myocardial ischemia.

  13. Investigation Route of the Coronary Patient in the Public Health System in Curitiba, São Paulo and in Incor - IMPACT Study

    PubMed Central

    Cerci, Juliano J.; Trindade, Evelinda; Preto, Daniel; Cerci, Rodrigo Julio; Lemos, Pedro A.; Cesar, Luiz Antonio Machado; Preto, Luís; Stinghen, Luiz; Martinez, Cátia; Meneghetti, José Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Background: The investigation of stable coronary artery disease (CAD) and its treatment depend on risk stratification for decision-making on the need for cardiac catheterization and revascularization. Objective: To analyze the procedures used in the diagnosis and invasive treatment of patients with CAD, at the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS) in the cities of Curitiba, São Paulo and at InCor-FMUSP. Methods: Retrospective, descriptive, observational study of the diagnostic and therapeutic itineraries of the Brazilian public health care system patient, between groups submitted or not to prior noninvasive tests to invasive cardiac catheterization. Stress testing, stress echocardiography, perfusion scintigraphy, catheterization and percutaneous or surgical revascularization treatment procedures were quantified and the economic impact of the used strategies. Results: There are significant differences in the assessment of patients with suspected or known CAD in the metropolitan region in the three scenarios. Although functional testing procedures are most often used the direct costs of these procedures differ significantly (6.1% in Curitiba, 20% in São Paulo and 27% in InCor-FMUSP). Costs related to the procedures and invasive treatments represent 59.7% of the direct costs of SUS in São Paulo and 87.2% in Curitiba. In InCor-FMUSP, only 24.3% of patients with stable CAD submitted to CABG underwent a noninvasive test before the procedure. Conclusion: Although noninvasive functional tests are the ones most often requested for the assessment of patients with suspected or known CAD most of the costs are related to invasive procedures/treatments. In most revascularized patients, the documentation of ischemic burden was not performed by SUS. PMID:25076179

  14. Emergent Right Coronary Artery Thrombectomy with a Jet Aspiration Thrombectomy Catheter

    SciTech Connect

    Yamauchi, Teiyu; Furui, Shigeru; Isshiki, Takaaki; Toyoizumi, Hideki; Kohtake, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Kohji; Suzuki, Shigeru; Harasawa, Arimi; Sasaki, Yasushi

    1999-07-15

    A saline-jet aspiration thrombectomy (JAT) catheter was used in a patient with acute myocardial infarction. A right coronary arteriogram showed complete thrombotic occlusion at the proximal segment. With this catheter the thrombus was removed without complications in 5 sec. The patient underwent percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty and placement of a Palmaz-Schatz stent after successful thrombectomy. Thrombectomy with a JAT catheter was very useful in this patient.0.

  15. Pathophysiology of coronary artery disease leading to acute coronary syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Manmeet

    2015-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and sudden cardiac death (SCD) are among the most serious and catastrophic of acute cardiac disorders, accounting for hundreds of thousands of deaths each year worldwide. Although the incidence of AMI has been decreasing in the US according to the American Heart Association, heart disease is still the leading cause of mortality in adults. In most cases of AMI and in a majority of cases of SCD, the underlying pathology is acute intraluminal coronary thrombus formation within an epicardial coronary artery leading to total or near-total acute coronary occlusion. This article summarizes our current understanding of the pathophysiology of these acute coronary syndromes and briefly discusses new approaches currently being researched in an attempt to define and ultimately reduce their incidence. PMID:25705391

  16. [Acute coronary syndromes with ST-segment elevation and anomalous connections of the coronary arteries].

    PubMed

    Aubry, P; Halna du Fretay, X; Dibon, O; Dupouy, P; Juliard, J-M

    2015-12-01

    Acute coronary syndrome with ST-segment elevation associated with an anomalous connection of a coronary artery, when the latter is the culprit, may be problematic. Anatomic and radiologic knowledge of major congenital coronary abnormalities and some catheterization skills can help the operators not to delay a beneficial coronary reperfusion. The relationship between acute coronary syndromes with ST-segment elevation and anomalous connections of the coronary arteries needs to be analyzed with a large number of cases because the coronary artery disease frequency may vary with the type of coronary anomaly. PMID:26482632

  17. Risk score model for the assessment of coronary artery disease in asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Park, Gyung-Min; An, Hyonggin; Lee, Seung-Whan; Cho, Young-Rak; Gil, Eun Ha; Her, Sung Ho; Kim, Young-Hak; Lee, Cheol Whan; Koh, Eun Hee; Lee, Woo Je; Kim, Min-Seon; Lee, Ki-Up; Kang, Joon-Won; Lim, Tae-Hwan; Park, Seong-Wook; Park, Seung-Jung; Park, Joong-Yeol

    2015-01-01

    No model has been developed to predict significant coronary artery disease (CAD) on coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) in asymptomatic type 2 diabetes. Therefore, we sought to develop a model for the prediction of significant CAD on CCTA in these patients. We analyzed 607 asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes who underwent CCTA. The cardiac event was defined as a composite of cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, acute coronary syndrome, and coronary revascularization. Significant CAD (diameter stenosis ?50%) in at least one coronary artery on CCTA was observed in 188 (31.0%). During the follow-up period (median 4.3 [interquartile range, 3.7-4.8] years), 71 patients had 83 cardiac events. Clinical risk factors for significant CAD were age, male gender, duration of diabetes, hypertension, current smoking, family history of premature CAD, previous history of stroke, ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and neuropathy. Using these variables, we formulated a risk score model, and the scores ranged from 0 to 17 (area under the curve?=?0.727, 95% confidence interval?=?0.714-0.739, P?

  18. The Impella Recover 2.5 and TandemHeart Ventricular Assist Devices are Safe and Associated with Equivalent Clinical Outcomes in Patients Undergoing High-Risk Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Kovacic, Jason C.; Nguyen, Huy T.; Karajgikar, Rucha; Sharma, Samin K.; Kini, Annapoorna S.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To compare the practical use, safety and clinical outcomes associated with the TandemHeart (TH) versus Impella Recover 2.5 (IR2.5) devices when used for circulatory support during high-risk percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Background Small studies and registries suggest safety and efficacy for the TH and IR2.5 percutaneous-left ventricular assist devices (P-LVADs). However, these P-LVADs differ markedly in their insertion, operation and manner of circulatory augmentation. To date, no study has compared these devices. Methods We identified 68 patients (49 males, 19 females; age 71.1±12.1 years) from our single-center database that underwent ‘high-risk’ PCI with P-LVAD support from 04/2005–06/2010 (32 with TH, 36 with IR2.5). Relevant data were extracted and imputed for analysis. Results Baseline demographics were similar, including low LVEF (overall mean 31.0±13.7%) and elevated STS mortality risk score (4.2±3.7%). Angiographic characteristics were also similar, with a mean of 2.4±1.0 lesions treated per patient, and 29% undergoing left main PCI. PCI success rates were 99% in both groups, with similar in-hospital outcomes and a combined 7% major vascular access site complication rate. A single episode of left atrial perforation occurred during TH use. No patient required emergent CABG and no in-hospital deaths occurred. The 30 day MACE rate (death, myocardial infarction, target lesion revascularization) was 5.8%. There were no differences between the IR2.5 and TH groups with respect to short- or long-term clinical outcomes. Conclusions The IR2.5 and TH assist devices are safe, equally effective, and associated with acceptable short- and long-term clinical outcomes in patients undergoing ‘high-risk’ PCI. PMID:21234916

  19. Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Enhances Accelerative Wave Intensity in Coronary Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, Om; Leung, Michael C. H.; Wong, Dennis T. L.; Meredith, Ian T.; Cameron, James D.

    2015-01-01

    Background The systolic forward travelling compression wave (sFCW) and diastolic backward travelling decompression waves (dBEW) predominantly accelerate coronary blood flow. The effect of a coronary stenosis on the intensity of these waves in the distal vessel is unknown. We investigated the relationship between established physiological indices of hyperemic coronary flow and the intensity of the two major accelerative coronary waves identified by Coronary Wave Intensity analysis (CWIA). Methodology / Principal Findings Simultaneous intracoronary pressure and velocity measurement was performed during adenosine induced hyperemia in 17 patients with pressure / Doppler flow wires positioned distal to the target lesion. CWI profiles were generated from this data. Fractional Flow Reserve (FFR) and Coronary Flow Velocity Reserve (CFVR) were calculated concurrently. The intensity of the dBEW was significantly correlated with FFR (R = -0.70, P = 0.003) and CFVR (R = -0.73, P = 0.001). The intensity of the sFCW was also significantly correlated with baseline FFR (R = 0.71, p = 0.002) and CFVR (R = 0.59, P = 0.01). Stenting of the target lesion resulted in a median 178% (interquartile range 55–280%) (P<0.0001) increase in sFCW intensity and a median 117% (interquartile range 27–509%) (P = 0.001) increase in dBEW intensity. The increase in accelerative wave intensity following PCI was proportionate to the baseline FFR and CFVR, such that stenting of lesions associated with the greatest flow limitation (lowest FFR and CFVR) resulted in the largest increases in wave intensity. Conclusions Increasing ischemia severity is associated with proportionate reductions in cumulative intensity of both major accelerative coronary waves. Impaired diastolic microvascular decompression may represent a novel, important pathophysiologic mechanism driving the reduction in coronary blood flow in the setting of an epicardial stenosis. PMID:26658896

  20. Characteristics, management, and in-hospital outcomes of diabetic patients with acute coronary syndrome in the United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Shehab, Abdulla; Al-Dabbagh, Bayan; Almahmeed, Wael; Bustani, Nazar; Agrawal, Amrish; Yusufali, Afzal; Wassef, Adel; Alnaeemi, Abdulla; Alsheikh-Ali, Alawi A

    2012-01-01

    We describe the baseline characteristics, management, and in-hospital outcomes of patients in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) with DM admitted with an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and assess the influence of DM on in-hospital mortality. Data was analyzed from 1697 patients admitted to various hospitals in the UAE with a diagnosis of ACS in 2007 as part of the 1st Gulf RACE (Registry of Acute Coronary Events). Of 1697 patients enrolled, 668 (39.4%) were diabetics. Compared to patients without DM, diabetic patients were more likely to have a past history of coronary artery disease (49.1% versus 30.1%, P < 0.001), hypertension (67.2% versus 36%, P < 0.001), and prior revascularization (21% versus 11.4%, P < 0.001). They experienced more in-hospital recurrent ischemia (8.5% versus 5.1%; P = 0.004) and heart failure (20% versus 10%; P < 0.001). The mortality rate was 2.7% for diabetics and 1.6% for nondiabetics (P = 0.105). After age adjustment, in-hospital mortality increased by 3.5% per year of age (P = 0.016). This mortality was significantly higher in females than in males (P = 0.04). ACS patients with DM have different clinical characteristics and appear to have poorer outcomes. PMID:22778703

  1. Clinical Presentation, Management and Outcome of Acute Coronary Syndrome in Yemen: Data from GULF RACE - 2 Registry

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Al-Motarreb; Abdulwahab, Al-Matry; Hesham, Al-Fakih; Nawar, Wather

    2013-01-01

    Background: Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) is increasing in Yemen in recent years and there are no data available on its short and long-term outcome. We evaluated the clinical pictures, management, in-hospital, and long-term outcomes of the ACS patients in Yemen. Design and Setting: A 9-month prospective, multi-center study conducted in 26 hospitals from 9 governorates. The study included 30-day and 1-year mortality follow-up. Patients and Methods: One thousand seven hundred and sixty one patients with ACS were collected prospectively during the 9-month period. Patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTEACS), including non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction and unstable angina were included. Conclusions: ACS patients in Yemen present at a relatively young age with high prevalence of Smoking, khat chewing and hypertension. STEMI patients present late, and their acute management is poor. In-hospital evidence-based medication rates are high, but coronary revascularization procedures were very low. In-hospital mortality was high and long-term mortality rates increased two folds compared with the in-hospital mortality. PMID:24695681

  2. Comparison of outcomes in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction discharged on versus not on statin therapy (from the Harmonizing Outcomes With Revascularization and Stents in Acute Myocardial Infarction Trial).

    PubMed

    Larsen, Alf I; Tomey, Matthew I; Mehran, Roxana; Nilsen, Dennis W T; Kirtane, Ajay J; Witzenbichler, Bernhard; Guagliumi, Giulio; Brener, Sorin J; Généreux, Philippe; Kornowski, Ran; Dudek, Dariusz; Gersh, Bernard J; Stone, Gregg W

    2014-04-15

    Statin therapy is indicated after ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) to reduce recurrent ischemic events, but approximately 6% of patients with STEMI do not receive a statin prescription at discharge. This substudy aimed to define the clinical outcomes and patient characteristics associated with statin nonprescription after STEMI. We compared clinical, angiographic, and procedural characteristics and in-hospital, 30-day, 1-year, 2-year, and 3-year outcomes in 3,512 patients discharged after STEMI with and without (6%) statin prescriptions in the harmonizing outcomes with revascularization and stents in acute myocardial infarction trial (www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00433966). Statin nonprescription was associated with female sex, nonwhite race, previous bypass surgery, heart failure, renal impairment, anemia, thrombocytopenia, care in the United States, lower prescription rates of antiplatelets and neurohormonal antagonists, less percutaneous coronary intervention and stents, and, in 26% of cases, angiographically normal or nonobstructed coronary arteries. At every time point of follow-up after discharge, patients with no discharge statin prescription had significantly higher rates of net adverse clinical events, major adverse cardiac events, major bleeding unrelated to bypass surgery, and death. After multivariable adjustment, absence of a discharge statin prescription independently predicted 3-year major adverse cardiac event (hazard ratio 1.54, 95% confidence interval 1.15 to 2.07, p=0.0037) and death (hazard ratio 2.30, 95% confidence interval 1.41 to 3.77, p=0.0009). In conclusion, within the framework of this randomized trial of patients presenting with STEMI, approximately 6% of patients were discharged without statin therapy. Absence of a discharge statin prescription after STEMI was an independent predictor of ischemic events including death. PMID:24576541

  3. Impact of admission triglyceride for early outcome in diabetic patients with stable coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The role of triglyceride (TG) in predicting the outcomes in diabetic patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) has not been well investigated. Methods A total of 329 cases with stable angina pectoris (SAP) were prospectively enrolled and followed up for an average of 12 months. They were classified into the two groups according to the cut-off values of predicting early outcome of fasting TG level (low group <1.2 mmol/L, n?=?103; High group ?1.2 mmol/L, n?=?226). The relationship between the TG levels and early outcomes were evaluated. Results High TG group showed severer lipid profile and elevated inflammatory markers. During an average of 12-month follow-up, 47 out of 329 patients suffered from pre-specified outcomes. Area under the receivers operating characteristic curve suggested that TG, similar to serum Hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C), was a significant predictor of early outcome for diabetic patients with SAP (P?=?0.002). In Cox regression models, after adjusted age, gender, body mass index, other lipid parameters, fasting blood glucose, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, neutrophil count and HbA1C, TG remained as an independent predictor of adverse prognosis. Conclusions High level of fasting TG (?1.2 mmol/L) was an independent predictor for early outcome of diabetic patients with SAP as like as HBA1c and number of affected coronary arteries in the era of revascularization and statin therapeutics. PMID:24766776

  4. Coronary Artery Disease Risk Factors, Coronary Artery Calcification and Coronary Bypass Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ulusoy, Fatih Rifat; Ipek, Emrah; Korkmaz, Ali Fuat; Gurler, Mehmet Yavuz; Gulbaran, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Atherosclerosis is an intimal disease which affects large and medium size arteries including aorta and carotid, coronary, cerebral and radial arteries. Calcium accumulated in the coronary arterial plaques have substantial contribution to the plaque volume. The aim of our study is to investigate the relationship between coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors and coronary arterial calcification, and to delineate the importance of CACS in coronary artery bypass surgery. Materials and Methods The current study is retrospective and 410 patients admitted to our clinic with atypical chest pain and without known CAD were included. These individuals were evaluated by 16 slice electron beam computed tomography with suspicion of CAD and their calcium scores were calculated. Detailed demographic and medical history were obtained from all of the patients. Results In our study, we employed five different analyses using different coronary arterial calcification score (CACS) thresold levels reported in previous studies. All of the analyses, performed according to the previously defined thresold levels, showed that risk factors had strong positive relationship with CACS as mentioned in previous studies. Conclusion Coronary arterial calcification is part of the athero-sclerotic process and although it can be detected in atherosclerotic vessel, it is absent in a normal vessel. It can be concluded that the clinical scores, even they are helpful, have some limitations in a significant part of the population for cardiovascular risk determination. It is important for an anastomosis region to be noncalcified in coronary bypass surgery. In a coronary artery, it will be helpness for showing of calcific field and anostomosis spot. PMID:26155507

  5. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Coronary Heart Disease?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Coronary Heart Disease? A common symptom of coronary heart disease ( ... narrow the coronary arteries. Signs and Symptoms of Heart Problems Related to Coronary Heart Disease Some people ...

  6. Everolimus-Eluting versus Paclitaxel-Eluting Stents in Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials

    PubMed Central

    Alazzoni, Ashraf; Al-Saleh, Ayman; Jolly, Sanjit S.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Individual randomized trials have suggested that everolimus-eluting stents may have improved clinical outcomes compared to paclitaxel-eluting stents, but individual trials are underpowered to examine outcomes such as mortality and very late stent thrombosis. Methods. Medline, Cochrane, and conference proceedings were searched for randomized trials comparing everolimus versus paclitaxel-eluting stents for percutaneous coronary intervention. Results. 6792 patients were included from 4 randomized controlled trials. Stent thrombosis was reduced with everolimus stents versus paclitaxel stents (0.7% versus 2.3%; OR: 0.32; CI: 0.20–0.51; P < 0.00001). The reductions in stent thrombosis were observed in (i) early stent thrombosis (within 30 days) (0.2% versus 0.9%; OR: 0.24; P = 0.0005), (ii) late (day 31–365) (0.2% versus 0.6%; OR: 0.32; P = 0.01), and (iii) very late stent thrombosis (>365 days) (0.2% versus 0.8%; OR: 0.34; P = 0.009). The rates of cardiovascular mortality were 1.2% in everolimus group and 1.6% in paclitaxel group (OR: 0.85; P = 0.43). Patients receiving everolimus-eluting stents had significantly lower myocardial infarction events and target vessel revascularization as compared to paclitaxel-eluting stents. Interpretation. Everolimus compared to paclitaxel-eluting stents reduced the incidence of early, late, and very late stent thrombosis as well as target vessel revascularization. PMID:22655192

  7. Everolimus-Eluting versus Paclitaxel-Eluting Stents in Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials.

    PubMed

    Alazzoni, Ashraf; Al-Saleh, Ayman; Jolly, Sanjit S

    2012-01-01

    Background. Individual randomized trials have suggested that everolimus-eluting stents may have improved clinical outcomes compared to paclitaxel-eluting stents, but individual trials are underpowered to examine outcomes such as mortality and very late stent thrombosis. Methods. Medline, Cochrane, and conference proceedings were searched for randomized trials comparing everolimus versus paclitaxel-eluting stents for percutaneous coronary intervention. Results. 6792 patients were included from 4 randomized controlled trials. Stent thrombosis was reduced with everolimus stents versus paclitaxel stents (0.7% versus 2.3%; OR: 0.32; CI: 0.20-0.51; P < 0.00001). The reductions in stent thrombosis were observed in (i) early stent thrombosis (within 30 days) (0.2% versus 0.9%; OR: 0.24; P = 0.0005), (ii) late (day 31-365) (0.2% versus 0.6%; OR: 0.32; P = 0.01), and (iii) very late stent thrombosis (>365 days) (0.2% versus 0.8%; OR: 0.34; P = 0.009). The rates of cardiovascular mortality were 1.2% in everolimus group and 1.6% in paclitaxel group (OR: 0.85; P = 0.43). Patients receiving everolimus-eluting stents had significantly lower myocardial infarction events and target vessel revascularization as compared to paclitaxel-eluting stents. Interpretation. Everolimus compared to paclitaxel-eluting stents reduced the incidence of early, late, and very late stent thrombosis as well as target vessel revascularization. PMID:22655192

  8. Coronary microvascular dysfunction: an update

    PubMed Central

    Crea, Filippo; Camici, Paolo G.; Bairey Merz, Cathleen Noel

    2014-01-01

    Many patients undergoing coronary angiography because of chest pain syndromes, believed to be indicative of obstructive atherosclerosis of the epicardial coronary arteries, are found to have normal angiograms. In the past two decades, a number of studies have reported that abnormalities in the function and structure of the coronary microcirculation may occur in patients without obstructive atherosclerosis, but with risk factors or with myocardial diseases as well as in patients with obstructive atherosclerosis; furthermore, coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) can be iatrogenic. In some instances, CMD represents an epiphenomenon, whereas in others it is an important marker of risk or may even contribute to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular and myocardial diseases, thus becoming a therapeutic target. This review article provides an update on the clinical relevance of CMD in different clinical settings and also the implications for therapy. PMID:24366916

  9. Coronary blood flow during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in swine

    SciTech Connect

    Bellamy, R.F.; DeGuzman, L.R.; Pedersen, D.C.

    1984-01-01

    Recent papers have raised doubt as to the magnitude of coronary blood flow during closed-chest cardiopulmonary resuscitation. We will describe experiments that concern the methods of coronary flow measurement during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Nine anesthetized swine were instrumented to allow simultaneous measurements of coronary blood flow by both electromagnetic cuff flow probes and by the radiomicrosphere technique. Cardiac arrest was caused by electrical fibrillation and closed-chest massage was performed by a Thumper (Dixie Medical Inc., Houston). The chest was compressed transversely at a rate of 66 strokes/min. Compression occupied one-half of the massage cycle. Three different Thumper piston strokes were studied: 1.5, 2, and 2.5 inches. Mean aortic pressure and total systemic blood flow measured by the radiomicrosphere technique increased as Thumper piston stroke was lengthened (mean +/- SD): 1.5 inch stroke, 23 +/- 4 mm Hg, 525 +/- 195 ml/min; 2 inch stroke, 33 +/- 5 mm Hg, 692 +/- 202 ml/min; 2.5 inch stroke, 40 +/- 6 mm Hg, 817 +/- 321 ml/min. Both methods of coronary flow measurement (electromagnetic (EMF) and radiomicrosphere (RMS)) gave similar results in technically successful preparations (data expressed as percent prearrest flow mean +/- 1 SD): 1.5 inch stroke, EMF 12 +/- 5%, RMS 16 +/- 5%; 2 inch stroke, EMF 30 +/- 6%, RMS 26 +/- 11%; 2.5 inch stroke, EMF 50 +/- 12%, RMS 40 +/- 20%. The phasic coronary flow signal during closed-chest compression indicated that all perfusion occurred during the relaxation phase of the massage cycle. We concluded that coronary blood flow is demonstrable during closed-chest massage, but that the magnitude is unlikely to be more than a fraction of normal.

  10. [Coronary intervention. 2012 update].

    PubMed

    Rittger, H; Arnold, M; Schmid, M; Zimmermann, S; Daniel, W G

    2012-03-01

    In-stent restenosis and stent thrombosis are still the main topics of any update on coronary intervention. One of the challenging issues in the past year lay in answering the question of whether the data on first-generation drug-eluting stents are still relevant in the light of newer stent designs and drugs. Other issues include new strategies in antiplatelet therapy, treatment of in-stent restenosis, particularly drug-eluting stent restenosis, treatment of multivessel and left-main disease, as well as the latest developments in bioresorbable polymers and "scaffolds". In the light of demographic changes, the main challenge for the interventional community is to build an evidence base for the adequate treatment of elderly patients in order to resolve uncertainties in the treatment of this challenging patient group. PMID:22382138

  11. Effect of curcumin on permeability of coronary artery and expression of related proteins in rat coronary atherosclerosis heart disease model

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaolong; Lu, Yan; Sun, Yi; Zhang, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Our objective is to explore the effect of curcumin on permeability of coronary artery and expression of related proteins in rat coronary atherosclerosis heart disease model. Methods: 45 healthy male Wistar rats of clean grade were selected and divided into treatment group, model control group and blank control group. The rats in the treatment group and model control group received high-fat diet for 12 weeks and intraperitoneal injection of VD3 to establish rat coronary atherosclerosis heart disease model. After modeling, the rats in the treatment group received gavage of 100 mg/(kg·d) curcimin, and the rats in the model control group and blank control group received gavage of 5 ml/(kg·d) distilled water, the intervention time was 4 weeks. After intervention, the rats were killed, and the hearts were dissected to obtain the samples of coronary artery. After embedding and frozen section, immunofluorescence method was used to detect the change of endarterium permeability in 3 groups, Western blot was used to detect matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and CD40L in coronary artery tissue, and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect serum tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and C reaction protein (CRP). Results: After modeling, compared with the blank control group, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and low density lipoprotein cholesterin (LDL-c) in the treatment group and model control group were significantly higher (P<0.05), however, high density lipoprotein cholesterin (HDL-c) was significantly lower. The pathological sections showed that there was lipidosis in rat coronary artery in treatment group and model control group, indicating that the modeling was successful. Immunofluorescence showed that there was only a little fluorochrome permeability in artery in blank control group, there was some fluorochrome permeability in artery in the treatment group and there was a lot of fluorochrome permeability in artery in the model control group. MMP-9 and CD40L in coronary artery tissue in the model control group were significantly higher than the treatment group (P<0.05), MMP-9 and CD40L in coronary artery tissue in the treatment group were significantly higher than the blank control group (P<0.05); serum TNF-? and CRP in the model control group were significantly higher than the treatment group (P<0.05), which were significantly higher in the treatment group than the blank control group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Rat coronary atherosclerosis heart disease model can be successfully established by feeding with high-fat diet and intraperitoneal injection of VD3, the permeability of coronary artery in coronary heart disease rat model is significantly increased, which may be related to up-regulation of MMP-9, CD40L, TNF-? and CRP expression. Application of curcumin can inhibit expression of MMP-9, CD40L, TNF-? and CRP to improve the permeability of coronary artery. PMID:26261622

  12. The Coronary Baroreflex in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Kincaid, K.; Ward, M.; Nair, U.; Hainsworth, R.; Drinkhill, M.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract: Previous studies have identified the presence of coronary baroreceptors in animal models. We set up a study to explore the presence of coronary baroreceptors in humans, which was performed with isolated, graded aortic root perfusion in patients during cardiopulmonary bypass. With ethical approval 12 patients with normal coronary arteries, aged 58–75 (mean 69) years undergoing mitral valve surgery were recruited to the study with informed consent. Those with aortic valve incompetence, coronary, or peripheral artery disease and diabetes mellitus were excluded. They were randomized to have their coronary perfusion pressure set low at 50 mmHg for 90 seconds and then adjusted high to 80 mmHg for 90 seconds (group L–H) or the reverse sequence (group H–L). Average arterial pressure and approximately constant systemic flow over 30-second periods were used to calculate vascular resistance (SVR). The first six experiments followed initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic clamping but before the delivery of cold blood cardioplegia; the blood temperature for these experiments was kept at 32°C. The remaining six were conducted prior to removal of the aortic cross clamp at 37°C. Coronary sinus blood samples were analyzed to exclude myocardial ischemia. Coronary sinus blood samples showed insignificant variation in oxygen saturation, lactate, and troponin T. Three patients were excluded because of unstable blood pressure. In the (L–H) group SVR reduced in 4 of 4 remaining patients (mean ?9.4%, range ?3.9 to ?19.6%). In the (H–L) group SVR increased in three patients (mean +2.0%, range 1.1 to 3.7%) but decreased in two (?8.9% and ?15.8%). These preliminary results, although not statistically different, suggest the presence of coronary baroreceptors in humans. The reflex vascular responses are similar to those previously reported in animal models. PMID:16350386

  13. Coronary heart disease at altitude.

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, J K

    1994-01-01

    In the past, it has been assumed that some basic physiologic responses to altitude, exposure in coronary patients are comparable to those in normal young subjects. In fact there are similar changes in sympathetic activation, heart rate, and blood pressure early after ascent, with decrements in plasma volume, cardiac output, and stroke volume as acclimatization proceeds. These responses are described, and experience with coronary patients is reviewed. During the 1st 2 to 3 days at altitude, coronary patients are at greatest risk of untoward events. Gradual rather than abrupt ascent, a moderate degree of physical conditioning, early limitation of activity to a level tolerated at low altitude for somewhat less), and attention to blood pressure control all appear to have protective effects. Ascent to moderate altitude appears to entail little risk in coronary patients who are asymptomatic or have moderate exercise tolerance, provided that the above precautions are observed and that activity does not exceed levels at lower altitude. If activity is to be increased, pre-ascent treadmill exercise testing or Holter monitor data secured under conditions comparable to those anticipated at altitude may provide reasonable guidelines. For coronary patients previously evaluated and known to be in a high-risk category, indications for ascent should be examined more critically, and precautionary measures should be more rigorous. Advice for patients with known coronary disease who may desire to trek at very high altitude must involve individual evaluation, and guidelines remain elusive. PMID:7888800

  14. Successful treatment of a young woman with acute complicated myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Serpytis, Pranas; Kibarskis, Aleksandras; Katkus, Rimgaudas; Samalavicius, Robertas; Glaveskaite, Sigita; Rackauskas, Gediminas

    2013-01-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia is method used to improve the neurological status of patients who are at risk of ischaemia after myocardial infarction. We report a case of a 28-year-old woman who suffered acute myocardial infarction complicated by ventricular fibrillation. The patient was successfully resuscitated. Invasive and non-invasive medical treatment was applied including therapeutic hypothermia. Success was achieved due to adequate public reaction, fast transportation, blood vessel revascularization and application of therapeutic hypothermia. The patient was successfully discharged after one week of treatment, and just minor changes in heart function were present. PMID:24570755

  15. [Alternative methods in interventional therapy of coronary heart disease].

