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1

Fenología y ciclo de vida del alga Gracilariopsis tenuifrons (Gracilariaceae) en Sucre, Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fenology and life cylce of Gracilariopsis tenuifrons (Gracilariaceae) at Sucre, Venezuela. The aim of this work was to determine the frequency of different reproductive phases and to induce the germination of spores from tetrasporic and cystocarpic Gracilariopsis tenuifrons from Chacopata and La Peña, Venezuela, under controlled laboratory conditions (temperature 22 ± 1ºC, 12L:12D photoperiod, salinity of 36 ± 1 PSU

Soraida Silva

2005-01-01

2

[Some attributes of community structure of fishes in Laguna Grande de Obispo, Golfo Cariaco, Sucre State, Venezuela].  

PubMed

Species composition, relative abundance, diversity and community structure of fishes were studied from monthly sampling during December 1995 to November 1996 in the Laguna Grande de Obispo, Gulf of Cariaco, Sucre State, Venezuela. Sampling were realised in 3 stations inside the lagoon with a small beach seine and the other 4 stations with a large beach seine. Seventy four species belonging to 33 families and 68 genera were identified of which 8 species dominated, constituting 90.43% of total catch. Mugil curema, Xenomelaniris brasiliensis, Opistonema oglinum, Atherinomorus stipes and Anchoa hepsetus were present in high abundance in the biomass. M. curema dominated the catch with large seine while X. brasiliensis, M. curema and Eucinostomus argenteus dominated the catch with small seine. Species diversity (H') ranged from 2.968-4.607 bits/ind and species richness of Margalef from 2.752-7.464. An inverse analysis realized on catches by small seine and based on nodal constancy and fidelity allowed to define a pattern of spatial distribution of 9 groups containing 1 to 11 species on the basis their abundance, frequency of appearance and ecological characteristics of each area. An analysis of correlation showed that the salinity, dissolved O2 and precipitation did not show any significant correlation with the ecological parameters studied but existed significant correlation with average surface water temperature (p < 0.05), number of species (S), individuals (N), diversity (H') and species richness (D). The positive correlation was found with surface temperature but no relationship with relative dominance (D1 and D2). The CPUE in biomass did not show any significant association with temperature. PMID:11510425

De Grado, A A; Bashirullah, A

2001-01-01

3

Geographic distribution and host plants of Raoiella indica and associated mite species in northern Venezuela.  

PubMed

The red palm mite (RPM), Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), is an invasive pest in the New World, where it is currently considered a serious threat to coconut and banana crops. It was first reported from northern Venezuela in 2007. To determine its current distribution in this country, surveys were carried out from October 2008 to April 2010 on coconut (Cocos nucifera L.), banana (Musa spp.), ornamental plants and weeds in northern Venezuela. Higher population levels of RPM were registered on commercial coconut farms in Falcón and Sucre states but also on other plant species naturally growing along the coastal line in Anzoategui, Aragua, Carabobo, Monagas and Nueva Esparta states. Out of 34 botanical species evaluated, all RPM stages were observed only on eight arecaceous, one musaceous and one streliziaceous species, indicating that the pest developed and reproduced only on these plants. Mite specimens found on weeds were considered spurious events, as immature stages of the pest were never found on these. Amblyseius largoensis (Muma) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) was the most frequent predatory mite associated with RPM in all sampling sites. The results indicate that RPM has spread to extensive areas of northern Venezuela since its initial detection in Güiria, Sucre state. Considering the report of this pest mite in northern Brazil in the late 2009, additional samplings in southern Venezuela should be carried out, to evaluate the possible presence of RPM also in that region. PMID:23065034

Vásquez, Carlos; de Moraes, Gilberto J

2013-05-01

4

[Abundance and richness of mollusks and crustaceans associated to the submerged roots of red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) at Bocaripo Lagoon, Sucre, Venezuela].  

PubMed

Mangrove roots are important habitats for many species. The abundance and richness of mollusks and crustaceans associated with the roots demerged of Rhizophora mangle was studied. The samples were gathered between February 2005 and January 2006, in Bocaripo lagoon, north coast of Sucre state, Venezuela. Five stations were established inside the lagoon; on every station two roots were chosen at random, put in plastic bags and scraped. The associated organisms were separated by taxa and fixed in 10% formaldehyde. One thousand ninety two specimens of mollusks, distributed in two classes: Bivalve and Gastropod were collected. Bivalve was the most abundant with 943 individuals. The most representative family was Mytilidae with 6 species, being Musculus lateralis the dominant species. The crustaceans were represented by 372 organisms, belonging to the class Malacostraca, where Panopeus herbstii (169 ind.) was the most abundant species. The families Panopeidae, Porcellanidae and Majidae had the highest number of species. Maximum abundance was in February (224 ind.), with a richness of 25 species and the minimums in November (45 ind.) and a richness of 12 species. The stations 1 and 5 presented the major abundance and richness of organisms, which could be related to environmental conditions favorable, as the major availability of microhabitats and nourishing offer; on the contrary the station 4, presented a more inhospitable environment, due to the high values in the salinity and temperature, which contributes with the minor abundance and richness of the present species. PMID:21302531

Cedeño, Jennellis; Jiménez Prieto, Mayré; Pereda, Luisana; Allen, Thays

2010-10-01

5

Geothermal reconnaissance of northeastern Venezuela  

SciTech Connect

About 60% of Venezuela has been covered by a reconnaissance geothermal survey that includes geologic and water geochemical studies. The information is stored in a computerized data bank that holds data from 361 geothermal localities. The subsurface reservoir temperatures of the geothermal systems have been estimated using chemical geothermometry and mixing models and in many cases conceptual geothermal modes have been postulated. Preliminary assessments of the northeastern Venezuelan geothermal systems indicate that the most promising system is Las Minas near El Pilar in the state of Sucre, with an estimated deep reservoir temperature of 200-220{sup 0}C. Further studies are intended to evaluate its potential for electricity generation. Based on present data, other medium and low temperature systems in Venezuela appear useful for direct applications.

Urbani, F. (Universidad Central de Venezuela, Departamento Geologia, Centro de Documentacion de Informacion, Geotermica Nacional, Apartado 47028, Caracas 1041A (VE))

1989-01-01

6

Prey composition in the carnivorous plants Utricularia inflata and U. gibba (Lentibulariaceae) from Paria Peninsula, Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carnivorous aquatic plants, genus Utricularia (Lentibulariaceae), capture small aquatic organisms, such as rotifers, copepods, and cladocerans, by means of anatomical structures named bladders. The present study aimed to determine prey size and composition in U. gibba and U. inflata, which were collected from a small lake and an herbaceous wetland, respectively, located in Paria Peninsula (Sucre State, Venezuela). Water pH,

Elizabeth Gordon; Sergio Pacheco

7

The Bolivarian University of Venezuela: A Radical Alternative in the Global Field of Higher Education?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses paradoxes in the emergent global field of higher education as reflected in an alternative model of the university--the Bolivarian University of Venezuela (UBV) and the related higher education policy, Mision Sucre. With its credo in the applied social sciences, its commitment to popular pedagogy and its dependence on…

Ivancheva, Mariya

2013-01-01

8

Lepidopterism due to exposure to the moth Hylesia metabus in northeastern Venezuela.  

PubMed

Lepidopterism refers to a spectrum of medical conditions in humans that usually involves the skin and results from contact with the adult or larval forms of certain butterflies and moths. We analyzed the epidemiologic and clinical features associated with exposure to the moth Hylesia metabus between 1970 and 2002 in the Cajigal district, Sucre, Venezuela. Fifty cases of lepidopterism mostly affecting individuals under 18 years of age were identified during this period and manifested as pruritic dermatitis with or without associated respiratory symptoms. With increased travel to endemic areas of lepidopterism, travel and tropical medicine practitioners should be aware of the clinical spectrum of this condition. PMID:16282317

Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J; Arria, Melissa; Rojas-Mirabal, Jose; Borges, Eduardo; Benitez, Jesus A; Herrera, Melfran; Villalobos, Carlos; Maldonado, Andrea; Rubio, Nestor; Franco-Paredes, Carlos

2005-11-01

9

Astronomy in Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the installation of the Observatorio Cagigal in Caracas, astronomy in Venezuela has developed steadily, and, in the last few decades, has been strong. Both theoretical and observational astronomy now flourish in Venezuela. A research group, Grupo de Astrofísica (GA) at the Universidad de Los Andes (ULA) in Mérida, started with few members but now has increased its numbers and

Patricia Rosenzweig

2001-01-01

10

[Immigration to Venezuela].  

PubMed

Immigration to Venezuela is examined using census data with the focus on the period 1971-1981. A brief overview of trends since the beginning of the twentieth century is first presented. The analysis indicates that "immigration to Venezuela is clearly of a short-term nature. Flows follow job opportunities and adjust to the labour market and to the financial capacity of the exchange market. The large increase of migratory movements to Venezuela in the 1970's is characterized by a diversification of their places of origin and by a greater instability. To a large extent, the migrants are illegal, especially those coming from Colombia and the Caribbean islands. Because of the crisis of the early 1980's, which is now worsened by the down trend of both oil prices and the U.S. dollar, Venezuela has become less attractive to immigrants, particularly from neighbouring countries." The authors observe that migrants in Venezuela are not well integrated and may depart, disrupting the labor supply in certain technical and specialized occupations (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA) PMID:12341015

Picouet, M; Pellegrino, A; Papail, J

1986-11-01

11

Wing shape divergence between Rhodnius prolixus from Cojedes (Venezuela) and Rhodnius robustus from Mérida (Venezuela).  

PubMed

The existence of Rhodnius robustus as a species distinct from Rhodnius prolixus has long been the main epidemiological question about Chagas disease transmission in Venezuela and surrounding countries. These two taxa are morphologically and genetically very similar, but only R. prolixus is assumed to colonize houses and transmit Chagas disease to humans. R. robustus is assumed to be an exclusively sylvatic species, restricted to palm trees. If robustus and prolixus are actually the same species, the theoretical possibility exists of sylvatic specimens invading houses, even after insecticide application, and a control strategy similar to that of the successful Southern Cone Initiative against Triatoma infestans would be difficult to consider. Since no valid alternative control strategy exists, the answer to this biological question could be decisive about the future of vector control in this region. Although we believe genetic techniques are best suited to define species boundaries, we present here an example of the relevance of modern morphometrics in dealing with such an issue. Using both traditional and geometric morphometrics, we compared the wing size and shape in both sexes of these two taxa reared in the same laboratory for one generation. R. robustus specimens were collected from palm trees in the state of Mérida (Venezuela), and R. prolixus were collected from houses in the state of Cojedes (Venezuela). Our study provided no argument to question their specific status. Even after one generation of living in the same laboratory conditions, the two lines showed clear size differences, divergent allometric trends, and significant allometry-free differences in shape. These results suggest that R. robustus (Mérida, Venezuela) and R. prolixus (Cojedes, Venezuela) are distinct evolutionary units. Due to the epidemiological importance of this question, further studies in other geographic areas of Venezuela are required to accurately define the relationships of R. robustus and R. prolixus. PMID:12797988

Villegas, J; Feliciangeli, M D; Dujardin, J P

2002-12-01

12

Venezuela`s gas industry poised for long term growth  

SciTech Connect

Venezuela`s enormous gas resource, combined with a new willingness to invite outside investment, could result in rapid growth in that industry into the next century. The development of liquefied natural gas exports will depend on the future course of gas prices in the US and Europe, but reserves are adequate to supply additional projects beyond the proposed Cristobal Colon project. Venezuela`s gas reserves are likely to increase if exploration for nonassociated gas is undertaken on a larger scale. The paper discusses gas reserves in Venezuela, internal gas markets, the potential for exports, competition from Trinidad, LNG export markets, and the encouragement of foreign investment in the gas industry of Venezuela.

Croft, G.D. [Pantera Petroleum Inc., San Leandro, CA (United States)

1995-06-19

13

Geographic tongue  

MedlinePLUS

Patches on the tongue; Tongue - patchy; Benign migratory glossitis; Glossitis - benign migratory ... The exact cause of geographic tongue is unknown. It may be caused by a lack of vitamin B. It also may be due to irritation from hot ...

14

Histoplasmosis en Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen  Se hace un recuento de los principales trabajos que se han llevado a cabo en Venezuela sobre Histoplasmosis desde 1950 cuando\\u000a se comprobó la infección, siguiéndose comunicaciones que conducen a la organización de la Comisión Coordinadora para el Estudio\\u000a Nacional de las Micosis con el objeto de facilitar y standardizar los métodos de investigación en el campo.\\u000a \\u000a Se presenta una

J. I. Baldó; H. Campins; Carlos Ayala Páez

1961-01-01

15

Criptococosis en Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen  En Venezuela se han diagnosticado 24 casos de Criptococosis de los cuales 21 han muerto por Meningo-encefalitis; los tres\\u000a restantes presentaron formas circunscritas pulmonares que fueron tratadas por lobectomía (2 viven en aparente buen estado\\u000a de salud después de varios años de la resección y el tercero murió por causas differentes a esta enfermedad).\\u000a \\u000a Entre esta estadística hay dos niños

Alberto Angulo-Ortega; César Rodríguez; Gustavo García Galindo

1961-01-01

16

Geographic Names  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS), developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the U.S. Board on Geographic Names (BGN), contains information about the official names for places, features, and areas in the 50 States, the District of Columbia, the territories and outlying areas of the United States, including Antarctica. It is the geographic names component of The National Map. The BGN maintains working relationships with State names authorities to cooperate in achieving the standardization of geographic names. The GNIS contains records on more than 2 million geographic names in the United States - from populated places, schools, reservoirs, and parks to streams, valleys, springs, ridges, and every feature type except roads and highways. Entries include information such as the federally-recognized name and variant names and spellings for the feature; former names; the status of the name as determined by the BGN; county or counties in which each named feature is located; geographic coordinates that locate the approximate center of an aerial feature or the mouth and source of a linear feature, such as a stream; name of the cell of the USGS topographic map or maps on which the feature may appear; elevation figures derived from the National Elevation Dataset; bibliographic code for the source of the name; BGN decision dates and historical information are available for some features. Data from the GNIS are used for emergency preparedness, mapmaking, local and regional planning, service delivery routing, marketing, site selection, environmental analysis, genealogical research, and other applications.

Yost, Lou; Carswell, William J., Jr.

2009-01-01

17

Update on Chagas disease in Venezuela: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present article reviews the status of Chagas disease in Venezuela based on the detection of Trypanosoma cruzi infections both in referred patients with clinical presumptive diagnosis (1988-2002) and in individuals sampled from rural localities representative of the different geographical regions of the country (1995-2002). In the former group from 306 individuals examined, 174 (56.8%) were seropositive to T. cruzi;

Néstor Añez; Gladys Crisante; Agustina Rojas

2004-01-01

18

Geographical Distribution of Trypanosoma cruzi Genotypes in Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chagas disease is an endemic zoonosis native to the Americas and is caused by the kinetoplastid protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. The parasite is also highly genetically diverse, with six discrete typing units (DTUs) reported TcI – TcVI. These DTUs broadly correlate with several epidemiogical, ecological and pathological features of Chagas disease. In this manuscript we report the most comprehensive evaluation

Hernán J. Carrasco; Maikell Segovia; Martin S. Llewellyn; Antonio Morocoima; Servio Urdaneta-Morales; Cinda Martínez; Clara E. Martínez; Carlos Garcia; Marlenes Rodríguez; Raul Espinosa; Belkisyolé A. de Noya; Zoraida Díaz-Bello; Leidi Herrera; Sinead Fitzpatrick; Matthew Yeo; Michael A. Miles; M. Dora Feliciangeli

2012-01-01

19

Some nematodes of freshwater fishes in Venezuela.  

PubMed

The present paper comprises a systematic survey of nematodes found in 88 specimens of 24 species of freshwater fishes in Venezuela in 1992 and 1994. The following 13 species of nematodes were recorded: Adults; Guyanema longispiculum Moravec, Prouza et Royero, 1996, Guyanema sp., Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) inopinatus Travassos, Artigas et Pereira, 1928, P. (S.) krameri (Petter, 1974) comb. n., P.(S.) pintoi (Kohn et Fernandes, 1988) comb, n., Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) sp., Raphidascaris (Sprentascaris) mahnerti (Petter et Cassone, 1984). Larvae: Anisakidae gen. sp., Brevimulticaecum sp., Contracaecum sp. Type 1, Contracaecum sp. Type 2, Contracaecum sp. Type 3, Eustrongylides sp. All these parasites are reported from Venezuela for the first time and all findings represent new host records. Brevimulticaecum larvae are reported from fishes for the first time. Almost all parasites are briefly described and illustrated and problems concerning their morphology, taxonomy, hosts and geographical distribution are discussed. A new name, Terranova diazungriai nom.nov. is proposed for T. caballeroi Díaz-Ungría, 1968 (a junior homonym of T. caballeroi Barus et Coy Otero, 1966). PMID:9188173

Moravec, F; Prouza, A; Royero, R

1997-01-01

20

Climatic risk for potato late blight in the Andes region of Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potato is an important crop for Venezuelan agriculture. However, its production is highly affected by late blight (Phytophtora infestans), since weather is commonly favorable for this disease. The aim of this study was to determine the sowing dates of low climatic risk for potato late blight in the Andes region of Venezuela, with an agrometeorological disease model and geographical information

Beatriz Ibet Lozada Garcia; Paulo Cesar Sentelhas; Luciano Roberto Tapia; Gerd Sparovek

2008-01-01

21

Some Crustacea Copepoda from Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of 38 samples of aquatic fauna from Venezuela increased the number of known species here from 28 to 66. Fifteen new species for science are described. A list of Copepoda known from the other regions of South America is presented. From this list, it can be said that only 50% of the inland water Copepoda living actually in

B. H. Dussart

1984-01-01

22

Purposeful Play in Rural Venezuela  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how children in rural Venezuela are trained in agricultural skills by the extended family. The highly organized training encourages play and exploration as important elements in familiarzing children with implements and methods of food production. It is suggested that rural school planners draw ideas from the rural family's educative…

Chesterfield, Ray

1977-01-01

23

Media and Consumerism in Venezuela.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines opposing theories of the role of the commercial mass media in national economic development; reports on a survey of the attitudes of 636 adult residents of Barquisimeto, Venezuela, with respect to consumption, advertising, and national development, and shows how the results relate to the theory proposed by Daniel Lerner. (GT)

Martin, Richard; And Others

1979-01-01

24

Venezuela. America = Las Americas [Series].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bilingual English/Spanish social studies resource booklet provides an encyclopedia-style overview of Venezuela's history, geography, economy, and culture for teachers to use with migrant children in the elementary grades. Topics presented in the English portion include climate, land, people, customs, government, arts, food, culture, wildlife,…

Toro, Leonor; Avery, Robert S.

25

Geographic Membership Directory  

MedlinePLUS

... Africa Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan, Republic of China Tanzania, United Republic ... Thailand Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom Uruguay Venezuela Filters Pediatric Members ...

26

Histories of Geographical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper revisits the value of and justification for histories of geographical education as a field of research endeavour within geographical education. Four potentially fruitful areas of research are identified. These are pressure groups, especially the International Geographical Union's Commission on Geographical Education; the influence of…

Kent, Ashley

2006-01-01

27

78 FR 58556 - Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Review)] Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela Determination On the...imports of silicomanganese from India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela would be likely to lead...entitled Silicomanganese from India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela: Investigation...

2013-09-24

28

Hydrocarbon potential of Central Monagas, Eastern Venezuela Basin, Venezuela  

SciTech Connect

The Central Monagas area is part of the foreland sub-basin located on the southern flank of the Eastern Venezuela Basin. The sedimentary column of the Central Monagas is at least 7500 in thick and consists of Mesozoic (Cretaceous) and Cenozoic rocks. Interpretations of 60 regional seismic sections have been integrated with data from 12 existing wells, which cover an area of 1200 km{sup 2}. From these interpretations, basin-wide structure and interval isopach maps were constructed in order to aid the depiction of the basin architecture and tectonic history. The sub-basin developed on the southern flank of the Eastern Venezuela Basin is tightly linked to its evolution from a Mesozoic extensional regime into a Cenozoic compressional and strike-slip stage. The basin formed in the Middle Mesozoic by crustal extension of a rifting process. Regional northward tilting of the slab continued during the Late Cretaceous. Finally, the transpression of the Caribbean Plate during the Oligocene-Neogene induced the overprint of compressional deformation associated with the deposition of a foredeep wedge. Geochemical source rock analysis gave an average of 1.2 TOC, and R{sub o} of 0.66 indicating a mature, marine source. The modeling of the hydrocarbon generative history of the basin indicates that the oil migration started in the Middle Miocene, after the trap was formed. Analysis and mapping of reservoir rocks and seal rocks defined the effective area limits of these critical factors. The main play in the area is the extension of the Lower Oficina Formation which is the proven petroleum target in the Eastern Venezuela Basin.

Barrios, F.; Daza, J.; Iusco, G. [Departamento de Geologia, Lagoven, S.A., Caracas (Venezuela)

1996-08-01

29

[Geographic data for Neotropical bats (Chiroptera)].  

PubMed

The global effort to digitize biodiversity occurrence data from collections, museums and other institutions has stimulated the development of important tools to improve the knowledge and conservation of biodiversity. The Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) enables and opens access to biodiversity data of 321 million of records, from 379 host institutions. Neotropical bats are a highly diverse and specialized group, and the geographic information about them is increasing since few years ago, but there are a few reports about this topic. The aim of this study was to analyze the number of digital records in GBIF of Neotropical bats with distribution in 21 American countries, evaluating their nomenclatural and geographical consistence at scale of country. Moreover, we evaluated the gaps of information on 1 degrees latitude x 1 degrees longitude grids cells. There were over 1/2 million records, but 58% of them have no latitude and longitude data; and 52% full fit nomenclatural and geographic evaluation. We estimated that there are no records in 54% of the analyzed area; the principal gaps are in biodiversity hotspots like the Colombian and Brazilian Amazonia and Southern Venezuela. In conclusion, our study suggests that available data on GBIF have nomenclatural and geographic biases. GBIF data represent partially the bat species richness and the main gaps in information are in South America. PMID:24912354

Noguera-Urbano, Elkin A; Escalante, Tania

2014-03-01

30

Family Cluster of Mayaro Fever, Venezuela  

PubMed Central

A cluster of protracted migratory polyarthritis involving four adult family members occurred in January 2000 after a brief overnight outing in a rural area of Venezuela. Laboratory testing demonstrated Mayaro virus as the cause of the cluster. These results documented the first human cases of Mayaro virus in Venezuela.

Russell, Kevin L.; Vasquez, Clovis; Tesh, Robert B.; Salas, Rosalba; Watts, Douglas M.

2004-01-01

31

Geographic Media Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While the use of media permeates geographic research and pedagogic practice, the underlying literacies that link geography and media remain uncharted. This article argues that geographic media literacy incorporates visual literacy, information technology literacy, information literacy, and media literacy. Geographic media literacy is the ability…

Lukinbeal, Chris

2014-01-01

32

An Energy Overview of Venezuela  

SciTech Connect

The DOE Office of Fossil Energy is maintaining a web site that is meant to provide useful business- and energy-related information about countries and regions of the world for exporters, project developers, and researchers. The site consists of more than 130 country pages (organized into seven different world regions), with each country page having its own set of links to information sources about that country. There are also more than 30 Country Energy Overviews at the web site -- each of these is a comprehensive review of a specific country's entire energy situation, including sections on Energy Policy, Oil, Natural Gas, Coal, Hydroelectric/Renewables, Nuclear Power, Energy Transmission Infrastructure, Electricity, Electric Industry Overview, Environmental Activities, Privatization, Trade, and Economic Situation. The specific country highlighted in this Country Energy Overview is Venezuela. The site is designed to be dynamic. Updates to the overviews will be made as need and resources permit.

anon.

2003-10-20

33

Heavy Water. A Production Alternative for Venezuela.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A survey of heavy water production methods is made. Main facts about isotopic and distillation methods, reforming and coupling to a Hydrogen distillation plant are presented. A feasibility study on heavy water production in Venezuela is suggested. (Atomin...

1985-01-01

34

History of Aeronautical Medicine in Venezuela.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Aerial Medical Service of the Ministry of Transportation and Communications of Venezuela was created on June 1949, and later became the Department of Aeronautical Medicine. Its functions include the medical examinations of future pilots, navigators an...

D. R. Iriarte

1986-01-01

35

An Example of Educational Transformation: Venezuela.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a case study of educational development in Venezuela, with emphasis on political and cultural influences, social needs, needs of developing nations, experimentation on all levels, fellowship programs, and projections for the future. (DB)

Cirigliano, Gustavo F. J.

1979-01-01

36

[Prevalence of human infections by Trypanosoma cruzi in blood banks in Venezuela].  

PubMed

Primary investigations carried out in blood banks in Venezuela during the 1950s, indicated that overall seroprevalence for Trypanosoma cruzi infection was 12% amongst blood donors. In Venezuela, blood donation is free. All public and private blood banks are controlled by the Ministry of Health. As from 1988 the ELISA technique was uniformly used in blood banks for the detection of T. cruzi infections. Annual median seroprevalence, between 1988 to 1992, was 1.20% (1.09-1.94%), with geographical variations between localities in several States. States with higher prevalence rates are located in the western and central part of Venezuela: Portuguesa, Lara, Trujillo, Cojedes and Carabobo. Due to difficulties in obtaining incidence rates for Chagas disease, it seems proper to use prevalence rates due to its greater stability; and in the specific case of Venezuela, due to a lesser severity and a higher survival of this disease at present. Considering that there is little to be offered to the seropositive individual, repeatability is avowed for serological diagnosis. Specificity should be strived for in the light of lower prevalence rates at present. PMID:8115813

Aché, A

1993-01-01

37

Situating Economic Geographical Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article makes an argument for an economic geographical pedagogy that is post-disciplinary, emphasizing non-hierarchical, student-based knowledge, disciplinary interconnectedness, epistemological plurality, and material embodiedness and embeddedness. Key to this conception of economic geographical pedagogy are recent writings of Timothy…

Barnes, Trevor J.

2006-01-01

38

Geographic names of Antarctica  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The geographic nomenclature of Antarctica was long in need of an overall systematic treatment, objective in approach and based upon thorough examination of all the evidence. The results of such treatment over a period of about three years were presented in Geographical Names of Antarctica, Special Publication No. 86 of the Board on Geographical Names, in May 1947, two supplements to which were issued in 1949 and 1951. The continuing program since that publication has now covered most of the geographic naming in Antarctica. As research has filled in many of the previous gaps in knowledge, a number of names have been modified and minor amendments have been made in the policies. This revised publication brings together the greatly enlarged body of names officially standardized for use by the United States Government, together with new pertinent background information.

U.S. Board on Geographic Names; Department of the Interior; with a Foreward by Burrill, Meredith F.; and a List of Expeditions by Bertrand, Kenneth J.; Alberts, Fred G.

1956-01-01

39

Geographic Names Information System  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is an automated data system developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to standardize and disseminate information on geographic names. GNIS provides primary information for all known places, features, and areas in the United States identified by a proper name. The information in the system can be manipulated to meet varied needs. You can incorporate information from GNIS into your own data base for special applications.

U.S. Geological Survey

1984-01-01

40

Resources for Geographers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Maintained by Lance Christian and Kenneth Foote of the University of Colorado at Boulder Department of Geography, the Resources for Geographers Web site is an excellent source of information on the Internet for geographers. Links are offered for search engines, online journals, professional associations, research organizations, map collections, geo-spatial datasets, newsgroups and listservers, academic departments, jobs, educational resources, software, and miscellaneous other geography related resources.

Christian, Lance.; Foote, Kenneth E., 1955-

41

On the Weather of Venezuela: A Summary Report on the Venezuela Experiments of 1969 and 1972. (Sobre el Estado del Tiempo en Venezuela: Resumen del Estudio de los Experimentos Realizados en Venezuela en 1969 y 1972).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the bilingual (Spanish and English) Technical Memo, On the Weather of Venezuela, the methodology and execution of the Venezuela meteorological and hydrological experiments of 1969 and 1972 are discussed first. Then the radiation balance and water balan...

H. Riehl

1977-01-01

42

Venezuela slates second oil field revival round  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that Venezuela will accept bids under a second round next year from private foreign and domestic companies for production contracts to operate marginal active as well as inactive oil fields. The first such round came earlier this year, involving about 55 other marginal, inactive fields. It resulted in two contractors signed with domestic and foreign companies. It represented the first time since nationalization of the petroleum industry in Venezuela in 1976 that private companies were allowed to produce oil in the country. A public bid tender was expected at presstime last week.

Not Available

1992-12-07

43

Geographic Information Systems  

PubMed Central

This chapter presents an overview of the development, capabilities, and utilization of geographic information systems (GIS). There are nearly an unlimited number of applications that are relevant to GIS because virtually all human interactions, natural and man-made features, resources, and populations have a geographic component. Everything happens somewhere and the location often has a role that affects what occurs. This role is often called spatial dependence or spatial autocorrelation, which exists when a phenomenon is not randomly geographically distributed. GIS has a number of key capabilities that are needed to conduct a spatial analysis to assess this spatial dependence. This chapter presents these capabilities (e.g., georeferencing, adjacency/distance measures, overlays) and provides a case study to illustrate how GIS can be used for both research and planning. Although GIS has developed into a relatively mature application for basic functions, development is needed to more seamlessly integrate spatial statistics and models. The issue of location, especially the geography of human activities, interactions between humanity and nature, and the distribution and location of natural resources and features, is one of the most basic elements of scientific inquiry. Conceptualizations and physical maps of geographic space have existed since the beginning of time because all human activity takes place in a geographic context. Representing objects in space, basically where things are located, is a critical aspect of the natural, social, and applied sciences. Throughout history there have been many methods of characterizing geographic space, especially maps created by artists, mariners, and others eventually leading to the development of the field of cartography. It is no surprise that the digital age has launched a major effort to utilize geographic data, but not just as maps. A geographic information system (GIS) facilitates the collection, analysis, and reporting of spatial data and related phenomena. The capabilities of GIS are much more than just mapping, although map production is one of the most utilized features. GIS applications are relevant in a tremendous number of areas ranging from basic geographic inventories to simulation models. This chapter presents a general overview of geographic information system topics. The purpose is to provide the reader with a basic understanding of a GIS, the types of data that are needed, the basic functionality of these systems, the role of spatial analysis, and an example in the form of a case study. The chapter is designed to provide advanced students and experts outside of the field of GIS sufficient information to begin to utilize GIS and spatial analytic concepts, but it is not designed to be the sole basis for becoming a GIS expert. There is a tremendous level of sophistication related to the digital cartographic databases and manipulation of those databases underlying the display and use of GIS that is more appropriately a part of geographic information science (i.e., basic research issues associated with geographic data including technical as well as theoretical aspects such as the impact on society [1]) rather than being relevant to this chapter. The utilization of GIS for conducting spatial analysis is the guiding theme for the chapter.

Wieczorek, William F.; Delmerico, Alan M.

2009-01-01

44

Federal Geographic Data Committee  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) is an interagency committee organized in 1990 to promote the coordinated dissemination and application of geospatial data through development of the National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI). In cooperation with governmental, academic, nonprofit and private sector organizations, the FGDC is developing the NSDI as a base structure of policies, standards, procedures and relationships among data producers and users that will leverage individual geographic data efforts, and thereby facilitate expedited and expanded sharing, access, and use of geospatial data. The NSDI will (1) reduce duplication of effort among agencies, (2) improve quality and reduce costs related to geographic information, (3) make geographic data more available to the public, (4) increase the benefits of using available data, and (4) establish key partnerships with states, counties, cities, tribal nations, academia and the private sector to increase data availability. The Geospatial Data Clearinghouse (i.e., the National Spatial Data Clearinghouse) is a collection of over 250 servers having digital geographic data primarily for use in Geographic Information Systems (GIS), image processing systems, and other modeling software and prepared in accordance with NSDI protocols. While facilitated by the FGDC, the Clearinghouse is cooperative and decentralized, having six regional gateways. From the FGDC site, one can search the Clearinghouse gateways, browse the organizational sites of the registered NSDI Clearinghouse Nodes, download papers pertaining to the metadata, standards, framework, and stakeholders associated with development of the NSDI, or search through the partner site of the Center for Advanced Spatial Technologies (CAST) for online geospatial data by general subject, state GIS and base map sources, or other U.S. organizational sites hosting national scale data.

2008-04-02

45

Symposium on Geographic Information Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six papers on geographic information systems cover the future of geographic information systems, land information systems modernization in Wisconsin, the Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing (TIGER) System of the U.S. Bureau of the Census, satellite remote sensing, geographic information systems and sustainable development,…

Felleman, John, Ed.

1990-01-01

46

Generation of geographical profile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To provide help for the police's investigation on serial criminals, we develop a mathematical model in the paper. First, we use Inherently Continuous Model and Improved Kinetic Model to generate the offender's geographical profile. However, there is a difference in two models' results. For better synthesizing the difference, we develop a Combination Model and generate a new geographical profile. As a result, we estimate the offender's location and carry on a series of analysis. What's more, the models created can be applied in other fields, such as market's investigation, military operations and so on.

Shen, Zhi-Bin; Zhang, Yuan-Biao; Liang, Kai-Fa; Lu, Zhen-Xing

2010-08-01

47

The history of aeronautical medicine in Venezuela  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Aerial Medical Service of the Ministry of Transportation and Communications of Venezuela was created on June 1949, and later became the Department of Aeronautical Medicine. Its functions include the medical examinations of future pilots, navigators and flight engineers. The importance of good mental and physical health in all flight and ground personnel to ensure the safety of air travel is discussed.

Iriarte, D. R.

1986-01-01

48

A Library Toy Project in Venezuela.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a six-month experimental library program carried out in Venezuela that sought to develop a home alternative to regular preschool education by providing parents and other adults in the family with the means of teaching children academic and problem-solving skills required by school. (Author/JD)

deDearden, Carmen Diana

1979-01-01

49

Promoting Vetiver Grass Technology in Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two year project (1997-99) was conducted by the Sociedad Conservacionista Aragua (Sca) with financial and technical support of The Vetiver Network (TVN), and sponsored by other local institutions like the Aragua's State Secretary of the Environment and the Central University of Venezuela. Twelve workshops were organized and more than three hundred participants received training on vetiver grass technology (VGT).

Oscar S. Rodríguez

50

Download Geographic Data  

Cancer.gov

The section includes Microsoft Excel (.xls) or comma-delimited text (.txt) files that provide county, state economic area (SEA), and state codes and names. There are individual files for each of the three geographic region types, as well as one file relating the three to each other.

51

Partnerships in Geographic Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues effective learning requires suitable resources and that teachers can reap great rewards by establishing cooperative partnerships with local communities to gain access to otherwise unavailable resources. Uses the example of planning, executing, and implementing a Geographic Information System (GIS) in a Canadian urban junior high school…

March, Peggy

1998-01-01

52

Geographic information systems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geographic information systems (GIS) technology can be used for scientific investigations, resource management, and developmental planning. For example, a GIS might allow emergency planners to easily calculate emergency response times in the event of a natural disaster, or a GIS might be used to find wetlands that need protection form pollution.

U.S. Geological Survey

1992-01-01

53

NationalGeographic.com  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Geographic Society homepage is a gateway to sites about adventure and expedition, nature and conservation, history and culture, weather and natural forces, dinosaurs and the ancient world, science and space, maps and geography, and animals. There are also kids education sites, magazines, and news.

54

Applied geointegration to hydrocarbon exploration in the San Pedro-Machango Area, Maracaibo Basin, Venezuela  

SciTech Connect

Hydrocarbon exploration has nowadays a diversity of technological resources to capture, merge and interpret information from diverse sources. To accomplish this, the integration of geodata for modeling was done through the use of new technologies like Remote Sensing and Geographical Systems of Information and applied to the San Pedro-Machango area, located in the Serrania de Trujillo, west of Costa Bolivar (onshore), eastern Maracaibo Basin, Venezuela. The main purpose of this work was to optimize the design of an exploration program in harmony with environmental conservation procedures. Starting with satellital and radar images that incorporated geophysical, geological and environmental information, they then were analyzed and merged to improve the lithological, structural and tectonic interpretation, generating an integrated model that allowed better project design. The use of a system that combines information of geographical, geodetical, geophysical and geological origins with satellital and radar images produced up to date cartography and refined results of image interpretation.

Fonseca, A.; Navarro, A. [Maraven, S.A., Caracas (Venezuela); Osorio, R.; Corvo, F.; Arismendi, J. [Instituto de Ingenieria, Caracas (Venezuela)

1996-08-01

55

National Geographic: Blue Whales  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As a cameraman leans in to get a shot of a blue whale, this massive creature glides through the water off of Costa Rica. That's the opening photograph that visitors to this interactive article from National Geographic are presented with, and it's a rather amazing image. This interactive article and feature is derived from a March 2009 feature in the print edition of National Geographic magazine, and it features the photography of Flip Nicklin and the writing of Ken Brower. The article offers an in-depth look into the recovery of the blue whale population off the coast of Costa Rica in recent years, and along the way visitors can stop off to take a look at a special photo gallery, take a quiz on these remarkable creatures, and also watch a video the provides the story behind one of Nicklin's photographs.

Brower, Ken; Nicklin, Flip

56

National Geographic: Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many people have fond memories of the special maps created as inserts placed in the National Geographic magazine from time to time. This rather special section of the National Geographic's website provides interested parties with a dazzling array of thematic maps that document the European exploration of North America, ecological zones, and the world of the poet Basho. Visitors might do well to start by looking over the "Editors' Picks" area. Here they will find atlas jigsaw puzzles to play online and "EarthPulse: A Visual Guide to Trends." The "EarthPulse" area includes vital statistics about global population trends, economic opportunity, and more. The site also includes the "Atlas Explorer", which allows users to explore detailed political maps of the USA, Africa, Europe, and the world's oceans.

2012-01-13

57

Geograph British Isles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There are a number of available photo weblogs that aim to offer a representative view of various cities, locales, or certain landforms around different parts of the world. The Geograph British Isles website aims to collect a geographically representative photograph for every single square kilometer of the British Isles, and so far it would be fair to say they are doing a fine job. Users of the site may elect to contribute their own photographs, or browse through the existing photos using an interactive map of the British Isles or through a search engine. To get some sense of what people are photographing for the project, visitors can look at the recent photos section on the right-hand side of the site's homepage. They may also want to peek in at the community forums, which seem to have a number of lively discussions going on regarding the site and the photos [Note: Registration is required to enter this part of the site

58

Pneumococcal carriage among indigenous Warao children in Venezuela: serotypes, susceptibility patterns, and molecular epidemiology.  

PubMed

Little attention has been paid to pneumococcal carriage and disease in Amerindians from Latin America. The Warao people, an indigenous population from Venezuela, live in the delta of the Orinoco River in geographically isolated communities with difficult access to medical care. To obtain insight into pneumococcal carriage and the theoretical coverage of pneumococcal vaccines in this population, we investigated pneumococcal colonization, serotype, and genotype distribution among Warao children in 9 distinct, geographically isolated communities in the Delta Amacuro area in the northeast of Venezuela. From April 2004 through January 2005, a total of 161 Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates were recovered from single nasopharyngeal swab samples obtained from 356 children aged 0-72 months. The overall pneumococcal carriage rate was 49%, ranging from 13% to 76%, depending on the community investigated and the age of the children (50% among children aged <2 years and 25% among children aged >2 years). The most frequent serotypes were 23F (19.5% of isolates), 6A (19.5%), 15B (10.4%), 6B (9.1%), and 19F (7.2%). The theoretical coverage of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, including the cross-reactive nonvaccine serotype 6A, was 65%. A total of 26% of the isolates were resistant to first-line antibiotics, with 70% of these strains being covered by the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Restriction fragment end labelling analysis revealed 65 different genotypes, with 125 (80%) of the isolates belonging to 27 different genetic clusters, suggesting a high degree of horizontal spread of pneumococcal strains in and between the villages. The high colonization rates and high (registered) acute respiratory tract infection morbidity and mortality in this part of Venezuela suggest that Warao children are at increased risk for pneumococcal disease and, therefore, benefit from vaccination. PMID:17990224

Rivera-Olivero, Ismar A; Bogaert, Debby; Bello, Teresita; del Nogal, Berenice; Sluijter, Marcel; Hermans, Peter W M; de Waard, Jacobus H

2007-12-01

59

National Geographic News  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Every science enthusiast will find countless, fascinating stories at this National Geographic website. The news site covers stories related to adventure and exploration, archaeology and paleontology, kids' news, science and technology, people and culture, the environment, and travel. Users can discover Special Series which cover emerging explorers, oceans, the pulse of the planet, and so much more. The incredible images warrant a visit all by themselves.

60

Geographic data from space  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Space science has been called “the collection of scientific problems to which space vehicles can make some specific contributions not achievable by ground-based experiments.” Geography, the most spatial of the sciences, has now been marked as one of these “space sciences.” The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is sponsoring an investigation to identify the Potential geographic benefits from the nation’s space program. This is part of NASA’s long-range inquiry to determine the kinds of scientific activities which might profitably be carried out on future space missions. Among such future activities which are now being planned by NASA are a series of manned earth orbital missions, many of which would be devoted to research. Experiments in physics, astronomy, geophysics, meteorology, and biology are being discussed for these long-range missions. The question which is being put to geographers is, essentially, what would it mean to geographic research to have an observation satellite (or many such satellites) orbiting the earth, gathering data about earth-surface features and environments?

Alexander, Robert H.

1964-01-01

61

Geographical Perspectives and Urban Problems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The papers presented in the report provide a broad view of geographic contributions to urban research in an effort to define, evaluate, and help overcome specific urban problems facing the nation. Specific areas of discussion include a geographic conceptu...

1973-01-01

62

Geographic Landscape of Place Names.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the origins of many geographic place names. Suggests that using toponyms (place names) to study geographic conditions of an area offers rich diversity for the teaching of map skills and regional geography. (DH)

Gritzner, Charles F.

1988-01-01

63

Venezuela: A Study of the Educational System of Venezuela and a Guide to the Academic Placement of Students from Venezuela in Educational Institutions of the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written as a guide to be used in the admission and placement of Venezuelan students in U.S. institutions of higher education, this study discusses the education system of Venezuela. The role of education in modern Venezuela and the educational structure are summarized. Information is provided on preschool and primary education, intermediate…

Hoover, Gary

64

The National Map - Geographic Names  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Governments depend on a common set of base geographic information as a tool for economic and community development, land and natural resource management, and health and safety services. Emergency management and homeland security applications rely on this information. Private industry, nongovernmental organizations, and individual citizens use the same geographic data. Geographic information underpins an increasingly large part of the Nation's economy.

Geological Survey (U.S.)

2002-01-01

65

GEOGRAPHIC NAMES INFORMATION SYSTEM (GNIS)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS), developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Board on Geographic Names (BGN), contains information about physical and cultural geographic features in the United States and associated areas, both current and h...

66

Geographical Isolation Factors: The Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawn from a larger paper on geographical isolation, these pages present a review of literature pertaining to geographical isolation factors. The inclusion of a geographical isolation factor in a state's distribution formula for foundation aid is a mechanism for providing additional revenue to small schools or school districts that, because of…

Bass, Gerald R.

