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Sample records for suckling rats reared

  1. Body Weight Gain During a Discrete Nursing Episode in Suckling Rats Reared at 1.5-g or 1.5-g Exceeds that of 1.0-g Controls and is Independent of Material Hypergravity Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ronca, April E.; Baer, Lisa A.; Plaut, Karen; Wade, Charles E.; Sun, Sid (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We recently reported that body weights of suckling rats reared during 1.5-g centrifugation are approximately 10% lower than those of 1.0-g controls. This finding raises the possibility that hypergravity exposed pups ingest less milk than controls due to either impairments in their ability to acquire milk from the nipple, or to decreased availability or palatability of their mother's milk. In the present study, we analyzed body weight gain in suckling rats reared during a discrete nursing episode following rearing at either 1.75-g, 1.5-g or 1.0-g. On Gestational day (G) 10 of the rats' 22-day pregnancy, time-bred SD rat dams were 1:1 matched based on body weight and assigned to either Hypergravity (HG) or Stationary Yoked Control (SYC) conditions and to either 1.75-g or 1.5-g conditions. Beginning on G11, HG dams and litters were exposed to 26 days of continuous centrifugation with brief daily stops for veterinary inspection and animal maintenance. On the day following birth (Postnatal day), litters were pooled within each condition then randomly re-assigned in equivalent proportions to HG and SYC dams. On P15, HG litters were removed from their mother's and placed in an incubator (33 C). Following a 4hr deprivation period, four neonates were tested from each litter, with two pups placed with either their own dam or the SYC dam; two pups from the yoked mother were paired with the HG pups. Pups were individually weighed, permitted to suckle for 75 min, then re-weighed. At the start of the test, the body weights of HG pups were significantly less than those of SYC pups (p less than 0.05). Relative to SYC pups, BG pups showed significantly greater proportional body weight gain (p less than 0.05), possibly due to augmented post-centrifugation feeding. Pup weight gain was independent of maternal hypergravity exposure. Neither impairments in milk acquisition nor milk availability or palatibility of hypergravity-exposed dams cannot account for reduced body mass of

  2. Purified Rabies Vaccine (Suckling Rat Brain Origin)

    PubMed Central

    Lavender, J. F.

    1970-01-01

    A 10% suckling rat brain rabies vaccine free from encephalitogenic activity was prepared and inactivated with 1:8,000 beta-propiolactone (BPL), or ultraviolet light, or a combination of ultraviolet light and BPL, or 1% phenol. Potency was excellent in all samples, with the exception of the phenolized product which was marginal. A purified suckling rat brain (SRB) vaccine prepared by zonal centrifugation and inactivated with 1:8,000 BPL contained about 0.01 the amount of protein nitrogen of the unpurified 10% SRB vaccine. This purified product passed the National Institutes of Health potency test for rabies vaccine after administration of a quantity equivalent to a standard 10% brain suspension. PMID:5456012

  3. 26Al incorporation into the tissues of suckling rats through maternal milk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yumoto, S.; Nagai, H.; Kobayashi, K.; Tada, W.; Horikawa, T.; Matsuzaki, H.

    2004-08-01

    Aluminium (Al) is highly neurotoxic and inhibits prenatal and postnatal development of the brain in humans and experimental animals. However, Al incorporation into the brain of sucklings through maternal milk has not yet been well clarified because Al lacks a suitable isotope for radioactive tracer experiments. Using 26Al as a tracer, we measured 26Al incorporation into the brain of suckling rats by accelerator mass spectrometry. Lactating rats were subcutaneously injected with 26AlCl3 from day 1 to day 20 postpartum. Suckling rats were weaned from day 21 postpartum. From day 5 to day 20 postpartum, the 26Al levels measured in the brain, liver, kidneys and bone of suckling rats increased significantly. After weaning, the amounts of 26Al in the liver and kidneys decreased remarkably. However, the 26Al amount in the brain had diminished only slightly up to 140 days after weaning.

  4. Development of postglucoprivic insulin-induced suckling and feeding in rats.

    PubMed

    Williams, C L; Blass, E M

    1987-07-01

    Increased food or milk intake in response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia cannot be demonstrated in the rat until pups reach weaning age. However, when food and suckling are withheld from insulin-treated 5- to 25-day-old rats until their altered blood glucose levels return to normal, their rate of milk intake via suckling from their anesthetized dam is increased over saline-treated control pups. This postglucoprivic action of insulin could not be demonstrated in rats consuming wet mash until pups reached 25-30 days of age. Nonnutritive oral stimulation from dry suckling during the glucoprivic episode is sufficient to disrupt postglucoprivic suckling in 20-day-old rats. In contrast consuming a small quantity of wet mash became an effective inhibitor of postglucoprivic suckling only when pups reached 25 days of age. These data demonstrate the existence of an insulin-sensitive neural system for suckling and feeding in infant rats and point to the involvement of multiple and changing oral factors during development in insulin-induced postglucoprivic feeding. PMID:3300371

  5. Depression of osteoblastic activity in immobilized limbs of suckling rats.

    PubMed

    Weinreb, M; Rodan, G A; Thompson, D D

    1991-07-01

    Recently we characterized the immobilization-related osteopenia in adult rats and showed that it is caused by increased bone resorption and decreased bone formation (Weinreb et al. 1989 Bone 10:187). To assess the effect of age on disuse osteopenia, this study investigated the effects of immobilization on bone turnover in very young, suckling rats. The 15-day-old rats underwent unilateral hind limb immobilization by sciatic neurectomy; the contralateral limb was left intact and served as control. Experimental or sham-operated animals were killed after 0, 2, 4, or 12 days postsurgery. Dry, fat-free weight and ash weight were determined in both femora, and both tibiae were subjected to static and dynamic histomorphometry. Immobilization caused a progressive deficit in bone mass in the immobilized limb compared to the contralateral intact limb but did not affect femoral longitudinal growth. The total mineral content in the immobilized femora was 13.6% less than that in the intact limb by day 12. Concomitantly, tibial cancellous bone area and perimeter declined in the immobilized limb by 37.3 and 32.2%, respectively. This reduction in bone mass in the tibiae of immobilized limbs was associated with increased bone resorption, expressed as osteoclast perimeter, number of osteoclasts per mm surface, and number of osteoclasts per mm2 tissue area. Bone formation was reduced as a result of impaired osteoblast activity as evidenced by (1) decreased endocortical and trabecular mineral apposition rate; (2) reduced trabecular mineral formation rate; (3) decreased percentage of ash of the femoral dry weight; and (4) increased volume of unmineralized osteoid in the tibial metaphysis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1950676

  6. alpha-Lactalbumin hydrolysate stimulates glucagon-like peptide-2 secretion and small intestinal growth in suckling rats.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Hirohisa; Ishizuka, Satoshi; Inafune, Ayako; Hira, Tohru; Ozawa, Kazuhiro; Shimizu, Takashi; Takase, Mitsunori; Hara, Hiroshi

    2009-07-01

    We investigated whether bovine milk constituents influenced glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-2 secretion and intestinal growth in suckling rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (14 d old) received i.g. infusions of a milk protein fraction, a lactose solution, or the cream fraction of milk. The serum concentration of GLP-2, but not GLP-1, markedly increased in rats administered milk protein compared with those given the lactose solution or the cream fraction from 60 to 120 min after administration. In another experiment, both casein (CN) and whey protein isolate stimulated GLP-2 secretion at 120 min after administration, but soy protein and ovalbumin did not. Stimulation of GLP-2 secretion by several milk proteins was similar, including alpha-CN, alpha-lactalbumin (alpha-La), and beta-lactoglobulin, in a separate experiment. A hydrolysate of alpha-La obtained by incubation with protease A extracted from Aspergillus oryzae (LaHPA) caused almost twice the GLP-2 release due to intact alpha-La and other alpha-La hydrolysates. Free amino acid concentrations and molecular size distributions did not differ among alpha-La hydrolysates, including LaHPA. In rat pups reared with milk formulae containing alpha-La or LaHPA, LaHPA significantly promoted small intestinal elongation and increased the number of crypt epithelial cells compared with a formula containing intact alpha-La. LaHPA administration also increased the maltase:lactase activity ratio, a marker of maturation of the intestinal mucosa. In conclusion, milk proteins stimulate GLP-2 secretion and contribute to growth and maturation of the small intestine in suckling rats. PMID:19494023

  7. Cellular transfer of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis employing suckling and adult Lewis rats.

    PubMed

    Fujinami, R S; Paterson, P Y

    1981-07-01

    Experiments designed to assess the importance of age of donors and recipients in cellular transfer of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) in inbred Lewis rats indicate: (a) that lymph node cells (LNC) of suckling rats sensitized to neuroantigen-adjuvant are just as effective in transfer of the disease to adult recipients as LNC from similarly sensitized adult donors, (b) that EAE can be transferred to suckling rats just as well as adults using lymphoid cells from either suckling or adult donors, and (c) while relatively low numbers of sensitized splenocytes from suckling or adult donors may transfer EAE, relatively large numbers of spleen cells do not. Based on additional EAE transfer experiments, in which recipients received combinations of sensitized LNC and normal splenocytes, no evidence could be secured that the spleen exerts a suppressive influence on cellular transfer of the disease in Lewis s may transfer EAE, relatively large numbers of spleen cells do not. Based on additional EAE transfer experiments, in which recipients received combinations of sensitized LNC and normal splenocytes, no evidence could be secured that the spleen exerts a suppressive influence on cellular transfer of the disease in Lewis s may transfer EAE, relatively large numbers of spleen cells do not. Based on additional EAE transfer experiments, in which recipients received combinations of sensitized LNC and normal splenocytes, no evidence could be secured that the spleen exerts a suppressive influence on cellular transfer of the disease in Lewis rats. PMID:6973635

  8. Transplacental passage of 26Al from pregnant rats to fetuses and 26Al transfer through maternal milk to suckling rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yumoto, S.; Nagai, H.; Matsuzaki, H.; Kobayashi, T.; Tada, W.; Ohki, Y.; Kakimi, S.; Kobayashi, K.

    2000-10-01

    Aluminium (Al) is toxic to the growth of fetuses and sucklings. However, the incorporation of Al into fetuses and sucklings in the periods of gestation and lactation has not been well clarified because Al lacks a suitable isotope for a tracer experiment. In this study, we used 26Al (a radioisotope of Al with half-life of 716,000 yr) as a tracer, and measured 26Al incorporation into fetuses and sucklings by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). To investigate Al incorporation into fetuses through transplacental passage, 26Al ( 26AlCl 3) was subcutaneously injected into pregnant rats on day 15 of gestation. 26Al was also subcutaneoulsy injected into lactating rats from day 1 to day 20 postpartum. By day 20 of gestation, 0.2% of the 26Al injected into a pregnant rat had been transferred to the fetuses, and 26Al was detected in the brain and liver of the fetuses. On day 9 postpartum, high levels of 26Al were demonstrated in the brain, liver, kidneys and blood of suckling rats. It is concluded that 26Al subcutaneously injected into pregnant rats and/or lactating rats is incorporated into their offspring through transplacental passage and/or maternal milk.

  9. The Suckling Rat as a Model for Immunonutrition Studies in Early Life

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Cano, Francisco J.; Franch, Àngels; Castellote, Cristina; Castell, Margarida

    2012-01-01

    Diet plays a crucial role in maintaining optimal immune function. Research demonstrates the immunomodulatory properties and mechanisms of particular nutrients; however, these aspects are studied less in early life, when diet may exert an important role in the immune development of the neonate. Besides the limited data from epidemiological and human interventional trials in early life, animal models hold the key to increase the current knowledge about this interaction in this particular period. This paper reports the potential of the suckling rat as a model for immunonutrition studies in early life. In particular, it describes the main changes in the systemic and mucosal immune system development during rat suckling and allows some of these elements to be established as target biomarkers for studying the influence of particular nutrients. Different approaches to evaluate these immune effects, including the manipulation of the maternal diet during gestation and/or lactation or feeding the nutrient directly to the pups, are also described in detail. In summary, this paper provides investigators with useful tools for better designing experimental approaches focused on nutrition in early life for programming and immune development by using the suckling rat as a model. PMID:22899949

  10. Increased Litter Size and Suckling Intensity Stimulate mRNA of RFamide-related Peptide in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Noroozi, Atefeh; Jafarzadeh Shirazi, Mohammad Reza; Tamadon, Amin; Moghadam, Ali; Niazi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background RFamide-related peptide-3 (RFRP-3) inhibits gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion in rats. This study evaluates the effects of litter size and suckling intensity on RFRP mRNA expression in the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DMH) of rats. Materials and Methods A total of 32 pregnant and 4 non-lactating ovariectomized (control group) Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this experimental study. Lactating rats were allotted to 8 equal groups. In 3 groups, the litter size was adjusted to 5, 10, or 15 pups upon parturition. Dams were allowed to suckle their pups continuously until 8 days postpartum. In the other 3 groups, the litter size was adjusted to 5 pups following birth. These pups were separated from the dams for 6 hours on day 8 postpartum, after which the pups were allowed to suckle for 2.5, 5, or 7.5 minutes prior to killing the dams. In 2 groups, lactating rats with 10 and 15 pups were separated from their pups for 6 hours on day 8 postpartum. In these groups, the pups were allowed to suckle their dams for 5 minutes before the dams were killed. All rats were killed on day 8 postpartum and the DMH was removed from each rat. We evaluated RFRP mRNA expression using realtime polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results The expression of RFRP mRNA in the DMH increased with increased litter size and suckling intensity compared to the controls. The effect of suckling intensity on the expression of RFRP mRNA was more pronounced compared to the litter size. Conclusion Increased litter size and suckling intensity stimulated RFRP mRNA expression in the DMH which might contribute to lactation anestrus in rats. PMID:26644862

  11. Suckling and sucrose ingestion suppress persistent hyperalgesia and spinal Fos expression after forepaw inflammation in infant rats.

    PubMed

    Ren, K; Blass, E M; Zhou, Q; Dubner, R

    1997-02-18

    Sweet taste and nonnutritive suckling produce analgesia to transient noxious stimuli in infant rats and humans. The present study evaluated the pain-modulating effects of sucrose and suckling in a rat model of persistent pain and hyperalgesia that mimics the response to tissue injury in humans. Fore- and hindpaw withdrawal latencies from a 30 degrees or 48 degrees C brass stylus were determined in 10-day-old rats following paw inflammation induced by complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA; 1:1 injected s.c. in a 0.01 ml volume). CFA markedly decreased escape latencies to both 48 degrees and 30 degrees C stimulation, thereby demonstrating thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia. The combination of nonnutritive suckling and sucrose (7.5%, 0.01-0.06 ml/min) infusion markedly increased escape latencies to forepaw stimulation in both CFA-treated and control rats. In contrast, intraoral sucrose and suckling did not increase hindpaw withdrawal latencies in either control or CFA-inflamed rats. The effect was specific to sweet taste because neither water nor isotonic saline infusion affected forepaw escape latencies. Parallel findings were obtained for CFA-induced Fos-like immunoreactivity (Fos-LI), a marker of neuronal activation. Fos-LI was selectively induced in cervical and lumbar regions ipsilateral to forepaw and hindpaw inflammation, respectively. Suckling-sucrose treatment significantly reduced Fos-LI at the cervical but not at the lumbar regions. These findings demonstrate: (i) the development of persistent pain and hyperalgesia in 10-day-old rats that can be attenuated by endogenous pain-modulating systems activated by taste and nonnutritive suckling; (ii) the mediation of the sucrose-suckling analgesia and antihyperalgesia at the spinal level; and (iii) a differential rostrocaudal maturation of descending pain-modulating systems to the spinal cord of 10-day-old rats. These findings may provide new clinical approaches for engaging endogenous analgesic mechanisms in

  12. Decreased respiratory tolerance from intermittent asphyxia in rat sucklings.

    PubMed

    Atakent, Y S; Ferrara, A; Bhogal, M; Klupsteen, M; Topsis, J

    1995-01-01

    To study the respiratory tolerance of rat pups to intermittent asphyxia induced by exposure to closed rebreathing, we randomized newborn rats from four litters into two treatment groups. Respiratory tolerance was defined as the time interval during asphyxia until the first episode of 30 seconds of apnea. Rats in the experimental group were asphyxiated once daily during the first 4 days of life. Rats in the control group were asphyxiated once on day 4 of life. Pups exposed to intermittent asphyxia had a significant reduction in respiratory tolerance compared with that of littermates asphyxiated once at the same age. These findings suggest that the ability of the young mammal to withstand re-exposure to asphyxia may be impaired. PMID:8558340

  13. Methylmercury-induced changes in target organs of suckling rat pups.

    PubMed

    Abdalla, Faida Husein; Bellé, Luziane Potrich; Bitencourt, Paula Eliete Rodrigues; da Silva, José Edson; Roman, Silvana; da Rosa, Cíntia; Schetinger, Maria Rosa; Moretto, Maria Beatriz

    2012-09-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is an organic form of mercury with toxic effects in multiple organs. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the in vivo effects of MeHg (1 and 4 mg/kg) given orally for seven consecutive days on adenosine deaminase (ADA), n-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) and ecto-nucleoside triphosphate phosphohydrolase (NTPDase) activities, and on lipid peroxidation in hippocampus, cerebral cortex, kidney and liver of suckling rat pups. The results showed that NAG activity and lipid peroxidation levels increased in the kidney in both treatments, whereas urinary NAG activity increased only in the 1 mg/kg treatment. Despite the fact that the lipid peroxidation increased in both cerebral cortex and hippocampus, the latter appeared to be more vulnerable to MeHg exposure as it also had an increase in ADA activity. Thus, although dietary MeHg modified renal cell function, it did not alter histological features in suckling rat pups. The results of our investigation are of significant importance because they demonstrated responses to exposition to low doses of MeHg in target organs during the development of the rat. Especially the kidney was affected by the oral exposure to MeHg, suggesting the vulnerability of this organ at this stage of development. Moreover, the urinary NAG may provide important data that could serve as basis for risk assessment purposes following MeHg exposure. PMID:21194914

  14. Different sensitivity of PPARalpha gene expression to nutritional changes in liver of suckling and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Panadero, Maribel; Herrera, Emilio; Bocos, Carlos

    2005-01-14

    The amount of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARalpha) protein was markedly augmented in the liver of suckling rats compared to adult rats. This different PPARalpha abundance was used to study the sensitivity to nutritional changes in the expression and activity of this receptor. Thus, 10-day-old and adult rats were orally given either glucose, Intralipid or a combination of both diets, and liver mRNA levels of PPARalpha and the PPAR related genes, acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), and plasma metabolites were measured. In neonates, the expression of PPARalpha and ACO was seen to increase when the level of FFA in plasma was also high, unless an elevated level of insulin was also present. However, this fatty acid-induced effect was not detected in adult rats. On the contrary, the hepatic expression of PEPCK was modulated by the nutritional changes similarly in both neonates and adult rats. Thus, it may be concluded that the expression of the PPARalpha gene in adult rats seems to be less sensitive to nutritional changes than in neonates. PMID:15607334

  15. Maternal dietary restriction during pregnancy and lactation: effect on digestive organ development in suckling rats.

    PubMed

    Young, C M; Lee, P C; Lebenthal, E

    1987-07-01

    To examine the relative effects of maternal malnutrition during pregnancy and lactation on development of the pancreas and small intestine in suckling pups, rats were restricted to 50% of control (C) intake beginning at day 5 of pregnancy. Immediately after birth, some litters were exchanged such that some C dams were suckling pups born to 50%-restricted dams (C/50) and vice versa (50/C). Other litters were allowed to stay with their own mothers, which received a control or restricted diet as during pregnancy (C/C and 50/50). Pups nurtured by restricted dams had reduced body weights, intestinal lengths, hepatic and pancreatic weights, and specific activities of pancreatic lipase and small intestinal brush border sucrase and maltase. Small intestinal lactase levels were higher in the groups of pups from mothers restricted during lactation. In nearly all cases, the 50/C group was the most severely affected while the C/50 group was intermediate between the C/C and 50/50 groups. PMID:2440296

  16. Hormone induced expression of brush border lactase in suckling rat intestine.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, Kamaljit Kaur; Mahmood, Safrun; Mahmood, Akhtar

    2008-05-01

    The postnatal development of intestine is associated with a decline in brush border lactase activity in rodents. This is similar to adulthood hypolactasia, a phenomenon prevalent in humans worldwide. In the present study, the effect of luminal proteases from adult rat intestine was studied in vitro on intestinal lactase activity in saline control, thyroxine, insulin and cortisone treated rat pups. Lactase levels were determined by enzyme analysis and Western blotting. mRNA levels encoding lactase were determined by Northern blotting. Administration of thyroxine for 4 days reduced (P<0.05) lactase activity, but insulin treatment had no effect in 8-day-old rat intestine. However, cortisone administration augmented (P<0.01) lactase activity, under these conditions. Western blot analysis showed decreased lactase signal corresponding to 220-kDa protein band in thyroxine treated animals. However, the intensity of lactase signal was high in cortisone treated animals compared to controls. mRNA levels encoding lactase showed a 6.8-kb mRNA transcript in saline and hormone treated rats. mRNA levels encoding lactase were increased in cortisone treated animals but were reduced in thyroxine injected pups compared to controls. Microvillus membranes from saline (P<0.01) and thyroxine (P<0.05) or insulin (P<0.01) treated rats upon incubation with luminal wash from adult rat intestine showed a significant decline in lactase activity. These findings suggest that thyroxine, insulin or cortisone induced changes in lactase expression in suckling rat intestine make it susceptible to luminal proteases, which may in part be responsible for observed maturational decline in lactase activity in adult rat intestine. PMID:18273561

  17. Maternal dietary fat affects milk fatty acid profile and impacts on weight gain and thermogenic capacity of suckling rats.

    PubMed

    Priego, Teresa; Sánchez, Juana; García, Ana Paula; Palou, Andreu; Picó, Catalina

    2013-05-01

    We aimed to assess the effects of maternal supplementation with the main fat sources used in the human Western diet (olive oil, butter, margarine) on milk FA composition and on plasma FA profile of offspring, and to determine whether it may influence body-weight-gain (BWG) and adiposity of offspring during the suckling period. Wistar rats were supplemented with the different fat sources from day 14 of gestation and throughout lactation. Olive oil-supplemented dams showed the highest proportion of oleic-acid in milk, with no changes in plasma. Their offspring also showed the highest proportion of this FA in plasma, lower BWG during the suckling period, and higher levels of UCP1 in brown adipose tissue (BAT) at weaning. Margarine-supplemented dams showed the highest percentage of PUFA in milk, and a similar tendency was found in plasma of their offspring. Butter-supplemented dams displayed higher proportion of saturated FA (SFA) in milk compared to other fat-supplemented dams, but lower than controls. Control offspring also showed higher proportion of SFA in plasma and greater BWG during the suckling period than fat-supplemented groups. Significant correlations were found between the relative content of some milk FA and BWG of offspring, in particular, oleic-acid levels correlated negatively with BWG and positively with UCP1 levels. These results show that maternal dietary source of fat affects milk FA composition and circulating FA profile, as could be expected, but also BWG and thermogenic capacity of offspring during the suckling period. An effect of oleic-acid stimulating BAT thermogenic capacity of suckling pups is proposed. PMID:23417844

  18. Intestinal effects of long-lasting spermine ingestion by suckling rats.

    PubMed

    Deloyer, Patricia; Peulen, Olivier; Dandrifosse, Guy

    2005-11-01

    Spermine ingestion induces the precocious maturation of the small intestine in suckling rats. Previous observations suggest that spermine-induced intestinal maturation is a two-step phenomenon. The first step is the elimination of immature enterocytes (4-10 h post spermine ingestion) and the second step is the replacement of previous immature cells by adult-type enterocytes (2-3 days post initial spermine administration). The spermine-induced maturation is reversible when spermine administration is stopped. This work was undertaken in order to check whether the extension of polyamine administration (for 3-7 days) after the appearance of spermine-induced maturation can retain the mature state of the small intestine. Our results indicate that extension of spermine administration does not prevent some parameters (sucrase and maltase specific activities) reverting to a typical 'immature' value while others remain at a typical 'mature' level (mucosal weight and lactase specific activity). Our results show that there are at least two different mechanisms in required for the control of spermine-induced maturation of the small intestine. PMID:16143722

  19. Supplemental arginine above the requirement during suckling causes obesity and insulin resistance in rats.

    PubMed

    Otani, Lila; Mori, Tomomi; Koyama, Ayaka; Takahashi, Shin-Ichiro; Kato, Hisanori

    2016-06-01

    Nutrition in early life is important in determining susceptibility to adult obesity, and arginine may promote growth acceleration in infants. We hypothesized that maternal arginine supplementation may promote growth in their pups and contribute to obesity and alteration of the metabolic system in later life. Dams and pups of Wistar rats were given a normal diet (15% protein) as a control (CN) or a normal diet with 2% arginine (ARG). Altered profiles of free amino acids in breast milk were observed in that the concentrations of threonine and glycine were lower in the ARG dams compared with the CN dams. The offspring of the CN and ARG dams were further subdivided into normal-diet (CN-CN and ARG-CN) groups and a high fat-diet groups (CN-HF and ARG-HF). In response to the high fat-diet feeding, the visceral fat deposits were significantly increased in the ARG-HF group (although not compared with the CN-HF group); no difference was observed between the CN-CN and ARG-CN groups. The blood glucose and insulin levels after glucose loading were significantly higher in the ARG-HF group compared with the CN-HF group. The results suggest that the offspring of dams supplemented with arginine during lactation acquired increased susceptibility to a high-fat diet, resulting in visceral obesity and insulin resistance. The lower supply of threonine and glycine to pups may be one of the contributing causes to the programming of lifelong obesity risk in offspring. Our findings also indicated that maternal arginine supplementation during suckling causes obesity and insulin resistance in rats. PMID:27188903

  20. Flux control exerted by overt carnitine palmitoyltransferase over palmitoyl-CoA oxidation and ketogenesis is lower in suckling than in adult rats.

    PubMed Central

    Krauss, S; Lascelles, C V; Zammit, V A; Quant, P A

    1996-01-01

    We examined the potential of overt carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT I) to control the hepatic catabolism of palmitoyl-CoA in suckling and adult rats, using a conceptually simplified model of fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis. By applying top-down control analysis, we quantified the control exerted by CPT I over total carbon flux from palmitoyl-CoA to ketone bodies and carbon dioxide. Our results show that in both suckling and adult rat, CPT I exerts very significant control over the pathways under investigation. However, under the sets of conditions we studied, less control is exerted by CPT I over total carbon flux in mitochondria isolated from suckling rats than in those isolated from adult rats. Furthermore the flux control coefficient of CPT I changes with malonyl-CoA concentration and ATP turnover rate. PMID:8912677

  1. Neither Milk Production, Milk Transfer Nor Pup Growth Hormone Account for Reduced Body Weights of Rat Pups Reared In Hypergravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bear, L. A.; Chowdhury, J. H.; Grindeland, R. E.; Wade, C. E.; Ronca, A. E.; Dalton, Bonnie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Studies spanning the gravity continuum from 0 to 2-g are revealing new insights into how mammalian reproduction and development may proceed in the microgravity of space. Rat pups reared from either conception or midgestation in hypergravity (hg) weigh 6-15% less than 1-g controls. In the present study we analyzed maternal and pup factors that may account for reduced body weight of hg reared pups. Beginning on Gestational day (G)11 of the rats' 22 day pregnancy, rat dams and their litters were continuously exposed to either 1.5-g, 1.75-g or 2.0-g. Prolaction (Prl) and oxytocin (OT) were measured in hg-exposed dams during either pregnancy (G20) or lactation (Postnatal day [P] 10). Gravity related differences in Prl were not observed whereas OT was depressed during lactation in hg dams relative to controls (p less than 0.05). Milk transfer measured during a discrete suckling episode was actually increased in hg-reared litters and comparable numbers of milk-letdowns were observed in the two conditions. Recent reports using dwarfing phenotypes in mouse mutants have provided evidence for postnatal dependence on growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factors (IGFs). Plasma GH measured in P10 pups using enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was significantly elevated in hg pups relative to 1-g controls (mean +/- sd., ng/ml: 2.0-g, 10.6 [3.0], 1.5-g 8.9 [4.0], 1.0-g, 7.95 [3.1]). Together, these findings suggest that neither milk production, milk transfer nor pup GH play significant roles in reduced body weights of hg-reared pups. Studies underway are focused on insulin-like growth factors.

  2. Transforming growth factor-alpha in vivo stimulates epithelial cell proliferation in digestive tissues of suckling rats.

    PubMed Central

    Hormi, K; Lehy, T

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The role that exogenous transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) may exert on cell proliferation in vivo is poorly understood. AIM: To investigate the effect of rat TGF-alpha on epithelial cell proliferation in all suckling rat digestive tissues and to compare it with that of rat epidermal growth factor (EGF). ANIMAL AND METHODS: TGF-alpha and EGF were given three times daily either subcutaneously (10 or 20 micrograms/kg) or intraperitoneally (100 micrograms/kg) to rats from the ninth postnatal day. Cell proliferation was assessed through 5-bromo- 2-deoxyuridine incorporation and estimation of labelling indices. RESULTS: For both growth factors, the highest dose given for only two days significantly increased stomach and intestinal weights compared with controls (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001). The proliferative responded depended on the dose given, colonic mucosa being the most sensitive whereas oxyntic mucosa remained unresponsive. TGF-alpha was as potent as EGF in stimulating epithelial cell proliferation in antral, duodenal, and colonic mucosae. However, EGF was more active on oesophageal and jejunal cell proliferation whereas TGF-alpha was more active on pancreatic exocrine cell proliferation and the differences between the two growth factor treated groups were significant. CONCLUSIONS: These results prove for the first time the stimulating effect in vivo of exogenous rat TGF-alpha on epithelial cell proliferation in rat digestive tissues during the developmental period and support a functional role for TGF-alpha at that time. PMID:8944561

  3. Precocious gut maturation and immune cell expansion by single dose feeding the lectin phytohaemagglutinin to suckling rats.

    PubMed

    Prykhod'ko, Olena; Fed'kiv, Olexandr; Linderoth, Ann; Pierzynowski, Stefan G; Weström, Björn R

    2009-03-01

    The dietary lectin phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) induces gut growth and precocious maturation in suckling rats after mucosal binding. The present study investigated the dose range in which PHA provokes gut maturation and if it coincided with immune activation. Suckling rats, aged 14 d, were orogastrically fed a single increasing dose of PHA: 0 (control), 2, 10, 50 or 250 microg/g body weight (BW) in saline. The effect on gut, lymphoid organs and appearance of CD3+ (T-lymphocyte) and CD19+ (B-lymphocyte) cells in the small-intestinal mucosa was studied at 12 h (acute) and 3 d (late phase) after treatment. The low PHA doses (2 and 10 microg/g BW) induced intestinal hyperplasia without mucosal disarrangement but did not provoke gut maturation. Only the high PHA doses (50 and 250 microg/g BW) temporarily disturbed the intestinal mucosa with villi shortening and decrease in disaccharidase activities, and later after 3 d provoked precocious maturation, resulting in an increase in maltase and sucrase activities and decrease in lactase activity and disappearance of the fetal vacuolated enterocytes in the distal small intestine. Exposure to the high, but not to the low, PHA doses increased the number of mucosal CD19+ and CD3+ cells in the small intestine after 12 h, a finding also observed in untreated weaned rats aged 21-28 d. In conclusion, there was a dose-related effect of PHA on gastrointestinal growth and precocious maturation that coincided with a rapid expansion of mucosal B- and T-lymphocytes, indicating a possible involvement of the immune system in this process. PMID:18644165

  4. Characteristics of early- and late-recruited oxytocin bursting cells at the beginning of suckling in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Moos, F; Richard, P

    1988-01-01

    1. Paired or single recordings of paraventricular and/or supraoptic oxytocin cells at the beginning of suckling in urethane-anaesthetized rats enabled us to study cell recruitment and compare the characteristics of the early- and late-recruited cells. This was done under different experimental conditions, i.e. when the reflex was triggered in less than 1 h suckling (control), and when its triggering was facilitated either by the intraventricular (i.c.v.) injection of oxytocin, of apomorphine (a dopamine agonist) or by the intravenous (i.v.) injection of propranolol (a beta-adrenoceptor antagonist) into suckled rats with no milk ejection. 2. Under control conditions, the amplitude (total number of spikes) of the successive bursts of the early-recruited cells progressively increased, generally reaching maximum by the 6th burst. This increase was more rapid and greater after oxytocin than under control conditions or after apomorphine injection, and was delayed and reduced after propranolol. The burst frequency was higher after oxytocin and apomorphine injections than under control conditions and very low after propranolol. 3. Late-recruited cells were observed under all experimental conditions, except after oxytocin injection, since all cells displayed bursts right away. Moreover, when injected during the recruitment period of a control reflex, oxytocin greatly speeded up the recruitment of the late-recruited cells. These cells generally displayed smaller amplitude bursts than the early-recruited cells. Moreover, the increase in burst amplitude was less marked for the late- than for the early-recruited cells and often was not sustained. 4. Neither the likelihood of recruitment of an oxytocin cell nor its burst amplitude could be correlated with background activity level and there was no clear relationship between the recruitment period or the bursting characteristics on one hand and the background activity on the other. 5. In conclusion, the differences between the

  5. Isolation rearing effects on probabilistic learning and cognitive flexibility in rats.

    PubMed

    Amitai, Nurith; Young, Jared W; Higa, Kerin; Sharp, Richard F; Geyer, Mark A; Powell, Susan B

    2014-03-01

    Isolation rearing is a neurodevelopmental manipulation that produces neurochemical, structural, and behavioral alterations in rodents that in many ways are consistent with schizophrenia. Symptoms induced by isolation rearing that mirror clinically relevant aspects of schizophrenia, such as cognitive deficits, open up the possibility of testing putative therapeutics in isolation-reared animals prior to clinical development. We investigated what effect isolation rearing would have on cognitive flexibility, a cognitive function characteristically disrupted in schizophrenia. For this purpose, we assessed cognitive flexibility using between- and within-session probabilistic reversal-learning tasks based on clinical tests. Isolation-reared rats required more sessions, though not more task trials, to acquire criterion performance in the reversal phase of the task, and were slower to adjust their task strategy after reward contingencies were switched. Isolation-reared rats also completed fewer trials and exhibited lower levels of overall activity in the probabilistic reversal-learning task than did the socially reared rats. This finding contrasted with the elevated levels of unconditioned investigatory activity and reduced levels of locomotor habituation that isolation-reared rats displayed in the behavioral pattern monitor. Finally, isolation-reared rats also exhibited sensorimotor gating deficits, reflected by decreased prepulse inhibition of the startle response, consistent with previous studies. We concluded that isolation rearing constitutes a valuable, noninvasive manipulation for modeling schizophrenia-like cognitive deficits and assessing putative therapeutics. PMID:23943516

  6. Nutritionally induced changes in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha gene expression in liver of suckling rats are dependent on insulinaemia.

