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Sample records for sucre venezuela geographic

  1. Mycobacterium tuberculosis population structure and molecular epidemiological analysis in Sucre municipality, Miranda state, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Patiño, Margareth A; Abadía, Edgar; Solalba Gómez; Maes, Mailis; Muñoz, Mariana; Gómez, Daniela; Guzmán, Patricia; Méndez, María Victoria; Ramirez, Carmen; Mercedes, España; de Waard, Jacobus; Takiff, Howard

    2014-12-01

    Sucre municipality is a large, densely populated marginal area in the eastern part of Caracas, Venezuela that consistently has more cases of tuberculosis than other municipalities in the country. To identify the neighborhoods in the municipality with the highest prevalence of tuberculosis, and determine whether the Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain distribution in this municipality is different from that previously found in the western part of Caracas and the rest of Venezuela, we collected data on all tuberculosis cases in the municipality diagnosed in 2005-6. We performed two separate molecular epidemiological studies, spoligotyping 44 strains in a first study, and spoligotyping 131 strains, followed by MIRU-VNTR 15 on 21 clustered isolates in the second. With spoligotyping, the most common patterns were Shared International Type SIT17 (21%); SIT42 (15%); SIT93 (11%); SIT20 (7%); SIT53 (6%), a distribution similar to other parts of Venezuela, except that SIT42 and SIT20 were more common. MIRU-VNTR 15 showed that six of seven SIT17 strains examined belonged to a large cluster previously found circulating in Venezuela, but all of the SIT42 strains were related to a cluster centered in the neighborhoods of Unión and Maca, with a MIRU-VNTR pattern not previously seen in Venezuela. It appears that a large percentage of the tuberculosis in the Sucre municipality is caused by the active transmission of two strain families centered within distinct neighborhoods, one reflecting communication with the rest of the country, and the other suggesting the insular, isolated nature of some sectors. PMID:25558753

  2. Are Returns to Education on the Decline in Venezuela and Does Mission Sucre Have a Role to Play?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Naihobe; Oyelere, Ruth Uwaifo

    2011-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence points to a falling standard of living for the educated in Venezuela. During this same period, President Hugo Chavez implemented several education reforms. We focus on a major university education reform known as Mission Sucre and its potential impact on returns to university education. First, we show that returns to education…

  3. The geothermal area of El Pilar-Casanay, State of Sucre, Venezuela: Geochemical exploration and model

    SciTech Connect

    D'Amore, F.; Gianelli, G.; Corazza, E. . Istituto Internazionale Ricerche Geotermiche)

    1994-06-01

    A geochemical survey was carried out in the El Pilar-Casanay area, State of Sucre, Venezuela, in order to ascertain its geothermoelectric potential. The area is characterized by many natural manifestations with temperatures in the range 80--100 C. The area investigated seems capable of producing high-enthalpy geothermal fluids; a deep reservoir is inferred, composed of a medium salinity (< 5,000 ppm) and neutral brine, with computed temperatures between 250 and 300 C, and with a high CO[sub 2] partial pressure. Second shallower reservoir is assumed to exist, with a temperature of the order of 200--220 C. The deep reservoir is shown to be liquid-dominated, while water and steam occupy the shallow one. The piezometric level (elevation 150 m) regulates the areal distribution of water springs and fumaroles. A partial self-sealing (mineral alteration) along outflows allows accumulation of hot fluids, while recharge is from local meteoric water.

  4. [Diversity, abundance and distribution of benthic macrofauna on rocky shores from North Sucre State, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Johanna; Jiménez, Mayré; Allen, Thays

    2014-09-01

    The rocky intertidal zone is among the most extreme physical environments on Earth. Organisms living in this area are constantly stricken by physico-chemical and biological factors. Due to the ecological importance of these areas, we studied the diversity, abundance and distribution of the rocky coastline benthic macrofauna, from the North coast of Sucre State, Venezuela. We performed bimonthly samplings from November 2008 to September 2009. The collection of biological material in the littoral zone (supra, mid and infralittoral) was done manually with a grid of 0.25m2. Organisms were preserved in 10% formalin for later identification and analysis (ecological parameters and Kruskal-Wallis test to the abundance and diversity). We found a total 19,020 organisms (86 spp.), in 8 phyla, 45 families and 47 genera. Mollusks were the most abundant and diverse (58 spp.), followed by arthropods (12 spp.), annelids (7 spp.), echinoderms (5 spp.), and the less represented cnidarians, sipunculids, nemertinids and urochordates (1 sp.). The zonation found coincided with the universal scheme of zonation. The towns of Rio Boca and Rio Caribe presented the highest values of ecological parameters, and the lowest were found in Playa Grande. Statistical significant differences were found in the abundance and diversity of macrofauna among the three zones. The little information on the composition and distribution of macrobenthic rocky coastline, prevents a better comparison, however the results contribute to the knowledge of the marine biodiversity in this region. PMID:25412527

  5. [Epidemiologic and molecular study of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar strains in pacients with diarrhea in Cumana, Sucre state, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Mora, Leonor; García, Ana; De Donato, Marcos; Urdaneta, Haideé

    2008-06-01

    An epidemiological and molecular study on E. histolytica and E. dispar was carried out in 428 patients with gastrointestinal symptomatology of diarrhea from different health centers in Cumana, Sucre state. The samples were processed through: direct examination with 0.85% physiological saline solution, temporal lugol staining, trichromic staining and the Ritchie method of concentration; a sucrose gradient was used for cyst isolation. The small subunit of the 16S RNA was amplified by nested, multiplex PCR for the molecular detection. The E. histolytica/E. dispar prevalences according to the direct, Ritchie and trichromic staining methods were 20.09, 13.79 and 12.15%, respectively; while prevalences according to PCR for E. histolytica and E. dispar were 6.31% and 4.44%, respectively, also detecting four cases of mixed infection. Sequencing of the amplified fragments of E. histolytica showed 100% homology with the sequences with strains from Merida (Venezuela), USA, Brazil, Mexico and GenBank. The infections by E. histolytica and E. dispar were statistically associated with age but not with sex. The presence of mucus, blood and abdominal pain were only associated to E. histolytica infection. The moderate prevalence of E. histolytica shows the endemic status of this population and warns about the potential problem as a morbidity and mortality in Sucre state. The frequency of E. dispar in this population suggests the existence of an overestimation problem in the diagnosis of amoebiasis with its clinical and epidemiological implications, and shows the poor knowledge about the true prevalences of this protozoan. The PCR allowed for the differential identification of E. histolytica and E. dispar, as well as the presence of mixed infections, making a great tool for epidemiological amoebiasis studies. PMID:18717268

  6. [Nitrogen, phosphorus and the C/N ratio in superficial sediments of the lagoon of Chacopata, Sucre, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Fuentes Hernández, M V

    2000-12-01

    The basal behaviour and relationship with organic carbon (Corg) content and prevailing granulometric fractions, of organic nitrogen (Norg), total phosphorus (P-total) and C/N ratio in surface sediments of Chacopata lagoon, Sucre State, Venezuela, were studied. Concentrations and spatial gradients were determined in sixteen stations following a common method for marine sediments. Norg concentrations varied between 0.102 and 0.510% (x = 0.237%), total phosphorus between 0.012 and 0.094% (x = 0.058%) and C/N ratio between 9.27 and 44.47 (x = 20.53). The higher contents of Norg and total phosphorus are from sections with an abundance of mangroves, marine phanerogams, macroalgae, benthonic biomass and migratory birds shelters. The C/N ratio shows the typical values for carbonated sediments, indicating that the nitrogenous compounds are rapidly degraded and the organic matter presents itself as humic substances. This parameter was moderately associated with silt and clay, and showed antagonism with sand, whereas Norg and phosphorus showed no correlation with them. The organic contribution is purely autochthonous: no anthropogenous contributions were found. PMID:15266816

  7. Geographic distribution and host plants of Raoiella indica and associated mite species in northern Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Vásquez, Carlos; de Moraes, Gilberto J

    2013-05-01

    The red palm mite (RPM), Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), is an invasive pest in the New World, where it is currently considered a serious threat to coconut and banana crops. It was first reported from northern Venezuela in 2007. To determine its current distribution in this country, surveys were carried out from October 2008 to April 2010 on coconut (Cocos nucifera L.), banana (Musa spp.), ornamental plants and weeds in northern Venezuela. Higher population levels of RPM were registered on commercial coconut farms in Falcón and Sucre states but also on other plant species naturally growing along the coastal line in Anzoategui, Aragua, Carabobo, Monagas and Nueva Esparta states. Out of 34 botanical species evaluated, all RPM stages were observed only on eight arecaceous, one musaceous and one streliziaceous species, indicating that the pest developed and reproduced only on these plants. Mite specimens found on weeds were considered spurious events, as immature stages of the pest were never found on these. Amblyseius largoensis (Muma) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) was the most frequent predatory mite associated with RPM in all sampling sites. The results indicate that RPM has spread to extensive areas of northern Venezuela since its initial detection in Güiria, Sucre state. Considering the report of this pest mite in northern Brazil in the late 2009, additional samplings in southern Venezuela should be carried out, to evaluate the possible presence of RPM also in that region. PMID:23065034

  8. [Protozoans in superficial waters and faecal samples of individuals of rural populations of the Montes municipality, Sucre state, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Mora, Leonor; Martínez, Indira; Figuera, Lourdes; Segura, Merlyn; Del Valle, Guilarte

    2010-12-01

    In Sucre state, the Manzanares river is threatened by domestic, agricultural and industrial activities, becoming an environmental risk factor for its inhabitants. In this sense, the presence of protozoans in superficial waters of tributaries of the Manzanares river (Orinoco river, Quebrada Seca, San Juan river), Montes municipality, Sucre state, as well as the analysis of faecal samples from inhabitants of towns bordering these tributaries were evaluated. We collected faecal and water samples from may 2006 through april 2007. The superficial water samples were processed after centrifugation by the direct examination and floculation, using lugol, modified Kinyoun and trichromic colorations. Fecal samples where analyzed by direct examination with physiological saline solution and the modified Ritchie concentration method and using the other colorations techniques above mentioned. The most frequently observed protozoans in superficial waters in the three tributaries were: Amoebas, Blastocystis sp, Endolimax sp., Chilomastix sp. and Giardia sp. Whereas in faecal samples, Blastocystis hominis, Endolimax nana and Entaomeba coli had the greatest frequencies in the three communities. The inhabitants of Orinoco La Peña turned out to be most susceptible to these parasitic infections (77.60%), followed by San Juan River (46.63%) and Quebrada Seca (39.49%). The presence of pathogenic and nonpathogenic protozoans in superficial waters demonstrates the faecal contamination of the tributaries, representing a constant focus of infection for their inhabitants, inferred by the observation of the same species in both types of samples. PMID:21365874

  9. [Abundance and richness of mollusks and crustaceans associated to the submerged roots of red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) at Bocaripo Lagoon, Sucre, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Cedeño, Jennellis; Jiménez Prieto, Mayré; Pereda, Luisana; Allen, Thays

    2010-10-01

    Mangrove roots are important habitats for many species. The abundance and richness of mollusks and crustaceans associated with the roots demerged of Rhizophora mangle was studied. The samples were gathered between February 2005 and January 2006, in Bocaripo lagoon, north coast of Sucre state, Venezuela. Five stations were established inside the lagoon; on every station two roots were chosen at random, put in plastic bags and scraped. The associated organisms were separated by taxa and fixed in 10% formaldehyde. One thousand ninety two specimens of mollusks, distributed in two classes: Bivalve and Gastropod were collected. Bivalve was the most abundant with 943 individuals. The most representative family was Mytilidae with 6 species, being Musculus lateralis the dominant species. The crustaceans were represented by 372 organisms, belonging to the class Malacostraca, where Panopeus herbstii (169 ind.) was the most abundant species. The families Panopeidae, Porcellanidae and Majidae had the highest number of species. Maximum abundance was in February (224 ind.), with a richness of 25 species and the minimums in November (45 ind.) and a richness of 12 species. The stations 1 and 5 presented the major abundance and richness of organisms, which could be related to environmental conditions favorable, as the major availability of microhabitats and nourishing offer; on the contrary the station 4, presented a more inhospitable environment, due to the high values in the salinity and temperature, which contributes with the minor abundance and richness of the present species. PMID:21302531

  10. Temporal variations of heavy metals levels in Perna viridis, on the Chacopata-Bocaripo lagoon axis, Sucre State, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Rafael; Acosta, Vanessa; Segnini, Mary Isabel; Brito, Leonor; Martínez, Gregorio

    2015-02-28

    Perna viridis was used as biomonitor to assess heavy metal levels in the Chacopata-Bocaripo lagoon axis, Venezuela, during rain and drought seasons. The mussels were weighed and measured. The metal concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. For rain period, the order of bioavailability was: Cu>Ni>Mn>Co>Cd>Pb, and for drought: Cu>Mn>Ni>Co>Pb>Cd. The concentrations of Ni, Co, Cd and Pb showed significant differences (P<0.05) in both periods. There was higher metal accumulation during drought season, possibly related to upwelling, since it produces an increase in primary productivity, which translates more food into organisms, making metals bioavailable for mussels. Only Cu and Mn showed significant relationships between the size and metal concentration, during drought period, it may be because of the organisms need for these essential metals in different physiological processes. PMID:25444616

  11. Geographical Distribution of Trypanosoma cruzi Genotypes in Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco, Hernán J.; Segovia, Maikell; Llewellyn, Martin S.; Morocoima, Antonio; Urdaneta-Morales, Servio; Martínez, Cinda; Martínez, Clara E.; Garcia, Carlos; Rodríguez, Marlenes; Espinosa, Raul; de Noya, Belkisyolé A.; Díaz-Bello, Zoraida; Herrera, Leidi; Fitzpatrick, Sinead; Yeo, Matthew; Miles, Michael A.; Feliciangeli, M. Dora

    2012-01-01

    Chagas disease is an endemic zoonosis native to the Americas and is caused by the kinetoplastid protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. The parasite is also highly genetically diverse, with six discrete typing units (DTUs) reported TcI – TcVI. These DTUs broadly correlate with several epidemiogical, ecological and pathological features of Chagas disease. In this manuscript we report the most comprehensive evaluation to date of the genetic diversity of T. cruzi in Venezuela. The dataset includes 778 samples collected and genotyped over the last twelve years from multiple hosts and vectors, including nine wild and domestic mammalian host species, and seven species of triatomine bug, as well as from human sources. Most isolates (732) can be assigned to the TcI clade (94.1%); 24 to the TcIV group (3.1%) and 22 to TcIII (2.8%). Importantly, among the 95 isolates genotyped from human disease cases, 79% belonged to TcI - a DTU common in the Americas, however, 21% belonged to TcIV- a little known genotype previously thought to be rare in humans. Furthermore, were able to assign multiple oral Chagas diseases cases to TcI in the area around the capital, Caracas. We discuss our findings in the context of T. cruzi DTU distributions elsewhere in the Americas, and evaluate the impact they have on the future of Chagas disease control in Venezuela. PMID:22745843

  12. Geographical distribution of Trypanosoma cruzi genotypes in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Hernán J; Segovia, Maikell; Llewellyn, Martin S; Morocoima, Antonio; Urdaneta-Morales, Servio; Martínez, Cinda; Martínez, Clara E; Garcia, Carlos; Rodríguez, Marlenes; Espinosa, Raul; de Noya, Belkisyolé A; Díaz-Bello, Zoraida; Herrera, Leidi; Fitzpatrick, Sinead; Yeo, Matthew; Miles, Michael A; Feliciangeli, M Dora

    2012-01-01

    Chagas disease is an endemic zoonosis native to the Americas and is caused by the kinetoplastid protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. The parasite is also highly genetically diverse, with six discrete typing units (DTUs) reported TcI - TcVI. These DTUs broadly correlate with several epidemiogical, ecological and pathological features of Chagas disease. In this manuscript we report the most comprehensive evaluation to date of the genetic diversity of T. cruzi in Venezuela. The dataset includes 778 samples collected and genotyped over the last twelve years from multiple hosts and vectors, including nine wild and domestic mammalian host species, and seven species of triatomine bug, as well as from human sources. Most isolates (732) can be assigned to the TcI clade (94.1%); 24 to the TcIV group (3.1%) and 22 to TcIII (2.8%). Importantly, among the 95 isolates genotyped from human disease cases, 79% belonged to TcI - a DTU common in the Americas, however, 21% belonged to TcIV- a little known genotype previously thought to be rare in humans. Furthermore, were able to assign multiple oral Chagas diseases cases to TcI in the area around the capital, Caracas. We discuss our findings in the context of T. cruzi DTU distributions elsewhere in the Americas, and evaluate the impact they have on the future of Chagas disease control in Venezuela. PMID:22745843

  13. Venezuela.

    PubMed

    1987-04-01

    The background notes by the U.S. State Department on Venezuela emphasize the unique economic conditions in this oil-rich nation, and include information on its people, geography, history, government politics, defense and foreign relations. Venezuela, located on the north coast of South America, has 17,791,000 people, growing at a rate of 2.7%. Infant mortality is 2.7/1000, and life expectancy is 70 years. Geography ranges from the scarcely populated highlands between the Orinoco river and Guyana, the Orinoco plains, to the populated Andes mountains and coast. 80% of the population is urban. Literacy is a priority at 88.4%; Technical and university education is increasing; emigration from other countries is common because of relatively good working conditions. Venezuela has a long history of self government, having become independent in 1921. Now the democratic constitutional government is effective in improving both internal and regional development and human rights. The economy is based on oil production and refining, as well as steel and aluminum, all nationalized industries. Self-sufficiency in agriculture is a national goal. Because of the rapid population growth rate, however, per capita income and GNP are stagnating. PMID:12177927

  14. Venezuela.

    PubMed

    1982-02-01

    This discussion of Venezuela reviews the following: the history of the country's demographic situation; the government's overall approach to population problems; statistical systems and development planning; institutional arrangements for the integration of population within development planning; the government's view of the importance of population policy in realizing development objectives; population size, growth, and natural increase; morbidity and mortality; fertility; international migration; and spatial distribution. Over the 1920-1961 period Venezuela's level of fertility was high and continued to rise gradually. The crude birth rate was around 40.0/1000 population in 1920, 44.0/1000 in 1950, and 45.0/1000 in 1961, and thereafter began to decline, dropping to a level of 38.4/1000 by 1971. During the same period, mortality underwent a steady decline, with the crude death rate falling from 30.0/1000 population in 1920 to 13.7 in 1950, 7.4 in 1961, and to 6.6 by 1971. Venezuela's government has no policy of intervention to modify fertility or population growth but has relied primarily on the benefits of rapid economic growth to achieve a rate of demographic growth that is compatible with its development objectives. Since 1920, 7 modern censuses have been conducted. The most recent census was in 1971. The registration data are classified as incomplete. Multiround sample household surveys were conducted in 1976-1977 and 1978. The government has not established a special unit for population policies. It assigned this function to the Central Planning Agency in 1975. The government has not announced a comprehensive population policy, but it has been moving in the direction of formulating more comprehensive policies in 2 areas of concern--international migration and spatial distribution. The government considers the current rate of population growth to be satisfactory despite the fact that it is rather high by Latin American standards. The government also considers levels and trends of mortality to be acceptable, given current economic and social circumstances. The government currently considers levels and trends of immigration to be significant and unsatisfactory because they are too high. The country is now more than 75% urban. The government considers the distribution of population within the national territory to be inappropriate and to require substantial modification. PMID:12279318

  15. Global Climate Change Effects on Venezuela's Vulnerability to Chagas Disease is Linked to the Geographic Distribution of Five Triatomine Species.

    PubMed

    Ceccarelli, Soledad; Rabinovich, Jorge E

    2015-11-01

    We analyzed the possible effects of global climate change on the potential geographic distribution in Venezuela of five species of triatomines (Eratyrus mucronatus (Stal, 1859), Panstrongylus geniculatus (Latreille, 1811), Rhodnius prolixus (Stål, 1859), Rhodnius robustus (Larrousse, 1927), and Triatoma maculata (Erichson, 1848)), vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease. To obtain the future potential geographic distributions, expressed as climatic niche suitability, we modeled the presences of these species using two IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) future emission scenarios of global climate change (A1B and B1), the Global Climate model CSIRO Mark 3.0, and three periods of future projections (years 2020, 2060, and 2080). After estimating with the MaxEnt software the future climatic niche suitability for each species, scenario, and period of future projections, we estimated a series of indexes of Venezuela's vulnerability at the county, state, and country level, measured as the number of people exposed due to the changes in the geographical distribution of the five triatomine species analyzed. Despite that this is not a measure of the risk of Chagas disease transmission, we conclude that possible future effects of global climate change on the Venezuelan population vulnerability show a slightly decreasing trend, even taking into account future population growth; we can expect fewer locations in Venezuela where an average Venezuelan citizen would be exposed to triatomines in the next 50-70 yr. PMID:26336258

  16. Epizootics of yellow fever in Venezuela (2004-2005): an emerging zoonotic disease.

    PubMed

    Rifakis, Pedro M; Benitez, Jesus A; De-la-Paz-Pineda, Jose; Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J

    2006-10-01

    Epidemics and epizootics of yellow fever (YF) have been occurring in the border area of eastern Colombia and western Venezuela since 2003; for this reason many epidemiological control measures were adopted by the Ministry of Health (MOH) trying to prevent their spreading. These activities included monkey deaths surveillance as well as immunization of susceptible individuals with YF vaccine. In this setting, we analyzed epidemiological and epizootical issues related to YF in Venezuela during 2004-2005. In this period, YF epizootics occurred initially without geographical links to the 2003 outbreaks (which occurred at the Southern Maracaibo lake epizootic wave), but in relation with the Guayana epizootic wave; beginning in Monagas state and then affecting Anzoátegui, Guárico, and Sucre states. Just months later, Apure was also affected. Mérida and Táchira also report epizootics for the end of 2004. This year concluded with 15 human deaths due to YF and more than 100 howler monkey deaths. In the same year, 715 suspected cases were investigated confirming YF in 0.7% of them. For these reasons, between 2002 and 2004, Venezuela's MOH has vaccinated approximately 1.9 million people in areas considered to be enzootic. The country's goal for 2006 is to have 7 million people residing in high-risk cities and towns vaccinated, and in this way, preventing and controlling this emerging zoonotic disease. PMID:17135494

  17. Les succédanés du sucre durant la grossesse

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Eliza; Koren, Gideon; Bozzo, Pina

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Question J’ai une patiente enceinte qui consomme souvent des succédanés du sucre et elle m’a demandé si cette pratique continue pouvait nuire à sa grossesse ou à son enfant. Que devrais-je lui répondre et existe-t-il d’autres meilleurs choix durant la grossesse? Réponse Il faudrait faire plus de recherche pour déterminer plus exactement les effets de l’exposition aux succédanés du sucre in utero, mais les données disponibles ne laissent pas présager d’effets indésirables durant la grossesse. Toutefois, il est recommandé de consommer des substituts du sucre en quantités modérées et de se conformer aux doses journalières admissibles établies par les organismes de règlementation.

