Sample records for sucker rod string

  1. Mechanical performance of fiberglass sucker-rod strings

    SciTech Connect

    Tripp, H.A.

    1988-08-01

    The natural frequencies of fiberglass sucker-rod strings can be calculated by treating the rod strings as modified spring/mass vibration systems. The ratio of the pumping-unit operating speed to the rod-string natural frequency can then be used as a basis for understanding fiberglass-rod performance and for predicting downhole pump stroke lengths.

  2. A method for designing fiberglass sucker-rod strings with API RP 11L

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, J.W.; Laine, R.E. (Texas A and M University (US))

    1991-02-01

    This paper presents a method for using the API recommended practice for the design of sucker-rod pumping systems with fiberglass composite rod strings. The API method is useful for obtaining quick, approximate, preliminary design calculations. Equations for calculating all the composite material factors needed in the API calculations are given.

  3. Sucker rod guide

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, B.J.; Starks, J.A.

    1989-08-22

    This patent describes a sucker rod guide for mounting on a sucker rod and spacing the sucker rod from the tubing in an oil well. The guide comprising a generally cylindrically-shaped, extruded, ultra-high density polyethylene body having a substantially smooth outside surface; a longitudinal bore provided centrally of the body. The bore having a smaller diameter than the diameter of the sucker rod; a plurality of grooves provided in circumferential relationship in the bore; and a tapered slot extending longitudinally through the body from the outside surface to the bore. The tapered slot further comprising a slot mouth located at the outside surface and a slot throat spaced from the slot mouth. The slot throat lying adjacent to the sucker rod bore and wherein the slot throat is wider than the slot mouth for mounting the sucker rod guide on the sucker rod.

  4. Sucker rod guide

    SciTech Connect

    White, R.C.

    1988-10-25

    This patent describes an improved guide for use in a string of sucker rods for reciprocation in a tubing string in a borehole, the sucker rods having threaded male ends, the guide comprising: an elongated upright cylindrical member of external diameter less than the internal diameter of tubing in which it is to be used, the member having sucker rod receiving female threaded openings at the upper and lower ends, the threaded openings being coaxial of the member cylindrical axis whereby the member may be positioned in a string of sucker rods, and including a plurality of spaced-apart parallel sided slots within the member, each slot being of semi-circular configuration and of depth greater than the radius and less than the diameter of the cylindrical member, the sidewalls of each slot being parallel to and equally spaced from a plane of the member cylindrical axis; the member having an axle bore therein for each of the slots, the axle bores being parallel and spaced apart from each other, a plane of the axis of each bore being perpendicular the member cylindrical axis and the axis of each bore being displaced away from the member cylindrical axis; an axle received in each axle bore; and a wheel received on each axle the diameter of each wheel being approximately the diameter of the cylindrical member, the periphery of each wheel extending beyond the member cylindrical wall whereby the wheels are positioned to engage and roll on the internal cylindrical surface of tubing, the planes of adjacent slots in the member being rotationally displaced from each other, a portion of each wheel extending beyond the cylindrical surface of the member, the opposed portion of each wheel being within the confines of the member cylindrical surface whereby each wheel can contact a tubing wall at only one point on its cylindrical surface.

  5. Sucker rod coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Klyne, A.A.

    1986-11-11

    An anti-friction sucker rod coupling is described for connecting a pair of sucker rods and centralizing them in a tubing string, comprising: an elongate, rigid, substantially cylindrical body member, each end of the body member forming means for threadably connecting the body member with a sucker rod. The body member further forms a transversely extending, substantially diametric, generally vertical slot extending therethrough. The body member further forms a pin bore, such pin bore extending transversely through the body member so as to intersect the slot substantially perpendicularly; a wheel member positioned within the slot to rotate in a generally vertical plane. The wheel member has a portion thereof extending beyond the periphery of the body member to engage the inner surface of the tubing string and centralize the coupling; and a pin mounted in the pin bore and supporting member thereon, whereby the wheel member is rotatable within the slot; the wheel member having sufficient clearance between its side surfaces and the wall surfaces of the slot, when the wheel member is centered in the slot on the pin, whereby the wheel member may shift along the pin to assist in ejecting sand and oil from the slot.

  6. 1987 Sucker rod tables

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-03-01

    This reference identifies manufacturers qualified to produce API sucker rods and related equipment, lists chemical and mechanical properties of the various types of rods and provides dimensional characteristics. In addition, similar information is given for non-API products such as fiberglass and hollow rods.

  7. Guide for rotating sucker rods

    SciTech Connect

    Harrel, R.D.

    1986-11-04

    This patent describes an improved guide for use in a string of sucker rods rotated in a tubing string in a borehole, the sucker rods having threaded male ends, the guide comprising: an elongated upright solid cylindrical coupling body of external diameter less than the internal diameter of tubing in which it is to be used; a pair of spaced apart axle holders positioned in three recess; an axle received in each recess in the coupling body, the axis of each axle being parallel and spaced from the body longitudinal axis; a roller rotatably received on each axle, the periphery of each roller extending exteriorly of the external cylindrical surface of the coupling body; and means to retain each of the holders in the coupling body recess.

  8. An improved model for sucker rod pumping

    SciTech Connect

    Doty, D.R.; Schmidt, Z.

    1983-02-01

    An improved model for predicting the behavior of sucker rod pumping installations is presented. This model incorporates the dynamics of the liquid columns as well as the sucker rod string through a system of partial differential equations. This system of equations is solved by a modified method of characteristics on a digital computer. The model predicts the polished-rod and pump dynamometer cards and incorporates the effects of liquid inertia and viscosity. The model is capable of simulating a wide variety of pumping conditions for which liquid physical properties are important. The information predicted by the model is useful in the design and operation of sucker rod pumping installations.

  9. Improved model for sucker rod pumping

    SciTech Connect

    Doty, D.R.; Schmidt, Z.

    1981-01-01

    An improved model for predicting the behavior of sucker rod pumping installations is presented. This model incorporates the dynamics of the liquid columns as well as the sucker rod string through a system of partial differential equations. The system of equations is solved by a modified method of characteristics on a digital computer. The model predicts the polished rod and pump dynamometer cards and incorporates the effects of liquid inertia and viscosity. It is capable of simulating a wide variety of pumping conditions where liquid physical properties are important. The information predicted by the model is useful in the design and operation of sucker rod pumping installations. Refs.

  10. Class D sucker rods

    SciTech Connect

    Woodings, R. T.

    1984-10-23

    It has been found that API Class D sucker rods can be made inexpensively from low-alloy, low-cost steel by following a suitable induction-normalizing process and using a suitable steel to which there has been added 0.07 to 0.15 percent of vanadium.

  11. Sucker rod centralizer

    SciTech Connect

    Rivas, O.; Newski, A.

    1989-10-03

    This patent describes a device for centralizing at least one sucker rod within a production pipe downhole in a well and for reducing frictional forces between the pipe and at least one sucker rod. It comprises an elongate, substantially cylindrical body member having a longitudinal axis, a plurality of slots within the member and a rotatable member mounted within each slot, each of the plurality of slots has its major dimension along a first axis parallel to the longitudinal axis of the body member and is oriented with respect to the other seats so as to form a helicoidal array for maximizing the total surface contact area between the rotatable members and the pipe and for decreasing the forces acting on each rotatable member.

  12. Flexible sucker rod unit

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, L.F.

    1987-02-03

    This patent describes a deep well having: a. an education tube with an inside diameter extending from the surface of the earth to far below the surface, b. a reciprocating pump housing attached to the bottom of the education tube, c. pump jack means at the surface for reciprocating the pump, d. a light sucker rod connected to the pump jack means and extending into the education tube, and e. a series of heavy sinker bars having a large cross sectional area in the education tube connecting the light sucker rod to the pump; f. an improved integral metal flexible rod unit interconnecting the sinker bars comprising in combination with the above: g. a coupling on each end of the integral metal flexible rod unit connecting the flexible rod unit to the contiguous sinker bar, h. a segment which is flexible as compared to the sinker bars connecting one of the couplings to i. an integral metal bearing adjacent to the other of the couplings, the bearing having j. a cylindrical surface with k. a diameter i. only slightly smaller than the inside diameter of the education tube thereby forming a sliding fit therewith, and ii. greater than the diameter of any other portion of the flexible rod unit and the sinker bar, and l. grooves in the cylindrical surface for the passage of fluid between in the education tube around the bearing.

  13. Sucker rod construction

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.A.; Goodman, J.L.; Tickle, J.D.; Liskey, A.K.

    1987-03-31

    A sucker rod construction is described comprising: a connector member being formed to define a rod receptacle having a closed axially inner end and an open axially outer end, the rod receptacle having axially spaced, tapered annular surfaces, a cylindrical fiberglass rod having an end having an outer surface being received within the rod receptacle through the outer end and cooperating therewith to define an annular chamber between the outer surface of the end of the rod and the tapered annular surfaces, and a bonding means positioned in the annular chamber for bonding to the outer surface of the end of the rod to confront the tapered annular surfaces, each annular surface having an angle of taper with respect to the outer surface of the fiberglass rod, and each angle of taper being progressively and uniformly less toward the open end by an amount between one and one-half degrees and two degrees, inclusive, and a collet connected to the connector member adjacent the open axially outer end of the rod receptacle and having an axial bore therethrough retaining the end of the rod in coaxial position within the rod receptacle.

  14. Sucker rod assembly and method

    SciTech Connect

    Pagan, A.J.

    1986-07-01

    An improved sucker rod assembly is described comprising, in combination: a. a sucker rod; and b. a pair of fittings secured to opposite ends of the rod, each fitting including: i. a rigid elongated casing having interior surfaces defining an open front end and cavity extending rearwardly from the open front end in which cavity one end of the sucker rod is disposed, the side portions of the interior surfaces being contoured to define, with the side portions of the sucker rod end a single, annular elongated tapered wedge-shaped space; and ii. anchoring means filling the space and bonding to the side portions of the rod end to lock the rod end in place, the anchoring means having a narrower diameter at the front end thereof than at about the rear end thereof and being generally frusto-conical, the anchoring means comprising a plurality of separate rigid inserts, the interior surfaces of which collectively define a central elongated passageway in which the rod end is received, the interior surfaces of the inserts being tightly bonded to the side portions of the rod, and the inserts being bonded to each other along the contact lines therebetween to form a unitary structure.

  15. 13. SOUTHEAST TO SUCKER ROD WORK BENCH AND WOODEN SUCKER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. SOUTHEAST TO SUCKER ROD WORK BENCH AND WOODEN SUCKER ROD STORAGE RACKS ALONG EAST WALL OF FACTORY INTERIOR. AT THIS BENCH WORKERS RIVETED THREADED WROUGHT IRON CONNECTORS TO THE ENDS OF 20' LONG WOODEN SUCKER RODS (THE RODS WHICH EXTEND DOWNWARD IN THE WELL FROM THE GROUND SURFACE TO PISTON DISPLACEMENT PUMPS WHICH ACTUALLY ELEVATE WATER TO THE SURFACE). ROZNOR HEATER AT THE FAR RIGHT WAS ADDED CIRCA 1960. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

  16. Analysis of sucker rod and sinkerbar failures

    SciTech Connect

    Waggoner, J.R.; Buchheit, R.G.

    1993-03-01

    This report presents results of a study of performance and failures of the sucker rod/sinkerbar string used in beam-pumping operations through metallography, finite element analysis, and failure data collection. Metallography showed that the microstructure of the steel bar stock needs to be considered to improve the fatigue resistance of the sucker rod strings. The current specification based on tensile strength, or yield strength, may not be appropriate since failure occurs because of fatigue and not yielding, and tensile strength is not always a good measure of fatigue resistance. Finite element analysis of the threaded connection quantitatively assesses the coupling designs under various loading conditions. Subcritical fractures in metallography are also suggested by calculated stress distribution in threaded coupling. Failure data illustrates both magnitude and frequency of failures, as well as categorizing the suspected cause of failure. Application of the results in each of these project areas is expected to yield improved choice of metal bar stock, thread design, and make-up practices which can significantly reduce the frequency of sucker rod failures. Sucker rod failures today are not inherent in the process, but can be minimized through the application of new technology and observation of common-sense practices.

  17. What operators say about fiberglass sucker rods

    SciTech Connect

    Bleakley, W.B.

    1984-11-01

    This article presents the results of an informal survey of oil producing companies and one design engineering firm in the Permian Basin about the use and performance of fiberglass sucker rods in sucker rod pumps.

  18. Improved designs reduce sucker-rod pumping costs

    SciTech Connect

    Takacs, G. [Univ. of Miskolc (Hungary)

    1996-10-07

    Pumping mode selection, optimum counterbalance determination, and rod string design are factors that can reduce operational costs and improve sucker-rod pumping operations. To maximize profits from sucker-rod pumped wells, designs must aim at technically and economically optimum conditions. Assessment of surface and downhole energy losses are basic considerations for improving system efficiency. It is important to properly select the pumping mode, such as the combination of plunger size, pumping speed, stroke length, and rod taper design. The best pumping mode maximizes lifting efficiency and, at the same time, reduces prime-mover power requirements and electrical costs. Surface equipment operational efficiency can be improved with optimum counterbalancing of the pumping unit, and top achieve an ideal sucker-rod pumping system, a tapered rod string must have a proper mechanical design. The paper discusses rod pumping, downhole energy losses, surface losses, optimum efficiency, mode selection, counterbalancing, minimizing the cyclic load factor, and rod string design.

  19. Method of cleaning and inhibiting sucker rod corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, M. B.; Griffin, J. B.

    1985-01-22

    Method of cleaning tubular goods, especially sucker rods, and inhibiting the sucker rods against corrosion as the rod string is being withdrawn from a borehole. The method is carried out by the provision of an enclosure which is attached to the upper end of a cased borehole. The upper end of the sucker rod string is extended axially through the enclosure as the rod string is withdrawn from the casing. A medial length of the rod string is engaged by a resilient packer device which wipes the rod clean of well fluids and loose debris. The rod string is next cleaned within a second chamber by impacting the outer surface thereof with an abrasive substance. The rod surface is again cleaned of any residual material. The rod is then moved through another chamber where corrosion inhibitor is applied to the external surface of the rod. As each treated joint of rod is withdrawn from the enclosure, the rod joints are sequentially unscrewed and suitably stacked, where the rods are protected from the elements, as well as being protected when the rods are subsequently made up into a rod string as the rod is replaced into a borehole.

  20. Rod coupling for oil well sucker rods and the like

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, R.

    1986-07-29

    A coupling is described for joining solid reciprocating sucker rods to form a rod string in a well pump or the like comprising a unitary metal sleeve having an axial threaded bore and an irregular outer surface, and a homogeneous and non-fibrous coating on the sleeve over the outer surface providing an externally substantially cylindrical coupling, the coating comprising a flexible and abrasive resistant thermoplastic hydrourethane polymer formed on the irregular outer surface of the sleeve while in the molten state.

  1. Application of fiberglass sucker rods

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, S.G. (Nabla Corporation (US))

    1991-05-01

    Fiberglass sucker rods are assuming a place in artificial-lift technology. This paper briefly describes the manufacturing process and gives some design and operational hints for practical applications. It also describes some mathematical modeling modifications needed for fiberglass wave-equation design programs.

  2. Interpretation of calculated forces on sucker rods

    SciTech Connect

    Lea, J.F.; Pattillo, P.D. (Amoco Production Research co., Tulsa, OK (United States)); Studenmund, W.R. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States))

    1995-02-01

    The analysis of working loads in a sucker rod string during a pumping cycle has received substantial coverage in the petroleum literature. These load predictions have tended to focus on mechanical design considerations such as excess load and fatigue prediction. In contrast, the current study addresses the issues of buckling associated with working axial/pressure loads in an attempt to clarify the means of both predicting buckling and minimizing its effects. The study begins with a review of the static loads acting near the pump, and proceeds to a discussion of how these loads relate to the tendency of a rod string to buckle on the downstroke. Critical to this discussion is the concept of effective tension. Definition of the effective tension leads to the application of this concept to sinker bar design as a means of mitigating the buckling tendency of a rod string. Key points are reinforced by illustrative examples.

  3. Designing a sucker-rod pumping system for maximum efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Gault, R.H.

    1987-11-01

    Consideration of the energy requirements in the design of a sucker-rod pumping system is very important. Examples are given that detail how the use of the largest possible pump with the lightest, strongest rod string and special-geometry units can provide a substantial energy reduction.

  4. Designing a sucker rod pumping system for maximum efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Gault, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    Consideration of the energy requirements in the design of a sucker rod pumping system is very important. Examples are given which detail how the use of the largest possible pump with the lightest, strongest, rod string and special geometry units can provide a substantial energy reduction.

  5. Fiberglass sucker rods - a futuristic solution to today's problem wells

    SciTech Connect

    Treadway, R.B.; Focazio, K.R.

    1981-01-01

    A new fiberglass sucker rod design was developed, which incorporated many new and major modifications to correct the problems that had plagued the previous rod. This paper documents the success of these rods in depths ranging from 5,000'-10,000', and production ranges of 150 - 700 barrels of fluid per day. In addition, Amoco had also installed over fifty strings of fiberglass rods in their other four West Texas and Eastern New Mexico districts, and several are being evaluated in East Texas and on the Gulf Coast. At the present time, all of these additional installations show the same success as those reported in this paper. The changes in the manufacturing process, the use of a computer program for performance prediction, and the development of a new load range diagram are also discussed. Final data indicate that, when designed and installed properly, fiberglass sucker rods are a viable, economic, and often preferable alternative to steel sucker rods.

  6. Wear simulation of sucker rod couplings

    SciTech Connect

    Schumacher, W.J. (Armco, Inc., Middletown, OH (United States))

    1991-09-01

    This paper reports that sucker rod strings are devices used to actuate pumps located at the bottom of oil wells. The individual rods are connected together by threaded couplings. Since the couplings have a larger diameter than the rods, they sometimes contact the inside diameter of the tubing during the up and down pumping cycle. Usually, this is not problem unless buckling occurs in the downstroke; however, this can lead to accelerated wear of the coupling and tubing. In nonvertical wells (offset, deviated, or slanted), the contact is more severe and rapid wear takes place. Couplings are more easily replaced during shutdowns; it is very important to minimize wear to tubing since it is virtually impossible to replace. TRIBONIC 20, an iron-based alloy containing approximately 13% Mn, 5% Si, 5.5% Cr, and 5% Ni, was laboratory evaluated to determine whether or not it could solve the sucker rod coupling-production tubing wear problem. The alloy demonstrated outstanding wear resistance both to itself and in protecting type 1019 steel.

  7. Attachment for sucker rod depth adjustment

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, N.D.

    1992-04-07

    This patent describes a surface unit of an oil well pumping system, having a walking beam, a suspended carrier bar and an interconnected sucker rod assembly for stroking a reciprocating down-hole pump. It comprises a cross bar having a centrally located passage therein for the sucker rod assembly and adapted to be transversely supported by the carrier bar; a depth adjusting bar, having a centrally located passage therein for the sucker rod assembly, positioned at a selected fixed dimension above and parallel to the cross bar and adapted to operatively support the sucker rod assembly; clamping means for fixing the sucker rod relative to the depth adjusting bar; and hydraulically extendable means supportively connecting the depth adjusting bar to the cross bar on at least each side of the carrier bar for adjusting the selected fixed dimension and maintaining the adjustment during operation.

  8. Sucker rod coupling with protective coating

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, K.W.

    1990-03-06

    This patent describes a coupling adapted to be used in a string of oil well sucker rods. It comprises: a cylindrical metallic cuff having a radial face at each end and internal threads for its entire length, having a resinous coating about 0.040 inches thick bonded over all of the external surfaces, the resinous coating is fused onto the metal. This patent describes a second coupling adapted to be used in a string of oil well sucker rods. It comprises: a cylindrical metallic cuff having a radial face at each end and internal threads for its entire length, having a resinous coating bonded over all of the external surfaces, the resinous coating is fused onto the metal, a distal plug within one end of the cuff, the distal plug snugly fitting the threads of one end and covering all internal surfaces, and an eyelet plug on the other end. The eyelet plug extending within the other end and covering the threads of that end and all internal surfaces.

  9. Oil well sucker rod safety block

    SciTech Connect

    McDaniel, D. L.

    1984-11-20

    A fail-safe knock-off block for use during the repair or servicing of oil well surface pumping equipment involving a longitudinally slotted pipe capped at each end by top and bottom pipe segments which are held in place concentric to the slotted pipe by a resilient handle. An inner handle on the slotted pipe allows the concentric caps to be rotated axially from an open position to a closed position, thus encircling the polish rod. The weight of the sucker rod string on the end caps during use compresses the end caps and resilient handle thus locking the safety block such that it can neither open nor come off the well head.

  10. Analysis of sucker rod and sinkerbar failures

    SciTech Connect

    Waggoner, J.R.; Buchheit, R.G.

    1992-12-31

    This paper presents results from a study to analyze the performance and failures of the sucker rod/sinkerbar string used in beam-pumping operations through metallography, structural finite element analysis, and detailed failure data collection. Metallography demonstrated that microstructure of steel bar stock needs to be considered. Current specification based on tensile strength, or yield strength, may not be appropriate since failure occurs because of fatigue and not yielding. Finite element analysis of the threaded connection identifies stress and fatigue concentrations and quantitatively assesses the performance and failure of coupling designs under a variety of loading conditions. Subcritical fractures observed in the metallography are also suggested by the calculated stress distribution in the threaded coupling. Failure data illustrates both magnitude and frequency of the failures, as well as categorizing the suspected cause of failure. This failure information alone can reduce failures by indicating specific problem areas. These results are expected to yield improved choice of metal bar stock, thread design, and make-up practices which can reduce sucker rod failures.

  11. Analysis of sucker rod and sinkerbar failures

    SciTech Connect

    Waggoner, J.R.; Buchheit, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents results from a study to analyze the performance and failures of the sucker rod/sinkerbar string used in beam-pumping operations through metallography, structural finite element analysis, and detailed failure data collection. Metallography demonstrated that microstructure of steel bar stock needs to be considered. Current specification based on tensile strength, or yield strength, may not be appropriate since failure occurs because of fatigue and not yielding. Finite element analysis of the threaded connection identifies stress and fatigue concentrations and quantitatively assesses the performance and failure of coupling designs under a variety of loading conditions. Subcritical fractures observed in the metallography are also suggested by the calculated stress distribution in the threaded coupling. Failure data illustrates both magnitude and frequency of the failures, as well as categorizing the suspected cause of failure. This failure information alone can reduce failures by indicating specific problem areas. These results are expected to yield improved choice of metal bar stock, thread design, and make-up practices which can reduce sucker rod failures.

  12. Who makes API sucker rods and couplings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-03-01

    This guide identifies manufacturers qualified to produce API sucker rods and related equipment, lists chemical and mechanical properties of the various types of rods and provides dimensional characteristics. In addition, similar information is given for non-API rods such as fiberglass and aluminum.

  13. Tests pinpoint sucker-rod failures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Elshawesh; A. Elhoud; E. Elagdel

    1997-01-01

    A detailed metallurgical examination of a 7\\/8-inch and a 1-inch sucker rod revealed corrosion fatigue had caused their failure. The 7 to 8-inch rod had failed after a few months of service while the 1-inch rod failed after 1 year. Both rods had been used in a sweet-oil environment. Both rods failed by corrosion fatigue because of repeated loads during

  14. Sucker rod makers offer a selection

    SciTech Connect

    Savage, D.

    1983-11-01

    In their ongoing effort to produce better, more cost-effective sucker rods, manufacturers have selected one of three materials - fiberglass, aluminum, and steel - that they feel best suits the production system function of the rods, which is to connect the downhole pump to the pumpjack on the surface. Characteristics of each are described.

  15. System analysis for sucker rod pumping

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Z.; Doty, D.R.

    1986-01-01

    Pumping free gas in an oil well can significantly decrease the efficiency of a sucker rod pumping installation. Pump placement depth and the use of a down hole gas-liquid separator (gas anchor) found to be significant variables in improving the overall efficiency. A procedure is presented which shows when and by how much the use of a gas anchor improves the efficiency of a sucker rod pumping system. It was found that at lower pump intake pressures the gas anchor usually improves efficiency, while at higher pump intake pressures the use of a gas anchor will produce no positive effect. Also, it was found at elevating the pump to the highest position which still allows for proper pump loading can significantly reduce the operating costs for a sucker rod pumping installation. Finally, a procedure is presented for directly calculating pump volumetric efficiency as well as the required volumetric pump displacement rate.

  16. System analysis for sucker-rod pumping

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Z.; Doty, D.R.

    1989-05-01

    Pumping free gas in an oil well can significantly decrease the efficiency of a sucker-rod-pumping installation. Pump placement depth and use of a downhole gas/liquid separator (gas anchor) were found to be significant variables in improving the overall efficiency. A procedure is presented that shows when and to what degree the use of a gas anchor improves the efficiency of a sucker-rod pumping system. It was found that at lower pump intake pressures, the gas anchor usually improves efficiency, but at higher pump intake pressures, use of a gas anchor produces no positive effect. Also, elevating the pump to the highest position that still allows proper pump loading was found to reduce the operating costs of a sucker-rod-pumping installation significantly. Finally, a procedure is presented to calculate directly the pump volumetric efficiency and required volumetric pump displacement rate.

  17. Program optimizes sucker-rod pumping mode

    SciTech Connect

    Takacs, G. (Technical Univ. of Miskolc, Miskolc (HU))

    1990-10-01

    Direct energy costs for sucker-rod pumping can be optimized by selecting the right pump size, stroke length, and pumping speed for the required liquid production rate. Calculation procedures for a computer program are developed for optimizing the design of conventional pumping units.

  18. Stop sucker rod failures to save money

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, K.H.

    1981-07-01

    This study presents examples of frequent and common sucker rod failures, explains how failures occur, presents methods to recognize these failures, and discusses changes in conditions that cause failure. From early identification, corrective measures can be taken to prevent their recurrence, reducing downtime and lost production.

  19. Method of making class D sucker rods

    SciTech Connect

    Woodings, R. T.

    1984-12-04

    It has been found that API Class D sucker rods can be made inexpensively from low-alloy, low-cost steel by following a suitable induction-normalizing process and using a suitable steel to which there has been added 0.07 to 0.15 percent of vanadium.

  20. End fitting for oil well sucker rods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1984-01-01

    An end fitting for a sucker rod for oil wells is described with the end fitting having a chamber portion extending inwardly from one end thereof and an externally threaded portion at its other end. The chamber portion is defined by a plurality of spaced-apart annular ridges which define frusto-conical shaped cavities therebetween. The end fitting also has a bore

  1. 1984 tubing and sucker rod tables

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The first section of this handy reference lists companies that produce API tubing and couplings, giving specifications for pipe in sizes from 3/4 to 41/2 in. Also listed and illustrated are special tubing joints, identified by manufacturer Additional tables provide details on API sucker rods, including manufacturers, mechanical and chemical properties, dimensions and make-up recommendations. Similar data are presented for non-API rods.

  2. Device to relieve sucker rod torque below ground level in a petroleum well

    SciTech Connect

    Dysarz, E.D.

    1987-12-22

    An apparatus is described for use in a sucker rod string having a polished rod for relieving torque below the polished rod and inside of a well while the sucker rod string is moving up and down inside of the well, comprising: a body, the body that is suitably fastened to the lower end of the polished rod; at least one set of rollers that are suitably mounted within the body by axles, the rollers with a diameter greater than the width of the body; a lower swivel, and a guide. The guide is a tube that is square in section and is set vertically within the well.

  3. Oil well sucker rod shock absorber

    SciTech Connect

    Knox, F.B.

    1986-02-18

    An oil well sucker rod shock absorber is described which consists of: an outer cylindrical casing defined by a cylindrical wall and having a removable upper plug and lower plug disposed respectively at upper and lower extremities of the casing. The upper plug has an axial bore and the lower plug defines a closed lower end and has an upwardly facing top surface. The plunger rod is connected to the sucker rod and is slidably disposed in the bore of the upper plug. A piston within the cylindrical casing is coupled to the plunger rod and has a downwardly facing bottom surface. Biasing means have a maximum vertical length disposed vertically within the casing and extending between the downwardly facing surface of the piston and the upwardly facing surface of the lower plug means at all times. This allows vertical reciprocal translation of the plunger rod and the piston within the cylindrical casing downwardly against the biasing means. Apertures are disposed through the cylindrical casing along the entire length thereof opposite the length of the biasing means, allowing downhole fluid pressure to be applied to the piston within the cylindrical casing via the apertures to be added to the force of the biasing means, without causing a fluid lock within the cylinder. Slap and wear of the sucker rod resulting therefrom are reduced and damage prevented.

  4. Fluid Dynamics in Sucker Rod Pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Cutler, R.P.; Mansure, A.J.

    1999-01-14

    Sucker rod pumps are installed in approximately 90% of all oil wells in the U.S. Although they have been widely used for decades, there are many issues regarding the fluid dynamics of the pump that have not been fully investigated. A project was conducted at Sandia National Laboratories to develop unimproved understanding of the fluid dynamics inside a sucker rod pump. A mathematical flow model was developed to predict pressures in any pump component or an entire pump under single-phase fluid and pumping conditions. Laboratory flow tests were conducted on instrumented individual pump components and on a complete pump to verify and refine the model. The mathematical model was then converted to a Visual Basic program to allow easy input of fluid, geometry and pump parameters and to generate output plots. Examples of issues affecting pump performance investigated with the model include the effects of viscosity, surface roughness, valve design details, plunger and valve pressure differentials, and pumping rate.

  5. Tests pinpoint sucker-rod failures

    SciTech Connect

    Elshawesh, F.; Elhoud, A.; Elagdel, E. [Petroleum Research Center, Tripoli (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya)

    1997-05-26

    A detailed metallurgical examination of a 7/8-inch and a 1-inch sucker rod revealed corrosion fatigue had caused their failure. The 7 to 8-inch rod had failed after a few months of service while the 1-inch rod failed after 1 year. Both rods had been used in a sweet-oil environment. Both rods failed by corrosion fatigue because of repeated loads during operations. Pitting because of the presence of chloride ions and carbon dioxide was initiated on the rod surface, which in turn acted as a crack origin from which the fatigue crack initiated and propagated during operations. The pitting was on the external surface. These pits were large and penetrated through the rod cross-section. Fatigue cracking is initiated at the bottom of the pit where high stress concentration is expected and propagated because the rods were subjected to the alternating stresses during operation. The extent of the fatigue crack varied in the two examined rods because of the difference in the rod heat treatment and microstructure. The paper discusses fatigue failure, the visual examination, macroscopic and microscopic examinations, rod properties, and future operations.

  6. Fluid Dynamics in Sucker Rod Pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Cutler, Robert P.; Mansure, Arthur J.

    1999-06-01

    Sucker rod pumps are installed in approximately 90% of all oil wells in the U.S. Although they have been widely used for decades, there are many issues regarding the fluid dynamics of the pump that have not been filly investigated. A project was conducted at Sandia National Laboratories to develop an improved understanding of the fluid dynamics inside a sucker rod pump. A mathematical flow model was developed to predict pressures in any pump component or an entire pump under single-phase fluid and pumping conditions. Laboratory flow tests were conducted on instrumented individual pump components and on a complete pump to verifi and refine the model. The mathematical model was then converted to a Visual Basic program to allow easy input of fluid, geometry and pump parameters and to generate output plots. Examples of issues affecting pump performance investigated with the model include the effects of viscosity, surface roughness, valve design details, plunger and valve pressure differentials, and pumping rate.

  7. End fitting for oil well sucker rods

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, C.P.

    1984-02-07

    An end fitting for a sucker rod for oil wells is described with the end fitting having a chamber portion extending inwardly from one end thereof and an externally threaded portion at its other end. The chamber portion is defined by a plurality of spaced-apart annular ridges which define frusto-conical shaped cavities therebetween. The end fitting also has a bore extending inwardly thereinto from its other end which communicates with the inner end of the chamber portion. A valve is mounted in the end fitting and has a valve stem positioned in the bore and a valve head positioned at the inner end of the chamber portion. The chamber portion is adapted to receive a glass reinforced resin bonded cylindrical rod which is maintained therein by a two-part epoxy resin which surrounds the rod and is received in the cavities to form epoxy wedges bonded to the rod. The outer end of the bore is provided with internal threads which threadably receive a screw therein which engages the end of the valve stem so that longitudinal force may be applied to the valve thereby transmitting longitudinal force to the end of the rod.

  8. Composite models for combined rod and fluid dynamics in sucker-rod pumping well systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lekia, S.D.L.

    1989-01-01

    This study presents the derivation and the numerical solution of composite models in which both the rod string and the fluid dynamics are coupled so as to accurately account for the effects of viscous friction in sucker-rod pumped wells. A viscous damped hyperbolic first order partial differential equation is coupled to the time derivative of Hooke's law to model the rod string motion and Navier Stokes equations are used to model the fluid dynamics in the rod-tubing annulus. A set of four equations comprise the composite model from which four sub-models for different flow scenarios are considered. The equations are solved numerically by a shock capturing algorithm known as the MacCormack Explicit Scheme which is a two-step predictor-corrector scheme and is second order accuracy in time and space. Five example problems covering various pump setting depths, fluid properties and surface pumping unit kinematics are presented to study the effects of certain important variables. From the analyses of the results of these example problems it is concluded that (1) while the effects of fluid dynamics may appear masked in shallow to medium depth sucker-rod pumped wells, they can not be ignored in deeper wells where large discrepancies occur in the prediction of system parameters, (2) the load range decreases moderately as viscosity increases and the predicted polished rod horsepower does not change significantly over the range of viscosities studied in shallow to medium depth sucker-rod pumped wells, (3) the presence of small quantities of the gas phase in the fluid column reduces system peak torque and precipitate the need for smaller counterbalance weights and (4) the influence of two-phase gas-liquid flow in the rod-tubing annulus on system design parameters declines with increasing pump setting depth. The results are compared against other design models appearing in the literature.

  9. Guide for well pump sucker rod

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.A.; Heinonen, R.L.

    1986-12-30

    This patent describes a well pump sucker rod guide comprising: a substantially cylindrical elastic body having a longitudinal bore along an axis conincident with the longitudinal axis of the body; the body having a transverse mounting slot extending from a side of the body into the body intersecting the bore and dividing the body into opposite end portions; the body having two longitudinal mounting slots; each of the end portions of the body having one of the longitudinal mounting slots opening through a side of the body into the longitudinal bore and opening at one end into the transverse mounting slot and at the other end thereof through the adjacent end of the body; the longitudinal mounting slots being aligned radially in the same directions as the transverse slot; one of the longitudinal mounting slots opening through one side of the body and the other of the longitudinal mounting slots opening through the opposite side of the body; each of the mounting slots being defined by side guide surface walls sloping radially in converging relation toward the longitudinal bore and sloping longitudinally in converging relation away from the transverse mounting slot and toward the end of the body through which each of the respective longitudinal mounting slots open.

  10. Simulation of thermal-well sucker-rod pumping

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, A. (Alberta Oil Sands Technology and Research Authority (CA)); Sudol, T.A. (Alberta Research Council (CA))

    1992-05-01

    A major problem experienced in pumping thermal wells is low volumetric efficiencies resulting from steam and noncondensable gas interference. This paper examines the results of physical simulations performed on a full-scale sucker-rod pump test facility and numerical simulations that used an equation of state (EOS) to predict theoretical volumetric pump efficiencies.

  11. Mechanical performance of fiberglass laminates for sucker rod applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gauchel, J.V.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a program designed to evaluate the tensile, shear, and tensile/tensile fatigue performance versus temperature of typical FRP pultruded laminates used in sucker rods. The predictability of performance and its sensitivity to process conditions will also be discussed.

  12. Calculator program aids sucker-rod systems design and optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Engineer, R.; Davis, C.; Knight, R.

    1983-08-01

    Given a few basic well parameters, the engineer may follow the step-by-step procedure for programming the design of sucker rod pumping systems for oil wells deeper than 2,000 ft using the HP-41 CV hand calculator.

  13. Stuffing box for a sucker rod pump assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.B.

    1987-03-03

    A stuffing box is described for use with a sucker rod pump assembly for a producing well including a polish rod at the upper end of the sucker rods, comprising a tubular housing for mounting on the wellhead of a producing well through which the polish rod reciprocates. Two longitudinally spaced packing assemblies are located in the tubular housing in sealing engagement with the polish rod and the housing to provide an annular chamber for a lubricating fluid to surround the polish rod. The box also comprises a lubricating fluid reservoir mounted on the tubular housing and surrounding the portion of the housing in which the annular chamber is located, upper and lower ports in the housing adjacent the upper and lower ends of the chamber connecting the annular chamber with the lubricating fluid reservoir, the housing being imperforate between the ports, and a removable annular spacer located in the annular chamber between the packing assemblies to hold the packing assemblies spaced apart. The spacer has upper and lower ports adjacent the upper and lower end of the chamber and is in substantially the same plane as the upper and lower ports in the housing.

  14. An Improved Finite-Difference Calculation of Downhole Dynamometer Cards for Sucker-Rod Pumps

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. A. Everitt; J. W. Jennings

    1992-01-01

    Sucker-rod pumping is the most widely used means of artificial lift. About 85% to 90% of all producing wells in the U.S. are rod-pumped. Thus, a reliable method of analyzing these pumping system is a necessity. For many years, the surface dynamometer has been used to analyze sucker-rod systems. Interpretation of actual pump conditions from surface dynamometer cards is often

  15. Wear resistant rod guide

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, K.W.

    1991-12-03

    This paper describes a sucker rod guide. It comprises: a series of sucker rods connected end to end forming a sucker rod string, the sucker rod string extending down into a tubing string of a producing oil well from a pump jack located on the surface of the ground above the tubing string to a pump located at a bottom end of the tubing string, the pump forces produced fluid collected at the bottom end of the tubing string up to the ground's surface, the produced fluid occupies a space between the rod string and the tubing string through which the fluid is channeled from the bottom end of the tubing string to the ground's surface, the pump jack raises and lowers the rod string in the fluid being pumped up the tubing string while the fluid bathes the rod string within the tubing string, wherein the improvement comprises the following structure in combination with the above.

  16. NodalB{copyright}: A unique program for optimum production of sucker rod pumping oil wells

    SciTech Connect

    Guirados, C.D.; Ercolino, J.M.; Sandoval, J.L. [and others

    1995-12-31

    Sucker rod pumping is the oldest artificial lift method used in production of oil wells. This method is usually designed and analyzed with the assistance of programs based on simplified models, such as the API RP 11L, or with a wave equation simulator. In many cases, however, a technique that permits consideration of the inflow and outflow performance of the well is a more efficient way to design and analyze an oil well. This technique, referred to as Total Analysis or System Analysis (SA), has been successfully applied to flowing and artificially lifted wells. This paper presents a computer program developed by Intevep S.A., called NodalB{copyright}, created to perform the SA of sucker rod pumping wells. NodalB{copyright}`s unique characteristics make it a competitive program in today`s market of design and optimization software. This program allows consideration of the inflow performance of the reservoir depending on the drilling scheme, either vertical or horizontal, and determination of the sensitivity of the rod pumping system to its most relevant parameters, such as: pumping speed and stroke, pump diameter, gas oil ratio, gas separation efficiency, tubing diameter, pump depth, rod string design, oil viscosity, injected diluent (diesel, kerosene, etc.) ratio, water cut, reservoir pressure, productivity index, and different production schemes (i.e. production through the tubing or through the casing-tubing annulus). These features show the power of this program as a predictive tool. NodalB{copyright} is specially applicable to design, optimization and troubleshooting of heavy and viscous oil wells, taking into account the viscosity effects in the rod pumping system.

  17. An approach to the optimum design of sucker-rod pumping systems

    SciTech Connect

    Han, D.; Wiggins, M.L.; Menzie, D.E.

    1995-12-31

    Sucker-rod pumping system design is often a trial and error process. Many simplifying assumptions are used which may not be consistent with the well conditions. This paper presents a new methodology for the optimum design of pumping unit systems. In this approach, plunger diameter, polished rod stroke length, pumping speed and pump intake pressure are chosen as basic design variables. Production rate and rod string taper are determined by an iteration algorithm which systematically couples well inflow performance and vertical flow effects into the design process. Polished rod load, peak gear box torque, polished rod horse power and counterbalance effect are also determined at the end of the iteration calculation. Different design objective functions can be used to rate the pumping modes. Thus, the optimum design of pumping unit systems becomes a matter of solving for the combination of the four basic design variables which maximize or minimize an objective function within the limitations of available equipment by a mathematical programming method.

  18. Method of installing a reinforced thermosetting resin sucker rod assembly composed of pultruded arcuate sections

    SciTech Connect

    Zion, E.M.

    1984-06-05

    Pultruded reinforced thermosetting resin arcuate sections are wound respectively on spools, the spools are transported to a well site, and the arcuate sections are unwound from the spools and assembled into a sucker rod.

  19. Adapting the sucker rod pump to your well's requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-04-01

    Devices must be incorporated in sucker rod pumps to keep an insert pump or the standing valve of a tubing pump in their working positions, yet permit their retrieval. Pump holddowns or anchors may be either cup type or mechanical; normally they are located either at the tip or the bottom of the pump. Most common in wells of approx. 6000 ft and shallower is the 3-cup holddown utilizing cups approx. 30 to 40 thousandths of an inch larger than the I.D. of their seating nipple. The hydrostatic head on the cups does most of the work. Should it be necessary to pull the anchored pump, its holddown cups function like swab cups within the restricted I.D. of the seating nipple. The pump barrel becomes a plunger in the tubing. Until the holddown cups emerge from the seating nipple into the larger tubing I.D., the pulling unit must lift, not only the rods and pump, but also all the fluid in the tubing. In deep wells, the preference is for mechanical holddowns, which release in response to a predetermined pull so that no lifting of the fluid column is involved in unseating the pump.

  20. A heirarchy of pattern recognition algorithms for the diagnosis of sucker rod pumped wells 

    E-print Network

    Houang, Anne-Benedicte

    1992-01-01

    A HIERARCHY OF PATTERN RECOGNITION ALGORITHMS FOR THE DIAGNOSIS OF SUCKER ROD PUMPED WELLS A Thesis by ANNE-BENEDICTE HOUANG Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1992 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering A HIERARCHY OF PATTERN RECOGNITION ALGORITHMS FOR THE DIAGNOSIS OF SUCKER ROD PUMPED WELLS A Thesis by ANNE-BENEDICTE HOUANG Approved as to style and content by...

  1. An improved finite difference calculation of downhole dynamometer cards for sucker rod pumps 

    E-print Network

    Everitt, Thomas Aaron

    1987-01-01

    AN IMPROVED FINITE DIFFERENCE CALCULATION OF DOWNHOLE DYNAMOMETER CARDS FOR SUCKER ROD PUMPS A Thesis by THOMAS AARON EVERITT Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1987 Maj or Subj ect: Petroleum Engineering AN IMPROVED FINITE DIFFERENCE CALCULATION OF DOWNHOLE DYNAMOMETER CARDS FOR SUCKER ROD PUMPS A Thesis by THOMAS AARON EVERITT Approved as to style and content by: James W. nin...

  2. Improving the reliability of guiding mechanisms in values of sucker-rod well pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Sotnik, V.I.; Rustamov, E.M.; Stepanova, I.S.

    1984-09-01

    This article reports on research conducted at the Azerbaijan Scientific-Research and Projects Institute for Petroleum to develop new types of valve-guiding mechanisms for sucker-rod well pumps which have high resistance to hydroabrasive and corrosive/mechanical wear and the required strength for the given load conditions. A new type of ball valve with an elastic guiding mechanism was developed for NSV1-32 and NSV1-43 sucker-rod well pumps. The new type of guiding mechanism can be made by modern high-production techniques of cold stamping which considerably reduces technological expenses compared to investment casting. Comparative tests were conducted with guiding mechanisms of elastic and rigid types (cups made for standard valves and cups of similar design with thicker ribs). The results of field tests of sucker-rod well pumps with elastic guiding mechanisms showed that they have high operating strength and wear resistance.

  3. Using a microcomputer to perform design calculations for a sucker rod pumping system

    SciTech Connect

    Parcupile, J.C.; Nicol, T.H.

    1985-03-01

    Sucker rod computations are both tedious and time consuming. Each time a pumping parameter is changed, such as rod designation, pumping speed, the calculation must be repeated. Three programs to handle these calculations have been written for the Hewlett Packard HP 87 XM microcomputer. The first program is a dynamic analysis program for either an API Class I or Class III pump. The second program performs the detailed calculations in accordance with Ref. 1 and prints a form that is essentially the same as the form No. 11L-1 of Ref. 1. The third program performs the ''RP 11L calculation'' a number of rod designations printing out: total rod weight, pump displacement, peak polish rod load, minimum polish rod load, peak torque, polish rod horsepower, maximum stress, and the ratio of daily production to polish rod horsepower for each API rod number in the range of API rod numbers being considered.

  4. Development of a new model for predicting sucker-rod pumping system performance

    E-print Network

    Garcia, Julian Perez

    1988-01-01

    . , Texas A & M University; Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. J. W, Jennings I submit for your approval a new mathematical model for predicting rod pumping performance. The model is based on the numerical solution of the one-dimensional damped wave... Systems, " Journal of Petroleum Technolo . (July 1963) 769-778; Transactions, AIME, 228. 3. Schafer, D. J. : "An Investigation of Analytical and Numerical Sucker Rod Pumping Mathematical Models, " MS Thesis, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX...

  5. A coupled rod and fluid dynamic model for predicting the behavior of sucker-rod pumping systems. Part 2: Parametric study and demonstration of model capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Lekia, S.D. (Unocal Production and Development Technology, Brea, CA (United States)); Evans, R.D. (Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States))

    1995-02-01

    Equations for predicting the behavior of sucker-rod pumping systems including the coupled dynamic effects of rod and fluid motion and kinematics of the surface pumping unit which were presented in Part 1 of this two-part paper series. These equations are used together with complementary sucker-rod system predictive formulas for parametric studies in this paper. Example problems are used to investigate the effects of well and fluid parameters on sucker-rod design parameters and the results are compared against calculations using the API Bulletin 11L3.

  6. Finite element analysis of sucker rod couplings with guidelines for improving fatigue life

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, E.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Engineering and Structural Mechanics Div.

    1997-09-01

    The response of a variety of sucker rod couplings to an applied axial load was simulated using axisymmetric finite element models. The calculations investigated three sucker rod sizes and various combinations of the slimhole, Spiralock, and Flexbar modifications to the coupling. In addition, the effect of various make-ups (assembly tightness) on the performance of coupling was investigated. An axial load was applied to the sucker rod ranging from {minus}5 ksi to 40 ksi, encompassing three load cycles identified on a modified Goodman diagram as acceptable for indefinite service life of the sucker rods. The simulations of the various coupling geometries and make-ups were evaluated with respect to how well they accomplish the two primary objectives of preloading threaded couplings: (1) to lock the threaded coupling together so that it will not loosen and eventually uncouple, and (2) to improve the fatigue resistance of the threaded connection by reducing the stress amplitude in the coupling when subjected to cyclic loading. Perhaps the most significant finding in this study was the characterization of the coupling parameters which affect two stress measures. The mean hydrostatic stress, which determines the permissible effective alternating stress, is a function of the coupling make-up. Whereas, the alternating effective stress is a function of the relative stiffnesses of the pin and box sections of the coupling and, as long as the coupling does not separate, is unaffected by the amount of circumferential displacement applied during make-up. The results of this study suggest approaches for improving the fatigue resistance of sucker rod couplings.