    PubMed

    Panadero, M; Vidal, H; Herrera, E; Bocos, C

    2001-10-15

    It was previously found that the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARalpha) was markedly augmented in the liver of suckling rats, in comparison to the fetuses and most notably to adult rats and it paralleled similar changes in hepatic lipid concentration. To determine whether these changes could be related to the high lipid content of the maternal milk and/or to hormonal status, the role of changes in nutrient availability and in plasma insulin concentration on liver expression during the perinatal stage in vivo in the rat was studied. When suckling rats were weaned on day 17, instead of on day 20, the level of hepatic PPARalpha mRNA decreased earlier than in rats weaned later. When 10-day-old rats were force-fed with either glucose or Intralipid or a combination of both diets, it was found that, at similar low levels of plasma insulin, a high level of FFA stimulated PPARalpha expression, whereas, at similar high plasma FFA concentrations, an elevated insulin level attenuated the increase in PPARalpha expression. It is proposed that both the high lipid intake and decreased plasma insulin level are responsible for the high PPARalpha expression detected in rat neonates. PMID:11594732

  7. Effect of selenium pre-treatment on antioxidative enzymes and lipid peroxidation in Cd-exposed suckling rats.

    PubMed

    Lazarus, Maja; Orct, Tatjana; Aladrović, Jasna; Ljubić, Blanka Beer; Jurasović, Jasna; Blanuša, Maja

    2011-09-01

    Since there are no data about the protective role of selenium (Se) against cadmium (Cd)-induced oxidative damage in early life, we studied the effect of Se supplementation on antioxidative enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation (through thiobarbituric acid reactive substances; TBARS) in suckling Wistar rats exposed to Cd. Treated animals received either Se alone for 9 days (8 μmol, i.e., 0.6 mg Se as Na(2)SeO(3) kg(-1) b.w., daily, orally; Se group), Cd alone for 5 days (8 μmol, i.e., 0.9 mg Cd as CdCl(2) kg(-1) b.w., daily, orally; Cd group), or pre-treatment with Se for 4 days and then co-treatment with Cd for the following 5 days (Se + Cd group). Our results showed that selenium supplementation, with and without Cd, increased SOD activity in the brain and kidney, but not in the liver and GSH-Px activity across all tissues compared to control rats receiving distilled water. Relative to the Cd group, Se + Cd group had higher kidney and brain SOD and GSH-Px activity (but not the liver), while in the liver caused increased and in the brain decreased TBARS level. These results suggest that Se stimulates antioxidative enzymes in immature kidney and brain of Cd-exposed rats and could protect against oxidative damage. PMID:20652648

  8. The decrease in hypothalamic dopamine secretion induced by suckling: comparison of voltammetric and radioisotopic methods of measurement. [Rats

    SciTech Connect

    Plotsky, P.M.; Neill, J.D.

    1982-03-01

    Previous in situ voltammetric microelectrode measurements of median eminence dopamine release during mammary nerve stimulation of anesthetized lactating rats revealed a transient (1-3 min) 70% decline of dopamine concentrations. This dopamine was believed to be destined for secretion into the hypophysial portal circulation, but direct experimental support for this supposition was lacking. Thus, in the present study, (3H)dopamine release into brief sequential samples of hypophysial portal blood was compared with dopamine release in the median eminence measured by voltammetry. Lactating female rats were urethane anesthetized, and the median eminence pituitary region was exposed. (3H)Tyrosine was injected into a jugular cannula (100 microCi) followed by continuous infusion (5 microCi/min). In a preliminary experiment, this regimen produced a steady state level of (3H)dopamine in the portal blood within 45 min. In subsequent experiments, portal blood was collected as sequential 3-min samples, and electrochemical sampling from a microelectrode placed in the median eminence occurred at 1-min intervals. Electrochemical current resulting from the oxidation of dopamine in the medial median eminence was unvarying throughout the 75-min experiment in control rats (n . 4) and during the 30-min control period preceding mammary nerve stimulation in the other group (n . 4). These results were paralled by (3H) dopamine levels in portal blood during the same periods of time. All animals showed simultaneous decreases in oxidation current and (3H)dopamine levels within 1-4 min after initiation of mammary nerve stimulation. These and earlier results demonstrate that mammary nerve stimulation (and by extension, suckling) induces a momentary, but profound, decrease in hypothalamic dopamine secretion which precedes or accompanies the rise in PRL secretion evoked by the same stimulus.

  9. Transmission of IgA to the rabbit foetus and the suckling rat

    PubMed Central

    Hemmings, W. A.; Jones, R. E.; Williams, E. W.

    1973-01-01

    The transmission of purified preparations of rabbit and human colostral IgA globulin were studied in the rabbit across the yolk-sac splanchnopleur and in the young rat across the gut. Little or no IgA was transferred in either species. PMID:4201824

  10. Emotional learning enhances stimulus-specific top-down modulation of sensorimotor gating in socially reared rats but not isolation-reared rats.

    PubMed

    Du, Yi; Wu, Xihong; Li, Liang

    2010-01-20

    Prepulse inhibition (PPI), the suppression of the startle reflex by a preceding sensory stimulus (prepulse), can be top-down modulated in both humans and rats. This study investigated whether emotional-learning-induced enhancement of PPI in rats is prepulse specific. The results show that in socially reared rats, PPI elicited by a narrowband-noise prepulse on the broadband-noise background (masker) was enhanced after the prepulse became fear conditioned. This fear-conditioning-modulated PPI was further enhanced by introducing a perceived spatial separation between the conditioned prepulse and the broadband-noise masker. However, these PPI enhancements disappeared if the conditioned prepulse was replaced by a different narrowband-noise prepulse that was not fear conditioned. In isolation-reared rats, who had both enhanced baseline startle and reduced PPI before conditioning, neither fear conditioning of the prepulse nor perceived spatial separation between the conditioned prepulse and noise masker could enhance PPI. Thus, the emotional-learning-induced enhancement of PPI in socially reared rats is prepulse specific, indicating that auditory processing interacts with mnemonic signaling in the formation of top-down modulation of PPI. Since the deficiency of attentional modulation of PPI in schizophrenic patients is correlated with the symptom severity, the deficiency of top-down modulations of PPI in isolation-reared rats is useful for modeling schizophrenia. PMID:19761801

  11. Precocious alteration of digestive enzyme activities in small intestine and pancreas by chronic oral administration of protease inhibitor in suckling rats.

    PubMed

    Harada, E; Syuto, B

    1991-01-01

    1. The role of endogenous CCK in the development of digestive enzyme activities in small intestine and pancreas was investigated in suckling rats. Synthetic protease inhibitor (camostat 100 micrograms/g bwt) was orally administered twice daily for 5 days from 11 days of age. 2. Pancreatic hypertrophy and hyperplasia, and alteration of pancreatic enzyme composition, especially decreases in amylase activity and increases in trypsin and chymotrypsin activities were produced by camostat treatment. These changes were completely suppressed by simultaneous administration of the potent CCK receptor antagonist L-364,718 (1 microgram/g bwt). 3. With camostat treatment, intestinal lactase activity decreased to 41%, while maltase and sucrase activities increased 3 and 2.5 times respectively. These changes in enzyme activities were not affected by the application of L-364,718. 4. The mucosal disaccharidase and pancreatic enzyme activities could not be modified by chronic subcutaneous injection of camostat. The precocious induction of maltase and sucrase activities by camostat treatment was also observed in the adrenalectomized pups. 5. These results indicate that pancreatic growth accompanied by alteration of digestive enzyme composition in the suckling rats is regulated by endogenous CCK, but the precocious induction of disaccharidase activities is not mediated by endogenous CCK released by camostat treatment. PMID:1685962

  12. The hepatic transcriptome of young suckling and aging intrauterine growth restricted male rats.

    PubMed

    Freije, William A; Thamotharan, Shanthie; Lee, Regina; Shin, Bo-Chul; Devaskar, Sherin U

    2015-04-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction leads to the development of adult onset obesity/metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, stroke, dyslipidemia, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease/steatohepatitis. Continued postnatal growth restriction has been shown to ameliorate many of these sequelae. To further our understanding of the mechanism of how intrauterine and early postnatal growth affects adult health we have employed Affymetrix microarray-based expression profiling to characterize hepatic gene expression of male offspring in a rat model of maternal nutrient restriction in early and late life. At day 21 of life (p21) combined intrauterine and postnatal calorie restriction treatment led to expression changes in circadian, metabolic, and insulin-like growth factor genes as part of a larger transcriptional response that encompasses 144 genes. Independent and controlled experiments at p21 confirm the early life circadian, metabolic, and growth factor perturbations. In contrast to the p21 transcriptional response, at day 450 of life (d450) only seven genes, largely uncharacterized, were differentially expressed. This lack of a transcriptional response identifies non-transcriptional mechanisms mediating the adult sequelae of intrauterine growth restriction. Independent experiments at d450 identify a circadian defect as well as validate expression changes to four of the genes identified by the microarray screen which have a novel association with growth restriction. Emerging from this rich dataset is a portrait of how the liver responds to growth restriction through circadian dysregulation, energy/substrate management, and growth factor modulation. PMID:25371150

  13. Effects of Hypergravity Rearing on Growth Hormone and Insulin-Like Growth Factor in Rat Pups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baer, L. A.; Chowdhury, J. H.; Grindeland, R. E.; Wade, C. E.; Ronca, A. E.

    2003-01-01

    Body weights of rat pups reared during exposure to hypergravity (hg) are significantly reduced relative to 1 g controls. In the present study, we examined in hg-reared rat pups two major contributors to growth and development, namely growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Beginning on Gestational day (G)11 of the rats 22 day pregnancy, rat dams and their litters were continuously exposed to either 1.5-g or 2.0-g. On Postnatal day (P)l0, plasma GH and IGF-1 were analyzed using radioimmunoassay (RIA). Both hormones were significantly elevated in hg pups relative to 1-g control pups. Together, these findings suggest that GH and IGF-1 are not primary determinants of reduced body weights observed in hg-reared pups. The significant elevations in pup GH and IGF-1 may be related to increased physical stimulation in hypergravity.

  14. Early Adolescent Emergence of Reversal Learning Impairments in Isolation-Reared Rats

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Susan B.; Khan, Asma; Young, Jared W.; Scott, Christine N.; Buell, Mahalah R.; Caldwell, Sorana; Tsan, Elisa; de Jong, Loek A.W.; Acheson, Dean T.; Lucero, Jacinta; Geyer, Mark A.; Behrens, M. Margarita

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive impairments appear early in the progression of schizophrenia, often preceding the symptoms of psychosis. Thus, the systems subserving these functions may be more vulnerable to, and mechanistically linked with, the initial pathology. Understanding the trajectory of behavioral and anatomical abnormalities relevant to the schizophrenia prodrome and their sensitivity to interventions in relevant models will be critical to identifying early therapeutic strategies. Isolation rearing of rats is an environmental perturbation that deprives rodents of social contact from weaning through adulthood and produces behavioral and neuronal abnormalities that mirror some pathophysiology associated with schizophrenia, e.g. frontal cortex abnormalities and prepulse inhibition (PPI) of startle deficits. Previously, we showed that PPI deficits in isolation-reared rats emerge in mid-adolescence (4 weeks after weaning; approx. postnatal day 52) but are not present when tested at 2 weeks after weaning (approx. postnatal day 38). Because cognitive deficits are reported during early adolescence, are relevant to the prodrome, and are linked to functional outcome, we examined the putative time course of reversal learning deficits in isolation-reared rats. Separate groups of male Sprague Dawley rats were tested in a two-choice discrimination task at 2 and 8 weeks after weaning, on postnatal day 38 and 80, respectively. The isolation-reared rats displayed impaired reversal learning at both time points. Isolation rearing was also associated with deficits in PPI at 4 and 10 weeks after weaning. The reversal learning deficits in the isolated rats were accompanied by reductions in parvalbumin immunoreactivity, a marker for specific subpopulations of GABAergic neurons, in the hippocampus. Hence, isolation rearing of rats may offer a unique model to examine the ontogeny of behavioral and neurobiological alterations that may be relevant to preclinical models of prodromal psychosis. PMID

  15. Administration of N-nitrosodimethylamine, N-nitrosopyrrolidine, or N'-nitrosonornicotine to nursing rats: their interactions with liver and kidney nucleic acids from sucklings

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz Gomez, M.I.; Tamayo, D.; Castro, J.A.

    1986-06-01

    When nursing Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with (/sup 14/C)N-nitrosodimethylamine ((NDMA) CAS: 62-75-9), N-nitrosopyrrolidine (CAS:930-55-2), or N'-nitrosonornicotine (CAS: 16543-55-8), the liver and kidney DNA from their 14-day-old offspring that had been nursed over a 24-hour period became labeled. Upon analysis, liver DNA from sucklings whose nursing mothers were treated with (/sup 14/C)NDMA showed N7-methylguanine- and O6-methylguanine-altered bases. The results suggest that these nitrosamines, which are present in food, tobacco smoke, and in different environmental sources, are a risk not only for lactating mothers but also for the nursing infants.

  16. Negative visuospatial priming in isolation-reared rats: Evidence of resistance to the disruptive effects of amphetamine.

    PubMed

    Amitai, Nurith; Powell, Susan; Weber, Martin; Swerdlow, Neal R; Young, Jared W

    2015-12-01

    Negative visuospatial priming (NP) represents a quantifiable measure of inhibitory information processing that is disrupted in several neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. We developed a novel rodent NP task to investigate mechanisms underlying NP and its role in various disorders, and to test potential therapeutics. In the present studies, we further characterized this novel paradigm by investigating whether NP is disrupted in rats reared in isolation, a developmental manipulation that produces a range of abnormalities in behavior, neurochemistry, and brain structure that mirror aspects of schizophrenia pathology. We also further explored the role of monoaminergic signaling in NP and the effects of isolation rearing by challenging both socially reared and isolation-reared rats with D-amphetamine during the NP task. Although fewer isolation-reared animals learned the complex NP task, those that learned exhibited unaffected NP compared with socially reared rats. Consistent with previous reports, D-amphetamine impaired NP and increased motor impulsivity in socially reared rats. In contrast, D-amphetamine did not affect NP or motor impulsivity in isolation-reared rats. These data confirm a monoaminergic influence on NP behavior and indicate that rats reared in isolation have altered dopaminergic sensitivity. PMID:26220402

  17. Effects of Hypergravity Rearing on Growth Hormone (GH) Secretion In Preweanling Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baer, L. A.; Chowdhury, J. H.; Wade, C. E.; Ronca, A. E.; Dalton, Bonnie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We previously reported that rat pups reared at 1.5-g, 1.75 or 2.0-g hypergravity weigh 6-15% less than 1.0-g controls. To account for these findings. we measured the lactational hormones, prolaction (Prl) and oxytocin (OT), in the pups' mothers. Gravity related differences in Prl were not observed whereas OT of lactating dams was significantly reduced relative to controls. Milk transfer from dam to pup was not impaired in hypergravity-reared litters tested at 1-g. Together, these findings suggest that impaired lactation and milk transfer do not account for reduced body masses of postnatal rats reared in hypergravity. In the present study, we analyzed growth hormone (GH) secretion and maternal licking in pups reared in hypergravity and in 1.0-g controls. Recent reports using dwarfing phenotypes in mouse mutants have provided evidence for postnatal dependence on GH and insulin-like growth factors (IGFs). Beginning on Gestational day (G)11 of the rats' 22 day pregnancy, rat dams and their litters were exposed to either 1.5-g, 1.75-g or 2.0-g. On Postnatal day (P)10, we measured plasma GH using enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Contrary to our hypothesis, GH was significantly elevated in pups reared at 2.0-g relative to 1.0-g controls. Pup-oriented behaviors of the hypergravity dams were also changed, possibly accounting for the increase in pup GH. GH alone does not appear to play a role in reduced body weights of hypergravity-reared pups.

  18. Prevention of cataracts in pink-eyed RCS rats by dark rearing.

    PubMed

    O'Keefe, T L; Hess, H H; Zigler, J S; Kuwabara, T; Knapka, J J

    1990-11-01

    Royal College of Surgeons rats have hereditary retinal degeneration and associated posterior subcapsular opacities (PSO) of the lens, detectable by slitlamp at 7-8 postnatal weeks in both pink- and black-eyed rats. The retinal degeneration is intensified by light, especially in pink-eyed rats. A fourth of pink-eyed rats developed mature cataracts by 9-12 months of age, but black-eyed rats whose retinas are protected from light by pigmented irises and pigment epithelium rarely have mature cataracts (3% or less), indicating light may be a factor in cataractogenesis. Prior work had shown that dark rearing reduced the rate of retinal degeneration in pink- but not black-eyed rats, but cataracts were not studied. In the present work, pregnant pink-eyed females were placed in a darkroom 1 week before parturition. Pups were removed over intervals at 20-85 postnatal days for: (a) microscopic study of fresh lenses and of fixed, stained retina and lens, and (b) counts of cells mm-2 of the web-like vitreous cortex after it had been dissected free. The macrophage-like cells are a quantitative index of immune reaction to retinal damage. At 50-53 postnatal days, in pink-eyed cyclic light reared RCS, the mean number of macrophages was 4.6-fold that in congenic controls, but in those that were dark reared it was only 1.4-fold. This was less than the increase in cyclic light reared black-eyed RCS (2.3-fold that in congenic black-eyed controls). Total absence of light reduced retinal degeneration and the number of macrophages, and prevented PSO detectable microscopically.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2249726

  19. Behavioral effects of repeated handling differ in rats reared in social isolation and environmental enrichment.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, L M; Van Kempen, T A; Zimmerberg, B

    2013-03-01

    The post-weaning social environment has profound effects on behavior and physiology in rodents. Social isolation increases anxiety-like behaviors and novelty-induced locomotor activity, while environmental enrichment decreases these behaviors. In some cases, the effects of social isolation are ameliorated by repeated handling. The goal of the present study was to determine whether the effects of handling differ in rats reared in social isolation and those reared in an enriched environment. After weaning, male Long-Evans rats were housed individually (ISO)(3) or in groups in an enriched environment (EE). During adulthood, rats from each housing condition received four, once-daily, brief handling sessions or remained undisturbed in the home cage. All rats were then tested in the open field, elevated plus maze, and for behavioral responses to d-amphetamine (1.0mg/kg). EE rats spent more time on the open arms of the elevated plus maze and were more likely than ISO rats to emerge from the start box in the open field, suggesting lower anxiety. Handling significantly decreased open arm time in EE rats and marginally increased open arm time in ISO rats. Housing condition did not affect amphetamine-stimulated locomotor activity, but handling altered the time course of the amphetamine response. ISO rats exhibited significantly fewer stereotyped behaviors than did EE rats, but repeated handling eliminated this difference. These findings support previously published studies that suggest brief handling of adult rats may at least partially ameliorate the effects of post-weaning social isolation on anxiety-like behaviors and psychostimulant sensitivity. Furthermore, there are complex interactions between the effects of housing environment and handling, suggesting that handling may be perceived and/or processed differently, depending on the animal's housing environment. PMID:23313592

  20. Forebrain gene expression predicts deficits in sensorimotor gating after isolation rearing in male rats

    PubMed Central

    Swerdlow, Neal R.; Light, Gregory A.; Trim, Ryan S.; Breier, Michelle R.; Hines, Samantha R.; Powell, Susan B.

    2013-01-01

    Compared to socially housed (SH) rats, adult isolation-reared (IR) rats exhibit phenotypes relevant to schizophrenia (SZ), including reduced prepulse inhibition (PPI) of startle. PPI is normally regulated by the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and nucleus accumbens (NAC). We assessed PPI, auditory-evoked local field potentials (LFPs) and expression of 7 PPI- and SZ-related genes in the mPFC and NAC, in IR and SH rats. Buffalo (BUF) rats were raised in same-sex groups of 2–3 (SH) or in isolation (IR). PPI was measured early (d53) and later in adulthood (d74); LFPs were measured approximately on d66. Brains were processed for RT-PCR measures of mPFC and NAC expression of Comt, Erbb4, Grid2, Ncam1, Slc1a2, Nrg1 and Reln. Male IR rats exhibited PPI deficits, most pronounced at d53; male and female IR rats had significantly elevated startle magnitude on both test days. Gene expression levels were not significantly altered by IR. PPI levels (d53) were positively correlated with mPFC expression of several genes, and negatively correlated with NAC expression of several genes, in male IR but not SH rats. Late (P90) LFP amplitudes correlated significantly with expression levels of 6/7 mPFC genes in male rats, independent of rearing. After IR that disrupts early adult PPI in male BUF rats, expression levels of PPI- and SZ-associated genes in the mPFC correlate positively with PPI, and levels in the NAC correlate negatively with PPI. These results support the model that specific gene-behavior relationships moderate the impact of early-life experience on SZ-linked behavioral and neurophysiological markers. PMID:24076151

  1. An enriched rearing environment calms adult male rat sexual activity: implication for distinct serotonergic and hormonal responses to females.

    PubMed

    Urakawa, Susumu; Mitsushima, Dai; Shimozuru, Michito; Sakuma, Yasuo; Kondo, Yasuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Early life events induce alterations in neural function in adulthood. Although rearing in an enriched environment (EE) has a great impact on behavioral development, the effects of enriched rearing on sociosexual behavior remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of rearing in an EE on male copulatory behavior and its underlying neurobiological mechanisms in Wistar-Imamichi rats. Three-week-old, recently weaned rats were continuously subjected to a standard environment (SE) or an EE comprised of a large cage with several objects, such as toys, tunnels, ladders, and a running wheel. After 6 weeks, rats reared in an EE (EE rats) showed decreased sexual activity compared with rats reared in a SE (SE rats). This included a lower number of ejaculations and longer latencies in three consecutive copulatory tests. In addition, EE rats showed decreased emotional responsiveness and less locomotor behavior in an open field. In a runway test, on the other hand, sexual motivation toward receptive females in EE males was comparable to that of SE males. Furthermore, following exposure to a female, increases in serotonin levels in the nucleus accumbens and the striatum were significantly suppressed in EE males, whereas dopaminergic responses were similar between the groups. Female-exposure-induced increases in the levels of plasma corticosterone and testosterone were also suppressed in EE rats compared to SE rats. These data suggest that rearing in an EE decreases male copulatory behavior, and serotonin and hormonal regulating systems may regulate the differences in sociosexual interactions that result from distinct rearing environments. PMID:24505330

  2. Rearing conditions differently affect the motor performance and cerebellar morphology of prenatally stressed juvenile rats.

    PubMed

    Ulupinar, Emel; Erol, Kevser; Ay, Hakan; Yucel, Ferruh

    2015-02-01

    The cerebellum is one of the most vulnerable parts of the brain to environmental changes. In this study, the effect of diverse environmental rearing conditions on the motor performances of prenatally stressed juvenile rats and its reflection to the cerebellar morphology were investigated. Prenatally stressed Wistar rats were grouped according to different rearing conditions (Enriched=EC, Standard=SC and Isolated=IC) after weaning. Six weeks later, male and female offspring from different litters were tested behaviorally. In rotarod and string suspension tests, females gained better scores than males. Significant gender and housing effects were observed especially on the motor functions requiring fine skills with the best performance by enriched females, but the worst by enriched males. The susceptibility of cerebellar macro- and micro-neurons to environmental conditions was compared using stereological methods. In female groups, no differences were observed in the volume proportions of cerebellar layers, soma sizes and the numerical densities of granule or Purkinje cells. However, a significant interaction between housing and gender was observed in the granule to Purkinje cell ratio of males, due to the increased numerical densities of the granule cells in enriched males. These data imply that proper functioning of the cerebellum relies on its well organized and evolutionarily conserved structure and circuitry. Although early life stress leads to long term behavioral and neurobiological consequences in the offspring, diverse rearing conditions can alter the motor skills of animals and synaptic connectivity between Purkinje and granular cells in a gender dependent manner. PMID:25315128

  3. Isoelectric focusing analysis of transmission of fractions of bovine IgG across the gut of the suckling rat

    PubMed Central

    Hemmings, W. A.; Jones, R. E.

    1974-01-01

    Twelve-day-old rats were fed a mixture of fast and slow chromatographically prepared fractions of bovine IgG, labelled with 125I and 131I. The pooled young rat sera were submitted to analysis by electrofocusing. The results show a wide variation of concentration quotients between the different pI peaks of IgG, with the more basic fractions being transmitted more readily in both fractions. One slow IgG peak (pI 7.8) in particular is transmitted very readily. These findings reinforce the concept of selectivity in transmission. The possible use of the young rat gut as a test for protein integrity is discussed. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3 PMID:4413997

  4. Effect of prenatal programming and postnatal rearing on glomerular filtration rate in adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Lozano, German; Elmaghrabi, Ayah; Salley, Jordan; Siddique, Khurrum; Gattineni, Jyothsna

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined whether a prenatal low-protein diet programs a decrease in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and an increase in systolic blood pressure (BP). In addition, we examined whether altering the postnatal nutritional environment of nursing neonatal rats affected GFR and BP when rats were studied as adults. Pregnant rats were fed a normal (20%) protein diet or a low-protein diet (6%) during the last half of pregnancy until birth, when rats were fed a 20% protein diet. Mature adult rats from the prenatal low-protein group had systolic hypertension and a GFR of 0.38 ± 0.03 versus 0.57 ± 0.05 ml·min−1·100 g body wt−1 in the 20% group (P < 0.01). In cross-fostering experiments, mothers continued on the same prenatal diet until weaning. Prenatal 6% protein rats cross-fostered to a 20% mother on day 1 of life had a GFR of 0.53 ± 0.05 ml·min−1·100 g body wt−1, which was not different than the 20% group cross-fostered to a different 20% mother (0.45 ± 0.04 ml·min−1·100 g body wt−1). BP in the 6% to 20% group was comparable with the 20% to 20% group. Offspring of rats fed either 20% or 6% protein diets during pregnancy and cross-fostered to a 6% mother had elevated BP but a comparable GFR normalized to body weight as the 20% to 20% control group. Thus, a prenatal low-protein diet causes hypertension and a reduction in GFR in mature adult offspring, which can be modified by postnatal rearing. PMID:25537745

  5. The neurochemical effects of anxiolytic drugs are dependent on rearing conditions in Fawn-Hooded rats.

    PubMed

    Lodge, Daniel J; Lawrence, Andrew J

    2003-05-01

    There is a vast literature examining the neurochemical effects of anxiolytics throughout the rat brain; however, although the behavioural actions of anxiolytic drugs are routinely assessed in animal models of anxiety, the majority of neurochemical studies have been performed in rats with relatively 'normal' behavioural phenotypes. Since there is significant evidence that an anxious phenotype is associated with numerous neurochemical alterations, it is feasible that the central effects of anxiolytics may vary depending on the underlying behavioural state (and corresponding neuropathology) of the experimental animal. For this reason, the aim of the present study was to examine the effect of chronic anxiolytic drug administration on the central CCK and dopamine systems in anxious (isolated from weaning) and nonanxious (group-housed) Fawn-Hooded (FH) rats. It is important to note that these studies were performed in rats with continued access to ethanol, which may affect the responses to anxiolytic treatment. Chronic anxiolytic treatment with the selective CCK-B (CCK(2)) receptor antagonist, Ci-988 (0.3 mg/kg/day ip) or diazepam (2 mg/kg/day ip), induced numerous effects throughout the central nervous system (CNS), with Ci-988 inducing significant changes in the density of dopamine D(2) receptors, and diazepam producing marked changes in both dopamine D(2) and CCK-B receptor binding density as well as preproCCK mRNA expression. Interestingly, the neurochemical effects of these anxiolytic drugs varied significantly depending on the rearing conditions of the rats, demonstrating the importance of using adequate animal models when correlating the behavioural and central effects of drugs acting throughout the CNS. PMID:12691780

  6. Chronic Psychosocial Stress Impairs Bone Homeostasis: A Study in the Social Isolation Reared Rat

    PubMed Central

    Schiavone, Stefania; Morgese, Maria G.; Mhillaj, Emanuela; Bove, Maria; De Giorgi, Angelo; Cantatore, Francesco P.; Camerino, Claudia; Tucci, Paolo; Maffulli, Nicola; Cuomo, Vincenzo; Trabace, Luigia

    2016-01-01

    Chronic psychosocial stress is a key player in the onset and aggravation of mental diseases, including psychosis. Although a strong association between this psychiatric condition and other medical co-morbidities has been recently demonstrated, few data on the link between psychosis and bone homeostasis are actually available. The aim of this study was to investigate whether chronic psychosocial stress induced by 4 or 7 weeks of social isolation in drug-naïve male Wistar rats could alter bone homeostasis in terms of bone thickness, mineral density and content, as well as markers of bone formation and resorption (sclerostin, cathepsin K, and CTX-I). We found that bone mineral density was increased in rats exposed to 7 weeks of social isolation, while no differences were detected in bone mineral content and area. Moreover, 7 weeks of social isolation lead to increase of femur thickness with respect to controls, suggesting the development of a hyperostosis condition. Isolated rats showed no changes in sclerostin levels, a marker of bone formation, compared to grouped animals. Conversely, bone resorption markers were significantly altered after 7 weeks of social isolation in terms of decrease in cathepsin K and increase of CTX-I. No alterations were found after 4 weeks of isolation rearing. Our observations suggest that chronic psychosocial stress might affect bone homeostasis, more likely independently from drug treatment. Thus, the social isolation model might help to identify possible new therapeutic targets to treat the burden of chronic psychosocial stress and to attempt alternative therapy choices. PMID:27375486

  7. Differential Rearing Alters Forced Swim Test Behavior, Fluoxetine Efficacy, and Post-Test Weight Gain in Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Arndt, David L; Peterson, Christy J; Cain, Mary E

    2015-01-01

    Environmental factors play a key role in the etiology of depression. The rodent forced swim test (FST) is commonly used as a preclinical model of depression, with increases in escape-directed behavior reflecting antidepressant effects, and increases in immobility reflecting behavioral despair. Environmental enrichment leads to serotonergic alterations in rats, but it is unknown whether these alterations may influence the efficacy of common antidepressants. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were reared in enriched (EC), standard (SC), or isolated (IC) conditions. Following the rearing period, fluoxetine (10 or 20 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered 23.5 hrs, 5 hrs, and 1 hr before locomotor and FST measures. Following locomotor testing and FST exposure, rats were weighed to assess fluoxetine-, FST-, and environmental condition-induced moderations in weight gain. Results revealed an antidepressant effect of environmental enrichment and a depressant effect of isolation. Regardless of significant fluoxetine effects on locomotor activity, fluoxetine generally decreased swimming and increased immobility in all three environmental conditions, with IC-fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) rats and EC-fluoxetine (20 mg/kg) rats swimming less than vehicle counterparts. Subchronic 20 mg/kg fluoxetine also induced significant weight loss, and differential rearing appeared to moderate weight gain following FST stress. These results suggest that differential rearing has the ability to alter FST behaviors, fluoxetine efficacy, and post-stressor well-being. Moreover, 20 mg/kg fluoxetine, administered subchronically, may lead to atypical effects of those commonly observed in the FST, highlighting the importance and impact of both environmental condition and dosing regimen in common animal models of depression. PMID:26154768

  8. The combined effects of unilateral enucleation and rearing in a 'dim' red light on synapse-to-neuron ratios in the rat visual cortex.

    PubMed Central

    Bedi, K S

    1989-01-01

    One day old rats had their right eyes removed and together with non-enucleated controls were raised in either 'light' or 'dark' (red light) conditions from birth until 39 days of age. This resulted in four groups of animals: light-reared enucleated, light-reared non-enucleated, dark-reared enucleated and dark-reared non-enucleated. All animals were killed by intracardiac perfusion with 2.5% sodium cacodylate-buffered glutaraldehyde at 39 days of age. Pieces of visual cortex (Area 17) from both right and left cerebral hemispheres of each animal were dissected out and processed for electron microscopy. Stereological procedures were used to estimate the synapse-to-neuron ratios in Layers II-III of these cortices. Light-reared non-enucleated rats had about 16,000 synapses per neuron in both right and left visual cortices. Rearing non-enucleated rats in the dark reduced this value to about 11,500. The synapse-to-neuron ratio of unilaterally enucleated rats raised in the light was not significantly different from that observed in light-reared non-enucleated rats. Combined dark-rearing and unilateral enucleation did reduce the synapse-to-neuron ratio but not to any greater extent than did dark-rearing alone. However, there was a suggestion of a differential effect between the right and left cortices in these enucleated, dark-reared animals. These results demonstrate the importance of light stimulation for the normal development of interneuronal connectivity of the visual cortex. They also show that the effects of unilateral enucleation for the visual cortex are not as great as those previously observed for the superior colliculi in the same animals, at least as far as synapse-to-neuron ratios are concerned. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:2630542

  9. Effects of Rearing and Sex on Maze Learning and Competitive Exploration in Rats.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Rhawn

    1979-01-01

    Suggests that differential rearing conditions may cause significant reversals in sex-related ability and behavior (maze learning and exploration), and may significantly affect perceptual sensitivity. (RL)

  10. The effects of rearing environment and chronic methylphenidate administration on behavior and dopamine receptors in adolescent rats

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Kathryn E.; Beveridge, Thomas J.R.; Smith, Hilary R.; Porrino, Linda J.