  18. Geothermal reconnaissance of northeastern Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Urbani, F. )

    1989-01-01

    About 60% of Venezuela has been covered by a reconnaissance geothermal survey that includes geologic and water geochemical studies. The information is stored in a computerized data bank that holds data from 361 geothermal localities. The subsurface reservoir temperatures of the geothermal systems have been estimated using chemical geothermometry and mixing models and in many cases conceptual geothermal modes have been postulated. Preliminary assessments of the northeastern Venezuelan geothermal systems indicate that the most promising system is Las Minas near El Pilar in the state of Sucre, with an estimated deep reservoir temperature of 200-220{sup 0}C. Further studies are intended to evaluate its potential for electricity generation. Based on present data, other medium and low temperature systems in Venezuela appear useful for direct applications.

  19. The Bolivarian University of Venezuela: A Radical Alternative in the Global Field of Higher Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivancheva, Mariya

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses paradoxes in the emergent global field of higher education as reflected in an alternative model of the university--the Bolivarian University of Venezuela (UBV) and the related higher education policy, Mision Sucre. With its credo in the applied social sciences, its commitment to popular pedagogy and its dependence on…

  20. Patterns of ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) richness and relative abundance along an aridity gradient in Western Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Sánchez, A J; Lattke, J E; Viloria, A L

    2013-04-01

    In xeric ecosystems, ant diversity response to aridity varies with rainfall magnitude and gradient extension. At a local scale and with low precipitation regimes, increased aridity leads to a reduction of species richness and an increased relative abundance for some ant species. In order to test this pattern in tropical environments, ant richness and relative abundance variation were evaluated along 35 km of an aridity gradient in the Araya Peninsula, state of Sucre, Venezuela. Three sampling stations comprising five transects each were set up. Pitfall traps and direct collecting from vegetation were assessed per transect. Overall, 52 species, 23 genera, and 7 subfamilies of ants were recorded in the peninsula. The total number of species and genera recorded by both sampling stations and transects decreased linearly with increasing aridity. Total relative abundance was highest in the most arid portion of the peninsula, with Crematogaster rochai (Forel) and Camponotus conspicuus zonatus (Emery) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) being the numerically dominant species. Spatial and multivariate analyses revealed significant changes in ant composition every 11 km of distance, and showed a decrease of ant diversity with the increase of harsh conditions in the gradient. Here, we discuss how local geographic and topographic features of Araya originate the aridity gradient and so affect the microhabitat conditions for the ant fauna. PMID:23949745

  1. Undocumented migration to Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Van Roy, R

    1984-01-01

    "In 1980 Venezuela took...steps to regularize the undocumented migrant population. While the number responding to the amnesty was small relative to expectations, the majority of illegals appeared to have regularized their status. For the first time it was possible to assess objectively the characteristics of the undocumented population. Moreover, the problem of illegal migrants seems to have been temporarily solved, a result of both the amnesty and the country's declining economic activity." Topics covered in the present article include the nationality, geographic distribution, sex and age distribution, educational status, and occupations of undocumented migrants. PMID:12339922

  2. Microbial activity in surface sediments of Chacopata-Bocaripo lagoon axis, Sucre State, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Segnini de B, Mary Isabel; Gómez, Irma; Brito, Leonor; Acosta, Vanessa; Troccoli, Luis

    2015-02-28

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the microbial activity of the surface sediments (0-10 cm) of the Chacopata-Bocaripo lagoon axis (Ch-BLA) through microbiological parameters: microbial biomass (Cmic) dehydrogenase activity (DHS), fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis (HFDA), arginine ammonification (AA) and biochemical parameters: phosphatase (PHa) and urease (URa) activity. They were determined during transition (July 2010) and upwelling (March 2011) periods. Total organic carbon (TOC) did not vary significantly (p⩾0.05) between climatic periods. All the parameters studied were higher in upwelling season: Cmic (191.79 mg Cmic kg(-1)), DHS (228.70 μg TFF g(-1) 24 h(-1)), HFDA (204.09 μg fluorescein g(-1) 24 h(-1)), AA (13.09 μg NH4-N g(-1) h(-1)), PHa (132.31 μg pNF g(-1) h(-1)), URa (12.90 μg NH4-N g(-1) h(-1)). They appear to be controlled by the availability and quality of nutrients in each climatic period, and were useful tools for evaluating changes in microbial activity in marine sediments. PMID:25455789

  3. Venezuela`s gas industry poised for long term growth

    SciTech Connect

    Croft, G.D.

    1995-06-19

    Venezuela`s enormous gas resource, combined with a new willingness to invite outside investment, could result in rapid growth in that industry into the next century. The development of liquefied natural gas exports will depend on the future course of gas prices in the US and Europe, but reserves are adequate to supply additional projects beyond the proposed Cristobal Colon project. Venezuela`s gas reserves are likely to increase if exploration for nonassociated gas is undertaken on a larger scale. The paper discusses gas reserves in Venezuela, internal gas markets, the potential for exports, competition from Trinidad, LNG export markets, and the encouragement of foreign investment in the gas industry of Venezuela.

  4. Country watch: Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Koch, R

    1996-01-01

    Since 1990, ACCSI has worked to safeguard the rights of people living with HIV/AIDS in Venezuela. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) had recognized ACCSI's program by 1992, enabling the nongovernmental organization (NGO) to establish fixed office hours during which it can receive clients. ACCSI does not distinguish between people living with HIV/AIDS and others, but considers it important to regulate AIDS as a public health issue within the context of human rights and ethics. Almost all of the Legal Office's initial cases were related to discrimination in the workplace, health centers, and educational institutions, but the ACCSI now also addresses family problems related to adoption, insurance, and inheritance, among others. To cope with the increase in service caseload, services have been extended through collaboration with specialized organizations concerned with human rights, women, children, prisons, and indigenous people. ACCSI influences governmental policy-making through its participation in the National AIDS Program. Moreover, ACCSI's networking activities ensure that the topic of HIV/AIDS and human rights is now always included in seminars and conferences in Venezuela, even when they are concerned with sexually transmitted diseases or other medical issues. Almost every time the press report upon AIDS, they consult the NGO. Everyday more people in Venezuela are standing up for their rights and denouncing discrimination against people infected with HIV. PMID:12347178

  5. Astronomy in Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenzweig, Patricia

    Since the installation of the Observatorio Cagigal in Caracas, astronomy in Venezuela has developed steadily, and, in the last few decades, has been strong. Both theoretical and observational astronomy now flourish in Venezuela. A research group, Grupo de Astrofísica (GA) at the Universidad de Los Andes (ULA) in Mérida, started with few members but now has increased its numbers and undergone many transformations, promoting the creation of the Grupo de Astrofísica Teórica (CAT), and with other collaborators initiated the creation of a graduate study program (that offers master's and doctor's degrees) in the Postgrado de Física Fundamental of ULA. With the financial support of domestic Science Foundations such as CONICIT, CDCHT, Fundacite, and individual and collective grants, many research projects have been started and many others are planned. Venezuelan astronomy has benefitted from the interest of researchers in other countries, who have helped to improve our scientific output and instrumentation. With the important collaboration of national and foreign institutions, astronomy is becoming one of the strongest disciplines of the next decade in Venezuela.

  6. Enzootic Transmission of Yellow Fever Virus, Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Auguste, Albert J.; Lemey, Philippe; Bergren, Nicholas A.; Giambalvo, Dileyvic; Moncada, Maria; Morón, Dulce; Hernandez, Rosa; Navarro, Juan-Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of yellow fever virus (YFV) strains isolated from Venezuela strongly supports YFV maintenance in situ in Venezuela, with evidence of regionally independent evolution within the country. However, there is considerable YFV movement from Brazil to Venezuela and between Trinidad and Venezuela. PMID:25531105

  7. Geographical DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojtanowicz, Pawe?

    2012-01-01

    The article shows the results of a study undertaken to search for a model illustrating the development of geographical thought. The created model, formulated with a triad that defines geography: human being-space-time, displays levels merging geographical sciences. These joining elements created by geographers, more or less consciously cooperating with the representatives of other sciences, seem to be the essence of the unity of the continuously spreading study range of geography.

  8. Geographic tongue

    MedlinePLUS

    Patches on the tongue; Tongue - patchy; Benign migratory glossitis; Glossitis - benign migratory ... The exact cause of geographic tongue is unknown. It may be caused by a lack of vitamin B. It also may be due to irritation from hot ...

  9. Geographical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Norman J.

    1981-01-01

    This annual review discusses works relevant to geographical education published in Europe, North America, Australia, Japan, and Africa. The journal is available from Edward Arnold (publishers) Ltd., 41 Bedford Square, London WC1B 3DQ England. (RM)

  10. [Community structure of bivalves and gastropods in roots of red mangrove Rhizophora mangle (Rhizophoraceae) in isla Larga, Mochima Bay, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Acosta Balbas, Vanessa; Betancourt Tineo, Rafael; Prieto Arcas, Antulio

    2014-06-01

    The Rhizophora mangle roots form a complex ecosystem where a wide range of organisms are permanently established, reproduce, and find refuge. In this study, we assessed the diversity of bivalves and gastropods that inhabit red mangrove roots, in isla Larga, Mochima, Venezuela Sucre state. Bimonthly collections were made from January 2007 to May 2008, in four study areas denominated: South, North, East and West. In each area, five mangrove roots were sampled, and the specimens were obtained. We analyzed a total of 180 roots and a total of 35 bivalve species and 25 gastropod species were found. The most abundant bivalves were: Isognomon alatus, Isognomon bicolor, Ostrea equestris, Crassostrea rhizophorae and Brachidontes exustus; among gastropods, the most common where: Littorina angulifera, (Cymatium pileare and Diodora cayenensis. The months with the highest abundances and number of individuals for both groups were January and July 2007, and March 2008. The mangrove ecosystem in isla Larga, presented a number of individuals and species higher than those reported for other regions in Venezuela and the Caribbean. PMID:25102639

  11. Historical Earthquakes As Examples To Assess The Seismic Hazard In The Eastern Region of Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, J.; Posadas, A.; Avendaño, J.; Sierra, R.; Bonive, F.

    The North-East region of Venezuela lies on the border of the friction zone between the Caribbean and South-American tectonic plates, a source of great seismicity. The first written news of an earthquake in the American Continent were those of the earth- quake of september 1530 which caused damage to Cumaná, the first town of that Continent. Since then a continuous series of earthquakes have been reported, many of them with damaging effects on Cumaná; those caused in the 1929 earthquake (17-01- 1929; with IX Mercalli degrees) were well described by Sidney Paige in the Vo. 20 of the B.S.S.A., March, 1930. An earthquake of magnitude 5.9 {11-06-1986; 10.26z N,63.29z W} was the trigger for the Unesco`s intention to declare the Estado Sucre as a pilot zone for seismological studies. In 1991 a report issued by the International Institute of Earthquake Prediction Theory and Matematical Geophysics (Academy of Sciences, U.R.S.S.) stated that the ocurrence of an earthquake of great magnitude which could affect the North-East region of Venezuela was possible. Other studies of the seismicity of the region have been carried out. The interest of the authorities and of the seismologists reached a peak with the earthquake of july 1997 (10.456z N, 63.555z W), with a magnitude of 6.9; there was a death toll of 73, around 528 people injured and more than 2000 houses needed to be completely rebuilt. A study of micro- zonification of the city of Cumaná has been carried out recently and the results of this study will be presented also to this Congress.

  12. Venezuela offshore oil and gas production development: Past, present and future

    SciTech Connect

    Perez La Salvia, H.; Schwartz, E.; Contreras, M.; Rodriguez, J.I.; Febres, G.; Gajardo, E.

    1995-12-01

    This paper presents a short history of offshore oil and gas production in Venezuela starting in Lake Maracaibo in 1923. The main emphasis has been the results of the recent R and D and the exploratory offshore programs in areas like Orinoco Delta located in the Atlantic Ocean, Northeast and Northwest Venezuela in the Caribbean sea. In the R and D offshore program the main objectives were: (1) To establish the local environmental, oceanographical, geotechnical and seismicity conditions for the Venezuelan Continental Platform. (2) To give a technical support to the PDVSA Operating Affiliates during the exploratory programs including: (a) to develop accurate drilling vessel positioning systems; (b) evaluation of sea bottom geotechnical conditions for safely operating the jack-ups and drilling vessels involved in the exploratory wells and (c) to identify those areas which because of their special nature require further investigation to establish preliminary type of platforms required for the areas to be developed or to evaluate other solutions proposed by Foreign Consultant Engineering Companies to the PDVSA Operating Affiliated Companies. The main objective of PDVSA for the coming future will be to develop the North of Paria Gas Field through the initially named Christopher Columbus Project now Sucre Gas, S.A., a consortium conformed by LaGoven, S.A. Shell, Exxon and Mitsubishi. objective of this paper is to give an idea of the history of the Venezuelan Oil and Gas Offshore development giving emphasis to the results of the INTEVEP S.A. Red offshore program and to show some results of the particular characteristics of oceanographical, environmental, geotechnical and seismic conditions in the main areas evaluated during the exploratory program: Orinoco Delta, Gulf of Paria and North of Paria.

  13. Venezuela. America = Las Americas [Series].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor; Avery, Robert S.

    This bilingual English/Spanish social studies resource booklet provides an encyclopedia-style overview of Venezuela's history, geography, economy, and culture for teachers to use with migrant children in the elementary grades. Topics presented in the English portion include climate, land, people, customs, government, arts, food, culture, wildlife,…

  14. Venezuela. America = Las Americas [Series].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor; Avery, Robert S.

    This bilingual English/Spanish social studies resource booklet provides an encyclopedia-style overview of Venezuela's history, geography, economy, and culture for teachers to use with migrant children in the elementary grades. Topics presented in the English portion include climate, land, people, customs, government, arts, food, culture, wildlife,…

  15. Zonation of hydric regimens in Venezuela based on rainfall characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobo, D.; Verbist, K.; Gabriels, D.; Puche, M.; Bracho, G.; Soto, G.; Santibañez, F.

    2012-04-01

    The climate in Venezuela is a product of a complex combination and interaction of meteorological and geographical factors such as the geographic location either north of Ecuador or in the tropics, and the presence of warm waters north and northeast, a vast tropical moist forest south and a mountain range west. In order to delimit the different climatic zones in Venezuela, a zoning of water regimes were used to classify climate indices primarily on rainfall parameters. A first index used was the length of a dry period, corresponding to the number of months in the year when precipitation is less than half of the reference evapotranspiration. Another index was the Aridity Index (Ia) proposed by UNEP (1997), for which calculations were based on values of average annual rainfall of the stations of the FAO database (1984, 2000). The reference evapotranspiration (ETo) was calculated by the CIRH program version 2.0 (Santibanez, 2005), which allows the calculation of ETo by the FAO (Allen et al.1998) or by the original Penman-Monteith formula, by Thornthwaite (1948), Turc (1961) or by Ivanov (1996). The results show that the distribution of the climatic regimes of Venezuela is determined by rainfall patterns. The central region is dominated by a sub-humid regime surrounded by a humid regime. The southern region is dominated by hyper-humid, hydric and hyper-hydric regimes, as well as the most western and eastern regions. In the northern and central-western regions the semiarid, arid and hyper-arid regimes dominate.

  16. Paleoseismology in Venezuela: Objectives, methods, applications, limitations and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audemard M., Franck A.

    2005-10-01

    The privileged location of Venezuela along an active interplate deformation belt, despite of being a "so-called" developing country, has led to a long paleoseismic tradition as attested by 45 trench assessments since 1968. Since then, a first 2-trench study was carried out by the American Woodward-Clyde company across the Oca fault at Sinamaica. Since 1980, all further paleoseismic studies have been performed by FUNVISIS and the Uribante-Caparo hydroelectric project (southern Mérida Andes) became their first assessment where 22 huge trenches were bulldozer-dug. Except for these Compañía Anónima de Administración y Fomento Eléctrico (CADAFE) financed trenches and two others, all other assessments were for Petróleos de Venezuela S. A. -PDVSA-. In this paper, geographic and geologic factors, as well as logistic limitations, conditioning success in paleoseismic studies by trenching, shall be discussed based on the Venezuelan experience developed over the years. The scientific contribution of this approach refer to: confirmation of Holocene fault activity, slip-per-event and average slip rate of a given fault (or segment), seismic potential (repeat of maximum credible earthquakes) of known faults, fault segmentation, fault interaction as consequence of stress loading by stick-slip on contiguous faults, time-space distribution of seismic activity along a given tectonic feature, seismotectonic association of historical earthquakes and landscape evolution on the short term and its implications on the long-term evolution (poorly discussed since this is really part of the field of Neotectonics). In recent years (since 1999), a new approach has been introduced in Venezuela consisting in complementing the seismic history derived from trenching studies with the evaluation of seismically induced perturbations in the continuous Quaternary sedimentary record of (either active or fossil) lakes. The future of this discipline in Venezuela heads to more trenching and lake coring in order to gather more data on the previously mentioned aspects. Other paleoseismic approaches have been developed very little in Venezuela since either climate or the geodynamic setting do not favor their application.

  17. Family cluster of Mayaro fever, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Torres, Jaime R; Russell, Kevin L; Vasquez, Clovis; Barrera, Roberto; Tesh, Robert B; Salas, Rosalba; Watts, Douglas M

    2004-07-01

    A cluster of protracted migratory polyarthritis involving four adult family members occurred in January 2000 after a brief overnight outing in a rural area of Venezuela. Laboratory testing demonstrated Mayaro virus as the cause of the cluster. These results documented the first human cases of Mayaro virus in Venezuela. PMID:15324555

  18. Hydrocarbon potential of Central Monagas, Eastern Venezuela Basin, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Barrios, F.; Daza, J.; Iusco, G.

    1996-08-01

    The Central Monagas area is part of the foreland sub-basin located on the southern flank of the Eastern Venezuela Basin. The sedimentary column of the Central Monagas is at least 7500 in thick and consists of Mesozoic (Cretaceous) and Cenozoic rocks. Interpretations of 60 regional seismic sections have been integrated with data from 12 existing wells, which cover an area of 1200 km{sup 2}. From these interpretations, basin-wide structure and interval isopach maps were constructed in order to aid the depiction of the basin architecture and tectonic history. The sub-basin developed on the southern flank of the Eastern Venezuela Basin is tightly linked to its evolution from a Mesozoic extensional regime into a Cenozoic compressional and strike-slip stage. The basin formed in the Middle Mesozoic by crustal extension of a rifting process. Regional northward tilting of the slab continued during the Late Cretaceous. Finally, the transpression of the Caribbean Plate during the Oligocene-Neogene induced the overprint of compressional deformation associated with the deposition of a foredeep wedge. Geochemical source rock analysis gave an average of 1.2 TOC, and R{sub o} of 0.66 indicating a mature, marine source. The modeling of the hydrocarbon generative history of the basin indicates that the oil migration started in the Middle Miocene, after the trap was formed. Analysis and mapping of reservoir rocks and seal rocks defined the effective area limits of these critical factors. The main play in the area is the extension of the Lower Oficina Formation which is the proven petroleum target in the Eastern Venezuela Basin.

  19. Triatoma maculata, the Vector of Trypanosoma cruzi, in Venezuela. Phenotypic and Genotypic Variability as Potential Indicator of Vector Displacement into the Domestic Habitat

    PubMed Central

    García-Alzate, Roberto; Lozano-Arias, Daisy; Reyes-Lugo, Rafael Matías; Morocoima, Antonio; Herrera, Leidi; Mendoza-León, Alexis

    2014-01-01

    Triatoma maculata is a wild vector of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease; its incursion in the domestic habitat is scant. In order to establish the possible domestic habitat of T. maculata, we evaluated wing variability and polymorphism of genotypic markers in subpopulations of T. maculata that live in different habitats in Venezuela. As markers, we used the mtCyt b gene, previously apply to evaluate population genetic structure in triatomine species, and the β-tubulin gene region, a marker employed to study genetic variability in Leishmania subgenera. Adults of T. maculata were captured in the period 2012–2013 at domestic, peridomestic (PD), and wild areas of towns in the Venezuelan states of Anzoátegui, Bolívar, Portuguesa, Monagas, Nueva Esparta, and Sucre. The phenotypic analysis was conducted through the determination of the isometric size and conformation of the left wing of each insect (492 individuals), using the MorphoJ program. Results reveal that insects of the domestic habitat showed significant reductions in wing size and variations in anatomical characteristics associated with flying, in relation to the PD and wild habitats. The largest variability was found in Anzoátegui and Monagas. The genotypic variability was assessed by in silico sequence comparison of the molecular markers and PCR-RFLP assays, demonstrating a marked polymorphism for the markers in insects of the domestic habitat in comparison with the other habitats. The highest polymorphism was found for the β-tubulin marker with enzymes BamHI and KpnI. Additionally, the infection rate by T. cruzi was higher in Monagas and Sucre (26.8 and 37.0%, respectively), while in domestic habitats the infestation rate was highest in Anzoátegui (22.3%). Results suggest domestic habitat colonization by T. maculata that in epidemiological terms, coupled with the presence in this habitat of nymphs of the vector, represents a high risk of transmission of Chagas disease. PMID:25325053

  20. [Geographic data for Neotropical bats (Chiroptera)].