67

Volunteered Geographic Information in Wikipedia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Volunteered geographic information (VGI) refers to the geographic subset of online user-generated content. Through Geobrowsers and online mapping services, which use geovisualization and Web technologies to share and produce VGI, a global digital commons of geographic information has emerged. A notable example is Wikipedia, an online collaborative…

Hardy, Darren

2010-01-01

68

Faced with too many names, Venezuela makes a modest proposal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Inspirations: No more little sun kingshttp://blogs.smh.com.au/sit/archives/2007/09/inspirations_no_more_little_su.htmlBaby names-are they 4real?http://www.independent.ie/lifestyle/parenting/baby-names--are-they-4real-1070360.htmlPopular baby nameshttp://www.ssa.gov/OACT/babynames/index.htmlBehind the Namehttp://www.behindthename.com/History and hidden meanings of Britain's brilliant place names from Ordnance Surveyhttp://www.ordnancesurvey.co.uk/oswebsite/freefun/didyouknow/placenames/Names are a common feature of the human experience and have been with us for millennia. People have been named after products, geographic features, and just about everything else imaginable. The practice of naming children has been the subject of thousands of books, hundreds of weblogs, and informal conversations between soon-to-be mothers and fathers. This week, electoral officials in Venezuela introduced a bill that would effectively allow parents to select their baby's name from a list of a mere 100 approved by the central government. The stated purpose of the bill is "to preserve the equilibrium and integral development of the child." Interestingly enough, another intent of the bill is to prevent names that "generate doubts" about the gender of the child. Certain groups would receive exemptions, including Indians and foreigners, but there are still many who find this proposed measure quite offensive. One new mother in Venezuela remarked, "It's a question of taste", after she told a reporter that her daughter's name was Mariangela, which effectively combined Maria and Angela.The first link leads to a fine news article by Simon Romero on this proposal which appeared in this Wednesday's New York Times. The second link will take visitors to another piece on the subject offered by The Sydney Morning Herald. Moving on, the third link leads to an important piece from the Irish Independent which explores the influence of pop culture on baby names. The fourth link leads to the Social Security Administration's very fun and engaging site on popular baby names, past and present. The fifth link will take users to the "Behind the Name" site, which takes visitors through the etymology of thousands of names. The last link explores the world of British place names, courtesy of the Ordnance Survey. Important facts are revealed through this exploration of toponymy, including the history of Welsh place names such as Caerdydd, Tresaith, and Maesbanadlog.

Grinnell, Max

2007-09-07

69

Geographic Information Science Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From Foothill College and the Using a Web-Based GIS to Teach Problem-Based Science in High School and College project, this pdf contains a syllabus for a course titled Geographic Information Science Project. The objective of the course is to introduce students to a variety of projects including "constructing a Web GIS site, building a GIS or image database, and conducting a GIS or remote sensing analysis." The project is the main component of the course and students gain significant experience working in teams.

2012-05-04

70

National Geographic Education: Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Geographic Education website has a number of sections dedicated to different areas within the natural sciences. This particular section brings together all manner of educational resources related to ecosystems. On the site, visitors can dive in via the Latest Updates for Ecosystems. Here they can learn how to explore the profiled ecosystems via a range of GIS tools. Visitors can use the filters on the site to look over the resources by Type, Grades & Ages, Intended Audience, and Subjects. Visitors shouldn't miss looking over features like the Amazon Gold Mine, Back to the Bottom, and African Savanna.

71

Geographical Influences on Climate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson students use climatograms from different U.S. locations to observe patterns in temperature and precipitation. After describing geographical features near these locations, they will use graphs to compare and find patterns in the effects that mountains, oceans, elevation, and latitude have on temperature and precipitation. A research activity will then ask students to gather information on temperature and precipitation patterns around the world using the MY NASA DATA Live Access Server and other sources, with the goal of creating their own climatogram. This lesson uses the 5E instructional model.

72

Plans to revive oil fields in Venezuela on track  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on the three operating units of Venezuela's state owned oil company Petroleos de Venezuela SA which will begin receiving bids Feb. 28 from companies interested in operating 55 inactive oil fields in nine producing areas of Venezuela. Francisco Pradas, Pdvsa executive in charge of the program, the the company expects 88 companies or combines of foreign and domestic private companies to participate in the bidding. The program, announced last year, aims to reactivate production in marginal oil fields. It will involve the first direct participation by private companies in Venezuela's oil production since nationalization in 1976.

Not Available

1992-02-24

73

78 FR 77423 - Ferrosilicon From the Russian Federation and Venezuela: Postponement of Preliminary...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Ferrosilicon From the Russian Federation and Venezuela: Postponement...on ferrosilicon from the Russian Federation (``Russia'') and Venezuela.\\1\\ The Initiation...See Ferrosilicon From the Russian Federation and Venezuela:...

2013-12-23

74

77 FR 59970 - Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela; Institution of Five-Year Reviews...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Review)] Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela; Institution of Five-Year...Orders on Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela AGENCY: United States...orders on silicomanganese from India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela would be likely to...

2012-10-01

75

78 FR 13380 - Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela; Scheduling of Full Five-Year Reviews...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Review)] Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela; Scheduling of Full...Orders on Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela AGENCY: United States...orders on silicomanganese from India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela would be likely to...

2013-02-27

76

Common Distribution Patterns of Marsupials Related to Physiographical Diversity in Venezuela  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study is to identify significant biotic regions (groups of areas with similar biotas) and biotic elements (groups of taxa with similar distributions) for the marsupial fauna in a part of northern South America using physiographical areas as Operational Geographical Units (OGUs). We considered Venezuela a good model to elucidate this issue because of its high diversity in landscapes and the relatively vast amount of information available on the geographical distribution of marsupial species. Based on the presence-absence of 33 species in 15 physiographical sub-regions (OGUs) we identified Operational Biogeographical Units (OBUs) and chorotypes using a quantitative analysis that tested statistical significance of the resulting groups. Altitudinal and/or climatic trends in the OBUs and chorotypes were studied using a redundancy analysis. The classification method revealed four OBUs. Strong biotic boundaries separated: i) the xerophytic zone of the Continental coast (OBU I); ii) the sub-regions north of the Orinoco River (OBU III and IV); and those south to the river (OBU II). Eleven chorotypes were identified, four of which included a single species with a restricted geographic distribution. As for the other chorotypes, three main common distribution patterns have been inferred: i) species from the Llanos and/or distributed south of the Orinoco River; ii) species exclusively from the Andes; and iii) species that either occur exclusively north of the Orinoco River or that show a wide distribution throughout Venezuela. Mean altitude, evapotranspiration and precipitation of the driest month, and temperature range allowed us to characterize environmentally most of the OBUs and chorotypes obtained.

Ventura, Jacint; Bagaria, Guillem; Sans-Fuentes, Maria Assumpcio; Perez-Hernandez, Roger

2014-01-01

77

Geographic names information system  

USGS Publications Warehouse

of the data in each of the data elements of the four data bases of GNIS. The GNIS program, which includes the automated names system and the National Gazetteer program, is a coordinated effort under the direction of Donald J. Orth, Chief of the Branch of Geographic Names. The automated system was initially developed by Sam Stulberg and Roger L. Payne. System enhancement and software development is coordinated by Judy J. Stella, head programmer for GNIS, and special projects coordinator is Louis A. Yost IV. Coordination of the research and compilation of certain gazetteers is directed by Robin D. Worcester with research assistance and support from Jon Campbell, Linda S. Davis, and Nancy Engel.

U.S. Geological Survey

1987-01-01

78

USGS Geographic Data Download  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US Geological Survey Geographic (USGS) Data Download Web site contains a large selection of downloadable digital elevation models (DEM) in various formats. Visitors will find links to 1:250,000 Scale Digital Elevation Models, 1:24,000 Scale Digital Elevation Models, 30 Meter Resolution National Elevation Dataset, 1:2,000,000 Digital Line Graphs, 1:100,000 Scale Digital Line Graphs, 1:24,000 Scale Digital Line Graphs, 1:250,000 and 1:100,000 Scale Land Use Land Cover, National Land Cover Data, and National Hydrography Dataset. The site provides examples, status maps, user guides, and other information about each data set, making it a great overall resource for these helpful topographic models. [JAB

79

Canadian Geographic Atlas Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Online atlases vary widely in quality, but this latest project from the Royal Canadian Geographical Society is a laudable production both in terms of its organization and also its multi-layered content. This highly interactive atlas allows users to explore all of Canada's landforms and boundaries through a pop-up atlas browser that includes a sophisticated, yet easy-to-use, interface tool by which users can zoom in or out, measure distances, and even print out the maps they create. Some of the additional features let users explore the country thematically by region (such as the Boreal Shield) or by the dynamic theme of "Extremes of Weather". There is even a "Kid's Atlas", which is specifically designed for young people with the hope that they will also learn a great deal about Canadian places and geography. Much of the material on the site is also available in French.

80

National Geographic: Redwoods  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Astounding, beautiful, fantastical, and enormous, these are all apt descriptions of the redwoods of the Pacific coast. National Geographic's website offers a multimedia presentation about these majestic trees which includes the cover story, "The Super Trees", from their October 2009 magazine, and details under "Tune In", on when to watch the corresponding broadcast "Explorer: Climbing Redwood Giants". In addition to an online photo "Jigsaw Puzzle" of a 300-foot California redwood that visitors can time themselves putting together, there is also a great 2.5-minute "Video" of the photographer's attempt to create a composite photo of an entire redwood tree. The "Living Giants" interactive time line shows the historical moments a 2000-year-old redwood has lived through, including the reign of Genghis Khan, the signing of the Magna Carta, and the settlement at Jamestown.

81

National Geographic: Crittercam  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What would it be like to be a harbor seal? Wouldn't it be fascinating to go on the prowl with lions? With assistance from the National Science Foundation and the National Geographic, Crittercam makes it possible, both on television and on this fine website. The Crittercam device (which fits safely and securely on animals) was initially conceived by Greg Marshall, who got the idea after observing a remora clinging onto a shark off the coast of Belize, and thought that it might be possible to attach a camera in a similar fashion. From the main page, visitors can learn about the Crittercam itself, and watch a number of clips of seals, lions, hawksbill turtles, and humpback whales in their natural environments. Moving to the Previews area, visitors can watch streaming clips from the television program as well. Finally, visitors can also download a screen saver that features a pilot whale.

82

National Geographic Traveler  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The staff at the National Geographic Traveler magazine knows a thing or two about travel, and their print magazine is full of thoughtful suggestions about where to go in Providence, how to wander around in Bangkok, and the lighthouses of Croatia. Sprinkled across the top of the web page, visitors will find topical areas, which include "Photo of the Week", "Intelligent Travel Blog", and "Newsletter". The "Intelligent Travel Blog" is a great place to start, and there are posts on an annual worm charming festival in the United Kingdom and the value of travel for school-age children. The "Photo of the Week" features dhow boats racing, the Singapore waterfront, and other visual gems. Also, visitors can check out their archives, sign up to receive their newsletter, and subscribe to the print edition of the magazine.

83

The Dairy Technology System in Venezuela. Summary of Research 79.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the agricultural technology system in Venezuela with emphasis on the dairy industry. An analytical framework was used to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the following components of Venezuela's agricultural technology system: policy, technology development, technology transfer, and technology use. Selected government…

Nieto, Ruben D.; Henderson, Janet L.

84

ÁREAS POTENCIALES PARA COLECTAS DEL GÉNERO Vasconcellea BADILLO EN VENEZUELA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potential areas for collecting the Vasconcellea Badillo genus in Venezuela In Venezuela the following wild species of Caricaceae have been reported: V. cundinamarcensis Badillo, V. cauliflora (Jacq.) A. DC., V. microcarpa subsp microcarpa (Jacq.) A. DC and V. microcarpa subsp pilifera (V.M. Badillo) V.M. Badillo (endemic of the Andean of Mérida and Lara States). V. cundinamarcensis represents a promissory material

Dilia Rodríguez; Carlos Marín; Hernando Quecan; Rafael Ortiz

2005-01-01

85

Critical Pedagogy and Empowering in Teacher Education in Venezuela.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper addresses the issue of the relationship between critical pedagogy and English as a foreign language (EFL) in Venezuela. Teacher-researchers have come to see the issues confronting nonnative educators in ELT as a more important issue than in previous years. They are particularly concerned about the current situation in Venezuela,…

Chacon, Carmen T.; Alvarez, Luisa Cristina

86

Language Planning for Venezuela: The Role of English.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A rationale for teaching foreign languages in Venezuelan schools is discussed. An included sociolinguistic profile of Venezuela indicates that Spanish is the sole language of internal communication needs. Other languages spoken in Venezuela serve primarily a group function among the immigrant and indigenous communities. However, the teaching of…

Kelsey, Irving; Serrano, Jose

87

Using the Five Themes of Geography to Teach about Venezuela.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maintains that Venezuela has many U.S. ties because of its relative proximity and economic significance. Asserts that the Five Themes of Geography can be used to design effective classroom lessons about Venezuela. Presents five activities that include student objectives, necessary materials, and step-by-step instructional procedures. (CFR)

Sunal, Cynthia Szymanski; And Others

1995-01-01

88

Venezuela in the caribbean: expanding its sphere of influence  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the wake of deteriorating relations between the government of Hugo Chavez in Venezuela and the administration of George W. Bush in the USA, Venezuela has sought to expand its influence into Commonwealth Caribbean countries by offering a loan scheme for oil payments. Caricom countries account for almost half the votes in the Organization of American states and the Latin

Ronald Sanders

2007-01-01

89

Computing Geographical Reality with Animated Map Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper has presented our ideas of computing geographical reality with animated map language. Inherently, geographical reality is considered as an integration of physical, cognitive, and computational geographical worlds. An animated map is the result of animated mapping of time-varying geographic phenomena. Alternatively, the animated map is a computational reality of geographical world or an augmented part of existing geographical

Hong Shu; Cuihong Qi; Geoffrey Edwards

2006-01-01

90

Occurrence of methylmercury in Lake Valencia, Venezuela  

SciTech Connect

The presence of mercury in the environment has received renewed attention during recent years. This is in part due to the known human health and ecological effects of the highly toxic organomercury compounds, and to the fact that novel and improved analytical techniques such as atomic fluorescence spectroscopy (AFS) and capillary chromatography with AFS detection, have enhanced significantly the detection of trace amounts of mercury and organo mercurials in environmental samples. Such techniques have allowed for a better understanding of the biogeochemical cycle of mercury in the aquatic environment. This paper reports on the presence of methylmercury in the water column and sediments of a hyper-eutrophic lake. Lake Valencia is a freshwater lake located in North-Central Venezuela`s Aragua Valley. The lake`s surface area covers approximately 350 km{sup 2}, with a mean depth of 19 m and a maximum depth of 41 m. Due to the discharge of waste waters from the cities of Maracay and Valencia, as well as from other smaller villages and agricultural areas in its watershed, Lake Valencia has become hyper-eutrophic. The population of phytoplankton, particularly of blue-green algae, has increased dramatically during the last two decades resulting in anoxic conditions in the lower part of the water column during most of the year. In addition, concentrations of anthropogenic chemicals, including heavy metals, have increased in the Lake during the last four decades. 15 refs., 2 figs.

Jaffe, R.; Cai, Y.; West-Thomas, J. [Florida International Univ., Miami, FL (United States)] [and others

1997-12-31

91

Geographical Database Integrity Validation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Airport Safety Modeling Data (ASMD) was developed at the request of a 1997 White House Conference on Aviation Safety and Security. Politicians, military personnel, commercial aircraft manufacturers and the airline industry attended the conference. The objective of the conference was to study the airline industry and make recommendations to improve safety and security. One of the topics discussed at the conference was the loss of situational awareness by aircraft pilots. Loss of situational awareness occurs when a pilot loses his geographic position during flight and can result in crashes into terrain and obstacles. It was recognized at the conference that aviation safety could be improved by reducing the loss of situational awareness. The conference advised that a system be placed in the airplane cockpit that would provide pilots with a visual representation of the terrain around airports. The system would prevent airline crashes during times of inclement weather and loss of situational awareness. The system must be based on accurate data that represents terrain around airports. The Department of Defense and the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) released ASMD to be used for the development of a visual system for aircraft pilots. ASMD was constructed from NIMA digital terrain elevation data (DTED).

Jacobs, Derya; Kauffman, Paul; Blackstock, Dexter

2000-01-01

92

Coloring geographical threshold graphs  

SciTech Connect

We propose a coloring algorithm for sparse random graphs generated by the geographical threshold graph (GTG) model, a generalization of random geometric graphs (RGG). In a GTG, nodes are distributed in a Euclidean space, and edges are assigned according to a threshold function involving the distance between nodes as well as randomly chosen node weights. The motivation for analyzing this model is that many real networks (e.g., wireless networks, the Internet, etc.) need to be studied by using a 'richer' stochastic model (which in this case includes both a distance between nodes and weights on the nodes). Here, we analyze the GTG coloring algorithm together with the graph's clique number, showing formally that in spite of the differences in structure between GTG and RGG, the asymptotic behavior of the chromatic number is identical: {chi}1n 1n n / 1n n (1 + {omicron}(1)). Finally, we consider the leading corrections to this expression, again using the coloring algorithm and clique number to provide bounds on the chromatic number. We show that the gap between the lower and upper bound is within C 1n n / (1n 1n n){sup 2}, and specify the constant C.

Bradonjic, Milan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Percus, Allon [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Muller, Tobias [EINDHOVEN UNIV. OF TECH

2008-01-01

93

National Geographic: Photography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The exquisite visual offerings created by National Geographic over the past 125 years are well known by the general public around the world. This fine corner of their website brings together the work of their many fine staff photographers, videographers, and community members who contribute to this expansive brocade. After creating a free login, visitors can start their journey through the site by looking over the Photo of the Day or the "Best ofâ¦" slideshows that bring together highlights from past months. The "Editors' Picks" area offers thematic collections, such as "Photographing Lions," "Tel Aviv," "Patterns in Nature: Water" and "The Space Between." Shutterbugs will enjoy the online tutorials and tips contained in the "Photography Tips" area. Here they will find detailed suggestions on how to photograph details, urban landscapes, the night sky, and many other settings, times, and vistas. Finally, the site contains the "Featured Bios" area which has details on some of the fine photographers profiled here, including Paul Nicklen, Joel Sartore, and Mark Thiessen.

94

The Uncertain Geographic Context Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Any study that examines the effects of area-based attributes on individual behaviors or outcomes faces another fundamental methodological problem besides the modifiable areal unit problem (MAUP). It is the problem that results about these effects can be affected by how contextual units or neighborhoods are geographically delineated and the extent to which these areal units deviate from the true geographic

Mei-Po Kwan

2012-01-01

95

Geographic Perspectives of Air Transportation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past, present, and future research directions and advances in this highly dynamic research area of air transportation are reviewed with an eye toward geographers' contributions to the air transportation industry. The study of air transportation within the field of transportation geography and the larger discipline of geography is important as geographers use air transportation to help describe concepts such as

Timothy M. Vowles

2006-01-01

96

Japanese nationalism and geographical thought  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been simultaneous emergence in many countries of the world of political disputes over aspects of national history in the 1990s. Geographical knowledge has political implications. Hence it is concerned with the formation of national identity as well as historical knowledge. This paper examines the relationships between Japanese modernisation and geographical thought, the characteristics of school textbooks and geopolitics

Akihiko Takagi

1998-01-01

97

Geographic Education in Mexican Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Do Mexico's schools provide geographic learning opportunities to students and does equal opportunity to learn exist? The site for this study was Baja California's school district of Ensenada. Geographic education in urban primary and secondary schools was examined. School administrators and select teachers from 40 schools were asked about time…

Prentice, Murray; Fredrich, Barbara

98

Adaptive Cartography and Geographical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article focuses on adaptive cartography and its potential for geographical education. After briefly describing the wider context of adaptive cartography, it is suggested that this new cartographic approach establishes new demands and benefits for geographical education, especially in offering the possibility for broader individual…

Konecny, Milan; Stanek, Karel

2010-01-01

99

Determinants of Dentists' Geographic Distribution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A model for explaining the geographic distribution of dentists' practice locations is presented and applied to particular market areas in Connecticut. Results show geographic distribution is significantly related to a few key variables, including demography, disposable income, and housing prices. Implications for helping students make practice…

Beazoglou, Tryfon J.; And Others

1992-01-01

100

GEOGRAPHIC INDEX OF ENVIRONMENTAL ARTICLES  

EPA Science Inventory

This index was produced in accordance with the "Environmental Research Geographic Location Act," Public Law 101-617, enacted by the U.S. Congress on Nov. 16, 1990. ompiled by EPA, it is a quick reference for finding published articles about environmental issues for geographic loc...

101

[Polychaetes (Annelida: Polychaeta) epibiont on Spondylus americanus (Bivalvia: Spondylidae) from Mochima National Park, Venezuela].  

PubMed

The polychaetes epibiontic on the mollusk Spondylus americanus Hermann, 1781 were extracted from mollusks hand-collected at a depth of 10-30 m in Mochima National Park, Venezuela (10 degrees 21'00" N-63 degrees 23'36" W), using scuba diving gear. Forty-three polychaete species were identified on the 32 bivalve specimens analyzed. The Serpulidae included 17 especies, Eunicidae six and Terebellidae four species. The most abundant species were Hydroides dirampha Mörch, 1863, Pileolaria militaris Claparède, 1868 (Serpulidae), and Notaulax nudicollis Krøyer, 1856 (Sabellidae). Their geographic affinitie were: 51.3% Atlantic, 28.2% widely distributed, 17.9% Amphiamericans, and 2.6% have a disjunct distribution. PMID:18491616

Liñero Arana, Ildefonso; Díaz Díaz, Oscar

2006-09-01

102

Geographic Tongue in Monozygotic Twins  

PubMed Central

This article discusses a case of 5-year-old girl monozygotic twins who were suffering from geographic tongue (GT), a benign inflammatory disorder of the tongue which is characterized by circinate, irregular erythematous lesions on the dorsum and lateral borders of the tongue caused by loss of filiform papillae of the tongue epithelium. Whilst geographic tongue is a common entity, reports on this condition are uncommon in the literature. To best of our knowledge, this is the first report which has described monozygotic twins with geographic tongue in the literature.

2014-01-01

103

Cetaceans of Venezuela: Their Distribution and Conservation Status.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sighting, stranding, and capture records of whales and dolphins for Venezuela were assembled and analyzed to document the Venezuelan cetacean fauna and its distribution in the eastern Caribbean. An attempt was made to confirm species identification for ea...

A. Romero A. I. Agudo S. M. Green G. N. diSciara

2001-01-01

104

El Fenomeno Chavez: Hugo Chavez of Venezuela, Modern Day Bolivar.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hugo Chavez, the charismatic and controversial President of Venezuela, reached the ultimate seat of political power with his election as head of state in 1998. Carefully cultivating the image of an impoverished Venezuelan youth reaching the highest politi...

J. M. Post

2007-01-01

105

Venezuela's Contribution to the Contemporary Law of the Sea.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Venezuela's contribution to the contemporary law of the sea is of special interest since that country will host the 1974 conference. The author reviews the development of the continental shelf doctrine and the concept of the patrimonial sea, with emphasis...

K. G. Nweihed

1974-01-01

106

PENNSYLVANIA GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM LIBRARY  

EPA Science Inventory

PENNSYLVANIA GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM (GIS) LIBRARY OFFERS AT A SCALE OF 1:24,000 FROM USGS TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS DIGITIZED COUNTY, COUNTY PARK, STATE PARK, AND STATE GAMELAND BOUNDARIES FOR THE COMMONWEALTH OF PENNSYLVANIA....

107

Infected dogs as a risk factor in the transmission of human Trypanosoma cruzi infection in western Venezuela.  

PubMed

A total of 565 mongrel dogs from rural localities of Venezuela were examined by serological (DAT, IFAT and ELISA) and parasitological tests to address the status of Trypanosoma cruzi infection and to evaluate their role in the transmission of the infection to human population. The overall percentage of sero-positive infected dogs shown to be 67.6% (382/565):253 (61.7%) from 47 villages belonging to 8 states located at 4 different geographical regions of western Venezuela and 129 (33.5%) dogs from 48 households located in areas where Chagas disease is endemic. From 101 sampled dogs living in close proximity to 30 acute chagasic patients, 84% expressed specific anti-T. cruzi antibodies (Ab) with 12 of them (14%) showing blood circulating parasites (BCP). In these houses a high proportion of sero-positive people (20%) and frequent indoor infestation by triatomine-bugs (70%) was also recorded. The analysis revealed that from the 47 rural villages sampled during the study, 91.5% had the presence of T. cruzi sero-positive dogs, ranging from 62% positive localities at the states of Falcon and Cojedes to 100% in the other six studied Venezuelan states. This demonstrates that T. cruzi-infected dogs are found throughout all the geographical regions of western Venezuela irrespective of their ecological differences. Molecular typing of T. cruzi isolates from infected dogs using ribosomal and mini-exon gene markers, revealed the presence of both T. cruzi I and T. cruzi II lineages. The coincidence in the circulation of T. cruzi II in dog and human populations at the same locality and at the same time is reported and its significance is discussed. The combined serological, parasitological, epidemiological and molecular data is gathered here to call the attention on the presence of infected dogs as a risk factor in the maintenance of T. cruzi as a source for infection to humans. PMID:16797466

Crisante, Gladys; Rojas, Agustina; Teixeira, Marta M G; Añez, Nestor

2006-07-01

108

Hydrogen: BOC-FW venture secures major Venezuela project  

SciTech Connect

BOC Gases and Foster Wheeler Power Systems (FW) have been awarded a $50-million project to supply a 50-million cu ft/day hydrogen (H{sub 2}) plant to Lagoven`s Amuay, Venezuela refinery for 1997 startup. BOC and FW have also formed a marketing agreement for on-site H{sub 2} plants in the Americas, extending a previous relationship covering Chile and Venezuela.

Wood, A.

1995-07-26

109

[Increasing difficulties for scientific publication in Venezuela].  

PubMed

A very important increase in the costs of the edition of scientific journals has taken place in Venezuela, due to difficulties in obtaining imported free acid paper and other materials used for handling documents. Like other journals, Investigaci6n Clinica has been considering switching completely to a digital publication format; however there are several reasons that prevent us to doing it at this time: the journal is distributed in printed form to many national institutions, which do not have immediate access to digital information. In addition, there exists a commitment of shipment of printed issues for some international indices and in exchange with other national and foreign journals, whose printed format we receive. Another important aspect is that our University maintains a weak technological platform that makes difficult the immediacy required for the interchange with authors and consulted referees of received papers; and there is a latent danger of limitations in the use of digital technologies, due to current national politic problems. Consequently, we need to continue with the printed format, but must reduce the amount of printed issues, so as not to limit the number of papers published in each edition. Nevertheless, there is an ever increasing number of contributions from foreign researches and Investigaci6n Clinica has been recently included in two new international indices, the SEIIC from Argentina and the Infobase Index from India, reasons that obligate us to maintain our levels of excellence and commitment to our authors and readers. PMID:24758096

Ryder, Elena

2014-03-01

110

Cutaneous leishmaniasis in western Venezuela caused by infection with Leishmania venezuelensis and L. braziliensis variants.  

PubMed

Between 1975 and 1987, epidemiological studies were carried out in several rural and urban communities in the central part of western Venezuela, especially in the state of Lara. 115 positive cultures were obtained from human cases and identified by their reactivity patterns to a cross-panel of specific monoclonal antibodies using a radioimmune binding assay; 53 were Leishmania venezuelensis and 62 were L. braziliensis. Most of these stocks were also characterized by isoenzyme electrophoresis, which confirmed the identification of the L. venezuelensis isolates. The enzyme electrophoretic profiles of the L. braziliensis isolates, however, revealed two populations with distinct electromorphs, one related to the World Health Organization L. braziliensis reference strain while the other population appeared to be a hybrid between L. braziliensis and L. guyanensis. L. braziliensis variants showed the widest geographical distribution, and were found in 7 states: Districto Federal (Caracas); Lara (Barquisimeto, Crespo, Iribarren, Jimenez, Morán, Palavecino, Torres, Urdaneta); Nueva Esparta (Margarita); Portuguesa (Las Cruces, Rio Amarillo); Trujillo (Cuicas); Yaracuy (Agua Fria, Cambural, Guaremal); and Zulia (Zipa-Yare). L. venezuelensis was found in the following endemic regions: Lara (Barquisimeto, Iribarren, Jimenez, Morán); Merida (Zéa); and Yaracuy (Campos Elias), showing that this parasite has a much wider geographical distribution than was initially recognized and that both these species can occur simultaneously within the same endemic region. Five isolates of L. braziliensis were made from infected donkeys (Equus asinus) in Urdaneta, Lara State, suggesting a possible domestic reservoir of L. braziliensis. PMID:1440772

Bonfante-Garrido, R; Meléndez, E; Barroeta, S; de Alejos, M A; Momen, H; Cupolillo, E; McMahon-Pratt, D; Grimaldi, G

1992-01-01

111

Trypanosoma cruzi III from armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus novemcinctus) from Northeastern Venezuela and its biological behavior in murine model. Risk of emergency of Chagas' disease.  

PubMed

Trypanosoma cruzi, etiological agent of Chagas' disease, was isolated from armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus novemcinctus) captured in rural communities Northeastern Venezuela from Nueva Esparta State (no endemic for Chagas' disease), Monagas and Anzoátegui States (endemics). The isolates, genetically typed by PCR-RFLP as belonging to the TcIII DTU, have demonstrated in murine model heterogenic parasitemia, mortality and histotropism with marked parasitism in cardiac, skeletal, and smooth myocytes that showed correlation with lymphobasophilic inflammatory infiltrates. Our finding of T. cruzi infected armadillos in Isla Margarita (Nueva Esparta State), together with reports of triatomine vectors in this region, the accentuated synanthropy of armadillos, intense economic activity, migration due to tourism and the lack of environmental education programs all of them represent risks that could cause the emergence of Chagas' disease in this area. This is the first report of the TcIII DTU in Northeastern Venezuela, thus widening the geographic distribution of this DTU. PMID:22902748

Morocoima, Antonio; Carrasco, Hernán J; Boadas, Johanna; Chique, José David; Herrera, Leidi; Urdaneta-Morales, Servio

2012-11-01

112

Evaluating geographic information systems technology  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Computerized geographic information systems (GISs) are emerging as the spatial data handling tools of choice for solving complex geographical problems. However, few guidelines exist for assisting potential users in identifying suitable hardware and software. A process to be followed in evaluating the merits of GIS technology is presented. Related standards and guidelines, software functions, hardware components, and benchmarking are discussed. By making users aware of all aspects of adopting GIS technology, they can decide if GIS is an appropriate tool for their application and, if so, which GIS should be used.

Guptill, Stephen, C.

1989-01-01

113

Analysing surnames as geographic data.  

PubMed

With most surname research undertaken within the fields of anthropology and population genetics, geographers have overlooked surnames as a credible data source. In addition to providing a review of recent developments in surname analysis, this paper highlights areas where geographers can make important contributions to advancing surname research, both in terms of its quality and also its applications. The review discusses the emerging applications for surname research, not least in the mining of online data, and ends by suggesting three future research themes to ensure the building momentum of surname research continues to grow across disciplines. PMID:25020015

Cheshire, James

2014-06-30

114

National Geographic Features: Inside Tornadoes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Geographic describes Tim Samaras and two colleagues' success in observing the bottom 30 feet of a tornado with a wisely placed camera. While users can only read the entire article by purchasing the National Geographic, the multimedia materials are amazing. Users can view images of the storm chasers at work. Everyone will enjoy the videos of the storm chasers setting up, the tornado moving over the camera, and Tim Samaras's descriptions of storm chasers' lives and tools. The website offers facts about tornadoes as well as websites and books where users can find more information.

115

National Geographic Features: Inside Tornadoes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Geographic describes Tim Samaras and two colleagues' success in observing the bottom 30 feet of a tornado with a wisely placed camera. While users can only read the entire article by purchasing the National Geographic, the multimedia materials are amazing. Users can view images of the storm chasers at work. Everyone will enjoy the videos of the storm chasers setting up, the tornado moving over the camera, and Tim Samaras's descriptions of storm chasers' lives and tools. The website offers facts about tornadoes as well as websites and books where users can find more information.

2005-11-05

116

SOIL SURVEY GEOGRAPHIC DATABASE (SSURGO)  

EPA Science Inventory

This data set is a digital soil survey and is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. This data set consists of georeferenced digital map data and computerized attribute data. The map data are in a 7.5 minute quadrangle ...

117

Mapping a Geographically Correlated Environment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The assignment of many individuals to species is explored in the case when the data on the individuals are non-independent. The non-independence may arise naturally because of geographic proximity. These notions are extended to qualitative mapping of cont...

P. Switzer

1969-01-01

118

Geographic Education and Community Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One way geographical educators can help local communities understand their environment is to offer a course focusing on local regional geography using the concept of regional synthesis. Describes specific mechanics and evaluates short-term outcomes of such a course in Hawaii. Discusses potential uses. Journal availability: see SO 507 262.…

Stephenson, Larry K.

1979-01-01

119

Gender Differences in Geographical Knowledge.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Among college undergraduates, males consistently outperform females on tests of geographical knowledge. That difference may be caused by the fact that women have had less active control over distances and directions traveled in their lives, and thus less interest in learning about them. This may change as women's roles in society change. (PS)

Beatty, William W.; Troster, Alexander I.

1987-01-01

120

Powerful Knowledge and Geographical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Michael Young has argued that pupils should be given access to "powerful knowledge." This article examines the extent to which his concept of powerful knowledge is applicable to geographical education, in particular to the study of urban geography. It explores the distinction Young makes between everyday and school knowledge, how this…

Roberts, Margaret

2014-01-01

121

Geographic Proximity and Enrollment Competition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of a measure of geographic proximity to help explain enrollment competition among postsecondary institutions was investigated. The measure, the number of miles between institutions, was obtained by determining the longitude and latitude coordinates for about 99% of the schools in the Higher Education General Information System universe.…

Zammuto, Raymond F.

122

78 FR 4437 - Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, Venezuela: Notice of Commission Determination To Conduct...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Review)] Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, Venezuela: Notice of Commission Determination...orders on silicomanganese from India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela would be likely to lead...reviews on subject imports from India and Kazakhstan were inadequate. Notwithstanding...

2013-01-22

123

David Meets Goliath on the Information Superhighway: Venezuela in the Context of the Electronic Communication Networks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses Venezuela's information and communications technology infrastructure and usage patterns; examines future networking plans; and addresses political and economic considerations linked to the information and technology problems in Venezuela and in Latin America in general. (LRW)

Sanchez-Vegas, Saadia

1995-01-01

124

Syllidae (Annelida, Polychaeta) from the Caribbean coast of Venezuela  

PubMed Central

Abstract Venezuela possesses a great variety of coastal environments allowing for a high diversity of marine species. However, systematic studies on marine invertebrates are scarce, especially on polychaetes. The family Syllidae is poorly known, and only 14 genera and 42 species have been reported from this country. A total of 13 genera and 26 species the Syllidae were identified from benthic samples collected on different substrata of the northeastern coast of Venezuela. Of these, seven genera and 16 species constitute new records for Venezuela: Odontosyllis guillermoi, Syllides floridanus, Salvatoria clavata, Salvatoria limbata, Sphaerosyllis longicauda, Parapionosyllis longicirrata, Trypanosyllis parvidentata, Trypanosyllis vittigera, Opisthosyllis sp., Syllis amica, Syllis armillaris, Syllis gracilis, Syllis pseudoarmillaris, Syllis vittata, Parasphaerosyllis indica and Myrianida convoluta.

Linero-Arana, Ildefonso; Diaz Diaz, Oscarn

2011-01-01

125

Syllidae (Annelida, Polychaeta) from the Caribbean coast of Venezuela.  

PubMed

Venezuela possesses a great variety of coastal environments allowing for a high diversity of marine species. However, systematic studies on marine invertebrates are scarce, especially on polychaetes. The family Syllidae is poorly known, and only 14 genera and 42 species have been reported from this country. A total of 13 genera and 26 species the Syllidae were identified from benthic samples collected on different substrata of the northeastern coast of Venezuela. Of these, seven genera and 16 species constitute new records for Venezuela: Odontosyllis guillermoi, Syllides floridanus, Salvatoria clavata, Salvatoria limbata, Sphaerosyllis longicauda, Parapionosyllis longicirrata, Trypanosyllis parvidentata, Trypanosyllis vittigera, Opisthosyllis sp., Syllis amica, Syllis armillaris, Syllis gracilis, Syllis pseudoarmillaris, Syllis vittata, Parasphaerosyllis indica and Myrianida convoluta. PMID:21998503

Liñero-Arana, Ildefonso; Díaz Díaz, Oscarn

2011-01-01

126

U.S. Exports to Venezuela: A State-by-State Overview, 1987-1991.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Introductory Note; Statistical Regions Used in the Report; Top State Exporters to Venezuela; States with Greatest Dollar Growth in Exports to Venezuela, 1987-91; State and Regional Exports to Venezuela: 1987-91 (organized by region); State and R...

1993-01-01

127

An Interview with Margot Benacerraf: Reveron, Araya, and the Institutionalization of Cinema in Venezuela.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an interview (edited into a first-person form) with Margot Benacerraf, known for two prize-winning films in the 1950s but not as well known for her active promotion of film culture in Venezuela. Discusses her education in Venezuela, travels outside Venezuela, production of her prize-winning films, and her efforts at promoting the…

Schwartzman, Karen

1993-01-01

128

A new species of Corydalus Latreille from Venezuela (Megaloptera, Corydalidae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract A new species of dobsonfly, Corydalus wanningeri, from Venezuela, is described and illustrated. It superficially resembles Corydalus neblinensis Contreras-Ramos, with a uniform reddish coloration of body and wings. Yet, because of male genitalic structure it might be closely related to Corydalus crossi Contreras-Ramos. Specimens were collected from a rain forest transitional zone between the Orinoco lowlands and the Gran Sabana plateau, in Bolívar state. This is the 15th species of Corydalus to be recorded from Venezuela, rendering this the country with the highest number of documented Corydalus species. A key to the sexually dimorphic, long-mandibled Venezuelan species of the genus is provided.

Contreras-Ramos, Atilano; von der Dunk, Klaus

2010-01-01

129

Complete genome sequences of two begomoviruses infecting weeds in Venezuela.  

PubMed

The complete sequences of isolates of two new bipartite begomoviruses (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) found infecting weeds in Venezuela are provided. The names proposed for these new begomoviruses are "Datura leaf distortion virus" (DLDV), isolated from a Datura stramonium L. (family Solanaceae) plant, and "Dalechampia chlorotic mosaic virus" (DCMV), isolated from infected Dalechampia sp. (family Euphorbiaceae) and Boerhavia diffusa L. (family Nyctaginaceae) plants. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these new begomoviruses segregated in two distinct clades of New World begomoviruses. To our knowledge, this is the first record of a begomovirus infecting Dalechampia sp. plants. Also, this is the first report of a begomovirus infecting Boerhavia spp. and Datura spp. in Venezuela. PMID:22926716

Fiallo-Olivé, Elvira; Chirinos, Dorys T; Geraud-Pouey, Francis; Moriones, Enrique; Navas-Castillo, Jesús

2013-01-01

130

Record of source-generated overpressures, Venezuela  

SciTech Connect

Fluid pressures affect migration of oil, gas, and water in continental margins. Burial and thermal history models describe the degree to which indercompaction or thermal expansion of fluids contribute to fluid pressure histories, but it is more difficult to evaluate how source-terms, such as oil yield or mineral dehydration reactions, impact paleo-fluid pressures. In this study, we document how a thick, maturing source rock helped create near-lithostatic fluid pressures that generated overpressures in reservoir rocks. We analyzed abundant oil-filled and rare aqueous fluid inclusions in calcite-filled fractures in the La Luna Fm. source rock and in the underlying Cogollo Gp. carbonate reservoir in the W. Maracaibo Basin, Venezuela. Homogenization temperatures (Th) of oil-filled inclusions range from 25-42[degrees]C in the La Luna Fm. and from 25-105[degrees]C in the Cogollo Gp., and associated gravities (determined from fluorescence properties) range from 28-43[degrees]API and 17-45[degrees]API, respectively. Integration of Th with the burial and thermal history of the sampled horizons leads to the conclusion that fractures in the La Luna Fm. formed under near-lithostatic fluid pressure conditions in the presence of a gas-charged oil. The values from fractures in the Cogollo Gp. are higher than in the La Luna Fm and become more variable with increasing depth below La Luna. We interpret those fractures to have formed under lower fluid pressure conditions and/or with a less gas-charged oil than for La Luna. This interpretation of the distribution of paleo-fluid pressures is supported by the observation of modern inverted fluid pressure gradients between upper and lower Cogollo Gp. reservoirs. Thus late expulsion of a gas-charged oil created near-lithostatic fluid pressures in the La Luna Fm. source rock, and those fluid pressures bled downward through fractures into the adjoining reservoir rocks, contributing to the overpressures we observe today.

Vrolijk, P.J.; Pottorf, R.J.; Maze, W.B. (Exxon Production Research Co., Houston, TX (United States))

1996-01-01

131

Seismological Parameters in the Northern Andes, Venezuela  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Venezuelas tectonic setting as part of the plate boundary between the Caribbean and the South American plate causes two major seismologically active fault systems: the roughly west - east trending strike slip fault system along the coast with numerous sub-parallel faults and the Bocono fault system, which dominates the Venezuelan southwest - northeast striking Andes. The main Bocono fault reaches a total length of about 500 km and has a width of approximately 100 km between the southern and northern baseline of the mountain slopes which are marked by inverse faults. This is believed to be due to strain partitioning, a concept which seems to apply as well to the Bocono fault system. The whole fault system is characterized by a high seismicity rate of small scale and intermediate event magnitudes ranging from 1.5 to 6.3 in the last fifty years. In this study we would like to present an investigation on 39 focal mechanism solutions and a b-value mapping of the Andean region with the main goal to throw light on the stess and strain situation. For recompiling the focal memchanisms calculated from first motion polarities, various sources had to been used: seismograms from stations of the local and regional networks of the Seismological Center of ULA, the national seismic network operated by FUNVISIS, the seismic network Lago Maracaibo of PDVSA and the local seismic network of DESURCA. For the b-value mapping we used the two catalogues of ULA and DESURCA of which the last one registered more than 6500 events from 1994 to 1999. The set of focal mechanism solutions studied showed normal, strike slip, and reverse faulting mechanisms concentrated in distinct areas of the Bocono fault system and thus resulting in a zonation also supported by the determinations of the azimuths of the maximum horizontal stress SHmax. This hypothesis of the zonation of the Andes region is strongly supported by the results of the b-value mapping. The zonation as seen in the varying major stress and strain axes is also exhilbited in the spacial distribution of the b-values. Remarkable is especially a zone in the north - eastern part of the study area with a cluster of normal fault events which is congruent with the maximum b-values observed in the b-value map.

Sobiesiak, M.; Palme de Osechas, C.; Choy, J. E.; Morandi S., M. T.; Campo, M.; Granado Ruiz, C.

2001-12-01

132

National States Geographic Information Council  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With the exponential growth in geographic information systems (GIS) across the United States, there are a number of organizations with an interest in coordinating a variety of activities around the sustained growth and management of these various systems. One such group is the National States Geographic Information Council (NSGIC). With members drawn from the federal government, academia, and the private sector, the Council is committed to advocating on behalf of these state GIS agencies in the interest of creating efficient and accessible databases. A good place to start on their website is the âÂÂHot Topicsâ area, which provides access to their blog and information about some of their latest initiatives, which include those that address homeland security and topographic accuracy. Additionally, visitors can also learn more about their events and conferences, and also about membership opportunities.

133

Geographic Trends in Invasive Candidiasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Candida species are one of the most important causes of bloodstream infection (BSI) in tertiary-care hospitals worldwide. The incidence\\u000a of candidemia and the Candida species causing these infections may vary geographically. Although C. albicans remains the species most commonly isolated, there is clear evidence showing increasing rates of BSI caused by Candida non-albicans species around the world. C. glabrata is

Angela S. Nishikaku; Analy S. A. Melo; Arnaldo L. Colombo

2010-01-01

134

Geographic names of the Antarctic  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This gazetteer contains 12,710 names approved by the United States Board on Geographic Names and the Secretary of the Interior for features in Antarctica and the area extending northward to the Antarctic Convergence. Included in this geographic area, the Antarctic region, are the off-lying South Shetland Islands, the South Orkney Islands, the South Sandwich Islands, South Georgia, Bouvetøya, Heard Island, and the Balleny Islands. These names have been approved for use by U.S. Government agencies. Their use by the Antarctic specialist and the public is highly recommended for the sake of accuracy and uniformity. This publication, which supersedes previous Board gazetteers or lists for the area, contains names approved as recently as December 1994. The basic name coverage of this gazetteer corresponds to that of maps at the scale of 1:250,000 or larger for coastal Antarctica, the off-lying islands, and isolated mountains and ranges of the continent. Much of the interior of Antarctica is a featureless ice plateau. That area has been mapped at a smaller scale and is nearly devoid of toponyms. All of the names are for natural features, such as mountains, glaciers, peninsulas, capes, bays, islands, and subglacial entities. The names of scientific stations have not been listed alphabetically, but they may appear in the texts of some decisions. For the names of submarine features, reference should be made to the Gazetteer of Undersea Features, 4th edition, U.S. Board on Geographic Names, 1990.