    PubMed

    Erbel, R; Ge, J; Haude, M; Görge, G

    1995-01-01

    Percutaneous high-frequency coronary rotablation using the rotablator is able to remove arteriosclerotic material from the vessel wall. A diamond-coated (30-80 microns) brass burr drill fastened to a flexible drive shaft rotating and tracking along a drill coaxial guide wire is used. The turbine rotates the drive shaft in excess of 150,000-190,000 rpm. High-frequency rotational angioplasty was successful in > 90% of patients, but in about 90% additional PTCA is necessary. No increase of bypass surgery compared to PTCA is observed. CK and CR-MB elevation is more often found than after PTCA. Vessel perforation is rarely observed. All vessels were open at 24-h control. The restenosis rate seems not be increased. The main indications for high-frequency rotational angioplasty are rigid and calcified sclerotic lesions which cannot be passed by conventional balloon catheters. Whether the restenosis rate can be reduced by this method will be judged in part by the COBRA study. In order to avoid acute complications of PTCA and to reduce restenosis rate, coronary stents were developed. Self-expandable and balloon expandable stents are available. It could be demonstrated that these stents can be used as a bail-out system and can block elastic recoil of coronary arteries. The major remaining problem is subacute closure of coronary vessels. In order to prevent thrombosis treatment with coumarine, acetylsalicylic acid, and dipyridamol is necessary. Coronary stents can be successfully delivered in more than 90% of the patients. In a highly selected patient group using single stents restenosis rate could be significantly reduced. PMID:7571784

  16. New mechanical devices for treatment of coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Erbel, R; Haude, M; Dietz, U; Rupprecht, H J; Zotz, R; Meyer, J

    1990-01-01

    Percutaneous high-speed coronary rotablation allows to remove arterio-sclerotic material from the vessel wall. A diamond-coated (15-30 microns) brass burr drill fastened to a flexible drive shaft rotating and tracking along a drill coaxial guide wire is used. The turbine rotates the drive shaft at 150,000-190,000 rpm. High-frequency rotational angioplasty was successful in 27 of 28 patients, but in about 34% additional PTCA was necessary. Only one patient went to bypass surgery, and myocardial infarction (CK less than 150 u/l) occurred in only one of 28 patients. No vessel perforation was observed. All vessels were open at 24 h control. The restenosis rate was not increased. The main indication for high-speed rotational angioplasty seems to be rigid sclerotic lesions that cannot be passed by a conventional balloon catheter. Whether restenosis rate can be reduced by this method will be judged in future studies. In order to avoid acute complications of PTCA and to reduce restenosis rate, coronary stents were developed. Self-expandable and balloon-expandable stents are available. It could be demonstrated that these stents can be used as a bail-out system and can block elastic recoil of coronary arteries. The major remaining problem is that of subacute closure of coronary vessels. In order to prevent this, treatment with coumarine, acetylsalicylic acid, and dipyridamol is necessary. Coronary stents can be successfully delivered in more than 90% of the patients, as demonstrated by a cooperative study. In a highly selective patient group using single stents, restenosis rate measured 15%, but was higher in patients with multiple stents. PMID:2099035

  17. Coronary artery bypass grafting in a Behçet's disease patient.

    PubMed

    Tasar, Mehmet; Eyileten, Zeynep; Arici, Burcu; Uysalel, Adnan

    2014-01-01

    Behçet's syndrome is a chronic, multisystemic, inflammatory, vasculitic disorder characterised by oral aphta, ocular lesions, genital ulcers and the involvement of other systems. Although vascular involvement is seen frequently, coronary artery disease is extremely rare in Behçet's disease and it is generally treated with invasive or conservative procedures. In this case, we aimed to present a successful bypass grafting of three vessels using cardiopulmonary bypass in a patient with Behçet's disease. PMID:25625557

  18. Treatment of moyamoya disease by multipoint skull drilling for indirect revascularization combined with mobilization of autologous bone marrow stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, R; Su, N; Zhang, Z; Jia, F

    2015-01-01

    This study discusses the clinical efficacy of multipoint skull drilling for indirect revascularization combined with mobilization of autologous bone marrow stem cells and use of simvastatin in the treatment of moyamoya disease. Seventy-eight patients [control group (group A), 39 patients; experimental group (group B), 39 patients] with moyamoya disease were selected. Group A underwent indirect revascularization, and group B, in addition to indirect revascularization, received alternate subcutaneous injections from day 7 post-surgery. The number and differentiation of the mobilized bone marrow stem cells were detected by the proportion of hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPCs) in mononuclear cells (MNCs) in the peripheral blood. There was no statistical difference in the BI (80.2 ± 13.7) and NIHSS (6.7 ± 2.3) scores between the groups before treatment (P > 0.05). The CSS score of group B was 13.5 ± 0.6 and there was a statistical significance compared to group A (18.2 ± 0.8) (P < 0.05). There was no statistical difference in the proportion of CD34+ CDl33+ cells in MNCs in peripheral blood before surgery between the two groups (P > 0.05) and the proportions of CD34+ CDl33+ cells in MNCs in peripheral blood in groups A and B at 30 days after surgery were significantly higher than those before surgery (P < 0.05). Treating moyamoya disease by multipoint skull drilling for indirect revascularization combined with mobilization of autologous bone marrow stem cells and simvastatin is a safe and effective method as it can promote recovery of neurological functions and improve patients' daily living abilities and quality of life. PMID:26214430

  19. Cerebral Arterial Calcification Is an Imaging Prognostic Marker for Revascularization Treatment of Acute Middle Cerebral Arterial Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seong-Joon; Hong, Ji Man; Lee, Manyong; Huh, Kyoon; Choi, Jin Wook

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose To study the significance of intracranial artery calcification as a prognostic marker for acute ischemic stroke patients undergoing revascularization treatment after middle cerebral artery (MCA) trunk occlusion. Methods Patients with acute MCA trunk occlusion, who underwent intravenous and/or intra-arterial revascularization treatment, were enrolled. Intracranial artery calcification scores were calculated by counting calcified intracranial arteries among major seven arteries on computed tomographic angiography. Patients were divided into high (HCB; score ?3) or low calcification burden (LCB; score <3) groups. Demographic, imaging, and outcome data were compared, and whether HCB is a prognostic factor was evaluated. Grave prognosis was defined as modified Rankin Scale 5-6 for this study. Results Of 80 enrolled patients, the HCB group comprised 15 patients, who were older, and more commonly had diabetes than patients in the LCB group. Initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores did not differ (HCB 13.3±2.7 vs. LCB 14.6±3.8) between groups. The final good reperfusion after revascularization treatment (thrombolysis in cerebral infarction score 2b-3, HCB 66.7% vs. LCB 69.2%) was similarly achieved in both groups. However, the HCB group had significantly higher NIHSS scores at discharge (16.0±12.3 vs. 7.9±8.3), and more frequent grave outcome at 3 months (57.1% vs. 22.0%) than the LCB group. HCB was proven as an independent predictor for grave outcome at 3 months when several confounding factors were adjusted (odds ratio 4.135, 95% confidence interval, 1.045-16.359, P=0.043). Conclusions Intracranial HCB was associated with grave prognosis in patients who have undergone revascularization for acute MCA trunk occlusion. PMID:25692109

  20. Preliminary study of laser doppler perfusion signal by wavelet transform in patients with critical limb ischemia before and after revascularization.

    PubMed

    Ticcinelli, Valentina; Martini, Romeo; Bagno, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The haemodynamics of skin microcirculation can be quantitatively evaluated by Laser Doppler Fluxmetry (LDF). LDF signal in human skin shows periodic oscillations. Spectral analysis by wavelet transform displays six characteristic frequency intervals (FI) from 0.005 to 2 Hz, related to distinct vascular structures activities: heart (0.6-2 Hz), sympathetic respiratory (0.145-0.6 Hz), myogenic (0.052-0.145 Hz), local sympathetic nerve (0.021-0.052 Hz) and endothelial cells NO dependent (0.0095-0.021 Hz) and NO independent (0.005-0.0095 Hz). The most advanced stage of peripheral arterial obstructive disease is the critical limb ischemia (CLI), which causes the reduction of blood perfusion threatening limb viability. Besides macrocirculatory alterations, many studies have shown microvascular misdistribution of skin blood flow as the main factor that leads patients to CLI. Revascularization can save limb and patient's life, too. In the present study, LDF signals have been recorded on the skin of the foot dorsum in 15 patients suffering from CLI. LDF signals have been analyzed before and after limb revascularization by means of the wavelet analysis. Significant changes in frequency distribution before and after limb revascularization have been detected: the median normalized values of spectral power increases for 49.8% (p = 0.0341) in the frequency range 0.050328-0.053707 Hz, whereas spectral power decreases for 77.1% (p = 0.0179) in the frequency range 0.018988-0.029284 Hz. We can conclude that changes in the frequency intervals occur after revascularization, shifting from a prevailing endothelial activity toward a prevailing sympathetic activity. PMID:24169097

  1. Emergency Cardiac Surgery in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndromes: A Review of the Evidence and Perioperative Implications of Medical and Mechanical Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Charles; Joshi, Brijen; Faraday, Nauder; Shah, Ashish; Yuh, David; Rade, Jeffrey J.; Hogue, Charles W.

    2011-01-01

    Patients with acute coronary syndromes who require emergency cardiac surgery present complex management challenges. The early administration of antiplatelet and antithrombotic drugs has improved overall survival for patients with acute myocardial infarction, but to achieve maximal benefit, these drugs are given before coronary anatomy is known and before the decision to perform percutaneous coronary interventions or surgical revascularization has been made. A major bleeding event secondary to these drugs is associated with a high rate of death in medically treated patients with acute coronary syndrome possibly due to subsequent withholding of antiplatelet and antithrombotic therapies that otherwise reduce the rate of death, stroke, or recurrent myocardial infarcation. Whether the added risk of bleeding and blood transfusion in cardiac surgical patients receiving such potent antiplatelet or antithrombotic therapy before surgery specifically for acute coronary syndromes affects long-term mortality has not been clearly established. For patients who do proceed to surgery, strategies to minimize bleeding include stopping the anticoagulation therapy and considering platelet and/or coagulation factor transfusion and possibly rFVIIa administration for refractory bleeding. Mechanical hemodynamic support has emerged as an important option for patients with acute coronary syndromes in cardiogenic shock. For these patients, perioperative considerations include maintaining appropriate anticoagulation, ensuring suitable device flow, and periodically verifying correct device placement. Data supporting the use of these devices are derived from small trials that did not address long-term postoperative outcomes. Future directions of research will seek to optimize the balance between reducing myocardial ischemic risk with antiplatelet and antithrombotics versus the higher rate perioperative bleeding by better risk-stratifying surgical candidates and by assessing the effectiveness of newer reversible drugs. The effects of mechanical hemodynamic support on long-term patient outcomes needs more stringent analysis. PMID:21385977

  2. Endovascular Repair of Acute Symptomatic Pararenal Aortic Aneurysm With Three Chimney and One Periscope Graft for Complete Visceral Artery Revascularization

    SciTech Connect

    Brechtel, Klaus Ketelsen, Dominik; Endisch, Andrea; Heller, Stephan; Heuschmid, Martin; Stock, Ulrich A.; Kalender, Guenay

    2012-04-15

    PurposeTo describe a modified endovascular technique for complete revascularization of visceral and renal arteries in symptomatic pararenal aortic aneurysm (PRAA).TechniqueArterial access was surgically established in both common femoral arteries (CFAs) and the left subclavian artery (LSA). Revascularization of the left renal artery, the celiac trunk, and the superior mesenteric artery was performed through one single sheath via the LSA. Suitable covered stents were put in the aortic branches but not deployed. The right renal artery was accessed over the left CFA. Due to the longitudinal extension of the presented aneurysm two stent-grafts were introduced via the right CFA. After deploying the aortic stent-grafts, all covered stents in the side branches were deployed consecutively with a minimum overlap of 5 mm over the cranial and caudal stent-graft edges. Simultaneous ballooning was performed to fully expand all stent-grafts and warranty patency. Conclusion: This is the first report in the literature of chimney grafting in PRAA for complete revascularization of visceral and renal branches by using more than two covered stents introduced from one side through one single sheath. However this technique is modified, it should be used only in bailout situations when branched stent-grafts are not available and/or surgery is not suitable.

  3. TLR4 Expression Is Associated with Left Ventricular Dysfunction in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Avlas, Orna; Bragg, Arieh; Fuks, Avi; Nicholson, James D.; Farkash, Ariel; Porat, Eyal; Aravot, Dan; Levy-Drummer, Rachel S.; Cohen, Cyrille; Shainberg, Asher; Arad, Michael; Hochhauser, Edith

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is an innate immune receptor expressed in immune cells and the heart. Activation of the immune system following myocardial ischemia causes the release of proinflammatory mediators that may negatively influence heart function. Aim The aim of this study is to determine whether TLR4 is activated in peripheral monocytes and heart tissue taken from patients with varying degrees of myocardial dysfunction caused by coronary artery diseases and scheduled for coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery before 12 months following operation. Methods and Results Patients (n = 44) undergoing CABG surgery having left ventricular ejection fraction ? 45% (‘reduced EF’, n = 20) were compared to patients with preserved EF >45% (‘preserved EF’ group, n = 24). ‘Reduced EF’ patients exhibited increased TLR4 expression in monocytes (2.78±0.49 vs. 1.76±0.07 rMFI, p = 0.03). Plasma levels of C-reactive protein, microRNA miR-320a, brain natriuretic peptide (pro BNP) and NADPH oxidase (NOX4) were also significantly different between the ‘preserved EF’ and ‘reduced EF’groups. Elevated TLR4 gene expression levels in the right auricle correlated with those of EF (p<0.008), NOX4 (p<0.008) and miR320, (p<0.04). In contrast, no differences were observed in peripheral monocyte TLR2 expression. After CABG surgery, monocyte TLR4 expression decreased in all patients, reaching statistical significance in the ‘reduced EF’ group. Conclusion TLR4 is activated in peripheral monocytes and heart tissue obtained from patients with ischemic heart disease and reduced left ventricular function. Coronary revascularization decreases TLR4 expression. We therefore propose that TLR4 plays a pathogenic role and may serve as an additional marker of ischemic myocardial dysfunction. PMID:26030867

  4. Coronary artery balloon angioplasty - series (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... muscle (the coronary arteries) can be narrowed or blocked by this accumulation. If the narrowing is small, ... is a minimally invasive procedure to open up blocked coronary arteries, allowing blood to circulate unobstructed to ...

  5. Screening for Coronary Heart Disease with Electrocardiography

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Force Recommendations Screening for Coronary Heart Disease with Electrocardiography The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) ... recommendations on Screening for Coronary Heart Disease with Electrocardiography . These recommendations are for adult men and women ...

  6. How Is Coronary Heart Disease Treated?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Coronary Heart Disease Treated? Treatments for coronary heart disease include ... plaque Relieving symptoms Widening or bypassing clogged arteries Heart-Healthy Lifestyle Changes Your doctor may recommend heart- ...

  7. Who Needs Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Who Needs Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting? Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is used to treat people ... or after a heart attack to treat blocked arteries. Your doctor may recommend CABG if other treatments, ...

  8. POST CORONARY ARTERY BYPASS GRAFT STUDY (CABG)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Relative effectiveness of moderate versus more aggressive lipid lowering, and of low dose anticoagulation versus placebo, in delaying saphenous vein coronary bypass graft atherosclerosis and preventing occlusion of saphenous grafts of patients with saphenous vein coronary bypass ...

  9. Coronary hemodynamics in elasmobranchs and teleosts.

    PubMed

    Franklin, C E; Axelsson, M

    1994-09-01

    Until recently, direct measurements of coronary blood flow in fishes had not been made. This review presents and compares in vivo measurements of coronary flow recorded from the school shark, Galeorhinus australis, and the coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch. In both species, the coronary blood flow was phasic and strongly influenced by the cardiac cycle. Coronary blood flow in the school shark was more severely compromised by the cardiac cycle with a short retrograde flow occurring during systole. In the coho salmon, there was an anterograde coronary blood flow throughout the cardiac cycle. Differences in coronary hemodynamics are discussed in relation to differences in the myoarchitecture of the school shark and coho salmon hearts. The regulation of coronary blood flow through changes in vascular resistance (vasoactivity of the coronary vessels) is also discussed. PMID:7827251

  10. The ASSURE ROT Registry: Bioresorbable Vascular Scaffold Following Rotablation for Complex Coronary Lesions

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-02-05

    Cardiovascular Diseases; Coronary Artery Disease; Myocardial Ischemia; Coronary Disease; Coronary Restenosis; Heart Diseases; Coronary Stenosis; Arteriosclerosis; Arterial Occlusive Diseases; Vascular Diseases

  11. Successful Coronary Stent Retrieval from the Saphenous Vein Graft to Right Coronary Artery

    PubMed Central

    Aydin, Mustafa; Sayin, Muhammet Rasit

    2009-01-01

    Stent dislodgement and migration is a rare but serious complication of stent usage. For extraction of unexpanded stents different techniques have been described previously. We describe a case which used small baloon catheter for retrieval of a stent from the SVG-RCA. PMID:19902010

  12. [Single coronary artery and right aortic arch].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Quintana, Efrén; Rodríguez-González, Fayna

    2015-01-01

    Coronary anomalies are mostly asymptomatic and diagnosed incidentally during coronary angiography or echocardiography. However, they must be taken into account in the differential diagnosis of angina, dyspnea, syncope, acute myocardial infarction or sudden death in young patients. The case is presented of two rare anomalies, single coronary artery originating from right sinus of Valsalva and right aortic arch, in a 65 year-old patient with atherosclerotic coronary artery disease treated percutaneously. PMID:25304052

  13. Coronary physiology assessment in the catheterization laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Díez-delhoyo, Felipe; Gutiérrez-Ibañes, Enrique; Loughlin, Gerard; Sanz-Ruiz, Ricardo; Vázquez-Álvarez, María Eugenia; Sarnago-Cebada, Fernando; Angulo-Llanos, Rocío; Casado-Plasencia, Ana; Elízaga, Jaime; Fernández Avilés Diáz, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Physicians cannot rely solely on the angiographic appearance of epicardial coronary artery stenosis when evaluating patients with myocardial ischemia. Instead, sound knowledge of coronary vascular physiology and of the methods currently available for its characterization can improve the diagnostic and prognostic accuracy of invasive assessment of the coronary circulation, and help improve clinical decision-making. In this article we summarize the current methods available for a thorough assessment of coronary physiology. PMID:26413229

  14. Coronary physiology assessment in the catheterization laboratory.

    PubMed

    Díez-Delhoyo, Felipe; Gutiérrez-Ibañes, Enrique; Loughlin, Gerard; Sanz-Ruiz, Ricardo; Vázquez-Álvarez, María Eugenia; Sarnago-Cebada, Fernando; Angulo-Llanos, Rocío; Casado-Plasencia, Ana; Elízaga, Jaime; Fernández Avilés Diáz, Francisco

    2015-09-26

    Physicians cannot rely solely on the angiographic appearance of epicardial coronary artery stenosis when evaluating patients with myocardial ischemia. Instead, sound knowledge of coronary vascular physiology and of the methods currently available for its characterization can improve the diagnostic and prognostic accuracy of invasive assessment of the coronary circulation, and help improve clinical decision-making. In this article we summarize the current methods available for a thorough assessment of coronary physiology. PMID:26413229

  15. Resting angina due to papillary fibroelastoma of the right coronary cusp.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Eiji; Nakao, Koichi; Sassa, Toshiharu; Kamio, Takihiro; Sakanashi, Mina; Miyamoto, Shinzo; Sakamoto, Tomohiro; Nishigami, Kazuhiro; Uesugi, Hideyuki; Hirayama, Touitsu

    2016-01-01

    A 63-year-old man with chest pain at rest was referred to our hospital. Transthoracic echocardiography showed a mobile ball-like mass at the top of the right coronary cusp. Subsequently, transesophageal echocardiography also showed a mobile mass at the right coronary cusp. Aortic valve replacement with a mechanical valve was performed under general anesthesia. We diagnosed this condition as papillary fibroelastoma based upon the pathological findings with hematoxylin and eosin staining, and Elastica van Gieson staining. Coronary angiography revealed no organic lesions. The operation was successful, and the patient remains asymptomatic. We speculate that the resting chest pain was induced by transient occlusion of the right coronary orifice by the tumor. We describe this rare case in detail including a review of the literature. PMID:25081095

  16. Acute myocardial infarction with simultaneous involvement of right coronary artery and left anterior descending artery: a case report.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wen-Hsien; Hsu, Po-Chao; Lin, Tsung-Hsien; Su, Ho-Ming; Lai, Wen-Ter; Sheu, Sheng-Hsiung

    2010-07-01

    Acute myocardial infarction is usually caused by rupture of unstable plaque and involves a single coronary artery. Simultaneous occlusions of multiple coronary arteries in patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction are uncommon and lead to a fatal outcome. We report a 75-year-old male presenting with persistent chest pain complicated by ventricular fibrillation. After defibrillation and cardiopulmonary resuscitation, an emergency coronary angiogram showed total occlusion of the right coronary artery, and thrombus in the proximal left anterior descending artery. Both coronary arteries underwent successful balloon inflation and stenting. The patient finally survived under ventilatory support. This rare case suggests that aggressive reperfusion therapy and even mechanical support to improve poor clinical outcome are suggested in high risk patients with multivessel occlusions. PMID:20638042

  17. Congenital coronary arteriovenous fistula presenting with syncope.

    PubMed

    Braden, D S; O'Neal, K R; McMullan, M R; Ebeid, M R

    2002-01-01

    Previous reports of syncope in patients with coronary arteriovenous fistula (CAVF) have theorized that it occurs secondary to a coronary steal phenomenon. We present a case of syncope in a young woman with a CAVF and no anatomic substrate for coronary steal. PMID:11889541

  18. Effect of low level laser therapy on revascularization of free gingival graft using ultrasound Doppler flowmetry

    PubMed Central

    Arunachalam, Lalitha T.; Sudhakar, Uma; Janarthanam, Akila Sivaranjani; Das, Nimisha Mithra

    2014-01-01

    Low level laser therapy (LLLT) is widely used during the post-operative period to accelerate the healing process. It promotes beneficial biological action on neovascularization with anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. Two systemically healthy patients with Miller's grade II recession on 33 and 41, respectively, were treated with free gingival graft. After surgery, second patient received LLLT using a 830 nm diode laser, with output power of 0.1 W on the first day half hour following surgery, on the third day, seventh day, and lastly on the ninth day. Both the patients were asked to assess the pain on second, fourth and tenth day using a Numerical Rating Scale and revascularization of the grafted area was assessed using a color Doppler ultrasound imaging on the fourth and the ninth day. Neovascularization was noted in both the patients but the second patient elicited marked increase in vascularity on the fourth as well as the tenth day and drastic reduction in pain on day four, with no change on the tenth day. The results showed that LLLT was an effective adjunctive treatment in promoting reevascularization and pain control during early healing of free gingival graft. PMID:25024560

  19. Graft revascularization is essential for non-invasive monitoring of transplanted islets with radiolabeled exendin

    PubMed Central

    Eter, Wael A.; Bos, Desirée; Frielink, Cathelijne; Boerman, Otto C.; Brom, Maarten; Gotthardt, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Islet transplantation is a novel promising strategy to cure type 1 diabetes. However, the long-term outcome is still poor, because both function and survival of the transplant decline over-time. Non-invasive imaging methods have the potential to enable monitoring of islet survival after transplantation and the effects of immunosuppressive drugs on transplantation outcome. 111In-labeled exendin-3 is a promising tracer to visualize native and transplanted islets by SPECT (Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography). In the present study, we hypothesized that islet microvasculature plays an important role determining the uptake of exendin-3 in islets when monitoring transplant survival. We observed 111In-exendin-3 accumulation in the transplant as early as three days after transplantation and an increase in the uptake up to three weeks post-transplantation. Islet-revascularization correlated with the increase in 111In-exendin-3 uptake, whereas fully re-established islet vasculature coincided with a stabilized uptake of the radiotracer in the transplant. Here, we demonstrate the importance of islet vasculature for in vivo delivery of radiotracers to transplanted islets and we demonstrate that optimal and stable uptake of exendin four weeks after transplantation opens the possibility for long-term monitoring of islet survival by SPECT imaging. PMID:26490110

  20. Anterior cruciate ligament allograft transplantation. Long-term function, histology, revascularization, and operative technique.

    PubMed

    Nikolaou, P K; Seaber, A V; Glisson, R R; Ribbeck, B M; Bassett, F H

    1986-01-01

    In recent years much effort has been devoted to finding a satisfactory replacement for the injured ACL. None of the reconstruction techniques used in the past can be considered ideal because of their inability to duplicate the complex geometry, structure, and function of the ligament. Current advances in allograft transplantation and cryopreservation have led us to design and implement an experimental model for testing the feasibility of cryopreserved ACL allotransplantation. Groups of dogs were used to evaluate the effect of cryopreservation on ligament strength and to compare the relative performance of both autograft and allograft ACL transplants up to 18 months after implantation. The ligaments were examined mechanically, histologically, and microangiographically. The cryopreservation process and duration of storage had no effect on the biomechanical or structural properties of the ligament. The mechanical integrity of the allografts was similar to that of the autografts, with both achieving nearly 90% of control ligament strength by 36 weeks. Revascularization approached normal by 24 weeks in both autograft and allograft. No evidence of structural degradation or immunological reaction was seen. Based on these results, we believe that a cryopreserved ACL allograft can provide the ideal material for ACL reconstruction. We have outlined a surgical technique for harvesting and implanting this graft clinically. PMID:3777311

  1. Trends in surgical revascularization for renal artery disease: ten years' experience

    SciTech Connect

    Novick, A.C.; Ziegelbaum, M.; Vidt, D.G.; Gifford, R.W. Jr.; Pohl, M.A.; AGoormastic, M.

    1987-01-23

    The authors reviewed their experience with surgical revascularization (SR) for renal artery disease (RAD) in 361 patients from 1975 through 1984 to illustrate the evolving role of SR in the management of these patients. The time intervals selected for comparison were 1975 through 1980 and 1981 through 1984. Since 1981, in patients with atherosclerosis, SR has been done more often in elderly patients (30% vs 10.4%), in patients with generalized atherosclerosis (87% vs 73%), and for the sole purpose of preserving renal function (36% vs 14%). Since 1981, fewer patients with atherosclerosis have undergone SR solely to treat renovascular hypertension (26% vs 41%). Since 1981, in patients with fibrous dysplasia, SR has been done in more patients with branch renal artery disease (70% vs 28%). These trends in performance of SR have been due to the advent of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty as effective therapy for certain patients, improved results of SR in elderly patients with atherosclerosis, an enhanced appreciation of advanced atherosclerotic RAD as a correctable cause of renal failure, and the development of more effective techniques for SR in patients with severe aortic atherosclerosis and branch RAD. The overall clinical results of SR remain excellent in properly selected patients with RAD.

  2. The Effect of Endovascular Revascularization of Common Iliac Artery Occlusions on Erectile Function

    SciTech Connect

    Gur, Serkan; Ozkan, Ugur; Onder, Hakan; Tekbas, Gueven; Oguzkurt, Levent

    2013-02-15

    To determine the incidence of erectile dysfunction in patients with common iliac artery (CIA) occlusive disease and the effect of revascularization on erectile function using the sexual health inventory for males (SHIM) questionnaire. All patients (35 men; mean age 57 {+-} 5 years; range 42-67 years) were asked to recall their sexual function before and 1 month after iliac recanalization. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine variables effecting improvement of impotence. The incidence of impotence in patients with CIA occlusion was 74% (26 of 35) preoperatively. Overall 16 (46%) of 35 patients reported improved erectile function after iliac recanalization. The rate of improvement of impotence was 61.5% (16 of 26 impotent patients). Sixteen patients (46%), including seven with normal erectile function before the procedure, had no change. Three patients (8%) reported deterioration of their sexual function, two of whom (6%) had normal erectile function before the procedure. The median SHIM score increased from 14 (range 4-25) before the procedure to 20 (range 1-25) after the procedure (P = 0.005). The type of recanalization, the age of the patients, and the length of occlusion were related to erectile function improvement in univariate analysis. However, these factors were not independent factors for improvement of erectile dysfunction in multivariate analysis (P > 0.05). Endovascular recanalization of CIA occlusions clearly improves sexual function. More than half of the patients with erectile dysfunction who underwent endovascular recanalization of the CIA experienced improvement.

  3. Acute myocardial infarction and subclavian artery occlusion in a 41-year-old woman with Behçet's disease: coronary and large vessel arteritis.