  7. An improved finite-difference calculation of downhole dynamometer cards for sucker-rod pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Everitt, T.A. (Chevron Oil Field Research Co. (US))

    1992-02-01

    Sucker-rod pumping is the most widely used means of artificial lift. About 85% to 90% of all producing wells in the U.S. are rod-pumped. Thus, a reliable method of analyzing these pumping system is a necessity. For many years, the surface dynamometer has been used to analyze sucker-rod systems. Interpretation of actual pump conditions from surface dynamometer cards is often difficult, if not impossible. Results obtained from surface cards are strictly qualitative and are dependent on the analyzer's expertise. The ideal analysis procedure would be to measure the actual pump conditions with a downhole dynamometer. However, this situation is not economically feasible. Therefore, an accurate method of calculating downhole pump cards form measured surface cards is needed. This paper presents a method for calculating these downhole cards that uses a finite-difference representation of the wave equation. First, a brief description of previous calculation techniques is given.

  8. A study of the methods for preventing rod-wear tubing leaks in sucker-rod pumping wells

    SciTech Connect

    McCaslin, K.P. (Sun E and P Co. (US))

    1988-11-01

    Because of the high cost associated with tubing replacement, rod-wear tubing leaks are one of the most costly types of subsurface failures on sucker-rod-pumped wells. While severe hole deviation is most often blamed for rod-wear tubing leaks, case studies show that most rod-wear leaks are caused by accelerated corrosion, which is the result of the removal of a protective corrosion scale from the inside of the tubing. For this reason, the key to eliminating rod-wear tubing leaks economically is correctly identifying the problem as either mechanical wear or corrosion wear and then implementing the appropriate corrective measures. Four case histories involving a total of 90 problem wells are presented to illustrate the methods used to differentiate between corrosion wear and mechanical wear. In these fields, tubing leaks were reduced by as much as 80% by proper identification of the cause of the leaks.

  9. Fluid inertia consideration in sucker rod pump diagnosis

    E-print Network

    Csaszar, Albert Bela

    1993-01-01

    petroleum assets. Diagnostic models have been developed to determine the working condition of down hole pumps in rod pump operations. Several methods have been used with good success to interpret surface measurements in order to diagnose and monitor pump...

  10. Power reduction by balancing sucker rod pumping unit with weight induced phase angle 

    E-print Network

    Noack, Ernest Alan

    1991-01-01

    -Chairman of Committee) J e . ennings Co-Chairman of Committee) Robert R. Berg (Member) W. D. Von Gonten ( ead of Department) August 1991 ABSTRACT Power Reduction by Balancing Sucker Rod Pumping Unit. with Weight Induced Phase Angle. (August 1991) Ernest. Alan.... , and Jennings, J. W. : Lifting Cost Reductions From Dynamic Balancing, " Thirty eighth Edition, Southwestern Petroleum Short Course, Lubbock, TX. , (April 1991), 324-337. 43 VITA Name: Ernest Alan Noack Born; August 21, 1959 Rockdale, Texas Permanent...

  11. Pump-off controllers improve sucker rod lift economics

    SciTech Connect

    Amezcua, J.D.

    1982-02-01

    A controversal issue in the production of reservoir fluids is the application, field acceptance and reliability of automatic pump-off control (POC) devices on rod pumped wells. Three distinct types of pump-off controllers were selected for an extensive evaluation and results indicate that they offer an economical means of operating pumping wells and that field acceptance is attainable.

  12. Swivel bar apparatus for use with steel and other types of sucker rods

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, D.W.

    1986-07-01

    A sinker bar is described for use in a well bore with a plurality of sucker rods, the sinker bar comprising; an elongated body member of suitable diameter for introduction into the well bore or into tubular members lining the well bore, at least half of the body member having a substantially square cross section and each end of the body member having a substantially square cross section, and the ends of the body member having connection means for connecting the sinker bar to adjacent members in the well bore.

  13. A coupled rod and fluid dynamic model for predicting the behavior of sucker-rod pumping systems. Part 1: Model theory and solution methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Lekia, S.D.L. (Unocal Production and Development Technology, Brea, CA (United States)); Evans, R.D. (Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States))

    1995-02-01

    Equations are derived from first principles for predicting the behavior of sucker-rod pumping systems including the effects of rod and fluid dynamics, and kinematics of the surface pumping unit. Equations are also developed for both incompressible and slightly compressible fluid flow scenarios. The resulting composite rod and fluid dynamic model is solved using the MacCormack Explicit Numerical Scheme. Example problems used to validate this model are presented in a companion paper.

  14. Enhanced oil recovery. Operators fight corrosion with fiberglass injection pipe, casing and sucker rods

    SciTech Connect

    Wash, R.

    1983-04-01

    Operators have been fighting corrosion in the Permian Basin since the first oil (along with saltwater and H/sub 2/S gas) was produced. However, with ever- increasing attempts to squeeze more oil out of the ground through secondary and tertiary recovery methods, a new high in corrosive properties has been reached. It starts when waterflooding is introduced, and reaches its maximum effect when CO/sub 2/ is injected to recover tertiary oil. Corrosion strikes whenever contaminated water, H/sub 2/S or wet CO/sub 2/ is injected or produced. Even the dry CO/sub 2/ used in most tertiary injection projects becomes extremely corrosive when it contacts water or wet surfaces. Amoco is designing its injection and production facilities to be corrosion resistant. A major element in the fight against corrosion at Scurry Area Canyon Reef Operators Committee in the Kelly-Snyder field in Scurry County, Texas, has been the use of glass fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP) materials in high pressure surface injection pipes, saltwater gathering lines, casing liners and sucker rods. Amoco has used fiberglass flowlines for injection wells in waterflood operations as well as FRP sucker rods in producing wells.

  15. Production optimization of sucker rod pumping wells producing viscous oil in Boscan field, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Guirados, C.; Sandoval, J.; Rivas, O.; Troconis, H.

    1995-12-31

    Boscan field is located in the western coast of Maracaibo lake and is operated by Maraven S.A., affiliate of Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. It has 315 active wells, 252 of which are produced with sucker rod pumping. Other artificial lift methods currently applied in this field are hydraulic (piston) pumping (39 wells) and ESP (24 wells). This paper presents the results of the production optimization of two sucker rod pumping wells of Boscan field producing viscous oil. This optimization has been possible due to the development of a new production scheme and the application of system analysis in completion design. The new production scheme involves the utilization of a subsurface stuffing box assembly and a slotted housing, both designed and patented by Intevep S.A., affiliate of Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. The completion design method and software used in the optimization study were also developed by Intevep S.A. The new production scheme and design method proved to be effective in preventing the causes of the above mentioned problems, allowing the increase of oil production under better operating conditions.

  16. Performance analysis and field testing of a compact dual-piston, hydraulic sucker rod pumping unit

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, R.D.; Weaver, P.

    1985-03-01

    This paper presents a new compact dual acting piston hydraulic sucker rod pumping unit. Some unique advantages of the unit are presented. Stroke length and speed are readily changed by simple adjustments made to the hydraulics. Larger hydraulic piston cylinders are interchangable without having to replace the entire unit. Performance data is presented which compares the hydraulic unit against selected conventional rotary pumping units. A comparison is made between the hydraulic unit and conventional beam pumping units. Performance evaluations were made, based on numerous accoustical well sounding and dynamometer tests. Field dynagraph cards and their analysis are presented which provide a quantitative comparison of the hydraulic unit versus the beam unit. The results obtained verify that the hydraulic unit is superior to that of a conventional well pumping unit. Economic advantages and potential applications of the hydraulic unit are discussed.

  17. Method speeds tapered rod design for directional well

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Yongquan; Yuan Xiangzhong [Southwest Petroleum Inst., Nanchong, Sichuan (China)

    1995-10-16

    Determination of the minimum rod diameter, from statistical relationships, can decrease the time needed for designing a sucker-rod string for a directional well. A tapered rod string design for a directional well is more complex than for a vertical well. Based on the theory of a continuous beam column, the rod string design in a directional well is a trial and error method. The key to reduce the time to obtain a solution is to rapidly determine the minimum rod diameter. This can be done with a statistical relationship. The paper describes sucker rods, design method, basic analysis rod design, and minimum rod diameter.

  18. Relativistic elasticity of rigid rods and strings

    E-print Network

    Jose Natario

    2014-09-30

    We show that the equation of motion for a rigid one-dimensional elastic body (i.e. a rod or string whose speed of sound is equal to the speed of light) in a two-dimensional spacetime is simply the wave equation. We then solve this equation in a few simple examples: a rigid rod colliding with an unmovable wall, a rigid rod being pushed by a constant force, a rigid string whose endpoints are simultaneously set in motion (seen as a special case of Bell's spaceships paradox), and a radial rigid string that has partially crossed the event horizon of a Schwarzschild black hole while still being held from the outside.

  19. What`s new in artificial lift. Part 1 -- Sucker rod pumping, progressing cavity pumping, gas lift

    SciTech Connect

    Lea, J.F. [Amoco Production Research, Tulsa, OK (United States); Winkler, H.W. [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States)

    1997-03-01

    Breaking the overall concept of artificially lifting producing oil and gas wells--vs. relying solely on the wells` ability to flow at desired rates--into two parts, this article discusses the three techniques of sucker rod and progressing cavity (PC) pumping, and gas lift. In the major category of sucker rod pumping, nine recently introduced new techniques include: a new standing valve cage; three types of improved stuffing boxes; a pump inlet gas separator; a computerized well monitor; improved paraffin removal techniques; tubing lining with polyethylene; and a novel way to dispose of produced water in a gas well. Three advances for PC pumping include: introduction of a metallic stator, a flowrate controller to prevent pump damage and a locking tubing collar to prevent backoff. Two gas-lift innovations describe a wireline retrievable valve for coiled tubing and applications of CO{sub 2} gas lift in West Texas.

  20. An investigation of analytical and numerical sucker rod pumping mathematical models 

    E-print Network

    Schafer, Donald Joseph

    1987-01-01

    implements two comprehensive computer programs to study model development and usage, and the required model input parameters. The models are the Fourier series approach and the finite difference approach originally developed by Dr. S. G. Gibbs... length gridding, and system startup transients on simulation results. The Fourier series approxima- tion of measured dynamometer position and load curves was also studied. The range of data investigated included tapered rod string lengths from 3000...

  1. Sucker-rod pumping wells optimization using a spreadsheet database on Barrow Island, Western Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, W.; Mantecon, J.C.

    1994-12-31

    This paper demonstrates how a carefully designed spreadsheet database can be used as an innovative tool by production engineers and field operators to optimize the performance of sucker rod pumping (SRP) wells. The spreadsheet will be available on SPE EXCHANGE DISKS for potential users. Apart from individual well optimization, the database was designed to: (a) identify inefficient/low profit wells; (b) rank wells according to profit generation; (c) establish priorities to maximize revenue during production system upsets; (d) spot and fix problems early before large production losses occur; (e) evaluate and plan for long term production goals. The database provides the engineers with valuable clues indicating which wells should receive attention and where the potential for improved behavior or increased production lies. In addition, the database provides more accurate records and better retention of the information for designing or redesigning artificial lift equipment. Without the database, engineering analysis is very time consuming. The database has greatly enhanced communication between field and central office staff. When information is required, either in the field or in the central office, the database makes it easily available. Total revenue is also increased by communicating information on production priorities in a useful format.

  2. Rod coupling with mounted guide

    SciTech Connect

    Bair, M.L.

    1987-05-26

    This patent describes a well sucker rod string, in a well bore, the combination comprising: an axially elongated coupling section having threads at axially opposite ends thereof for coupling to and between successive sucker rods in the rod string, to transmit string loading. The section has first and second exposed surfaces adjacent an end of the section, and a third surface located between the first and second exposed surfaces; a rod guide consisting of molded plastic material extending about and bonded to the section third surface to project outwardly therefrom for engagement with the well bore during up and down stroking of the string; and one annular groove sunk in the section between the first and third surfaces, and another annular groove sunk in the section between the second and third surfaces. The depth of the one groove is less than about 15% of the radius of the section at the first surface.

  3. An improved finite difference calculation of downhole dynamometer cards for sucker rod pumps

    E-print Network

    Everitt, Thomas Aaron

    1987-01-01

    . 4 - Representation of Mathematical Model of the element. FN is the weight of the rod element, and FD is a viscous damping force. FD acts in the direction opposite the dis- placement of the rod element. From Newton's second law, gF - ma: 2 8 u g...F - FE - FT + FN - FD - m- at (2) Rewriting the mass, pAAx 144g . (3) where m is expressed in slugs instead of ibm. Now, substituting Equation (3) into Equation (2) gives: 2 pA 8 u Fg ? FT + FN - FD = Ax 144g 8 t (4) The tension forces, FT...

  4. Sucker rod pumping unit diagnostics using an expert system: and pattern recognition technique 

    E-print Network

    Derek, Henryk Jozef

    1988-01-01

    Knowledge Derived from the Expert 19 RULE DEVELOPMENT 34 Gas Interference 34 Gas Lock 40 Fluid Pound Seized Pump 44 48 Unanchored Tubing 51 TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued) Parted Rods Leaking Traveling Valve and/or Plunger Page 53 55 Leaking... for a gas interference problem and a leaking traveling valve and/or plunger problem. 31 12 Diagrammatic explanation of a gas interference problem. 35 13 Comparison of downhole cards for a gas interference problem and a fluid pound with unanchored...

  5. Drilling and production practices to mitigate sucker-rod/tubing-wear-related failures in directional wells

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, C.M.; Dunn, L.J.

    1993-11-01

    When the Lindberg heavy-oil field in Alberta was being developed in the early 1980's, frequent wear-related workovers were experienced in wells directionally drilled from central pads. Four operating companies collaborated with the Center for Frontier Engineering Research (CFER) in a field study organized to investigate these failures and determine techniques to extend production equipment life. The study included monitoring of rod and tubing wear and production parameters in more than 50 directional wells. Results showed that wellbore configuration had a strong and consistent effect on the wear rates of downhole equipment in directional wells. It also was demonstrated that local curvature variations, which led to wear-related failures in several wells, could be attributed to drilling and surveying practices. This paper offers guidelines on wellbore geometry design to optimize the performance of mechanical lift systems and presents field-based results on the effectiveness of wear-reducing equipment. It also makes recommendations regarding an operational program designed to minimized wear-related failures. The development and applications of a model capable of predicting rod loads and tubing wear in directional or horizontal wells also are described.

  6. Pumping unit geometry vs. prime mover speed variation as a method of torsional reduction in a beam and sucker rod pumping system

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, J.P.

    1983-11-01

    Theoretically, it is possible to effect a significant reduction in peak (in-balance) torque, with resulting cost savings, in a beam and sucker rod pumping system by two different methods. The first is the optimum selection of unit geometry; while the second employs a special, low inertia (or high slip) prime mover, permitting the unit's speed variation to more closely respond to the torsional load demand. Following is a discussion of a comparative study using the most advanced predictive technique, covering two field applications, which illuminates the relative effectiveness and economy of both methods on the torsional loading of beam pumping units, as well as the effect on other selected parameters.

  7. Investigation of the interrelationship of the production operations of oil-well sucker-rod pump sleeves

    SciTech Connect

    Kurbanov, A.K.

    1987-03-01

    The authors present a process and a method for its control for the production of oil well rod pump sleeves. The method makes use of regression equations and correlation functions as implemented in a Minsk-32 computer for an online control and inspection system and guarantees the accuracy of various machining operations such as honing and boring as well as nitridation in achieving specified tolerances and size and straightness requirements.

  8. Rod guide

    SciTech Connect

    Sable, D.E.

    1988-11-29

    This patent describes a rod guide assembly for a sucker rod longitudinally reciprocably movable in a well flow conductor comprising: a pair of longitudinally spaced upper and lower stops rigidly secured to a sucker rod; and a guide body movably mounted on the rod between the stops. The stops being spaced from each other a distance slightly greater than the length of the guide body, the upper stop engaging the guide body to move the guide body downwardly with the rod after an initial short downward movement of the rod after initiation of each downward movement of the rod and the lower stop engaging the guide body to move the second guide body upwardly with the rod after initial short upward movement of the rod after initiation of each upward movement of the rod during the longitudinal reciprocatory movement of the rod in a well flow conductor.

  9. Morphometric and Meristic Differences among Bluehead Suckers, Flannelmouth Suckers, White Suckers, and Their Hybrids

    E-print Network

    Parchman, Thomas L.

    Morphometric and Meristic Differences among Bluehead Suckers, Flannelmouth Suckers, White Suckers catostomids in the Colorado River basin. In Wyoming, hybridization with nonnative white suckers Catostomus commersonii is a particular concern in the conservation of native bluehead suckers C. discobolus

  10. Coefficient indicates if rod pump can unload water from gas well

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Yongquan; Wu Zhijun [Southwest Petroleum Inst., Nanchong (China)

    1995-09-11

    A sucker rod pump can efficiently dewater gas wells if the separation coefficient is sufficiently high. To determine this separation coefficient, it is not sufficient to only know if the system meets the criteria of rod string stress, horsehead load, and crankshaft torque. This paper reviews water production and gas locking problems at the Sichuan gas field and identifies the methodologies used to optimize the pumping efficiency of the area wells.

  11. Rod pumping optimization program reduces equipment failures and operating costs

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, L.F.; Svinos, J.G.

    1984-09-01

    In 1975, an intensive program was initiated by Gulf Oil EandP Central Area to reduce rod and tubing failure rates in the fields of the northwest corner of Crane County, Texas. Chronologically the program steps were: The replacement of rod strings experiencing three failures in three months. The replacement of tubing strings experiencing two failures in three months. The use of inspected, classified and plastic coated new or used grade ''C'' rods. The use of inspected, classified and internally plastic coated used or new tubing. The exclusive use of high working stress rods. The exclusive use of specially designed fiberglass sucker rod systems with improved sinker bar design. This program reduced rod failure rates from 16% to 4% and tubing failures from 7% to 3% per month. The lighter rod design reduced lifting costs by $2 MM per year on 880 active wells. Of the 219 wells equipped with fiberglass sucker rods in the last two years, there have been no operational body breaks or tubing leaks.

  12. Fiberglass rods present a new economic model to marginal well producers

    SciTech Connect

    Ghiselin, D.

    1996-08-01

    Fiberglass sucker rods are not new. They`ve been around for over a decade, and much has been done to improve upon their basic promise of high strength-to-weight ratio, corrosion resistance, and ease of handling. Likely the main, if not the only, reason they have not assumed prominence in the market is a resistance to change, particularly when a well becomes marginal. Operators feel that changing out their rod string is like betting on a tired horse. But there are several different scenarios involving fiberglass rods that make economic sense. To understand the argument for fiberglass rods, a case by case analysis is presented.

  13. Welded oil well pump rod

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, R.F.

    1986-06-10

    A friction welded multiple component oil well sucker rod is described which consists of an elongated cylindrical rod section and apposed coupling end portions welded to opposite ends of the rod section, the coupling end portions being of a nominal maximum diameter at least 1.5 times greater than the rod section and including means for connecting the sucker rod to an adjacent rod in end to end relationship. The couplings end portions each include an axial tapered portion between the connecting means and an end face adapted to be butted to the rod section, the coupling end portions being butted against the opposed end portions of the rod section during a friction welding operation to form a radially outward projecting bulge of displaced material on the rod section and the coupling end portions, respectively. A greater cross-sectional area is formed at the transition of the rod section to the coupling end portion to reduce the unit tensile stress on the sucker rod in the vicinity of the weld, wherein the displaced material is machined to form a tapered surface between the rod section and the axial tapered portion of the coupling end portion, the tapered surface having an angle of taper with respect to the longitudinal axis of the sucker rod less than the angle of taper of the coupling end portion.

  14. Low turbulence rod guide

    SciTech Connect

    Olinger, E.L.

    1992-05-26

    This patent describes an improved sucker rod guide for fixedly engaging around a sucker rod at a selected location along the length of the rod. It comprises a substantially cylindrical polymeric body having a longitudinal axis, a terminal end substantially continually tapered to the rod, a radially-inward surface and a radially outward surface, the radially inward surface of the body adjacent to and in tripping engagement with the rod when the rod guide is fixedly engaged around the rod; and a plurality of substantially continuous, longitudinal vanes carried by the body, a vane having a selected length and width, and longitudinally disposed along the radially outward surface of the guide body, extending radially away from the guide body and having a radially outside wear surface.

  15. Bonytail and Sucker in the

    E-print Network

    Bonytail and Razorback Sucker in the Colorado River Basin by Gordon Mueller National Biological Service Palll Marsh Arizolla State University Bonytail (Gila elegans) and razorback sucker (Xyrallchen is nearly extinct and the razorback sucker is becoming rare. The bonytail (Fig. 1) is a large, streamlined

  16. Shark Suckers: Remoras

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-07-28

    Sharks and many other large ocean animals have sucker-equipped fish called remoras sticking to them. What are the remoras doing? Do they harm the sharks? In this video, Jonathan goes on a mission to investigate remoras and their role in the food web. He even sticks one on himself. Please see the accompanying study guide for educational objectives and discussion points.

  17. Tubing rotator reduces tubing wear in rod pumped wells

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, M. (Mobil Exploration and Producing U.S., Midland, TX (United States)); Brown, C. (Bock Specialties Inc., Arlington, TX (United States))

    1994-04-04

    Tubing failures are both expensive and time-consuming. The most common failure results from rod cutting, or, erosion of the tubing ID because of continuous, reciprocating contact with the rod string. Installation of tubing rotators has decreased tubing failures in West Texas waterflood sucker-rod pumped wells. Pumping unit movement powers the rotator system, turning the tubing string at about 1 revolution/day. The rotator system has both surface and subsurface components. A reduction gear box attached to the walking beam converts the pumping unit's reciprocating strokes into rotary motion. A drive line transfers this rotary motion to a gear-driven suspension mandrel in the rotating tubing hanger. Near the bottom of the tubing string, a rotating tubing anchor/catcher allows the entire tubing string, including the tail pipe, seating nipple, and gas and mud anchor to rotate. The rotator hanger suspends the weight of the tubing string on a bearing system. One model of the hanger has a load capacity of 135,000 lb. A surface swivel allows rotation below the pumping tee so that the flow lines remain stationary. Also included in the string is a safety shear coupling to prevent over torquing the tubing.

  18. Oil well sucker rod coupling assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Klyne, A.A.

    1988-07-19

    A coupling assembly for connecting and centralizing a pair of elongate threaded-end members is described comprising: a pair of steel box couplings; a steel shaft connected to and extending between the couplings. The shaft having a tubular cylindrical sleeve of resilient abrasion-resistant non-metallic material bonded thereto and covering its surface between the couplings to form an integral unit therewith. Each such coupling having a ring of resilient abrasion-resistant non-metallic material bonded to and substantially fully covering the coupling's end face which is adjacent to the shaft; and a tubular externally fluted centralizer body mounted on the shaft and encircling the latter. The centralizer body extending radially outwardly beyond the longitudinal surfaces of the couplings. The centralizer body being formed of resilient abrasion-resistant non-metallic material.

  19. Suckers in headwater tributaries, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sweet, D.E.; Compton, R.I.; Hubert, W.A.

    2009-01-01

    Bluehead sucker (Catostomus discobolus) and flannelmouth sucker (Catostomus latipinnis) populations are declining throughout these species' native ranges in the Upper Colorado River Basin. In order to conserve these populations, an understanding of population dynamics is needed. Using age estimates from pectoral fin rays, we describe age and growth of these 2 species in 3 Wyoming stream systems: Muddy Creek, the Little Sandy River, and the Big Sandy River. Within all 3 stream systems, flannelmouth suckers were longer-lived than bluehead suckers, with maximum estimated ages of 16 years in Muddy Creek, 18 years in Little Sandy Creek, and 26 years in the Big Sandy River. Bluehead suckers had maximum estimated ages of 8 years in Muddy Creek, 10 years in Little Sandy Creek, and 18 years in the Big Sandy River. These maximum estimated ages were substantially greater than in other systems where scales have been used to estimate ages. Mean lengths at estimated ages were greater for flannelmouth suckers than for bluehead suckers in all 3 streams and generally less than values published from other systems where scales were used to estimate ages. Our observations of long life spans and slow growth rates among bluehead suckers and flannelmouth suckers were probably associated with our use of fin rays to estimate ages as well as the populations being in headwater tributaries near the northern edges of these species' ranges.

  20. The Morphology and Mechanics of Octopus Suckers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WILLIAM M. KIER; ANDREW M. SMITH

    1990-01-01

    The functional morphology of the suckers of several benthic octopus species was studied using histol- ogy and cinematography. The suckers consist of a tightly packed three-dimensional array of musculature. Three major muscle orientations are found in the wall of the sucker: ( 1) radial muscles that traverse the wall; (2) circu- lar muscles that are oriented circumferentially around the sucker,

  1. 21 CFR 870.4420 - Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy return sucker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy return sucker. 870.4420 Section 870.4420...Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy return sucker. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy return sucker is a device that consists of...

  2. 21 CFR 870.4420 - Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy return sucker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy return sucker. 870.4420 Section 870.4420...Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy return sucker. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy return sucker is a device that consists of...

  3. 21 CFR 870.4420 - Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy return sucker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy return sucker. 870.4420 Section 870.4420...Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy return sucker. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy return sucker is a device that consists of...

  4. 21 CFR 870.4420 - Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy return sucker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy return sucker. 870.4420 Section 870.4420...Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy return sucker. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy return sucker is a device that consists of...

  5. 21 CFR 870.4420 - Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy return sucker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy return sucker. 870.4420 Section 870.4420...Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy return sucker. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy return sucker is a device that consists of...

  6. Rod guide/paraffin scraper

    SciTech Connect

    Mabry, J.F.

    1991-02-26

    This patent describes improvement in a rod guide and paraffin scraper. It comprises: a body including longitudinal ribs spaced radially and extending out from the body; having two identical halves with the body surrounding a bore to accept a sucker rod, and each of the identical halves having a locking and tightening feature using a tongue and groove concept for interfitting the halves together over the sucker rod. This improvement comprises a rod guide and paraffin scraper with two identical halves comprising; a cylindrical central body including, at each end, three longitudinal ribs radially spaced to form a triad leaving three flow channels, at each end of the body, of essentially the same size and spacing as the ribs; and an angular wedge with opposingly ramped sides at the inside end of each of the ribs for scraping and directing material into the flow channels; and a set of triangular shaped tongues that interfit with a set of triangular shaped grooves for tightening the identical halves together and over the sucker rod; and a pair of cone-shaped male locks at one end of the identical half to mate with a pair of cone-shaped female locks at the opposite end of the other identical half.

  7. STRING

    E-print Network

    Samson, Peter

    1967-09-01

    This document describes the STRING programming language which has been implemented on the MAC Artificial Group's PDP-6 computer. In the STRING system, all objects--constants, variables, functions and programs--are ...

  8. Well tool

    SciTech Connect

    Sable, D.E.

    1992-06-09

    This patent describes a stabilizer rod conductible in a sucker rod string to constitute the bottom end portion of a rod sting and connect it to a reciprocable member of a well pump, the sucker rod string having sucker rods whose elongate shanks are provided.

  9. Morphological and genetic structuring in the Utah Lake sucker complex.

    PubMed

    Cole, D D; Mock, K E; Cardall, B L; Crowl, T A

    2008-12-01

    Population decline in the federally endangered June sucker (Chasmistes liorus), a lakesucker unique to Utah Lake, Utah, has been attributed in part to hybridization with the more widespread Utah sucker (Catostomus ardens). As a group, suckers in Utah Lake exhibit considerable external morphological variation. Meristic and morphological ambiguities, presumably the result of hybridization, create a continuum of intermediate forms between Chasmistes and Catostomus extremes and prevent definitive identification to species. Here we describe and evaluate the morphological and genetic variation in suckers in Utah Lake by comparing a morphological analysis with amplified fragment length polymorphism and microsatellite analyses. Suckers were morphologically differentiated using mouth characters associated with different feeding strategies: planktivory (June sucker) and benthivory (Utah sucker). Although we found no genetic evidence for a deep divergence between June and Utah morphs, significant, but slight population structuring accompanied the substantial morphological variation. Bayesian model-based genetic clustering analyses detected two sucker populations in Utah Lake; however, these clusters were not strongly concordant with morphological groupings or between marker systems. The suckers in Utah Lake present an interesting dilemma regarding conservation: should one conserve (breed and stock) a subset of the morphotypic variation in the Utah Lake sucker complex, focusing on the endangered June sucker morphotype, or should one conserve both June sucker and Utah sucker morphotypes in this complex, possibly maximizing evolutionary potential? We explore this question in the context of current genetic and morphological variation in the Utah Lake sucker complex as well as historical information on this complex and other lakesuckers. PMID:19067800

  10. Fluid inertia consideration in sucker rod pump diagnosis 

    E-print Network

    Csaszar, Albert Bela

    1993-01-01

    artificial lift in the U.S.A. It has been reported numerous times in the literature to exceed 85% of non-flowing well's lift systems. The efficient maintenance and operation of these wells is essential for them to remain ...

  11. A Dynamic Investigation of Sucker-Rod Pumping

    E-print Network

    Knapp, Roy M.

    1969-01-01

    , E L L , 4 , L X , E 1 1 . 4 ) 1 6 0 K O U M T S 0 6 1 I F ( I Q P ) 9 6 , 2 6 , 9 6 1 6 2 2 8 0 0 2 6 ] » L T N _ _ __ 1 6 3 2 6 P U N C H 2 7 , I , U N E W ( I \\ L O I 2 7 F O R M A T ! 1 5 X , 7 H U N E W < , I 3 , 6 H ) s , F 9 , 4 ) 16.1 P... T = T + OT-LT 1 3 0 0 '5 7 I A 1, N : - 4 U 2 L N C I) _a U O U N C IJ 1 '3 9 7 UOI_N( I ) 3 U N E U ( I ) I F { T H T A - 8 T M T A ) 7 0 1 * 7 0 1 » 1 0 0 100 C O N T I N U E P R I N T 9 , N P S T , 9 F O R M A T { 16) 2 0.i. IF (_N E_N N - 1 ) 1 2...

  12. Field-wide program improves sucker rod pumping efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    DeFoe, P.R.

    1981-08-01

    A discussion is presented of a three year old project in which equipment is checked to assure proper design and operation is paying off with substantial savings in maintenance costs. Also, the resulting increase in downhole pump life keeps wells on stream for longer periods. 5 refs.

  13. Predation on lake whitefish eggs by longnose suckers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nester, Robert T.; Poe, Thomas P.

    1984-01-01

    In November 1981, we observed intense predation on lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) eggs by longnose suckers (Catostomus catostomus) on lake whitefish spawning grounds in northwestern Lake Huron. Since longnose suckers commonly frequent the same habitat used by spawning lake whitefish, there exists the potential for high losses of eggs due to sucker predation.

  14. Distribution and Habitat Associations of Radio-Tagged Adult Lost River Suckers and Shortnose Suckers in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nolan P. Banish; Barbara J. Adams; Rip S. Shively; Michael M. Mazur; David A. Beauchamp; Tamara M. Wood

    2009-01-01

    Radiotelemetry was used to investigate the summer distribution and diel habitat associations of endangered adult Lost River suckers Deltistes luxatus and shortnose suckers Chasmistes brevirostris in northern Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon. From 2002 to 2004, Lost River and shortnose suckers were tracked by boat, and water depth and water quality were measured at each fish location. A series of water

  15. SiteSucker 1.6.3

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    It may happen that some Internet aficionados may want to download entire websites for easy access sometime in the future, or if they have to go offline for a period of time. SiteSucker 1.6.3 may be able to help, as the application has the ability to copy any site's web pages, images, backgrounds, movies, and other files to a local hard drive. This version of SiteSucker is compatible with all systems running Mac OS X and higher.

  16. Demographic analysis of Lost River sucker and shortnose sucker populations in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Janney, E.C.; Shively, R.S.; Hayes, B.S.; Barry, P.M.; Perkins, D.

    2008-01-01

    We used 13 years (1995-2007) of capture-mark-recapture data to assess population dynamics of endangered Lost River suckers Deltistes luxatus and shortnose suckers Chasmistes brevirostris in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon. The Cormack-Jolly-Seber method was used to estimate survival, and information theoretic modeling was used to assess variation due to time, gender, species, and spawning subpopulations. Length data were used to detect multiple year-class failures and events of high recruitment into adult spawning populations. Average annual survival probability was 0.88 for Lost River suckers and 0.76 for shortnose suckers. Mean life span estimates based on these survival rates indicated that Lost River suckers survived long enough on average to attempt reproduction eight times, whereas shortnose suckers only survived to spawn three to four times. Shortnose sucker survival was not only poor in years of fish kills (1995-1997) but also was low in years without fish kills (i.e., 2002 and 2004). This suggests that high mortality occurs in some years but is not necessarily associated with fish kills. Annual survival probabilities were not only different between the two species but also differed between two spawning subpopulations of Lost River suckers. Length composition data indicated that recruitment into spawning populations only occurred intermittently. Populations of both species transitioned from primarily old individuals with little size diversity and consistently poor recruitment in the late 1980s and early 1990s to mostly small, recruit-sized fish by the late 1990s. A better understanding of the factors influencing adult survival and recruitment into spawning populations is needed. Monitoring these vital parameters will provide a quantitative means to evaluate population status and assess the effectiveness of conservation and recovery efforts.

  17. STATUS OF WILD RAZORBACK SUCKER IN THE GREEN RIVER BASIN, UTAH AND COLORADO, DETERMINED FROM BASINWIDE MONITORING AND

    E-print Network

    STATUS OF WILD RAZORBACK SUCKER IN THE GREEN RIVER BASIN, UTAH AND COLORADO, DETERMINED FROM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Razorback sucker distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Razorback sucker distribution

  18. 29 CFR 1919.81 - Examination of bulk cargo loading or discharging spouts or suckers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...cargo loading or discharging spouts or suckers. 1919.81 Section 1919.81...cargo loading or discharging spouts or suckers. (a) Those portions of bulk cargo loading or discharging spouts or suckers which extend over vessels,...

  19. 29 CFR 1919.81 - Examination of bulk cargo loading or discharging spouts or suckers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...cargo loading or discharging spouts or suckers. 1919.81 Section 1919.81...cargo loading or discharging spouts or suckers. (a) Those portions of bulk cargo loading or discharging spouts or suckers which extend over vessels,...

  20. 29 CFR 1919.81 - Examination of bulk cargo loading or discharging spouts or suckers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...cargo loading or discharging spouts or suckers. 1919.81 Section 1919.81...cargo loading or discharging spouts or suckers. (a) Those portions of bulk cargo loading or discharging spouts or suckers which extend over vessels,...

  1. 29 CFR 1919.81 - Examination of bulk cargo loading or discharging spouts or suckers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...cargo loading or discharging spouts or suckers. 1919.81 Section 1919.81...cargo loading or discharging spouts or suckers. (a) Those portions of bulk cargo loading or discharging spouts or suckers which extend over vessels,...

  2. 29 CFR 1919.81 - Examination of bulk cargo loading or discharging spouts or suckers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...cargo loading or discharging spouts or suckers. 1919.81 Section 1919.81...cargo loading or discharging spouts or suckers. (a) Those portions of bulk cargo loading or discharging spouts or suckers which extend over vessels,...

  3. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Longnose Sucker

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, Elizabeth A.

    1983-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop riverine and lacustrine habitat models for Longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus), a freshwater fish. The models are scaled to produce an index of habitat suitability between 0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1 (optimally suitable habitat) for freshwater areas of the continental United States. Habitat suitability indexes (HSI's) are designed for use with the habitat evaluation procedures developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  4. Physiological stress response of Mountain Whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni) and White Sucker (Catostomus

    E-print Network

    Hontela, Alice

    Physiological stress response of Mountain Whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni) and White Sucker of the Mountain Whitefish, (Prosopium williamsoni, a cold-water fish) and White Sucker (Catostomus commersoni

  5. Evaluation of Thermal Requirements for the Propagation and Recovery of June Suckers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Greg A. Kindschi; Matt Toner; William C. Fraser; M. Doug Routledge; Maureen Wilson; Yvette Converse

    2008-01-01

    Determining the optimal rearing temperature for the June sucker Chasmistes liorus has been identified as a key component necessary for the design of a new June sucker hatchery and for achieving the June Sucker Recovery Implementation Program supplementation goal of 350,000 fish of 20-cm length annually. A laboratory study was conducted to monitor the performance of June suckers reared at

  6. Rod Fractions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This problem allows students an opportunity to think about fraction comparisons and equivalencies in a different way using interactive rods. Students are given two different fraction rods of unknown lengths and the goal is to find out what fraction the shorter rod is of the longer rod. A Teacher's Notes page, hints, solution, and printable pages are provided.

  7. Rangewide molecular structuring in the Utah sucker (Catostomus ardens).

    PubMed

    Mock, K E; Evans, R P; Crawford, M; Cardall, B L; Janecke, S U; Miller, M P

    2006-07-01

    The Utah sucker (Catostomus ardens) is endemic to the Bonneville Basin and the upper Snake River drainage in western North America, and is thought to hybridize with the federally endangered June sucker (Chasmistes liorus mictus) in Utah Lake (Bonneville Basin). Here we describe the discovery of a major subdivision in Utah suckers (4.5% mitochondrial sequence divergence) between the ancient Snake River drainage and the Bonneville Basin. This boundary has not previously been recognized in Utah suckers based on morphologic variation, but has been recently described in two endemic cyprinids in the region. Populations in valleys east of the Wasatch Mountains in Utah clustered with the Snake River populations, suggesting that these valleys may have had an ancient hydrologic connection to the Snake River. We also found evidence of population isolation within the Bonneville Basin, corresponding to two Pleistocene sub-basins of the ancient Lake Bonneville. In contrast, we found no molecular evidence for deep divergence between Utah suckers and June suckers in Utah Lake or for a history of hybridization between divergent lineages in that population, although we recognize that demographic events may have obscured this signal. These findings suggest that the morphological differences between Utah and June suckers in Utah Lake may be the result of strong, and relatively recent, ecological selection. In summary, morphological and molecular characters seem to vary along different axes in different portions of the range of this taxon, providing an interesting system for studying the contributions of neutral and adaptive variation to species diversity. PMID:16780436

  8. Hairy suckers: the surface microstructure and its possible functional significance in the Octopus vulgaris sucker.

    PubMed

    Tramacere, Francesca; Appel, Esther; Mazzolai, Barbara; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2014-01-01

    Octopus suckers are able to attach to any smooth surface and many rough surfaces. Here, we have discovered that the sucker surface, which has been hypothesised to be responsible for sealing the orifice during adhesion, is not smooth as previously assumed, but is completely covered by a dense network of hair-like micro-outgrowths. This finding is particularly important because it provides another demonstration of the role of hair-structures in a sealing mechanism in water, similar to that previously described for clingfish and abalones. Moreover, the discovered hairs may provide an additional adhesive mechanism that works in concert with suction. The discovered surface structures might be potentially interesting for biomimetics of novel technical suction cups with improved adhesion capabilities on non-smooth surfaces. PMID:24991492

  9. An analysis of sucker regeneration of trembling aspen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brent R. Frey; Victor J. Lieffers; Simon M. Landhäusser; Phil G. Comeau; Ken J. Greenway

    2003-01-01

    Aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) is a clonal tree species that commonly regenerates via root suckering after disturbance. This paper reviews the literature and identifies critical gaps in our understanding of the dynamics of aspen root suckering. The role of plant growth regulators (e.g., hormones, carbohydrates), environmental conditions (e.g., soil moisture, temperature, nutrient availability), overstory disturbance (e.g., harvesting, wildfire), ground distur

  10. Structure and mechanical properties of Octopus vulgaris suckers.

    PubMed

    Tramacere, Francesca; Kovalev, Alexander; Kleinteich, Thomas; Gorb, Stanislav N; Mazzolai, Barbara

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we investigate the morphology and mechanical features of Octopus vulgaris suckers, which may serve as a model for the creation of a new generation of attachment devices. Octopus suckers attach to a wide range of substrates in wet conditions, including rough surfaces. This amazing feature is made possible by the sucker's tissues, which are pliable to the substrate profile. Previous studies have described a peculiar internal structure that plays a fundamental role in the attachment and detachment processes of the sucker. In this work, we present a mechanical characterization of the tissues involved in the attachment process, which was performed using microindentation tests. We evaluated the elasticity modulus and viscoelastic parameters of the natural tissues (E ? 10 kPa) and measured the mechanical properties of some artificial materials that have previously been used in soft robotics. Such a comparison of biological prototypes and artificial material that mimics octopus-sucker tissue is crucial for the design of innovative artificial suction cups for use in wet environments. We conclude that the properties of the common elastomers that are generally used in soft robotics are quite dissimilar to the properties of biological suckers. PMID:24284894

  11. Rod Ratios

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NRICH team

    2013-01-01

    This activity builds student knowledge of ratios by using Cuisenaire rods to determine proportion and form equivalent ratios. Students may use the Cuisenaire rod environment embedded in this resource or they may use actual Cuisenaire rods depending on preference/ability/accessibility. This resource includes teacher notes, solution, and suggestions for questioning.

  12. Age-0 Lost River sucker and shortnose sucker nearshore habitat use in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon: A patch occupancy approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burdick, S.M.; Hendrixson, H.A.; VanderKooi, S.P.

    2008-01-01

    We examined habitat use by age-0 Lost River suckers Deltistes luxatus and shortnose suckers Chasmistes brevirostris over six substrate classes and in vegetated and nonvegetated areas of Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon. We used a patch occupancy approach to model the effect of physical habitat and water quality conditions on habitat use. Our models accounted for potential inconsistencies in detection probability among sites and sampling occasions as a result of differences in fishing gear types and techniques, habitat characteristics, and age-0 fish size and abundance. Detection probability was greatest during mid- to late summer, when water temperatures were highest and age-0 suckers were the largest. The proportion of sites used by age-0 suckers was inversely related to depth (range = 0.4-3.0 m), particularly during late summer. Age-0 suckers were more likely to use habitats containing small substrate (64 mm) and habitats with vegetation than those without vegetation. Relatively narrow ranges in dissolved oxygen, temperature, and pH prevented us from detecting effects of these water quality features on age-0 sucker nearshore habitat use.

  13. Habitat features affect bluehead sucker, flannelmouth sucker, and roundtail chub across a headwater tributary system in the Colorado River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bower, M.R.; Hubert, W.A.; Rahel, F.J.

    2008-01-01

    We assessed the distributions of three species of conservation concern, bluehead sucker (Catostomus discobolus), flannelmouth sucker (Catostomus latipinnis), and roundtail chub (Gila robusta), relative to habitat features across a headwater tributary system of the Colorado River basin in Wyoming. We studied the upper Muddy Creek watershed, Carbon County, portions of which experience intermittent flows during late summer and early fall. Fish and habitat were sampled from 57 randomly-selected, 200-m reaches and 416 habitat units (i.e., pools, glides, or runs) during the summer and fall of 2003 and 2004. Among reaches, the occurrences of adults and juveniles of all three species were positively related to mean wetted width and the surface area of pool habitat, and the occurrences of adult bluehead sucker and roundtail chub were also positively related to the abundance of rock substrate. Only juvenile bluehead sucker appeared to be negatively influenced by the proportion of a reach that was dry at the time of sampling. Within individual pools, glides, and runs, the occurrences of adults and juveniles of all three species were positively related to surface area and maximum depth, and occurrences of bluehead sucker and flannelmouth sucker juveniles were more probable in pools than in glides or runs.

  14. The morphology and adhesion mechanism of Octopus vulgaris suckers.

    PubMed

    Tramacere, Francesca; Beccai, Lucia; Kuba, Michael; Gozzi, Alessandro; Bifone, Angelo; Mazzolai, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    The octopus sucker represents a fascinating natural system performing adhesion on different terrains and substrates. Octopuses use suckers to anchor the body to the substrate or to grasp, investigate and manipulate objects, just to mention a few of their functions. Our study focuses on the morphology and adhesion mechanism of suckers in Octopus vulgaris. We use three different techniques (MRI, ultrasonography, and histology) and a 3D reconstruction approach to contribute knowledge on both morphology and functionality of the sucker structure in O. vulgaris. The results of our investigation are two-fold. First, we observe some morphological differences with respect to the octopus species previously studied (i.e., Octopus joubini, Octopus maya, Octopus bimaculoides/bimaculatus and Eledone cirrosa). In particular, in O. vulgaris the acetabular chamber, that is a hollow spherical cavity in other octopuses, shows an ellipsoidal cavity which roof has an important protuberance with surface roughness. Second, based on our findings, we propose a hypothesis on the sucker adhesion mechanism in O. vulgaris. We hypothesize that the process of continuous adhesion is achieved by sealing the orifice between acetabulum and infundibulum portions via the acetabular protuberance. We suggest this to take place while the infundibular part achieves a completely flat shape; and, by sustaining adhesion through preservation of sucker configuration. In vivo ultrasonographic recordings support our proposed adhesion model by showing the sucker in action. Such an underlying physical mechanism offers innovative potential cues for developing bioinspired artificial adhesion systems. Furthermore, we think that it could possibly represent a useful approach in order to investigate any potential difference in the ecology and in the performance of adhesion by different species. PMID:23750233

  15. Hazard assessment of selenium to endangered razorback suckers (Xyrauchen texanus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamilton, S.J.; Holley, K.M.; Buhl, K.J.

    2002-01-01

    A hazard assessment was conducted based on information derived from two reproduction studies conducted with endangered razorback suckers (Xyrauchen texanus) at three sites near Grand Junction, CO, USA. Selenium contamination of the upper and lower Colorado River basin has been documented in water, sediment, and biota in studies by US Department of the Interior agencies and academia. Concern has been raised that this selenium contamination may be adversely affecting endangered fish in the upper Colorado River basin. The reproduction studies with razorback suckers revealed that adults readily accumulated selenium in various tissues including eggs, and that 4.6 ??g/g of selenium in food organisms caused increased mortality of larvae. The selenium hazard assessment protocol resulted in a moderate hazard at the Horsethief site and high hazards at the Adobe Creek and North Pond sites. The selenium hazard assessment was considered conservative because an on-site toxicity test with razorback sucker larvae using 4.6 ??g/g selenium in zooplankton caused nearly complete mortality, in spite of the moderate hazard at Horsethief. Using the margin of uncertainty ratio also suggested a high hazard for effects on razorback suckers from selenium exposure. Both assessment approaches suggested that selenium in the upper Colorado River basin adversely affects the reproductive success of razorback suckers. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Threats, conservation strategies, and prognosis for suckers (Catostomidae) in North America: insights from regional

    E-print Network

    Cooke, Steven J.