U.S. Board on Geographic Names; U.S. Geological Survey; Defense Mapping Agency; National Science Foundation; Compiled and edited by Alberts, Fred G.

1995-01-01

135

47 CFR 10.450 - Geographic targeting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL MOBILE ALERT SYSTEM Alert Message Requirements § 10.450 Geographic targeting...establishes minimum requirements for the geographic targeting of Alert Messages. A Participating CMS Provider will...

2012-10-01

136

47 CFR 10.450 - Geographic targeting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL MOBILE ALERT SYSTEM Alert Message Requirements § 10.450 Geographic targeting...establishes minimum requirements for the geographic targeting of Alert Messages. A Participating CMS Provider will...

2011-10-01

137

47 CFR 10.450 - Geographic targeting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL WIRELESS EMERGENCY ALERTS Alert Message Requirements § 10.450 Geographic targeting...establishes minimum requirements for the geographic targeting of Alert Messages. A Participating CMS Provider will...

2013-10-01

138

Genetic Characterization of Rabies Field Isolates from Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty samples from cases of rabies in humans and domestic animals diagnosed in Venezuela between 1990 and 1994 and one sample from a vampire bat collected in 1976 were characterized by reactivity to monoclonal antibodiesagainsttheviralnucleoproteinandbypatternsofnucleotidesubstitutioninthenucleoproteingene. Three antigenic variants were found: 1, 3, and 5. Antigenic variant 1 included all samples from dogs and humans infected by contact with rabid dogs.

CARLOS A. DEMATTOS; CECILIA C. DEMATTOS; JEAN S. SMITH; EDITH T. MILLER; SARA PAPO; ANTONIO UTRERA; ANDBENNIE I. OSBURN

139

Characterization of phosphorus in sinking particles in Cariaco Basin, Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient utilized by all organisms for biological productivity, yet little is known about its cycling within the marine realm. In this study, we used a five-step sequential sediment extraction method (SEDEX) to examine the composition of P in sinking particles obtained from one of the world's largest anoxic basins, Cariaco Basin, Venezuela. This method, which

M. L. Ranhofer; C. Benitez-Nelson; R. Thunell

2004-01-01

140

Late Pleistocene carbonate dissolution in the Venezuela Basin, Caribbean Sea  

SciTech Connect

Piston cores from water depths greater than 4000 m in the Venezuela Basin (Caribbean Sea) provide continuous late Pleistocene records of carbonate dissolution and accumulation. The authors examination of multiple dissolution indices indicate that, at least for the last 150,000 years, dissolution of carbonate in the Venezuela Basin has been more intense during interglacial than glacial periods, a pattern opposite to more general observations from the deep Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico. By virtue of its shallow sill depth (1815 m), the Venezuela Basin is relatively isolated from the mainstream of Atlantic thermohaline circulation, and presently is filled with homogeneous, relatively warm (3.8/sup 0/C) waters primarily derived from Upper North Atlantic Deep Water. During the last glacial, the enhanced preservation of carbonate in the Venezuela Basin suggests the presence of a less corrosive, more oxygenated water mass in the Atlantic near sill depth. However, this simple interpretations is potentially complicated by past changes in the rain of biogenic materials from surface waters to the deep basin in what must be an essentially closed system below sill depth. Their observations of increased interglacial dissolution may help to explain previously noted discrepancies in the local glacial to interglacial amplitude of delta/sup 18/O variations recorded by coccoliths and planktonic foraminifera.

Cofer-Shabica, N.B.; Peterson, L.C.

1985-01-01

141

Temperature, heat, and mixing in Lake Valencia, Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Water temperature profiles, weather data, and lake level data spanning a 2-year period for Lake Valencia, Venezuela (10”N, 67”W), are used in an analysis of thermal regime, mixing, ancl heat flux, The lake, which has an arca of 350 km2 and mean depth of 19 m, is warm monomictic; it becomes isothermal annually near the end of November, at

WILLIAM M. JR. LEWIS

1983-01-01

142

Pedernales oilfield, eastern Venezuela: The first 100 years  

SciTech Connect

Petroleum seeps and surface tar mats attracted oil explorers to Pedernales in eastern Venezuela 100 years ago. Commercial production from the Pedernales Field was established by Creole in 1933. In three production periods, broken by WWII and the end of the Creole-Texaco refining contract, Creole and Lagoven produced about 60 MMSTB from about 60 wells in about 60 years. Peak production was in the late 1950s, when the field delivered 12,000 BOPD. Production was stopped in 1986. In March 1993, BP Venezuela acquired the license to reactivate Pedernales on behalf of Lagoven, and BP`s first well in the field was drilled in August 1994. A second was completed in early 1995. The production from each well was sufficiently encouraging for commerciality to be declared in March 1995. Phase 1 of the field reactivation demanded a production rate of 11,500 BOPD. As of now (September, 1995) six wells, including one gas disposal well, have been completed. Wells have been placed using a combination of old well data and mapping based on a close spaced 2D seismic survey shot in early 1994. Results from these first few wells indicate that the required production rate will be achieved despite severely depleted reservoir pressures. This paper tells the story of reactivation and re-evaluation of one of eastern Venezuela`s oldest oilfields.

Gluyas, J.; Oliver, J.; Wilson, W. [BP Las Mercedes Caracas (Venezuela)

1996-08-01

143

The Market for Building Products and Construction Equipment in Venezuela.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The market research was undertaken to study the present and potential US share of the market in Venezuela for building products and construction equipment; to examine growth trends in Venezuelan end-user industries over the next few years; to identify spe...

1976-01-01

144

Venezuela Market Survey for Construction and Mining Machinery.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The market research was undertaken to study the present and potential US share of the market in Venezuela for construction and mining machinery; to examine growth trends in Venezuelan end-user industries over the next few years; to identify specific produ...

1978-01-01

145

Market Study of Printing and Graphic Arts Equipment in Venezuela.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The market research was undertaken to study the present and potential US share of the market in Venezuela for printing and graphic arts equipment; to examine growth trends in Venezuelan end-user industries over the next few years; to identify specific pro...

1977-01-01

146

Food Transfers Among Hiwi Foragers of Venezuela: Tests of Reciprocity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although food sharing has been observed in many traditional societies, we still do not have a deep understanding of how various ecological conditions produce variation in who gives and who receives specific resources. To understand better the behavioral ecology of food sharing, we present data collected with the Hiwi of Venezuela and focus on two questions: (a) How do characteristics

Michael Gurven; Kim Hill; Hillard Kaplan; Ana Hurtado; Richard Lyles

2000-01-01

147

[Epidemiology of ophidism in Venezuela (1996-2004)].  

PubMed

The data of accidents caused by snakebites in Venezuela, registered at the morbidity statistics of the Direction of Epidemiology and Strategic Analysis of the Ministry of Health and Social Development were analyzed. During the years of 1996-2004, 53,792 snakebites were registered in Venezuela (5,976 cases average per year), with a higher incidence during the year 2004 (7,486 incidents). Zulia reported the highest frequency of all the states (5,975 cases); meanwhile the Midwestern region, constituted by Lara, Portuguesa, Falc6n and Yaracuy states, had a higher morbidity for snake bites. The highest incidence, distributed per states was registered in Cojedes, during the year 2001, with 228.72 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. When it was determined by regions, the highest incidence occurred during the year 2004 at los Llanos with 63.81 per 100,000 inhabitants. The median of the incidence rate for Venezuela during the period was of 21.46 accidents per 100,000 inhabitants. The classification of the endemic areas for ophidism, according to the percentiles 23, 50, 75 and 90, organized the country in: (a) states and regions of very high endemicity, (b) high endemicity, (c) middle, (d) low and (e) very low endemicity. These epidemiological data indicated that the accidents caused by snakes constitute a collective health problem in Venezuela. PMID:23947002

De Sousa, Leonardo; Bastouri-Carrasco, Jessica; Matos, Mercedes; Borges, Adolfo; Bónoli, Stefano; Vásquez-Suárez, Aleikar; Guerrero, Belsy; Rodríguez-Acosta, Alexis

2013-06-01

148

Gross alpha radioactivity of drinking water in Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bottled mineral water is consumed by a large population in Venezuela. The alpha emitters concentration was measured in samples of bottled water and water springs collected near the surface. Approximately 30% of the total mineral water suppliers was monitored. A database on natural and artificial radioactivity in drinking water was produced. Results indicate that 54% of the waters sampled contain

L. Sajo-Bohus; J. Gómez; T. Capote; E. D. Greaves; O. Herrera; V. Salazar; A. Smith

1997-01-01

149

Venezuela, Survey of World Markets for Medical Equipment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The market for medical equipment in Venezuela has been one of the most dynamic markets in the country over the past two to three years. Although drastic growth may not continue over the next few years, the market for this equipment will sustain excellent ...

1976-01-01

150

Renal diseases in children in Venezuela, South America  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study reports epidemiological data on renal disorders in children in Venezuela. Information was obtained from 14 centers for the period January through December 1998. A total of 3,624 patients were evaluated as either a first outpatient consultation or as a first hospital admission. Nearly 70% of the patients could be grouped in one of the following categories: (1)

Nelson Orta-Sibu; Michelle Lopez; Juan C. Moriyon; Juan B. Chavez

2002-01-01

151

[Molecular characterization of Sigmodon hirsutus (Rodentia: Cricetidae) populations in Venezuela].  

PubMed

Recent phylogenetic studies based on cytochrome b gene sequence, have determined that the species historically known as Sigmodon hispidus (Rodentia) from South America comprises a species S. hirsutus of paraphyletic origin. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that populations from Venezuela, represent the sensu strict form, ancestral haplotypes, and monophyletic subspecieS. For this, 12 individual sequences from three localities of different biogeographic regions in Venezuela were evaluated and sequenced based on cyto b. Additionally, the sequences were used to develop a cladistic analysis and genetic distance calculations, and to compare this information with two individual sequences of Sigmodon specimens available in Genbank. Phylogenetic analyses show that the three populations of S. hirsutus of Venezuela form an ancestral and monophyletic subclade supported by high bootstrap values and significant genetic distance between subclade within the S. hirsutus. Besides, the existence of two lineages suggests two subspecies, S. hirsutus hirsutus from Venezuela, and S. hirsutus mexicanus from Mexico-Central America, but, both species need formal description. PMID:21721239

Lessmann, Janeth; Arrivillaga, Jazzmín; Aguilera, Marisol

2011-06-01

152

Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis: a new case from Venezuela.  

PubMed

Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) is not often seen. To date, less than 300 cases have been communicated to the medical literature since the disease was first discovered in 1965. Six of these reports originated in Venezuela. The authors describe a new spontaneous case of PAM in a 33-year-old previously healthy Western-Venezuelan man. PMID:18820207

Caruzo, Giusseppe; Cardozo, José

2008-10-01

153

Petroleum Resources of Venezuela and Trinidad and Tobago.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The status of known and ultimately recoverable crude oil and natural gas resources of the Federal Republics of Venezuela, and Trinidad and Tobago (hereafter referred to as Trinidad) is set forth in this report. The rates that oil resources may be availabl...

1983-01-01

154

Research and Research Methods in Geographical Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of papers examines research methods in geographical education in nine countries. "Research Methods in the History of Geographical Education" (William Marsden, the United Kingdom) examines the methods used and some of the research undertaken in the history of geographical education. "Research Methods in Investigating Children's and…

Graves, Norman J., Ed.

155

Composable geographical routing in sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geographical routing is a promising solution in sensor networks because of its stateless nature and low overhead. In this paper, we extend geographical routing to facilitate the construction of flexible group communication structures by using composable geographical routing (CGR) primitives. We demonstrate the utility and explore design considerations of CGR in three sample applications: multicast, geocast, and load balancing in

Hong Huang

2003-01-01

156

Formalizing Constraints for Geographic Information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An important aspect when producing geographic information is to ensure that the produced information is consistent and homogeneous. Data content specifications are used to describe objects that should be included in a data collection, and to evaluate if the quality of the produced information is acceptable. Product specialists, under consideration of the requirements from the various users and customers, write specifications in natural languages. Parts of these specifications can be implemented as constraints in production systems, and used to evaluate if the produced information has the intended content.

Christensen, Jesper Vinther; Johnsen, Mads

157

Evaluate past and ongoing enhanced oil-recovery projects in the United States and Venezuela, annex III. Venezuela-MEM\\/USA-DOE fossil-energy report III-1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Agreement between the United States and Venezuela was designed to further energy research and development in six areas. This report focuses on Annex III - Evaluate Past and Ongoing Enhanced Oil Recovery Projects in the United States and Venezuela. Annex III has separated this portion of the coopertive energy research and development effort into four tasks for study. Energy

D. C. Ward; J. Garcia

1983-01-01

158

A biostratigraphic sequence analysis in Cretaceous sediments from Eastern Venezuela  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the results of a high resolution biostratigraphic study integrated with petrophysic analyses, of the Late Cretaceous sequence in several wells from the Maturin Sub-Basin, Eastern Venezuela. The main objective of this study is to integrate the different faunal and floral assemblages to the sedimentological evolution of the basin using sequential analysis techniques. This technique was applied using mainly terrestrial and marine palynomorphs which were relatively abundant and diverse as compared to the scarcity of foraminifera and nonnofossils. Based on the percentages of abundance and the diversity of the different groups of microfoss it was possible to establish the maximum flooding surfaces and condensation levels which allowed the definition of the possible candidates for the sequence boundaries. On the other hand, the identified bioevents made possible the definition of the chronostratigraphic datums of the sequence under study. The results obtained will contribute to optimize the exploration and development programs of the oil fields in Eastern Venezuela.

Paredes, I.; Carillo, M.; Fasola, A.; Luna, F. (Intevep S.A., Caracas (Venezuela))

1993-02-01

159

The Geographical Dimension of Terrorism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The events of September 11 ushered us all into a world in which our security and sense of invulnerability were savagely replaced by vulnerability and irrational fear. To the delight of our adversaries who planned these attacks, we often responded in ways that furthered their agenda by weakening the cultural colossus that we call home. Normally terrorism is viewed as intense but localized violence. Seldom is terrorism viewed in its more expansive dimensions. It is burned into our collective memories as a collapsed building, a shattered bus, an incinerated nightclub, or facilities closed by a few anthrax-laced letters. However, terrorism must be studied in dimensions larger than the view from a news camera. This conclusion forms the intellectual basis for The Geographical Dimension of Terrorism.

Hawkins, Houston T.

160

National Geographic: Prehistoric Time Line  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Humans haven't roamed the earth for long, and our presence on this planet only dates back around 190,000 years. There are approximately 4.3 billion more years of Earth's history to explore, and this interactive and edifying timeline created by National Geographic helps interested persons explore it. First-time visitors can click around within the timeline to read short descriptions of important events and developments in the Earth's history, complete with visual materials. The events covered here include the initial formation of the Earth all the way up to the recent Ice Ages and the birth of modern humans. Along with this timeline, visitors can also view a photo gallery of the Permian Age and learn more about mass extinctions.

161

Teachers Homepage: National Geographic Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Geographic Education website is a wonderful find, as it includes resources for educators who wish to incorporate spatial knowledge, cultural geography, and a wide range of related subjects into their classrooms. The Fast Fact on the top left-hand side of the page is a great place to start: it currently features information on how to make a simple compass and understand navigation. Moving along, the Teaching Resources area contains teaching units on political boundaries, the environmental conditions in the solar system, and extreme weather. One particularly fun area here is the Graphic Organizers Collection. Here visitors can download an assortment of blank, black-and-white graphic organizers that are designed to help students with problem solving, decision making, studying, planning research, brainstorming, and writing. The site is rounded out (appropriately enough) by the What is Geo-Literacy? section. Here visitors can look at cartoons, articles, and videos that talk about the importance of this subject.

2012-07-13

162

Consideration of regulations of baby foods containing soybeans in Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quality standards for industrially processed food products are being prepared by a joint committee composed of the private\\u000a sector, government and universities. These standards include specific dispositions which, if necessary, allow utilization\\u000a of different ingredients-soya protein derivatives among them- to improve the quality and quantity of the protein or to balance\\u000a the amino acid profile. Despite these efforts, in Venezuela,

J. F. Chavez

1981-01-01

163

Risk factors for dialysis-associated hepatitis C in Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk factors for dialysis-associated hepatitis C in Venezuela. Utilizing the first and second generation of enzyme immunoassays which detect antibodies to the C virus we investigated the frequency of anti-HCV antibodies in 315 patients undergoing hemodialysis. Other subpopulations at risk were used as reference groups. One hundred and twenty-three samples (39%) from the hemodialysis group repeatedly showed anti-HCV positive antibodies

Grete Y Muller; Mercedes E Zabaleta; Anabella Arminio; Carmen J Colmenares; Freya I Capriles; Nicolás E Bianco; Irma V Machado

1992-01-01

164

Breeding systems in a montane tropical cloud forest in Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

The breeding systems, reproductive efficacies and population densities of 75 species of trees, shrubs, perennial herbs and\\u000a vines in a montane tropical cloud forest in Venezuela are investigated. 56.96% and 44.32% of the trees, versus the other life\\u000a forms considered, respectively possess obligate outbreeding mechanisms. Two shrubs are non-pseudogamous apomicts. The percentage\\u000a of dioecy among tree species (31%) is among

Claudia Sobrevila; Mary T. Kalin Arroyo

1982-01-01

165

Use of molluscicides in the control of bilharziasis in Venezuela*  

PubMed Central

The application of molluscicides to the breeding-places of Australorbis glabratus—the intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni in Venezuela—is discussed, with special reference to the equipment required and the techniques employed. The characteristics of the three molluscicides in use—copper sulfate, sodium pentachlorophenate, and copper pentachlorophenate—are outlined, and the treatment both of running waters (irrigation canals and streams) and of still waters (ponds and marshes) is described in detail.

Jove, Jose Antonio

1956-01-01

166

Curie point depth in Venezuela and the Eastern Caribbean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We estimate the Curie point depth (CPD) variations of Venezuela (continental crust, South American plate) and the Eastern Caribbean (oceanic crust, Caribbean Plate) by using spectral analysis of the magnetic anomalies, extracted from the 2010 Enhanced Magnetic Model (EMM2010), available at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). To test the reliability of the spectral content of this model, for a small region, we compare he CPD derived from the EMM2010 against the one from aeromagnetic data. We also compile heat flow data from previous studies to correlate them with the CPD lateral variations. The estimations show that the CPD in Venezuela and the Eastern Caribbean ranges between 54 and 17 km. The mean depth value within the continental crust is around 38 km. On the Guayana Shield, it has a mean value of 42 km and reaches a maximum of 54 km. As the Moho depth is at most 50 km, the upper mantle beneath the craton is magnetized. Continental lateral variations appear to be linked to the isostatic state and age of the different provinces, and mark the limit between the Precambrian and the Paleozoic provinces. The Maracaibo Basin is revealed as a thermally stable one with a constant CPD, while the Eastern Venezuela Basin is thermally affected. Most of the Eastern Caribbean seems stable, with a large non-perturbed area with a mean CPD value of 23 km. As the crustal thickness is at most 20 km, the isotherm is located within the upper mantle. A CPD minimum located on the Lesser Antilles arc is concentrated in its northern part, and can be related to the subduction zone that is most active. Finally, a shallow area within the Eastern Caribbean corresponds to the thin crust region in the Venezuela Basin, although it might be linked to mantle dynamics.

Arnaiz-Rodríguez, Mariano S.; Orihuela, Nuris

2013-04-01

167

Radon concentrations in hot spring waters in northern Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of 222Rn were determined in selected thermal water samples of the northern region of Venezuela. Concentrations in the range of 1–560Bq\\/l were found. Soil radon concentrations and air radon concentrations related to the high values of radon concentration in water were investigated in El Castaño and at a spa in Las Trincheras. An outstandingly high radon efflux was found

Á. Horváth; L. O. Bohus; F. Urbani; G. Marx; A. Piróth; E. D. Greaves

2000-01-01

168

Atmospheric mercury emissions from polluted gold mining areas (Venezuela)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil, waste rock and mud from mercury-gold amalgamation mining areas of El Callao (Venezuela) are highly enriched in Hg (0.5–500 µg g?1) relative to natural background concentrations (?1). Mercury fluxes to the atmosphere from twelve polluted sites of this area were measured in situ (6 a.m. to 8 p.m.) using\\u000a a Plexiglas flux chamber connected to a portable mercury analyzer (model RA-915+; Lumex, St.

A. García-Sánchez; F. Contreras; M. Adams; F. Santos

2006-01-01

169

RE-EVALUATION OF THE GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION AND PHYLOGEOGRAPHY OF THE SIGMODON HISPIDUS COMPLEX BASED ON MITOCHONDRIAL DNA SEQUENCES  

PubMed Central

Geographic distribution among members of the Sigmodon hispidus complex (Sigmodon hirsutus, S. hispidus, and S. toltecus) were examined using DNA sequences from the mitochondrial cytochrome-b gene. Geographic distribution of each taxon was defined based on DNA sequences obtained from 69 samples (19 newly obtained and 50 from previous studies) collected from North, Central, and South America. These data indicated that S. hispidus is restricted to the southern one-half of the United States and northeastern Mexico (Nuevo León and Tamaulipas), S. toltecus occupies the eastern one-third of Mexico (central Tamaulipas) to northern Honduras, and S. hirsutus is distributed from central Chiapas and southeastern Oaxaca to northern South America (Venezuela). The newly collected data extend distributions of S. hispidus from the southern United States southward into northeastern Mexico and that of S. toltecus from Chiapas, Mexico, southward to Honduras. Genetic divergence and patterns of phylogeography were examined within each taxon.

Bradley, Robert D.; Henson, Dallas D.; Durish, Nevin D.

2010-01-01

170

Venezuela recasts itself as a new frontier in the Americas  

SciTech Connect

In January of this year, Venezuela captured the attention of the international energy community by welcoming back the foreign oil companies that, 20 years earlier, it had shut out of the country by nationalizing the hydrocarbon sector. The tool used to attract that attention, a new exploration bidding round, is the most publicized event staged to date in the country`s aperture process. However, it is only the latest in a series of steps taken by officials to bring international oil and gas companies back to Caracas. Venezuela`s physical attraction is easily understood. The country possesses roughly one-half of Latin America`s (including Mexico) 125 billion bbl of established, conventional crude oil reserves, plus an estimated 300 billion bbl of additional, nonconventional reserves in the ultra-heavy crude belt of the Orinoco basin. Averaging 2.8 million bpd in 1996, Venezuelan crude production represents over 35% of regional oil output. Natural gas reserves total 138 Tcf, or just over one-half of the region`s total reserves of 274 Tcfg. Annual gas output averages just under 5 Tcf, of which roughly 30% is reinjected as part of tertiary oil recovery schemes. This paper reviews the incentives, deregulation, and government policies to restore the oil and gas industry to the country.

Reinsch, A.E. [Canadian Energy Research Inst., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

1996-09-01

171

Egalitarian policies and social determinants of health in Bolivarian Venezuela.  

PubMed

In 1999, newly-elected Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez initiated a far-reaching social movement as part of a political project known as the Bolivarian Revolution. Inspired by the democratic ideologies of Simón Bolívar, this movement was committed to reducing intractable inequalities that defined Venezuela's Fourth Republic (1958-1998). Given the ambitious scope of these reforms, Venezuela serves as an instructive example to understand the political context of social inequalities and population health. In this article, we provide a brief overview of the impact of egalitarian policies in Venezuela, stressing: (a) the socialist reforms and social class changes initiated by the Bolivarian Movement; (b) the impact of these reforms and changes on poverty and social determinants of health; (c) the sustainability of economic growth to continue pro-poor policies; and (d) the implications of egalitarian policies for other Latin American countries. The significance and implications of Chávez's achievements are now further underscored given his recent passing, leading one to ask whether political support for Bolivarianism will continue without its revolutionary leader. PMID:24066420

Muntaner, Caries; Benach, Joan; Páez Victor, María; Ng, Edwin; Chung, Haejoo

2013-01-01

172

Geographic Routing in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Geographic routing has become an efficient solution for communications and information delivery in wireless ad hoc networks\\u000a where the position information of nodes is available. This chapter provides a comprehensive overview of basic principles,\\u000a classical techniques, as well as latest advances in geographic routing. The chapter first presents in detail the topic of\\u000a geographic unicast routing, where the presentation is

Dazhi Chen; Pramod K. Varshney

173

The National Geographic Society's Teaching Geography Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vital aspect of recent efforts to strengthen K-12 geographic education in the United States has been the provision of effective in-service education. This paper documents the development, objectives, and impacts of the National Geographic Society's Teaching Geography Project, a program begun in 1988 to provide one-day workshops nationwide, in geographic alliance and in non-alliance states. Guidance is offered for

Mark H. Bockenhauer

1993-01-01

174

Geologic map of the Venezuela part of the Puerto Ayacucho 2 degrees x 3 degrees Quadrangle, Amazonas Federal Territory, Venezuela  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This map is one of a series of 1:500,000-scale maps that, along with several other products, stems from a cooperative agreement between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Corporacion Venezolana de Guayana, Tecnica Minera, C.A. (TECMIN), a Venezuelan Government-owned mining and mineral exploration company. The agreement covered cooperative work carried out in the Precambrian Shield of southern Venezuela during 1987-1991 and included a geologic and mineral resource inventory, technology transfer, and scientific training (Wynn and others, in press). The Precambrian Guayana Shield (Escudo de Guyana, not to be confused with the neighboring country of Guyana) includes some of the oldest known rocks in the world (Mendoza, 1977) and also covers parts of neighboring Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana, Columbia, and Brazil. In Venezuela, it underlies most of Bolivar state and all of the Amazonas Federal Territory (see index map).

Wynn, Jeffrey C.; Olmore, Steven D.; Mendoza, Vicente; Garcia, Andres; Rendon, Ines; Estanga, Yasmin; Rincon, Haydee; Martinez, Felix; Lugo, Elis; Rivero, Nelson; Schruben, Paul G.

1994-01-01

175

Regional structure and tectonic history of the obliquely colliding Columbus foreland basin, offshore Trinidad and Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cenozoic eastward migration of the Caribbean plate relative to the South American plate is recorded by an 1100-km-long Venezuela-Trinidad foreland basin which is oldest in western Venezuela (65–55Ma), of intermediate age in eastern Venezuela (34–20Ma) and youngest beneath the shelf and slope area of eastern offshore Trinidad (submarine Columbus basin, 15.0Ma-Recent). In this study of the regional structure, fault families,

Emilio Garciacaro; Paul Mann; Alejandro Escalona

2011-01-01

176

Radioactive source materials in Los Estados Unidos de Venezuela  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report summarizes the data available on radioactive source materials in Los Estados Unidos de Venezuela accumulated by geologists of the Direccions Tecnica de Geolgia and antecedent agencies prior to June 1951, and the writers from June to November 1951. The investigation comprised preliminary study, field examination, office studies, and the preparation of this report, in which the areas and localities examined are described in detail, the uranium potentialities of Venezuela are summarized, and recommendations are made. Preliminary study was made to select areas and rock types that were known or reported to be radioactive or that geologic experience suggests would be favorable host for uranium deposits, In the office, a study of gamma-ray well logs was started as one means of amassing general radiometric data and of rapidly scanning many of ye rocks in northern Venezuela; gamma-ray logs from about 140 representative wells were examined and their peaks of gamma intensity evaluated; in addition samples were analyzed radiometrically, and petrographically. Radiometic reconnaissance was made in the field during about 3 months of 1951, or about 12 areas, including over 100 localities in the State of Miranda, Carabobo, Yaracuy, Falcon, Lara, Trujillo, Zulia, Merida, Tachira, Bolivar, and Territory Delta Amacuro. During the course of the investigation, both in the filed and office, information was given about geology of uranium deposits, and in techniques used in prospecting and analysis. All studies and this report are designed to supplement and to strengthen the Direccion Tecnica de Geologias's program of investigation of radioactive source in Venezuela now in progress. The uranium potentialities of Los Estados de Venezuela are excellent for large, low-grade deposits of uraniferous phospahtic shales containing from 0.002 to 0.027 percent uranium; fair, for small or moderate-sized, low-grade placer deposits of thorium, rare-earth, and uranium minerals; poor, for high-grade hydrothermal pitchblende deposits; and highly possible for small, medium- to high-grade despots of carnotite-or copper-uranium bearing sandstone. Recommendations for the Venezuelan uranium program include 1) the systematic collection of a mass general radiometric data by examining sample collections, expanding the gamma-ray program, encouraging the use of Geiger counter by field geologists, and by enlisting the aid of the general public; 2) , the examination of specific areas or localities, chosen on the basis of geologic favorability from the results of the amassing of data, or obtained by hints and rumors; 3), the organization of a unit within the Direccion Tecnica de Geologica to direct, collection, and collate metric data. It is emphasized that to be most fruitful the program requires the application of sounds and imaginative geologic theory.

Wyant, Donald G.; Sharp, William N.; Rodriguez, Carlos Ponte

1953-01-01

177

78 FR 44969 - Ferrosilicon From Russia and Venezuela; Institution of Antidumping Duty Investigations and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-1224-1225 (Preliminary...Venezuela; Institution of Antidumping Duty Investigations and Scheduling of Preliminary Phase Investigations. AGENCY: United States...

2013-07-25

178

Population genetics of Agave cocui: evidence for low genetic diversity at the southern geographic limit of genus Agave.  

PubMed

The Agave genus embraces many species with outstanding ecological and economic importance in the arid regions of the Americas. Even though this genus covers a broad geographic distribution, our knowledge on the population genetics of species is concentrated in taxa located in North America. Recently, it has been demonstrated that plant domestication decreases levels of genetic diversity in managed populations and increases population structure with respect to wild populations. We examined levels of allozyme diversity (N = 17 loci) and population structure of Agave cocui, the species at the southern limit of distribution of the genus. We sampled 7 wild populations (N = 30-35 individuals per population) representative of the geographic distribution of the species in Venezuela. Among the agaves studied, A. cocui has some of the lowest estimates of genetic diversity (H(e)[species] = 0.059, H(e)[population] = 0.054) reported until present. We propose that this condition is probably linked to the recent origin of this species in arid and semiarid regions of Colombia and Venezuela, probably through one or a few founder events. The lowest estimates of genetic diversity were associated with small populations in very restricted arid patches; but also with overexploitation of rosettes for production of fermented drinks and fibers. Santa Cruz de Pecaya, one of the 2 centers of economic use of agaves in northwestern Venezuela presented one of the lowest values of genetic variability, a sign suggesting that human impact represents a significant threat to the available genetic pool that this species possesses in the region. PMID:21467156

Figueredo, Carmen J; Nassar, Jafet M

2011-01-01

179

Geographic Determinants of Chinese Urbanization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the first years of the 21st century, the human race became primarily urban for the first time in history. With countries like India and China rapidly undergoing structural change from rural agricultural-based economies to urbanized manufacturing- and service-based economies, knowing where the coming waves of urbanization will occur would be of interest for infrastructure planning and for modeling consequences for ecological systems. We employ spatial econometric methods (geographically weighted regression, spatial lag models, and spatial errors models) to estimate two determinants of urbanization in China. The first is the role of physical geography, measured as topography-adjusted distance to major ports and suitability of land for agriculture. The second is the spatial agglomeration effect, which we estimate with a spatial lag model. We find that Chinese urbanization between 1990 and 2000 exhibited important spatial agglomeration effects, as well as significant explanatory power of nearby agricultural suitability and distance to ports, both in a nationwide model and in a model of local regression estimates. These results can help predict the location of new Chinese urbanization, and imply that climate change-induced changes in agricultural potential can affect the spatial distribution of urban areas.

Mccord, G. C.; Christensen, P.

2011-12-01

180

Virtual Geographic Environment: A Workspace for Computer-Aided Geographic Experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

A virtual geographic environment (VGE) is a type of workspace for computer-aided geographic experiments (CAGEs) and geographic analyses. By supporting geo-visualization, geo-simulation, geo-collaboration, and human participation, it provides open virtual environments that correspond to the real world to assist computer-aided geographic experiments involving both the physical and human dimensions. Based on a discussion of how VGEs can contribute to CAGEs

Hui Lin; Min Chen; Guonian Lu

2012-01-01

181

Geographical epidemiology, spatial analysis and geographical information systems: a multidisciplinary glossary  

PubMed Central

We provide a relatively non?technical glossary of terms and a description of the tools used in spatial or geographical epidemiology and associated geographical information systems. Statistical topics included cover adjustment and standardisation to allow for demographic and other background differences, data structures, data smoothing, spatial autocorrelation and spatial regression. We also discuss the rationale for geographical epidemiology and specific techniques such as disease clustering, disease mapping, ecological analyses, geographical information systems and global positioning systems.

Rezaeian, Mohsen; Dunn, Graham; Leger, Selwyn St; Appleby, Louis

2007-01-01

182

Efficient geographic routing in multihop wireless networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new link metric called normalized advance (NADV) for geographic routing in multihop wireless networks. NADV selects neighbors with the optimal trade-off between proximity and link cost. Coupled with the local next hop decision in geographic routing, NADV enables an adaptive and efficient cost-aware routing strategy. Depending on the objective or message priority, applications can use the NADV

Seungjoon Lee; Bobby Bhattacharjee; Suman Banerjee

2005-01-01

183

Building the National Historical Geographic Information System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Historical Geographic Information System (NHGIS) is a new project to make a rich body of aggregate census data accessible within a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) framework for historical population research. The authors are developing a database incorporating all available aggregate census information for the United States between 1790 and 2000, including all surviving machine-readable aggregate data and new

Catherine A. Fitch; Steven Ruggles

2003-01-01

184

Embarking on Collaborative Research in Geographic Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides insights into the complexities and rewards involved in conducting a collaborative research project in geographic education. Using a case study from the National Council for Geographic Education's ongoing EMBARC Project ("Encouraging our Members to Belong to a Research Community"), the authors document and analyse their ongoing…

Alexson, Randy Gabrys; Kemnitz, Christopher; Bell, Scott; Hardwick, Susan

2005-01-01

185

Validity of geographically modeled environmental exposure estimates.  

PubMed

Abstract Geographic modeling is increasingly being used to estimate long-term environmental exposures in epidemiologic studies of chronic disease outcomes. However, without validation against measured environmental concentrations, personal exposure levels, or biologic doses, these models cannot be assumed a priori to be accurate. This article discusses three examples of epidemiologic associations involving exposures estimated using geographic modeling, and identifies important issues that affect geographically modeled exposure assessment in these areas. In air pollution epidemiology, geographic models of fine particulate matter levels have frequently been validated against measured environmental levels, but comparisons between ambient and personal exposure levels have shown only moderate correlations. Estimating exposure to magnetic fields by using geographically modeled distances is problematic because the error is larger at short distances, where field levels can vary substantially. Geographic models of environmental exposure to pesticides, including paraquat, have seldom been validated against environmental or personal levels, and validation studies have yielded inconsistent and typically modest results. In general, the exposure misclassification resulting from geographic models of environmental exposures can be differential and can result in bias away from the null even if non-differential. Therefore, geographic exposure models must be rigorously constructed and validated if they are to be relied upon to produce credible scientific results to inform epidemiologic research. To our knowledge, such models have not yet successfully predicted an association between an environmental exposure and a chronic disease outcome that has eventually been established as causal, and may not be capable of doing so in the absence of thorough validation. PMID:24766059

Chang, Ellen T; Adami, Hans-Olov; Bailey, William H; Boffetta, Paolo; Krieger, Robert I; Moolgavkar, Suresh H; Mandel, Jack S

2014-05-01

186

Geobusiness: An International Perspective for Geographers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the nature and scope of international business and examines the interrelationships between geography and international business study. Discusses the implications of a geobusiness perspective for geographers and the college geography curriculum, stressing the geographer's key role and challenging responsibility to such a comprehensive…

McConnell, James E.; Erickson, Rodney A.

1986-01-01

187

Geographic Information Science and Crime Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews modern crime analysis with regard to the research and educational challenges outlined by the University Consortium for Geographic Information Science. In the context of Geographical Information Systems (GIS), atten- tion is devoted to the role that crime analysis currently and potentially plays in reducing crime and improving the efficiency of police activity. It is our aim to

Arthur Getis; Pat Drummy; John Gartin; Wilpen Gorr; Keith Harries; Peter Rogerson; Debra Stoe; Richard Wright

188

Cartography, Geographic Information, and Public Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cartography is undergoing a digital transition with geographic data becoming available in machine-readable form and with the diminishing need to draw and print maps in order to communicate information. This automation will force cartographers to concentrate upon the institutional aspects of information management. Implications for geographic

Monmonier, Mark S.

1982-01-01

189

Categorizing web queries according to geographical locality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Web pages (and resources, in general) can be characterized according to their geographical locality. For example, a web page with general information about wildflowers could be considered a global page, likely to be of interest to a geographically broad audience. In contrast, a web page with listings on houses for sale in a specific city could be regarded as a

Luis Gravano; Vasileios Hatzivassiloglou; Richard Lichtenstein

2003-01-01

190

Geographic Constraints on Married Women's Careers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from questionnaires completed by and interviews with faculty spouses are analyzed to study how moves for a husband's job or lack of geographic mobility for a wife's own employment may affect women's careers. Women with advanced degrees and greater career commitment are found to experience greater geographic constraint. (Author/CH)

Deitch, Cynthia H.; Sanderson, Susan Walsh

1987-01-01

191

Teaching Geographic Field Methods Using Paleoecology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Field-based undergraduate geography courses provide numerous pedagogical benefits including an opportunity for students to acquire employable skills in an applied context. This article presents one unique approach to teaching geographic field methods using paleoecological research. The goals of this course are to teach students key geographic

Walsh, Megan K.

2014-01-01

192

The California Geographical Society: A Retrospective Look  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE CALIFORNIA GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY (CGS) is a vibrant organization of geographers from across the state. The strength of the organiza- tion has endured over fifty-eight years and currently the CGS is enjoying one of its strongest eras. There are other state geographi- cal societies but none as active and respected as the CGS, which is widely viewed as the premier

Jenny Zorn

193

Sport and Tourism Research: A Geographic Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article responds to recent criticism of research serving the field of sport and tourism (Weed, 2005a, 2005b). It adopts a geographical perspective to highlight the unique research questions and directions that emerge in the study of sport and tourism within this particular field of the social sciences. The geographic concepts of space, place, and environment are reviewed and applied

James Higham; Tom Hinch

2006-01-01

194

A new approach to the oil business in Venezuela  

SciTech Connect

Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. (PDVSA) has been meeting during the past two years with a considerable number of companies (groups) with a view to possible associations for the reactivation of known fields, joint activities in barely explored areas and the exploitation, refining, upgrading and marketing of crudes from the Orinoco Belt holder of immense reserves of extra-heavy crudes and bitumens. In Venezuela, a new approach to the oil business is under way. On January 1976, the law nationalizing the Venezuelan oil industry became effective establishing that the government retains the sole rights to the country's petroleum industry. However, Article 5 of the law made provision for associations in cases considered to be of [open quotes]National Interest.[close quotes] PDVSA became the wholly government-owned holding entity, encompassing 26 subsidiaries and affiliates. Other energy segments, particularly coal and petrochemicals, were not included in the law and since 1984 several associations with non-governmental entities have been established in Venezuela and very valuable experience has been garnered. Similarly, partnerships and acquisitions have been made in Europe and USA, mostly in refining, through PDVSA. The international petroleum industry foresees a modest, but steady increase in production during the coming decade, particularly in the second half of the nineties. This effect, added to the globalization concept, is making the traditional vertically integrated oil companies look for diverse [open quotes]lateral[close quotes] associations between groups, private and/or state owned with common interests, that will give greater security to sources of supply and market share.

Pradas, F.; Valdes, G. (Petroleos de Venezuela, Caracas (Venezuela))

1993-02-01

195

Present Status of Historical Seismicity Studies in Colombia and Venezuela  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After the publication of the SISRA (CERESIS-1985) regional project, a unified catalog of seismic parameters and intensities for South America, researchers in historical seismicity have continued advancing on different scales in the area of this study of seismic hazard. The most important initiatives carried out in this area in Colombia and Venezuela can be grouped as follows: a) Reviews of destructive earthquakes in national and international historic archives, principally by Altez and FUNVISIS in Venezuela and Espinosa, Salcedo, and Sarabia et al in Colombia, leading to the preparation of seismologic catalogues, scientific and dissemination articles, reports, books, among others. b) Organization and systematization of historic information to develop public domain data bases and information, specifically the Historic Seismologic Teleinformation System in Venezuela, carried out between 2004 and 2008 under the coordination of Christl Palme and accessible on-line: http://sismicidad.ciens.ula.ve. As well, the "Historia Sísmica de Colombia 1550-1830" (Seismic History in Colombia 1550-1830) data base, in CD-ROM, by Espinosa Baquero (2003) and the historic seismicity information system of Colombia (Servicio Geológico Colombiano-Universidad Nacional de Colombia), published on the internet in 2012: http://agata.ingeominas.gov.co:9090/SismicidadHistorica/. c) Macroseismic studies for the development of intensity attenuation equations and the quantification and revaluation of basic historic earthquake parameters using isoseismal maps (Rengifo et al., Palme et al., Salcedo et al., among others) and procedures such as Boxer and Bakun & Wentworth (Palme et al., Dimaté, among others), which have produced significant changes in the parameters of some of the large earthquakes. d) Symposiums of researchers to promote interest and development in the discipline, including Jornadas Venezolanas de Sismología Histórica (Venezuelan Congress of Historical Seismology), held periodically between 1997 and 2012, the year of the sixth edition. As well, national and international research groups have been formed to work actively on global projects, such as the Geophysics Laboratory of Universidad de Los Andes in Venezuela. In the future, international groups will be formed to jointly treat issues including localization and size of destructive events along borders, common scales for the evaluation of intensities, integrated data bases, etc. Additionally the methods employed will be validated by paleoseismology, neotectonics and instrumental seismicity, among others.

Sarabia, A.; Cifuentes, H.; Altez Ortega, R.; Palme, C.; Dimate, C.

2013-05-01

196

[Interpopulation reproductive synchrony of Agave cocui (Agavaceae) in Venezuela].  