    PubMed

    So, Ho; Yip, Man Lung

    2014-09-01

    We report the case of a 41-year-old Chinese woman with Behçet's disease (BD) complicated by acute myocardial infarction, requiring inotropic and ventilatory support. Angiography showed critical left anterior descending coronary artery stenosis, a blocked left subclavian artery and left carotid artery stenosis. The patient was successfully treated with a high dose of immunosuppressants, standard anti-ischaemic therapy and percutaneous coronary intervention. Although life-threatening, coronary arteritis is a treatable manifestation of BD. We suggest that the diagnosis of coronary arteritis be considered in patients with BD who present with chest pain. Involvement of other arteries should also be looked out for in these patients. PMID:25273943

  4. Assessment of coronary bypass surgery and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty.

    PubMed

    Preston, T A

    1989-01-01

    Coronary bypass surgery developed as another in a line of surgical procedures dating back more than 60 years. The medical profession at first assessed this procedure with time-honored anecdotal techniques. Gradually, for a variety of reasons, improved methods of comparisons worked their way into assessments of bypass surgery. Randomized controlled trials met resistance but have been very influential. Assessment of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty has benefited from the knowledge generated during the last 25 years, but clinicians have been slower to apply the most advanced techniques. PMID:10313785

  5. A case of an occlusive right coronary artery dissection after stent implantation: dilemmas and challenges.

    PubMed

    Panoulas, Vasileios F; Figini, Filippo; Giustino, Gennaro; Carlino, Mauro; Chieffo, Alaide; Latib, Azeem; Colombo, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    A 53-year-old man with stable angina had a staged percutaneous coronary intervention to a critical focal stenosis of the mid-segment of the right coronary artery (RCA). Two hours after successful RCA stent implantation, the patient re-presented with inferior ST elevation secondary to acute dissection originating at the distal edge of the stent, causing subtotal occlusion of the distal RCA. The patient had TIMI-2 flow in the posterolateral branch and occlusion of the posterior descending artery. This case describes the procedural challenges the operators were faced with and successful use of the "rescue STAR" technique as a last resort. PMID:25589705

  6. Clinical Criteria Replenish High-Sensitive Troponin and Inflammatory Markers in the Stratification of Patients with Suspected Acute Coronary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Stähli, Barbara Elisabeth; Yonekawa, Keiko; Altwegg, Lukas Andreas; Wyss, Christophe; Hof, Danielle; Fischbacher, Philipp; Brauchlin, Andreas; Schulthess, Georg; Krayenbühl, Pierre-Alexandre; von Eckardstein, Arnold; Hersberger, Martin; Neidhart, Michel; Gay, Steffen; Novopashenny, Igor; Wolters, Regine; Frank, Michelle; Wischnewsky, Manfred Bernd; Lüscher, Thomas Felix; Maier, Willibald

    2014-01-01

    Objectives In patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS), rapid triage is essential. The aim of this study was to establish a tool for risk prediction of 30-day cardiac events (CE) on admission. 30-day cardiac events (CE) were defined as early coronary revascularization, subsequent myocardial infarction, or cardiovascular death within 30 days. Methods and Results This single-centre, prospective cohort study included 377 consecutive patients presenting to the emergency department with suspected ACS and for whom troponin T measurements were requested on clinical grounds. Fifteen biomarkers were analyzed in the admission sample, and clinical parameters were assessed by the TIMI risk score for unstable angina/Non-ST myocardial infarction and the GRACE risk score. Sixty-nine (18%) patients presented with and 308 (82%) without ST-elevations, respectively. Coronary angiography was performed in 165 (44%) patients with subsequent percutaneous coronary intervention – accounting for the majority of CE – in 123 (33%) patients, respectively. Eleven out of 15 biomarkers were elevated in patients with CE compared to those without. High-sensitive troponin T (hs-cTnT) was the best univariate biomarker to predict CE in Non-ST-elevation patients (AUC 0.80), but did not yield incremental information above clinical TIMI risk score (AUC 0.80 vs 0.82, p?=?0.69). Equivalence testing of AUCs of risk models and non-inferiority testing demonstrated that the clinical TIMI risk score alone was non-inferior to its combination with hs-cTnT in predicting CE. Conclusions In patients presenting without ST-elevations, identification of those prone to CE is best based on clinical assessment based on TIMI risk score criteria and hs-cTnT. PMID:24892556

  7. Cineangiography of the Coronary Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Tremblay, Gerard M.; Charland, Raymond; Roy, Paul; Primeau, Robert; Nadeau, Reginald

    1971-01-01

    Fifty French-Canadian patients presenting with typical or atypical anginal pain were studied by selective cinearteriography and coronary sinus catheterization, with measurement of myocardial function, oxygen and lactate extraction at rest and during isoproterenol infusion. In 28 of 42 patients all three coronary arteries were involved, but angina pectoris also occurred in patients with single mildly stenotic arterial lesions and even in eight patients with normal cinearteriograms. All patients with severe arterial lesions had typical angina, and the longer the duration of angina, the greater the extent, usually, of anatomic disease. Seventy-nine percent of resting electrocardiograms of patients with documented coronary artery disease were abnormal, with recognizable prior infarction in 18. Two-thirds of the patients experiencing pain during the stressful state had abnormal ventricular function. An abnormal arteriovenous lactate difference in response to isoproterenol occurred in patients in all groups. PMID:5563346

  8. Coronary intervention in anomalous origin of the right coronary artery (ARCA) from the left sinus of valsalva (LSOV): A single center experience

    PubMed Central

    Uthayakumaran, Kalaichelvan; Subban, Vijayakumar; Lakshmanan, Anitha; Pakshirajan, Balaji; Solirajaram, Ramkumar; Krishnamoorthy, Jaishankar; Janakiraman, Ezhilan; Pandurangi, Ulhas M.; Kalidoss, Latchumanadhas; Ajit Sankaradas, Mullasari

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the technical challenges in percutaneous coronary intervention of Anomalous right coronary artery arising from the left sinus of valsalva. Methods Between year 2008 and 2012, a total of 17 patients underwent PCI for an angiographically significant lesion in the right coronary artery of an anomalous origin in the LSOV. Their procedure details such as usage of catheters, radiation time, amount of contrast used were assessed. Results A total of 17 patients with anomalous right coronary artery underwent PCI during the above mentioned period. 8 patients had type A origin, 3 had type B origin and the remaining 6 had type C origin. Type A origin RCA were successfully cannulated in 6 patients with Judkins left 5.0 and in 2 patients using Judkins left 4.0. Extra back up (EBU) 3.5 were doing well in 2 patients of Type B origin and the remaining one patient was successfully cannulated using Judkins left 4.0. In type C origin 4 patients had successful cannulation with Amplatz Left 1.0, 1 patient with Amplatz Left 2.0 and 1 patient with Judkins left 4.0. The mean fluoroscopic time was 20.7 min and amount of contrast used was 210 ml. Conclusion PCI of anomalous RCA origin from LSOV requires appropriate guide catheter selection according to the anatomy of origin for successful cannulation and to reduce the contrast usage and radiation exposure. PMID:25173202

  9. Capitol Success.

    PubMed

    Sorrel, Amy Lynn

    2015-08-01

    This legislative session, medicine resolved to ensure physicians can give their patients the best care possible. The hard work paid off in significant victories that largely build on the Texas Medical Association's 2013 legislative successes. PMID:26263520

  10. New Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, Tsunenori; Kikuchi, Makoto; Mizuno, Kyoichi; Arakawa, Ko; Shibuya, Toshio; Horiuchi, Kenji; Okamoto, Yasuyuki; Miyamoto, Akira; Isojima, Kazushige; Kurita, Akira

    1988-06-01

    A new thin coronary angioscope which has a inflatable balloon at its distal tip is described in this paper. This angioscope is formed into very thin flexible catheter, less than 4F(1.33mm) in sheath outer diameter at the catheter tip. The angioscope contains two penetrated lumina which utilize for either flushing blood or manipulating of a guiding wire. A selective intracoronary visualization in left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) and circumuflex(CX) of dogs up to 15kg in their weight were carried out during up to 20s until occurring of ST segment change of the electro-cardiogram(ECG).

  11. A multicenter, randomized trial of percutaneous coronary intervention versus bypass surgery in high-risk unstable angina patients. The AWESOME (Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study #385, angina with extremely serious operative mortality evaluation) investigators from the Cooperative Studies Program of the Department of Veterans Affairs.

    PubMed

    Morrison, D A; Sethi, G; Sacks, J; Grover, F; Sedlis, S; Esposito, R; Ramanathan, K B; Weiman, D; Krucoff, M; Duhaylongsod, F; Raya, T; Pett, S; Vernon, S; Birjiniuk, V; Booth, D; Robinson, C; Talley, J D; Antckli, T; Murphy, E; Floten, H; Curcovic, V; Lucke, J C; Lewis, D; Barbiere, C; Henderson, W

    1999-12-01

    This multicenter, prospective randomized trial was designed to test the hypotheses that percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is a safe and effective alternative to coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) for patients with refractory ischemia and high risk of adverse outcomes. As a comparison of revascularization strategies, the trial specifically allows surgeons and interventionists to use new techniques as they become clinically available. After 42 months of this 72-month trial, 17,624 patients have been screened and 2022 met eligibility requirements: 341 have been randomized to either CABG or PCI, and the remaining 1681 are being prospectively followed in a registry. The 3-year overall survival of patients in the registry and randomized trial is comparable. To enhance accrual into the randomized trial, site visits were conducted, a few low-accruing hospitals were put on probation and/or replaced, eligibility criteria were reviewed at annual meetings of investigators, and the accrual period was extended by 1 year. These data demonstrate that a prospective randomized trial and registry of coronary revascularization for medically refractory high-risk patients is feasible. PMID:10588300

  12. [Non-ST acute coronary syndromes].

    PubMed

    Collet, J Ph; Choussat, R; Montalescot, G

    2002-11-01

    Acute coronary syndromes are the first cause of death in France. Unstable angina is the most frequent acute coronary syndrome. Risk stratification to predict morbimortality and the risk of major hemorrhage is the key step of the medical approach. Combined antithrombotic therapy (aspirine + clopidogrel + LMWH) has led to a substantial reduction of major coronary events with a good tolerance because of the short duration of such aggressive strategy. This combined antithrombotic also allowed to increase the benefit of an early invasive strategy including coronary angiogram with stent percutaneous coronary intervention. PMID:12500603

  13. Occlusion of left and right coronary arteries and coronary sinus following blunt chest trauma.

    PubMed

    Mastroroberto, Pasquale; Di Mizio, Giulio; Colosimo, Federica; Ricci, Pietrantonio

    2011-09-01

    Blunt chest trauma from rapid automobile airbag deployment causing coronary artery occlusion and myocardial infarction is a rare but potentially fatal condition. We present the case of a 37-year-old man who developed extensive anterior and inferior myocardial infarction because of occlusion of both left anterior and right coronary arteries following blunt injury to the chest in a car accident. The patient was scheduled for emergency coronary angiography but left and right coronary ostia were not cannulated because of thrombus formation probably. The patient died, and the autopsy revealed external compression by epicardial hematomas involving separately left and right coronary arteries and the coronary sinus without signs of coronary and/or aortic dissection. To our knowledge, this is the first case presenting occlusion of both coronary arteries secondary to blunt chest trauma causing acute myocardial infarction in a young man without signs of prior coronary artery disease. PMID:21644989

  14. Evaluation of the fetal coronary circulation.

    PubMed

    Baschat, A A; Gembruch, U

    2002-10-01

    Prenatal ultrasound today allows the detailed study of small caliber vascular beds including the fetal coronary arteries and the coronary sinus. The coronary circulation is unique because of its critical role in myocardial metabolism and function and its ability to adapt in many fetal conditions. The ultrasound examination techniques for the evaluation of the fetal coronary circulation are presented. Evaluation of the coronary arteries is primarily achieved by color flow imaging and pulsed wave Doppler. Conditions such as fetal growth restriction, anemia, ductus arteriosus constriction and bradycardia are associated with evidence of enhanced coronary blood flow. These findings suggest that short-term autoregulation and long-term alterations in myocardial flow reserve are present in the human fetus. At present, examination of coronary sinus blood flow has limited clinical utility, while increases of the coronary sinus diameter or attenuation of coronary sinus dynamics may provide useful markers of abnormalities of central venous drainage. Abnormal vascular connections between the coronary arteries and the ventricular cavities may be observed in outflow tract obstructive cardiac lesions. In these conditions prenatal detection of coronary fistulae may have a potential impact on outcome and therefore counseling and perinatal management. PMID:12383329

  15. The reinnervation and revascularization of wounds is temporarily altered after treatment with interleukin 10.

    PubMed

    Henderson, James; Ferguson, Mark W J; Terenghi, Giorgio

    2011-01-01

    Denervated wounds fail to heal normally, and hypertrophic scars are abnormally innervated. Wounds can be manipulated with cytokines to reduce subsequent scarring. Wounds treated with the antiscarring cytokine interleukin 10 (IL10) were investigated to assess if the treatment alterered patterns of reinnervation and revascularization as the wounds matured into scars. Thirty CD1 mice underwent intradermal injection of 100 ?L phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) containing 125 ng IL10 or placebo at the margins of 1 cm(2) full thickness dorsal skin excisions at the time of wounding and at 24 hours after wounding. Wounds were not dressed. Six IL10-treated and six control were harvested days 7, 14, 21, 42 and 84 postoperatively. Sections underwent histological scar assessment along with immunohistochemical staining for protein gene product 9.5 (PGP9.5), a pan-neuronal marker, and the sensory neuropeptides calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) and substance P (SP). The endothelial marker von Willebrand factor (VWF) was used to allow co-localization and quantification of blood vessels. Quantitative analysis was performed on the periphery and center of wounds. Wounds treated with IL10 healed with dermal collagen organized into a pattern more closely resembling normal skin than control wounds. IL10 changed the pattern of CGRP reinnervation during the healing process, but at 84 days, the density levels of all nerve fiber types were similar to controls. Wounds treated with IL10 were more vascular than untreated wounds during healing, but by 84 days, VWF density was that of unwounded skin. PMID:21362095

  16. Multiple mechanical complications in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction with angiographically normal coronary arteries.

    PubMed

    Viveiros Monteiro, André; Galrinho, Ana; Moura Branco, Luísa; Fragata, José; Cruz Ferreira, Rui

    2015-03-01

    This case report discusses an unusual presentation of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) with normal coronary arteries and severe mechanical complications successfully treated with surgery. An 82-year-old man presented STEMI with angiographically normal coronary arteries and no major echocardiographic alterations at discharge. At the first month follow-up, he complained of fatigue and dyspnea, and contrast echocardiography complemented by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging revealed a large left ventricular apical aneurysm with a thrombus communicating by two jets of a turbulent flow to an aneurysmatic formation of the right ventricular apex. The patient underwent a Dor procedure, which was successful. Ventricular septal defects and ventricular aneurysms are rare but devastating complications of STEMI, with almost all patients presenting multivessel coronary artery disease. Interestingly in this case, the angiographic pattern was normal. PMID:25703652

  17. Impact of maternal dexamethasone on coronary PGE2 production and prostaglandin-dependent coronary reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Volk, Kenneth A.; Lamb, Fred S.; Segar, Jeffrey L.

    2012-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction is associated with increased fetal glucocorticoid exposure and an increased risk of adult coronary artery disease. Coronary arteries from sheep exposed to early gestation dexamethasone (Dex) have increased constriction to angiotensin II (ANG II). Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) helps maintain coronary dilation, but PGE2 production is acutely decreased by Dex administration. We hypothesized early gestation Dex exposure impairs adult coronary PGE2 production with subsequent increases in coronary reactivity. Dex was administered to ewes at 27–28 days gestation (term 145 days). Coronary reactivity was assessed by wire myography in offspring at 4 mo of age (N = 5 to 7). Coronary smooth muscle cells were cultured and prostaglandin production was measured after 90 min incubation with radiolabeled arachidonate. Coronary myocytes from Dex-exposed lambs had a significant decrease in PGE2 production that was reversed with ANG II incubation. Dex-exposed coronary arteries had increased constriction to ANG II and attenuated dilatation to arachidonic acid, with the greatest difference seen after the endothelium was inactivated by rubbing. Preincubation with the cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor indomethacin altered control responses and recapitulated the heightened coronary tone seen following Dex exposure. We conclude that impaired coronary smooth muscle COX-mediated PGE2 production contributes to the coronary dysfunction elicited by early gestation Dex. Programmed inhibition of vasodilatory prostanoid production may link an adverse intrauterine environment with adult coronary artery disease. PMID:22832534

  18. Antiplatelet and anticoagulation agents in acute coronary syndromes: what is the current status and what does the future hold?

    PubMed

    Huber, Kurt; Bates, Eric R; Valgimigli, Marco; Wallentin, Lars; Kristensen, Steen Dalby; Anderson, Jeffrey L; Lopez Sendon, Jose Luis; Tubaro, Marco; Granger, Christopher B; Bode, Christoph; Ohman, Erik Magnus; Steg, Philippe Gabriel

    2014-11-01

    Mortality and morbidity in acute coronary syndromes (ACSs), caused principally by plaque erosion or rupture leading to thrombus formation and myocardial ischemia, have been reduced by a combination of antithrombotic agents (antiplatelet drugs and anticoagulants) and early revascularization. Aspirin is the foundation antiplatelet agent. New P2Y12 receptor inhibitors (prasugrel and ticagrelor) have clear benefits compared with clopidogrel for dual antiplatelet therapy, and cangrelor or vorapaxar, a thrombin receptor inhibitor, may be of value in specific settings. Anticoagulation uses 1 of 4 choices: bivalirudin, unfractionated heparin, enoxaparin, and fondaparinux. Moreover, some patients (such as those who have chronic atrial fibrillation) require triple therapy with aspirin, clopidogrel, plus an anticoagulant, frequently a vitamin K antagonist. New oral anticoagulants have been shown to be at least as effective as vitamin K antagonists in atrial fibrillation and led to fewer bleeding complications. Finally, the combination of aspirin, clopidogrel, and low-dose rivaroxaban has recently been approved by the European Medicines Agency (but not the Food and Drug Administration) for secondary prevention after ACS. Several strategies have been developed to balance the potential benefit of antithrombotic therapy against the risk of bleeding complications, for example, radial access in coronary angiography or restricted use of combination therapy, and others are under investigation, such as discontinuation of aspirin. This overview summarizes the current status of antithrombotic therapy in ACS and describes strategies currently explored to optimize its benefit/risk ratio. PMID:25440788

  19. The Prognostic Role of Red Blood Cell Distribution Width in Coronary Artery Disease: A Review of the Pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Bujak, Kamil; Wasilewski, Jaros?aw; Osadnik, Tadeusz; Jonczyk, Sandra; Ko?odziejska, Aleksandra; Gierlotka, Marek; G?sior, Mariusz

    2015-01-01

    Red blood cell distribution width (RDW) is a measure of red blood cell volume variations (anisocytosis) and is reported as part of a standard complete blood count. In recent years, numerous studies have noted the importance of RDW as a predictor of poor clinical outcomes in the settings of various diseases, including coronary artery disease (CAD). In this paper, we discuss the prognostic value of RDW in CAD and describe the pathophysiological connection between RDW and acute coronary syndrome. In our opinion, the negative prognostic effects of elevated RDW levels may be attributed to the adverse effects of independent risk factors such as inflammation, oxidative stress, and vitamin D3 and iron deficiency on bone marrow function (erythropoiesis). Elevated RDW values may reflect the intensity of these phenomena and their unfavorable impacts on bone marrow erythropoiesis. Furthermore, decreased red blood cell deformability among patients with higher RDW values impairs blood flow through the microcirculation, resulting in the diminution of oxygen supply at the tissue level, particularly among patients suffering from myocardial infarction treated with urgent revascularization. PMID:26379362

  20. Transluminal coronary angioplasty in the treatment of silent ischemia

    SciTech Connect

    Bergin, P.; Myler, R.K.; Shaw, R.E.; Stertzer, S.H.; Clark, D.A.; Ryan, C.; Murphy, M.C.

    1988-01-01

    Fifty-four asymptomatic patients with positive thallium exercise tests underwent coronary angiography followed by coronary angioplasty (PTCA), as the primary therapy for silent ischemia. The procedure was technically successful in 89% of these patients. Emergency bypass graft surgery was necessary in 2 (3.6%) and q-wave myocardial infarction occurred in 1 (1.8%) of these. All fifty-four patients have been followed for a mean of 35 months since angioplasty. Of the 48 patients with initially successful PTCA, 12 had either clinical restenosis (9/14 or 19%) or a new lesion (3/48 or 6%) during follow-up, which required a repeat PTCA. At the longest follow-up, 46 (85%) had been successfully treated with on or more PTCA procedures. Two patients (3.6%) had sustained late q-wave myocardial infarction and two additional patients reported angina pectoris. There were no deaths. Angioplasty as a primary therapy for silent ischemia appears efficacious, with success and restenosis rates comparable to those in the symptomatic population. Event-free survival is improved, compared with natural history data for patients with silent ischemia from other studies. Prudent risk/benefit analysis may help to define subgroups most likely to benefit from this intervention.

  1. Gender differences and determinants of health related quality of life in coronary patients: a follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The role of gender differences in Health Related Quality Life (HRQL) in coronary patients is controversial, so understanding the specific determinants of HRQL in men and women might be of clinical importance. The aim of this study was to know the gender differences in the evolution of HRQL at 3 and 6 months after a coronary event, and to identify the key clinical, demographic and psychological characteristics of each gender associated with these changes. Methods A follow-up study was carried out, and 175 patients (112 men and 63 women) with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) or unstable angina were studied. The SF-36v1 health questionnaire was used to assess HRQL, and the GHQ-28 (General Health Questionnaire) to measure mental health during follow-up. To study the variables related to changes in HRQL, generalized estimating equation (GEE) models were performed. Results Follow-up data were available for 55 men and 25 women at 3 months, and for 35 men and 12 women at 6 months. Observations included: a) Revascularization was performed later in women. b) The frequency of rehospitalization between months 3 and 6 of follow-up was higher in women c) Women had lower baseline scores in the SF-36. d) Men had progressed favourably in most of the physical dimensions of the SF-36 at 6 months, while at the same time women's scores had only improved for Physical Component Summary, Role Physical and Social Functioning; e) the variables determining the decrease in HRQL in men were: worse mental health and angina frequency; and in women: worse mental health, history of the disease, revascularization, and angina frequency. Conclusions There are differences in the evolution of HRQL, between men and women after a coronary attack. Mental health is the determinant most frequently associated with HRQL in both genders. However, other clinical determinants of HRQL differed with gender, emphasizing the importance of individualizing the intervention and the content of rehabilitation programs. Likewise, the recognition and treatment of mental disorders in these patients could be crucial. PMID:21619566

  2. Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Rates and Associated Independent Predictors for Progression of Nontarget Lesions in Patients With Diabetes Mellitus After Drug-Eluting Stent Implantation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Le; Zhou, Yujie; Peng, Pingan; Xu, Xiaohan; Yang, Shiwei; Liu, Wei; Han, Hongya; Jia, Dean; Wang, Jianlong; Ji, Qingwei; Ge, Hailong; Liu, Yuyang; Shi, Dongmei; Zhao, Yingxin

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about clinically driven percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) rates and predictors for progression of nontarget lesions in diabetic patients who have undergone drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical and angiographic data of 2187 diabetic patients undergoing DES implantation. The cumulative rate of nontarget lesion PCI was 6.3% at 1 year, 14.3% at 2 years, and 19.8% at 3 years. The independent predictors of need for clinically driven PCI in patients with diabetes mellitus after DES implantation included obesity (odds ratio [OR] 2.303, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.657-3.199, P < .001), low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR 1.412, 95% CI 1.114-1.789, P = .004), statin use (OR 0.669, 95% CI 0.454-0.986, P = .042), insulin use (OR 1.310, 95% CI 1.030-1.665, P = .027), and Synergy Between PCI With Taxus and Cardiac Surgery (SYNTAX) score (OR 1.061, 95% CI 1.045-1.077, P < .001) at baseline PCI. These findings may facilitate prediction of the risk of repeat revascularization and improve repeat revascularization rates in diabetic patients after DES implantation. PMID:25897149

  3. Coronary Artery Disease | Coronary Artery Disease | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Coronary Artery Disease Coronary Artery Disease Past Issues / Fall 2010 Table of Contents ... exercise routine produced a strong heart!" Fast Facts Arteries are blood vessels that carry oxygen-rich blood ...

  4. Excimer laser coronary angioplasty: relative risk analysis of clinical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bittl, John A.

    1992-08-01

    Reports of successful use of excimer laser coronary angioplasty for complex coronary artery disease abound, yet firm indications for its use have not been defined. We attempted to treat 858 coronary stenoses in 764 consecutive patients (mean age 61 years; range 32 - 91 years; 75% men; 76% with Class III or IV angina) with excimer laser angioplasty at 308 nm. Successful treatment was achieved in 86% of patients, as indicated by success. On the other hand, ostial stenoses (OR equals 1.06; 95% CI equals 0.44, 2.56, P equals 0.903) and saphenous vein graft lesions (OR equals 2.17; 95% CI equals 0.98, 4.82; P equals 0.051) have acceptable success rates. Diffuse disease (> 20 mm), total occlusions and calcified lesions were treated as successfully as all other lesion types. Successful treatment with excimer laser coronary angioplasty was also achieved in almost all patients (15/16) who had a prior unsuccessful attempt at balloon angioplasty in the lesion was crossed with a guidewire yet resists either balloon catheter passage or full dilatation. Follow-up angiography was obtained in 70% of eligible patients. Angiographic restenosis, defined by > 50% stenosis, was seen in 60% of patients. Relative risk analysis showed an increased risk of restenosis when adjunctive balloon angioplasty was not used (OR equals 1.68; 95% CI equals 1.02, 2.28; P equals 0.039). Other variables known to affect the outcome of balloon angioplasty, such as lesion length or stenosis in degenerated saphenous vein bypass graft, did not influence the restenosis rates. This analysis defines the profile of risk for excimer laser angioplasty and now provides a sound basis for future, rigorous comparison of excimer laser and balloon angioplasty to balloon angioplasty for a group of lesions that appear to have acceptable success rates with excimer laser coronary angioplasty, which we have denoted the `alpha class' -- saphenous vein lesions, long lesions, ostial stenoses, lesions in calcified vessels, total occlusions, and balloon dilatation failures. Although adjunctive balloon angioplasty may be beneficial, restenosis remains a significant limitation of the procedure and will restrict the usefulness of excimer laser coronary angioplasty for may other types of lesions.

  5. Percutaneous trans-ulnar artery approach for coronary angiography and angioplasty; A case series study

    PubMed Central

    Roghani-Dehkordi, Farshad; Hadizadeh, Mahmood; Hadizadeh, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Coronary angiography is the gold standard method for diagnosis of coronary heart disease and usually performed by femoral approach that has several complications. To reduce these complications, upper extremity approach is increasingly used and is becoming preferred access site by many interventionists. Although radial approach is relatively well studied, safety, feasibility and risk of applying ulnar approach in not clearly known yet. METHODS We followed 97 patients (man = 56%, mean ± standard deviation of age = 57 ± 18) who had undergone coronary angiography or angioplasty via ulnar approach for 6-10 months and recorded their outcomes. RESULTS In 97 patients out of 105 ones (92.38%), procedure through ulnar access were successfully done. Unsuccessful puncture (3 patients), wiring (2 patients), passing of sheet (2 patients), and anatomically unsuitable ulnar artery (1 patient) were the reasons of failure. In 94 patients (89.52%), the angiography and angioplasty was done without any complications. Five patients (5.1%) hematoma and 11 patients (11%) experienced low-grade pain that resolved with painkiller. No infection, amputation or need for surgery was reported. CONCLUSION This study demonstrated that ulnar access in our patients was a safe and practical approach for coronary angiography or angioplasty, without any major complication. Bearing in mind its high success rate, it can be utilized when a radial artery is not useful for the catheterization and in cases such as prior harvesting of the radial artery (in prior coronary artery bypass grafting). PMID:26715936

  6. Diagnosis and therapy of coronary artery disease: Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Cohn, P.F.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 18 selections. Some of the titles are: Nuclear cardiology; Diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction; Therapy of angina pectoris; Psychosocial aspects of coronary artery disease; Nonatherosclerotic coronary artery disease; and The epidemiology of coronary artery disease.

  7. How do We Manage Coronary Artery Disease in Patients with CKD and ESRD?

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hoon Young; Park, Hyeong Cheon

    2014-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been shown to be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular events. In addition, patients with pre-dialysis CKD appear to be more likely to die of heart disease than of kidney disease. CKD accelerates coronary artery atherosclerosis by several mechanisms, notably hypertension and dyslipidemia, both of which are known risk factors for coronary artery disease. In addition, CKD alters calcium and phosphorus homeostasis, resulting in hypercalcemia and vascular calcification, including the coronary arteries. Mortality of patients on long-term dialysis therapy is high, with age-adjusted mortality rates of about 25% annually. Because the majority of deaths are caused by cardiovascular disease, routine cardiac catheterization of new dialysis patients was proposed as a means of improving the identification and treatment of high-risk patients. However, clinicians may be uncomfortable exposing asymptomatic patients to such invasive procedures like cardiac catheterization, thus noninvasive cardiac risk stratification was investigated widely as a more palatable alternative to routine diagnostic catheterization. The effective management of coronary artery disease is of paramount importance in uremic patients. The applicability of diagnostic, preventive, and treatment modalities developed in nonuremic populations to patients with kidney failure cannot necessarily be extrapolated from clinical studies in non-kidney failure populations. Noninvasive diagnostic testing in uremic patients is less accurate than in nonuremic populations. Initial data suggest that dobutamine echocardiography may be the preferred diagnostic method. PCI with stenting is a less favorable alternative to CABG, however, it has a faster recovery time, reduced invasiveness, and no overall mortality difference in nondiabetic and non-CKD patients compared with CABG. CABG is associated with reduced repeat revascularizations, greater relief of angina, and increased long term survival. However, CABG is associated with a higher incidence of post-operative risks. The treatment chosen for each patient should be an individualized decision based upon numerous risk factors. CKD is associated with higher rates of CAD, with 44% of all-cause mortality attributable to cardiac disease and about 20% from acute MI. Optimal treatment including aggressive lifestyle modifications and concomitant medical therapy should be implemented in all patients to maximize benefits from either PCI or CABG. Future prospective randomized controlled trials with newer second or third generation DES and bioabsorbable DES are necessary to determine if PCI may be non-inferior to CABG in the future. PMID:25606043

  8. How do We Manage Coronary Artery Disease in Patients with CKD and ESRD?

    PubMed

    Choi, Hoon Young; Park, Hyeong Cheon; Ha, Sung Kyu

    2014-12-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been shown to be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular events. In addition, patients with pre-dialysis CKD appear to be more likely to die of heart disease than of kidney disease. CKD accelerates coronary artery atherosclerosis by several mechanisms, notably hypertension and dyslipidemia, both of which are known risk factors for coronary artery disease. In addition, CKD alters calcium and phosphorus homeostasis, resulting in hypercalcemia and vascular calcification, including the coronary arteries. Mortality of patients on long-term dialysis therapy is high, with age-adjusted mortality rates of about 25% annually. Because the majority of deaths are caused by cardiovascular disease, routine cardiac catheterization of new dialysis patients was proposed as a means of improving the identification and treatment of high-risk patients. However, clinicians may be uncomfortable exposing asymptomatic patients to such invasive procedures like cardiac catheterization, thus noninvasive cardiac risk stratification was investigated widely as a more palatable alternative to routine diagnostic catheterization. The effective management of coronary artery disease is of paramount importance in uremic patients. The applicability of diagnostic, preventive, and treatment modalities developed in nonuremic populations to patients with kidney failure cannot necessarily be extrapolated from clinical studies in non-kidney failure populations. Noninvasive diagnostic testing in uremic patients is less accurate than in nonuremic populations. Initial data suggest that dobutamine echocardiography may be the preferred diagnostic method. PCI with stenting is a less favorable alternative to CABG, however, it has a faster recovery time, reduced invasiveness, and no overall mortality difference in nondiabetic and non-CKD patients compared with CABG. CABG is associated with reduced repeat revascularizations, greater relief of angina, and increased long term survival. However, CABG is associated with a higher incidence of post-operative risks. The treatment chosen for each patient should be an individualized decision based upon numerous risk factors. CKD is associated with higher rates of CAD, with 44% of all-cause mortality attributable to cardiac disease and about 20% from acute MI. Optimal treatment including aggressive lifestyle modifications and concomitant medical therapy should be implemented in all patients to maximize benefits from either PCI or CABG. Future prospective randomized controlled trials with newer second or third generation DES and bioabsorbable DES are necessary to determine if PCI may be non-inferior to CABG in the future. PMID:25606043

  9. [Acute coronary syndrome during dissection of left main as a complication of radiofrequency ablation].

    PubMed

    Kulawik, Tomasz; Ka?u?a, Bernadetta; Ku?nierz, Jacek

    2012-01-01

    We present a case of 44 year-old female who was admitted to the hospital due to performed radio frequency ablation because of VF during WPW syndrome, which was complicated by dissection of left main. The dissection was treated with success by primary percutaneous coronary intervention with two metal stents. PMID:22427091

  10. Current status of high on-treatment platelet reactivity in patients with coronary or peripheral arterial disease: Mechanisms, evaluation and clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    Spiliopoulos, Stavros; Pastromas, Georgios

    2015-01-01

    Antiplatelet therapy with aspirin or clopidogrel or both is the standard care for patients with proven coronary or peripheral arterial disease, especially those undergoing endovascular revascularization procedures. However, despite the administration of the antiplatelet regiments, some patients still experience recurrent cardiovascular ischemic events. So far, it is well documented by several studies that in vitro response of platelets may be extremely variable. Poor antiplatelet effect of clopidogrel or high on-treatment platelet reactivity (HTPR) is under investigation by numerous recent studies. This review article focuses on methods used for the ex vivo evaluation of HTPR, as well as on the possible underlying mechanisms and the clinical consequences of this entity. Alternative therapeutic options and future directions are also addressed.

  11. Coronary artery disease in the military patient.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Iain; White, S; Gill, R; Gray, H H; Rees, P

    2015-09-01

    Ischaemic heart disease is the most common cause of sudden death in the UK, and the most common cardiac cause of medical discharge from the Armed Forces. This paper reviews current evidence pertaining to the diagnosis and management of coronary artery disease from a military perspective, encompassing stable angina and acute coronary syndromes. Emphasis is placed on the limitations inherent in the management of acute coronary syndromes in the deployed environment. Occupational issues affecting patients with coronary artery disease are reviewed. Consideration is also given to the potential for coronary artery disease screening in the military, and the management of modifiable cardiovascular disease risk factors, to help decrease the prevalence of coronary artery disease in the military population. PMID:26246347

  12. Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Mokhberi, Vahid; Bagheri, Babak; Navidi, Seyfollah; Amini, Seyed Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a rare and important cause of acute coronary syndrome and sudden cardiac death. Various etiologies are thought to be responsible for this condition, among which underlying atherosclerosis seems to be the most common. SCAD is predominant in women and is usually diagnosed via coronary artery angiography. Therapeutic interventions include medical therapy, percutaneous coronary artery intervention, and surgery based on lesion characteristics. We describe a 36-year-old woman with SCAD presenting with acute chest pain to Fatemeh-Zahra Hospital, Sari, Iran. The patient had no current atherosclerosis risk factors and had given birth 6 months previously. Coronary angiography was performed due to the persistence of the chest pain after initial management, and a spontaneous dissection of the left anterior descending artery was observed. She underwent coronary artery bypass graft and was discharged in good condition. PMID:26697091

  13. Coronary Cineangiographic Study of Intravenously Administered Isoptin

    PubMed Central

    de L. Mignault, J.