    2013-01-01

    Rearing young rodents in socially isolated or environmentally enriched conditions has been shown to affect numerous components of the dopamine system as well as behavior. Methylphenidate (MPH), a commonly used dopaminergic agent, may affect animals differently based on rearing environment. Here we examined the interaction between environment and chronic MPH treatment at clinically relevant doses, administered via osmotic minipump. Young Sprague Dawley rats (PND 21) were assigned to environmentally enriched, pair-housed, or socially isolated rearing conditions, and treated with either 0, 2, 4, or 8 mg/kg/day MPH for three weeks. At the end of the treatment period, animals were tested for locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavior. The densities of D1-like and D2-like receptors were measured in the striatum using in vitro receptor autoradiography. Locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavior were increased in isolated animals compared to pair-housed and enriched animals. The density of D1-like receptors was greater in isolated animals, but there were no differences between groups in D2-like receptor density. Finally, there were no effects of MPH administration on any reported measure. This study provides evidence for an effect of early rearing environment on the dopamine system and behavior, and also suggests that MPH administration may not have long-term consequences. PMID:23806775

  11. The effect of methylphenidate and rearing environment on behavioral inhibition in adult male rats

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Jade C.; Covarrubias, Pablo; Terry, Joel; Sanabria, Federico

    2012-01-01

    Rationale The ability to withhold reinforced responses—behavioral inhibition—is impaired in various psychiatric conditions including Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Methodological and analytical limitations have constrained our understanding of the effects of pharmacological and environmental factors on behavioral inhibition. Objectives To determine the effects of acute methylphenidate (MPH) administration and rearing conditions (isolated vs. pair-housed) on behavioral inhibition in adult rats. Methods Inhibitory capacity was evaluated using two response-withholding tasks, differential reinforcement of low rates (DRL) and fixed minimum interval (FMI) schedules of reinforcement. Both tasks made sugar pellets contingent on intervals longer than 6 s between consecutive responses. Inferences on inhibitory and timing capacities were drawn from the distribution of withholding times (interresponse times, or IRTs). Results MPH increased the number of intervals produced in both tasks. Estimates of behavioral inhibition increased with MPH dose in FMI and with social isolation in DRL. Nonetheless, burst responding in DRL and the divergence of DRL data relative to past studies, among other limitations, undermined the reliability of DRL data as the basis for inferences on behavioral inhibition. Conclusions Inhibitory capacity was more precisely estimated from FMI than from DRL performance. Based on FMI data, MPH, but not a socially enriched environment, appears to improve inhibitory capacity. The highest dose of MPH tested, 8 mg/kg, did not reduce inhibitory capacity but reduced the responsiveness to waiting contingencies. These results support the use of the FMI schedule, complemented with appropriate analytic techniques, for the assessment of behavioral inhibition in animal models. PMID:22057663

  12. Inhibition of anandamide hydrolysis dampens the neuroendocrine response to stress in neonatal rats subjected to suboptimal rearing conditions.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Ryan Joseph; Verlezza, Silvanna; Gray, Jennifer Megan; Hill, Matthew Nicholas; Walker, Claire-Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to stress during early development can exert profound effects on the maturation of the neuroendocrine stress axis. The endocannabinoid (ECB) system has recently surfaced as a fundamental component of the neuroendocrine stress response; however, the effect of early-life stress on neonatal ECB signaling and the capacity to which ECB enhancement may modulate neonatal stress responses is relatively unknown. The present study assessed whether exposure to early-life stress in the form of limited access to nesting/bedding material (LB) from postnatal (PND) day 2 to 9 alters neuroendocrine activity and hypothalamic ECB content in neonatal rats challenged with a novel immobilization stressor. Furthermore, we examined whether inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), the enzyme responsible for the degradation of anandamide (AEA) affects neuroendocrine responses in PND10 pups as a function of rearing conditions. Neonatal rats showed a robust increase in corticosterone (CORT) and adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) secretion in response to immobilization stress, which was significantly blunted in pups reared in LB conditions. Accordingly, LB pups exhibited reduced stress-induced Fos immunoreactivity in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, with no significant differences in hypothalamic ECB content. Administration of the FAAH inhibitor URB597 (0.3 mg/kg, ip) 90 min prior to immobilization stress significantly dampened stress-induced CORT release, but only in pups reared in LB conditions. These results suggest that rearing in restricted bedding conditions dampens the neuroendocrine response to stress, while augmenting AEA mitigates stress-induced alterations in glucocorticoid secretion preferentially in pups subjected to early-life stress. PMID:26552023

  13. Citalopram attenuates tau hyperphosphorylation and spatial memory deficit induced by social isolation rearing in middle-aged rats.

    PubMed

    Ren, Qing-Guo; Gong, Wei-Gang; Wang, Yan-Juan; Zhou, Qi-Da; Zhang, Zhi-Jun

    2015-05-01

    Social isolation (SI) is considered as a chronic stress. Here, middle-aged rats (8 months) were group or isolation reared for 6 weeks. Following the initial two-week period of rearing, citalopram (10 mg/kg i.p.) was administered for 28 days. Changes in recognition memory, depression and anxiety-like behavior, and phosphorylated tau were investigated. We found that SI did not lead to obvious depression/anxiety-like behavior in middle-aged rats. Memory deficits and increased tau hyperphosphorylation at Tau-1, Ser396 episodes could be almost reversed by citalopram. The level of Ser9-phosphorylated GSK-3β (inactive form) was significantly decreased in the SI group which also could be almost reversed by citalopram, suggesting that the citalopram could prevent GSK-3β from SI-induced overactivation. The melatonin level was decreased in SI group compared with group housed (GH) group, and citalopram could partly restore the level of melatonin. We also found that citalopram could increase MT1 and MT2 in mRNA level. Our results demonstrate that citalopram increases the level of melatonin which negatively regulates GSK-3β and attenuates tau hyperphosphorylation and spatial memory deficit induced by SI in middle-aged rats. Suggesting that SI might constitute a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), and citalopram may represent a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of AD. PMID:25476250

  14. A two-hit model: behavioural investigation of the effect of combined neonatal MK-801 administration and isolation rearing in the rat.

    PubMed

    Lim, Ann Li; Taylor, David Alan; Malone, Daniel Thomas

    2012-09-01

    This study combined two neurodevelopmental manipulations, neonatal MK-801 treatment and isolation rearing, to produce a 'two-hit' model and determine whether two hits induce a more robust behavioural phenotype of an animal model of aspects of schizophrenia compared with individual manipulations alone. The effect of clozapine was also assessed. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received 0.2 mg/kg MK-801 or saline intraperitoneally (i.p.) once daily on postnatal days (PNDs) 7-10 and were assigned to group or isolation rearing at weaning (PND 21). From PND 77, they received a vehicle or 5 mg/kg clozapine (i.p.) treatment regimen and were subjected to three prepulse inhibition (PPI) tests, a locomotor activity assessment and a novel object recognition task. MK-801-treated rats reared in isolation displayed robust PPI disruptions which were consistently manifested in all three tests. PPI deficits were also detected in saline-treated rats reared in isolation but not in all tests. Only the two-hit rats demonstrated hyperlocomotion and impaired object recognition memory. Clozapine restored PPI anomalies in the two-hit rats. The two-hit model showed greater psychotic-like effects than either neonatal MK-801 or isolation rearing alone. The preliminary predictive validity shown with clozapine suggests this model may be useful for predicting the efficacy of putative antipsychotics. PMID:22361477

  15. Experimental analysis of the relationship between simulated low-velocity rear-end collisions and fetal outcomes of pregnant rats.

    PubMed

    Hitosugi, Masahito; Motozawa, Yasuki; Kawato, Hitoshi; Nagai, Toshiaki; Tokudome, Shogo

    2009-07-01

    Our study aimed to define the risk for a human fetus of rear-end vehicle collisions. We therefore performed drop tests using pregnant SLC Wistar rats. Pressure applied to the rat uterus and rectum at various stages of acceleration was measured. After being dropped, rats were observed throughout pregnancy. At birth, the numbers, weight and the occurrence of physical anomalies among pups were followed-up for 28 days. Uterine pressure increased exponentially from 2.1 +/- 0.3 kPa at 19-fold gravity (G) to 13.9 +/- 0.8 kPa at 92-fold G. These values are much lower than the mechanical failure level of human fetal membrane tissue or of those at risk of adverse fetal outcomes. Neither the average number of offspring per pregnant rat nor the average body weight of newborn pups differed significantly between control pregnant rats and those which had been exposed to acceleration of 46-fold or 92-fold G. Other variables such as maternal mental distress, motion effects of amniotic fluid or seatbelt-induced uterine injuries might contribute to fetal loss. PMID:19787994

  16. Alterations to prepulse inhibition magnitude and latency in adult rats following neonatal treatment with domoic acid and social isolation rearing.

    PubMed

    Marriott, Amber L; Tasker, R Andrew; Ryan, Catherine L; Doucette, Tracy A

    2016-02-01

    Deficits in perceptual, informational, and attentional processing are consistently identified as a core feature in schizophrenia and related neuropsychiatric disorders. Neonatal injections of low doses of the AMPA/kainate agonist domoic acid (DOM) have previously been shown to alter various aspects of perceptual and attentional processing in adult rats. The current study investigated the effects of combined neonatal DOM treatment with isolation rearing on prepulse inhibition behaviour and relevant neurochemical measures, to assess the usefulness of these paradigms in modeling neurodevelopmental disorders. Daily subcutaneous injections of DOM (20 μg/kg) or saline were administered to male and female rat pups from postnatal days (PND) 8-14. After weaning, rats were either housed alone or in groups of 4. Both the magnitude and latency of prepulse inhibition were determined in adulthood (approximately 4.5 months of age) and post-mortem brain tissue was assayed using Western blot. Social isolation alone significantly lowered PPI magnitude in male (but not female) rats while DOM treatment appeared to make animals refractory to this effect. Combining social isolation and DOM treatment caused an additive decrease in PPI startle latency. No statistically significant differences were found in the expression of D1, D2, TH, GAD65 or GAD67 protein in either the prefrontal cortex or hippocampus, although some tendencies toward differences were noted. We conclude that both neonatal low-dose DOM and social isolation affect prepulse inhibition in rats but that each paradigm exerts these effects through different neuronal signalling systems. PMID:26590368

  17. The effect of adverse rearing environments on persistent memories in young rats: removing the brakes on infant fear memories.

    PubMed

    Callaghan, B L; Richardson, R

    2012-01-01

    Mental health problems are often assumed to have their roots in early-life experiences. However, memories acquired in infancy are rapidly forgotten in nearly all species (including humans). As yet, a testable mechanism on how early-life experiences have a lasting impact on mental health is lacking. In these experiments, we tested the idea that infant adversity leads to an early transition into adult-like fear retention, allowing infant memories to have a longer-lasting influence. Rats were exposed to maternal separation (3 h per day) across postnatal days (P) 2-14, or their mother was given corticosterone in her drinking water across the same period. Infant rats were then trained to fear a conditioned stimulus (CS) paired with an aversive unconditioned stimulus (US) on P17. Retention of the fear association was then tested 1-55 days later. When tested one day after the CS-US association was formed, both standard-reared (SR) and maternally-separated (MS) rats exhibited strong memory. However, when tested 10 days later, SR rats exhibited robust forgetting, whereas MS rats exhibited near-perfect retention. These effects were mimicked by exposing the mother to the stress hormone corticosterone in the drinking water. Finally, fear associations in P17 MS rats were retained for up to 30 days. Our findings point to differences in retention of fear as one factor that might underlie the propensity of stress-exposed individuals to exhibit early anxiety symptoms and suggest that manipulations of the corticosterone system may hold the key to ameliorating some of the effects of early stress on persistent retention of fear. PMID:22781171

  18. Growth and development of mice and rats conceived and reared at different G-intensities during chronic centrifugation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oyama, J.; Solgaard, L.; Corrales, J.; Monson, C. B.

    1985-01-01

    Prenatal and postnatal growth of rats conceived and reared at different G-intensities from 1.0G (earth gravity) to a maximum of 2.03G were compared. Prenatal growth was not generally impaired but the lung/body mass ratio of 22-day old fetuses at 2.03G was decreased significantly compared to 1.06 controls. Survival of neonatal rats was substantially reduced at 1.71G and 2.03G. Postnatal growth was decreased at the higher G-intensities and showed smaller or no effects at the lower G-intensities. Comparisons of organ/body mass ratios of hyper-G and 1.0G rats at 9 wks of age showed relatively few differences at the lower G-intensities. Postnatal growth of mice at 2.03G was suppressed during the neonatal period but recovered later so that after 9 wks the body mass of females reached and of males approached controls. Results of this preliminary study clearly show the influence of body mass in scaling the effects of hyper-G on the growth and development of and between different animal species.

  19. Quantitative study of the development of neurons and synapses in rats reared in the dark during early postnatal life. 1. Superior colliculus.

    PubMed Central

    Fukui, Y; Bedi, K S

    1991-01-01

    Rearing animals in dark conditions during early postnatal life has been shown to affect both the morphology and the normal functioning of the visual system. We have investigated the effects on the synapse-to-neuron ratios in the superior colliculi of rearing male rats in the dark from birth until 30 days of age, followed in some cases by a 35 day period of rehabilitation in control lighting conditions. Control lighting conditions consisted of a room on a 12 hour light/12 hour dark cycle. Synapse-to-neuron ratios were calculated from estimates of the numerical densities of neurons and synapses. These estimates were made using the 'disector' method at the light and electron microscopical levels. Neuronal nuclei were used as the counting unit for neurons and paramembranous densities for synapses. There were no significant differences in the numerical densities of neurons, synapses or synapse-to-neuron ratios between dark-reared and control rats at 30 days of age. Sixty five days old rats, previously raised in the dark, had a significantly smaller numerical density of neurons than light-reared controls. Two-way analysis of variance techniques showed significant effects of age on the estimates of the numerical densities of neurons and synapses. However, there were no significant main effects of the lighting conditions, nor any significant interaction for any of the measures. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:2032942

  20. Suckling behavior in goitered gazelle: do females invest more in twins or singletons?

    PubMed

    Blank, David; Yang, Weikang

    2015-10-01

    The mother-offspring social unit is a universal feature in the social life of all mammals and nursing is the most direct and vital component of maternal investment in young. Living in diverse environments, various ungulate species have different strategies for rearing offspring, from bearing a single, relatively large newborn and supplying only limited amounts of milk, to bearing several relatively small newborns with intensive post-partum lactation. In this paper, we consider the rearing strategy of goitered gazelle with a focus on suckling behavior, which, until now, has never been a subject of special investigation. Adult females of this species in their reproductive prime typically bear twins when environmental conditions are favorable, but the proportion of singletons increases when conditions are unfavorable. We expected that in goitered gazelles suckling intensity would be maximal during the first weeks after birth, and then decrease with the growth of the young; we also expected that twins would demand more energy, but receive significantly less maternal investment per young than singletons. We found that, indeed, suckling behavior had similar dynamics as typical of all bovid species, but our expectation for less maternal investment in twins vs. singletons was wrong. In reality, female goitered gazelles suckled twins significantly more intensively and terminated suckling less often compared to singletons. We concluded that in favorable situations females of high quality have the ability to show significantly more maternal investment in each twin, while singletons are typically born to weaker females. This ability of females to produce mostly twins allows goitered gazelles to take advantage of any favorable opportunity to quickly increase their population in an environment with unpredictable and abrupt yearly changes typical of the arid regions of Central Asia. PMID:26150400

  1. Effect of preduodenal lipase inhibition in suckling rats on dietary octanoic acid (C8:0) gastric absorption and plasma octanoylated ghrelin concentration.

    PubMed

    Lemarié, F; Cavalier, J-F; Garcia, C; Boissel, F; Point, V; Catheline, D; Legrand, P; Carrière, F; Rioux, V

    2016-09-01

    Part of medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) coming from dietary triglycerides (TGs) can be directly absorbed through the gastric mucosa after the action of preduodenal lipase (lingual lipase in the rat). MCFA gastric absorption, particularly that of octanoic acid (C8:0), may have a physiological importance in the octanoylation of ghrelin, the orexigenic gastric peptide acting as an endogenous ligand of the hypothalamic growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHSR-1a). However, the amount of C8:0 absorbed in the stomach and its metabolic fate still haven't been clearly characterized. The purpose of the present study was to further characterize and quantify the importance of preduodenal lipase activity on the release and gastric absorption of dietary C8:0 and on the subsequent ghrelin octanoylation in the stomach mucosa. Fifteen days old rats received fat emulsions containing triolein or [1,1,1-(13)C]-Tri-C8:0 and a specific inhibitor of preduodenal lipase, 5-(2-(benzyloxy)ethoxy)-3-(3-phenoxyphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2(3H)-one or BemPPOX. The fate of the (13)C-C8:0 was followed in rat tissues after 30 and 120min of digestion and octanoylated ghrelin was measured in the plasma. This work (1) demonstrates that part of C8:0 coming from Tri-C8:0 is directly absorbed at the gastric level, (2) allows the estimation of C8:0 gastric absorption level (1.3% of the (13)C-C8:0 in sn-3 position after 30min of digestion), as well as (3) the contribution of rat lingual lipase to total lipolysis and to duodenal absorption of dietary FAs (at least 30%), (4) shows no short-term effect of dietary Tri-C8:0 consumption and subsequent increase of C8:0 gastric tissue content on plasma octanoylated ghrelin concentration. PMID:27317984

  2. Ovarian function in suckling and non-suckling beef cows post partum.

    PubMed

    Radford, H M; Nancarrow, C D; Mattner, P E

    1978-09-01

    Two groups, each of 7 crossbred beef cows, which were suckling or not suckling calves, were fed a high quality food ad libitum for 3 months post partum. The non-suckling cows experienced regular ovarian cycles from 10--33 days post partum while the suckling cows did not do so until at least 14 weeks post partum. There was little difference between the groups in growth rate or in plasma glucose concentration. The plasma prolactin concentrations in the non-suckling cows showed a seasonal trend which paralleled ambient temperature and daylight hours; in the suckling cows this trend was less evident. Plasma LH concentrations were lower in suckling cows before Day 30 post partum but were similar thereafter. Most suckling cows also failed to experience oestrus or to exhibit LH release in response to an injection of oestradiol benzoate at about 6 weeks post partum. This failure, together with the earlier lower levels of LH in the suckling cows, is considered to be indicative of malfunction of the hypothalamic mechanism normally responsible for the establishment and maintenance of cyclic ovarian function. PMID:712712

  3. Isolation rearing impaired sensorimotor gating but increased pro-inflammatory cytokines and disrupted metabolic parameters in both sexes of rats.

    PubMed

    Ko, Chih-Yuan; Liu, Yia-Ping

    2015-05-01

    Social isolation rearing (SIR) is an early stress paradigm of deprivation of the social contact since weaning. SIR has been used to investigate the mechanisms behind certain mental illnesses with neurodevelopmental origins, including schizophrenia. In schizophrenia, metabolic dysfunction has become a critical issue with increasing evidence for a possible connection between metabolism and immune systems in which metabolic changes are associated with pro-inflammatory cytokine (pro-CK) levels. The present study employed a rat model of SIR with both sexes to examine behaviors [locomotor activity and prepulse inhibition (PPI)], inflammatory markers [C-reactive protein, interleukin (IL)-1 beta, IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interferon-gamma], and metabolism-related variables (body weight, blood pressure, and the profiles of glycemia and lipid). Our results revealed that around puberty, SIR rats of both sexes exhibited behaviorally a higher locomotor activity and a lower PPI performance. Biochemically, SIR rats had an elevated level of pro-CKs (IL-1 beta, IL-6, TNF-alpha, and interferon-gamma), and metabolic abnormalities (increased insulin resistance, decreased insulin sensitivity, and high blood pressure) in a time-dependent manner. The relationships between pro-CKs and metabolism were sex specific as IL-1 beta and interferon-gamma were correlated to glycemia metabolic indexes in males. The present study demonstrated SIR-induced longitudinal concomitant changes of pro-CKs and metabolic abnormalities, implying a more direct role of these two things in mental dysfunctions with a developmental origin. PMID:25770703

  4. Anxiety and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responses to psychological stress are attenuated in male rats made lean by large litter rearing.

    PubMed

    Bulfin, Lauren J; Clarke, Melanie A; Buller, Kathryn M; Spencer, Sarah J

    2011-08-01

    An excellent strategy to treat overactive responses to stress is to exploit the body's inherent stress-inhibitory mechanisms. Stress responses are known to differ between individuals depending upon their level and distribution of adiposity and their experiences in early life. For instance, we have recently shown that female rats made obese by overfeeding during the neonatal period have exacerbated responses to psychological stress. The converse may be true for those that are underfed during this period. In this investigation we hypothesized that rats made lean by neonatal underfeeding would have reduced anxiety and attenuated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses to psychological stress. Our findings show that male (but not female) rats, made smaller by being suckled in a large litter, show reduced anxiety-related behaviour compared with those from normal litters when tested in the elevated plus maze. These smaller males also have attenuated activation of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus in response to the psychological stress, restraint, and corticosterone responses to restraint that return more quickly to baseline than controls. These findings are exciting from the perspective of understanding and potentially exploiting the body's inherent stress-inhibitory mechanisms to treat overactive responses to stress. They also provide an indication that being lean may be able to ameliorate overactive stress responses. Understanding the mechanisms by which these stress responses are attenuated in lean animals will be important for future strategies to treat diseases associated with overactive HPA axes in humans. PMID:21349647

  5. Isolation rearing attenuates social interaction-induced expression of immediate early gene protein products in the medial prefrontal cortex of male and female rats

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Vanessa L.; Fischer, Eva K.; Bland, Sondra T.

    2013-01-01

    Early life adversity and stress in humans has been related to a number of psychological disorders including anxiety, depression, and addiction. The present study used isolation rearing, a well-characterized animal model of early life adversity, to examine its effects on social behavior and immediate early gene (IEG) expression produced by exposure to a novel social experience. Male and female rats were housed in same-sex groups or in isolation for 4 weeks beginning at weaning and were tested during late adolescence. The protein products of the IEGs c-fos and Arc, as well as the neurotrophic factor BDNF were assessed in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) subregions (anterior cingulate, prelimbic and infralimbic) using immunohistochemistry. Aggressive and non-aggressive behaviors during novel social exposure were also assessed. Exposure to a novel conspecific produced increases in Arc and c-fos activation in the mPFC of group reared animals in a sex- and subregion-dependent fashion compared to no social exposure controls, but this increase was blunted or absent in isolated animals. Isolates engaged in more social interactions and more aggressive behavior than group reared rats. Sex differences in some behaviors as well as in Arc and BDNF expression were observed. These results indicate that isolation rearing alters IEG activation in the mPFC produced by exposure to a novel conspecific, in addition to changing social behavior, and that these effects depend in part on sex. PMID:22982514

  6. Effects of cocaine combined with a social cue on conditioned place preference and nucleus accumbens monoamines after isolation rearing in rats

    PubMed Central

    Grotewold, Susan K.; Wall, Vanessa L.; Goodell, Dayton J.; Hayter, Cassandra

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Social interaction during drug exposure can potentiate cocaine reward. Isolation rearing (ISO) during adolescence increases social interaction and may amplify this potentiation. Objectives The objectives of this study are to determine whether ISO alters conditioned place preference (CPP) for cocaine when combined with a social cue and to determine whether ISO alters the effects of cocaine when combined with social cue on nucleus accumbens shell (NAcS) dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT). Methods Male and female rats were either ISO or group (GRP) reared for 4 weeks during adolescence. CPP was performed using a low dose of cocaine (2 mg/kg or saline) with or without exposure to a novel same-sex conspecific during conditioning. In vivo microdialysis was performed using the same parameters. Results ISO rats engaged in more social and aggressive behaviors during conditioning relative to GRP. Cocaine reduced social and aggressive behaviors in all rats. CPP was not influenced by rearing condition. Cocaine produced significant CPP, and a social cue produced CPP only in males. In contrast, the interaction of cocaine and a social cue on NAcS DA and 5-HT differed depending upon rearing condition. In isolates, cocaine-induced DA was attenuated, while cocaine plus a social cue produced potentiated DA and 5-HT. Conclusions Exposure to a low dose of cocaine in the presence of a social cue produced additive effects on CPP while producing synergistic effects on DA and 5-HT in the NAcS of ISO rats. The aversive effects of this compound stimulus may negate the rewarding effects in isolates. PMID:24553577

  7. The effects of radio-frequency lesions of the nucleus accumbens on d-amphetamine-induced locomotor and rearing behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Kehne, J H; Sant, W W; Sorenson, C A

    1981-01-01

    A large body of evidence supports the conclusion that mesolimbic dopaminergic neurons, particularly those that innervate the nucleus accumbens (n. ACC), are important for the expression of amphetamine-stimulated locomotor behavior (ASLB). However, a contradictory report (Wirtshafter et al. 1978), stating that bilateral lesions of the n. ACC fail to block ASLB, was based on a general measure of activity that did not distinguish between locomotion and rearing. In the present study, observer ratings of videotaped responses were used to determine the separate effects of 2.0 mg/kg d-amphetamine (d-AMP) on locomotion and rearing in rats with either sham or radio-frequency lesions of the n. ACC. The n.ACC lesions blocked the locomotor stimulation, but not the increased rearing that follows d-AMP administration. These results support the general conclusion that dopaminergic terminals in the n. ACC are important for the expression of ASLB, and further suggest that d-AMP-stimulated locomotion and rearing are mediated through different neural substrates. PMID:6803281

  8. Postnatal changes of plasma amino acids in suckling pigs.

    PubMed

    Flynn, N E; Knabe, D A; Mallick, B K; Wu, G

    2000-09-01

    Amino acids, ammonia, urea, orotate, and nitrate plus nitrite (stable oxidation products of nitric oxide) were determined in plasma of 1- to 21-d-old suckling pigs. Jugular venous blood samples were obtained from pigs at 1, 3, 7, 14, and 21 d of age for analysis of plasma amino acids and metabolites by HPLC and enzymatic methods. Plasma concentrations of arginine and its immediate precursors (citrulline and ornithine) decreased (P < 0.01) progressively (20 to 41%) with increasing age from 3 to 14 d. Plasma concentrations of glutamine declined (P < 0.01) progressively (10 to 31%) during the 1st wk of life. Plasma concentrations of branched-chain amino acids, threonine, and alanine decreased (P < 0.01) (5 to 12%) in 14- and 21-d-old pigs, compared with 1- and 3-d-old pigs. There were no postnatal changes (P > 0.05) in plasma concentrations of other amino acids. Plasma concentrations of ammonia increased (P < 0.01) by 18 and 46%, whereas those of nitrate plus nitrite decreased (P < 0.01) by 16 and 29%, in 7- and 14-d-old pigs, respectively, compared with 1- to 3-d-old pigs. Because arginine plays a crucial role in ammonia detoxification via the hepatic urea cycle and is the physiological substrate for nitric oxide synthesis, our results of the decreased plasma concentrations of arginine and nitrate plus nitrite, as well as the increased plasma ammonia concentration, indicate a hitherto unrecognized deficiency of arginine in 7- to 21-d-old suckling pigs. Arginine is an essential amino acid for piglets and has a great potential to enhance neonatal growth; therefore, further studies are necessary to elucidate the mechanism responsible for arginine deficiency in sow-reared piglets and to identify hormonal and metabolic means for improving neonatal arginine nutrition and growth. PMID:10985412

  9. Effects of paraquat on parent generation female and F sub 1 suckling mice using different treatment regimes

    SciTech Connect

    Dial, C.A.B. ); Dial, N.A. )

    1989-07-01

    The herbicide paraquat (1,1{prime}-dimethyl-4,4{prime}-bipyridinium dichloride) is used extensively in commercial agriculture throughout the world. Paraquat has been found to affect reproductive success in bobwhite quail, rats, mice and frogs. Significant effects were found on parent (P) generation female, suckling and weanling mortality and lung tissue following administration of 125 mg/kg paraquat, in food, to pregnant mice then to the young to 49 days post partum. The current study was designed to ascertain paraquat effects on P females using different treatment regimes and to clarify the cause of suckling mortality. A series of cross-fostering experiments was performed to evaluate suckling mortality resulting from paraquat transfer via the placenta and via milk.

  10. Artificially reared mice exhibit anxiety-like behavior in adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Yasuda, Hidemi; Harauma, Akiko; Kato, Maki; Ootomo, Yuki; Hatanaka, Erisa; Moriguchi, Toru

    2016-01-01

    It is important to establish experimental animal techniques that are applicable to the newborn and infant phases for nutrition and pharmacological studies. Breeding technology using the artificial suckling method without breast milk is very effective for the study of newborn nutrition. Using this method, we separated newborn mice from dams within 48 h of birth and provided them with artificial milk. We evaluated mouse anxiety levels after early postnatal maternal separation. Artificially reared mice were subjected to elevated plus-maze tests to assess emotional behavior at 9 weeks of age. Artificially reared mice showed a significantly lower frequency of entries and dipping into the open arms of the maze compared with dam-reared mice. This result indicates that the anxiety level of artificially reared mice was higher than that of dam-reared mice. Moreover, the concentration of monoamines in the brain was determined after the behavioral experiment. The hippocampal norepinephrine, serotonin, and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels in the artificially reared mice were significantly higher than those of the dam-reared mice. These results suggest that maternal-offspring interactions are extremely important for the emotional development of newborn infants during the lactation period. In future studies, it is necessary to consider the environmental factors and conditions that minimize the influence of artificial rearing on emotional behavior. PMID:26948536

  11. Effects of neonatal (+)-methamphetamine on path integration and spatial learning in rats: effects of dose and rearing conditions.

    PubMed

    Vorhees, Charles V; Herring, Nicole R; Schaefer, Tori L; Grace, Curtis E; Skelton, Matthew R; Johnson, Holly L; Williams, Michael T

    2008-10-01

    Postnatal day (P)11-20 (+)-methamphetamine (MA) treatment impairs spatial learning and reference memory in the Morris water maze, but has marginal effects on learning in a labyrinthine maze. A subsequent experiment showed that MA treatment on P11-15, but not P16-20, is sufficient to induce Morris maze deficits. Here we tested the effects of P11-15 MA treatment under two different rearing conditions on Morris maze performance and path integration learning in the Cincinnati water maze in which distal cues were unavailable by using infrared illumination. Littermates were treated with 0, 10, 15, 20, or 25mg/kg MA x 4/day (2 h intervals). Half the litters were reared under standard housing conditions and half under partial enrichment by adding stainless steel enclosures. All MA groups showed impaired Cincinnati water maze performance with no significant effects of rearing condition. In the Morris maze, the MA-25 group showed impaired spatial acquisition, reversal, and small platform learning. Enrichment significantly improved Morris maze acquisition in all groups but did not interact with treatment. The male MA-25 group was also impaired on probe trial performance after acquisition and on small platform trials. A narrow window of MA treatment (P11-15) induces impaired path integration learning irrespective of dose within the range tested but impairments in spatial learning are dependent on dose. The results demonstrate that a narrower exposure window (5 days) changes the long-term effects of MA treatment compared to longer exposures (10 days). PMID:18502078

  12. Effects of neonatal (+)-methamphetamine on path integration and spatial learning in rats: Effects of dose and rearing conditions

    PubMed Central

    Vorhees, Charles V.; Herring, Nicole R.; Schaefer, Tori L.; Grace, Curtis E.; Skelton, Matthew R.; Johnson, Holly L.; Williams, Michael T.

    2008-01-01

    Postnatal day (P)11–20 (+)-methamphetamine (MA) treatment impairs spatial learning and reference memory in the Morris water maze, but has marginal effects on path integration learning in a labyrinthine maze. A subsequent experiment showed that MA treatment on P11–15, but not P16–20, is sufficient to induce Morris maze deficits. Here we tested the effects of P11–15 MA treatment under two different rearing conditions on Morris maze performance and path integration learning in the Cincinnati water maze in which distal cues were unavailable by using infrared illumination. Littermates were treated with 0, 10, 15, 20, or 25 mg/kg x 4 per day (2 h intervals). Half the litters were reared under standard housing conditions and half under partial enrichment by adding stainless steel enclosures. All MA groups showed impaired Cincinnati water maze performance with no significant effects of rearing condition. In the Morris maze, the MA-25 group showed impaired spatial acquisition, reversal, and small platform learning. Enrichment significantly improved Morris maze acquisition in all groups but did not interact with treatment. The male MA-25 group was also impaired on probe trial performance after acquisition and on small platform trials. A narrow window of MA treatment (P11–15) induces impaired path integration learning irrespective of dose within the range tested but impairments in spatial learning are dependent on dose. The results demonstrate that a narrower exposure window (5 days) changes the long-term effects of MA treatment compared to longer exposures (10 days). PMID:18502078

  13. Appropriateness of the small-cage-reared rat as a model for the study of altered-activity effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enoka, R. M.; Stuart, D. G.

    1984-01-01

    Within genetically imposed limits, the fatigue-resistance capability of muscle varies according to the chronic demands of usage imposed on the muscle. Given the fiber-type distribution within a muscle, its fatigue-resistance can be utilized as an indicant of its physiological status. It is suggested that the hindlimb musculature of rats raised in cages constructed to minimum DFA specifications are physiologically inappropriate for the study of altered-activity effects. This proposition is based upon two observations from the medial gastrocnemius muscle (n = 7) of Sprague-Dawley rats (500 g, 100 d); first, a substantial disparity in the peak forces (twitch and tetanic) elicited by neural and direct-muscle stimulation, and second, a reduction in force during the fatigue test (2 min of 1 Hz trains with each train lasting 330 ms and including 13 stimuli) that was greater (79%) than theoretically expected (62%). Both of these observations are critically assessed.

  14. Plasma protein profiles of neonatal pigs before and after suckling.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yanyun; Olson, Douglas J; Gordon, John R; Middleton, Dorothy M; Simko, Elemir

    2012-01-01

    Absorption of colostral proteins ingested by neonatal piglets within 24 to 36 h after birth is generally considered to be non-selective. Nevertheless, the transfer of colostral proteins, except immunoglubulins, from gut to bloodstream after natural suckling is still poorly characterized. The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes in 2-dimensional electrophoretic plasma protein profiles of neonatal piglets before and after suckling, in order to characterize the gastrointestinal absorption of colostral proteins into the neonatal bloodstream. As expected, the most significant change in plasma after suckling is the presence of a large amount of immunoglobulin. However, while the concentration of a few proteins was mildly increased in post-suckling plasma, the evidence of absorption of colostral non-immunoglobulin proteins by neonatal piglets was not detected in this study. PMID:22754088

  15. [Observations of the birth and suckling behavior of goats].

    PubMed

    Sambraus, H H; Wittmann, M

    1989-01-01

    50 goats of several breeds and crossbreeds as well as their kids were observed. The experiment involved 388 hours of observation over 62 days. The average duration of pregnancy was 151.2 days. In addition to physical characteristics and labored mobility, a tendency toward isolation and characteristic vocalization were noted. The period from onset of birth to the first delivery averaged less than 20 min. Subsequent to delivery the doe arose immediately, followed by the kid in an average of 21 min. Initial suckling by the kids occurred on average 42 min after birth. After an initially high frequency of suckling cycles, the cycle in the following weeks was reduced to 1 to 2 times an hour in the case of a single kid birth, while twins suckled more often. Out of 5,562 observations, only 1% were true cases of suckling from another doe. PMID:2617523

  16. Plasma protein profiles of neonatal pigs before and after suckling

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yanyun; Olson, Douglas J.; Gordon, John R.; Middleton, Dorothy M.; Simko, Elemir

    2012-01-01

    Absorption of colostral proteins ingested by neonatal piglets within 24 to 36 h after birth is generally considered to be non-selective. Nevertheless, the transfer of colostral proteins, except immunoglubulins, from gut to bloodstream after natural suckling is still poorly characterized. The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes in 2-dimensional electrophoretic plasma protein profiles of neonatal piglets before and after suckling, in order to characterize the gastrointestinal absorption of colostral proteins into the neonatal bloodstream. As expected, the most significant change in plasma after suckling is the presence of a large amount of immunoglobulin. However, while the concentration of a few proteins was mildly increased in post-suckling plasma, the evidence of absorption of colostral non-immunoglobulin proteins by neonatal piglets was not detected in this study. PMID:22754088

  17. Disruptions of sensorimotor gating, cytokines, glycemia, monoamines, and genes in both sexes of rats reared in social isolation can be ameliorated by oral chronic quetiapine administration.