PubMed

Agave cocui (Agavaceae) is a species with broad distribution in arid and semiarid areas of Venezuela and Colombia. Despite of its ecological importance as a source of food for wildlife, and its economic value for production of a spirit drink, studies on the reproductive ecology of the species are relatively rare. In this study, we conducted a one-year evaluation of the flowering and fruiting phenology of A. cocui in the eight representative localities of the species' distribution in Venezuela. Within each study site, we chose an area with a minimum of 50 reproductive individuals and followed their reproductive phenophases with the help of binoculars, using six qualitative cathegories (emerging reproductive stalk, flowers, inmature fruits, mature fruits, bulbils and dry stalk) every two months. Emergence of the reproductive stalk in most of the examined populations began in September (rainy season), although this event delayed two months in a few populations. We detected significant negative correlations between precipitation and the percentage of flowering occurrence in four of the eight populations. Floral resources are available for flower visitors during approximately five months of the year (January-May). In most populations production of flowers initiated in January (dry season), and for Western Venezuela and Andean regions, the flowering main peak occurred in January. Localities from the Central and Eastern Coast exhibited the flowering peak in March, showing a delay of approximately two months with respect to other populations. Beginning of fruit set varied among localities from January to May; however, peak production of mature fruits concentrated in May, and fruit occurrence varied broadly between 5.2 and 85%. Bulbil production was detected in all populations and varied greatly among them (maximum percentage per population: 26.19-92.10%). High flowering synchronicity (Phenophase Overlapping Index: 0.756 and 0.999) was observed among all populations monitored in Western Venezuela, including the Andean localities. This condition might facilitate the existence of a nectar corridor from the Western Coast and nearby islands, to the Andean arid patches, which could be potentially used by nectar-feeding bats and birds dependent on agave flowers during part of the year. PMID:22017138

Figueredo, Carmen J; Villegas, José Luis; Nassar, Jafet M

2011-09-01

197

Natural Host Relationships of Hantaviruses Native to Western Venezuela  

PubMed Central

Abstract Strains of Caño Delgadito virus (CADV) and Maporal virus (MAPV) were isolated from 25 (8.9%) of the 280 rodents captured on farms in 1997 in western Venezuela. The results of analyses of laboratory and zoographic data indicated that Alston's cotton rat (Sigmodon alstoni) is the principal host of CADV, horizontal virus transmission is the dominant mode of CADV transmission in Alston's cotton rat in nature, a pygmy rice rat (Oligoryzomys sp.) is the principal host of MAPV, and the natural host relationships of CADV and MAPV are highly specific.

Milazzo, Mary L.; Duno, Gloria; Utrera, Antonio; Richter, Martin H.; Duno, Freddy; de Manzione, Nuris

2010-01-01

198

Genetic variation of papaya ringspot virus in Venezuela.  

PubMed

The genetic variation of papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) in Venezuela was estimated by single strand conformation and nucleotide sequence analyses of two genomic regions of twenty-six isolates. These analyses showed that mutation, virus movement, selection, mixed infections and recombination contributed to shape the genetic variation observed. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Venezuelan isolates were within a clade composed of isolates from the Americas and Australia. The genetic diversity of these isolates was sufficiently large that it must be taken into account when designing control strategies such as transgenic resistance and cross-protection. PMID:18030545

Fernández-Rodríguez, T; Rubio, L; Carballo, O; Marys, E

2008-01-01

199

Residential energy use and conservation in Venezuela: Results and implications of a household survey in Caracas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document presents the final report of a study of residential energy use in Caracas, the capital of Venezuela. It contains the findings of a household energy-use survey held in Caracas in 1988 and examines options for introducing energy conservation measures in the Venezuelan residential sector. Oil exports form the backbone of the Venezuelan economy. Improving energy efficiency in Venezuela

M. J. Figueroa; A. Ketoff; O. Masera

1992-01-01

200

TIPOLOGÍA DE LA PRODUCCIÓN PRIMARIA DE ZÁBILA (Aloe barbadensis L.) EN EL ESTADO FALCÓN, VENEZUELA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aloe (Aloe barbadensis L.) farmer characterization in Falcon State, Venezuela The aloe represents a crop from which annually primary goods are generated for a value of US $ 67 millions and final goods for more than US $105 thousand of millions. The attractiveness of this market contrasts with the marginal character that exhibits the exploitation in Falcon State, Venezuela, so

Henri Piña Zambrano; Rhode Azócar; Zunilde Lugo; Carlos Romero

2005-01-01

201

Combined Rock Magnetic and Dielectric studies applied to stratigraphic and archeological problems in Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last few years the paleomagnetism research group, at the Universidad Simon Bolivar in Caracas (Venezuela), has undertaken combined studies of rock magnetism (e.g. natural magnetic remanence, magnetic susceptibility, hysteresis parameters etc.) and dielectric properties (maximum current depolarization temperatures and average activation energies) in Cretaceous and Paleogene sedimentary sequences from eastern and western Venezuela. Our main goal has been

V. Costanzo-Alvarez; M. Aldana; N. Suarez

2007-01-01

202

Molecular and Antigenic Comparison of Ehrlichia canis Isolates from Dogs, Ticks, and a Human in Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

We previously culture isolated a strain of Ehrlichia canis, the causative agent of canine ehrlichiosis, from a human in Venezuela. In the present study, we examined whether dogs and ticks are infected with E. canis in Venezuela and, if so, whether this is the same strain as the human isolate. PCR analysis using E. canis-specific primers revealed that 17 of

AHMET UNVER; MIRIAM PEREZ; NELSON ORELLANA; HAIBIN HUANG; YASUKO RIKIHISA; Departmento de Medicina Cirugia

2001-01-01

203

Earnings and Education in Venezuela: An Update from the 1987 Household Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses data from Venezuela's 1987 Household Survey to update returns to education and compare them to 1975 and 1984 figures. Returns to education have been maintained despite the educational explosion occurring in Venezuela during the period investigated. Although higher education is most heavily subsidized, primary education remains the most…

Psacharopoulos, George; Alam, Asad

1991-01-01

204

Using the Five Themes of Geography To Teach about Venezuela and Mexico.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Activities that employ the five themes of geography--location, place, relationships within places, movement, and regions--to teach about Venezuela and Mexico are described in this document. Each theme has objectives, a list of materials, and three types of activities--exploration, invention, and expansion. Background information on Venezuela and…

Sunal, Cynthia Szymanski; Christensen, Lois

205

Wages and Foreign Ownership: A Comparative Study of Mexico, Venezuela and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the relationship between wages and foreign investment in Mexico, Venezuela, and the United States. Despite very different economic conditions and levels of development, we find one fact which is robust across all three countries: higher levels of foreign investment are associated with higher wages. In Mexico and Venezuela, foreign investment was associated with higher wages only for

Brian Aitken; Ann Harrison; Robert E. Lipsey

1997-01-01

206

Dualism methodology in geographic information visualization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The core of geographic information visualization is map making, which is characterized by the map maker usually being the map user. Potential map makers are becoming more and more, most of them are deficient in the knowledge background of cartography. It is necessary for them to derive popular map design knowledge from the complex map theories and methods to guide the practice of geographic information visualization. As an exploration into methodology, this paper has initially probed into and formed the conceptual model of geographic information visualization duality with dualistic analysis as the basic method, in the hope of establishing a framework which is easy to understand and to follow as a "map-making guide". The paper firstly expounds the theoretical basis of dualism from such aspects as geography, linguistics and philosophy; then elaborates the object matter of the methodology of dualism in geographic information visualization by developing from such two aspects as the signifier and the signified of geographic information visualization, with the semiotic linguistics as the paradigm; and finally draws a conclusion. Studies show that: the geographic information and the map design are of duality each other; the duality model of geographic information visualization is "easily understand" and "easily follow".

Han, Xuepei; Li, Manchun

2007-07-01

207

Venezuela positioning itself to take key market role in wake of Gulf War  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on Venezuela which continues efforts to position itself in world markets to capitalize on fallout from the Persian Gulf war. The central government and state oil company Petroleos de Venezuela SA have accelerated already ambitious plans to expand activities in upstream and downstream oil and gas sectors. Pvdsa has sharply increased its 1991-96 investment program from the level planned at the end of last year. The goal is to put Venezuela on a par with major Persian Gulf oil exporters in terms of productive capacity. Linchpin of those efforts could well be further steps toward privatization of Venezuela's oil sector. For the first time since nationalization in 1976, private foreign and domestic companies are being permitted to participate in Venezuelan exploration and development. In addition, the government is trimming the onerous tax burden the oil sector has carried in Venezuela, as well as its heavy subsidy of domestic petroleum products.

Not Available

1991-08-19

208

Socio-Economic Aspects of National Communication Systems: III. Radio Broadcasting in Venezuela. Communication and Society, 12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The third in a series that examines the role of radio broadcasting in the process of socioeconomic and cultural change in three countries with different types of broadcasting organization--Austria, Czechoslovakia, and Venezuela--this volume focuses on Venezuela. An overview of radio broadcasting in Venezuela describes various aspects and provides…

Capriles, Oswaldo; And Others

209

The periodicity of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum in Venezuela.  

PubMed

We investigated the periodicity of Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum incidence in time-series of malaria data (1990-2010) from three endemic regions in Venezuela. In particular, we determined whether disease epidemics were related to local climate variability and regional climate anomalies such as the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Malaria periodicity was found to exhibit unique features in each studied region. Significant multi-annual cycles of 2- to about 6-year periods were identified. The inter-annual variability of malaria cases was coherent with that of SSTs (ENSO), mainly at temporal scales within the 3-6 year periods. Additionally, malaria cases were intensified approximately 1 year after an El Niño event, a pattern that highlights the role of climate inter-annual variability in the epidemic patterns. Rainfall mediated the effect of ENSO on malaria locally. Particularly, rains from the last phase of the season had a critical role in the temporal dynamics of Plasmodium. The malaria-climate relationship was complex and transient, varying in strength with the region and species. By identifying temporal cycles of malaria we have made a first step in predicting high-risk years in Venezuela. Our findings emphasize the importance of analyzing high-resolution spatial-temporal data to better understand malaria transmission dynamics. PMID:24149288

Grillet, María-Eugenia; El Souki, Mayida; Laguna, Francisco; León, José Rafael

2014-01-01

210

Raptor abundance and distribution in the Llanos wetlands of Venezuela  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Llanos of Venezuela is a 275 000-km2 freshwater wetland long recognized as an important habitat for waterbirds. However, little information exists on the raptor community of the region. We conducted raptor surveys in the Southwestern and Western Llanos during 2000-02 and detected 28 species representing 19 genera. Overall, areas of the Llanos that we sampled contained 52% of all raptor species and more than 70% of the kites, buteos, and subbuteos known to inhabit Venezuela. Regional differences in the mean number per route for four of the 14 most common species, the Crested Caracara (Caracara plancus), Black-collared Hawk (Busarellus nigricollis), American Kestrel (Falco sparverius), and Osprey (Pandion haliaetus), were significant (P < 0.0018) in relation to the wet or dry seasons. Of the 14 less common species, six were detected in only one season (wet or dry). The Southwestern and Western regions of the Llanos support a rich raptor community composed primarily of nonmigratory wetland-dependent and upland-terrestrial species. ?? 2005 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

Jensen, W. J.; Gregory, M. S.; Baldassarre, G. A.; Vilella, F. J.; Bildstein, K. L.

2005-01-01

211

PENNSYLVANIA GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM LIBRARY: COUNTY BOUNDARIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Pennsylvania Geographic Information System (GIS) Library provides a data set of complete digitized county boundaries of the Commonwealth Of Pennsylvania at a scale of 1:24,000 from USGS topographic maps. The data format is ARC/INFO Export....

212

Layers of Information: Geographic Information Systems (GIS).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Geographic Information System (GIS) which is capable of storing, manipulating, and displaying data allowing students to explore complex relationships through scientific inquiry. Explains applications of GIS in middle school classrooms and includes assessment strategies. (YDS)

Lucking, Robert A.; Christmann, Edwin P.

2003-01-01

213

THE NATIONAL HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM (NHGIS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Historical Geographic Information System (NHGIS) is a five-year NSF-funded project designed to create a comprehensive U.S. census database—at the census tract and county level—for both the geographical and attribute data. Technological change presents an unprecedented opportunity to make these data readily available for social science research; thus bringing the complete census within reach of social scientists unlocking the

Robert B. McMaster; Mark Lindberg; David Van Riper

214

Enhanced geographically typed semantic schema matching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resolving semantic heterogeneity across distinct data sources remains a highly relevant problem in the GIS domain requiring innovative solutions. Our approach, called GSim, semantically aligns tables from respective GIS databases by first choosing attributes for comparison. We then examine their instances and calculate a similarity value between them called entropy-based distribution (EBD)11EBD=entropy based distribution; GT=geographic type; NGT=non-geographic type; GD=normalized Google

Jeffrey Partyka; Pallabi Parveen; Latifur Khan; Bhavani M. Thuraisingham; Shashi Shekhar

2011-01-01

215

Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico Geographic Data Atlas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Geographic Data Atlas is published jointly by the Environmental Geographic Information System (EGIS) and the Facilities Geographic Information System (FGIS) to support the data-gathering efforts of Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) for ...

D. R. Bleakly L. Eshelman

1999-01-01

216

The Geographic Scale of Metropolitan Racial Segregation  

PubMed Central

This article addresses an aspect of racial residential segregation that has been largely ignored in prior work: the issue of geographic scale. In some metropolitan areas, racial groups are segregated over large regions, with predominately white regions, predominately black regions, and so on, whereas in other areas, the separation of racial groups occurs over much shorter distances. Here we develop an approach—featuring the segregation profile and the corresponding macro/micro segregation ratio—that offers a scale-sensitive alternative to standard methodological practice for describing segregation. Using this approach, we measure and describe the geographic scale of racial segregation in the 40 largest U.S. metropolitan areas in 2000. We find considerable heterogeneity in the geographic scale of segregation patterns across both metropolitan areas and racial groups, a heterogeneity that is not evident using conventional “aspatial” segregation measures. Moreover, because the geographic scale of segregation is only modestly correlated with the level of segregation in our sample, we argue that geographic scale represents a distinct dimension of residential segregation. We conclude with a brief discussion of the implications of our findings for investigating the patterns, causes, and consequences of residential segregation at different geographic scales.

REARDON, SEAN F.; MATTHEWS, STEPHEN A.; O'SULLIVAN, DAVID; LEE, BARRETT A.; FIREBAUGH, GLENN; FARRELL, CHAD R.; BISCHOFF, KENDRA

2008-01-01

217

The Role of the Map and Geographic Information Library in Medical Geographic Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Map and geography libraries play an important role in supporting the work of medical geographers conducting research in the U.S. and other countries. Libraries provide access to three key types of information needed in medical geographic research: geographic data on places including their locations and environmental contexts, spatially-referenced data on population, and spatially-referenced data on health events. There is an

Ellen K. Cromley

2011-01-01

218

3. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy, National Geographic Society Photograph, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy, National Geographic Society Photograph, 1971 Courtesy, National Geographic Society LIBRARY, 1971 - Townsend House, 2121 Massachusetts Avenue Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

219

José María Vargas (1786-1854): Reformer of anatomical studies in Venezuela.  

PubMed

José María Vargas (1786-1854): Venezuelan medical doctor, surgeon, optician, anatomist, chemist, botanist, professor, geologist, mineralogist, and mathematician. Second President of Venezuela (1835-1836), First republican dean, he reformed medicine studies in 1827 establishing human anatomical dissection in the Universidad Central de Venezuela where he taught human anatomy between 1827 and 1853 along with surgery and chemistry. In 1838, he wrote Curso de Lecciones y demostraciones Anatómicas, the first book on the subject printed in Venezuela for the teaching of human anatomy. PMID:23650143

Reverón, Rafael Romero

2014-03-01

220

Mineral content of the honey produced in Zulia state, Venezuela.  

PubMed

The mineral content of the honey produced in five zones of the Zulia state, Venezuela, during dry and rainy seasons was determined. The analyzed elements were: sodium, potassium (by emission spectroscopy), calcium, magnesium, copper, iron, manganese (by atomic absorption spectroscopy), phosphorus (phosphate ions, by colorimetric method), and ash content of raw honey samples directly collected from different beekeepers. The mean values for Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, Mn, and P were 353+84; 1774+138; 237+66; 52+24; 0.76+0.43; 13.5+10.23; 0.92+0.42 and 1642+323 mg/kg respectively. The mean ash content was 0.431+0.15%. Potassium was the most abundant of the elements determined. This results confirm that Zulian honey can be considered a good source of minerals. PMID:15807212

Sulbarán de Ferrer, Betzabé; Ojeda de Rodríguez, Graciela; Peña, Jorge; Martínez, Janeth; Morán, María

2004-09-01

221

Venezuela's stake in US refining may grow: xenophobia addressed  

SciTech Connect

Is this an invasion of U.S. oil industry sovereignty, or a happy marriage of upstream and downstream between US and foreign interests. Venezuela, a founding member of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries who has also been a chief supplier to the US during times of peace and war, now owns half of two important US refining and marketing organizations. Many US marketers have felt uneasy about this foreign penetration of their turf. In this issue, for the sake of public information, the entire policy statement from the leader of that Venezuelan market strategy is provided. This issue also contains the following: (1) ED refining netback data for the US Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore as of late September, 1987; and (2) ED fuel price/tax series for countries of the Eastern Hemisphere, Sept. 19 edition. 4 figures, 6 tables.

Not Available

1987-09-23

222

Swarms in Venezuela: characterization of the involved seismicity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A swarm is a gradual increase and decay of seismicity in time forming a cluster of seismic events without the occurrence of a particular mainshock or major earthquake. In Venezuela, there are few sequences of the swarm type in the instrumental age of seismology. These swarms are not related to volcanic activity and there is few studied evidence to lead the understanding of the triggering mechanism of the venezuelan swarm activity. We compile instrumental information in order to reassess and compare five swarms occurred in 1989, 1991, 1995, 2006 and 2011. Four of these swarms are located in areas where predominant quaternary faults generate most of the background seismicity. We investigated the statistical properties of these swarms and activity patterns under the frequency size distribution and the interevent-time distribution to study the time between two consecutive events as a stationary point process.

Vasquez, R.; Granado, C.; Borges, N.

2013-05-01

223

Postepizootic Persistence of Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus, Venezuela  

PubMed Central

Five years after the apparent end of the major 1995 Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) epizootic/epidemic, focal outbreaks of equine encephalitis occurred in Carabobo and Barinas States of western Venezuela. Virus isolates from horses in each location were nearly identical in sequence to 1995 isolates, which suggests natural persistence of subtype IC VEE virus (VEEV) strains in a genetically stable mode. Serologic evidence indicated that additional outbreaks occurred in Barinas State in 2003. Field studies identified known Culex (Melanoconion) spp. vectors and reservoir hosts of enzootic VEEV but a dearth of typical epidemic vectors. Cattle serosurveys indicated the recent circulation of enzootic VEEV strains, and possibly of epizootic strains. Persistence of VEEV subtype IC strains and infection of horses at the end of the rainy season suggest the possibility of an alternative, cryptic transmission cycle involving survival through the dry season of infected vectors or persistently infected vertebrates.

Navarro, Juan-Carlos; Medina, Gladys; Vasquez, Clovis; Coffey, Lark L.; Wang, Eryu; Suarez, Alexander; Biord, Hernan; Salas, Marlene

2005-01-01

224

Transmission of Guanarito and Pirital Viruses among Wild Rodents, Venezuela  

PubMed Central

Samples from rodents captured on a farm in Venezuela in February 1997 were tested for arenavirus, antibody against Guanarito virus (GTOV), and antibody against Pirital virus (PIRV). Thirty-one (48.4%) of 64 short-tailed cane mice (Zygodontomys brevicauda) were infected with GTOV, 1 Alston’s cotton rat (Sigmodon alstoni) was infected with GTOV, and 36 (64.3%) of 56 other Alston’s cotton rats were infected with PIRV. The results of analyses of field and laboratory data suggested that horizontal transmission is the dominant mode of GTOV transmission in Z. brevicauda mice and that vertical transmission is an important mode of PIRV transmission in S. alstoni rats. The results also suggested that bodily secretions and excretions from most GTOV-infected short-tailed cane mice and most PIRV-infected Alston’s cotton rats may transmit the viruses to humans.

Milazzo, Mary L.; Cajimat, Maria N.B.; Duno, Gloria; Duno, Freddy; Utrera, Antonio

2011-01-01

225

Potential for Great Thrust Earthquakes in NE Colombia & NW Venezuela  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sixty-five percent of the ?19 mm/yr eastward velocity of the Caribbean Plate north of Aruba and the Guajira peninsula relative to the South American plate is accommodated by dextral slip on the Bocono Fault system in NW Venezuela at 12±1 mm/yr, the remaining ~3 mm/yr of shear apparently distributed to the NW of the fault (Perez et al., 2011). The N40E strike of the Bocono fault system, however, requires that 10.6±1 mm/yr of convergence should accompany this partitioned dextral shear, but GPS measurements reveal that less than 25% of this convergence occurs across the Venezuelan Andes. The remaining 6-8 mm of convergence is presumably accommodated by incipient subduction between the Bocono fault and a trench 300 km NW of the northern coast of Colombia. Hence NW Venezuela and NE Colombia may occasionally host great earthquakes. Our current poor understanding of the geometry of the plate interface permits the plate to be locked 300 km down-dip and possibly 600 km along-strike, and if the plate slips in 10 m ruptures it could do so every 1200 years in a M~9 earthquake. No great earthquake has occurred since 1492, since when ~4 m of potential slip has developed, but should slip occur on just 10% of the hypothesized décollement (100x150 km) it could do so now in an Mw=8.2 earthquake. In that a potential Mw>8 earthquake poses a future seismic and tsunami threat to the Caribbean it is important to examine whether great earthquakes have occurred previously near the NW Venezuela coast. It is possible that creep accommodates the entire convergence signal, since there is no suggestion from microseismicity for an abrupt locked-to-sliding transition, as, for example, signifies its location in the Himalaya. An alternative measure of future potential seismic energy release is to identify the locus and rate of present-day strain contraction. To this end, Venezuelan, Colombian and US (CU and UNAVCO) investigators are installing an array of more than a dozen continuous operating GPS sites in the region. Studies of tsunami deposits on the Dutch Antilles suggest that the provenance of paleotsunami responsible for moving 10-100 ton blocks of coral onshore in the past two millennia has been from the east (Sheffers, 2002), and not from the north or south as we might expect from a NW Venezuelan earthquake. The existence of precariously balanced rocks in the region provides an alternative constraint on the occurrence of large local accelerations. The survival of at least four precariously balanced megablocks on the island of Aruba suggests that horizontal accelerations here have not exceeded 1 g for the past several millennia, but refined numerical estimates of potential shaking intensity consistent with their survival have yet to be completed. Accelerations exceeded 2.5 g in the Tohuko 2011 earthquake but above the Mexican subduction zone, accelerations have typically not exceeded 0.5 g in recent Mw~7.5 earthquakes, and hence the existence of these blocks may not exclude the historical occurrence of damaging earthquakes. A broader search for surviving strong-motion indicators in Colombia and Venezuela is planned during the installation of the GPS array.

Bilham, R. G.; Mencin, D.

2013-05-01

226

Forecasting the Anomalous Discharge of the Caroní River, Venezuela.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study develops methods for the extended-range forecasting of the February-March minimum of water discharge of the Caroní River in eastern Venezuela, a watershed providing more than 70% of the hydroelectric power for the country. The predictors are the Tahiti minus Darwin pressure index and the Caroní discharge, both in the preceding July-August, and serve as input to stepwise multiple regression and neural networking. For regression the training period is 1950-79 and the verification period 1980-98. For neural networking the training period is 1950-75 plus 1976-85, and the verification period is 1986-98. The regression model captures more than a third of the variance of the February-March discharge and of the neural method more than half. The predictors are readily available, and application in real time is being initiated.

Hastenrath, Stefan; Greischar, Lawrence; Colón, Esperanza; Gil, Alfredo

1999-08-01

227

Photographic Mosaics and Geographic Generalizations: A Perceptual Approach to Geographic Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

If vision can be considered the basis of geographic inquiry, then it must involve looking with discrimination--the ability to discern clues in our surroundings that speak to spatial processes or patterns in all aspects of geography--physical, cultural, economic, and so on. Geographic thinking also involves making spatial generalizations. We do…

Castner, Henry W.

2003-01-01

228

A new baseline for fascioliasis in Venezuela: lymnaeid vectors ascertained by DNA sequencing and analysis of their relationships with human and animal infection  

PubMed Central

Background Human and animal fascioliasis poses serious public health problems in South America. In Venezuela, livestock infection represents an important veterinary problem whereas there appear to be few human cases reported, most of which are passively detected in health centres. However, results of recent surveys suggest that the situation may be underestimated in particular areas. To obtain a baseline for future fascioliasis assessment, studies were undertaken by means of rDNA ITS-2 and ITS-1 and mtDNA cox1 sequencing to clarify the specific status of Venezuelan lymnaeids, their geographical distribution and fascioliasis transmission capacity, by comparison with other American countries and other continents. Results Results obtained completely change the lymnaeid scenario known so far. The relatively rich lymnaeid fauna of Venezuela has been proven to include (i) Lymnaea meridensis and L. neotropica as the only native members, (ii) L. cubensis and Pseudosuccinea columella introduced from the Caribbean area, and (iii) Galba truncatula and L. schirazensis introduced from the Old World. The absence of representatives of the stagnicoline and Radix groups is remarkable. Four species are fascioliasis vectors: G. truncatula, L. cubensis and L. neotropica, which have the capacity to give rise to human endemic areas, and P. columella, which is a source of animal infection and is responsible for the spread of disease. Vector capacity in the apparently highland endemic L. meridensis is to be confimed, although may be expected given its phylogenetic relationships. Similarly as elsewhere, the non-transmitting L. schirazensis has been confused with L. cubensis, also with G. truncatula and possibly with L. neotropica. Conclusions The new scenario leads to the re-opening of many disease aspects. In Venezuela, altitude appears to be the main factor influencing fascioliasis distribution. Human infection shows an altitude pattern similar to other Andean countries, although a differing highland/lowland impact on animal infection does not appear evident. The overlap of G. truncatula, L. cubensis and probably also L. neotropica in temperate and cold zones suggests a higher risk for human infection in mid and high altitude areas. A lymnaeid species mapping by means of DNA markers becomes a priority to determine human and animal fascioliasis distribution in Venezuela, owing to the importance of lymnaeid vectors in defining transmission and epidemiological patterns.

2011-01-01

229

Geographic variation in marine turtle fibropapillomatosis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We document three examples of fibropapillomatosis by histology, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and sequence analysis from three different geographic areas. Tumors compatible in morphology with fibropapillomatosis were seen in green turtles from Puerto Rico and San Diego (California) and in a hybrid loggerhead/ hawksbill turtle from Florida Bay (Florida). Tumors were confirmed as fibropapillomas on histology, although severity of disease varied between cases. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses revealed infection with the fibropapilloma-associated turtle herpesvirus (FPTHV) in all cases, albeit at highly variable copy numbers per cell. Alignment of a portion of the polymerase gene from each fibropapilloma-associated turtle herpesvirus isolate demonstrated geographic variation in sequence. These cases illustrate geographic variation in both the pathology and the virology of fibropapillomatosis.

Greenblatt, R. J.; Work, T. M.; Dutton, P.; Sutton, C. A.; Spraker, T. R.; Casey, R. N.; Diez, C.E.; Parker, D.; St. Ledger, J.; Balazs, G.H.; Casey, J.W.

2005-01-01

230

Introduction to the Complex Geospatial Web in Geographical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Geospatial Web is emerging in the geographical education landscape in all its complexity. How will geographers and educators react? What are the most important facets of this development? After reviewing the possible impacts on geographical education, it can be conjectured that the Geospatial Web will eventually replace the usual geographical

Papadimitriou, Fivos

2010-01-01

231

National Geographic: WildWorld -- Sights & Sounds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From National Geographic, this WildWorld -- Sights and Sounds website offers visitors an immersion experience in "some of the world's most distinctive ecoregions through audio, video, photos, interviews, conservation tips, and more." The eight ecoregions include the Bering Sea, Eastern Himalayan Broadleaf and Conifer Forests, Amazon River and Flooded Forest, and Mesoamerican Reef -- just to name a few. Separate ecoregion sites provide a map with links allowing visitors to connect to clear photos and information about various fauna of the region. Additionally, the ecoregion sites offer basic ecological and geographical information as well as related links.

232

Bismark State College: Geographic Information Systems Technician  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bismarck State College offers a program certificate, a certificate of completion, and an Associate in Applied Science degree in Geographic Information Systems (GIS). GIS is the only software program available that can capture and store geospatial data, which allows users to ask and answer complex questions about the world around us through complex geographic queries. GIScience is the multidisciplinary science behind the technology that incorporates cartography, geodesy, photogrammetry, remote sensing, GPS, and other geospatial sciences with the technology. Visit this page for more information on Bismark State College's GIS curriculum.

2011-04-26

233

The National Council for Geographic Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Council for Geographic Education (NCGE) is an international organization that emphasizes the importance of geographic education at all age levels â in school and out. They boast a membership of âÂÂteachers, professors, students, and other individuals who believe in the importance of geography, both in and out of school.â NCGE distributes two widely-known and well-subscribed journals, the Journal of Geography and The Geography Teacher. These journals are available to all members along with other e-leaning publications and web-based teaching resources.

2009-09-22

234

Geographic information system/watershed model interface  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geographic information systems allow for the interactive analysis of spatial data related to water-resources investigations. A conceptual design for an interface between a geographic information system and a watershed model includes functions for the estimation of model parameter values. Design criteria include ease of use, minimal equipment requirements, a generic data-base management system, and use of a macro language. An application is demonstrated for a 90.1-square-kilometer subbasin of the Patuxent River near Unity, Maryland, that performs automated derivation of watershed parameters for hydrologic modeling.

Fisher, Gary, T.

1989-01-01

235

Global change: Geographical approaches (A Review)*  

PubMed Central

The International Geosphere Biosphere Program sponsored by the International Council of Scientific Unions is directing attention to geophysical and biological change as influenced by human modifications in global energy and mass exchanges. Geographers in the Soviet Union and the United States have joined in critical appraisal of their experience in studying environmental change. This initial report is on some promising approaches, such as the reconstruction of earlier landscape processes, modeling of the dynamics of present-day landscapes, analysis of causes and consequences of anthropogenic changes in specified regions, appraisal of social response to change, and enhanced geographic information systems supported by detailed site studies.

Kotlyakov, V. M.; Mather, J. R.; Sdasyuk, G. V.; White, G. F.

1988-01-01

236

Geographical variation in Plasmodium vivax relapse  

PubMed Central

Background Plasmodium vivax has the widest geographic distribution of the human malaria parasites and nearly 2.5 billion people live at risk of infection. The control of P. vivax in individuals and populations is complicated by its ability to relapse weeks to months after initial infection. Strains of P. vivax from different geographical areas are thought to exhibit varied relapse timings. In tropical regions strains relapse quickly (three to six weeks), whereas those in temperate regions do so more slowly (six to twelve months), but no comprehensive assessment of evidence has been conducted. Here observed patterns of relapse periodicity are used to generate predictions of relapse incidence within geographic regions representative of varying parasite transmission. Methods A global review of reports of P. vivax relapse in patients not treated with a radical cure was conducted. Records of time to first P. vivax relapse were positioned by geographic origin relative to expert opinion regions of relapse behaviour and epidemiological zones. Mixed-effects meta-analysis was conducted to determine which geographic classification best described the data, such that a description of the pattern of relapse periodicity within each region could be described. Model outputs of incidence and mean time to relapse were mapped to illustrate the global variation in relapse. Results Differences in relapse periodicity were best described by a historical geographic classification system used to describe malaria transmission zones based on areas sharing zoological and ecological features. Maps of incidence and time to relapse showed high relapse frequency to be predominant in tropical regions and prolonged relapse in temperate areas. Conclusions The results indicate that relapse periodicity varies systematically by geographic region and are categorized by nine global regions characterized by similar malaria transmission dynamics. This indicates that relapse may be an adaptation evolved to exploit seasonal changes in vector survival and therefore optimize transmission. Geographic patterns in P. vivax relapse are important to clinicians treating individual infections, epidemiologists trying to infer P. vivax burden, and public health officials trying to control and eliminate the disease in human populations.

2014-01-01

237

Phytomass structure of natural plant communities on spodosols in southern Venezuela: the Bana woodland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bana, or Low Amazon Caatinga is an evergreen sclerophyllous woodland. It occurs on bleached quartz sands in the lowlands of SW Venezuela, where it occupies relatively small ‘islands’ amidst Tall Amazon Caatinga which is exclusively developed on tropaquods.

F. Bongers; D. Engelen; H. Klinge

1985-01-01

238

Doing Business in Venezuela: Country Commercial Guide for U.S. Companies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document serves as a guide to doing business in Venezuela. It contains key economic indicators for the country. In addition, it outlines trade regulations, the general tax system, market research, foreign investment, and tips for the business traveler...

2005-01-01

239

Decentralization and Regionalization in the Ministry of Education: The Case of Venezuela  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research is an effort to analyze the process of organizational change as it takes place within one segment of the public administration mechanism in Venezuela--The Ministry of Education. (Editor/RK)

Hanson, Mark

1976-01-01

240

A Descriptive Chronology of Films by Women in Venezuela, 1952-92.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers an annotated chronology of Venezuelan films, representing a first step toward a general history of women's filmmaking in Venezuela. Suggests that the participation of women directors closely follows the curve of national film production in general. (RS)

Schwartzman, Karen

1993-01-01

241

Venezuela: Agricultural Situation. Official Control of Agriculture, 2008. GAIN Report Number VE8061.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Via new decrees announced by the President effective 1 August, Venezuelas agriculture and food sector, already heavily regulated, will be subject to further government control. Post reports on the most significant of the five new decrees affecting agricul...

C. Nunez

2008-01-01

242

Virtual Geographic Environments (VGEs): A New Generation of Geographic Analysis Tool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Virtual Geographic Environments (VGEs) are proposed as a new generation of geographic analysis tool to contribute to human understanding of the geographic world and assist in solving geographic problems at a deeper level. The development of VGEs is focused on meeting the three scientific requirements of Geographic Information Science (GIScience) — multi-dimensional visualization, dynamic phenomenon simulation, and public participation. To provide a clearer image that improves user understanding of VGEs and to contribute to future scientific development, this article reviews several aspects of VGEs. First, the evolutionary process from maps to previous GISystems and then to VGEs is illustrated, with a particular focus on the reasons VGEs were created. Then, extended from the conceptual framework and the components of a complete VGE, three use cases are identified that together encompass the current state of VGEs at different application levels: 1) a tool for geo-object-based multi-dimensional spatial analysis and multi-channel interaction, 2) a platform for geo-process-based simulation of dynamic geographic phenomena, and 3) a workspace for multi-participant-based collaborative geographic experiments. Based on the above analysis, the differences between VGEs and other similar platforms are discussed to draw their clear boundaries. Finally, a short summary of the limitations of current VGEs is given, and future directions are proposed to facilitate ongoing progress toward forming a comprehensive version of VGEs.

Lin, Hui; Chen, Min; Lu, Guonian; Zhu, Qing; Gong, Jiahua; You, Xiong; Wen, Yongning; Xu, Bingli; Hu, Mingyuan

2013-11-01

243

Geographic Information Systems in Health Care Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geographic information systems (GIS) have numerous applications in human health. This chapter opens with a brief discussion of the three dimensions of decision-making in organizations — operational control, management control, and strategic planning. These dimensions are then discussed in terms of three case studies: a practice- improvement case study under operational control, a service-planning case study under management control, and

Brian Hilton; Thomas A. Horan

244

Asking Even More from Grand Geographic Strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

What insights does geography bring to understanding a tumultuous planet? In a time when some charge that the discipline is too fragmented to respond to such a challenge, the National Research Council's Committee on Strategic Directions for the Geographical Sciences in the Next Decade proves otherwise. Understanding the Changing Planet does a remarkable job of showing that disciplinary insights are

Paul Robbins

2011-01-01

245

Geographical dispersal of mobile communication networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we analyze statistical properties of a communication network constructed from the records of a mobile phone company. The network consists of 2.5 million customers that have placed 810 million communications (phone calls and text messages) over a period of 6 months and for whom we have geographical home localization information. It is shown that the degree distribution in this network has a power-law degree distribution k-5 and that the probability that two customers are connected by a link follows a gravity model, i.e. decreases as d-2, where d is the distance between the customers. We also consider the geographical extension of communication triangles and we show that communication triangles are not only composed of geographically adjacent nodes but that they may extend over large distances. This last property is not captured by the existing models of geographical networks and in a last section we propose a new model that reproduces the observed property. Our model, which is based on the migration and on the local adaptation of agents, is then studied analytically and the resulting predictions are confirmed by computer simulations.

Lambiotte, Renaud; Blondel, Vincent D.; de Kerchove, Cristobald; Huens, Etienne; Prieur, Christophe; Smoreda, Zbigniew; Van Dooren, Paul

2008-09-01

246

A Capstone Course of "Geographic Ideas"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through an instructional approach, this article offers a template for a classroom-based geography capstone course grounded in pedagogical elements of synthesis and reflection, as based on exploration of ten key geographic ideas. It provides insights into course goals, structure, and components for instructors who may wish to implement it in…

Hovorka, Alice Judith

2009-01-01

247

Notation for National Integration of Geographic Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the authors' main focus is on presenting a notation used to represent data integration in a Geographic Information System (GIS) environment. The problem of GIS data integration is briefly discussed and a Conceptual Model, comprising of a Data Center and Data Agencies is presented, from a national perspective. The problem of data integration is divided into manageable

Steve Ramroop; Richard Pascoe

248

OTHER APPLICATIONS IN GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The partitioning of a single space or rap region into triangles or *triangular regions has proved to be very useful in numerous diverse applications of geographic information systems. Triangulated irregular networks (TINS) have been successfully used in applications in elevation rodeling and representation, in network analysis and routing problems, in land use and hydrologic studies, in roadway design and landscape

Alan Saalfeld

249

Frontiers in Geographical Teaching. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Composed of three parts, "Concepts,""Techniques," and "Teaching," this volume of essays by British geographers emerged from the editors' geography education courses and symposia at Cambridge University. It is addressed to two questions: what is happening in geography? and, what impact does this have on school geography? "Concepts" has seven essays…

Chorley, Richard J., Ed.; Haggett, Peter, Ed.

250

A Geographer's Contribution to European Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes traditional ways of teaching geography in European studies, suggests changes emphasizing human geography and environment, and specifies learning outcomes for students. An appendix lists 1i books providing geographical resource material on European studies. Available from: Centre for Contemporary European Studies, University of Sussex,…

Price, Brian

1977-01-01

251

Geographic Education in Turkish High Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a review of geographic curricula, teaching methods, materials and assessments in Turkish high schools. Geopolitics and political instability have contributed to large fluctuations in emphasis on geography in Turkish education and have also affected the content of the geography curriculum.

Tas, Halil I.

2005-01-01

252

Geographical Study of American Blues Culture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Music is not often utilized in teaching geography, despite the fact that many scholars orient their research around analyzing both the historical and spatial dimensions of musical expression. This article reports on the use of a teaching module that utilizes blues culture as a lens to understand the geographical history of the United States. The…

Strait, John B.

2010-01-01

253

Threading One's Way Through the Geographic Region.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for students in grades 7 through 12, the paper presents illustrative resource materials for teaching concepts related to geographic regions. Emphasis is on giving students an understanding of the interrelationship between regional characteristics and human behavior. The paper introduces students to the following notions: environmental…

Thomas, Paul F.

1982-01-01

254

GEOGRAPHIC INDEX OF ENVIRONMENTAL ARTICLES - 1993  

EPA Science Inventory

This index was produced in accordance with the Environmental Research Geographic Location Information Act, Public Law 101-617, enacted by the United States Congress on November 16, 1990. ompiled by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, it is intended as a quick reference for ...

255

GEOGRAPHIC INDEX OF ENVIRONMENTAL ARTICLES - 1992  

EPA Science Inventory

This index was produced in accordance with the Environmental Research Geographic Location Information Act, Public Law 101-617, enacted by the United States Congress on November 16, 1990. ompiled by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, it is intended as a quick reference for ...

256

Geographical embedding of scale-free networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for embedding graphs in Euclidean space is suggested. The method connects nodes to their geographically closest neighbors and economizes on the total physical length of links. The topological and geometrical properties of scale-free networks embedded by the suggested algorithm are studied both analytically and through simulations. Our findings indicate dramatic changes in the embedded networks, in comparison to

Daniel Ben-Avraham; Alejandro F. Rozenfeld; Reuven Cohen; Shlomo Havlin

2003-01-01

257

OGC Compatible Geographical Information Systems Web Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) defines a number of standards, both for data models and for online services, that has been widely adopted in the Geographical Information System (GIS) community. This has lead to a number of software development efforts, online data archives, and application communities. We survey these in the first part of this report. We furthermore find that

Ahmet Sayar; Marlon Pierce; Geoffrey Fox

258

PENNSYLVANIA GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM LIBRARY: STATE GAMELAND  

EPA Science Inventory

Pennsylvania Geographic Information System (GIS) Library provides a data set of state gameland boundaries digitized from 1:24,000 USGS topographic maps and verified from Pennsylvania Fish and Game Department information. Coverage is incomplete, certain areas are not mapped when ...

259

Teaching Geographic Concepts through Fieldwork and Competition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the benefits of combining field-based learning within the context of a competitive setting in the geography curriculum. Findings and data are presented based on experiences gathered from teaching an upper-level university geography course that combined geographic techniques and theory into a game of capture-the-flag.…

Hupy, Joseph P.

2011-01-01

260

Publication of Geographic Information Systems in Internet  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explains the publishing of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in the Internet, using Free Software. The main objectives of this work are: firstly to know about map servers and secondly to make an application to solve a specific problem related with GIS. The result is a web-based application that allows to access a corporative GIS from any computer connected

E. COLL; J. C. MARTINEZ; J. IRIGOYEN; J. G. SANZ

261

The Development of Geographic Categories and Biases.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined geographical representations among children and young adults. Found that a distinct home region was apparent at age 9. At age 11, children divided North America into regions the same as university students. Children used new location information to update location estimates. Children preserved ordinal structure of initial location…

Kerkman, Dennis D.; Friedman, Alinda; Brown, Norman R.; Stea, David; Carmichael, Alanna

2003-01-01

262

Validating a Geographical Image Retrieval System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes a prototype geographical image retrieval system that demonstrates how to integrate image processing and information analysis techniques to support large-scale content-based image retrieval. Describes an experiment to validate the performance of this image retrieval system against that of human subjects by examining similarity analysis…

Zhu, Bin; Chen, Hsinchun

2000-01-01

263

The Geographic Distribution of Indochinese Refugees.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents information regarding the geographic distribution of Indochinese refugees in the United States and how it compares to that of the overall U.S. population and the non-refugee legal immigrant population. The following information is reported: Seventy percent of all Indochinese refugees currently reside in 10 States, with…

Forbes, Susan

264

Geographical and Environmental Education in Albania  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing on a wide range of secondary and primary materials as well as personal experience of Albania dating from the 1970s to the present day, this paper describes and critically evaluates current geographical and environmental education in Albania in relation to three dimensions: (1) the changing nature of the curriculum over the past 20 years;…

Hall, Derek

2004-01-01

265

Patterns of human reproduction and geographic latitude  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present paper offers data to suggest an effect of geographic latitude in regard to the frequency of conception in human populations. The birth statistics from eight countries in different parts of the world have been evaluated. A particularly strong minimum appears to occur in almost all regions but is shifted in time with changing latitude.

Moos, Walter S.; Randall, Walter

1995-06-01

266

GIPSY: Automated Geographic Indexing of Text Documents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an algorithm that automatically extracts words and phrases containing geographic place names or characteristics from a text document and uses them as input to database functions that use spatial reasoning to approximate statistically the geoposition referenced in the text. Preliminary results and future work are discussed. (28 references)…

Woodruff, Allison Gyle; Plaunt, Christian

1994-01-01

267

Use of Geographical Information Systems for Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geographical Information Systems (GIS) are systems for capturing, storing, manipulating, analyzing and displaying data with geo-reference. GIS are comprised at least three different components: an information system on geospatial information and data, set of georeferenced or geospatial data, and a management component capable of analyzing und checking the data. This management component can be used to gain new insights into

Michael Brueckner; Orasa Tetiwat

2008-01-01

268

Geographical Information Systems for Dengue Surveillance  

PubMed Central

This review provides details on the role of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) in current dengue surveillance systems and focuses on the application of open access GIS technology to emphasize its importance in developing countries, where the dengue burden is greatest. It also advocates for increased international collaboration in transboundary disease surveillance to confront the emerging global challenge of dengue.