    1966-01-01

    Since Isoptin increases coronary blood flow in the dog and improves patients with angina pectoris, the drug was studied by coronary cineangiography (Sones' technique) to determine the degree of vasodilatation so produced. When Isoptin, 5 mg. in 2 ml. of solvent, was injected intravenously into five patients with coronary disease and five without coronary disease, there was no change in the size of the main coronary vessels or in the degree of impregnation of the heart muscle, and no new vessels appeared. Isoptin produced a constant decrease in systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressure and a constant increase in heart rate. The clinical improvement in patients taking the drug may be independent of coronary vasodilatation. The drug may act by antagonizing ?-adrenergic effects. PMID:5954491

  14. Spontaneous Coronary Dissection Masquerading as Benign Fascicular Ventricular Tachycardia.

    PubMed

    Ho, Sara Wei-Fen; Lin, Weiqin; Chan, Koo Hui; Seow, Swee-Chong

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is an uncommon cause of acute coronary syndrome. Diagnosis of coronary artery dissection is made on coronary angiogram and prompt revascularisation is the key in management. We present a case of coronary artery dissection with an atypical presentation of cardiac arrhythmia mimicking benign fascicular ventricular tachycardia. A high index of suspicion and early coronary angiogram allowed us to diagnose and treat this potentially life-threatening disease. PMID:26475648

  15. Behavior patterns and coronary heart disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, J. C.; Cronin, J. P.

    1975-01-01

    The relationships between two behavioral patterns, cardiac risk factors, and coronary heart disease are investigated. Risk factors used in the analysis were family history of coronary disease, smoking, cholesterol, obesity, systotic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, blood sugar, uric acid, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and white blood unit. It was found that conventional, non-behavioral pattern risk factors alone were not significantly related to coronary heart disease.

  16. Radiation dose measurements in coronary CT angiography

    PubMed Central

    Sabarudin, Akmal; Sun, Zhonghua

    2013-01-01

    Coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography is associated with high radiation dose and this has raised serious concerns in the literature. Awareness of various parameters for dose estimates and measurements of coronary CT angiography plays an important role in increasing our understanding of the radiation exposure to patients, thus, contributing to the implementation of dose-saving strategies. This article provides an overview of the radiation dose quantity and its measurement during coronary CT angiography procedures. PMID:24392190

  17. Hyperacute Carotid Stent Thrombosis During Emergent Revascularization Treated with Intraarterial Eptifibatide After Systemic Administration of Recombinant Tissue Plasminogen Activator

    PubMed Central

    Sorkin, Grant C; Dumont, Travis M.; Mokin, Maxim; Eller, Jorge L.; Natarajan, Sabareesh K.; Levy, Elad I.; Siddiqui, Adnan H.

    2015-01-01

    A 57-year-old woman with National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score of 26 was found to have an acute left carotid occlusion with tandem left M1 thrombus within 1.5 hours of symptom onset. After no neurologic improvement following standard-dose intravenous (IV) recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA), emergent neuroendovascular revascularization with carotid stenting and intracranial thrombectomy were performed under conscious sedation. Thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI)-3 flow restoration and symptom resolution were achieved postprocedure; however, complete carotid stent thrombosis was noted on final angiographic runs (25 minutes later), correlating with neurologic decline. Rapid administration of an intraarterial (IA) bolus dose of eptifibatide resulted in TIMI-3 flow restoration, with neurologic improvement. The patient was discharged three days postrevascularization on dual antiplatelet therapy with an NIHSS score of 1. Intraarterial (IA) eptifibatide can be an effective option for acute stent occlusion during emergent neuroendovascular revascularization after IV rtPA administration. ABBREVIATIONS CLEAR Combined approach to lysis utilizing eptifibatide and RtPA CT computed tomographic Fr French GP glycoprotein IA intraarterial ICA internal carotid artery IV intravenous MCA middle cerebral artery NIHSS National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale rtPA recombinant tissue plasminogen activator TIMI thrombolysis in myocardial infarction PMID:26301032

  18. The Importance of Patency in Patients with Critical Limb Ischemia Undergoing Endovascular Revascularization for Infrapopliteal Arterial Disease

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Frederic; Ozdoba, Christoph; Gröchenig, Ernst; Diehm, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Critical limb ischemia (CLI) represents the most severe form of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and frequently occurs in medically frail patients. CLI patients frequently exhibit multi-segmental PAD commonly including the tibial arterial segment. Endovascular therapy has been established as first-line revascularization strategy for most CLI patients. Restenosis was reported to occur in up to more than two-thirds of CLI patients undergoing angioplasty of complex tibial arterial obstructions. Nevertheless, favorable clinical outcomes were observed for infrapopliteal angioplasty when compared with bypass surgery, despite higher patency rates for the latter. Based on these observations, infrapopliteal patency was considered to be only of secondary importance upon clinical outcomes in CLI patients. In contrast to these earlier observations, however, recent findings from two randomized clinical trials indicate that infrapopliteal patency does impact on clinical outcomes in CLI patients. The purpose of the present manuscript is to provide a critical reappraisal of the present literature on the clinical importance of tibial arterial patency in CLI patients undergoing endovascular revascularization and to discuss utility and limitations of currently available anti-restenosis technologies.

  19. Eight years experience in the management of median arcuate ligament syndrome by decompression, celiac ganglion sympathectomy, and selective revascularization.

    PubMed

    Sultan, Sherif; Hynes, Niamh; Elsafty, Naisrin; Tawfick, Wael

    2013-11-01

    We aim to review an 8-year experience of median arcuate ligament syndrome (MALS) with chronic gastrointestinal ischemia (CGI) and evaluate clinical outcomes of arcuate ligament decompression, celiac sympathectomy, and selective revascularization. Between December 2002 and March 2012, of 25 patients referred with symptoms of CGI, 11 patients (10 women and 1 man) had clinical signs of abdominal angina and radiological evidence of MALS. Mean age was 50 ± 20.4 years. Median symptom duration was 34 months. All patients had median arcuate decompression and celiac sympathectomy. In all, 8 did not require revascularization, 2 had retrograde celiac and/or superior mesenteric artery (SMA) stenting, and 1 had SMA bypass. There was no mortality. The 30-day morbidity was 9%. Mean follow-up was 60 months. Eight patients noted complete relief of abdominal pain, and 1 reported some improvement. The MALS is not solely a vascular compression syndrome. The neurological component requires careful celiac plexus sympathectomy in addition to arcuate ligament decompression. PMID:23942948

  20. Survey of contrast media used in coronary angiograph

    SciTech Connect

    Weikl, A.; Hubmann, M.

    1982-01-01

    In recent years, various contrast media have been developed for use in coronary angiography. These contrast media may be divided into ionic contrast media of high osmolality, those of low osmolality, and nonionic contrast materials. We conducted our own clinical studies with 40 patients. In random succession a standard contrast medium (ionic, of high osmolality) and a new-generation contrast medium (either nonionic or ionic with low osmolality) were injected into the right and left coronary arteries. After each injection we measured the systolic and diastolic blood pressure using a liquid-filled coronary catheter. In addition, the change in the length of the cardiac cycle was registered in terms of the R-R interval (in ms) and at the same time, leads I, II, and III of the ECG were recorded. We studied the influence of the various contrast media on the activity of ATPase in in vitro experiments, using Lasser and Lang's. When ionic contrast media of low osmolality and nonionic contrast media were utilized the heart rate showed no change. Disturbances of rhythm such as ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation were not observed. All of the contrast media used produced the same ECG changes. These changes can be ascribed to the inhibition of ATPase. The arterial blood pressure was lowered significantly only by ionic contrast media of high osmolality only.

  1. [A case of coronary artery embolism after double valve replacement].

    PubMed

    Taniyasu, N; Seino, R; Sawatani, O; Yano, T; Inoue, S; Haruta, S; Miyazawa, Y; Koyanagi, H

    1996-07-01

    A 69-year-old woman with combined valvular heart disease (mitral regurgitation and aortic regurgitation), ascending aortic aneurysm, and atrial fibrillation underwent double valve replacement (DVR) and, ascending aortic wall plication. The postoperative thrombo-test level was around 20%. The ST elevation on ECG (II, III, aVFm, V4 approximately V6) with chest pain were recognized on the 13 th postoperative day. She was diagnosed as having acute myocardial infarction, and percutaneous transluminal coronary recanalization was performed immediately. The coronary angiogram showed occlusion at the left anterior descending branch (#8). This lesion could be recanalized by 6,000 U plasminogen pro activator (pro-UK) administration. The cineangiogram on the 35th postoperative day, revealed complete recanalization of this occlusion. Several cases of acute myocardial infarction associated with valvular heart diseases has been reported previously in Japan. However, there has been no report, except for this case, demonstrating occlusion in the coronary artery after prosthetic replacement and successful PTCR. So, this case is the first report on that point. PMID:8753036

  2. Left main percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Teirstein, Paul S; Price, Matthew J

    2012-10-23

    The introduction of drug-eluting stents and advances in catheter techniques have led to increasing acceptance of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) as a viable alternative to coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) for unprotected left main disease. Current guidelines state that it is reasonable to consider unprotected left main PCI in patients with low to intermediate anatomic complexity who are at increased surgical risk. Data from randomized trials involving patients who are candidates for either treatment strategy provide novel insight into the relative safety and efficacy of PCI for this lesion subset. Herein, we review the current data comparing PCI with CABG for left main disease, summarize recent guideline recommendations, and provide an update on technical considerations that may optimize clinical outcomes in left main PCI. PMID:23021329

  3. Complex robotic-enhanced percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Kapur, Vishal; Smilowitz, Nathaniel R; Weisz, Giora

    2014-05-01

    A remote-controlled, robotic system was developed to address procedural challenges and occupational hazards associated with traditional percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The PRECISE (Percutaneous Robotically Enhanced Coronary Intervention) Study demonstrated the safety and feasibility of the robotic system. We report four cases of complex coronary interventions demonstrating the capabilities of robotic-enhanced PCI to treat multilesion, multivessel coronary disease, saphenous venous graft disease, and an ST-elevation myocardial infarction. The robotic system offers enhanced visibility, precise measurement, accurate stent positioning, improved ergonomics, and superior operator protection from radiation. PMID:24167108

  4. Patient-specific coronary territory maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beliveau, Pascale; Setser, Randolph; Cheriet, Farida; O'Donnell, Thomas

    2007-03-01

    It is standard practice for physicians to rely on empirical, population based models to define the relationship between regions of left ventricular (LV) myocardium and the coronary arteries which supply them with blood. Physicians use these models to infer the presence and location of disease within the coronary arteries based on the condition of the myocardium within their distribution (which can be established non-invasively using imaging techniques such as ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging). However, coronary artery anatomy often varies from the assumed model distribution in the individual patient; thus, a non-invasive method to determine the correspondence between coronary artery anatomy and LV myocardium would have immediate clinical impact. This paper introduces an image-based rendering technique for visualizing maps of coronary distribution in a patient-specific approach. From an image volume derived from computed tomography (CT) images, a segmentation of the LV epicardial surface, as well as the paths of the coronary arteries, is obtained. These paths form seed points for a competitive region growing algorithm applied to the surface of the LV. A ray casting procedure in spherical coordinates from the center of the LV is then performed. The cast rays are mapped to a two-dimensional circular based surface forming our coronary distribution map. We applied our technique to a patient with known coronary artery disease and a qualitative evaluation by an expert in coronary cardiac anatomy showed promising results.

  5. Cardiac CT: atherosclerosis to acute coronary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Munnur, Ravi Kiran; Cameron, James D.; Ko, Brian S.; Meredith, Ian T.

    2014-01-01

    Coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) is a robust non-invasive method to assess coronary artery disease (CAD). Qualitative and quantitative assessment of atherosclerotic coronary stenosis with CCTA has been favourably compared with invasive coronary angiography (ICA) and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). Importantly, it allows the study of preclinical stages of atherosclerotic disease, may help improve risk stratification and monitor the progressive course of the disease. The diagnostic accuracy of CCTA in the assessment of coronary artery bypass grafts (CABG) is excellent and the constantly improving technology is making the evaluation of stents feasible. Novel techniques are being developed to assess the functional significance of coronary stenosis. The excellent negative predictive value of CCTA in ruling out disease enables early and safe discharge of patients with suspected acute coronary syndromes (ACS) in the Emergency Department (ED). In addition, CCTA is useful in predicting clinical outcomes based on the extent of coronary atherosclerosis and also based on individual plaque characteristics such as low attenuation plaque (LAP), positive remodelling and spotty calcification. In this article, we review the role of CCTA in the detection of coronary atherosclerosis in native vessels, stented vessels, calcified arteries and grafts; the assessment of plaque progression, evaluation of chest pain in the ED, assessment of functional significance of stenosis and the prognostic significance of CCTA. PMID:25610801

  6. Anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Goto, Koji; Nakai, Kentaro; Shizuta, Satoshi; Morimoto, Takeshi; Shiomi, Hiroki; Natsuaki, Masahiro; Yahata, Mitsuhiko; Ota, Chihiro; Ono, Koh; Makiyama, Takeru; Nakagawa, Yoshihisa; Furukawa, Yutaka; Kadota, Kazushige; Takatsu, Yoshiki; Tamura, Takashi; Takizawa, Akinori; Inada, Tsukasa; Doi, Osamu; Nohara, Ryuji; Matsuda, Mitsuo; Takeda, Teruki; Kato, Masayuki; Shirotani, Manabu; Eizawa, Hiroshi; Ishii, Katsuhisa; Lee, Jong-Dae; Takahashi, Masaaki; Horie, Minoru; Takahashi, Mamoru; Miki, Shinji; Aoyama, Takeshi; Suwa, Satoru; Hamasaki, Shuichi; Ogawa, Hisao; Mitsudo, Kazuaki; Nobuyoshi, Masakiyo; Kita, Toru; Kimura, Takeshi

    2014-07-01

    The prevalence, intensity, safety, and efficacy of oral anticoagulation (OAC) in addition to dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) in "real-world" patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) have not yet been fully evaluated. In the Coronary REvascularization Demonstrating Outcome Study in Kyoto registry cohort-2, a total of 1,057 patients with AF (8.3%) were identified among 12,716 patients undergoing first PCI. Cumulative 5-year incidence of stroke was higher in patients with AF than in no-AF patients (12.8% vs 5.8%, p <0.0001). Although most patients with AF had CHADS2 score ?2 (75.2%), only 506 patients (47.9%) received OAC with warfarin at hospital discharge. Cumulative 5-year incidence of stroke in the OAC group was not different from that in the no-OAC group (13.8% vs 11.8%, p = 0.49). Time in therapeutic range (TTR) was only 52.6% with an international normalized ratio of 1.6 to 2.6, and only 154 of 409 patients (37.7%) with international normalized ratio data had TTR ?65%. Cumulative 5-year incidence of stroke in patients with TTR ?65% was markedly lower than that in patients with TTR <65% (6.9% vs 15.1%, p = 0.01). In a 4-month landmark analysis in the OAC group, there was a trend for higher cumulative incidences of stroke and major bleeding in the on-DAPT (n = 286) than in the off-DAPT (n = 173) groups (15.1% vs 6.7%, p = 0.052 and 14.7% vs 8.7%, p = 0.10, respectively). In conclusion, OAC was underused and its intensity was mostly suboptimal in real-world patients with AF undergoing PCI, which lead to inadequate stroke prevention. Long-term DAPT in patients receiving OAC did not reduce stroke incidence. PMID:24925801

  7. Additive prognostic value of coronary artery calcium score and renal function in patients with acute chest pain without known coronary artery disease: up to 5-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Chaikriangkrai, Kongkiat; Nabi, Faisal; Mahmarian, John J; Chang, Su Min

    2015-12-01

    Long-term incremental prognostic value of renal function over coronary artery calcium score (CACS) in symptomatic patients without known coronary artery disease (CAD) is unclear. The objective of this study was to examine additive prognostic value of renal function over CACS in patients with acute chest pain suspected of CAD. Renal function and CACS were assessed in patients without known CAD who presented to the emergency department with chest pain from 2005 to 2008. Renal function was assessed using estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and chronic kidney disease (CKD) was defined as eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2). A total of 949 patients (804 non-CKD and 145 CKD, age 54 ± 13 years) were included. During the follow-up period of up to 5.3 years, major adverse cardiac events (MACE) occurred in 5.7 % of patients (19 cardiac deaths, 6 myocardial infarction and 29 late coronary revascularization). Annualized MACE rate was higher in patients in higher CACS categories with and without CKD (p = 0.011 and p < 0.001 respectively). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, CACS categories (CACS 1-100: HR 3.17, p = 0.005; CACS 101-400: HR 7.68, p < 0.001; CACS > 400: HR 8.88, p < 0.001) and CKD (HR 10.18, p < 0.001) were independent predictors for MACE. Both adding renal function and CACS significantly improved the overall predictive performance (p < 0.001 for global Chi square increase) from Framingham risk categories or thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) risk score. Both CACS and renal function were independent predictors for future cardiac events and provided additive prognostic value to each other and over either Framingham risk categories or TIMI risk score. PMID:26243534

  8. Coronary artery disease in women.

    PubMed Central

    Chiamvimonvat, V.; Sternberg, L.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review and recognize how presentation, investigation, risk factor modification, and treatment of coronary artery disease (CAD) is different for women than for men. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Epidemiologic data are from well-recognized, peer-reviewed medical journals. Most data on treatment are from randomized controlled trials. MAIN FINDINGS: Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of mortality in women, with incidence after menopause equal to that of men. Diabetes and postmenopausal status without hormone replacement therapy are the strongest risk factors. Women with CAD are more likely to have atypical symptoms, including nonexertional chest pain; pain in other locations, such as jaw, arms, shoulder, back, and epigastrium; and angina-equivalents, such as dyspnea, palpitations, and presyncope. Because women have atypical symptoms, physicians should maintain a high level of suspicion. Although newer nonivasive stress imaging modalities provide greater diagnostic accuracy than traditional exercise stress testing, the tests are still less accurate for women. A safe and cost-effective approach to investigation can be guided by clinical likelihood for CAD based on patients' age, chest pain quality, and risk factors. Treatment and preventive strategies are generally similar for women and men. CONCLUSION: Coronary artery disease is a serious cause of morbidity and mortality in women and will continue to gain importance as women's life expectancy increases. Important differences in presentation, risk factors, investigation, and treatment of women exist and should be recognized. PMID:9870124

  9. Espresso Coffee Consumption and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in a Large Italian Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Grioni, Sara; Agnoli, Claudia; Sieri, Sabina; Pala, Valeria; Ricceri, Fulvio; Masala, Giovanna; Saieva, Calogero; Panico, Salvatore; Mattiello, Amalia; Chiodini, Paolo; Tumino, Rosario; Frasca, Graziella; Iacoviello, Licia; de Curtis, Amalia; Vineis, Paolo; Krogh, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    Background The relationship between coffee consumption and coronary heart disease (CHD) has been investigated in several studies with discrepant results. We examined the association between Italian-style (espresso and mocha) coffee consumption and CHD risk. Methods We investigated 12,800 men and 30,449 women without history of cardiovascular disease recruited to the EPICOR prospective cohort study. Coffee consumption was assessed at baseline. In a random sub-cohort of 1472 subjects, plasma triglycerides, and total, LDL and HDL cholesterol were determined to investigate the effect of coffee consumption on plasma lipids. Results After a mean follow up of 10.9 years, 804 cases of CHD (500 acute events, 56 fatal events and 248 revascularizations, all first events) were identified. Multivariable adjusted hazard ratios for CHD were: 1.18 (95% CI 0.87–1.60) for drinking 1–2 cups/day, 1.37 (95% CI 1.03–1.82) for >2–4 cups/day and 1.52 (95% CI 1.11–2.07) for over 4 cups/day (P trend <0.001) compared to reference (<1 cup/day). Plasma triglycerides, and total, LDL and HDL cholesterol did not vary significantly (ANOVA) with coffee consumption. Conclusion Consumption of over 2 cups/day of Italian-style coffee is associated with increased CHD risk, but coffee consumption was not associated with plasma lipid changes, so the adverse effect of consumption appears unrelated to lipid profile. PMID:25946046

  10. How can we optimize the processes of care for acute coronary syndromes to improve outcomes?

    PubMed

    Wallentin, Lars; Kristensen, Steen Dalby; Anderson, Jeffrey L; Tubaro, Marco; Sendon, José Luis Lopez; Granger, Christopher B; Bode, Christoph; Huber, Kurt; Bates, Eric R; Valgimigli, Marco; Steg, Philippe Gabriel; Ohman, E Magnus

    2014-11-01

    Acute coronary syndromes (ACS), either ST-elevation myocardial infarction or non-ST-elevation ACS, are still one of the most common cardiac emergencies with substantial morbidity and mortality. The availability of evidence-based treatments, such as early and intense platelet inhibition and anticoagulation, and timely reperfusion and revascularization, has substantially improved outcomes in patients with ACS. The implementation of streamlined processes of care for patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction and non-ST-elevation ACS over the last decade including both appropriate tools, especially cardiac troponin, for rapid diagnosis and risk stratification and for decision support, and the widespread availability of modern antithrombotic and interventional treatments, have reduced morbidity and mortality to unprecedented low levels. These changes in the process of care require a synchronized approach, and research using a team-based strategy and effective regional networks has allowed healthcare systems to provide modern treatments for most patients with ACS. There are still areas needing improvement, such as the delivery of care to people in rural areas or with delayed time to treatment. PMID:25440789

  11. Arterial and venous coronary pressure-flow relations in anesthetized dogs. Evidence for a vascular waterfall in epicardial coronary veins.

    PubMed

    Uhlig, P N; Baer, R W; Vlahakes, G J; Hanley, F L; Messina, L M; Hoffman, J I

    1984-08-01

    The coronary circulation of anesthetized dogs was tested for the presence of vascular waterfalls by manipulating coronary arterial and coronary venous pressures. The left main coronary artery and the coronary sinus were cannulated, and relationships between coronary artery pressure, coronary sinus pressure, and coronary flow were studied. Experiments were conducted during diastolic arrests, under steady state conditions, in the absence of autoregulation. Relations of coronary flow to coronary sinus pressure at constant coronary artery pressure were consistent with the presence of a vascular waterfall in the coronary sinus. When the great cardiac vein was cannulated, relations of great vein flow to great vein pressure at constant coronary artery pressure were consistent with the presence of a vascular waterfall in the great vein, indicating that waterfall behavior can occur in epicardial veins other than the coronary sinus. In dogs on right heart bypass, with the coronary sinus and great vein uncannulated, the relationship between right atrial pressure and coronary sinus pressure showed a waterfall pattern, indicating that the waterfall is not an artifact of venous cannulation. In the right heart bypass experiments, venous waterfall behavior was seen in beating hearts as well as during diastolic arrests. We conclude that a vascular waterfall is present in epicardial coronary veins which can significantly influence coronary blood flow. PMID:6611215

  12. Impact of estimated HDL particle size via the ratio of HDL-C and apoprotein A-I on short-term prognosis of diabetic patients with stable coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Li-Feng; Yang, Bo; Luo, Song-Hui; Li, Jian-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Background Revascularization and statin therapy are routinely used in the management of stable coronary artery disease. However, it is unclear whether the estimated high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particle size (eHDL-S), the ratio of HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) to apoprotein A-I (apoA-I), is associated with the clinical outcomes of diabetic patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods We performed a prospective cohort study of 328 patients diagnosed with stable CAD by coronary angiography. Patients were followed up for a mean duration of 12 months. The patients were divided into three groups by the tertiles of eHDL-S: low eHDL-S (< 0.71, n = 118); intermediate eHDL-S (0.71–0.79, n = 111); and high eHDL-S (> 0.79, n = 99). The associations between the baseline eHDL-S and short-term outcomes were evaluated using the Kaplan–Meier method and Cox proportional regression. Results The low eHDL-S group had higher triglyceride, hemoglobin A1c, uric acid, and leukocyte count than the other groups. During the follow-up period, 47/328 patients experienced a pre-specified outcome. According to the Kaplan–Meier analysis, the incidence of pre-specified outcomes was lower in the high eHDL-S group (P = 0.04). However, eHDL-S was not independently associated with adverse outcomes in Cox proportional hazards regression (hazard ratio (HR): 0.23, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.01–11.24, P = 0.493). Conclusion Although the eHDL-S was associated with inflammatory biomarkers, it was not independently associated with the short-term prognosis of diabetic patients with stable CAD in the era of revascularization and potent statin therapy. PMID:25278974

  13. Supraventricular tachycardia and atrial flutter associated with a coronary sinus diverticulum: A case report.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaolin; Zhu, Rui; Jiang, Hong; Liu, Wenwei

    2013-06-01

    The case of a patient with narrow QRS-complex supraventricular tachycardia and atrial flutter is described. The 12-lead surface electrocardiogram (ECG) revealed sinus rhythm with ventricular pre-excitation and negative ? waves in leads II, III and aVF, indicating Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome with a posteroseptal accessory pathway (AP). Coronary sinus angiography revealed the presence of a diverticulum near the coronary sinus ostium. The AP was successfully ablated using radiofrequency energy applied in the neck of the diverticulum, following several failed attempts at catheter ablation from the endocardial surface of the posteroseptal space. PMID:23837067

  14. Relative importance of patient, procedural and anatomic risk factors for early vein graft thrombosis after coronary artery bypass graft surgery

    PubMed Central

    MCLEAN, R. C.; NAZARIAN, S. M.; GLUCKMAN, T. J.; SCHULMAN, S. P.; THIEMANN, D. R.; SHAPIRO, E. P.; CONTE, J. V.; THOMPSON, J. B.; SHAFIQUE, I.; MCNICHOLAS, K. W.; VILLINES, T. C.; LAWS, K. M.; RADE, J. J.

    2015-01-01

    Aim The aim of the present study was to investigate the relative importance of a wide array of patient demographic, procedural, anatomic and perioperative variables as potential risk factors for early saphenous vein graft (SVG) thrombosis after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Methods The patency of 611 SVGs in 291 patients operated on at four different hospitals enrolled in the Reduction in Graft Occlusion Rates (RIGOR) study was assessed six months after CABG surgery by multidetector computed tomography coronary angiography or clinically-indicated coronary angiography. The odds of graft occlusion versus patency were analyzed using multilevel multivariate logistic regression with clustering on patient. Results SVG failure within six months of CABG surgery was predominantly an all-or-none phenomenon with 126 (20.1%) SVGs totally occluded, 485 (77.3%) widely patent and only 16 (2.5%) containing high-grade stenoses. Target vessel diameter ?1.5 mm (adjusted OR 2.37, P=0.003) and fetnale gender (adjusted OR 2.46, P=0.01) were strongly associated with early SVG occlusion. In a subgroup analysis of 354 SVGs in which intraoperative graft blood flow was measured, lower mean flow was also significantly associated with SVG occlusion when analyzed as a continuous variable (adjusted OR 0.984, P=0.006) though not when analyzed dichotomously, <40 mL/min versus ?40 mL/min (adjusted OR 1.86, P=0.08). Conclusion Small target vessel diameter, female gender and low mean graft blood flow are significant risk factors for SVG thrombosis within six months of CABG surgery in patients on postoperative aspirin therapy. This information may be useful in guiding revascularization strategies in selected patients. PMID:22051997

  15. Quality of Life Outcomes with a Disodium EDTA Chelation Regimen for Coronary Disease: Results from the TACT Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mark, Daniel B.; Anstrom, Kevin J.; Clapp-Channing, Nancy E.; David Knight, J.; Boineau, Robin; Goertz, Christine; Rozema, Theodore C.; Liu, Diane M.; Nahin, Richard L.; Rosenberg, Yves; Drisko, Jeanne; Lee, Kerry L.; Lamas, Gervasio A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The NIH-funded Trial to Assess Chelation Therapy (TACT) randomized 1708 stable coronary disease patients age 50 or older who were at least 6 months post myocardial infarction (2003-2010) to 40 infusions of a multicomponent EDTA chelation solution or placebo. Chelation reduced the primary composite endpoint of mortality, recurrent myocardial infarction, stroke, coronary revascularization, or hospitalization for angina (hazard ratio 0.82, 95% confidence interval 0.69-0.99, p=0.035). Methods and Results In a randomly selected subset of 911 patients, we prospectively collected a battery of QOL instruments at baseline and 6, 12, and 24 months post-randomization. The pre-specified primary QOL measures were the Duke Activity Status Index (DASI)(eTable 1) and the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 36 Mental Health Inventory (MHI-5). All comparisons were by intention-to-treat. Baseline clinical and QOL variables were well balanced in the 451 patients randomized to chelation and the 460 to placebo. The DASI improved in both groups over the first 6 months of therapy but we found no evidence for a treatment-related difference [mean difference (chelation-placebo) over follow-up 0.9 (95% CI -0.7 to 2.6, p=0.27)]. There was no statistically significant evidence of a treatment-related difference in the MHI-5 during follow-up (mean difference 1.0, 95% CI -0.1 to 2.0, p=0.08). None of the secondary QOL measures showed a consistent treatment-related difference. Conclusions In stable, predominantly asymptomatic coronary disease patients with a history of myocardial infarction, EDTA chelation therapy did not have a detectable effect on quality of life over two years of follow-up. PMID:24987051

  16. A new proposal of CPR based on coronary perfusion pressure.

    PubMed

    Eldor, J

    1992-02-01

    Closed chest massage and tracheal intubation are not enough. The 70% success rate promised by Kouwenhoven 31 years ago is not realised. Coronary perfusion pressure is the main goal. To achieve this a proposal of a combined new CPR is advocated which encompass the following items besides closed chest massage and tracheal intubation: (a) use of high dose methoxamine (instead of epinephrine), (b) use of continuous abdominal pressure (instead of intermittent pressure), (c) unloading the pump, which means no use of any intravenous fluids, and (d) intracardiac injection of medications until restarting of spontaneous circulation. PMID:1315071

  17. Coronary morphologic and clinical determinants of procedural outcome with angioplasty for multivessel coronary disease. Implications for patient selection. Multivessel Angioplasty Prognosis Study Group.