    PubMed

    Ko, Chih-Yuan; Liu, Yia-Ping

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of schizophrenia in patients with metabolic abnormalities remains unclear. Our previous study demonstrated that isolation rearing (IR) induced longitudinal concomitant changes of pro-inflammatory cytokine (pro-CK) levels and metabolic abnormalities with a developmental origin. However, the general consensus, believes that these abnormalities are caused by antipsychotic treatment in schizophrenic patients. The IR paradigm presents with face, construct, and predictive validity for schizophrenia. Therefore, we employed IR rats of both sexes to examine whether chronic quetiapine (QTP, a second-generation antipsychotic medication) treatment induces disruptions of metabolism (body weight, blood pressure, and the glycemic and lipid profiles) or cytokines [interleukin (IL)-1 beta, IL-6, IL-10, interferon-gamma, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha], and further, whether it reverses deficits of behaviors [locomotor activity and prepulse inhibition (PPI)] and the expression of monoamines (dopamine and serotonin) and related genes (Htr1a, Htr2a, Htr3a, Drd1a, and Gabbr2). IR induced higher levels of pro-CK, dysglycemia, blood pressure, locomotor activity, and impaired PPI, simultaneously destabilizing cortico-striatal monoamines and relevant genes in both sexes, while QTP demonstrated dose-dependent reversal of these changes, suggesting that QTP might reduce the pro-CKs to regulate these abnormalities. Our data implied that antipsychotics may not be the solitary factor causing metabolic problems in schizophrenia and suggested that inflammatory changes may play a vital role in the developmental pathophysiology of schizophrenia and related metabolic abnormalities. PMID:26254231

  18. Divergent effects of isolation rearing on prepulse inhibition, activity, anxiety and hippocampal-dependent memory in Roman high- and low-avoidance rats: A putative model of schizophrenia-relevant features.

    PubMed

    Oliveras, Ignasi; Sánchez-González, Ana; Piludu, Maria Antonietta; Gerboles, Cristina; Río-Álamos, Cristóbal; Tobeña, Adolf; Fernández-Teruel, Alberto

    2016-11-01

    Social isolation of rats induces a constellation of behavioral alterations known as "isolation syndrome" that are consistent with some of the positive and cognitive symptoms observed in schizophrenic patients. In the present study we have assessed whether isolation rearing of inbred Roman high-avoidance (RHA-I) and Roman low-avoidance (RLA-I) strains can lead to the appearance of some of the key features of the "isolation syndrome", such as prepulse inhibition (PPI) deficits, increased anxious behavior, hyperactivity and memory/learning impairments. Compared to RLA-I rats, the results show that isolation rearing (IR) in RHA-I rats has a more profound impact, as they exhibit isolation-induced PPI deficits, increased anxiety, hyperactivity and long-term reference memory deficits, while isolated RLA-I rats only exhibit deficits in a spatial working memory task. These results give further support to the validity of RHA-I rats as a genetically-based model of schizophrenia relevant-symptoms. PMID:27478139

  19. The α2C-adrenoceptor antagonist, ORM-10921, has antipsychotic-like effects in social isolation reared rats and bolsters the response to haloperidol.

    PubMed

    Uys, Madeleine; Shahid, Mohammed; Sallinen, Jukka; Dreyer, Walter; Cockeran, Marike; Harvey, Brian H

    2016-11-01

    Early studies suggest that selective α2C-adrenoceptor (AR)-antagonism has anti-psychotic-like and pro-cognitive properties. However, this has not been demonstrated in an animal model of schizophrenia with a neurodevelopmental construct. The beneficial effects of clozapine in refractory schizophrenia and associated cognitive deficits have, among others, been associated with its α2C-AR modulating activity. Altered brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been linked to schizophrenia and cognitive deficits. We investigated whether the α2C-AR antagonist, ORM-10921, could modulate sensorimotor gating and cognitive deficits, as well as alter striatal BDNF levels in the social isolation reared (SIR) model of schizophrenia, comparing its effects to clozapine and the typical antipsychotic, haloperidol, the latter being devoid of α2C-AR-activity. Moreover, the ability of ORM-10921 to augment the effects of haloperidol on the above parameters was also investigated. Animals received subcutaneous injection of either ORM-10921 (0.01mg/kg), clozapine (5mg/kg), haloperidol (0.2mg/kg), haloperidol (0.2mg/kg)+ORM-10921 (0.01mg/kg) or vehicle once daily for 14days, followed by assessment of novel object recognition (NOR), prepulse inhibition (PPI) of startle response and striatal BDNF levels. SIR significantly attenuated NOR memory as well as PPI, and reduced striatal BDNF levels vs. social controls. Clozapine, ORM-10921 and haloperidol+ORM-10921, but not haloperidol alone, significantly improved SIR-associated deficits in PPI and NOR, with ORM-10921 also significantly improving PPI deficits vs. haloperidol-treated SIR animals. Haloperidol+ORM-10921 significantly reversed reduced striatal BDNF levels in SIR rats. α2C-AR-antagonism improves deficits in cognition and sensorimotor gating in a neurodevelopmental animal model of schizophrenia and bolsters the effects of a typical antipsychotic, supporting a therapeutic role for α2C-AR-antagonism in schizophrenia. PMID:27381554

  20. Milk glucosidase activity enables suckled pup starch digestion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starch requires six enzymes for digestion to free glucose: two amylases (salivary and pancreatic) and four mucosal maltase activities; sucrase-isomaltase and maltase-glucoamylase. All are deficient in suckling rodents. The objective of this study is to test (13)C-starch digestion before weaning by m...

  1. Influence of kid rearing systems on milk composition and yield of Murciano-Granadina dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Peris, S; Caja, G; Such, X; Casals, R; Ferret, A; Torre, C

    1997-12-01

    One-hundred eight lactations of Murciano-Granadina goats from different years were used to compare two kid rearing systems. Goats were separated into two groups: suckling and milking. Dams in the suckling group were milked once daily until kids were weaned (wk 0 to 7) and then were milked twice daily. Dams in the milking group were separated from their kids at 48 h after birth; then, kids were raised artificially, and goats were milked twice daily. Total milk yield was estimated according to the oxytocin method during suckling. Stage of lactation, parity, prolificacy, and year effects on milk yield and composition were also studied. As expected, during the first 7 wk of lactation, marketable milk was higher for dams that were milked than for dams that were suckled. Neither milk yield nor milk composition throughout the entire lactation was affected by group or prolificacy with the exception of the percentage of milk CP. The lactation curve peaked at wk 4 or 5 and declined slowly afterward. First parity goats had the lowest milk yield but the highest fat and protein percentages. Third parity goats had the highest milk yield. The separation of kids from their dams after birth did not affect total lactation performance because of the minimal importance of the neuroendocrine milk ejection reflex in goats compared with that of other ruminants. PMID:9436106

  2. Lactation and suckling behavior in the Iberian lynx.

    PubMed

    Yerga, Javier; Calzada, Javier; Manteca, Xavier; Herrera, Irene; Vargas, Astrid; Rivas, Antonio

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the behavior of endangered species is crucial to improve the management tools to breed animals in captivity and, thus, to increase the success of ex situ conservation programs. In this study, we monitored suckling behavior of 26 cubs born between 2008 and 2012 at "El Acebuche" Iberian Lynx Breeding Centre. The cubs devoted 251 ± 19.7 min (mean ± SE) to lactation on the day of birth, while mothers spent 426 ± 27 min (mean ± SE) nursing their offspring. The time cubs spent suckling decreased exponentially as they grown, until they were fully weaned at 65 ± 2.6 days. The onset of weaning (first intake of solid food) occurred at 54 ± 1.35 days (mean ± SE). Thus, the strict lactation period occupied most of the overall lactation period. Both suckling and maternal behavior were affected by litter size. In twins and triplets, the competition between siblings caused a decrease in the time spent suckling, in spite of the mothers spending more time nursing their young. Finally, no significant differences were found in time spent suckling between littermates or depending on the sex of the cub. Lactation appeared to play a key role in the nutrition of the Iberian lynx and should therefore be conveniently managed in captive breeding programs of this threatened species. Zoo Biol. 35:216-221, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27038075

  3. Oral MSG administration alters hepatic expression of genes for lipid and nitrogen metabolism in suckling piglets.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gang; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Yuzhe; Liao, Peng; Li, Tiejun; Chen, Lixiang; Yin, Yulong; Wang, Jinquan; Wu, Guoyao

    2014-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of oral administration of monosodium glutamate (MSG) on expression of genes for hepatic lipid and nitrogen metabolism in piglets. A total of 24 newborn pigs were assigned randomly into one of four treatments (n = 6/group). The doses of oral MSG administration, given at 8:00 and 18:00 to sow-reared piglets between 0 and 21 days of age, were 0 (control), 0.06 (low dose), 0.5 (intermediate dose), and 1 (high dose) g/kg body weight/day. At the end of the 3-week treatment, serum concentrations of total protein and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the intermediate dose group were elevated than those in the control group (P < 0.05). Hepatic mRNA levels for fatty acid synthase, acetyl-coA carboxylase, insulin-like growth factor-1, glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase, and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase were higher in the middle-dose group (P < 0.05), compared with the control group. MSG administration did not affect hepatic mRNA levels for hormone-sensitive lipase or carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1. We conclude that oral MSG administration alters hepatic expression of certain genes for lipid and nitrogen metabolism in suckling piglets. PMID:24221354

  4. Slip on the Suckling Hills splay fault during the 1964 Alaska earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, James B.; Elliott, Julie; Doser, Diane I.; Pavlis, Terry L.

    2014-12-01

    The Suckling Hills in southern Alaska experienced localized, anomalously large coseismic uplift in the Mw 9.2, 1964 Alaska earthquake. Large uplift at the Suckling Hills can be explained by increased slip, or an asperity, on the Alaska-Aleutian megathrust; however, this paper suggests that increased uplift may be a result of slip on the Suckling Hills splay fault. We present a series of models that demonstrate how the inclusion of the Suckling Hills fault improves the fit between modeled vertical displacement and measured coseismic uplift in comparison to slip on the Alaska-Aleutian megathrust alone. Our results suggest that ~ 3 m of average slip on the Suckling Hills fault during the 1964 earthquake can help explain the large coseismic uplift data. These results are consistent with recent studies indicating Pleistocene slip on the Suckling Hills fault and together highlight the potential seismic and tsunami risk associated with this segment of the Alaskan subduction complex.

  5. Reproductive response to suckling manipulation in Spanish goats.

    PubMed

    Lawson, J L; Forrest, D W; Shelton, M

    1984-05-01

    One hundred and fifty-six Spanish does were used to evaluate the effect of suckling manipulation on postpartum breeding. Does were divided into four herds dependent upon their kidding dates (range from October to January) and location. All kids were nursed ad libitum for approximately 30 days following birth. Groups were then subdivided, and does with kids were randomly allotted to one of the following treatment groups: 1) continuous suckling (CS), 2) once-daily suckling (ODS) or 3) early weaning (EW). Nonlactating does (NL) which lost a kid or aborted were also evaluated for rebreeding performance. At least one fertile male equipped with a marking harness was placed with each treatment group for estrus detection. After 30 days, ODS kids were returned to their dams. The proportion of does exhibiting estrus within 60 days postpartum was greater for ODS and EW does compared to CS does (P<0.05 and P<0.001, respectively). Postpartum interval to first estrus was shorter (P<0.05) for ODS does than for CS does (41.7 and 48.0 days, respectively). The percentage of does conceiving within 60 days postpartum was 25.0, 44.7, 74.4 and 70.7% for CS, ODS, EW and NL does, respectively. The interval from parturition to conception was shorter (P<0.05) for ODS does (43.6 days) than for CS does (50.4 days). Overall kid production was 1.87 kids/doe/year. These results indicate that reducing the suckling stimulus in Spanish does during the breeding season may result in an earlier return to estrus with a greater percentage of does rebreeding within 60 days postpartum. PMID:16725923

  6. Testing the spatial- versus object-learning distinction: water-maze performance of male rats exposed to ethanol during the brain growth spurt.

    PubMed

    Girard, Todd A; Wainwright, Patricia E

    2002-08-21

    This study investigated the effects of exposure to ethanol during the brain growth spurt on a visual-discrimination (VD) and a place-learning task (PL) using intra-maze cues in the water maze. Artificially reared male Long-Evans rats were exposed to ethanol (ET) in a binge pattern from postnatal days 6-9 (6.5 g kg(-1) x day(-1); BAC approximately 330 mg/dl) or an isocaloric maltose-dextrin solution (gastrostomy control). A third suckled control group was reared by lactating dams. In experiment 1, rats were trained to discriminate horizontal- (H) versus vertical-striped (V) cues, with the positive cue providing escape from water. Groups did not differ with V+, but ET rats made more errors with H+. In experiment 2, the ET group was impaired in learning the spatial location of a submerged platform relative to intra-maze cues. In both tasks, acquisition deficits among ET rats were characterized by impairment emerging at trial 2, with intact reference memory on trial 1, and the ET group reached a comparable level of performance to controls by the end of training. In summary, because impairment was related to task characteristics, a clear distinction between impaired spatial- versus cue-based learning was not supported. However, these findings do support an effect of exposure to ethanol during the brain growth spurt on recent event, but not reference, memory. PMID:12191836

  7. Milk processing quality of suckled/milked goats: effects of milk accumulation interval and milking regime.

    PubMed

    Högberg, M; Dahlborn, K; Hydbring-Sandberg, E; Hartmann, E; Andrén, A

    2016-05-01

    Milk with a high concentration of fat and casein is required for cheese production, and these components have a major impact for both quality and yield of the curd. Recent observations have shown that suckling can elevate milk fat concentration in goats and our aim was therefore to check the hypothesis that animal welfare and cheese-processing properties of goat milk could be optimised by appropriate management of suckled/milked goats. Twelve Swedish dairy goats were kept together with one kid each in 4 different mixed management-systems (milking combined with partial suckling) in a cross-over design. Two milk accumulation intervals were tested; Short = dams and kids were together for 16 h (T16) and Long = ; dams and kids were together for 8 h (T8 h). In addition, two milking regimes were used; Suckled Before Milking = S and Milked Before Suckling = M. Milk accumulation interval referred to how long dams and kids were separated. The milk yield available for processing (milk offtake), was weighed and analysed from each milking occasion and the suckled milk yield was estimated by a weigh-suckle-weigh method (WSW) in combination with observing the suckling behaviour during the free suckling periods. Milking managements, such as 'suckling before milking (S)', increased milk fat concentration compared to milking before suckling (M) and 'Short accumulation treatments (T16)' gave higher milk fat, casein concentration and individual curd yield (%) compared to the 'Long accumulation treatment (T8)'. The total individual curd yield (g) was the same despite treatment, but the animal welfare was most likely higher in T16 where dams and kids spent more time together. PMID:27056664

  8. The effects of formula feeding on physiological and immunological parameters in the gut of neonatal rats.

    PubMed

    Tooley, K L; Howarth, G S; Butler, R N; Lymn, K A; Penttila, I A

    2009-07-01

    A unique model of formula feeding in the neonatal rat was utilized to investigate the effects of an enterally delivered artificial milk formula on clinically relevant immunological and biological characteristics in the gut, compared to naturally reared pups. Hooded Wistar rat pups were randomly allocated to two treatment groups: formula-fed (FF) or naturally suckled (NS). A flexible silastic intra-gastric cannula was surgically implanted into the FF pups, through which an artificial rat milk supplement was continuously delivered from day 4 to day 10 of life. Rat pups were sacrificed at 10 days of age. Body weight, small intestinal weight, mucosal CD8(+) cell numbers, and ileal lactase activity in FF animals were significantly decreased compared to their NS counterparts (P < 0.05). Numbers of eosinophils, mucosal mast cells, CD4(+) T-cells, ileal villus height and gastric emptying times were significantly increased in FF pups (P < 0.05). We have developed a new rat model of artificial feeding which possesses important immunological and biological similarities to the premature human infant. PMID:18975079

  9. The Adenosine A2A Receptor Agonist, CGS-21680, Blocks Excessive Rearing, Acquisition of Wheel Running, and Increases Nucleus Accumbens CREB Phosphorylation in Chronically Food-Restricted Rats

    PubMed Central

    de Vaca, Soledad Cabeza; Kannan, Pavitra; Pan, Yan; Jiang, Nancy; Sun, Yanjie; Carr, Kenneth D.

    2007-01-01

    Adenosine A2A receptors are preferentially expressed in rat striatum, where they are concentrated in dendritic spines of striatopallidal medium spiny neurons and exist in a heteromeric complex with D2 dopamine (DA) receptors. Behavioral and biochemical studies indicate an antagonistic relationship between A2A and D2 receptors. Previous studies have demonstrated that food-restricted (FR) rats display behavioral and striatal cellular hypersensitivity to D1 and D2 DA receptor stimulation. These alterations may underlie adaptive, as well as maladaptive, behaviors characteristic of the FR rat. The present study examined whether FR rats are hypersensitive to the A2A receptor agonist, CGS-21680. In Experiment 1, spontaneous horizontal motor activity did not differ between FR and ad libitum fed (AL) rats, while vertical activity was greater in the former. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of CGS-21680 (0.25 and 1.0 nmol) decreased both types of motor activity in FR rats, and returned vertical activity levels to those observed in AL rats. In Experiment 2, FR rats given access to a running wheel for a brief period outside of the home cage rapidly acquired wheel running while AL rats did not. Pretreatment with CGS-21680 (1.0 nmol) blocked the acquisition of wheel running. When administered to FR subjects that had previously acquired wheel running, CGS-21680 suppressed the behavior. In Experiment 3, CGS-21680 (1.0 nmol) activated both ERK 1/2 and CREB in caudate-putamen with no difference between feeding groups. However, in nucleus accumbens (NAc), CGS-21680 failed to activate ERK 1/2 and selectively activated CREB in FR rats. These results indicate that FR subjects are hypersensitive to several effects of an adenosine A2A agonist, and suggest the involvement of an upregulated A2A receptor-linked signaling pathway in NAc. Medications targeting the A2A receptor may have utility in the treatment of maladaptive behaviors associated with FR, including substance abuse

  10. 43. FIRST FLOOR, REAR HALL: REAR HALLWAY BEHIND CURVED STAIRS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. FIRST FLOOR, REAR HALL: REAR HALLWAY BEHIND CURVED STAIRS LOOKING NORTH TO 19TH CENTURY ADDITION. Arch defines north wall of original house. - George A. Trenholm Mansion, 172 Rutledge Avenue, Charleston, Charleston County, SC

  11. DETAIL OF REAR COURTYARD. SHOWING DOUBLE DOORS AT REAR ENTRY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF REAR COURTYARD. SHOWING DOUBLE DOORS AT REAR ENTRY TO SITTING ROOM. VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST. - Hickam Field, Fort Kamehameha Officers' Housing Type Z, 19 Worchester Avenue, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  12. FACILITY 710, NORTHWEST AND REAR SIDES, SHOWING WINGS IN REAR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACILITY 710, NORTHWEST AND REAR SIDES, SHOWING WINGS IN REAR, OBLIQUE VIEW FACING EAST-NORTHEAST. - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Corner-Entry Single-Family Housing Type, Between Bragg & Grime Streets near Williston Avenue, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  13. Effects of different sources of fat (calcium soap of palm oil vs. extruded linseed) in lactating ewes' diet on the fatty acid profile of their suckling lambs.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Cortés, P; Gallardo, B; Mantecón, A R; Juárez, M; de la Fuente, M A; Manso, T

    2014-03-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplementing lactating ewe diets with extruded linseed on the fatty acid (FA) composition of intramuscular and subcutaneous fat depots of suckling lambs. Twenty-four pregnant Churra ewes were divided into two groups based on the milk production, age, body weight and parity, and assigned to one of two treatments. Each ewe of the Control treatment was supplemented with 70 g/day of FAs from a calcium soap of palm oil, while the other treatment group (Lin) was supplemented with 128 g/day of extruded linseed. All lambs were reared exclusively on milk and were slaughtered when they reached 11 kg live weight. FA profiles of ewe milk, lamb meat and subcutaneous adipose tissue were determined by GC. Lamb performance was not affected by the treatments. Muscle fat and adipose tissue from the Lin treatment showed higher proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The percentages of α-linolenic (C18:3 n-3), docosahexaenoic (C22:6 n-3), vaccenic (trans-11 C18:1) and rumenic (cis-9, trans-11 C18:2) acids in both fat depots were higher in Lin than in Control suckling lambs. Furthermore, meat fat from Lin carcasses displayed a lower n-6/n-3 ratio than Control samples. Intramuscular depots clearly showed a greater content of PUFA, including cis-9, trans-11 C18:2, and a lower n-6/n-3 ratio than subcutaneous fat. The results from this study demonstrate that dietary extruded linseed supplementation of lactating ewes enhances the nutritional quality of suckling lamb fat depots such as intramuscular and subcutaneous fats. PMID:24334053

  14. Toward Communal Child Rearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sands, Rosalind M.

    1973-01-01

    Social work's preoccupation with the preservation of the nuclear family has blinded it to the necessity of finding new ways to care for children. This myopia has impeded recognition of the forces in American life that are bringing social change and new forms of child rearing. This article describes some of these phenomena and concludes that…

  15. Single Fathers Rearing Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greif, Geoffrey L.

    1985-01-01

    Describes single fathers rearing children alone following divorce (N=1,136). Findings revealed four primary reasons for the divorce and four broad situations in which the fathers obtained custody. These latter situations often are affected by the mother's desire to relinquish custody. (NRB)

  16. Hormone release and behavior during suckling and milking in Gir, Gir x Holstein, and Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Negrão, J A

    2008-03-01

    There are several different milking management systems in Latin America, because Gir cattle are reputed to be easily stressed and not well adapted to machine-milking. This paper, therefore, provides an overview of hormone release and behavior during suckling and milking in Gir cows and their cross-bred offspring. Several experiments were performed to study oxytocin release during exclusive suckling or exclusive hand- and machine-milking, oxytocin, and prolactin release during a mixed suckling-milking system and oxytocin release after weaning. Cortisol concentrations and behavior were also examined. Concentration of oxytocin, released during suckling, and both types of milking were high, but the maximum concentration measured during suckling was significantly greater than that observed during exclusive milking. In the mixed suckling-milking system, the greatest oxytocin and prolactin releases were measured during suckling. Cortisol concentrations measured before, during, and after milking demonstrated that Gir x Holstein and Holstein cows were not stressed. On the other hand, although Gir had greater concentrations of cortisol, the percentage of residual milk for Gir cows was less than for dairy cows exposed to different stressful situations. In general, Gir cows and their crossbred offspring adapted to machine-milking, although these breeds can react negatively to milkers. Gir, Gir x Holstein, and Holstein cows all had similar cortisol levels during and after milking. PMID:17878278

  17. Occurrence of Isospora suis in larger piglet production units and on specialized piglet rearing farms.

    PubMed

    Meyer, C; Joachim, A; Daugschies, A

    1999-05-01

    Mixed fecal samples of 264 litters from five piglet production farms (155-238 sows/farm) were investigated three times during the suckling period for the occurrence of Isospora suis over the period of 1 year. On all five farms Isopora suis was found to be a common endoparasite with infection rates being highest in litters of 3-4 weeks of age. By the end of the third investigation period the cumulative infection rate was 53.8% of the litters ranging from 20.0% to 81.5% for the single farms. During the suckling period the infection rate increased from 18.6% to 32.6% and then to 37.7%. Diarrhea was present in 66.3% of the sampled litters with the highest rates at the end of the suckling period. 63.4% of the litters which showed diarrhea and 34.8% of those without diarrhea excreted I. suis within the study period. Diarrhea was recorded for 78.2% of the I. suis-positive litters and for 52.5% of the Isospora-negative litters. In summer and fall the occurrence of I. suis was higher (66.3% and 61.0%, respectively) than in spring and winter (47.7% and 37.9%, respectively). In litters with diarrhea and pathogenic E. coli I. suis often occurred simultaneously. Above-average hygiene measures and mainly perforated pen floors seemed to lower the risk of isosporosis. With the exception of Strongyloides ransomi other parasites were not found in the fecal samples of suckling piglets. Two specialized piglet rearing farms, a conventional large-scale rearing unit and a farm managed according to the segregated early weaning (SEW) system were examined three times during the 6-7 week rearing period. In both units I. suis was common, but was not correlated with diarrhea. In the SEW unit the infection rates decreased from 37.5% to 20.2% and to 4.1%, while the infection rate in the conventional unit slightly increased from the first (17.2%) to the second (21.9%) investigation and stayed at this level at the third sampling. PMID:10384903

  18. Immunofluorescence studies of disseminated Hantaan virus infection of suckling mice.

    PubMed Central

    Kurata, T; Tsai, T F; Bauer, S P; McCormick, J B

    1983-01-01

    Hantaan virus, the etiological agent of Korean hemorrhagic fever, was inoculated intracerebrally or intraperitoneally into suckling mice, and the course of the infection was followed by infectivity titration and immunofluorescence studies. Mice became ill and were moribund by 13 to 14 days postinfection. In mice inoculated either intracerebrally or intraperitoneally, virus antigen was present in brain, heart, lungs, liver, and kidney. Less consistently, specific fluorescence was observed in spleen, pituitary gland, thymus, lymph nodes, adrenal, pancreas, salivary glands, trigeminal ganglia, adipose tissue, intestine, and muscle. In all of these tissues, the primary target of infection was the capillary endothelium. In mice inoculated intracerebrally, virus antigen was present mainly in choroid plexus, hippocampal nuclei, and meninges, but in mice inoculated intraperitoneally, central nervous system infection was marked by antigen accumulation in cortical nuclei and thalamus. Images PMID:6134678

  19. Pathfinder Rear Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Mars Pathfinder's rear rover ramp can be seen successfully unfurled in this image, taken at the end of Sol 2 by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP). This ramp was later used for the deployment of the microrover Sojourner, which occurred at the end of Sol 2. Areas of a lander petal and deflated airbag are visible at left. The image helped Pathfinder scientists determine that the rear ramp was the one to use for rover deployment. At upper right is the rock dubbed 'Barnacle Bill,' which Sojourner will later study.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

  20. Rear leit observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, P.; Ferguson, A. J. L.; Walmsley, D. G.

    1982-11-01

    We have observed light emission from the rear of CaF 2-roughened Al-I-Au tunnel sandwiches. Like the forward emitted light, its spectral intensity shows a sharp drop at energies > 2.5 eV. We interpret the results in terms of both emissions being mediated by a common surface or interface plasmon; the plasmon is damped above 2.5 eV by excitation of an interband transition in Au.

  1. Alcohol-induced Purkinje cell loss with a single binge exposure in neonatal rats: a stereological study of temporal windows of vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Goodlett, C R; Eilers, A T

    1997-06-01

    Previous research has shown that the early neonatal period of rats is one of enhanced vulnerability to cerebellar Purkinje cell loss associated with binge-like alcohol exposure, with a prominent sensitive period during the first neonatal week. In this study, an unbiased count of the total number of Purkinje cells was obtained using the stereological optical fractionator, in groups of rats given a single binge-like alcohol exposure either during the most vulnerable neonatal period [postnatal day (PD) 4] or during a later, less vulnerable period (PD 9). Using artificial rearing methods, rats were given 6.6 g/kg of alcohol either on PD 4 or on PD 9, delivered as a 15% (v/v) solution in milk formula on two consecutive feedings of the designated day. Control groups included an artificially reared gastrostomy control and a normally reared suckle control. The mean peak blood alcohol concentrations were not different between the PD 4 and PD 9 alcohol groups, averaging 374 and 347 mg/dl, respectively. The rats were perfused on PD 27. A uniform random sample of sections was obtained from serial frozen sections through the cerebellum, stained with thionin, and Purkinje cells were counted from a uniform random sample of locations on each section with the three-dimensional optical fractionator. The number of Purkinje cells in the suckle control and gastrostomy control groups did not differ from each other, averaging 3.94 (+/- 0.19) and 3.58 (+/- 0.22) x 10(5) cells, respectively. Binge exposure on PD 4 induced significant cell loss (mean of 2.05 +/- 0.20 x (10(5) Purkinje cells), whereas binge exposure on PD 9 did not induce significant Purkinje cell loss (3.70 +/- 0.39 x 10(5) Purkinje cells). These findings confirm that a single neonatal binge alcohol exposure produces pathological Purkinje cell loss, provided that it occurs during the period of enhanced vulnerability coinciding with the early stages of dendritic outgrowth. PMID:9194933

  2. Artificial suckling in Martina Franca donkey foals: effect on in vivo performances and carcass composition.

    PubMed

    De Palo, Pasquale; Maggiolino, Aristide; Milella, Paola; Centoducati, Nicola; Papaleo, Alessandro; Tateo, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest on donkey milk production, on its characteristics, and also on breeding techniques. Donkey milk is characterized by high economic value, although the productive level of jennies is poor. During the milking process, foals are usually separated from their dams, allowing the milk collection in the mammary gland of jennies before milking session. This takes 8 h per day of fastening period for lactating donkey foals. During this period, it could be possible to apply a partial artificial suckling system (artificial suckling during daytime and natural suckling during the night). The aim of the work is the evaluation of the effect of this innovative technique on in vivo performances and on meat production traits of Martina Franca donkey foals. Forty Martina Franca jennies with their foals were used for the trial. After colostrum assumption, 20 foals were partially artificially suckled (AS) during each day, and 20 foals were naturally suckled (NS). From 8.00 to 20.00, both groups were separated from their mothers in order to allow the milking procedures of the jennies. The AS group was in a stall equipped with an automatic calf-suckling machine. For each group, 10 foals were slaughtered at 12 months and 10 foals at 18 months. Artificial suckling system positively affected the growth rate of donkey foals, particularly in the first 6 months from birth, with higher weekly weight gain (P < 0.01), higher final live weight (P < 0.001), and carcass weight (P < 0.01), but no effects were observed on carcass dressing percentage (P > 0.05). Artificial suckling system permitted to extend the time of foal separation from their mothers increasing milk collection time per day, awarding fastening periods in foals. PMID:26510946

  3. Providing supplementary milk to suckling dairy calves improves performance at separation and weaning.

    PubMed

    Johnsen, J F; Beaver, A; Mejdell, C M; Rushen, J; de Passillé, A M; Weary, D M

    2015-07-01

    Dam rearing can provide health and welfare benefits, but separation and weaning are major welfare challenges. We investigated whether access to an additional source of milk from an automatic milk feeder (AMF) would improve weight gains after separation and weaning. During the first 6wk of life (dam phase), calves were assigned to 1 of 3 treatments using a parallel group design with repeated measures: nursing (n=10) and combined (n=10) calves could suckle from their dams at night (between 2000 and 0800h), and combined calves also had access to 12 L of milk/d accessible 24h/d from an AMF. Milk feeder calves (n=10) also had access to an AMF 24h/d and were housed with the dam at night but were prevented from suckling by an udder net. Separation from the dam occurred after 6wk in 2 phases with decreasing contact between cow and calf: partial separation (duration 4d) and total separation (duration 3d). At separation, all calves were granted access to 12 L of milk 24h/d from the AMF until weaning began at 7wk of age. We hypothesized that access to an AMF during the dam phase would result in less weight loss at separation and weaning compared with calves that had been nutritionally dependent upon the cow (i.e., nursing calves). Calf weight gain during the dam phase averaged (±SD) 1.1±0.26kg/d and did not vary with treatment. Combined calves drank less milk from the AMF compared with milk feeder calves during the dam phase (mean ± SEM daily milk intake: 1.1±0.38 vs. 8.2±0.34 L/d) and tended to drink less during partial separation (6.7±1.28 vs. 9.8±1.02 L/d), but milk intake from the AMF did not differ between these treatments in the later phases. During the same phases, nursing calves consumed less milk from the AMF than the other treatments; of the 10 calves, 6 did not use the AMF (consuming <1.5 L/d) after the dam phase. After separation, nursing calves gained less weight than calves in both the milk feeder and combined treatments (0.8±0.16 vs. 1.2±0.08kg

  4. A preliminary study of age-related difference in resistance to sepsis in the rat model.

    PubMed

    Wei, C I; Gilliam, M C; Cohen, M D; Cornell, J A; Moazam, F

    1987-11-01

    Although the pathophysiology of intraabdominal sepsis is well established in the adult animal, there is a paucity of similar information in the newborn animal. Using the Wichterman (K.A. Wichterman, A.E. Baue, and I.H. Chaudry, Journal of Surgical Research 29: 189, 1980) model of intraabdominal sepsis, 42 Sprague-Dawley suckling rat pups and 42 adults underwent cecal ligation followed by a single needle puncture of the cecum. Whereas a mortality of 47.6% was noted in the adult animals, only 7.1% of the suckling animals succumbed by the end of 1 week. After the ip LD50 of Escherichia coli was determined independently in each age group, appropriate doses of the bacteria were injected into the peritoneums of 36 suckling and 30 adult rats. The peritoneal fluid was aspirated at 0, 2, 4, 8, 24, and 48 hr and the bacterial concentration in the suspension was determined. The rate of bacterial clearance from the peritoneum of the suckling rats was found to be significantly greater at 2, 4, and 8 hr as compared with the adult animal. In vitro assay of the phagocytic activity of the peritoneal macrophages demonstrated a significantly higher activity in the cells obtained from the suckling rats than in those from the adult (P less than 0.05). A more efficient bacterial clearance and a higher phagocytic activity in the peritoneal macrophages of the suckling rats may contribute to the difference in the mortality between the two age groups. PMID:3316844

  5. Dietary arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid regulate liver fatty acid desaturase (FADS) alternative transcript expression in suckling piglets.