Duncombe, Jennifer; Clements, Archie; Hu, Wenbiao; Weinstein, Philip; Ritchie, Scott; Espino, Fe Esperanza

2012-01-01

269

Mapa Geologico de Venezuela a Escala 1:750,000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Se presenta un mapa geologico digital de Venezuela sobre un fondo de relieve sombreado. Los datos geologicos e hidrologicos del norte del rio Orinoco proceden de la digitalizacion de mapas geologicos en papel a escala 1:500.000. Estos datos fueron integrados con el mapa geologico digital del Escudo de Guayana Venezolano, a su vez derivado de hojas en papel a escala 1:500.000. La informacion sobre los tipos de fallas mostrados en el mapa es igual que en las fuentes originales. Los poligonos geologicos fueron atribuidos por edad, litologia y nombre de la unidad siguiendo el Codigo geologico de Venezuela. Se incorporaron revisiones significativas de la geologia de la Cordillera de la Costa a partir de las nuevas hojas integradas a escala 1:25.000. Toda esta informacion geologico-estructural se sobrepuso a una imagen de relieve sombreado, producida por el procesamiento de los datos de radar interferometrico con 90 m (3 arcosegundos) de resolucion espacial obtenidos por la mision topografica de radar del transbordador espacial (SRTM). Las areas de la base de datos del SRTM carentes de informacion fueron llenadas por medio de la interpolacion de los datos de las celdas adyacentes. Para producir la imagen de relieve sombreado se uso una direccion de iluminacion de 315 deg con un angulo de 65 deg sobre el horizonte. La proyeccion usada en el mapa es conica equidistante, con latitudes de 4 y 9 deg norte como paralelos estandar y una longitud de 66 deg al oeste como meridiano central. Los datos en el mapa proceden primordialment de hojas a escala 1:500.000 y el producto esta preparado para una impresion optima en escala 1:750.000. Los usuarios pueden obtener ampliaciones mayores, sin embargo no se garantiza la precision del mapa a escalas mas detalladas. Especialmente en la region de Guayana, al sobreponer los mapas geologicos sobre la reciente imagen SRTM, se notan grandes discrepancias no sistematicas tanto en contactos como en fallas. Esto es debido a que los mapas geologicos de Guayana tienen como base topografica las imagenes de radar de vision lateral (SLAR), con muy control de campo de los a?os 1970's. La correccion de estos desfases esta planificada para el futuro.

Hackley, Paul C.; Urbani, Franco; Karlsen, Alex W.; Garrity, Christopher P.

2006-01-01

270

Geographic exposure modeling: a valuable extension of geographic information systems for use in environmental epidemiology.  

PubMed Central

Geographic modeling of individual exposures using air pollution modeling techniques can help in both the design of environmental epidemiologic studies and in the assignment of measures that delineate regions that receive the highest exposure in space and time. Geographic modeling can help in the interpretation of environmental sampling data associated with airborne concentration or deposition, and can act as a sophisticated interpolator for such data, allowing values to be assigned to locations between points where the data have actually been collected. Recent advances allow for quantification of the uncertainty in a geographic model and the resulting impact on estimates of association, variability, and study power. In this paper we present the terminology and methodology of geographic modeling, describe applications to date in the field of epidemiology, and evaluate the potential of this relatively new tool.

Beyea, J

1999-01-01

271

Chemostratigraphy: Applications in the Tachira depression, Tachira State, Venezuela  

SciTech Connect

Rock analyses (40 chemical parameters) from densely sampled Cretaceous sections from La Luna, Navay, Aguardiente and Escandalosa formations in southwestern Venezuela, combined with multivariate statistical analysis, allowed statistical characterization of formations, environmentally meaningful clustering of correlated geochemical variables, as well as calculation of chemical accumulation rates. Chemofacies, defined from accumulation rates, were used for correlation and depositional environment definition. Organic matter maturity does not affect NiN ratios, but causes homogenization in Ca/Sr ratios. Th/V ratios clearly separate shelf vs. oceanic fades, closely matching those from biofacies analysis. Cycles in Th/V repeat every 60 in (Navay) to 20 in (La Luna), corresponding to Milankovitch climatic cycles. Shales (high Th/V) represent cooler-shallower sedimentation periods, and lodestones (low Th/V) represent warmer-deeper ones. Differences in accumulation rates were used for establishing changes in: source rock (La-Ce), either due to tectonism or variations in marine current pattern; redox conditions (Ni-V); clay mineralogy (Al-K); energy level (Al-Si); and salinity (Mg-Na). Finally, chemostratigraphy, combined with reliable structural and stratigraphical field data, has proven to be a powerful tool for unravelling tectono-stratigraphical histories.

Briceno, H.; Ostos, M.; Yoris, F. [Caracas (Venezuela)] [and others

1996-08-01

272

Clockwise block rotations in the Perija Mountains, Venezuela  

SciTech Connect

Paleomagnetic analyses of Mesozoic sedimentary rocks (8 sites, 115 samples) from the Perija Mountains, Venezuela, yield well-grouped directions of both polarities. Fold tests imply that the magnetization of the Jurassic La Quinta Formation is pre-mid-Cretaceous in age and that the Lower Cretaceous Cogollo Group acquired its magnetization prior to its mid-Tertiary deformation. These data as well as the results from the Cretaceous Apon and La Luna Formations yield consistent northeast or southwest declinations and inclinations corresponding to the present latitude of the sampling area. The clockwise rotations indicated by these data are interpreted to be the result of rotation of fault-bounded blocks in a left-lateral strike-slip zone. Faults such as the Cogollo, La Ge, and Totumo faults which intersect the Perija-Tigre fault at low angles, had initially a north-northwest strike. The Late Oligocene northwest-southeast compression which initiated the uplift of the Perija Mountains rotated these faults to their present north-northeast orientation imparting the observed left-lateral slip. Our paleomagnetic data measure the corresponding rotation of the fault-bounded blocks. Model calculations suggest that a displacement on these faults of less than ten kilometers would be sufficient to cause the observed approximately 45[degrees] clockwise rotations.

Gose, W.A. (Univ. of Texas, Austin (United States)); Perarnau, A. (Intevep, Los Teques (Venezuela)); Castillo, J. (Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela))

1993-02-01

273

[Balantidiasis in a rural community from Bolivar State, Venezuela].  

PubMed

Balantidium coli is the etiologic agent of balantidiasis, an infrequent zoonose of worldwide distribution. The objective of the present study was to determine the clinical and epidemiological aspects of balantidiasis in a rural community in the Bolivar State in Venezuela. Fifty persons and 12 pigs were evaluated. Fecal samples were analyzed by direct examination and by the methods of Faust and Willis. The global rate of intestinal parasitoses detected was 88.0% for the human population and 83.3% for the pigs. The prevalence of human and porcine balantidiais was 12.0% (6/50) and 33.3% (4/12), respectively. The disease was only detected in children, all of them with multiple parasites and with clinical manifestations. Deficient environmental sanitation, absence of basic services in the dwellings, low socioeconomic level, and the presence of pigs infected with B. coli are the factors that explain and maintain the conditions favorable to the transmission of balantidiasis in the population studied. PMID:10488584

Devera, R; Requena, I; Velásquez, V; Castillo, H; Guevara, R; De Sousa, M; Marín, C; Silva, M

1999-01-01

274

Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Pregnant Women in Venezuela  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Intestinal parasitic infections, especially due to helminths, increase anemia in pregnant women. The results of this are low pregnancy weight gain and IUGR, followed by LBW, with its associated greater risks of infection and higher perinatal mortality rates. For these reasons, in the setting of no large previous studies in Venezuela about this problem, a national multicentric study was conducted. Methods. Pregnant women from nine states were studied, a prenatal evaluation with a coproparasitological study. Univariated and multivariated analyses were made to determine risk factors for intestinal parasitosis and related anemia. Results. During 19 months, 1038 pregnant women were included and evaluated. Intestinal parasitosis was evidenced in 73.9%: A lumbricoides 57.0%, T trichiura 36.0%, G lamblia 14.1%, E hystolitica 12.0%, N americanus 8.1%, E vermicularis 6.3%, S stercoralis 3.3%. Relative risk for anemia in those women with intestinal parasitosis was 2.56 (P < .01). Discussion. Intestinal parasitoses could be associated with conditions for development of anemia at pregnancy. These features reflect the need of routine coproparasitological study among pregnant women in rural and endemic zones for intestinal parasites. Further therapeutic and prophylactic protocols are needed. Additional research on pregnant intestinal parasitic infection impact on newborn health is also considered.

Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J.; Barbella, Rosa A.; Case, Cynthia; Arria, Melissa; Ravelo, Marisela; Perez, Henry; Urdaneta, Oscar; Gervasio, Gloria; Rubio, Nestor; Maldonado, Andrea; Aguilera, Ymora; Viloria, Anna; Blanco, Juan J.; Colina, Magdary; Hernandez, Elizabeth; Araujo, Elianet; Cabaniel, Gilberto; Benitez, Jesus; Rifakis, Pedro

2006-01-01

275

Sedimentary sequence evolution in a Foredeep basin: Eastern Venezuela  

SciTech Connect

Well log-seismic sequence stratigraphy analysis in the Eastern Venezuela Foreland Basin leads to study of the evolution of sedimentary sequences onto the Cretaceous-Paleocene passive margin. This basin comprises two different foredeep sub-basins: The Guarico subbasin to the west, older, and the Maturin sub-basin to the east, younger. A foredeep switching between these two sub-basins is observed at 12.5 m.y. Seismic interpretation and well log sections across the study area show sedimentary sequences with transgressive sands and coastal onlaps to the east-southeast for the Guarico sub-basin, as well as truncations below the switching sequence (12.5 m.y.), and the Maturin sub-basin shows apparent coastal onlaps to the west-northwest, as well as a marine onlap (deeper water) in the west, where it starts to establish. Sequence stratigraphy analysis of these sequences with well logs allowed the study of the evolution of stratigraphic section from Paleocene to middle Miocene (68.0-12.0 m.y.). On the basis of well log patterns, the sequences were divided in regressive-transgressive-regressive sedimentary cycles caused by changes in relative sea level. Facies distributions were analyzed and the sequences were divided into simple sequences or sub- sequences of a greater frequencies than third order depositional sequences.

Bejarano, C.; Funes, D. [Corpoven S.A., Puerto La Cruz (Venezuela); Sarzalho, S.; Audemard, F.; Flores, G. [Caracas (Venezuela)

1996-08-01

276

Diel variation of nitrogen fixation in Lake Valencia, Venezuela  

SciTech Connect

During 1981 the authors examined the diel variations of nitrogen fixation in Lake Valencia, Venezuela. Four species of heterocyst-bearing blue-green algae were common but subdominant in the phytoplankton. In samples taken from and incubated at 0.5 m, the rate of nitrogen fixation per unit volume of water was lowest at night, increased from dawn until early afternoon, and then diminished between late afternoon and the first hour of darkness. This pattern was caused partly by diel changes in light intensity and partly by diel migrations of heterocystous blue-green algae. The heterocyst-specific nitrogen fixation rates at 0.5 m were much less variable than the nitrogen fixation rates per unit volume of water. Heterocyst-specific rates rose rapidly in early morning and fell slowly in the evening, but were almost constant over much of the day. Heterocyst-specific nitrogen fixation rates were very close to those predicted by a model based on the light dependency of nitrogen fixation.

Levine, S.N.; Lewis, W.M. Jr.

1984-07-01

277

Gran Sabana fires (SE Venezuela): a paleoecological perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fires are among the most important risks for tropical ecosystems in a future climatic change scenario. Recently, paleoecological research has been addressed to discern the role played by fire in neotropical landscapes. However, given the magnitude of the Neotropics, many studies are relegated to infer just local trends. Here we present the compilation of the paleo-fire records developed until now in the southern Gran Sabana (SE Venezuela) with the aim to describe the fire history as well as to infer the possible forcing factors implied. In this sense, southern Gran Sabana has been under fire perturbation since the Lateglacial, with the concomitant effects upon vegetation, and persisted during the Holocene. Around 2000 cal yr BP onwards, the fire activity highly increased promoting the expansion of pre-existing savannas, the decrease of forests and the appearance and establishment of Mauritia palm swamps. The continuous fire incidence registered for several thousands of years has likely promoted the supremacy of treeless savannas upon other vegetation types and the degradation to secondary landscapes. Based on the available evidence, the anthropogenic nature of this high fire activity has been postulated. If so, it could be hypothesized that the timing arrival of Pemón, the present-day indigenous culture in the Gran Sabana, would be ca 2000 cal yr BP onwards, rather than the last centuries, as it has been formerly assumed. The implications of these ancient practices in the area are also discussed for present Gran Sabana landscapes sustainability and future conservation strategies.

Montoya, Encarni; Rull, Valentí

2011-11-01

278

Sequence stratigraphy of the Maturin sub-basin (Eastern Venezuela)  

SciTech Connect

The prolific Eastern Venezuela Basin has an area of about 160,000 km{sup 2} and is bounded by the Pilar Fault to the North, the Guayana Shield to the South, the Baul Arch to the West and beyond the Orinoco Delta to the East. Sequence analysis of three N-S and one W-E regional transects covered by over one thousand km of seismic lines and sedimentological, biostratigraphic and electrofacies studies of 80 wells allowed the definition of the sequence stratigraphic column of the basin. Seven major unconformity bounded depositional sequences were defined from Barremian to Recent, three in the Cretaceous and four in the Tertiary. Twenty-one third-order cycles were recognized in the Tejas B supercycle (Upper Oligocene-Recent). This cycle correlates very well with the Gulf of Mexico and Global chronostratigraphic charts. In the proximal, southern area, each sequence shows transgressive sandstones in its lower section and regressive ones in the upper part, separated by claystones that include a maximum flooding surface. In the distal area, fine marine sediments predominate with local turbidities. Some electrical markers and planktonic fossils are traceable over long distances. Regional transacts show two distinct structural zones: tensional to the South and compressional to the North. The best petroleum reservoirs occur in Tertiary and to a lesser extent in Cretaceous sequences. In this basin occurs the largest oil accumulation of the world (Orinoco), as well as several giant oil fields.

Gonzales, G.; Mata, S.; Santiago, N. [Departamento de Geologia, Lagoven, S.A., Caracas (Venezuela)

1996-08-01

279

[Lipid profile from low socioeconomic level preschool children. Valencia, Venezuela].  

PubMed

Overweight and obesity are a public health problem worldwide affecting adults and children as well. The aim of this study was to assess overweight, lipid profile and cardiovascular risk ratios in 390 preschool children from low socio-economic level from Valencia, Venezuela. Nutritional anthropometric evaluation measured by body dimensions, and serum determination of cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and cardiovascular risk factors, were determined. 95% of the children were in relative and critical poverty. 14.3% of undernutrition and 20.8% of overweight was found. Lipid profile was in normal range, with no significant differences by sex, but higher values for HDL-cholesterol and risk ratios were found in children aged 1 to 3.99 years. Even though no differences were found by nutritional status, overweight children had higher values for lipids, except HDL-cholesterol. 6.3% of overweight children had cholesterol > or =170 mg/dL, 16.5% LDL-cholesterol > or =110 mg/dL, 40.5% triglycerides > or =75mg/dL and 100% HDL-cholesterol <45 mg/dL. Overweight and lipid profile alterations were present in an important group of the children, which increase their risk of obesity and chronic non-transmissible diseases. Nutritional and educational intervention should be addressed. PMID:15916180

Solano, Liseti; Velásquez, Emma; Naddaf, Gloria; Páez, María

2003-01-01

280

[Characterization of flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) grown in Venezuela].  

PubMed

In recent years, the consumption of flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) has been promoted as a functional food for its health benefits, mainly attributable to its content of omega-3 fatty acids, lignans and dietary fiber. This study evaluated the microbiological quality, chemical composition and antioxidant properties of flaxseed grown in Venezuela and compared them to the values of a Canadian variety widely sold in the country. Total coliforms, molds and yeasts, S. aureus and sporulated of the genera Bacillus (aerobic) and Clostridium (anaerobic), moisture, fat, protein, total dietary fiber, soluble and insoluble, mucilage, minerals, fatty acid profile, equivalent HCN content, aw, color, polyphenols and antioxidant properties, like antiradical efficiency (AE), concentration of antioxidant needed to decrease the initial concentration by 50 %EC50) and the time required to reach the EC50 (TEC50) were evaluated. Significant differences in seed composition were determined, where its high content of fat, protein, alfa-linolenic acid and dietary fiber stand out. Differences were observed in the mucilage content, but not in soluble, insoluble and total fiber content. Equivalent HCN concentration in both seeds is in the order of 40 mg/100 g, which poses no health risks, considering their consumption patterns. Venezuelan flaxseed contains higher content of polyphenols than the Canadian does, but the antioxidant capacity of the latter is higher; both have an EA rated as average and a slow reaction time (TEC50 > 30 min). PMID:23610908

Cuevas, Zoitza Ostojich; Sangronis, Elba

2012-06-01

281

Meningoencephalitis by Naegleria fowleri: epidemiological study in Anzoategui state, Venezuela.  

PubMed

A case of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis produced by Naegleria fowleri was diagnosed in the Independencia county of Anzoategui State, Venezuela. This case motivated the realization of the present epidemiological study with the aim of identifying free-living amoebae in this area. Representative water samples were taken and physicochemical and microbiologic analyses were carried out. Trophozoites and cysts of Naegleria spp, were detected in 44.4% (n=4). An excellent concordance was found among the observations of free-living amoebae in smears and those of monoxenic cultures in non-nourishing agar with Klebsiella pneumoniae (Kappa=1; p= 0.003). A variable load of aerobic mesophils was obtained. Moulds and yeast averages presented 3.0 CFU/ml (SD +/- 2.0) and 102.9 CFU/ml (SD +/- 32.2), respectively. One hundred per cent of the samples presented a most probable number of total and fecal coliforms of 240,000 NMP/100mL. Naegleria spp was present in waters of the Independence county of Anzoategui state, which constitutes a risk for people that use these sources. PMID:16906250

Cermeño, Julman R; Hernández, Isabel; El Yasin, Helal; Tinedo, Rubén; Sánchez, Raúl; Pérez, Gladys; Gravano, Rosalía; Ruiz, Aida

2006-01-01

282

Seasonal and geographical variation of blocking  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An examination of grid point values of daily 500 mb geopotential height over the Northern Hemisphere for the 1963-1977 period has been conducted in order to calculate the seasonal frequency blocking variation and its geographical location, where blocking events require the persistence of a large positive anomaly for seven days or more. The geographical locations of the maximum frequency, characterized by three distinctly different maxima, remain nearly the same for all four seasons. Large persistent negative anomalies during the winter season are mostly associated with local high index flow. An examination of the seasonal variability of persistent characteristics of wave numbers 1-4, for 500 mb geopotential height between 50 and 70 deg N, shows that the large scale planetary waves have preferred phase locations for persistence beyond seven days.

Shukla, J.; Mo, K. C.

1983-01-01

283

Transmission and visualization of large geographical maps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transmission and visualization of large geographical maps have become a challenging research issue in GIS applications. This paper presents an efficient and robust way to simplify large geographical maps using frame buffers and Voronoi diagrams. The topological relationships are kept during the simplification by removing the Voronoi diagram's self-overlapped regions. With the simplified vector maps, we establish different levels of detail (LOD) models of these maps. Then we introduce a client/server architecture which integrates our out-of-core algorithm, progressive transmission and rendering scheme based on computer graphics hardware. The architecture allows the viewers to view different regions interactively at different LODs on the network. Experimental results show that our proposed scheme provides an effective way for powerful transmission and manipulation of large maps.

Zhang, Liqiang; Zhang, Liang; Ren, Yingchao; Guo, Zhifeng

284

Geographic Analysis of the Radiation Oncology Workforce  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate trends in the geographic distribution of the radiation oncology (RO) workforce. Methods and Materials: We used the 1995 and 2007 versions of the Area Resource File to map the ratio of RO to the population aged 65 years or older (ROR) within different health service areas (HSA) within the United States. We used regression analysis to find associations between population variables and 2007 ROR. We calculated Gini coefficients for ROR to assess the evenness of RO distribution and compared that with primary care physicians and total physicians. Results: There was a 24% increase in the RO workforce from 1995 to 2007. The overall growth in the RO workforce was less than that of primary care or the overall physician workforce. The mean ROR among HSAs increased by more than one radiation oncologist per 100,000 people aged 65 years or older, from 5.08 per 100,000 to 6.16 per 100,000. However, there remained consistent geographic variability concerning RO distribution, specifically affecting the non-metropolitan HSAs. Regression analysis found higher ROR in HSAs that possessed higher education (p = 0.001), higher income (p < 0.001), lower unemployment rates (p < 0.001), and higher minority population (p = 0.022). Gini coefficients showed RO distribution less even than for both primary care physicians and total physicians (0.326 compared with 0.196 and 0.292, respectively). Conclusions: Despite a modest growth in the RO workforce, there exists persistent geographic maldistribution of radiation oncologists allocated along socioeconomic and racial lines. To solve problems surrounding the RO workforce, issues concerning both gross numbers and geographic distribution must be addressed.

Aneja, Sanjay [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Cancer Outcomes, Policy, and Effectiveness Research Center at Yale, New Haven, CT (United States); Smith, Benjamin D. [University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Gross, Cary P. [Cancer Outcomes, Policy, and Effectiveness Research Center at Yale, New Haven, CT (United States); Department of General Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Wilson, Lynn D. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Haffty, Bruce G. [Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Roberts, Kenneth [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Yu, James B., E-mail: james.b.yu@yale.edu [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Cancer Outcomes, Policy, and Effectiveness Research Center at Yale, New Haven, CT (United States)

2012-04-01

285

Geographic information system based manure application plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

A geographic information system (GIS) based manure application plan has been developed for the site-specific application of animal waste to agricultural fields in the Westbrook sub-catchment of the Murray-Darling Basin, south-east Queensland, Australia. Sites suitable for animal waste application were identified using a GIS based weighted linear combination (WLC) model. The degree of land suitability for animal waste application was

Badri B. Basnet; Armando A. Apan; Steven R. Raine

2002-01-01

286

What about people in geographic information science?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geographic information systems (GIS) are convenient and potentially powerful platforms for transportation and urban analysis. Most GIS-based tools for transportation and urban analysis continue a place-based representation that is increasingly ill-suited to answer important questions in theory, policy and practice. The increasing disconnection between people and places means that a people-based representation is required to address questions of access, exclusion

Harvey J. Miller

2003-01-01

287

U Plant Geographic Zone Cleanup Prototype  

SciTech Connect

The U Plant geographic zone (UPZ) occupies 0.83 square kilometers on the Hanford Site Central Plateau (200 Area). It encompasses the U Plant canyon (221-U Facility), ancillary facilities that supported the canyon, soil waste sites, and underground pipelines. The UPZ cleanup initiative coordinates the cleanup of the major facilities, ancillary facilities, waste sites, and contaminated pipelines (collectively identified as 'cleanup items') within the geographic zone. The UPZ was selected as a geographic cleanup zone prototype for resolving regulatory, technical, and stakeholder issues and demonstrating cleanup methods for several reasons: most of the area is inactive, sufficient characterization information is available to support decisions, cleanup of the high-risk waste sites will help protect the groundwater, and the zone contains a representative cross-section of the types of cleanup actions that will be required in other geographic zones. The UPZ cleanup demonstrates the first of 22 integrated zone cleanup actions on the Hanford Site Central Plateau to address threats to groundwater, the environment, and human health. The UPZ contains more than 100 individual cleanup items. Cleanup actions in the zone will be undertaken using multiple regulatory processes and decision documents. Cleanup actions will include building demolition, waste site and pipeline excavation, and the construction of multiple, large engineered barriers. In some cases, different cleanup actions may be taken at item locations that are immediately adjacent to each other. The cleanup planning and field activities for each cleanup item must be undertaken in a coordinated and cohesive manner to ensure effective execution of the UPZ cleanup initiative. The UPZ zone cleanup implementation plan (ZCIP) [1] was developed to address the need for a fundamental integration tool for UPZ cleanup. As UPZ cleanup planning and implementation moves forward, the ZCIP is intended to be a living document that will provide a focal point for integrating UPZ actions, including field cleanup activities, waste staging and handling, and post-cleanup monitoring and institutional controls. (authors)

Romine, L.D.; Leary, K.D. [U.S. Department of Energy - Richland Operations Office, P.O. Box 550, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Lackey, M.B.; Robertson, J.R. [Fluor Hanford, P.O. Box 1000, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

2006-07-01

288

Ontology, Epistemology, Teleology: Triangulating Geographic Information Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a For the past several years ontology has enjoyed a robust regard within the geographic information science community. Ontology\\u000a is however only one apex of a triangle of knowledge that also involves epistemology and the (long discredited) notion of teleology.\\u000a Without epistemology we lack a systematic understanding of the nature of the correspondence between ontologies and the general\\u000a or specific domain

Helen Couclelis

289

National Geographic: Stone Skipping Gets Scientific  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article in National Geographic tells us how and why the magic angle of 20 degrees allows for the most number of skips when skipping stones. How does the author know this? Well, a French scientist constructed a stone-skipping machine to find out the optimal speed, spin, and angle for the maximum number of bounces. Learn more about the physics of stone skipping in this article.

290

Geographic Image Retrieval Using Interest Point Descriptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate image retrieval using interest point descriptors. New geographic information systems such as Google Earth and\\u000a Microsoft Virtual Earth are providing increased access to remote sensed imagery. Content-based access to this data would support\\u000a a much richer interaction than is currently possible. Interest point descriptors have proven surprisingly effective for a\\u000a range of computer vision problems. We investigate their

Shawn Newsam; Yang Yang

2007-01-01

291

Geographic Objects: Theory or Technology Driven?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article aims to compare the geo-graphic (spatial) objects in 2D (planar objects) proposed by CON.G.O.O. and ISO standards, and the ability of a number of GIS software to handle them. The results achieved so far showed that the actual technical possibilities are not always sufficient to support the complex spatial objects proposed by CON.G.O.O.

Pantazis, D. N.; Lazarou, E.; Stratakis, P.; Gadolou, H.; Koukofikis, A.; Kassoli, M.

2011-08-01

292

Geographical assemblages of European raptors and owls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we look for geographical structure patterns in European raptors (Order: Falconiformes) and owls (Order: Strigiformes). For this purpose we have conducted our research using freely available tools such as statistical software and databases. To perform the study, presence-absence data for the European raptors and owl species (Class Aves) were downloaded from the BirdLife International website. Using the freely available "pvclust" R-package, we applied similarity Jaccard index and cluster analysis in order to delineate biogeographical relationships for European countries. According to the cluster of similarity, we found that Europe is structured into two main geographical assemblages. The larger length branch separated two main groups: one containing Iceland, Greenland and the countries of central, northern and northwestern Europe, and the other group including the countries of eastern, southern and southwestern Europe. Both groups are divided into two main subgroups. According to our results, the European raptors and owls could be considered structured into four meta-communities well delimited by suture zones defined by Remington (1968) [Remington, C.L., 1968. Suture-zones of hybrid interaction between recently joined biotas. Evol. Biol. 2, 321-428]. Climatic oscillations during the Quaternary Ice Ages could explain at least in part the modern geographical distribution of the group.

López-López, Pascual; Benavent-Corai, José; García-Ripollés, Clara

2008-09-01

293

Geographical Mobility: 2002 to 2003. Population Characteristics. Current Population Reports.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Geographic mobility has long been an important aspect of American life, affecting both people and geographic areas. At an individual level, moving has a number of potential impacts, such as expanding economic opportunity or increasing residential satisfac...

J. P. Schachter

2004-01-01

294

25 CFR 37.110 - Who determines geographic attendance areas?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...110 Section 37.110 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION GEOGRAPHIC BOUNDARIES All Schools § 37.110 Who determines geographic attendance areas? The Tribal governing body or the Secretary determines...

2011-04-01

295

42 CFR 412.316 - Geographic adjustment factors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Geographic adjustment factors. 412.316 Section 412...SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM...316 Geographic adjustment factors. (a) Local cost variation...this part. The adjustment factor equals the hospital...

2013-10-01

296

Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Cancer Research, April 2008.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Cancer Institute (NCI) has been investigating geographic patterns of cancer in the United States for more than 30 years. This publication will showcase some of the capabilities of geographic information systems (GIS) including: performing epi...

2008-01-01

297

Geographical Information Systems risk assessment models for zoonotic fascioliasis in the South American Andes region.  

PubMed

The WHO recognises Fasciola hepatica to be an important human health problem. The Andean countries of Peru, Bolivia and Chile are those most severely affected by this distomatosis, though areas of Ecuador, Colombia and Venezuela are also affected. As part of a multidisciplinary project, we present results of use of a Geographical Information Systems (GIS) forecast model to conduct an epidemiological analysis of human and animal fasciolosis in the central part of the Andes mountains. The GIS approach enabled us to develop a spatial and temporal epidemiological model to map the disease in the areas studied and to classify transmission risk into low, moderate and high risk areas so that areas requiring the implementation of control activities can be identified. Current results are available on a local scale for: (1) the northern Bolivian Altiplano, (2) Puno in the Peruvian Altiplano, (3) the Cajamarca and Mantaro Peruvian valleys, and (4) the Ecuadorian provinces of Azuay, Cotopaxi and Imbabura. Analysis of results demonstrated the validity of a forecast model that combines use of climatic data to calculate of forecast indices with remote sensing data, through the classification of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) maps. PMID:16044684

Fuentes, M V; Sainz-Elipe, S; Nieto, P; Malone, J B; Mas-Coma, S

2005-03-01

298

Differences in crop bacterial community structure between hoatzins from different geographical locations.  

PubMed

The hoatzin is the only known folivorous bird with foregut fermentation, and is distributed in Venezuela in rivers of the central savannas to the eastern Orinoco River. Differences in diet are expected to affect the digestive microbiota and we hypothesized that hoatzins from different habitats might have a different crop microbiota. We thus characterized the microbiota of six birds from the Cojedes and Orinoco Rivers using the G2 PhyloChip and, in parallel, we compared plant availability and foraging behavior of the hoatzins from the two locations. Plant composition differed between the 2 locations, which shared 5 out of 18 plant families and 1 plant genus--Coccoloba--that was highly consumed in both locations. The PhyloChip detected ?1600 phylotypes from 42 phyla. There was a core microbiota with ~50% of the OTUs shared by at least 4 of the 6 individuals, but there were also differences in the crop microbiota of animals from the two regions. There existed a higher relative abundance of Alphaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria in the crops of birds from the Cojedes River and of Clostridia and Deltaproteobacteria in the crops of birds from the Orinoco River. The results showed both a core crop microbiota and also the bacterial taxa responsible for geographical differences among individuals from the two locations with different vegetation, suggesting an effect of both diet and geography in shaping the crop bacterial community of the hoatzin. PMID:22313738

Godoy-Vitorino, Filipa; Leal, Sara J; Díaz, Wilmer A; Rosales, Judith; Goldfarb, Katherine C; García-Amado, María A; Michelangeli, Fabían; Brodie, Eoin L; Domínguez-Bello, María G

2012-04-01

299

STSHV a teleinformatic system for historic seismology in Venezuela  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From 1997 on, when the first "Jornadas Venezolanas de Sismicidad Historica" took place, a big interest awoke in Venezuela to organize the available information related to historic earthquakes. At that moment only existed one published historic earthquake catalogue, that from Centeno Grau published the first time in 1949. That catalogue had no references about the sources of information. Other catalogues existed but they were internal reports for the petroleum companies and therefore difficult to access. In 2000 Grases et al reedited the Centeno-Grau catalogue, it ended up in a new, very complete catalogue with all the sources well referenced and updated. The next step to organize historic seismicity data was, from 2004 to 2008, the creation of the STSHV (Sistema de teleinformacion de Sismologia Historica Venezolana, http://sismicidad.hacer.ula.ve ). The idea was to bring together all information about destructive historic earthquakes in Venezuela in one place in the internet so it could be accessed easily by a widespread public. There are two ways to access the system. The first one, selecting an earthquake or a list of earthquakes, and the second one, selecting an information source or a list of sources. For each earthquake there is a summary of general information and additional materials: a list with the source parameters published by different authors, a list with intensities assessed by different authors, a list of information sources, a short text summarizing the historic situation at the time of the earthquake and a list of pictures if available. There are searching facilities for the seismic events and dynamic maps can be created. The information sources are classified in: books, handwritten documents, transcription of handwritten documents, documents published in books, journals and congress memories, newspapers, seismologic catalogues and electronic sources. There are facilities to find specific documents or lists of documents with common characteristics. For each document general information is displayed together with an extract of the information relating to the earthquake. If the complete document was available and no problem with the publishers rights a pdf copy of the document was included. We found this system extremely useful for studying historic earthquakes, as one can access immediately previous research works about an earthquake and it allows to check easily the historic information and so to validate the intensity data. So far, the intensity data have not been completed for earthquakes after 2000. This information would be important for improving calibration of intensity - magnitude calibrations of historic events, and is a work in progress. On the other hand, it is important to mention that "El Catálogo Sismológico Venezolano del siglo XX" (The Seismological Venezuelan Catalog), published in 2012, updates seismic information up to 2007, and that the STSHV was one of its primary sources of information.

Choy, J. E.; Palme, C.; Altez, R.; Aranguren, R.; Guada, C.; Silva, J.

2013-05-01

300

Lithospheric scale model of Merida Andes, Venezuela (GIAME Project)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Merida Andes (MA) is one of the most important orogenic belt in Venezuela and represents the northern culmination of South America Andes. During the last 60 years, several models have been proposed to explain the shallow and deep structure, using different geological, geophysical, seismological, geochemical and petrologic concepts; nevertheless, most of them have applied local observation windows, and do not represent the major structure of MA. Therefore, a multidisciplinary research group, coordinated by FUNVISIS, in close cooperation with UCV, ULA and PDVSA, is proposed in order to get the outlined goals in the project entitled GIAME ("Geociencia Integral de los Andes de MErida") was established, which aims to generate a lithospheric scale model and the development of a temporal dynamic model for the MA. As a base for lithospheric investigations of the Merida Andes, we are proposing three wide angle seismic profiles across the orogen on three representative sites, in order to determine the inner structure and its relation with the orogen's gravimetric root. To the date, there are no seismic studies at lithospheric scale which cross MA. The wide angle seismic will be complemented with the re-processing and re-interpretation of existing reflection seismic data, which will allow to establish a relationship between MA and its associated flexural basins (Maracaibo and Barinas-Apure basins). Depending on the results of the VENCORP Project (VENezuelan COntinental Reflection Profiling), which might show some reliable results about crustal features and Moho reflectors along three long seismic profiles at Caribbean Moutain system, a reflection seismic profile across the central portion of MA is proposed. Additional tasks, consisting in MA quaternary deformation studies, using research methods like neotectonics and paleoseismology, georadar, numerical modeling, cinematic GPS, SAR interferometry, thermocronology, detailed studies on regional geology, flexural modeling, gravity modeling, among others, will be carried out. We expect this project is going to help to solve many of the doubts regarding the origin, evolution and structural configuration of the Merida Andes.

Schmitz, M.; Orihuela, N. D.; Klarica, S.; Gil, E.; Levander, A.; Audemard, F. A.; Mazuera, F.; Avila, J.

2013-05-01

301

Pyrethroid-impregnated curtains for Chagas' disease control in Venezuela.  

PubMed

The use of insecticide treated materials for the control of Chagas' disease transmission is potentially a cost-effective and sustainable option where vectors are sylvatic. A study was undertaken in two rural Chagas' disease endemic communities (96 households) of Trujillo State, Venezuela. After a baseline study (including a short questionnaire survey, assessment of housing conditions, vector behaviour and preferences in vector protection), 37 households were chosen at random for protection by impregnated or non-impregnated curtains. During the 30-day entomological study vector collection of triatomine bugs were conducted in the early morning. The protective efficacy of curtains was determined by the number of vectors found dead or alive in control and experimental houses. It was found that house infestation of Chagas' disease vectors was high (60% of houses) in spite of good-quality houses due to a re-housing programme. The vectors were sylvatic (mainly Rhodnius robustus) and entered the houses at night. More than half the population (52%) preferred curtains to bednets for Chagas' disease protection. Users of pyrethroid-impregnated curtains were well protected as no living triatomines were found in bedrooms of houses with impregnated curtains compared to houses with non-impregnated curtains where an average of 4/7 vectors were found alive in bedrooms. In houses with impregnated curtains 21/30 triatomines died within 72 h; the triatomines which survived were found exclusively in rooms where no impregnated curtains had been placed. In houses with non-impregnated curtains 20% (6/30) of vectors died, probably due to rough handling. It is concluded that pyrethroid-impregnated curtains represent an important option for the reduction or even elimination of man-vector contact and thus of Chagas' disease transmission in areas where species of small triatomine bugs such as Rhodnius prolixus and R. robustus are the main vectors. PMID:12943974

Herber, Oliver; Kroeger, Axel

2003-09-01

302

Atmospheric mercury emissions from polluted gold mining areas (Venezuela).  

PubMed

Soil, waste rock and mud from mercury-gold amalgamation mining areas of El Callao (Venezuela) are highly enriched in Hg (0.5-500 microg g(-1)) relative to natural background concentrations (<0.1 microg g(-1)). Mercury fluxes to the atmosphere from twelve polluted sites of this area were measured in situ (6 a.m. to 8 p.m.) using a Plexiglas flux chamber connected to a portable mercury analyzer (model RA-915+; Lumex, St. Petersburg, Russia). Mercury fluxes ranged between 0.65 and 420.1 microg m(-2) h(-1), and the average flux range during the diurnal hours was 9.1-239.2 microg m(-2) h(-1). These flux values are five orders of magnitude higher than both reported world background Hg fluxes (1-69 ng m(-2) h(-1)) and the regional values, which are in the range 2-10 ng m(-2) h(-1). The flux results obtained in this study are, however, similar to those measured at Hg polluted sites such as chloro-alkali plants or polymetallic ore mining districts (>100,000 ng m(-2) h(-1)). The results from this study also show that Hg emissions from the soil are influenced by solar radiation, soil temperature and soil Hg concentration. Our data suggest that solar radiation may be the dominant factor affecting Hg degrees emission since the major species of mercury in polluted soil is Hg degrees (85-97% of total Hg). The simple release of Hg degrees vapor is probably the dominant process occurring with incident light in the field. The apparent activation energy for mercury emission indicates that the volatilization of mercury mainly occurred as a result of the vaporization of elemental mercury in soil. The degree of Hg emission differed significantly among the soil sites studied, which may be due to variations in soil texture, organic matter content and soil compaction. PMID:17120104

García-Sánchez, A; Contreras, F; Adams, M; Santos, F

2006-12-01

303

Neogene history of the Carapita Formation, Eastern Venezuela basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The planktonic and benthic foraminifera from the lower to middle Miocene shales of the Carapita Formation of Eastern Venezuela in three exploration wells and one outcrop section are analyzed with the objectives of establishing a precise biostratigraphy of the formation and its bathymetric history. Comparison with the well-preserved microfaunas of the correlative Cipero Formation of Trinidad made possible the achievement of these objectives. The formation, up to 4500 to 6000 m thick in outcrops, extends from northeastern Anzoategui and North of Monagas States to the Gulf of Paria and is both an important oil reservoir towards the east and the main seal rock for the Oligocene reservoir in the north of Monagas State. In the area studied the Carapita Formation spans lower to lower middle Miocene Zones N6/M3 to N9/M6; its upper part is unconstrained as only rare long ranging early Miocene to early Pliocene planktonic foraminifera occur above the Orbulina datum. Unexpectedly, we found that the four lower to middle Miocene sections are highly discontinuous, with hiastuses as long as 4 Myr. Based on the abundance patterns of sixty-nine species of benthic foraminifera and analysis of morphotype abundance following the methodology of Corliss and Chen (1988) and Corliss and Fois (1993), we show that the Carapita Formation was deposited at outer neritic to middle bathyal depths (?200--1000 m), whereas the Cipero Formation was deposited at middle to lower bathyal depths (?600--2000 m). Importantly, the bathymetric changes are associated with unconformities in all sections, strongly suggesting that both (shallowing and associated unconformities) were tectonically induced.

Sanchez Zambrano, Dennis Alberto

304

National Geographic Information Structure for Sustainable Development in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The terminology adopted for the Nigerian Spatial Infrastructure is National Geographic Information Infrastructure (NGII). The National Geographic Information Systems (NAGIS) concept is widely accepted by the Nigerian geospatial community. The National Planning Commission has commenced the process of establishing, for Nigeria, National Geographic Information System (NAGIS). The plan, which also includes the establishment of an associated commercial website known as

Anthony A. ADEOYE; Babatunde A. OKUNLADE

305

GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND CRIME ANALYSIS IN BALTIMORE COUNTY, MARYLAND  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analytic mapping and geographic databases are being increas- ingly recognized by police departments as an important tool in crime analy- sis, crime prevention and program evaluation. Improvements in technology, reasonably priced computer-based geographic information systems (GISs), and the availability of geographic data sources make it possible for law enforcement agencies to use analytic mapping. Police departments using automated mapping systems

Philip R. Canter

306

Geographical Inquiry in Australian Schools: A Retrospective Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the occurrence of geographical inquiry in the Australian curriculum since Geography became a high school subject in 1911. In this historical overview, I reflect upon my own experiences of undertaking geographical inquiry during the 1970s and 1980s. Primary school geographical inquiry experiences can be virtually non-existent…

Kidman, Gillian

2012-01-01

307

EFECTO DE LA APLICACIÓN DE RESIDUOS ORGÁNICOS SOBRE EL CULTIVO DEL MAÍZ EN SUELOS DEGRADADOS DEL ESTADO YARACUY, VENEZUELA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of applications of organic residues on maize performance in two soils of Yaracuy State, Venezuela The intense land cultivation for maize cropping on the last 50 years in Yaracuy State, Venezuela, caused an accelerated soil degradation expressed by loss of soil organic matter and crop productivity. With the objective of improving those parameters, the use of organic residues were

Isabel Arrieche; Orlando Mora

2005-01-01

308

Racial and geographic differences in fish consumption  

PubMed Central

Background: Omega-3 fatty acids from fish have been shown to have favorable effects on platelet aggregation, blood pressure, lipid profile, endothelial function, and ischemic stroke risk, but there are limited data on racial and geographic differences in fish consumption. Methods: Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) is a national cohort study that recruited 30,239 participants age ?45 years with oversampling from the southeastern Stroke Belt and Buckle and African Americans (AAs). Centralized phone interviewers obtained medical histories and in-home examiners measured weight and height. Dietary data for this cross-sectional analysis were collected using the self-administered Block98 Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). Adequate intake of nonfried fish was defined as consumption of ?2 servings per week based on American Heart Association guidelines. After excluding the top and bottom 1% of total energy intake and individuals who did not answer 85% or more of questions on the FFQ, the analysis included 21,675 participants. Results: Only 5,022 (23%) participants consumed ?2 servings per week of nonfried fish. In multivariable analysis, factors associated with inadequate intake of nonfried fish included living in the Stroke Belt (vs non-Belt) (odds ratio [OR] 0.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.77–0.90) and living in the Stroke Buckle (vs non-Belt) (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.81–0.98); factors associated with ?2 servings per week of fried fish included being AA (vs white) (OR 3.59, 95% CI 3.19–4.04), living in the Stroke Belt (vs non-Belt) (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.17–1.50), and living in the Stroke Buckle (vs non-Belt) (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.00–1.36). Conclusions: Differential consumption of fish may contribute to the racial and geographic disparities in stroke.

Le, A.; Judd, S.; Frankel, M.R.; Ard, J.; Newby, P.K.; Howard, V.J.