    PubMed

    Ellis, S G; Vandormael, M G; Cowley, M J; DiSciascio, G; Deligonul, U; Topol, E J; Bulle, T M

    1990-10-01

    To assess the likelihood of procedural success in patients with multivessel coronary disease undergoing percutaneous coronary angioplasty, 350 consecutive patients (1,100 stenoses) from four clinical sites were evaluated. Eighteen variables characterizing the severity and morphology of each stenosis and 18 patient-related variables were assessed at a core angiographic laboratory and at the clinical sites. Most patients had Canadian Cardiovascular Society class III or IV angina (72%) and two-vessel coronary disease (78%). Left ventricular function was generally well preserved (mean ejection fraction, 58 +/- 12%; range, 18-85%) and 1.9 +/- 1.0 stenoses per patient had attempted percutaneous coronary angioplasty. Procedural success (less than or equal to 50% final diameter stenosis in one or more stenoses and no major ischemic complications) was achieved in 290 patients (82.8%), and an additional nine patients (2.6%) had a reduction in diameter stenosis by 20% or more with a final diameter stenosis 51-60% and were without major complications. Major ischemic complications (death, myocardial infarction, or emergency bypass surgery) occurred in 30 patients (8.6%). In-hospital mortality was 1.1%. Stepwise regression analysis determined that a modified American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force (ACC/AHA) classification of the primary target stenosis (with type B prospectively divided into type B1 [one type B characteristic] and type B2 [greater than or equal to two type B characteristics]) and the presence of diabetes mellitus were the only variables independently predictive of procedural outcome (target stenosis modified ACC/AHA score; p less than 0.001 for both success and complications; diabetes mellitus: p = 0.003 for success and p = 0.016 for complications). Analysis of success and complications on a per stenosis dilated basis showed, for type A stenoses, a 92% success and a 2% complication rate; for type B1 stenoses, an 84% success and a 4% complication rate; for type B2 stenoses, a 76% success and a 10% complication rate; and for type C stenoses, a 61% success and a 21% complication rate. The subdivision into types B1 and B2 provided significantly more information in this clinically important intermediate risk group than did the standard ACC/AHA scheme. The stenosis characteristics of chronic total occlusion, high grade (80-99% diameter) stenosis, stenosis bend of more than 60 degrees, and excessive tortuosity were particularly predictive of adverse procedural outcome. This improved scheme may improve clinical decision making and provide a framework on which to base meaningful subgroup analysis in randomized trials assessing the efficacy of percutaneous coronary angioplasty. PMID:2401060

  18. ABSORB: Postmarketing Surveillance Registry to Monitor the Everolimus-eluting Bioresorbable Vascular Scaffold in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-03-20

    Cardiovascular Diseases; Coronary Artery Disease; Myocardial Ischemia; Coronary Disease; Coronary Restenosis; Heart Diseases; Coronary Stenosis; Arteriosclerosis; Arterial Occlusive Diseases; Vascular Diseases

  19. Baseline Characteristics of Patients with Diabetes and Coronary Artery Disease Enrolled in the BARI 2D Trial

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Maria Mori; Barsness, Gregory; Chaitman, Bernard; Chung, Sheng-Chia; Faxon, David; Feit, Frederick; Frye, Robert; Genuth, Saul; Green, Jennifer; Hlatky, Mark; Kelsey, Sheryl; Kennedy, Frank; Krone, Ronald; Nesto, Richard; Orchard, Trevor; O'Rourke, Robert; Rihal, Charanjit; Tardif, Jean-Claude

    2009-01-01

    Background The Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes (BARI 2D) was undertaken to determine whether early revascularization intervention is superior to deferred intervention in the presence of aggressive medical therapy and whether antidiabetes regimens targeting insulin sensitivity are more or less effective than regimens targeting insulin provision in reducing cardiovascular events among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and stable coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods BARI 2D is an NIH-sponsored randomized clinical trial with a 2×2 factorial design. Between 2001 and 2005, 49 clinical sites in North America, South America and Europe randomized 2,368 patients. At baseline, the trial collected data on clinical history, symptoms and medications along with centralized evaluations of angiograms, electrocardiograms, and blood and urine specimens. Results The majority of BARI 2D patients were referred from the cardiac catheterization laboratory (54%) or cardiology clinic (27%). Of the randomized participants, 30% were women, 34% were minorities, 61% had angina, and 67% had multi-region CAD. Moreover, 29% had been treated with insulin, 58% had HbA1c > 7.0%, 41% LDL cholesterol ? 100 mg/dl, 52% blood pressure > 130/80 mmHg, and 56% BMI ? 30 kg/m2. Conclusions Baseline characteristics in BARI 2D are well-balanced between the randomized treatment groups, and the clinical profile of the study cohort is representative of the target population. As a result, the BARI 2D clinical trial is in an excellent position to evaluate alternative treatment approaches for diabetes and CAD. PMID:18760137

  20. Clinical efficacy and scintigraphic evaluation of post-coronary bypass patients undergoing percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty for recurrent angina pectoris

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, D.C.; Beller, G.A.; Nygaard, T.W.; Tedesco, C.; Watson, D.D.; Burwell, L.R.

    1989-01-01

    The efficacy of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty in improving recurrent anginal symptoms and myocardial perfusion after coronary artery bypass graft surgery was assessed prospectively in 55 patients, of whom 50 had an initial angiographic and clinical success. Although 80% of those successfully dilated were initially free of angina at 23 +/- 11 months of follow-up, one half of these patients had recurrent angina. Although only 48% of the patient cohort had complete relief of angina, 94% had less angina than before dilatation and 86% were able to decrease antianginal medications. Fifteen patients with persistent or recurrent angina had from one to five repeat dilatations. After angioplasty, lung thallium uptake, the extent of abnormal scan segments, and the magnitude of redistribution in dilated lesions were significantly reduced (n = 24 patients). Redistribution defects were seen in 38% of patients on postangioplasty scans. All were associated with subsequent angina. Of various clinical, angiographic, exercise, and thallium-201 scan variables, only the presence of delayed redistribution was an independent predictor of recurrent angina. Restenosis was the most common underlying cause for this exercise-induced perfusion defect. Thus percutaneous coronary angioplasty performed as primary therapy for recurrent angina after bypass surgery is moderately successful in long-term follow-up for the amelioration of symptoms and enhancement of regional myocardial perfusion.

  1. Nonrigid registration-based coronary artery motion correction for cardiac computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Bhagalia, Roshni; Pack, Jed D.; Miller, James V.; Iatrou, Maria

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: X-ray computed tomography angiography (CTA) is the modality of choice to noninvasively monitor and diagnose heart disease with coronary artery health and stenosis detection being of particular interest. Reliable, clinically relevant coronary artery imaging mandates high spatiotemporal resolution. However, advances in intrinsic scanner spatial resolution (CT scanners are available which combine nearly 900 detector columns with focal spot oversampling) can be tempered by motion blurring, particularly in patients with unstable heartbeats. As a result, recently numerous methods have been devised to improve coronary CTA imaging. Solutions involving hardware, multisector algorithms, or {beta}-blockers are limited by cost, oversimplifying assumptions about cardiac motion, and populations showing contraindications to drugs, respectively. This work introduces an inexpensive algorithmic solution that retrospectively improves the temporal resolution of coronary CTA without significantly affecting spatial resolution. Methods: Given the goal of ruling out coronary stenosis, the method focuses on 'deblurring' the coronary arteries. The approach makes no assumptions about cardiac motion, can be used on exams acquired at high heart rates (even over 75 beats/min), and draws on a fast and accurate three-dimensional (3D) nonrigid bidirectional labeled point matching approach to estimate the trajectories of the coronary arteries during image acquisition. Motion compensation is achieved by employing a 3D warping of a series of partial reconstructions based on the estimated motion fields. Each of these partial reconstructions is created from data acquired over a short time interval. For brevity, the algorithm 'Subphasic Warp and Add' (SWA) reconstruction. Results: The performance of the new motion estimation-compensation approach was evaluated by a systematic observer study conducted using nine human cardiac CTA exams acquired over a range of average heart rates between 68 and 86 beats/min. Algorithm performance was based-lined against exams reconstructed using standard filtered-backprojection (FBP). The study was performed by three experienced reviewers using the American Heart Association's 15-segment model. All vessel segments were evaluated to quantify their viability to allow a clinical diagnosis before and after motion estimation-compensation using SWA. To the best of the authors' knowledge this is the first such observer study to show that an image processing-based software approach can improve the clinical diagnostic value of CTA for coronary artery evaluation. Conclusions: Results from the observer study show that the SWA method described here can dramatically reduce coronary artery motion and preserve real pathology, without affecting spatial resolution. In particular, the method successfully mitigated motion artifacts in 75% of all initially nondiagnostic coronary artery segments, and in over 45% of the cases this improvement was enough to make a previously nondiagnostic vessel segment clinically diagnostic.

  2. Experiments On Flow In A Coronary Artery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Back, Lloyd H.; Kwack, Eug-Yon; Liem, Timothy K.; Crawford, Donald W.

    1993-01-01

    Report describes experiments on simulated flow of blood in atherosclerotic human coronary artery. Experiments performed on polyurethane cast made from S-shaped coronary artery of cadaver. Sucrose solution with viscosity of blood pumped through cast at physiologically realistic rates, and flow made pulsatile by mechanism alternately compressing and releasing elastic tube just upstream of cast.

  3. Progress and Current State of Coronary CT

    PubMed Central

    Jinzaki, Masahiro; Tanami, Yutaka; Yamada, Minoru; Kuribayashi, Sachio

    2011-01-01

    The recent appearance of multislice computed tomography (CT) has enabled noninvasive imaging of the coronary artery. Particularly, the appearance of 64-row CT has rapidly promoted its spread into routine medical practice. In this report, progress and current state of coronary CT employing multislice CT are outlined. PMID:23555421

  4. Postpartum Coronary Vasospasm with Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Koneru, Jayanth; Alattar, Fadi; Alqaqa, Ashraf; Virk, Hirtaj; Shamoon, Fayez; Bikkina, Mahesh

    2014-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction during pregnancy or the postpartum period is rare. We report a case of a 39-year-old postpartum woman who developed non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction due to severe diffuse coronary vasospasm. To our knowledge, this is the first case of angiographically evidenced coronary vasospasm, in a postpartum woman, with resistance to intracoronary nitroglycerin. PMID:25105029

  5. Failure and Success of Percutaneous Angioplasty in a Hypertensive Child with Bilateral Renal Artery Stenosis

    SciTech Connect

    Giavroglou, Constantinos; Tsifountoudis, Ioannis; Boutzetis, Theodoros; Kiskinis, Dimitrios

    2009-01-15

    We describe the clinical course of a 5-year-old girl with severe arterial hypertension that was uncontrollable with antihypertensive medication. Renal angiography revealed bilateral renal artery stenoses. Because percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty (PTRA) failed to dilate the stenotic lesions, a renal artery bypass grafting in both renal arteries was performed. The patient remained normotensive for 7 months, and after that the arterial pressure increased again. Digital subtraction angiography demonstrated stenosis at the peripheral and central anastomosis of the vein graft that was used for revascularization of the left kidney. PTRA was decided on and successful patency was achieved. The patient has now been normotensive for a period of 5 years.

  6. Percutaneous panvascular intervention in an unusual case of extensive atherosclerotic disease

    PubMed Central

    Vijayvergiya, Rajesh; Garg, Dheeraj; Sinha, Saroj K

    2012-01-01

    It is common to see patients with atherosclerotic coronary disease and peripheral arterial disease in routine clinical practice. One needs to have a comprehensive and integrated multi-speciality approach and panvascular revascularization in such patients. We report a 54-year-old diabetic hypertensive male with extensive atherosclerotic coronary and peripheral arterial disease, who presented with congestive heart failure, claudication of both lower limbs and mesenteric ischemia. He underwent successful percutaneous panvascular revascularization of coronary, renal, mesenteric, aorto-iliac and superficial femoral arteries. Long-term patency of all the stents was also documented. PMID:22379537

  7. Venous waterfalls in coronary circulation.

    PubMed

    Gosselin, R E; Kaplow, S M

    1991-03-21

    Several studies of flow through collapsible tubing deformed by external pressures have led to a concept known as the "vascular waterfall". One hallmark of this state is a positive zero-flow pressure intercept (Pe) in flow-pressure curves. This intercept is commonly observed in the coronary circulation, but in blood-perfused beating hearts a vascular waterfall is not the only putative cause. To restrict the possibilities, we have measured flow-pressure curves in excised non-beating rabbit hearts in which the coronary arteries were perfused in a non-pulsatile way with a newtonian fluid (Ringers solution) containing potent vasodilator drugs. Under these circumstances, vascular waterfalls are believed to be the only tenable explanation for Pe. In physical terms the waterfall is a region where the vessel is in a state of partial collapse with a stabilized intraluminal fluid pressure (Pw). It is argued that the most probable site of this collapse was the intramural veins just before they reached the epicardial surface. In accord with the waterfall hypothesis, Pe increased as the heart became more edematous, but flow-pressure curves also became flatter, implying multiple waterfalls with differing Pws, leading to complete collapse of some of the venous channels. The principal compressive force is believed to have been the interstitial fluid pressure as registered through a needle (Pn) implanted in the left ventricular wall, but a small additional force (Ps) was probably due to swelling of interstitial gels. A method is presented for estimating Ps and Pw. Unlike rubber tubing, blood vessels are both collapsible and porous. Apparently because of increased capillary filtration, Pn was found to increase linearly with the perfusion pressure. Thus, Pw was not the same at all points on the flow-pressure curve. This finding has interesting implications with respect to the concept of coronary resistance. PMID:2062096

  8. Heme Oxygenase-1 Is Required for Angiogenic Function of Bone Marrow-Derived Progenitor Cells: Role in Therapeutic Revascularization

    PubMed Central

    Grochot-Przeczek, Anna; Kotlinowski, Jerzy; Kozakowska, Magdalena; Starowicz, Katarzyna; Jagodzinska, Jolanta; Stachurska, Anna; Volger, Oscar L.; Bukowska-Strakova, Karolina; Florczyk, Urszula; Tertil, Magdalena; Jazwa, Agnieszka; Szade, Krzysztof; Stepniewski, Jacek; Loboda, Agnieszka; Horrevoets, Anton J.G.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a cytoprotective enzyme that can be down-regulated in diabetes. Its importance for mature endothelium has been described, but its role in proangiogenic progenitors is not well known. We investigated the effect of HO-1 on the angiogenic potential of bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) and on blood flow recovery in ischemic muscle of diabetic mice. Results: Lack of HO-1 decreased the number of endothelial progenitor cells (Lin?CD45?cKit-Sca-1+VEGFR-2+) in murine bone marrow, and inhibited the angiogenic potential of cultured BMDCs, affecting their survival under oxidative stress, proliferation, migration, formation of capillaries, and paracrine proangiogenic potential. Transcriptome analysis of HO-1?/? BMDCs revealed the attenuated up-regulation of proangiogenic genes in response to hypoxia. Heterozygous HO-1+/? diabetic mice subjected to hind limb ischemia exhibited reduced local expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), placental growth factor (PlGF), stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1), VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2, and CXCR-4. This was accompanied by impaired revascularization of ischemic muscle, despite a strong mobilization of bone marrow-derived proangiogenic progenitors (Sca-1+CXCR-4+) into peripheral blood. Blood flow recovery could be rescued by local injections of conditioned media harvested from BMDCs, but not by an injection of cultured BMDCs. Innovation: This is the first report showing that HO-1 haploinsufficiency impairs tissue revascularization in diabetes and that proangiogenic in situ response, not progenitor cell mobilization, is important for blood flow recovery. Conclusions: HO-1 is necessary for a proper proangiogenic function of BMDCs. A low level of HO-1 in hyperglycemic mice decreases restoration of perfusion in ischemic muscle, which can be rescued by a local injection of conditioned media from cultured BMDCs. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 1677–1692. PMID:24206054

  9. Multiple Coronary Artery Microfistulas Associated with Apical Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: Left and Right Coronary Artery to the Left Ventricle

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jeong-Woo; Kim, Kyehwan; Kang, Min Gyu; Koh, Jin-Sin; Park, Jeong Rang; Hwang, Jin-Yong

    2015-01-01

    A 76-year-old woman underwent coronary angiography for chest pain. On the coronary angiogram, no significant coronary artery atherosclerotic stenosis was observed. Multiple coronary artery microfistulas, draining from the left anterior descending artery to the left ventricle and from the posterior descending artery of the right coronary artery to the left ventricle, were observed. Apical wall thickening and fistula flow from the left anterior descending artery were demonstrated by using transthoracic echocardiography. We describe a rare case of multiple coronary artery microfistulas from the left and right coronary artery to the left ventricle combined with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. PMID:26640718

  10. Polymer-free Drug-Coated Coronary Stents in Patients at High Bleeding Risk.

    PubMed

    Urban, Philip; Meredith, Ian T; Abizaid, Alexandre; Pocock, Stuart J; Carrié, Didier; Naber, Christoph; Lipiecki, Janusz; Richardt, Gert; Iñiguez, Andres; Brunel, Philippe; Valdes-Chavarri, Mariano; Garot, Philippe; Talwar, Suneel; Berland, Jacques; Abdellaoui, Mohamed; Eberli, Franz; Oldroyd, Keith; Zambahari, Robaayah; Gregson, John; Greene, Samantha; Stoll, Hans-Peter; Morice, Marie-Claude

    2015-11-19

    Background Patients at high risk for bleeding who undergo percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) often receive bare-metal stents followed by 1 month of dual antiplatelet therapy. We studied a polymer-free and carrier-free drug-coated stent that transfers umirolimus (also known as biolimus A9), a highly lipophilic sirolimus analogue, into the vessel wall over a period of 1 month. Methods In a randomized, double-blind trial, we compared the drug-coated stent with a very similar bare-metal stent in patients with a high risk of bleeding who underwent PCI. All patients received 1 month of dual antiplatelet therapy. The primary safety end point, tested for both noninferiority and superiority, was a composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction, or stent thrombosis. The primary efficacy end point was clinically driven target-lesion revascularization. Results We enrolled 2466 patients. At 390 days, the primary safety end point had occurred in 112 patients (9.4%) in the drug-coated-stent group and in 154 patients (12.9%) in the bare-metal-stent group (risk difference, -3.6 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], -6.1 to -1.0; hazard ratio, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.56 to 0.91; P<0.001 for noninferiority and P=0.005 for superiority). During the same time period, clinically driven target-lesion revascularization was needed in 59 patients (5.1%) in the drug-coated-stent group and in 113 patients (9.8%) in the bare-metal-stent group (risk difference, -4.8 percentage points; 95% CI, -6.9 to -2.6; hazard ratio, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.37 to 0.69; P<0.001). Conclusions Among patients at high risk for bleeding who underwent PCI, a polymer-free umirolimus-coated stent was superior to a bare-metal stent with respect to the primary safety and efficacy end points when used with a 1-month course of dual antiplatelet therapy. (Funded by Biosensors Europe; LEADERS FREE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01623180 .). PMID:26466021

  11. Should computed tomography angiography supersede invasive coronary angiography for the evaluation of graft patency following coronary artery bypass graft surgery?

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Joseph; Klimach, Stefan; Lang, Peter; Hildick-Smith, David

    2015-08-01

    Invasive coronary angiography (ICA) has long been the established gold standard in assessing graft patency following coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). Over the past decade or so however, improvements in computed tomography angiography (CTA) technology have allowed its emergence as a useful clinical tool in graft assessment. The recent introduction of 64-slice and now 128-slice scanners into widespread distribution, and the development of 320-detector row technology allowing volumetric imaging of the entire heart at single points in time within one cardiac cycle, has increased the potential of CTA to supersede ICA in this capacity. This study sought to examine the evidence surrounding this potential. A best evidence topic was constructed according to a structured protocol. The enquiry: In [patients who have undergone coronary artery bypass graft surgery] is [computed tomography angiography or invasive coronary angiography] superior in terms of [graft patency assessment, stenosis detection, radiation exposure and complication rate]? Four hundred and twenty-four articles were identified from the search strategy. Four additional articles were identified from references of key articles. Seventeen articles selected as best evidence were tabulated. The reliability of CTA as a tool in the detection of graft patency and stenosis has continued to improve with each successive generation of multislice technology. The latest 64- and 128-slice CTA techniques are able to detect graft patency and stenosis with very high sensitivities and specificities comparable with ICA, while remaining non-invasive procedures associated with fewer complications (ICA carries a 0.08% risk of myocardial infarction and 0.7% risk of minor complications in clinically stable patients). Present limitations of the technology include the accurate visualization of distal anastomoses and clip artefacts. In addition, the capacity of diagnostic ICA to be combined simultaneously with percutaneous coronary interventions is an important advantage and a further limitation of CTA alone. Recent developments, however, including the derivation of fractional flow reserve and perfusion assessment from CTA as functional measures of stenosis severity have given CTA at present the capacity to become a first-line tool in the assessment of patients with suspected graft dysfunction. Novel computer-automated diagnostic software, though currently in infancy, has shown promise in facilitating and speeding image interpretation. With further improvements in scanning technologies, CTA is likely to supersede ICA for graft assessment in the near future. PMID:25924868

  12. Successful Predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierrehumbert, R.

    2012-12-01

    In an observational science, it is not possible to test hypotheses through controlled laboratory experiments. One can test parts of the system in the lab (as is done routinely with infrared spectroscopy of greenhouse gases), but the collective behavior cannot be tested experimentally because a star or planet cannot be brought into the lab; it must, instead, itself be the lab. In the case of anthropogenic global warming, this is all too literally true, and the experiment would be quite exciting if it weren't for the unsettling fact that we and all our descendents for the forseeable future will have to continue making our home in the lab. There are nonetheless many routes though which the validity of a theory of the collective behavior can be determined. A convincing explanation must not be a"just-so" story, but must make additional predictions that can be verified against observations that were not originally used in formulating the theory. The field of Earth and planetary climate has racked up an impressive number of such predictions. I will also admit as "predictions" statements about things that happened in the past, provided that observations or proxies pinning down the past climate state were not available at the time the prediction was made. The basic prediction that burning of fossil fuels would lead to an increase of atmospheric CO2, and that this would in turn alter the Earth's energy balance so as to cause tropospheric warming, is one of the great successes of climate science. It began in the lineage of Fourier, Tyndall and Arrhenius, and was largely complete with the the radiative-convective modeling work of Manabe in the 1960's -- all well before the expected warming had progressed far enough to be observable. Similarly, long before the increase in atmospheric CO2 could be detected, Bolin formulated a carbon cycle model and used it to predict atmospheric CO2 out to the year 2000; the actual values come in at the high end of his predicted range, for reasons I shall discuss. During the dark ages of global change, between Arrhenius and Plass (punctuated by Callendar), work on planetary climate had not in fact ground to a halt, but developed vigorously in the astronomical community. This culminated in major discoveries about the atmospheres of Mars and Venus, notably Sagan's prediction that Venus has an extremely high surface temperature owing to an atmosphere extremely rich in greenhouse gases. The fertile interplay between astrophysics and terrestrial climate science continues in the current dawning era of exoplanet discovery. Early modeling work, notably by Manabe and co-workers, identified a number of spatial patterns of global change that were ultimately realized in data. These include: amplification of warming over land and in the Arctic, and the conjunction of stratospheric cooling with tropospheric warming. Additional examples I will discuss include the problem of tropical temperatures at the Last Glacial Maximum, water vapor feedback, Hansen's prediction of response to the Pinatubo eruption, and the prediction that ocean heat uptake would delay warming. While not all aspects of climate change were anticipated in advance (notably the interruption of warming around 1950-1970), examples of truly failed predictions are rare, and are overwhelmingly found among theories such as those of Angstrom or Lindzen which purport to show little sensitivity of climate to CO2.

  13. Unusual Malignant Coronary Artery Anomaly: Results of Coronary Angiography, MR Imaging, and Multislice CT

    SciTech Connect

    Apitzsch, Jonas; Kuehl, Harald P.; Muehlenbruch, Georg; Mahnken, Andreas H.

    2010-04-15

    We report the case of a man with an uncommon anomaly of the origin and course of the left coronary artery. Clinical, coronary angiography, magnetic resonance imaging, and multislice computed tomography findings of this intermittently symptomatic 49 year-old patient with the rare anomaly of his left coronary artery stemming from the right sinus of Valsalva and taking an interarterial and intraseptal course are presented. The diagnostic value of the different imaging modalities is discussed.

  14. Accelerated coronary vascular disease in the heart transplant patient: coronary arteriographic findings.

    PubMed

    Gao, S Z; Alderman, E L; Schroeder, J S; Silverman, J F; Hunt, S A

    1988-08-01

    Annual coronary arteriograms have been obtained from all heart transplant recipients at Stanford University Medical Center since 1969. Angiographic lesions in 81 transplant patients exhibiting coronary vascular disease were classified into three categories: type A, discrete or tubular stenoses; type B, diffuse concentric narrowing; and type C, narrowed irregular vessels with occluded branches. The 81 arteriograms showing transplant coronary vascular disease were contrasted with 32 from nontransplant patients with coronary artery disease analyzed in a similar fashion. The nontransplant angiograms showed 178 lesions, all of type A (discrete or tubular) morphology, 75% of which were located in primary epicardial coronary vessels and 25% in secondary branch vessels. In the patients with transplant coronary vascular disease, 349 (76%) of 461 lesions were type A: 57% in primary vessels, 42% in secondary branches and 1.4% in tertiary branches. Of the 112 type B and C lesions (diffuse narrowing, tapering and obliteration), 25% were in primary vessels, 44% in secondary vessels and 31% in tertiary branches (p less than 0.05 for patients with transplant coronary vascular disease versus patients with nontransplant coronary artery disease). Total vessel occlusion was found in proximal or middle vessel segments in 96% and distally in 4% of patients with "ordinary" coronary artery disease versus 49% distally in patients with transplant coronary disease (p less than 0.002). In the presence of total vessel occlusion, collateral vessels were poor or absent in 92% of transplant versus 7% of nontransplant patients with coronary disease (p less than 0.002). Therefore, coronary artery disease in transplant patients represents a mixture of typical atheromatous lesions and unique transplant-related progressive distal obliterative disease that occurs without collateral vessel development. PMID:3292629

  15. Prevention of experimental coronary thrombosis by hirudin.

    PubMed

    Bucha, E; Nowak, G; Markwardt, F

    1988-01-01

    The antithrombotic activity of hirudin was studied in a rat coronary thrombosis model. The thrombus formation was induced by external application of silver nitrate solution onto the left anterior descending coronary artery. Following subcutaneous injection, hirudin in doses of 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg reduced the development of coronary thrombosis in a dose-dependent manner. The most pronounced antithrombotic effect of hirudin in the described model was related with plasma concentrations between 0.20 and 0.35 microgram hirudin/ml. PMID:2459032

  16. Adolescent with occluded left main coronary artery

    PubMed Central

    Wieman, R.; Beelen, D.; van der Zwaan, C.; Lahpor, J.; de Vos, A.M.; Doevendans, P.A.

    2005-01-01

    Here we report unexpected findings in a 17-year-old female patient referred for coronary angiography and percutaneous intervention. During the angiography we observed a complete occlusion of the left main coronary artery (LMCA). The occurrence of coronary abnormalities at this age is extremely rare and mostly caused by congenital abnormalities. The diagnosis of premature atherosclerosis at this age is unlikely unless the patient suffers from severe lipoprotein disease. Here we describe a rare case of LMCA occlusion, the most likely cause of the disease and the potential implications for therapy. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3 PMID:25696498

  17. The coronary circulation in exercise training

    PubMed Central

    Bowles, Douglas K.; Duncker, Dirk J.