    Review Threats, conservation strategies, and prognosis for suckers (Catostomidae) in North America factors have retarded sucker conservation including widespread inabilities of field workers to distinguish, and the misconception that suckers are tolerant of degraded conditions and are of little social or ecological value

  17. DEVELOPMENT, GROWTH, AND FOOD HABITS. OF THE WHITE SUCKER, CATOSTOMUS COMMERSONII LESUEUR

    E-print Network

    DEVELOPMENT, GROWTH, AND FOOD HABITS. OF THE WHITE SUCKER, CATOSTOMUS COMMERSONII LESUEUR· J1 and the feeding habits of the white sucker__ .. ..__.. , _ Review of the literature..__.. _ Food and food _ Summary _ Economic status of the sucker_~ _ Bibliography _ 163 165 167 168 168 170 172 173 173

  18. Comparison of White Sucker Age Estimates from Scales, Pectoral Fin Rays, and Otoliths

    E-print Network

    Comparison of White Sucker Age Estimates from Scales, Pectoral Fin Rays, and Otoliths RYAN M, South Dakota 57007, USA Abstract.--The ages of 229 white suckers Catostomus commersonii from six for estimating the age of white suckers, especially if mature individuals are present in the population

  19. Observations of Age-O Blue Sucker, Cycleptus elongatus Utilizing an Upper Missouri River Backwater

    E-print Network

    -NOTE- Observations of Age-O Blue Sucker, Cycleptus elongatus Utilizing an Upper Missouri River Backwater ABSTRACT The early life history of blue sucker (Cyc/eptus elongatus) is relatively unknown across corridors, the status ofblue sucker (Cyc/eptus elongatus) popUlations has become questionable. Several

  20. Ultrastructure of the ventral sucker of Schistosoma mansoni cercaria.

    PubMed

    Cousin, C; Dorsey, C; Kennedy, V; Ofori, K

    1995-02-01

    The ventral sucker of Schistosoma mansoni cercaria is a cup-shaped structure that is attached to the ventral surface of the organism by a homogeneous connective tissue that surrounds the acetabular glands. The sucker consists of an extensive complex of circular and longitudinal muscles. The longitudinal muscles extend outward in a radial pattern to form the cup of the organ. Intermingled with the muscles are nerve bundles and subtegumental cells (cytons). Dendritic nerve fibers connect to sensory papillae which are found on the surface tegument. Two types of sensory papillae are present: a commonly found unsheathed uniciliated papilla, and a previously unidentified tegumental encapsulated structure. Tegument with spines covers the ventral sucker, although the tegumental encapsulated sensory papilla lacks spines. PMID:7877183

  1. Beachfront nourishment decisions: the "sucker-free rider" problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2013-06-01

    Coastal communities and beachfront property owners often respond to erosion by adding sand to restore local beaches. However, beach nourishment alters shoreline dynamics, not only at the replenishment site but also in adjacent coastal regions, as natural coastal processes shift sand from one location to another. The result is that "sucker" communities pay to build up their beaches, but that replenishment also helps protect the coastlines of "free rider" communities. The sucker-free rider situation is an example of a classic problem studied in economics and game theory frameworks.

  2. Distribution of Rio Grande Cutthroat Trout and its co-occurrence with the Rio Grande Sucker and

    E-print Network

    Distribution of Rio Grande Cutthroat Trout and its co-occurrence with the Rio Grande Sucker and Rio-occurrence with two native Rio Grande sucker and Rio Grande Chub. The Rio Grande sucker IS as endangered by the state of Colorado. The native cutthroat was found to co-occur with the native sucker in Tusas Creek on the Carson

  3. Apparatus and method for automatically and periodically introducing a fluid into a producing oil well

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Soderberg

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a method for periodically and automatically introducing a fluid into a producing well through a tubing drain valve in a string of production tubing, comprising: disabling temporarily, automatically and at periodic time intervals a string of sucker rods disposed within the string of production tubing between a surface-located means for operating the sucker rods and a downhole

  4. A Proposed Standard Weight Equation for Blue Suckers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ben C. Neely; Martin J. Hamel; Kirk D. Steffensen

    2008-01-01

    Length and weight data were obtained from 46 populations of blue suckers Cycleptus elongatus (N = 8,811 fish) across the species' geographic distribution to develop a standard weight (Ws) equation. The Ws equation was derived using the empirical percentile technique applied to fish between 240 and 809 mm total length (TL). We calculated a quadratic model and a linear model

  5. Small nonnative fishes as predators of larval razorback suckers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carpenter, J.; Mueller, G.A.

    2008-01-01

    The razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus), an endangered big-river fish of the Colorado River basin, has demonstrated no sustainable recruitment in 4 decades, despite presence of spawning adults and larvae. Lack of adequate recruitment has been attributed to several factors, including predation by nonnative fishes. Substantial funding and effort has been expended on mechanically removing nonnative game fishes, typically targeting large predators. As a result, abundance of larger predators has declined, but the abundance of small nonnative fishes has increased in some areas. We conducted laboratory experiments to determine if small nonnative fishes would consume larval razorback suckers. We tested adults of three small species (threadfin shad, Dorosoma petenense; red shiner, Cyprinella lutrensis; fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas) and juveniles of six larger species (common carp, Cyprinus carpio; yellow bullhead, Ameiurus natalis; channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus; rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss; green sunfish, Lepomis cyanellus; bluegill, L. macrochirus). These nonnative fishes span a broad ecological range and are abundant within the historical range of the razorback sucker. All nine species fed on larval razorback suckers (total length, 9-16 mm). Our results suggest that predation by small nonnative fishes could be responsible for limiting recovery of this endangered species.

  6. Experience reveals ways to minimize failures in rod-pumped wells

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, J.C.; Bucaram, S.M. (ARCO Exploration and Production Technology, Plano, TX (United States)); Curfew, J.V. (ARCO Oil and Gas Co., Midland, TX (United States))

    1993-07-05

    From the experience gained over the past 25 years, ARCO Oil and Gas Co. has developed recommendations to reduce equipment failure in sucker-rod pumping installations. These recommendations include equipment selection and design, operating procedures, and chemical treatment. Equipment failure and its attendant costs are extremely important in today's petroleum industry. Because rod pumping is the predominant means of artificial lift, minimizing equipment failure in rod pumped wells can have a significant impact on profitability. This compilation of recommendations comes from field locations throughout the US and other countries. The goal is to address and solve problems on a well-by-well basis.

  7. Biological Notes on Blue Suckers in the Mississippi River

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Randall J. Rupprecht; Lawrence A. Jahn

    1980-01-01

    The total length (L, mm)-weight (W, g) relationship for 153 blue suckers (Cycleptus elongatus) collected from areas of swift current in Pool 20, Mississippi River, was log10W = ?6.69 + 3.59(log10L). Condition factors (K = 10W\\/L) were 0.74?1.1; they increased with increasing fish size, and varied among months (March-October) and between years (1977–1978). Fin rays had more discernible annuli than

  8. Feeding and fate of wild larval razorback sucker

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul C. Marsh; Daniel R. Langhorst

    1988-01-01

    Synopsis  The razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus) is disappearing throughout its native range in the Colorado River basin of western North America. The largest remaining\\u000a wild population in Lake Mohave, Arizona-Nevada, has shown no recruitment since the 1950s. Although annual spawning is successful\\u000a and larvae are seasonally abundant, no juveniles have been collected in recent decades. To evaluate the potential role of

  9. BIOLOGY OF THE LEECH ACTINOBDELLA INEQUIANNULATA MOORE, 1901 (ANNELIDA: HIRUDINEA: RHYNCHOBDELLIDA: GLOSSIPHONIIDAE), PARASITIC ON THE WHITE SUCKER, CATOSTOMUS COMMERSONI LACEPEDE, 1803 AND THE LONGNOSE SUCKER, CATOSTOMUS CATOSTOMUS FORSTER, 1773, IN ALGONQUIN PROVINCIAL PARK, ONTARIO, CANADA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Actinobdella inequiannulata was found on the white sucker, Catostomus commersoni, and less frequently on the longnose sucker, Catostomus catostomus, in Algonquin Provincial Park, Ontario, Canada. Catostomus commersoni parasitized with Act. inequiannulata was collected from July ...

  10. BIOLOGY AND OCCURRENCE OF THE LEECH, ACTINOBDELLA INEQUIANNULATA (ANNELIDA: HIRUDINEA: GLOSSIPHONIIDAE) PARASITIC ON TWO SPECIES OF SUCKERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Actinobdella inequiannulata was found on the white sucker, Catostomus commersoni, and less frequently on the longnose sucker, Catostomus catostomus, in Algonquin Provincial Park, Ontario, Canada. This study established the presence of only one species of leech, Actinobdela inequ...

  11. 78 FR 22556 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Recovery Plan for Lost River Sucker and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-16

    ...for spawning migrants when flows are low, making these populations very vulnerable to drought. Morphological and molecular genetics research indicate that hybridization occurs between shortnose sucker and Klamath largescale suckers throughout...

  12. An investigation of analytical and numerical sucker rod pumping mathematical models

    E-print Network

    Schafer, Donald Joseph

    1987-01-01

    coefficients, n. , required in the integra- oar' tion formulas is difficult to determine. The series expansions are convergent infinite sums which are truncated at n. . The optimum n. oar' oar is one which maintains accuracy without sacrificing computional... speed. Obviously, n. is a function of both the number of panels into which oar the integration is divided and the nature of the displacement and load curves. The former is determined by the measured data and the integra- tion technique. If the number...

  13. Sucker rod pumping unit diagnostics using an expert system: and pattern recognition technique

    E-print Network

    Derek, Henryk Jozef

    1988-01-01

    be a costly and time consuming operation. Frequently the wells are found in isolated locations that may be far from the expert capable of diagnosing the pumping unit's problems. With this consideration in mind, a prototype expert system has been... other rules in the knowledge base and the currently available facts. This mode of inference is said to be goal driven since the system uses only those rules which can help to resolve the currently examined rule's IF preconditions. Thus unnecessary use...

  14. Development of a new model for predicting sucker-rod pumping system performance 

    E-print Network

    Garcia, Julian Perez

    1988-01-01

    . dOdx = B[-UO/h - UOpxO - U]dx] + U]/h + 0 + 0]. j j xxj For i-l, the expansion is 3 L B 1 U . J 0 . Bhd ? ~ [UU/h ? 2U[/h + U2/h + 0) 0 J 0 xxj For i-2, the expansion is 3 L B 1 U. J 0 . 02d? = BIB UB/h - 2UB/h UB/hl . J= Oj 0xxj Finally...

  15. INTEGR. COMP. BIOL., 42:11461153 (2002) The Structure and Adhesive Mechanism of Octopus Suckers1

    E-print Network

    Meyers, Ron

    2002-01-01

    1146 INTEGR. COMP. BIOL., 42:1146­1153 (2002) The Structure and Adhesive Mechanism of Octopus College, Ithaca, New York 14850 SYNOPSIS. Octopus suckers consist of a tightly packed three. INTRODUCTION Octopuses use suckers for a remarkable variety of tasks including anchoring the body

  16. Changes in the proximate composition of juvenile white suckers following re-feeding after a prolonged fast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janice Bandeen; John F. Leatherland

    1997-01-01

    Cultured juvenile white suckers, Catostomus commersoni, are commonly held over winter without the provision of exogenous feed. This study examined the ability of suckers to recover from prolonged fasting, and the energy partitioning strategies employed during the re-feeding phase. In one trial, white suckers held, without exogenous feed, in commercial lake cages for a prolonged period were fed a semi-moist

  17. 75 FR 5279 - Sucker Creek Channel and Floodplain Restoration Project (Phase II), Rogue River-Siskiyou National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-02

    ...within a portion of the Sucker Creek watershed, located on private lands and lands...water quality in the upper Sucker Creek Watershed. The specific restoration goals associated...Service-managed lands within the Sucker Creek Watershed or from commercial sources. A team...

  18. Selenium impacts on razorback sucker, Colorado River, Colorado: I. Adults

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamilton, S.J.; Holley, K.M.; Buhl, K.J.; Bullard, F.A.; Weston, L.K.; McDonald, S.F.

    2005-01-01

    Adult razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus) were exposed to various selenium concentrations in ponds and isolated river channels of the Colorado River near Grand Junction, CO, to determine effects on their growth and residue accumulation over an 11-month period. Adults at Horsethief ponds were fed a commercial diet, whereas fish at Adobe Creek channel and North Pond foraged on natural food items. Selenium concentrations at Horsethief were 2.2 ??g/L in water, 0.1-1.4 ??g/g in sediment, and 2.3-3.1 ??g/g in food organisms (1.1 ??g/g in commercial fish food), at Adobe Creek were 3.8 ??g/L in water, 0.5-2.1 ??g/g in sediment, and 4-56 ??g/g in food organisms, and at North Pond were 9.5 ??g/L in water, 7-55 ??g/g in sediment, and 20-81 ??g/g in food organisms. The selenium concentrations in muscle plugs from adults at Adobe Creek (11.7 ??g/g, SD=0.4, n=6) and North Pond (16.6 ??g/g, SD=1.0, n=6) were greater than at Horsethief (4.5 ??g/g, SD=0.2, n=6). During a depuration period adults from Adobe Creek and North Pond lost 1-2% of their selenium burden in 32 days and 14-19% in 66 days. Selenium accumulated in razorback sucker above toxic thresholds reported in other studies, yet those residues were less than those reported in muscle plugs of 40% of wild razorback sucker caught in the Green River, Utah.

  19. Singing Rod

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning (McREL)

    2004-01-01

    How can a solid metal rod be made to emit a high-pitched squeal? This material is part of a series of hands-on science activities designed to arouse student interest. Here students investigate the resonance and acoustic properties that result from stroking a solid aluminum bar and causing it to resonate. The activity includes a description, a list of science process skills and complex reasoning strategies being used, and a compilation of applicable K-12 national science education standards. Also provided are content topics, a list of necessary supplies, instructions, and presentation techniques. The content of the activity is explained, and assessment suggestions are provided.

  20. Control rod cluster arrangement

    SciTech Connect

    Orr, W.L.; Doshi, P.K.; Mildrum, C.M.; Freeman, T.R.

    1987-02-10

    This patent describes a nuclear reactor including nuclear core which is cooled and moderated by light water, the nuclear core comprising a plurality of parallel arranged openings therethrough and interspersed among the fuel assemblies. A control rod cluster arrangement comprises load follow control rod cluster assemblies with each load follow control rod cluster assembly being adapted to slidingly fit within each of some of the fuel assemblies in the parallel arranged openings, the load follow control rod cluster assemblies each comprising a plurality of elongated parallel arranged rods attached to a single spider, and including a first group of rods and a second group of rods, the first group of rods and the second each consisting of a plurality of absorber rods. The first group of rods consist of absorber rods taken from the group consisting of B/sub 4/C, hafnium, or silver-indium-cadmium and the second group of rods consist of absorber rods each consisting of stainless steel, the first group of rods and the second group of rods each being integrally attached at all times to the single spider, the absorber rods of the second group of rods being dispersed throughout the control rod cluster assembly. The first group of rods have a first neutron capture cross section and the second group of rods have a second neutron capture cross section different from the first cross section.

  1. THE SOUTHWESTERNNATURALIST47(2) :182-186 JuNE 2002 DISTRIBUTION AND ABUNDANCE OF THE RIO GRANDE SUCKER IN

    E-print Network

    SUCKER IN THE CARSON AND SANTA FE NATIONAL FORESTS, NEW MEXICO BOB CALAMUSSO,*JOHN N. RINNE,AND PAUL RState University,Las Cruces,NM 88003-8003 (PRT) *Correspondent:RCalamus@nmsu.edu ABSTRACT-Rio Grande sucker-occurred with white sucker (Catostomuscommersoni).On the Santa Fe National Forest, Rio Grande sucker occupied 11

  2. Monitoring of Adult Lost River and Shortnose Suckers in Clear Lake Reservoir, California, 2008–2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hewitt, David A.; Hayes, Brian S.

    2013-01-01

    In collaboration with the Bureau of Reclamation, the U.S. Geological Survey began a consistent monitoring program for endangered Lost River suckers (Deltistes luxatus) and shortnose suckers (Chasmistes brevirostris) in Clear Lake Reservoir, California, in the fall of 2004. The program was intended to develop a more complete understanding of the Clear Lake Reservoir populations because they are important to the recovery efforts for these species. We report results from this ongoing program and include sampling efforts from fall 2008 to spring 2010. We summarize catches and passive integrated transponder (PIT) tagging efforts from trammel net sampling in fall 2008 and fall 2009, as well as detections of PIT-tagged suckers on remote antennas in the spawning tributary, Willow Creek, in spring 2009 and spring 2010. Trammel net sampling resulted in a relatively low catch of suckers in fall 2008 and a high catch of suckers in fall 2009. We attribute the high catch of suckers to low lake levels in 2009, which concentrated fish. As in previous years, shortnose suckers made up the vast majority of the sucker catch and recaptures of previously PIT-tagged suckers were relatively uncommon. Across the 2 years, we captured and tagged 389 new Lost River suckers and 2,874 new shortnose suckers. Since the program began, we have tagged a total of about 1,200 Lost River suckers and 5,900 shortnose suckers that can be detected on the remote antennas in Willow Creek. Detections of tagged suckers were low in both spring 2009 and spring 2010. The magnitude of the spawning migration was presumably small in both years because of low flows in Willow Creek; detections were similar to a previous low-flow year (spring 2007) and much lower than previous years with higher flows (spring 2006 and spring 2008). The size composition of fish captured in fall trammel net sampling over time suggests that the Lost River sucker population probably has decreased in abundance from what it was in the early 2000s. Shortnose suckers are smaller than Lost River suckers, and we are unable to infer any trend in abundance for shortnose suckers because it is impossible to separate recruitment of small fish from size selectivity of the trammel nets. Nonetheless, the substantial catch of small shortnose suckers in 2009, especially females, indicates that some new individuals recruited to the population. Problems with inferring status and population dynamics from size composition data can be overcome by a robust capture-recapture program that follows the histories of PIT-tagged individuals. Inferences from such a program are currently hindered by poor detection rates during spawning seasons with low flows in Willow Creek, which indicate that a key assumption of capture-recapture models is violated. We suggest that the most straightforward solution to this issue would be to collect detection data during the spawning season using remote PIT tag antennas in the strait between the west and east lobes of the lake.

  3. Demographics and 2008 Run Timing of Adult Lost River (Deltistes luxatus) and Shortnose (Chasmistes brevirostris) Suckers in Upper Klamath Lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Janney, Eric C.; Hayes, Brian S.; Hewitt, David A.; Barry, Patrick M.; Scott, Alta; Koller, Justin; Johnson, Mark; Blackwood, Greta

    2009-01-01

    We used capture-recapture data to assess population dynamics of endangered Lost River suckers (Deltistes luxatus) and shortnose suckers (Chasmistes brevirostris) in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon. The Cormack-Jolly-Seber method was used to estimate apparent survival probabilities, and a temporal symmetry model was used to estimate annual seniority probabilities. Information theoretic modeling was used to assess variation in parameter estimates due to time, gender, and species. In addition, length data were used to detect multiple year-class failures and events of high recruitment into adult spawning populations. Survival of adult Lost River and shortnose suckers varied substantially across years. Relatively high annual mortality was observed for the lakeshore-spawning Lost River sucker subpopulation in 2002 and for the river spawning subpopulation in 2001. Shortnose suckers experienced high mortality in 2001 and 2004. This indicates that high mortality events are not only species specific, but also are specific to subpopulations for Lost River suckers. Seniority probability estimates and length composition data indicate that recruitment of new individuals into adult sucker populations has been sparse. The overall fitness of Upper Klamath Lake sucker populations are of concern given the low observed survival in some years and the paucity of recent recruitment. During most years, estimates of survival probabilities were lower than seniority probabilities, indicating net losses in adult sucker population abundances. The evidence for decline was more marked for shortnose suckers than for Lost River suckers. Our data indicated that sucker survival for both species, but especially shortnose suckers, was sometimes low in years without any observed fish kills. This indicates that high mortality can occur over a protracted period, resulting in poor annual survival, but will not necessarily be observed in association with a fish kill. A better understanding of the factors influencing adult survival and recruitment into spawning populations is needed. Monitoring these vital parameters will provide a quantitative means to evaluate population status and assess the effectiveness of conservation and recovery efforts.

  4. Rod examination gauge

    SciTech Connect

    Bacvinskas, W.S.; Bayer, J.E.; Davis, W.W.; Fodor, G.; Kikta, T.J.; Matchett, R.L.; Nilsen, R.J.; Wilczynski, R.

    1991-12-31

    The present invention is directed to a semi-automatic rod examination gauge for performing a large number of exacting measurements on radioactive fuel rods. The rod examination gauge performs various measurements underwater with remote controlled machinery of high reliability. The rod examination gauge includes instruments and a closed circuit television camera for measuring fuel rod length, free hanging bow measurement, diameter measurement, oxide thickness measurement, cladding defect examination, rod ovality measurement, wear mark depth and volume measurement, as well as visual examination. A control system is provided including a programmable logic controller and a computer for providing a programmed sequence of operations for the rod examination and collection of data.

  5. CHANGES IN GENETIC DIVERSITY OF A WHITE SUCKER POPULATION FOLLOWING EXPERIMENTAL WHOLE-LAKE ACIDIFICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Despite great strides to reduce sulfur dioxide emissions over the last decade, acid precipitation remains a persistent threat to North American fish communities. A demographic analysis of white suckers in an experimentally acidified oligotrophic lake in northwest Ontario demonst...

  6. [The oral sucker muscles of six representatives of the order Paramphistomatida (Plathelminthes, Trematoda)].

    PubMed

    Burdakova, E N; Yastrebova, I V; Yastrebov, M V

    2015-01-01

    The spatial arrangement of muscles in the oral suckers of six trematode species belonging to five families of the order Paramphistomatida is described. The functional load and adaptive significance of different muscle groups in the suckers themselves and the associated structures--preoral lip and muscular cap--are discussed. Complete section series in three projections have been examined; this demonstrates the presence of previously unnoticed structures, namely, semicircular and diagonal muscles, regulating shape of the oral cavity, and short longitudinal muscles, acting as a sphincter, as well as localization of the largest internal muscles on the sucker lateral sides. It has been shown that the presence of internal longitudinal muscles suggests that the organs in question are closer to the oral suckers of other trematodes rather than to their pharynxes. PMID:26021156

  7. A new approach to the analysis of deviated rod-pumped wells

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, J.

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents the derivation and numerical solutions of a 3D dynamic model for analyzing the behavior of sucker-rod pumping installations in deviated wells. Using differential geometry and variational methods, the rod dynamics in deviated wells is presented by the set of six coupled differential equations with their boundary conditions. The paper describes the fundamental assumptions and simplifications which can be used in the numerical solution. A computer program based on the model is developed and applied to determine the downhole conditions and to predict the rod behavior in the deviated well. A number of wells are examined. Good agreement is shown by comparing the computed results with the field measurements.

  8. Coupled economic-coastline modeling with suckers and free riders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Zachary C.; McNamara, Dylan E.; Smith, Martin D.; Murray, A. Brad.; Gopalakrishnan, Sathya

    2013-06-01

    erosion is a natural trend along most sandy coastlines. Humans often respond to shoreline erosion with beach nourishment to maintain coastal property values. Locally extending the shoreline through nourishment alters alongshore sediment transport and changes shoreline dynamics in adjacent coastal regions. If left unmanaged, sandy coastlines can have spatially complex or simple patterns of erosion due to the relationship of large-scale morphology and the local wave climate. Using a numerical model that simulates spatially decentralized and locally optimal nourishment decisions characteristic of much of U.S. East Coast beach management, we find that human erosion intervention does not simply reflect the alongshore erosion pattern. Spatial interactions generate feedbacks in economic and physical variables that lead to widespread emergence of "free riders" and "suckers" with subsequent inequality in the alongshore distribution of property value. Along cuspate coastlines, such as those found along the U.S. Southeast Coast, these long-term property value differences span an order of magnitude. Results imply that spatially decentralized management of nourishment can lead to property values that are divorced from spatial erosion signals; this management approach is unlikely to be optimal.

  9. Selenium impacts on razorback sucker, Colorado: Colorado River: III. Larvae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamilton, S.J.; Holley, K.M.; Buhl, K.J.; Bullard, F.A.

    2005-01-01

    Razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus) larvae from adults exposed to selenium at three sites near Grand Junction, Colorado, for 9 months were used in a 30-day waterborne and dietary selenium study. Selenium concentrations in water averaged <1.6 ??g/L from 24-Road, 0.9 ??g/L from Horsethief, 5.5 ??g/L from Adobe Creek, and 10.7 ??g/L from the North Pond. Selenium in dietary items averaged 2.7 ??g/g in brine shrimp, 5.6 ??g/g in zooplankton from Horsethief east wetland, 20 ??g/g in zooplankton from Adobe Creek, and 39 ??g/g in zooplankton from North Pond. The lowest survival occurred in larvae fed zooplankton rather than brine shrimp. Survival of larvae at Adobe Creek and North Pond was lower in site water than in reference water. Survival of brood stock larvae was higher than Horsethief larvae even though they received the same water and dietary treatments. Arsenic concentrations in brine shrimp may have resulted in an antagonistic interaction with selenium and reduced adverse effects in larvae. Deformities in larvae from North Pond were similar to those reported for selenium-induced teratogenic deformities in other fish species. Selenium concentrations of ???4.6 ??g/g in food resulted in rapid mortality of larvae from Horsethief, Adobe Creek, and North Pond, and suggested that selenium toxicity in the Colorado River could limit recovery of this endangered fish.

  10. Selenium impacts on razorback sucker, Colorado River, Colorado: II. Eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamilton, S.J.; Holley, K.M.; Buhl, K.J.; Bullard, F.A.

    2005-01-01

    Effects on hatching and development of fertilized eggs in adult razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus) exposed to selenium in flooded bottomland sites near Grand Junction, Colorado, were determined. After 9 months exposure, fish were collected and induced to spawn and eggs collected for inorganic element analyses. A 9-day egg study was conducted with five spawns from Horsethief ponds, six spawns from Adobe Creek channel, and four spawns from North Pond using a reference water and site waters. Selenium concentrations in eggs were 6.5 ??g/g from Horsethief, 46 ??g/g from Adobe Creek, 38 ??g/g from North Pond, and 6.0 ??g/g from brood stock. Eggs from young adults had a smaller diameter and higher moisture content than brood stock. There were no differences among the four sources in viability, survival, hatch, hatchability, or mortality of deformed embryos or larvae. Adobe Creek larvae had more deformed embryos in eggs held in site water than held in reference water. There were significant negative correlations between selenium concentrations in adult muscle plugs and percent hatch, egg diameter, and deformities in embryos. Results from this study suggest that selenium contamination in parts of the upper basin of the Colorado River should be a major concern to recovery efforts for endangered fish.

  11. Biological Characteristics of the Blue Sucker in the James River and the Big Sioux River, South Dakota

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nathan M. Morey; Charles R. Berry Jr

    2003-01-01

    Little is known about the relative abundance and biology of the blue sucker (Cycleptus elongatus), a species that may be declining in some parts of its range. We described the age, growth, condition, length distribution, and habitat preference of the blue sucker in two South Dakota rivers. Specimens were collected from the James River (n=74) and Big Sioux River (n=28)

  12. Demographics and Chronology of a Spawning Aggregation of Blue Sucker (Cycleptus elongatus) in the Grand River, Missouri, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason C. Vokoun; Travis L. Guerrant; Charles F. Rabeni

    2003-01-01

    The blue sucker (Cycleptus elongatus) was sampled as individuals arrived, spawned, and departed from a spawning rime in the Grand River of northcentral Missouri, USA. The Grand River basin was not known to support blue sucker reproduction with few individuals ever recorded. The spawning site is unique in character for the lower river. Individuals began arriving in early April when

  13. Use of Constructed Side Channels of the Missouri River (Nebraska) by Age0 Blue Sucker (Cycleptus elongatus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brandon L. Eder

    2009-01-01

    The blue sucker (Cycleptus elongatus) is listed as threatened in the state of Nebraska, and little is known about its life history. Nebraska Game and Parks Commission monitoring crews collected 13 age-0 blue suckers in three constructed side channels of the Missouri River from 2006 to 2008. Eleven of the 13 fish were sampled in shallow areas (<0.6 m) associated

  14. Electron microscope observations of some peripheral synapses in the sensory pathway of the sucker of Octopus vulgaris

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Graziadei

    1965-01-01

    A synaptic axo-dendritic linkage is described between primary receptors lying in the epithelia of the sucker of Octopus and encapsulated nerve cells found near the rim of the sucker in the subepithelial connective tissue. These synapses are postulated to perform a drastic reduction of inputs between the primary receptors of the order of more than ten thousand and the subjacent

  15. Application and comparison of different turbulence models in the three-dimensional numerical simulation of non-contact swirl sucker

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qiong Wu; Qian Ye; GuoXiang Meng

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, k-? model, RNG k-? model and k-?ˆ model were used for non-contact swirl sucker to the three- dimensional numerical simulation. Block division technology was used for meshing non-contact swirl sucker, the part of vortex cup was meshed by unstructured grids and the part of gas film was meshed by structured girds. The pressure distribution, the lifting force

  16. Exposure to bleached kraft pulp mill effluent reduces the steroid biosynthetic capacity of white sucker ovarian follicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. E. McMaster; G. J. Van Der Kraak; K. R. Munkittrick

    1995-01-01

    White sucker exposed to bleached kraft mill effluent (BKME) show a number of reproductive alterations correlated to reduced circulating reproductive steroid levels. The purpose of this experiment was to examine the steroid biosynthetic capacity of white sucker ovarian follicles undergoing vitellogenesis to determine if reductions in steroid production contribute to the reduced circulating steroid levels found during this stage of

  17. THE EFFECT OF EXERCISE ON THE CARDIAC OUTPUT AND BLOOD FLOW DISTRIBUTION OF THE LARGESCALE SUCKER CATOSTOMUS MACROCHEILUS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ALAN S. KOLOK; R. MICHAEL SPOONER; ANTHONY P. FARRELL

    Summary Cardiac output (Q. ) and blood flow distribution were measured in adult largescale suckers at rest and while swimming. Cardiac output was directly measured using an ultrasonic flowprobe in f ish during the summer (16?C), fall (10?C) and winter (5?C). Largescale suckers were adept at holding station against a current without swimming and, when engaged in this behavior, they

  18. Milt characteristics, reproductive performance, and larval survival and development of white sucker exposed to bleached kraft mill effluent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. E. McMaster; C. B. Portt; K. R. Munkittrick; D. G. Dixon

    1992-01-01

    White sucker from a Lake Superior bay which receives bleached kraft mill effluent (BKME) show increased hepatic mixed-function oxygenase (MFO) activity, reduced plasma sex steroid levels, decreased egg and gonad size, a decrease in the occurrence of secondary sexual characteristics, and an increased age to maturation. This study evaluated the reproductive performance of that white sucker population relative to a

  19. Hydraulic well pumping apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, C.P.

    1987-03-03

    This patent describes a hydraulic powered well pumping apparatus for operation of a sucker rod well pump in a well borehole, the apparatus comprising: (a) an elongate polished rod having upper and lower ends, the rod being aligned above and adapted to connect to a string of sucker rods in a well borehole therebelow; (b) an adjustably positioned sleeve means aligned above and enclosing a portion of the polished rod and having a shorter length than the polished rod to enable the polished rod to extend above the sleeve means and below the sleeve means for connection to the string of sucker rods in the well borehole; (c) an axially hollow upstanding cylinder slideably receiving the sleeve means therethrough and enclosing a piston therein, the piston being: (1) moved on admitting hydraulic oil to the cylinder, and (2) joined to the sleeve means for moving the sleeve means and thereby moving the polished rod; (d) means for mounting the upstanding cylinder directly aligned with and above a casing at the top of a well adapted to have a sucker rod string positioned therein; (e) means for adjusting the stroke length imparted to the sucker rod string between minimum and maximum stroke lengths; and (f) means for adjusting the location of the sleeve means relative to the polished rod to vary the relative length of polished rod below the sleeve means and wherein a portion of the polished rod extends above the sleeve means dependent on the relative respective portions thereof.

  20. Unveiling the morphology of the acetabulum in octopus suckers and its role in attachment.

    PubMed

    Tramacere, Francesca; Pugno, Nicola M; Kuba, Michael J; Mazzolai, Barbara

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, the attachment mechanism of the octopus sucker has attracted the interest of scientists from different research areas, including biology, engineering, medicine and robotics. From a technological perspective, the main goal is to identify the underlying mechanisms involved in sucker attachment for use in the development of new generations of artificial devices and materials. Recently, the understanding of the morphology of the sucker has been significantly improved; however, the mechanisms that allow attachment remain largely unknown. In this work, we present new anatomical findings: specifically, a protuberance in the acetabular roof in five different octopus species; previously, this protuberance was identified by the authors in Octopus vulgaris. Moreover, we discuss the role of the protuberance and other anatomical structures in attachment with minimal energy consumption. PMID:25657834

  1. Factors affecting condition of flannelmouth suckers in the Colorado River, Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paukert, C.; Rogers, R.S.

    2004-01-01

    The impoundment of the Colorado River by Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona, in 1963 created a highly regulated environment in the Grand Canyon that altered the native fish populations, including the flannelmouth sucker Catostomus latipinnis. Flannelmouth suckers were sampled from 1991 to 2001 to determine seasonal, annual, and spatial trends in fish condition (i.e., relative weight [Wr]). Mean Wr peaked during the prespawn and spawning periods and was lowest in summer and fall, but it was never lower than 93. Condition was variable throughout the Grand Canyon but was typically greatest at intermediate distances from Glen Canyon Dam, possibly because of the increased number of warmwater tributaries in this reach. Flannelmouth sucker condition in September was positively correlated with Glen Canyon Dam discharge during summer (June-August); this result may be due to the larger euphotic zone and greater macroinvertebrate abundance observed during higher water flows. Increased dam discharge that stimulates river productivity may provide benefits for this native fish.

  2. Euclidean strings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John A. Ellis; Frank Ruskey; Joe Sawada; Jamie Simpson

    2003-01-01

    A string p = p0p1 ¢ ¢ ¢ pn?1 of non-negative integers is a Euclidean string if the string (p0 + 1)p1 ¢ ¢ ¢ (pn?1 ? 1) is rotationally equivalent (i.e., conjugate) to p. We show that Euclidean strings exist if and only if n and p0 + p1 + ¢ ¢ ¢ + pn?1 are relatively prime and

  3. String Vibrations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Davidhazy, Andrew

    This site, by Andrew Davidhazy at the Rochester Institute of Technology, describes how to make interesting and artistic photographs of a vibrating string. Davidhazy explains how the string is vibrated, how the string is lit, and even the exposure time and the effect it has on the resulting image. Four images of the vibrating string are included.

  4. Sperm quality assessments for endangered razorback suckers Xyrauchen Texanus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, Jill A.; Eilts, Bruce E.; Guitreau, Amy M.; Figiel, Chester R.; Draugelis-Dale, Rassa O.; Tiersch, Terrence R.

    2011-01-01

    Flow cytometry (FCM) and computer-assisted sperm motion analysis (CASA) methods were developed and validated for use with endangered razorback suckers Xyrauchen texanus collected (n=64) during the 2006 spawning season. Sperm motility could be activated within osmolality ranges noted during milt collections (here 167–343 mOsm/kg). We hypothesized that sperm quality of milt collected into isoosmotic (302 mOsm/kg) or hyperosmotic (500 mOsm/kg) Hanks' balanced salt solution would not differ. Pre-freeze viabilities were similar between osmolalities (79%±6 (S.E.M.) and 76%±7); however, post-thaw values were greater in hyperosmotic buffer (27%±3 and 12%±2; P=0.0065), as was mitochondrial membrane potential (33%±4 and 13%±2; P=0.0048). Visual estimates of pre-freeze motility correlated with total (r=0.7589; range 23–82%) and progressive motility (r=0.7449) by CASA and were associated with greater viability (r=0.5985; Pr=-0.83; P=0.0116) and mitochondrial function (r=-0.91; P=0.0016). By FCM-based assessments of DNA integrity, whereby increased fluorochrome binding indicated more fragmentation, higher levels were negatively correlated with count (r=-0.77; Pr=-0.66; P=0.0004). Fragmentation was higher in isotonic buffer (P=0.0234). To increase reproductive capacity of natural populations, the strategy and protocols developed can serve as a template for use with other imperiled fish species, biomonitoring, and genome banking.

  5. Test report for drill string seal pressure test

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, J.F.

    1996-02-06

    A basic question was asked concerning the drill string which is used in rotary Mode coring operations: ``...what is the volume leak rate loss in a drill rod string under varying condiditons of the joint boxes and pins being either dry or coated with lubricant...``. A Variation of this was to either have an o-ring installed or absent on the drill rod that was grooved on the pin. A series of tests were run with both the o-ring grooved Longyear drill rod and the plain pin end rod manufactured by Diamond Drill. Test results show that drill rod leakage of both types is lowered dramatically when thread lubricant is applied to the threaded joints and the joints made up tight. The Diamond Drill rod with no o-ring groove has virtually no leakage when used with thread lubricant and the joints are properly tightened.

  6. Fuel rod leak detector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1978-01-01

    A typical embodiment of the invention detects leaking fuel rods by means of a radiation detector that measures the concentration of xenon-133 (¹³³Xe) within each individual rod. A collimated detector that provides signals related to the energy of incident radiation is aligned with one of the ends of a fuel rod. A statistically significant sample of the gamma radiation (..gamma..-rays)

  7. Pull rod assembly

    DOEpatents

    Cioletti, O.C.

    1988-04-21

    A pull rod assembly comprising a pull rod having three peripheral grooves, a piston device including an adaptor ring and a seal ring, said piston device being mounted on the pull rod by a split ring retainer situated in one groove and extending into an interior groove in the adaptor and a resilient split ring retained in another groove and positioned to engage the piston device and to retain the seal on its adaptor.

  8. Development of a quantitative assay to measure expression of transforming growth factor ß (TGF-ß) in Lost River sucker (Deltistes luxatus) and shortnose sucker (Chasmistes brevirostris) and evaluation of potential pitfalls in use with field-collected samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robertson, Laura S.; Ottinger, Christopher A.; Burdick, Summer M.; VanderKooi, Scott P.

    2012-01-01

    The Nature Conservancy is in the process of restoring the Williamson River Delta in an attempt to recreate important juvenile habitat for the endangered shortnose sucker Chasmistes brevirostris and the endangered Lost River sucker Deltistes luxatus. Measurement of TGF-? mRNA expression level was one of the indicators chosen to evaluate juvenile sucker health during the restoration process. TGF-? mRNA expression level has been correlated with disease status in several laboratory studies and TGF-? mRNA expression level has been used as a species-specific indicator of immune status in field-based fish health assessments. We describe here the identification of TGF-? and a possible splice variant from shortnose sucker and from Lost River sucker. The performance of a quantitative RT-PCR assay to measure TGF-? mRNA expression level was evaluated in field-collected spleen and kidney tissue samples. The quality of extracted RNA was higher in tissues harvested in September compared to July and higher in tissues harvested at lower temperature compared to higher temperature. In addition, the expression level of both TGF-? and 18S as assessed by qRT-PCR was higher in samples with higher quality RNA. TGF-? mRNA expression was lower in kidney than in spleen in both Lost River sucker and shortnose sucker.

  9. Life History of the Bridgelip Sucker in the Central Columbia River

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dennis D. Dauble

    1980-01-01

    In the central Columbia River, southeastern Washington, bridgelip suckers (Catostomus columbianus) were common in deep water with strong currents during daylight and moved into slower shallow water at night. Mean calculated fork lengths (FL) in millimeters at annulus formation were age I, 63; II, 148; III, 224; IV, 291; V, 335; VI, 36I; VII, 387; VIII, 401; IX, 408. Back-calculated

  10. Life history of the bridgelip sucker in the central Columbia River

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DENNIS D. DAUBLE

    1980-01-01

    In the central Columbia River, southeastern Washington, bridgelip suckers (Catostomus columbianus) were common in deep water with strong currents during daylight and moved into slower shallow water at night. Mean calculated fork lengths (FL) in millimeters at annulus formation were age I, 63; II, 148; III, 224; IV, 291; V, 335; VI, 361; VII, 387; VIII, 401; IX, 408. Back

  11. Estimating Geographic Variation in Allometric Growth and Body Condition of Blue Suckers with Quantile Regression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian S. Cade; James W. Terrell; Ben C. Neely

    2011-01-01

    Increasing our understanding of how environmental factors affect fish body condition and improving its utility as a metric of aquatic system health require reliable estimates of spatial variation in condition (weight at length). We used three statistical approaches that varied in how they accounted for heterogeneity in allometric growth to estimate differences in body condition of blue suckers Cycleptus elongatus

  12. Segment Analysis of Sucker Brook: The Location of Sources of Pollution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph C. Makarewicz; Theodore W. Lewis; Stephen Lewandowski

    1999-01-01

    Sucker Brook is located in the northwest portion of the Canandaigua Lake watershed, Ontario County, New York (Figs. 1 and 2). The relatively large watershed encompasses 6.9 square miles and flows into Canandaigua Lake at the City of Canandaigua. The Canandaigua Lake Watershed Task Force with the assistance of the Ontario County Planning Department and the Soil and Water Conservation

  13. Electron microscopy of some primary receptors in the sucker of Octopus vulgaris

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Graziadei

    1964-01-01

    Summary Electron microscopic observations are reported concerning the structure of sensory cells found in great numbers in the sucker ofOctopus vulgaris. These primary receptors have a variable number of cilia, whose structure closely resembles those previously described in motile cilia of vertebrates as well as invertebrate animals. The possibility that the intraepithelial receptors may be chemo-sensitive rather than mechanoreceptors is

  14. First Food of Larval Yellow Perch, White Sucker, Bluegill, Emerald Shiner, and Rainbow Smelt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard E. Siefert

    1972-01-01

    Entire digestive tract contents from larval yellow perch [Perca flavescens (Mitchill)], white sucker [Catostomus commersoni (Lacepede)], bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus Rafinesque), emerald shiner (Notropis (atherinoides Rafinesque), and rainbow smelt [Osmerus mordax (Mitchill)], along with plankton samples taken concurrently with fish samples, were identified and counted. Food selection was calculated by use of Ivlev's electivity index. First food of yellow perch from

  15. Capture and Confinement Stress in White Sucker Exposed to Bleached Kraft Pulp Mill Effluent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Jardine; G. J. Van Der Kraak; K. R. Munkittrick

    1996-01-01

    This study evaluates the effects of handling and confinement stress and a 3-day recovery period on a number of biochemical parameters used to monitor exposure of fish to bleached kraft mill effluent (BKME). Plasma was collected at four times of the day from male and female white sucker subjected to four levels of handling stress during their spawning migration at

  16. Selenium in eggs and milt of razorback sucker ( Xyrauchen texanus ) in the middle Green River, Utah

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. J. Hamilton; B. Waddell

    1994-01-01

    Eggs from three female and milt from five male endangered razorback suckers (Xyrauchen texanus) were collected from the Razorback Bar (about 20 km upstream of Ashley Creek) in the Green River of northeastern Utah. Eggs, but not milt, had concentrations of selenium that were above the range of selenium concentrations in control fish from laboratory studies or reference fish from

  17. Terminology of the sucker-like organs of the scolex of trypanorhynch cestodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Malcolm K. Jones; Ian Beveridge; Ron A. Campbell; Harry W. Palm

    2004-01-01

    The literature associated with descriptions and definitions of the sucker-like attachment organs in trypanorhynchs, termed either bothria or bothridia, is reviewed. There are descriptions of 14 trypanorhynch species representing 10 families. In none of these trypanorhynchs was a membrane separating the attachment organ from the scolex parenchyma described, one of the definitions used to distinguish bothria from bothridia. Transmission electron

  18. Underwater attachment using hairs: the functioning of spatula and sucker setae from male diving beetles.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; Shih, Ming-Chih; Wu, Ming-Huang; Yang, En-Cheng; Chi, Kai-Jung

    2014-08-01

    Males of Dytiscinae beetles use specialized adhesive setae to adhere to female elytra during underwater courtship. This coevolution of male setae and female elytra has attracted much attention since Darwin. However, there has been little examination of their biomechanical functioning despite increasing knowledge on biofibrillar adhesion. Here, we report and compare, for the first time, the mechanisms of underwater attachment using two hair types, the primitive spatula and derived 'passive' sucker, found in male diving beetles. Results from interspecific scaling of protarsal palettes and adhesion by single seta suggest better performance in the later-evolved circular (sucker) setae. Spatula setae with a modified shallow sucker and channels use the combined mechanisms of suction and viscous resistance for adhesion. Velocity-dependent adhesion provides sufficient control for resisting the female's erratic movements while also detaching easily through slow peeling. Direction-dependent shear resistance helps reorient setae surfaces into a preferred direction for effective adhesion. Seta deformation using different mechanisms for circular and spatula setae reduces the force that is transmitted to the contact interface. A softer spring in spatula setae explains their adhesion at lower preloads and assists in complete substrate contact. Attachment mechanisms revealed in adhesive setae with modified spatula and passive suckers provide insights for bioinspired designs of underwater attachment devices. PMID:24920108

  19. Rod sequence advisor

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, R.M. (Syracuse Univ., NY (United States)); Lu, Yi (Kaman Sciences Corp., Utica, NY (United States)); Furia, R.V.; Thompson, R.J. (GPU Nuclear Corp., Parsippany, NJ (United States)); Lin, Ching-lu (Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States))

    1992-01-01

    During startup and power shaping maneuvers of boiling water reactors (BWR's), control rods are sequentially withdrawn from the reactor core. The withdrawal sequences determine the overall reactor power and the local core power density and are based on the knowledge of station engineers. It is important that the control rods are withdrawn in such a manner that the local power level does not become excessive while the desired reactor power is generated. Rules that constrain the relative positions of control rod groups have been developed to do this. While these rules are relatively simple, applying them to all possible movements of the 17 control rod groups in a typical BWR is complex and time consuming. SMARTRODS, is a rule based pilot expert system, was developed in LISP for the determination of the rod sequences.

  20. Preliminary Testing of the Role of Exercise and Predator Recognition for Bonytail and Razorback Sucker

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, Gordon A.; Carpenter, Jeanette; Krapfel, Robert; Figiel, Chester

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY Hatchery-reared juvenile, 45-cm TL) flathead catfish. Predator-nai??ve juveniles (20- to 25-cm TL) exhibited no discernable preference when provided areas with and without (52 percent and 48 percent, n = 16 observations; 46 percent and 54 percent, n = 20 observations) large flathead catfish. However, once predation occurred, use of predator-free areas nearly doubled in two trials (36 percent and 64 percent, n = 50 observations; 33 percent and 67 percent, n = 12 observations). A more stringent test examining available area indicated predator-savvy razorback suckers used predator-free areas (88 percent, n = 21) illustrating predator avoidance was a learned behavior. Razorback suckers exercised (treatment) in water current (<0.3 m/s) for 10 weeks exhibited greater swimming stamina than unexercised, control fish. When exercised and unexercised razorback suckers were placed together with large predators in 2006, treatment fish had significantly fewer (n = 9, z = 1.69, p = 0.046) mortalities than control fish, suggesting increased stamina improved predator escape skills. Predator/prey tests comparing razorback suckers that had been previously exposed to a predation event with control fish, found treatment fish also had significantly fewer losses than predator-nai??ve fish (p = 0.017). Similar tests exposing predator-savvy and predator-nai??ve bonytail with largemouth bass showed a similar trend; predator-savvy bonytail suffered 38 percent fewer losses than control fish. However, there was not a statistically significant difference between the test groups (p = 0.143) due to small sample size. All exercise and predator exposure trials increased the survival rate of razorback sucker and bonytail compared to untreated counterparts.