    PubMed

    Wijendran, Vasuki; Downs, Ian; Srigley, Cynthia Tyburczy; Kothapalli, Kumar S D; Park, Woo Jung; Blank, Bryant S; Zimmer, J Paul; Butt, C M; Salem, Norman; Brenna, J Thomas

    2013-10-01

    Molecular regulation of fatty acid desaturase (Fads) gene expression by dietary arachidonic acid (ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) during early post-natal period, when the demand for long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) is very high, has not been well defined. The objective of the current study was to determine regulation of liver Fads1, Fads2 and Fads3 classical (CS) and alternative transcripts (AT) expression by dietary ARA and DHA, within the physiological range present in human breast milk, in suckling piglets. Piglets were fed one of six milk replacer formula diets (formula-reared groups, FR) with varying ARA and DHA content from days 3-28 of age. The ARA/DHA levels of the six formula diets were as follows (% total fatty acid, FA/FA): (A1) 0.1/1.0; (A2) 0.53/1.0; (A3-D3) 0.69/1.0; (A4) 1.1/1.0; (D2) 0.67/0.62; and (D1) 0.66/0.33. The control maternal-reared (MR) group remained with the dam. Fads1 expression was not significantly different between FR and MR groups. Fads2 expression was down-regulated significantly in diets with 1:1 ratio of ARA:DHA, compared to MR. Fads2 AT1 expression was highly correlated to Fads2 expression. Fads3 AT7 was the only Fads3 transcript sensitive to dietary LC-PUFA intake and was up-regulated in the formula diets with lowest ARA and DHA contents compared to MR. Thus, the present study provides evidence that the proportion of dietary ARA:DHA is a significant determinant of Fads2 expression and LC-PUFA metabolism during the early postnatal period. Further, the data suggest that Fads3 AT7 may have functional significance when dietary supply of ARA and DHA are low during early development. PMID:24075244

  6. Cardiovascular, endocrine and behavioural responses to suckling and permanent separation in goats

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Suckling can be a peaceful or vulnerable event for goats and kids, whereas, separation is suggested as stressful. The aim of this study was to investigate physiology and behaviour in these two different situations in dairy goats. Methods Four studies were performed with seven goats kept with their first-born kid in individual boxes. The goats were videotaped and heart rate and arterial blood pressure were recorded every minute by telemetry from parturition until 24 hours after separation. One to two days after parturition, Study 1 was performed with analyses of heart rate and blood pressure around a suckling. In Study 2, performed 3-5 days after parturition, blood sampling was done before, during and after suckling. Study 3 was performed 4-6 days post partum, with blood sampling before and after a permanent goat and kid separation. In addition, vocalisations were recorded after separation. Blood samples were obtained from a jugular vein catheter and analysed for plasma cortisol, β-endorphin, oxytocin, and vasopressin concentrations. Study 4 was performed during the first (N1) and second nights (N2) after parturition and the nights after Study 2 (N3) and 3 (N4). Heart rate, blood pressure and time spent lying down were recorded. Results The kids suckled 2 ± 0.2 times per hour and each suckling bout lasted 43 ± 15 s. In Study 1, heart rate and blood pressure did not change significantly during undisturbed suckling. In Study 2, plasma cortisol (P ≤ 0.05 during suckling and P ≤ 0.01 five minutes after suckling) and β-endorphin (P ≤ 0.05) concentrations increased during suckling, but oxytocin and vasopressin concentrations did not change. In Study 3, the goats and kids vocalised intensively during the first 20 minutes after separation, but the physiological variables were not affected. In Study 4, heart rate and arterial blood pressure declined gradually after parturition and were lowest during N4 (P ≤ 0.05) when the goats spent longer time lying

  7. Maternal Transfer of the Cyanobacterial Neurotoxin β-N-Methylamino-L-Alanine (BMAA) via Milk to Suckling Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Marie; Karlsson, Oskar; Bergström, Ulrika; Brittebo, Eva B.; Brandt, Ingvar

    2013-01-01

    The cyanobacterial neurotoxin β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) has been implicated in the etiology of neurodegenerative disease and proposed to be biomagnified in terrestrial and aquatic food chains. We have previously shown that the neonatal period in rats, which in humans corresponds to the last trimester of pregnancy and the first few years of age, is a particularly sensitive period for exposure to BMAA. The present study aimed to examine the secretion of 14C-labeled L- and D-BMAA into milk in lactating mice and the subsequent transfer of BMAA into the developing brain. The results suggest that secretion into milk is an important elimination pathway of BMAA in lactating mothers and an efficient exposure route predominantly for L-BMAA but also for D-BMAA in suckling mice. Following secretion of [14C]L-BMAA into milk, the levels of [14C]L-BMAA in the brains of the suckling neonatal mice significantly exceeded the levels in the maternal brains. In vitro studies using the mouse mammary epithelial HC11 cell line confirmed a more efficient influx and efflux of L-BMAA than of D-BMAA in cells, suggesting enantiomer-selective transport. Competition experiments with other amino acids and a low sodium dependency of the influx suggests that the amino acid transporters LAT1 and LAT2 are involved in the transport of L-BMAA into milk. Given the persistent neurodevelopmental toxicity following injection of L-BMAA to neonatal rodent pups, the current results highlight the need to determine whether BMAA is enriched mother's and cow's milk. PMID:24194910

  8. Maternal transfer of the cyanobacterial neurotoxin β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) via milk to suckling offspring.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Marie; Karlsson, Oskar; Bergström, Ulrika; Brittebo, Eva B; Brandt, Ingvar

    2013-01-01

    The cyanobacterial neurotoxin β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) has been implicated in the etiology of neurodegenerative disease and proposed to be biomagnified in terrestrial and aquatic food chains. We have previously shown that the neonatal period in rats, which in humans corresponds to the last trimester of pregnancy and the first few years of age, is a particularly sensitive period for exposure to BMAA. The present study aimed to examine the secretion of (14)C-labeled L- and D-BMAA into milk in lactating mice and the subsequent transfer of BMAA into the developing brain. The results suggest that secretion into milk is an important elimination pathway of BMAA in lactating mothers and an efficient exposure route predominantly for L-BMAA but also for D-BMAA in suckling mice. Following secretion of [(14)C]L-BMAA into milk, the levels of [(14)C]L-BMAA in the brains of the suckling neonatal mice significantly exceeded the levels in the maternal brains. In vitro studies using the mouse mammary epithelial HC11 cell line confirmed a more efficient influx and efflux of L-BMAA than of D-BMAA in cells, suggesting enantiomer-selective transport. Competition experiments with other amino acids and a low sodium dependency of the influx suggests that the amino acid transporters LAT1 and LAT2 are involved in the transport of L-BMAA into milk. Given the persistent neurodevelopmental toxicity following injection of L-BMAA to neonatal rodent pups, the current results highlight the need to determine whether BMAA is enriched mother's and cow's milk. PMID:24194910

  9. 5. SOUTH CORNERShowing rear and alley (southeastern) side; the rear ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. SOUTH CORNER--Showing rear and alley (southeastern) side; the rear of the building is obscured by the three-story hotel in the foreground. North - Empire Building, 430 Sixteenth Street, South Corner of Sixteenth Street & Glenarm Place, Denver, Denver County, CO

  10. 37. WEST REAR OF POWERHOUSE AND CAR BARN: West rear ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. WEST REAR OF POWERHOUSE AND CAR BARN: West rear of powerhouse and car barn, showing the turntable and tracks used to move cars in and out of the building's repair and storage area. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  11. VIEW OF SHADED REAR YARDS AND TERRACING, SHOWING REAR OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF SHADED REAR YARDS AND TERRACING, SHOWING REAR OF 527 BIRCH CIRCLE ON LEFT. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  12. Maternal supplementation of seaweed-derived polysaccharides improves intestinal health and immune status of suckling piglets.

    PubMed

    Heim, G; O'Doherty, J V; O'Shea, C J; Doyle, D N; Egan, A M; Thornton, K; Sweeney, T

    2015-01-01

    The experiment investigated the effect of maternal dietary supplementation of seaweed-derived polysaccharides (SDP) (-SDP v. +SDP, n   20) from day 83 of gestation until weaning (day 28) on selected sow faeces and piglet digesta microbiota populations, piglet small-intestinal morphology, and intestinal nutrient transporter and inflammatory cytokine gene expression at birth, 48 h after birth and weaning. The effect of maternal dietary treatment on the piglet gene expression profile of inflammatory cytokines in the colon following a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge was also investigated. Dietary SDP reduced sow faecal Enterobacteriaceae gene numbers at parturition. Small-intestinal morphology, nutrient transporter and cytokine gene expression in newborn piglets did not differ between maternal dietary treatments (P > 0·10). At 48 h after birth, sodium-glucose-linked transporter 1 gene expression was down-regulated in the ileum of piglets suckling the SDP-supplemented sows compared with those suckling the basal sows (P = 0·050). There was a SDP × LPS challenge interaction on IL-1 and IL-6 gene expression in the colon of piglets (P < 0·05). The gene expression of IL-1 and IL-6 was down-regulated in the LPS-challenged colon of piglets suckling the SDP sows compared with those suckling the basal sows (P < 0·05). However, there was no difference in IL-1 and IL-6 gene expression in the unchallenged colon between treatment groups. At weaning, piglets suckling the SDP-supplemented sows had increased villus height in the jejunum and ileum compared with those suckling the basal-fed sows (P < 0·05). In conclusion, maternal dietary SDP supplementation enhanced the immune response of suckling piglets and improved gut morphology, making them more immune competent to deal with post-weaning adversities. PMID:26495119

  13. Linking suckling biomechanics to the development of the palate

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jingtao; Johnson, Chelsey A.; Smith, Andrew A.; Hunter, Daniel J.; Singh, Gurpreet; Brunski, John B.; Helms, Jill A.

    2016-01-01

    Skulls are amongst the most informative documents of evolutionary history but a complex geometry, coupled with composite material properties and complicated biomechanics, have made it particularly challenging to identify mechanical principles guiding the skull’s morphogenesis. Despite this challenge, multiple lines of evidence, for example the relationship between masticatory function and the evolution of jaw shape, nonetheless suggest that mechanobiology plays a major role in skull morphogenesis. To begin to tackle this persistent challenge, cellular, molecular and tissue-level analyses of the developing mouse palate were coupled with finite element modeling to demonstrate that patterns of strain created by mammalian-specific oral behaviors produce complementary patterns of chondrogenic gene expression in an initially homogeneous population of cranial neural crest cells. Neural crest cells change from an osteogenic to a chondrogenic fate, leading to the materialization of cartilaginous growth plate-like structures in the palatal midline. These growth plates contribute to lateral expansion of the head but are transient structures; when the strain patterns associated with suckling dissipate at weaning, the growth plates disappear and the palate ossifies. Thus, mechanical cues such as strain appear to co-regulate cell fate specification and ultimately, help drive large-scale morphogenetic changes in head shape. PMID:26842915

  14. Linking suckling biomechanics to the development of the palate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jingtao; Johnson, Chelsey A.; Smith, Andrew A.; Hunter, Daniel J.; Singh, Gurpreet; Brunski, John B.; Helms, Jill A.

    2016-02-01

    Skulls are amongst the most informative documents of evolutionary history but a complex geometry, coupled with composite material properties and complicated biomechanics, have made it particularly challenging to identify mechanical principles guiding the skull’s morphogenesis. Despite this challenge, multiple lines of evidence, for example the relationship between masticatory function and the evolution of jaw shape, nonetheless suggest that mechanobiology plays a major role in skull morphogenesis. To begin to tackle this persistent challenge, cellular, molecular and tissue-level analyses of the developing mouse palate were coupled with finite element modeling to demonstrate that patterns of strain created by mammalian-specific oral behaviors produce complementary patterns of chondrogenic gene expression in an initially homogeneous population of cranial neural crest cells. Neural crest cells change from an osteogenic to a chondrogenic fate, leading to the materialization of cartilaginous growth plate-like structures in the palatal midline. These growth plates contribute to lateral expansion of the head but are transient structures; when the strain patterns associated with suckling dissipate at weaning, the growth plates disappear and the palate ossifies. Thus, mechanical cues such as strain appear to co-regulate cell fate specification and ultimately, help drive large-scale morphogenetic changes in head shape.

  15. Rearing insects on artificial diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insects are reared in the laboratory for various purposes. They may be reared either on their natural food or artificial diets. Developing artificial diets may be difficult and time consuming but once optimized, artificial diets usually are simple to prepare and easy to use. Because they are process...

  16. Two-step stimulation of intestinal Ca(2+) absorption during lactation by long-term prolactin exposure and suckling-induced prolactin surge.

    PubMed

    Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol; Nakkrasae, La-iad; Kraidith, Kamonshanok; Teerapornpuntakit, Jarinthorn; Thongchote, Kanogwun; Thongon, Narongrit; Krishnamra, Nateetip

    2009-09-01

    During pregnancy and lactation, the enhanced intestinal Ca(2+) absorption serves to provide Ca(2+) for fetal development and lactogenesis; however, the responsible hormone and its mechanisms remain elusive. We elucidated herein that prolactin (PRL) markedly stimulated the transcellular and paracellular Ca(2+) transport in the duodenum of pregnant and lactating rats as well as in Caco-2 monolayer in a two-step manner. Specifically, a long-term exposure to PRL in pregnancy and lactation induced an adaptation in duodenal cells at genomic levels by upregulating the expression of genes related to transcellular transport, e.g., TRPV5/6 and calbindin-D(9k), and the paracellular transport, e.g., claudin-3, thereby raising Ca(2+) absorption rate to a new "baseline" (Step 1). During suckling, PRL surge further increased Ca(2+) absorption to a higher level (Step 2) in a nongenomic manner to match Ca(2+) loss in milk. PRL-enhanced apical Ca(2+) uptake was responsible for the increased transcellular transport, whereas PRL-enhanced paracellular transport required claudin-15, which regulated epithelial cation selectivity and paracellular Ca(2+) movement. Such nongenomic PRL actions were mediated by phosphoinositide 3-kinase, protein kinase C, and RhoA-associated coiled-coil-forming kinase pathways. In conclusion, two-step stimulation of intestinal Ca(2+) absorption resulted from long-term PRL exposure, which upregulated Ca(2+) transporter genes to elevate the transport baseline, and the suckling-induced transient PRL surge, which further increased Ca(2+) transport to the maximal capacity. The present findings also suggested that Ca(2+) supplementation at 15-30 min prior to breastfeeding may best benefit the lactating mother, since more Ca(2+) could be absorbed as a result of the suckling-induced PRL surge. PMID:19567804

  17. Frequency of enteropathogen detection in suckling and weaned pigs with diarrhea in Japan.

    PubMed

    Katsuda, Ken; Kohmoto, Mariko; Kawashima, Kenji; Tsunemitsu, Hiroshi

    2006-07-01

    Fecal samples from suckling (n=153) and weaned (n=116) piglets with diarrhea in Japan were examined for shedding of viral, bacterial, and parasitic pathogens using culture, microscopic, and polymerase chain reaction methods. In suckling piglets, diarrhea was attributed to infection with a single etiologic agent in 60.8% of cases and with combinations of agents in 22.2%. In weaned piglets, diarrhea was attributed to a single etiologic agent in 43.1% and to combinations of agents in 47.4% of cases. Rotavirus was the most prevalent agent in suckling (67.3%) and weaned (65.5%) piglets. The detection of other pathogens was associated with age of the animals examined. Coccidia were predominantly isolated from suckling piglets, whereas Escherichia coli was found predominantly in weaned piglets. Although a relationship was not observed between detection rate of rotavirus and age of piglets, a single group of rotavirus was detected in 87.5% of suckling piglets whereas multiple groups were detected in 51.6% of weaned piglets. The results of this study confirm that diarrhea in piglets can, to a variable degree, be causally associated with multiple agents. Additionally, these results suggest reasons why this syndrome can be difficult to control. PMID:16921873

  18. A cohort study on Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae colonisation in suckling piglets.

    PubMed

    Tobias, T J; Klinkenberg, D; Bouma, A; van den Broek, J; Daemen, A J J M; Wagenaar, J A; Stegeman, J A

    2014-06-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae causes respiratory disease in pigs and despite the use of preventive measures such as vaccination and antimicrobials clinical outbreaks still occur. At weaning often many piglets are not colonised. If differences in prevalence between litters are large and if factors were known that could explain these differences, this may provide an opportunity to raise groups of A. pleuropneumoniae free piglets. To this end, a cohort study was performed on two endemically infected farrow-to-finish farms. Seventy-six of 133 sows were selected using stratified random selection by parity. Farmers complied with a strict hygiene and animal management protocol to prevent transmission between litters. Tonsil brush and serum samples taken three weeks before parturition were tested for antigen with an apxIVA qPCR and antibodies with Apx and Omp ELISAs, respectively. Three days before weaning tonsil brush samples from all piglets (n=871) were collected and tested for antigen. Whereas all sows tested positive both in serology tests as well as qPCR, 0.41 of the litters tested fully negative and 0.73 of all piglets tested negative. The proportion of positively tested piglets in positive litters ranged from 0.08-1.0 (median=0.36). A grouped logistic regression model with a beta binomial distribution of the probability for piglets to become infected was fitted to the data and associations with explanatory variables were explored. To test the possibility that alternatively the clustering was caused by onwards transmission among the piglets, a transmission model was fitted to the data incorporating sow-piglet and piglet-piglet transmission, but this model did not fit better. The results of this study showed that the number of colonised suckling piglets was highly clustered and mainly attributable to the variability of infectiousness of the dam, but no dam related risk factor for colonisation status of litter or piglets within litters could be identified. PMID

  19. Effect of age and diet on renal cadmium retention in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Kostial, K.

    1984-03-01

    The results of previous and recent work on cadmium metabolism in relation to age and diet are presented. Experiments were performed on albino rats aged 1-26 weeks. In some experiments rats were given different foods (milk, meat, bread) instead of standard rat diet. Some animals received trisodium calcium salt of diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (DTPA) intraperitoneally to decrease cadmium retention. Radioactive cadmium (/sup 115m/Cd) was administered orally and intraperitoneally. Whole body (WB), carcass (C) and organ (kidney, liver and brain) retentions were determined 1 and 2 weeks after a single radioisotope administration. The results are expressed as percentages of the administered dose (% D) and as percentages of whole body (% WB) and carcass (% C) radioactivities. After oral administration whole-body cadmium retention was higher in sucklings than in weaned animals, primarily due to increased gut retention. The kidney retention of orally administered cadmium was about 5-7 times higher in sucklings than in older rats. Cadmium distribution (% C) was similar after oral and intraperitoneal administration. In sucklings, kidney retention made a lower fraction of the carcass radioactivity one week after /sup 115m/Cd administration but reached adult values a week later. Liver retention in sucklings was a slightly lower fraction of the carcass radioactivity than in older rats at both time intervals. Brain retention (% C) was about 10 times higher in sucklings than in older rats throughout the experiment. 39 references, 5 tables.

  20. Reduced expression of intestinal N-acetylglutamate synthase in suckling piglets: a novel molecular mechanism for arginine as a nutritionally essential amino acid for neonates.

    PubMed

    Geng, Meimei; Li, Tiejun; Kong, Xiangfeng; Song, Xiaoyan; Chu, Wuying; Huang, Ruilin; Yin, Yulong; Wu, Guoyao

    2011-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine developmental changes in mRNA and protein levels for N-acetylglutamate synthase (NAGS; a key enzyme in synthesis of citrulline and arginine from glutamine/glutamate and proline) in the small intestine of suckling piglets. The porcine NAGS gene was cloned using the real-time polymerase-chain reaction (RT-PCR) method. The porcine NAGS gene encoded 368 amino acid residues and had a high degree of sequence similarity to the "conserved domain" of human and mouse NAGS genes. The porcine NAGS gene was expressed in E. coli BL21 and a polyclonal antibody against the porcine NAGS protein was developed. Real-time RT-PCR and western-blot analyses were performed to quantify NAGS mRNA and protein, respectively, in the jejunum and ileum of 1- to 28-day-old pigs. Results indicated that intestinal NAGS mRNA levels were lower in 7- to 28-day-old than in 1-day-old pigs. Immunochemical analysis revealed that NAGS protein was localized in enterocytes of the gut. Notably, intestinal NAGS protein abundance declined progressively during the 28-day suckling period. The postnatal decrease in NAGS protein levels was consistent with the previous report of reduced NAGS enzymatic activity as well as reduced synthesis of citrulline and arginine in the small intestine of 7- to 28-day-old pigs. Collectively, these results suggest that intestinal NAGS expression is regulated primarily at the post-transcriptional level. The findings also provide a new molecular basis to explain that endogenous synthesis of arginine is impaired in sow-reared piglets and arginine is a nutritionally essential amino acid for the neonates. PMID:20931344

  1. Behavior and body mass changes of a mother and calf Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) during the suckling period.

    PubMed

    Kastelein, Ronald A; van den Belt, Ivanka; Jennings, Nancy; de Kruijf, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The behavior of a 13-year-old female Pacific walrus and her first calf is described during the first 7 months of the 19-month suckling period. The calf vocalized before 62% of suckling sessions. The mother immediately responded after 84% of vocalizations; after 44% she allowed a suckling session. The number of suckling sessions per 24-h period decreased from on average nine in the second week after birth to two by the thirteenth week. Thereafter, the number of suckling sessions fluctuated between 3 and 5/day. The average suckling session duration increased from 4 min/day to around 17 min/day. The average effective suckling time per session increased from on average 2 to 10 min. The number of breaks decreased during the study period from around 40 to 20 per session. The mother spent on average 47% of her time resting, the calf 44%. The remaining time was spent in locomotion, and suckling, playing, investigating, and looking. Mother and calf spent on average 51% of time indoors. The mother spent 43% of her time in the water, the calf 39%. The calf's body mass at birth was 55 kg; it increased to 178 kg at 27 weeks. The mother did not eat for the first 5 days after delivery, and she ate less than usual during the next 6 days. The mother's mass eventually stabilized at 1024 kg (>before gestation). The calf was not given formula and was weaned onto fish. This is the first detailed description of a captive Pacific walrus's suckling period. It could benefit the husbandry of future captive-born walruses, and may elucidate the behavior of wild walruses during suckling. PMID:25511011

  2. Lead transfer in maternal milk, and the absorption, retention, distribution and excretion of lead in suckling mice

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, Charles Arthur

    1980-01-01

    Suckling mice were found to absorb and retain a greater fraction of an oral lead dose than did adult mice. Pinocytotic activity and lead uptake (in vivo) were found to be greatest in the distal small intestinal tissue. Cortisone pretreatment results in precocious cessation of pinocytotic activity in the intestine of suckling mice. Cortisone pretreatment of adult mice had no effect on whole body lead retention or intestinal tissue content of lead following an oral dose. The data indicate that the distal small intestine is the site of active pinocytosis of lead, and that pinocytosis is the major mechanism involved in lead absorption in suckling mice. Developmental differences were also observed in the percentage of lead retained in the whole body. Both groups exhibited dose-independent lead retention, indicating a first-order absorption process for each age group. Lead distribution and elimination from organs also differed between suckling and adult mice. Developmental differences were observed in organ lead concentration for kidneys and brain following oral doses. Relative distribution of lead to the brains of suckling mice were greater than to adult brains. Whole body and bone lead elimination rates were reduced in suckling compared to adult mice. Brain lead elimination rates did not differ in suckling and adult mice. A lactating mouse model was developed to study lead transfer to suckling offspring. Lead was transferred in milk to suckling offspring from mothers which had previously ingested lead in the drinking water. Relative lead transfer to suckled offspring during lactation greatly exceeded transfer to fetuses during gestation. Lactation resulted in an increased rate of maternal lead elimination. Lead concentration in milk exceeded plasma concentration by a factor of approximately 25. (ERB)

  3. Enteral leptin administration affects intestinal autophagy in suckling piglets.

    PubMed

    Słupecka, M; Woliński, J; Gajewska, M; Pierzynowski, S G

    2014-01-01

    Leptin has been shown to play an integral role in the endocrine regulation of metabolism. Moreover, a substantial amount of this peptide has been found in colostrum and milk. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of exogenous leptin, administered intragastrically, on the process of autophagy and the changes in cell hyperplasia and hypertrophy in the small intestine mucosa. Three groups (n = 6) of neonatal piglets were used in the study. The pigs were fed either by their sows (sow-reared piglets) or with only milk formula, or with milk formula together with leptin administered via a stomach tube (10 μg/kg BW) every 8 h for 6 d. We have shown that pure milk formula feeding significantly elevates (P < 0.05) autophagy compared with that observed in sow-reared piglets. Compared with the control group, feeding milk formula supplemented with leptin resulted in a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in immunodetection of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3, as well as significantly accelerated epithelial cell renewal (P < 0.05). We demonstrated that autophagy is involved in the remodeling of the small intestine mucosa and that leptin, when administered enterally, may be an important factor for its regulation. PMID:24135555

  4. Extensive juvenile "babysitting" facilitates later adult maternal responsiveness, decreases anxiety, and increases dorsal raphe tryptophan hydroxylase-2 expression in female laboratory rats.

    PubMed

    Harding, Kaitlyn M; Lonstein, Joseph S

    2016-05-01

    Pregnancy and parturition can dramatically affect female neurobiology and behavior. This is especially true for laboratory-reared rodents, in part, because such rearing prevents a host of developmental experiences that females might undergo in nature, including juvenile alloparenting. We examined the effect of chronic exposure to pups during post-weaning juvenile life (days 22-36) on adult maternal responsiveness, anxiety-related behaviors, and dorsal raphe tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TPH2) and serotonin transporter (SERT) levels in nulliparous rats. Adult females with juvenile alloparental experience showed significantly faster sensitized maternal responsiveness, less anxiety, and more dorsal raphe TPH2. Juvenile alloparenting did not affect females' later social novelty and preference behaviors toward adults, suggesting their increased interest in pups did not extend to all social partners. In a second experiment, suckling a pregnant dam (achieved by postpartum estrus reinsemination), interacting with her after standard laboratory weaning age, and a 3-day exposure to younger siblings also reduced juvenile females' later anxiety but did not affect maternal responsiveness or TPH2. Thus, extensive juvenile "babysitting" can have long-term effects reminiscent of pregnancy and parturition on maternal responsiveness and anxiety, and these effects may be driven by upregulated serotonin. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 58: 492-508, 2016. PMID:26806471

  5. Fos expression induced by milk ingestion in the caudal brainstem of neonatal rats.

    PubMed

    Morales, Teresa; Aguilar, Leticia; Ramos, Eugenia; Mena, Flavio; Morgan, Caurnel

    2008-11-19

    Prominent Fos expression in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) related to feeding has been reported in the brainstem of adult animals. In this study, we used a Fos-guided immunohistochemical approach to determine the brainstem areas activated specifically in response to milk ingestion in rat pups at two different ages. Rats at 9 or 18 days postpartum were isolated from the mother for a 6-h period, after which they were returned to the mother for a suckling period of either 5 or 90 min and then perfused at 90 min after the beginning of suckling. Control groups were sacrificed before or after the 6-h-deprivation period and showed little or no Fos-ir. In contrast, a 90-min-suckling episode after 6 h of deprivation induced strong Fos-ir in the caudal regions of the NTS and in the spinal nucleus of the trigeminal (SPV). Moderate expression was observed in the rostral NTS and in the nucleus raphé obscurus. In rat pups that suckled for only 5 min, the main area activated was the SPV. Fos immunostaining was detected in only 1% of the catecholaminergic neurons from the NTS after milk ingestion. The experimental design employed here allowed us to distinguish brainstem areas activated by milk ingestion from those activated by suckling action in rat pups. In contrast to adult rats, catecholaminergic neurons from the caudal NTS seem to contribute little to the regulation of feeding at this age. PMID:18823956

  6. Effects of dietary fibre source on microbiota composition in the large intestine of suckling piglets.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lingli; Mu, Chunlong; He, Xiangyu; Su, Yong; Mao, Shengyong; Zhang, Jing; Smidt, Hauke; Zhu, Weiyun

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary fibre sources on the gut microbiota in suckling piglets, and to test the hypothesis that a moderate increase of dietary fibre may affect the gut microbiota during the suckling period. Suckling piglets were fed different fibre-containing diets or a control diet from postnatal day 7 to 22. Digesta samples from cecum, proximal colon and distal colon were used for Pig Intestinal Tract Chip analysis. The data showed that the effects of fibre-containing diet on the gut microbiota differed in the fibre source and gut location. The alfalfa diet increased Clostridium cluster XIVb and Sporobacter termitidis in the cecum compared to the pure cellulose diet. Compared to the control diet, the alfalfa diet also increased Coprococcus eutactus in the distal colon, while the pure cellulose diet decreased Eubacterium pyruvativorans in the cecum. The pure cellulose diet increased Prevotella ruminicola compared to the wheat bran diet. Interestingly, the alfalfa group had the lowest abundance of the potential pathogen Streptococcus suis in the cecum and distal colon. These results indicated that a moderate increase in dietary fibres affected the microbial composition in suckling piglets, and that the alfalfa inclusion produced some beneficial effects on the microbial communities. PMID:27231242

  7. Maternal natural source vitamin E supplementation on suckling calf performance and immune response

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of maternally supplemented natural-source vitamin E (NSVE) on suckling calf performance and immune response. In a two-year study, one hundred twenty-five Angus-cross beef cows (n = 75/year one, 50/year two) initial BW = 607 kg; initial BCS = 5...

  8. Post-release survival of hand-reared and parent-reared Mississippi Sandhill Cranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.; Gee, G.F.; Hereford, Scott G.; Olsen, G.H.; Chisolm, T.D.; Nicolich, J.M.; Sullivan, K.A.; Thomas, N.J.; Nagendran, M.; Hatfield, J.S.

    2000-01-01

    The Mississippi Sandhill Crane (Grus canadensis pulla) reintroduction program is the largest crane reintroduction effort in the world. Here we report on a 4-year experiment in which we compared post-release survival rates of 56 hand-reared and 76 parent-reared Mississippi Sandhill Cranes. First-year survival was 80%. Surprisingly, hand-reared cranes survived better than parent-reared birds, and the highest survival rates were for hand-reared juveniles released in mixed cohorts with parent-reared birds. Mixing improved survival most for parent-reared birds released with hand-reared birds. These results demonstrate that hand-rearing can produce birds which survive at least as well as parent-reared birds and that improved survival results from mixing hand-reared and parent-reared birds.

  9. Post-release survival of hand-reared and parent-reared Mississippi sandhill cranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.; Gee, G.F.; Hereford, Scott G.; Olsen, G.H.; Chisolm, T.D.; Nicolich, J.M.; Sullivan, K.A.; Thomas, N.J.; Nagendran, M.; Hatfield, J.S.

    2000-01-01

    The Mississippi Sandhill Crane (Grus canadensis pulla) reintroduction program is the largest crane reintroduction effort in the world. Here we report on a 4-year experiment in which we compared post-release survival rates of 56 hand-reared and 76 parent-reared Mississippi Sandhill Cranes. First-year survival was 80%. Surprisingly, hand-reared cranes survived better than parent-reared birds, and the highest survival rates were for hand-reared juveniles released in mixed cohorts with parent-reared birds. Mixing improved survival most for parent-reared birds released with hand-reared birds. These results demonstrate that hand-rearing can produce birds which survive at least as well as parent-reared birds and that improved survival results from mixing hand-reared and parent-reared birds.

  10. Child Rearing on the Farm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Sam; And Others

    During the second year of a 3-year study involving 112 Iowa farm families, mothers of children aged 4 to 10 years old expressed expectations of independence, responsibility, and hard work from their children during home interviews. The importance of the parent-child relationship together with the lack of sufficient child-rearing research on rural…

  11. ATRAZINE DISPOSITION IN PREGNANT AND LACTATING LONG-EVANS RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Atrazine (ATR) is a widely used herbicide shown to delay early mammary development in female offspring of gestationally exposed rats. The effects of ATR can be induced by in utero exposure and/or suckling from a dam exposed during late pregnancy, but ATR is reported to have a hal...

  12. Effects of Kudoa septempunctata genotype ST3 isolate from Korea on ddY suckling mice

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Yeounghwan; Ahn, Meejung; Bang, Hyojin; Kang, Bongjo

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of Kudoa septempunctata genotype ST3 spores on ddY suckling mice. Purified Kudoa septempunctata spores were administered into the stomachs of the mice at 5 × 106 or 5 × 107 spores/mouse, with inactivated Kudoa (5 × 106 spores/mouse) or vehicle as controls. No abnormal clinical symptoms were observed and there were no variations in fluid accumulation ratio and cytokine gene expression in all groups. In addition, intact Kudoa spores and the 18S rDNA gene were only detected (by microscopy and quantitative PCR, respectively) in the groups administered such spores. This study thus confirms that spores from the ST3 strain of Kudoa septempunctata were excreted in the faeces without infecting the gastrointestinal tract in ddY suckling mice. PMID:27067108

  13. Protein catabolism in suckling and fasting northern elephant seal pups (Mirounga anglstirostris).

    PubMed

    Houser, D S; Costa, D P

    2001-11-01

    Nursing elephant seal pups are hypothesized to be preadapted to the postweaning fast, yet no comparison of lipid or protein use for meeting metabolic costs has been made between these contrasting nutritional periods. To address this, protein catabolism was estimated in five elephant seal pups from measurements of urea turnover made twice during nursing and twice during the postweaning fast. Changes in body composition were measured in ten separate weaned pups via tritiated water dilution and matched to fasting urea turnover measurements in order to assess errors in protein catabolism derived from urea turnover rates. Estimates of lean mass loss based upon urea turnover and tritiated water dilution were in general agreement, supporting estimates of protein catabolism derived from urea turnover measurements. Protein catabolism was estimated to contribute less than 4% to the average metabolic rate of suckling and fasting pups implying strict protein conservation during both periods and supporting the shypothesis that suckling pups are pre-adapted to fasting. It is proposed that strict protein conservation across suckling and fasting compensates for relative reductions in maternal investment associated with the abbreviated lactation period of the elephant seal. PMID:11765972

  14. Renal function in suckling and fasting pups of the northern elephant seal.

    PubMed

    Houser, D S; Crocker, D E; Webb, P M; Costa, D P

    2001-06-01

    Elephant seals fast for prolonged periods without access to water. This is made possible, in part, by reductions in urine production. However, the mechanisms involved in reducing urine production are not understood. In this study, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was measured in five northern elephant seal pups (Mirounga angustirostris) via the inulin clearance technique. Measurements were made during day 9 and day 18-22 of nursing and the second and eighth week of the postweaning fast. Plasma aldosterone and cortisol concentrations, quantified by radioimmunoassay, were measured in eight other weanlings during the second and eighth week of the fast. Mean GFR was 79.3+/-29.3 ml/min during the early suckling period and 78.2+/-17.1, 89.8+/-52.7, and 80.4+/-12.2 ml/min during the late suckling, early fasting and late fasting periods, respectively. Differences between nursing and fasting were insignificant, possibly because reduced protein oxidation during suckling and rapid recruitment of protein for tissue synthesis obviated the need for postprandial hyperfiltration. Alternatively, maintenance of GFR during fasting may facilitate urea concentration by compensating for reductions in the fractional excretion of urea. It is further hypothesized that aldosterone is primarily responsible for mediating renal water reabsorption in this system. PMID:11423313

  15. Bone lead mobilization in lactating mice and lead transfer to suckling offspring

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, C.A.; Doherty, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    Drinking water containing 200 ..mu..g/ml lead (labeled with /sup 210/Pb) was provided to adult female mice for 105 days prior to the date of mating or for 105 days prior to mating and during the periods of gestation and lactation (160 days total exposure). During lactation there was an increased rate of lead elimination from adult mice exposed prior to mating compared to nonlactating female mice. The magnitude of the additional lead elimination during lactation was similar to the magnitude of the decrease in femur ash weights during lactation. These data support the hypothesis that lead mobilization during lactation is the result of bone mineral mobilization. Approximately 3% of the lead body burden of mothers exposed to lead prior to mating was retained in litters of suckling pups as a result of lead transferred in milk. The magnitude of lead mobilized from maternal bone during lactation was not increased by a diet which was moderately calcium deficient. Continuous ingestion of lead by mothers during lactation significantly increased the net transfer of lead to suckled pups. Lead transferred from mother to offspring during lactation greatly exceeded transfer during gestation for all treatment groups. These data indicate that both prior and current maternal lead exposure should be considered in assessing potential lead exposure of suckling infants.