    2012-01-01

    Exercise training (EX) induces increases in coronary transport capacity through adaptations in the coronary microcirculation including increased arteriolar diameters and/or densities and changes in the vasomotor reactivity of coronary resistance arteries. In large animals, EX increases capillary exchange capacity through angiogenesis of new capillaries at a rate matched to EX-induced cardiac hypertrophy so that capillary density remains normal. However, after EX coronary capillary exchange area is greater (i.e., capillary permeability surface area product is greater) at any given blood flow because of altered coronary vascular resistance and matching of exchange surface area and blood flow distribution. The improved coronary capillary blood flow distribution appears to be the result of structural changes in the coronary tree and alterations in vasoreactivity of coronary resistance arteries. EX also alters vasomotor reactivity of conduit coronary arteries in that after EX, ?-adrenergic receptor responsiveness is blunted. Of interest, ?- and ?-adrenergic tone appears to be maintained in the coronary microcirculation in the presence of lower circulating catecholamine levels because of increased receptor responsiveness to adrenergic stimulation. EX also alters other vasomotor control processes of coronary resistance vessels. For example, coronary arterioles exhibit increased myogenic tone after EX, likely because of a calcium-dependent PKC signaling-mediated alteration in voltage-gated calcium channel activity in response to stretch. Conversely, EX augments endothelium-dependent vasodilation throughout the coronary arteriolar network and in the conduit arteries in coronary artery disease (CAD). The enhanced endothelium-dependent dilation appears to result from increased nitric oxide bioavailability because of changes in nitric oxide synthase expression/activity and decreased oxidant stress. EX also decreases extravascular compressive forces in the myocardium at rest and at comparable levels of exercise, mainly because of decreases in heart rate and duration of systole. EX does not stimulate growth of coronary collateral vessels in the normal heart. However, if exercise produces ischemia, which would be absent or minimal under resting conditions, there is evidence that collateral growth can be enhanced. While there is evidence that EX can decrease the progression of atherosclerotic lesions or even induce the regression of atherosclerotic lesions in humans, the evidence of this is not strong due to the fact that most prospective trials conducted to date have included other lifestyle changes and treatment strategies by necessity. The literature from large animal models of CAD also presents a cloudy picture concerning whether EX can induce the regression of or slow the progression of atherosclerotic lesions. Thus, while evidence from research using humans with CAD and animal models of CAD indicates that EX increases endothelium-dependent dilation throughout the coronary vascular tree, evidence that EX reverses or slows the progression of lesion development in CAD is not conclusive at this time. This suggests that the beneficial effects of EX in CAD may not be the result of direct effects on the coronary artery wall. If this suggestion is true, it is important to determine the mechanisms involved in these beneficial effects. PMID:21984538

  18. Antiplatelet Therapy and Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome and Thrombocytopenia

    PubMed Central

    Yusuf, Syed Wamique; Iliescu, Cezar; Bathina, Jaya D.; Daher, Iyad N.; Durand, Jean-Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Platelets are crucial in the pathogenesis of acute coronary syndrome. Treatment for acute coronary syndrome usually involves antiplatelet, anticoagulant, and antithrombotic therapy, and the performance of percutaneous coronary intervention. All of the medications are associated with bleeding sequelae and are typically withheld from patients who have thrombocytopenia. The safety of antiplatelet therapy and percutaneous coronary intervention in patients who have acute coronary syndrome and thrombocytopenia is unknown, and there are no guidelines or randomized studies to suggest a treatment approach in such patients. Acute coronary syndrome is uncommon in patients who have thrombocytopenia; however, it occurs in up to 39% of patients who have both thrombocytopenia and cancer. Herein, we present the cases of 5 patients with acute coronary syndrome, thrombocytopenia, and cancer who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention with stenting. Before intervention, their platelet counts ranged from 17 to 72 × 109/L. One patient underwent preprocedural platelet transfusion. All were given aspirin, alone or with clopidogrel. One patient experienced melena (of colonic origin). No other patient experienced bleeding sequelae. Aside from the occasional use of antiplatelet and thrombolytic agents in patients with thrombocytopenia, no therapeutic recommendation can be made until data are available on a larger patient population. Until then, treatment should conform to specific clinical circumstances. Approaches to the treatment of acute coronary syndrome in patients with thrombocytopenia might be better directed toward the evaluation of platelet function rather than toward absolute platelet count, and the risk–benefit equation of invasive procedures and antithrombotic therapies may need to incorporate this information. PMID:20548817

  19. Complex Coronary Interventions with the Novel Mozec™ CTO Balloon: The MOZART Registry

    PubMed Central

    Lupi, Alessandro; Rognoni, Andrea; Schaffer, Alon; Secco, Gioel G; Bongo, Angelo S

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Mozec™ CTO is a novel semicompliant rapid-exchange PTCA balloon catheter with specific features dedicated to treat complex coronary lesions like chronic total occlusions (CTOs). However, no data have been reported about the performance of this device in an all-comers population with complex coronary lesions. METHODS We evaluated the safety and success rate of Mozec™ CTO balloon in 41 consecutive patients with chronic stable angina and complex coronary lesions (15 severe calcified coronary stenoses, 15 bifurcation lesions with planned two-stent intervention, and 11 CTOs). Safety was assessed reporting the balloon burst rate after inflation exceeding the rated burst pressure (RBP) according to the manufacturer’s reference table. Success was defined as the possibility to advance the device further the target lesion. RESULTS The Mozec™ CTO balloon showed an excellent performance with a 93.3% success in crossing tight and severely calcified lesions (14/15 pts), a 93.3% success in engaging jailed side branches after stent deployment across bifurcations (14/15 pts), and a 90.9% success in crossing CTO lesions (10/11 pts). The burst rate at RBP of the Mozec™ CTO balloon was 6.7% (1/15 balloons) in the tight and severely calcified lesions, 6.7% (1/15 balloons) when dilating jailed vessels, and 9.1% (1/11 balloons) in CTOs. CONCLUSIONS The novel Mozec™ CTO balloon dilatation catheter showed promising results when employed to treat complex lesions in an all-comers population. Further studies should clarify if this kind of balloon might reduce the need of more costly devices like over-the-wire balloons and microcatheters for complex lesions treatment. PMID:26379450

  20. Glycemic Variability Assessed by Continuous Glucose Monitoring and Short-Term Outcome in Diabetic Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: An Observational Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Nusca, Annunziata; Lauria Pantano, Angelo; Melfi, Rosetta; Proscia, Claudio; Maddaloni, Ernesto; Contuzzi, Rocco; Mangiacapra, Fabio; Palermo, Andrea; Manfrini, Silvia; Pozzilli, Paolo; Di Sciascio, Germano

    2015-01-01

    Poor glycemic control is associated with unfavorable outcome in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), irrespective of diabetes mellitus. However a complete assessment of glycemic status may not be fully described by glycated hemoglobin or fasting blood glucose levels, whereas daily glycemic fluctuations may influence cardiovascular risk and have even more deleterious effects than sustained hyperglycemia. Thus, this paper investigated the effectiveness of a continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), registering the mean level of glycemic values but also the extent of glucose excursions during coronary revascularization, in detecting periprocedural outcome such as renal or myocardial damage, assessed by serum creatinine, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), and troponin I levels. High glycemic variability (GV) has been associated with worse postprocedural creatinine and NGAL variations. Moreover, GV, and predominantly hypoglycemic variations, has been observed to increase in patients with periprocedural myocardial infarction. Thus, our study investigated the usefulness of CGM in the setting of PCI where an optimal glycemic control should be achieved in order to prevent complications and improve outcome. PMID:26273664

  1. Glycemic Variability Assessed by Continuous Glucose Monitoring and Short-Term Outcome in Diabetic Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: An Observational Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Nusca, Annunziata; Lauria Pantano, Angelo; Melfi, Rosetta; Proscia, Claudio; Maddaloni, Ernesto; Contuzzi, Rocco; Mangiacapra, Fabio; Palermo, Andrea; Manfrini, Silvia; Pozzilli, Paolo; Di Sciascio, Germano

    2015-01-01

    Poor glycemic control is associated with unfavorable outcome in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), irrespective of diabetes mellitus. However a complete assessment of glycemic status may not be fully described by glycated hemoglobin or fasting blood glucose levels, whereas daily glycemic fluctuations may influence cardiovascular risk and have even more deleterious effects than sustained hyperglycemia. Thus, this paper investigated the effectiveness of a continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), registering the mean level of glycemic values but also the extent of glucose excursions during coronary revascularization, in detecting periprocedural outcome such as renal or myocardial damage, assessed by serum creatinine, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), and troponin I levels. High glycemic variability (GV) has been associated with worse postprocedural creatinine and NGAL variations. Moreover, GV, and predominantly hypoglycemic variations, has been observed to increase in patients with periprocedural myocardial infarction. Thus, our study investigated the usefulness of CGM in the setting of PCI where an optimal glycemic control should be achieved in order to prevent complications and improve outcome. PMID:26273664

  2. Clinical performance of a novel ultrathin strut, low-dose, sirolimus-eluting stent with abluminal-only biodegradable polymeric coating for patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention in the daily practice

    PubMed Central

    Prado, Guy F. A.; Ribeiro, Expedito E.; Melo, Pedro H. M. C.; Pinton, Fabio A.; Esteves-Filho, Antonio; Takimura, Celso K.; Mariani, Jose; Kajita, Luiz J.; Marchiori, Gilberto; Araripe Falcao, Breno de Alencar; Galon, Micheli Z.; Soares, Paulo R.; Zalc, Silvio

    2015-01-01

    Background The present study aimed to evaluate the clinical performance, in the daily practice of a busy catheterization laboratory, of a novel drug-eluting stent (DES) built with an ultra-thin-strut metallic platform, eluting sirolimus at low doses, abluminal coated with biodegradable polymers, and mounted in a low-compliant delivery system. Methods Prospective, single-arm study, comprising all consecutive patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with the Inspiron™ sirolimus-eluting stent (SES) (Scitech, Aparecida de Goiania, Brazil). The primary endpoint was the occurrence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) [cardiac death, non-PCI related myocardial infarction (MI), or target vessel revascularization (TVR)]. Results A total of 470 patients were included, from which 51.3% were diabetics, 33.8% had triple-vessel disease, 15.3% had heart failure, 38.9% had at least one bifurcation treated, 19.8% were treated for a bare metal stent restenosis, and 61.9% had at least one type C lesion; one or more of these features were found in 96.0%. At 300 days, the rate target lesion revascularization was 5.4% and the rate of MACE was 8.1%. The incidence of definite or probable stent thrombosis was 0.4%, with no cases between 30 and 300 days. Conclusions The novel stent is associated with excellent short and mid-term clinical outcomes in patients treated with PCI in the daily practice. PMID:26675281

  3. Multimodality Imaging Atlas of Coronary Atherosclerosis

    E-print Network

    Donnelly, Patrick

    NEW HIGH-RESOLUTION IMAGING TECHNOLOGIES HAVE ENHANCED OUR UNDERSTANDING OF THE CORONARY atherosclerotic disease process, and this atlas provides a multimodality pictorial review of the development of histologically verified ...

  4. TECAB - Totally Endoscopic Coronary Artery Bypass

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... completely endoscopic coronary artery bypass grafting procedure using robotics. We call this operation a “TECAB,” “Totally Endoscopic ... scrub nurse, also a lot of experience with robotics now. And Dr. Atiq Rahman, fellow here for ...

  5. Relation of coronary flow reserve and diastolic function to fractional pulse pressure in hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Mahfouz, Ragab A

    2013-10-01

    Fractional pulse pressure (PPf), is thought to more directly reflect arterial stiffness than pulse pressure. Our aim was to evaluate the relationship between coronary flow reserve (CFR), left ventricular diastolic function (LVDf) and PPf in hypertensive patients with normal coronary arteries. Out of 109 hypertensive patients (aged 52.8 ± 9.4 years), with normal coronary angiography, CFR was calculated successfully in 106 patients. CFR was calculated using transthoracic echo Doppler assessment with hyperemia induced by infusion of dipyridamole at a rate of 0.56 mg/kg over 4 minutes, while diastolic function was evaluated by means of transmitral flow and tissue Doppler imaging. PPf was calculated as pulse pressure divided by mean arterial pressure [Systolic blood pressure - Diastolic blood pressure/Mean arterial pressure (SBP - DBP/MAP)], Hypertensive patients with low CFR (n = 54) compared with those with normal CFR (n = 52) exhibited significantly increased PPf (75.2 ± 11.4 vs. 61.5 ± 6.7 P < 0.001). Moreover, patients with higher PPf had significantly decreased transmitral E/A ratio (P < 0.01), as well as increased E/Em ratio (P < 0.01). In hypertensives with low CFR, PPf was negatively correlated with CFR (r = -0.815, P < 0.0001). After applying multivariate linear regression analysis, PPf turned out to be a powerful independent predictor of CFR. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis revealed that a PPf of ?0.63 was the best cutoff value for prediction of CFR <2.0 and E/Em ? 8 (AUC = 0.916 and 0.929 respectively; P < 0.001). Increased PPf was associated with impaired CFR and diastolic dysfunction in hypertensive patients with normal coronary arteries. PPf could be used as a simple non-invasive index for assessment of coronary microcirculation in hypertensives with normal coronary arteries. PMID:23659386

  6. Morphology-based three-dimensional segmentation of coronary artery tree from CTA scans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banh, Diem Phuc T.; Kyprianou, Iacovos S.; Paquerault, Sophie; Myers, Kyle J.

    2007-03-01

    We developed an algorithm based on a rule-based threshold framework to segment the coronary arteries from angiographic computed tomography (CTA) data. Computerized segmentation of the coronary arteries is a challenging procedure due to the presence of diverse anatomical structures surrounding the heart on cardiac CTA data. The proposed algorithm incorporates various levels of image processing and organ information including region, connectivity and morphology operations. It consists of three successive stages. The first stage involves the extraction of the three-dimensional scaffold of the heart envelope. This stage is semiautomatic requiring a reader to review the CTA scans and manually select points along the heart envelope in slices. These points are further processed using a surface spline-fitting technique to automatically generate the heart envelope. The second stage consists of segmenting the left heart chambers and coronary arteries using grayscale threshold, size and connectivity criteria. This is followed by applying morphology operations to further detach the left and right coronary arteries from the aorta. In the final stage, the 3D vessel tree is reconstructed and labeled using an Isolated Connected Threshold technique. The algorithm was developed and tested on a patient coronary artery CTA that was graciously shared by the Department of Radiology of the Massachusetts General Hospital. The test showed that our method constantly segmented the vessels above 79% of the maximum gray-level and automatically extracted 55 of the 58 coronary segments that can be seen on the CTA scan by a reader. These results are an encouraging step toward our objective of generating high resolution models of the male and female heart that will be subsequently used as phantoms for medical imaging system optimization studies.

  7. Computer quantitation of coronary angiograms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ledbetter, D. C.; Selzer, R. H.; Gordon, R. M.; Blankenhorn, D. H.; Sanmarco, M. E.

    1978-01-01

    A computer technique is being developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to automate the measurement of coronary stenosis. A Vanguard 35mm film transport is optically coupled to a Spatial Data System vidicon/digitizer which in turn is controlled by a DEC PDP 11/55 computer. Programs have been developed to track the edges of the arterial shadow, to locate normal and atherosclerotic vessel sections and to measure percent stenosis. Multiple frame analysis techniques are being investigated that involve on the one hand, averaging stenosis measurements from adjacent frames, and on the other hand, averaging adjacent frame images directly and then measuring stenosis from the averaged image. For the latter case, geometric transformations are used to force registration of vessel images whose spatial orientation changes.

  8. Revascularization of nerve grafts: a qualitative and quantitative study of the soft-tissue bed contributions to blood flow in canine nerve grafts.

    PubMed

    Prpa, Branko; Huddleston, Paul M; An, Kai-Nan; Wood, Michael B

    2002-11-01

    Blood flow to canine saphenous nerve grafts either in contact with a healthy soft-tissue bed or isolated from the soft-tissue bed by entubulation was quantitated at 3, 7, 14, and 28 days after surgery with radionuclide-labeled microspheres and evaluated histomorphometrically. At 3 days there was no statistical difference between the 2 techniques in regard to nerve graft blood flow, and neither group had blood flow in the middle portion of the graft. In contrast, analysis at 7, 14, and 28 days found blood flow in the middle segments of the nonisolated conventional nerve grafts to exceed that of entubulated nerve grafts with evidence in these segments of both lateral and longitudinal revascularization. The results of this investigation support an important role for the soft-tissue bed in nerve graft revascularization and suggest that neovascularization from the soft-tissue bed is the primary mechanism for restoration of blood flow in such grafts. PMID:12457355

  9. [Coronary disease: should images be treated?].

    PubMed

    Geschwind, H J

    1994-10-22

    Precise digitized images of the coronary arteries displaying the dimensions of high risk stenoses and giving objective measurements of their contours and density can be provided by coronarography. On-line angioscopic images of tissue flaps floating in the lumen, recent or structured thrombi, artery wall dissections, plaque ruptures, deep fissurations and sub-intimal haemorrhages demonstrate, in live colour, the pathophysiological mechanisms of coronary artery stenosis. Histological sections of the artery wall, without biopsy, can be visualized with endocoronary echography offering a global view of the wall and differentiating all the physiological layers including the intima and the internal elastic lamina, the blood-wall interface, the media and the adventitia. Our technical imaging capacity is impressive, but is anatomic imaging synonymous with coronary circulation? Certainly not. Sophisticated imaging techniques have led us to associate the severity of the stenosis with its effect on myocardial irrigation, but today therapeutic decisions require not only considering coronary anatomy but also downstream consequences which can be evaluated by measuring coronary artery flow on both sides of the stenosis. Carried on the tip of the angioplasty guide, a piezo-electric crystal emits and receives a Doppler signal. The data is processed in real time giving a complete pattern of blood flow velocity and describing diastolic and systolic flow, differences between upstream and downstream flow, and the effect of pharmacological or physiological tests such as maximal dilatation to measure coronary vascular reserve. Transstenosic pressure measurements complete the diagnostic armentorium. Thus therapeutic decisions can now be made not only on the basis of precise anatomic imaging, but also on functional imaging, giving a complete view of the pathophysiology of the coronary arteries and the effect of disease on myocardial blood supply. It is now up to us to optimize these imaging techniques and to propose treatments which provide patients with coronary artery disease with the best benefit-risk-cost ratio. PMID:7824464

  10. A new technique for intra-abdominal arteries revascularization via extra-anatomic bypass from the brachiocephalic artery with a videoscopic retrosternal tunnel.

    PubMed

    Javerliat, Isabelle; Pichon, Audrey; Glorion, Matthieu; Coscas, Raphaël; Goëau-Brissonnière, Olivier; Coggia, Marc

    2015-07-01

    Extra-anatomic revascularizations of intra-abdominal or lower limbs arteries, or both, are indicated (1) when the aorta is unsuitable for anatomic bypasses, (2) in patients unfit for aortic surgery, (3) for graft infections, and (4) for visceral debranching during hybrid treatment of a thoracoabdominal aneurysm. We describe a new extra-anatomic bypass from the brachiocephalic artery with video-guided retrosternal tunneling. We discuss the advantages and drawbacks of this technique. PMID:25936654

  11. Divergent Roles for Adiponectin Receptor 1 (AdipoR1) and AdipoR2 in Mediating Revascularization and Metabolic Dysfunction in Vivo*

    PubMed Central

    Parker-Duffen, Jennifer L.; Nakamura, Kazuto; Silver, Marcy; Zuriaga, Maria A.; MacLauchlan, Susan; Aprahamian, Tamar R.; Walsh, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Adiponectin is a well described anti-inflammatory adipokine that is highly abundant in serum. Previous reports have found that adiponectin deficiency promotes cardiovascular and metabolic dysfunction in murine models, whereas its overexpression is protective. Two candidate adiponectin receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, are uncharacterized with regard to cardiovascular tissue homeostasis, and their in vivo metabolic functions remain controversial. Here we subjected AdipoR1- and AdipoR2-deficient mice to chronic hind limb ischemic surgery. Blood flow recovery in AdipoR1-deficient mice was similar to wild-type; however, revascularization in AdipoR2-deficient mice was severely attenuated. Treatment with adiponectin enhanced the recovery of wild-type mice but failed to rescue the impairment observed in AdipoR2-deficient mice. In view of this divergent receptor function in the hind limb ischemia model, AdipoR1- and AdipoR2-deficient mice were also evaluated in a model of diet-induced obesity. Strikingly, AdipoR1-deficient mice developed severe metabolic dysfunction compared with wild type, whereas AdipoR2-deficient mice were protected from diet-induced weight gain and metabolic perturbations. These data show that AdipoR2, but not AdipoR1, is functionally important in an in vivo model of ischemia-induced revascularization and that its expression is essential for the revascularization actions of adiponectin. These data also show that, in contrast to revascularization responses, AdipoR1, but not AdipoR2 deficiency, leads to diet-induced metabolic dysfunction, revealing that these receptors have highly divergent roles in vascular and metabolic homeostasis. PMID:24742672

  12. Quantitative coronary and left ventricular cineangiography

    SciTech Connect

    Reiber, J.H.C.; Serruys, P.W.; Slager, C.J.

    1986-01-01

    The first section, with 12 chapters, deals with the detailed methods of computer analysis of images obtained from coronary vessels and the left ventricle. Basic principles of x-ray image formation are described, followed by details of the computer-based Cardiovascular Angiography Analysis system (CAAs) and the left-ventricular angioprocessing system (Contouromat), with their degree of validity. Other chapters discuss contour analysis, edge detection, densitometry, digital image processing, three-dimensional reconstruction, and the current status of structural analysis of the entire coronary tree. The second edition section contains 11 chapters, each exemplifying the application of these computer-based systems to almost the entire sphere of interventional cardiac imaging. Applications include intracoronary effects of nifedipine on coronary motility, left-ventricular function and myocardial oxygen consumption, various aspects of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (including left-ventricular wall stiffness), adjuvant thrombolysis, comparison of contour versus densitometric area measurements of coronary obstructions before and after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, and left-ventricular performance including lactate metabolism during vessel occlusion.

  13. Myocardial perfusion echocardiography and coronary microvascular dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Barletta, Giuseppe; Del Bene, Maria Riccarda

    2015-01-01

    Our understanding of coronary syndromes has evolved in the last two decades out of the obstructive atherosclerosis of epicardial coronary arteries paradigm to include anatomo-functional abnormalities of coronary microcirculation. No current diagnostic technique allows direct visualization of coronary microcirculation, but functional assessments of this circulation are possible. This represents a challenge in cardiology. Myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE) was a breakthrough in echocardiography several years ago that claimed the capability to detect myocardial perfusion abnormalities and quantify coronary blood flow. Research demonstrated that the integration of quantitative MCE and fractional flow reserve improved the definition of ischemic burden and the relative contribution of collaterals in non-critical coronary stenosis. MCE identified no-reflow and low-flow within and around myocardial infarction, respectively, and predicted the potential functional recovery of stunned myocardium using appropriate interventions. MCE exhibited diagnostic performances that were comparable to positron emission tomography in microvascular reserve and microvascular dysfunction in angina patients. Overall, MCE improved echocardiographic evaluations of ischemic heart disease in daily clinical practice, but the approval of regulatory authorities is lacking.

  14. [Two catheters for one coronary perforation].

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Lucia; Verdoia, Monica; Schaffer, Alon; Marino, Paolo; De Luca, Giuseppe

    2015-02-01

    Coronary perforation is a severe complication of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with high mortality and morbidity. The incidence of coronary perforation in patients undergoing PCI ranges from 0.1% to 0.5%. The use of long balloon inflation and reversal anticoagulation is associated with high mortality, periprocedural myocardial infarction and emergency coronary bypass surgery. We present a case of severe coronary perforation treated with the dual catheter technique through the radial and femoral approach. The dual catheter technique enabled rapid delivery of a covered stent without losing control of the perforation site. Our patient did not show pericardial effusion, hemodynamic instability or need for emergency bypass surgery. About 1h after PCI, he developed acute stent thrombosis treated with thromboaspiration and biolimus-eluting stent implantation. At 2 years of follow-up, he was asymptomatic without evidence of exercise-induced ischemia. We conclude that the dual catheter technique is a safe and effective approach to treat PCI-induced severe coronary perforation, and may significantly improve patient outcome compared to historical series. PMID:25805096

  15. Closure of guide wire-induced coronary artery perforation with a two-component fibrin glue.

    PubMed

    Störger, Hans; Ruef, Johannes

    2007-08-01

    Perforation or rupture of a coronary artery with subsequent pericardial effusion and cardiac tamponade is a potentially life-threatening complication of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Several emergency treatment strategies exist to close the perforation including reversal of anticoagulation, prolonged balloon inflation, implantation of stent grafts, local injection of thrombogenic molecules, placement of microcoils, or open heart surgery. Here we report on a 66-year-old patient who underwent urgent PCI for acute stent thrombosis in the proximal LAD. The artery was reopened, a new stent implanted successfully, and a GPIIb/IIIa-antagonist was given. Shortly thereafter the patient suffered from cardiac tamponade requiring pericardiocentesis and pericardial drainage. The coronary angiogram indicated a severe guide wire-induced perforation and pericardial effusion originating from a distal diagonal branch segment. Prolonged balloon inflation did not stop the leakage. Therefore the monorail balloon was exchanged for an over-the-wire balloon. A two-component commercial fibrin glue consisting of fibrinogen and thrombin was rapidly but separately injected through the wire channel of the balloon into the distal segment of the diagonal branch. The coronary leak was successfully closed and the patient recovered quickly. In comparison with the previously reported cases of thrombin injection important differences should be noticed: (1) a two-component hemostatic seal was used without reversal of anticoagulation, (2) rapid injection instead of prolonged infusion of the hemostatic drugs was performed, and (3) the rescue technique was applied in a cath lab that routinely uses monorail catheter systems. Therefore we consider this a novel and effective approach for closure of coronary ruptures. PMID:17420994

  16. Microvessels in chronic total occlusions: pathways for successful guidewire crossing?

    PubMed

    Strauss, Bradley H; Segev, Amit; Wright, Graham A; Qiang, Beiping; Munce, Nigel; Anderson, Kevan J T; Leung, General; Dick, Alexander J; Virmani, Renu; Butany, Jagdish

    2005-12-01

    Arterial chronic total occlusions (CTO) are a common and clinically relevant problem in patients with coronary artery disease. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) success rates in a wide range of CTO are low, primarily due to inability of guidewire crossing. The pathophysiology of CTO is poorly understood and limits our ability to introduce innovative therapies. Recent studies from our laboratory have suggested that microvessel formation within arterial CTO is a complex process with temporal and regional differences. Moreover, there is evidence from pilot studies that the presence of either microvessels or the particular extracellular matrix environment in the adjacent perivascular tissue can facilitate guidewire crossing and successful PCI. Currently, studies are underway in our experimental CTO model to delineate the pathophysiology of microvessel formation in CTO and its potential role in PCI. PMID:16336422

  17. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia following coronary artery bypass grafting: a diagnostic dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Khanal, Raju; Karmacharya, Paras; Forman, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a challenge in post-cardiac surgery patients because of the high incidence of non-immune thrombocytopenia and heparin–platelet factor 4 antibodies in these groups. We present a case of HIT in a post coronary artery bypass surgery patient, which was successfully treated with prompt recognition and discontinuation of heparin products. PMID:26486110

  18. EDTA Chelation Therapy Alone and in Combination with Oral High-Dose Multivitamins and Minerals for Coronary Disease: The Factorial Group Results of the Trial to Assess Chelation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lamas, Gervasio A.; Boineau, Robin; Goertz, Christine; Mark, Daniel B.; Rosenberg, Yves; Stylianou, Mario; Rozema, Theodore; Nahin, Richard L.; Chappell, L. Terry; Lindblad, Lauren; Lewis, Eldrin F.; Drisko, Jeanne; Lee, Kerry L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Disodium ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) reduced adverse cardiac outcomes in a factorial trial also testing oral vitamins. Objective This report describes the intent-to-treat comparison of the 4 factorial groups overall and in patients with diabetes. Methods Double-blind placebo-controlled 2 × 2 factorial multicenter randomized trial of 1708 post-MI patients ? 50 years and creatinine ?2.0 mg/dL randomized to receive 40 EDTA chelation or placebo infusions plus 6 caplets daily of a 28-component multivitaminmultimineral mixture or placebo. Primary endpoint was a composite of total mortality, MI, stroke, coronary revascularization, or hospitalization for angina. Results Median age was 65 years, 18% female, 94% Caucasian, 37% diabetic, 83% prior coronary revascularization, and 73% on statins. Five-year Kaplan-Meier estimates for the primary endpoint in the chelation + high-dose vitamin group was 31.9%, in the chelation + placebo vitamin group 33.7%, in the placebo infusion + active vitamin group 36.6%, and in the placebo infusions + placebo vitamin group 40.2 %. The reduction in primary endpoint by double active treatment compared with double placebo was significant (HR 0.74, 95% CI (0.57,0.95); p=0.016). In patients with diabetes, the primary endpoint reduction of double active compared with double placebo was more pronounced (HR 0.49, 95% CI (0.33,0.75), p<0.001). Conclusions In stable post- MI patients on evidence-based medical therapy, the combination of oral high-dose vitamins and chelation therapy compared with double placebo reduced clinically important cardiovascular events to an extent that was both statistically significant and of potential clinical relevance. PMID:24952858

  19. Can the HEART Score Safely Reduce Stress Testing and Cardiac Imaging in Patients at Low Risk for Acute Coronary Syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Mahler, Simon A.; Hiestand, Brian C.; Goff, David C.; Hoekstra, James W.; Miller, Chadwick D.

    2011-01-01

    Background Patients with low risk chest pain have high utilization of stress testing and cardiac imaging, but low rates of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The objective of this study was to determine if the HEART score could safely reduce objective cardiac testing in patients with low risk chest pain. Methods A cohort of chest pain patients was identified from an Emergency Department-based observation unit registry. HEART scores were determined using registry data elements and blinded chart review. HEART scores were dichotomized into low (0–3) or high risk (>3). The outcome was MACE; a composite endpoint of all cause mortality, myocardial infarction, or coronary revascularization during the index visit or within 30 days. Sensitivity, specificity, and potential reduction of cardiac testing were calculated. Results Over 28 months, the registry included 1070 low risk chest pain patients. MACE occurred in 0.6% (5/904) of patients with low-risk HEART scores compared to 4.2% (7/166) with a high-risk HEART scores, OR=7.92, (95%CI 2.48–25.25). A HEART score >3 was 58% sensitive (95% CI 32–81%) and 85% specific (95% CI 83–87%) for MACE. The HEART score missed 5 cases of ACS among 1070 patients (0.5%) and could have reduced cardiac testing by 84.5% (904/1070). Combination of serial troponin > 0.065 ng/ml or HEART score >3 resulted in 100% sensitivity (95% CI 72–100%), specificity of 83% (95%CI 81–85%), and potential reduction in cardiac testing of 82% (879/1070). Conclusions If used to guide stress testing and cardiac imaging, the HEART score could substantially reduce cardiac testing in a population with low pre-test probability of ACS. PMID:21989033

  20. Bivalirudin Anticoagulant Therapy With or Without Platelet Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Inhibitors During Transcatheter Coronary Interventional Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiabei; Yu, Shiyong; Qian, Dehui; He, Yun; Jin, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The safety and effectiveness of using the direct thrombin inhibitor bivalirudin during transcatheter coronary interventional procedures remains uncertain. This study aimed to systematically assess anticoagulation with bivalirudin alone or bivalirudin plus glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa inhibitors (bivalirudin-based anticoagulant therapy) in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) procedures by a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Systematical searches of the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases were conducted. RCTs comparing bivalirudin-based anticoagulant therapy with a comparable heparin therapy in patients undergoing PCI were eligible. Risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) served as summary statistics. A total of 38,096 patients from 17 RCTs were randomized to the bivalirudin group (n?=?18,878) or heparin group (n?=?19,218) in the meta-analysis. No significant differences in death, myocardial infarction or reinfarction, ischemia-driven revascularization, or in-stent thrombosis were observed between the 2 groups (all P?>?0.05). Notably, bivalirudin-based therapy showed a highly significant 34% decrease in the incidence of major bleeding (RR?=?0.66; 95% CI 0.54–0.81; P?

  1. Efficacy and safety of aspirin, clopidogrel, and warfarin after coronary artery stenting in Korean patients with atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Suh, Soon Yong; Kang, Woong Chol; Oh, Pyung Chun; Choi, Hanul; Moon, Chan Il; Lee, Kyounghoon; Han, Seung Hwan; Ahn, Taehoon; Choi, In Suck; Shin, Eak Kyun

    2014-09-01

    There are limited data on the optimal antithrombotic therapy for patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) who undergoing coronary stenting. We reviewed 203 patients (62.6 % men, mean age 68.3 ± 10.1 years) between 2003 and 2012, and recorded clinical and demographic characteristics of the patients. Clinical follow-up included major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) (cardiac death, myocardial infarction, target lesion revascularization, and stroke), stent thrombosis, and bleeding. The most commonly associated comorbidities were hypertension (70.4 %), diabetes mellitus (35.5 %), and congestive heart failure (26.6 %). Sixty-three percent of patients had stroke risk higher than CHADS2 score 2. At discharge, dual-antiplatelet therapy (aspirin, clopidogrel) was used in 166 patients (81.8 %; Group I), whereas 37 patients (18.2 %) were discharged with triple therapy (aspirin, clopidogrel, warfarin; Group II). The mean follow-up period was 42.0 ± 29.0 months. The mean international normalized ratio (INR) in group II was 1.83 ± 0.41. The total MACCE was 16.3 %, with stroke in 3.4 %. Compared with the group II, the incidence of MACCE (2.7 % vs 19.3 %, P = 0.012) and cardiac death (0 % vs 11.4 %, P = 0.028) were higher in the group I. Major and any bleeding, however, did not differ between the two groups. In multivariate analysis, no warfarin therapy (odds ratio 7.8, 95 % confidence interval 1.02-59.35; P = 0.048) was an independent predictor of MACCE. By Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, warfarin therapy was associated with a lower risk of MACCE (P = 0.024). In patients with AF undergoing coronary artery stenting, MACCE were reduced by warfarin therapy without increased bleeding, which might be related to tighter control with a lower INR value. PMID:23974943

  2. NSLS transvenous coronary angiography beamline upgrade and advanced technology initiatives

    SciTech Connect

    Gmuer, N.F.; Chapman, D.; Thomlinson, W. ); Thompson, A.C. ); Lavender, W.M. ); Scalia, K.; Malloy, N. ); Mangano, J.; Jacob, J. )

    1995-02-01

    Since October 1990, the coronary anatomies of a total of 16 patients (male and female) have been imaged at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) as part of the Dual Energy Digital Subtraction Transvenous Coronary Angiography research program. This program takes place in the Synchrotron Medical Research Facility (SMERF) on the X17B2 wiggler beamline. Encouraged by the success of the initial patient images, the NSLS has recently embarked on an ambitious upgrade effort. This effort covers all aspects of the X17B2 beamline and includes improved radiation shielding, a Laue monochromator assembly, a computer-controlled five motion patient scanning chair assembly, a fast low-noise image acquisition system, and a modularized patient safety system. These improvements will allow major advances in imaging patients based on ECG signal gating and multiple view imaging. Two advanced technology initiatives are underway with industrial collaborators. One will develop real-time image acquisition and display of the subtracted digital images. The second will develop a compact x-ray source of medical imaging. The source will be a linear electron accelerator creating characteristic radiation line emissions.