  1. Euclidean strings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Ellis; Frank Ruskey; Joe Sawada; Jamie Simpson

    A string p = p0p1 ··· pn?1 of non-negative integers is a Euclidean string if the string( p0 + 1)p1 ··· (pn?1 ? 1) is rotationally equivalent (i.e., conjugate) to p. We show that Euclidean strings exist if and only if n and p0 + p1 + ··· + pn?1 are relatively prime and that, if they exist, they are

  2. Assessment of Population Status for a White Sucker ( Catostomus commersoni ) Population Exposed to Bleached Kraft Pulp Mill Effluent

    EPA Science Inventory

    A predictive model was developed to translate changes in the fecundity and the age structure of a breeding population of white sucker ( Catostomus commersoni ) collected in the field to alterations in population growth rate. Application of this density dependent population ...

  3. String Without Strings

    E-print Network

    James T. Wheeler

    1997-06-27

    Scale invariance provides a principled reason for the physical importance of Hilbert space, the Virasoro algebra, the string mode expansion, canonical commutators and Schroedinger evolution of states, independent of the assumptions of string theory and quantum theory. The usual properties of dimensionful fields imply an infinite, projective tower of conformal weights associated with the tangent space to scale-invariant spacetimes. Convergence and measurability on this tangent tower are guaranteed using a scale-invariant norm, restricted to conformally self-dual vectors. Maps on the resulting Hilbert space are correspondingly restricted to semi-definite conformal weight. We find the maximally- and minimally-commuting, complete Lie algebras of definite-weight operators. The projective symmetry of the tower gives these algebras central charges, giving the canonical commutator and quantum Virasoro algebras, respectively. Using a continuous, m-parameter representation for rank-m tower tensors, we show that the parallel transport equation for the momentum vector of a particle is the Schroedinger equation, while the associated definite-weight operators obey canonical commutation relations. Generalizing to the set of integral curves of general timelike, self-dual vector-valued weight maps gives a lifting such that the action of the curves parallel transports arbitrary tower vectors. We prove that the full set of Schroedinger-lifted integral curves of a general self-dual map gives an immersion of its 2-dim parameter space into spacetime, inducing a Lorentzian metric on the parameter space. The immersion is shown to satisfy the variational equations of open string.

  4. The String-to-String Correction Problem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert A. Wagner; Michael J. Fischer

    1974-01-01

    The string-to-string correction problem is to determine the distance between two strings as measured by the minimum cost sequence of “edit operations” needed to change the one string into the other. The edit operations investigated allow changing one symbol of a string into another single symbol, deleting one symbol from a string, or inserting a single symbol into a string.

  5. Packing tube assembly for pumping wells

    SciTech Connect

    Towner, G.F.; Carter, C.A.

    1987-09-22

    A packing tube assembly for replacing a conventional stuffing box is described. The packing tube assembly comprising: a packing tube; a rod adaptor adapted to be coupled between the polished rod and the sucker rod string and adapted to extend throughout the packing tube when positioned therein; compressible packing means on the rod adaptor adapted to provide a seal between the rod adaptor and the packing tube when the rod adaptor is in position within the packing tube; stabilizing means on the rod adaptor adapted to engage the packing tube to stabilize the rod adaptor within the packing tube during operation; and a mounting bushing connected to the top of the packing tube and adapted to be threaded into the pumping tee to secure the packing tube position within the production tubing string. A method of converting a conventional stuffing box-equipped pumping well to a packing tube-equipped well is described. It consists of: disconnecting the polished rod of the pumping well from the sucker rod string while suspending the sucker rod string within the well by the use of slips; unthreading the conventional stuffing box from the pumping tee of the well and removing the stuffing box; attaching the polished rod to the upper end of a rod adaptor of a packing tube assembly, inserting the rod adaptor with the polished rod attached into the packing tube of the packing tube assembly; aligning the packing tube assembly with the sucker rod string; connecting the lower end of the rod adaptor to the sucker rod string; removing the slips and lowering the packer tube assembly through the pumping tee; and connecting the upper end of the packing tube to the pumping tee.

  6. Techniques for Monitoring Razorback Sucker in the Lower Colorado River, Hoover to Parker Dams, 2006-2007, Final Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, Gordon A.; Wydoski, Richard; Best, Eric; Hiebert, Steve; Lantow, Jeff; Santee, Mark; Goettlicher, Bill; Millosovich, Joe

    2008-01-01

    Trammel netting is generally the accepted method of monitoring razorback sucker in reservoirs, but this method is ineffective for monitoring this fish in rivers. Trammel nets set in the current become fouled with debris, and nets set in backwaters capture high numbers of nontarget species. Nontargeted fish composed 97 percent of fish captured in previous studies (1999-2005). In 2005, discovery of a large spawning aggregation of razorback sucker in midchannel near Needles, Calif., prompted the development of more effective methods to monitor this and possibly other riverine fish populations. This study examined the effectiveness of four methods of monitoring razorback sucker in a riverine environment. Hoop netting, electrofishing, boat surveys, and aerial photography were evaluated in terms of data accuracy, costs, stress on targeted fish, and effect on nontargeted fish as compared with trammel netting. Trammel netting in the riverine portion of the Colorado River downstream of Davis Dam, Arizona-Nevada yielded an average of 43 razorback suckers a year (1999 to 2005). Capture rates averaged 0.5 razorback suckers per staff day effort, at a cost exceeding $1,100 per fish. Population estimates calculated for 2003-2005 were 3,570 (95 percent confidence limits [CL] = 1,306i??i??i??-8,925), 1,768 (CL = 878-3,867) and 1,652 (CL = 706-5,164); wide confidence ranges reflect the small sample size. By-catch associated with trammel netting included common carp, game fish and, occasionally, shorebirds, waterfowl, and muskrats. Hoop nets were prone to downstream drift owing to design and anchoring problems aggravated by hydropower ramping. Tests were dropped after the 2006 field season and replaced with electrofishing. Electrofishing at night during low flow and when spawning razorback suckers moved to the shoreline proved extremely effective. In 2006 and 2007, 263 and 299 (respectively) razorback suckers were taken. Capture rates averaged 8.3 razorback suckers per staff day at a cost of $62 per fish. The adult population was estimated at 1,196 (925-1,546) fish. Compared with trammel netting, confidence limits narrowed substantially, from +or- 500 percent to +or- 30 percent, reflecting more precise estimates. By-catch was limited to two common carp. No recreational game fish, waterfowl, or mammals were captured or handled during use of electrofishing. Aerial photography (2006 and 2007) suggested an annual average of 580 fish detected on imagery. Identification of species was not possible; carp commonly have been mistaken for razorback sucker. Field verification determined that the proportion of razorback suckers to other fish was 3:1. On that basis, we estimated 435 razorback suckers were photographed, which equals 8.4 razorback suckers per staff day at a cost of $78 per fish. The data did not lend itself to population estimates. Fish were more easily identified from boats, where their lateral rather than their dorsal aspect is visible. On average, 888 razorback suckers were positively identified each year. Observation rates averaged 29.6 razorback suckers per staff day at a cost less than $18 per fish observed. Sucker densities averaged 20.5 and 9.6 fish/hectare which equated to an average spawning population at Needles, Calif., of 2,520 in 2006 and 1152 in 2007. The lower 2007 estimate reflected a refinement in sampling approach which removed a sampling bias. Electrofishing and boat surveys were more cost effective than other methods tested, and they provided more accurate information without the by-catch associated with trammel netting. However, they provided different types of data. Handling fish may be necessary for research purposes but unnecessary for general trend analysis. Electrofishing was extremely effective but can harm fish if not used with caution. Unnecessary electrofishing increases the likelihood of spinal damage and possible damage to eggs and potential young, and it may alter spawning behavior or duration. B

  7. Observations of Age0 Blue Sucker, Cycleptus elongatus Utilizing an Upper Missouri River Backwater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shannon J. Fisher; David W. Willis

    2000-01-01

    The early life history of blue sucker (Cycleptus elongatus) is relatively unknown across its range; however, we collected seven age-0 specimens in an upper Missouri River backwater in North Dakota during the flood pulses of 1997 and 1999. Specifically, the specimens were captured in the upper 0.4 m of the water column (1.O to 2.5 m total depth) in close

  8. Avoiding paralogy: diploid loci for allotetraploid blue sucker fish ( Cycleptus elongatus , Catostomidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael L. Bessert; Craig Sitzman; Guillermo Ortí

    2007-01-01

    The blue sucker (Cycleptus elongatus) is a widespread North American catostomid fish that appears to be declining throughout much of its range. Here, we describe\\u000a the isolation and characterization of eleven microsatellite loci developed for population genetic studies in the genus. We\\u000a show that an additional step of cloning and sequencing can be useful in isolating paralogous loci that often

  9. Age, growth, and maturity of the longnose sucker Catostomus catostomus, of western Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bailey, Merryll M.

    1969-01-01

    Studies of age, growth, and maturity were based on 1760 fish collected in western Lake Superior in 1964-65. The body:scale relation was curvilinear and the curve had an intercept of 1.65 inches on the length axis. The weight increased as the 2.85 power of the length. Some fish formed an annulus before May 18 in 1965; all had completed annuli by late September. Longnose suckers grew 3.6 inches the 1st year, reached 12 inches in the 6th year, and 18 inches in the 11th year. Fish from Pikes Bay grew faster than those from Gull Island Shoal. Over 6 years were required for weight to reach 1 lb and nearly 10 years to reach 2 lb. Minimum length at maturity was 10.5 inches for males and 11.5 inches for females. The youngest mature male belonged to age-group IV and the youngest mature female to age-group V. All males were mature at 14.5-14.9 inches (age-group VIII) and all females at 15.0-15.4 inches (age-group IX). Finclipped longnose suckers returned to spawn in the Brule River in successive years. One fish returned to spawn in 4 successive years. Many of the fish were not recaptured until 2 or 3 years after marking. The time of the Brule River spawning migration depended more on water temperature than on length of day. The average water temperature during the peak of the spawning runs of 1958-64 was 55.4 F. Larval suckers apparently spend little time in the Brule River and adjacent streams and drift downstream to the lake soon after hatching. The number of eggs in the ovaries of eight suckers ranged from 14 to 35 thousand and averaged 24 thousand for fish 13.9-17.7 inches long.

  10. Lethal levels of selected water quality variables to larval and juvenile Lost River and shortnose suckers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. K Saiki; D. P Monda; B. L Bellerud

    1999-01-01

    Resource managers hypothesize that occasional fish kills during summer–early fall in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, may be linked to unfavorable water quality conditions created by massive algal blooms. In a preliminary effort to address this concern, short-term (96-h-long) laboratory tests were conducted with larval and juvenile Lost River (Deltistes luxatus) and shortnose (Chasmistes brevirostris) suckers to determine the upper median

  11. Skyrme Strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitta, M.; Shiiki, N.

    2008-05-01

    We construct nontopological string solutions with U(1) Noether charge in the Skyrme model with a pion mass term, and examine their stability by taking linear perturbations. The solution exhibits a critical angular velocity beyond which the configuration energetically prefers to decay by emitting pions. This critical point is observed as a cusp in the relation between energy and charge. We find that the maximum length for the string to be stable is comparable to the size of one skyrmion. Beyond the length, it is unstable to decay. This instability raises the possiblity of dynamical realization of Skyrme strings from monopole strings inside a domain wall.

  12. Correlation of gene expression and contaminant concentrations in wild largescale suckers: a field-based study.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Helena E; Mehinto, Alvine C; Yu, Fahong; Perry, Russell W; Denslow, Nancy D; Maule, Alec G; Mesa, Matthew G

    2014-06-15

    Toxic compounds such as organochlorine pesticides (OCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants (PBDEs) have been detected in fish, birds, and aquatic mammals that live in the Columbia River or use food resources from within the river. We developed a custom microarray for largescale suckers (Catostomus macrocheilus) and used it to investigate the molecular effects of contaminant exposure on wild fish in the Columbia River. Using Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM) we identified 72 probes representing 69 unique genes with expression patterns that correlated with hepatic tissue levels of OCs, PCBs, or PBDEs. These genes were involved in many biological processes previously shown to respond to contaminant exposure, including drug and lipid metabolism, apoptosis, cellular transport, oxidative stress, and cellular chaperone function. The relation between gene expression and contaminant concentration suggests that these genes may respond to environmental contaminant exposure and are promising candidates for further field and laboratory studies to develop biomarkers for monitoring exposure of wild fish to contaminant mixtures found in the Columbia River Basin. The array developed in this study could also be a useful tool for studies involving endangered sucker species and other sucker species used in contaminant research. PMID:24050789

  13. Preliminary juvenile Lost River and shortnose sucker investigations in Clear Lake, California--2011 pilot study summary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burdick, Summer M.; Rasmussen, Josh

    2012-01-01

    Poor recruitment appears to limit the recovery of Lost River and shortnose sucker populations in Clear Lake Reservoir, California, but the cause is unknown. Adult suckers migrate up Willow Creek and its tributaries to spawn in some years, but low flow in Willow Creek may inhibit spawning migrations in other years. It is unclear whether spawning is successful, larvae survive, or juveniles persist to adulthood. Environmental variables associated with successful spawning or young-of-year survival have not been identified and early life history for these populations is poorly understood. The U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Ruby Pipeline L.L.C. Corporation (El Paso, Tex.) initiated a study in 2011 to better understand juvenile sucker life history in Clear Lake Reservoir, and to identify constraints in the early life history that may limit recruitment to the adult spawning populations. This is a report on the 2011 pilot study for this project.

  14. Correlation of gene expression and contaminat concentrations in wild largescale suckers: a field-based study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christiansen, Helena E.; Mehinto, Alvina C.; Yu, Fahong; Perry, Russell W.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Maule, Alec G.; Mesa, Matthew G.

    2014-01-01

    Toxic compounds such as organochlorine pesticides (OCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants (PBDEs) have been detected in fish, birds, and aquatic mammals that live in the Columbia River or use food resources from within the river. We developed a custom microarray for largescale suckers (Catostomus macrocheilus) and used it to investigate the molecular effects of contaminant exposure on wild fish in the Columbia River. Using Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM) we identified 72 probes representing 69 unique genes with expression patterns that correlated with hepatic tissue levels of OCs, PCBs, or PBDEs. These genes were involved in many biological processes previously shown to respond to contaminant exposure, including drug and lipid metabolism, apoptosis, cellular transport, oxidative stress, and cellular chaperone function. The relation between gene expression and contaminant concentration suggests that these genes may respond to environmental contaminant exposure and are promising candidates for further field and laboratory studies to develop biomarkers for monitoring exposure of wild fish to contaminant mixtures found in the Columbia River Basin. The array developed in this study could also be a useful tool for studies involving endangered sucker species and other sucker species used in contaminant research.

  15. [Genetic structure of the Siberian Sucker (Catostomus catostomus rostratus) according to data on sequence variation of the mtDNA cytochrome B gene].

    PubMed

    Bachevskaia, L T; Pereverzeva, V V; Ivanova, G D; Agapova, G A; Primak, A A

    2014-01-01

    Data regarding the structure and variation of the nucleotide sequence of the cytochrome b gene of mitochondrial DNA of the Siberian Sucker from the Kolyma River were obtained. Analysis of the median network revealed that evolutionary lines diverged from a common ancestor. Penetration of the sucker into Asia from Northern America took place between the Early and Middle Pleistocene. Prolonged reproductive isolation of the Siberian and Northern American suckers led to interspecies divergence with the appearance of amino acid substitutions, which, apparently, fixed due to positive selection. The Siberian Sucker appeared to have three modifications of the Cytb protein. PMID:25735175

  16. Effect of external electric fields on the phase behavior of colloidal silica rods.

    PubMed

    Kuijk, Anke; Troppenz, Thomas; Filion, Laura; Imhof, Arnout; van Roij, René; Dijkstra, Marjolein; van Blaaderen, Alfons

    2014-09-01

    We examine the effect of external electric fields on the behavior of colloidal silica rods. We find that the electric fields can be used to induce para-nematic and para-smectic phases, and to reduce the number of defects in smectic phases. At high field strengths, a new crystal structure was observed that consisted of strings of rods ordered in a hexagonal pattern in which neighboring rods were shifted along their length. We also present a simple model to describe this system, which we used in computer simulations to calculate the phase diagram for rods of L/D = 6, with L the end-to-end length of the rods and D the diameter of the rods. Our theoretical predictions for the phase behavior agree well with the experimental observations. PMID:25017809

  17. NUPlans Compensation Chart String Chart String Statuses

    E-print Network

    Shull, Kenneth R.

    NUPlans Compensation Chart String Statuses NUPlans Chart String Statuses FMS704 NUPlansChartStringStatusesV2 4/7/14 - rb © 2014 Northwestern University 1 of 2 This reference describes chart string status, the flow of compensation inputs, and whether you may need to correct a chart string (in bold). Chart String

  18. String Thing

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    WGBH

    2010-01-01

    String Thing is an interactive online game in which learners change a virtual string's tension, length, and gauge to create different musical pitches. Educators can use this game as an introduction to sound and before completing any activities on music or building instruments. Alternatively, educators can use this game to review or assess these concepts.

  19. [Nucleotide variation in the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase 1 gene in the Siberian sucker (Catostomus catostomus rostratus) from Kolyma River].

    PubMed

    Bachevskaja, L T; Pereverzeva, V V; Ivanova, G D; Agapova, G A

    2014-10-01

    This study presents the data of the first molecular genetic analysis of the Siberian sucker from Kolyma River. Polymorphism of the mtDNA cytochrome oxidase 1 gene was established. Comparative sequence analysis of the gene examined and the GenBank variants characterizing suckers from the rivers of Canada enabled the suggestion that the sucker penetrated to Asia from North America approximately at the end of Early and the beginning of the Middle Pleistocene. It was demonstrated that intrapopulation genetic variation in the Siberian sucker accounted for 11.63% of total variation, while the proportion of the intergroup, component (Fst) constituted 88.37%. It seems likely that a considerable proportion of intergroup variation was caused by the long period of isolation of the Siberian sucker in Kolyma River. The prevalence of one common haplotype, CH-COI 1, in the sample examined indicates that the founder effect played an importaht role in the history of the formation of the Kolyma population. PMID:25720253

  20. Anchor for Fiberglas Guy Rod

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, A. H.

    1982-01-01

    Solution to problem of anchoring fiberglas guy rods to install nut with threads on outer circumference, followed by aluminum sleeve. Sleeve has opening oval at upper and round at bottom end. End of rod is split so fiberglas wedge can be inserted to form V-shaped end. Spread end of rod fits into tapered hole in sleeve and threaded aluminum coupling is put over rod and sleeve.

  1. Spring and Summer Spatial Distribution of Endangered Juvenile Lost River and Shortnose Suckers in Relation to Environmental Variables in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon: 2007 Annual Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burdick, Summer M.; VanderKooi, Scott P.; Anderson, Greer O.

    2009-01-01

    Lost River sucker Deltistes luxatus and shortnose sucker Chasmistes brevirostris were listed as endangered in 1988 for a variety of reasons including apparent recruitment failure. Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, and its tributaries are considered the most critical remaining habitat for these two species. Age-0 suckers are often abundant in Upper Klamath Lake throughout the summer months, but catches decline dramatically between late August and early September each year, and age-1 and older subadult suckers are rare. These rapid declines in catch rates and a lack of substantial recruitment into adult sucker populations in recent years suggests sucker populations experience high mortality between their first summer and first spawn. A lack of optimal rearing habitat may exacerbate juvenile sucker mortality or restrict juvenile growth or development. In 2007, we continued research on juvenile sucker habitat use begun by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 2001. Age-0 catch rates in 2006 were more than an order of magnitude greater than in previous years, which prompted us to refocus our research from age-0 suckers to age-1 sucker distributions and habitat use. We took a two-phased approach to our research in 2007 that included preliminary spring sampling and intense summer sampling components. Spring sampling was a pilot study designed to gather baseline data on the distribution of age-1 suckers as they emerge from winter in shoreline environments throughout Upper Klamath Lake (Chapter 1). Whereas, summer sampling was designed to quantitatively estimate the influence of environmental variables on age-0 and age-1 sucker distribution throughout Upper Klamath Lake, while accounting for imperfect detection (Chapter 2). In addition to these two components, we began a project to evaluate passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag loss and the effects of PIT tags on mortality of age-1 Lost River suckers (Chapter 3). The spring pilot study built the foundation for future research on post-wintering juvenile sucker distribution and habitat use studies. Only 34 percent of nets set during spring sampling (April 2 to May 29) caught juvenile suckers and catch rates were low (0.038 to 0.405 suckers/hour) and widely distributed throughout shoreline areas. Of 13 suckers sacrificed for identification, only one was determined to be a Lost River sucker. All others were either shortnose suckers or Klamath largescale Catostomus snyderi suckers, but were not identified to species. Suckers caught during the spring averaged 93 +- 2 millimeter (mm) standard length (SL; mean +- SE) and were all estimated to be a year old. Spring catches did not vary in respect to nearness to tributary streams or rivers, substrate type, area of the lake, or distance from shore. On the other hand, a higher percentage of nets caught at least one sucker when they were set within 50 meters (m) of a wetland edge (60 percent) compared to nets set 200 m from a wetland (30 percent) or in other shoreline areas (29 percent). Our results also suggest that in the spring age-1 suckers use habitats less than 2 m deep at a greater frequency than deeper environments, a trend that was reversed in the summer. Temporal trends in summer catch rates of age-0 suckers generally were similar to those in previous years, with a peak during the week of August 5. In contrast, age-1 sucker catches were relatively high until the week of July 16, but rapidly declined each week for the rest of the sampling season. Age-0 suckers were caught at higher rates than age-1 suckers though the summer, but both age groups were captured at a similar percentage of sites (age-0, 26.5 percent and age-1, 27.4 percent). Age-0 catches were composed of slightly more Lost River suckers (53.2 percent) than shortnose suckers (42.1 percent). In contrast, most age-1 suckers were shortnose suckers (72.7 percent). Our summer sampling indicates age-0 suckers within Upper Klamath Lake primarily are habitat generalists, whe

  2. The ultrastructure, based on stereoscan observations, of the oral sucker of the cercaria of Schistosoma mansoni with special reference to penetration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard T. Robson; David A. Erasmus

    1970-01-01

    The ultrastructure of the oral sucker of the cercaria of Schistosoma mansoni was investigated using stereoscan and transmission electron microscopy. Secretions of the penetration glands are released through ducts which open at the bases of a series of raised tegumentary folds on the anterior tip of the oral sucker and not through hollow spines. These tegumentary folds may serve to

  3. Cosmic strings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, David P.

    1988-01-01

    Cosmic strings are linear topological defects which are predicted by some grand unified theories to form during a spontaneous symmetry breaking phase transition in the early universe. They are the basis for the only theories of galaxy formation aside from quantum fluctuations from inflation based on fundamental physics. In contrast to inflation, they can also be observed directly through gravitational lensing and their characterisitc microwave background anisotropy. It was recently discovered that details of cosmic string evolution are very differnt from the so-called standard model that was assumed in most of the string-induced galaxy formation calculations. Therefore, the details of galaxy formation in the cosmic string models are currently very uncertain.

  4. String solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duff, M. J.; Khuri, Ramzi R.; Lu, J. X.

    1995-08-01

    We review the status of solitons in superstring theory, with a view to understanding the strong coupling regime. These solitonic solutions are non-singular field configurations which solve the empty-space low-energy field equations (generalized, whenever possible, to all orders in ??), carry a non-vanishing topological “magnetic” charge and are stabilized by a topological conservation law. They are compared and contrasted with the elementary solutions which are singular solutions of the field equations with a ?-model source term and carry a non-vanishing Noether “electric” charge. In both cases, the solutions of most interest are those which preserve half the space-time supersymmetries and saturate a Bogomol'nyi bound. They typically arise as the extreme mass = charge limit of more general two-parameter solutions with event horizons. We also describe the theory dual to the fundamental string for which the roles of elementary and soliton solutions are interchanged. In 10 space-time dimensions, this dual theory is a superfivebrane and this gives rise to a string/fivebrane duality conjecture according to which the fivebrane may be regarded as fundamental in its own right, with the strongly coupled string corresponding to the weakly coupled fivebrane and vice versa. After compactification to four space-time dimensions, the fivebrane appears as a magnetic monopole or a dual string according as it wraps around five or four of the compactified dimensions. This gives rise to a four-dimensional string/string duality conjecture which subsumes a Montonen-Olive type duality in that the magnetic monopoles of the fundamental string correspond to the electric winding states of the dual string. This leads to a duality of dualities whereby under string/string duality the strong/weak coupling S-duality trades places with the minimum/maximum length T-duality. Since these magnetic monopoles are extreme black holes, a prediction of S-duality is that the corresponding electric massive states of the fundamental string are also extreme black holes. This is indeed the case.

  5. String Shapes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Exploratorium

    2010-01-01

    In this activity, learners work together to make polygons (many-sided shapes) with string. Learners sit on the floor and hold onto a piece of string slid between their thumbs and index fingers. Learners explore how many different kinds of triangles and other shapes they can make by changing their hand positions. Use this activity to help learners explore polygons including convex and concave polygons and vertices.

  6. Effects of lake surface elevation on shoreline-spawning Lost River Suckers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burdick, Summer M.; Hewitt, David A.; Rasmussen, J.E.; Hayes, Brian; Janney, Eric; Harris, Alta C.

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed remote detection data from PIT-tagged Lost River Suckers Deltistes luxatus at four shoreline spawning areas in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, to determine whether spawning of this endangered species was affected by low water levels. Our investigation was motivated by the observation that the surface elevation of the lake during the 2010 spawning season was the lowest in 38 years. Irrigation withdrawals in 2009 that were not replenished by subsequent winter-spring inflows caused a reduction in available shoreline spawning habitat in 2010. We compared metrics of skipped spawning, movement among spawning areas, and spawning duration across 8 years (2006-2013) that had contrasting spring water levels. Some aspects of sucker spawning were similar in all years, including few individuals straying from the shoreline areas to spawning locations in lake tributaries and consistent effects of increasing water temperatures on the accumulation of fish at the spawning areas. During the extreme low water year of 2010, 14% fewer female and 8% fewer male suckers joined the shoreline spawning aggregation than in the other years. Both males and females visited fewer spawning areas within Upper Klamath Lake in 2010 than in other years, and the median duration at spawning areas in 2010 was at least 36% shorter for females and 20% shorter for males relative to other years. Given the imperiled status of the species and the declining abundance of the population in Upper Klamath Lake, any reduction in spawning success and egg production could negatively impact recovery efforts. Our results indicate that lake surface elevations above 1,262.3-1,262.5 m would be unlikely to limit the number of spawning fish and overall egg production.

  7. Irrigation drainwater effects on the endangered larval razorback sucker and bonytail in the middle Green River

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, S.J.; Buhl, K.J. [National Biological Survey, Yankton, SD (United States). National Fisheries Contaminant Research Center

    1994-12-31

    The Department of the Interior (DOI) irrigation drainwater investigation of the middle Green River of Utah reported that concentrations of boron, selenium, and zinc in water, bottom sediment, and biological tissues were sufficiently elevated to be potentially harmful to fish and wildlife. The major focus of the DOI study was in the Ashley Creek-Stewart Lake area near Jensen, utah. The middle Green River provides sensitive habitat for the endangered Colorado squawfish, razorback sucker, and bonytail. The authors conducted two 90-day chronic toxicity studies, one with razorback sucker, and the other with bonytail. Swimup larvae were exposed in a reconstituted water simulating the middle Green River. The toxicant mixture simulated the environmental ratio and concentrations of inorganics reported in the DOI study for the mouth of Ashley Creek-Stewart Lake outflow on the Green River, and was composed of arsenic, boron, copper, molybdenum, uranium, vanadium, selenate, selenite, and zinc. The mixture was tested at 1X, 2X, 4X, 8X, and 16X where X was the average expected environmental concentration. Razorback suckers had reduced survival after 40 days exposure to the inorganic mixture at 16X and after 60 days at 8X; whereas growth was reduced after 30 days at 8X and after 60 days at 4X. Bonytail had reduced survival after 20 days exposure at 16X, whereas growth was reduced after 60 days at 8X. These studies show that at environmentally realistic concentrations, the inorganic mixture simulating Ashley Creek-Stewart Lake outfall adversely affects larval endangered fish.

  8. Algal Toxins in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon: Linking Water Quality to Juvenile Sucker Health

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    VanderKooi, S.P.; Burdick, S.M.; Echols, K.R.; Ottinger, C.A.; Rosen, B.H.; Wood, T.M.

    2010-01-01

    As the lead science agency for the Department of Interior, the U.S. Geological Survey is actively involved in resource issues in the Klamath River basin. Activities include research projects on endangered Lost River and shortnose suckers, threatened coho salmon, groundwater resources, seasonal runoff forecasting, water quality in Upper Klamath Lake and the Klamath River, nutrient cycling in wetlands, and assessment of land idling programs to reduce water consumption. Many of these studies are collaborations with various partners including Department of Interior agencies, Indian Tribes, and State agencies.

  9. Down hole shock absorber

    SciTech Connect

    Coston, H.A.

    1990-03-05

    This patent describes a well pump system. It comprises: a sucker rod string; a pump reciprocable in response to the string; a cylinder; a piston disposed for vertical reciprocal motion within the cylinder; means for biasing the cylinder and the piston against compressive motion; means for pneumatically relieving pressure in the cylinder during compressive motion; and means for preventing relative rotational motion and for limiting relative expansive motion between the cylinder and the piston; the cylinder and the piston being coaxially mounted in the sucker rod string proximate and above the pump to buffer forces transmitted through the string.

  10. Distribution and condition of larval and juvenile Lost River and shortnose suckers in the Williamson River Delta restoration project and Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burdick, Summer M.; Brown, Daniel T.

    2010-01-01

    Federally endangered Lost River sucker (Deltistes luxatus) and shortnose sucker (Chasmistes brevirostris) were once abundant throughout their range but populations have declined. They were extirpated from several lakes in the 1920s and may no longer reproduce in others. Poor recruitment to the adult spawning populations is one of several reasons cited for the decline and lack of recovery of these species and may be the consequence of high mortality during juvenile life stages. High larval and juvenile sucker mortality may be exacerbated by an insufficient quantity of suitable or high quality rearing habitat. In addition, larval suckers may be swept downstream from suitable rearing areas in Upper Klamath Lake into Keno Reservoir, which is seasonally anoxic. The Nature Conservancy flooded about 3,600 acres (1,456 hectares) to the north of the Williamson River mouth (Tulana Unit) in October 2007 and about 1,400 acres (567 hectares) to the south and east of the Williamson River mouth (Goose Bay Unit) a year later to retain larval suckers in Upper Klamath Lake, create nursery habitat, and improve water quality. The U.S. Geological Survey joined a long-term research and monitoring program in collaboration with The Nature Conservancy, the Bureau of Reclamation, and Oregon State University in 2008 to assess the effects of the Williamson River Delta restoration on the early life-history stages of Lost River and shortnose suckers. The primary objectives of the research were to describe habitat colonization and use by larval and juvenile suckers and non-sucker fishes and to evaluate the effects of the restored habitat on the health and condition of juvenile suckers. This report summarizes data collected in 2009 by the U.S. Geological Survey as a part of this monitoring effort. The Williamson River Delta appeared to provide suitable rearing habitat for endangered larval Lost River and shortnose suckers in 2008 and 2009. Larval suckers captured in this delta typically were larger than those captured in the adjacent lake habitat in 2008, but the opposite was true for larval shortnose suckers in 2009. Mean sample density was greater for both species in the Williamson River Delta than adjacent lake habitats in both years. Larval suckers captured in the restoration area, however, had less food in their guts compared to those captured in Upper Klamath or Agency Lakes. Differential distribution among sucker species within the Williamson River Delta and between the delta and adjacent lakes indicated that shortnose suckers likely benefited more from the restored Williamson River Delta than Lost River or Klamath largescale suckers (Catostomus snyderi). Catch rates in shallow-water habitats with vegetation within the delta were higher for shortnose and Klamath largescale suckers than for larval Lost River suckers in 2008 and 2009.However, catch rates at the mouth of the Williamson River in 2008 and in Upper Klamath Lake in 2009 were higher for larval Lost River suckers than for larvae identified as either shortnose or Klamath largescale suckers. Shortnose suckers also comprised the greatest portion of age-0 suckers captured in the Williamson River Delta in 2008 and 2009. The relative abundance of age-1 shortnose suckers was high in our catches compared to age-1 Lost River suckers in 2009 in the delta and adjacent lakes, which may or may not indicate shortnose suckers experienced better survival than Lost River suckers in 2008. Age-0 and age-1 suckers were similarly distributed throughout the Williamson River Delta in 2008 and 2009. Age-0 suckers used shallow vegetated and unvegetated habitats primarily in mid- to late July in both years. A comparison of catch rates between our study and a concurrent study in Upper Klamath Lake indicated that Goose Bay was the most used habitat in 2009 and the Tulana Unit was the one of the least used habitats in 2008 and 2009 by age-0 suckers. Catch rates for age-1 suckers, however, indicated that bo

  11. Safety rod latch inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Leader, D.R.

    1992-02-01

    During an attempt to raise control rods from the 100 K reactor in December, one rod could not be withdrawn. Subsequent investigation revealed that a small button'' in the latch mechanism had broken off of the lock plunger'' and was wedged in a position that prevented rod withdrawal. Concern that this failure may have resulted from corrosion or some other metallurgical problem resulted in a request that SRL examine six typical latch mechanisms from the 100 L reactor by use of radiography and metallography. During the examination of the L-Area latches, a failed latch mechanism from the 100 K reactor was added to the investigation. Fourteen latches that had a history of problems were removed from K-Area and sent to SRL for inclusion in this study the week after the original seven assemblies were examined, bringing the total of latch assemblies discussed in this report to twenty one. Results of the examination of the K-Area latch that initiated this study is not included in this report.

  12. Safety rod latch inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Leader, D.R.

    1992-02-01

    During an attempt to raise control rods from the 100 K reactor in December, one rod could not be withdrawn. Subsequent investigation revealed that a small ``button`` in the latch mechanism had broken off of the ``lock plunger`` and was wedged in a position that prevented rod withdrawal. Concern that this failure may have resulted from corrosion or some other metallurgical problem resulted in a request that SRL examine six typical latch mechanisms from the 100 L reactor by use of radiography and metallography. During the examination of the L-Area latches, a failed latch mechanism from the 100 K reactor was added to the investigation. Fourteen latches that had a history of problems were removed from K-Area and sent to SRL for inclusion in this study the week after the original seven assemblies were examined, bringing the total of latch assemblies discussed in this report to twenty one. Results of the examination of the K-Area latch that initiated this study is not included in this report.

  13. Temporal and Spatial Distribution of Endangered Juvenile Lost River and Shortnose Suckers in Relation to Environmental Variables in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon: 2008 Annual Data Summary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burdick, Summer M.; VanderKooi, Scott P.

    2010-01-01

    Lost River sucker (Deltistes luxatus) and shortnose sucker (Chasmistes brevirostris) were listed as endangered in 1988 for a variety of reasons including apparent recruitment failure. Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, and its tributaries are considered the most critical remaining habitat for these two species. Age-0 suckers are often abundant in Upper Klamath Lake throughout the summer months, but catches decline dramatically between late August and early September each year and age-1 and older sub-adult suckers are rare. These rapid declines in catch rates and a lack of substantial recruitment into adult sucker populations in recent years suggests sucker populations experience high mortality between their first summer and first spawn. A lack of access to, or abundance of, optimal rearing habitat may exacerbate juvenile sucker mortality or restrict juvenile growth or development. Summer age-0 sucker habitat use and distribution has been studied extensively, but many uncertainties remain about age-1 and older juvenile habitat use, distribution, and movement patterns within Upper Klamath Lake. We designed a study to examine seasonal changes in distribution of age-1 suckers in Upper Klamath Lake as they relate to depth and water quality. In this document, which meets our annual data summary and reporting obligations, we discuss the results of our second annual spring and summer sampling effort. Catch data collected in 2007 and 2008 indicate seasonal changes in age-1 and older juvenile sucker habitat use coincident with changes in water quality, which were previously undocumented. In both years during April and May, age-1 and older juvenile suckers were found in shallow water environments. Then, as water temperatures began to warm throughout Upper Klamath Lake in June, age-1 and older juvenile suckers primarily were captured along the western shore in some of the deepest available environments. Following a dramatic decrease in dissolved oxygen concentrations in Eagle Ridge Trench, juvenile suckers were no longer found along the western shore but were captured throughout the rest of Upper Klamath Lake. When dissolved oxygen concentrations were 4 milligrams per liter or greater along the western shore, juvenile sucker captures were again concentrated in that area. Although this pattern indicates that low dissolved oxygen concentration or another related water-quality limitation may force juvenile suckers to leave the western shore, it is unclear as to why age-1 and older juveniles might be attracted to the area in the first place. Understanding this apparent behavior could be important to managing habitat for these species. In this data summary, we also describe the distribution of catches of age-0 suckers and other fishes in Upper Klamath Lake. These data corroborate previous studies that describe age-0 sucker habitat as shallow relative to depths available in Upper Klamath Lake. In this study, we did not seek, nor find additional clarification on age-0 sucker habitat use and distribution in Upper Klamath Lake. Our brief description of the distribution and abundance of all other fish species caught provides a context in which to assess the rarity of juvenile suckers within the fish community of Upper Klamath Lake.

  14. Near-Shore and Off-Shore Habitat Use by Endangered Juvenile Lost River and Shortnose Suckers in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon: 2006 Data Summary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burdick, Summer M.; Wilkens, Alexander X.; VanderKooi, Scott P.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Lost River suckers Deltistes luxatus and shortnose suckers Chasmistes brevirostris, listed as endangered in 1988 under the Endangered Species Act, have shown infrequent recruitment into adult populations in Upper Klamath Lake (NRC 2004). In an effort to understand the causes behind and provide management solutions to apparent recruitment failure, a number of studies have been conducted including several on larval and juvenile sucker habitat use. Near-shore areas in Upper Klamath Lake with emergent vegetation, especially those near the mouth of the Williamson River, were identified as important habitat for larval suckers (Cooperman and Markle 2000; Reiser et al. 2001). Terwilliger et al. (2004) characterized primary age-0 sucker habitat as near-shore areas in the southern portion of Upper Klamath Lake with gravel and cobble substrates. Reiser et al. (2001) provided some evidence that juvenile suckers use habitats with emergent vegetation, but nothing concerning the extent or timing of use. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began investigating the importance of near-shore and off-shore habitats with and without emergent vegetation for juvenile suckers in 2000. We found substantial numbers of juvenile suckers using these habitats near the mouth of the Williamson River into late August (VanderKooi and Buelow 2003). The distribution and relative abundance of juvenile suckers showed high spatial variability throughout the summer for all species combined, Lost River suckers, and shortnose suckers (VanderKooi et al. 2006; Hendrixson et al. 2007a). Results from sampling near-shore areas in 2002 suggested juvenile sucker proximity to shoreline changes depending on the presence or absence of shoreline vegetation (VanderKooi et al. 2006), whereas in 2004 and 2005 results were equivocal (Hendrixson et al. 2007a, 2007b). Research by USGS of juvenile suckers in Upper Klamath Lake conducted since 2000 provides a valuable long-term data set which can be used to evaluate multi-year trends in juvenile sucker relative abundance and habitat use. Data on the relative abundance of juvenile suckers and their habitat use patterns will provide valuable information to guide restoration and management decisions in the Upper Klamath Basin. Information on juvenile sucker catch rates may also be valuable for evaluating year class success, estimating early life stage survival rates, and predicting upper bounds of future recruitment to adult spawning populations. We continued sampling juvenile suckers in 2006 as part of an effort to develop bioenergetics models for juvenile Lost River and shortnose suckers. This study required us to collect fish to determine growth rates and energy content of juvenile suckers. We followed the sampling protocols and methods described by Hendrixson et al. (2007b) to maintain continuity and facilitate comparisons with data collected in recent years, but sampled at a reduced level of effort compared to previous years (approximately one-third) due to limited funding. Here we present a summary of catch data collected in 2006. Bioenergetics models will be reported separately.

  15. Dispersal of larval suckers at the Williamson River Delta, Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, 2006-09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Tamara M.; Hendrixson, Heather A.; Markle, Douglas F.; Erdman, Charles S.; Burdick, Summer M.; Ellsworth, Craig M.; Buccola, Norman L.

    2012-01-01

    An advection/diffusion modeling approach was used to simulate the transport of larval suckers from spawning areas in the Williamson River, through the newly restored Williamson River Delta, to Upper Klamath Lake. The density simulations spanned the years of phased restoration, from 2006/2007 prior to any levee breaching, to 2008 when the northern part of the delta was reconnected to the lake, and 2009 when levees on both sides of the delta had been breached. Model simulation results from all four years were compared to field data using rank correlation. Spearman ? correlation coefficients were usually significant and in the range 0.30 to 0.60, providing moderately strong validation of the model. The correlation coefficients varied with fish size class in a way that suggested that the model best described the distribution of smaller fish near the Williamson River channel, and larger fish away from the channel. When Lost River and shortnose/Klamath largescale suckers were simulated independently, the correlation results suggested that the model better described the transport and dispersal of the latter species. The incorporation of night-time-only drift behavior in the Williamson River channel neither improved nor degraded correlations with field data. The model showed that advection by currents is an important factor in larval dispersal.

  16. Ecological risk assessment of irrigation drainage selenium to the endangered razorback sucker

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.B. [Bureau of Reclamation, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The razorback sucker is an endangered species in the Colorado River Basin that is nearing extinction. A remnant population is threatened by contamination from irrigation drainage and other sources. Biomarkers and toxicity tests indicate reproductive impairment to adults and acute and chronic toxicity to larval fish. Adult fish are generally more than 20 years old, and no recruitment is occurring. The assessment evaluates all selenium sources, natural and man induced, to the Green River. Selenium discharged directly to the river as inorganic selenate represents a decrease in exposure compared to organic dietary sources introduced to a critical habitat. Fate and transport modeling, biotransformation, and profiling exposure at critical life history ecological boundaries are all important considerations in the risk analysis. Determining realistic safety factors for naturally occurring and essential but potentially toxic trace elements is also essential to formulate alternatives that make common sense. Establishing an obtainable cleanup criteria must consider natural background concentrations, cost effectiveness, and public acceptability. In this case it is more cost effective and provides a greater overall benefit to the river basin to remediate a non-irrigation selenium source. A multi-agency task force has been formed to select and implement remediation that is economically feasible, scientifically sound, politically acceptable, makes common sense, and that protects the razorback sucker.

  17. String Theory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Morgan, John Peter

    While few people toss around terms like Astroparticle Physics and Superstring Theory, we've all found ourselves staring out in to space on a starry night wondering what's out there, why it's arranged the way it is, and where it all came from. For some, it simply comes down to strings. This September 2, 2003 New York Times article does a good job of summarizing the history and specifics of string theory and the paradox of its many offerings (1). One-time egistration is required to access any New York Times articles. The next site is the homepage of the Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics at the University of California Santa Barbara and home to some of the most intense thinking with regards to theoretical physics in the world (2). Going from highly technical to more popularly palatable, NOVA offers the third site (3 ). Called, The Elegant Universe, the upcoming NOVA special is based on Columbia University professor Brian Greene's highly acclaimed book of the same title. As the site states, "Eleven dimensions, parallel universes, and a world made out of strings. It's not science fiction, it's string theory." The next site takes you directly to the virtual home of string theory (4 ). Here you will find the basics on the topic as well as what scientists have found so far and where they're headed next. Probably the most definitive site devoted to the topic. The fifth site is another informative look at superstring theory and is provided by John Pierre at MIT. While a very basic Web site, in terms of design, it offers a great tutorial on strings in addition to a glossary and reference list (5 ). The final link (6 ) will take you "Beyond Einstein, from the Big Bang to Black Holes." The site, provided by NASA, offers insights into the history and structure of the universe.

  18. Seasonal Distribution and Abundance of Larval and Juvenile Lost River and Shortnose Suckers in Hanks Marsh, Upper Klamath National Wildlife Refuge, Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon: 2007 Annual Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Greer O.; Wilkens, Alexander X.; Burdick, Summer M.; VanderKooi, Scott P.

    2009-01-01

    In the summer of 2007, we undertook an assessment of larval and juvenile sucker use of Hanks Marsh in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon. This 1,200-acre marsh on the southeastern shoreline of the lake represents part of the last remaining natural emergent wetland habitat in the lake. Because of the suspected importance of this type of habitat to larval and juvenile endangered Lost River and shortnose suckers, it was thought that sucker abundance in the marsh might be comparatively greater than in other non-vegetated areas of the lake. It also was hoped that Hanks Marsh would serve as a reference site for wetland restoration projects occurring in other areas of the lake. Our study had four objectives: to (1) examine seasonal distribution and relative abundance of larval suckers in and adjacent to Hanks Marsh in relation to habitat features such as depth, vegetation, water quality, and relative abundance of non-sucker species; (2) determine the presence or absence and describe the distribution of juvenile suckers [35 to 80 mm standard length (SL)] along the periphery of Hanks Marsh; (3) assess spatial and temporal overlap between larval suckers and their potential predators; and (4) assess suitability of water quality throughout the summer for young-of-the-year suckers. Due to the low number of suckers found in the marsh and our inability to thoroughly sample all marsh habitats due to declining lake levels during the summer, we were unable to completely address these objectives in this pilot study. The results, however, do give some indication of the relative use of Hanks Marsh by sucker and non-sucker species. Through sampling of larval and juvenile suckers in various habitat types within the marsh, we determined that sucker use of Hanks Marsh may be very low in comparison with other areas of the lake. We caught only 42 larval and 19 juvenile suckers during 12 weeks of sampling throughout the marsh. Sucker catches were rare in Hanks Marsh, and were lower than catch rates in other marshes of Upper Klamath Lake and in other nearshore and offshore areas of the lake. Based on the few suckers we did capture in Hanks Marsh, larvae tended to be found more often in vegetated habitats. A modified sampling design and approach may be necessary to address the objectives in this study, given that declining lake-surface elevation prevented us from adequately sampling all portions of the marsh throughout the sampling season. Common non-sucker species in Hanks Marsh included juvenile and adult brown bullhead, larval blue chub, tui chub, fathead minnow, and yellow perch. This species composition was similar to that of other marshes in Upper Klamath Lake but most species were found in lower numbers in Hanks Marsh than other marshes. It may be that use of Hanks Marsh is limited by poor water quality, which we found to exist at many sites after June. It also may be that access to or habitat in the marsh is limited at certain times of the year by low water. Although the results from this initial study of Hanks Marsh indicate that the area may have little direct benefit for sucker species, indirect benefits for these species possibly may come from its positive influence on some aspects of water quality in the lake, such as regulation of pH. It also may be the case that use of Hanks Marsh may vary by year and conditions; however, under the current scope of the study, we were unable to investigate inter-annual variability.