    PubMed

    Noguera-Urbano, Elkin A; Escalante, Tania

    2014-03-01

    The global effort to digitize biodiversity occurrence data from collections, museums and other institutions has stimulated the development of important tools to improve the knowledge and conservation of biodiversity. The Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) enables and opens access to biodiversity data of 321 million of records, from 379 host institutions. Neotropical bats are a highly diverse and specialized group, and the geographic information about them is increasing since few years ago, but there are a few reports about this topic. The aim of this study was to analyze the number of digital records in GBIF of Neotropical bats with distribution in 21 American countries, evaluating their nomenclatural and geographical consistence at scale of country. Moreover, we evaluated the gaps of information on 1 degrees latitude x 1 degrees longitude grids cells. There were over 1/2 million records, but 58% of them have no latitude and longitude data; and 52% full fit nomenclatural and geographic evaluation. We estimated that there are no records in 54% of the analyzed area; the principal gaps are in biodiversity hotspots like the Colombian and Brazilian Amazonia and Southern Venezuela. In conclusion, our study suggests that available data on GBIF have nomenclatural and geographic biases. GBIF data represent partially the bat species richness and the main gaps in information are in South America. PMID:24912354

  1. An Example of Educational Transformation: Venezuela.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cirigliano, Gustavo F. J.

    1979-01-01

    Presents a case study of educational development in Venezuela, with emphasis on political and cultural influences, social needs, needs of developing nations, experimentation on all levels, fellowship programs, and projections for the future. (DB)

  2. Thinking Like a Geographer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chernosky, Margaret Shaw

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an activity that engages the student in the geographic inquiry process, the student acquires geographic data and analyzes geographic information to answer a geographic question. The question is: "Do students in my class have place name mastery of the 50 states?" The activity assesses students' geo-literacy and shows the…

  3. Reformulated gasoline deal with Venezuela draws heat

    SciTech Connect

    Begley, R.

    1994-04-06

    A fight is brewing in Congress over a deal to let Venezuela off the hook in complying with the Clean Air Act reformulated gasoline rule. When Venezuela threatened to call for a GATT panel to challenge the rule as a trade barrier, the Clinton Administration negotiated to alter the rule, a deal that members of Congress are characterizing as {open_quotes}secret{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}back door.{close_quotes}

  4. An Energy Overview of Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    anon.

    2003-10-20

    The DOE Office of Fossil Energy is maintaining a web site that is meant to provide useful business- and energy-related information about countries and regions of the world for exporters, project developers, and researchers. The site consists of more than 130 country pages (organized into seven different world regions), with each country page having its own set of links to information sources about that country. There are also more than 30 Country Energy Overviews at the web site -- each of these is a comprehensive review of a specific country's entire energy situation, including sections on Energy Policy, Oil, Natural Gas, Coal, Hydroelectric/Renewables, Nuclear Power, Energy Transmission Infrastructure, Electricity, Electric Industry Overview, Environmental Activities, Privatization, Trade, and Economic Situation. The specific country highlighted in this Country Energy Overview is Venezuela. The site is designed to be dynamic. Updates to the overviews will be made as need and resources permit.

  5. Male sex pheromones and the phylogeographic structure of the Lutzomyia longipalpis species complex (Diptera: Psychodidae) from Brazil and Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Watts, Phillip C; Hamilton, J Gordon C; Ward, Richard D; Noyes, Harry A; Souza, Nataly A; Kemp, Stephen J; Feliciangeli, M Dora; Brazil, Reginaldo; Maingon, Rhayza D C

    2005-10-01

    Lutzomyia longipalpis, a sibling complex, is the main vector of Leishmania chagasi/infantum. Discriminating between siblings is important as they may differ in vectorial capacity. Lutzomyia longipalpis populations display distinct male sex pheromone chemotypes. We investigated the phylogeographic pattern of variation at microsatellite loci from 11 populations from Brazil and Venezuela related to their male pheromone. Temporal genetic differentiation was mostly not significant at the same site. Spatial genetic differentiation was, however, strong, although there was only a weak relationship between genetic differentiation and the geographic distance separating the samples (r2 < 0.10); geographic separation explained a much greater (54-97%) percentage of the genetic differences among populations when samples with the same pheromone type were analyzed separately. A cluster analysis showed five groups: Lu. cruzi (Brazil) and Lu. pseudolongipalpis (Venezuela) as separate species, two (mostly 9-methyl-germacrene-B) Venezuelan and Brazilian groups, and a very distinct cluster of Brazilian cembrene populations. PMID:16222018

  6. Geographic Media Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukinbeal, Chris

    2014-01-01

    While the use of media permeates geographic research and pedagogic practice, the underlying literacies that link geography and media remain uncharted. This article argues that geographic media literacy incorporates visual literacy, information technology literacy, information literacy, and media literacy. Geographic media literacy is the ability…

  7. Geographic Media Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukinbeal, Chris

    2014-01-01

    While the use of media permeates geographic research and pedagogic practice, the underlying literacies that link geography and media remain uncharted. This article argues that geographic media literacy incorporates visual literacy, information technology literacy, information literacy, and media literacy. Geographic media literacy is the ability…

  8. Multidata remote sensing approach to regional geologic mapping in Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, R.N.

    1996-08-01

    Remote Sensing played an important role in evaluating the exploration potential of selected lease blocks in Venezuela. Data sets used ranged from regional Landsat and airborne radar (SLAR) surveys to high-quality cloud-free air photos for local but largely inaccessible terrains. The resulting data base provided a framework for the conventional analyses of surface and subsurface information available to the project team. (1) Regional surface geology and major structural elements were interpreted from Landsat MSS imagery supplemented by TM and a regional 1:250,000 airborne radar (SLAR) survey. Evidence of dextral offset, en echelon folds and major thoroughgoing faults suggest a regional transpressional system modified by local extension and readjustment between small-scale crustal blocks. Surface expression of the major structural elements diminishes to the east, but can often be extended beneath the coastal plain by drainage anomalies and subtle geomorphic trends. (2) Environmental conditions were mapped using the high resolution airborne radar images which were used to relate vegetation types to surface texture and elevation; wetlands, outcrop and cultural features to image brightness. Additional work using multispectral TM or SPOT imagery is planned to more accurately define environmental conditions and provide a baseline for monitoring future trends. (3) Offshore oil seeps were detected using ERS-1 satellite radar (SAR) and known seeps in the Gulf of Paria as analogs. While partially successful, natural surfactants, wind shadow and a surprising variety of other phenomena created {open_quotes}false alarms{close_quotes} which required other supporting data and field sampling to verify the results. Key elements of the remote sensing analyses will be incorporated into a comprehensive geographic information (GIS) which will eventually include all of Venezuela.

  9. Venezuela slates second oil field revival round

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-07

    This paper reports that Venezuela will accept bids under a second round next year from private foreign and domestic companies for production contracts to operate marginal active as well as inactive oil fields. The first such round came earlier this year, involving about 55 other marginal, inactive fields. It resulted in two contractors signed with domestic and foreign companies. It represented the first time since nationalization of the petroleum industry in Venezuela in 1976 that private companies were allowed to produce oil in the country. A public bid tender was expected at presstime last week.

  10. [Selenium content in the blood cattle from Venezuela. I. Central and Portugueste zones].

    PubMed

    Otaiza, E R; Valeri, H; Cumare, V

    1977-06-01

    Whole blood concentrations of selenium were determined in 776 dairy cows and calves from 28 farms located in three States (Aragua, Carabobo and Guárico) of the central zone of Venezuela and in Portuguesa State. Selenium levels largely varied according to both the geographic distribution and animals breed. Cattle from Guárico State showed the lowest average concentration (0.21 ppm) and those from Portuguesa the highest one (0.67 ppm). A group of animals from Turén (a District of Portuguesa State) showed the highest average concentration (1.64 ppm, range 1.02 +/- to 3.24 ppm). Concentrations of this magnitude in animals under grazing conditions could be related to high levels of selenium either in the soil or in the pasture. It is concluded that such animals are localized inaseleniferous zone (Turén). It must be noted that Jaffé et al. (op. cit.) found high levels of selenium in sesame seeds (Sesamum indicum) from this area and in blood and urine samples of children from Villa Bruzual, a little town of Turén. The results of this wok significantly differ from those obtained in other countries (of Europe and North America), where animals are managed under conditions very different from those of the tropical areas like Venezuela. The role this factor is discussed. This is the first report on blood levels in large animals of economical importance in Venezuela. PMID:931500

  11. Mastery: A Lesson from Maria in Venezuela

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Sandra Anez; Powell, Norman W.

    2012-01-01

    Children who have been born into poverty or into at-risk circumstances are often considered "disposable" and not a societal priority. These youngsters have few advocates and limited successful options in life. In the city of Maracaibo, Venezuela, there is a large population of Amerindians who are called Guajiros. These indigenous people have…

  12. Venezuela natural gas for vehicles project

    SciTech Connect

    Marsicobetre, D.; Molero, T.

    1998-12-31

    The Natural Gas for Vehicles (NGV) Project in Venezuela describes the development and growth of the NGV project in the country. Venezuela is a prolific oil producer with advanced exploration, production, refining and solid marketing infrastructure. Gas production is 5.2 Bscfd. The Venezuelan Government and the oil state owned company Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA), pursued the opportunity of using natural gas for vehicles based on the huge amounts of gas reserves present and produced every day associated with the oil production. A nationwide gas pipeline network crosses the country from south to west reaching the most important cities and serving domestic and industrial purposes but there are no facilities to process or export liquefied natural gas. NGV has been introduced gradually in Venezuela over the last eight years by PDVSA. One hundred forty-five NGV stations have been installed and another 25 are under construction. Work done comprises displacement or relocation of existing gasoline equipment, civil work, installation and commissioning of equipment. The acceptance and usage of the NGV system is reflected in the more than 17,000 vehicles that have been converted to date using the equivalent of 2,000 bbl oil/day.

  13. Mastery: A Lesson from Maria in Venezuela

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Sandra Anez; Powell, Norman W.

    2012-01-01

    Children who have been born into poverty or into at-risk circumstances are often considered "disposable" and not a societal priority. These youngsters have few advocates and limited successful options in life. In the city of Maracaibo, Venezuela, there is a large population of Amerindians who are called Guajiros. These indigenous people have…

  14. The history of aeronautical medicine in Venezuela

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iriarte, D. R.

    1986-01-01

    The Aerial Medical Service of the Ministry of Transportation and Communications of Venezuela was created on June 1949, and later became the Department of Aeronautical Medicine. Its functions include the medical examinations of future pilots, navigators and flight engineers. The importance of good mental and physical health in all flight and ground personnel to ensure the safety of air travel is discussed.

  15. Revised seismic history of the El Pilar fault, Northeastern Venezuela, from the Cariaco 1997 earthquake and recent preliminary paleoseismic results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audemard, Franck A.

    2007-07-01

    In light of the July 9, 1997, Cariaco earthquake, it is clearly understood now that damage in the city of Cumaná located in northeastern Venezuela and frequently destroyed by the largest earthquakes since the first recorded event in 1530 is strongly enhanced by poor soil conditions that, in turn, are responsible for site amplification and widespread earthquake-induced effects. Therefore, most previous macroseismic studies of historical earthquakes must be revaluated because those localized high-intensity values at Cumaná surely led to the misestimation of past epicenters. Preliminary paleoseismic results, gathered at three exploratory trenches dug across the surface break of the Cariaco 1997 earthquake in 1998, allow us to associate the 1684 earthquake with this recently ruptured fault segment that extends between the towns of San Antonio del Golfo and Río Casanay (roughly between the two gulfs of Cariaco and Paria, state of Sucre). Other major results from the reassessment of the seismic history of this fault are: (a) the 1766 event seems to have generated in a different source to the El Pilar fault because the size of the felt area suggests that it is an intermediate-depth earthquake; (b) damage to Cumaná produced by the 1797 event suggests that this was a local earthquake, perhaps equivalent to the 1929 earthquake, which ruptured for some 30 km just east of Cumaná into the Gulf of Cariaco; and (c) seismogenic association of the 1530 and 1853 earthquakes still remains unclear but it is very likely that these ruptures occurred offshore, as suggested by the rather large tsunami waves that both events have generated, placing their hypocenters west of Cumaná in the Cariaco Trough. This reassessment also sheds light into the El Pilar fault segmentation and the behavior of its seismogenic barriers through time.

  16. Environmental geographic information system.

    SciTech Connect

    Peek, Dennis; Helfrich, Donald Alan; Gorman, Susan

    2010-08-01

    This document describes how the Environmental Geographic Information System (EGIS) was used, along with externally received data, to create maps for the Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement (SWEIS) Source Document project. Data quality among the various classes of geographic information system (GIS) data is addressed. A complete listing of map layers used is provided.

  17. Situating Economic Geographical Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Trevor J.

    2006-01-01

    This article makes an argument for an economic geographical pedagogy that is post-disciplinary, emphasizing non-hierarchical, student-based knowledge, disciplinary interconnectedness, epistemological plurality, and material embodiedness and embeddedness. Key to this conception of economic geographical pedagogy are recent writings of Timothy…

  18. Applied geointegration to hydrocarbon exploration in the San Pedro-Machango Area, Maracaibo Basin, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Fonseca, A.; Navarro, A.; Osorio, R.; Corvo, F.; Arismendi, J.

    1996-08-01

    Hydrocarbon exploration has nowadays a diversity of technological resources to capture, merge and interpret information from diverse sources. To accomplish this, the integration of geodata for modeling was done through the use of new technologies like Remote Sensing and Geographical Systems of Information and applied to the San Pedro-Machango area, located in the Serrania de Trujillo, west of Costa Bolivar (onshore), eastern Maracaibo Basin, Venezuela. The main purpose of this work was to optimize the design of an exploration program in harmony with environmental conservation procedures. Starting with satellital and radar images that incorporated geophysical, geological and environmental information, they then were analyzed and merged to improve the lithological, structural and tectonic interpretation, generating an integrated model that allowed better project design. The use of a system that combines information of geographical, geodetical, geophysical and geological origins with satellital and radar images produced up to date cartography and refined results of image interpretation.

  19. [Growth and survival of the green mussel P. viridis (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) in bottom culture conditions in Turpialito, Golfo de Cariaco, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Acosta, Vanessa; Montes, Marbelis; Cortez, Roraysi; Guevara, Miguel; Lodeiros, César

    2012-12-01

    Mussels represent one of the most important mollusk species for culture activities around the world, and their growth may depend on the culture system used and locality. In this study, we evaluated the growth of Perna viridis in bottom culture to test its performance when using natural food, and to decide its use as a culture species in the Gulf of Cariaco. For this, mussel seeds (35.81 +/- 1.41 mm in length) were obtained in the locality of Guaca (North coast of Sucre state) and transferred to the Hydrobiological Station of Turpialito, Gulf of Cariaco, Sucre state, Venezuela, where they were planted in "Spanish baskets" to evaluate their growth between July 2007 and February 2008. Monthly survival was determined and the maximum shell length, dry mass of muscle and remains tissues of the gonad. The environmental parameters (water temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll a, total seston and organic fraction), in the cultivation area were determined every 15 days. Monthly measurements were made of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates to seston. During the entire study the mussels showed continued growth, ultimately reaching a maximum length of 78.7 +/- 4.43 mm. However, the growth rate of the dry mass of somatic (muscle, other tissue) and reproductive tissues showed variability throughout the study, and observed a significant increase by the end of the experiment. The observed variations in the growth rate of the reproductive tissue mass depended on the reserves accumulated and food offered by the environment. The organic seston throughout the experience showed an independence of temperature and chlorophyll a values; this one maintained values above 1 mg/L, thus forming the main food resource for mussels. The high content of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates observed in the seston at the end of the study, might be mainly associated with coastal upwelling, which provides a great food contribution of phytoplankton and organic type. The high survival rate (>80%), increase in the length of the shell and the high gonad production, suggests an excellent physiological condition of P. viridis, related to the availability and quality of food particularly the organic type present in the medium. We concluded that the bottom culture can provide an alternative aquaculture production in the Gulf of Cariaco. PMID:23342526

  20. Astrometry and Geostationary Satellites in Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacruz, E.; Abad, C.

    2015-10-01

    We present the current status and the first results of the astrometric project CIDA - ABAE for tracking geo-stationary satellites. This project aims to determine a preliminary orbit for the Venezuelan satellite VENESAT-1, using astrometric positions obtained from an optical telescope. The results presented here are based on observations from the Luepa space tracking ground station in Venezuela, which were processed using astrometric procedures.

  1. Geographic names of Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Board on Geographic Names; Department of the Interior; Burrill, Meredith F.; Bertrand, Kenneth J.; Alberts, Fred G.

    1956-01-01

    The geographic nomenclature of Antarctica was long in need of an overall systematic treatment, objective in approach and based upon thorough examination of all the evidence. The results of such treatment over a period of about three years were presented in Geographical Names of Antarctica, Special Publication No. 86 of the Board on Geographical Names, in May 1947, two supplements to which were issued in 1949 and 1951. The continuing program since that publication has now covered most of the geographic naming in Antarctica. As research has filled in many of the previous gaps in knowledge, a number of names have been modified and minor amendments have been made in the policies. This revised publication brings together the greatly enlarged body of names officially standardized for use by the United States Government, together with new pertinent background information.

  2. Geographic Names Information System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1984-01-01

    The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is an automated data system developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to standardize and disseminate information on geographic names. GNIS provides primary information for all known places, features, and areas in the United States identified by a proper name. The information in the system can be manipulated to meet varied needs. You can incorporate information from GNIS into your own data base for special applications.