  3. NSLS transvenous coronary angiography beamline upgrade and advanced technology initiatives

    SciTech Connect

    Gmuer, N.F.; Chapman, D.; Thomlinson, W.; Thompson, A.C.; Lavender, W.M.; Scalia, K.; Malloy, N.; Mangano, J.; Jacob, J.

    1994-11-01

    Since October 1990, the coronary anatomies of a total of 16 patients (male and female) have been imaged at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) as part of the Dual Energy Digital Subtraction Transvenous Coronary Angiography research program. This program takes place in the Synchrotron Medical Research Facility (SMERF) on the X17B2 wiggler beamline. Encouraged by the success of the initial patient images, the NSLS has recently embarked on an ambitious upgrade effort. This effort covers all aspects of the X17B2 beamline and includes improved radiation shielding, a Laue monochromator assembly, a computer-controlled 5 motion patient scanning chair assembly, a fast low-noise image acquisition system, and a modularized patient safety system. These improvements will allow major advances in imaging patients based on ECG signal gating and multiple view imaging. Two advanced technology initiatives are underway with industrial collaborators. One will develop real-time image acquisition and display of the subtracted digital images. The second will develop a compact x-ray source for medical imaging. The source will be a linear electron accelerator creating characteristic radiation line emissions.

  4. Percutaneous retrograde revascularization of the occluded celiac artery for chronic mesenteric ischemia using intravascular ultrasound guidance.

    PubMed

    Jain, Gagan; Pandit, Bhagya Narayan; Goyal, Mayank; Trehan, Vijaya Kumar

    2013-07-01

    A 47-year-old male presented with a triad of postprandial abdominal pain, food fear and significant weight loss since 1 year suggestive of chronic mesenteric ischemia. CT angiogram revealed chronic total occlusion of the celiac artery (CA), inferior mesenteric artery and 80-90 % stenosis of the proximal superior mesenteric artery (SMA). After SMA stenting, successful retrograde recanalisation of chronically occluded CA through pancreatico-duodenal arcade using intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) guidance was done when standard tools failed. The role of IVUS in such challenging lesions is described in the following case report. PMID:23526494

  5. A Systematic Review of Xuezhikang, an Extract from Red Yeast Rice, for Coronary Heart Disease Complicated by Dyslipidemia

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Qinghua; Liu, Zhaolan; Chen, Keji; Xu, Hao; Liu, Jianping

    2012-01-01

    Objective. This systematic review aims to evaluate the benefit and side effect of Xuezhikang for coronary heart disease (CHD) complicated by dyslipidemia. Methods. All randomized clinical trials (RCTs) with Xuezhikang as a treatment for CHD combined with dyslipidemia were considered for inclusion. Data extraction and analyses and quality assessment were conducted according to the Cochrane standards. Results. We included 22 randomized trials. Xuezhikang showed significant benefit on the incidence of all-cause deaths, CHD deaths, myocardial infarction, and revascularization as compared with placebo based on conventional treatment for CHD. It remarkably lowered total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) as compared with the placebo or inositol nicotinate group, which was similar to statins group. Xuezhikang also raised high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) compared to placebo or no intervention, which was similar to Inositol nicotinate and slightly inferior to statins. The incidence of adverse events did not differ between the Xuezhikang and control group. Conclusions. Xuezhikang showed a comprehensive lipid-regulating effect and was safe and effective in reducing cardiovascular events in CHD patients complicated by dyslipidemia. However, more rigorous trials with high quality are needed to give high level of evidence. PMID:22567033

  6. Successful Left-Heart Decompression during Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in an Adult Patient by Percutaneous Transaortic Catheter Venting

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Tae Hee; Byun, Joung Hun; Yoo, Byung Ha; Hwang, Sang Won; Kim, Han Yong; Park, Jae Hong

    2015-01-01

    Venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA ECMO) is widely used in patients with cardiogenic shock. Insufficient decompression of the left ventricle (LV) is considered a major factor preventing adequate LV recovery. A 40-year-old male was diagnosed with acute myocardial infarction, and revascularization was performed using percutaneous stenting. However, cardiogenic shock occurred, and VA ECMO was initiated. Severe LV failure developed, and percutaneous transaortic catheter venting (TACV) was incorporated into the venous circuit of VA ECMO under transthoracic echocardiography guidance. The patient was successfully weaned from VA ECMO. Percutaneous TACV is an effective, relatively noninvasive, and rapid method of LV decompression in patients undergoing VA ECMO. PMID:26078930

  7. Three-dimensional virtual surgery models for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) optimization strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hujun; Liu, Jinghua; Zheng, Xu; Rong, Xiaohui; Zheng, Xuwei; Peng, Hongyu; Silber-Li, Zhanghua; Li, Mujun; Liu, Liyu

    2015-06-01

    Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), especially coronary stent implantation, has been shown to be an effective treatment for coronary artery disease. However, in-stent restenosis is one of the longstanding unsolvable problems following PCI. Although stents implanted inside narrowed vessels recover normal flux of blood flows, they instantaneously change the wall shear stress (WSS) distribution on the vessel surface. Improper stent implantation positions bring high possibilities of restenosis as it enlarges the low WSS regions and subsequently stimulates more epithelial cell outgrowth on vessel walls. To optimize the stent position for lowering the risk of restenosis, we successfully established a digital three-dimensional (3-D) model based on a real clinical coronary artery and analysed the optimal stenting strategies by computational simulation. Via microfabrication and 3-D printing technology, the digital model was also converted into in vitro microfluidic models with 3-D micro channels. Simultaneously, physicians placed real stents inside them; i.e., they performed “virtual surgeries”. The hydrodynamic experimental results showed that the microfluidic models highly inosculated the simulations. Therefore, our study not only demonstrated that the half-cross stenting strategy could maximally reduce restenosis risks but also indicated that 3-D printing combined with clinical image reconstruction is a promising method for future angiocardiopathy research.

  8. Single Center Retrospective Analysis of Conventional and Radial TIG Catheters for Transradial Diagnostic Coronary Angiography

    PubMed Central

    Vorpahl, Marc; Koehler, Till; Foerst, Jason; Panagiotopoulos, Spyridon; Schleiting, Heinrich; Koss, Klaus; Ziegler, Gunda; Brinkmann, Hilmar; Seyfarth, Melchior; Tiroch, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Current guidelines favor the radial approach for coronary angiography. Therefore, specialty radial diagnostic catheters were designed to engage both coronary arteries with a single device. However, it is unclear if single catheters are superior to conventional catheters. A retrospective analysis was performed of consecutive right radial coronary angiographies to determine catheter use, fluoroscopy time, radiation dosage, and consumption of contrast. Procedures were performed with a single TIG catheter or conventional catheters (CONV). Procedures with coronary artery bypass grafts or ventricular angiographies were excluded. 273 transradial procedures were performed successfully. 95 procedures were performed with CONV and 178 procedures with a TIG. Crossover to additional catheters was higher in TIG (15.2%) compared to CONV (5.3%, p = 0.02). Fluoroscopy time was comparable between CONV and TIG, without crossover (2.2 ± 1.2?min versus 2.3 ± 1.2?min; n.s.), however, greater in the case of crossover for CONV (5.8 ± 0.7) and TIG (7.6 ± 3.0; p = 0.0001). Radiation dosage was similar in CONV and the TIG, without crossover (1419 ± 1075, cGy?cm2 versus 1690 ± 1138; n.s.), however, greater for CONV (2374 ± 620) and TIG (3733 ± 2281, p = 0.05) with crossover. Overall, the amount of contrast was greater in TIG (56 ± 13?mL) versus CONV (48 ± 3?mL; p = 0.0003). CONV femoral catheters may be the primary choice for radial approach. PMID:26435876

  9. Three-dimensional virtual surgery models for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) optimization strategies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hujun; Liu, Jinghua; Zheng, Xu; Rong, Xiaohui; Zheng, Xuwei; Peng, Hongyu; Silber-Li, Zhanghua; Li, Mujun; Liu, Liyu

    2015-01-01

    Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), especially coronary stent implantation, has been shown to be an effective treatment for coronary artery disease. However, in-stent restenosis is one of the longstanding unsolvable problems following PCI. Although stents implanted inside narrowed vessels recover normal flux of blood flows, they instantaneously change the wall shear stress (WSS) distribution on the vessel surface. Improper stent implantation positions bring high possibilities of restenosis as it enlarges the low WSS regions and subsequently stimulates more epithelial cell outgrowth on vessel walls. To optimize the stent position for lowering the risk of restenosis, we successfully established a digital three-dimensional (3-D) model based on a real clinical coronary artery and analysed the optimal stenting strategies by computational simulation. Via microfabrication and 3-D printing technology, the digital model was also converted into in vitro microfluidic models with 3-D micro channels. Simultaneously, physicians placed real stents inside them; i.e., they performed “virtual surgeries”. The hydrodynamic experimental results showed that the microfluidic models highly inosculated the simulations. Therefore, our study not only demonstrated that the half-cross stenting strategy could maximally reduce restenosis risks but also indicated that 3-D printing combined with clinical image reconstruction is a promising method for future angiocardiopathy research. PMID:26042609

  10. Imaging Plaques to Predict and Better Manage Patients with Acute Coronary Events

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Garcia, Hector M.; Jang, Ik-Kyung; Serruys, Patrick W.; Kovacic, Jason C.; Narula, Jagat; Fayad, Zahi A.

    2014-01-01

    Culprit lesions of patients who have had an acute coronary syndrome commonly are ruptured coronary plaques with superimposed thrombus. The precursor of such lesions is an inflamed thin-capped fibroatheroma. These plaques can be imaged by means of invasive techniques such as intravascular ultrasound (and derived techniques), optical coherence tomography and near-infrared spectroscopy. Very often these patients exhibit similar (multiple) plaques beyond the culprit lesion. These remote plaques can be assessed non invasively by computed tomography angiography and magnetic resonance imaging and also using invasive imaging. The detection of these remote plaques is not only feasible, but also in natural history studies have been associated with clinical coronary events. Different systemic pharmacological treatments have been studied (mostly statins) with modest success and therefore newer approaches are being tested. Local treatment for such lesions is in its infancy and larger, prospective and randomized trials are needed. This review will describe the pathological and imaging findings in culprit lesions of patients with acute coronary syndrome and as well as the assessment of remote plaques. In addition, the pharmacological and local treatment options will be reviewed. PMID:24902974

  11. Carbon Dioxide in the Aortic Arch: Coronary Effects and Implications in a Swine Study

    SciTech Connect

    Culp, William C. Porter, Thomas R.; Culp, William C.; Vonk, Brian N.

    2003-04-15

    Purpose: CO{sub 2} angiography is considered dangerous in the aortic arch where bubbles may cause critical cerebral and cardiac ischemia. We investigated CO{sub 2}distribution, physiologic effects in the heart, methods of detection and treatments. Methods: Eight pigs had CO{sub 2}and iodinated contrast arch angiograms in supine and both lateral decubitus positions. An electrocardiogram, physiologic data and cardiac ultrasound were obtained. Therapies included precordial thumps and rolls to lateral decubitus positions. Results: Supine high descending aorta CO{sub 2} injections floated retrograde up the arch during diastole and preferentially filled the right coronary artery (RCA): mean score 3.5 (of 4), in nominate artery 2.4, left coronary artery 1.2; n = 17; p = 0.0001. Aortic root injections preferentially filled the RCA when the animal was supine, left coronary in the right decubitus position, and showed a diffuse pattern in the left decubitus position. Right decubitus rolls filled both coronaries causing several lethal arrhythmias. Precordialthumps successfully cleared CO{sub 2}. Ultrasound is a sensitive detector of myocardial CO{sub 2}. Conclusion: Arch distribution of CO{sub 2} primarily involves the RCA. Diagnostic ultrasound detects cardiac CO{sub 2} well. Precordial thumps are an effective treatment.

  12. In-vivo validation of fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIm) of coronary arteries in swine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bec, Julien; Ma, Dinglong; Yankelevich, Diego R.; Gorpas, Dimitris S.; Ferrier, William T.; Southard, Jeffrey; Marcu, Laura

    2015-02-01

    We report a scanning imaging system that enables high speed multispectral fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIm) of coronary arteries. This system combines a custom low profile (3 Fr) imaging catheter using a 200 ?m core side viewing UV-grade silica fiber optic, an acquisition system able to measure fluorescence decays over four spectral bands at 20 kHz and a fast data analysis and display module. In vivo use of the system has been optimized, with particular emphasis on clearing blood from the optical pathway. A short acquisition time (5 seconds for a 20 mm long coronary segment) enabled data acquisition during a bolus saline solution injection through the 7 Fr catheter guide. The injection parameters were precisely controlled using a power injector and optimized to provide good image quality while limiting the bolus injection duration and volume (12 cc/s, 80 cc total volume). The ability of the system to acquire data in vivo was validated in healthy swine by imaging different sections of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary. A stent coated with fluorescent markers was placed in the LAD and imaged, demonstrating the ability of the system to discriminate in vivo different fluorescent features and structures from the vessel background fluorescence using spectral and lifetime information. Intensity en face images over the four bands of the instrument were available within seconds whereas lifetime images were computed in 2 minutes, providing efficient feedback during the procedure. This successful demonstration of FLIm in coronaries enables future study of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases.

  13. 21 CFR 870.4310 - Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge is a device used in cardiopulmonary bypass surgery to measure the pressure of the blood perfusing the coronary arteries. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

  14. 21 CFR 870.4310 - Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge is a device used in cardiopulmonary bypass surgery to measure the pressure of the blood perfusing the coronary arteries. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

  15. 21 CFR 870.4310 - Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge is a device used in cardiopulmonary bypass surgery to measure the pressure of the blood perfusing the coronary arteries. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

  16. 21 CFR 870.4310 - Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge is a device used in cardiopulmonary bypass surgery to measure the pressure of the blood perfusing the coronary arteries. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

  17. 21 CFR 870.4310 - Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge is a device used in cardiopulmonary bypass surgery to measure the pressure of the blood perfusing the coronary arteries. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

  18. Clinical Outcome, and Survival Between Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Versus Fibrinolysis in Patients Older Than 60 Years with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Falsoleiman, H.; Fatehi, G. H.; Dehghani, M; Shakeri, M. T.; Bayani, Baktash; Ahmadi, Mostafa; Rohani, Atoosheh

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to compare the short-term and 6-month clinical outcome, and survival in patients older than 60 years with ST-elevation myocardial infarction randomized to either primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) or thrombolysis. Materials and Methods: 82 patients with STEMI older than 60 years were randomized to either primary PCI or thrombolysis from September 2006 to August 2008. Angiograms were reviewed by two interventionalists not involved in the study. Patients randomized to primary PCI received Aspirin and 600 mg Clopidogrel. Heparin was administered in conjunction with PCI. Patients randomized to thrombolysis received Aspirin followed by streptokinase infusion for one hour. Rescue PCI was considered if there was ongoing pain and ST-segment resolution was <50% at 90 min. after initiation of thrombolysis or chest pain recurred with ST-segment elevation within 24 hours. All patients were followed up for 6 months. End points were reinfarction and cardiac death using competing-risks regression estimation. Results: The mean time from hospital admission to start of streptokinase infusion was 31 ± 15 min and door to balloon time was 70 ± 25 min. There was no significant difference between the groups in the number of deaths and reinfarctions at 6 months. As expected, the fibrinolysis group had a higher rate of revascularization and heart failure. Conclusion: The higher rates of heart failure and need for revascularization in the fibrinolysis group reinforces benefits of PPCI in patients older than 60 years. PPCI in those who are 60 years and above with AMI is safe and cost effective. PMID:23439588

  19. Factors Related to Coronary Heart Disease Risk Among Men: Validation of the Framingham Risk Score

    PubMed Central

    Gander, Jennifer; Hazlett, Linda J; Cai, Bo; Hébert, James R.; Blair, Steven N.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Coronary heart disease (CHD) remains a leading cause of death in the United States. The Framingham Risk Score (FRS) was developed to help clinicians in determining their patients’ CHD risk. We hypothesize that the FRS will be significantly predictive of CHD events among men in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (ACLS) population. Methods Our study consisted of 34,557 men who attended the Cooper Clinic in Dallas, Texas, for a baseline clinical examination from 1972 through 2002. CHD events included self-reported myocardial infarction or revascularization or death due to CHD. During the 12-year follow-up 587 CHD events occurred. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios generated from ACLS analysis were compared with the application of FRS to the Framingham Heart Study (FHS). Results The ACLS cohort produced similar hazard ratios to the FHS. The adjusted Cox proportional hazard model revealed that men with total cholesterol of 280 mg/dL or greater were 2.21 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.59–3.09) times more likely to have a CHD event than men with total cholesterol from 160 through 199mg/dL; men with diabetes were 1.63 (95% CI, 1.35–1.98) times more likely to experience a CHD event than men without diabetes. Conclusion The FRS significantly predicts CHD events in the ACLS cohort. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a large, single-center cohort study to validate the FRS by using extensive laboratory and clinical measurements. PMID:25121352

  20. Usefulness of transient and persistent no reflow to predict adverse clinical outcomes following percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Chan, William; Stub, Dion; Clark, David J; Ajani, Andrew E; Andrianopoulos, Nick; Brennan, Angela L; New, Gishel; Black, Alexander; Shaw, James A; Reid, Christopher M; Dart, Anthony M; Duffy, Stephen J

    2012-02-15

    The no reflow phenomenon is reported to occur in >2% of all percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs) and portends a poor prognosis. We analyzed data from 5,286 consecutive patients who underwent PCI from the Melbourne Interventional Group (MIG) registry from April 2004 through January 2008 who had 30-day follow-up completed. Patients without no reflow (normal reflow, n = 5,031) were compared to 255 (4.8%) with no reflow (n = 217 for transient no reflow, n = 38 for persistent no reflow). Patients with transient or persistent no reflow were more likely to present with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (MI) or cardiogenic shock (p <0.0001 for the 2 comparisons). They were also more likely to have complex lesions (American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association type B2/C), have lesions within a bypass graft, require an intra-aortic balloon pump, receive glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibition, and have a longer mean stent length (p <0.0001 for all comparisons). In-hospital outcomes were significantly worse in those patients with transient or persistent no reflow, with increased death, periprocedural MI, renal impairment, and major adverse cardiac events (p <0.0001 for all comparisons). Similarly, transient and persistent no reflow portended worse 30-day clinical outcomes, with a progressive increase in mortality (normal reflow 1.7% vs transient no reflow 5.5% vs persistent no reflow 13.2%, p <0.0001), MI, target vessel revascularization, and major adverse cardiac events (p <0.0001 for all comparisons) compared to patients with normal flow. In conclusion, transient or persistent no reflow complicates approximately 1 in 20 PCIs and results in stepwise increases in in-hospital and 30-day adverse outcomes. PMID:22176999

  1. [Calcifying coronary sclerosis. Incidence and clinical importance of radiographically visible coronary sclerosis in the light of new study methods].

    PubMed

    Dietz, A

    1978-11-23

    Since introduction of the new image intensifier generation coronary calcification has become a common finding during fluoroscopy. Nearly one quarter of all patients over 40 years have calcified coronary vessels, men twice as often as women. More than two thirds of all these patients have coronary heart disease. Patients with coronary calcification suffer more often than those without from risk diseases of atherosclerosis, especially of coronary heart disease. The calcification means in most cases a lumen reduction of the vessel and is predominantly located in the left coronary artery. Other uncalcified stenoses exist very often, i.e. multiple vessel disease is a very common finding in these patients. The x-ray sign confirms the diagnosis "coronary heart disease" if there are other suspicious findings but it has not rarely its own value in comparison with other non-invasive examination methods in the diagnosis of coronary heart disease. PMID:309426

  2. Fibromuscular dysplasia of renal arteries: percutaneous revascularization based on hemodynamic assessment with a pressure measurement guidewire.

    PubMed

    Mahmud, Ehtisham; Brocato, Michele; Palakodeti, Vachaspathi; Tsimikas, Sotirios

    2006-03-01

    Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) leading to renal artery stenosis and hypertension is one of the most common treatable causes of secondary hypertension. However, frequently it can be difficult to judge the anatomical severity of a stenotic lesion with various noninvasive and invasive imaging modalities. We present two patients with poorly controlled hypertension and FMD affecting the renal arteries, in whom there were no anatomically significant stenoses by renal magnetic resonance angiography or selective renal artery angiography. Utilizing a 0.014'' high fidelity micromanometer tipped PressureWire XT (Radi, Reading, MA), to measure intravascular pressure gradients throughout the diseased renal arteries, we identified physiologically significant stenoses, and successfully treated both patients with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty. PMID:16475187

  3. Apelin Levels In Isolated Coronary Artery Ectasia

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, ?brahim; Y?ld?z, Abdulkadir; Ak?l, Mehmet Ata; Acet, Halit; Yüksel, Murat; Polat, Nihat; Ayd?n, Mesut; Oylumlu, Mustafa; Erta?, Faruk; Kaya, Hasan; Alan, Sait

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives The etiopathogenesis of coronary artery ectasia (CAE) is not known completely. In most of the cases, CAE is associated with atherosclerosis; however, isolated CAE has a nonatherosclerotic mechanism. The association between atherosclerotic coronary artery disease and apelin has been examined in previous studies. However, the role of plasma apelin in isolated coronary artery ectasia has not been studied. In this study, we investigated the relationship between plasma apelin levels and isolated coronary artery ectasia. Subjects and Methods The study population included a total of 54 patients. Twenty-six patients had isolated CAE (53.6±8.1 years); 28 patients with normal coronary arteries (51.6±8.8 years) and with similar risk factors and demographic characteristics served as the control group. Apelin levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunoassay kit. Results Apelin level in the CAE group was significantly lower (apelin=0.181±0.159 ng/mL) than that in the control group (apelin=0.646±0.578 ng/mL) (p=0.033). Glucose, creatinine, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusion In this study, we showed that patients with isolated CAE have decreased plasma apelin levels compared with the control group. Based on the data, a relationship between plasma apelin and isolated CAE was determined. PMID:26413106

  4. Mechanisms of myocardium-coronary vessel interaction

    PubMed Central

    Algranati, Dotan; Kassab, Ghassan S.

    2010-01-01

    The mechanisms by which the contracting myocardium exerts extravascular forces (intramyocardial pressure, IMP) on coronary blood vessels and by which it affects the coronary flow remain incompletely understood. Several myocardium-vessel interaction (MVI) mechanisms have been proposed, but none can account for all the major flow features. In the present study, we hypothesized that only a specific combination of MVI mechanisms can account for all observed coronary flow features. Three basic interaction mechanisms (time-varying elasticity, myocardial shortening-induced intracellular pressure, and ventricular cavity-induced extracellular pressure) and their combinations were analyzed based on physical principles (conservation of mass and force equilibrium) in a realistic data-based vascular network. Mechanical properties of both vessel wall and myocardium were coupled through stress analysis to simulate the response of vessels to internal blood pressure and external (myocardial) mechanical loading. Predictions of transmural dynamic vascular pressure, diameter, and flow velocity were determined under each MVI mechanism and compared with reported data. The results show that none of the three basic mechanisms alone can account for the measured data. Only the combined effect of the cavity-induced extracellular pressure and the shortening-induced intramyocyte pressure provides good agreement with the majority of measurements. These findings have important implications for elucidating the physical basis of IMP and for understanding coronary phasic flow and coronary artery and microcirculatory disease. PMID:19966048

  5. Biomarkers in Acute Coronary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Loria, Valentina; Leo, Milena; Biasillo, Gina; Dato, Ilaria; Biasucci, Luigi M.

    2008-01-01

    Background Evaluation of patients who present to the hospital with acute undifferentiated chest pain or other symptoms and signs suggestive of Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) is often a clinical challenge. The initial assessment, requiring a focused history (including risk factors analysis), a physical examination, an electrocardiogram (EKG) and serum cardiac marker determination, is time-consuming and troublesome. Recent investigations have indicated that increases in biomarkers of necrosis, inflammation, ischemia and myocardial stretch may provide earlier assessment of overall patient risk, help in identifying the adequate diagnostic and therapeutic management for each patient and allow for prevention of substantial numbers of new events. Approach and Content The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the characteristics of several biomarkers that may have potential clinical utility to identify ACS patients. Patho-physiology, analytical and clinical characteristics have been evaluated for each marker, underlying the properties for potential routine clinical use. Summary The biomarkers discussed in this review are promising and might lead to improved diagnosis and risk stratification of patients with ACS, however their clinical application requires further studies. It is important to define their clinical role as diagnostic markers, their predictive value and the specificity, standardization and detection limits of the assays. PMID:19578525

  6. Conservative Management of Chylothorax after Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    PubMed Central

    Pulathan, Zerrin; Kutanis, Dilek; Hemsinli, Dogus; Erturk, Engin; Civelek, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Chylothorax is a rare sequela to cardiac surgery, associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. There are various medical and surgical options for its management. We describe 2 cases of chylothorax that developed after coronary artery bypass grafting and were managed successfully with medical therapy alone. Conservative treatment such as we describe aims to reduce chyle flow, to drain the pleural cavity in an effective manner, and to prevent chronic sequelae. Optimal conservative treatment, consisting of nothing by mouth and the administration of a pleurodetic agent, should be started immediately upon diagnosis. In most cases, it reduces the need for reoperation and long-term hospitalization. Prospective randomized controlled trials are nonetheless needed to confirm these assumptions. PMID:25873827

  7. FMLP provokes coronary vasoconstriction and myocardial ischemia in rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Gillespie, M.N.; Booth, D.C.; Friedman, B.J.; Cunningham, M.R.; Jay, M.; De Maria, A.N. )

    1988-03-01

    Recent pathological studies of coronary arteries from humans with suspected coronary spasm have revealed an augmented intramural burden of inflammatory cells. To test the hypothesis than inappropriate activation of inflammatory cells participates in the evolution of coronary vasospasm, the present experiment employed a newly developed coronary arteriographic technique for use in pentobarbital-anesthetized rabbits to evaluate the coronary vasomotor actions of the nonselective inflammatory cell stimulant, N-formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine (fMLP). In 10 of 10 animals, selective left intracoronary injection of 200 ng fMLP evoked profound left coronary narrowing accompanied in all cases by ST segment deviation and dysrhythmias. Thallium-201 scintigraphy demonstrated hypoperfusion of the left ventricular free wall and septum supplied by the spastic coronary artery. The fMLP-induced epicardial vasoconstriction, ischemic electrocardiogram (ECG) changes, and thallium perfusion defects were reversed by intravenous nitroglycerin. Neither the right coronary artery nor its distribution were influenced by left coronary injection of fMLP. Additional experiments in isolated, salt solution-perfused rabbit hearts demonstrated that fMLP failed to exert direct coronary vasoconstrictor effects. These observations indicate that the nonselective inflammatory cell stimulant, fMLP, provokes arteriographically demonstrable coronary spasm with attendant myocardial hypoperfusion and ischemic ECG changes in anesthetized rabbits. Such a model may be useful in exploring the dynamic role of inflammatory cells in development of coronary spasm.

  8. TRACKING OF CORONARY ARTERIES IN ANGIOGRAM SEQUENCE BY STRUCTURAL

    E-print Network

    Leow, Wee Kheng

    TRACKING OF CORONARY ARTERIES IN ANGIOGRAM SEQUENCE BY STRUCTURAL MATCHING OF JUNCTIONS WANG YUMEI NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF SINGAPORE 2011 #12;TRACKING OF CORONARY ARTERIES IN ANGIOGRAM SEQUENCE BY STRUCTURAL;Abstract Coronary artery disease is the most common form of heart disease and is a lead- ing cause of death

  9. Coronary arteries form by developmental reprogramming of venous cells

    E-print Network

    Krasnow, Mark A.

    ARTICLES Coronary arteries form by developmental reprogramming of venous cells Kristy Red-Horse1 , Hiroo Ueno2 , Irving L. Weissman2 & Mark A. Krasnow1 Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. Determining the coronary artery developmental program could aid understanding

  10. 21 CFR 870.4310 - Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge... Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge is a device used in cardiopulmonary bypass surgery to measure the pressure of the blood...

  11. Cigarette Smoking and Coronary Johannes Czernin and Christian Waldherr

    E-print Network

    Cooper, Robin L.

    Cigarette Smoking and Coronary Blood Flow Johannes Czernin and Christian Waldherr Cigarette smoking is associated with an increased risk for vascular disease. The effects of smoking and nicotine on coronary. Finally, it summarizes research addressing the effects of smoking on coronary and peripheral arterial

  12. Assessment of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty by atrial pacing and thallium-201 myocardial imaging: a case report

    SciTech Connect

    Stratmann, H.G.; Seuc, C.A.; Mark, A.L.; Walter, K.E.; Kennedy, H.L.

    1986-08-01

    Combined atrial pacing and thallium-201 scintigraphy were performed in a man with multiple coronary artery lesions unable to perform exercise stress testing. Severe angina and ischemic ST depression in the inferior and anterior ECG leads occurred at a peak double product of 22,400 beats-mm Hg/min; thallium-201 scintigraphy showed reversible perfusion defects of the inferior, posterior, and septal segments. After angiographically successful angioplasty of a 95% right coronary artery lesion, repeat atrial pacing/thallium-201 scintigraphy (peak double product 27,750 beats-mm Hg/min) produced mild angina no ST depression in the inferior leads, and a normal thallium-201 scan. This case illustrates the value of the atrial pacing/thallium-201 stress test for evaluating the need for, and results of, coronary angioplasty in patients unable to perform exercise stress testing.

  13. Evolution of myocardial ischemia and left ventricular function in patients with angina pectoris without myocardial infarction and total occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery and collaterals from other coronary arteries

    SciTech Connect

    Juilliere, Y.; Marie, P.Y.; Danchin, N.; Karcher, G.; Bertrand, A.; Cherrier, F. )

    1991-07-01

    Repeated episodes of myocardial ischemia might lead to progressive impairment of left ventricular (LV) function. This radionuclide study assessed myocardial ischemia and LV function several years after documented coronary occlusion without myocardial infarction. Over 5 years, 24 consecutive patients, who underwent cardiac catheterization for angina pectoris without myocardial infarction, had isolated total occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery with well-developed collateral vessels. Five patients were successfully treated by coronary bypass grafting and 3 by coronary angioplasty. Among the 16 medically treated patients, 1 was lost to follow-up and 1 died (extracardiac death). The mean (+/- standard deviation) follow-up (14 patients) was 48 +/- 15 months. At follow-up, 8 patients still had clinical chest pain, 11 received antianginal therapy, 4 patients had no stress ischemia and the other 10 had greater than or equal to 1 sign of stress ischemia. All patients had a normal LV ejection fraction at rest (mean 60 +/- 3%; range 55 to 65%). Collateral circulation preserves LV function at the time of occlusion and, in some cases, prevents the development of myocardial ischemia; in patients with persisting myocardial ischemia after well-collateralized coronary occlusion, LV function is not impaired at long-term follow-up.