  19. Reactor control rod timing system

    DOEpatents

    Wu, Peter T. K. (Clifton Park, NY)

    1982-01-01

    A fluid driven jet-edge whistle timing system for control rods of a nuclear reactor for producing real-time detection of the timing of each control rod in its scram operation. An important parameter in reactor safety, particularly for liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBR), is the time deviation between the time the control rod is released and the time the rod actually reaches the down position. The whistle has a nearly pure tone signal with center frequency (above 100 kHz) far above the frequency band in which the energy of the background noise is concentrated. Each control rod can be fitted with a whistle with a different frequency so that there is no ambiguity in differentiating the signal from each control rod.

  20. Spawning by walleye ( Sander vitreus) and white sucker ( Catostomus commersoni) in the Detroit River: Implications for spawning habitat enhancement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce A. Manny; Gregory W. Kennedy; James C. Boase; Jeffrey D. Allen; Edward F. Roseman

    2010-01-01

    Few active fish spawning grounds have been found in channels connecting the Great Lakes. Here, we describe one near Belle Isle in the Detroit River, part of the channel connecting lakes Huron and Erie. There, in 2005, we collected 1,573 fish eggs, cultured them, and identified the hatched larvae as walleye (Sander vitreus) and white sucker (Catostomus commersoni). Walleye spawning

  1. 74 FR 65056 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Critical Habitat for the Santa Ana Sucker...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2009-12-09

    ...such as Big Tujunga and Hansen Dams, maintenance of...habitat. Summary of Changes From Previously Designated...Dam and Reservoir and Hansen Dam and Flood Control...sucker (see Summary of Changes From Previously Designated...Oro Vista Bridge and Hansen Dam is adjacent to...

  2. Mitochondrial DNA Variability in the Endangered Razorback Sucker (Xyrauchen texanus): Analysis of Hatchery Stocks and Implications for Captive Propagation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas E. Dowling; W. L. Minckley; Paul C. Marsh; Elliott S. Goldstein

    1996-01-01

    The razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus) is a large, long-h'ved catostomid fish endemic to the Col- orado River drainage of western North America, endangered because of recruitment failure. Efforts to pre- serve the species have emphasized artificial propagation and reintroduction. Given the importance of main- raining genetic diversity in such a program, we examined mitochondrial DNA diversity in a source population

  3. Assessment of Population Status for a White Sucker ( Catostomus commersoni ) Population Exposed to Bleached Kraft Pulp Mill Effluent

    EPA Science Inventory

    Credible ecological risk assessments often need to include analysis of population-level impacts. In the present study, a predictive model was developed to translate changes in the fecundity and the age structure of a breeding population of white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) co...

  4. Automatic safety rod for reactors

    DOEpatents

    Germer, John H. (San Jose, CA)

    1988-01-01

    An automatic safety rod for a nuclear reactor containing neutron absorbing material and designed to be inserted into a reactor core after a loss-of-core flow. Actuation is based upon either a sudden decrease in core pressure drop or the pressure drop decreases below a predetermined minimum value. The automatic control rod includes a pressure regulating device whereby a controlled decrease in operating pressure due to reduced coolant flow does not cause the rod to drop into the core.

  5. Spawning migration movements of Lost River and shortnose suckers in the Williamson and Sprague Rivers, Oregon, following the removal of Chiloquin Dam-2009 Annual Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellsworth, Craig M.; VanderKooi, Scott P.

    2011-01-01

    The Chiloquin Dam was located at river kilometer (rkm) 1.3 on the Sprague River near the town of Chiloquin, Oregon. The dam was identified as a barrier that potentially inhibited or prevented the upstream spawning migrations and other movements of endangered Lost River suckers (Deltistes luxatus), shortnose suckers (Chasmistes brevirostris), and other fish in the Sprague River. Our research objectives in 2009 were to evaluate adult catostomid spawning migration patterns using radio telemetry to identify and describe shifts in spawning area distribution and migration behavior following the removal of Chiloquin Dam in 2008. We attached external radio transmitters to 58 Lost River suckers and 59 shortnose suckers captured at the Williamson River fish weir. A total of 17 radio-tagged Lost River suckers and one radio-tagged shortnose sucker were detected approaching the site of the former Chiloquin Dam but only two radio-tagged fish (one male Lost River sucker and one female Lost River sucker) were detected crossing upstream of the dam site. A lower proportion of radio-tagged shortnose suckers were detected migrating into the Sprague River when compared with previous years. Detections on remote passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag arrays located in the Sprague River show that although the proportion of fish coming into the Sprague River is small when compared to the number of fish crossing the Williamson River fish weir, the number of fish migrating upstream of the Chiloquin Dam site increased exponentially in the first year since its removal. These data will be used in conjunction with larval production and adult spawning distribution data to evaluate the effectiveness of dam removal in order to provide increased access to underutilized spawning habitat located further upstream in the Sprague River and to reduce the crowding of spawning fish below the dam site.

  6. String Theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Corcoran; William Frank; Michael Maloney

    1974-01-01

    For each $n > 0$, two alternative axiomatizations of the theory of strings over $n$ alphabetic characters are presented. One class of axiomatizations derives from Tarski's system of the Wahrheitsbegriff and uses the $n$ characters and concatenation as primitives. The other class involves using $n$ character-prefixing operators as primitives and derives from Hermes' Semiotik. All underlying logics are second order.

  7. Distribution and condition of larval and juvenile Lost River and shortnose suckers in the Williamson River Delta restoration project and Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burdick, Summer M.

    2012-01-01

    Federally endangered Lost River sucker (Deltistes luxatus) and shortnose sucker (Chasmistes brevirostris) were once abundant throughout their range but populations have declined. They were extirpated from several lakes in the 1920s and may no longer reproduce in other lakes. Poor recruitment to the adult spawning populations is one of several reasons cited for the decline and lack of recovery of these species and may be the consequence of high mortality during juvenile life stages. High larval and juvenile sucker mortality may be exacerbated by an insufficient quantity of suitable or high-quality rearing habitat. In addition, larval suckers may be swept downstream from suitable rearing areas in Upper Klamath Lake into Keno Reservoir, where they are assumed lost to Upper Klamath Lake populations. The Nature Conservancy flooded about 3,600 acres (1,456 hectares) to the north of the Williamson River mouth (Tulana) in October 2007, and about 1,400 acres (567 hectares) to the south and east of the Williamson River mouth (Goose Bay Farms) in October 2008, in order to retain larval suckers in Upper Klamath Lake, create nursery habitat, and improve water quality. The U.S. Geological Survey joined a long-term research and monitoring program in collaboration with The Nature Conservancy, the Bureau of Reclamation, and Oregon State University in 2008 to assess the effects of the Williamson River Delta restoration on the early life-history stages of Lost River and shortnose suckers. The primary objectives of the research were to describe habitat colonization and use by larval and juvenile suckers and non-sucker fishes and to evaluate the effects of the restored habitat on the health and condition of juvenile suckers. This report summarizes data collected in 2010 by the U.S. Geological Survey as a part of this monitoring effort and follows two annual reports on data collected in 2008 and 2009. Restoration modifications made to the Williamson River Delta appeared to provide additional suitable rearing habitat for endangered Lost River and shortnose suckers from 2008 to 2010 based on sucker catches. Mean larval sample density was greater for both species in the Williamson River Delta than adjacent lake habitats in all 3 years. In addition to larval suckers, at least three age classes of juvenile suckers were captured in the delta. The shallow Goose Bay Farms and Tulana Emergent were among the most used habitats by age-0 suckers in 2009. Both of these environments became inaccessible due to low water in 2010, however, and were not sampled after July 19, 2010. In contrast, age-1 sucker catches shifted from the shallow water (about 0.5-1.5 m deep) on the eastern side of the Williamson River Delta in May, to deeper water environments (greater than 2 m) by the end of June or early July in all 3 years. Differential distribution among sucker species within the Williamson River Delta and between the delta and adjacent lakes indicated that shortnose suckers likely benefited more from the restored Williamson River Delta than Lost River or Klamath largescale suckers (Catostomus snyderi). Catch rates in shallow-water habitats within the delta were higher for shortnose and Klamath largescale sucker larvae than for larval Lost River suckers in 2008, 2009, and 2010. Shortnose suckers also comprised the greatest portion of age-0 suckers captured in the Williamson River Delta in all 3 years of the study. The relative abundance of age-1 shortnose suckers was high in our catches compared to age-1 Lost River suckers in 2009 and 2010. The restored delta also created habitat for several piscivorous fishes, but only two appeared to pose a meaningful threat of predation to suckers - fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and yellow perch (Perca flavescens). Fathead minnows that prey on larval but not juvenile suckers dominated catches in all sampling areas. Yellow perch also were abundant throughout the study area, but based on their gape size and co-occurrence with suckers, most were only capable of preying on larvae. Low May lake-surface elevation, below aver

  8. Characterization of plasma vitellogenin and sex hormone concentrations during the annual reproductive cycle of the endangered razorback sucker

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinck, Jo Ellen; Papoulias, Diana M.; Annis, Mandy L.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Marr, Carrie; Denslow, Nancy D.; Kroll, Kevin J.; Nachtmann, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Population declines of the endangered razorback sucker Xyrauchen texanus in the Colorado River basin have been attributed to predation by and competition with nonnative fishes, habitat alteration, and dam construction. The reproductive health and seasonal variation of the reproductive end points of razorback sucker populations are currently unknown. Using nonlethal methods, we characterized the plasma hormonal fluctuations of reproductively mature female and male razorback suckers over a 12-month period in a hatchery by measuring their vitellogenin (VTG) and three sex hormones: 17?-estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), and 11-ketotestosterone (KT). Fish were identified as reproductive or nonreproductive based on their body weight, VTG, and sex hormone profiles. In reproductive females, the E2 concentration increased in the fall and winter, and increases in T and VTG concentrations were generally associated with the spawning period. Mean T concentrations were consistently greater in reproductive females than in nonreproductive females, but this pattern was even more pronounced during the spawning period (spring). Consistently low T concentrations (<3 ng/mL) in adult females during the spawning period may indicate reproductive impairment. In reproductive males, spring increases in KT and T concentrations were associated with spawning; concentrations of E2 (<0.48 ng/mL) and VTG (<0.001 mg/mL) were low in males throughout the study. In addition, the E2 : KT ratio and T were the best metrics by which to distinguish female from male adult razorback suckers throughout the year. These metrics of reproductive health and condition may be particularly important to recovery efforts of razorback suckers given that the few remaining wild populations are located in a river where water quality and quantity issues are well documented. In addition to the size, age, and recruitment information currently considered in the recovery goals of this endangered species, reproductive end points could be included as recovery metrics with which to monitor seasonal trends and determine whether repatriated populations are cycling naturally.

  9. Hazard assessment of selenium and other trace elements in wild larval razorback sucker from the Green River, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamilton, S.J.; Muth, R.T.; Waddell, B.; May, T.W.

    2000-01-01

    Contaminant investigations of the Green River in northeastern Utah have documented selenium contamination at sites receiving irrigation drainage. The Green River provides critical habitat for four endangered fishes including the largest extant riverine population of endangered razorback sucker. Although 2175 larval razorback suckers were collected from the river between 1992 and 1996, very few juveniles have been captured within recent decades. Selenium concentrations were measured in larval razorback suckers collected from five sites in the Green River (Cliff Creek, Stewart Lake Drain, Sportsman's Drain, Greasewood Corral, and Old Charlie Wash) to assess the potential for adverse effects on recruitment of larvae to the juvenile stage and the adult population. Larvae from all sites contained mean selenium concentrations ranging from 4.3 to 5.8 ??g/g. These values were at or above the proposed toxic threshold of 4 ??g/g for adverse biological effects in fish, which was derived from several laboratory and field studies with a wide range of fish species. At two sites, Cliff Creek and Stewart Lake Drain, selenium concentrations in larvae increased over time as fish grew, whereas selenium concentrations decreased as fish grew at Sportsman's Drain. Evaluation of a 279-larvae composite analyzed for 61 elements demonstrated that selenium and, to a lesser extent, vanadium were elevated to concentrations reported to be toxic to a wide range of fish species. Elevated selenium concentrations in larval razorback suckers from the five sites suggest that selenium contamination may be widespread in the Green River, and that survival and recruitment of larvae to the juvenile stage may be limited due to adverse biological effects. Selenium contamination may be adversely affecting the reproductive success and recruitment of endangered razorback sucker.

  10. Estimating geographic variation on allometric growth and body condition of Blue Suckers with quantile regression

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cade, B.S.; Terrell, J.W.; Neely, B.C.

    2011-01-01

    Increasing our understanding of how environmental factors affect fish body condition and improving its utility as a metric of aquatic system health require reliable estimates of spatial variation in condition (weight at length). We used three statistical approaches that varied in how they accounted for heterogeneity in allometric growth to estimate differences in body condition of blue suckers Cycleptus elongatus across 19 large-river locations in the central USA. Quantile regression of an expanded allometric growth model provided the most comprehensive estimates, including variation in exponents within and among locations (range = 2.88–4.24). Blue suckers from more-southerly locations had the largest exponents. Mixed-effects mean regression of a similar expanded allometric growth model allowed exponents to vary among locations (range = 3.03–3.60). Mean relative weights compared across selected intervals of total length (TL = 510–594 and 594–692 mm) in a multiplicative model involved the implicit assumption that allometric exponents within and among locations were similar to the exponent (3.46) for the standard weight equation. Proportionate differences in the quantiles of weight at length for adult blue suckers (TL = 510, 594, 644, and 692 mm) compared with their average across locations ranged from 1.08 to 1.30 for southern locations (Texas, Mississippi) and from 0.84 to 1.00 for northern locations (Montana, North Dakota); proportionate differences for mean weight ranged from 1.13 to 1.17 and from 0.87 to 0.95, respectively, and those for mean relative weight ranged from 1.10 to 1.18 and from 0.86 to 0.98, respectively. Weights for fish at longer lengths varied by 600–700 g within a location and by as much as 2,000 g among southern and northern locations. Estimates for the Wabash River, Indiana (0.96–1.07 times the average; greatest increases for lower weights at shorter TLs), and for the Missouri River from Blair, Nebraska, to Sioux City, Iowa (0.90–1.00 times the average; greatest decreases for lower weights at longer TLs), were examined in detail to explain the additional information provided by quantile estimates.

  11. Wellhead leak containment

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, V.R.

    1990-08-21

    This patent describes an improvement in apparatus for producing fluid from a wellbore in the earth wherein the wellbore is capped at the surface of the earth with a wellhead. The wellhead being adapted for use with a reciprocating downhole rod pump which is carried by a sucker-rod string that extends from the downhole pump through the wellhead and connects with a reciprocating pumping unit on the earth's surface. The pumping unit being operated by a power plant means. The improvement comprising a catch basin carried by the wellhead in the vicinity where the sucker-rod string exits from the wellhead.

  12. Rods Cancel Cones in Flicker

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald I. A. MacLeod

    1972-01-01

    THE retina of man is equipped with two separate receptor systems. Cones, operating best in relatively strong illumination, are the basis of daylight (photopic) vision. In dim illumination (scotopic vision) we rely on rod receptors alone, and the limitations of the rod receptor system are apparent in the character of our visual sensations: in scotopic conditions colour is absent, outlines

  13. Modeling Fractions with Cuisenaire Rods

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-01-01

    In this interactive simulation students must determine the values for each of the Cuisenaire Rods based on the information that they are given in the prompt. This activity allows students to reason about how fractional values change based on the size of the whole. Students may use the Cuisenaire Rod activity space or use hands-on manipulatives to complete this activity.

  14. Composite Lightning Rods for Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryan, Charles F., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Composite, lightweight sacrificial tip with graphite designed reduces lightning-strike damage to composite parts of aircraft and dissipates harmful electrical energy. Device consists of slender composite rod fabricated from highly-conductive unidirectional reinforcing fibers in matrix material. Rods strategically installed in trailing edges of aircraft wings, tails, winglets, control surfaces, and rearward-most portion of aft fuselage.

  15. Genetic diversity analysis of mitochondrial DNA control region in artificially propagated Chinese sucker Myxocyprinus asiaticus.

    PubMed

    Wan, Yuan; Zhou, Chun-Hua; Ouyang, Shan; Huang, Xiao-Chen; Zhan, Yang; Zhou, Ping; Rong, Jun; Wu, Xiao-Ping

    2015-08-01

    The genetic diversity of the three major artificially propagated populations of Chinese sucker, an endangered freshwater fish species, was investigated using the sequences of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control regions. Among the 89 individuals tested, 66 variable sites (7.26%) and 10 haplotypes were detected (Haplotype diversity Hd?=?0.805, Nucleotide diversity ??=?0.0287). In general, genetic diversity was lower in artificially propagated populations than in wild populations. This reduction in genetic diversity may be due to population bottlenecks, genetic drift and human selection. A stepping-stone pattern of gene flow was detected in the populations studied, showing much higher gene flow between neighbouring populations. To increase the genetic diversity, wild lineages should be introduced, and more lineages should be shared among artificially propagated populations. PMID:24409897

  16. Predation by odonate nymphs on larval razorback suckers (Xyrauchen texanus) under laboratory conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horn, Michael J.; Marsh, Paul C.; Mueller, Gordon; Burke, Tom

    1994-01-01

    High larval mortality has plagued efforts to raise razorback suckers (Xyrauchen texanus) in a Lake Mohave, Arizona-Nevada backwater. Observations indicate odonate nymph densities may be high enough to impact larval survival. In laboratory tests conducted in aquaria, damselfly (Coenagrionidae: Enallagma sp.) and dragonfly (Libellulidae: Tramea sp.) nymphs consumed 81% and 76% respectively of 11.8 ± 0.7 mm total length larval razorbacks in 7 days compared to 12% mortality in controls. Larger razorback larvae (14 to 15 mm TL) were less susceptible than smaller fish, showing 53% mortality versus 18% in controls. Extensive growth of sago pondweed (Potamogeton pectinatus) may exacerbate predation effects in the backwater, by allowing odonates access to more of the water column.

  17. String mediated phase transitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copeland, ED; Haws, D.; Rivers, R.; Holbraad, S.

    1988-01-01

    It is demonstrated from first principles how the existence of string-like structures can cause a system to undergo a phase transition. In particular, the role of topologically stable cosmic string in the restoration of spontaneously broken symmetries is emphasized. How the thermodynamic properties of strings alter when stiffness and nearest neighbor string-string interactions are included is discussed.

  18. The "Magic" String

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Todd F.

    2010-01-01

    The "Magic" String is a discrepant event that includes a canister with what appears to be the end of two strings protruding from opposite sides of it. Due to the way the strings are attached inside the canister, it appears as if the strings can magically switch the way they are connected. When one string end is pulled, the observer's expectation…

  19. Through tubing progressing cavity pump

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, A.E.

    1986-06-03

    A method is described of installing a progressing cavity pump assembly within a well, the pump assembly being of the type having a stator, a helical rotor located in the stator and rotated by a string of sucker rods extending through tubing to the surface. The method consists of: securing a tubular seating member to a lower end of the tubing and lowering the tubing into the well; mounting a seating member on a lower end of the pump assembly; mounting a rotor nipple to the upper end of the stator and a drive rod to the upper end of the rotor, and providing the rotor nipple and drive rod with engaging means that allows a selected amount of vertical movement of the rotor with respect to the stator; connecting the upper end of the drive rod to the sucker rods; lowering the pump assembly into the tubing on the sucker rods until the seating member on the pump assembly contacts the tubular seating member; continuing to lower the sucker rods without rotation, moving the rotor downward with respect to the stator and forcing the seating members together with the weight of the sucker rods applied to the stator through the engaging means; then moving the sucker rods and the rotor a selected distance upward while the stator remains stationary to position the top of the rotor above the stator a selected distance; then connecting the sucker rods at the surface to a rotary power source and rotating the sucker rods to cause the pump to operate.

  20. Status of rod consolidation, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    It is estimated that the spent fuel storage pools at some domestic light-water reactors will run out of space before 2003, the year that the US Department of Energy currently predicts it will have a repository available. Of the methods being studied to alleviate the problem, rod consolidation is one of the leading candidates for achieving more efficient use of existing space in spent fuel storage pools. Rod consolidation involves mechanically removing all the fuel rods from the fuel assembly hardware (i.e., the structural components) and placing the fuel rods in a close-packed array in a canister without space grids. A typical goal of rod consolidation systems is to insert the fuel rods from two fuel assemblies into a canister that has the same exterior dimensions as one standard fuel assembly (i.e., to achieve a consolidation or compaction ratio of 2:1) and to compact the nonfuel-bearing structural components from those two fuel assemblies by a factor of 10 to 20. This report provides an overview of the current status of rod consolidation in the United States and a small amount of information on related activities in other countries. 85 refs., 36 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Demographics and Chronology of a Spawning Aggregation of Blue Sucker (Cycleptus elongatus) in the Grand River, Missouri, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vokoun, J.C.; Guerrant, T.L.; Rabeni, C.F.

    2003-01-01

    The blue sucker (Cycleptus elongatus) was sampled as individuals arrived, spawned, and departed from a spawning riffle in the Grand River of northcentral Missouri, USA. The Grand River basin was not known to support blue sucker reproduction with few individuals ever recorded. The spawning site is unique in character for the lower river. Individuals began arriving in early April when water temperatures reached 10-12??C. Females with freely-flowing roe were sampled in late April after a large rise in river stage and concurrent lowering of the water temperature 4-5 degrees to 16.5??C. The spawning aggregation had a mean age of 15 y and ranged from 9 to 22 y based on scales that probably underestimated true ages. Males outnumbered females 5.5:1. Mean length was 659 mm for males and 721 mm for females. Females were longer at age than males and no significant age-length relationship was evident.

  2. Genetic effects of habitat fragmentation on blue sucker populations in the upper Missouri River ( Cycleptus elongatus Lesueur, 1918)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael L. Bessert; Guillermo Ortí

    2008-01-01

    The blue sucker, Cycleptus elongatus, is a large catostomid fish that occurs in main stem rivers throughout the Mississippi basin of North America. Although not\\u000a federally listed as threatened or endangered, populations are not considered stable in any of 21 states where they occur.\\u000a Included in the range is the Missouri River, which flows more than 3,200 km from Montana to

  3. Survival Rates and Movement of Hatchery-Reared Razorback Suckers in the Upper Colorado River Basin, Utah and Colorado

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koreen A. Zelasko; Kevin R. Bestgen; Gary C. White

    2010-01-01

    We used tag–recapture data to estimate apparent survival and capture probability for 119,129 hatchery-reared, federally endangered razorback suckers Xyrauchen texanus stocked into upper Colorado River basin streams during 1995–2005. Effects investigated included reach, year, and season of stocking; fish total length (TL) at time of stocking; survival in the first year after stocking versus in subsequent years; and sampling effort.

  4. Chemical and ecological health of white sucker (Catostomus Commersoni) in Rock Creek Park, Washington, D.C., 2003?04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, C.V.; Weyers, H.S.; Blazer, V.S.; Freeman, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    Several classes of chemicals that are known or suspected contaminants were found in bed sediment in Rock Creek, including polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phthalate esters, organochlorine pesticides, dioxins and furans, trace metals and metalloids (mercury, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, nickel, silver, and zinc), and polychlorinated biphenyls (total PCBs and selected aroclors). Concentrations of many of these chemicals consistently exceeded thresholdor chronic-effects guidelines for the protection of aquatic life and often exceeded probable effects levels (PELs). Exceedance of PELs was dependent on the amount of total organic carbon in the sediments. Concurrent with the collection of sediment-quality data, white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) were evaluated for gross-external and internal-organ anomalies, whole-body burdens of chemical contaminants, and gut contents to determine prey. The histopathology of internal tissues of white sucker was compared to contaminant levels in fish tissue and bed sediment. Gut contents were examined to determine preferential prey and thus potential pathways for the bioaccumulation of chemicals from bed sediments. Male and female fish were tested separately. Lesions and other necroses were observed in all fish collected during both years of sample collection, indicating that fish in Rock Creek have experienced some form of environmental stress. No direct cause and effect was determined for chemical exposure and compromised fish health, but a substantial weight of evidence indicates that white sucker, which are bottom-feeding fish and low-order consumers in Rock Creek, are experiencing some reduction in vitality, possibly due to immunosuppression. Abnormalities observed in gonads of both sexes of white sucker and observations of abnormal behavior during spawning indicated some interruption in reproductive success.

  5. Chemical and Ecological Health of White Sucker (Catostomus Commersoni) in Rock Creek Park, Washington, D.C., 2003-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Cherie V.; Weyers, Holly S.; Blazer, Vicki S.; Freeman, Mary E.

    2006-01-01

    Several classes of chemicals that are known or suspected contaminants were found in bed sediment in Rock Creek, including polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phthalate esters, organochlorine pesticides, dioxins and furans, trace metals and metalloids (mercury, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, nickel, silver, and zinc), and polychlorinated biphenyls (total PCBs and selected aroclors). Concentrations of many of these chemicals consistently exceeded threshold or chronic-effects guidelines for the protection of aquatic life and often exceeded probable effects levels (PELs). Exceedance of PELs was dependent on the amount of total organic carbon in the sediments. Concurrent with the collection of sediment-quality data, white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) were evaluated for gross-external and internal-organ anomalies, whole-body burdens of chemical contaminants, and gut contents to determine prey. The histopathology of internal tissues of white sucker was compared to contaminant levels in fish tissue and bed sediment. Gut contents were examined to determine preferential prey and thus potential pathways for the bioaccumulation of chemicals from bed sediments. Male and female fish were tested separately. Lesions and other necroses were observed in all fish collected during both years of sample collection, indicating that fish in Rock Creek have experienced some form of environmental stress. No direct cause and effect was determined for chemical exposure and compromised fish health, but a substantial weight of evidence indicates that white sucker, which are bottom-feeding fish and low-order consumers in Rock Creek, are experiencing some reduction in vitality, possibly due to immunosuppression. Abnormalities observed in gonads of both sexes of white sucker and observations of abnormal behavior during spawning indicated some interruption in reproductive success.

  6. Bioaccumulation of the pharmaceutical 17?-ethinylestradiol in shorthead redhorse suckers ( Moxostoma macrolepidotum) from the St. Clair River, Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmed M. Al-Ansari; Ammar Saleem; Linda E. Kimpe; Jim P. Sherry; Mark E. McMaster; Vance L. Trudeau; Jules M. Blais

    2010-01-01

    17?-ethynylestradiol (EE2), a synthetic estrogen prescribed as a contraceptive, was measured in Shorthead Redhorse Suckers (ShRHSs) (Moxostoma macrolepidotum) collected near a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in the St. Clair River (Ontario, Canada). We detected EE2 in 50% of the fish samples caught near the WWTP (Stag Island), which averaged 1.6±0.6ng\\/g (wet weight) in males and 1.43±0.96ng\\/g in females. No EE2

  7. Hopf solitons and elastic rods

    SciTech Connect

    Harland, Derek; Sutcliffe, Paul [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Speight, Martin [School of Mathematics, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-15

    Hopf solitons in the Skyrme-Faddeev model are stringlike topological solitons classified by the integer-valued Hopf charge. In this paper we introduce an approximate description of Hopf solitons in terms of elastic rods. The general form of the elastic rod energy is derived from the field theory energy and is found to be an extension of the classical Kirchhoff rod energy. Using a minimal extension of the Kirchhoff energy, it is shown that a simple elastic rod model can reproduce many of the qualitative features of Hopf solitons in the Skyrme-Faddeev model. Features that are captured by the model include the buckling of the charge three solution, the formation of links at charges five and six, and the minimal energy trefoil knot at charge seven.

  8. Tag loss and short-term mortality associated with passive integrated transponder tagging of juvenile Lost River suckers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burdick, Summer M.

    2011-01-01

    Passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags are commonly used to mark small catostomids, but tag loss and the effect of tagging on mortality have not been assessed for juveniles of the endangered Lost River sucker Deltistes luxatus. I evaluated tag loss and short-term (34-d) mortality associated with the PIT tagging of juvenile Lost River suckers in the laboratory by using a completely randomized design and three treatment groups (PIT tagged, positive control, and control). An empty needle was inserted into each positive control fish, whereas control fish were handled but not tagged. Only one fish expelled its PIT tag. Mortality rate averaged 9.8 ± 3.4% (mean ± SD) for tagged fish; mortality was 0% for control and positive control fish. All tagging mortalities occurred in fish with standard lengths of 71 mm or less, and most of the mortalities occurred within 48 h of tagging. My results indicate that 12.45- × 2.02-mm PIT tags provide a viable method of marking juvenile Lost River suckers that are 72 mm or larger.

  9. Axion string constraints

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Battye; E. P. S. Shellard

    1994-01-01

    We study the production of cosmological axions in the standard scenario in which a global string network forms at the Peccei-Quinn phase transition. We make detailed calculations of the axions produced by string loops, comparing these with estimates of other contributions from long strings and domain walls. We delineate key uncertainties in string network evolution, the chief of which is

  10. Evidence for string substructure

    SciTech Connect

    Bergman, O.

    1996-06-01

    The author argues that the behavior of string theory at high temperature and high longitudinal boosts, combined with the emergence of p-branes as necessary ingredients in various string dualities, point to a possible reformulation of strings, as well as p-branes, as composites of bits. He reviews the string-bit models, and suggests generalizations to incorporate p-branes.

  11. Constraint Reasoning Over Strings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor); Golden, Keith; Pang, Wanlin

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses an approach to representing and reasoning about constraints over strings. We discuss how many string domains can often be concisely represented using regular languages, and how constraints over strings, and domain operations on sets of strings, can be carried out using this representation.

  12. What is String Theory?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph Polchinski

    1994-01-01

    The first part is an introduction to conformal field theory and string perturbation theory. The second part deals with the search for a deeper answer to the question posed in the title. Contents: 1. Conformal Field Theory 2. String Theory 3. Vacua and Dualities 4. String Field Theory or Not String Field Theory 5. Matrix Models

  13. Lectures on String Theory

    E-print Network

    Tong, David

    2009-01-01

    This is a one semester course on bosonic string theory aimed at beginning graduate students. The lectures assume a working knowledge of quantum field theory and general relativity. Contents: 1. The Classical String 2. The Quantum String 3. Open Strings and D-Branes 4. Introducing Conformal Field Theory 5. The Polyakov Path Integral and Ghosts 6. String Interactions 7. The Low-Energy Effective Action 8. Compactification and T-Duality

  14. Light from cosmic strings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tanmay Vachaspati; Daniele A. Steer

    2011-01-01

    The time-dependent metric of a cosmic string leads to an effective interaction between the string and photons--the ''gravitational Aharonov-Bohm'' effect--and causes cosmic strings to emit light. We evaluate the radiation of pairs of photons from cosmic strings and find that the emission from cusps, kinks and kink-kink collisions occurs with a flat spectrum at all frequencies up to the string

  15. Light from cosmic strings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Danièle A. Steer; Tanmay Vachaspati

    2011-01-01

    The time-dependent metric of a cosmic string leads to an effective interaction between the string and photons---the ``gravitational Aharonov-Bohm'' effect---and causes cosmic strings to emit light. We evaluate the radiation of pairs of photons from cosmic strings and find that the emission from cusps, kinks and kink-kink collisions occurs with a flat spectrum at all frequencies up to the string

  16. String driven inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Turok, N.

    1987-11-01

    It is argued that, in fundamental string theories, as one traces the universe back in time a point is reached when the expansion rate is so fast that the rate of string creation due to quantum effects balances the dilution of the string density due to the expansion. One is therefore led into a phase of constant string density and an exponentially expanding universe. Fundamental strings therefore seem to lead naturally to inflation. 17 refs., 1 fig.

  17. Learning String Edit Distance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Sven Ristad; Peter N. Yianilos

    1997-01-01

    In many applications, it is necessary to determine the similarity of two strings. A widely-used notion of string similarity is the edit distance: The minimum number of insertions, deletions, and substitutions required to transform one string into the other. In this report, we provide a stochastic model for string-edit distance. Our stochastic model allows us to learn a string-edit distance

  18. String-driven inflation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turok, Neil

    1988-01-01

    It is argued that, in fundamental string theories, as one traces the universe back in time a point is reached when the expansion rate is so fast that the rate of string creation due to quantum effects balances the dilution of the string density due to the expansion. One is therefore led into a phase of constant string density and an exponentially expanding universe. Fundamental strings therefore seem to lead naturally to inflation.

  19. Relative sensitivity of three endangered fishes, Colorado squawfish, bonytail, and razorback sucker, to selected metal pollutants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buhl, K.J.

    1997-01-01

    The acute toxicity of four metal pollutants to larval and juvenile stages of endangered Colorado squawfish (Ptychocheilus lucius), bonytail (Gila elegans), and razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus) were determined in a water quality representative of that in the Green River, Utah. The rank order of toxicity (96-hr LC50) of the metals to all species and life stages from most toxic to least toxic was mercury (57-168 ??G/liter) > cadmium (78-168 pg/liter) > hexavalent chromium (32,000-123,000 ??g/liter) > lead (>170,000 ??G/liter). In tests with lead, a precipitate formed in all test solutions and no mortalities occurred in these treatments. The larvae of each species were as sensitive or more sensitive than the juveniles to cadmium, hexavalent chromium, and mercury. Overall, the three species exhibited similar sensitivities to cadmium, hexavalent chromium, and mercury. Comparison of test results for the juveniles with toxicity values reported for other freshwater fishes tested in different water qualities indicates that the endangered fishes are more sensitive to cadmium than other cyprinids and centrarchids and less sensitive than salmonids, whereas their sensitivity to hexavalent chromium and mercury is similar to that of other cyprinids, centrarchids, and salmonids.

  20. Time-series analysis reveals genetic responses to intensive management of razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus).

    PubMed

    Dowling, Thomas E; Turner, Thomas F; Carson, Evan W; Saltzgiver, Melody J; Adams, Deborah; Kesner, Brian; Marsh, Paul C

    2014-03-01

    Time-series analysis is used widely in ecology to study complex phenomena and may have considerable potential to clarify relationships of genetic and demographic processes in natural and exploited populations. We explored the utility of this approach to evaluate population responses to management in razorback sucker, a long-lived and fecund, but declining freshwater fish species. A core population in Lake Mohave (Arizona-Nevada, USA) has experienced no natural recruitment for decades and is maintained by harvesting naturally produced larvae from the lake, rearing them in protective custody, and repatriating them at sizes less vulnerable to predation. Analyses of mtDNA and 15 microsatellites characterized for sequential larval cohorts collected over a 15-year time series revealed no changes in geographic structuring but indicated significant increase in mtDNA diversity for the entire population over time. Likewise, ratios of annual effective breeders to annual census size (N b /N a) increased significantly despite sevenfold reduction of N a. These results indicated that conservation actions diminished near-term extinction risk due to genetic factors and should now focus on increasing numbers of fish in Lake Mohave to ameliorate longer-term risks. More generally, time-series analysis permitted robust testing of trends in genetic diversity, despite low precision of some metrics. PMID:24665337

  1. Population Dynamics of Adult Lost River (Deltistes luxatus) and Shortnose (Chasmistes brevirostris) Suckers in Clear Lake Reservoir, California, 2006-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barry, Patrick M.; Janney, Eric C.; Hewitt, David A.; Hayes, Brian S.; Scott, Alta C.

    2009-01-01

    We report results from ongoing research into the population dynamics of endangered Lost River and shortnose suckers in Clear Lake Reservoir, California. Results are included for sampling that occurred from fall 2006 to spring 2008. We summarize catches and passive integrated transponder tagging efforts from trammel net sampling in fall 2006 and fall 2007, and report on detections of tagged suckers on remote antennas in the primary spawning tributary, Willow Creek, in spring 2007 and spring 2008. Results from trammel net sampling were similar to previous years, although catches of suckers in fall 2006 were lower than in 2007 and past years. Lost River and shortnose suckers combined made up about 80 percent of the sucker catch in each year, and more than 2,000 new fish were tagged across the 2 years. Only a small number of the suckers captured in fall sampling were recaptures of previously tagged fish, reinforcing the importance of remote detections of fish for capture-recapture analysis. Detections of tagged suckers in Willow Creek were low in spring 2007, presumably because of low flows. Nonetheless, the proportions of tagged fish that were detected were reasonably high and capture-recapture analyses should be possible after another year of data collection. Run timing for Lost River and shortnose suckers was well described by first detections of individuals by antennas in Willow Creek, although we may not have installed the antennas early enough in 2008 to monitor the earliest portion of the Lost River sucker migration. The duration and magnitude of the spawning runs for both species were influenced by flows and water temperature. Flows in Willow Creek were much higher in 2008 than in 2007, and far more detections were recorded in 2008 and the migrations were more protracted. In both years and for both species, migrations began in early March at water temperatures between 5 and 6 deg C and peaks were related to periods of increasing water temperature. The sex ratio of Lost River suckers detected in Willow Creek was skewed toward males, despite consistently more females having been tagged in fall sampling. This pattern indicates that some tagged female Lost River suckers may be spawning elsewhere in the system, and we intend to investigate this possibility to verify or alter the representativeness of our spring monitoring. Length frequency analysis of fall trammel net catches showed that the populations of both species in Clear Lake Reservoir have undergone major demographic transitions during the last 15 years. In the mid-1990s, the populations were dominated by larger fish and showed little evidence of recent recruitment. These larger fish apparently disappeared in the late 1990s and early 2000s, and the populations are now dominated by fish that recruited into the adult populations in the late 1990s. The length frequencies from the last 4 years provide evidence of consistent recruitment into the Lost River sucker population, but provide no such evidence for the shortnose sucker population. Overall, annual growth rates for both species in Clear Lake were 2-4 times greater than growth rates for conspecifics in Upper Klamath Lake. However, little or no growth occurred for either species in Clear Lake between 2006 and 2007. Based on available evidence, we are unable to fully explain differences in growth rates between systems or among years within Clear Lake.

  2. String Field Theory

    E-print Network

    Washington Taylor

    2006-06-28

    This elementary introduction to string field theory highlights the features and the limitations of this approach to quantum gravity as it is currently understood. String field theory is a formulation of string theory as a field theory in space-time with an infinite number of massive fields. Although existing constructions of string field theory require expanding around a fixed choice of space-time background, the theory is in principle background-independent, in the sense that different backgrounds can be realized as different field configurations in the theory. String field theory is the only string formalism developed so far which, in principle, has the potential to systematically address questions involving multiple asymptotically distinct string backgrounds. Thus, although it is not yet well defined as a quantum theory, string field theory may eventually be helpful for understanding questions related to cosmology in string theory.

  3. Distribution and condition of young-of-year Lost River and shortnose suckers in the Williamson River Delta restoration project and Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, 2008-10--Final Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burdick, Summer M.; Hewitt, David A.

    2012-01-01

    We were unable to compare health and condition of juvenile suckers among habitats, due to their movement among habitats. However, documentation of length-weight relationships, afflictions and deformities, and histology indicated juvenile suckers captured in all habitats maintained a similar level of health among the 3 years of our study.

  4. String interactions from Matrix string theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Bonelli; L. Bonora; F. Nesti

    1999-01-01

    Matrix string theory, i.e. the two-dimensional U(N) SYM with N = (8,8) supersymmetry, has classical BPS solutions that interpolate between an initial and a final string configuration via a bordered Riemann surface. The Matrix string theory amplitudes around such a classical BPS background, in the strong Yang-Mills coupling, are therefore candidates to be interpreted in a stringy way as the

  5. Spin-string interaction in QCD strings

    SciTech Connect

    Vyas, Vikram [Physics Department St. Stephen's College, Delhi University, Delhi (India)

    2008-08-15

    I consider the question of the interaction between a QCD string and the spin of a quark or an antiquark on whose worldline the string terminates. The problem is analyzed from the point of view of a string representation for the expectation value of a Wilson loop for a spin-half particle. A string representation of the super Wilson loop is obtained starting from an effective string representation of a Wilson Loop. The action obtained in this manner is invariant under a worldline supersymmetry and has a boundary term which contains the spin-string interaction. For rectangular loops the spin-string interaction vanishes and there is no spin-spin term in the resulting heavy quark potential. On the other hand if an allowance is made for the finite intrinsic thickness of the flux tube by assuming that the spin-string interaction takes place not just at the boundary of the string world sheet but extends to a distance of the order of the intrinsic thickness of the flux tube then we do obtain a spin-spin interaction which falls as the fifth power of the distance. Such a term was previously suggested by Kogut and Parisi in the context of a flux-tube model of confinement.

  6. Control rods in LMFBRs: a physics assessment

    SciTech Connect

    McFarlane, H.F.; Collins, P.J.

    1982-08-01

    This physics assessment is based on roughly 300 control rod worth measurements in ZPPR from 1972 to 1981. All ZPPR assemblies simulated mixed-oxide LMFBRs, representing sizes of 350, 700, and 900 MWe. Control rod worth measurements included single rods, various combinations of rods, and Ta and Eu rods. Additional measurements studied variations in B/sub 4/C enrichment, rod interaction effects, variations in rod geometry, neutron streaming in sodium-filled channels, and axial worth profiles. Analyses were done with design-equivalent methods, using ENDF/B Version IV data. Some computations for the sensitivities to approximations in the methods have been included. Comparisons of these analyses with the experiments have allowed the status of control rod physics in the US to be clearly defined.

  7. 21 CFR 876.4270 - Colostomy rod.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4270 Colostomy rod. (a) Identification. A colostomy rod is a device...

  8. 21 CFR 876.4270 - Colostomy rod.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4270 Colostomy rod. (a) Identification. A colostomy rod is a device...

  9. 21 CFR 876.4270 - Colostomy rod.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4270 Colostomy rod. (a) Identification. A colostomy rod is a device...

  10. 21 CFR 876.4270 - Colostomy rod.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4270 Colostomy rod. (a) Identification. A colostomy rod is a device...

  11. 21 CFR 876.4270 - Colostomy rod.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4270 Colostomy rod. (a) Identification. A colostomy rod is a device...

  12. Efficacy of hydrogen peroxide in controlling mortality associated with saprolegniasis on walleye, white sucker, and paddlefish eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaikowski, M.P.; Rach, J.J.; Drobish, M.; Hamilton, J.; Harder, T.; Lee, L.A.; Moen, C.; Moore, A.

    2003-01-01

    The efficacy of hydrogen peroxide in controlling saprolegniasis on eggs of walleye Stizostedion vitreum, white sucker Catostomus commersoni, and paddlefish Polyodon spathula was evaluated at four private, state, and federal production hatcheries participating in an Investigational New Animal Drug efficacy study (experiment 1; walleyes) and in a laboratory-based miniature egg jar incubation system (experiment 2; walleyes, white suckers, and paddlefish). Naturally occurring fungal infestations (saprolegniasis) were observed on eggs in both experiments. Confirmatory diagnosis of infested eggs from one hatchery in experiment 1 identified the pathogen as Saprolegnia parasitica. During experiment 1, eggs were treated daily for 15 min with either 0, 500, or 750 mg/L of hydrogen peroxide, and one trial compared a 500-mg/L hydrogen peroxide treatment with a formalin treatment at 1,667 mg/L. Saprolegniasis infestation was observed in control egg jars, whereas treatment with either formalin or hydrogen peroxide virtually eliminated the infestation. Hydrogen peroxide treatments of 500 mg/L either increased egg hatch or were as effective as physical removal of infested eggs in controlling mortality. Although treatment with formalin at 1,667 mg/L significantly increased the percent eye-up of walleye eggs compared with that of those treated with hydrogen peroxide at 500 mg/L, the difference was only 1.9-2.6%. In experiment 2, noneyed eggs were treated for 15 min every other day with 0, 283, 565, or 1,130 mg/L of hydrogen peroxide until the viable eggs hatched. Saprolegniasis infestation engulfed most control eggs, whereas infestation of treated eggs was either reduced or not visible. Hydrogen peroxide significantly increased egg hatch for all three species tested in experiment 2. Although hydrogen peroxide treatments as low as 283 mg/L significantly increased walleye and white sucker hatch, treatments between 500 and 1,000 mg/L are more likely to be effective in production egg incubation systems.

  13. Effects of total dissolved gas supersaturated water on lethality and catalase activity of Chinese sucker (Myxocyprinus asiaticus Bleeker).

    PubMed

    Chen, Shi-chao; Liu, Xiao-qing; Jiang, Wen; Li, Ke-feng; Du, Jun; Shen, Dan-zhou; Gong, Quan

    2012-10-01

    Total dissolved gas (TDG) supersaturation caused by dam sluicing can result in gas bubble trauma (GBT) in fish and threaten their survival. In the present study, Chinese suckers (Myxocyprinus asiaticus Bleeker) were exposed to TDG supersaturated water at levels ranging from 120% to 145% for 48 h. The median lethal concentration (LC(50)) and the median lethal time (LT(50)) were determined to evaluate acute lethal effects on Chinese suckers. The results showed that the LC(50) values of 4, 6, 8, and 10 h were 142%, 137%, 135%, and 130%, respectively. The LT(50) values were 3.2, 4.7, 7.8, 9.2, and 43.4 h, respectively, when TDG supersaturated levels were 145%, 140%, 135%, 130%, and 125%. Furthermore, the biological responses in Chinese suckers were studied by assaying the catalase (CAT) activities in gills and muscles at the supersaturation level of 140% within LT(50). The CAT activities in the gills and muscle tissues exhibited a regularity of a decrease after an increase. CAT activities in the muscles were increased significantly at 3/5LT(50) (P<0.05) and then came back to the normal level. However, there were no significant differences between the treatment group (TDG level of 140%) and the control group (TDG level of 100%) on CAT activities in the gills before 3/5LT(50) (P>0.05), but the activities were significantly lower than the normal level at 4/5LT(50) and LT(50) (P<0.05). PMID:23024046

  14. Apparatus and method for automatically and periodically introducing a fluid into a producing oil well

    SciTech Connect

    Soderberg, P.B.

    1987-07-21

    This patent describes a method for periodically and automatically introducing a fluid into a producing well through a tubing drain valve in a string of production tubing, comprising: disabling temporarily, automatically and at periodic time intervals a string of sucker rods disposed within the string of production tubing between a surface-located means for operating the sucker rods and a downhole pump so that a mechanical actuator on the string of sucker rods is stopped in a predetermined position on one side of a lever means of the tubing drain valve. An apparatus is described useful for periodically and automatically introducing a fluid into a producing well through a tubing drain valve located in a production string, comprising: a string of production tubing suitable for suspension in a producing well; surface and downhole pumps connected by a string of sucker rods for lifting well fluids through the production tubing; a tubing drain valve within the production string, the tubing drain valve actuated to its opened position by increased pressure within the production tubing and actuated to its closed position by movement of a lever means of the value; means in communication with the interior of the production tubing for pressurizing the production tubing to a pressure sufficient to open the tubing drain valve; means in communication with the interior of the production tubing for introducing a fluid into the production tubing; an actuator means disposed on the string of sucker rods for mechanically closing the tubing drain valve by cooperation with the lever means on the valve; and means for controlling automatically the operation of the above components at periodic time intervals for automatically conveying a fluid into the production tubing and through the tubing drain valve.