2011-01-01

309

Geographical heterogeneity and influenza infection within households  

PubMed Central

Background Although it has been suggested that schoolchildren vaccination reduces influenza morbidity and mortality in the community, it is unknown whether geographical heterogeneity would affect vaccine effectiveness. Methods A 3-year prospective, non-randomized sero-epidemiological study was conducted during 2008–2011 by recruiting schoolchildren from both urban and rural areas. Respective totals of 124, 206, and 176 households were recruited and their household contacts were followed. Serum samples were collected pre-vaccination, one-month post-vaccination and post-season from children and household contacts for hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay. A multivariate logistic model implemented with generalized estimation equations (GEE) was fitted with morbidity or a four-fold increase in HI titer of the household contacts for two consecutive sera as the dependent variable; with geographical location, vaccination status of each household and previous vaccination history as predictor variables. Results Although our results show no significant reduction in the proportion of infection or clinical morbidity among household contacts, a higher risk of infection, indicated by odds ratio?>?1, was consistently observed among household children contacts from the un-vaccinated households after adjusting for confounding variables. Interestingly, a statistically significant lower risk of infection was observed among household adult contacts from rural area when compared to those from urban area (OR?=?0.89; 95% CI: 0.82-0.97 for Year 2 and OR?=?0.85; 95% CI: 0.75-0.96 for Year 3). Conclusions A significant difference in the risk of influenza infection among household adults due to geographical heterogeneity, independent of schoolchildren vaccination status, was revealed in this study. Its impact on vaccine effectiveness requires further study.

2014-01-01

310

Geographic Information Systems and Web Page Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Facilities Engineering and Architectural Branch is responsible for the design and maintenance of buildings, laboratories, and civil structures. In order to improve efficiency and quality, the FEAB has dedicated itself to establishing a data infrastructure based on Geographic Information Systems, GIS. The value of GIS was explained in an article dating back to 1980 entitled "Need for a Multipurpose Cadastre" which stated, "There is a critical need for a better land-information system in the United States to improve land-conveyance procedures, furnish a basis for equitable taxation, and provide much-needed information for resource management and environmental planning." Scientists and engineers both point to GIS as the solution. What is GIS? According to most text books, Geographic Information Systems is a class of software that stores, manages, and analyzes mapable features on, above, or below the surface of the earth. GIS software is basically database management software to the management of spatial data and information. Simply put, Geographic Information Systems manage, analyze, chart, graph, and map spatial information. GIS can be broken down into two main categories, urban GIS and natural resource GIS. Further still, natural resource GIS can be broken down into six sub-categories, agriculture, forestry, wildlife, catchment management, archaeology, and geology/mining. Agriculture GIS has several applications, such as agricultural capability analysis, land conservation, market analysis, or whole farming planning. Forestry GIs can be used for timber assessment and management, harvest scheduling and planning, environmental impact assessment, and pest management. GIS when used in wildlife applications enables the user to assess and manage habitats, identify and track endangered and rare species, and monitor impact assessment.

Reynolds, Justin

2004-01-01

311

National Geographic Magazine: Saving Africa's Eden  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Geographic Web site contains an online, multimedia supplement to a feature article from the September 2003 issue of the magazine, which takes an in-depth look at the prospect of setting aside an amazing 11% of Gabon's intact wilderness for conservation and ecotourism. The Web site includes an excerpt from the print article, but extra Web features are the real attraction. Visitors will find an online-only photo gallery, field notes from photographer Michael Nichols, and a handful of other cool features like the video clip featuring ecologist Mike Fay as he treks through Gabon's virtually unexplored wilderness.

2003-01-01

312

Six Essential Elements- National Geographic Photograph Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is the fourth in a unit of five lessons on the Six Essential Elements of Geography. In this lesson students will apply recently acquired knowledge regarding the Six Essential Elements of Geography. They will utilize National Geographic magazines to find examples of the six Elements and write to explain how the photograph fits the element. First, they will do this activity in groups; groups will each be assigned one Element. Second, students will individually find an example of all six Elements. At the end of the lesson, students will present their work to the class.

Steed, Patricia

2012-08-01

313

Geographical variation in the seasonality of suicide.  

PubMed

This paper reports the results of a study on the seasonal variation of suicides occurred in Italy during the years 1969-1981. We found evidence for a cyclical pattern with one cycle per year for North/Central as well as for South Italy with no difference between the two parts in the variance explained by it. However, urban regions showed a higher seasonality than the rural parts of Italy, independently of their geographical location. To account for these findings, the hypothesis of a strong seasonal related urban rhythm has been put forward. PMID:2975687

Micciolo, R; Zimmermann-Tansella, C; Williams, P; Tansella, M

1988-01-01

314

Earth's Active Volcanoes by Geographic Region  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes active volcanoes from around the world by using the volcano links from the Michigan Technological University and the homepages of observatories at active volcanoes. Each volcano section contains photo images, maps, and reference text. Some sections contain bibliographies, volcano reports, and video clips of lahars. The volcanoes are organized by the following geographic regions: Africa and surrounding islands; the Southwest Pacific, Southeast Asia, and India; East Asia including Japan and Kamchatka; Antarctica; the North Atlantic and Iceland; the Mediterranean; South America and surrounding islands; Central Pacific, South Pacific and New Zealand; Alaska and the Northern Pacific Region; North America; and Central America.

315

National Geographic: SpaceShipOne  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Geographic presents Burt Rutan's accomplishments with his rocketship, SpaceShipOne. Users can learn about the preparation and flight through a series of fascinating images and a concise article. The website features photographer Jim Sugar's experience covering the event. Visitors can find interesting facts and links to outside resources. For those who would like to discuss the topic, individuals can join in the online forum. Everyone should visit the Multimedia link to take a closer look at SpaceShipOne's cockpit.

316

Geographical information systems and tropical medicine.  

PubMed

In terms of their applicability to the field of tropical medicine, geographical information systems (GIS) have developed enormously in the last two decades. This article reviews some of the pertinent and representative applications of GIS, including the use of such systems and remote sensing for the mapping of Chagas disease and human helminthiases, the use of GIS in vaccine trials, and the global applications of GIS for health-information management, disease epidemiology, and pandemic planning. The future use of GIS as a decision-making tool and some barriers to the widespread implementation of such systems in developing settings are also discussed. PMID:20659391

Khan, O A; Davenhall, W; Ali, M; Castillo-Salgado, C; Vazquez-Prokopec, G; Kitron, U; Soares Magalhães, R J; Clements, A C A

2010-06-01

317

Innovative security assessment during the facility design stage: protecting people, assets and the marine environment in the Gulf of Paria, Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explains how ConocoPhillips Venezuela adapted existing methodology to respond Venezuelan and international security regulations by completing an innovative security vulnerability assessment (SVA) of planned offshore facilities and activities in the Gulf of Paria, northeastern Venezuela. Following the discovery of offshore oil resources in the Gulf of Paria, northeastern Venezuela in 1999, ConocoPhillips and its partners began planning operations

F. D. Rodriguez; J. Betancourt; W. Perry

2005-01-01

318

First Report of Cowpea Mild Mottle Carlavirus on Yardlong Bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) in Venezuela  

PubMed Central

Yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) plants with virus-like systemic mottling and leaf distortion were observed in both experimental and commercial fields in Aragua State, Venezuela. Symptomatic leaves were shown to contain carlavirus-like particles. RT-PCR analysis with carlavirus-specific primers was positive in all tested samples. Nucleotide sequences of the obtained amplicons showed 84%–74% similarity to corresponding sequences of Cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV) isolates deposited in the GenBank database. This is the first report of CPMMV in Venezuela and is thought to be the first report of CPMMV infecting yardlong bean.

Brito, Miriam; Fernandez-Rodriguez, Thaly; Garrido, Mario Jose; Mejias, Alexander; Romano, Mirtha; Marys, Edgloris

2012-01-01

319

Characterization of phosphorus in sinking particles in Cariaco Basin, Venezuela  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient utilized by all organisms for biological productivity, yet little is known about its cycling within the marine realm. In this study, we used a five-step sequential sediment extraction method (SEDEX) to examine the composition of P in sinking particles obtained from one of the world's largest anoxic basins, Cariaco Basin, Venezuela. This method, which is usually applied to sediments, chemically separates particulate P into 5 phases: loosely bound or exchangeable (PEx), iron-bound (PFe), authigenic (PAut), detrital (PDet), and organic (POrg). Samples were collected from November 2000 to April 2002 using four automated sediment traps moored at depths of 275, 455, 930 and 1250 m, with the 275 m trap located just above the oxic/anoxic interface. Our results indicate that the composition of particulate P changes dramatically as the material sinks through the water column. The 275 m trap was comprised of a mixture of PEx (57 %), POrg (23 %) and PFe (15 %), whereas the deepest trap was dominated by POrg (55 %) and PEx (26 %). Total P fluxes decreased by a factor of four between 275 and 1250 m (85.7 versus 18.5 \\mu mol m-2 d-1), with much of this decrease due to the > 75 % loss of PEx (49.2 to 4.9 \\mu mol m-2 d-1) and PFe (12.6 to 1.8 \\mu mol m-2 d-1). POrg decreased by only 50 % between these two depths (19.9 versus 10.2 \\mu mol m-2 d-1). Our results are consistent with the expectation that PEx is the most labile fraction of P and PFe is rapidly reduced in the anoxic bottom waters of Cariaco Basin. PEx correlates well with organic C (COrg) only in samples from the shallowest trap (r2 = 0.6), while in the deeper traps there is a strong correlation with terrigenous material (r2 = 0.6). This implies a change in the major source, and hence lability of this material as it sinks to the sea floor. POrg was very well correlated to COrg at all depths (r2 > 0.9), implying little to no preferential remineralization below 275 m. Additional strong relationships between Porg and opal and CaCO3 became apparent when upwelling versus non-upwelling time periods were separated, implying different mechanisms of Porg production throughout the year. Our results imply that water column P transformations are complex and need to be considered when studying the cycling of P in marine systems.

Ranhofer, M. L.; Benitez-Nelson, C.; Thunell, R.

2004-12-01

320

Holocene evolution of the western Orinoco Delta, Venezuela  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The pristine nature of the Orinoco Delta of eastern Venezuela provides unique opportunities to study the geologic processes and environments of a major tropical delta. Remote-sensing images, shallow cores, and radiocarbon-dating of organic remains form the basis for describing deltaic environments and interpreting the Holocene history of the delta. The Orinoco Delta can be subdivided into two major sectors. The southeast sector is dominated by the Rio Grande-the principal distributary-and complex networks of anastomosing fluvial and tidal channels. The abundance of siliciclastic deposits suggests that fluvial processes such as over-bank flooding strongly influence this part of the delta. In contrast, the northwest sector is represented by few major distributaries, and overbank sedimentation is less widespread relative to the southeast sector. Peat is abundant and occurs in herbaceous and forested swamps that are individually up to 200 km2 in area. Northwest-directed littoral currents transport large volumes of suspended sediment and produce prominent mudcapes along the northwest coast. Mapping of surface sediments, vegetation, and major landforms identified four principal geomorphic systems within the western delta plain: (1) distributary channels, (2) interdistributary flood basins, (3) fluvial-marine transitional environments, and (4) marine-influenced coastal environments. Coring and radiocarbon dating of deltaic deposits show that the northern delta shoreline has prograded 20-30 km during the late Holocene sea-level highstand. Progradation has been accomplished by a combination of distributary avulsion and mudcape progradation. This style of deltaic progradation differs markedly from other deltas such as the Mississippi where distributary avulsion leads to coastal land loss, rather than shoreline progradation. The key difference is that the Orinoco Delta coastal zone receives prodigious amounts of sediment from northwest-moving littoral currents that transport sediment from as far away as the Amazon system (???1600 km). Late Holocene progradation of the delta has decreased delta-plain gradients, increased water levels, and minimized over-bank flooding and siliciclastic sedimentation in the northwest sector. These conditions, coupled with large amounts of direct precipitation, have led to widespread peat accumulation in interdistributary basins. Because peat-forming environments cover up to 5000 km2 of the delta plain, the Orinoco may be an excellent analogue for interpreting ancient deltaic peat deposits.

Aslan, A.; White, W. A.; Warne, A. G.; Guevara, E. H.

2003-01-01

321

Seismic microzoning projects and their implementation in Venezuela  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Site effects have been recognized to play an important role in damage distribution of destructive earthquakes. These effects have been observed in Venezuela especially during the 1967 Caracas earthquake, when 4 buildings with 10 and more storeys during the Caracas 1967 earthquake collapsed, and a big number of them in the same deep sediment area have been seriously damaged. This motivated the development of studies regarding the subsurface configuration of Caracas and Barquisimeto during the last decade, with a seismic microzoning project realized in both cities from 2005 to 2009. The main results of this project were the development of design response spectra for the different microzones within the sedimentary basin, as well as estimates of landslide hazard. Implementation of the results in municipality ordinances is actually discussed with local authorities. They are aimed to address mitigation for new constructions by the application of the specific design spectra, for existing buildings via evaluation and retrofitting strategies, and for slope areas (informal, as well as formal developments) due to the identification of areas that may not be developed or require detailed studies of slope stabilities. Since then, seismic microzoning studies were started in Cumaná, Guarenas/Guatire and Lara state, and within a broader context of integrated risk management, which includes flooding, landslide and technological risks, in Mérida, Valencia, Maracay, Barcelona/Puerto La Cruz and Valle de la Pascua. The projects are coordinated by the Venezuelan Foundation for Seismological Research (FUNVISIS) in cooperation with local universities. Efforts are done to unable local researchers to apply the methodologies in other cities as Valera, Trujillo, Boconó, San Cristóbal and Tucacas. A unified seismic hazard map as input motion to these studies is actually in development. Depending on the local characteristics, building inventory and vulnerability analysis are done for risk analysis. Further members of the "Grupo de trabajo: Investigaciones aplicadas a la gestion integral del riesgo en espacios urbanos" are: Oscar Andrés López, Milgreya Cerrada, Rafael Torres, Oscar Ramírez, Elieser Sanzonetti, José Heredia, Jaime Avendaño, Fernando Mazuera, Luis Molina, Alexi Suárez, Víctor Rocabado, Mónica Paolini, Luis Yegres, Leonardo Alvarado, Herbert Rendón, Luz Rodríguez, Jorge González.

Schmitz, M.; Cano, V.; Olbrich, F.; Vallee, M.; Morales, C.; Arreaza, A.; Mendes, K.; Klarica, S.; Alvarez Gomez, J.; Aray, J.; Vielma, J.; Pombo, A.; Diaz, J.; Grupo de trabajo

2013-05-01

322

GEODE Initiative: Geographic Data in Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Geographic Data in Education (GEODE) Initiative is dedicated to the improvement of Earth and environmental science education through the use of data visualization and analysis tools to support inquiry-based pedagogy. The goal is to demonstrate that scientific visualization, incorporated into inquiry-based learning, can enable students of diverse abilities to develop an understanding of complex scientific phenomena. This project designs and evaluates learning software, develops and field tests middle and high school curricula, and investigates the process by which students learn to make sense of scientific visualizations. Software products are WorldWatcher, a tool which supports the study of climate and global climate change, and MyWorld GIS, a vector-based geographic information system software that runs in Java on Windows NT, 98, ME, 2000, and MacOS X. Curricula are The Global Warming Project, an eight week, stand alone unit in which middle school students learn about many of the scientific factors that contribute to the controversial global warming debate, and Looking At The Environment, a year long, visually intensive high school environmental science curriculum centered on three key issues: the relationship between population growth and resource availability; electricity generation and meeting the demand for energy; managing water resources for agricultural use and human consumption.

Edelson, Daniel

2008-03-20

323

Genetic, geographic, and linguistic distances in Europe  

SciTech Connect

Genetic and taxonomic distances were computed for 3466 samples of human populations in Europe based on 97 allele frequencies and 10 cranial variables. Since the actual samples employed differed among the genetic systems studied, the genetic distances were computed separately for each system, as were matrices of geographic distances and of linguistic distances based on membership in the same language family of phylum. Significant matrix correlations between genetics and geography were found for the majority of systems; somewhat less frequent are significant correlations between genetics and language. The effects of the two factors can be separated by means of partial matrix correlations. These show significant values for both genetics and geography, language kept constant, and genetics and language, geography kept constant, with a tendency for the former to be higher. These findings demonstrate that speakers of different language families in Europe differ genetically and that this difference remains even after geographic differentiation is allowed for. The greater effect of geography than of language may be due to the several factors that bring about spatial differentiation in human populations.

Sokal, R.R.

1988-03-01

324

Geographic Maldistribution of Primary Care for Children  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: This study examines growth in the primary care physician workforce for children and examines the geographic distribution of the workforce. METHODS: National data were used to calculate the local per-capita supply of clinically active general pediatricians and family physicians, measured at the level of primary care service areas. RESULTS: Between 1996 and 2006, the general pediatrician and family physician workforces expanded by 51% and 35%, respectively, whereas the child population increased by only 9%. The 2006 per-capita supply varied by >600% across local primary care markets. Nearly 15 million children (20% of the US child population) lived in local markets with <710 children per child physician (average of 141 child physicians per 100 000 children), whereas another 15 million lived in areas with >4400 children per child physician (average of 22 child physicians per 100 000 children). In addition, almost 1 million children lived in areas with no local child physician. Nearly all 50 states had evidence of similar extremes of physician maldistribution. CONCLUSIONS: Undirected growth of the aggregate child physician workforce has resulted in profound maldistribution of physician resources. Accountability for public funding of physician training should include efforts to develop, to use, and to evaluate policies aimed at reducing disparities in geographic access to primary care physicians for children.

Lan, Jia; Chang, Chiang-hua; Goodman, David C.

2011-01-01

325

Geographic Information Systems and Web Page Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Facilities Engineering and Architectural Branch is responsible for the design and maintenance of buildings, laboratories, and civil structures. In order to improve efficiency and quality, the FEAB has dedicated itself to establishing a data infrastructure based on Geographic Information Systems, GIs. The value of GIS was explained in an article dating back to 1980 entitled "Need for a Multipurpose Cadastre which stated, "There is a critical need for a better land-information system in the United States to improve land-conveyance procedures, furnish a basis for equitable taxation, and provide much-needed information for resource management and environmental planning." Scientists and engineers both point to GIS as the solution. What is GIS? According to most text books, Geographic Information Systems is a class of software that stores, manages, and analyzes mapable features on, above, or below the surface of the earth. GIS software is basically database management software to the management of spatial data and information. Simply put, Geographic Information Systems manage, analyze, chart, graph, and map spatial information. At the outset, I was given goals and expectations from my branch and from my mentor with regards to the further implementation of GIs. Those goals are as follows: (1) Continue the development of GIS for the underground structures. (2) Extract and export annotated data from AutoCAD drawing files and construct a database (to serve as a prototype for future work). (3) Examine existing underground record drawings to determine existing and non-existing underground tanks. Once this data was collected and analyzed, I set out on the task of creating a user-friendly database that could be assessed by all members of the branch. It was important that the database be built using programs that most employees already possess, ruling out most AutoCAD-based viewers. Therefore, I set out to create an Access database that translated onto the web using Internet Explorer as the foundation. After some programming, it was possible to view AutoCAD files and other GIS-related applications on Internet Explorer, while providing the user with a variety of editing commands and setting options. I was also given the task of launching a divisional website using Macromedia Flash and other web- development programs.

Reynolds, Justin

2004-01-01

326

Exposición ocupacional a solventes orgánicos en una fábrica de calzado en Valencia, Venezuela, 2001  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Potential health effects of organic solvents exposure were assessed. Thirty six workers of shoe manufacturer located in Valencia, Venezuela, were studied. They had a medical exam, and an occupational history. Biological indicators of exposure (toluene in blood; methylethy- ketone, methylisobuthylketone, acetone and hippuric acid in urine) and effect (creatinine in urine, hematologic analyses, bilirubin, transaminases and alkaline phoshatase-AP) were

Maritza Rodríguez; Guido Squillante; Maritza Rojas; TRABAJOS ORIGINALES

327

Bacteriosis en Cilantro (Coriandrum sativum L.) Causada por Xanthomonas campestris (Pammel) Dowson en Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

In coriander (Coriandrum sativum) plants from commercial fields in the area of San Vicente, Aragua state, Venezuela, water-soaked, dark-brown angular spots were observed on leaf surface and distributed along the veins; as symptoms progressed, they caused leaf blight. Isolates obtained from diseased tissue on nutrient agar persistently produced light yellow colonies. Pathogenicity tests were performed by spray inoculation of a

Yolanda Guevara; Anna Maselli

328

Lobomycosis in Man and Lobomycosis-like Disease in Bottlenose Dolphin, Venezuela  

PubMed Central

We report 1 case of lobomycosis caused by Lacazia loboi in a fisherman and 1 case of lobomycosis-like disease in a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) along the coast of Venezuela. These findings suggest that the marine environment is a likely habitat for L. loboi and a reservoir for infection.

Bermudez, Luis; Van Bressem, Marie-Francoise; Reyes-Jaimes, Oscar; Sayegh, Alejandro J.

2009-01-01

329

The Effect of Wage Compression and Alternative Labor Market Opportunities on Teacher Quality in Venezuela  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the effect of teacher relative wages and teacher wage dispersion on high school graduates' preferences for teaching majors in College. This approximation to teacher quality is appropriate in a country like Venezuela as opposed to the US since the rigidity of the tertiary school system significantly limits mobility between…

Ortega, Daniel E.

2010-01-01

330

Analysis of avian communities in Lake Guri, Venezuela, using multiple assembly rule models  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzed the distribution of resident, forest-interior bird species nesting on islands in Lake Guri, Venezuela using several different community assembly rule models. The models that were tested included Diamond's Assembly Rules, Size Structure, Guild Proportionality, Favored States, and Nestedness. It was determined that the species composition of the study communities was only weakly influenced by competition, but that

Kenneth Feeley

2003-01-01

331

ACUTE CHAGAS' DISEASE IN WESTERN VENEZUELA: A CLINICAL, SEROPARASITOLOGIC, AND EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

A clinical, parasitologic, and serologic study carried out between 1988 and 1996 on 59 acute-phase patients in areas of western Venezuela where Chagas' disease is endemic showed 19 symptomatic patterns or groups of symptoms appearing in combination with different frequencies. The symptomatic pattern with the highest frequency was that showing simultaneously fever, myalgia, headache, and Romana's sign, which was detected

NESTOR ANEZ; HUGO CARRASCO; HENRY PARADA; GLADYS CRISANTE; AGUSTINA ROJAS; NESTOR GONZALEZ; JOSE LUIS RAMIREZ; PALMIRA GUEVARA; CHRISTIAN RIVERO; RAFAEL BORGES; JOSE VICENTE SCORZA

332

The nitrogen cycle in a ‘Terra Firme’ rainforest on oxisol in the Amazon territory of Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

Standing stocks and fluxes of nitrogen, including nitrogen fixation and denitrification, were measured in a tropical rainforest on Oxisol in the Amazon Territory of Venezuela. The standing stock of nitrogen was comparable to that of temperate forests, but was higher than that in an adjacent forest on Spodosol. Fluxes were higher than in forests in the temperate zone, but lower

C. Jordan; W. Caskey; G. Escalante; R. Herrera; F. Montagnini; R. Todd; C. Uhl

1982-01-01

333

Levels, chemical fractionation, and solubility of lead in roadside soils of Caracas, Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author investigated the level, chemical fractions, and solubility of Pb in several roadside soils of heavily traveled areas of Caracas, Venezuela. Using 1 N HNOâ extraction, he studied the levels of lead in 25 roadside soil samples and found a very high level of Pb (average enrichment factor 21.0), indicating a strong lead pollution of Caracas roadside soils by

J. GARCIA-MIRAGAYA

1984-01-01

334

The Population Structure of Red Howler Monkeys (Alouatta seniculus) in Trinidad and Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

The small troops and roughly even adult sexual ratio of Alouatta seniculus, studied in Bush Bush Forest in Trinidad and on the ranch Hato Masaguaral in the llanos of Venezuela, are more similar to A. caraya than to A. palliata. Other aspects of the troop composition are discussed. Though the red howler prefers certain types of habitat including tall trees,

M. K. Neville

1972-01-01

335

An Innovative Project in Educational Technology: The Panama-Venezuela Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a project which is being implemented in the field of educational technology in Panama and Venezuela. The project emphasizes inservice training of a cadre of professionals who will direct efforts to identify and resolve significant problems in education. (Author/CHC)

Rojas, Alicia Mabel

1980-01-01

336

Teachers' Perceived Efficacy among English as a Foreign Language Teachers in Middle Schools in Venezuela  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers' sense of efficacy has been shown to influence teachers' actions and student outcomes. This study explored self-efficacy beliefs among English as a Foreign Language teachers in selected schools in Venezuela. Data were collected through a survey administered to 100 teachers. The Teacher Sense of Efficacy Scale (Tschannen-Moran & Woolfolk…

Chacon, C.T.

2005-01-01

337

Distribution and mobility of mercury in soils of a gold mining region, Cuyuni river basin, Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extensive and remote gold mining region located in the East of Venezuela has been studied with the aim of assessing the distribution and mobility of mercury in soil and the level of Hg pollution at artisanal gold mining sites. To do so, soils and pond sediments were sampled at sites not subject to anthropological influence, as well as in

F. Santos-Francés; A. García-Sánchez; P. Alonso-Rojo; F. Contreras; M. Adams

2011-01-01

338

A new species of Pseudancistrus from the Río Caroní, Venezuela (Siluriformes: Loricariidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudancistrus reus is a new species from the Río Caroní (Río Orinoco drainage) of Venezuela known from two individ- uals. It differs from all other Pseudancistrus by having a color pattern consisting of alternating dark and light bars. In addition, it differs from all except P. genisetiger and P. papariae by having an incomplete mid-dorsal plate row and from P.

JONATHAN W. ARMBRUSTER; DONALD C. TAPHORN

339

Phytomass structure of natural plant communities on spodosols in southern Venezuela: The tall Amazon Caatinga forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phytomass structure of the evergreen lowland forest vegetation (Tall Amazon Caatinga) supported by tropaquods near San Carlos de Rio Negro, Federal Amazon Territory of Venezuela was studied in 13 10 m× 10 m plots. The plots were laid out subjectively to cover a low topographical gradient along which the forest on tropaquod is grading into a low woodland (Bana,

H. Klinge; R. Herrera

1983-01-01

340

Identification and Type Distribution of Astroviruses among Children with Gastroenteritis in Colombia and Venezuela  

PubMed Central

Astrovirus infections were detected by enzyme immunoassay in 12 (5%) of 251 stool samples from children with gastroenteritis from Bogota, Colombia. In addition, astroviruses were detected by reverse transcription-PCR in 3 (10%) of 29 stool samples negative for other enteric pathogens collected in Caracas, Venezuela, from children with gastroenteritis. Astrovirus type 1 was the most frequently detected virus.

Medina, Sandra M.; Gutierrez, Maria F.; Liprandi, Ferdinando; Ludert, Juan E.

2000-01-01

341

Adapting EVIAVE methodology as a planning and decision-making tool in Venezuela.  

PubMed

Landfills in Venezuela have serious problems regarding their location, design and operation. In fact, basic waste disposal is one of the main weaknesses of the municipal waste management in this country. The Venezuelan Ministry of Environment and Renewable Resources has studied and identified the negative impacts of operating landfills, but no program has been implemented to determine the cause-effect relation of these impacts or to design strategies to counteract with the serious environmental and health risks generated. This paper describes how EVIAVE methodology can be successfully used for landfill diagnosis, and shows how this type of landfill diagnosis was applied in Venezuela. For our research study, we carried out both a quantitative and qualitative evaluation of the environmental problems generated by 22 landfills in Venezuela. Our study was based on the following environmental indexes: Landfill Environment, Environmental Risk, Environmental Value, and Probability of Contamination. For the purposes of our study, it was first necessary to adapt EVIAVE to the legal system and social context in Venezuela. The results obtained confirmed the applicability of this methodology to Venezuelan landfills. EVIAVE was found to be an effective planning tool that provided crucial information for the development of action plans, which would improve landfill operation, and help make decisions pertaining to their closure, sealing and eventual recovery. PMID:19699030

Zamorano, M; Paolini, A; Ramos, A; Rodríguez, M L

2009-12-30

342

habitat de Nocardia asteroides, Phialophora pedrosoi y Cryptococcus neoformans en Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen Se estudiaron 336 muestras de tierra, madera y plantas provenientes de diferentes zonas del Edo. Mérida\\/Venezuela y Estados vecinos. Fueron inoculados cobayos y hamsters intratesticularmente y ratones por via endovenosa. Testículos y pulmones respectivamente fueron examinados por medio de cultivos e histológicamente.

K. Salfelder; J. Schwarz; A. Romero; T. R. de Liscano; Z. P. Zambrano; I. P. Diaz

1968-01-01

343

PATRON DE LIPIDOS EN PREESCOLARES DE BAJOS RECURSOS SOCIOECONOMICOS (VALENCIA, VENEZUELA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overweight and obesity are a public health problem worldwide affecting adults and children as well. The aim of this study was to assess overweight, lipid profile and cardiovascular risk ratios in 390 preschool children from low socio-economic level from Valencia, Venezuela. Nutritional anthropometric evaluation measured by body dimensions, and serum determination of cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL- cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and cardiovascular risk

Liseti Solano; Emma Velásquez; Gloria Naddaf; María Páez

344

THE MARKET FOR BROILERS THROUGH FAST-FOOD OUTLETS IN VENEZUELA  

Microsoft Academic Search

PROAGRO is the leading firm in the broiler business in Venezuela. It is integrated through hatchery, grow-out, processing and distribution activities. As a consequence of strict price regulation policies enforced by the government in the poultry products, PROAGRO experienced serious injury to its profitability over the last few years. The most severe regulations were applied to PROAGRO's chief product (whole,

Jose E. Gomez

1978-01-01

345

ACTIVIDADES DESARROLLADAS EN EL PROGRAMA DE INVESTIGACION INTENSIVA SOBRE MARLINES EN VENEZUELA. PERÍODO 2006-2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY This paper describes the activities carried out in the Enhanced Research Program on Billfish in Venezuela (PIIMV) for the period from January 2006 to July 2007. During the period indicated 16 trips were carried out in 2006 and four in 2007, monitored by PIIMV observers, which represented a coverage rate in 2006 of 7% for all the trips made

Luís A. Marcano; Freddy Arocha; José Alío; Jesús Marcano; A. Lárez; X. Gutiérrez; G. Vizcaino

346

78 FR 49471 - Ferrosilicon From the Russian Federation and Venezuela: Initiation of Antidumping Duty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...in order to more accurately report the costs of production, as...132 F. Supp. 2d 1, 8 (CIT 2001) (citing Algoma Steel...accompanied by a market research report for 75 percent ferrosilicon...and III-4; Foreign Research Report; Supplement to Venezuela...

2013-08-14

347

Factors Affecting Student Success at the National Open University of Venezuela.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Findings of this analysis of the effect of selected variables on attrition in the introductory course of the National Open University of Venezuela suggest that noninstitutional variables accounted for the largest proportion of variance of student completion. Counseling and course redesign are recommended to enhance student motivation to complete…

de Freitas, Katia Siqueira; Lynch, Patrick

1986-01-01

348

A Gene Cluster for Macrolide Antibiotic Biosynthesis in Streptomyces venezuelae: Architecture of Metabolic Diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a survey of microbial systems capable of generating unusual metabolite structural variability, Streptomyces venezuelae ATCC 15439 is notable in its ability to produce two distinct groups of macrolide antibiotics. Methymycin and neomethymycin are derived from the 12-membered ring macrolactone 10-deoxymethynolide, whereas narbomycin and pikromycin are derived from the 14-membered ring macrolactone, narbonolide. This report describes the cloning and characterization

Yongquan Xue; Lishan Zhao; Hung-Wen Liu; David H. Sherman

1998-01-01

349

Rural Development in Venezuela and the Guianas: A Bibliography. Training and Methods Series Number 20.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The bibliography cites 930 materials dealing with Venezuela and the Guianas. Published between 1949 and 1972, the materials are found in the Land Tenure Center Library at the University of Wisconsin. Topics covered are: agriculture, agrarian reform, economic affairs, economic cooperation, human resources, American Indians, industry, law, money,…

Anderson, Teresa, Comp.; And Others

350

American Geographical Society Digital Photo Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee has rolled out a number of fine digital collections over the past few years that have covered everything from Golda Meir to the Milwaukee Repertory Theater. This latest addition provides access to over 2000 photographs from the American Geographical Society Library (AGSL). The current collection is primarily focused on countries in Asia and the Middle East, and they hope to expand their collection in the near future to include additional regions of the world. Visitors to the site can search the collection by country, city, or search term of their choice. Highlights of the archive include some remarkable photographs of the waterfront in Alexandria, the markets of Bangkok, and photographs of the city of Kathmandu.

351

The geographical distribution of Q fever  

PubMed Central

The results of a WHO-assisted survey of the distribution of Q fever in 32 countries and an analysis of reports published to date indicate that Q fever exists in 51 countries on five continents. Q-fever infection was most often reported in man and the domestic ruminants, such as cattle, sheep, and goats. The disease was found to exist in most countries where investigations were carried out. Notable exceptions were Ireland, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Poland, and the Scandinavian countries. With the exception of Poland, where the results were inconclusive, all these countries import relatively few domestic ruminants—the most important animal reservoirs of human Q-fever infection. It seems, therefore, that the traffic of infected ruminants may be one of the most important, if not the most important, means for the geographical spread of Q fever. The importance, if any, of ticks associated with such traffic needs to be defined.

Kaplan, Martin M.; Bertagna, P.

1955-01-01

352

Geographic Information System Interactive Map Server  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cornell University's Institute for the Study of the Continents (INSTOC) has launched this interactive, data-rich Website to provide regional "maps showing major geographic features of a region, along with such information as the location of earthquake faults, a record of earthquake occurrences and technical data about the events." The Geoscience Interactive Database (Java applet with accompanying User Guide) enables users to interact dynamically with "large volumes of organized digital data sets, map and display any parts of selected data," and create unique maps for download (in postscript or JPEG formats). In addition to the database, INSTOC offers information about their current projects, highlighted at the Webpage, including Building the Digital Earth, Active Tectonics Studies in the Dead Sea Fault Zone, and The Saudi Arabia Seismology Project, among others.

353

A situated knowledge representation of geographical information  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we present an approach to conceiving of, constructing and comparing the concepts developed and used by geographers, environmental scientists and other earth science researchers to help describe, analyze and ultimately understand their subject of study. Our approach is informed by the situations under which concepts are conceived and applied, captures details of their construction, use and evolution and supports their ultimate sharing along with the means for deep exploration of conceptual similarities and differences that may arise among a distributed network of researchers. The intent here is to support different perspectives onto GIS resources that researchers may legitimately take, and to capture and compute with aspects of epistemology, to complement the ontologies that are currently receiving much attention in the GIScience community.

Gahegan, Mark N.; Pike, William A.

2006-11-01

354

Digital Mapping and Geographic Information Systems (GIS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Geographic information systems (GIS), once used predominantly by experts in cartography and computer programming, have become pervasive in everyday business and consumer use. This unit explores GIS in general as a technology about which much more can be learned, and it also explores applications of that technology. Students experience GIS technology through the use of Google Earth on the environmental topic of plastics in the ocean in an area known as the Great Pacific Garbage Patch. The use of this topic in GIS makes the unit multi-disciplinary, incorporating the physics of ocean currents, the chemistry associated with pollutant degradation and chemical sorption to organic-rich plastics, and ecological impact to aquatic biota.

University Of Houston

355

Geographic Research in the USGS Western Region  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The two geography research programs of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Land Remote Sensing and Geographic Analysis and Monitoring, have very strong relevance to the USGS mission and science strategy. In the western United States, the particular niche of these geography programs is in connecting USGS science to people and communities. Reports from the National Academy of Sciences and other organizations invariably encourage the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to ensure the quality of its science while finding ways to make it more relevant to important societal issues. Much of the geography research conducted in the USGS Western Region does exactly that. In Menlo Park, California, the geography research team is focused on developing tools and techniques to help people assess risk from natural hazards and environmental impacts. In Flagstaff and Tucson, Arizona, geography scientists explore new ways to use remote sensing to help communities deal with environmental issues.

Tongue, Mara

2007-01-01

356

Stennis Space Center Environmental Geographic Information System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As NASA's lead center for rocket propulsion testing, the John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC) monitors and assesses the off-site impacts of such testing through its Environmental Office (SSC-EO) using acoustical models and ancillary data. The SSC-EO has developed a geographical database, called the SSC Environmental Geographic Information System (SSC-EGIS), that covers an eight-county area bordering the NASA facility. Through the SSC-EGIS, the Enivronmental Office inventories, assesses, and manages the nearly 139,000 acres that comprise Stennis Space Center and its surrounding acoustical buffer zone. The SSC-EGIS contains in-house data as well as a wide range of data obtained from outside sources, including private agencies and local, county, state, and U.S. government agencies. The database comprises cadastral/geodetic, hydrology, infrastructure, geo-political, physical geography, and socio-economic vector and raster layers. The imagery contained in the database is varied, including low-resolution imagery, such as Landsat TM and SPOT; high-resolution imagery, such as IKONOS and AVIRIS; and aerial photographs. The SSC-EGIS has been an integral part of several major projects and the model upon which similar EGIS's will be developed for other NASA facilities. The Corps of Engineers utilized the SSC-EGIS in a plan to establish wetland mitigation sites within the SSC buffer zone. Mississippi State University employed the SSC-EGIS in a preliminary study to evaluate public access points within the buffer zone. The SSC-EO has also expressly used the SSC-EGIS to assess noise pollution modeling, land management/wetland mitigation assessment, environmental hazards mapping, and protected areas mapping for archaeological sites and for threatened and endangered species habitats. The SSC-EO has several active and planned projects that will also make use of the SSC-EGIS during this and the coming fiscal year.

Lovely, Janette; Cohan, Tyrus

2000-01-01

357

Investigation of Error Patterns in Geographical Databases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the research conducted in this project is to develop a methodology to investigate the accuracy of Airport Safety Modeling Data (ASMD) using statistical, visualization, and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) techniques. Such a methodology can contribute to answering the following research questions: Over a representative sampling of ASMD databases, can statistical error analysis techniques be accurately learned and replicated by ANN modeling techniques? This representative ASMD sample should include numerous airports and a variety of terrain characterizations. Is it possible to identify and automate the recognition of patterns of error related to geographical features? Do such patterns of error relate to specific geographical features, such as elevation or terrain slope? Is it possible to combine the errors in small regions into an error prediction for a larger region? What are the data density reduction implications of this work? ASMD may be used as the source of terrain data for a synthetic visual system to be used in the cockpit of aircraft when visual reference to ground features is not possible during conditions of marginal weather or reduced visibility. In this research, United States Geologic Survey (USGS) digital elevation model (DEM) data has been selected as the benchmark. Artificial Neural Networks (ANNS) have been used and tested as alternate methods in place of the statistical methods in similar problems. They often perform better in pattern recognition, prediction and classification and categorization problems. Many studies show that when the data is complex and noisy, the accuracy of ANN models is generally higher than those of comparable traditional methods.

Dryer, David; Jacobs, Derya A.; Karayaz, Gamze; Gronbech, Chris; Jones, Denise R. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

358

A modern regional geological analysis of Venezuela - lessons from a major new world oil province on exploration in mature areas  

SciTech Connect

Venezuela has produced some 44 billion bbl of oil since the early part of the century. As such, it represents one of the world's major oil producers and a mature petroleum province. However, major tracts of Venezuela's sedimentary basins remain underexplored and large discoveries are still being made in new and old reservoir systems. A regional geological analysis of Venezuela, focusing on basin evolution and sequence stratigraphy and incorporating data from the three national oil companies, is presented. The analysis presents a regionally consistent tectonostratigraphic model capable of explaining the evolution of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic basins of Venezuela and placing the major reservoir facies in their regional tectonic and sequence stratigraphic context. Four regional cross sections describe the stratigraphic and structural model. The model recognizes a Jurassic rifting event and inversion, succeeded by an Early Cretaceous passive margin. In western Venezuela, the Early Cretaceous passive subsidence is enhanced locally by extension related to the Colombian active margin. Venezuela experienced a major change in the Campanian with the initial collision of the Caribbean arc, recorded by foreland structuring and widespread stratigraphic changes. From the Campanian onward, the tectonostratigraphic evolution can be modeled in terms of a progressive southeast-directed arc-continent collision and the migration of the associated foredeep and rift basins. Within the tectonic framework, the major sequence stratigraphic units are identified and the reservoir distribution interpreted. This model provides a strong predictive tool to extrapolate reservoir systems into Venezuela's underexplored areas and to readdress its traditional areas.

Daly, M. (BP Exploracion de Venezuela, Stockley Park, Middlesex (United Kingdom)); Audemard, F. (Intevep, Miranda (Venezuela)); Valdes, G. (Petroleos de Venezuela, Caracas (Venezuela))

1993-09-01

359

Neotropical genera of Naucoridae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Nepomorpha): new species of Placomerus and Procryphocricos from Guyana and Venezuela.  

PubMed

The Neotropical fauna of saucer bugs (Naucoridae) currently includes four monotypic genera. Recent extensive collecting in Venezuela has produced three new species in two of these genera. In addition, undetermined Guyanan specimens of one of the new species were found in the United States National Museum of Natural History. Thus, described here are Placomerus obscuratus n. sp. from Guyana and Venezuela with brachypterous and macropterous hindwing forms, and two species of Procryphocricos from Venezuela. Procryphocricos quiu n. sp. is described from the brachypterous forewing form and Procryphocricos macoita n. sp. from both brachypterous and macropterous forms. Previously described species also are discussed. PMID:24869509

Sites, Robert W; Camacho, Jesús

2014-01-01

360

Geographic variation in salt marsh structure and function.  

PubMed

We examined geographic variation in the structure and function of salt marsh communities along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United States. Focusing on the arthropod community in the dominant salt marsh plant Spartina alterniflora, we tested two hypotheses: first, that marsh community structure varies geographically, and second, that two aspects of marsh function (response to eutrophication and addition of dead plant material) also vary geographically. We worked at eleven sites on the Gulf Coast and eleven sites on the Atlantic Coast, dividing each coast up into two geographic areas. Abiotic conditions (tidal range, soil organic content, and water content, but not soil salinity), plant variables (Spartina nitrogen content, height, cover of dead plant material, but not live Spartina percent cover or light interception), and arthropod variables (proportional abundances of predators, sucking herbivores, stem-boring herbivores, parasitoids, and detritivores, but not total arthropod numbers) varied among the four geographic regions. Latitude and mean tidal range explained much of this geographic variation. Nutrient enrichment increased all arthropod functional groups in the community, consistent with previous experimental results, and had similar effects in all geographic regions, contrary to our hypothesis, suggesting widespread consistency in this aspect of ecosystem function. The addition of dead plant material had surprisingly little effect on the arthropod community. Our results caution against the uncritical extrapolation of work done in one geographic region to another, but indicate that some aspects of marsh function may operate in similar ways in different geographic regions, despite spatial variation in community structure. PMID:22614261

McCall, Brittany D; Pennings, Steven C

2012-11-01

361

Young Americans Still Having Difficulty with Global Geographic Knowledge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In a report released earlier this week, the National Geographic Society announced the results of a recent survey of geographic knowledge among young persons (ages 18 to 24), from nine different countries. Conducted with the assistance of the RoperASW group, the survey revealed some rather disturbing gaps in the geographic knowledge base of young Americans and other young people around the world. Among the young people surveyed in the United States, nearly 30 percent could not locate the Pacific Ocean and more than half could not locate India, home of almost 20 percent of the world's population. John Fahey, the president of the National Geographic Society, also commented that, while nine out of 1young Americans could identify the United States on a world map, "it does make you wonder about the other 10 percent."The first link leads to a recent news article on this geographic survey that appeared in the Chicago Sun-Times. The second link will take visitors to the results of the National Geographic Survey, which also provides a sample quiz for persons to test their own geographic knowledge. Also sponsored by National Geographic, the third link features dozens of helpful thematic maps, dealing with historical and contemporary themes, such as political and cultural maps of the world. The fourth link leads to a 2001 report on improving secondary geographic education from the Royal Geographic Society. Provided by the Environmental Design Library at the University of California at Berkeley, the fifth site is an excellent annotated bibliography of source material for persons interested in learning and researching the cultural landscape of the United States. The sixth link leads to some famous remarks given by Carl Sauer (one of the 20th century's most respected geographers) on the subject of historical geography and its importance to understanding human communities. The final link leads to a sardonic editorial by Gillian Ferguson of the Scotsman newspaper in Scotland on these recent survey results.