  3. Critical Pedagogy and Empowering in Teacher Education in Venezuela.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chacon, Carmen T.; Alvarez, Luisa Cristina

    This paper addresses the issue of the relationship between critical pedagogy and English as a foreign language (EFL) in Venezuela. Teacher-researchers have come to see the issues confronting nonnative educators in ELT as a more important issue than in previous years. They are particularly concerned about the current situation in Venezuela

  4. Using the Five Themes of Geography to Teach about Venezuela.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunal, Cynthia Szymanski; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that Venezuela has many U.S. ties because of its relative proximity and economic significance. Asserts that the Five Themes of Geography can be used to design effective classroom lessons about Venezuela. Presents five activities that include student objectives, necessary materials, and step-by-step instructional procedures. (CFR)

  5. Language Planning for Venezuela: The Role of English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelsey, Irving; Serrano, Jose

    A rationale for teaching foreign languages in Venezuelan schools is discussed. An included sociolinguistic profile of Venezuela indicates that Spanish is the sole language of internal communication needs. Other languages spoken in Venezuela serve primarily a group function among the immigrant and indigenous communities. However, the teaching of…

  6. Common Distribution Patterns of Marsupials Related to Physiographical Diversity in Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Ventura, Jacint; Bagaria, Guillem; Sans-Fuentes, Maria Assumpció; Pérez-Hernández, Roger

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify significant biotic regions (groups of areas with similar biotas) and biotic elements (groups of taxa with similar distributions) for the marsupial fauna in a part of northern South America using physiographical areas as Operational Geographical Units (OGUs). We considered Venezuela a good model to elucidate this issue because of its high diversity in landscapes and the relatively vast amount of information available on the geographical distribution of marsupial species. Based on the presence-absence of 33 species in 15 physiographical sub-regions (OGUs) we identified Operational Biogeographical Units (OBUs) and chorotypes using a quantitative analysis that tested statistical significance of the resulting groups. Altitudinal and/or climatic trends in the OBUs and chorotypes were studied using a redundancy analysis. The classification method revealed four OBUs. Strong biotic boundaries separated: i) the xerophytic zone of the Continental coast (OBU I); ii) the sub-regions north of the Orinoco River (OBU III and IV); and those south to the river (OBU II). Eleven chorotypes were identified, four of which included a single species with a restricted geographic distribution. As for the other chorotypes, three main common distribution patterns have been inferred: i) species from the Llanos and/or distributed south of the Orinoco River; ii) species exclusively from the Andes; and iii) species that either occur exclusively north of the Orinoco River or that show a wide distribution throughout Venezuela. Mean altitude, evapotranspiration and precipitation of the driest month, and temperature range allowed us to characterize environmentally most of the OBUs and chorotypes obtained. PMID:24806452

  7. Geographic Information Systems.

    PubMed

    Wieczorek, William F; Delmerico, Alan M

    2009-01-01

    This chapter presents an overview of the development, capabilities, and utilization of geographic information systems (GIS). There are nearly an unlimited number of applications that are relevant to GIS because virtually all human interactions, natural and man-made features, resources, and populations have a geographic component. Everything happens somewhere and the location often has a role that affects what occurs. This role is often called spatial dependence or spatial autocorrelation, which exists when a phenomenon is not randomly geographically distributed. GIS has a number of key capabilities that are needed to conduct a spatial analysis to assess this spatial dependence. This chapter presents these capabilities (e.g., georeferencing, adjacency/distance measures, overlays) and provides a case study to illustrate how GIS can be used for both research and planning. Although GIS has developed into a relatively mature application for basic functions, development is needed to more seamlessly integrate spatial statistics and models.The issue of location, especially the geography of human activities, interactions between humanity and nature, and the distribution and location of natural resources and features, is one of the most basic elements of scientific inquiry. Conceptualizations and physical maps of geographic space have existed since the beginning of time because all human activity takes place in a geographic context. Representing objects in space, basically where things are located, is a critical aspect of the natural, social, and applied sciences. Throughout history there have been many methods of characterizing geographic space, especially maps created by artists, mariners, and others eventually leading to the development of the field of cartography. It is no surprise that the digital age has launched a major effort to utilize geographic data, but not just as maps. A geographic information system (GIS) facilitates the collection, analysis, and reporting of spatial data and related phenomena. The capabilities of GIS are much more than just mapping, although map production is one of the most utilized features. GIS applications are relevant in a tremendous number of areas ranging from basic geographic inventories to simulation models.This chapter presents a general overview of geographic information system topics. The purpose is to provide the reader with a basic understanding of a GIS, the types of data that are needed, the basic functionality of these systems, the role of spatial analysis, and an example in the form of a case study. The chapter is designed to provide advanced students and experts outside of the field of GIS sufficient information to begin to utilize GIS and spatial analytic concepts, but it is not designed to be the sole basis for becoming a GIS expert. There is a tremendous level of sophistication related to the digital cartographic databases and manipulation of those databases underlying the display and use of GIS that is more appropriately a part of geographic information science (i.e., basic research issues associated with geographic data including technical as well as theoretical aspects such as the impact on society [1]) rather than being relevant to this chapter. The utilization of GIS for conducting spatial analysis is the guiding theme for the chapter. PMID:20717487

  8. Geographic Information Systems

    PubMed Central

    Wieczorek, William F.; Delmerico, Alan M.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter presents an overview of the development, capabilities, and utilization of geographic information systems (GIS). There are nearly an unlimited number of applications that are relevant to GIS because virtually all human interactions, natural and man-made features, resources, and populations have a geographic component. Everything happens somewhere and the location often has a role that affects what occurs. This role is often called spatial dependence or spatial autocorrelation, which exists when a phenomenon is not randomly geographically distributed. GIS has a number of key capabilities that are needed to conduct a spatial analysis to assess this spatial dependence. This chapter presents these capabilities (e.g., georeferencing, adjacency/distance measures, overlays) and provides a case study to illustrate how GIS can be used for both research and planning. Although GIS has developed into a relatively mature application for basic functions, development is needed to more seamlessly integrate spatial statistics and models. The issue of location, especially the geography of human activities, interactions between humanity and nature, and the distribution and location of natural resources and features, is one of the most basic elements of scientific inquiry. Conceptualizations and physical maps of geographic space have existed since the beginning of time because all human activity takes place in a geographic context. Representing objects in space, basically where things are located, is a critical aspect of the natural, social, and applied sciences. Throughout history there have been many methods of characterizing geographic space, especially maps created by artists, mariners, and others eventually leading to the development of the field of cartography. It is no surprise that the digital age has launched a major effort to utilize geographic data, but not just as maps. A geographic information system (GIS) facilitates the collection, analysis, and reporting of spatial data and related phenomena. The capabilities of GIS are much more than just mapping, although map production is one of the most utilized features. GIS applications are relevant in a tremendous number of areas ranging from basic geographic inventories to simulation models. This chapter presents a general overview of geographic information system topics. The purpose is to provide the reader with a basic understanding of a GIS, the types of data that are needed, the basic functionality of these systems, the role of spatial analysis, and an example in the form of a case study. The chapter is designed to provide advanced students and experts outside of the field of GIS sufficient information to begin to utilize GIS and spatial analytic concepts, but it is not designed to be the sole basis for becoming a GIS expert. There is a tremendous level of sophistication related to the digital cartographic databases and manipulation of those databases underlying the display and use of GIS that is more appropriately a part of geographic information science (i.e., basic research issues associated with geographic data including technical as well as theoretical aspects such as the impact on society [1]) rather than being relevant to this chapter. The utilization of GIS for conducting spatial analysis is the guiding theme for the chapter. PMID:20717487

  9. [Case reports of drug-induced liver injury in a reference hospital of Zulia state, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Mengual-Moreno, Edgardo; Lizarzábal-García, Maribel; Ruiz-Soler, María; Silva-Suarez, Niniveth; Andrade-Bellido, Raúl; Lucena-González, Maribel; Bessone, Fernando; Hernández, Nelia; Sánchez, Adriana; Medina-Cáliz, Inmaculada

    2015-03-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, with varied geographical differences. The aim of this prospective, descriptive, cross-sectional study was to identify and characterize cases of DILI in a hospital of Zulia state, Venezuela. Thirteen patients with a presumptive diagnosis of DILI attended by the Department of Gastroenterology, Hospital Universitario, Zulia state, Venezuela, from December-2012 to December-2013 were studied. Ibuprofen (n = 3; 23.1%), acetaminophen (n = 3; 23.1), isoniazid (n = 2; 15.4%) and Herbalife products (n = 2; 15.4%) were the main drugs involved with DILI. Acetaminophen and ibuprofen showed a mixed pattern of liver injury (n = 3; 23.1%) and isoniazid presented a hepatocellular pattern (n = 2; 15.4%). The CIOMS/RUCAMS allowed the identification of possible (n = 7; 53.9%), probable (n = 4; 30.8%) and highly-probable cases (n = 2; 15.4%) of DILI. Amoxicillin/clavulanate, isoniazid, isotretinoin, methotrexate and Herbalife nutritional products were implicated as highly-probable and probable agents. The highest percentage of DILI corresponded to mild cases that recovered after the discontinuation of the agent involved (n = 9; 69.3%). The consumption of Herbalife botanical products is associated with probable causality and fatality (n = 1; 7.7%). In conclusion, the frequency of DILI cases controlled by the Department of Gastroenterology of the Hospital Universitario of Maracaibo was low, being ibuprofen, acetaminophen, isoniazid and products Herbalife the products most commonly involved. It is recommended to continue with the prospective registration of cases, with an extended follow up monitoring period and to facilitate the incorporation of other hospitals in the Zulia State and Venezuela. PMID:25920181

  10. Symposium on Geographic Information Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felleman, John, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Six papers on geographic information systems cover the future of geographic information systems, land information systems modernization in Wisconsin, the Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing (TIGER) System of the U.S. Bureau of the Census, satellite remote sensing, geographic information systems and sustainable development,…

  11. Making Geographical Futures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, John

    2015-01-01

    Although there are surprisingly few academic books about geography with the term "future" or "futures" in their titles, this paper indicates that for much of the twentieth century geographers contributed to important discussions about the shape of worlds to come. The paper offers a review of these debates within Anglo-American…

  12. Geographic information systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1992-01-01

    Geographic information systems (GIS) technology can be used for scientific investigations, resource management, and developmental planning. For example, a GIS might allow emergency planners to easily calculate emergency response times in the event of a natural disaster, or a GIS might be used to find wetlands that need protection form pollution.

  13. Partnerships in Geographic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    March, Peggy

    1998-01-01

    Argues effective learning requires suitable resources and that teachers can reap great rewards by establishing cooperative partnerships with local communities to gain access to otherwise unavailable resources. Uses the example of planning, executing, and implementing a Geographic Information System (GIS) in a Canadian urban junior high school…

  14. Progression in Geographical Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennetts, Trevor

    2005-01-01

    The concept of progression is applicable to how students' geographical understanding can advance over a period of time, and how courses can be designed to facilitate such advances. Understanding is a product of experience, ideas and mental processes, and the interrelationships between them. The ideas which are most characteristic of geographical…

  15. Minimum variance geographic sampling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terrell, G. R. (principal investigator)

    1980-01-01

    Resource inventories require samples with geographical scatter, sometimes not as widely spaced as would be hoped. A simple model of correlation over distances is used to create a minimum variance unbiased estimate population means. The fitting procedure is illustrated from data used to estimate Missouri corn acreage.

  16. Making Geographical Futures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, John

    2015-01-01

    Although there are surprisingly few academic books about geography with the term "future" or "futures" in their titles, this paper indicates that for much of the twentieth century geographers contributed to important discussions about the shape of worlds to come. The paper offers a review of these debates within Anglo-American…

  17. Geographic Education in Louisiana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Anthony J.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author analyzes and summarizes geographic education in Louisiana from a historical perspective with a specific emphasis on the degree to which geography was implemented into the state's standards. To accomplish that, he draws from the following three sources of information: active and retired social studies teachers from a…

  18. Geographic Education in Louisiana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Anthony J.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author analyzes and summarizes geographic education in Louisiana from a historical perspective with a specific emphasis on the degree to which geography was implemented into the state's standards. To accomplish that, he draws from the following three sources of information: active and retired social studies teachers from a…

  19. Download Geographic Data

    Cancer.gov

    The section includes Microsoft Excel (.xls) or comma-delimited text (.txt) files that provide county, state economic area (SEA), and state codes and names. There are individual files for each of the three geographic region types, as well as one file relating the three to each other.

  20. View of the Caribbean coast of Venezuela

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A near vertical view of the Caribbean coast of Venezuela is seen in this Skylab 3 Earth Resources Experiment Package S190-B (five-inch earth terrain camera) photograph taken from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. The large body of water is the Golfo de Venezuela; and the major land mass is the Peninsula de Paraguana. The view is looking northward from the mouth of the Golfete de Coro and Punta Cardon to Punta Macolia. The peninsula is connected to the Venezuelan mainland by the narrow strip of land in the most easterly corner of the picture. The dry, arid climate of the peninsula is indicated by sparse vegetation and the abundance of sand dunes. The highest point is about 2,700 feet above the sea and is the conspicuous black spot. Old raised shorelines features appear as streaks parallel to the Golfete de Coro. Water of the Golfete de Coro is red from the high sediment content. The streaks in the water off the peninsula is apparently an effect of wind which is blowing sand and w

  1. [Zika virus: Another emerging arbovirus in Venezuela?].

    PubMed

    Valero Nereida

    2015-09-01

    Current health conditions of Venezuela, together with the tropical proliferation of different types of Aedes (aegypti and albopictus), suggest the arrival to this country of ZIKA virus (ZIKV). The Pan American Health Organization urges Latin American countries to take measures to prevent the ZIKV entry and advises that these measures must be designed to detect the introduction of ZIKV in an area, track its spread and actively monitor the disease. In Venezuela and other Latin-American countries, where endemicity is high for other arboviruses such as dengue arid chikungunya, health authorities should strengthen their surveillance systems to detect early and timely introduction of ZIKV ap.d refine diagnostic methods to confirm the infection rate; however, the high incidence of cases due those viral agents reflects weakened and poorly timed insensitive monitoring systems, as well as, poor vector control measures, arising the questions: will this arbovirus pop in our country, will it set as the other as edemicepidemic and lead to alter their clinical behavior and severity of the disease? PMID:26710538

  2. [Three phases of homicidal violence in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Briceño-León, Roberto

    2012-12-01

    Venezuela was considered one of the least violent countries in Latin America, however by 2010 it was among the countries with the highest homicide rate. This article analyzes the evolution of homicides in Venezuela between 1985 and 2010 and proposes the existence of three stages which correspond to trends in social and political institutions of the country. The first from 1985 to 1993, characterized by the looting of 1989 and the coups d'état of 1992, when for the first time the homicide rate rose from 8 to 20. The second phase from 1994 to 1998 was a recovery period of the institutional and political stability when the homicide rate remained constant at around 20. The third phase began in 1999 with the H Chavez government and the institutional destruction that comes with the Bolivarian revolution and caused an increase in the rate of 20 to 57 homicides per 100 thousand inhabitants. This article argues that the explanation for the changes in the phases is to be found in the transformation of social and political institutions. PMID:23175399

  3. [Polychaetes (Annelida: Polychaeta) epibiont on Spondylus americanus (Bivalvia: Spondylidae) from Mochima National Park, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Liñero Arana, Ildefonso; Díaz Díaz, Oscar

    2006-09-01

    The polychaetes epibiontic on the mollusk Spondylus americanus Hermann, 1781 were extracted from mollusks hand-collected at a depth of 10-30 m in Mochima National Park, Venezuela (10 degrees 21'00" N-63 degrees 23'36" W), using scuba diving gear. Forty-three polychaete species were identified on the 32 bivalve specimens analyzed. The Serpulidae included 17 especies, Eunicidae six and Terebellidae four species. The most abundant species were Hydroides dirampha Mörch, 1863, Pileolaria militaris Claparède, 1868 (Serpulidae), and Notaulax nudicollis Krøyer, 1856 (Sabellidae). Their geographic affinitie were: 51.3% Atlantic, 28.2% widely distributed, 17.9% Amphiamericans, and 2.6% have a disjunct distribution. PMID:18491616

  4. Geographic data from space

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alexander, Robert H.

    1964-01-01

    Space science has been called “the collection of scientific problems to which space vehicles can make some specific contributions not achievable by ground-based experiments.” Geography, the most spatial of the sciences, has now been marked as one of these “space sciences.” The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is sponsoring an investigation to identify the Potential geographic benefits from the nation’s space program. This is part of NASA’s long-range inquiry to determine the kinds of scientific activities which might profitably be carried out on future space missions. Among such future activities which are now being planned by NASA are a series of manned earth orbital missions, many of which would be devoted to research. Experiments in physics, astronomy, geophysics, meteorology, and biology are being discussed for these long-range missions. The question which is being put to geographers is, essentially, what would it mean to geographic research to have an observation satellite (or many such satellites) orbiting the earth, gathering data about earth-surface features and environments?

  5. Horizonal and Vertical Spatial Patterns of Radon and Other Soil-gases Across the El Pilar Fault Trace at Guaraphiche, Edo. Surce (Venezuela)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaBrecque, J. J.

    2002-05-01

    Soil-gases (radon, thoron, carbon dioxide and hydrogen) were measured at 63-cm depths along a transect perpendicular to the rupture (fault trace) from the 1997 Caricao earthquake (Mw=6.9) at Guarapiche, state of Sucre (Venezuela). The transect was about 40 meters long with ten sampling points with the spacings was smaller near the rupture. The shapes of the horizontal spatial patterns for radon (Rn-222), thoron (Rn-220) and total radon (Rn-222+Rn-220) were similar; the gas concentrations increased from both ends of the transect toward the rupture where a dip (valley) occurred. Both carbon dioxide and hydrogen gases showed anomalous values at the same sampling points. Twin peaks (anomalies) had been previously reported and suggested that they were due to blockage in the rupture. We have also determined soil-gases from 25-cm to 155-cm depths near the rupture and at the ends of the transect. The results showed that the soil-gas concentrations were not only higher in the upper levels (less than 65-cm) near the fault trace but were similar or greater than the lower levels. Thus, producing the twin peaks when soil-gas sampling was performed at the 65-cm depth. When the sampling was performed at only 45-cm depth the dip over the rupture was much less and the patterns looked more like a broad doublet peak. In conclusion, one can clearly see that not only positive soil-gas anomalies can occur over a fault trace but also negative ones too. 1) This work was partially funded by a research contract from the Venezuelan National Science Foundation (CONICIT Proyecto S1-95000448). 2) Mailing Address: Centro de Quimica, 8424 NW 56th Street, Suite 00204,Miami, Fl 33166 (USA). E-mail jjlabrec@ivic.ve FAX: +58-212-504-1214

  6. New species and records of Hydroptilidae (Trichoptera) from Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Robin E; Holzenthal, Ralph W

    2012-01-01

    Eight new species of Hydroptilidae (Trichoptera) from Venezuela are described: Acostatrichia digitatasp. n., Hydroptila cressaesp. n., Metrichia botrychionsp. n., Ochrotrichia spirasp. n., Oxyethira bettyaesp. n., Oxyethira quiramaesp. n., Oxyethira reduncasp. n., and Rhyacopsyche shortisp. n.New country records for Venezuela of 2 additional species, Neotrichia feolai Santos & Nessimian, 2009 and Oxyethira picita Harris & Davenport, 1999, are also provided. Illustrations of male genitalia are provided with each description. PMID:22577311

  7. Hydrogen: BOC-FW venture secures major Venezuela project

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, A.

    1995-07-26

    BOC Gases and Foster Wheeler Power Systems (FW) have been awarded a $50-million project to supply a 50-million cu ft/day hydrogen (H{sub 2}) plant to Lagoven`s Amuay, Venezuela refinery for 1997 startup. BOC and FW have also formed a marketing agreement for on-site H{sub 2} plants in the Americas, extending a previous relationship covering Chile and Venezuela.

  8. New species and records of Hydroptilidae (Trichoptera) from Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Robin E.; Holzenthal, Ralph W.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Eight new species of Hydroptilidae (Trichoptera) from Venezuela are described: Acostatrichia digitata sp. n., Hydroptila cressae sp. n., Metrichia botrychion sp. n., Ochrotrichia spira sp. n., Oxyethira bettyae sp. n., Oxyethira quiramae sp. n., Oxyethira redunca sp. n., and Rhyacopsyche shorti sp. n.New country records for Venezuela of 2 additional species, Neotrichia feolai Santos & Nessimian, 2009 and Oxyethira picita Harris & Davenport, 1999, are also provided. Illustrations of male genitalia are provided with each description. PMID:22577311

  9. GEOGRAPHIC NAMES INFORMATION SYSTEM (GNIS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS), developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Board on Geographic Names (BGN), contains information about physical and cultural geographic features in the United States and associated areas, both current and h...

  10. Volunteered Geographic Information in Wikipedia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Darren

    2010-01-01

    Volunteered geographic information (VGI) refers to the geographic subset of online user-generated content. Through Geobrowsers and online mapping services, which use geovisualization and Web technologies to share and produce VGI, a global digital commons of geographic information has emerged. A notable example is Wikipedia, an online collaborative…

  11. The National Map - Geographic Names

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2002-01-01

    Governments depend on a common set of base geographic information as a tool for economic and community development, land and natural resource management, and health and safety services. Emergency management and homeland security applications rely on this information. Private industry, nongovernmental organizations, and individual citizens use the same geographic data. Geographic information underpins an increasingly large part of the Nation's economy.

  12. Geographic information systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    Information and activities are provided to: (1) enhance the ability to distinguish between a Geographic Information System (GIS) and a data management system; (2) develop understanding of spatial data handling by conventional methods versus the automated approach; (3) promote awareness of GIS design and capabilities; (4) foster understanding of the concepts and problems of data base development and management; (5) facilitate recognition of how a computerized GIS can model conditions in the present "real world" to project conditions in the future; and (6) appreciate the utility of integrating LANDSAT and other remotely sensed data into the GIS.

  13. Trypanosoma cruzi III from armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus novemcinctus) from Northeastern Venezuela and its biological behavior in murine model. Risk of emergency of Chagas' disease.

    PubMed

    Morocoima, Antonio; Carrasco, Hernán J; Boadas, Johanna; Chique, José David; Herrera, Leidi; Urdaneta-Morales, Servio

    2012-11-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, etiological agent of Chagas' disease, was isolated from armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus novemcinctus) captured in rural communities Northeastern Venezuela from Nueva Esparta State (no endemic for Chagas' disease), Monagas and Anzoátegui States (endemics). The isolates, genetically typed by PCR-RFLP as belonging to the TcIII DTU, have demonstrated in murine model heterogenic parasitemia, mortality and histotropism with marked parasitism in cardiac, skeletal, and smooth myocytes that showed correlation with lymphobasophilic inflammatory infiltrates. Our finding of T. cruzi infected armadillos in Isla Margarita (Nueva Esparta State), together with reports of triatomine vectors in this region, the accentuated synanthropy of armadillos, intense economic activity, migration due to tourism and the lack of environmental education programs all of them represent risks that could cause the emergence of Chagas' disease in this area. This is the first report of the TcIII DTU in Northeastern Venezuela, thus widening the geographic distribution of this DTU. PMID:22902748

  14. Digital shaded-relief map of Venezuela

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrity, Christopher P.; Hackley, Paul C.; Urbani, Franco

    2004-01-01

    The Digital Shaded-Relief Map of Venezuela is a composite of more than 20 tiles of 90 meter (3 arc second) pixel resolution elevation data, captured during the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) in February 2000. The SRTM, a joint project between the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), provides the most accurate and comprehensive international digital elevation dataset ever assembled. The 10-day flight mission aboard the U.S. Space Shuttle Endeavour obtained elevation data for about 80% of the world's landmass at 3-5 meter pixel resolution through the use of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) technology. SAR is desirable because it acquires data along continuous swaths, maintaining data consistency across large areas, independent of cloud cover. Swaths were captured at an altitude of 230 km, and are approximately 225 km wide with varying lengths. Rendering of the shaded-relief image required editing of the raw elevation data to remove numerous holes and anomalously high and low values inherent in the dataset. Customized ArcInfo Arc Macro Language (AML) scripts were written to interpolate areas of null values and generalize irregular elevation spikes and wells. Coastlines and major water bodies used as a clipping mask were extracted from 1:500,000-scale geologic maps of Venezuela (Bellizzia and others, 1976). The shaded-relief image was rendered with an illumination azimuth of 315? and an altitude of 65?. A vertical exaggeration of 2X was applied to the image to enhance land-surface features. Image post-processing techniques were accomplished using conventional desktop imaging software.