  15. Physiological hepatic response to zinc oxide nanoparticle exposure in the white sucker, Catostomus commersonii.

    PubMed

    Dieni, Christopher Anthony; Callaghan, Neal Ingraham; Gormley, Patrick Thomas; Butler, Kathryn Marie Alison; Maccormack, Tyson James

    2014-05-01

    Liver toxicity of commercially relevant zinc oxide nanoparticles (nZnO) was assessed in a benthic freshwater cypriniform, the white sucker (Catostomus commersonii). Exposure to nZnO caused several changes in levels of liver enzyme activity, antioxidants, and lipid peroxidation end products consistent with an oxidative stress response. Aconitase activity decreased by ~65% but tended to be restored to original levels upon supplementation with Fe(2+), indicating oxidative inactivation of the 4Fe-4S cluster. Furthermore, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity decreased by ~29%, and glutathione levels increased by ~56%. Taken together, these suggest that nZnO induces hepatic physiological stress. Each assay was then validated by using a single liver homogenate or plasma sample that was partitioned and treated with nZnO or Zn(2+), the breakdown product of nZnO. It was found that Zn(2+), but not nZnO, increased detected glutathione reductase activity by ~14% and decreased detected malondialdehyde by ~39%. This indicates that if appreciable nZnO dissolution occurs in liver samples during processing and assay, it may skew results, with implications not only for this study, but also for a wide range of nanotoxicology studies focusing on nZnO. Finally, in vitro incubations of cell-free rat blood plasma with nZnO failed to generate any significant increase in malondialdehyde or protein carbonyl levels, or any significant decrease in ferric reducing ability of plasma. This suggests that at the level tested, any oxidative stress caused by nZnO is the result of a coordinated physiological response by the liver. PMID:24704545

  16. Cool Hot Rod (Thermal Expansion)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The phenomenon is thermal expansion of copper. This demonstration allows an observer to see the effect of heating (and cooling) a copper tube. When heated, the copper tube lengthens and thickens. When cooled, the tube shrinks. The lengthening of the rod rotates a toothpick with an attached flag to make the expansion visible and measurable.

  17. Influence of cytokinin levels on in vitro propagation of shy suckering chrysanthemum “Arka Swarna” and activation of endophytic bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bindu Panicker; Pious Thomas; Tolety Janakiram; Rangarajan Venugopalan; Sathyanarayana B. Narayanappa

    2007-01-01

    In an effort to develop a sustainable protocol for the micropropagation of a shy suckering elite chrysanthemum cv. Arka Swarna\\u000a (yellow pompon type), in vitro cultures were established using surface-sterilized nodal microcuttings (1–1.5 cm) from polyhouse-grown plants on MS medium\\u000a containing 3% sucrose, 0.25% phytagel, and 5 ?M benzyl adenine (BA) or kinetin. Microbial contamination in the range of 6–24%\\u000a was encountered

  18. Distribution, Health, and Development of Larval and Juvenile Lost River and Shortnose Suckers in the Williamson River Delta Restoration Project and Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon: 2008 Annual Data Summary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burdick, Summer M.; Ottinger, Christopher; Brown, Daniel T.; VanderKooi, Scott P.; Robertson, Laura; Iwanowicz, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    Federally endangered Lost River sucker Deltistes luxatus and shortnose sucker Chasmistes brevirostris were once abundant throughout their range but populations have declined; they have been extirpated from several lakes, and may no longer reproduce in others. Poor recruitment into the adult spawning populations is one of several reasons cited for the decline and lack of recovery of these species, and may be the consequence of high mortality during juvenile life stages. High larval and juvenile sucker mortality may be exacerbated by an insufficient quantity of suitable rearing habitat. Within Upper Klamath Lake, a lack of marshes also may allow larval suckers to be swept from suitable rearing areas downstream into the seasonally anoxic waters of the Keno Reservoir. The Nature Conservancy (TNC) flooded about 3,600 acres to the north of the Williamson River mouth (Tulana Unit) in October 2007, and about 1,400 acres to the south and east of the Williamson River mouth (Goose Bay Unit) a year later, to retain larval suckers in Upper Klamath Lake, create nursery habitat for suckers, and improve water quality. In collaboration with TNC, the Bureau of Reclamation, and Oregon State University, we began a long-term collaborative research and monitoring program in 2008 to assess the effects of the Williamson River Delta restoration on the early life-history stages of Lost River and shortnose suckers. Our approach includes two equally important aspects. One component is to describe habitat use and colonization processes by larval and juvenile suckers and non-sucker fish species. The second is to evaluate the effects of the restored habitat on the health and condition of juvenile suckers. This report contains a summary of the first year of data collected as a part of this monitoring effort.

  19. Quasiperiodicities in Fibonacci strings

    E-print Network

    Christou, Michalis; Iliopoulos, Costas

    2012-01-01

    We consider the problem of finding quasiperiodicities in a Fibonacci string. A factor u of a string y is a cover of y if every letter of y falls within some occurrence of u in y. A string v is a seed of y, if it is a cover of a superstring of y. A left seed of a string y is a prefix of y that it is a cover of a superstring of y. Similarly a right seed of a string y is a suffix of y that it is a cover of a superstring of y. In this paper, we present some interesting results regarding quasiperiodicities in Fibonacci strings, we identify all covers, left/right seeds and seeds of a Fibonacci string and all covers of a circular Fibonacci string.

  20. The Fraction String

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Michael Green

    2012-06-26

    In this lesson students create a model of a number line using string and adding machine tape. Students discover how to partition the string into equal sections, and name the fractional pieces, including fractions greater than 1.

  1. Light from Cosmic Strings

    E-print Network

    Steer, Daniele A

    2010-01-01

    The time-dependent metric of a cosmic string leads to an effective interaction between the string and photons - the "gravitational Aharonov-Bohm" effect -- and causes cosmic strings to emit light. We evaluate the radiation of pairs of photons from cosmic strings and find that the emission from cusps, kinks and kink-kink collisions occurs with a flat spectrum at all frequencies up to the string scale. Further, cusps emit a beam of photons, kinks emit along a curve, and the emission at a kink-kink collision is in all directions. The emission of light from cosmic strings could provide an important new observational signature of cosmic strings that is within reach of current experiments for a range of string tensions.

  2. Light from Cosmic Strings

    E-print Network

    Daniele A. Steer; Tanmay Vachaspati

    2010-12-09

    The time-dependent metric of a cosmic string leads to an effective interaction between the string and photons - the "gravitational Aharonov-Bohm" effect -- and causes cosmic strings to emit light. We evaluate the radiation of pairs of photons from cosmic strings and find that the emission from cusps, kinks and kink-kink collisions occurs with a flat spectrum at all frequencies up to the string scale. Further, cusps emit a beam of photons, kinks emit along a curve, and the emission at a kink-kink collision is in all directions. The emission of light from cosmic strings could provide an important new observational signature of cosmic strings that is within reach of current experiments for a range of string tensions.

  3. Light from cosmic strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steer, Danièle A.; Vachaspati, Tanmay

    2011-02-01

    The time-dependent metric of a cosmic string leads to an effective interaction between the string and photons—the “gravitational Aharonov-Bohm” effect—and causes cosmic strings to emit light. We evaluate the radiation of pairs of photons from cosmic strings and find that the emission from cusps, kinks and kink-kink collisions occurs with a flat spectrum at all frequencies up to the string scale. Further, cusps emit a beam of photons, kinks emit along a curve, and the emission at a kink-kink collision is in all directions. The emission of light from cosmic strings could provide an important new observational signature of cosmic strings that is within reach of current experiments for a range of string tensions.

  4. Fundamental strings in SFT

    E-print Network

    L. Bonora; C. Maccaferri; R. J. Scherer Santos; D. D. Tolla

    2005-01-14

    In this letter we show that vacuum string field theory contains exact solutions that can be interpreted as macroscopic fundamental strings. They are formed by a condensate of infinitely many completely space-localized solutions (D0-branes).

  5. Fundamental strings in SFT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Bonora; C. Maccaferri; R. J. Scherer Santos; D. D. Tolla

    2005-01-01

    In this Letter we show that vacuum string field theory contains exact solutions that we propose to interpret as macroscopic fundamental strings. They are formed by a condensate of infinitely many completely space-localized solutions (D0-branes).

  6. Fundamental strings in SFT

    E-print Network

    Bonora, L; Santos, R J S; Tolla, D D

    2005-01-01

    In this letter we show that vacuum string field theory contains exact solutions that can be interpreted as macroscopic fundamental strings. They are formed by a condensate of infinitely many completely space-localized solutions (D0-branes).

  7. Light from cosmic strings

    SciTech Connect

    Steer, Daniele A.; Vachaspati, Tanmay [APC 10 rue Alice Domon et Leonie Duquet, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Physics Department, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    The time-dependent metric of a cosmic string leads to an effective interaction between the string and photons--the ''gravitational Aharonov-Bohm'' effect--and causes cosmic strings to emit light. We evaluate the radiation of pairs of photons from cosmic strings and find that the emission from cusps, kinks and kink-kink collisions occurs with a flat spectrum at all frequencies up to the string scale. Further, cusps emit a beam of photons, kinks emit along a curve, and the emission at a kink-kink collision is in all directions. The emission of light from cosmic strings could provide an important new observational signature of cosmic strings that is within reach of current experiments for a range of string tensions.

  8. Sorting Symbol Strings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Jodie D.; Jacobs, Judith E.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a variety of activities that ask students to identify, describe, compare, and classify symbol strings (algebraic expressions and equations). The activities use a collection of twelve symbol strings on cards. (Contains 2 figures.)

  9. String resistance detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, A. Daniel (Inventor); Davies, Francis J. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Method and system are disclosed for determining individual string resistance in a network of strings when the current through a parallel connected string is unknown and when the voltage across a series connected string is unknown. The method/system of the invention involves connecting one or more frequency-varying impedance components with known electrical characteristics to each string and applying a frequency-varying input signal to the network of strings. The frequency-varying impedance components may be one or more capacitors, inductors, or both, and are selected so that each string is uniquely identifiable in the output signal resulting from the frequency-varying input signal. Numerical methods, such as non-linear regression, may then be used to resolve the resistance associated with each string.

  10. The size of rod signals

    PubMed Central

    Alpern, M.; Rushton, W. A. H.; Torii, S.

    1970-01-01

    1. This investigation is based upon Alpern's (1965) contrast flash observations. The threshold for the test flash ? (Fig. 2a) is raised if a second flash ? falls on the annular surround. Moreover, if ? excites rods at threshold, it is only the rods in the surround that contribute to the threshold rise. 2. The possibility that the rise in ? threshold might be due to light physically scattered from surround to centre we exclude by several different experiments. We conclude (Fig. 1b) that the ? flash sets up a nerve signal N which is conducted to some place C where it inhibits the signal from the centre. 3. If the luminous surround, instead of being a full circle (Fig. 2a) consists only of the sectors shown black in Fig. 2b, that occupy 1/m of the surround area, it is found (in the physiological range) that the light/area on those sectors must be m times as great to produce the same threshold rise at centre, i.e. the total surround illumination must remain the same. 4. This result would obviously follow if N, the inhibitory nerve signal, were proportional to the total surround illumination. We have established the converse; the signal must be proportional to the quantum catch. 5. Light can be increased indefinitely, nerve signals cannot. When ? increases sufficiently, N saturates in the same way that S-potentials and receptor potentials saturate, namely according to N = ?/(? + ?) where ?, the semi-saturation constant is about 200 td sec, or 800 quanta absorbed per rod per flash. 6. Thus the nerve signal N is proportional to the quantum catch over 4 log units in the physiological range, namely from 1 quantum per 100 rods to 100 quanta per rod per flash. Above this for another 2 log units N continues to increase, but now more slowly, after the manner of S-potentials and receptor potentials. PMID:5498455

  11. Equations determine reasonable rod pump submergence depth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hu Yongquan; Cai Wizhong

    1997-01-01

    A reasonable rod pump submergence depth can be calculated by combining fluid level changes with piston travel. Submergence depth is affected by the pump fill factor, reservoir fluid viscosity, rod pump type, and pumping parameters such as pump diameter, polished-rod stroke length, and pumping speed. Fluid level velocity can be obtained with an energy balance, and piston travel rate is

  12. On Adelic Strings

    E-print Network

    Branko Dragovich

    2000-05-22

    New approach to p-adic and adelic strings, which takes into account that not only world sheet but also Minkowski space-time and string momenta can be p-adic and adelic, is formulated. p-Adic and adelic string amplitudes are considered within Feynman's path integral formalism. The adelic Veneziano amplitude is calculated. Some discreteness of string momenta is obtained. Also, adelic coupling constant is equal to unity.

  13. Drill string enclosure

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, D.K.; Kuhns, D.J.; Wiersholm, O.; Miller, T.A.

    1993-03-02

    The drill string enclosure consists of six component parts, including; a top bracket, an upper acrylic cylinder, an acrylic drill casing guide, a lower acrylic cylinder, a bottom bracket, and three flexible ducts. The upper acrylic cylinder is optional based upon the drill string length. The drill string enclosure allows for an efficient drill and sight operation at a hazardous waste site.

  14. Euclidean Strings , Frank Ruskey

    E-print Network

    Ruskey, Frank

    with the same structure as the Euclidean algorithm, hence the name. We show that Euclidean strings are Lyndon problem. Keywords: Euclidean algorithm, Lyndon word, Stern-Brocot tree, Fibonacci string, Beatty sequence of the Euclidean algorithm, from which they get their name. We prove various characterizations of Euclidean strings

  15. PARALLEL STRINGS - PARALLEL UNIVERSES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jim McDowall; Saft America

    Sometimes different parts of the battery community just don't seem to operate on the same level, and attitudes towards parallel battery strings are a prime example of this. Engineers at telephone company central offices are quite happy operating 20 or more parallel strings on the same dc bus, while many manufacturers warn against connecting more than four or five strings

  16. String theory: an update

    E-print Network

    Jan de Boer

    2003-01-27

    An overview of some of the developments in string theory over the past two years is given, focusing on four topics: realistic (standard model like) models from string theory, geometric engineering and theories with fluxes, the gauge theory-gravity correspondence, and time dependent backgrounds and string theory. Plenary talk at ICHEP'02, Amsterdam, July 24-31, 2002.

  17. XMLSchema:string Description

    E-print Network

    Joo, Su-Chong

    #12;#12;XMLSchema:string Functional Description Provider TableElement Pragmatics pragmatics Table Parameter Role AtomicProcess XMLScema:integer XMLScema:string Location SequenceProcess ServiceIdentifier WebService ServiceType Action Object Capability Evaluation XMLSchema:floatXMLSchema:string Atomic Composite C

  18. Drill string enclosure

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, Douglas K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kuhns, Douglass J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wiersholm, Otto (Idaho Falls, ID); Miller, Timothy A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1993-01-01

    The drill string enclosure consists of six component parts, including; a top bracket, an upper acrylic cylinder, an acrylic drill casing guide, a lower acrylic cylinder, a bottom bracket, and three flexible ducts. The upper acrylic cylinder is optional based upon the drill string length. The drill string enclosure allows for an efficient drill and sight operation at a hazardous waste site.

  19. Rod cluster having improved vane configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Shockling, L.A.; Francis, T.A.

    1989-09-05

    This patent describes a pressurized water reactor vessel, the vessel defining a predetermined axial direction of the flow of coolant therewithin and having plural spider assemblies supporting, for vertical movement within the vessel, respective clusters of rods in spaced, parallel axial relationship, parallel to the predetermined axial direction of coolant flow, and a rod guide for each spider assembly and respective cluster of rods. The rod guide having horizontally oriented support plates therewithin, each plate having an interior opening for accommodating axial movement therethrough of the spider assembly and respective cluster of rods. The opening defining plural radially extending channels and corresponding parallel interior wall surfaces of the support plate.

  20. Lightning protection using energized Franklin rods

    SciTech Connect

    Abdel-Salam, M. [Assiut Univ. (Egypt). Electrical Engineering Dept.; Al-Abdul-Latif, U. [Construction Materials Co., Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Management Div.

    1995-12-31

    In this paper, the onset criterion of the upward streamers from an energized Franklin rod is formulated as a function of the geometry of the rod and the height and current of the downward leader. The electric field in the vicinity of the lightning rod is calculated using the charge simulation technique. The dependency of the radius of protection on the amplitude of the pulse voltage applied to Franklin rod, the downward leader current and the tip radius and height of the rod is investigated.

  1. Ecology of bonytail and razorback sucker and the role of off-channel habitats in their recovery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, Gordon A.

    2006-01-01

    The bonytail and razorback sucker are two of four endangered mainstem fishes found in the Colorado River. Unlike the Colorado pikeminnow and humpback chub, wild populations of the bonytail and razorback sucker are either extirpated from the mainstem river or are nearly so. Agencies are aggressively stocking these fish wile repatriated fish spawn, their young are rapidly eaten by introduced predators. A decade of predator removal efforts has proved ineffective in restoring natural recruitment. Today, the presence of these species is totally dependent on stocking, suggesting both species are worse off today than when recovery efforts began nearly two decades ago. In contrast, both species readily produce young in ponds where nonnative predators are absent. Evidence shows they evolved with the ability to spawn in both flowing and standing water, which suggests isolated oxbow communities may be been an essential feature in their evolution and survival strategy. Sustainable populations during the past few decades have only occurred in isolated ponds devoid of predatory nonnative fish. Efforts to force recovery in the main channel river continue to fail due to the presence of nonnative predators that may be economically important recreational species. Off-channel sanctuaries provide research and management opportunities on a scale that are both biologically and economically realistic. Effective management of these species in small habitats appears to be the most logical approach to advance recovery in larger river reachesa?|

  2. Exploiting rod technology. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1990-06-01

    ROD development was proceeding apace until recent budgetary decisions caused funding support for ROD development to be drastically reduced. The funding which was originally provided by DARPA and the Balanced Technology Initiative (BTI) Office has been cut back to zero from $800K. To determine the aeroballistic coefficients of a candidate dart, ARDEC is currently supporting development out of its own 6.2 funds at about $100K. ARDEC has made slow progress toward achieving this end because of failures in the original dart during testing. It appears that the next dart design to be tested will diverge from the original concept visualized by DARPA and Science and Technology Associates (STA). STA, the design engineer, takes exception to these changes on the basis of inappropriate test conditions and insufficient testing. At this time, the full resolution of this issue will be difficult because of the current management structure, which separates the developer (ARDEC) from the designer (STA).

  3. SCT Busy Flow Individual ROD

    E-print Network

    University College London

    SCT Busy Flow BUSY Module LTP 1 (wire-or) Crate 1-1 Crate 1-2 O/C TTL O/C TTL NIM 16 Individual ROD Module Out NIM O/C TTL CTP Link Global ATLAS Signals & Overall SCT Busy LVDS LVDS LTP 2 O/C TTL NIM NIM LVDS LTP 3 Local Busy O/C TTL NIM NIM LVDS in out LTP 4 O/C TTL NIM NIM LVDS Local Busyin out Local

  4. Health of white sucker within the St. Louis River area of concern associated with habitat usage as assessed using stable isotopes

    EPA Science Inventory

    In Spring 2011, 200 adult white sucker were collected in four areas of the St. Louis River Area of Concern (AOC), located in Minnesota and Wisconsin, USA. The areas included the upper AOC as a reference area, the upper estuary, St. Louis Bay and Superior Bay. Grossly visible abno...

  5. Spatial and temporal use of a spawning site in the middle green river by wild and hatchery-reared razorback suckers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Modde, T.; Bowen, Z.H.; Kitcheyan, D.C.

    2005-01-01

    The population of endangered razorback suckers Xyrauchen texanus in the middle Green River (upper Colorado River basin) has declined during the last 40 years. The apparent cause for this decline is a lack of successful recruitment. This study used radiotelemetry to evaluate the ability of hatchery-reared razorback suckers to locate spawning areas where wild fish congregate during the ascending hydrographic limb of the snowmelt runoff. Hatchery-reared razorback suckers appeared to show similar reproductive behavior to wild fish. Both wild and hatchery-reared fish were found near the middle Green River spawning area between 1 and 25 May 2000. Hatchery fish occupied the same areas on the spawning site as wild fish, and remained on the spawning site during both nocturnal and diurnal hours. Males were more abundant on the spawning area than females, but the few females captured tended to stage away from the primary spawning area. The results from this study suggest hatchery-reared fish are capable of responding to natural cues that prompt spawning aggregations and are successful in locating existing spawning aggregations of wild fish. Given attention to stocking criteria, including genetic diversity and the size and time of stocking, the challenges of recovering razorback suckers will center on those factors that led to the population declines, particularly the survival of early life stages in off-channel habitats. ?? American Fisheries Society 2005.

  6. Tagging age-1 Lost River and shortnose suckers with passive integrated transponders, Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon–Summary of 2009–11 effort

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burdick, Summer M.

    2012-01-01

    A passive integrated transponder (PIT) tagging study was initiated in 2009 for age-1 endangered Lost River and shortnose suckers in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, for the purpose of examining causes of mortality, validating estimated age to maturity, and examining movement patterns. This study, which was done opportunistically in 2009 and 2010, received funding in 2011 for a directed tagging effort. Tags were redetected using an existing infrastructure of remote PIT tag readers and tag scanning surveys at American white pelican and double-crested cormorant breeding and loafing areas. Individual fish histories are used to describe the distance, direction, and timing of age-1 sucker movement. Sucker PIT tag detections in the Sprague and Williamson rivers in mid-summer and in autumn indicate age-1 suckers use these tributaries outside of the known spring spawning season. PIT tags detected in bird habitats indicate predation by birds may have been a cause of mortality in 2009. Field conditions prevented scanning bird breeding and loafing areas in Upper Klamath Wildlife National Refuge for tags in 2011, however, limiting our ability to make inferences about bird predation in those years.

  7. Health of white sucker within the St. Louis River area of concern associated with habitat usage as assessed using stable isotopes.

    PubMed

    Blazer, V S; Hoffman, J; Walsh, H L; Braham, R P; Hahn, C; Collins, P; Jorgenson, Z; Ledder, T

    2014-03-01

    In Spring 2011, 200 adult white sucker were collected in four areas of the St. Louis River area of concern (AOC), located in Minnesota and Wisconsin, USA. The areas included the upper AOC as a reference area, the upper estuary, St. Louis Bay and Superior Bay. Grossly visible abnormalities were documented and preserved for microscopic analyses, as were five to eight representative pieces of liver tissue. A piece of dorsal muscle was preserved for stable isotope analyses and otoliths removed for age determination. The incidence of raised skin lesions (mucoid plaques) was high (31 %), however, microscopically only 4.5 % of the white suckers had neoplasia (papillomas). The remaining lesions were epidermal hyperplasia. Superior Bay had the lowest percentage of skin/lip lesions (10 %), while St. Louis Bay had the highest (44 %). St. Louis Bay also had the highest incidence of skin neoplasms (12 %). No hepatocellular neoplasms were documented, however bile duct tumors were observed in 4.5 % of the suckers. Foci of cellular alteration were observed in fish from all sites except the upper AOC. Stable isotope data indicated that most of the suckers relied on the St. Louis River AOC for the majority (>75 %) of their diet, indicating they were resident within the AOC and not in Lake Superior. The amount of diet obtained from the upper estuary was a significant predictor of skin lesion incidence. Hence, habitat use within the AOC appears to be an important risk factor for skin and possibly, liver lesions. PMID:24370817

  8. Selenium concentrations in the razorback sucker ( Xyrauchen texanus ): Substitution of non-lethal muscle plugs for muscle tissue in contaminant assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Waddell; T. May

    1995-01-01

    A single muscle plug was collected from each of 25 live razorback suckers inhabiting the Colorado River basin and analyzed for selenium by instrumental neutron activation. Eight fish from Ashley Creek and three from Razorback Bar exhibited selenium concentrations exceeding 8 µg\\/g, a level associated with reproductive failure in fish. Concentrations of selenium in eggs and milt were significantly correlated

  9. Health of white sucker within the St. Louis River area of concern associated with habitat usage as assessed using stable isotopes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blazer, V.S.; Hoffman, J.; Walsh, H.L.; Braham, R.P.; Hahn, C.; Collins, P.; Jorgenson, Z.; Ledder, T.

    2014-01-01

    In Spring 2011, 200 adult white sucker were collected in four areas of the St. Louis River area of concern (AOC), located in Minnesota and Wisconsin, USA. The areas included the upper AOC as a reference area, the upper estuary, St. Louis Bay and Superior Bay. Grossly visible abnormalities were documented and preserved for microscopic analyses, as were five to eight representative pieces of liver tissue. A piece of dorsal muscle was preserved for stable isotope analyses and otoliths removed for age determination. The incidence of raised skin lesions (mucoid plaques) was high (31 %), however, microscopically only 4.5 % of the white suckers had neoplasia (papillomas). The remaining lesions were epidermal hyperplasia. Superior Bay had the lowest percentage of skin/lip lesions (10 %), while St. Louis Bay had the highest (44 %). St. Louis Bay also had the highest incidence of skin neoplasms (12 %). No hepatocellular neoplasms were documented, however bile duct tumors were observed in 4.5 % of the suckers. Foci of cellular alteration were observed in fish from all sites except the upper AOC. Stable isotope data indicated that most of the suckers relied on the St. Louis River AOC for the majority (>75 %) of their diet, indicating they were resident within the AOC and not in Lake Superior. The amount of diet obtained from the upper estuary was a significant predictor of skin lesion incidence. Hence, habitat use within the AOC appears to be an important risk factor for skin and possibly, liver lesions.

  10. The string-to-string correction problem with block moves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter F. Tichy

    1984-01-01

    The string-to-string correction problem is to find a minimal sequence of edit operations for changing a given string into another given string. Extant algorithms compute a longest common subsequence (LCS) of the two strings and then regard the characters not included in the LCS as the differences. However, an LCS does not necessarily include all possible matches, and therefore does

  11. Method and system for introducing electric current into a well

    SciTech Connect

    Eastlund, B.J.; Schmitt, K.J.; Bass, R.M.; Harrison, J.M.

    1988-01-05

    A system of inhibiting formation of solids in a petroleum well is described comprising: a grounded wellhead of electrically conducting material, a tubing of electrically conducting material attached to the wellhead, a sucker rod for a pump in the tubing, the sucker rod having a tubular rod section of non-conducting material insulating the rod from the wellhead, the sucker rod below the section formed of electrically conducting material, connecting means below the section electrically connecting the sucker rod and the tubing, vertically spaced insulators on the sucker rod insulating the sucker rod from the tubing between the section and the connecting means, and a source of current having a first connection to the wellhead and a second connection to the sucker rod below the section, the second connection between the source of current and the sucker rod including a conduit extending through the tubular rod section and connected to the sucker rod below the section.

  12. Patterns of Larval Sucker Emigration from the Sprague and Lower Williamson Rivers of the Upper Klamath Basin, Oregon, Prior to the Removal of Chiloquin Dam - 2006 Annual Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellsworth, Craig M.; Tyler, Torrey J.; VanderKooi, Scott P.; Markle, Douglas F.

    2009-01-01

    In 2006, we collected larval Lost River sucker Deltistes luxatus (LRS), shortnose sucker Chasmistes brevirostris (SNS), and Klamath largescale sucker Catostomus snyderi (KLS) emigrating from spawning areas in the Williamson and Sprague Rivers. This work is part of a multi-year effort to characterize the relative abundance, drift timing, and length frequencies of larval suckers in this watershed prior to the removal of Chiloquin Dam on the lower Sprague River. Additional larval drift samples were collected from the Fremont Bridge on Lakeshore Drive on the south end of Upper Klamath Lake near its outlet to the Link River. Because of difficulties in distinguishing KLS larvae from SNS larvae, individuals identified as either of these two species were grouped together and reported as KLS-SNS in this report. We found that larval densities varied by site with the highest densities being collected at the most upstream site on the Sprague River at river kilometer (rkm) 108.0 near Beatty, Oregon (Beatty), and the most downstream sites near Chiloquin, Oregon; one site on the Sprague River at rkm 0.7 (Chiloquin) and the other site on the Williamson River at rkm 7.4 (Williamson). Larval catches were relatively small and sporadic at two other sites on the Sprague River located between Chiloquin and Beatty (Power Station at rkm 9.5 and Lone Pine at rkm 52.7) and one site on the Sycan River at rkm 4.7. Most larvae (79 percent) collected in 2006 were identified as LRS. More larvae and eggs were collected at Chiloquin than at any other site. The seasonal timing of larval drift varied by location; larvae generally were captured earlier at upstream sites than at downstream sites. Cumulative catch percentages of drifting larvae suggest that larval LRS emigrated earlier than KLS-SNS larvae at every site. Drift of LRS larvae at Beatty began 3 to 4 weeks earlier than at Chiloquin or Williamson. At Chiloquin, peak larval catches occurred 3 and 5 weeks after peak egg catches. The daily peak in larval drift at Chiloquin occurred approximately 1.5 to 2.0 hours after sunset. Nightly peak larval drift varied by location; larvae were captured earlier in the evening at sites closer to known spawning locations than sites farther away from these areas. The highest numerical catches of sucker-sized eggs were at Chiloquin indicating that this site is in close proximity to a spawning area. Numerical catches of older, more developed larval and juvenile suckers also were highest at Chiloquin. This may be due to the turbulent nature of this site, which could have swept larger fish into the drift. Proportional catches of older, more developed larval and juvenile suckers were highest at Sycan, Lone Pine, Power Station, and Fremont Bridge. This indicates these sites are located nearer to sucker nursery areas rather than spawning areas. Very few larval LRS were collected at Fremont Bridge at the south end of Upper Klamath Lake. Larval KLS-SNS densities at Fremont Bridge were the third highest of the seven sampling sites. Peak drift of larval KLS-SNS at Fremont Bridge occurred the week after peak drift of larval KLS-SNS at Williamson. Although inter-annual variation continues to appear in the larval drift data, our results continue to show consistent patterns of larval emigration in the drainage basin. In combination with data collected from the spawning movements and destinations of radio-tagged and PIT-tagged adult suckers, this larval drift data will provide a baseline standard by which to determine the effects of dam removal on the spawning distribution of endangered Klamath Basin suckers in the Sprague River.

  13. The Rod Photoreceptor Lineage of Teleost Fish

    PubMed Central

    Stenkamp, Deborah L.

    2011-01-01

    The retinas of postembryonic teleost fish continue to grow for the lifetime of the fish. New retinal cells are added continuously at the retinal margin, by stem cells residing at the circumferential germinal zone. Some of these retinal cells differentiate as Müller glia with cell bodies that reside within the inner nuclear layer. These glia retain some stem cell properties in that they carry out asymmetric cell divisions and continuously generate a population of transit-amplifying cells – the rod photoreceptor lineage – that are committed to rod photoreceptor neurogenesis. These rod progenitors progress through a stereotyped sequence of changes in gene expression as they continue to divide and migrate to the outer nuclear layer. Now referred to as rod precursors, they undergo terminal mitoses and then differentiate as rods, which are inserted into the existing array of rod and cone photoreceptors. The rod lineage displays developmental plasticity, as rod precursors can respond to the loss of rods through increased proliferation, resulting in rod replacement. The stem cells of the rod lineage, Müller glia, respond to acute damage of other retinal cell types by increasing their rate of proliferation. In addition, the Müller glia in an acutely damaged retina dedifferentiate and become multipotent, generating new, functional neurons. This review focuses on the cells of the rod lineage and includes discussions of experiments over the last 30 years that led to their identification and characterization, and the discovery of the stem cells residing at the apex of the lineage. The plasticity of cells of the rod lineage, their relationships to cone progenitors, and the applications of this information for developing future treatments for human retinal disorders will also be discussed. PMID:21742053

  14. Final report for reciprocating rod pump seal assembly (R.R.P.S.A.)

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-12-15

    This technology provides a simple yet clever idea for preventing oil and saltwater polluting spills by sucker rod pumping oil wells, as well as prolonging the life of the stuffing box seals and pressure lubricating the polished rod. This objective is accomplished by introducing a non-polluting, food grade, high viscosity lubricant into the void space between two sets of seals in a typical stuffing box. This safe-fluid acts as a sacrificial fluid that will be the fluid that is exposed to the atmosphere when the primary seal in the stuffing box leaks for any reason. In addition, the pressure on this sacrificial safe-fluid is maintained at the same pressure as the pressure on the produced fluid in the flow line at the pumping tee, thereby equalizing the pressure across the secondary seal in the stuffing box that separates the safe-fluid from the produced fluid. The unique feature, of equalizing the pressure across the secondary seal, is accomplished by using a pressure transmitter which is monitoring the pressure in the flow line (which is the fluid under the secondary seal) and transmitting that pressure to the safe-fluid (which is the fluid above the secondary seal) thereby equalizing the pressure across this secondary seal. The primary seal will be sealing the safe-fluid and will be operating under optimum conditions, extending the life of this primary seal. The principle of the invention was proven by equipping eight oil wells with Field Retro-Fit Packages of Independent component parts to hydro-balance the existing stuffing boxes.

  15. Fuel rod retention device for a nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Hylton, Charles L. (Madison Heights, VA)

    1984-01-01

    A device is described for supporting a nuclear fuel rod in a fuel rod assembly which allows the rod to be removed without disturbing other rods in the assembly. A fuel rod cap connects the rod to a bolt which is supported in the assembly end fitting by means of a locking assembly. The device is designed so that the bolt is held securely during normal reactor operation yet may be easily disengaged and the fuel rod removed when desired.

  16. Reactor control rod timing system. [LMFBR

    DOEpatents

    Wu, P.T.K.

    1980-03-18

    A fluid driven jet-edge whistle timing system is described for control rods of a nuclear reactor for producing real-time detection of the timing of each control rod in its scram operation. An important parameter in reactor safety, particularly for liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBR), is the time deviation between the time the control rod is released and the time the rod actually reaches the down position. The whistle has a nearly pure tone signal with center frequency (above 100 kHz) far above the frequency band in which the energy of the background noise is concentrated. Each control rod can be fitted with a whistle with a different frequency so that there is no ambiguity in differentiating the signal from each control rod.

  17. Handbook on string decay

    E-print Network

    Roberto Iengo; Jorge G. Russo

    2006-02-20

    We explain simple semi-classical rules to estimate the lifetime of any given highly-excited quantum state of the string spectrum in flat spacetime. We discuss both the decays by splitting into two massive states and by massless emission. As an application, we study a solution describing a rotating and pulsating ellipse which becomes folded at an instant of time -- the ``squashing ellipse''. This string interpolates between the folded string with maximum angular momentum and the pulsating circular string. We explicitly compute the quantum decay rate for the corresponding quantum state, and verify the basic rules that we propose. Finally, we give a more general (4-parameter) family of closed string solutions representing rotating and pulsating elliptical strings.

  18. Nonlocality in string theory

    E-print Network

    Gianluca Calcagni; Leonardo Modesto

    2014-08-19

    We discuss an aspect of string theory which has been tackled from many different perspectives, but incompletely: the role of nonlocality in the theory and its relation to the geometric shape of the string. In particular, we will describe in quantitative terms how one can zoom out from an extended object such as the string in such a way that, at sufficiently large scales, it appears structureless. Since there are no free parameters in free-string theory, the notion of large scales will be unambiguously determined. In other words, we will be able to answer the question: How and at which scale can the string be seen as a particle? In doing so, we will employ the concept of spectral dimension in a new way with respect to its usual applications in quantum gravity. The operational notions of worldsheet and target spacetime dimension in string theory are also clarified and found to be in mutual agreement.

  19. Using spatial, seasonal, and diel drift patterns of larval Lost River suckers Deltistes luxatus (Cypriniformes: Catostomidae) and shortnose suckers Chasmistes brevirostris (Cypriniformes: Catostomidae) to help identify a site for a water withdrawal structure on the Williamson River, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellsworth, Craig M.; Tyler, Torrey J.; VanderKooi, Scott P.

    2010-01-01

    A small irrigation diversion dam near Chiloquin, Oregon, was removed and replaced with a pump station to improve fish passage for Lost River suckers (Deltistes luxatus) and shortnose suckers (Chasmistes brevirostris) entering the Sprague River on their spawning migrations. During the developmental phase of the pump station, a need was identified to better understand the larval drift characteristics of these endangered catostomids in order to reduce entrainment into the irrigation system. The spatial, seasonal, and diel distribution of drifting larvae was measured during the 2004 spawning season at two proposed sites on the Williamson River where the pump station could be located. Larval drift for both species coincided with the irrigation season making them subject to entrainment into the irrigation system. Drift occurred almost exclusively at night with larvae entering the drift at sunset and exiting the drift at sunrise. Nighttime larval densities were concentrated near the surface and at midchannel at both sites. Densities were generally greater on the side of mid-channel with greater flow. During early morning sampling we detected a general shift in larval drift from surface to subsurface drift. We also observed an increase in larval densities towards the shore opposite from the proposed pump station at the upper site whereas larval densities remained high at midchannel at the lower site. During daytime sampling, the few larvae that were collected were distributed throughout the water column at both pump sites. This study found that larvae drifting during all time periods were generally distributed further across the cross section, deeper in the water column, and closer to where the proposed water withdrawal structure would be built at the downstream site when compared to the upstream site. Recommendations were provided to locate the withdrawal facility at the upstream site and operate it in a manner such that larval entrainment would likely be minimized.

  20. Automatic safety rod for reactors. [LMFBR

    DOEpatents

    Germer, J.H.

    1982-03-23

    An automatic safety rod for a nuclear reactor containing neutron absorbing material and designed to be inserted into a reactor core after a loss-of-flow. Actuation is based upon either a sudden decrease in core pressure drop or the pressure drop decreases below a predetermined minimum value. The automatic control rod includes a pressure regulating device whereby a controlled decrease in operating pressure due to reduced coolant flow does not cause the rod to drop into the core.

  1. High temperature control rod assembly

    DOEpatents

    Vollman, Russell E. (Solana Beach, CA)

    1991-01-01

    A high temperature nuclear control rod assembly comprises a plurality of substantially cylindrical segments flexibly joined together in succession by ball joints. The segments are made of a high temperature graphite or carbon-carbon composite. The segment includes a hollow cylindrical sleeve which has an opening for receiving neutron-absorbing material in the form of pellets or compacted rings. The sleeve has a threaded sleeve bore and outer threaded surface. A cylindrical support post has a threaded shaft at one end which is threadably engaged with the sleeve bore to rigidly couple the support post to the sleeve. The other end of the post is formed with a ball portion. A hollow cylindrical collar has an inner threaded surface engageable with the outer threaded surface of the sleeve to rigidly couple the collar to the sleeve. the collar also has a socket portion which cooperates with the ball portion to flexibly connect segments together to form a ball and socket-type joint. In another embodiment, the segment comprises a support member which has a threaded shaft portion and a ball surface portion. The threaded shaft portion is engageable with an inner threaded surface of a ring for rigidly coupling the support member to the ring. The ring in turn has an outer surface at one end which is threadably engageably with a hollow cylindrical sleeve. The other end of the sleeve is formed with a socket portion for engagement with a ball portion of the support member. In yet another embodiment, a secondary rod is slidably inserted in a hollow channel through the center of the segment to provide additional strength. A method for controlling a nuclear reactor utilizing the control rod assembly is also included.

  2. Tethered Rod Smectic C phase

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Zhang, Zhenli

    2005-01-31

    Simulation Software: Glotzer Group Code Simulation Method: Brownian Dynamics A system of 800 building blocks of composition rod5b-tether6b at a concentration of 0.20, was run starting at a temperature of effecitvely infinite then instantaneously quenched to a temperature of 1.0. The system was then run for 3,000,000 time steps forming a Smetic C phase.The solve was selective for the neutral Simulation Model: United Atom Bead Spring with Lennard-Jones and FENE

  3. Gonihedric String Equation, I

    E-print Network

    Savvidy, G K

    1998-01-01

    We discuss the basic properties of the gonihedric string and the problem of its formulation in continuum. We propose a generalization of the Dirac equation and of the corresponding gamma matrices in order to describe the gonihedric string. The wave function and the Dirac matrices are infinite-dimensional. The spectrum of the theory consists of particles and antiparticles of increasing half-integer spin lying on quasilinear trajectories of different slope. Explicit formulas for the mass spectrum allow to compute the string tension and thus demonstrate the string character of the theory.

  4. String Theory Symmetries

    E-print Network

    John H. Schwarz

    1995-03-20

    A brief review of the status of duality symmetries in string theory is presented. The evidence is accumulating rapidly that an enormous group of duality symmetries, including perturbative T dualities and non-perturbative S-dualities, underlies string theory. It is my hope that an understanding of these symmetries will suggest the right way to formulate non-perturbative string theory. Whether or not this hope is realized, it has already been demonstrated that this line of inquiry leads to powerful new tools for understanding gauge theories and new evidence for the uniqueness of string theory, as well as deep mathematical results.

  5. String Theory and Duality

    E-print Network

    Paul S. Aspinwall

    1998-09-01

    This is a very brief survey of some results in the geometry of string duality delivered at a lecture given at ICM 1998, Berlin. String Duality is the statement that one kind of string theory compactified on one space is equivalent in some sense to another string theory compactified on a second space. This draws a connection between two quite different spaces. Mirror symmetry is an example of this. Here we discuss mirror symmetry and another ``heterotic/type II'' duality which relates vector bundles on a K3 surface to a Calabi-Yau threefold.

  6. Equations determine reasonable rod pump submergence depth

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Yongquan; Cai Wizhong [Southwest Petroleum Inst., Nanchong (China)

    1997-03-24

    A reasonable rod pump submergence depth can be calculated by combining fluid level changes with piston travel. Submergence depth is affected by the pump fill factor, reservoir fluid viscosity, rod pump type, and pumping parameters such as pump diameter, polished-rod stroke length, and pumping speed. Fluid level velocity can be obtained with an energy balance, and piston travel rate is based on the polished-rod travel. The paper describes the pump fill factor, piston travel velocity, fluid level rise, flow coefficient, reasonable submergence depth, and results from equations.

  7. Temperature actuated automatic safety rod release

    DOEpatents

    Hutter, Ernest (Wilmette, IL); Pardini, John A. (Brookfield, IL); Walker, David E. (Naperville, IL)

    1987-01-01

    A temperature-actuated apparatus is disclosed for releasably supporting a safety rod in a nuclear reactor, comprising a safety rod upper adapter having a retention means, a drive shaft which houses the upper adapter, and a bimetallic means supported within the drive shaft and having at least one ledge which engages a retention means of the safety rod upper adapter. A pre-determined increase in temperature causes the bimetallic means to deform so that the ledge disengages from the retention means, whereby the bimetallic means releases the safety rod into the core of the reactor.

  8. The directional sensitivity of retinal rods.

    PubMed Central

    Alpern, M; Ching, C C; Kitahara, K

    1983-01-01

    Rod field sensitivity, 10-S(r) (i.e. the reciprocal of the radiance of a background required for 10-fold elevation of rod threshold) was measured for monochromatic backgrounds traversing the pupil at various points (r) on three subjects. The wave-length dependency of the directional sensitivities of the three foveal cone mechanisms of the principal subject have been reported previously (Alpern & Kitahara, 1983). Rods, as cones, are less sensitive to obliquely incident, than to normally incident backgrounds. At the pupil margin (4 mm) the effect is between 0.368 and 0.976 log10 units smaller for rods. After correction for losses by corneal reflexion and by absorption in the lens, S(r) for rods is reasonably described by the parabolic equation used by Stiles (1937) to quantify the directional sensitivity of cones. The small effect for rods precludes a description as consistently precise as this equation provides for cones. The steepness of the parabolic curve best fitting the directional sensitivity data of the rods of the principal subject was independent of background wave number. For a second subject, whose rods are supposed to be smaller, it was directly proportional to the square of that wave number. The latter is the expectation if the directional sensitivity of this subject's rods were determined by principles outlined in the diffraction theory of Simon (1970). PMID:6644624

  9. Temperature actuated automatic safety rod release

    DOEpatents

    Hutter, E.; Pardini, J.A.; Walker, D.E.

    1984-03-13

    A temperature-actuated apparatus is disclosed for releasably supporting a safety rod in a nuclear reactor, comprising a safety rod upper adapter having a retention means, a drive shaft which houses the upper adapter, and a bimetallic means supported within the drive shaft and having at least one ledge which engages a retention means of the safety rod upper adapter. A pre-determined increase in temperature causes the bimetallic means to deform so that the ledge disengages from the retention means, whereby the bimetallic means releases the safety rod into the core of the reactor.

  10. Covariant Closed String Coherent States

    SciTech Connect

    Hindmarsh, Mark; Skliros, Dimitri [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Brighton, East Sussex BN1 9QH (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-25

    We give the first construction of covariant coherent closed string states, which may be identified with fundamental cosmic strings. We outline the requirements for a string state to describe a cosmic string, and provide an explicit and simple map that relates three different descriptions: classical strings, light cone gauge quantum states, and covariant vertex operators. The resulting coherent state vertex operators have a classical interpretation and are in one-to-one correspondence with arbitrary classical closed string loops.

  11. Optimization of Single-Photon Response Transmission at the Rod-to-Rod Bipolar Synapse

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-08-01

    Our ability to see in dim light is limited by the statistics of light absorption in rod photoreceptors and the faithful transmission of the light-evoked signals through the retina. This article reviews the physiological mechanisms at the synapse between rods and rod bipolar cells, the first relay in a pathway that mediates vision near absolute threshold.

  12. Static in situ test of the axial power shaping rod and shim safety control rod mechanisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. T. Soberano; J. A. Gannon; K. A. Parlee

    1982-01-01

    There are eight Axial Power Shaping Rods (APSRs) and 61 Shim Safety Control Rods (SSCRs) within the Three Mile Island (TMI) Unit 2 reactor core. This report describes the test results for all eight APSRs and three SSCRs. The tests were performed in situ from the Control Rod Drive (CRD) system logic cabinets and the transformer cabinets located in the

  13. Oil well pumping apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Whatley, D. L.; Chaviers, W. M.

    1985-07-23

    The present system and apparatus for pumping an oil well damps out the stretch and over travel in sucker rod over travel particularly when the rod string approaches its point of reversal of direction either up or down. This is accomplished by decelerating the rate of travel of the rod string and at its end of travel pausing for a time period sufficient to allow rod string oscillations to damp out prior to reversal of rod string direction which due to the long length of the rod string, its weight and the weight of the trapped oil avoids breaking the rod string and the time loss occasioned thereby in both loss of well production and costly replacement of equipment and the time loss resulting therefrom. The present invention also achieves substantial recovery of hi-viscosity oil not recoverable at present by standard recovery procedures. This is accomplished with a sensor positioned to be actuated by the ram of the hydraulic drive. When the sensor is actuated, it energizes a time delay relay which holds the sucker rod string in the upper most raised position allowing the suction to be maintained on the bottom hole pump with the standing valve open. This allows the hi-viscus oil to enter the bottom hole pump barrel. When the time delay relay is released, the sucker rod string starts its downward movement closing the bottom hole standing valve. This traps the hi-viscus oil in the pump barrel which is then displaced by the downward-movement of the plunger in the bottom hole pump.