Grinnell, Max

2002-01-01

362

Predicting Geographic Variation in Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, Colombia  

PubMed Central

Approximately 6,000 cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis are reported annually in Colombia, a greater than twofold increase since the 1980s. Such reports certainly underestimate true incidence, and their geographic distribution is likely biased by local health service effectiveness. We investigated how well freely available environmental data explain the distribution of cases among 1,079 municipalities. For each municipality, a unique predictive logistic regression model was derived from the association among remaining municipalities between elevation, land cover (preclassified maps derived from satellite images), or both, and the odds of at least one case being reported. Land cover had greater predictive power than elevation; using both datasets improved accuracy. Fitting separate models to different ecologic zones, reflecting transmission cycle diversity, enhanced the accuracy of predictions. We derived measures that can be directly related to disease control decisions and show how results can vary, depending on the threshold selected for predicting a disease-positive municipality. The results identify areas where disease is most likely to be underreported.

Campbell-Lendrum, Diarmid H.; Davies, Clive R.

2004-01-01

363

National Geographic: Endangered Species Photo Map  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Geographic website has an interactive photo map of animals in the United States that are on the Endangered Species List. The map accompanies their January 2009 print and online article entitled "Countdown to Extinction," and also includes a photo gallery and the story of the successful rebound of the white rhinoceros in southern Africa. By clicking on the photo of the pygmy rabbit or "View Photo Map" on the homepage, the visitor will be taken to a map of the United States with clickable locations of 20 animal species that are endangered or threatened. Visitors should not miss taking a look at the photo and accompanying facts about the "Alabama Beach Mouse" in Alabama and the "Ocelot" in Texas. In order to learn more about the Endangered Species Act under which the creatures on the map are protected, visitors should click on the "Feature Article" link above the photo map. The "Photo Gallery" link, located above the photo map will take visitors to some arresting and elegant photos of various animal and plant species, some of which were not on the photo map. The photo of the Loggerhead Sea Turtle is beautiful, and not to be missed.

2008-01-01

364

Electricity and the geographical deconcentration of manufacturing  

SciTech Connect

Geographical deconcentration of manufacturing is occurring in this country in parallel with the dispersion of the general population. Access to relatively inexpensive energy, regardless of the location, has made deconcentration possible. Though the mobility of energy, and particularly electricity, is largely taken for granted today, its significance in permitting regionalization and decentralization should not be overlooked. The construction of a truly national energy system has taken place as manufacturers have gradually been moving away from the classical American manufacturing belt. Data are marshaled to document the movement of manufacturers away from the urban core of metropolitan areas and, a more recent trend, the movement from the larger metropolitan area itself and into the countryside. Based upon limited data, there appears to be a positive association between greater nonmetropolitan manufacturing employment and increasing electricity use. The deconcentration momentum has not stalled in the face of the energy shocks witnessed during the 1970s. Electrification and manufacturing deconcentration are likely to advance together in the future.

Barkenbus, J.N.

1984-09-01

365

Inferring social ties from geographic coincidences  

PubMed Central

We investigate the extent to which social ties between people can be inferred from co-occurrence in time and space: Given that two people have been in approximately the same geographic locale at approximately the same time, on multiple occasions, how likely are they to know each other? Furthermore, how does this likelihood depend on the spatial and temporal proximity of the co-occurrences? Such issues arise in data originating in both online and offline domains as well as settings that capture interfaces between online and offline behavior. Here we develop a framework for quantifying the answers to such questions, and we apply this framework to publicly available data from a social media site, finding that even a very small number of co-occurrences can result in a high empirical likelihood of a social tie. We then present probabilistic models showing how such large probabilities can arise from a natural model of proximity and co-occurrence in the presence of social ties. In addition to providing a method for establishing some of the first quantifiable estimates of these measures, our findings have potential privacy implications, particularly for the ways in which social structures can be inferred from public online records that capture individuals’ physical locations over time.

Crandall, David J.; Backstrom, Lars; Cosley, Dan; Suri, Siddharth; Huttenlocher, Daniel; Kleinberg, Jon

2010-01-01

366

Columbines: a geographically widespread species flock.  

PubMed Central

Species in the columbine genus, Aquilegia, are known for their broad variation in ecology and floral morphology. Aquilegia is also known for the large degree of intercompatibility among its species, which has led to the suggestion that the genus has arisen recently. However, intercompatibility does not always imply recent divergence and the widespread distribution pattern of the genus has suggested an older age. We constructed phylogenies for Aquilegia plus its close relatives by using nucleotide sequence data from both nuclear and chloroplast DNA. The sequence data averaged over 1250 bp per species. Among the 14 columbine species sampled from Europe, Asia, and North America only 16-bp changes and one insertion/deletion event were detected. In contrast, related genera had from 3 to 45 times this level of variation. The phylogenies derived from the chloroplast and nuclear DNA sequences were highly concordant and suggest that the columbines are the result of a recent, rapid radiation. In contrast to other examples of species flocks, Aquilegia has radiated on a widespread geographical scale. By comparison with their related taxa, we suggest that the evolution of the nectar spur in Aquilegia was a key innovation for this genus and allowed rapid speciation through specialization to specific pollinators.

Hodges, S A; Arnold, M L

1994-01-01

367

National Geographic Online: The Underground Railroad  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Just in time to celebrate Black History Month, this multimedia educational Web site from National Geographic offers a diverse set of materials that describe the Underground Railroad, the famed network of individuals who helped transport African-Americans to freedom before the abolition of slavery. Students will want to start by taking The Journey, which, with the aid of visual materials (such as historical photographs of slaves and abolitionists) and audio selections (such as popular spirituals of the day), allows young people to make decisions about what to do in order to reach the North and freedom. Next, visitors can look at a map of the Underground Railroad routes, including those specific to Harriet Tubman. Also, a nice timeline provides some context to the history of slavery in the New World, beginning with the importing of slaves by Spaniards to Santo Domingo in 1501, and concluding in 1865 when slavery was abolished by the passage of the 13th Amendment. The site is rounded out by a number of educational resources for teachers, divided by grade levels.

2003-01-01

368

Study on geographic information service combination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Combination of Geographic Information Services (GIServices) is studied in this paper. First, the way of GIServices combination is analyzed. Based on GIServices combination ways depicted by Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA), OpenGIS (OGC) Web Services Architecture and International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 19119, GIServices combinations are classified into Discrete Service Combination, Chaining Service Combination and Hybrid Service Combination in this paper. Then, the model of GIServices combination is focused. A high-level GIServices combination model based on Petri Net is proposed to improve those proposed by former researchers. The proposed high-level model can represent services combination relationship more clearly and can help to control services combination behavior in an easier way. Since searching GIService that can accomplish certain GIS task is a key step of implementing GIServices combination, GIServices taxonomy is then studied. A multi-level task-oriented GIServices taxonomy is proposed in this paper. Correspondence between GIS tasks and GIServices can be established more easily with the proposed multi-level task-oriented GIServices taxonomy. Finally, a case study is made to support the proposed theories.

Zhang, Xia; Li, Deren; Zhu, Xinyan; Yu, Zhanwu

2006-10-01

369

GEOGRAPHIC ESTIMATION OF RUNOFF-MODEL PARAMETERS.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U. S. Geological Survey is developing techniques to estimate and evaluate unit-hydrograph and loss-rate parameter values for rainfall-runoff models using Geographic Information System (GIS) procedures. The data base includes basin, soil, and climatological characteristics that will be stored in a GIS, and unit-hydrograph and loss-rate parameters obtained from calibration of a commonly used flood-hydrograph rainfall-runoff model for 616 storms in 98 gaged drainage basins. Development of unit-hydrograph and loss-rate parameter-estimation techniques includes statistical methods (exploratory data analysis, regression analysis, and categorical data analysis) to relate the model parameters to hydrologic characteristics. The estimation techniques are evaluated by use of error analysis of simulated hydrograph characteristics (peak discharge, flood volume, and time to peak discharge). The hydrographs will be simulated with parameters estimated by the techniques for (1) 102 storms occurring at 36 gaged basins; and (2) a large storm system (one which produced floods with a 50-to 100-year recurrence interval).

Schmidt, Arthur, R.; Weiss, Linda, S.; Oberg, Kevin, A.

1987-01-01

370

[Blastocystosis: a high prevalence of cases found in patients from Health Center of Soledad, Anzoategui State, Venezuela].  

PubMed

The parasitological examination of fecal samples from 98 patients from an Ambulatory Health Center of Soledad, Anzoategui, Venezuela revealed a rather high proportion of results positive for Blastocystis hominis (46.9%). PMID:16082488

Velásquez, Virma; Caldera, Rixcia; Wong, Wladimir; Cermeño, Gloria; Fuentes, Maximo; Blanco, Ytalia; Aponte, Maria; Devera, Rodolfo

2005-01-01

371

Location of the genes for anthranilate synthase in Streptomyces venezuelae ISP5230: genetic mapping after integration of the cloned genes.  

PubMed

The anthranilate synthase (trpEG) genes in Streptomyces venezuelae ISP5230 were located by allowing a segregationally unstable plasmid carrying cloned S. venezuelae trpEG DNA and a thiostrepton resistance (tsr) marker to integrate into the chromosome. The integrated tsr was mapped by conjugation and transduction to a location close to tyr-2, between arg-6 and trpA13. A genomic DNA fragment containing trpC from S. venezuelae ISP5230 was cloned by complementation of a trpC mutation in Streptomyces lividans. Evidence from restriction enzyme analysis of the cloned DNA fragments, from Southern hybridization using the cloned trp DNA as probes, and from cotransduction frequencies, placed trpEG at a distance of 12-45 kb from the trpCBA cluster. The overall arrangement of tryptophan biosynthesis genes in the S. venezuelae chromosome differs from that in other bacteria examined so far. PMID:8515229

Paradkar, A S; Stuttard, C; Vining, L C

1993-04-01

372

Book Review: "Educational Reform and Administrative Development: The Cases of Columbia and Venezuela," by E. Mark Hanson.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews "Educational Reform and Administrative Development: The Cases of Colombia and Venezuela," by E. Mark Hanson, which relates the policy-making and administrative structures of these two countries to their political, historical, and cultural contexts. (TE)

Lynch, Patrick D.

1988-01-01

373

Education Participation and Outcomes by Geographic Location. Research Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from the Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) were analyzed to assess the viability of using the LSAY study data for national reporting of outcomes by geographic location and to identify variations in young Australians' education participation and outcomes by geographic region. The analysis revealed several sample distribution…

Jones, Roger G.

374

Principles, Policies and Procedures: Domestic Geographic Names (Revised).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Public Law 80-242 (1947) instructs the United States Board on Geographic Names, subject to the approval of the Secretary of the Interior, to formulate principles, policies, and procedures with reference to both domestic and foreign geographic names; and t...

D. J. Orth

1989-01-01

375

Gene Flow and the Geographic Structure of Natural Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is abundant geographic variation in both morphology and gene frequency in most species. The extent of geographic variation results from a balance of forces tending to produce local genetic differentiation and forces tending to produce genetic homogeneity. Mutation, genetic drift due to finite population size, and natural selection favoring adaptations to local environmental conditions will all lead to the

Montgomery Slatkin

1987-01-01

376

Geographical Dimensions of Environmental Restructuring in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 1980s, New Zealand underwent a period of dramatic economic, social, and administrative restructuring. The reform extended to the administrative arrangements for environmental management. A geographic restructuring model is used in this paper to establish the context in which the reforms were carried out. A combination of economic, environmental, and social influences operating at different geographic scales can be

Chris Cocklin; Owen J. Furuseth

1994-01-01

377

Specifications for Interoperability: Formalizing Image Schemata for Geographic Space  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formal specification of spatial objects and spatial relations is at the core of geographic data exchange and interoperability for GIS. Spatial image schemata have been suggested as highly abstract, structured schemata to capture spatial and similar physical as well as metaphorical relations between objects in the experiential world. We assume that image schemata for geographic (large-scale) space are potentially

Andrew U. Frank; Martin Raubal

1998-01-01

378

M-GIS - Mobile and Interoperable Access to Geographic Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an architecture which can be used to access geographic information from mobile devices with limited display and processing characteristics, such as Personal Digital Assistants (PDA) or Mobile Phones. The information may come from dierent sources leading to an interoperable solution. M-GIS obtains geographic information from sources described using Ge- ography Markup Language (GML) from one or more

Jorge Cardoso; Artur Rocha; João Correia Lopes

2004-01-01

379

Geographic Profiles: A Technique for Teaching Spatial Relationships.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a learning activity that focuses on geographic profiles. Students are divided into five groups and are responsible for creating a profile of one geographic data set. The five data sets are based on thematic maps of the United States found in "Goode's World Atlas, 19th edition." (CMK)

Mealor, W. Theodore, Jr.; Giannangelo, Duane

2001-01-01

380

Geographic Localization of Knowledge Spillovers as Evidenced by Patent Citations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compare the geographic location of patent citations to those of the cited patents, as evidence of the extent to which knowledge spillovers are geographically localized. We find that citations to U.S. patents are more likely to come from the U.S., and more likely to come from the same state and SMSA as the cited patents than one would expect

Adam B. Jaffe; Manuel Trajtenberg; Rebecca Henderson

1992-01-01

381

Joining political and geographic perspectives: Geopolitics and international relations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the multidisciplinary study of international relations geographical\\/geopolitical considerations are essential, and must explicitly be brought back into the concepts and theory undergirding international relations research. Based on work of (approximately) the last decade, geographical\\/geopolitical perspectives, stressing the various dimensions of spatiality, are shown to be vital components of the “contexts” within which international relations and foreign policy operate. It

Harvey Starr

1991-01-01

382

Geographical Education and Cultural Understanding: Have We Lost the Way?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Expresses concern that with the emphasis on relevance, local area studies, and the state of the natural environment, geographical educators may have forgotten other essential elements of a geographical education, namely an understanding of differences in culture at the global scale and the spatial representation of such differences. (CMK)

Lidstone, John

1999-01-01

383

Geographical distance center and multivariate analysis of the standard japanese  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a new technique for representing dialectal differences will be introduced. A kind of simplification will be attempted to represent the distribution patterns of the lexical items of standard Japanese. In order to simplify the geographical distribution patterns, railway distance center graph is utilized. In this technique geographical locations are plotted on a one-dimensional line from a cultural

Fumio Inoue

2008-01-01

384

Distributed traceroute approach to geographically locating IP devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore the problem of geographically locating IP addresses. Identifying the location of Web content on the Internet has several applications in the field of homeland security. A solution is proposed that uses the traceroute utility as a tool for collecting network information surrounding the target IP address, and the WHOIS database and hostname analysis are used to extract geographical

Gene Michael Connolly; Anatoly Sachenko; George Markowsky

2003-01-01

385

Lived and Imagined: Information and Storytelling in Geographic Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation investigates the relationship between storytelling and information in the narration of geographic space. While storytelling has historically shaped our understanding of geography, modern practices in data collection, cartography, and geographic visualization enable one-way forms of representation that remove the negotiation and…

Kabisch, Eric Alan

2011-01-01

386

Guide to College Majors in Geographic Information Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

GIS uses digital technology to help people work with geographic information. GIS professionals acquire, manage, analyze, visualize, and represent geospatial data, or information related to geographical locations. This relatively new discipline incorporates geography, cartography, spatial analysis, and fields such as geovisualization, geodesy, geocomputation, cognition, and computer science.

2012-09-24

387

A geographic information system for fisheries management in American Samoa  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study illustrates a geographic information system developed to effectively analyze and visualize temporal and spatial patterns of the longline fishery in the American Samoa's Exclusive Economic Zone. The pelagic and tuna fishery in American Samoa has historically been an important component of the traditional domestic fisheries and nation's economy. This paper presents an innovative way to utilize the geographic

Francesca Riolo

2006-01-01

388

Guide to Geographical Indications: Linking Products and Their Origins (Summary)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geographical Indications present significant opportunities for differentiating products or services that are uniquely related to their geographic origin. While they can offer many positive economic, social, cultural, and even environmental benefits, they can also be problematic and therefore caution is warranted when pursuing them. The publication distills the relevant lessons that could apply, particularly to developing countries, from a review

Daniele Giovannucci; Timothy Josling; William Kerr; Bernard OConnor; May T. Yeung

2009-01-01

389

Sink Location Service for Geographic Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geographic routing has been considered as an efficient, simple, and scalable routing protocol for wireless sensor networks since it exploits pure location information instead of global topology information to route data packets. Geographic routing requires the sources nodes to be aware of the location of the sinks. How can source nodes get sinks locations with low overhead is a difficult

Fucai Yu; Younghwan Choi; Euisin Lee; Min-sook Jin; Sang-ha Kim

2008-01-01

390

Illegal Drug Markets: The Geographic Perspective and Crime Propensity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The geographic perspective argues that customers must be accessible to the drug market's location for an illegal drug market to be sustained. Previous research illustrates that geographic and economic principles are key explanatory variables of the locations of illegal drug markets. The current study explores this assumption through an examination of drug sales arrests in Portland, Oregon from 1990 through

Jennifer B. Robinson; George F. Rengert

2006-01-01

391

Free and Open Source Geographic Information Tools for Landscape Ecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geographic Information tools (GI tools) have become an essential component of research in landscape ecology. In this article we review the use of GIS (Geographic Information Systems) and GI tools in landscape ecology, with an emphasis on free and open source software (FOSS) projects. Specifically, we introduce the background and terms related to the free and open source software movement,

Stefan Steiniger; Geoffrey J. Hay

392

Teaching for Geographic Literacy: Our Afterschool Geography Club  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research describes how enrolling students in an afterschool Geography Club affects their perception of the discipline and their geographic literacy. The creation of the afterschool club at this particular school came out of the recognition of the need to increase students' exposure to geographical content. The results of this study show the…

Thomas-Brown, Karen A.

2011-01-01

393

Integrating an Explicit Knowledge Model into Geographic Information Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geographic Information Systems (GIS) require the power of sophisticated database management systems for efficiently managing the persistency and consistency of huge amounts of data. A pool of software tools takes care of the production process, which consists of editing, visu- alising and selecting geographic data. However, the quality of the data - its well-formedness and integrity - is not so

Miro Casanova; Thomas Wallet; Maja D'Hondt

394

Cloning and functional analysis of a phosphopantetheinyl transferase superfamily gene associated with jadomycin biosynthesis in Streptomyces venezuelae ISP5230  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sequence analysis of a XhoI\\/SacI fragment of chromosomal DNA downstream of jadL in the Streptomyces venezuelae ISP5230 gene cluster for jadomycin biosynthesis detected a partial ORF similar in its deduced amino acid sequence to the hetI product involved in synthesizing a regulator of heterocyst spacing in Anabaena. By probing a phage library of S. venezuelae DNA with the XhoI\\/SacI fragment,

Liru Wang; Jennifer McVeyã; Leo C. Vining

395

A Model for Geographic Knowledge Extraction on Web Documents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is an increasing interest on doing research in the field of information retrieval which aims to incorporate new dimensions, apart from text based retrieval, to the Web search engines. Geographical Information Retrieval (GIR) aims to index Web resources using a geographic context. The process of identifying the geographic context starts with the detection of different types of geographic references associated to the documents, as for example, the occurrence of place names. This paper presents a model for detecting geographic references in Web documents based on a set of heuristics. Moreover, new concepts and methods for disambiguation of many places with the same name are addressed. Finally, a prototype was built, called GeoSEn which aimed to validate the effectiveness of the proposed model.

Campelo, Cláudio Elizio Calazans; de Souza Baptista, Cláudio

396

Ontology-based geographic information semantic metadata integration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metadata is important to facilitate data sharing among Geospatial Information Communities in distributed environment. For unanimous understanding and standard production of metadata annotations, metadata specifications are documented such as Geographic Information Metadata Standard (ISO19115-2003), the Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (CSDGM), and so on. Though these specifications provide frameworks for description of geographic data, there are two problems which embarrass sufficiently data sharing. One problem is that specifications are lack of domainspecific semantics. Another problem is that specifications can not always solve semantic heterogeneities. To solve the former problem, an ontology-based geographic information metadata extension framework is proposed which can incorporate domain-specific semantics. Besides, for solving the later problem, metadata integration mechanism based on the proposed extension is studied. In this paper, integration of metadata is realized through integration of ontologies. So integration of ontologies is also discussed. By ontology-based geographic information semantic metadata integration, sharing of geographic data is realized more efficiently.

Zhan, Qin; Li, Deren; Zhang, Xia; Xia, Yu

2009-10-01

397

Geographical pathology as a method for detecting occupational cancer.  

PubMed

Geographical pathology points to environmental factors in cancer and helps estimate their potential magnitude. An occupational contribution was established by 1972 for cancer of the mouth, lung, bladder, and skin. Additionally partly based on geographical pathology, an occupational etiology is accepted for some cancer of nasopharynx, brain, liver, pleura, nasal sinus, bone and bone marrow, and possibly stomach. For identifying new occupational factors based on geographical comparisons, both an optimal size of work force to be followed-up and a sufficiently high proportion of work force in the geographical unit's population are necessary. Hypothetical variations based on 30-year follow-up of asbestos workers illustrate this. Cancer surveys and registries can greatly facilitate detection of occupational cancer. Evidence for occupational factors in the geographical pathology of lymphosarcoma is briefly summarized; but no conclusions are reached. PMID:578152

Goldsmith, J R

1977-08-01

398

Development and application of Nanji Islands biodiversity geographical information system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanji Islands National Natural Reserve is a very representatively marine protected area (MPA) in China. The MPA is built for protecting shellfish, algae and their inhabit environment. The purpose of this paper is to develop a special geographical information system to manage the biodiversity data and environment data. Basic geographic data are collected by topographic maps, chart maps and high resolution remote sensing. More than four times survey data are collected since 1992, including shellfish and macro benthic algae species data, water body and tide flat environment data. All of geographic data and biodiversity data are imported into geodatabase created with ArcGIS. Then some applied function is developed for display, manage and analyze the basic geographic and biodiversity data. Finally, some applications with Nanji Islands biodiversity geographical information system are showed.

Zhang, Huaguo; Huang, Weigen; Yang, Jingsong; Fu, Bin; Li, Dongling

2008-11-01

399

Naming game on small-world networks with geographical effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The naming game model characterizes the main evolutionary features of languages or more generally of communication systems. Very recently, the combination of complex networks and the naming game has received much attention and the influences of various topological properties on the corresponding dynamical behavior have been widely studied. In this paper, we investigate the naming game on small-world geographical networks. The small-world geographical networks are constructed by randomly adding links to two-dimensional regular lattices, and it is found that the convergence time is a nonmonotonic function of the geographical distance of randomly added shortcuts. This phenomenon indicates that, although a long geographical distance of the added shortcuts favors consensus achievement, too long a geographical distance of the added shortcuts inhibits the convergence process, making it even slower than the moderates.

Liu, Run-Ran; Jia, Chun-Xiao; Yang, Han-Xin; Wang, Bing-Hong

2009-09-01

400

Household energy use in urban Venezuela: Implications from surveys in Maracaibo, Valencia, Merida, and Barcelona-Puerto La Cruz  

SciTech Connect

This report identifies the most important results of a comparative analysis of household commercial energy use in Venezuelan urban cities. The use of modern fuels is widespread among all cities. Cooking consumes the largest share of urban household energy use. The survey documents no use of biomass and a negligible use of kerosene for cooking. LPG, natural gas, and kerosene are the main fuels available. LPG is the fuel choice of low-income households in all cities except Maracaibo, where 40% of all households use natural gas. Electricity consumption in Venezuela`s urban households is remarkably high compared with the levels used in households in comparable Latin American countries and in households of industrialized nations which confront harsher climatic conditions and, therefore, use electricity for water and space heating. The penetration of appliances in Venezuela`s urban households is very high. The appliances available on the market are inefficient, and there are inefficient patterns of energy use among the population. Climate conditions and the urban built form all play important roles in determining the high level of energy consumption in Venezuelan urban households. It is important to acknowledge the opportunities for introducing energy efficiency and conservation in Venezuela`s residential sector, particularly given current economic and financial constraints, which may hamper the future provision of energy services.

Figueroa, M.J.; Sathaye, J.

1993-08-01

401

The East Asia geographic map series  

SciTech Connect

During the last 15 years, the Circum-Pacific Map Project Northwest Quadrant Panel (NWQP) has created a map inventory of geoscience data at a scale of 1:10,000,000. Now, for East Asia, a second set of thematic maps is being initiated cooperatively by the Circum-Pacific Council for Energy and Mineral Resources and the Committee for Coordination of Joint Prospecting for Mineral Resources in Asian Offshore Areas (CCOP). These new maps will constitute the East Asia Map Project, and they will present geoscience parameters at a scale of 1:2,000,000 that can be used to evaluate the potential for undiscovered resources with the application of new deposit modeling methodologies. The following map series are being compiled or are under consideration: geography, geotectonics, geophysics, mineral resources, energy resources, and hazards. The U.S, Geological Survey (USGS) is compiling the East Asia Geographic Map Series. Shorelines, rivers, and international boundaries have been computer plotted by the National Mapping Division from the most detailed version of the World Data Bank II (WDB II). This publicly available bank was hand digitized from a 1:3,000,000-scale global map compiled from a variety of sources. The East Asia series is composed of eight overlapping sheets with Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area Projection having a common point of origin at 120{degree}E and 15{degree}N; neatlines for each sheet are 39{degree} {times} 54.4{degree}. Titles reflect each map's coverage: Sheet 1, Japan/Korea/Northeast China; Sheet 2, Southeast China; Sheet 3, Southeast Asia; Sheet 4, Philippines; Sheet 5, Malaysia/ West Indonesia; Sheet 6, East Indonesia; Sheet 7, Papua New Guinea/ Solomon Islands; and Sheet 8, Western Pacific Islands. Contours have been scribed by the USGS's Office of International Geology.

Terman, M.J.; Bell, E.P. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (USA))

1990-06-01

402

Geographic and environmental factors in pediatric cancer  

SciTech Connect

It is important to determine the relative contributions of genetic and environmental factors to the etiology of childhood cancer in order to elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms involved and to develop effective means of primary prevention. Geographic differences in cancer incidence as well as changes in incidence over calendar time have long been used to generate clues to possible etiologic agents. The important role of genetic factors in childhood cancer is clear, and is exemplified by the observations in retinoblastoma. The importance of the contributions of environmental factors in general and of specific factors in particular, to the etiology of cancers in children, has proven more difficult to determine. A variety of environmental factors have been implicated to varying degrees in the etiology of different childhood cancers. These factors include physical agents such as radiation, chemical agents such as nitrosamines, and organic solvents, and infectious agents such as the Epstein-Barr virus. The observations that certain compounds may act as teratogens when a prenatal exposure occurs early in pregnancy and as carcinogens when the exposure occurs late in pregnancy, suggests that there may be a continuum of teratogenesis and carcinogenesis. This finding has major implications for the possible biologic mechanisms that could be involved in childhood cancers and for the design of future research of their etiology and prevention. The etiology of childhood cancer should be viewed as an interaction of environmental factors to which the child or his parent were exposed together with varying degrees of genetically determined susceptibility of the child to the carcinogenic effects of these factors.

Gordis, L.

1986-07-15

403

Automation technology using Geographic Information System (GIS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Airport Surface Movement Area is but one of the actions taken to increase the capacity and safety of existing airport facilities. The System Integration Branch (SIB) has designed an integrated system consisting of an electronic moving display in the cockpit, and includes display of taxi routes which will warn controllers and pilots of the position of other traffic and warning information automatically. Although, this system has in test simulation proven to be accurate and helpful; the initial process of obtaining an airport layout of the taxi-routes and designing each of them is a very tedious and time-consuming process. Other methods of preparing the display maps are being researched. One such method is the use of the Geographical Information System (GIS). GIS is an integrated system of computer hardware and software linking topographical, demographic and other resource data that is being referenced. The software can support many areas of work with virtually unlimited information compatibility due to the system's open architecture. GIS will allow us to work faster with increased efficiency and accuracy while providing decision making capabilities. GIS is currently being used at the Langley Research Center with other applications and has been validated as an accurate system for that task. GIS usage for our task will involve digitizing aerial photographs of the topology for each taxi-runway and identifying each position according to its specific spatial coordinates. The information currently being used can be integrated with the GIS system, due to its ability to provide a wide variety of user interfaces. Much more research and data analysis will be needed before this technique will be used, however we are hopeful this will lead to better usage of man-power and technological capabilities for the future.

Brooks, Cynthia L.

1994-01-01

404

Molecular characterization of a new begomovirus that infects Euphorbia heterophylla and Solanum lycopersicum in Venezuela.  

PubMed

We report the complete nucleotide sequence of a begomovirus isolate infecting Euphorbia heterophylla and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) in central Venezuela. Based on the current taxonomic criteria for the genus Begomovirus, the isolate was shown to represent a novel species, tentatively named Euphorbia mosaic Venezuela virus (EuMVV). Its DNA-A is most closely related to those of Euphorbia-infecting begomoviruses from the Caribbean and Central America. The DNA B component forms a phylogenetic cluster with Euphorbia and Sida-infecting begomoviruses from the squash leaf curl virus (SLCV) cluster. EuMVV is transmissible to S. lycopersicum and Capsicum annuum by biolistics of infectious cloned DNA-A and DNA-B components and induces characteristic leaf downward curling and yellowing in S. lycopersicum and and yellowing and leaf distortion in Capsicum annuum. PMID:22052541

Zambrano, Karla; Fernández-Rodríguez, Thaly; Marys, Edgloris

2012-02-01

405

National Geographic Education. An Interview with Gilbert M. Grosvenor, President and Chairman of the Board, National Geographic Society.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an interview with Gilbert Grosvenor, president and chairman of the board of the National Geographic Society. Examines student and public ignorance about geography. Describes the Society's Geography Education Project, Geographic Alliance Project, and Education Foundation. Includes Grosvenor's call for greater emphasis on geography in…

Jumper, Sidney R.

1991-01-01

406

Developing a curriculum in geographic information systems: the national center for geographic information and analysis core curriculum project  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a major effort by the National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis (NCGIA) to develop teaching materials in support of courses in Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The project is motivated by the current high level of demand for GIS professionals and by the need to distinguish between software training on the one hand, and education in the intellectual

Karen K. Kemp; Michael F. Goodchild

1991-01-01

407

Zornia decussata (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae: Dalbergieae), a new species from the Amazon region of Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a Zornia decussata, a new species from Venezuela, is described and illustrated. It belongs to sect. Anisophylla of subgen. Zornia and occurs in the Federal Territory of Amazonas, in the region of Rincones de Chacorro. The species is characterised mainly\\u000a by its decussate bracteoles which lack an auricle, by the presence of a cataphyll between the stipules and by the

Ana Paula Fortuna-Perez; Gwilym P. Lewis; Ana Maria Goulart de Azevedo Tozzi

2009-01-01

408

Plant collecting along the lower Orinoco, Venezuela: H. H. Rusby and R. W. Squires (1896)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plant collecting trip by H. H. Rusby and R. W. Squires in early 1896 to the lower Río Orinoco, Venezuela, was sponsored\\u000a by The Orinoco Company Limited, which was promoted by many residents of Faribault, Rice Co., Minnesota, U.S.A. In February\\u000a 1896, the company formed an exploring party in order to map a large concession of approximately 10,000,000 acres

Laurence J. Dorr

1995-01-01

409

Shear-wave splitting in northeast Venezuela, Trinidad, and the eastern Caribbean  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present new measurements of splitting of core shear-wave phases (SKS, SKKS, PKS) recorded at seven stations in the eastern Caribbean region. Six stations in northeastern Venezuela and Trinidad constituted the SECaSA92 temporary broadband array. The seventh station, SJG, is installed on Puerto Rico. We also attempted to measure source-side splitting of S waves from earthquakes in the Lesser Antilles

R. M. Russo; P. G. Silver; M. Franke; W. B. Ambeh; D. E. James

1996-01-01

410

Applications of Planktonic foraminifera in the Paleogene of the Eastern Venezuela-Trinidad Basin  

SciTech Connect

Following increased interest in the petroleum potential of the Eastern Venezuela-Trinidad Basin, a revision of the planktonic foraminifera from the Paleogene was undertaken. The application of evolutionary trends in microperforate, medioperforate and macroperforate lineages for petroleum exploration is assessed. Scanning Electron Microscope illustrations are presented for over 100 taxa currently applied in high resolution biostratigraphy, sequence stratigraphy and paleoceanography of the region. These will allow more rapid and reliable recognition of zones, hiatuses and sequence boundaries.

Radford, S. [Department of Geology, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

1996-08-01

411

Determination of genotypes of hepatitis C virus in Venezuela by restriction fragment length polymorphism.  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis C virus genotypes in Venezuela were analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism in the 5' noncoding region. The absence of BstUI digestion was found to be a useful marker for genotype 2 specimens. From 122 serum samples, 66, 20, and 2.5% were classified as genotypes 1, 2, and 3, respectively; 0.8% were classified as genotype 4; and 10% appeared to be mixed infections.

Pujol, F H; Loureiro, C L; Devesa, M; Blitz, L; Parra, K; Beker, S; Liprandi, F

1997-01-01

412

Unexpected reproductive strategy of Sardinella aurita off the coast of Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological sampling of Spanish sardine (Sardinella aurita Valenciennes, 1847) off the coast of Venezuela from 1956 to 1989 was used to study the reproductive strategy and migration\\u000a pattern of the population. Whereas in many pelagic fishes the energy re-allocation necessary for reproduction usually occurs\\u000a optimally at the end of the upwelling season when planktonic production reaches a maximum, in the

P. Fréon; M. El Khattabi; J. Mendoza; R. Guzmán

1997-01-01

413

New particle formation events observed at a high altitude site Pico Espejo, Venezuela  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Formation and growth events of nucleation mode particles (10-25 nm in diameter) were analyzed from 27 month period of particle size distribution measurements at the high altitude site Pico Espejo in Venezuela. Particle formation was observed both in air masses connected to boundary layer air and in free tropospheric conditions. The frequency and magnitude of particle formation at this high altitude site was comparable to many observations at lower altitude sites.

Nieminen, Tuomo; Kontkanen, Jenni; Krejci, Radovan; Ström, Johan; Tunved, Peter; Hamburger, Thomas; Calderon, Silvia; Hoffman, Pedro

2013-05-01

414

Individuals in a Collectivist World: Born in the U.S.A., Teaching in Caracas, Venezuela  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Venezuela is a country slightly larger than twice the size of California, the third largest U.S.A. state in land area. Caracas, the capitol city, is home to a population of 6 million people nested into a space that is actually smaller in size than the area of Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota, U.S.A., a city/suburb of only 2.8 million people. In…

Warring, Douglas F.; Huber-Warring, Tonya

2006-01-01

415

Evaluation of the Effects of Soil Depth on Microbial Activity in Three Agroecosystems in Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine the total organic carbon (TOC), basal respiration (BR), microbial biomass carbon (MBC), the metabolic quotient (qCO2), and ratio of microbial biomass carbon to total organic carbon (MBC\\/TOC) at different soil depths in three agroecosystems in Fundo Zamorano Independencia, Cojedes State, Venezuela. The types of agroecosystems studied were short-cycle corn and bean cropland,

N. Cañizales-Paredes; A. Tolón-Becerra; X. B. Lastra-Bravo; F. M. Ruiz-Dager

2012-01-01

416

Chloramphenicol resistance in Streptomyces: cloning and characterization of a chloramphenicol hydrolase gene from Streptomyces venezuelae.  

PubMed

A 6.5 kb DNA fragment containing a chloramphenicol-resistance gene of Streptomyces venezuelae ISP5230 was cloned in Streptomyces lividans M252 using the high-copy-number plasmid vector pIJ702. The gene was located within a 2.4 kb KpnI-SstI fragment of the cloned DNA and encoded an enzyme (chloramphenicol hydrolase) that catalysed removal of the dichloroacetyl moiety from the antibiotic. The deacylated product, p-nitrophenylserinol, was metabolized to p-nitrobenzyl alcohol and other compounds by enzymes present in S. lividans M252. Examination of the genomic DNA from several sources using the cloned 6.5 kb SstI fragment from S. venezuelae ISP5230 as a probe showed a hybridizing region in the DNA from S. venezuelae 13s but none in the DNA from another chloramphenicol producer, Streptomyces phaeochromogenes NRRLB 3559. The resistance phenotype was not expressed when the 6.5 kb SstI fragment or a subfragment was subcloned behind the lac-promoter of plasmid pTZ18R in Escherichia coli. PMID:2324705

Mosher, R H; Ranade, N P; Schrempf, H; Vining, L C

1990-02-01

417

Venezuela near doubles proven reserves. 2. US protectionism and the geopolitics of petro-geology  

SciTech Connect

This issue honors the late Dan Lundberg, founder and former publisher of Energy Detente (ED). Mr. Lundberg founded ED a few months after his first visit to Venezuela in December 1979 and attending his first OPEC meeting. His acute awareness of factors affecting crises in oil markets was combined permanently in the publication founded in 1980, and it was designed from the very first to illuminate Western hemisphere and especially still-undeveloped hydrocarbon resources. Two unrelated events are treated as very much related in this issue: (A) The USA National Petroleum Council released Factors Affecting US Oil and Gas Outlook. (B) Almost simultaneously Petroleos de Venezuela, the national oil company of Venezuela released its new proven oil figures, close to 90% higher, at 55.5 billion barrels. The possible importance to US foreign policy is discussed. This issue of ED also contains: (1) ED refining netback data for the US Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore for mid March 1987; and (2) the ED fuel price/tax series March 1987 edition for countries of the Western Hemisphere. 8 figures, 6 tables.

Not Available

1987-03-11

418

Distribution of Lymnaeidae (Mollusca: Pulmonata), intermediate snail hosts of Fasciola hepatica in Venezuela.  

PubMed

An extensive malacological survey was carried out between 2005-2009 in order to clarify the exact number of lymnaeid species which may be intermediate hosts of Fasciola hepatica in Venezuela. Four species were discovered during this survey, including two local species: Lymnaea cubensis and Lymnaea cousini and two exotic species: Lymnaea truncatula and Lymnaea columella. The most common local species was L. cubensis which was found at 16 out of the 298 sampling sites. This species has a large distribution area throughout the Northern part of Venezuela and was encountered from sea level to an altitude of 1,802 m in state of Trujillo. The second local species L. cousini was collected at only two sites of the Andean Region at altitudes of 3,550 m and 4,040 m, respectively. The European L. truncatula was found at 24 sites all located in the states of Mérida and Táchira at an altitude varying between 1,540-4,000 m. The respective distribution areas of L. cubensis and L. truncatula do not appear to overlap, but more detailed malacological surveys are needed. The fourth lymnaeid species, L. columella was collected in a canal from Mérida at an altitude of 1,929 m and in an irrigation canal from the state of Guárico, at an altitude of 63 m. The role of these four lymnaeid species in the transmission of fascioliasis in Venezuela is discussed. PMID:19820844

Pointier, J P; Noya, O; Alarcón de Noya, B; Théron, A

2009-08-01

419

Potential influence of climate variability on dengue incidence registered in a western pediatric Hospital of Venezuela.  

PubMed

Climate change and variability is affecting human health and disease direct or indirectly through many mechanisms. Dengue is one those diseases that is strongly influenced by climate variability. In this study we assess potential associations between macroclimatic variation and dengue cases in a western pediatric hospital of Venezuela in an eight-year period. Between 2001 and 2008, 7,523 cases of dengue were reported in the Hospital Agustin Zubillaga, Barquisimeto, Venezuela. Climatic periods marked a difference of 23.15% in the mean incidence of cases, from El Niño weeks (-14.16% of cases below the mean incidence) to La Niña months (+8.99% of cases above it) (p=0.0001). Linear regression showed significantly higher dengue incidence with lower values of Oceanic Niño Index (ONI) (El Niño periods) and lower dengue incidence with higher values of ONI (La Niña periods) (p=0.0002). As has been shown herein, climate variability is an important element influencing the dengue epidemiology in Venezuela. However, it is necessary to extend these studies in this and other countries in the region, because these models can be applied for surveillance as well for prediction of dengue. PMID:20962726

Herrera-Martinez, Aura D; Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J

2010-08-01

420

Combined Rock Magnetic and Dielectric studies applied to stratigraphic and archeological problems in Venezuela  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last few years the paleomagnetism research group, at the Universidad Simon Bolivar in Caracas (Venezuela), has undertaken combined studies of rock magnetism (e.g. natural magnetic remanence, magnetic susceptibility, hysteresis parameters etc.) and dielectric properties (maximum current depolarization temperatures and average activation energies) in Cretaceous and Paleogene sedimentary sequences from eastern and western Venezuela. Our main goal has been to find new ways of defining physical markers, in fossil- poor sedimentary rocks, for stratigraphic correlations. Magneto/dielectric characterizations of these rocks have proved also useful identifying lithological discontinuities and paleoenvironmental changes. More recently these two-fold technique have been extended to archeological materials (potsherds) from a series of Venezuelan islands, in order to track down clay sources and find out about different stages of pottery craftsmanship. Magneto/Dielectric characterization of archeological potsherds seems to allow the tracing of their provenance from various mainland prehistoric settlements of distinct Venezuelan amerindian groups. In this paper we present a comprehensive review of this research applied to a contact between two sedimentary formations in eastern Venezuela (Cretaceous Chimana/Querecual) and a number of pottery samples with diverse stylistic features excavated in a single archeological site from Los Roques islands.

Costanzo-Alvarez, V.; Aldana, M.; Suarez, N.

2007-05-01

421

Comparative development and impact of transgenic papayas in Hawaii, Jamaica, and Venezuela.  

PubMed

We present data concerning the creation of transgenic papayas resistant to Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) and their adoption by three different countries: the United States (e.g., Hawaii), Jamaica, and Venezuela. Although the three sets of transgenic papayas showed effective resistance to PRSV, the adoption rate in each country has varied from full utilization in Hawaii to aggressive testing but delay in deregulating of the product in Jamaica to rejection at an early stage in Venezuela. Factors that contributed to the rapid adoption in Hawaii include a timely development of the transgenic product, PRSV causing severe damage to the papaya industry, close collaboration between researchers and the industry, and the existence of procedures for deregulating a transgenic product. In Jamaica, the technology for developing the initial field-testing of the product progressed rather rapidly, but the process of deregulation has been slowed down owing to the lack of sustained governmental efforts to complete the regulatory procedures for transgenic crops. In Venezuela, the technology to develop and greenhouse test the transgenic papaya has moved abreast with the Jamaica project, but the field testing of the transgenic papaya within the country was stopped very early on by actions by people opposed to transgenic products. The three cases are discussed in an effort to provide information on factors, other than technology, that can influence the adoption of a transgenic product. PMID:15310936

Fermín, Gustavo; Tennant, Paula; Gonsalves, Carol; Lee, David; Gonsalves, Dennis

2005-01-01

422

Geographical localisation of the geomagnetic secular variation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Directly observed changes in Earth's magnetic field occur most prominently at low latitudes beneath the Atlantic hemisphere, while the Pacific is comparatively quiet. This striking hemispheric asymmetry in geomagnetic secular variation is a consequence of the geographical localisation of intense, westward moving, magnetic flux patches at the core surface. Despite its successes in explaining the main morphological properties of Earth's magnetic field, self-consistent numerical modelling of the geodynamo has so far failed to reproduce this field variation pattern. Furthermore its magnetohydrodynamic origin, an essential pre-requisite for predicting the field evolution over the future decades, has been unclear. In this presentation we report on results obtained with numerical dynamos where we modify the treatment of mechanical boundary conditions, and impose heterogeneous thermochemical boundary control from either, or both, the inner-core boundary and the core-mantle boundary. In addition to presenting an Earth-like magnetic field morphology, these new numerical models also reproduce the morphology and localization of geomagnetic secular variation. In our models, the conservation of the angular momentum in the coupled inner-core / outer core / mantle system (the inner core and the mantle being held together by gravitational coupling) creates a westward columnar gyre circling around the inner core, which localises the secular variation in a narrow latitudinal band. An additional heterogeneous thermochemical boundary control distorts this gyre (the strongest distortion being obtained with inner core heterogeneous control) and localises the field changes in a hemispherical longitudinal sector. The two effects combine to recreate the observed localisation of geomagnetic secular variation in both longitude and latitude as a reult of a westward, columnar, eccentric gyre that penetrates throughout the outer core in a manner reminiscent of recent flow inversions. We also characterise the azimuthal drift of magnetic field structures using a Radon transform method, and find overall agreement between the model and geomagnetic data previously processed in the same way. Our results suggest that conservation of angular momentum and heterogeneous thermochemical boundary control in the coupled inner core / outer core / mantle system are central to understanding how Earth's magnetic field currently evolves.