  15. David Meets Goliath on the Information Superhighway: Venezuela in the Context of the Electronic Communication Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez-Vegas, Saadia

    1995-01-01

    Discusses Venezuela's information and communications technology infrastructure and usage patterns; examines future networking plans; and addresses political and economic considerations linked to the information and technology problems in Venezuela and in Latin America in general. (LRW)

  16. Geographic names information system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1987-01-01

    of the data in each of the data elements of the four data bases of GNIS. The GNIS program, which includes the automated names system and the National Gazetteer program, is a coordinated effort under the direction of Donald J. Orth, Chief of the Branch of Geographic Names. The automated system was initially developed by Sam Stulberg and Roger L. Payne. System enhancement and software development is coordinated by Judy J. Stella, head programmer for GNIS, and special projects coordinator is Louis A. Yost IV. Coordination of the research and compilation of certain gazetteers is directed by Robin D. Worcester with research assistance and support from Jon Campbell, Linda S. Davis, and Nancy Engel.

  17. Analyzing geographic clustered response

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, D.W.; Selvin, S.; Mohr, M.S.

    1991-08-01

    In the study of geographic disease clusters, an alternative to traditional methods based on rates is to analyze case locations on a transformed map in which population density is everywhere equal. Although the analyst's task is thereby simplified, the specification of the density equalizing map projection (DEMP) itself is not simple and continues to be the subject of considerable research. Here a new DEMP algorithm is described, which avoids some of the difficulties of earlier approaches. The new algorithm (a) avoids illegal overlapping of transformed polygons; (b) finds the unique solution that minimizes map distortion; (c) provides constant magnification over each map polygon; (d) defines a continuous transformation over the entire map domain; (e) defines an inverse transformation; (f) can accept optional constraints such as fixed boundaries; and (g) can use commercially supported minimization software. Work is continuing to improve computing efficiency and improve the algorithm. 21 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. An Interview with Margot Benacerraf: Reveron, Araya, and the Institutionalization of Cinema in Venezuela.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartzman, Karen

    1993-01-01

    Presents an interview (edited into a first-person form) with Margot Benacerraf, known for two prize-winning films in the 1950s but not as well known for her active promotion of film culture in Venezuela. Discusses her education in Venezuela, travels outside Venezuela, production of her prize-winning films, and her efforts at promoting the…

  19. Malaria Control and Elimination,1 Venezuela, 1800s–1970s

    PubMed Central

    Villegas, Leopoldo; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam

    2014-01-01

    Venezuela had the highest number of human malaria cases in Latin American before 1936. During 1891–1920, malaria was endemic to >600,000 km2 of this country; malaria death rates led to major population decreases during 1891–1920. No pathogen, including the influenza virus that caused the 1918 pandemic, caused more deaths than malaria during 1905–1945. Early reports of malaria eradication in Venezuela helped spark the world’s interest in global eradication. We describe early approaches to malaria epidemiology in Venezuela and how this country developed an efficient control program and an approach to eradication. Arnoldo Gabaldón was a key policy maker during this development process. He directed malaria control in Venezuela from the late 1930s to the end of the 1970s and contributed to malaria program planning of the World Health Organization. We discuss how his efforts helped reduce the incidence of malaria in Venezuela and how his approach diverged from World Health Organization guidelines.

  20. Population structure of guppies in north-eastern Venezuela, the area of putative incipient speciation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Geographic barriers to gene flow and divergence among populations in sexual traits are two important causes of genetic isolation which may lead to speciation. Genetic isolation may be facilitated if these two mechanisms act synergistically. The guppy from the Cumaná region (within the Cariaco drainage) of eastern Venezuela has been previously described as a case of incipient speciation driven by sexual selection, significantly differentiated in sexual colouration and body shape from the common guppy, Poecilia reticulata. The latter occurs widely in northern Venezuela, including the south-eastern side of Cordillera de la Costa, where it inhabits streams belonging to the San Juan drainage. Here, we present molecular and morphological analyses of differentiation among guppy populations in the Cariaco and San Juan drainages. Our analyses are based on a 953 bp long mtDNA fragment, a set of 15 microsatellites (519 fish from 20 populations), and four phenotypic traits. Results Both microsatellite and mtDNA data showed that guppies inhabiting the two drainages are characterised by a significant genetic differentiation, but a higher proportion of the genetic variance was distributed among populations within regions. Most guppies in the Cariaco drainage had mtDNA from a distinct lineage, but we also found evidence for widespread introgression of mtDNA from the San Juan drainage into the Cariaco drainage. Phenotypically, populations in the two regions differed significantly only in the number of black crescents. Phenotypic clustering did not support existence of two distinct groupings, but indicated a degree of distinctiveness of Central Cumaná (CC) population. However, CC population showed little differentiation at the neutral markers from the proximate populations within the Cariaco drainage. Conclusions Our findings are consistent with only partial genetic isolation between the two geographic regions and indicate that the geographic barrier of Cordillera de la Costa has not played an important role in strengthening the incomplete pre-zygotic reproductive barrier between Cumaná and common guppy. Significant phenotypic differentiation between genetically similar (in terms of neutral variation) populations suggests that mate choice can maintain divergence at sexually selected traits despite gene flow. However, neither genetic nor phenotypic clustering supported delineation of two species within the region. PMID:24533965

  1. Coloring geographical threshold graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Bradonjic, Milan; Percus, Allon; Muller, Tobias

    2008-01-01

    We propose a coloring algorithm for sparse random graphs generated by the geographical threshold graph (GTG) model, a generalization of random geometric graphs (RGG). In a GTG, nodes are distributed in a Euclidean space, and edges are assigned according to a threshold function involving the distance between nodes as well as randomly chosen node weights. The motivation for analyzing this model is that many real networks (e.g., wireless networks, the Internet, etc.) need to be studied by using a 'richer' stochastic model (which in this case includes both a distance between nodes and weights on the nodes). Here, we analyze the GTG coloring algorithm together with the graph's clique number, showing formally that in spite of the differences in structure between GTG and RGG, the asymptotic behavior of the chromatic number is identical: {chi}1n 1n n / 1n n (1 + {omicron}(1)). Finally, we consider the leading corrections to this expression, again using the coloring algorithm and clique number to provide bounds on the chromatic number. We show that the gap between the lower and upper bound is within C 1n n / (1n 1n n){sup 2}, and specify the constant C.

  2. Geographical Database Integrity Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, Derya; Kauffman, Paul; Blackstock, Dexter

    2000-01-01

    Airport Safety Modeling Data (ASMD) was developed at the request of a 1997 White House Conference on Aviation Safety and Security. Politicians, military personnel, commercial aircraft manufacturers and the airline industry attended the conference. The objective of the conference was to study the airline industry and make recommendations to improve safety and security. One of the topics discussed at the conference was the loss of situational awareness by aircraft pilots. Loss of situational awareness occurs when a pilot loses his geographic position during flight and can result in crashes into terrain and obstacles. It was recognized at the conference that aviation safety could be improved by reducing the loss of situational awareness. The conference advised that a system be placed in the airplane cockpit that would provide pilots with a visual representation of the terrain around airports. The system would prevent airline crashes during times of inclement weather and loss of situational awareness. The system must be based on accurate data that represents terrain around airports. The Department of Defense and the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) released ASMD to be used for the development of a visual system for aircraft pilots. ASMD was constructed from NIMA digital terrain elevation data (DTED).

  3. Geographically correlated orbit error

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosborough, G. W.

    1989-01-01

    The dominant error source in estimating the orbital position of a satellite from ground based tracking data is the modeling of the Earth's gravity field. The resulting orbit error due to gravity field model errors are predominantly long wavelength in nature. This results in an orbit error signature that is strongly correlated over distances on the size of ocean basins. Anderle and Hoskin (1977) have shown that the orbit error along a given ground track also is correlated to some degree with the orbit error along adjacent ground tracks. This cross track correlation is verified here and is found to be significant out to nearly 1000 kilometers in the case of TOPEX/POSEIDON when using the GEM-T1 gravity model. Finally, it was determined that even the orbit error at points where ascending and descending ground traces cross is somewhat correlated. The implication of these various correlations is that the orbit error due to gravity error is geographically correlated. Such correlations have direct implications when using altimetry to recover oceanographic signals.

  4. Composition and Ultrastructure of Streptomyces venezuelae

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, S. G.; Ritzi, Donna

    1968-01-01

    Streptomyces venezuelae is a filamentous bacterium with branching vegetative hyphae embedded in the substrate and aerial hyphae bearing spores. The exterior of the spore is inlaid with myriads of tiny rods which can be removed with xylene. The spore wall is approximately 30 nanometers thick. Occasionally, it can be seen that the plasma membrane and the membranous bodies within a spore are connected. The spore's germ plasm is not separated from the cytoplasm by a nuclear envelope. The cell walls of the vegetative hyphae, which are about 15 nanometers thick, are structurally and chemically similar to those of gram-positive bacteria. The numerous internal membranous bodies, some of which arise from the plasma membrane of the vegetative hypha, may be vesicular, whirled, or convoluted. Membranous bodies are usually prominent at the hyphal apices and are associated with septum formation. The germ plasm is an elongate, contorted, centrally placed area of lower electron density than the hyphal cytoplasm. The spores differ from the vegetative hyphae, not only in fine structure, but also in the arginine and leucine contents of their total cellular proteins. Images PMID:5669907

  5. Atmospheric formic and acetic acids in Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanhueza, Eugenio; Figueroa, Luis; Santana, Magaly

    Gas, phase and rain concentrations of HCOOH and CH 3COOH have been measured at various sites in the savannah climatic region, a cloud forest site and a coastal site in Venezuela. Gas phase and rain water were sampled using the aqueous scrubber technique and a wet only collector, respectively. Analyses were made by ion chromatography. The results indicate that formic and acetic acids are important components of the Venezuelan atmosphere. They are homogeneously distributed, suggesting a widespread source. Boundary layer concentrations during the dry season (HCOOH, 1.8 ppbv; CH 3COOH, 1.25 ppbv) are higher than in the wet season (HCOOH, 1.0 ppbv; CH 3COOH, 0.7 ppbv), mainly due to a longer lifetime of the acid during the dry season (˜6 days) compared with the wet season (˜2 days). The overall concentrations in rain are 7.0 and 4.0 μM for formic and acetic acids, respectively. The estimated annual total depositions are: HCOOH, 17 mmol m -2 yr -1 and CH 3COOH,10 mmol m -2 yr -1; around half of the acids are removed by dry deposition. It is established that a larger source (˜1.8 times) of both acids is present during the wet season. We speculate that atmospheric oxidation of hydrocarbons should be the main source of HCOOH and CH 3COOH in the Venezuelan atmosphere; soil emissions could make a significant contribution during the dry season.

  6. Current Space Projects of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, R.; Acevedo R.; Varela, F.; Otero, S.

    2014-06-01

    Since 2008, with the successful launch of the first Venezuelan telecommunication satellite VENESAT-1, the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela became an active player in the international space sector aimed at using space science and technology as a powerful tool to promote the national development. Based on that, through the Bolivarian Agency for Space Activities (ABAE), Venezuela has been implemented several space projects such as the manufacturing and launch of the first Venezuelan remote sensing satellite, the construction of a design center for small satellite technologies, as well as research and development activities related with the estimation of the physical properties of the Earth. This paper presents a brief description of the current space projects that are being developed by Venezuela.

  7. Syllidae (Annelida, Polychaeta) from the Caribbean coast of Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Liñero-Arana, Ildefonso; Díaz Díaz, Oscarn

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Venezuela possesses a great variety of coastal environments allowing for a high diversity of marine species. However, systematic studies on marine invertebrates are scarce, especially on polychaetes. The family Syllidae is poorly known, and only 14 genera and 42 species have been reported from this country. A total of 13 genera and 26 species the Syllidae were identified from benthic samples collected on different substrata of the northeastern coast of Venezuela. Of these, seven genera and 16 species constitute new records for Venezuela: Odontosyllis guillermoi, Syllides floridanus, Salvatoria clavata, Salvatoria limbata, Sphaerosyllis longicauda, Parapionosyllis longicirrata, Trypanosyllis parvidentata, Trypanosyllis vittigera, Opisthosyllis sp., Syllis amica, Syllis armillaris, Syllis gracilis, Syllis pseudoarmillaris, Syllis vittata, Parasphaerosyllis indica and Myrianida convoluta. PMID:21998503

  8. Digital geologic map and GIS database of Venezuela

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrity, Christopher P.; Hackley, Paul C.; Urbani, Franco

    2006-01-01

    The digital geologic map and GIS database of Venezuela captures GIS compatible geologic and hydrologic data from the 'Geologic Shaded Relief Map of Venezuela,' which was released online as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2005-1038. Digital datasets and corresponding metadata files are stored in ESRI geodatabase format; accessible via ArcGIS 9.X. Feature classes in the geodatabase include geologic unit polygons, open water polygons, coincident geologic unit linework (contacts, faults, etc.) and non-coincident geologic unit linework (folds, drainage networks, etc.). Geologic unit polygon data were attributed for age, name, and lithologic type following the Lexico Estratigrafico de Venezuela. All digital datasets were captured from source data at 1:750,000. Although users may view and analyze data at varying scales, the authors make no guarantee as to the accuracy of the data at scales larger than 1:750,000.

  9. Determinants of Dentists' Geographic Distribution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beazoglou, Tryfon J.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A model for explaining the geographic distribution of dentists' practice locations is presented and applied to particular market areas in Connecticut. Results show geographic distribution is significantly related to a few key variables, including demography, disposable income, and housing prices. Implications for helping students make practice…

  10. GEOGRAPHIC INDEX OF ENVIRONMENTAL ARTICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This index was produced in accordance with the "Environmental Research Geographic Location Act," Public Law 101-617, enacted by the U.S. Congress on Nov. 16, 1990. ompiled by EPA, it is a quick reference for finding published articles about environmental issues for geographic loc...

  11. Adaptive Cartography and Geographical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konecny, Milan; Stanek, Karel

    2010-01-01

    The article focuses on adaptive cartography and its potential for geographical education. After briefly describing the wider context of adaptive cartography, it is suggested that this new cartographic approach establishes new demands and benefits for geographical education, especially in offering the possibility for broader individual…

  12. Events affecting gold exploration in Venezuela since 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, David R.

    2014-01-01

    The structure of the gold mining industry in Venezuela has changed significantly since 1999 as a result of Government policy changes and industry response to these changes. This report documents the policy decisions that have affected the mining industry, discusses the response of the industry on a site by site basis, and suggests possible effects of these changes on the global economy. For the short term, at least, it appears that these changes have made Venezuela a more difficult place to invest for U.S. and Canadian companies, while investment by Chinese entities has been encouraged.

  13. Complete genome sequences of two begomoviruses infecting weeds in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Fiallo-Olivé, Elvira; Chirinos, Dorys T; Geraud-Pouey, Francis; Moriones, Enrique; Navas-Castillo, Jesús

    2013-01-01

    The complete sequences of isolates of two new bipartite begomoviruses (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) found infecting weeds in Venezuela are provided. The names proposed for these new begomoviruses are "Datura leaf distortion virus" (DLDV), isolated from a Datura stramonium L. (family Solanaceae) plant, and "Dalechampia chlorotic mosaic virus" (DCMV), isolated from infected Dalechampia sp. (family Euphorbiaceae) and Boerhavia diffusa L. (family Nyctaginaceae) plants. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these new begomoviruses segregated in two distinct clades of New World begomoviruses. To our knowledge, this is the first record of a begomovirus infecting Dalechampia sp. plants. Also, this is the first report of a begomovirus infecting Boerhavia spp. and Datura spp. in Venezuela. PMID:22926716

  14. Mycobacterium tuberculosis ecology in Venezuela: epidemiologic correlates of common spoligotypes and a large clonal cluster defined by MIRU-VNTR-24

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis remains an endemic public health problem, but the ecology of the TB strains prevalent, and their transmission, can vary by country and by region. We sought to investigate the prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains in different regions of Venezuela. A previous study identified the most prevalent strains in Venezuela but did not show geographical distribution nor identify clonal genotypes. To better understand local strain ecology, we used spoligotyping to analyze 1298 M. tuberculosis strains isolated in Venezuela from 1997 to 2006, predominantly from two large urban centers and two geographically distinct indigenous areas, and then studied a subgroup with MIRU-VNTR 24 loci. Results The distribution of spoligotype families is similar to that previously reported for Venezuela and other South American countries: LAM 53%, T 10%, Haarlem 5%, S 1.9%, X 1.2%, Beijing 0.4%, and EAI 0.2%. The six most common shared types (SIT's 17, 93, 605, 42, 53, 20) accounted for 49% of the isolates and were the most common in almost all regions, but only a minority were clustered by MIRU-VNTR 24. One exception was the third most frequent overall, SIT 605, which is the most common spoligotype in the state of Carabobo but infrequent in other regions. MIRU-VNTR homogeneity suggests it is a clonal group of strains and was named the "Carabobo" genotype. Epidemiologic comparisons showed that patients with SIT 17 were younger and more likely to have had specimens positive for Acid Fast Bacilli on microscopy, and patients with SIT 53 were older and more commonly smear negative. Female TB patients tended to be younger than male patients. Patients from the high incidence, indigenous population in Delta Amacuro state were younger and had a nearly equal male:female distribution. Conclusion Six SIT's cause nearly half of the cases of tuberculosis in Venezuela and dominate in nearly all regions. Strains with SIT 17, the most common pattern overall may be more actively transmitted and SIT 53 strains may be less virulent and associated with reactivation of past infections in older patients. In contrast to other common spoligotypes, strains with SIT 605 form a clonal group centered in the state of Carabobo. PMID:19660112

  15. The Bocono Fault Zone, Western Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Schubert, C. ); Estevez, R. ); Henneberg, H.G. )

    1993-02-01

    The Bocono Fault Zone, the western part of the Bocono Moron-El Pilar Fault System of the southern Caribbean plate boundary, consists of aligned valleys, linear depressions, pull-apart basins and other morphological features, which extend for about 500 km in a N45[degrees]E direction, between the Tachira depression (Venezuela-Colombia border) and the Caribbean Sea. It crosses obliquely the Cordillera de Merida and cuts across the Caribbean Mountains, two different geologic provinces of Late Tertiary-Quaternary and Late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary age, respectively. Therefore, the maximum age that can be assigned to the Bocono Fault Zone is Late Tertiary (probably Pliocene). A total maximum right-lateral offset rate of 3.3 mm/a. The age of the sedimentary fill o[approximately] the La Gonzalez pull-apart basin suggests that the 7-9 km right-lateral offset necessary to produce it took place in Middle to Late Pleistocene time. The majority of seismic events are well aligned with the main fault trace; minor events are distributed in a belt several kilometers wide. Focal depth is typically 15 km and focal mechanisms indicate an average east-west compression across the zone. Return periods of 135-460 a (Richter M = 8), 45-70 a (M = 7), and 7-15 a (M = 6) have been calculated. Geodetic studies of several sites along the zone indicate compressive and right-lateral components; at Mucubaji the rate of right-lateral displacement observed is about 1 mm every 5 months (15 a of measurements).

  16. Geographic Tongue in Monozygotic Twins

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses a case of 5-year-old girl monozygotic twins who were suffering from geographic tongue (GT), a benign inflammatory disorder of the tongue which is characterized by circinate, irregular erythematous lesions on the dorsum and lateral borders of the tongue caused by loss of filiform papillae of the tongue epithelium. Whilst geographic tongue is a common entity, reports on this condition are uncommon in the literature. To best of our knowledge, this is the first report which has described monozygotic twins with geographic tongue in the literature. PMID:24959517

  17. 33 CFR 165.8 - Geographic coordinates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Geographic coordinates. 165.8... Geographic coordinates. Geographic coordinates expressed in terms of latitude or longitude, or both, are not... 1983 (NAD 83), unless such geographic coordinates are expressly labeled NAD 83. Geographic...

  18. 33 CFR 165.8 - Geographic coordinates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Geographic coordinates. 165.8... Geographic coordinates. Geographic coordinates expressed in terms of latitude or longitude, or both, are not... 1983 (NAD 83), unless such geographic coordinates are expressly labeled NAD 83. Geographic...

  19. 33 CFR 165.8 - Geographic coordinates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Geographic coordinates. 165.8... Geographic coordinates. Geographic coordinates expressed in terms of latitude or longitude, or both, are not... 1983 (NAD 83), unless such geographic coordinates are expressly labeled NAD 83. Geographic...

  20. 33 CFR 165.8 - Geographic coordinates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Geographic coordinates. 165.8... Geographic coordinates. Geographic coordinates expressed in terms of latitude or longitude, or both, are not... 1983 (NAD 83), unless such geographic coordinates are expressly labeled NAD 83. Geographic...

  1. 33 CFR 165.8 - Geographic coordinates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Geographic coordinates. 165.8... Geographic coordinates. Geographic coordinates expressed in terms of latitude or longitude, or both, are not... 1983 (NAD 83), unless such geographic coordinates are expressly labeled NAD 83. Geographic...

  2. Poverty rates in Venezuela: getting the numbers right.

    PubMed

    Weisbrot, Mark; Sandoval, Luis; Rosnick, David

    2006-01-01

    This article looks at household and individual poverty rates in Venezuela over the past seven years. For more than a year, the statement that poverty in Venezuela has increased under the government of President Hugo Chávez has appeared in scores of major newspapers, on major television and radio programs, and even in publications devoted to foreign policy. There are no data to support such statements, and in fact the available data show a decline in poverty for both individuals and households over the seven-year period: the percentage of people in poverty declined from 50 percent in the first quarter of 1999 to 43.7 percent in 2005. Further, there is no evidence to suggest any change in the methodology for measuring poverty during this period, as has been alleged in a number of reports. The article also examines briefly the impact of significant changes in non-cash benefits such as free health care, which are not taken into account in the measured poverty rate, on poor people in Venezuela. Finally, the authors look at how the mistakes in reporting on Venezuela's poverty rate were made; an appendix gives examples of mistakes in major media and foreign policy publications. PMID:17175848

  3. A contribution to the centipede fauna of Venezuela (Chilopoda: Scolopendromorpha).

    PubMed

    Schileyko, Arkady A

    2014-01-01

    The descriptions of twelve Venezuelan Scolopendromorpha, a list of species, identification key and detailed list of localities are presented. Cryptops (C.) venezuelae Chamberlin, 1939, known only from the holotype has been re-described and Scolopendra conjungens Muralewicz, 1913 reduced to a junior synonym of Scolopendra angulata Newport, 1844 syn. nov. PMID:24989735

  4. Pedernales oilfield, eastern Venezuela: The first 100 years

    SciTech Connect

    Gluyas, J.; Oliver, J.; Wilson, W.