  14. Particle-tracking investigation of the retention of sucker larvae emerging from spawning grounds in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Tamara M.; Wherry, Susan A.; Simon, David C.; Markle, Douglas F.

    2014-01-01

    This study had two objectives: (1) to use the results of an individual-based particle-tracking model of larval sucker dispersal through the Williamson River delta and Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, to interpret field data collected throughout Upper Klamath and Agency Lakes, and (2) to use the model to investigate the retention of sucker larvae in the system as a function of Williamson River flow, wind, and lake elevation. This is a follow-up study to work reported in Wood and others (2014) in which the hydrodynamic model of Upper Klamath Lake was combined with an individual-based, particle-tracking model of larval fish entering the lake from spawning areas in the Williamson River. In the previous study, the performance of the model was evaluated through comparison with field data comprising larval sucker distribution collected in 2009 by The Nature Conservancy, Oregon State University (OSU), and the U.S. Geological Survey, primarily from the (at that time) recently reconnected Williamson River Delta and along the eastern shoreline of Upper Klamath Lake, surrounding the old river mouth. The previous study demonstrated that the validation of the model with field data was moderately successful and that the model was useful for describing the broad patterns of larval dispersal from the river, at least in the areas surrounding the river channel immediately downstream of the spawning areas and along the shoreline where larvae enter the lake. In this study, field data collected by OSU throughout the main body of Upper Klamath Lake, and not just around the Williamson River Delta, were compared to model simulation results. Because the field data were collected throughout the lake, it was necessary to include in the simulations larvae spawned at eastern shoreline springs that were not included in the earlier studies. A complicating factor was that the OSU collected data throughout the main body of the lake in 2011 and 2012, after the end of several years of larval drift collection in the Williamson River by the U.S. Geological Survey. Those larval drift data provided necessary boundary-condition information for the earlier studies, but there were no measured boundary conditions for larval input into model simulations during the years of this study (2011?12). Therefore, we developed a method to estimate a time series of larval drift in the Williamson River, and of the emergence of larvae from the gravel at the eastern shoreline springs, that captured the approximate timing of the larval pulse of the Lost River sucker (Deltistes luxatus) and shortnose sucker (Chasmistes brevirostris) and the relative magnitude of the pulses by species and spawning location. The method is not able to predict larval drift on any given day, but it can reasonably predict the approximate temporal progression of the larval drift through the season, based on counts of adult suckers returning to spawn. The accuracy in the timing of the larval pulses is not better than about plus or minus 5 days. Model results and field data were consistent in the basic progression of both catch per unit effort (CPUE) and larval length through time. The model simulation results also duplicated some of the characteristics of the spatial patterns of density in the field data, notably the tendency for high larval densities closer to the eastern and western shorelines. However, the model simulations could not explain high densities in the northern part of the lake or far into Ball Bay, locations that are far from the source of larvae in the Williamson River or eastern shoreline springs (as measured along the predominant transport pathways simulated in the model). This suggests the possibility of unaccounted-for spawning areas in the northern part of the lake and also that the period during which larvae are transported passively by the currents is shorter than the 46 days simulated in the model. Similarly, the progression of larval lengths in the field data is not a simple progression from smaller to larger fish away from sources in the river and springs, as simulated by the parti

  15. Oil well pump driving unit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gilbertson

    1984-01-01

    An oil well pumping apparatus which includes a submerged reciprocating pump mounted in a tubing arrangement communicating with the wellhead, a sucker rod string extending through the tubing arrangement and connected in driving relation with the pump, and a pumping tee and stuffing box arrangement mounted on the casing of the well at the wellhead and including a sealed drive

  16. Oil well pump driving unit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gilbertson

    1982-01-01

    An oil well pumping apparatus which includes a submerged reciprocating pump mounted in a tubing arrangement communicating with the well head, a sucker rod string extending through the tubing arrangement and connected in driving relation with the pump, and a pumping tee and stuffing box arrangement mounted on the casing of the well at the well head and including a

  17. Effects of Chiloquin Dam on spawning distribution and larval emigration of Lost River, shortnose, and Klamath largescale suckers in the Williamson and Sprague Rivers, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Barbara A.; Hewitt, David A.; Ellsworth, Craig M.

    2013-01-01

    Chiloquin Dam was constructed in 1914 on the Sprague River near the town of Chiloquin, Oregon. The dam was identified as a barrier that potentially inhibited or prevented the upstream spawning migrations and other movements of endangered Lost River (Deltistes luxatusChasmistes brevirostris) suckers, as well as other fish species. In 2002, the Bureau of Reclamation led a working group that examined several alternatives to improve fish passage at Chiloquin Dam. Ultimately it was decided that dam removal was the best alternative and the dam was removed in the summer of 2008. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a long-term study on the spawning ecology of Lost River, shortnose, and Klamath largescale suckers (Catostomus snyderi) in the Sprague and lower Williamson Rivers from 2004 to 2010. The objective of this study was to evaluate shifts in spawning distribution following the removal of Chiloquin Dam. Radio telemetry was used in conjunction with larval production data and detections of fish tagged with passive integrated transponders (PIT tags) to evaluate whether dam removal resulted in increased utilization of spawning habitat farther upstream in the Sprague River. Increased densities of drifting larvae were observed at a site in the lower Williamson River after the dam was removed, but no substantial changes occurred upstream of the former dam site. Adult spawning migrations primarily were influenced by water temperature and did not change with the removal of the dam. Emigration of larvae consistently occurred about 3-4 weeks after adults migrated into a section of river. Detections of PIT-tagged fish showed increases in the numbers of all three suckers that migrated upstream of the dam site following removal, but the increases for Lost River and shortnose suckers were relatively small compared to the total number of fish that made a spawning migration in a given season. Increases for Klamath largescale suckers were more substantial. Post-dam removal monitoring only included 2 years with below average river discharge during the spawning season; data from years with higher flows may provide a different perspective on the effects of dam removal on the spawning migrations of the two endangered sucker species.

  18. Effects of pool formation and flash flooding on relative abundance of young-of-year flannelmouth suckers in the Paria River, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thieme, M.L.; McIvor, C.C.; Brouder, Mark J.; Hoffnagle, T.L.

    2001-01-01

    Flannelmouth sucker, Catostomus latipinnis, a fish endemic to the Colorado River basin in the western United States, appears to experience poor recruitment to adult size in the Colorado River, downstream of Glen Canyon Dam. Lack or impermanence of rearing areas for young-of-year (YOY) fish is hypothesized to be the problem. Knowing the importance of tributary mouths as rearing areas in other river systems, we studied use of the mouth of the Paria River, a tributary of the Colorado River, by YOY flannelmouth suckers, and the availability of rearing area in the mouth at different flow levels in the Colorado River in 1996 and 1997. We also examined the relationship between flash floods in the Paria River and catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) of YOY in the Paria River between 1991 and 1996. Maximum mean daily discharge in the Paria River was inversely correlated with CPUE of YOY flannelmouth suckers (Spearman Rho = -0.9856, p = 0.0003) during their critical rearing period (15 March-30 June). Thus, it appears that YOY flannelmouth suckers rear longer in the Paria River in years when flash flooding is minimal. Recruitment of YOY flannelmouth suckers at the Paria River may also be improved by enhancing pool formation during spring and summer rearing seasons. YOY flannelmouth sucker was captured in a pool created by high Colorado River flows (??? 336 m3/s) that inundated the mouth of the Paria River during spring and summer, 1996. In 1997, high flows (about 550-750 m3/s) in the Colorado River during winter and spring initially inundated the Paria River and formed a pool in the mouth. However, these high flows eventually caused 0.5-1.0 m of suspended sediment from the incoming Paria River to deposit in the mouth. Thus, despite higher flows than 1996, the slackwater area formed only occasionally in 1997. Differences in pool formation between 1996 and 1997 demonstrate that pool formation cannot be inferred solely from Colorado River flows. ?? 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Axions in string theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Svrcek; Edward Witten

    2006-01-01

    In the context of string theory, axions appear to provide the most plausible solution of the strong CP problem. However, as has been known for a long time, in many string-based models, the axion coupling parameter Fa is several orders of magnitude higher than the standard cosmological bounds. We re-examine this problem in a variety of models, showing that Fa

  20. Lattices and strings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Lerchie; A. N. Schellekens; N. P. Warner

    1989-01-01

    Self-dual lattices can be used to construct simple conformal field theories for ``compactified'' degrees of freedom in string theory. While these are by no means the most general conformal field theories that can be used, one does obtain in this way a large number of bosonic, heterotic and type-II theories that display nearly all interesting features of more general string

  1. Airplane on a String

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Matt Vonk

    Students analyze the motion of a toy airplane on a string using information from the video (a visible force scale, a frame-counter & an overlaid protractor). These measurments allow them to determine the mass and speed of the aircraft as well as the length of the string that constrains it.

  2. Crystalline beams: The string

    SciTech Connect

    Haffmans, A.F.; Maletic, D.; Ruggiero, A.G.

    1994-04-30

    The authors study the possibility of storing a string of charged particles in a magnetic ring. They define the equilibrium configuration, and examine the confinement conditions. Subsequent, they derive the transfer matrix for motion through a drift, a quadrupole, and a dipole. They finally study the stability of the string as the space-charge force is increased.

  3. Misner String Entropy

    E-print Network

    R. B. Mann

    1999-03-31

    I show that gravitational entropy can be ascribed to spacetimes containing Misner strings (the gravitational analogues of Dirac strings), even in the absence of any other event horizon (or bolt) structures. This result follows from an extension of proposals for evaluating the stress-energy of a gravitational system which are motivated by the AdS/CFT correspondence.

  4. Playing with Black Strings

    E-print Network

    Gary T. Horowitz

    2002-05-07

    We review recent work showing that there exists a large class of new stable black strings which are not translationally invariant. Both neutral and charged black strings are considered. The discussion includes known properties of these new solutions, attempts to find them explicitly, and a list of open questions.

  5. Rotating String Shapes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-23

    In this group activity, learners make multi-sided polygons with string. Learners slide a long piece of string through their fingers to make different kinds of triangles (isosceles, right, equilateral, and scalene) and quadrilaterals, including concave and convex shapes. Learners also draw the shapes from different points of view to explore congruency.

  6. k-strings as fundamental strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giataganas, Dimitrios

    2015-05-01

    It has been noticed that the k-string observables can be expressed in terms of the fundamental string ones. We identify a sufficient condition for a generic gravity dual background which when satisfied the mapping can be done. The condition is naturally related to a preserved quantity under the T-dualities acting on the Dp-brane describing the high representation Wilson loops. We also find the explicit relation between the observables of the heavy k-quark and the single quark states. As an application to our generic study and motivated by the fact that the anisotropic theories satisfy our condition, we compute the width of the k-string in these theories to find that the logarithmic broadening is still present, but the total result is affected by the anisotropy of the space.

  7. Durability of FRP rods for concrete structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francesco Micelli; Antonio Nanni

    2004-01-01

    Over the last two decades fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) rods have emerged as one of the most promising and affordable solutions to the corrosion problems of steel reinforcement in structural concrete. The application of FRP rods in new or damaged structures requires the development of design equations that must take into account the mechanical properties and the durability properties of FRP

  8. Lightweight carbon fibre rods and truss structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R Schütze

    1997-01-01

    Lightweight carbon fibre rods and truss structures are of growing importance for modern transportation technologies. The struts of such frameworks are commonly designed as fibre-wound CFRP tubes. Here CFRP sandwich rods are an advantageous alternative. They have a lightweight foam core covered by a relative thin layer of composite material. In many real applications, however, the superior mechanical properties of

  9. Tipping Time of a Quantum Rod

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrikar, Onkar

    2010-01-01

    The behaviour of a quantum rod, pivoted at its lower end on an impenetrable floor and restricted to moving in the vertical plane under the gravitational potential, is studied analytically under the approximation that the rod is initially localized to a "small-enough" neighbourhood around the point of classical unstable equilibrium. It is shown…

  10. Pultruded CFRP rods for ground anchor application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akira Sumitani; Masao Kikuchi; Manabu Sotooka; Haruhito Akimoto; Nobuyuki Ozawa

    1998-01-01

    Carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) rods with spiral surface indentations have been developed as tension elements in prestressed concrete and as anchor tendons in place of conventional prestressing steels. The indented type CFRP rods have sufficient bonding strength to concrete without sacrificing the high tensile strength. As a low cost manufacturing process of the advanced composite, the pultrusion processing method

  11. Rods Feed Cones to Keep them Alive.

    PubMed

    Krol, Jacek; Roska, Botond

    2015-05-01

    Cone photoreceptors, responsible for high-resolution and color vision, progressively degenerate following the death of rod photoreceptors in the blinding disease retinitis pigmentosa. Aït-Ali et al. describe a molecular mechanism by which RdCVF, a factor normally released by rods, controls glucose entry into cones, enhancing their survival. PMID:25957678

  12. Hands On Math Using Colored Rods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Dana Malloy

    Students enjoy learning by doing and by manipulating objects. This paper describes classroom activities using rods with various lengths and different colors. The activities included are: (1) preparation of rods; (2) elementary addition and subtraction; (3) fractions; (4) concept of greater than, less than, and equals; (5) simple division and…

  13. PT-symmetric strings

    SciTech Connect

    Amore, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.amore@gmail.com [Facultad de Ciencias, CUICBAS, Universidad de Colima, Bernal Díaz del Castillo 340, Colima, Colima (Mexico); Fernández, Francisco M., E-mail: fernande@quimica.unlp.edu.ar [INIFTA (UNLP, CCT La Plata-CONICET), División Química Teórica, Diag. 113 y 64 (S/N), Sucursal 4, Casilla de Correo 16, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Garcia, Javier [INIFTA (UNLP, CCT La Plata-CONICET), División Química Teórica, Diag. 113 y 64 (S/N), Sucursal 4, Casilla de Correo 16, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Gutierrez, German [Facultad de Ciencias, CUICBAS, Universidad de Colima, Bernal Díaz del Castillo 340, Colima, Colima (Mexico)

    2014-04-15

    We study both analytically and numerically the spectrum of inhomogeneous strings with PT-symmetric density. We discuss an exactly solvable model of PT-symmetric string which is isospectral to the uniform string; for more general strings, we calculate exactly the sum rules Z(p)??{sub n=1}{sup ?}1/E{sub n}{sup p}, with p=1,2,… and find explicit expressions which can be used to obtain bounds on the lowest eigenvalue. A detailed numerical calculation is carried out for two non-solvable models depending on a parameter, obtaining precise estimates of the critical values where pair of real eigenvalues become complex. -- Highlights: •PT-symmetric Hamiltonians exhibit real eigenvalues when PT symmetry is unbroken. •We study PT-symmetric strings with complex density. •They exhibit regions of unbroken PT symmetry. •We calculate the critical parameters at the boundaries of those regions. •There are exact real sum rules for some particular complex densities.

  14. Noise removal at the rod synapse of mammalian retina 

    E-print Network

    van Rossum, Mark; Smith, Robert

    1998-01-01

    Mammalian rods respond to single photons with a hyperpolarization of about 1 mV which is accompanied by continuous noise. Since the mammalian rod bipolar cell collects signals from 20-100 rods, the noise from the converging ...

  15. Looking South at North End of Rod Loading Line Including ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking South at North End of Rod Loading Line Including Welding Area Within Rod Loading building - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Rod Loading Building, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

  16. Stable string bit models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Songge; Thorn, Charles B.

    2014-05-01

    In string bit models, the superstring emerges as a very long chain of "bits," in which s fermionic degrees of freedom contribute positively to the ground state energy in a way to exactly cancel the destabilizing negative contributions of d=s bosonic degrees of freedom. We propose that the physics of string formation be studied nonperturbatively in the class of string bit models in which s>d, so that a long chain is stable, in contrast to the marginally stable (s=d=8) superstring chain. We focus on the simplest of these models with s=1 and d=0, in which the string bits live in zero space dimensions. The string bit creation operators are N×N matrices. We choose a Hamiltonian such that the large N limit produces a string moving in one space dimension, with excitations corresponding to one Grassmann light-cone world sheet field (s=1) and no bosonic world sheet field (d=0). We study this model at finite N to assess the role of the large N limit in the emergence of the spatial dimension. Our results suggest that stringlike states with large bit number M may not exist for N?(M-1)/2. If this is correct, one can have finite chains of string bits, but not a continuous string, at finite N. Only for extremely large N can such chains behave approximately like a continuous string, in which case there will also be the (approximate) emergence of a new spatial dimension. In string bit models designed to produce a critical superstring at N=?, we can then expect only approximate Lorentz invariance at finite N, with violations of order 1/N2.

  17. Arenas for String Phenomenology String Phenomenology 2011, Madison

    E-print Network

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Arenas for String Phenomenology String Phenomenology 2011, Madison Michael Dine Department of Physics University of California, Santa Cruz August, 2011 Michael Dine Arenas for String Phenomenology #12;Possible Arenas for a String Phenomenology 1 Hierarchy problem: LHC scale physics: supersymmetry, RS, large

  18. BiP prevents rod opsin aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Athanasiou, Dimitra; Kosmaoglou, Maria; Kanuga, Naheed; Novoselov, Sergey S.; Paton, Adrienne W.; Paton, James C.; Chapple, J. Paul; Cheetham, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in rod opsin—the light-sensitive protein of rod cells—cause retinitis pigmentosa. Many rod opsin mutations lead to protein misfolding, and therefore it is important to understand the role of molecular chaperones in rod opsin biogenesis. We show that BiP (HSPA5) prevents the aggregation of rod opsin. Cleavage of BiP with the subtilase cytotoxin SubAB results in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention and ubiquitylation of wild-type (WT) rod opsin (WT–green fluorescent protein [GFP]) at the ER. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching reveals that WT-GFP is usually mobile in the ER. By contrast, depletion of BiP activity by treatment with SubAB or coexpression of a BiP ATPase mutant, BiP(T37G), decreases WT-GFP mobility to below that of the misfolding P23H mutant of rod opsin (P23H-GFP), which is retained in the ER and can form cytoplasmic ubiquitylated inclusions. SubAB treatment of P23H-GFP–expressing cells decreases the mobility of the mutant protein further and leads to ubiquitylation throughout the ER. Of interest, BiP overexpression increases the mobility of P23H-GFP, suggesting that it can reduce mutant rod opsin aggregation. Therefore inhibition of BiP function results in aggregation of rod opsin in the ER, which suggests that BiP is important for maintaining the solubility of rod opsin in the ER. PMID:22855534

  19. Characterizing a cosmic string with the statistics of string lensing

    SciTech Connect

    Oguri, Masamune [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Takahashi, Keitaro [Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

    2005-10-15

    The deep imaging of the field of an observed lensing event by a cosmic string reveals many additional lensing events. We study the statistics of such string lensing. We derive explicit expressions for the distributions of image separations of lensing by a cosmic string and point out that they are quite sensitive to parameters which characterize the cosmic string, such as the redshift and tension of the cosmic string. Thus the statistics of string lensing events add new important information on the cosmic string which cannot be obtained from the detailed investigation of one lensing event.

  20. Euclidean Strings John Ellis y

    E-print Network

    Ellis, John

    Euclidean Strings #3; John Ellis y , Frank Ruskey y , Joe Sawada ? and Jamie Simpson z y Department; #1; p n 1 of non-negative integers is a Euclidean string if the string (p 0 + 1)p 1 #1; #1; #1; (p n 1 1) is rotationally equivalent (i.e., conjugate) to p. We show that Euclidean strings exist

  1. Unsupervised clustering of symbol strings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John A. Flanagan

    2003-01-01

    The Symbol String Clustering Map (SCM) is introduced as a very simple but effective algorithm for clustering strings of symbols in an unsupervised manner. The clustering is based on an iterative learning of the input data symbol strings. The learning uses the principle of winner take all (WTA) and hence requires a similarity measure between symbol strings. A novel and

  2. Exposure of fish to biologically treated bleached-kraft effluent; 1: Biochemical, physiological and pathological assessment of Rocky Mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni) and longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. J. Kloepper-Sams; J. W. Owens; S. M. Swanson; T. Marchant; R. Schryer

    1994-01-01

    A suite of biochemical, physiological, and pathological measures was used to assess possible effects of exposure to bleached-kraft mill effluent (BKME) on wild longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus=LS) and mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni=MW) in the Wapiti\\/Smoke River system, as compared to similar populations in a reference river system without BKME inputs. Individual fish body burden data were examined for correlations between

  3. Bows, Strings, and Bowing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guettler, Knut

    It is to the credit of François Tourte (Paris, ca. 1747-1835) that modern bows give a more direct impact on the string than their predecessors. This feature is of utmost importance when applying off-string, bouncing techniques such as spiccato and ricochet, but even for a stroke such as martelé, where quick reduction of bow force is required during the attack. With Tourte's concave-cambered bow, the bow force increases rapidly when the bow stick is falling or pressed against the string. With the old concave or straight bows, more movement, and thus time, was required for establishing comparable bow force.

  4. String Dilaton Fluid Cosmology

    E-print Network

    S. Capozziello; G. Lambiase; R. Capaldo

    1998-05-13

    We investigate $(n+1)$-dimensional string-dilaton cosmology with effective dilaton potential in presence of perfect-fluid matter.We get exact solutions parametrized by the constant $\\gam$ of the state equation $p=(\\gam-1)\\rho$, the spatial dimension number $n$, the bulk of matter, and the spatial curvature constant $k$. Several interesting cosmological behaviours are selected. Finally we discuss the recovering of ordinary Einstein gravity starting from string dominated regime and a sort of asymptotic freedom due to string effective coupling.

  5. Cosmological cosmic strings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Ruth

    1988-01-01

    The effect of an infinite cosmic string on a cosmological background is investigated. It is found that the metric is approximately a scaled version of the empty space string metric, i.e., conical in nature. Results are used to place bounds on the amount of cylindrical gravitational radiation currently emitted by such a string. The gravitational radiation equations are then analyzed explicitly and it is shown that even initially large disturbances are rapidly damped as the expansion proceeds. The implications of the gravitational radiation background and the limitations of the quadrupole formula are discussed.

  6. Control Rod Malfunction at the NRAD Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas L. Maddock

    2010-05-01

    The neutron Radiography Reactor (NRAD) is a training, research, and isotope (TRIGA) reactor located at the INL. The reactor is normally shut down by the insertion of three control rods that drop into the core when power is removed from electromagnets. During a routine shutdown, indicator lights on the console showed that one of the control rods was not inserted. It was initially thought that the indicator lights were in error because of a limit switch that was out of adjustment. Through further testing, it was determined that the control rod did not drop when the scram switch was initially pressed. The control rod anomaly led to a six month shutdown of the reactor and an in depth investigation of the reactor protective system. The investigation looked into: scram switch operation, console modifications, and control rod drive mechanisms. A number of latent issues were discovered and corrected during the investigation. The cause of the control rod malfunction was found to be a buildup of corrosion in the control rod drive mechanism. The investigation resulted in modifications to equipment, changes to both operation and maintenance procedures, and additional training. No reoccurrences of the problem have been observed since corrective actions were implemented.

  7. Supercritical N = 2 string theory

    E-print Network

    Simeon Hellerman; Ian Swanson

    2007-09-16

    The N=2 string is examined in dimensions above the critical dimension (D=4) in a linear dilaton background. We demonstrate that string states in this background propagate in a single physical time dimension, as opposed to two such dimensions present when the dilaton gradient vanishes in D=4. We also find exact solutions describing dynamical dimensional reduction and transitions from N=2 string theory to bosonic string theory via closed-string tachyon condensation.

  8. Control rod housing alignment and repair method

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, R.C.; Deaver, G.A.; Punches, J.R.; Singleton, G.E.; Erbes, J.G.; Offer, H.P.

    1992-04-07

    This patent describes a method for underwater welding of a control rod drive housing inserted through a stub tube to maintain requisite alignment and elevation of the top of the control rod drive housing to an overlying and corresponding aperture in a core plate as measured by an alignment device which determines the relative elevation and angularity with respect to the aperture. It comprises providing a welding cylinder dependent from the alignment device such that the elevation of the top of the welding cylinder is in a fixed relationship to the alignment device and is gas-proof; pressurizing the welding cylinder with inert welding gas sufficient to maintain the interior of the welding cylinder dry; lowering the welding cylinder through the aperture in the core plate by depending the cylinder with respect to the alignment device, the lowering including lowering through and adjusting the elevation relationship of the welding cylinder to the alignment device such that when the alignment device is in position to measure the elevation and angularity of the new control rod drive housing, the lower distal end of the welding cylinder extends below the upper periphery of the stub where welding is to occur; inserting a new control rod drive housing through the stub tube and positioning the control rod drive housing to a predetermined relationship to the anticipated final position of the control rod drive housing; providing welding implements transversely rotatably mounted interior of the welding cylinder relative to the alignment device such that the welding implements may be accurately positioned for dispensing weldment around the periphery of the top of the stub tube and at the side of the control rod drive housing; measuring the elevation and angularity of the control rod drive housing; and dispensing weldment along the top of the stub tube and at the side of the control rod drive housing.

  9. Bijels stabilized using rod-like particles.

    PubMed

    Hijnen, Niek; Cai, Dongyu; Clegg, Paul S

    2015-05-27

    Bicontinuous interfacially jammed emulsion gels, in short 'bijels', rely on a trapped layer of colloidal particles for their stability. These structures have traditionally been created using spherical colloidal particles. Here we show for the first time the use of rod-shape particles to stabilize bijels. We show that domain size decreases more rapidly with particle concentration in the case of rods compared to spheres. Large-scale analysis and detailed examination of images show that the packing fraction of rods is much higher than expected, in part, due to the role of 'flippers'. PMID:25884307

  10. Plasmonic Focusing in Rod–Sheath Heteronanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Can; Banholzer, Matthew J.; Schatz, George C.; Mirkin, Chad A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the fabrication of plasmonic focusing, free-standing rod–sheath heteronanostructures based on electrochemical templated synthesis and selective chemical etching. These heteronanostructures take advantage of plasmon interference together with field enhancements due to sharp junction structures to function as stand-alone SERS substrates containing Raman hot spots at the interface of the rod and sheath segments. This result is investigated with empirical and theoretical (discrete dipole approximation, DDA) methods, and we show how plasmon interference can be tuned by varying the sheath and rod lengths. PMID:19206253

  11. Strings at finite temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Arago C. de; Bazeia, D.; Eboli, O.J.P.; Marques, G.C.

    1985-12-15

    We obtain a semiclassical evaluation of the temperature for which the free energy of the strings of spontaneously broken scalar electrodynamics vanishes. We argue that, above this temperature, these objects should play a significant physical role.

  12. Palindromes In Sturmian Strings

    E-print Network

    Karaman, Ayse

    2010-01-01

    Let p be a central palindrome in a Sturmian string s=ul_1pl_2v so that p is a palindrome and l_1pl_2 is not for letters l_1 and l_2. Let \\alpha_{(p,p')} be a morphism mapping letters a and b respectively to a^pb and a^{p'}b, |p-p'|=1. In this paper, we characterize the palindromes in a Sturmian string and show that the number of central palindromes in a Sturmian string X= \\alpha_{(p,p')}(Y) for finite Y and thus X is 2|X|-2|Y|. We show that the set of central palindromes in a finite Sturmian string X has the cardinality \\sum_{i=1..n}max(p_i,p'_i) where X is characterized by subsequent mappings of \\alpha_{(p_i,p'_i), i=1..n.

  13. QCD and String Theory

    E-print Network

    Igor R. Klebanov

    2005-10-19

    This talk begins with some history and basic facts about string theory and its connections with strong interactions. Comparisons of stacks of Dirichlet branes with curved backgrounds produced by them are used to motivate the AdS/CFT correspondence between superconformal gauge theory and string theory on a product of Anti-de Sitter space and a compact manifold. The ensuing duality between semi-classical spinning strings and long gauge theory operators is briefly reviewed. Strongly coupled thermal SYM theory is explored via a black hole in 5-dimensional AdS space, which leads to explicit results for its entropy and shear viscosity. A conjectured universal lower bound on the viscosity to entropy density ratio, and its possible relation to recent results from RHIC, are discussed. Finally, some available results on string duals of confining gauge theories are briefly reviewed.

  14. Cosmic string loop microlensing

    E-print Network

    Chernoff, David F.

    Cosmic superstring loops within the galaxy microlens background point sources lying close to the observer-string line of sight. For suitable alignments, multiple paths coexist and the (achromatic) flux enhancement is a ...

  15. Subsurface drill string

    DOEpatents

    Casper, William L. (Rigby, ID); Clark, Don T. (Idaho Falls, ID); Grover, Blair K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Mathewson, Rodney O. (Idaho Falls, ID); Seymour, Craig A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2008-10-07

    A drill string comprises a first drill string member having a male end; and a second drill string member having a female end configured to be joined to the male end of the first drill string member, the male end having a threaded portion including generally square threads, the male end having a non-threaded extension portion coaxial with the threaded portion, and the male end further having a bearing surface, the female end having a female threaded portion having corresponding female threads, the female end having a non-threaded extension portion coaxial with the female threaded portion, and the female end having a bearing surface. Installation methods, including methods of installing instrumented probes are also provided.

  16. String Theory at LHC Using Top Quarks From String Balls

    E-print Network

    Gouranga C Nayak

    2009-06-23

    According to string theory, string ball is a highly excited long string which decays to standard model particles at the Hagedorn temperature with thermal spectrum. If there are extra dimensions, the string scale can be $\\sim$ TeV, and we should produce string balls at CERN LHC. In this paper we study top quark production from string balls at LHC and compare with the parton fusion results at NNLO using pQCD. We find significant top quark production from string balls at LHC which is comparable to standard model pQCD results. We also find that $\\frac{d\\sigma}{dp_T}$ of top quarks from string balls does not decrease significantly with increase in $p_T$, whereas it deceases sharply in case of standard model pQCD scenario. Hence, in the absence of black hole production at LHC, an enhancement in top quark cross section and its abnormal $p_T$ distribution can be a signature of TeV scale string physics at LHC. String theory is also studied at LHC via string Regge excitations in the weak coupling limit in model independent framework. Since massive quark production amplitude is not available in string Regge excitations scenario, we compute massless quark production in string Regge excitations scenario and make a clear comparison with that produced from string balls at LHC for a given luminosity.

  17. String-string duality conjecture in six dimensions and charged solitonic strings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashoke Sen

    1995-01-01

    It has recently been conjectured that the type IIA string theory compactified on K3 and the heterotic string theory compactified on a four dimensional torus describe identical string theories. The fundamental heterotic string can be regarded as a non-singular soliton solution of the type IIA string theory with a semi-infinite throat. We show that this solution admits 24 parameter non-singular

  18. Metastable String Vacua

    E-print Network

    C. Angelantonj; E. Dudas

    2007-05-23

    We argue that tachyon-free type I string vacua with supersymmetry breaking in the open sector at the string scale can be interpreted, via S and T-duality arguments, as metastable vacua of supersymmetric type I superstring. The dynamics of the process can be partially captured via nucleation of brane-antibrane pairs out of the non-supersymmetric vacuum and subsequent tachyon condensation.

  19. String Theory and Cosmology

    E-print Network

    M. C. Bento; O. Bertolami

    1995-05-22

    We discuss the main cosmological implications of considering string-loop effects and a potential for the dilaton in the lowest order string effective action. Our framework is based on the effective model arising from regarding homogeneous and isotropic dilaton, metric and Yang-Mills field configurations. The issues of inflation, entropy crisis and the Polonyi problem as well as the problem of the cosmological constant are discussed.

  20. Matrix string theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robbert Dijkgraaf; Erik Verlinde; Herman L Verlinde

    1997-01-01

    Via compactification on a circle, the matrix mode] of M-theory proposed by Banks et a]. suggests a concrete identification between the large N limit of two-dimensional N = 8 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory and type IIA string theory. In this paper we collect evidence that supports this identification. We explicitly identify the perturbative string states and their interactions, and describe the

  1. Nonsingular global strings

    E-print Network

    Ruth Gregory

    1997-10-17

    We examine the possibility that time dependence might remove the singular nature of global string spacetimes. We first show that this time dependence takes a specific form -- a de-Sitter like expansion along the length of the string and give an argument for the existence of such a solution, estimating the rate of expansion. We compare our solution to the singular Cohen-Kaplan spacetime.

  2. Hydroball string sensing system

    DOEpatents

    Hurwitz, Michael J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Ekeroth, Douglas E. (Delmont, PA); Squarer, David (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1991-01-01

    A hydroball string sensing system for a nuclear reactor that includes stainless tubes positioned to guide hydroball strings into and out of the nuclear reactor core. A sensor such as an ultrasonic transducer transmitter and receiver is positioned outside of the nuclear reactor core and adjacent to the tube. The presence of an object such a bullet member positioned at an end a hydroball string, or any one of the hydroballs interrupts the transmission of ultrasound from the transmitter to the receiver. Alternatively, if the bullet member and hydroballs include a ferritic material, either a Hall effect sensor or other magnetic field sensors such as a magnetic field rate of change sensor can be used to detect the location and position of a hydroball string. Placing two sensors along the tube with a known distance between the sensors enables the velocity of a hydroball string to be determined. This determined velocity can be used to control the flow rate of a fluid within the tube so as to control the velocity of the hydroball string.

  3. Cosmic strings in gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harko, Tiberiu; Lake, Matthew J.

    2015-02-01

    We consider Kasner-type static, cylindrically symmetric interior string solutions in the theory of modified gravity. The physical properties of the string are described by an anisotropic energy-momentum tensor satisfying the condition ; that is, the energy density of the string along the -axis is equal to minus the string tension. As a first step in our study we obtain the gravitational field equations in the theory for a general static, cylindrically symmetric metric, and then for a Kasner-type metric, in which the metric tensor components have a power law dependence on the radial coordinate . String solutions in two particular modified gravity models are investigated in detail. The first is the so-called "exponential" modified gravity, in which the gravitational action is proportional to the exponential of the sum of the Ricci scalar and matter Lagrangian, and the second is the "self-consistent model", obtained by explicitly determining the gravitational action from the field equations under the assumption of a power law dependent matter Lagrangian. In each case, the thermodynamic parameters of the string, as well as the precise form of the matter Lagrangian, are explicitly obtained.

  4. Quantum Bit String Commitment

    E-print Network

    Adrian Kent

    2003-06-04

    A bit string commitment protocol securely commits $N$ classical bits in such a way that the recipient can extract only $Mstring. Classical reasoning might suggest that bit string commitment implies bit commitment and hence, given the Mayers-Lo-Chau theorem, that non-relativistic quantum bit string commitment is impossible. Not so: there exist non-relativistic quantum bit string commitment protocols, with security parameters $\\epsilon$ and $M$, that allow $A$ to commit $N = N(M, \\epsilon)$ bits to $B$ so that $A$'s probability of successfully cheating when revealing any bit and $B$'s probability of extracting more than $N'=N-M$ bits of information about the $N$ bit string before revelation are both less than $\\epsilon$. With a slightly weakened but still restrictive definition of security against $A$, $N$ can be taken to be $O(\\exp (C N'))$ for a positive constant $C$. I briefly discuss possible applications.

  5. Taylor impact of glass rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willmott, G. R.; Radford, D. D.

    2005-05-01

    The deformation and fracture behavior of soda-lime and borosilicate glass rods was examined during classic and symmetric Taylor impact experiments for impact pressures to 4 and 10GPa, respectively. High-speed photography and piezoresistive gauges were used to measure the failure front velocities in both glasses, and for impact pressures below ˜2GPa the failure front velocity increases rapidly with increasing pressure. As the pressure was increased above ˜3GPa, the failure front velocities asymptotically approached maximum values between the longitudinal and shear wave velocities of each material; at ˜4GPa, the average failure front velocities were 4.7±0.5 and 4.6±0.5mm?s-1 for the soda-lime and borosilicate specimens, respectively. The observed mechanism of failure in these experiments involved continuous pressure-dependent nucleation and growth of microcracks behind the incident wave. As the impact pressure was increased, there was a decrease in the time to failure. The density of cracks within the failed region was material dependent, with the more open-structured borosilicate glass showing a larger fracture density.

  6. Control rod drive hydraulic system

    DOEpatents

    Ose, Richard A. (San Jose, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A hydraulic system for a control rod drive (CRD) includes a variable output-pressure CR pump operable in a charging mode for providing pressurized fluid at a charging pressure, and in a normal mode for providing the pressurized fluid at a purge pressure, less than the charging pressure. Charging and purge lines are disposed in parallel flow between the CRD pump and the CRD. A hydraulic control unit is disposed in flow communication in the charging line and includes a scram accumulator. An isolation valve is provided in the charging line between the CRD pump and the scram accumulator. A controller is operatively connected to the CRD pump and the isolation valve and is effective for opening the isolation valve and operating the CRD pump in a charging mode for charging the scram accumulator, and closing the isolation valve and operating the CRD pump in a normal mode for providing to the CRD through the purge line the pressurized fluid at a purge pressure lower than the charging pressure.

  7. Coiling of elastic rods on rigid substrates

    E-print Network

    Khalid Jawed, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the deployment of a thin elastic rod onto a rigid substrate and study the resulting coiling patterns. In our approach, we combine precision model experiments, scaling analyses, and computer simulations towards ...

  8. Mechanical behavior of elastic rods under constraint

    E-print Network

    Miller, James Thomas, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of an experimental investigation of the mechanics of thin elastic rods under a variety of loading conditions. Four scenarios are explored, with increasing complexity: i) the shape of a naturally ...

  9. Deformations of active flexible rods with embedded line actuators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. C. Lagoudas; I. G. Tadjbakhsh

    1993-01-01

    The 3D formulation of flexible rods with embedded line actuators is presented in this paper. Both the rod and the line actuator are assumed to be initially curved and relatively positioned in an arbitrary way. The deformed configurations of the rod and actuator are connected by assuming that the principal planes of the rod remain plane and inextensible in the

  10. International symposium on fuel rod simulators: development and application

    SciTech Connect

    McCulloch, R.W. (comp.)

    1981-05-01

    Separate abstracts are included for each of the papers presented concerning fuel rod simulator operation and performance; simulator design and evaluation; clad heated fuel rod simulators and fuel rod simulators for cladding investigations; fuel rod simulator components and inspection; and simulator analytical modeling. Ten papers have previously been input to the Energy Data Base.

  11. Measurements of control rod efficiency in RBMK critical assembly upon dropping of the rods

    SciTech Connect

    Zhitarev, V. E., E-mail: vejitarev@nnrd.kiae.su; Kachanov, V. M.; Sergevnin, A. Yu.; Lebedev, G. V., E-mail: lgv2004@mail.ru [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-15

    The efficiency of control rods in the RBMK critical assembly was measured in the case where one manual-control rod (MCR) is dropped from a steady critical state, and several other MCRs were additionally dropped after 44 s. The measured number of neutrons in the assembly during and after dropping of the rods was used to calculate the efficiency values of the rods by solution of the system of point kinetics equations. A series of methods of the initial data treatment for determination of the desired values of reactivity without the calculated corrections were used.

  12. Synthesis of Functionalised Aromatic Oligamide Rods†‡

    PubMed Central

    Plante, Jeffrey; Campbell, Fred; Malkova, Barbora; Kilner, Colin; Warriner, Stuart L; Wilson, Andrew J

    2009-01-01

    A current goal in synthetic chemistry is the design and synthesis of molecules that adopt well defined conformations – so called foldamers. In this manuscript we describe a modular approach for construction of rod shaped para-oligobenzamide molecules. Our approach permits regiospecific incorporation of side chains through a phenolic ether linkage on the scaffold; a feature that partly restricts the conformation of the rod through intramolecular hydrogen-bonding. PMID:18075658

  13. Double-clad nuclear fuel safety rod

    DOEpatents

    McCarthy, William H. (Los Altos, CA); Atcheson, Donald B. (Cupertino, CA); Vaidyanathan, Swaminathan (San Jose, CA)

    1984-01-01

    A device for shutting down a nuclear reactor during an undercooling or overpower event, whether or not the reactor's scram system operates properly. This is accomplished by double-clad fuel safety rods positioned at various locations throughout the reactor core, wherein melting of a secondary internal cladding of the rod allows the fuel column therein to shift from the reactor core to place the reactor in a subcritical condition.

  14. Crippling Strength of Axially Loaded Rods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Natalis, FR

    1921-01-01

    A new empirical formula was developed that holds good for any length and any material of a rod, and agrees well with the results of extensive strength tests. To facilitate calculations, three tables are included, giving the crippling load for solid and hollow sectioned wooden rods of different thickness and length, as well as for steel tubes manufactured according to the standards of Army Air Services Inspection. Further, a graphical method of calculation of the breaking load is derived in which a single curve is employed for determination of the allowable fiber stress. Finally, the theory is discussed of the elastic curve for a rod subject to compression, according to which no deflection occurs, and the apparent contradiction of this conclusion by test results is attributed to the fact that the rods under test are not perfectly straight, or that the wall thickness and the material are not uniform. Under the assumption of an eccentric rod having a slight initial bend according to a sine curve, a simple formula for the deflection is derived, which shows a surprising agreement with test results. From this a further formula is derived for the determination of the allowable load on an eccentric rod. The resulting relations are made clearer by means of a graphical representation of the relation of the moments of the outer and inner forces to the deflection.

  15. Improvement of four anode rods ion source.

    PubMed

    Abdel Salam, F W; el-Khabeary, H; Ahmed, M M; Abdel Reheem, A M

    2011-03-01

    In this work, an improved form of a saddle field ion source has been designed and constructed. It consists of four anode rods made from copper and two copper cathode discs. The two cathode discs are placed symmetrically on both sides of the four anode rods. The electrical discharge and output ion beam characteristics were measured at different pressures using argon gas. The optimum distance between each two anode rods was determined. Also the optimum distance between the four anode rods and any cathode disc was obtained. It was found that the optimum distance between each two anode rods equal to 6 mm, while the optimum distance between the four anode rods and any cathode disc equal to 16 mm, where a stable discharge current and maximum output ion beam current can be obtained. The effect of negative extraction voltage applied to both the extractor electrode and Faraday cup on the output ion beam current was studied. The sputter yield of copper and aluminum targets using argon ions of different energies was determined. PMID:21456729

  16. Improvement of four anode rods ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Abdel Salam, F. W.; El-Khabeary, H.; Abdel Reheem, A. M. [Accelerators and Ion Sources Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, P. No. 13759 (Egypt); Ahmed, M. M. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Helwan University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2011-03-15

    In this work, an improved form of a saddle field ion source has been designed and constructed. It consists of four anode rods made from copper and two copper cathode discs. The two cathode discs are placed symmetrically on both sides of the four anode rods. The electrical discharge and output ion beam characteristics were measured at different pressures using argon gas. The optimum distance between each two anode rods was determined. Also the optimum distance between the four anode rods and any cathode disc was obtained. It was found that the optimum distance between each two anode rods equal to 6 mm, while the optimum distance between the four anode rods and any cathode disc equal to 16 mm, where a stable discharge current and maximum output ion beam current can be obtained. The effect of negative extraction voltage applied to both the extractor electrode and Faraday cup on the output ion beam current was studied. The sputter yield of copper and aluminum targets using argon ions of different energies was determined.

  17. Assessing genetic diversity of wild and hatchery samples of the Chinese sucker (Myxocyprinus asiaticus) by the mitochondrial DNA control region.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiayun; Wu, Bo; Hou, Feixia; Chen, Yongbai; Li, Chong; Song, Zhaobin

    2014-09-22

    Abstract To restore the natural populations of Chinese sucker (Myxocyprinus asiaticus), a hatchery release program has been underway for nearly 10 years. Using DNA sequences of the mitochondrial control region, we assessed the genetic diversity and genetic structure among samples collected from three sites of the wild population as well as from three hatcheries. The haplotype diversity of the wild samples (h?=?0.899-0.975) was significantly higher than that of the hatchery ones (h?=?0.296-0.666), but the nucleotide diversity was almost identical between them (??=?0.0170-0.0280). Relatively high gene flow was detected between the hatchery and wild samples. Analysis of effective population size indicated that M. asiaticus living in the Yangtze River has been expanding following a bottleneck in the recent past. Our results suggest the hatchery release programs for M. asiaticus have not reduced the genetic diversity, but have influenced the genetic structure of the species in the upper Yangtze River. PMID:25242190

  18. Bioaccumulation of the pharmaceutical 17alpha-ethinylestradiol in shorthead redhorse suckers (Moxostoma macrolepidotum) from the St. Clair River, Canada.

    PubMed

    Al-Ansari, Ahmed M; Saleem, Ammar; Kimpe, Linda E; Sherry, Jim P; McMaster, Mark E; Trudeau, Vance L; Blais, Jules M

    2010-08-01

    17alpha-ethynylestradiol (EE2), a synthetic estrogen prescribed as a contraceptive, was measured in Shorthead Redhorse Suckers (ShRHSs) (Moxostoma macrolepidotum) collected near a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in the St. Clair River (Ontario, Canada). We detected EE2 in 50% of the fish samples caught near the WWTP (Stag Island), which averaged 1.6+/-0.6ng/g (wet weight) in males and 1.43+/-0.96ng/g in females. No EE2 was detected in the samples from the reference site (Port Lambton) which was 26km further downstream of the Stag Island site. Only males from Stag Island had VTG induction, suggesting the Corunna WWTP effluent as a likely source of environmental estrogen. EE2 concentrations were correlated with total body lipid content (R(2)=0.512, p<0.01, n=10). Lipid normalized EE2 concentrations were correlated with delta(15)N (R(2)=0.436, p<0.05, n=10), suggesting higher EE2 exposures in carnivores. Our data support the hypothesis of EE2 bioaccumulation in wild fish. PMID:20561724

  19. String Theory: Progress and Problems

    E-print Network

    John H. Schwarz

    2007-03-05

    String theory builds on the great legacy of Yukawa and Tomonaga: New degrees of freedom and control of the UV are two important themes. This talk will give an overview of some of the progress and some of the unsolved problems that characterize string theory today. It is divided into two parts: (1) Connecting String Theory to the Real World; (2) Gauge Theory/String Theory Duality. Two other major subjects, which I will omit, are Black Holes in String Theory and The Impact of String Theory on Mathematics.

  20. Kinetics of the Photocurrent of Retinal Rods

    PubMed Central

    Penn, R. D.; Hagins, W. A.