  16. Correlation between lead retention and intestinal pinocytosis in the suckling mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, C.A.; Doherty, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    Young animals absorb and retain a greater fraction of an oral dose of lead than do adult animals. It has been proposed that pinocytotic activity in young animals is partially responsible for the increased lead retention and absorption. Radiolabeled lead (5 mg/kg) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP, 50 mg/kg) were administered orally to 12-day-old suckling mice and to adult mice, and the uptake of lead and PVP was determined periodically during a 6-day interval. Intestinal tissue from the distal jejunum and ileum were found to contain the greatest quantities of both lead and PVP. Pretreatment of suckling mice with cortisone acetate resulted in decreased content of lead and PVP within tissue of the intestine, and decreased whole-body lead retention. Cortisone pretreatment produced lower lead concentrations in blood, brain, kidney, and liver. Lead and PVP uptake into intestinal tissue of adult mice was much less than uptake in suckling pups. Cortisone pretreatment of adult mice had no effect on whole-body lead retention or intestinal tissue content of lead or PVP.

  17. Spawning and rearing Atlantic menhaden

    SciTech Connect

    Hettler, W.F.

    1981-04-01

    Two-year-old Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) held in the laboratory at ambient temperatures and salinities for more than 1 year, were induced to spawn by injecting first human chorionic gonadotropin and then carp pituitary powder. Spawning took place at temperatures of 16 to 20/sup 0/C in a 2100-L indoor tank modified to recover the buoyant fertilized eggs. Larvae were reared to the juvenile stage on a diet of cultured rotifers (Brachionus plicatilus), sieved wild zooplankton (64 to 500 ..mu..m), brine shrimp (Artemia salina) nauplii, and powdered trout food.

  18. Maternal olfaction differentially modulates oxytocin and prolactin release during suckling in goats.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Horacio; Serafin, Norma; Terrazas, Angélica M; Marnet, Pierre Guy; Kann, Guy; Delgadillo, José Alberto; Poindron, Pascal

    2002-09-01

    In postparturient goats, olfactory recognition of the young allows the establishment of a selective bond between the mother and her kids. Once this bond is formed, the mother rejects alien young that attempt to suckle. We tested whether the development of the maternal selective bond in goats modulates prolactin (PRL) and oxytocin (OT) release in response to suckling. On day 37 of lactation, serial blood samples were taken during nursing of the mother's own or alien kid(s) in 10 intact/selective goats and in 10 goats rendered anosmic/nonselective through prepartum peripheral ZnSO(4) irrigation. Spontaneous nursing behavior was also studied weekly from day 7 to 30 of lactation, at which time milk production was measured. Maternal selectivity had no effect on PRL release, in contrast to OT release, which was significantly affected by this factor. Intact mothers released OT only when nursing their own kids, but not with aliens, while anosmic/nonselective dams showed an increase in OT levels regardless of the identity of the kids. In addition to these effects on maternal selectivity, the amplitude of the response of both hormones was lower in anosmic mothers than in intact mothers. Finally, nursing behavior and milk production were not significantly affected by anosmia. We conclude that maternal selective behavior in goats, which relies on the individual olfactory signature of the kid, modulates the OT, but not the PRL, response to suckling. In addition, perception of the smell of the young appears to have a general facilitatory effect, independent of the kid's identity, on the release of both hormones. PMID:12367576

  19. Herd specific risk factors for Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infections in suckling pigs at the age of weaning

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the etiologic agent of enzootic pneumonia mainly occurring in fattening pigs. It is assumed that horizontal transmission of the pathogen during nursery and growing phase starts with few suckling pigs vertically infected by the sow. The aim of the present study was the exploration of the herd prevalence of M. hyopneumoniae infections in suckling pigs followed by an investigation of various herd specific factors for their potential of influencing the occurrence of this pathogen at the age of weaning. Results In this cross-sectional study, 125 breeding herds were examined by taking nasal swabs from 20 suckling pigs in each herd. In total, 3.9% (98/2500) of all nasal swabs were tested positive for M. hyopneumoniae by real-time PCR. Piglets tested positive originated from 46 different herds resulting in an overall herd prevalence of 36.8% (46/125) for M. hyopneumoniae infection in pigs at the age of weaning. While the herds were epidemiologically characterized, the risk for demonstration of M. hyopneumoniae was significantly increased, when the number of purchased gilts per year was more than 120 (OR: 5.8), and when the number of farrowing pens per compartment was higher than 16 (OR: 3.3). In herds with a planned and segregated production, where groups of sows entered previously emptied farrowing units, the risk for demonstration of M. hyopneumoniae in piglets was higher in herds with two or four weeks between batches than in herds with one or three weeks between batches (OR: 2.7). Conclusions In this cross-sectional study, several risk factors could be identified enhancing the probability of breeding herds to raise suckling pigs already infected with M. hyopneumoniae at the time of weaning. Interestingly, some factors (farrowing rhythm, gilt acclimatisation issues) were overlapping with those also influencing the seroprevalences among sows or the transmission of the pathogen between older age groups. Taking the multifactorial

  20. 5. View West. West side and rear elevations of c. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View West. West side and rear elevations of c. 1890 first rear addition; partial north rear elevation of c. 1900 side ell addition; and north rear and west side elevation of final rear addition of c. 1940. - Vaughn Chevrolet Building, 101-109 East Main Street, Monongahela, Washington County, PA

  1. Effect of alfaprostol, lasalocid, and once-daily suckling on postpartum interval in Brahman and Brahman crossbred cattle.

    PubMed

    Del Vecchio, R P; Randel, R D; Neuendorff, D A; Peterson, L A

    1988-10-01

    Brahman cows (n = 49) and primiparous heifers (n = 11), Brahman x Hereford primiparous F1 heifers (n = 86) and Simmental x Brahman primiparous F1 heifers (n = 13) were randomly allotted by breed, age and date of calving to one of eight treatment groups: 1) control; 2) once-daily suckling; 3) lasalocid (200 mg/hd/d); 4) alfaprostol (5 mg intermuscular injections on Days 21 and 32 post partum); 5) lasalocid + once-daily suckling; 6) alfaprostol + once daily suckling; 7) alfaprostol + lasalocid; 8) alfaprostol + lasalocid + once daily suckling. All animals received 2.3 kg/hd/d of a concentrate (6 corn : 1 cottonseed meal) and lasalocid was mixed and fed in the concentrate. Body weights and condition scores were taken on Day 1 post partum and every 28 d thereafter. All animals were maintained with sterile marker bulls with Brahman and Simmental x Brahman cattle artificially inseminated at first estrus. Blood samples were collected at weekly intervals starting on Day 21 post partum until estrus and at nine to twelve days post estrus when the ovaries were palpated for corpora lutea. After the first postpartum estrus with a corpora lutea, cows were placed with fertile bulls. Mean serum progesterone concentrations were below 0.5 ng/ml prior to treatment. Calf weight gains to 90 d were not affected by age (P > 0.10) but were lower in the once-daily suckling group (P < 0.05). Treatment did not affect cow weight or condition score (P > 0.10). Cows had a shorter postpartum interval (P < 0.0001) than heifers. Once-daily suckling shortened postpartum interval (P < 0.0001) and positively influenced the cumulative frequency of return to estrus by 40 d post partum (P < 0.02). Alfaprostol did not affect postpartum interval (P > 0.10) but did increase the cumulative frequency of return to estrus by 90 d post partum (P < 0.03). Lasalocid did not affect postpartum interval or cumulative frequency of return to estrus (P > 0.10). Both once-daily suckling and alfaprostol were effective in

  2. Effect of undernutrition and hormone treatments on the absorption of proteins in suckling rat intestine

    SciTech Connect

    Babbar, H.S.; Jaswal, V.M.; Mahmood, A. )

    1990-02-01

    The absorption of {sup 125}I-labeled BSA and gamma-globulin was significantly (P less than 0.01) elevated in UN pups compared to the controls. Administration of pharmacological doses of cortisone, thyroxine, and insulin markedly (P less than 0.001) reduced the absorption of BSA and gamma-globulin in UN pups. There was no significant difference in the binding of {sup 125}I-labeled BSA and gamma-globulin to microvillus membrane in the control and experimental animals. However, the degradation of labeled BSA and gamma-globulin by luminal content was considerably higher (55-70%) in controls compared to UN pups. This suggested that observed increase in the absorption of proteins in nutritionally deprived pups was unrelated to their binding to the microvillus surface but presumably it is a consequence of reduced luminal degradation together with delayed maturational development as suggested by the pattern of brush border enzymes in the UN intestinal tissue.

  3. Rear-facing car seat (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A rear-facing car seat position is recommended for a child who is very young. Extreme injury can occur in an accident because ... child. In a frontal crash a rear-facing car seat is best, because it cradles the head, ...

  4. Parents and the Dynamics of Child Rearing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, George W.

    This book, designed for advanced courses on parent-child relationships, examines scientific evidence concerning parents' effect on children's development. Chapter 1, "The Development of Child-Rearing Research: From Mere Beliefs to a More Dynamic Perspective," discusses the beginnings of and current trends in child rearing research and introduces a…

  5. The Demise of Child-Rearing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winik, Lyric Wallwork

    2000-01-01

    Discusses child rearing and parenting in the US, suggesting that children are becoming more and more unseen and unheard while their parents go off to be entertained. The paper examines root causes and revolutionary changes; Locke's 17th-century child rearing beliefs; Wesley's tough love philosophy; Rousseau's natural goodness beliefs; other…

  6. MASS REARING CODLING MOTHS: IMPROVEMENTS AND MODIFICATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modifications of the diet, oviposition cages, rearing containers, diapause induction and adult handling are described for a rearing colony of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), maintained at the USDA-ARS facility in Wapato, Washington (USA), for over 40 years for use in f...

  7. Rear-facing car seat (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... spinal cord of the child. In a frontal crash a rear-facing car seat is best, because it cradles the head, neck, and back of the child causing less injury. Therefore, the rear-facing position is recommended for as long as possible for ...

  8. Family Rearing Antecedents of Pubertal Timing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belsky, Jay; Steinberg, Laurence D.; Houts, Renate M.; Friedman, Sarah L.; DeHart, Ganie; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Roisman, Glenn I.; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.; Susman, Elisabeth

    2007-01-01

    Two general evolutionary hypotheses were tested on 756 White children (397 girls) studied longitudinally: (1) rearing experiences would predict pubertal timing; and (2) children would prove differentially susceptible to rearing. Analysis of pubertal measurements, including some based on repeated physical assessments, showed that mothering and…

  9. OFFSPRING MORTALITY AND MATERNAL LUNG PATHOLOGY IN FEMALE RATS FED HEXACHLOROBENZENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Female Sprague-Dawley CD rats were fed 0, 60, 80, 100, 120 and 140 ppm hexachlorobenzene (HCB) continuously in the diet and 2 successive litters raised. These doses were selected to range from approximately the no observable effect level to lethality in suckling offspring of trea...

  10. Effect of age and diet on renal cadmium retention in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Kostial, K

    1984-01-01

    The results of our previous and recent work on cadmium metabolism in relation to age and diet are presented. Experiments were performed on albino rats aged 1-26 weeks. In some experiments rats were given different foods (milk, meat, bread) instead of standard rat diet. Some animals received trisodium calcium salt of diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (DTPA) intraperitoneally to decrease cadmium retention. Radioactive cadmium (115mCd) was administered orally and intraperitoneally. Whole body (WB), carcass (C) and organ (kidney, liver and brain) retentions were determined 1 and 2 weeks after a single radioisotope administration. The results are expressed as percentages of the administered dose (% D) and as percentages of whole body (% WB) and carcass (% C) radioactivities. After oral administration whole-body cadmium retention was higher in sucklings than in weaned animals, primarily due to increased gut retention. The kidney retention of orally administered cadmium was about 5-7 times higher in sucklings than in older rats. Cadmium distribution (% C) was similar after oral and intraperitoneal administration. In sucklings, kidney retention made a lower fraction of the carcass radioactivity one week after 115mCd administration but reached adult values a week later. Liver retention in sucklings was a slightly lower fraction of the carcass radioactivity than in older rats at both time intervals. Brain retention (% C) was about 10 times higher in sucklings than in older rats throughout the experiment. Preliminary data on the influence of dietary treatments and treatment with DTPA indicate that some treatments which influence cadmium retention also influence cadmium distribution.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6734570

  11. Isolation rearing as a preclinical model of attention/deficit-hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Yates, Justin R.; Darna, Mahesh; Gipson, Cassandra D.; Dwoskin, Linda P.; Bardo, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    Rats raised in an isolated condition (IC) are impulsive and hyperactive compared to rats raised in an enriched condition (EC), suggesting that isolation rearing may be a preclinical model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The current study determined if administration of methylphenidate (MPH), a dopamine transporter (DAT) blocker used in the treatment of ADHD, reduces the hyperactivity observed in IC rats toward levels observed in EC rats. Another goal was to determine if chronic MPH treatment differentially alters DAT function in EC and IC rats in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) or orbital frontal cortex (OFC). IC and EC rats were treated with either MPH (1.5 mg/kg, p.o.) or vehicle from postnatal days (PND) 28–51. On PND 28 and 51, rats were evaluated for MPH-induced locomotor activity. On PND 55–63, in vitro [3H]DA uptake assays were performed in mPFC and OFC. At both PND 28 and 51, IC rats were hyperactive compared to EC rats. At PND 28, MPH increased activity in EC rats only. At PND 51, MPH did not alter locomotor activity in IC or EC rats. Beginning at PND 55, basal uptake of [3H]dopamine in IC rats was higher in mPFC and lower in OFC compared to EC rats. The basal differences in DAT function were normalized by MPH treatment in mPFC, but not in OFC. These findings suggest that isolation rearing may not represent a valid predictive model for screening effective medications in the treatment of hyperactivity associated with ADHD. PMID:22580232

  12. Hormone induced changes in lactase glycosylation in developing rat intestine.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, Kamaljit Kaur; Mahmood, Safrun; Mahmood, Akhtar

    2008-11-01

    Lactase exists in both soluble and membrane-bound forms in suckling rat intestine. The distribution of lactase and its glycosylated isoforms in response to thyroxine or cortisone administration has been studied in suckling rats. 75% of lactase activity was detected, associated with brush borders, compared to 24% in the soluble fraction of 8-day-old rats. Thyroxine treatment enhanced soluble lactase activity to 34%, whereas particulate fraction was reduced to 67% compared to controls. Cortisone administration reduced soluble lactase activity from 24% in controls to 12% with a concomitant increase in membrane-bound activity to 89%. Western blot analysis revealed lactase signal, corresponding to 220 kDa in both the soluble and membrane fractions, which corroborated the enzyme activity data. The elution pattern of papain solubilized lactase from agarose-Wheat Germ agglutinin, or Concanavalin A or Jacalin agglutinin columns was different in the suckling and adult rat intestines. Also the elution profile of lactase activity from agarose-lectin columns was modulated in cortisone, thyroxine, and insulin injected pups, which suggests differences in glycosylated isoforms of lactase under these conditions. These findings suggest the role of these hormones in inducing changes in lactase glycosylation during postnatal development of intestine, which may contribute to adult-type hypolactasia in rats. PMID:18712286

  13. Contributions of follicle size to establishment and maintenance of pregnancy in suckled beef cows using reciprocal embryo transfer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    GnRH-induced ovulation of a small dominant follicle reduced pregnancy success in cattle. A reciprocal embryo transfer study was conducted at Fort Keogh from 2007 to 2009 in order to differentiate between follicular effects on pregnancy mediated through oocyte quality or uterine environment. Suckle...

  14. THE EFFECT OF CO-MINGLING LITTERS ON PIGLETS' GROWTH, SUCKLING BEHAVIOR AND RESPONSES TO BEHAVIORAL TESTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Co-mingling litters prior to weaning alters piglet development and ability to cope with post-stress. The purpose of this study was to determine how co-mingling litters affected piglet growth, suckling behavior and responses to behavioral tests used to measure coping abilities before weaning. Thirty ...

  15. Bull exposure and an increased within-day milking to suckling interval reduced postpartum anoestrus in dual purpose cows.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Hernández, P; García-Winder, M; Gallegos-Sánchez, J

    2002-12-16

    It is hypothesized that the combined effects of suckling and milking in the dual purpose cows is one of the main suppressors of reproductive efficiency in this production system. The experiment described here examined whether managing the interval between milking and suckling could reduce the postpartum anoestrous period and whether the presence of a teaser bull could enhance the effects of these managements. The experiment involved 39 Bos taurus x Bos indicus cows which had an average weight of 523.0 +/- 12.8 kg (mean +/- S.E.M.) and body condition score of 5-7 (scale 1-9) at calving. The cows and calves grazed separate pastures and the cows were supplemented with 2 kg 17% CP concentrates and 1 kg molasses per cow per day. The experiment was conducted over the first 100 days postpartum. Cows were hand-milked once per day in the presence of the calf to stimulate milk release. The factors in the 2 x 2 design were the milking to suckling interval (0 h, control suckling; CS versus 8 h prolonged-delay suckling; PDS) and no exposure versus exposure to a teaser bull (B). Cows were assigned at random within calving date to the four treatments: CS (n = 10), PDS (n = 10), CS-B (n = 9) and PDS-B (n = 10). Cows on treatments CS and CS-B had three-quarters of the udder milked and one-quarter was not milked. The entire udder was milked on those treatments where there was an interval between milking and suckling. The bull was introduced 7 days after calving in treatments where the cows were exposed to a teaser bull. Body weights of cows and calves and cow milk yield were recorded. Weekly blood samples were collected for plasma progesterone assay. Data were analyzed by ANOVA in a 2 x 2 factorial design and by chi(2)-test. There were no statistically significant differences between treatments in cow body weight at calving and at 100 days postpartum, nor in milk yield (overall mean 6.0 +/- 1.1 kg per day). Calf daily gain was 598 +/- 25 g for treatments CS and CS-B in which

  16. Effects of time of suckling during the solar day on duration of the postpartum anovulatory interval in Brahman x Hereford (F1) cows.

    PubMed

    Gazal, O S; Guzman-Vega, G A; Williams, G L

    1999-05-01

    Previously published reports have indicated that postpartum anovulatory intervals can be markedly reduced and rebreeding performance enhanced in Bos taurus cows by eliminating nighttime suckling. We sought to confirm this hypothesis by examining the effects of day, nighttime, and ad libitum suckling on suckling behavior of calves, duration of the postpartum anovulatory interval, and pregnancy rates in 45 fall-calving Brahman x Hereford (F1) cows. Beginning on d 9 to 12 postpartum, calves were removed from lactating cows from 0700 to 1900 (Night-Suckled, n = 15) or from 1900 to 0700 (Day-Suckled, n = 15), or remained with their dams continuously (Ad Libitum-Suckled, n = 15). Cows in each group were maintained with fertile Angus bulls from d 10 postpartum until the first normal luteal phase or 100 d postpartum, whichever occurred first. Cows were observed for estrous behavior twice daily, and jugular blood samples were collected twice weekly for the determination of serum progesterone concentration. Mean number of suckling episodes per 24 h was greater (P < .0001) for the Ad Libitum-Suckled group than either Night- or Day-Suckled groups (5.9+/-.42 vs 3.8+/-.14, and 3.9+/-.32, respectively). Hourly analysis of suckling episodes in the Ad Libitum group indicated that they were not skewed toward a particular period, with suckling occurring at a periodicity of 4 to 6 h. Intervals to the first rise in progesterone > or = 1 ng/mL (32+/-2.5, 32+/-4.5, and 31+/-1.7 d, respectively), first normal luteal phase (38+/-3.1, 38+/-3.8, and 37+/-2.5 d, respectively), and first estrus (43+/-3.5, 40+/-3.9, and 36+/-1.1 d, respectively) did not differ (P > .05) among the three groups. Similarly, cumulative pregnancy rates within 100 d after calving did not differ (P > .05). These results in Bos indicus x Bos taurus (F1) cattle do not support the previous conclusions in Bos taurus that eliminating nighttime suckling reduces the postpartum anovulatory interval. PMID:10340568

  17. Optimal management of replacement heifers in a beef herd: a model for simultaneous optimization of rearing and breeding decisions.

    PubMed

    Stygar, A H; Kristensen, A R; Makulska, J

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to provide farmers an efficient tool for supporting optimal decisions in the beef heifer rearing process. The complexity of beef heifer management prompted the development of a model including decisions on the feeding level during prepuberty (age <10 mo), the time of weaning (age, BW, calendar month), the feeding level during the reproductive period (age ≥10 mo), and time of breeding (age, BW, and calendar month). The model was formulated as 3-level hierarchic Markov process. A founder level of the model has 12 states resembling all possible birth months of a heifer. Based on the birth month information from the founder level, for the indoor season (November to April) and outdoor season (May to October), feeding and breeding costs (natural service cost in the outdoor and AI cost in the indoor season) were applied. The optimal rearing strategy was found by maximizing the total discounted net revenues from the predicted future productivity of the Polish Limousine heifers defined as the cumulative BW of calves born from a cow calved until the age of 5 yr, standardized on the 210th day of age. According to the modeled optimal policy, heifers fed during the whole rearing period at the ADG of 810 g/d and generally weaned after the maximum suckling period of 9 mo should already be bred at the age of 13.2 mo and BW constituting 55.6% of the average mature BW. Based on the optimal strategy, 52% of all heifers conceived from May to July and calved from February to April. This optimal rearing pattern resulted in an average net return of EUR 311.6 per pregnant heifer. It was found that the economic efficiency of beef operations can be improved by applying different herd management practices to those currently used in Poland. Breeding at 55.6% of the average mature BW, after a shorter and less expensive rearing period, resulted in an increase in the average net return per heifer by almost 18% compared to the conventional system, in which heifers were

  18. Immunoglobulin transfer and weight gains in suckled beef calves force-fed stored colostrum.

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, J A; Niilo, L

    1985-01-01

    Concentrations of immunoglobulins and total proteins in second-day post-partum serum samples of 62 beef calves from multiparous dams were measured by zinc sulphate turbidity, electrophoresis, radial immunodiffusion and refractometry. These results, together with health records and weight gains, were used to evaluate the practice of routinely force-feeding 1 L of stored colostrum to suckled beef calves immediately after birth. There was no apparent benefit from such force-feeding. It did not result in greater 48-hour serum immunoglobulin levels, nor did it improve weight gains at 42 days. None of the calves required treatment for neonatal disease, but one force-fed calf died from inhalation of regurgitated colostrum. PMID:4016581

  19. [Suckling mouse brain rabies vaccine supplemented with an adjuvant. Its use in cattle].

    PubMed

    Fuenzalida, E; Díaz, A M; Rivenson, S

    1978-01-01

    This paper describes two experiments carried out in cattle immunized with suckling mouse brain rabies vaccine (SMB) 14, supplemented with 2% Al (OH)3 15 or Freund's modified incomplete adjuvant 2, 26. When determining the vaccinal dose, it was observed that the immune response was independent from the doses used (Table 1), all animals survived the challenge 30 days after vaccination, as compared to a mortality rate of 80% in the controls. To determine the duration of immunity, an amount of 5 ml was chosen as vacinal dose. Two years after immunization, both vaccines protected 96% of the cattle against a viral challenge that killed 63% of the non-vaccinated controls (Table 2). Statistically significant differences were observed between the antibody levels elicited by both vaccines. Antibody levels observed with the oil supplemented vaccine were higher than those produced by the A1 (OH)3 vaccine. PMID:756571

  20. Effect of slaughter weight and breed on instrumental and sensory meat quality of suckling kids.

    PubMed

    Ripoll, G; Alcalde, M J; Horcada, A; Campo, M M; Sañudo, C; Teixeira, A; Panea, B

    2012-09-01

    The effects of breed and slaughter weight on chemical composition, fatty acid groups, texture, and sensory characteristics of meat of 141 suckling male kids from 5 Spanish breeds were studied. There was a decrease in texture and lightness and hue angle with the increase of the slaughter weight. Fatty acid composition was correlated with the intramuscular fat content. All the breeds except MO had values of n-6/n-3 ratio below 4, which is the healthy limit recommended, and a low atherogenic index as well as a low intramuscular fat content. A multivariate analysis discriminated light kid, which had the most tender and juicy meat, from heavy kid which had more intense kid and milk odours. Blanca Andaluza and Pirenaica had most tender and juicy meat. The effect of slaughter weight on meat traits should be considered separately for each breed to find the most appropriate meat according to consumers preferences. PMID:22546814

  1. Frequency of virulence factors in Escherichia coli isolated from suckling pigs with diarrhoea in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenxin; Yuan, Chaowen; Meng, Xiangqiu; Du, Yuance; Gao, Ruize; Tang, Jie; Shi, Dongfang

    2014-02-01

    Escherichia coli-associated diarrhoea is an important disease adversely affecting the pig industry. This study was conducted to investigate the frequency of virulence factors expressed by E. coli strains isolated from suckling pigs with diarrhoea in China. A total of 381 E. coli strains, obtained from 290 faecal samples from pigs on 38 farms, were tested for fimbriae (K88, K99, 987P, F41, F18, F17), non-fimbrial adhesins (AIDA-I, paa, CS31A, eae, saa), enterotoxin (LT-I, LT-II, STa, STb, EAST1), Shiga toxin (Stx1, Stx2, Stx2e), pathogenicity islands (HPI, LEE), α-haemolysin (hlyA), afa8 gene cluster (afaD, afaE) and sepA genes by PCR. Out of the 381 isolates, 206 carried at least one virulence gene. Of the 206 virulence positive isolates, the virulence factor genes detected were EAST1 (n=120), irp2 (n=59), paa (n=50), STb (n=41), AIDA-I (n=34), LT-I (n=23), ler (n=11), hlyA (n=9), K88 (n=8), eae (n=8), STa (n=7), sepA (n=6), F18 (n=5), afaD (n=3), afaE (n=3), K99 (n=2) and Stx2e (n=1), with most isolates carrying multiple virulence genes. These results demonstrate that relatively few isolates from the study population express K88, K99, LT-I or STa, but that EAST1 (58%), irp2 (29%), AIDA-I (16.5%), paa (24%) and STb (20%) are frequent virulence factors expressed by E. coli strains isolated from suckling pigs with diarrhoea in China. PMID:24378293

  2. Effects of neonatal alcohol exposure on vasoactive intestinal polypeptide neurons in the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Farnell, Yuhua Z.; Allen, Gregg C.; Neuendorff, Nichole; West, James R.; Wei-Jung, A. Chen; Earnest, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Neonatal alcohol exposure produces long-term changes in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) that are presumably responsible for disturbances in the light–dark regulation of circadian behavior in adult rats, including the pattern of photoentrainment, rate of re-entrainment to shifted light–dark cycles, and phase-shifting responses to light. Because SCN neurons containing vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) receive direct photic input via the retinohypothalamic tract and thus play an important role in the circadian regulation of the SCN clock mechanism by light, the present study examined the long-term effects of neonatal alcohol exposure on VIP neuronal populations within the SCN of adult rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rat pups were exposed to alcohol (EtOH; 3.0, 4.5, or 6.0 g/kg/day) or isocaloric milk formula (gastrostomy control; GC) on postnatal days 4–9 using artificial-rearing methods. At 2–3 months of age, animals from the suckle control (SC), GC, and EtOH groups were exposed to constant darkness (DD) and SCN tissue was harvested for subsequent analysis of either VIP mRNA expression by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and in situ hybridization or of VIP-immunoreactive (ir) neurons using stereological methods. Neonatal alcohol exposure had no impact on VIP mRNA expression but dramatically altered immunostaining of neurons containing this peptide within the SCN of adult rats. The relative abundance of VIP mRNA and anatomical distribution of neurons expressing this transcript were similar among all control- and EtOH-treated groups. However, the total number and density of VIP-ir neurons within the SCN were significantly decreased by about 35% in rats exposed to alcohol at a dose of 6.0 g/kg/day relative to that observed in both control groups. These results demonstrate that VIP neuronal populations in the SCN are vulnerable to EtOH-induced insult during brain development. The observed alterations in SCN neurons containing VIP may have an impact

  3. Developmental changes in hepatic glucose metabolism in a newborn piglet model: A comparative analysis for suckling period and early weaning period.

    PubMed

    Xie, Chunyan; Wang, Qinhua; Wang, Jing; Tan, Bie; Fan, Zhiyong; Deng, Ze-yuan; Wu, Xin; Yin, Yulong

    2016-02-19

    The liver glucose metabolism, supplying sufficient energy for glucose-dependent tissues, is important in suckling or weaned animals, although there are few studies with piglet model. To better understand the development of glucose metabolism in the piglets during suckling period and early weaning period, we determined the hepatic glycogen content, and investigated the relative protein expression of key enzymes of glucogenesis (GNG) and mRNA levels of some glucose metabolism-related genes. During suckling period, the protein level of G6Pase in the liver of suckling piglets progressively declined with day of age compared with that of newborn piglets (at 1 day of age), whereas the PEPCK level stabilized until day 21 of age, indicating that hepatic GNG capacity gradually weakened in suckling piglets. The synthesis of hepatic glycogen, which was consistent with the fluctuation of glycolytic key genes PFKL and PKLR that gradually decreased after birth and was more or less steady during latter suckling period, although both the mRNA levels of GCK and key glucose transporter GLUT2 presented uptrend in suckling piglets. However, early weaning significantly suppressed the hepatic GNG in the weaned piglets, especially at d 3-5 of weaning period, then gradually recovered at d 7 of weaning period. Meanwhile, PFKL, PKLR and GLUT2 showed the similar trend during weaning period. On the contrast, the hepatic glycogen reached the maximum value when the G6Pase and PEPCK protein expression were at the lowest level, although the GCK level maintained increasing through 7 days of weaning period. Altogether, our study provides evidence that hepatic GNG and glycolysis in newborn piglets were more active than other days during suckling period, and early weaning could significantly suppressed glucose metabolism in liver, but this inhibition would progressively recover at day 7 after weaning. PMID:26802463

  4. Preliminary study on factors influencing rabbit doe reproductive efficiency: Effect of parity, day of mating, and suckling on ovarian status and estrogen levels at day 6 of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Marongiu, Maria Laura; Dimauro, Corrado

    2013-04-01

    The rabbit corpus luteum becomes an estradiol-dependent tissue by day 6 of gestation, and adequate estrogen is critical to avoid pregnancy failure. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of parity (primiparous or multiparous), day of mating (11 or 21 d postpartum), and suckling status (suckling or nonsuckling) on various reproductive traits in hybrid rabbit does (n = 96). Ovarian structures on day 6 after coitus were evaluated by means of ultrasonography. Blood samples were collected that day, and the serum was analyzed for estradiol-17β by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Parity and suckling had significant effects on mating rate (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). More does accepted the male on day 11 than on day 21 (P < 0.05). Ovulation frequency was significantly affected by parity (P < 0.05), day of mating (P < 0.01), and suckling (P < 0.01). Fewer ovarian large follicles and lower estradiol-17β levels were detected in suckling compared with nonsuckling rabbits (P < 0.01). Since estrogen concentrations are commonly used to assess follicular growth and steroidogenic capacity, the lower hormonal levels in the suckling rabbits may reveal poorer ovarian activity, which could result in reduced reproductive efficiency. Our observations confirm the existence of a partial antagonism between lactation and reproduction in rabbits. Further research is needed to elucidate these phenomena, including when artificial insemination is done. Ultrasonography could represent a noninvasive and reliable method for studying several reproductive functions and dysfunctions in rabbits. PMID:24082404

  5. Effect of Suckling Systems on Serum Oxytocin and Cortisol Concentrations and Behavior to a Novel Object in Beef Calves.

    PubMed

    Chen, Siyu; Tanaka, Shigefumi; Ogura, Shin-Ichiro; Roh, Sanggun; Sato, Shusuke

    2015-11-01

    We investigated differences between effects of natural- and bucket-suckling methods on basal serum oxytocin (OT) and cortisol concentrations, and the effect of OT concentration on affiliative and investigative behavior of calves to a novel object. Ten Japanese Black calves, balanced with birth order, were allocated evenly to natural-suckling (NS) and bucket suckling (BS) groups. Blood samples were collected at the ages of 1 and 2 months (1 week after weaning) calves, and serum OT and cortisol concentrations were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and enzymeimmunoassay tests, respectively. Each calf at the age of 2 months (2 weeks after weaning) was released into an open-field with a calf decoy, and its investigative and affiliative behaviors were recorded for 20 minutes. In 1-month-old calves, the basal serum OT concentration (25.5±4.9 [mean±standard deviation, pg/mL]) of NS was significantly higher than that of BS (16.9±6.7) (p<0.05), whereas the basal cortisol concentration (5.8±2.5 [mean±standard deviation, ng/mL]) of NS was significantly lower than that in BS (10.0±2.8) (p<0.05). Additionally, a negative correlation was noted between serum OT and cortisol concentrations in 1-month-old calves (p = 0.06). Further, the higher serum OT concentration the calves had at 1 month old, the more investigative the calves were at 2 months old but not affiliative in the open-field with a calf decoy. Thus, we concluded that the natural suckling method from a dam elevates the basal serum OT concentration in calves, and high serum OT concentrations induce investigative behavior and attenuate cortisol concentrations. PMID:26580289

  6. Effect of Suckling Systems on Serum Oxytocin and Cortisol Concentrations and Behavior to a Novel Object in Beef Calves

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Siyu; Tanaka, Shigefumi; Ogura, Shin-ichiro; Roh, Sanggun; Sato, Shusuke

    2015-01-01

    We investigated differences between effects of natural- and bucket-suckling methods on basal serum oxytocin (OT) and cortisol concentrations, and the effect of OT concentration on affiliative and investigative behavior of calves to a novel object. Ten Japanese Black calves, balanced with birth order, were allocated evenly to natural-suckling (NS) and bucket suckling (BS) groups. Blood samples were collected at the ages of 1 and 2 months (1 week after weaning) calves, and serum OT and cortisol concentrations were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and enzymeimmunoassay tests, respectively. Each calf at the age of 2 months (2 weeks after weaning) was released into an open-field with a calf decoy, and its investigative and affiliative behaviors were recorded for 20 minutes. In 1-month-old calves, the basal serum OT concentration (25.5±4.9 [mean±standard deviation, pg/mL]) of NS was significantly higher than that of BS (16.9±6.7) (p<0.05), whereas the basal cortisol concentration (5.8±2.5 [mean±standard deviation, ng/mL]) of NS was significantly lower than that in BS (10.0±2.8) (p<0.05). Additionally, a negative correlation was noted between serum OT and cortisol concentrations in 1-month-old calves (p = 0.06). Further, the higher serum OT concentration the calves had at 1 month old, the more investigative the calves were at 2 months old but not affiliative in the open-field with a calf decoy. Thus, we concluded that the natural suckling method from a dam elevates the basal serum OT concentration in calves, and high serum OT concentrations induce investigative behavior and attenuate cortisol concentrations. PMID:26580289

  7. Halofuginone alleviates acute viral myocarditis in suckling BALB/c mice by inhibiting TGF-β1.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiao-Hua; Fu, Jia; Sun, Da-Qing

    2016-04-29

    Viral myocarditis (VMC) is an inflammation of heart muscle in infants and young adolescents. This study explored the function of halofuginone (HF) in Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) -treated suckling mice. HF-treated animal exhibited higher survival rate, lower heart/body weight, and more decreased blood sugar concentration than CVB3 group. HF also reduced the expressions of interleukin(IL)-17 and IL-23 and the numbers of Th17 cells. Moreover, HF downregulated pro-inflammatory cytokine levels and increased anti-inflammatory cytokine levels. The expressions of transforming growth factor(TGF-β1) and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B (NF-κB) p65/ tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) proteins were decreased by HF as well. Finally, the overexpression of TGF-β1 counteracted the protection effect of HF in CVB3-treated suckling mice. In summary, our study suggests HF increases the survival of CVB3 suckling mice, reduces the Th17 cells and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels, and may through downregulation of the TGF-β1-mediated expression of NF-κB p65/TNF-α pathway proteins. These results offer a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of VMC. PMID:27021682

  8. Limits to sustained energy intake XXIV: impact of suckling behaviour on the body temperatures of lactating female mice.