    1996-08-01

    Petroleum seeps and surface tar mats attracted oil explorers to Pedernales in eastern Venezuela 100 years ago. Commercial production from the Pedernales Field was established by Creole in 1933. In three production periods, broken by WWII and the end of the Creole-Texaco refining contract, Creole and Lagoven produced about 60 MMSTB from about 60 wells in about 60 years. Peak production was in the late 1950s, when the field delivered 12,000 BOPD. Production was stopped in 1986. In March 1993, BP Venezuela acquired the license to reactivate Pedernales on behalf of Lagoven, and BP`s first well in the field was drilled in August 1994. A second was completed in early 1995. The production from each well was sufficiently encouraging for commerciality to be declared in March 1995. Phase 1 of the field reactivation demanded a production rate of 11,500 BOPD. As of now (September, 1995) six wells, including one gas disposal well, have been completed. Wells have been placed using a combination of old well data and mapping based on a close spaced 2D seismic survey shot in early 1994. Results from these first few wells indicate that the required production rate will be achieved despite severely depleted reservoir pressures. This paper tells the story of reactivation and re-evaluation of one of eastern Venezuela`s oldest oilfields.

  5. Late Pleistocene carbonate dissolution in the Venezuela Basin, Caribbean Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Cofer-Shabica, N.B.; Peterson, L.C.

    1985-01-01

    Piston cores from water depths greater than 4000 m in the Venezuela Basin (Caribbean Sea) provide continuous late Pleistocene records of carbonate dissolution and accumulation. The authors examination of multiple dissolution indices indicate that, at least for the last 150,000 years, dissolution of carbonate in the Venezuela Basin has been more intense during interglacial than glacial periods, a pattern opposite to more general observations from the deep Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico. By virtue of its shallow sill depth (1815 m), the Venezuela Basin is relatively isolated from the mainstream of Atlantic thermohaline circulation, and presently is filled with homogeneous, relatively warm (3.8/sup 0/C) waters primarily derived from Upper North Atlantic Deep Water. During the last glacial, the enhanced preservation of carbonate in the Venezuela Basin suggests the presence of a less corrosive, more oxygenated water mass in the Atlantic near sill depth. However, this simple interpretations is potentially complicated by past changes in the rain of biogenic materials from surface waters to the deep basin in what must be an essentially closed system below sill depth. Their observations of increased interglacial dissolution may help to explain previously noted discrepancies in the local glacial to interglacial amplitude of delta/sup 18/O variations recorded by coccoliths and planktonic foraminifera.

  6. Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis: a new case from Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Caruzo, Giusseppe; Cardozo, José

    2008-10-01

    Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) is not often seen. To date, less than 300 cases have been communicated to the medical literature since the disease was first discovered in 1965. Six of these reports originated in Venezuela. The authors describe a new spontaneous case of PAM in a 33-year-old previously healthy Western-Venezuelan man. PMID:18820207

  7. State-Led Education for Democratic Socialism: Venezuela's Education Missions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Maura

    2015-01-01

    Venezuela's "Bolivarian Revolution" is conceptualised as an anti-neoliberal project that aims to promote fundamental changes in the configuration of political power via processes of state-grassroots collaboration. Central to this process is an emphasis on the key role of education in the development of a 21st Century socialism based on…

  8. State-Led Education for Democratic Socialism: Venezuela's Education Missions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Maura

    2015-01-01

    Venezuela's "Bolivarian Revolution" is conceptualised as an anti-neoliberal project that aims to promote fundamental changes in the configuration of political power via processes of state-grassroots collaboration. Central to this process is an emphasis on the key role of education in the development of a 21st Century socialism based on…

  9. [Molecular characterization of Sigmodon hirsutus (Rodentia: Cricetidae) populations in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Lessmann, Janeth; Arrivillaga, Jazzmín; Aguilera, Marisol

    2011-06-01

    Recent phylogenetic studies based on cytochrome b gene sequence, have determined that the species historically known as Sigmodon hispidus (Rodentia) from South America comprises a species S. hirsutus of paraphyletic origin. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that populations from Venezuela, represent the sensu strict form, ancestral haplotypes, and monophyletic subspecieS. For this, 12 individual sequences from three localities of different biogeographic regions in Venezuela were evaluated and sequenced based on cyto b. Additionally, the sequences were used to develop a cladistic analysis and genetic distance calculations, and to compare this information with two individual sequences of Sigmodon specimens available in Genbank. Phylogenetic analyses show that the three populations of S. hirsutus of Venezuela form an ancestral and monophyletic subclade supported by high bootstrap values and significant genetic distance between subclade within the S. hirsutus. Besides, the existence of two lineages suggests two subspecies, S. hirsutus hirsutus from Venezuela, and S. hirsutus mexicanus from Mexico-Central America, but, both species need formal description. PMID:21721239

  10. 78 FR 58556 - Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ... Venezuela. Background The Commission instituted these reviews on October 1, 2012 (77 FR 59970) and determined on January 4, 2013 that it would conduct full reviews (78 FR 4437, January 22, 2013). Notice of... Commission, Washington, DC, and by publishing the notice in the Federal Register on February 21, 2013 (78...

  11. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in Venezuela. A case report.

    PubMed

    Caraballo, A J

    1991-06-01

    A case of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in a 32 year old man is presented. The clinical picture included a rapid progressive dementia associated with ataxia, global aphasia, myoclonus and pyramidal signs, death occurred after 13 months. The diagnosis of CJD was confirmed by CT and neuropathological studies. This is the first report of CJD occurring in Venezuela. PMID:1810244

  12. Geographic Education for Spaceship Earth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blachford, Kevin

    1974-01-01

    Six unsatisfactory ways of approaching geographic concepts in the classroom are presented. An alternative that would promote global-mindedness and the development of accurate mental maps in students is discussed in terms of teaching techniques. (JH)

  13. Crustal thickness variations in Venezuela from deep seismic observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, M.; Avila, J.; Bezada, M.; Vieira, E.; Yáñez, M.; Levander, A.; Zelt, C. A.; Jácome, M. I.; Magnani, M. B.; The Bolivar Active Seismic Working Group

    2008-11-01

    The Caribbean-South America plate boundary zone is a complex zone of plate interactions, forming thrust belts and foreland basins in northern Venezuela. Within the framework of the BOLIVAR and GEODINOS projects, the geodynamics of plate interactions is being investigated using interdisciplinary geological and geophysical methods. Here, we focus on the results of the land based active seismic observations done in 2004 along four deep seismic wide angle profiles, acquired perpendicular to the Caribbean-South America plate boundary in northern Venezuela between longitudes 63° W and 70° W, and ranging from about latitudes 12 °N to about 9 °N. The mostly unreversed profiles provide information on the crustal structure from the oceanic-transitional crust on the southern border of the Caribbean plate to the continental crust of the Caribbean Mountain System and their associated foreland basins, which are bordered to the south by the Guayana Shield, which corresponds to stable South America plate. The derived crustal thickness oscillates around 35 km along the coastline, corresponding to the Caribbean Mountain System, and decreases only slightly towards the Leeward Antilles. To the south, in the area of the Eastern Venezuela Basin, crustal thickness reaches 40 km, increasing towards the Guayana Shield to 45 km. Nevertheless, there are two regions of anomalous crustal thickness, proven by arrivals from the lower crust and the Moho discontinuity. In the eastern part of the Eastern Venezuela Basin, crustal thickness reaches up to 50 km, with high velocity anomalies within the lower crust, which are interpreted as reworked lower crustal and upper mantle material, associated to the plate interactions of the South American and the Caribbean plates. The second anomalous zone is a remarkable crustal thinning from 35 km to 27 km in the Falcón Basin in western Venezuela, which extends eastwards into the Bonaire Basin, as documented by PmP reflections derived from land shots, and observations of the air gun blasts on the stations of the Venezuelan seismological network.

  14. The National Map - geographic names

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yost, Lou; Carswell, William J., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS), developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the U.S. Board on Geographic Names (BGN), contains information about the official names for places, features, and areas in the 50 States, the District of Columbia, the territories and outlying areas of the United States, including Antarctica. It is the geographic names component of The National Map. The BGN maintains working relationships with State names authorities to cooperate in achieving the standardization of geographic names. The GNIS contains records on more than 2 million geographic names in the United States - from populated places, schools, reservoirs, and parks to streams, valleys, springs, ridges, and every feature type except roads and highways. Entries include information such as the federally-recognized name and variant names and spellings for the feature; former names; the status of the name as determined by the BGN; county or counties in which each named feature is located; geographic coordinates that locate the approximate center of an aerial feature or the mouth and source of a linear feature, such as a stream; name of the cell of the USGS topographic map or maps on which the feature may appear; elevation figures derived from the National Elevation Dataset; bibliographic code for the source of the name; BGN decision dates and historical information are available for some features. Data from the GNIS are used for emergency preparedness, mapmaking, local and regional planning, service delivery routing, marketing, site selection, environmental analysis, genealogical research, and other applications.

  15. Meeting the Challenge of Basic Education and Literacy in Latin America and the Caribbean. Highlights of a Unesco/UNICEF Regional Seminar on the Universalization of Primary Education and Literacy (Sucre, Bolivia, May 4-10, 1987). UNESCO-UNICEF Co-operative Programme Digest No. 24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, Paris (France).

    This digest presents the main elements of a regional seminar held in Sucre, Bolivia, to analyze and assess basic education and literacy programs that have been implemented in Latin America and the Caribbean. In addition to UNICEF and UNESCO officials, some 36 experts from 11 countries participated in the meeting. Although the initial aim of the…

  16. Image Processing and Geographic Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLeod, Ronald G.; Daily, Julie; Kiss, Kenneth

    1985-12-01

    A Geographic Information System, which is a product of System Development Corporation's Image Processing System and a commercially available Data Base Management System, is described. The architecture of the system allows raster (image) data type, graphics data type, and tabular data type input and provides for the convenient analysis and display of spatial information. A variety of functions are supported through the Geographic Information System including ingestion of foreign data formats, image polygon encoding, image overlay, image tabulation, costatistical modelling of image and tabular information, and tabular to image conversion. The report generator in the DBMS is utilized to prepare quantitative tabular output extracted from spatially referenced images. An application of the Geographic Information System to a variety of data sources and types is highlighted. The application utilizes sensor image data, graphically encoded map information available from government sources, and statistical tables.

  17. Evaluating geographic information systems technology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guptill, Stephen C.

    1989-01-01

    Computerized geographic information systems (GISs) are emerging as the spatial data handling tools of choice for solving complex geographical problems. However, few guidelines exist for assisting potential users in identifying suitable hardware and software. A process to be followed in evaluating the merits of GIS technology is presented. Related standards and guidelines, software functions, hardware components, and benchmarking are discussed. By making users aware of all aspects of adopting GIS technology, they can decide if GIS is an appropriate tool for their application and, if so, which GIS should be used.

  18. Analysing surnames as geographic data.

    PubMed

    Cheshire, James

    2014-01-01

    With most surname research undertaken within the fields of anthropology and population genetics, geographers have overlooked surnames as a credible data source. In addition to providing a review of recent developments in surname analysis, this paper highlights areas where geographers can make important contributions to advancing surname research, both in terms of its quality and also its applications. The review discusses the emerging applications for surname research, not least in the mining of online data, and ends by suggesting three future research themes to ensure the building momentum of surname research continues to grow across disciplines. PMID:25020015

  19. Biosynthesis of glycosylated derivatives of tylosin in Streptomyces venezuelae.

    PubMed

    Han, Ah Reum; Park, Sung Ryeol; Park, Je Won; Lee, Eun Yeol; Kim, Dong-Myung; Kim, Byung-Gee; Yoon, Yeo Joon

    2011-06-01

    Streptomyces venezuelae YJ028, bearing a deletion of the entire biosynthetic gene cluster encoding the pikromycin polyketide synthases and desosamine biosynthetic enzymes, was used as a bioconversion system for combinatorial biosynthesis of glycosylated derivatives of tylosin. Two engineered deoxysugar biosynthetic pathways for the biosynthesis of TDP-3-O-demethyl-D-chalcose or TDP-Lrhamnose in conjunction with the glycosyltransferaseauxiliary protein pair DesVII/DesVIII were expressed in a S. venezuelae YJ028 mutant strain. Supplementation of each mutant strain capable of producing TDP-3-O-demethyl- D-chalcose or TDP-L-rhamnose with tylosin aglycone tylactone resulted in the production of the 3-O-demethyl- D-chalcose, D-quinovose, or L-rhamnose-glycosylated tylactone. PMID:21715968

  20. Brucella suis infections in collared peccaries in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Lord, V R; Lord, R D

    1991-07-01

    A bacteriologic and serologic study was conducted on two ranches in the states of Apure and Guarico, Venezuela for brucellosis in collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu). One hundred thirty-nine peccaries were necropsied and tissues were cultured. Forty-three isolations of Brucella suis biovar 1, were made from lymph nodes and spleens of 25 males and 18 females. Antibody to Brucella sp. was detected in sera from 122 animals by the rapid plate agglutination, standard tube agglutination, 2-mer-captoethanol, rivanol, complement fixation and card tests. Young animals had infection and reactor rates nearly as high as the older animals indicating most were infected at a relative early age. Results suggest that this species may transmit brucellosis when living with domestic animals. This is the first report of B. suis biovar 1 from collared peccaries in Venezuela. PMID:1920669

  1. Radioisotope Concentration in Lake Sediments of Maracaibo, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Salas, A. Rangel; Viloria, T.; Sajo-Bohus, L.; Barros, H.; Greaves, E. D.; Palacios, D.

    2007-10-26

    Maracaibo Lake is one of the most important water basing and oil producing regions in Venezuela. Changes in the local environment have been monitored for chemical pollution in the past. For this study we selected a set of sediment samples collected in the shore and analyzed for its radioisotope content. Results show the gamma emitting isotopes distribution. Isotopes concentrations have been determined within the natural K, Th and U families.

  2. A new species of Coespeletia (Asteraceae, Millerieae) from Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Diazgranados, Mauricio; Morillo, Gilberto

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Coespeletia from the páramos of Mérida (Venezuela) is described here. This species, named Coespeletia palustris, is found in a few marshy areas of the páramo. It is closely related to C. moritziana, but differs from it in a smaller number of florets in the capitula, larger ray flowers with longer ligulae and longer linguiform appendages, smaller pollen grains, larger cypselae, ebracteate scapes, leaves and inflorescences with more whitish indumentum, larger leaf sheaths, and marshy habitat. PMID:24399890

  3. Research in seismology and earthquake engineering in Venezuela

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Urbina, L.; Grases, J.

    1983-01-01

    After the July 29, 1967, damaging earthquake (with a moderate magnitude of 6.3) caused widespread damage to the northern coastal area of Venezuela and to the Caracas Valley, the Venezuelan Government decided to establish a Presidential Earthquake Commission. This commission undertook the task of coordinating the efforts to study the after-effects of the earthquake. The July 1967 earthquake claimed numerous lives and caused extensive damage to the capital of Venezuela. In 1968, the U.S Geological Survey conducted a seismological field study in the northern coastal area and in the Caracas Valley of Venezuela. the objective was to study the area that sustained severe, moderate, and no damage to structures. A reported entitled Ground Amplification Studies in Earthquake Damage Areas: The Caracas Earthquake of 1967 documented, for the first time, short-period seismic wave ground-motion amplifications in the Caracas Valley. Figure 1 shows the area of severe damage in the Los Palos Grantes suburb and the correlation with depth of alluvium and the arabic numbers denote the ground amplification factor at each site in the area. the Venezuelan Government initiated many programs to study in detail the damage sustained and to investigate the ongoing construction practices. These actions motivated professionals in the academic, private, and Government sectors to develops further capabilities and self-sufficiency in the fields of engineering and seismology. Allocation of funds was made to assist in training professionals and technicians and in developing new seismological stations and new programs at the national level in earthquake engineering and seismology. A brief description of the ongoing programs in Venezuela is listed below. these programs are being performed by FUNVISIS and by other national organizations listed at the end of this article.   

  4. Evidence that active transmission of porcine cysticercosis occurs in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Cortez Alcobedes, Maria M; Boggio, Gonzalo; Guerra, Ma de Lourdes; de Gavidia, Magda Rodríguez; Rojas Reyes, Glenda C; Ferrer, Elizabeth; Lares, Maria; Alviarez, Yenny; Harrison, Leslie J S; Parkhouse, R Michael E

    2010-03-01

    There is a paucity of quantitative data on the status of porcine cysticercosis in Venezuela, information which is essential for understanding the level of disease transmission. This study was, therefore, conducted in a typical small rural community in Yaracuy State, Venezuela, where previous cases of human Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis had been reported and where the free-ranging pig management practices and the lack of rudimentary sanitary facilities indicated an obvious risk for transmission of the disease. Serum samples from 52 village pigs were screened by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for anti-cysticercal antibodies (Ab-ELISA), using T. solium cyst fluid as the antigen and the HP10, monoclonal antibody-based, antigen trapping ELISA for parasite antigen (HP10 Ag-ELISA). Significantly, a high proportion of the animals (65.4% for the Ab-ELISA and 42.3% for the HP10 Ag-ELISA) were sero-positive. Five of the pigs, which were selected on that basis of positive tongue palpation, were killed for autopsy, and large numbers of viable cysticerci were found in the carcases. This unequivocal documentation of porcine cysticercosis in Venezuelan pigs presents clear evidence that T. solium is actively transmitted in Venezuela. Further detailed studies and implementation of appropriate control measures are therefore indicated. PMID:19779843

  5. Egalitarian policies and social determinants of health in Bolivarian Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Muntaner, Caries; Benach, Joan; Páez Victor, María; Ng, Edwin; Chung, Haejoo

    2013-01-01

    In 1999, newly-elected Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez initiated a far-reaching social movement as part of a political project known as the Bolivarian Revolution. Inspired by the democratic ideologies of Simón Bolívar, this movement was committed to reducing intractable inequalities that defined Venezuela's Fourth Republic (1958-1998). Given the ambitious scope of these reforms, Venezuela serves as an instructive example to understand the political context of social inequalities and population health. In this article, we provide a brief overview of the impact of egalitarian policies in Venezuela, stressing: (a) the socialist reforms and social class changes initiated by the Bolivarian Movement; (b) the impact of these reforms and changes on poverty and social determinants of health; (c) the sustainability of economic growth to continue pro-poor policies; and (d) the implications of egalitarian policies for other Latin American countries. The significance and implications of Chávez's achievements are now further underscored given his recent passing, leading one to ask whether political support for Bolivarianism will continue without its revolutionary leader. PMID:24066420

  6. Paleogeographic maps, Maturin basin of east Venezuela and Trinidad

    SciTech Connect

    Rohr, G.M.

    1990-05-01

    The northern margin of the Maturin basin of east Venezuela and Trinidad is part of the Caribbean-South American plate-boundary zone, and deformation within the zone reflects relative motions of these two plates. Stratigraphic sections within this zone do not record sedimentation at a fixed site but rather the different paleogeographic locations occupied by a piece of lithosphere as it migrated through space and time. This paper presents a method of restoring stratigraphic control to its site of deposition. The method assumes a constant rate of 2 cm/yr of relative eastward motion for the Caribbean plate in the vicinity of Trinidad and a uniform distribution of shear among numerous wrench faults within the boundary zone. A compressional component is independently derived by restoring a north-northeast-south-southeast cross section through Trinidad. Lithostratigraphic reference sections from Venezuela and Trinidad are reinterpreted as a paleoshelf edge which has undergone more than 90{degree} of clockwise rotation since the middle Eocene. The buried thrust front found productive in Venezuela at El Furrial is traced eastward across Trinidad and into the offshore. Restored paleogeographic maps are presented for middle Pliocene (3 m.y.); middle Miocene (14 m.y.); the Oligocene-Miocene boundary (22 m.y.) and middle Eocene (45 m.y.).

  7. Maryland Automated Geographic Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, E. L.

    1978-01-01

    A computer based system designed for storing geographic data in a consistent and coordinated manner is described. The data are stored, retrieved, and analyzed using a 400 km sq/acre cell. Stored information can be displayed on computer maps in a manner similar to standard map graphics. The data bank contains various information for performing land use analysis in a variety of areas.

  8. SOIL SURVEY GEOGRAPHIC DATABASE (SSURGO)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set is a digital soil survey and is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. This data set consists of georeferenced digital map data and computerized attribute data. The map data are in a 7.5 minute quadrangle ...