    1972-01-01

    The shapes of the photocurrent responses of rat rods, recorded with microelectrodes from the receptor layer of small pieces of isolated retinas, have been investigated as a function of temperature and of stimulus energy. Between 27 and 37°C the responses to short flashes can be described formally as the output of a chain of at least four linear low-pass filters with time constants in the range 50-100 msec. The output of the filter chain is then distorted by a nonlinear amplitude-limiting process with a hyperbolic saturation characteristic. Flashes producing ?30 photons absorbed per rod yield responses of half-maximal size independently of temperature. The maximum response amplitude is that just sufficient to cancel the dark current. The rate of rise of a response is proportional to flash energy up to the level of 105 photons absorbed per rod, where hyperbolic rate saturation ensues. The responses continue to increase in duration with even more intense flashes until, at the level of 107 photons absorbed per rod, they last longer than 50 min. The time-courses of the photocurrent and of the excitatory disturbance in the rod system are very similar. The stimulus intensity at which amplitude saturation of the photocurrent responses begins is near that where psychophysical “rod saturation” is seen. An analysis of these properties leads to the following conclusions about the mechanism of rod excitation. (a) The kinetics of the photocurrent bear no simple relation to the formation or decay of any of the spectroscopic intermediates so far detected during the photolysis of rhodopsin. (b) The forms of both the amplitude- and rate-limiting processes are not compatible with organization of rhodopsin into “photoreceptive units” containing more than 300 chromophores. Even at high stimulus intensities most rhodopsin chromophores remain connected to the excitatory apparatus of rods. (c) The maximum rate of rise of the photocurrent is too fast to be consistent with the infolded disks of a rod outer segment being attached to the overlying plasma membrane. Most of the disks behave electrically as if isolated within the cell. (d) Control of the photocurrent at the outer segment membrane is not achieved by segregation of the charge carriers of the current within the rod disks. Instead, it is likely to depend on control of the plasma membrane permeability by an agent released from the disks. PMID:5044581

  1. Does a rod, pushed by a force, accelerate less than the same rod pulled by the same force?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Cavalleri; G. Spinelli

    1970-01-01

    Summary  The answer is yes, if we consider the mean accelerations of the rod’s points. Namely, the acceleration of the application\\u000a point of the external force only depends on the rod’s mass and the force’s magnitude. Consequently the other points of the\\u000a rod accelerate differently according to their positions in order to set up Lorentz contraction. In Sect.1 the problem is

  2. Distance Based Indexing for String Proximity Search

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Süleyman Cenk Sahinalp; Murat Tasan; Jai Macker; Z. Meral Özsoyoglu

    2003-01-01

    In many database applications involving string data, it is common to have near neighbor queries (asking for strings that are similar to a query string) or nearest neighbor queries (asking for strings that are most simi- lar to a query string). The similarity between strings is defined in terms of a distance function determined by the application domain. The most

  3. Parallel string method for multiple string, thermal fluid injection

    SciTech Connect

    Deming, J.R.; Griston, S.; Hong, K.C.

    1986-06-17

    A method is described for multiple string, thermal fluid injection within a well which penetrates at least two strata which are separated by at least one relatively impermeable strata comprising the steps of packing off the well to establish a first zone at the first stratum and a second zone at the second stratum; introducing the first tubing string into the well; terminating the first tubing string at the first zone; paralleling the first tubing string with the second tubing string; ending the second tubing string at the second zone; physically separating the first and second tubing strings; injecting a first fluid at a first temperature into the first tubing string while simultaneously injecting a second fluid at a second temperature into the second tubing string; insulating the first tubing string through the second zone to minimize heat transfer between the second fluid from the second tubing string and the first fluid in the first tubing string; and applying the first fluid temperature to the first zone while simultaneously applying the second fluid at a second temperature to the second zone.

  4. Tadpoles and closed string backgrounds in open string field theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian Ellwood; Jessie Shelton; Washington Taylor

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the quantum structure of Witten's cubic open bosonic string field theory by computing the one-loop contribution to the open string tadpole using both oscillator and conformal field theory methods. We find divergences and a breakdown of BRST invariance in the tadpole diagram arising from tachyonic and massless closed string states, and we discuss ways of treating these problems.

  5. Isolation and Characterization of Cytoplasmic Cofilin-Actin Rods*

    PubMed Central

    Minamide, Laurie S.; Maiti, Sankar; Boyle, Judith A.; Davis, Richard C.; Coppinger, Judith A.; Bao, Yunhe; Huang, Timothy Y.; Yates, John; Bokoch, Gary M.; Bamburg, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Cofilin-actin bundles (rods), which form in axons and dendrites of stressed neurons, lead to synaptic dysfunction and may mediate cognitive deficits in dementias. Rods form abundantly in the cytoplasm of non-neuronal cells in response to many treatments that induce rods in neurons. Rods in cell lysates are not stable in detergents or with added calcium. Rods induced by ATP-depletion and released from cells by mechanical lysis were first isolated from two cell lines expressing chimeric actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin fluorescent proteins by differential and equilibrium sedimentation on OptiPrep gradients and then from neuronal and non-neuronal cells expressing only endogenous proteins. Rods contain ADF/cofilin and actin in a 1:1 ratio. Isolated rods are stable in dithiothreitol, EGTA, Ca2+, and ATP. Cofilin-GFP-containing rods are stable in 500 mm NaCl, whereas rods formed from endogenous proteins are significantly less stable in high salt. Proteomic analysis of rods formed from endogenous proteins identified other potential components whose presence in rods was examined by immunofluorescence staining of cells. Only actin and ADF/cofilin are in rods during all phases of their formation; furthermore, the rapid assembly of rods in vitro from these purified proteins at physiological concentration shows that they are the only proteins necessary for rod formation. Cytoplasmic rod formation is inhibited by cytochalasin D and jasplakinolide. Time lapse imaging of rod formation shows abundant small needle-shaped rods that coalesce over time. Rod filament lengths measured by ultrastructural tomography ranged from 22 to 1480 nm. These results suggest rods form by assembly of cofilin-actin subunits, followed by self-association of ADF/cofilin-saturated F-actin. PMID:20022956

  6. Simplicial Aspects of String Dualities

    E-print Network

    Mauro Carfora; Claudio Dappiaggi; Valeria Gili

    2005-01-27

    We will show how the study of randomly triangulated surfaces merges with the study of open/closed string dualities. In particular we will discuss the Conformal Field Theory which arises in the open string sector and its implications.

  7. Witten Index and Superconducting Strings

    E-print Network

    V. K. Oikonomou

    2010-01-14

    The Yukawa interaction sector of superstring inspired models that give superconducting strings, can be described in terms of a supersymmetric quantum mechanics algebra. We relate the Witten index of susy quantum mechanics with an index characteristic to superconducting string models.

  8. String Theory: Science or Philosophy?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2004-02-20

    This video segment from NOVA discusses the challenge of proving the scientific validity of string theory, in question because strings may be too small to ever be seen or detected, and therefore tested.

  9. Lattice QCD and String Theory

    E-print Network

    Julius Kuti

    2005-11-10

    Bosonic string formation in gauge theories is reviewed with particular attention to the confining flux in lattice QCD and its string theory description. Recent results on the Casimir energy of the ground state and the string excitation spectrum are analyzed in the Dirichlet string limit of large separation between static sources. The closed string-soliton (torelon) with electric flux winding around a compact dimension and the three-string with a Y-junction created by three static sources are also reviewed. It is shown that string spectra from lattice simulations are consistent with universal predictions of the leading operators from the derivative expansion of a Poincare invariant effective string Lagrangian with reparameterization symmetry. Important characterisitics of the confining flux, like stiffness and the related massive breather modes, are coded in operators with higher derivatives and their determination remains a difficult challenge for lattice gauge theory.

  10. On Inflation in String Theory

    E-print Network

    Renata Kallosh

    2007-04-05

    In this talk we describe recent progress in construction of inflationary models in the context of string theory with flux compactification and moduli stabilization. We also discuss a possibility to test string theory by cosmological observations.

  11. The confining trailing string

    E-print Network

    E. Kiritsis; L. Mazzanti; F. Nitti

    2014-12-03

    We extend the holographic trailing string picture of a heavy quark to the case of a bulk geometry dual to a confining gauge theory. We compute the classical trailing confining string solution for a static as well as a uniformly moving quark. The trailing string is infinitely extended and approaches a confining horizon, situated at a critical value of the radial coordinate, along one of the space-time directions, breaking boundary rotational invariance. We compute the equations for the fluctuations around the classical solutions, which are used to obtain boundary force correlators controlling the Langevin dynamics of the quark. The imaginary part of the correlators has a non-trivial low-frequency limit, which gives rise to a viscous friction coefficient induced by the confining vacuum. The vacuum correlators are used to define finite-temperature dressed Langevin correlators with an appropriate high-frequency behavior.

  12. Quantum String Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamoto, Noboru; Kugo, Taichiro

    String theories seem to have created a breakthrough in theoretical physics. At long last a unified theory of all the fundamental interactions, including gravity, looks possible. This, according to theorist Stephen Hawking, will mark the end of theoretical physics as we have known it, since we will then have a single consistent theory within which to explain all natural phenomena from elementary particles to galactic superclusters. Strings themselves are extremely tiny entities, smaller than the Planck scale, which form loops whose vibrational harmonics can be used to model all the standard elementary particles. Of course the mathematical complexities of the theory are daunting, and physicists are still at a very early stage in understanding how strings and their theoretical cousins superstrings can be used. This proceedings volume gives an overview of the intense recent work in the field and reports latest developments.

  13. Wormholes in String Theory

    E-print Network

    Dan N. Vollick

    1998-06-24

    A wormhole is constructed by cutting and joining two spacetimes satisfying the low energy string equations with a dilaton field. In spacetimes described by the "string metric" the dilaton energy-momentum tensor need not satisfy the weak or dominant energy conditions. In the cases considered here the dilaton field violates these energy conditions and is the source of the exotic matter required to maintain the wormhole. There is also a surface stress-energy, that must be produced by additional matter, where the spacetimes are joined. It is shown that wormholes can be constructed for which this additional matter satisfies the weak and dominant energy conditions, so that it could be a form of "normal" matter. Charged dilaton wormholes with a coupling between the dilaton and the electromagnetic field that is more general than in string theory are also briefly discussed.

  14. Racetrack Inflation and Cosmic Strings

    E-print Network

    Philippe Brax; Carsten van de Bruck; Anne-Christine Davis; Stephen C. Davis; Rachel Jeannerot; Marieke Postma

    2008-05-09

    We consider the coupling of racetrack inflation to matter fields as realised in the D3/D7 brane system. In particular, we investigate the possibility of cosmic string formation in this system. We find that string formation before or at the onset of racetrack inflation is possible, but they are then inflated away. Furthermore, string formation at the end of inflation is prevented by the presence of the moduli sector. As a consequence, no strings survive racetrack inflation.

  15. Gravitational effects of cosmic strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vachaspati, Tanmay

    We find the metric of a special class of string trajectories, namely, travelling waves on a string, in the weak field approximation. One outcome of this solution is that such string trajectories exert a {1}/{r} force on surrounding particles. We also find the temperature discontinuity across arbitrary cosmic strings. Our result generalizes the result of Kaiser and Stebbins and includes Lorentz and angular factors.

  16. Elliptic flow from color strings

    E-print Network

    M. A. Braun; C. Pajares

    2010-08-02

    It is shown that the elliptic flow can be successfully described in the color string picture with fusion and percolation provided anisotropy of particle emission from the fused string is taken into account. Two possible sources of this anisotropy are considered, propagation of the string in the transverse plane and quenching of produced particles in the strong color field of the string. Calculations show that the second source gives an overwhelming contribution to the flow at accessible energies.

  17. Cosmic strings and galaxy formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertschinger, Edmund

    1989-01-01

    The cosmogonical model proposed by Zel'dovich and Vilenkin (1981), in which superconducting cosmic strings act as seeds for the origin of structure in the universe, is discussed, summarizing the results of recent theoretical investigations. Consideration is given to the formation of cosmic strings, the microscopic structure of strings, gravitational effects, cosmic string evolution, and the formation of galaxies and large-scale structure. Simulation results are presented in graphs, and several outstanding issues are listed and briefly characterized.

  18. Anti rotational device for down hole hydraulic pumping unit

    SciTech Connect

    Roussel, L.J.

    1987-01-20

    This patent describes, for use in a down hole pumping unit operated by a sucker rod driven by a hydraulic pump having a cylinder and cylinder rod, an anti rotational device for connecting the cylinder rod to the sucker rod while permitting rotation of the sucker rod comprising: vertical spacer means connectable adjacent an upper end therof in fixed relation to the cylinder rod; means rotating the sucker rod; means connecting the sucker rod adjacent a lower end of the vertical spacer means for rotation relative thereto; and vertical guide means permitting vertical movement of the vertical spacer means while preventing rotation thereof.

  19. Radiological characterization of spent control rod assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Lepel, E.A.; Robertson, D.E.; Thomas, C.W.; Pratt, S.L.; Haggard, D.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    This document represents the final report of an ongoing study to provide radiological characterizations, classifications, and assessments in support of the decommissioning of nuclear power stations. This report describes the results of non-destructive and laboratory radionuclide measurements, as well as waste classification assessments, of BWR and PWR spent control rod assemblies. The radionuclide inventories of these spent control rods were determined by three separate methodologies, including (1) direct assay techniques, (2) calculational techniques, and (3) by sampling and laboratory radiochemical analyses. For the BWR control rod blade (CRB) and PWR burnable poison rod assembly (BPRA), {sup 60}Co and {sup 63}Ni, present in the stainless steel cladding, were the most abundant neutron activation products. The most abundant radionuclide in the PWR rod cluster control assembly (RCCA) was {sup 108m}Ag (130 yr halflife) produced in the Ag-In-Cd alloy used as the neutron poison. This radionuclide will be the dominant contributor to the gamma dose rate for many hundreds of years. The results of the direct assay methods agree very well ({+-}10%) with the sampling/radiochemical measurements. The results of the calculational methods agreed fairly well with the empirical measurements for the BPRA, but often varied by a factor of 5 to 10 for the CRB and the RCCA assemblies. If concentration averaging and encapsulation, as allowed by 10CFR61.55, is performed, then each of the entire control assemblies would be classified as Class C low-level radioactive waste.

  20. String theory and quark confinement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexandre M. Polyakov

    1998-01-01

    This article is based on a talk given at the “Strings '97” conference. It discusses the search for the universality class of confining strings. The key ingredients include the loop equations, the zigzag symmetry, the non-linear renormalization group. Some new tests for the equivalence between gauge fields and strings are proposed.

  1. Secure quantum string seal exists

    E-print Network

    Guang Ping He

    2006-02-18

    It was claimed that all quantum string seals are insecure [H. F. Chau, quant-ph/0602099]. However, here it will be shown that for imperfect quantum string seals, the information obtained by the measurement proposed in that reference is trivial. Therefore imperfect quantum string seals can be unconditionally secure.

  2. New Connections Between String Theories

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin Dai; R. G. Leigh; Joseph Polchinski

    1989-01-01

    We consider the R-->0 limit of toroidal compactification in various string theories. This leads to new connections between seemingly different string theories: IIA and IIB, open and closed, oriented and unoriented. We also find two new extended objects which can couple consistently to strings: the Dirichlet-brane and the orientifold plane.

  3. STRING THEORY Problem Set # 5

    E-print Network

    STRING THEORY Problem Set # 5 February 20, 1997 Problem 1 In this problem, we determine the dilaton the dilaton. Problem 2 In this problem, we perform a number of calculations in closed oriented string theory, we perform a number of calculations in open oriented string theory, in flat space

  4. String Theory and Gauge Theories

    SciTech Connect

    Juan Maldacena

    2009-02-20

    We will see how gauge theories, in the limit that the number of colors is large, give string theories. We will discuss some examples of particular gauge theories where the corresponding string theory is known precisely, starting with the case of the maximally supersymmetric theory in four dimensions which corresponds to ten dimensional string theory. We will discuss recent developments in this area.

  5. Periodic string comparison Alexander Tiskin

    E-print Network

    Lonardi, Stefano

    Periodic string comparison Alexander Tiskin Department of Computer Science University of Warwick http://www.dcs.warwick.ac.uk/~tiskin Alexander Tiskin (Warwick) Periodic string comparison 1 / 51 #12;1 Introduction 2 Semi-local string comparison 3 The seaweed algorithm 4 Conclusions and future work Alexander

  6. A fast string searching algorithm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert S. Boyer; J. Strother Moore

    1977-01-01

    An algorithm is presented that searches for the location, “il” of the first occurrence of a character string, “pat,” in another string, “string.” During the search operation, the characters of pat are matched starting with the last character of pat. The information gained by starting the match at the end of the pattern often allows the algorithm to proceed in

  7. Probing the String Landscape

    ScienceCinema

    Keith Dienes

    2010-01-08

    We are currently in the throes of a potentially huge paradigm shift in physics. Motivated by recent developments in string theory and the discovery of the so-called "string landscape", physicists are beginning to question the uniqueness of fundamental theories of physics and the methods by which such theories might be understood and investigated. In this colloquium, I will give a non-technical introduction to the nature of this paradigm shift and how it developed. I will also discuss some of the questions to which it has led, and the nature of the controversies it has spawned.

  8. String Theory and Turbulence

    E-print Network

    Vishnu Jejjala; Djordje Minic; Y. Jack Ng; Chia-Hsiung Tze

    2010-05-17

    We propose a string theory of turbulence that explains the Kolmogorov scaling in 3+1 dimensions and the Kraichnan and Kolmogorov scalings in 2+1 dimensions. This string theory of turbulence should be understood in light of the AdS/CFT dictionary. Our argument is crucially based on the use of Migdal's loop variables and the self-consistent solutions of Migdal's loop equations for turbulence. In particular, there is an area law for turbulence in 2+1 dimensions related to the Kraichnan scaling.

  9. Probing the String Landscape

    SciTech Connect

    Keith Dienes

    2009-12-01

    We are currently in the throes of a potentially huge paradigm shift in physics. Motivated by recent developments in string theory and the discovery of the so-called "string landscape", physicists are beginning to question the uniqueness of fundamental theories of physics and the methods by which such theories might be understood and investigated. In this colloquium, I will give a non-technical introduction to the nature of this paradigm shift and how it developed. I will also discuss some of the questions to which it has led, and the nature of the controversies it has spawned.

  10. Magnetic switch for reactor control rod

    DOEpatents

    Germer, John H. (San Jose, CA)

    1986-01-01

    A magnetic reed switch assembly for activating an electromagnetic grapple utilized to hold a control rod in position above a reactor core. In normal operation the magnetic field of a permanent magnet is short-circuited by a magnetic shunt, diverting the magnetic field away from the reed switch. The magnetic shunt is made of a material having a Curie-point at the desired release temperature. Above that temperature the material loses its ferromagnetic properties, and the magnetic path is diverted to the reed switch which closes and short-circuits the control circuit for the control rod electromagnetic grapple which allows the control rod to drop into the reactor core for controlling the reactivity of the core.

  11. Magnetic switch for reactor control rod. [LMFBR

    DOEpatents

    Germer, J.H.

    1982-09-30

    A magnetic reed switch assembly is described for activating an electromagnetic grapple utilized to hold a control rod in position above a reactor core. In normal operation the magnetic field of a permanent magnet is short-circuited by a magnetic shunt, diverting the magnetic field away from the reed switch. The magnetic shunt is made of a material having a Curie-point at the desired release temperature. Above that temperature the material loses its ferromagnetic properties, and the magnetic path is diverted to the reed switch which closes and short-circuits the control circuit for the control rod electro-magnetic grapple which allows the control rod to drop into the reactor core for controlling the reactivity of the core.

  12. Thermal modeling of W rod armor.

    SciTech Connect

    Nygren, Richard Einar

    2004-09-01

    Sandia has developed and tested mockups armored with W rods over the last decade and pioneered the initial development of W rod armor for International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) in the 1990's. We have also developed 2D and 3D thermal and stress models of W rod-armored plasma facing components (PFCs) and test mockups and are applying the models to both short pulses, i.e. edge localized modes (ELMs), and thermal performance in steady state for applications in C-MOD, DiMES testing and ITER. This paper briefly describes the 2D and 3D models and their applications with emphasis on modeling for an ongoing test program that simulates repeated heat loads from ITER ELMs.

  13. Current balancing for battery strings

    DOEpatents

    Galloway, James H. (New Baltimore, MI)

    1985-01-01

    A battery plant is described which features magnetic circuit means for balancing the electrical current flow through a pluraliircuitbattery strings which are connected electrically in parallel. The magnetic circuit means is associated with the battery strings such that the conductors carrying the electrical current flow through each of the battery strings pass through the magnetic circuit means in directions which cause the electromagnetic fields of at least one predetermined pair of the conductors to oppose each other. In an alternative embodiment, a low voltage converter is associated with each of the battery strings for balancing the electrical current flow through the battery strings.

  14. Tachyon Condensation and Black Strings

    E-print Network

    Gary T. Horowitz

    2005-06-30

    We show that under certain conditions, closed string tachyon condensation produces a topology changing transition from black strings to Kaluza-Klein "bubbles of nothing." This can occur when the curvature at the horizon is much smaller than the string scale, so the black string is far from the correspondence point when it would make a transition to an excited fundamental string. This provides a dramatic new endpoint to Hawking evaporation. A similar transition occurs for black p-branes, and can be viewed as a nonextremal version of a geometric transition. Applications to AdS black holes and the AdS soliton are also discussed.

  15. Evolution of cosmic string networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albrecht, Andreas; Turok, Neil

    1989-01-01

    A discussion of the evolution and observable consequences of a network of cosmic strings is given. A simple model for the evolution of the string network is presented, and related to the statistical mechanics of string networks. The model predicts the long string density throughout the history of the universe from a single parameter, which researchers calculate in radiation era simulations. The statistical mechanics arguments indicate a particular thermal form for the spectrum of loops chopped off the network. Detailed numerical simulations of string networks in expanding backgrounds are performed to test the model. Consequences for large scale structure, the microwave and gravity wave backgrounds, nucleosynthesis and gravitational lensing are calculated.

  16. Experimenting with Guitar Strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2006-11-01

    What follows is a description of a simple experiment developed in a nonmathematical general education science course on sound and light for fine arts students in which a guitar is used with data collection hardware and software to verify the properties of standing waves on a string.

  17. A String Teachers Roundtable.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Music Educators Journal, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Seven string educators respond to questions about repertoire sources for novice players, the teaching of improvisation, weaknesses in current instructional materials, ensemble size, the integration of Suzuki's methods into traditional programs, the problems of a violinist teaching other instruments, and coordination of school and other youth…

  18. Cosmic string loop microlensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloomfield, Jolyon K.; Chernoff, David F.

    2014-06-01

    Cosmic superstring loops within the galaxy microlens background point sources lying close to the observer-string line of sight. For suitable alignments, multiple paths coexist and the (achromatic) flux enhancement is a factor of two. We explore this unique type of lensing by numerically solving for geodesics that extend from source to observer as they pass near an oscillating string. We characterize the duration of the flux doubling and the scale of the image splitting. We probe and confirm the existence of a variety of fundamental effects predicted from previous analyses of the static infinite straight string: the deficit angle, the Kaiser-Stebbins effect, and the scale of the impact parameter required to produce microlensing. Our quantitative results for dynamical loops vary by O(1) factors with respect to estimates based on infinite straight strings for a given impact parameter. A number of new features are identified in the computed microlensing solutions. Our results suggest that optical microlensing can offer a new and potentially powerful methodology for searches for superstring loop relics of the inflationary era.

  19. Power from Random Strings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Allender; Harry Buhrman; Michal Koucký; Dieter Van Melkebeek; Detlef Ronneburger

    2002-01-01

    We consider sets of strings with high Kolmogorov complexity, mainly in resource-boundedsettings but also in the traditional recursion-theoretic sense. We present e#cient reductions,showing that these sets are hard and complete for various complexity classes.

  20. Aspects of String Cosmology

    E-print Network

    Costas Kounnas; Nicolaos Toumbas

    2013-05-27

    We review recent progress in string cosmology, where string dualities are applied so as to obtain complete cosmological evolutions, free of any essential singularities. Two classes of models are analyzed. The first class consists of string gas cosmologies associated to certain thermal configurations of type II N=(4,0) models. Finite temperature is introduced along with non-trivial "gravito-magnetic" fluxes that lift the Hagedorn instabilities of the canonical ensemble and restore thermal T-duality symmetry. At a critical maximal temperature additional thermal states become massless sourcing stringy S-branes, which facilitate a bounce between the two dual, asymptotically cold phases. Unlike previous incarnations of pre-Big Bang cosmologies, the models remain perturbative throughout the cosmological evolution. The second class consists of exact solutions to classical string theory that admit a Euclidean description in terms of compact parafermionic worldsheet systems. The Euclidean target space corresponds to a non-singular, compact T-fold, which can be used to construct a normalizable Hartle-Hawking wavefunction for the cosmology.

  1. Classical Open String Integrability

    E-print Network

    Nelia Mann; Samuel E. Vazquez

    2006-12-05

    We present a simple procedure to construct non-local conserved charges for classical open strings on coset spaces. This is done by including suitable reflection matrices on the classical transfer matrix. The reflection matrices must obey certain conditions for the charges to be conserved and in involution. We then study bosonic open strings on $AdS_5\\times S^5$. We consider boundary conditions corresponding to Giant Gravitons on $S^5$, $AdS_4\\times S^2$ D5-branes and $AdS_5 \\times S^3$ D7-branes. We find that we can construct the conserved charges for the full bosonic string on a Maximal Giant Graviton or a D7-brane. For the D5-brane, we find that this is possible only in a SU(2) sub-sector of the open string. Moreover, the charges can not be constructed at all for non-maximal Giant Gravitons. We discuss the interpretation of these results in terms of the dual gauge theory spin chains.

  2. String Cosmology: A Review

    SciTech Connect

    McAllister, Liam P.; Silverstein, Eva

    2007-10-22

    We give an overview of the status of string cosmology. We explain the motivation for the subject, outline the main problems, and assess some of the proposed solutions. Our focus is on those aspects of cosmology that benefit from the structure of an ultraviolet-complete theory.

  3. String theory and gravity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Damour; A. M. Polyakov

    1994-01-01

    It is pointed out that string-loop effects may generate matter couplings for the dilaton allowing this scalar partner of the tensorial graviton to stay massless while contributing to macroscopic gravity in a way naturally compatible with existing experimental data. Under a certain assumption of universality of the dilaton coupling functions, the cosmological evolution drives the dilaton towards values where it

  4. Spacetime in String Theory

    E-print Network

    Gary T. Horowitz

    2004-11-01

    We give a brief overview of the nature of spacetime emerging from string theory. This is radically different from the familiar spacetime of Einstein's relativity. At a perturbative level, the spacetime metric appears as ``coupling constants" in a two dimensional quantum field theory. Nonperturbatively (with certain boundary conditions), spacetime is not fundamental but must be reconstructed from a holographic, dual theory.

  5. Strings on orbifolds (II)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Dixon; J. Harvey; C. Vafa; E. Witten

    1986-01-01

    A general framework for analyzing string propagation on the quotient of a manifold by a discrete group is presented.The conditions necessary for modular invariance and absence of tachyons are discussed. Models with four or fewer generations which correspond to the standard embedding of the spin connection in the gauge group are analyzed. We all discuss some generalizations which may lead

  6. Predictions from String Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuflik, Eric

    String theory is the leading candidate for an underlying theory of nature, as it provides a framework through which to address critical questions left unanswered by the Standard Model and Supersymmetry. A number of predictions of string constructions can be empirically tested at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and dark matter experiments. In this work I aim to make generic predictions of string theory, while combining bottom-up approaches to fill in the gaps in our understanding of string theory to make predictions for current and upcoming experiments. First I study moduli masses and claim that moduli dominated the energy density of the universe prior to big bang nucleosynthesis. We argue that in any string theory with stabilized moduli there will be at least one modulus field whose mass is of order the gravitino mass. Cosmology then generically requires the gravitino mass to be greater than 30 TeV and the early cosmological history of the Universe be non-thermal. We are then led to believe that the best-motivated channel for early LHC discovery is gluino pair-production events decaying into a high multiplicity of third generation quarks. We analyze signals and background at the LHC for 7 TeV center of mass energy for 1 fb -1 integrated luminosity, suggesting a reach for gluinos for masses about 650 GeV. Second, I seek to construct a Grand Unified Theory (GUT) within different branches of string theory. One promising GUT, developed outside of string theory, is Flipped-SU(5), which I show has serious phenomenological difficulties. I demonstrate both that Flipped-SU(5) requires an R-symmetry to solve the mu-problem, and that no R-symmetries exist in F-theory. Thus Flipped-SU(5) cannot serve as a GUT within F-theory. Similarly, I seek to construct a GUT within M-theory. My study is based upon the discrete symmetry proposed by Witten that forbids the mu-term and solves the doublet-triplet splitting problem, but does not address how the symmetry might be broken. I find that the symmetry must be broken by moduli stabilization. The inclusion of such symmetry-breaking yields a modified solution to the mu and doublet-triplet splitting problems, along with testable predictions regarding dark matter properties.

  7. Device for balancing parallel strings

    DOEpatents

    Mashikian, Matthew S. (Storrs, CT)

    1985-01-01

    A battery plant is described which features magnetic circuit means in association with each of the battery strings in the battery plant for balancing the electrical current flow through the battery strings by equalizing the voltage across each of the battery strings. Each of the magnetic circuit means generally comprises means for sensing the electrical current flow through one of the battery strings, and a saturable reactor having a main winding connected electrically in series with the battery string, a bias winding connected to a source of alternating current and a control winding connected to a variable source of direct current controlled by the sensing means. Each of the battery strings is formed by a plurality of batteries connected electrically in series, and these battery strings are connected electrically in parallel across common bus conductors.

  8. Phycobilisome rod mutants in Synechocystis sp. strain PCC6803

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ) in their rods. PC and AP carry the same blue chromophore called phycocyanobilin, the properties of each phycocyanobilin being strongly influenced by its protein environment. Rods containing only PC are com- posed

  9. 5. DETAIL OF ROD MILL BASE AND CONVEYOR BELT SUPPORT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. DETAIL OF ROD MILL BASE AND CONVEYOR BELT SUPPORT, EAST VIEW. - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, Grinding Rod Mill, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  10. Looking Northwest Along South End of Rod Loading Building Including ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking Northwest Along South End of Rod Loading Building Including Mezzanine and Gad Loading Area - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Rod Loading Building, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

  11. Assessment of Distributed Object Rod Fatoohi

    E-print Network

    Fatoohi, Rod

    Assessment of Distributed Object Middleware Rod Fatoohi San Jose State U. & NASA Ames Research Center ESTO/ESDIS Technology Transfer Workshop June 5, 2000, Greenbelt, Maryland #12;Contributers ! Tom '98 (15 mos): Joint project GSFC/ARC/SJSU - ECS Distributed Object Middleware & Alternative Technology

  12. Testing machine for glass tubing and rod

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R F Proctor

    1927-01-01

    An apparatus is described for testing the strength of glass tubing or rod of ordinary dimensions. The maximum strain in the tube at the moment of fracture is used as a criterion of the strength of the glass. A bending moment is applied to the two ends of the specimen, and the breaking strain is derived from a determination of

  13. Piston rod seal for a Stirling engine

    DOEpatents

    Shapiro, Wilbur (Schenectady, NY)

    1984-01-01

    In a piston rod seal for a Stirling engine, a hydrostatic bearing and differential pressure regulating valve are utilized to provide for a low pressure differential across a rubbing seal between the hydrogen and oil so as to reduce wear on the seal.

  14. Active flexible rods with embedded SMA fibers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. C. Lagoudas; I. G. Tadjbakhsh

    1992-01-01

    Embedding of shape memory alloy (SMA) fibers in slender flexible bodies results in shape changes of the host medium, whenever shape recovery of the SMA fibers takes place. The shape change of a cylindrical rod with a single off-axis embedded SMA fiber is modeled. The distributed axial compressive force and bending moment due to phase transformation in the SMA fiber

  15. Mechanical Response of Crystalline Rigid Rod

    E-print Network

    Goddard III, William A.

    the finite strain induced in response to applied stress 1 . Before giving the expression for the strain weJuly 1992 Mechanical Response of Crystalline Rigid Rod Polymers: ABPBO and ABPBT Contributors: T strength fibers and films produced from stiff chain polymers are good candidates for use as structural

  16. FTK-ROD FLOW CONTROL Anton Kapliy

    E-print Network

    ) copy of ROD data stream to FTK via a second S-Link fiber Allow FTK to assert flow control through the S-Link return channel, but otherwise have no impact on data-taking Operate in normal (single-channel data flow: · Identical data is sent through both optical fibers · Data is sourced from a single FIFO

  17. Mounting facilitates removal and installation of flame-detector rods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castle, F.

    1966-01-01

    Flame-detector-rod holder is easily removed from the wall of a gas-fired furnance for maintenance or replacement of the detector rod without requiring shutdown of the furnace. The holder consists of an externally threaded outer bushing, a sleeve which is held inside the outer bushing with a set screw, and a detector rod assembly which screws into the sleeve.

  18. Simulation of energized Franklin rods for lightning protection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mazen Abdel-Salam; Umar Saleh Al-Abdul-Latif

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, the onset criterion of the upward streamers from an energized Franklin rod is formulated as a function of the geometry of the rod and the height and current of the downward leader. The electric field in the vicinity of the lightning rod is calculated using the charge simulation technique. The dependency of the radius of protection on

  19. Correspondence principle for black holes and strings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary T. Horowitz; Joseph Polchinski

    1997-01-01

    For most black holes in string theory, the Schwarzschild radius in string units decreases as the string coupling is reduced. We formulate a correspondence principle, which states that (i) when the size of the horizon drops below the size of a string, the typical black hole state becomes a typical state of strings and D-branes with the same charges, and

  20. Testing String Superprimitivity in Parallel Dany Breslauer

    E-print Network

    Testing String Superprimitivity in Parallel Dany Breslauer Columbia University CUCS­053­92 Abstract A string w covers another string z if every symbol of z is within some occurrence of w in z. A string shorter string. This paper presents an O(log log n) time n log n log log n ­processor CRCW­PRAM algorithm

  1. Effects of anisotropic dynamics on cosmic strings

    SciTech Connect

    Kunze, Kerstin E. [Departamento de Física Fundamental and IUFFyM, Universidad de Salamanca, Plaza de la Merced s/n, 37008 Salamanca (Spain); Sakellariadou, Mairi, E-mail: kkunze@usal.es, E-mail: mairi.sakellariadou@kcl.ac.uk [Department of Physics, King's College London, University of London, Strand WC2R 2LS, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-01

    The dynamics of cosmic strings is considered in anisotropic backgrounds. In particular, the behaviour of infinitely long straight cosmic strings and of cosmic string loops is determined. Small perturbations of a straight cosmic string are calculated. The relevance of these results is discussed with respect to the possible observational imprints of an anisotropic phase on the behaviour of a cosmic string network.

  2. Nonabelian Strings and Axion

    E-print Network

    A. Gorsky; M. Shifman; A. Yung

    2006-01-18

    We address two distinct but related issues: (i) the impact of (two-dimensional) axions in a two-dimensional theory known to model confinement, the CP(N-1) model; (ii) bulk axions in four-dimensional Yang-Mills theory supporting non-Abelian strings. In the first case n, \\bar n kinks play the role of "quarks." They are known to be confined. We show that introduction of axions leads to deconfinement (at very large distances). This is akin to the phenomenon of wall liberation in four-dimensional Yang-Mills theory. In the second case we demonstrate that the bulk axion does not liberate confined (anti)monopoles, in contradistinction with the two-dimensional model. A novel physical effect which we observe is the axion radiation caused by monopole-antimonopole pairs attached to the non-Abelian strings.

  3. Strings and vortex rings

    E-print Network

    Steven S. Gubser; Revant Nayar; Sarthak Parikh

    2014-08-10

    We treat string propagation and interaction in the presence of a background Neveu-Schwarz three-form field strength, suitable for describing vortex rings in a superfluid or low-viscosity normal fluid. A circular vortex ring exhibits instabilities which have been recognized for many years, but whose precise boundaries we determine for the first time analytically in the small core limit. Two circular vortices colliding head-on exhibit stronger instabilities which cause splitting into many small vortices at late times. We provide an approximate analytic treatment of these instabilities and show that the most unstable wavelength is parametrically larger than a dynamically generated length scale which in many hydrodynamic systems is close to the cutoff. We also summarize how the string construction we discuss can be derived from the Gross-Pitaevskii lagrangian, and also how it compares to the action for giant gravitons.

  4. New Supersymmetric String Compactifications

    E-print Network

    Shamit Kachru; Michael B. Schulz; Prasanta K. Tripathy; Sandip P. Trivedi

    2002-11-19

    We describe a new class of supersymmetric string compactifications to 4d Minkowski space. These solutions involve type II strings propagating on (orientifolds of) non Calabi-Yau spaces in the presence of background NS and RR fluxes. The simplest examples have descriptions as cosets, generalizing the three-dimensional nilmanifold. They can also be thought of as twisted tori. We derive a formula for the (super)potential governing the light fields, which is generated by the fluxes and certain ``twists'' in the geometry. Detailed consideration of an example also gives strong evidence that in some cases, these exotic geometries are related by smooth transitions to standard Calabi-Yau or G2 compactifications of M-theory.

  5. String Calculus: Conformal Field Theory as a Tool in String Theory

    E-print Network

    Gardel, Margaret

    String Calculus: Conformal Field Theory as a Tool in String Theory Emil Martinec Enrico Fermi Inst, in the guise of string theory. String theory promises an elegant synthesis of quan- tum mechanics (algebra in string theory in the description of perturbative string propagation. However, one might believe

  6. A Data-Based Coding of Candidate Strings in the Closest String Problem

    E-print Network

    Julstrom, Bryant A.

    A Data-Based Coding of Candidate Strings in the Closest String Problem Bryant A. Julstrom@stcloudstate.edu ABSTRACT Given a set of strings S of equal lengths over an alphabet , the closest string problem seeks a string over whose maximum Hamming distance to any of the given strings is as small as possible. A data

  7. Coulomb string tension, asymptotic string tension, and the gluon chain

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Greensite, Jeff; Szczepaniak, Adam P.

    2015-02-01

    We compute, via numerical simulations, the non-perturbative Coulomb potential and position-space ghost propagator in pure SU(3) gauge theory in Coulomb gauge. We find that that the Coulomb potential scales nicely in accordance with asymptotic freedom, that the Coulomb potential is linear in the infrared, and that the Coulomb string tension is about four times larger than the asymptotic string tension. We explain how it is possible that the asymptotic string tension can be lower than the Coulomb string tension by a factor of four.

  8. String Quartet Theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guerino Mazzola

    \\u000a Why are we including this topic in a book on performance theory? Couldn’t one include any other topic relating to a specific\\u000a musical genre as well? Solo piano music, operas, what not? The reason for the special role of the string quartet is that this\\u000a genre has a theory, a re ection about why these four instruments—the two violins, the

  9. Anyons from Strings

    E-print Network

    Luca Mezincescu; Paul K. Townsend

    2010-10-08

    The Nambu-Goto string in a 3-dimensional (3D) Minkowski spacetime is quantized preserving Lorentz invariance and parity. The spectrum of massive states contains anyons. An ambiguity in the ground state energy is resolved by the 3D N=1 Green-Schwarz superstring, which has massless ground states describing a dilaton and dilatino, and first-excited states of spin 1/4.

  10. Swinging on a String

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

    Students explore how pendulums work and why they are useful in everyday applications. In a hands-on activity, they experiment with string length, pendulum weight and angle of release. In an associated literacy activity, students explore the mechanical concept of rhythm, based on the principle of oscillation, in a broader biological and cultural context — in dance and sports, poetry and other literary forms, and communication in general.

  11. Ridge from Strings

    E-print Network

    M. A. Braun; C. Pajares; V. V. Vechernin

    2014-07-17

    In the colour string picture with fusion and percolation it is shown that long range azimuthal-rapidity correlations (ridge) can arise from the superposition of many events with exchange of clusters of different number of strings and not from a single event. Relation of the ridge with the flow harmonics coefficients is derived. By direct Monte-Carlo simulations, in the technique previously used to calculate these coefficients, ridge correlations are calculated for AA, pA and pp collisions. The azimuthal anisotropy follows from the assumed quenching of the emitted particles in the strong colour fields inside string clusters. It is confirmed that in pp collisions the ridge structure only appears in rare events with abnormally high multiplicity. Comarison with the experimental data shows a good agreement. Also a good agreement is found for pPb collisions. For AA collisions a reasonable agreement is found for both near-side and away-side angular correlations although it worsens at intermediate angles.

  12. Logic and String Theory

    E-print Network

    A. Nicolaidis

    2008-05-07

    The unification of Quantum Mechanics and General Relativity remains the primary goal of Theoretical Physics, with string theory appearing as the only plausible unifying scheme. In the present work, in a search of the conceptual foundations of string theory, we analyze the relational logic developed by C. S. Peirce in the late nineteenth century. The Peircean logic has the mathematical structure of a category with the relation $R_{ij}$ among two individual terms $S_i$ and $S_j$, serving as an arrow (or morphism). We introduce a realization of the corresponding categorical algebra of compositions, which naturally gives rise to the fundamental quantum laws, thus underscoring the relational character of Quantum Mechanic. The same relational algebra generates a number of group structures, among them $W_{\\infty}$. The group $W_{\\infty}$ is embodied and realized by the matrix models, themselves closely linked with string theory. It is suggested that relational logic and in general category theory may provide a new paradigm, within which to develop modern physical theories.

  13. Quantum String Seal Is Insecure

    E-print Network

    H. F. Chau

    2006-12-06

    A quantum string seal encodes the value of a (bit) string as a quantum state in such a way that everyone can extract a non-negligible amount of available information on the string by a suitable measurement. Moreover, such measurement must disturb the quantum state and is likely to be detected by an authorized verifier. In this way, the intactness of the encoded quantum state plays the role of a wax seal in the digital world. Here I analyze the security of quantum string seal by studying the information disturbance tradeoff of a measurement. This information disturbance tradeoff analysis extends the earlier results of Bechmann-Pasquinucci et al. and Chau by concluding that all quantum string seals are insecure. Specifically, I find a way to obtain non-trivial available information on the string that escapes the verifier's detection with at least 50% chance.

  14. String fluid in local equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubring, Daniel; Vanchurin, Vitaly

    2014-10-01

    We study the solutions of string fluid equations under the assumption of a local equilibrium which was previously obtained in the context of the kinetic theory. We show that the fluid can be foliated into noninteracting submanifolds whose equations of motion are exactly that of the wiggly strings considered previously by Vilenkin and Carter. In a special case of negligible statistical variance in either the left- or the right-moving directions of microscopic strings, the submanifolds are described by the action of a null-current-carrying chiral string. When both variances vanish the submanifolds are described by the Nambu-Goto action and the string fluid reduces to the string dust introduced by Stachel.

  15. Rod-to-Hook Transition for Extracellular Flagellum Assembly Is Catalyzed by the L-Ring-Dependent Rod Scaffold Removal

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Eli J.

    2014-01-01

    In Salmonella, the rod substructure of the flagellum is a periplasmic driveshaft that couples the torque generated by the basal body motor to the extracellular hook and filament. The rod subunits self-assemble, spanning the periplasmic space and stopping at the outer membrane when a mature length of ?22 nm is reached. Assembly of the extracellular hook and filament follow rod completion. Hook initiation requires that a pore forms in the outer membrane and that the rod-capping protein, FlgJ, dislodges from the tip of the distal rod and is replaced with the hook-capping protein, FlgD. Approximately 26 FlgH subunits form the L-ring around the distal rod that creates the pore through which the growing flagellum will elongate from the cell body. The function of the L-ring in the mature flagellum is also thought to act as a bushing for the rotating rod. Work presented here demonstrates that, in addition to outer membrane pore formation, L-ring formation catalyzes the removal of the FlgJ rod cap. Rod cap removal allows the hook cap to assemble at the rod tip and results in the transition from rod completion in the periplasm to extracellular hook polymerization. By coupling the rod-to-hook switch to outer membrane penetration, FlgH ensures that hook and filament polymerization is initiated at the appropriate spatial and temporal point in flagellar biosynthesis. PMID:24748615

  16. Bekenstein Entropy is String Entropy

    E-print Network

    Edi Halyo

    2009-06-22

    We argue that Bekenstein entropy can be interpreted as the entropy of an effective string with a rescaled tension. Using the AdS/CFT correspondence we show that the Bekenstein entropy on the boundary CFT is given by the entropy of a string at the stretched horizon of the AdS black hole in the bulk. The gravitationally redshifted tension and energy of the string match those required to reproduce Bekenstein entropy.

  17. Well production control system

    SciTech Connect

    Chandra, R.S.; Quen, S.G.; Eineicher, D.E.; Lastra, J.E.

    1986-06-10

    An apparatus is described for monitoring the operation of a well pumping unit having a sucker-rod string and a power unit to reciprocate the rod string to produce fluid from an underground location, the apparatus having means for continuously compensating for a drift in characteristics of transducers used in monitoring the operation. The apparatus consists of: first transducer means for generating a signal representative of a load on the rod string; second transducer means for generating a signal representative of a position of the rod string; means for using the load signal and the position signal to generate a dynagraph of load vs. position of the sucker-rod string; means for calculating the area of the dynagraph; means for comparing the calculated area of the dynagraph with a predetermined set of area limits; means for comparing a maximum value of load signal against an acceptable maximum value of load signal; means for comparing a minimum value of load signal against an acceptable minimum value of load signal; means for combining current values of load signals with previous values of load signals to establish a selected value, and for combining a current value of rod position signal with previous values of rod position signals to establish a reference position of the rod string when the maximum value of the load, the minimum value of the load and the dynagraph area are each within acceptable limits; means for monitoring the load signal when the rod string reaches the reference position; and means for disabling the power unit when the value of the load signal exceeds the selected value at the reference position.

  18. Spontaneous bilateral rod fracture of malleable penile prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Bozkurt, Ibrahim Halil; Yonguc, Tarik; Arslan, Burak; Kozacioglu, Zafer; Degirmenci, Tansu; Polat, Salih; Minareci, Suleyman

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical failure with a malleable penile prosthesis is very rare. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case reporting on a bilateral AMS 650 rod mechanical failure. We present a 50-year-old man with organic erectile dysfunction who experienced bilateral AMS 650 rod fracture after 14 years. The rod fracture of the left side was confirmed via X-ray preoperatively. The surgical exploration revealed a fracture of both rods. After the removal of both rods, we implanted a new malleable device during the same session. At the 6-month follow-up, the patient was satisfied with his prosthesis. PMID:25408816

  19. Cosmic strings and Natural Inflation

    E-print Network

    Grigoris Panotopoulos

    2007-06-19

    In the present work we discuss cosmic strings in natural inflation. Our analysis is based entirely on the CMB quadrupole temperature anisotropy and on the existing upper bound on the cosmic string tension. Our results show that the allowed range for both parameters of the inflationary model is very different from the range obtained recently if cosmic strings are formed at the same time with inflation, while if strings are formed after inflation we find that the parameters of the inflationary model are similar to the ones obtained recently.

  20. Magnetosphere of a spinning string

    E-print Network

    Chapline, George

    2011-01-01

    In this note we observe that the exact Maxwell-Einstein equations in the background metric of a spinning string can be solved analytically. This allows us to construct an analytical model for the magnetosphere which is approximately force free near to the spinning string. As in the case of a Kerr black hole in the presence of an external magnetic field the spinning string will acquire an electric charge which depends on the vorticity carried by the spinning string. The self-generated magnetic field and currents strongly resemble the current and magnetic field structure of the jets associated with active galaxies as they emerge from the galactic center.