    PubMed

    Gamo, Y; Bernard, A; Troup, C; Munro, F; Derrer, K; Jeannesson, N; Campbell, A; Gray, H; Miller, J; Dixon, J; Mitchell, S E; Hambly, C; Vaanholt, L M; Speakman, J R

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the potential causes of high body temperature (Tb) during lactation in mice as a putative limit on energy intake. In particular we explored whether or not offspring contributed to heat retention in mothers while suckling. Tb and physical activity were monitored in 26 female MF1 mice using intraperitoneally implanted transmitters. In addition, maternal behaviour was scored each minute for 8 h d(-1) throughout lactation. Mothers that raised larger litters tended to have higher Tb while nursing inside nests (P < 0.05), suggesting that nursing offspring may have influenced heat retention. However, Tb during nursing was not higher than that recorded during other behaviours. In addition, the highest Tb during the observation period was not measured during nursing behaviour. Finally, there was no indication that mothers discontinued suckling because of a progressive rise in their Tb while suckling. Tb throughout lactation was correlated with daily increases in energy intake. Chronic hyperthermia during lactation was not caused by increased heat retention due to surrounding offspring. Other factors, like metabolic heat produced as a by-product of milk production or energy intake may be more important factors. Heat dissipation limits are probably not a phenomenon restricted to lactation. PMID:27157478

  9. Feeding a Diet Enriched in Docosahexaenoic Acid to Lactating Dams Improves the Tolerance Response to Egg Protein in Suckled Pups

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Caroline; Lewis, Erin D.; Goruk, Susan; Field, Catherine J.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of feeding a maternal diet supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) during the suckling period on the development of the immune system and oral tolerance (OT) in offspring. Dams were randomized to consume one of two nutritionally adequate diets throughout the suckling period: control (N = 12, 0% DHA) or DHA (N = 8, 0.9% DHA) diet. At 11 days, pups from each dam were randomly assigned to a mucosal OT challenge: the placebo or the ovalbumin (OVA) treatment. At three weeks, plasma immunoglobulins and splenocyte cytokine production ex vivo were measured. OVA-tolerized pups had a lower Th2 (IL-13) response to OVA despite the presence of more activated T cells and memory cells (CD27+, all p < 0.05). Feeding a high DHA diet improved the ability of splenocytes to respond to mitogens toward a skewed Th1 response and led to a higher IL-10 and a lower TGF-β production after stimulation with OVA (all p < 0.05). Untolerized DHA-fed pups had lower plasma concentrations of OVA-specific immunoglobulin E (p for interaction < 0.05). Overall, feeding a high DHA maternal diet improves the tolerance response in untolerized suckled pups in a direction that is thought to be beneficial for the establishment of OT. PMID:26907333

  10. Effects of goat milk or milk replacer diet on meat quality and fat composition of suckling goat kids.

    PubMed

    Bañón, S; Vila, R; Price, A; Ferrandini, E; Garrido, M D

    2006-02-01

    The effects of a diet with goat milk "GM" or milk replacer "MR" on the meat quality and fat composition of suckling Murciano-Granadina kids were studied. MR consisted of powdered skimmed milk, coconut oil and fat, and cereal products and by-products. Raw meat quality (moisture, protein, lipids, ash, collagen, cholesterol, haem pigments, CIELab colour, pH and water retention capacity), fatty acid "FA" composition and eating quality of cooked meat (odour, flavour and texture) were determined. Diet had only a slight effect on raw meat quality but had a pronounced effect on fatty acid composition and eating quality of cooked meat. MR diet increased the water/protein proportion in the muscle. The saturated/unsaturated FA ratio in GM and MR fat was 0.94 and 2.27, respectively. The major FA in GM and MR fat were C16:0 and C18:1, respectively. Short-chain C4-C12 hardly accumulated in the adipose tissue of suckling kid, increasing the relative percentages of C14-C20. This effect was more pronounced in MR fat, due to the fact that MR contained more short-chain fatty acids than GM. MR diet gave cooked meat a more intense characteristic goat meat odour and flavour, more tenderness and more juiciness than the natural suckling diet. This fact could be related to differences in meat and fat composition. PMID:22061547

  11. Limits to sustained energy intake XXIV: impact of suckling behaviour on the body temperatures of lactating female mice

    PubMed Central

    Gamo, Y.; Bernard, A.; Troup, C.; Munro, F.; Derrer, K.; Jeannesson, N.; Campbell, A.; Gray, H.; Miller, J.; Dixon, J.; Mitchell, S. E.; Hambly, C.; Vaanholt, L. M.; Speakman, J. R.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the potential causes of high body temperature (Tb) during lactation in mice as a putative limit on energy intake. In particular we explored whether or not offspring contributed to heat retention in mothers while suckling. Tb and physical activity were monitored in 26 female MF1 mice using intraperitoneally implanted transmitters. In addition, maternal behaviour was scored each minute for 8 h d−1 throughout lactation. Mothers that raised larger litters tended to have higher Tb while nursing inside nests (P < 0.05), suggesting that nursing offspring may have influenced heat retention. However, Tb during nursing was not higher than that recorded during other behaviours. In addition, the highest Tb during the observation period was not measured during nursing behaviour. Finally, there was no indication that mothers discontinued suckling because of a progressive rise in their Tb while suckling. Tb throughout lactation was correlated with daily increases in energy intake. Chronic hyperthermia during lactation was not caused by increased heat retention due to surrounding offspring. Other factors, like metabolic heat produced as a by-product of milk production or energy intake may be more important factors. Heat dissipation limits are probably not a phenomenon restricted to lactation. PMID:27157478

  12. Effect of dam factors on milk intake and performance of Belgian Blue suckling calves.

    PubMed

    Fiems, L O; Van Caelenbergh, W; De Campeneere, S; De Brabander, D L

    2008-01-01

    Milk intake data were collected at 4-week intervals from Belgian Blue double-muscled (BBDM) suckling calves up to 16 weeks after birth. Dams were fed at 100%, 90%, 80% or 70% of their energy requirements during a 140-day indoor period from the beginning of December to the end of April (restriction period). Afterwards, cows were turned out on pasture (re-alimentation period). Mean calving date was 3 June, but parturitions were spread over the year. A total of 521 individual milk intake (IMI) and 120 average daily milk intake (AMI, mean of IMI) records were collected. IMI amounted to 7.0 ± 2.2 kg/day and was not affected by energy level during the indoor period. It was highest in May and June. Calves born out of multiparous cows consumed more milk than those born out of primiparous cows (7.4 v. 6.2 kg per day; P = 0.001), while intake tended to be higher in female than in male calves (7.2 v. 6.8 kg per day; P = 0.044). Dam age at calving, parity, post partum weight and body condition were only weakly correlated with AMI (r 0.4). AMI was correlated with pre-weaning live-weight gain (r = 0.807) and weaning weight (r = 0.783), with a slightly higher correlation for male than for female calves. Daily live-weight gain during the suckling period was increased by 79 g per extra kg daily milk intake on average, and by 86 and 74 g, respectively, for male and female calves. Calf solid feed intake was low, even when milk intake was low. In terms of net energy intake, milk was only substituted for solid feed by 29%. It can be concluded from the calf intake that milk production in BBDM cows is comparable with that of cows from other beef breeds, but its variation is considerable, complicating an accurate estimation. PMID:22444972

  13. Temporal plasma vitamin concentrations are altered by fat-soluble vitamin administration in suckling pigs.

    PubMed

    Jang, Y D; Ma, J Y; Monegue, J S; Monegue, H J; Stuart, R L; Lindemann, M D

    2015-11-01

    Piglets are born with purportedly low plasma vitamin D levels. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of fat-soluble vitamin administration, primarily vitamin D, by different administration routes on plasma vitamin concentrations in suckling pigs. A total of 45 pigs from 5 litters were allotted at birth to 3 treatments within each litter. Pigs were administered 400 IU of α-tocopherol, 40,000 IU of retinyl palmitate, and 40,000 IU of vitamin D at d 1 of age either orally or by i.m. injection and compared with control pigs with no supplemental vitamin administration. Blood samples were collected at d 0 (initial), 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 14, and 20 after administration. Plasma 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25OHD), α-tocopherol, retinyl palmitate, and retinol concentrations were analyzed. Except for retinol, the effects of treatment, day, and day × treatment interaction ( < 0.01) were observed on plasma vitamin concentrations. Plasma concentrations of 25OHD and α-tocopherol increased immediately regardless of administration routes to peak at d 2 and 1 after administration, respectively. Plasma retinyl palmitate concentrations increased only with the injection treatment, with the peak at d 1 after administration. Plasma concentrations of 25OHD in both administration treatments and α-tocopherol in the injection treatment were maintained at greater levels than those in the control treatment until d 20 after administration. With regard to the pharmacokinetic parameters for plasma 25OHD concentrations, the injection treatment had greater elimination half-life ( < 0.01), maximum plasma concentrations ( < 0.05), and all area under the curve parameters ( < 0.01) but a lower elimination rate constant ( < 0.01) than the oral treatment. Relative bioavailability of oral administration compared with injection administration was 55.26%. These results indicate that plasma status of 25OHD,α-tocopherol, and retinyl palmitate are differentially changed between types of

  14. Role of iron in the intestinal uptake of cadmium in the newborn rat

    SciTech Connect

    Leon, L.

    1983-01-01

    There is evidence that suckling rats have a greater capacity for intestinal transport of heavy metals than do mature animals. It has been suggested that iron transport mechanisms provide a way for non-essential metals like Cd to be absorbed. The effect of iron on intestinal uptake of cadmium (/sup 109/Cd) was investigated in suckling (14 day old), adolescent (28 day old) and young adult rats (42 day old) using an in situ incubation technique. In the presence of 0.4 and 2.0 mM Fe SO/sub 4/, intestinal uptake of Cd was significantly decreased in 14 day old pups. When dams and pups were placed on an iron deficient diet (ID) tissue iron levels decreased in 28 and 42 day old rats but not in 14 day old rats. The results of the present studies suggest that intestinal cadmium transport in the suckling, adolescent and young adult rat is mediated, at least in part, by iron transport pathways.

  15. Effects of suckling duration on growth, slaughtering and carcass quality characteristics of Kivircik lambs.

    PubMed

    Ekiz, Bulent; Kocak, Omur; Yalcintan, Hulya; Yilmaz, Alper

    2016-02-01

    Effects of suckling length (45, 75 and 120 days) and birth type (single and twin) on lamb growth, slaughtering and carcass quality characteristics were investigated using 40 Kivircik lambs. SC-45 and SC-75 lambs were weaned at 45 and 75 days of age, respectively, whilst SC-120 lambs remained with their mothers until the end of the experimental period. Lambs from all studied groups were slaughtered at 120 days of age. Weaning treatment caused a decrease in average daily gain in SC-45 and SC-75 lambs, and therefore, final weight was higher in SC-120 lambs than lambs from weaned groups. SC-120 lambs had higher empty body weight, cold carcass weight, dressing percentage, carcass measurements, carcass fatness (proportions of the kidney knob and channel fat, subcutaneous and intramuscular fat in pelvic limb) and non-carcass fatness (omental and mesenteric fat proportion) than weaned lambs. As a conclusion, the potential losses in meat production due to weaning should be considered before deciding the weaning of lambs at early ages. PMID:26676241

  16. Kinetics of abamectin disposition in blood plasma and milk of lactating dairy sheep and suckling lambs.

    PubMed

    Cerkvenik-Flajs, Vesna; Grabnar, Iztok; Kozuh Erzen, Nevenka; Marc, Irena; Antonić, Jan; Vergles-Rataj, Aleksandra; Kuzner, Jernej; Pogacnik, Milan

    2007-11-14

    Abamectin (ABM) has been used worldwide as an anthelmintic drug in veterinary medicine and as an agricultural pesticide. Its pharmacokinetics and permeation into milk was evaluated in dairy sheep after subcutaneous administration. ABM elimination half-lives and mean residence times were 1.7 and 3.7 days for blood plasma and 1.9 and 3.8 days for milk, respectively. The ABM milk to plasma concentration ratio (0.89) primarily depends on milk fat content. Transfer of ABM residues to suckling lambs was evaluated by determination of ABM concentration time courses in lambs' plasma. Mean maximal concentration in lambs was 1.6 microg L(-1) at 3.3 days, and elimination half-life was 2.7 days. In ewes' plasma and milk, ABM was detected up to 23 days. Because of different pharmacokinetics, ABM exposure in lambs was almost 10% of the exposure in ewes, although the amount excreted in milk was only 1.0% of the dose. PMID:17937481

  17. [Immunization of calves with a rabies vaccine from suckling mouse brain].

    PubMed

    Díaz, A M; Lombardo, R A

    1981-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results obtained in a study on the duration of immunity in calves immunized with suckling mouse brain (SMB) rabies vaccine, supplemented with aluminum hydroxide. Rabies circulating antibodies were detected ten days after vaccination in 100% of the 31 vaccinated calves. They began to decrease 90 days after immunization. Of the 15 calves challenged one year postimmunization, 5 (33%) had no detectable antibodies at serum dilution 1:5, but all were protected against the challenge dose virus which killed 75% (3/4) of the non vaccinated controls. The results obtained suggest that SMB rabies vaccine can be used successfully to immunize calves aged from 7 days to 6 months. Since 15 to 20% of the cattle population of a country is less than one-year-old, the protection of this population against rabies with an inactivated vaccine would decrease the number of susceptible animals and facilitate both the vaccination procedures and the movement of animals from rabies-free areas to those where the disease is enzootic. PMID:6765751

  18. Expression and Localization of Aquaporin-1 Along the Intestine of Colostrum Suckling Buffalo Calves.

    PubMed

    De Luca, A; Vassalotti, G; Pelagalli, A; Pero, M E; Squillacioti, C; Mirabella, N; Lombardi, P; Avallone, L

    2015-10-01

    Aquaporin-1 (AQP1), a six-transmembrane domain protein, belongs to a highly conserved group of proteins called aquaporins known to regulate permeability across cell membranes. Although the role of AQP1 has been extensively studied, its specific activity along the gastrointestinal tract in animals during early postnatal development is poorly known. This study investigates the expression of AQP1 mRNA and protein in the small and large intestine of water buffalo calves after colostrum ingestion using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blotting, and cellular localization of AQP1 by immunohistochemistry. Our results revealed AQP1 immunoreactivity and the presence of the corresponding mRNA in all the examined tracts of the intestine but with a different cellular localization. Western blotting confirmed the presence of AQP1, with a more intense band in colostrum-suckling animals. These findings offer insights into AQP1 expression in the small and large intestine, suggesting its involvement in osmoregulation in gastrointestinal physiology particularly during the first week after birth in relation to specific maturation of intestinal structures. PMID:25348329

  19. Suckling kid breed and slaughter weight discrimination using muscle colour and visible reflectance.

    PubMed

    Ripoll, G; Alcalde, M J; Horcada, A; Panea, B

    2011-02-01

    Meat colour was evaluated in 141 male suckling kids from five Spanish breeds: Blanca Andaluza (BA), Blanca Celtibérica (BC), Moncaína (MO), Negra Serrana-Castiza (NE) and Pirenaica (PI). Kids were slaughtered at 7.5 and 11.5 kg. pH and colour were measured in the longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscle. pH values did not differ significantly among breeds. Lightness tended to decrease and redness to increase as weight increased. BC and NE at light weight and BC and BA at heavy weight were characterized by greater lightness, chroma and hue. At both weights MO and PI were darker and showed lower values for chroma and hue. BA at light weight and NE at heavy weight were characterized by values that were between those of the former groups for all variables. Discriminant analysis based on colour and pH correctly classified 48.9% of the kids into their breed and slaughter weight. PMID:21041040

  20. Arginine reduces Cryptosporidium parvum infection in undernourished suckling mice involving both nitric oxide synthase and arginase

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Ibraim C.; Oliveira, Bruna B.; Slowikowski, Jacek J.; Coutinho, Bruna P.; Siqueira, Francisco Júlio W.S.; Costa, Lourrany B.; Sevilleja, Jesus Emmanuel; Almeida, Camila A.; Lima, Aldo A.M.; Warren, Cirle A.; Oriá, Reinaldo B.; Guerrant, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the role of L-arginine supplementation to undernourished and Cryptosporidium parvum-infected suckling mice. Methods The following regimens were initiated on the 4th day of life and given subcutaneously daily: either 200mM of L-arginine or PBS for the C. parvum-infected controls. L-arginine-treated mice were grouped to receive either 20mM of NG-nitroarginine-methyl-ester (L-NAME) or PBS. Infected mice received orally 106 excysted-C. parvum oocysts on day 6 and were euthanized on day 14th at the infection peak. Results L-arginine improved weight gain compared to the untreated infected controls. L-NAME profoundly impaired body weight gain as compared to all other groups. Cryptosporidiosis was associated with ileal crypt hyperplasia, villus blunting, and inflammation. L-arginine improved mucosal histology following infection. L-NAME abrogated these arginine-induced improvements. Infected control mice showed an intense arginase expression, which was even greater with L-NAME. L-arginine reduced parasite burden, an effect that was reversed by L-NAME. C. parvum infection increased urine NO3-/NO2- concentration when compared to uninfected controls, which was increased by L-arginine supplementation, an effect that was also reversed by L-NAME. Conclusion These findings show a protective role of L-arginine during C. parvum infection in undernourished mice with involvement of arginase I and nitric oxide synthase enzymatic actions. PMID:22261576

  1. Fellatio in captive brown bears: evidence of long-term effects of suckling deprivation?

    PubMed

    Sergiel, Agnieszka; Maślak, Robert; Zedrosser, Andreas; Paśko, Łukasz; Garshelis, David L; Reljić, Slaven; Huber, Djuro

    2014-01-01

    Sexually stimulating behaviors that are not linked to reproduction are rare among non-human (especially non-primate) mammals. Such behaviors may have a function in the hierarchy of social species. In solitary species, such behaviors are more enigmatic, and possibly indicative of something abnormal. Here, we report on a case of two male brown bears, raised in captivity since being orphaned as cubs, which engaged in recurrent fellatio multiple times per day until at least 10 years old. The roles of provider and receiver in the act remained unchanged, and the behavior itself became highly ritualized. The provider always initiated the contact involving vigorous penile sucking that appeared to result in ejaculation. We suggest that the behavior began as a result of early deprivation of maternal suckling, and persisted through life, possibly because it remained satisfying for both individuals. This constitutes the first descriptive report of fellatio in bears, and suggests that some bears may suffer lifelong behavioral consequences from being orphaned at an early age. PMID:24899532

  2. PARENT ATTITUDES IN REARING MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LEICHMAN, NATHAN S.; WILLENBERG, ERNEST P.

    POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE ASPECTS OF REARING MENTAL RETARDATES WERE IDENTIFIED AND MEASURED DURING THIS STUDY BY EXAMINATIONS OF PARENTAL ATTITUDES AND HOW THESE ATTITUDES OFTEN AFFECT THE DAILY BEHAVIOR AND LEARNING READINESS OF CHILDREN WHILE IN SCHOOL. BEHAVIORAL FACTORS OF THE INDIVIDUAL CHILD WERE ANALYZED AND COMPARED WITH STATISTICS COVERING…

  3. Detail of ump that is attached to rectangular rearing tanks ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of ump that is attached to rectangular rearing tanks (pair). Pump located on the north end of rearing tank. View to the northwest. - Prairie Creek Fish Hatchery, Hwy. 101, Orick, Humboldt County, CA

  4. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF THE WEST (REAR) AND SOUTH FACADES, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF THE WEST (REAR) AND SOUTH FACADES, SHOWING THE REAR LOADING DOCK, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Eglin Air Force Base, Motor Repair Shop, Northwest of Flager Road, Chisk Lane & southern edge of Weekly Bayou, Valparaiso, Okaloosa County, FL

  5. TRACES OF ORIGINAL PARTITIONS AT JUNCTURE OF FRONT ROOM, REAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TRACES OF ORIGINAL PARTITIONS AT JUNCTURE OF FRONT ROOM, REAR ROOM AND HALL, SECOND FLOOR. ALSO SHOWS ORIGINAL STUCCO CORNICE OF FRONT AND REAR ROOMS (LEFT) AND HALL (RIGHT) - Kid-Chandler House, 323 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  6. 31. REAR OF CAR BARN DURING RECONSTRUCTION: Photocopy of July ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. REAR OF CAR BARN DURING RECONSTRUCTION: Photocopy of July 1908 photograph showing west rear of powerhouse and car barn. View from the north. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  7. EVAPORATOR FLOOR, CELL ONE IN FOREGROUND, CRYSTALLIZER MEZZANINE TO REAR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EVAPORATOR FLOOR, CELL ONE IN FOREGROUND, CRYSTALLIZER MEZZANINE TO REAR, OLIVER MUD FILTER WING TO RIGHT REAR. VIEW FROM NORTHEAST - Lihue Plantation Company, Sugar Mill Building, Haleko Road, Lihue, Kauai County, HI

  8. 53. REAR OF MOTOR AND REDUCTION GEAR NO. 2: View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. REAR OF MOTOR AND REDUCTION GEAR NO. 2: View towards northwest showing rear of Motor and Reduction Gear No. 2, installed in 1926. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  9. 4. NORTH ELEVATION, SHOWING ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICES AT LEFT REAR, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. NORTH ELEVATION, SHOWING ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICES AT LEFT REAR, AND SWITCH RACK AT RIGHT REAR. VIEW TO SOUTH-SOUTHEAST. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-3 Powerhouse, San Bernardino National Forest, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  10. 13. Dairy barn, west side, rear stall wing to left, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Dairy barn, west side, rear stall wing to left, rear yard at center, and rear yard wall to right - A. I. Du Pont Estate, Blue Ball Dairy Barn, Junction of U.S. Route 202 & Rockland Road, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  11. 24. REAR ELEVATION, HULETT ORE UNLOADERS. TRACKS CARRYING THE FRONT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. REAR ELEVATION, HULETT ORE UNLOADERS. TRACKS CARRYING THE FRONT END AND REAR LEGS OF THE HULETT UNLOADERS ARE LAID ON THE DOCK AND REAR WALLS, RESPECTIVELY; BOTH WALLS ARE MADE OF REINFORCED CONCRETE SUPPORTED ON CONCRETE PILES. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  12. 6. Partial view of rear elevations of shops building and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Partial view of rear elevations of shops building and Hangar 1301 with rear elevation of corridor (behind power plant) connecting the hangar and shops building. Side elevations of shops and hangar as well as upper rear story of power plant and stack are visible, looking south southwest - Dover Air Force Base, Hangar No. 1301, Dover, Kent County, DE

  13. GARAGE EXTERIOR EAST SIDE AND REAR SHOWING PIER SUPPORTS UNDER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GARAGE EXTERIOR EAST SIDE AND REAR SHOWING PIER SUPPORTS UNDER SHED-ROOFED REAR STORAGE COMPARTMENT, ASBESTOS SIDING OVER ORIGINAL WOOD SIDING, AND SINGLE CASEMENT WINDOW OVER REAR STORAGE COMPARTMENT. VIEW TO NORTHWEST - Big Creek Hydroelectric System, Big Creek Town, Operator House Garage, Orchard Avenue south of Huntington Lake Road, Big Creek, Fresno County, CA

  14. Individual differences in impulsive and risky choice: Effects of environmental rearing conditions

    PubMed Central

    Kirkpatrick, Kimberly; Marshall, Andrew T.; Smith, Aaron P.; Koci, Juraj; Park, Yoonseong

    2014-01-01

    The present experiment investigated early-rearing environment modulation of individual differences in impulsive and risky choice. Rats were reared in an isolated condition (IC; n = 12), in which they lived alone without novel stimuli, or an enriched condition (EC; n = 12), in which they lived among conspecifics with novel stimuli. The impulsive choice task involved choices between smaller-sooner (SS) versus larger-later (LL) rewards. The risky choice task involved choices between certain-smaller (C-S) versus uncertain-larger (U-L) rewards. Following choice testing, incentive motivation to work for food was measured using a progressive ratio task and correlated with choice behavior. HPLC analyses were conducted to determine how monoamine concentrations within the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and nucleus accumbens (NAC) related to behavior in different tasks. IC rats were more impulsive than EC rats, but they did not differ in risky choice behavior. However, choice behavior across tasks was significantly correlated (i.e., the more impulsive rats were also riskier). There were no group differences in monoamine levels, but noradrenergic and serotonergic concentrations were significantly correlated with impulsive and risky choice. Furthermore, serotonin and norepinephrine concentrations in the NAC significantly correlated with incentive motivation and the timing of the reward delays within the choice tasks. These results suggest a role for domain general processes in impulsive and risky choice and indicate the importance of the NAC and/or PFC in timing, reward processing, and choice behavior. PMID:24769268

  15. Individual differences in impulsive and risky choice: effects of environmental rearing conditions.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, Kimberly; Marshall, Andrew T; Smith, Aaron P; Koci, Juraj; Park, Yoonseong

    2014-08-01

    The present experiment investigated early-rearing environment modulation of individual differences in impulsive and risky choice. Rats were reared in an isolated condition (IC; n=12), in which they lived alone without novel stimuli, or an enriched condition (EC; n=11), in which they lived among conspecifics with novel stimuli. The impulsive choice task involved choices between smaller-sooner (SS) versus larger-later (LL) rewards. The risky choice task involved choices between certain-smaller (C-S) versus uncertain-larger (U-L) rewards. Following choice testing, incentive motivation to work for food was measured using a progressive ratio task and correlated with choice behavior. HPLC analyses were conducted to determine how monoamine concentrations within the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and nucleus accumbens (NAC) related to behavior in different tasks. IC rats were more impulsive than EC rats, but they did not differ in risky choice behavior. However, choice behavior across tasks was significantly correlated (i.e., the more impulsive rats were also riskier). There were no group differences in monoamine levels, but noradrenergic and serotonergic concentrations were significantly correlated with impulsive and risky choice. Furthermore, serotonin and norepinephrine concentrations in the NAC significantly correlated with incentive motivation and the timing of the reward delays within the choice tasks. These results suggest a role for domain general processes in impulsive and risky choice and indicate the importance of the NAC and/or PFC in timing, reward processing, and choice behavior. PMID:24769268

  16. Maternal milk as methylmercury source for suckling mice: neurotoxic effects involved with the cerebellar glutamatergic system.

    PubMed

    Manfroi, C B; Schwalm, F D; Cereser, V; Abreu, F; Oliveira, A; Bizarro, L; Rocha, J B T; Frizzo, M E S; Souza, D O; Farina, M

    2004-09-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a highly neurotoxic compound and several studies have reported intoxication signs in children whose mothers were exposed to this environmental toxicant. Although it is well established that the in utero exposure to MeHg causes neurological deficits in animals and humans, there is no evidence of the exclusive contribution of lactational exposure to MeHg as a possible cause of neurotoxicity in the offspring. In this study, we investigated the exclusive contribution of MeHg exposure through maternal milk on biochemical parameters related to the glutamatergic homeostasis (glutamate uptake by slices) and to the oxidative stress (total and nonprotein sulfhydryl groups, nonprotein hydroperoxides, glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities) in the cerebellum of suckling mice (Swiss albino). The same parameters were also evaluated in the cerebellum of mothers. Our results showed, for the first time, that lactational exposure to MeHg caused a high percent of inhibition (50%) on glutamate uptake by cerebellar slices in pups. Contrarily, this effect was not observed in mothers, which were submitted to a direct oral exposure to MeHg (15 mg/l in drinking water). In addition, behavioral/functional changes were observed in the weaning mice exposed to MeHg. It was observed an increase in the levels of nonprotein hydroperoxides in cerebellum, and this increase was negatively correlated to the glutamate uptake by cerebellar slices. This study indicates that (1) the exposure of lactating mice to MeHg causes inhibition of the glutamate uptake by cerebellar slices in the offspring; (2) this inhibitory effect seems to be related to increased levels of hydroperoxide. PMID:15201443

  17. Partial suckling of lambs reduced the linoleic and conjugated linoleic acid contents of marketable milk in Chios ewes.

    PubMed

    Tzamaloukas, O; Orford, M; Miltiadou, D; Papachristoforou, C

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of weaning systems applied in a commercial dairy sheep farm on the fatty acid (FA) composition of marketable milk produced. Forty second parity, purebred Chios ewes were allocated to the following weaning treatments: (a) ewes were weaned from their lambs at 48 h after birth and machine milked twice daily [no lambs (NL) group, n=20]; or, (b) starting 48 h postpartum, ewes were separated from their lambs for 12h during the evening, machine milked once daily the following morning, and lambs were allowed to suckle for 12 h during the day for the first 5 wk of lactation [partial suckling (PS) group, n=20]. After weaning of the PS lambs at wk 6 of age, all ewes were machine milked twice daily. Commercial milk yield and milk composition was recorded weekly (fat, protein, FA content) or fortnightly (somatic cell counts) throughout the first 10 wk of lactation. The PS ewes compared with NL group produced commercial milk lower in milk yield, milk fat, and somatic cell counts, but not in protein content during the first 5-wk period. Such differences were not observed after weaning of the PS lambs. The FA profile of commercial milk was also affected by partial suckling during the preweaning period. Total polyunsaturated FA were higher in NL compared with PS ewe milk at wk 1, 2, 4, and 5 (on average, 21% higher), whereas no differences were detected between NL and PS ewe milk from wk 6 to 10 of lactation. From the polyunsaturated FA, linoleic acid (C18:2 cis-9,cis-12) and conjugated linoleic acid (C18:2 cis-9,trans-11; rumenic acid) were particularly affected, showing on average a reduction of 18 and 38%, respectively. From the monounsaturated FA, vaccenic acid (C18:1 trans-11) was affected during wk 1 and 2 of the treatment period, with the PS ewe milk having reduced content compared with the NL milk. Other unsaturated FA, such as oleic acid and α-linolenic acid, or saturated FA were not found to be affected by the

  18. Rear axle designed in oriented FRP

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-08-01

    Using techniques of both synthesis and analysis, together with carefully defined goals, a team of investigators devised a major suspension member using oriented fiber reinforced plastic. A weight saving of 57% resulted for an innovative rear axle design estimate to increase cost about /1.20 per kilogram of weight saved. Only durability fell short of expectations, a factor which should improve with further refinements.

  19. Prenatal transportation stress alters temperament and serum cortisol concentrations in suckling Brahman calves.

    PubMed

    Littlejohn, B P; Price, D M; Banta, J P; Lewis, A W; Neuendorff, D A; Carroll, J A; Vann, R C; Welsh, T H; Randel, R D

    2016-02-01

    This experiment examined the relationship between prenatal stress and subsequent calf temperament through weaning. The prenatal stressor used was repeated transportation of pregnant Brahman cows for 2 h at 60 ± 5, 80 ± 5, 100 ± 5, 120 ± 5, and 140 ± 5 d of gestation. Prenatally stressed calves ( = 41) were compared with controls ( = 44; dams did not undergo transportation during pregnancy) from 2 wk of age until weaning (average age at weaning = 174.8 ± 1.3 d). Temperament was defined by pen score (PS; 1 = calm and 5 = excitable), exit velocity (EV; m/sec), and temperament score (TS; (PS + EV)/2) and was recorded for each calf on d -168, -140, -112, -84, -56, -28, and 0 relative to weaning (d 0 = weaning). Cortisol concentrations were determined in serum samples obtained on d -168, -140, -28, and 0 relative to weaning. Birth weight and weaning weight were not different between treatment groups ( > 0.1). Pen score was greater ( = 0.03) in prenatally stressed calves (2.84 ± 0.21) relative to controls (2.31 ± 0.21). Exit velocity was greater ( < 0.01) in prenatally stressed calves (2.1 ± 0.14 m/sec) than in controls (1.61 ± 0.14 m/sec). Exit velocity was affected by a treatment × calf sex interaction ( = 0.04) and was greater in prenatally stressed females. Exit velocity was also affected by day ( < 0.0001). Temperament score was greater ( = 0.01) in prenatally stressed calves (2.45 ± 0.16) than in controls (1.95 ± 0.16). Temperament score was affected by day ( < 0.01). Basal cortisol concentrations were greater ( = 0.04) in prenatally stressed calves (15.87 ± 1.04 ng/mL) than in controls (13.42 ± 1.03 ng/mL). Basal cortisol concentrations were greater ( < 0.01) in females (16.61 ± 1.06 ng/mL) than in males (12.68 ± 1.02 ng/mL). Cortisol concentrations were positively correlated ( < 0.01) with PS ( = 0.55, < 0.01), EV ( = 0.4, < 0.01), and TS ( = 0.55, < 0.01). Overall, suckling Brahman calves that were prenatally stressed were more temperamental and

  20. Diarrhea due to Cryptosporidium infection in artificially reared lambs.

    PubMed Central

    Tzipori, S; Angus, K W; Campbell, I; Clerihew, L W

    1981-01-01

    Severe diarrhea which lasted 7 to 12 days occurred in 40 of 48 artificially reared lambs within 5 to 12 days of birth, and 16 of them died. Of 16 diarrheic fecal samples examined, 10 contained Cryptosporidium oocysts and 1 contained rotavirus, but no other known enteropathogen was detected. Upon histological examination, cryptosporidia were found in the ilea of three affected lambs, and in one of them, villous atrophy and fusion, with epithelial cross-bridging between villi, were present in distal small intestine. Diarrhea was induced in two specific pathogen-free lambs by oral inoculation with fecal homogenate containing Cryptosporidium oocysts. Both the small and large intestines became infected with the organism, and associated lesions included stunting, fusion, and deformities of villi in the distal small intestine, with replacement of columnar enterocytes by immature cuboidal cells. Subclinical infections were induced in newborn specific pathogen-free mice and rats. Judged by these data, the lamb-derived Cryptosporidium sp. is similar to those recovered from calves, deer, and humans. Images PMID:7263849

  1. Preweaning housing effects on behavior and physiological measures in pigs during the suckling and fattening periods.

    PubMed

    Chaloupková, H; Illmann, G; Neuhauserová, K; Tománek, M; Valis, L

    2007-07-01

    The effect of the preweaning housing system on the stress response of pigs before weaning and during fattening was studied in 33 litters of domestic pigs. Three preweaning housing systems were compared: barren crate (standard farrowing crate without straw), enriched crate (20% larger crate, with straw), and as a control, a farrowing pen (pen, 60% larger than the barren crate, with straw). At 25 d of age, pigs were tested with an isolation test and 1 d later with a human approach test (HumanT). Pigs were weaned at 28 d of age. At 3 and 6 mo of age, pigs were tested with an isolation-human approach test. The latency and frequency of squeal calls and locomotor activity were analyzed for all 3 tests, whereas physical contact with the human was also analyzed for the HumanT and isolation-human approach test. At 6 mo of age, the pigs were transported to a slaughterhouse. One day before transport, immediately after transport, and 1 h after transport, saliva samples were taken for cortisol analysis. The pH of the LM was also measured 45 min after slaughter. Preweaning housing system affected (P < 0.05) the probability of squeal vocalizations, the latency of locomotion, and the duration of locomotion during the HumanT. Pigs from the enriched pens vocalized less, had a longer latency to move, and performed less overall locomotion than pigs from the barren crates. Preweaning housing system did not affect behavior of fattening pigs. Cortisol concentrations before and after transport were not affected by preweaning housing system. An interaction of cortisol concentrations and housing systems was observed between the control sample and the sample taken immediately after transport in pigs from the barren crates (P < 0.05) compared with pigs from the enriched housing systems. Meat from pigs reared in the barren crate tended to have lower pH (P < 0.10) and that of pigs reared in enriched crates had lower pH (P < 0.05) than meat of pigs reared in enriched pens. No differences were

  2. Maternal and littermate deprivation disrupts maternal behavior and social-learning of food preference in adulthood: tactile stimulation, nest odor, and social rearing prevent these effects.