  9. Geographic Considerations in International Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kott, Richard F.

    Based on students' generally shallow knowledge of geographic concepts on the one hand and a new and almost universal awareness of man in his milieu on the other, the author seeks to draw attention to the discipline of geography, and more specifically, political geography as an essential, fundamental component of international studies. The…

  10. Spatial Cognition and Geographical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stringer, W. N.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the influence of teaching styles and curriculum on development of geographic concepts in children. Implications of this influence for geography curriculum development are examined. Available from: Sydney Teachers College, P.O. Box 63, Camperdown, N.S.W. 2050, Australia. (Author/DB)

  11. Geographical Knowledge of University Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Robert W.; And Others

    In order to obtain information on the status of geographical knowledge possessed by University of South Dakota (Vermillion) students, a geography survey designed to determine specific knowledge about the locations of bodies of water, countries, and cities was conducted. One map was used for identifying cities, while the second was used for…

  12. Geologic map of the Venezuela part of the Puerto Ayacucho 2 degrees x 3 degrees Quadrangle, Amazonas Federal Territory, Venezuela

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wynn, Jeffrey C.; Olmore, Steven D.; Mendoza, Vicente; García, Andrés; Rendon, Ines; Estanga, Yasmin; Rincon, Haydee; Martinez, Felix; Lugo, Elis; Rivero, Nelson; Schruben, Paul G.

    1994-01-01

    This map is one of a series of 1:500,000-scale maps that, along with several other products, stems from a cooperative agreement between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Corporacion Venezolana de Guayana, Tecnica Minera, C.A. (TECMIN), a Venezuelan Government-owned mining and mineral exploration company. The agreement covered cooperative work carried out in the Precambrian Shield of southern Venezuela during 1987-1991 and included a geologic and mineral resource inventory, technology transfer, and scientific training (Wynn and others, in press). The Precambrian Guayana Shield (Escudo de Guyana, not to be confused with the neighboring country of Guyana) includes some of the oldest known rocks in the world (Mendoza, 1977) and also covers parts of neighboring Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana, Columbia, and Brazil. In Venezuela, it underlies most of Bolivar state and all of the Amazonas Federal Territory (see index map).

  13. RE-EVALUATION OF THE GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION AND PHYLOGEOGRAPHY OF THE SIGMODON HISPIDUS COMPLEX BASED ON MITOCHONDRIAL DNA SEQUENCES

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Robert D.; Henson, Dallas D.; Durish, Nevin D.

    2010-01-01

    Geographic distribution among members of the Sigmodon hispidus complex (Sigmodon hirsutus, S. hispidus, and S. toltecus) were examined using DNA sequences from the mitochondrial cytochrome-b gene. Geographic distribution of each taxon was defined based on DNA sequences obtained from 69 samples (19 newly obtained and 50 from previous studies) collected from North, Central, and South America. These data indicated that S. hispidus is restricted to the southern one-half of the United States and northeastern Mexico (Nuevo León and Tamaulipas), S. toltecus occupies the eastern one-third of Mexico (central Tamaulipas) to northern Honduras, and S. hirsutus is distributed from central Chiapas and southeastern Oaxaca to northern South America (Venezuela). The newly collected data extend distributions of S. hispidus from the southern United States southward into northeastern Mexico and that of S. toltecus from Chiapas, Mexico, southward to Honduras. Genetic divergence and patterns of phylogeography were examined within each taxon. PMID:20613884

  14. Radioactive source materials in Los Estados Unidos de Venezuela

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wyant, Donald G.; Sharp, William N.; Rodriguez, Carlos Ponte

    1953-01-01

    This report summarizes the data available on radioactive source materials in Los Estados Unidos de Venezuela accumulated by geologists of the Direccions Tecnica de Geolgia and antecedent agencies prior to June 1951, and the writers from June to November 1951. The investigation comprised preliminary study, field examination, office studies, and the preparation of this report, in which the areas and localities examined are described in detail, the uranium potentialities of Venezuela are summarized, and recommendations are made. Preliminary study was made to select areas and rock types that were known or reported to be radioactive or that geologic experience suggests would be favorable host for uranium deposits, In the office, a study of gamma-ray well logs was started as one means of amassing general radiometric data and of rapidly scanning many of ye rocks in northern Venezuela; gamma-ray logs from about 140 representative wells were examined and their peaks of gamma intensity evaluated; in addition samples were analyzed radiometrically, and petrographically. Radiometic reconnaissance was made in the field during about 3 months of 1951, or about 12 areas, including over 100 localities in the State of Miranda, Carabobo, Yaracuy, Falcon, Lara, Trujillo, Zulia, Merida, Tachira, Bolivar, and Territory Delta Amacuro. During the course of the investigation, both in the filed and office, information was given about geology of uranium deposits, and in techniques used in prospecting and analysis. All studies and this report are designed to supplement and to strengthen the Direccion Tecnica de Geologias's program of investigation of radioactive source in Venezuela now in progress. The uranium potentialities of Los Estados de Venezuela are excellent for large, low-grade deposits of uraniferous phospahtic shales containing from 0.002 to 0.027 percent uranium; fair, for small or moderate-sized, low-grade placer deposits of thorium, rare-earth, and uranium minerals; poor, for high-grade hydrothermal pitchblende deposits; and highly possible for small, medium- to high-grade despots of carnotite-or copper-uranium bearing sandstone. Recommendations for the Venezuelan uranium program include 1) the systematic collection of a mass general radiometric data by examining sample collections, expanding the gamma-ray program, encouraging the use of Geiger counter by field geologists, and by enlisting the aid of the general public; 2) , the examination of specific areas or localities, chosen on the basis of geologic favorability from the results of the amassing of data, or obtained by hints and rumors; 3), the organization of a unit within the Direccion Tecnica de Geologica to direct, collection, and collate metric data. It is emphasized that to be most fruitful the program requires the application of sounds and imaginative geologic theory.

  15. Interruption of Onchocerca volvulus transmission in Northern Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Onchocerciasis is caused by Onchocerca volvulus and transmitted by Simulium species (black flies). In the Americas, the infection has been previously described in 13 discrete regional foci distributed among six countries (Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico and Venezuela) where more than 370,000 people are currently considered at risk. Since 2001, disease control in Venezuela has relied on the mass drug administration to the at-risk communities. This report provides empirical evidence of interruption of Onchocerca volvulus transmission by Simulium metallicum in 510 endemic communities from two Northern foci of Venezuela, after 10–12 years of 6-monthly Mectizan® (ivermectin) treatment to all the eligible residents. Methods In-depth entomologic and epidemiologic surveys were serially conducted from 2001–2012 in selected (sentinel and extra-sentinel) communities from the North-central (NC) and North-east (NE) onchocerciasis foci of Venezuela in order to monitor the impact of ivermectin treatment. Results From 2007–2009, entomological indicators in both foci confirmed that 0 out of 112,637 S. metallicum females examined by PCR contained L3 infection in insect heads. The upper bound of the 95% confidence intervals of the infective rate of the vector reached values below 1% by 2009 (NC) and 2012 (NE). Additionally, after 14 (NC) and 22 (NE) rounds of treatment, the seasonal transmission potential (±UL CIs) of S. metallicum was under the critical threshold of 20 L3 per person per season. Serological analysis in school children < 15 years-old demonstrated that 0 out of 6,590 individuals were harboring antibodies to Ov-16. Finally, epidemiological surveys made during 2010 (NC) and 2012 (NE) showed no evidence of microfilariae in the skin and eyes of the population. Conclusions These results meet the WHO criteria for absence of parasite transmission and disease morbidity in these endemic areas which represent 91% of the population previously at-risk in the country. Consequently, the two Northern foci are currently under post-treatment onchocerciasis surveillance status in Venezuela. PMID:24499653

  16. Using the Five Themes of Geography To Teach about Venezuela and Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunal, Cynthia Szymanski; Christensen, Lois

    Activities that employ the five themes of geography--location, place, relationships within places, movement, and regions--to teach about Venezuela and Mexico are described in this document. Each theme has objectives, a list of materials, and three types of activities--exploration, invention, and expansion. Background information on Venezuela and…

  17. Earnings and Education in Venezuela: An Update from the 1987 Household Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Psacharopoulos, George; Alam, Asad

    1991-01-01

    Uses data from Venezuela's 1987 Household Survey to update returns to education and compare them to 1975 and 1984 figures. Returns to education have been maintained despite the educational explosion occurring in Venezuela during the period investigated. Although higher education is most heavily subsidized, primary education remains the most…

  18. 78 FR 49471 - Ferrosilicon From the Russian Federation and Venezuela: Initiation of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ..., Petitioners submitted a foreign research report with respect to the Venezuela petition.\\2\\ On July 24, 2013... the foreign market researcher who authored the Foreign Research Report.\\3\\ On August 5, 2013... Venezuela,'' filed on July 19, 2013 (``Petitions''). \\2\\ See Petitioners' Venezuelan Foreign Research...

  19. 78 FR 4437 - Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, Venezuela: Notice of Commission Determination To Conduct...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... of institution (77 FR 59970, October 1, 2012) was adequate and that the respondent interested party... COMMISSION Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, Venezuela: Notice of Commission Determination To Conduct... duty orders on silicomanganese from India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela would be likely to lead...

  20. 78 FR 60846 - Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Orders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... FR 59897 (October 1, 2012). \\2\\ See Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela: Final Results of the Expedited Second Sunset Reviews of the Antidumping Duty Orders, 78 FR 9034 (February 7, 2013). \\3\\ See Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela: Determination, 78 FR...

  1. Geographic Discrimination of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Strains by Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Calcagno, Ana María; Niño-Vega, Gustavo; San-Blas, Felipe; San-Blas, Gioconda

    1998-01-01

    Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis of 33 Paracoccidioides brasiliensis strains from Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Peru, and Venezuela produced reproducible amplification products which were sufficiently polymorphic to allow differentiation of the strains. Types generated with five primers (OPG 03, OPG 05, OPG 14, OPG 16, and OPG 18) resulted in a high discriminatory index (0.956). The discriminatory index was slightly reduced (0.940) when only two primers (OPG 3 and OPG 14) were used. A dendrogram based on these results showed a high degree of similarity among the strains, and genetic differences were expressed in clusters related to geographical regions but not to pathological features of the disease. With a few exceptions, strains were sorted into five groups by geographical origin as follows: group I, Venezuelan strains; group II, Brazilian strains; group III, Peruvian strains; group IV, Colombian strains; and group V, Argentinian strains. The group containing the most disparate strains was group V (discriminatory index, 0.633); the discriminatory index for the other four groups was 0.824. The use of primer OPG 18 by itself was sufficient to discriminate species specificity, and the use of primer OPG 14 by itself was sufficient to discriminate among the geographical locations of the strains in the sample. This method may be helpful for epidemiological studies of P. brasiliensis. PMID:9620409

  2. Geographic Information System Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, Chad; Casad, Christopher; Floriano, Luis G.; Hill, Tracie; Johnson, Rashida K.; Locklear, J. Mark; Penn, Stephen; Rhoulac, Tori; Shay, Adam H.; Taylor, Antone; Thorpe, Karina

    1995-01-01

    Data was collected in order to further NASA Langley Research Center's Geographic Information System(GIS). Information on LaRC's communication, electrical, and facility configurations was collected. Existing data was corrected through verification, resulting in more accurate databases. In addition, Global Positioning System(GPS) points were used in order to accurately impose buildings on digitized images. Overall, this project will help the Imaging and CADD Technology Team (ICTT) prove GIS to be a valuable resource for LaRC.

  3. Geographical Applications of Remote Sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Weng, Qihao; Zhou, Yuyu; Quattrochi, Dale

    2013-02-28

    Data and Information derived through Earth observation technology have been extensively used in geographic studies, such as in the areas of natural and human environments, resources, land use and land cover, human-environment interactions, and socioeconomic issues. Land-use and land-cover change (LULCC), affecting biodiversity, climate change, watershed hydrology, and other surface processes, is one of the most important research topics in geography.

  4. Geographic names of the Antarctic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Board on Geographic Names; U.S. Geological Survey; Defense Mapping Agency; National Science Foundation

    1995-01-01

    This gazetteer contains 12,710 names approved by the United States Board on Geographic Names and the Secretary of the Interior for features in Antarctica and the area extending northward to the Antarctic Convergence. Included in this geographic area, the Antarctic region, are the off-lying South Shetland Islands, the South Orkney Islands, the South Sandwich Islands, South Georgia, Bouvetøya, Heard Island, and the Balleny Islands. These names have been approved for use by U.S. Government agencies. Their use by the Antarctic specialist and the public is highly recommended for the sake of accuracy and uniformity. This publication, which supersedes previous Board gazetteers or lists for the area, contains names approved as recently as December 1994. The basic name coverage of this gazetteer corresponds to that of maps at the scale of 1:250,000 or larger for coastal Antarctica, the off-lying islands, and isolated mountains and ranges of the continent. Much of the interior of Antarctica is a featureless ice plateau. That area has been mapped at a smaller scale and is nearly devoid of toponyms. All of the names are for natural features, such as mountains, glaciers, peninsulas, capes, bays, islands, and subglacial entities. The names of scientific stations have not been listed alphabetically, but they may appear in the texts of some decisions. For the names of submarine features, reference should be made to the Gazetteer of Undersea Features, 4th edition, U.S. Board on Geographic Names, 1990.

  5. Spatially coded semantic information about geographical terms.

    PubMed

    Crutch, Sebastian J; Warrington, Elizabeth K

    2010-06-01

    The cognitive representations supporting our conceptual knowledge of geographical terms such as country and city names have rarely been explored. It has been hypothesised that semantic information about geographical terms is spatially coded (Crutch & Warrington, 2003). The aim of the current study was to assess whether the findings from this previous single case study generalise to other patients and to different classes of geographical terms. Two globally aphasic stroke patients were administered a series of spoken word to written word matching tasks in which they had to repeatedly identify places from the same geographical area (e.g. Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland) or different geographical areas (e.g. Norway, India, Spain, Brazil). The patients replicated previous findings by showing that response accuracy was significantly affected by the real-world geographical proximity of the places being examined. Error rates were significantly higher when identifying geographically close as compared with geographically distant countries and cities. They were also significantly less accurate identifying the names of towns in Greater London drawn from the same geographical area (e.g. northwest, northeast, southwest, southeast) than from different geographical areas. Furthermore, it was found that geographical proximity effects occurred even between different types of geographical terms (e.g. England, London, Surrey, Thames). These results suggest that the comprehension of spoken and written geographical terms is directly influenced by their real-world location. PMID:20385150

  6. GIS Data Sources - Geographic Information Systems & Science

    Cancer.gov

    National Geospatial Data Clearinghouse - a searchable collection of over 250 spatial data servers containing digital geographic data primarily for use in Geographic Information Systems, image processing systems, and other modelling software.

  7. Where Is "Away"?--A Geographic Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Edward A; Allen, Rodney F.

    1990-01-01

    Provides a lesson plan on the geographic and civic aspects of municipal wastes. Offers action activities for students. Maintains that students will become familiar with the geographic, moral, and political features of municipal waste disposal. (RW)

  8. The Geographer's Concern With Natural Hazard Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, J.

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the interest of geographers in the interplay of physical and human influences in fashioning geographical patterns. Methods of stimulating student interest in geography are suggested. For journal availability, see SO 505 212. (Author/DB)

  9. Geographical clustering of Trypanosoma cruzi I groups from Colombia revealed by low-stringency single specific primer-PCR of the intergenic regions of spliced-leader genes.

    PubMed

    Mejía-Jaramillo, Ana María; Arboleda-Sánchez, Sair; Rodríguez, Ingrid Bibiana; Cura, Carolina; Salazar, Alexander; Del Mazo, Jesús; Triana-Chávez, Omar; Schijman, Alejandro Gabriel

    2009-01-01

    A low-stringency single-primer polymerase chain reaction (LSSP-PCR) typing procedure targeted to the intergenic regions of spliced-leader genes (SL) was designed to profile Trypanosoma cruzi I stocks from endemic regions of Colombia. Comparison between SL-LSSP-PCR profiles of parasite DNA from vector faeces and cultures isolated from those faeces showed more conservative signatures than profiles using LSSP-PCR targeted to the minicircle variable regions (kDNA). This was also observed by analysing 15 parasite clones from one stock as well as serial samples of a same stock after in vitro culturing or inoculation into mice. Thus, SL-LSSP-PCR appears more appropriate than kDNA-LSSP-PCR for reliable typing of major T. cruzi I groups from in vitro cultured stocks and triatomine faeces. SL-LSSP-PCR grouped 46 of 47 T. cruzi I Colombian stocks according to their geographical procedences in four clusters: Cluster Cas from Casanare Department, Cluster Mg from Northern Magdalena department, Cluster Mom from Momposina Depression in Southern Magdalena and finally Cluster NW from northwestern Colombia, including Sucre, Chocó, Córdoba and Antioquia departments. Sequence analysis identified punctual mutations among amplicons from each cluster. Within Cluster Mg, sequence polymorphism allowed association with different sylvatic vector species. Novel SL sequences and LSSP-PCR profiles are reported from T. cruzi I infecting Eratyrus cuspidatus, Panstrongylus geniculatus and Rhodnius pallescens vectors. PMID:18850114

  10. Description of a Model Geographical Isolation Factor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bass, Gerald R.

    The inclusion of a geographical isolation factor in a state's distribution formula for foundation aid is a mechanism for providing additional revenue to small schools or school districts that, because of geographical location, cannot be consolidated into more efficient units. This paper presents a model geographical isolation factor that could be…

  11. Research and Research Methods in Geographical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Norman J., Ed.

    This collection of papers examines research methods in geographical education in nine countries. "Research Methods in the History of Geographical Education" (William Marsden, the United Kingdom) examines the methods used and some of the research undertaken in the history of geographical education. "Research Methods in Investigating Children's and…

  12. 33 CFR 166.103 - Geographic coordinates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Geographic coordinates. 166.103...) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY SHIPPING SAFETY FAIRWAYS General § 166.103 Geographic coordinates. Geographic coordinates expressed in terms of latitude or longitude, or both, are not intended for plotting on maps...

  13. 33 CFR 166.103 - Geographic coordinates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Geographic coordinates. 166.103...) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY SHIPPING SAFETY FAIRWAYS General § 166.103 Geographic coordinates. Geographic coordinates expressed in terms of latitude or longitude, or both, are not intended for plotting on maps...

  14. 33 CFR 166.103 - Geographic coordinates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Geographic coordinates. 166.103...) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY SHIPPING SAFETY FAIRWAYS General § 166.103 Geographic coordinates. Geographic coordinates expressed in terms of latitude or longitude, or both, are not intended for plotting on maps...

  15. 33 CFR 166.103 - Geographic coordinates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Geographic coordinates. 166.103...) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY SHIPPING SAFETY FAIRWAYS General § 166.103 Geographic coordinates. Geographic coordinates expressed in terms of latitude or longitude, or both, are not intended for plotting on maps...

  16. 33 CFR 167.3 - Geographic coordinates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Geographic coordinates. 167.3...) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY OFFSHORE TRAFFIC SEPARATION SCHEMES General § 167.3 Geographic coordinates. Geographic coordinates are defined using North American 1927 Datum (NAD 27) unless indicated otherwise....

  17. 33 CFR 167.3 - Geographic coordinates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Geographic coordinates. 167.3...) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY OFFSHORE TRAFFIC SEPARATION SCHEMES General § 167.3 Geographic coordinates. Geographic coordinates are defined using North American 1927 Datum (NAD 27) unless indicated otherwise....

  18. 33 CFR 166.103 - Geographic coordinates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Geographic coordinates. 166.103...) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY SHIPPING SAFETY FAIRWAYS General § 166.103 Geographic coordinates. Geographic coordinates expressed in terms of latitude or longitude, or both, are not intended for plotting on maps...

  19. 33 CFR 167.3 - Geographic coordinates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Geographic coordinates. 167.3...) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY OFFSHORE TRAFFIC SEPARATION SCHEMES General § 167.3 Geographic coordinates. Geographic coordinates are defined using North American 1927 Datum (NAD 27) unless indicated otherwise....

  20. 33 CFR 167.3 - Geographic coordinates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Geographic coordinates. 167.3...) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY OFFSHORE TRAFFIC SEPARATION SCHEMES General § 167.3 Geographic coordinates. Geographic coordinates are defined using North American 1927 Datum (NAD 27) unless indicated otherwise....

  1. 33 CFR 167.3 - Geographic coordinates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Geographic coordinates. 167.3...) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY OFFSHORE TRAFFIC SEPARATION SCHEMES General § 167.3 Geographic coordinates. Geographic coordinates are defined using North American 1927 Datum (NAD 27) unless indicated otherwise....

  2. [Microbiological quality of pasteurized milk creams manufactured in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Szwarcbort de Tamsut, L; García, C E

    1999-03-01

    A total of 100 samples of pasteurized milk creams produced by eleven (11) dairy milk industries were analyzed for the presence of microoganisms. The dairy milk industries were distributed along different places of Venezuela. The samples were analyzed for the presence of mesophilic aerobic bacteria, psychotropic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, coliformes, molds and yeasts 75% of the analyzed samples did not reach the international standards for aerobic mesophilic bacteria, similarly, 95% for Staphylococcus aureus, 91% for coliformes and 58% for molds and yeasts, so pathogenic enterobacteria we have found: Salmonella Typhimurium, Shigella sonnei and Escherichia coli enteropathogenic. PMID:10412511

  3. Present Status of Historical Seismicity Studies in Colombia and Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarabia, A.; Cifuentes, H.; Altez Ortega, R.; Palme, C.; Dimate, C.