  14. Rest period duration of the coronary arteries: Implications for magnetic resonance coronary angiography

    SciTech Connect

    Shechter, Guy; Resar, Jon R.; McVeigh, Elliot R.

    2005-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) and computed tomography coronary imaging is susceptible to artifacts caused by motion of the heart. The presence of rest periods during the cardiac and respiratory cycles suggests that images free of motion artifacts could be acquired. In this paper, we studied the rest period (RP) duration of the coronary arteries during a cardiac contraction and a tidal respiratory cycle. We also studied whether three MR motion correction methods could be used to increase the respiratory RP duration. Free breathing x-ray coronary angiograms were acquired in ten patients. The three-dimensional (3D) structure of the coronary arteries was reconstructed from a biplane acquisition using stereo reconstruction methods. The 3D motion of the arterial model was then recovered using an automatic motion tracking algorithm. The motion field was then decomposed into separate cardiac and respiratory components using a cardiac respiratory parametric model. For the proximal-to-middle segments of the right coronary artery (RCA), a cardiac RP (<1 mm 3D displacement) of 76{+-}34 ms was measured at end systole (ES), and 65{+-}42 ms in mid-diastole (MD). The cardiac RP was 80{+-}25 ms at ES and 112{+-}42 ms at MD for the proximal 5 cm of the left coronary tree. At end expiration, the respiratory RP (in percent of the respiratory period) was 26{+-}8% for the RCA and 27{+-}17% for the left coronary tree. Left coronary respiratory RP (<0.5 mm 3D displacement) increased with translation (32% of the respiratory period), rigid body (51%), and affine (79%) motion correction. The RCA respiratory RP using translational (27%) and rigid body (33%) motion correction were not statistically different from each other. Measurements of the cardiac and respiratory rest periods will improve our understanding of the temporal and spatial resolution constraints for coronary imaging.

  15. [Acute coronary syndromes with ST elevation and angiographically normal culprit coronary arteries: Case report and update].

    PubMed

    Halna du Fretay, X; Dibon, O; Naël, J

    2015-12-01

    Acute coronary syndrome results in most cases of atherosclerotic plaque rupture. In a few cases, the physiopathological mechanism is different. This does not necessarily change the initial strategy but the subsequent treatments. We report three cases of clinical presentations of acute coronary syndrome whose pathophysiological mechanism is not or not mainly due to atherosclerotic lesions. Based on these cases and a review of the literature, two topics will be tackled: the diagnostic and therapeutic strategy in the management of Tako-tsubo cardiomyopathies and also acute coronary syndromes due to vasospastic angina. PMID:26525680

  16. Current and Novel Imaging Techniques in Coronary CT.

    PubMed

    Machida, Haruhiko; Tanaka, Isao; Fukui, Rika; Shen, Yun; Ishikawa, Takuya; Tate, Etsuko; Ueno, Eiko

    2015-01-01

    Multidetector coronary computed tomography (CT), which is widely performed to assess coronary artery disease noninvasively and accurately, provides excellent image quality. Use of electrocardiography (ECG)-controlled tube current modulation and low tube voltage can reduce patient exposure to nephrotoxic contrast media and carcinogenic radiation when using standard coronary CT with a retrospective ECG-gated helical scan. Various imaging techniques are expected to overcome the limitations of standard coronary CT, which also include insufficient spatial and temporal resolution, beam-hardening artifacts, limited coronary plaque characterization, and an inability to allow functional assessment of coronary stenosis. Use of a step-and-shoot scan, iterative reconstruction, and a high-pitch dual-source helical scan can further reduce radiation dose. Dual-energy CT can improve contrast medium enhancement and reasonably reduce the contrast dose when combined with noise reduction with the use of iterative reconstruction. High-definition CT can improve spatial resolution and diagnostic evaluation of small or peripheral coronary vessels and coronary stents. Dual-source CT and a motion correction algorithm can improve temporal resolution and reduce coronary motion artifacts. Whole-heart coverage with 320-detector CT and an intelligent boundary registration algorithm can eliminate stair-step artifacts. By decreasing beam hardening and enabling material decomposition, dual-energy CT is expected to remove or reduce the depiction of coronary calcification to improve intraluminal evaluation of calcified vessels and to provide detailed analysis of coronary plaque components and accurate qualitative and quantitative assessment of myocardial perfusion. Fractional flow reserve derived from coronary CT is a state-of-the-art noninvasive technique for accurately identifying myocardial ischemia beyond coronary CT. Understanding these techniques is important to enhance the value of coronary CT for assessment of coronary artery disease. PMID:26046942

  17. (1) Coronary Events Caused by Myocardial Bridge

    PubMed Central

    Yoko, Kawawa; Ehiichi, Kohda; Toshiharu, Ishii

    2009-01-01

    Myocardial bridge (MB), which covers a part of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD), is a normal anatomical variant structure (45% in frequency by autopsy) in LAD. MB contraction plays the role of a “double-edged sword” on the coronary events, suppressing coronary atherosclerosis under the MB, yet generating abnormal blood flow associated with coronary heart diseases (CHDs). High shear stress driven by MB compression causes the suppression of vascular permeability and vasoactive protein expression such as e-NOS and endothelin-1, which leads to the suppression of atherosclerosis in the LAD segment under the MB. However, despite the prevalent view of MB as benignancy by conventional coronary angiography (5-6% in frequency), with advance of imaging technique such as multislice spiral computed tomography [(MSCT); 16% in frequency], cardiologists are now frequently aware of symptomatic MB occurring not only in hospitalized patients, but also in young athletes free from atherosclerosis. Moreover, the large mass volume of MB muscle induces atherosclerosis evolution at the settled site in LAD proximal to MB and contributes to the occurrence of myocardial infarction. These events upon the coronary events result from the different pathophysiological mechanisms induced by contractile force of MB, which is solely determined just by the integration of anatomical properties of MB, such as the location, length and thickness of MB in an individual LAD. A recent MSCT provides the objective quantification of the anatomical variables that correlate with the histopathological results in relation to the occurrence of CHD. In this review, we therefore discuss the necessity to explore MB as a inherent chance anatomical risk factor for CHD. PMID:23555365

  18. Coronary CT Angiography in Heavily Calcified Coronary Arteries: Improvement of Coronary Lumen Visualization and Coronary Stenosis Assessment With Image Postprocessing Methods

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhonghua; Ng, Curtise K.C.; Xu, Lei; Fan, Zhanming; Lei, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To compare the diagnostic value of coronary CT angiography (CCTA) with use of 2 image postprocessing methods (CCTA_S) and (CCTA_OS) and original data (CCTA_O) for the assessment of heavily calcified plaques. Fifty patients (41 men, 9 women; mean age 61.9 years?±?9.1) with suspected coronary artery disease who underwent CCTA and invasive coronary angiography (ICA) examinations were included in the study. Image data were postprocessed with “sharpen” and smooth reconstruction algorithms in comparison with the original data without undergoing any image postprocessing to determine the effects on suppressing blooming artifacts due to heavy calcification in the coronary arteries. Minimal lumen diameter and degree of stenosis were measured and compared between CCTA_S, CCTA_OS, and CCTA_O with ICA as the reference method. The area under the curve (AUC) by receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis (ROC) was also compared among these 3 CCTA techniques. On a per-vessel assessment, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value, and 95% confidence interval (CI) were 100% (95% CI: 89%, 100%), 33% (95% CI: 22%, 45%), 41% (95% CI: 30%, 53%), 100% (95% CI: 85%, 100%) for CCTA_O, 94% (95% CI: 79%, 99%), 66% (95% CI: 54%, 77%), 57% (95% CI: 43%, 70%), and 95% (95% CI: 85%, 99%) for CCTA_S, 94% (95% CI: 79%, 99%), 44% (95% CI: 32%, 57%), 44% (95% CI: 32%, 57%), and 97% (95% CI: 79%, 99%) for CCTA_OS, respectively. The AUC by ROC curve analysis for CCTA_S showed significant improvement for detection of >50% coronary stenosis in left anterior descending coronary artery compared to that of CCTA_OS and CCTA_O methods (P?coronary stenosis in the left circumflex and right coronary arteries (P?>?0.05). CCTA with “sharpen” reconstruction reduces blooming artifacts from heavy calcification, thus, leading to significant improvement of specificity and positive predictive value of CCTA in patients with heavily calcified plaques. However, specificity is still moderate and additional functional imaging may be needed. PMID:26632895

  19. Spontaneous coronary artery dissection—A review

    PubMed Central

    Yip, Amelia

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is an infrequent and often missed diagnosis among patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Unfortunately, SCAD can result in significant morbidities such as myocardial ischemia and infarction, ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Lack of angiographic recognition from clinicians is a major factor of under-diagnosis. With the advent of new imaging modalities, particularly with intracoronary imaging, there has been improved diagnosis of SCAD. The aim of this paper is to review the epidemiology, etiology, presentation, diagnosis and management of SCAD. PMID:25774346

  20. Coronary CT Angiography in Heavily Calcified Coronary Arteries: Improvement of Coronary Lumen Visualization and Coronary Stenosis Assessment With Image Postprocessing Methods.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhonghua; Ng, Curtise K C; Xu, Lei; Fan, Zhanming; Lei, Jing

    2015-12-01

    To compare the diagnostic value of coronary CT angiography (CCTA) with use of 2 image postprocessing methods (CCTA_S) and (CCTA_OS) and original data (CCTA_O) for the assessment of heavily calcified plaques.Fifty patients (41 men, 9 women; mean age 61.9 years?±?9.1) with suspected coronary artery disease who underwent CCTA and invasive coronary angiography (ICA) examinations were included in the study. Image data were postprocessed with "sharpen" and smooth reconstruction algorithms in comparison with the original data without undergoing any image postprocessing to determine the effects on suppressing blooming artifacts due to heavy calcification in the coronary arteries. Minimal lumen diameter and degree of stenosis were measured and compared between CCTA_S, CCTA_OS, and CCTA_O with ICA as the reference method. The area under the curve (AUC) by receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis (ROC) was also compared among these 3 CCTA techniques.On a per-vessel assessment, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value, and 95% confidence interval (CI) were 100% (95% CI: 89%, 100%), 33% (95% CI: 22%, 45%), 41% (95% CI: 30%, 53%), 100% (95% CI: 85%, 100%) for CCTA_O, 94% (95% CI: 79%, 99%), 66% (95% CI: 54%, 77%), 57% (95% CI: 43%, 70%), and 95% (95% CI: 85%, 99%) for CCTA_S, 94% (95% CI: 79%, 99%), 44% (95% CI: 32%, 57%), 44% (95% CI: 32%, 57%), and 97% (95% CI: 79%, 99%) for CCTA_OS, respectively. The AUC by ROC curve analysis for CCTA_S showed significant improvement for detection of >50% coronary stenosis in left anterior descending coronary artery compared to that of CCTA_OS and CCTA_O methods (P?coronary stenosis in the left circumflex and right coronary arteries (P?>?0.05).CCTA with "sharpen" reconstruction reduces blooming artifacts from heavy calcification, thus, leading to significant improvement of specificity and positive predictive value of CCTA in patients with heavily calcified plaques. However, specificity is still moderate and additional functional imaging may be needed. PMID:26632895

  1. Lifesaving Embolization of Coronary Artery Perforation

    SciTech Connect

    Katsanos, Konstantinos; Patel, Sundip; Dourado, Renato; Sabharwal, Tarun

    2009-09-15

    Coronary artery perforation remains one of the most fearsome complications during cardiac catheterization procedures. Although emergent bypass surgery is the preferred treatment for cases with uncontrollable perforation, endovascular vessel sealing and arrest of bleeding with a combination of balloons, covered stents, or embolic materials have also been proposed. The authors describe a case of emergent lifesaving microcoil embolization of the distal right coronary artery in a patient with uncontrollable grade III guidewire perforation resulting in cardiac tamponade. The relevant literature is reviewed and the merits and limitations of the endovascular approach are highlighted.

  2. Vein to artery grafts. A quantitative study of revascularization by vasa vasorum and its relationship to intimal hyperplasia.

    PubMed Central

    McGeachie, J; Campbell, P; Prendergast, F

    1981-01-01

    Iliolumbar vein to iliac artery grafts were placed in 40 rats by microsurgical technique. Groups of animals were perfused with fixative at eight intervals between one and 20 weeks after operation, and sections of the graft and control arteries (the opposite iliacs) were analyzed microscopically. The revascularization of the graft by capillaries commenced within the first postoperative week. The level of vascularity (capillaries per cross-sectional mm2) increased during the first four weeks, maintained a constant level and declined after week 16. The grafts of the 17--20 week group were substantially less vascular than the earlier groups. Intimal thickening commenced at three to four weeks after operation, i.e. during the period of increasing graft vascularity. The mean intimal proportion of the graft was 14% at four to five weeks and at 17--20 weeks was 35% of the cross-sectional area of the graft wall. However, the actual thickness of the intima did not increase significantly with time, rather the whole graft wall tended to become thinner. At 17--20 weeks grafts which showed a high degree of intimal thickening had significantly fewer capillaries within their walls. Quantitative evidence is presented to suggest that the continued growth of the graft intima may not be supported by a similar increase in the number of vasa vasorum. Therefore, it is suggested that the reduced level of vascularity in grafts with hyperplastic intimae may form an ischemic basis for degenerative changes which are known to take place in some long-term grafts. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:7247528

  3. A rat model of chronic subdural hematoma: Insight into mechanisms of revascularization and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Quan, Wei; Zhang, Zhifei; Tian, Qilong; Wen, Xiaolong; Yu, Peng; Wang, Dong; Cui, Weiyun; Zhou, Lei; Park, Eugene; Baker, Andrew J; Zhang, Jianning; Jiang, Rongcai

    2015-11-01

    Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is a common neurological occurrence in the elderly population with significant impact on the quality of life and work. Studies have attempted to determine the risk factors and pathophysiological mechanisms of CSDH using models in numerous mammalian species. To date, these animal models have only been able to reproduce limited durations of hematoma which does not accurately reflect the chronic state of CSDH. To address some of these challenges we modified a rat model of CSDH using two consecutive injections of autologous blood resulting in a hematoma of more than three weeks. We observed inflammatory and angiogenic changes related to the development and recovery of CSDH. In this study the technique for producing a CSDH in a small animal model had a success rate of 78.13%. The hematoma was sustainable up to 24 days. Hematoma resolution was associated with a gradual decrease in local pro-inflammatory factors and gradual increase in anti-inflammatory factors as well as proliferation and subsequent maturation of newly formed vessels. These events were also associated with improved behavioral outcome. Expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines also paralleled reabsorption of the hematoma. Reduction in hematoma size was also associated with neurological recovery. These data suggest that vessel maturation and anti-inflammatory pathways may contribute to the resolution of CSDH and neurological recovery. The regulation of the two mechanisms is a potential target for the treatment of CSDH. The modified model of rat CSDH demonstrated a high level of reproducibility in our hands and may be useful in future CSDH studies. PMID:26315377

  4. Sealing of a dual feeding coronary artery perforation with homemade spring guidewire.

    PubMed

    Hartono, Beny; Widito, Sasmojo; Munawar, Muhammad

    2015-10-01

    Coronary artery perforation (CAP) after percutaneous coronary intervention is a rare, but potentially life-threatening complication. The source of the bleeding is usually from one of the coronary arteries. In the era of chronic total occlusion technique, retrograde approach strategy sometimes is performed using collateral channels. When CAP occurs distal from the collateral channel, the source of bleeding can be from dual arteries, i.e., main and contra-lateral artery. Therefore, management of this bleeding should be intended to close the channel from both the arteries. We have successfully performed an emergent microcoil embolization in a patient with uncontrolled Ellis grade III perforation resulting cardiac tamponade which need pericardiocentesis. The perforation was sealed with the use of cutting the distal part of spring guidewire deployed at the septal collateral channel and fibered microcoil embolization deployed at the distal part of the other vessel. During 1 month follow-up, the patient was found to be well. In conclusion, CAP may result from two source of bleeding and should be kept into consideration. We successfully stopped the bleeding using the combination of fibered microcoil and tip of the spring guidewire. PMID:25301012

  5. Coronary Flow Impacts Aortic Leaflet Mechanics and Aortic Sinus Hemodynamics.

    PubMed

    Moore, Brandon L; Dasi, Lakshmi Prasad

    2015-09-01

    Mechanical stresses on aortic valve leaflets are well-known mediators for initiating processes leading to calcific aortic valve disease. Given that non-coronary leaflets calcify first, it may be hypothesized that coronary flow originating from the ostia significantly influences aortic leaflet mechanics and sinus hemodynamics. High resolution time-resolved particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements were conducted to map the spatiotemporal characteristics of aortic sinus blood flow and leaflet motion with and without physiological coronary flow in a well-controlled in vitro setup. The in vitro setup consists of a porcine aortic valve mounted in a physiological aorta sinus chamber with dynamically controlled coronary resistance to emulate physiological coronary flow. Results were analyzed using qualitative streak plots illustrating the spatiotemporal complexity of blood flow patterns, and quantitative velocity vector and shear stress contour plots to show differences in the mechanical environments between the coronary and non-coronary sinuses. It is shown that the presence of coronary flow pulls the classical sinus vorticity deeper into the sinus and increases flow velocity near the leaflet base. This creates a beneficial increase in shear stress and washout near the leaflet that is not seen in the non-coronary sinus. Further, leaflet opens approximately 10% farther into the sinus with coronary flow case indicating superior valve opening area. The presence of coronary flow significantly improves leaflet mechanics and sinus hemodynamics in a manner that would reduce low wall shear stress conditions while improving washout at the base of the leaflet. PMID:25636598

  6. Solitaire™ with the Intention for Thrombectomy as Primary Endovascular Treatment for Acute Ischemic Stroke (SWIFT PRIME) trial: protocol for a randomized, controlled, multicenter study comparing the Solitaire revascularization device with IV tPA with IV tPA alone in acute ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Saver, Jeffrey L; Goyal, Mayank; Bonafe, Alain; Diener, Hans-Christoph; Levy, Elad I; Pereira, Vitor M; Albers, Gregory W; Cognard, Christophe; Cohen, David J; Hacke, Werner; Jansen, Olav; Jovin, Tudor G; Mattle, Heinrich P; Nogueira, Raul G; Siddiqui, Adnan H; Yavagal, Dileep R; Devlin, Thomas G; Lopes, Demetrius K; Reddy, Vivek; du Mesnil de Rochemont, Richard; Jahan, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Early reperfusion in patients experiencing acute ischemic stroke is critical, especially for patients with large vessel occlusion who have poor prognosis without revascularization. Solitaire™ stent retriever devices have been shown to immediately restore vascular perfusion safely, rapidly, and effectively in acute ischemic stroke patients with large vessel occlusions. Aim The aim of the study was to demonstrate that, among patients with large vessel, anterior circulation occlusion who have received intravenous tissue plasminogen activator, treatment with Solitaire revascularization devices reduces degree of disability 3 months post stroke. Design The study is a global multicenter, two-arm, prospective, randomized, open, blinded end-point trial comparing functional outcomes in acute ischemic stroke patients who are treated with either intravenous tissue plasminogen activator alone or intravenous tissue plasminogen activator in combination with the Solitaire device. Up to 833 patients will be enrolled. Procedures Patients who have received intravenous tissue plasminogen activator are randomized to either continue with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator alone or additionally proceed to neurothrombectomy using the Solitaire device within six-hours of symptom onset. Study Outcomes The primary end-point is 90-day global disability, assessed with the modified Rankin Scale (mRS). Secondary outcomes include mortality at 90 days, functional independence (mRS ??2) at 90 days, change in National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale at 27?h, reperfusion at 27?h, and thrombolysis in cerebral infarction 2b/3 flow at the end of the procedure. Analysis Statistical analysis will be conducted using simultaneous success criteria on the overall distribution of modified Rankin Scale (Rankin shift) and proportions of subjects achieving functional independence (mRS 0–2). PMID:25777831

  7. Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Single Coronary Artery from Right Sinus: Radial Route is Right

    PubMed Central

    Mahla, Rakesh; Mahla, Himanshu; Choudhary, Dinesh; Nahata, Pintu

    2015-01-01

    We present percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) using radial approach in a rare case of single coronary artery originating from the right sinus. Although these anomalies and stenosis of anomalous vessels have been described previously, treatment of atherosclerotic lesions by PCI has rarely been reported. There is a definite procedural risk during PCI in patients with a single ostium because dissection with the guiding catheter would result in a catastrophic event. Additionally, technical difficulties may occur due to the ostial configuration and course of the branch to be stented. The patient suffered an acute coronary syndrome-inferior wall STEMI, and was thrombolysed elsewhere within a window period of 4 h. He had post myocardial infarction (MI) angina and was referred to our center after 3 days of thrombolysis. We present this technically challenging and rare case in which PCI of right coronary artery was performed through the radial route. PMID:26713181

  8. Serum protein profiles predict coronary artery disease in symptomatic patients referred for coronary angiography

    E-print Network

    LaFramboise, William A

    Background: More than a million diagnostic cardiac catheterizations are performed annually in the US for evaluation of coronary artery anatomy and the presence of atherosclerosis. Nearly half of these patients have no ...

  9. A Giant Coronary Artery Aneurysm with Coronary Arteriovenous Fistula in Asymptomatic Elderly Patient

    PubMed Central

    Milici, Caterina; Bovelli, Daniella; Borghetti, Valentino; Khoury, Georgette; Principi, Massimo; Boschetti, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Coronary Arteriovenous Fistula (CAF) is a rare defect that occurs in 0.1-0.2% of patients undergoing coronary angiography; Coronary Artery Aneurism (CAA) also occurs in approximately 15–19% of patients with CAF. It is usually congenital, but in rare occasions it occurs after chest trauma, cardiac surgery, or coronary interventions. The case described is that of a 72-year-old woman, without previous history of cardiovascular disease, who presented a huge cardiac mass. A multimodal approach was necessary to diagnose a giant CAA with CAF responsible for compression and displacement of cardiac structures. Due to likely congenitally origin of the lesion and the absence of symptoms correlated to the CAA and to the CAF we decided to avoid invasive interventions and to treat the patient with medical therapy. PMID:24324914

  10. An isolated single L-II type coronary artery anomaly: A rare coronary anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Ermis, Emrah; Demirelli, Selami; Korkmaz, Ali Fuat; Sahin, Bingul Dilekci; Kantarci, Abdulmecit

    2015-01-01

    Summary The incidence of congenital artery anomalies is 0.2–1.4%, and most are benign. Single coronary artery (SCA) anomalies are very rare. The right coronary artery (RCA) originating from the left coronary system is one such SCA anomaly, and the risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) increases if it courses between the pulmonary artery and aorta and coexists with other congenital heart diseases. Additionally, coursing of the RCA between the great vessels increases the risk of atherosclerosis. We herein present the case of a 57 year-old man who was admitted to our cardiology outpatient clinic and diagnosed with an SCA anomaly in which the RCA arose from the left main coronary artery (LMCA) and coursed between the pulmonary artery and aorta. However a critical stenosis was not detected in imaging techniques, and myocardial perfusion scintigraphic evidence of ischaemia was found in a small area. Therefore, he was managed with conservative medical therapy. PMID:26668781

  11. Obesity, body fat distribution, and coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Brochu, M; Poehlman, E T; Ades, P A

    2000-01-01

    Obesity is an independent risk factor for the development of coronary artery disease (CAD). Obesity also increases risk for CAD indirectly through its association with insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension. An increased accumulation of fat in the intraabdominal cavity, termed visceral adiposity, is highly correlated with an adverse coronary risk profile. In patients at risk for coronary artery disease, the treatment of obesity results in an improved coronary risk profile. The prevalence of obesity is extremely high in coronary populations, yet the effect of weight loss on cardiovascular outcomes in CAD patients has received relatively little attention. Observational studies in the cardiac rehabilitation setting showed that patients who lose weight and exercise show an improvement in coronary risk profile. Further research is needed to better define the clinical effectiveness of weight loss programs and their benefits in coronary patients. PMID:10763157

  12. Coronary anatomy, anatomic variations and anomalies: a retrospective coronary angiography study

    PubMed Central

    Altin, Cihan; Kanyilmaz, Suleyman; Koc, Sahbender; Gursoy, Yusuf Cemil; Bal, U?ur; Aydinalp, Alp; Yildirir, Aylin; Muderrisoglu, Haldun

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The incidence of coronary artery anomalies (CAAs) varies from 0.2% to 8.4%. Knowledge of such anatomical variations is important as coronary procedures are regularly performed these days. We aimed to find the coronary dominance pattern, intermediate artery (IMA) frequency and CAA incidence in our clinic, and compare them to those in the literature. METHODS The medical reports of 5,548 patients who had undergone coronary angiography (CAG) between 2005 and 2009 were retrospectively investigated. Dominance pattern and presence of IMA and CAA were recorded. CAAs were described using two different classifications: Angelini and Khatami’s classification, and a new modified classification that was derived from Angelini and Khatami’s classification. Some procedural details and clinical features of the patients with CAA were also investigated. RESULTS Coronary dominance pattern was: 81.6% right coronary artery, 12.2% circumflex artery and 6.2% co-dominant. IMA was present in 613 (11.0%) patients. The incidences of overall anomaly were 2.7% and 1.4%, according to the different classifications. Absent left main coronary artery, which was the most common anomaly in the present study, was found in 51 (0.9%) patients. Incidences of myocardial bridge, coronary arteriovenous fistulae and aneurysms were 1.1%, 0.2% and 0.3%, respectively. CONCLUSION CAAs are generally asymptomatic, isolated lesions. Some may lead to anginal symptoms, myocardial infarction or sudden death. We found that CAA was associated with increased radiation and contrast exposure in patients who underwent CAG. This risk could be reduced if appropriate catheters were designed and training programmes on ostial cannulation were developed. PMID:25502334

  13. Catheter ablation of accessory pathways near the coronary sinus: Value of defining coronary arterial anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Jessica; Moriarty, John M.; Mandapati, Ravi; Boyle, Noel G.; Shivkumar, Kalyanam; Vaseghi, Marmar

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Accessory pathways can lie near or within the coronary sinus (CS). Radiofrequency catheter ablation of accessory pathways is a well-established treatment option, but this procedure can cause damage to adjacent coronary arteries. OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anatomic relationship between the coronary arteries and the CS. METHODS Retrospective data of patients who underwent catheter ablation of supraventricular tachycardia between June 2011 and August 2013 was reviewed. In addition, detailed analysis of coronary computed tomographic angiography (CTA) data from 50 patients was performed. RESULTS Between June 2011 and August 2013, 427 patients underwent catheter ablation of supraventricular tachycardia, of whom 105 (age 28 ± 17 years, 60% male) had accessory pathway–mediated tachycardia. Of these, 23 patients had accessory pathways near the CS, and 60% (N = 14) underwent concurrent coronary angiography. In 4 patients, the posterolateral (inferolateral) branch (PLA) of the right coronary artery was in close proximity to the CS, and 2 patients (18%) had stenosis of the PLA at the site of ablation. On CTA at their closest proximity, the PLA was 1.9 ± 1.3 mm and the left circumflex artery (LCx) was 2.0 ± 0.8 mm from the body of the CS, in right and left coronary artery–dominant patients, respectively. CS ostium and PLA were 3.6 ± 1.9 mm apart. In left-dominant patients, LCx and CS ostium were 3.8 ± 1.2 mm apart. CONCLUSION The PLA and LCx are in close proximity to the anteroinferior aspect of the CS ostium and proximal CS. The relationship of the CS and coronary arteries should be evaluated before ablation at these sites. PMID:25485779

  14. A Preliminary Real-Time and Realistic Simulation Environment for Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jianhuang; Wang, Haoyu; Zhang, Peng; Ma, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is a minimally invasive surgery procedure that is widely used in the treatment of coronary artery disease. This procedure requires interventional cardiologists to have high proficiency and therefore demands an extensive training period in order to ensure successful surgical outcome. In this paper, a realistic and real-time interactive simulator for training PCI procedure is presented. A set of new approaches for core simulation components is devised and integrated into the simulator. Trainees can interact with the virtual simulation environment with real instruments and essential maneuvers encountered in real PCI procedure. Although presently targeted at PCI, our simulator could be easily extended to mimic the necessities of any vascular interventional radiology procedures by updating vascular anatomy. Preliminary validation of the proposed physical model of instruments is conducted on vascular phantom to demonstrate its performance and effectiveness. PMID:25879018

  15. Fate of Patients With Coronary Perforation Complicating Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (from the Euro Heart Survey Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Registry).

    PubMed

    Bauer, Timm; Boeder, Niklas; Nef, Holger M; Möllmann, Helge; Hochadel, Matthias; Marco, Jean; Weidinger, Franz; Zeymer, Uwe; Gitt, Anselm K; Hamm, Christian W

    2015-11-01

    Coronary perforation (CP) is a life-threatening complication that can occur during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Little is known, however, about the incidence and clinical outcome of CP. We sought to investigate the occurrence of CP and its determinants and risk profile in a large-scale, prospective registry. From 2005 to 2008, unselected patients (n = 42,068) from 175 centers in 33 countries who underwent a PCI procedure were prospectively enrolled in the PCI registry of the Euro Heart Survey program. For the present analysis, patients experiencing CP during PCI (n = 124, 0.3%) were compared with those who underwent PCI without CP. Patients with CP were older, more often women, had more severe coronary disease, and underwent more complex types of coronary intervention. Independent factors associated with CP were the use of rotablation, intravascular ultrasound-guided PCI, bypass PCI, a totally occluded vessel, a type C lesion, peripheral arterial disease, and body mass index <25. More than 10% of the patients developed cardiac tamponade. In a small minority (3.3%), emergency bypass surgery had to be performed. The inhospital death rate was markedly elevated in patients with CP (7.3% vs 1.5%, p <0.001). After adjustment for the EuroHeart score, CP remained a strong predictor of hospital mortality (odds ratio 5.21, 95% confidence interval 2.34 to 11.60). In conclusion, in this real world, all-comers registry, the incidence of CP was low, occurred more often in patients who underwent more complex coronary interventions, and was associated with a fivefold higher hospital mortality. PMID:26341189

  16. Coronary Artery Disease in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Alkhawam, Hassan; Zaiem, Feras; Sogomonian, Robert; El-Hunjul, Mohammed; Al-Kateb, Mohamad; Bakhsh, M Umair; Madanieh, Raef

    2015-12-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) sustains a significant negative impact on hospital admissions and deaths worldwide. The prevalence of CHD in young adults is difficult to establish accurately, as these asymptomatic patients typically do not undergo diagnostic studies. In this article, the authors will focus on young adults with CHD emphasizing common and uncommon risk factors, current management and review of previous studies. PMID:26445306

  17. [Peripheral artery disease and acute coronary syndrome].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Quintana, Efrén; Rodríguez-González, Fayna

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral arterial disease is a common manifestation of systemic atherosclerosis that is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. When presented in the context of an acute coronary syndrome a differential diagnosis with aorta dissection should be made, because peripheral arterial disease may be as