    PubMed

    Melo, Angel I; Lovic, Vedran; Gonzalez, Andrea; Madden, Melissa; Sinopoli, Katia; Fleming, Alison S

    2006-04-01

    Maternal and littermate (social) separation, through artificial rearing (AR), disrupts the development of subsequent maternal behavior and social learning in rats. The addition of maternal-licking-like stimulation during AR, partially reverses some of these effects. However, little is know about the role of social stimuli from littermates and nest odors during the preweaning period, in the development of the adult maternal behavior and social learning. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of peer- and peer-and-odor rearing on the development of maternal behavior and social learning in rats. Female pups were reared with mothers (mother reared-MR) or without mothers (AR) from postnatal day (PND) 3. AR rats received three different treatments: (1) AR-CONTROL group received minimal tactile stimulation, (2) AR-ODOR females received exposure to maternal nest material inside the AR-isolation-cup environment, (3) AR-SOCIAL group was reared in the cup with maternal nest material and a conspecific of the same-age and same-sex and received additional tactile stimulation. MR females were reared by their mothers in the nest and with conspecifics. In adulthood, rats were tested for maternal behavior towards their own pups and in a social learning task. Results confirm our previous report that AR impairs performance of maternal behavior and the development of a social food preference. Furthermore, social cues from a littermate, in combination with tactile stimulation and the nest odor, reversed the negative effects of complete isolation (AR-CONTROL) on some of the above behaviors. Exposure to the odor alone also had effects on some of these olfactory-mediated behaviors. These studies indicate that social stimulation from littermates during the preweaning period, in combination with odor from the nest and tactile stimulation, contributes to the development of affiliative behaviors. PMID:16568415

  3. Distant view of rear and side (east) of building 256, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Distant view of rear and side (east) of building 256, along with the rear of building 257 (obstructed by truck), and side and rear of building 255. In the distance, the upper floors of the hospital, building 500, is visible. Camera station is next to building 264, looking south. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Building 256, North side of East O'Niell Avenue, between Tenth & Twelfth Streets, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  4. 49 CFR 393.86 - Rear impact guards and rear end protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... rear impact guard that meets the requirements of Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 223 (49 CFR... (49 CFR 571.224) in effect at the time the vehicle was manufactured. The requirements of paragraph (a... required by FMVSS No. 223 (49 CFR 571.223, S5.3). The label must be on the forward-facing surface of...

  5. 49 CFR 393.86 - Rear impact guards and rear end protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... rear impact guard that meets the requirements of Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 223 (49 CFR... (49 CFR 571.224) in effect at the time the vehicle was manufactured. The requirements of paragraph (a... required by FMVSS No. 223 (49 CFR 571.223, S5.3). The label must be on the forward-facing surface of...

  6. 4. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST, SHOWING REAR WING OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST, SHOWING REAR WING OF ADMINISTRATION BUILDING. - Bonneville Project, Administration Building, South side of main entrance, Bonneville Project, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  7. View of south rear and east sides, facing northnorthwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of south rear and east sides, facing north-northwest - International Longshoremen's & Warehousemen's Union Hall, Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory, Port Hueneme Road, Port Hueneme, Ventura County, CA

  8. GARAGE, SOUTH (REAR) AND EAST SIDE, LOOKING NORTHWEST Irvine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GARAGE, SOUTH (REAR) AND EAST SIDE, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Carillo Tenant House, Southwest of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA

  9. 7. SOUTHEAST REAR DETAIL, SHOWING WINDOWS. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. SOUTHEAST REAR DETAIL, SHOWING WINDOWS. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, Key City Electric Street Railroad, Powerhouse & Storage Barn, Eighth & Washington Streets, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  10. 7. INTERIOR, VIEW FROM ENTRANCE TOWARD ENCLOSED STAIRS AND REAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. INTERIOR, VIEW FROM ENTRANCE TOWARD ENCLOSED STAIRS AND REAR DOOR - Mulliken-Spragins Tenant House, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  11. BLDG 1 REAR (EAST) AND NORTH END Naval Magazine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BLDG 1 REAR (EAST) AND NORTH END - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Headquarters Branch, Administration Building, Between Constitution & Constellation Streets, east side of main quad, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  12. OBLIQUE VIEW, REAR ELEVATION, LOOKING NORTHEAST Mountain Home Air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW, REAR ELEVATION, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Mountain Home Air Force Base 1958 Senior Officers' Housing, General's Residence, Rabeni Street (originally Ivy Street), Mountain Home, Elmore County, ID

  13. Audiotactile interactions in front and rear space.

    PubMed

    Occelli, Valeria; Spence, Charles; Zampini, Massimiliano

    2011-01-01

    The last few years have seen a growing interest in the assessment of audiotactile interactions in information processing in peripersonal space. In particular, these studies have focused on investigating peri-hand space [corrected] and, more recently, on the functional differences that have been demonstrated between the space close to front and back of the head (i.e., the peri-head space). In this review, the issue of how audiotactile interactions vary as a function of the region of space in which stimuli are presented (i.e., front vs. rear, peripersonal vs. extra-personal) will be described. We review evidence from both monkey and human studies. This evidence, providing insight into the differential attributes qualifying the frontal and the rear regions of space, sheds light on an until now neglected research topic and may help to contribute to the formulation of new rehabilitative approaches to disorders of spatial representation. A tentative explanation of the evolutionary reasons underlying these particular patterns of results, as well as suggestions for possible future developments, are also provided. PMID:20621120

  14. Gnotobiotic pigs-derivation and rearing.

    PubMed Central

    Miniats, O P; Jol, D

    1978-01-01

    The procurement, rearing, nutrition and microbiological monitoring of gnotobiotic pigs and a method for conditioning of primary, colostrum-deprived, specific pathogen free pigs is described. As compared to the established hysterectomy and closed hysterotomy methods for the derivation of gnotobiotic piglets an alternative approach, open caesarian section with the sow maintained under general halothane-nitrous oxide anaesthesia and the introduction of each fetus into the sterile isolator via a liquid germicidal trap, was found to be more efficient and equally successful in providing viable and microbiologically sterile piglets. Two sterile commercially available milk diets, a special formula for orphan animals and condensed cow's milk, when the latter was supplemented with injectable vitamin E, selenium and iron, proved adequate for satisfactory health of the animals. Two types of pelleted starter rations, sterilized by 4.5 megarads of gamma irradiation, provided adequately for the nutritional needs of older gnotobiotic pigs. Results of microbiological monitoring indicated that the surgical and rearing methods employed were capable of preventing contamination of the animals with bacteria, mycoplasma, yeasts, molds, protozoa and helminths but probably could not exclude occasional vertically transmitted viral infections. Exposure of the animals for four weeks to selected strains of lactobacilli, fecal streptococci and Escherichia coli did not result in visible disease while they were maintained in isolators and conditioned them for transfer into a conventional microbial environment. PMID:154359

  15. Developmental changes of prostaglandin processing in rat small intestine

    SciTech Connect

    Koldovsky, O.; Bedrick, A.

    1986-03-01

    Cytoprotective prostaglandins are present in milk and can be absorbed intact from the gastrointestinal tract in suckling animals. To examine developmental changes in intestinal metabolism of PGF/sub 2..cap alpha../, everted sacs of small intestinal segments in suckling and weanling rats were prepared. Incubation (60 min) was performed in KRB buffer, pH 7.4 at 37/sup 0/C. Bathing mucosal fluid (MF) contained /sup 3/H-PGF/sub 2..cap alpha../. MF, intestinal wall (IW) and serosal fluid (SF) were analyzed quantitatively for total radioactivity, and qualitatively by organic solvent extraction followed by thin layer chromatography. Changes in MF radioactivity were minimal after incubation. SU had greater capacity for PGF/sub 2..cap alpha../ transfer into SF. Compared to WE, SU had greater proportion of intact, unmetabolized PGF/sub 2..cap alpha../ present in IW of all intestinal segments; i.e., in middle segment: 32.9% +/- 4.5 (mean +/- SEM) vs 17.1% +/- 2.4 (N = 6/group; p < 0.2). WE had more nonpolar PGF/sub 2..cap alpha../ degradation products present. In each age group, chromatographic patterns of IW and SF were similar for each intestinal region. Intestinal everted sacs of SU and WE transfer PGF/sub 2..cap alpha../. SU have a greater proportion and amount of unmetabolized PGF/sub 2..cap alpha../ present in IW and SF than WE. Possible functional significance to the integrity of intestinal mucosal of sucklings has to be considered.

  16. Minimum survival rates for Mississippi sandhill cranes: a comparison of hand-rearing and parent-rearing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.; Gee, G.F.; Olsen, G.H.; Hereford, Scott G.; Nicolich, J.M.; Thomas, N.J.; Nagendran, M.

    2001-01-01

    Hand-reared (56) and parent-reared (76) juvenile Mississippi sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis pulla) were produced at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center (Patuxent), Laurel, Maryland over a 4-year period (1989-92) and released at the Mississippi Sandhill Crane National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge), Gautier, Mississippi in a controlled experiment. Hand-reared survival rates proved higher than for parent-reared survival for each time category: 6 months, 86% versus 75%; 1 year, 77% versus 68%; 2 years 66% versus 53%; 3 years, 55% versus 43%: partial data for fourth and filth years were 57% versus 31% and 48% versus 37%.

  17. Feeding probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus (MTCC 5897) fermented milk to suckling mothers alleviates ovalbumin-induced allergic sensitisation in mice offspring.

    PubMed

    Saliganti, Vamshi; Kapila, Rajeev; Sharma, Rohit; Kapila, Suman

    2015-10-28

    The neonatal period is often polarised to T helper (Th2) response at the time of birth, predisposing offspring to allergic disorders. Passive immunity through the mother's milk is critical for immune system development of newborns. Probiotics have been proposed to harmonise Th1/Th2 imbalance in allergic conditions in adults. In the present study, the anti-allergic effects of feeding probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus-fermented milk (PFM) either to dams during the suckling period or to their offspring after weaning individually or else in successive periods against ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergy in newborns was analysed. After allergen sensitisation, physical symptoms of allergy, gut immune response, humoral immune response and cell-mediated response through interleukins were detected. Consumption of PFM by mothers and offspring showed a reduction (P<0·01) in physical allergic symptoms in newborns with an increase (P<0·01) in the numbers of goblet and IgA+ cells in the small intestine. Similarly, considerable (P<0·001) decreases in OVA-specific antibodies (IgE, IgG, IgG1) and ratios of IgE/IgG2a and IgG1/IgG2a in the sera of newborn mice were recorded. A decrease in IL-4 and an increase in interferon-γ levels further confirmed the shift from Th2 to Th1 pathway in PFM-fed mice. It is logical to conclude that the timing of PFM intervention in alleviating allergic symptoms is critical, which was found to be most effective when mothers were fed during the suckling period. PMID:26330132

  18. The effect of post milking teat dip and suckling on teat skin condition, bacterial colonisation, and udder health.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, M D; Larsen, H D

    1998-01-01

    The teat skin of cows was scored (1: smooth as silk; 2: smooth; 3: slightly rough; 4: rough; 5: cracked; and 6: scores) by trained technicians who moved their fingers down the barrel of the teat with a light touch. Technicians ranked the same population of teats in the same rank order, but their mean values differed by half a score which probably could be related to the skin condition of their own fingers. Half udder experiments were carried out for 6 months at 4 farms with 35 to 52 cows each. A postmilking teat spray with 10% glycerol improved teat skin condition (p < 0.10) compared with no teat spray. A postmilking teat spray with 120 ppm chlorine dioxide did not influence teat skin condition compared with no teat spray. No differences in udder health could be proven between treatments. Control studies revealed that 10% glycerol as an emollient of a postmilking teat spray improved teat skin condition within 3 weeks from being slightly rough to being smooth for lactating cows (p < 0.05) but not for dry cows having smooth teat skin. Neither glycerol nor chlorine dioxide influenced absolute number of bacteria on teat skin after a challenge with Streptococcus uberis and Staphylococcus aureus but half life of S. aureus on unsprayed teats was longest (p = 0.05). Suckling made teat skin more rough than machine milking. Nevertheless, suckling lowered the number of esculin positive bacteria on the teat skin. We concluded that the condition of healthy teat skin (scores 1-4) has no influence on bacterial colonisation in the absence of cracks and sores (scores 5-6). PMID:9926458

  19. Cross-Cultural Child Rearing Practices: Implications for School Psychologists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escovar, Peggy L.; Lazarus, Philip J.

    The knowledge of cross-cultural child-rearing practices to aid school psychologists is illustrated in this paper. A literature review of child-rearing practices is provided, focusing on: (1) children's social, cultural, and psychological development; (2) the school psychologist's identification of culturally bound aspects of child development; and…

  20. View of Corto Square. Building No. 32 at center rear ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Corto Square. Building No. 32 at center rear and Building No. 31 at right rear. Rolled curb design of sidewalk on left, looking southeast - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  1. Aerial view west from center of square showing rear walls ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aerial view west from center of square showing rear walls and roofs of rear ells of 515 Eleventh Street, 517 Eleventh Street, 519 Eleventh Street, and Eleventh Street - Square 347 (Commercial Buildings), Tenth, Eleventh, E, & F Streets, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  2. North rear, oblique view to the southeast, showing the east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North rear, oblique view to the southeast, showing the east wing and rear wall construction. Note the outline of the former windows beneath the current small aluminum-frame windows - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Building No. 16 A-B (Duplex), 30652 & 30654 Wellton-Mohawk Drive, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  3. 2. VIEW LOOKING NORTH OF GUARDLOCK (LEFT REAR), DUNDEE DAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW LOOKING NORTH OF GUARDLOCK (LEFT REAR), DUNDEE DAM (RIGHT-CENTER REAR), AND REMOVED SITE OF TOWPATH (FOREGROUND) DURING HYDROPOWER FACILITY INSTALLATION - Dundee Canal, Headgates, Guardlock & Uppermost Section, 250 feet northeast of Randolph Avenue, opposite & in line with East Clifton Avenue, Clifton, Passaic County, NJ

  4. Passive solar system for maintaining and rearing marine organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Yuschak, P.; Richards, F.M.

    1987-04-01

    A solar-heated facility for maintaining and rearing marine organisms is described. Water from a shallow tidal bay is moved by a tide-regulated pumping system into settling tanks for removal of suspended silt and clay, from which the water drains by gravity flow to circular rearing tanks.

  5. DOORS AT REAR KITCHEN WALL, LOOKING SOUTH; LEFT DOOR LEADS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DOORS AT REAR KITCHEN WALL, LOOKING SOUTH; LEFT DOOR LEADS TO SMALL PANTRY, EAST DOOR AND DINING ROOM; 2ND LEFT DOOR LEADS TO BASEMENT; 3RD LEFT DOOR LEADS TO 2ND FLOOR VIA REAR STAIRS; RIGHT DOOR LEADS TO PANTRY, DINING ROOM - Fort Leavenworth, Building No. 18, 16-18 Sumner Place, Leavenworth, Leavenworth County, KS

  6. Rear wheel suspension and steering system

    SciTech Connect

    Ewen, J.G.

    1990-07-17

    This patent describes an improvement in a rear wheel support and driving system. The system comprises a rack-type dead axle adapted to support a vehicle body thereupon through suitable spring means, a pair of wheels rotatably supported upon the dead axle, a differential drive mechanism adapted to be supported upon the vehicle body movable with the body relative to the dead axle, the differential mechanism including a power input shaft and power output shafts, a pair of live axles drivingly connecting the output shafts with the wheels. The dead axle being generally rectilinear in shape and having a first pair of longitudinal beams respectively transversely spaced outboard of the differential mechanism, a second pair of cross beams respectively spaced fore and aft of the differential mechanism and secured to the first pair of beams.

  7. Effect of high-fat diet during gestation, lactation, or postweaning on physiological and behavioral indexes in borderline hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Anaya; Alvers, Kristin M.; Crump, Erica M.; Rowland, Neil E.

    2009-01-01

    Maternal obesity is becoming more prevalent. We used borderline hypertensive rats (BHR) to investigate whether a high-fat diet at different stages of development has adverse programming consequences on metabolic parameters and blood pressure. Wistar dams were fed a high- or low-fat diet for 6 wk before mating with spontaneously hypertensive males and during the ensuing pregnancy. At birth, litters were fostered to a dam from the same diet group as during gestation or to the alternate diet condition. Female offspring were weaned on either control or “junk food” diets until about 6 mo of age. Rats fed the high-fat junk food diet were hyperphagic relative to their chow-fed controls. The junk food-fed rats were significantly heavier and had greater fat pad mass than those rats maintained on chow alone. Importantly, those rats suckled by high-fat dams had heavier fat pads than those suckled by control diet dams. Fasting serum leptin and insulin levels differed as a function of the gestational, lactational, and postweaning diet histories. Rats gestated in, or suckled by high-fat dams, or maintained on the junk food diet were hyperleptinemic compared with their respective controls. Indirect blood pressure did not differ as a function of postweaning diet, but rats gestated in the high-fat dams had lower mean arterial blood pressures than those gestated in the control diet dams. The postweaning dietary history affected food-motivated behavior; junk food-fed rats earned less food pellets on fixed (FR) and progressive (PR) ratio cost schedules than chow-fed controls. In conclusion, the effects of maternal high-fat diet during gestation or lactation were mostly small and transient. The postweaning effects of junk food diet were evident on the majority of the parameters measured, including body weight, fat pad mass, serum leptin and insulin levels, and operant performance. PMID:18971351

  8. Low prevalence of porcine circovirus type 2 infections in farrowing sows and corresponding pre-suckling piglets in southern German pig farms.

    PubMed

    Eddicks, M; Koeppen, M; Willi, S; Fux, R; Reese, S; Sutter, G; Stadler, J; Ritzmann, M

    2016-05-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the assumed causative agent of a number of different diseases summarized as porcine circovirus diseases (PCVD). The virus is shed via different se- and excretions of PCV2 infected pigs. Transmission of the virus occurs horizontally and vertically either by oronasal or diaplacental infection. Recent research emphasizes the importance of diaplacental PCV2 infection or the infection in early stages of the piglet's life attributable to excretion of PCV2 by the dams within the suckling period. To estimate the prevalence of intrauterine PCV2 infections under field conditions in Bavaria the PCV2 status of farrowing sows (n=198) and corresponding pre-suckling piglets (n=590) of 20 piglet producing farms was examined. PCV2 viral load and anti-PCV2 antibodies in the serum of the sows and piglets were examined at time of farrowing or before colostrum intake, respectively. PCV2 excretion of the sows via saliva, feces and urine was examined additionally. PCV2 specific antibodies in the serum of the sows were detectable on 11 farms with a mean in herd seroprevalence of 35.5% in these farms. Only 0.65% of all samples collected from 198 sows were positive for PCV2 DNA (serum: 1%; feces: 0.5%; saliva: 0.5%; urine: 0.6%). PCV2 DNA was detectable in sample material from seronegative sows as well as from seropositive sows. In none of the pre-suckling serum samples of the piglets IgG antibodies against PCV2 or PCV2 DNA were present. No correlation between the antibody- and viremia status of the sows and the PCV2 excretion was detectable. In contrast to reports about a high prevalence of viremic pre-suckling piglets in the suckling period in North America, the results of the present study reveal that diaplacental infection with PCV2 is comparatively rare in Southern Germany and infection of piglets within the suckling period seems to be more likely. PMID:27066711

  9. Genetic and environmental influences on eating behavior - a study of twin pairs reared apart or reared together

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the relative influence of genetic versus environmental factors on specific aspects of eating behavior. Adult monozygotic twins (22 pairs and 3 singleton reared apart, 38 pairs and 9 singleton reared together, age 18-76 years, BMI 17-43 kg/m2) completed the Three Factor Eating Que...

  10. Autonomy, Educational Plans, and Self-Esteem in Institution-Reared and Home-Reared Teenagers in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tulviste, Tiia

    2011-01-01

    The study examines autonomy, self-esteem, and educational plans for the future of 109 institution-reared and 106 home-reared teenagers (15-19 years). Teenagers were asked to complete the Teen Timetable Scale (Feldman & Rosenthal), two Emotional Autonomy Scales (Steinberg & Silverberg), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and answer questions about…

  11. Rear Polarization of the Microtubule-Organizing Center in Neointimal Smooth Muscle Cells Depends on PKCα, ARPC5, and RHAMM

    PubMed Central

    Silverman-Gavrila, Rosalind; Silverman-Gavrila, Lorelei; Hou, Guangpei; Zhang, Ming; Charlton, Milton; Bendeck, Michelle P.

    2011-01-01

    Directed migration of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) from the media to the intima in arteries occurs during atherosclerotic plaque formation and during restenosis after angioplasty or stent application. The polarized orientation of the microtubule-organizing center (MTOC) is a key determinant of this process, and we therefore investigated factors that regulate MTOC polarity in vascular SMCs. SMCs migrating in vivo from the medial to the intimal layer of the rat carotid artery following balloon catheter injury were rear polarized, with the MTOC located posterior of the nucleus. In tissue culture, migrating neointimal cells maintained rear polarization, whereas medial cells were front polarized. Using phosphoproteomic screening and mass spectrometry, we identified ARPC5 and RHAMM as protein kinase C (PKC)-phosphorylated proteins associated with rear polarization of the MTOC in neointimal SMCs. RNA silencing of ARPC5 and RHAMM, PKC inhibition, and transfection with a mutated nonphosphorylatable ARPC5 showed that these proteins regulate rear polarization by organizing the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons in neointimal SMCs. Both ARPC5 and RHAMM, in addition to PKC, were required for migration of neointimal SMCs. PMID:21281821

  12. Ontogeny of rat hepatic adrenoceptors

    SciTech Connect

    McMillian, M.K.; Schanberg, S.M.; Kuhn, C.M.

    1983-10-01

    Hepatic alpha-1, alpha-2 and beta-2 adrenoceptors were characterized during development of the rat through Scatchard analysis of (3H)prazosin, (3H)rauwolscine and (125I)pindolol binding to liver membrane preparations. Major changes in adrenoceptor numbers occur shortly before birth at weaning. The fetal rat liver is characterized by a large number of alpha-2 adrenoceptors, which falls 10-fold by birth. The number of hepatic beta-2 adrenoceptors decreases gradually during development, and is lower at all times than the number of alpha-1 and alpha-2 adrenoceptors. The developmental profile of the hepatic alpha-1 adrenoceptor is biphasic: there is a 2 to 3-fold fall in alpha-1 adrenoceptor number at birth and a 3- to 5-fold rise at weaning. While absolute numbers of alpha-1 and beta-2 adrenoceptors do not correlate precisely with reported actions of epinephrine and norepinephrine on hepatic metabolism during ontogeny, the increasing ratio of alpha-1/beta-2 hepatic adrenoceptors may contribute to the conversion from predominantly beta effects of catecholamines reported in fetal and suckling rat liver to the predominantly alpha-1 effects that are well documented in the adult male rat.

  13. Maturation of jejunoileal gradients in rat intestine: the role of intraluminal nutrients.

    PubMed

    Castillo, R O; Feng, J J; Stevenson, D K; Kwong, L K

    1992-01-01

    Jejunoileal gradients of intestinal function are thought to be established during the third week of life in the rat when postnatal intestinal maturation occurs. In order to investigate the normal development of jejunoileal gradients and whether either the absence of intraluminal nutrients or the form in which they are provided affected the development of jejunoileal gradients, gradients for mucosal DNA, protein, lactase and sucrase were studied in suckling rats undergoing normal weaning and compared to gradients in rats receiving no intraluminal nutrients or rats receiving nutrients in elemental form. In suckling animals, preexisting jejunoileal gradients for DNA and protein persisted through the weaning period, gradients for lactase formed by rapid decline of ileal function and sucrase gradients formed by rapid increase in jejunal activities. Intraluminal nutrients in elemental form resulted in the formation of jejunoileal gradients similar to those in intestines of normally weaned rats. The lack of intraluminal nutrients resulted in no qualitative differences in the expression of jejunoileal gradients for sucrase, but provision of elemental nutrients resulted in increased jejunoileal differences for this enzyme. The lack of intraluminal nutrients resulted in no gradients for DNA, less pronounced jejunoileal differences for protein and delayed maturational decline of ileal lactase which prevented development of jejunoileal gradients for the enzyme. These studies indicate that the formation of jejunoileal gradients in the maturing rat intestine for the parameters investigated require intraluminal nutrients regardless of the form in which they are provided for their normal expression. PMID:1467373

  14. Odor aversion learning by the rat fetus.

    PubMed

    Smotherman, W P

    1982-11-01

    Rat fetuses were exposed to an odor stimulus on day 20 of gestation via amniotic injection and then injected with LiCl. In a CER paradigm, 10 day old pups were trained to approach an anesthetized dam in a runway for suckling reinforcement. When running speeds had stabilized the odor stimulus experienced in-utero was introduced into the test chamber. This odor took on aversive properties as a function of its pairing with LiCl, as evidenced by a decrease in running speed on CER trials and increases in the number of trials that were terminated because pups failed to traverse the runway. These data indicate that the fetal rat is capable of odor aversion learning. PMID:6296892

  15. A Survey of Management Practices That Influence Performance and Welfare of Dairy Calves Reared in Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Hötzel, Maria J.; Longo, Cibele; Balcão, Lucas F.; Cardoso, Clarissa S.; Costa, João H. C.

    2014-01-01

    Here we report dairy calf management practices used by 242 smallholder family farmers in the South of Brazil. Data were collected via a semi-structured questionnaire with farmers, inspection of the production environment and an in-depth interview with a sample of 26 farmers. Herds had an average of 22.3 lactating cows and an average milk production of 12.7 L/cow/day. Calves were dehorned in 98% of the farms, with a hot iron in 95%. Male calves were castrated in 71% of the farms; methods were surgery (68%), emasculator (29%), or rubber rings (3%). No pain control was used for these interventions. In 51% of the farms all newborn male calves were reared, sold or donated to others; in 35% all newborn males were killed on the farm. Calves were separated from the dam up to 12 h after birth in 78% of the farms, and left to nurse colostrum from the dam without intervention in 55% of the farms. The typical amount of milk fed to calves was 4 L/day until a median age of 75 days. In 40% of the farms milk was provided in a bucket, in 49% with bottles, and in 11% calves suckled from a cow. Solid feeding in the milk-feeding period started at a median age of 10 days. Calves were housed individually in 70% of the farms; in 81% of the farms calves were housed in indoor pens, in 6% in outdoor hutches and in 13% they were kept on pasture. Diarrhoea was reported as the main cause of calf mortality in 71% of the farms. Farmers kept no records of calf disease, mortality, or use of medicines. Changing the scenario identified in this survey is essential to support the sustainable development of dairy production, an activity of great economic and social relevance for the region. PMID:25506692

  16. Effect of different types of litter material for rearing broilers.

    PubMed

    Swain, B K; Sundaram, R N

    2000-07-01

    1. Coir dust was evaluated as broiler litter in comparison with sawdust and rice husk using 135 commercial broilers. Forty-five broiler chicks were reared to 42 d on a 50 mm layer of each of these litters. 2. Birds reared on coir dust showed no difference in food consumption, body weight gain, food conversion efficiency production number and survivability in comparison to those reared on saw dust and rice husk. 3. It was concluded that coir dust is suitable as broiler litter when cheaply available. PMID:11081418

  17. Cooperative fish-rearing programs in Hanford Site excess facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Herborn, D.I.; Anderson, B.N.

    1994-05-01

    In, 1993, two successful fish-rearing pilot projects were conducted in Hanford Site 100 K Area water treatment pools (K Pools) that are excess to the US Department of Energy needs. Beginning this spring, two larger cooperative fish programs will be undertaken in the K Pools. One program will involve the Yakama Indian Nation, which will rear, acclimate, and release 500,000 fall chinook salmon. The other program involves the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, which will rear warm-water specie (walleye and channel catfish) for planting in state lakes. Renewed economic vitality is the goal expected from these and follow-on fish programs.

  18. Color-specificity to enhance identification of rear lights.

    PubMed

    Cameron, D L

    1995-06-01

    30 male and 13 female licensed drivers were given a static reaction-time test for Donders Type B reactions to the onset of automotive rear lights. The lights were displayed as by conventional systems and by a new color-specific method referred to as the "Red Light Means Stop approach." When subjects were instructed to regard all red colored light as brake-signal light, both incidence of identification error and reaction time decreased. Results support the hypothesis that addition of color specificity to rear lighting might prevent some rear-end collisions which occur under adverse driving circumstances. PMID:7567393

  19. Effect of restricted suckling on the onset of follicular dynamics and body condition score in Brahman cattle raised under tropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Mondragón, Violeta; Galina, Carlos S; Rubio, Ivette; Corro, Manuel; Salmerón, Frida

    2016-04-01

    With the aim of evaluating the effect of restricted suckling on the onset of follicular dynamics and body condition, multiparous Bos indicus cows were distributed in two groups. One group (RS=36) was subjected to a scheme of restricted suckling starting at 21 days postpartum. Calves were allowed to suckle once per day for a period of two h whilst the control group (C=18) remained with their dams at all times. At calving, body condition score, back fat thickness and body weight had similar values (p>0.05) for both groups. By day 85 postpartum both groups had recorded losses in body weight. The cows in the continuous group formed a greater (p<0.05) number of follicles of class size <6mm in both periods before and after synchronization. The proportion of cows showing estrus and ovulation before 45 days, was not different (p>0.05). The number of cows that exhibited estrus after 45 days, was greater (p<0.05) in RS than C group, 72.2% and 55.5%, respectively. Same situation (p<0.05) occurred in cows that ovulated, 88.8 and 66.7%, for groups RS and C, respectively. The subset in the intensive observations showed that the size of the bigger follicle was larger (p<0.05) for RS cows than C cows from 36 h after CIDR withdrawal. At 57 h, the size of the biggest follicle recorded was not different between groups (p>0.05). A regime of restricted suckling favors the earlier growth of follicles and the prompt restoration of ovarian activity. PMID:26936657

  20. 7. DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHWEST OF REAR ORIGINAL SECOND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHWEST OF REAR ORIGINAL SECOND FLOOR, WITH PASSAGEWAY LEADING TO c1944-1950 POST-U.S. RADIUM ADDITION - United States Radium Corporation, Paint Application Building, 422 Alden Street, Orange, Essex County, NJ

  1. FEATURE 4, ARMCO HUT, REAR AND SOUTHWEST SIDE, VIEW FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE 4, ARMCO HUT, REAR AND SOUTHWEST SIDE, VIEW FACING NORTH-NORTHWEST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Anti-Aircraft Battery Complex-ARMCO Hut, East of Coral Sea Road, northwest of Hamilton Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  2. 2. North (side) and west (rear) elevations view to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. North (side) and west (rear) elevations - view to southeast - Bureau of Mines Boulder City Experimental Station, Electrolytic Manganese Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  3. 3. West (rear) and south (side) elevations view to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. West (rear) and south (side) elevations - view to north - Bureau of Mines Boulder City Experimental Station, Electrolytic Manganese Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  4. 5. NORTH SIDE AND WEST REAR. Edwards Air Force ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. NORTH SIDE AND WEST REAR. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing & Control Blockhouse for 10,000-foot Track, South of Sled Track at midpoint of 20,000-foot track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  5. 6. OUTER BLAST DOOR, WEST REAR. Edwards Air Force ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. OUTER BLAST DOOR, WEST REAR. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing & Control Blockhouse for 10,000-foot Track, South of Sled Track at midpoint of 20,000-foot track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  6. 6. East rear, cattle auction arena below in background, Omaha ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. East rear, cattle auction arena below in background, Omaha livestock market offices above. View to west. - South Omaha Union Stock Yards, Stock Yards Autopark, 2900 "O" Plaza, Omaha, Douglas County, NE

  7. 22. Threequarter view of rear of Jwing, looking southwest from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Three-quarter view of rear of J-wing, looking southwest from Mercury Boulevard - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  8. 5. Oblique view of rear (southeast) and right side (southwest) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Oblique view of rear (southeast) and right side (southwest) elevations, looking north. - Downtown Short Pump Grocery, West Broad Street (State Route 250) & Three Chopt Road, Short Pump, Henrico County, VA

  9. 9. DETAIL OF REAR ENTRANCE ON EAST WALL OF NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. DETAIL OF REAR ENTRANCE ON EAST WALL OF NORTH WING OF BUILDING. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Fort David A. Russell, Red Cross Building, Third Street between Randall Avenue & Tenth Cavalry Avenue, Cheyenne, Laramie County, WY

  10. VIEW OF ONESTAMP MILL WITH RANCH HOUSE AT REAR (See ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF ONE-STAMP MILL WITH RANCH HOUSE AT REAR (See HABS No. CA-2347, DESERT QUEEN RANCH, for further documentation) - Desert Queen Ranch, One Stamp Gold Mill, Twentynine Palms, San Bernardino County, CA