Aubert, Julien; Finlay, Christopher; Fournier, Alexandre

2013-04-01

423

Use of geographic data in emergency response decision making system  

SciTech Connect

Geographic data have a number of key roles in emergency response systems focused on releases of hazardous material to the environment. Maps are a key element in allowing emergency response personnel to become oriented during a response and in presenting status information effectively to these personnel. Geographic data are essential for modeling to predict dispersal patterns during a release. It is also necessary to integrate model and measurement data with demographic information in order to assess the consequences of a release. Appropriate support for such capabilities is based on a number of evolving technologies including fast computers, large databases, network technology, remote sensing and geographic information systems.

Walker, H.

1997-07-01

424

New geographical approaches to control of some parasitic zoonoses.  

PubMed Central

The advent of new technology for geographical representation and spatial analysis of databases from different sectors offers a new approach to planning and managing the control of tropical diseases. This article reviews the geographical and intersectoral aspects of the epidemiology and control of African trypanosomiasis, cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis, Chagas disease, schistosomiasis, and foodborne trematode infections. The focal nature of their transmission, increasing recognition of the importance of animal reservoirs, and the need to understand environmental factors influencing their distribution are common to all these diseases. Geographical information systems (GIS) open a completely new perspective for intersectoral collaboration in adapting new technology to promote control of these diseases.

Mott, K. E.; Nuttall, I.; Desjeux, P.; Cattand, P.

1995-01-01

425

Evolution of Dengue Virus Type 3 Genotype III in Venezuela: Diversification, Rates and Population Dynamics  

PubMed Central

Background Dengue virus (DENV) is a member of the genus Flavivirus of the family Flaviviridae. DENV are comprised of four distinct serotypes (DENV-1 through DENV-4) and each serotype can be divided in different genotypes. Currently, there is a dramatic emergence of DENV-3 genotype III in Latin America. Nevertheless, we still have an incomplete understanding of the evolutionary forces underlying the evolution of this genotype in this region of the world. In order to gain insight into the degree of genetic variability, rates and patterns of evolution of this genotype in Venezuela and the South American region, phylogenetic analysis, based on a large number (n = 119) of envelope gene sequences from DENV-3 genotype III strains isolated in Venezuela from 2001 to 2008, were performed. Results Phylogenetic analysis revealed an in situ evolution of DENV-3 genotype III following its introduction in the Latin American region, where three different genetic clusters (A to C) can be observed among the DENV-3 genotype III strains circulating in this region. Bayesian coalescent inference analyses revealed an evolutionary rate of 8.48 × 10-4 substitutions/site/year (s/s/y) for strains of cluster A, composed entirely of strains isolated in Venezuela. Amino acid substitution at position 329 of domain III of the E protein (A?V) was found in almost all E proteins from Cluster A strains. Conclusions A significant evolutionary change between DENV-3 genotype III strains that circulated in the initial years of the introduction in the continent and strains isolated in the Latin American region in recent years was observed. The presence of DENV-3 genotype III strains belonging to different clusters was observed in Venezuela, revealing several introduction events into this country. The evolutionary rate found for Cluster A strains circulating in Venezuela is similar to the others previously established for this genotype in other regions of the world. This suggests a lack of correlation among DENV genotype III substitution rate and ecological pattern of virus spread.

2010-01-01

426

The need for open geographical information systems in medicine.  

PubMed

This paper presents a promising approach of using component-oriented geographical information systems (GIS) to facilitate improved medical and ecological applications. The integration of administrative geographical and medical data (map overlay) allows sophisticated and advanced analysis. This can serve as a basis to detect undiscovered relationships. We hope to increase the usage of geographical information by the creation of a general framework. This approach is mainly supported by two advances in recent years. Geographical data (e.g. administrative areas) is up-to-date, consistent and covers Germany completely. In addition, enormous technological improvements in the area of high-bandwidth networks and component-based software development have been made. These advances allowed to define our general framework for the integration of GIS functions into existing and already accepted applications. PMID:11424306

Appelrath, H J; Friebe, J; Grawunder, M; Wellmann, I

2001-05-01

427

Geographical Concentrations, Identities, and Letter Mail Volumes of Large Mailers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results of a study to determine the geographical concentrations, identities, and letter mail volumes of large mailers are presented. The purpose of the study is to size the potential markets for large-volume postal customer preprocessing programs, suc...

W. T. McCormick

1972-01-01

428

Techniques for the Analysis of Geographic Data in Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three standard techniques for the analysis of geographic data are presented and their use in evaluation is discussed. These three techniques are: geocode analysis, trend surface analysis, and social area or ecological analysis. (CTM)

Smith, Nick L.

1979-01-01

429

Regional Seismic Hazard and Risk Analysis through Geographic Information Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A geographic information system (GIS) provides the ideal environment for conducting a comprehensive regional seismic hazard and risk analysis. This disseration describes in detail the current GIS technology and the various steps in a regional seismic haza...

S. A. King A. S. Kiremidjian

1994-01-01

430

National Geographic Society Kids Network: Report on 1994 teacher participants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1994, National Geographic Society Kids Network, a computer/telecommunications-based science curriculum, was presented to elementary and middle school teachers through summer programs sponsored by NGS and US DOE. The network program assists teachers in ...

1995-01-01

431

Review of geographic processing techniques applicable to regional analysis  

SciTech Connect

Since the early 1970s regional environmental studies have been carried out at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory using computer-assisted techniques. This paper presents an overview of some of these past experiences and the capabilities developed at the Laboratory for processing, analyzing, and displaying geographic data. A variety of technologies have resulted such as computer cartography, image processing, spatial modeling, computer graphics, data base management, and geographic information systems. These tools have been used in a wide range of spatial applications involving facility siting, transportation routing, coal resource analysis, environmental impacts, terrain modeling, inventory development, demographic studies, water resource analyses, etc. The report discusses a number of topics dealing with geographic data bases and structures, software and processing techniques, hardware systems, models and analysis tools, data acquisition techniques, and graphical display methods. Numerous results from many different applications are shown to aid the reader interested in using geographic information systems for environmental analyses. 15 refs., 64 figs., 2 tabs.

Durfee, R.C.

1988-02-01

432

Land Cover Classification Method Oriented to Geographic National Conditions Investigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Developing the project of geographic national conditions investigation is in order to obtain land cover change information which is caused by natural and human social and economic activities, and serve the information for government, enterprise and public. Land cover is an important method to describe the geographic national conditions information, which can truly reflect the land surface material type and its natural attribute. It has been contained in the content system preliminary scheme as an important portion. In this paper, it discusses and analyzes on the method and key technology, with according to the land cover content that geographic national conditions watches on. Then it evaluates the applicability of automatic classification method using in land cover information extraction, and comprehensively analyzes various extraction methods' maximum effectiveness. Finally, it proposes a method that is based on high spatial resolution remote sensing imagery and can be used in engineering applications, which provides a reference method for geographic national conditions investigation.

Cheng, T.

2014-04-01

433

47 CFR 27.904 - Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...disaggregation. 27.904 Section 27.904 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES 1670-1675 MHz Band § 27.904 Geographic...

2013-10-01

434

47 CFR 27.805 - Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...disaggregation. 27.805 Section 27.805 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES 1.4 GHz Band § 27.805 Geographic partitioning...

2013-10-01

435

Geographical Information Systems, Decision Support Systems, and Urban Stormwater Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report reviews the application of Geographic Information System (GIS) technology to the field of urban stormwater modeling. The GIS literature is reviewed in the context of its use as a spatial database for urban stormwater modeling, integration of GI...

J. P. Heaney D. Sample L. Wright

1999-01-01

436

A geographically variable model of hemlock woolly adelgid spread  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA) (Adelges tsugae) has spread through the range of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) leaving dead hemlock trees in its wake. We combined county and previously unavailable township level infestation records\\u000a with geographic variables including plant hardiness zone, elevation, forest cover type, urbanization, precipitation, temperature,\\u000a and hemlock range in a geographic information system to build models linking

Alexander M. Evans; Timothy G. Gregoire

2007-01-01

437

Provisioning geographic data-centric dissemination in Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose to enhance a data-centric dissemination framework with geographic information and network-level caching in wireless sensor networks. The proposed framework enhances data-centric routing with three principal components: (1) publish\\/subscribe paradigm to coordinate sources and sinks; (2) geographic diffusion to mitigate unnecessary data forwarding; (3) network-level caching to process data or reduce redundancy in message delivery. We

Hyunjun Choi; Hwangnam Kim; Sunshin An; Minsu Kim; Young Ki Jeon

2009-01-01

438

A study on Geographic National (Urban) Conditions Monitoring of Beijing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article investigated and surveyed the current situation of the policy of Geographic National (Urban) Conditions Monitoring in Beijing based on the experimental unit over China carried out by National Administration of Surveying, Mapping and Geoinformation. Then analysed the guarantee of the implement considering the characteristics of programming and construction, policy and regulation in Beijing. Finally presented the frame system of Geographic National (Urban) Conditions Monitoring which is appropriate for Beijing.

Liu, Q.

2014-04-01

439

Communicating via fireflies: geographic routing on duty-cycled sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geographic routing is a useful and scalable point-to-point commu- nication primitive for wireless sensor networks. However, previous work on geographic routing makes the unrealistic assumption that all the nodes in the network are awake during routing. This over- looks the common deployment scenario where sensor nodes are duty-cycled to save energy. In this paper we investigate several im- portant aspects

Suman Nath; Phillip B. Gibbons

2007-01-01

440

25 CFR 37.112 - Must each school have a geographic attendance boundary?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Must each school have a geographic attendance boundary? 37...INTERIOR EDUCATION GEOGRAPHIC BOUNDARIES All Schools § 37.112 Must each school have a geographic attendance boundary?...

2011-04-01

441

Geographic Tongue and Associated Risk Factors among Iranian Dental Patients  

PubMed Central

Background Geographic Tongue is a benign disorder involving the dorsal surface of the tongue characterized by depapillated areas with leading and folded edges in yellowish or grayish white color and sometimes with unclear borders. Many studies have reported a relationship between such condition and different risk factors. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence rate and the risk factors of geographic tongue in the patients referring to the Department of Oral Medicine of Zahedan Dental School, in 2012. Methods: Using Poisson regression model, 2000 patients referred to the Department were selected for this cross-sectional study. Data collection method included an investigation into the medical history as well as doing intraoral examinations. Using SPSS 17 software and Chi-square statistical test, the collected data were analyzed. Result: Among the 2000 patients selected, 7.8% (156 persons) suffered from geographic tongue. The results of our study show that there is a significant relationship between the occurrence of geographic tongue and a history of allergy and fissured tongue (P<0.001). There was no significant statistical relationship between the occurrence of geographic tongue and gender, smoking and medication. Conclusion: The geographic tongue is more frequently in the patients suffering from atopy or allergy as well as the patients with fissured tongue.

HONARMAND, Marieh; FARHAD MOLLASHAHI, Leila; SHIRZAIY, Masomeh; SEHHATPOUR, Marziye

2013-01-01

442

Review and synthesis of problems and directions for large scale geographic information system development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Problems and directions for large scale geographic information system development were reviewed and the general problems associated with automated geographic information systems and spatial data handling were addressed.

Boyle, A. R.; Dangermond, J.; Marble, D.; Simonett, D. S.; Tomlinson, R. F.

1983-01-01

443

Lithospheric Expressions of the Precambrian Shield, Mesozoic Rifting, and Cenozoic Subduction and Mountain Building in Venezuela  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Caribbean (CAR)-South American (SA) plate boundary in Venezuela is a broad zone of faulting and diffuse deformation. GPS measurements show the CAR moving approximately 2 cm/yr relative to SA, parallel to the strike slip fault system in the east, with more oblique convergence in the west (Weber et al., 2001) causing the southern edge of the Caribbean to subduct beneath northwestern South America. The west is further complicated by the motion of the triangular Maracaibo block, which is escaping northeastward relative to SA along the Bocono and Santa Marta Faults. In central and eastern Venezuela, plate motion is accommodated by transpression and transtension along the right lateral San Sebastian- El Pilar strike-slip fault system. The strike-slip system marks the northern edge of coastal thrust belts and their associated foreland basins. The Archean-Proterozoic Guayana Shield, part of the Amazonian Craton, underlies southeastern and south-central Venezuela. We used the 87 station Venezuela-U.S. BOLIVAR array (Levander et al., 2006) to investigate lithospheric structure in northern South America. We combined finite-frequency Rayleigh wave tomography with Ps and Sp receiver functions to determine lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) depth. We measured Rayleigh phase velocities from 45 earthquakes in the period band 20-100s. The phase velocities were inverted for 1D shear velocity structure on a 0.5 by 0.5 degree grid. Crustal thickness for the starting model was determined from active seismic experiments and receiver function analysis. The resulting 3D shear velocity model was then used to determine the depth of the LAB, and to CCP stack Ps and Sp receiver functions from ~45 earthquakes. The receiver functions were calculated in several frequency bands using iterative deconvolution and inverse filtering. Lithospheric thickness varies by more a factor of 2.5 across Venezuela. We can divide the lithosphere into several distinct provinces, with LAB depth reflecting the signatures of the Precambrian craton in the south, Mesozoic rifting in central Venezuela, and Neogene subduction and orogenesis in both the northeast and northwest. Specifically, LAB depth varies from 110-130 km beneath the Guayana Shield, in agreement with finite-frequency body wave tomography (Bezada et al., 2010b). To the north beneath the Serrania del Interior and Maturin Basin the Rayleigh waves image two high velocity features to depths of 200 km. The northernmost, beneath the Serrania, corresponds to the top of the subducting Atlantic plate, in agreement with P-wave tomography that images the Atlantic plate to transition zone depths. Another localized high velocity feature extending to ~200 km depth lies to the south. We speculate that this is a lithospheric drip caused by destabilization of the SA lithospheric caused by Atlantic subduction. Immediately to the west beneath the Cariaco basin the LAB is at ~50 km, marking the top of a pronounced low velocity zone. The thin lithosphere extends southwestward from the Cariaco Basin beneath the Mesozoic Espino Graben to the craton. To the west the LAB deepens to ~80 km beneath the Barinas Apure Basin and then to ~90 km beneath the Neogene Merida Andes and Maracaibo block.

Levander, A.; Masy, J.; Niu, F.

2013-05-01

444

Residential energy use and conservation in Venezuela: Results and implications of a household survey in Caracas  

SciTech Connect

This document presents the final report of a study of residential energy use in Caracas, the capital of Venezuela. It contains the findings of a household energy-use survey held in Caracas in 1988 and examines options for introducing energy conservation measures in the Venezuelan residential sector. Oil exports form the backbone of the Venezuelan economy. Improving energy efficiency in Venezuela will help free domestic oil resources that can be sold to the rest of the world. Energy conservation will also contribute to a faster recovery of the economy by reducing the need for major investments in new energy facilities, allowing the Venezuelan government to direct its financial investments towards other areas of development. Local environmental benefits will constitute an important additional by-product of implementing energy-efficiency policies in Venezuela. Caracas`s residential sector shows great potential for energy conservation. The sector is characterized by high saturation levels of major appliances, inefficiency of appliances available in the market, and by careless patterns of energy use. Household energy use per capita average 6.5 GJ/per year which is higher than most cities in developing countries; most of this energy is used for cooking. Electricity accounts for 41% of all energy use, while LPG and natural gas constitute the remainder. Specific options for inducing energy conservation and energy efficiency in Caracas`s residential sector include energy-pricing policies, fuel switching, particularly from electricity to gas, improving the energy performance of new appliances and customer information. To ensure the accomplishment of an energy-efficiency strategy, a concerted effort by energy users, manufacturers, utility companies, government agencies, and research institutions will be needed.

Figueroa, M.J.; Ketoff, A.; Masera, O.

1992-10-01

445

Microseismicity evidence for subduction of the Caribbean plate beneath the South American Plate in northwestern Venezuela  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over 1100 microearthquakes with body wave magnitude mb<4 have been located in western Venezuela and the southwestern Caribbean region since the installation in 1980 of the Venezuelan Seismological Array, together with 120 events of mb?4, one of them with surface wave magnitude Ms˜6. This tectonically complex region is part of the boundary between the Caribbean and the South American plates. The main seismically active feature inland in western Venezuela is the northeast striking, 600-km long, 100-km wide, right-lateral strike-slip Boconó fault zone along the Venezuelan Andes. About 80% of the earthquakes located in the entire region in the period 1980-mid-1995 have occurred on this fault zone, at focal depths <20 km. Microearthquake activity at lower rates also occurs northwest of the Venezuelan Andes, both in the continental and Caribbean sea regions. Part of this activity takes place at depths down to ˜150 km. Northwest oriented seismicity depth profiles show the existence of a Benioff zone dipping to the southeast beneath northwestern Venezuela and northern Colombia. This indicates the presence of a northeast striking, southeast dipping subducted slab of the Caribbean plate beneath the South American plate. Hypocentral locations show that the northeastern end of this subduction occurs northwest of the Curaçao-Aruba region, in the vicinity of a northwest trending, right-lateral strike-slip fault zone that joins up with the northeastern end of the Boconó fault zone. This latter place turns out to be the western end of the east-west striking San Sebastián fault along the Venezuelan coast.

PéRez, Omar J.; Jaimes, Martha A.; Garciacaro, Emilio

1997-08-01

446

A new strain, Streptomyces venezuelae GY1, producing a poly(vinyl alcohol)-degrading enzyme  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  An actinomycete strain, which could produce an extracellular poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)-degrading enzyme, was isolated from\\u000a a PVA-contaminated soil sample using PVA as the sole carbon source. The strain was identified as Streptomyces venezuelae according to the whole-nucleotide-sequence analysis of 16S rDNA, the morphological and the physiological characteristics.\\u000a The strain produced 120 U\\/l extracellular PVA-degrading enzyme when PVA was used as the

Ying Zhang; Yin Li; Wei Shen; Dengru Liu; Jian Chen

2006-01-01

447

Sentinel Surveillance of Influenza-Like Illness in Two Hospitals in Maracay, Venezuela: 2006-2010  

PubMed Central

Background Limited information exists on the epidemiology of acute febrile respiratory illnesses in tropical South American countries such as Venezuela. The objective of the present study was to examine the epidemiology of influenza-like illness (ILI) in two hospitals in Maracay, Venezuela. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed a prospective surveillance study of persons with ILI who presented for care at two hospitals in Maracay, Venezuela, from October 2006 to December 2010. A respiratory specimen and clinical information were obtained from each participant. Viral isolation and identification with immunofluorescent antibodies and molecular methods were employed to detect respiratory viruses such as adenovirus, influenza A and B, parainfluenza, and respiratory sincytial virus, among others. There were 916 participants in the study (median age: 17 years; range: 1 month – 86 years). Viruses were identified in 143 (15.6%) subjects, and one participant was found to have a co-infection with more than one virus. Influenza viruses, including pandemic H1N1 2009, were the most frequently detected pathogens, accounting for 67.4% (97/144) of the viruses detected. Adenovirus (15/144), parainfluenza virus (13/144), and respiratory syncytial virus (11/144) were also important causes of ILI in this study. Pandemic H1N1 2009 virus became the most commonly isolated influenza virus during its initial appearance in 2009. Two waves of the pandemic were observed: the first which peaked in August 2009 and the second - higher than the preceding - that peaked in October 2009. In 2010, influenza A/H3N2 re-emerged as the most predominant respiratory virus detected. Conclusions/Significance Influenza viruses were the most commonly detected viral organisms among patients with acute febrile respiratory illnesses presenting at two hospitals in Maracay, Venezuela. Pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza virus did not completely replace other circulating influenza viruses during its initial appearance in 2009. Seasonal influenza A/H3N2 was the most common influenza virus in the post-pandemic phase.

Comach, Guillermo; Teneza-Mora, Nimfa; Kochel, Tadeusz J.; Espino, Carlos; Sierra, Gloria; Camacho, Daria E.; Laguna-Torres, V. Alberto; Garcia, Josefina; Chauca, Gloria; Gamero, Maria E.; Sovero, Merly; Bordones, Slave; Villalobos, Iris; Melchor, Angel; Halsey, Eric S.

2012-01-01

448

A novel Streptomyces spp. integration vector derived from the S. venezuelae phage, SV1  

PubMed Central

Background Integrating vectors based on the int/attP loci of temperate phages are convenient and used widely, particularly for cloning genes in Streptomyces spp. Results We have constructed and tested a novel integrating vector based on g27, encoding integrase, and attP site from the phage, SV1. This plasmid, pBF3 integrates efficiently in S. coelicolor and S. lividans but surprisingly fails to generate stable integrants in S. venezuelae, the natural host for phage SV1. Conclusion pBF3 promises to be a useful addition to the range of integrating vectors currently available for Streptomyces molecular genetics.

2014-01-01

449

Diurnal raptors in the fragmented rain forest of the Sierra Imataca, Venezuela  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The rain forest of the Sierra Imataca in eastern Venezuela has been subjected to extensive deforestation for pastures and agricultural settlements. In the last decade the opening of access roads combined with intensified logging and mining activities have fragmented a significant portion of the remaining forest. We noted local distribution and habitat use for 42 species of diurnal raptors observed in affected areas in this region. We observed some raptors considered as forest interior species and other open country species foraging and roosting in man-made openings inside the forest.

Alvarez, E.; Ellis, D.H.; Smith, D.G.; Larue, C.T.

1996-01-01

450

Mercury Levels in Mole Crabs Hippa cubensis, Emerita brasiliensis, E. portoricensis, and Lepidopa richmondi (Crustacea: Decapoda: Hippidae) from a Sandy Beach at Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mercury pollution in Venezuela’s coastal area has been demonstrated for several years, especially at the Golfo Triste region (10° N, 68° W), which was subjected for several years to the discharges of mercury from a chlorine-alkal i plant that used an electrolytic process involving mercury electrodes. From 1987 to 1989 a base line study along the entire coast of Golfo

D. Pérez

1999-01-01

451

NOTA TÉCNICA RENDIMIENTO DE UNA PLANTACIÓN COMERCIAL DE CACAO ANTE DIFERENTES DOSIS DE FERTILIZACIÓN CON NPK EN EL SURESTE DEL ESTADO TÁCHIRA, VENEZUELA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of NPK fertilization on yield of a commercial cocoa plantation at the Southeast of Táchira State, Venezuela The low cocoa yields in Venezuela are associated with lack of fertilization. Two experiments were performed in a commercial plantation in the Southeast of Táchira State to determine the plant response to several doses of fertilization. The treatments were established based on

Dercy Parra; Erbert Gamboa; José Rincón

2005-01-01

452

Geographic information systems: their use in environmental epidemiologic research.  

PubMed Central

Advances in geographic information system (GIS) technology, developed by geographers, provide new opportunities for environmental epidemiologists to study associations between environmental exposures and the spatial distribution of disease. A GIS is a powerful computer mapping and analysis technology capable of integrating large quantities of geographic (spatial) data as well as linking geographic with nongeographic data (e.g., demographic information, environmental exposure levels). In this paper we provide an overview of some of the capabilities and limitations of GIS technology; we illustrate, through practical examples, the use of several functions of a GIS including automated address matching, distance functions, buffer analysis, spatial query, and polygon overlay; we discuss methods and limitations of address geocoding, often central to the use of a GIS in environmental epidemiologic research; and we suggest ways to facilitate its use in future studies. Collaborative efforts between epidemiologists, biostatisticians, environmental scientists, GIS specialists, and medical geographers are needed to realize the full potential of GIS technology in environmental health research and may lead to innovative solutions to complex questions. Images p598-a Figure 2. Figure 3. A Figure 3. B Figure 3. C Figure 3. D Figure 3. E

Vine, M F; Degnan, D; Hanchette, C

1997-01-01

453

20. Raw Material for the Geographic Magazine. The mills of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. Raw Material for the Geographic Magazine. The mills of the Champion International Company which make paper on which the National Geographic Magazine is printed are located in Lawrence, Mass. This picture shows great piles of pulp-wood ready for conversion into paper for the The Geographic. Parts of these wood piles are more than 50 feet high. The cars shown in the picture are on a trestle 21 feet high. The Geographic magazines mailed in a single year, if laid side by side, would reach from Quito, Ecuador, across Colombia and Caribbean, thence across the United States and Canada, through the North Pole, and across Siberia, China, and Siam to Bangkok. It takes 33,000 miles of wrappers to mail one year's edition. It would require a bookshelf more than three and a half miles long to hold all the copies of this month's issue of The Geographic. (p.235.) - Champion-International Paper Company, West bank of Spicket River at Canal Street, Lawrence, Essex County, MA

454

On the geographic range of freshwater fish in river basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the observed geographic distribution of freshwater fish species in the Mississippi-Missouri river system, focusing on the size and spatial distribution of geographic ranges. We use a particular metric of geographic distribution known as environmental resistance, a biogeographic index that quantifies the pointwise average spatial loss of community similarity to identify biogeographic regions of the river basin. Empirical patterns are compared with the results of a neutral metacommunity model in which local fish communities are interconnected through the ecological corridors provided by the river networks. Because neutral theory assumes that all individuals across all the species are functionally equivalent, the comparison is aimed to quantify how much of the geographic range patterns are the result of species' similarity rather than species differences, thus searching for an ecological null model for the analysis of biogeographic range. We also analyze how river network topology affects the spatial arrangement of species. Our results suggest that broad patterns of geographic range of freshwater fish in the Mississippi-Missouri can be explained simply by neutral dynamics engaged in river topology and competition for resources among species without invoking mechanisms that involve asymmetric interspecific interactions.

Bertuzzo, E.; Muneepeerakul, R.; Lynch, H. J.; Fagan, W. F.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.; Rinaldo, A.

2009-11-01

455

Geosimulation of Geographic Dynamics Based on Voronoi Diagram  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geographic space is typically conceptualized either as discrete objects or as continuous fields. Considerable efforts have been carried out for the representation and management of the spatial data, based on the object view of space. However, field-based data models are less developed in GIS, especially when it comes to the modeling and representation of their spatial dynamics and behaviors. The limitations of GIS are mostly related to the 2D and static nature of their spatial data structures. In this paper, we explore the potentials of Voronoi diagram as an alternative spatial data structure that can allow more realistic representation of geographic dynamics, especially of dynamic fields and processes in 2D and 3D spaces. The paper presents a review on how different types of Voronoi diagrams for points, line segments and polygons could be effectively used to represent and simulate the geographic dynamics in different contexts.

Mostafavi, Mir Abolfazl; Beni, Leila Hashemi; Mallet, Karine Hins

456

Parallel scanline algorithm for rapid rasterization of vector geographic data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the expansion of complex geographic calculations and the increase of spatial data types involved in the spatial analysis of large areas, the need becomes urgent for fast rasterization of massive multi-source geographic vector data. A parallel scanline algorithm is proposed for rapid rasterization. It provides a systematic solution to solve the complicated situation in parallel processing (cross-processor boundaries, common boundaries, and tiny polygons), thus ensuring the accuracy of the parallel scanline algorithm. The relationship of parallel speedup with the number of processors, the data partition pattern, and the raster grid size is discussed. Massive vector geographic data (approximately 0.7 million polygons) used in the experiment were effectively processed, thereby dramatically reducing the processing time and getting good speedup.

Wang, Yafei; Chen, Zhenjie; Cheng, Liang; Li, Manchun; Wang, Jiechen

2013-09-01

457

Fast, Inclusive Searches for Geographic Names Using Digraphs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An algorithm specifies how to quickly identify names that approximately match any specified name when searching a list or database of geographic names. Based on comparisons of the digraphs (ordered letter pairs) contained in geographic names, this algorithmic technique identifies approximately matching names by applying an artificial but useful measure of name similarity. A digraph index enables computer name searches that are carried out using this technique to be fast enough for deployment in a Web application. This technique, which is a member of the class of n-gram algorithms, is related to, but distinct from, the soundex, PHONIX, and metaphone phonetic algorithms. Despite this technique's tendency to return some counterintuitive approximate matches, it is an effective aid for fast, inclusive searches for geographic names when the exact name sought, or its correct spelling, is unknown.

Donato, David I.

2008-01-01

458

Teacher Resources-The Canadian Council for Geographic Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Canadian Council for Geographic Education (CCGE) is serious about geographic education. This site provides a range of educational materials for those with a passion for the spatial sciences. The materials here are divided into four areas: Canadian Atlas Online, Lesson Plans, Classroom Activities, and Teaching About Geographical Thinking. In the Canadian Atlas Online area, visitors can learn about "the stories that define all Canadians." Visitors to this section can create their own customized maps of Canada and read through a glossary of terms. Moving on, the Lesson Plans area contains over 100 plans that deal with the environment, cultural geography, oceanography, and international development. The Geomatics area is quite a find, as it brings together GIS-based activities to explore topics like Nunavut and crime mapping. Finally, the Classroom Activities area contains some great poster maps of the Mackenzie Delta and the South Gulf Islands.

2012-07-20

459

Teacher Resources-The Canadian Council for Geographic Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Canadian Council for Geographic Education (CCGE) is serious about geographic education. This site provides a range of educational materials for those with a passion for the spatial sciences. The materials here are divided into four areas: Canadian Atlas Online, Lesson Plans, Classroom Activities, and Teaching About Geographical Thinking. In the Canadian Atlas Online area, visitors can learn about "the stories that define all Canadians." Visitors to this section can create their own customized maps of Canada and read through a glossary of terms. Moving on, the Lesson Plans area contains over 100 plans that deal with the environment, cultural geography, oceanography, and international development. The Geomatics area is quite a find, as it brings together GIS-based activities to explore topics like Nunavut and crime mapping. Finally, the Classroom Activities area contains some great poster maps of the Mackenzie Delta and the South Gulf Islands.

2012-07-24

460

Research on digital city geographic information common services platform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditional GIS (Geographic Information System) software development mode exposes many defects that will largely slow down the city informational progress. It is urgent need to build a common application infrastructure for informational project to speed up the development pace of digital city. The advent of service-oriented architecture (SOA) has motivated the adoption of GIS functionality portals that can be executed in distributed computing environment. According to the SOA principle, we bring forward and design a digital city geographic information common services platform which provides application development service interfaces for field users that can be further extended relevant business application. In the end, a public-oriented Web GIS is developed based on the platform for helping public users to query geographic information in their daily life. It indicates that our platform have the capacity that can be integrated by other applications conveniently.

Chen, Dequan; Wu, Qunyong; Wang, Qinmin

2008-11-01

461

Geographic Video 3d Data Model And Retrieval  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geographic video includes both spatial and temporal geographic features acquired through ground-based or non-ground-based cameras. With the popularity of video capture devices such as smartphones, the volume of user-generated geographic video clips has grown significantly and the trend of this growth is quickly accelerating. Such a massive and increasing volume poses a major challenge to efficient video management and query. Most of the today's video management and query techniques are based on signal level content extraction. They are not able to fully utilize the geographic information of the videos. This paper aimed to introduce a geographic video 3D data model based on spatial information. The main idea of the model is to utilize the location, trajectory and azimuth information acquired by sensors such as GPS receivers and 3D electronic compasses in conjunction with video contents. The raw spatial information is synthesized to point, line, polygon and solid according to the camcorder parameters such as focal length and angle of view. With the video segment and video frame, we defined the three categories geometry object using the geometry model of OGC Simple Features Specification for SQL. We can query video through computing the spatial relation between query objects and three categories geometry object such as VFLocation, VSTrajectory, VSFOView and VFFovCone etc. We designed the query methods using the structured query language (SQL) in detail. The experiment indicate that the model is a multiple objective, integration, loosely coupled, flexible and extensible data model for the management of geographic stereo video.

Han, Z.; Cui, C.; Kong, Y.; Wu, H.

2014-04-01

462

Paleogeographic evolution of foldbelts adjacent to petroleum basins of Venezuela and Trinidad  

SciTech Connect

The foldbelts of Venezuela and Trinidad have shaped the history of adjacent sedimentary basins. A set of paleogeographic maps on reconstructed bases depict the role of foldbelts in the development of the sedimentary basins of Venezuela. Some of the foldbelts are inverted, pre-Tertiary graben/passive margin systems. Other foldbelts are allochthonous nappes or parautochthons that override the Mesozoic passive margin hinge without inversion. The emergence of these foldbelts changed the course of existing river systems and provided a new source for sediments and maturation in adjacent deeps. The Merida Andes area was remobilized beginning in the Early Miocene as a zone of lateral shear, along which the Bonaire Block has moved over 200 km to the northeast, dismembering the Maracaibo and Barinas basins. Late Miocene to Recent transpression and fault reactivation have driven rapid Andean uplift with thrust-related subsidence and maturation (e.g., SE Maracaibo foredeep). To the east, uplift and erosion of the Serrania del Interior (1) curtailed mid-Tertiary fluvial systems flowing northward from the igneous and sedimentary rocks of the Guyana Shield, deflecting them eastward, and (2) removed the thick early Miocene foredeep fill into a younger foredeep. Thus, the fold-thrust belts and sedimentary basins in this region are linked in their evolutionary histories.

Goodman, E.D.; Koch, P.S.; Summa, L.L. [Exxon Production Research Company, Houston, TX (United States)] [and others

1996-08-01

463

Comparison of the petroleum systems of East Venezuela in their tectonostratigraphic context  

SciTech Connect

The Maturin and Guarico subbasins of East Venezuela record the transition from Cretaceous passive margin to Tertiary foreland basin with local post-orogenic transtensional basins. Petroleum is reservoired in several units ranging from Albian (El Cantil Formation) to Pliocene (Las Piedras Formation) age. Source rocks are principally in the Upper Cretaceous (Querecual Formation), and Miocene (Carapita Formation) in the Maturin subbasin and in the Upper Cretaceous (Tigre Formation) and Oligocene (Roblecito and La Pascua Formations) in the Guarico subbasin. An extensive well database has been used to address the distribution and provenance of hydrocarbons in the context of a tectonostratigraphic model for the evolution of the East Venezuela basin. Nine major plays have been described, comprising thirteen petroleum systems. The principal factors influencing the components of individual petroleum systems are as follows: (1) structural controls on Upper Cretaceous source rock distribution, relating to block faulting on the proto-Caribbean passive margin; (2) paleoenvironmental controls on source rock development within the Oligocene-Miocene foreland basin; and (3) timing of subsidence and maturation within the Oligocene-Upper Miocene foreland basin and the configuration of the associated fold and thrust belt, influencing long range and local migration routes (4) local development of Pliocene post-orogenic transtensional basins, influencing hydrocarbon generation, migration and remigration north of the Pirital High.

Stronach, N.J.; Kerr, H.M.; Scotchmer, J. [Robertson Research International Ltd., Llandudno, Gwynedd (United Kingdom); Hunter, V. [Consultores Geostrat CA, Puerto La Cruz (Venezuela)

1996-08-01

464

An Estimate of Recoverable Heavy Oil Resources of the Orinoco Oil Belt, Venezuela  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Orinoco Oil Belt Assessment Unit of the La Luna-Quercual Total Petroleum System encompasses approximately 50,000 km2 of the East Venezuela Basin Province that is underlain by more than 1 trillion barrels of heavy oil-in-place. As part of a program directed at estimating the technically recoverable oil and gas resources of priority petroleum basins worldwide, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated the recoverable oil resources of the Orinoco Oil Belt Assessment Unit. This estimate relied mainly on published geologic and engineering data for reservoirs (net oil-saturated sandstone thickness and extent), petrophysical properties (porosity, water saturation, and formation volume factors), recovery factors determined by pilot projects, and estimates of volumes of oil-in-place. The U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean volume of 513 billion barrels of technically recoverable heavy oil in the Orinoco Oil Belt Assessment Unit of the East Venezuela Basin Province; the range is 380 to 652 billion barrels. The Orinoco Oil Belt Assessment Unit thus contains one of the largest recoverable oil accumulations in the world.

Schenk, Christopher J.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.

2009-01-01

465

Data access, charging and copyright and their implications for geographical information systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few geographical information systems generate all their own data. As geographical or spatial data are the fuel of such systems, the availability, access and price of data sets held by others becomes a matter of considerable importance. In this context, geographical information systems form only a special case of information systems in general, but geographical data are increasingly part of

David Rhind

1992-01-01

466

Measurement of the added value of geographic information in disaster management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geographic information supports disaster management in many ways. The analysis and visualization of static and incident specific dynamic geographic information is key for the build-up of a Common Operational Picture and the development of Shared Situational Awareness. Although the use of geographic information and analytical tools seems evident, the concept of using Geographic Information Systems in disaster management is relatively

Patrick Brooijmans; Arda Riedijk; Chris Jacobs; Ronnie Lassche

467

Negotiating the Networks of Space, Time and Substance: A Geographical Perspective on the Sustainable Citizen  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a critical geographical analysis of the emerging ideals associated with sustainable citizenship. We argue that the principles behind sustainable citizenship force us to think through the full range of geographical factors which frame citizenship and yet which are routinely overlooked in both geographical and non-geographical work on the citizen. We take the sustainable citizen to be both

ANNA BULLEN; MARK WHITEHEAD

2005-01-01

468

THE WESTERN LAKE SUPERIOR COMPARATIVE WATERSHED FRAMEWORK: A FIELD TEST OF GEOGRAPHICALLY-DEPENDENT VS. THRESHOLD-BASED GEOGRAPHICALLY-INDEPENDENT CLASSIFICATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Stratified random selection of watersheds allowed us to compare geographically-independent classification schemes based on watershed storage (wetland + lake area/watershed area) and forest fragmentation with a geographically-based classification scheme within the Northern Lakes a...

469

Geographical Variation of Carcinoma of the Penis in Uganda  

PubMed Central

A series of 458 cases of carcinoma of the penis occurring in Ugandan Africans is analysed. These were derived from the records of a country-wide biopsy service over the 5-year period 1964-68. Where circumcision is practised the incidence of this tumour is very low. However, the geographical variation also showed marked differences in the uncircumcised, regardless of tribal antecedents and sometimes over quite small distances. It is suggested, therefore, that in Uganda other aetiological factors apart from circumcision are operative and that these factors vary with geographical location rather than with tribal affiliation.

Schmauz, R.; Jain, D. K.

1971-01-01

470

Visual cues to geographical orientation during low-level flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A field study of an operational Emergency Medical Service (EMS) unit was conducted to investigate the relationships among geographical orientation, pilot decision making, and workload in EMS flights. The map data collected during this study were compared to protocols gathered in the laboratory, where pilots viewed a simulated flight over different types of unfamiliar terrain and verbally identified the features utilized to maintain geographical orientation. The EMS pilot's questionnaire data were compared with data from non-EMS helicopter pilots with comparable flight experience.

Battiste, Vernol; Delzell, Suzanne

1991-01-01

471

Evaluacion de Programas de Alfabetizacion. Consulta Tecnica Regional (Maracaibo, Venezuela, 30 Noviembre-6 Diciembre 1987) Informe Final. (Evaluation of Literacy Programs. Regional Technical Meeting (Maracaibo, Venezuela, November 30-December 6, 1987).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objectives of this seminar were to identify problems in evaluating literacy programs and to design a working strategy to confront them. Four presentations included national case studies from Brazil, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Venezuela. Central questions asked concerned who and what were evaluated and how were the results to be used. In Brazil,…

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean.

472

Measuring the geographic coverage of methadone maintenance programme in Hong Kong by using geographic information system (GIS)  

PubMed Central

Objective While access and utilization form core components in assessing the effectiveness of a health service, the concept of coverage is often neglected. In this study we propose to develop a GIS-based methodological framework for the measurement of district-based geographic coverage to examine the service effectiveness of methadone treatment programme (MTP) in Hong Kong on a regular basis. Methods To overcome the incompatibility of spatial units, population data and data of heroin addiction of the year 2001 are interpolated by population-weighted and area-weighted algorithms. Standard overlay and proximity analytical functions are used to delineate altogether 20 accessible zones around each methadone clinic at a fixed 1.5 km Euclidean distance. Geographic coverage here is defined as the percentage of heroin addicts covered by a methadone clinic within the accessible zone by district. Results A total of 6413 out of 11000 reported heroin addicts are found geographically covered. The average geographic coverage in Hong Kong is 44.6%, with the figure varying from 0% to 96% by district. One district having no clinic results in 0% coverage whereas another without a clinic yields 15.3% coverage from the clinic in adjacent district. Maps illustrating district-based geographic coverage are generated. Conclusion As continuous data collection is required for a monitoring system, the simplified approach facilitates the handling of large volume data and relevant data analysis. It is concluded that the number of methadone clinics is as important as their locations. Geographic coverage could become an important consideration for monitoring harm reduction.

Pang, Tak Ting P; Lee, Shui Shan

2008-01-01

473

The Level of Realizing Geographical Skills in Geography Lessons  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning geography for an individual starts with the relationship between human and location. This relationship develops depending on gaining some skills which are necessary for understanding and using the geographical location as effective as possible. One of the main goals of high school geography education is to enable individuals to gain…

Unlu, Mehmet

2011-01-01

474

Keeping It Local: Geographic Patterns of University Attendance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The university attendance habits of Australians, in a geographic sense, are different from those in the United States, the United Kingdom and many other western countries. Australian university students are less likely to move between major cities to study. This paper finds that in addition to this, within a large metropolitan area, university…

Edwards, Daniel

2009-01-01

475

Web-Casting of Geographic Information Science Graduate Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case study from the University of Maine relates challenges, experiences and opportunities in broadcasting existing geographic information science graduate courses across the web using video streaming of class sessions in combination with web hosting of assignments, lecture outlines and reading materials. Technical, financial, logistical and…

Onsrud, Harlan J.

2005-01-01

476

Geographic variation of blood and liver proteins in cricket frogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Population and species structure of the cricket frogs, Acris crepitans and A. gryllus, were examined in terms of protein variation throughout their geographic ranges. Eight hundred and fifty animals, collected from 32 populations in 20 states, were processed to obtain electrophoretic evidence on 20 blood and liver proteins. Molecular data confirm the reproductive isolation of the two species. They had

Herbert C. Dessauer; Eviatar Nevo

1969-01-01

477

An Examination of Geographic Variation in Medicare Advantage Plans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: While Dartmouth Atlas researchers have made a compelling case for geographic variation in Medicare expenditures that are not driven by differences in the quality of care or patient severity, it is unclear whether the patterns identified by the researchers hold in the non-FFS, Medicare populations. This is a significant gap in our knowledge. We hypothesize that Medicare Advantage (MA)

Eric Barrette; Robert Town; Nancy Barker Walczak

2010-01-01

478

The Impact of Geographical Trips on Geography Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is prepared in Marmara University, Ataturk Faculty of Education, Geography Teacher Training Department Programme by arranging an expediency, planned and equipped trip with taking the opinions of the fifth grade students of 2007-2008 academic year. A knowledge test, which questions some geographical features about that district and out…

Balci, Ali

2010-01-01

479

Mobile Geographic Education: The MoGeo System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent developments in technology such as mobile computing devices, global positioning systems, and wireless networks provide avenues for the development of innovative educational alternatives to traditional computer laboratory exercises. We have created a mobile geographic education (MoGeo) system that places students in the environments they are studying while retaining access to network accessible knowledge repositories and the laboratory instructor. Students

Jerry Mount; David Bennett; Marc Armstrong

480

Making Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Sustainable in Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Spatial technologies, particularly Geographic Information Systems (GIS), have become invaluable and persuasive tools in society today. These technolo