    2013-05-01

    After the publication of the SISRA (CERESIS-1985) regional project, a unified catalog of seismic parameters and intensities for South America, researchers in historical seismicity have continued advancing on different scales in the area of this study of seismic hazard. The most important initiatives carried out in this area in Colombia and Venezuela can be grouped as follows: a) Reviews of destructive earthquakes in national and international historic archives, principally by Altez and FUNVISIS in Venezuela and Espinosa, Salcedo, and Sarabia et al in Colombia, leading to the preparation of seismologic catalogues, scientific and dissemination articles, reports, books, among others. b) Organization and systematization of historic information to develop public domain data bases and information, specifically the Historic Seismologic Teleinformation System in Venezuela, carried out between 2004 and 2008 under the coordination of Christl Palme and accessible on-line: http://sismicidad.ciens.ula.ve. As well, the "Historia Sísmica de Colombia 1550-1830" (Seismic History in Colombia 1550-1830) data base, in CD-ROM, by Espinosa Baquero (2003) and the historic seismicity information system of Colombia (Servicio Geológico Colombiano-Universidad Nacional de Colombia), published on the internet in 2012: http://agata.ingeominas.gov.co:9090/SismicidadHistorica/. c) Macroseismic studies for the development of intensity attenuation equations and the quantification and revaluation of basic historic earthquake parameters using isoseismal maps (Rengifo et al., Palme et al., Salcedo et al., among others) and procedures such as Boxer and Bakun & Wentworth (Palme et al., Dimaté, among others), which have produced significant changes in the parameters of some of the large earthquakes. d) Symposiums of researchers to promote interest and development in the discipline, including Jornadas Venezolanas de Sismología Histórica (Venezuelan Congress of Historical Seismology), held periodically between 1997 and 2012, the year of the sixth edition. As well, national and international research groups have been formed to work actively on global projects, such as the Geophysics Laboratory of Universidad de Los Andes in Venezuela. In the future, international groups will be formed to jointly treat issues including localization and size of destructive events along borders, common scales for the evaluation of intensities, integrated data bases, etc. Additionally the methods employed will be validated by paleoseismology, neotectonics and instrumental seismicity, among others.

  4. Geographic Uncertainty in Environmental Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlquist, Jon

    2008-06-01

    This volume contains 17 papers presented at the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Fuzziness and Uncertainty held in Kiev, Ukraine, 28 June to 1 July 2006. Eleven of the papers deal with fuzzy set concepts, while the other six (papers 5, 7, 13, 14, 15, and 16) are not fuzzy. A reader with no prior exposure to fuzzy set theory would benefit from having an introductory text at hand, but the papers are accessible to a wide audience. In general, the papers deal with broad issues of classification and uncertainty in geographic information.

  5. Geographic profiling and animal foraging.

    PubMed

    Le Comber, Steven C; Nicholls, Barry; Rossmo, D Kim; Racey, Paul A

    2006-05-21

    Geographic profiling was originally developed as a statistical tool for use in criminal cases, particularly those involving serial killers and rapists. It is designed to help police forces prioritize lists of suspects by using the location of crime scenes to identify the areas in which the criminal is most likely to live. Two important concepts are the buffer zone (criminals are less likely to commit crimes in the immediate vicinity of their home) and distance decay (criminals commit fewer crimes as the distance from their home increases). In this study, we show how the techniques of geographic profiling may be applied to animal data, using as an example foraging patterns in two sympatric colonies of pipistrelle bats, Pipistrellus pipistrellus and P. pygmaeus, in the northeast of Scotland. We show that if model variables are fitted to known roost locations, these variables may be used as numerical descriptors of foraging patterns. We go on to show that these variables can be used to differentiate patterns of foraging in these two species. PMID:16263134

  6. Comparing categories among geographic ontologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavouras, Marinos; Kokla, Margarita; Tomai, Eleni

    2005-03-01

    Numerous attempts have been made to generate semantic "mappings" between different ontologies, or create aligned/integrated ones. An essential step towards their success is the ability to compare the categories involved. This paper introduces a systematic methodology for comparing categories met in geographic ontologies. The methodology explores/extracts semantic information provided by categories' definitions. The first step towards this goal is the recognition of syntactic and lexical patterns in definitions, which help to identify (a) semantic properties such as purpose, location, cover, and (b) semantic relations such as hypernym, part of, has-parts, etc. At the second step, a similarity measure among categories is applied, in order to explore how (the) extracted properties and relations interrelate. This framework enables us to (a) better understand the impact of context in cross-ontology "mappings", (b) evaluate the "quality" of definitions as to whether they respect mere ontological aspects (such as unambiguous taxonomies), and (c) deal more effectively with the problem of semantic translation among geographic ontologies.

  7. [Mycobacterium tuberculosis: spoligotypes in the Carabobo state, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Sequera C, Mónica; Delgado S, Víctor; Araque M, Wolfan; Torrealba O, Mariela; Núñez M, Raimunda; Da Mata J, Omaira; Abadía P, Edgar; Takiff, Howard; De Waard, Jacobus

    2008-10-01

    In order to study the genetic variability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis circulating in the Carabobo State at Venezuela, 317 strains of M. tuberculosis isolated from patients living in different health districts whose acid fast smears were positive, were included. Each strain was characterized by spoligotyping and the pattern compared with the national and worldwide SpolDB4.0 databases; 220 isolates (69.4%) were grouped in 24 clusters, being LAM the most common family (34%). In contrast to other Venezuelan regions, the most common Carabobo spoligotype was number 605, with 46 isolates (14.5%). In addition, there were 97 (30.6%) orphan spoligotypes, 19 of which are found in SpolDB4.0, and 78 non described. Co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus was detected in 11 patients (3.5%). These results show high genotypic variability of M. tuberculosis in the region, contributing with new information for a better understanding of tuberculosis transmission in Venezuela. PMID:18949149

  8. Raptor abundance and distribution in the Llanos wetlands of Venezuela

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jensen, W.J.; Gregory, M.S.; Baldassarre, G.A.; Vilella, F.J.; Bildstein, K.L.

    2005-01-01

    The Llanos of Venezuela is a 275 000-km2 freshwater wetland long recognized as an important habitat for waterbirds. However, little information exists on the raptor community of the region. We conducted raptor surveys in the Southwestern and Western Llanos during 2000-02 and detected 28 species representing 19 genera. Overall, areas of the Llanos that we sampled contained 52% of all raptor species and more than 70% of the kites, buteos, and subbuteos known to inhabit Venezuela. Regional differences in the mean number per route for four of the 14 most common species, the Crested Caracara (Caracara plancus), Black-collared Hawk (Busarellus nigricollis), American Kestrel (Falco sparverius), and Osprey (Pandion haliaetus), were significant (P < 0.0018) in relation to the wet or dry seasons. Of the 14 less common species, six were detected in only one season (wet or dry). The Southwestern and Western regions of the Llanos support a rich raptor community composed primarily of nonmigratory wetland-dependent and upland-terrestrial species. ?? 2005 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  9. The periodicity of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Grillet, María-Eugenia; El Souki, Mayida; Laguna, Francisco; León, José Rafael

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the periodicity of Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum incidence in time-series of malaria data (1990-2010) from three endemic regions in Venezuela. In particular, we determined whether disease epidemics were related to local climate variability and regional climate anomalies such as the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Malaria periodicity was found to exhibit unique features in each studied region. Significant multi-annual cycles of 2- to about 6-year periods were identified. The inter-annual variability of malaria cases was coherent with that of SSTs (ENSO), mainly at temporal scales within the 3-6 year periods. Additionally, malaria cases were intensified approximately 1 year after an El Niño event, a pattern that highlights the role of climate inter-annual variability in the epidemic patterns. Rainfall mediated the effect of ENSO on malaria locally. Particularly, rains from the last phase of the season had a critical role in the temporal dynamics of Plasmodium. The malaria-climate relationship was complex and transient, varying in strength with the region and species. By identifying temporal cycles of malaria we have made a first step in predicting high-risk years in Venezuela. Our findings emphasize the importance of analyzing high-resolution spatial-temporal data to better understand malaria transmission dynamics. PMID:24149288

  10. Renal diseases in children in Venezuela, South America.

    PubMed

    Orta-Sibu, Nelson; Lopez, Michelle; Moriyon, Juan C; Chavez, Juan B

    2002-07-01

    The present study reports epidemiological data on renal disorders in children in Venezuela. Information was obtained from 14 centers for the period January through December 1998. A total of 3,624 patients were evaluated as either a first outpatient consultation or as a first hospital admission. Nearly 70% of the patients could be grouped in one of the following categories: (1) urinary tract infections (32%), with detection of abnormalities of the urinary tract in 25%, (2) metabolic disorders (28%), mainly idiopathic hypercalciuria and hyperuricosuria, (3) glomerulonephritis (9.5%). The other 30% corresponded to urolithiasis 7%; renal tubular acidosis 5.6%; nephrotic syndrome 4.5%; primary hematuria 4.2%; acute renal failure 2.8% (43% were secondary to acute dehydration, 15% to birth asphyxia, 14% to septicemia, and 23% to multiple factors); chronic renal failure 1.6% (secondary to glomerulopathies, predominantly focal glomerulosclerosis, structural abnormalities of the urinary tract, hereditary disorders, and renal hypoplasia/dysplasia); miscellaneous diseases 4.8%. Hence, the spectrum of renal disorders in Venezuela is wide, sharing similarities with countries of both the developed and developing world. These data will hopefully contribute to the development of national healthcare policies appropriate to the epidemiology of the country. PMID:12172777

  11. Genetic characterization of rabies field isolates from Venezuela.

    PubMed Central

    de Mattos, C A; de Mattos, C C; Smith, J S; Miller, E T; Papo, S; Utrera, A; Osburn, B I

    1996-01-01

    Twenty samples from cases of rabies in humans and domestic animals diagnosed in Venezuela between 1990 and 1994 and one sample from a vampire bat collected in 1976 were characterized by reactivity to monoclonal antibodies against the viral nucleoprotein and by patterns of nucleotide substitution in the nucleoprotein gene. Three antigenic variants were found: 1, 3, and 5. Antigenic variant 1 included all samples from dogs and humans infected by contact with rabid dogs. Unique substitutions permitted identification of two separate outbreaks of dog rabies in the Maracaibo Depression and Los Llanos region and in the Andean region of Venezuela. Samples from the vampire bat and two head of cattle were characterized as antigenic variant 3 and showed a nucleotide sequence homology of 96 to 98% to each other and to samples of vampire bat-associated rabies throughout Latin America. Ten of the remaining 12 samples were characterized as antigenic variant 5. Genetic studies indicated that 11 of these samples formed a highly homologous and distinctive group but were closely related to samples of vampire bat-associated rabies. The 12th sample of variant 5 (from a cat) showed only 78 to 80% genetic homology to samples of rabies associated with vampire bats. The application of antigenic and genetic typing to rabies surveillance in Latin America is essential to improve control programs. Recognition of the source of outbreaks of dog rabies and identification of wildlife species maintaining sylvatic cycles of rabies transmission permit better utilization of public health resources. PMID:8735118

  12. A new baseline for fascioliasis in Venezuela: lymnaeid vectors ascertained by DNA sequencing and analysis of their relationships with human and animal infection

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Human and animal fascioliasis poses serious public health problems in South America. In Venezuela, livestock infection represents an important veterinary problem whereas there appear to be few human cases reported, most of which are passively detected in health centres. However, results of recent surveys suggest that the situation may be underestimated in particular areas. To obtain a baseline for future fascioliasis assessment, studies were undertaken by means of rDNA ITS-2 and ITS-1 and mtDNA cox1 sequencing to clarify the specific status of Venezuelan lymnaeids, their geographical distribution and fascioliasis transmission capacity, by comparison with other American countries and other continents. Results Results obtained completely change the lymnaeid scenario known so far. The relatively rich lymnaeid fauna of Venezuela has been proven to include (i) Lymnaea meridensis and L. neotropica as the only native members, (ii) L. cubensis and Pseudosuccinea columella introduced from the Caribbean area, and (iii) Galba truncatula and L. schirazensis introduced from the Old World. The absence of representatives of the stagnicoline and Radix groups is remarkable. Four species are fascioliasis vectors: G. truncatula, L. cubensis and L. neotropica, which have the capacity to give rise to human endemic areas, and P. columella, which is a source of animal infection and is responsible for the spread of disease. Vector capacity in the apparently highland endemic L. meridensis is to be confimed, although may be expected given its phylogenetic relationships. Similarly as elsewhere, the non-transmitting L. schirazensis has been confused with L. cubensis, also with G. truncatula and possibly with L. neotropica. Conclusions The new scenario leads to the re-opening of many disease aspects. In Venezuela, altitude appears to be the main factor influencing fascioliasis distribution. Human infection shows an altitude pattern similar to other Andean countries, although a differing highland/lowland impact on animal infection does not appear evident. The overlap of G. truncatula, L. cubensis and probably also L. neotropica in temperate and cold zones suggests a higher risk for human infection in mid and high altitude areas. A lymnaeid species mapping by means of DNA markers becomes a priority to determine human and animal fascioliasis distribution in Venezuela, owing to the importance of lymnaeid vectors in defining transmission and epidemiological patterns. PMID:21999170

  13. A Descriptive Chronology of Films by Women in Venezuela, 1952-92.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartzman, Karen

    1993-01-01

    Offers an annotated chronology of Venezuelan films, representing a first step toward a general history of women's filmmaking in Venezuela. Suggests that the participation of women directors closely follows the curve of national film production in general. (RS)

  14. Decentralization and Regionalization in the Ministry of Education: The Case of Venezuela

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Mark

    1976-01-01

    This research is an effort to analyze the process of organizational change as it takes place within one segment of the public administration mechanism in Venezuela--The Ministry of Education. (Editor/RK)

  15. Correlation of the Jurassic through Oligocene Stratigraphic Units of Trinidad and Northeastern Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Algar, S.; Erikson, J.P.

    1995-04-01

    The Jurassic through Oligocene stratigraphies of Trinidad and the Serrenia del Interior of eastern Venezuela exhibit many similarities because of their proximity on the passive continental margins of northeastern South America. A slightly later subsidence in eastern Venezuela, and the generally deeper-water sedimentation in Trinidad, is interpreted to be the result of a serration of the original rift margin, producing an eastern Venezuela promontory and Trinidadian re-entrant. We interpret these serrations to be the result of oblique (NW-SE) spreading of North and South America during Middle and late Jurassic time. The stratigraphies of northeastern Venezuela and Trinidad contrast in the Hauterivan-Albian interval, with dynamic shallow shelf environments prevailing in the Serrenia del Interior and deeper marine submarine-fan deposition in Trinidad. Both areas develop middle to Upper Cretaceous source rocks during a time of eustatic sea level high and widespread oceanic anoxia. 15 refs., 4 fig.

  16. Biological and phylogenetic characterization of a genotype VII Newcastle disease virus from Venezuela: Efficacy of vaccination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Here we describe the characterization a virulent genotype VII Newcastle disease virus (NDV) from Venezuela and evaluate the efficacy of heterologous genotype commercial vaccination under field and controlled rearing conditions. Biological pathotyping and molecular analysis were applied. Results sh...

  17. Geographic spatial reasoning strategy based on ontology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Xiaochu; Guo, Qingsheng; Wang, Quanfang

    2009-10-01

    Research on geographical spatial reasoning aims at expression of spatial relationships, geo-spatial reasoning rules and reasoning mechanism that could be used for geo-spatial knowledge discovery and spatial analysis. Spatial reasoning is intelligent spatial data processing technology in support of geo-spatial decision-making. Geographic ontology is clear formal definition of geographical concepts, which defines the basic terms and relations of these concepts, and the rules combining these terms and relationship. Therefore, it can well meet the formal knowledge representation requirement for geo-spatial reasoning that carry out reasoning by using geographic ontology. In this paper, methods of creating geographic ontology are discussed, and the rules based on spatial reasoning are summarized. Furthermore, a path query method based on geographic ontology is proposed, by creating a road ontology system and the corresponding administrative region ontology system, it can be used to solve large-scale spatial path query problem.

  18. Four new species of Andean Pilea (Urticaceae), with additional notes on the genus in Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Dorr, Laurence J.; Stergios, Basil

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Four new species of Pilea (Urticaceae) from the Andes of Venezuela are described and illustrated: Pilea matthewii sp. nov., Pilea miguelii sp. nov., Pilea nicholasii sp. nov., and Pilea nidiae sp. nov. The affinities of these species and their positions within the informal classifications of Pilea proposed by Weddell and Killip are discussed. Notes on other species of Pilea found in Venezuela also are presented. PMID:25383012

  19. Overcoming Squeezing in the Yacambú-Quibor Tunnel, Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoek, E.; Guevara, R.

    2009-04-01

    The 5 m diameter 23.3 km long Yacambú-Quibor tunnel is designed to carry water through the Andes from the Yacambú dam in the wet tropical Orinoco basin to the semi-arid but fertile Quibor basin in western Venezuela. The tunnel is excavated in silicified and graphitic phyllites at depths of up to 1270 m below surface and extreme squeezing problems have been encountered. Construction involved 8 contracts extending over 32 years with breakthrough being achieved in July 2008. Several excavation methods and various lining designs were used over the years until the adoption of yielding support permitted the Owner and the Contractor to agree that only a circular section would be used and emphasis was placed on developing a routine construction procedure, irrespective of the rock conditions encountered at the face. This paper describes some of the rock engineering issues that were faced during the construction of this tunnel.

  20. Embodying racism: race, rhinoplasty, and self-esteem in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Gulbas, Lauren E

    2013-03-01

    In this article, I examine how race motivates women's decisions to undergo aesthetic rhinoplasty in Caracas, Venezuela. Through a combination of cultural domain analysis and thematic analysis of qualitative interviews, I explore how the preference for whiteness and associated facial features dovetail with the aesthetic ideals promoted by cosmetic surgeons. Rhinoplasty is offered by physicians and interpreted by patients as a resolution to body dissatisfaction and low self-esteem. The clinical ethos of objectivity established by cosmetic surgeons fails to acknowledge how perceptions of the self and body are strongly tied to racial marginalization: patients' efforts to alter the nose reveal attempts to change not only how the body looks, but how it is lived. As a result, cosmetic surgery only acts as a stop-gap measure to heighten one's self-esteem and body image. PMID:23349127

  1. Seismic anisotropy and mantle flow beneath western Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masy, J.; Niu, F.; Levander, A.

    2009-12-01

    We measured shear wave splitting from SKS and SKKS data recorded by the national seismic network of Venezuela and a linear broadband PASSCAL/Rice seismic array across the Merida Andes. The linear array was installed as a second phase of the passive seismic component of the BOLIVAR project (Broadband Onshore-offshore Lithospheric Investigation of Venezuela and the Antilles arc Region) to better understand the complicated regional tectonics in western Venezuela. Polarization direction (?) of the faster S wave and delay time (?t) between the fast and slow wavelets from 20 stations were obtained using a stacking method proposed by Wolfe and Silver (1998). For each station, SKS or SKKS waveform data from 2 to 36 earthquakes, mostly from the Tonga subduction zone, were selected for splitting analysis. We assumed that shear wave splitting observed at each station is caused by upper mantle seismic anisotropy beneath the station. The best splitting parameters (?,?t) were estimated when the summed eigenvalue ratio ?(SNRi[?2i(?,?t)/?1i(?,?t)]) of the covariance matrix of the corrected particle motion reaches its minimum. We used signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) calculated from a noise time window before SKS as the weight of the summation. The fast polarization directions can be divided into 3 zones, all in agreement with local GPS data: The first zone is the stations north of the dextral strike-slip Oca fault, an extinct part of the San Sebastian-El Pilar plate boundary zone. These stations show the largest split times (1.6-2.0s), oriented in a roughly EW direction, and are similar to splitting observations made further to the east along the strike slip plate boundary. Zone two is the Maracaibo block, bounded on the southeast by the right lateral Bocono fault, where split orientations are at N45°E, suggesting that the observed seismic anisotropy is likely caused by lithospheric deformation parallel to the Bocono. Zone three is east of the Bocono fault inside the Barinas-Apure Basin, where the measured split times are smaller (0.6-1.0s) with an EW fast direction that is consistent with those observed at the Guarico Basin, Maturin Basin and the Guayana shield in the east (Growdon et al., 2009), and are interpreted as orientation with the motion of the continent. Russo and Silver (1994) proposed that the rollback of the Nazca plate induced a trench-parallel NS flow that passes around the northwest corner of the subducting plate and along the northern edge of South America, forming an eastward flow beneath the southern Caribbean plate. The observed seismic anisotropy in western Venezuela can be roughly explained by a combination of this corner flow, the westward drift of the South America continent due to the opening of Atlantic Ocean, modulated by the northward escape of the Maracaibo block.

  2. Venezuela's stake in US refining may grow: xenophobia addressed

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-09-23

    Is this an invasion of U.S. oil industry sovereignty, or a happy marriage of upstream and downstream between US and foreign interests. Venezuela, a founding member of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries who has also been a chief supplier to the US during times of peace and war, now owns half of two important US refining and marketing organizations. Many US marketers have felt uneasy about this foreign penetration of their turf. In this issue, for the sake of public information, the entire policy statement from the leader of that Venezuelan market strategy is provided. This issue also contains the following: (1) ED refining netback data for the US Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore as of late September, 1987; and (2) ED fuel price/tax series for countries of the Eastern Hemisphere, Sept. 19 edition. 4 figures, 6 tables.

  3. Potential options to reduce GHG emissions in Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, N.; Bonduki, Y.; Perdomo, M.

    1996-12-31

    The Government of Venezuela ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in December, 1994. The Convention requires all parties to develop and publish national inventories of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) as well as national plans to reduce or control emissions, taking into account their common but differentiated responsibilities and their specific national and regional development priorities, objectives, and circumstances. Within this context, the Ministry of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources and the Ministry of Energy and Mines developed the `Venezuelan Case-Study to Address Climate Change`. The study was initiated in October 1993, with the financial and technical assistance of the Government of United States, through the U.S. Country Studies Program (USCSP), and the Global Environment Facility (GEF), through the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).

  4. Coal in Colombia and Venezuela: Production, transportation and export logistics

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, D.

    1998-12-31

    The coal seams uplifted by the Perija and Sierra Nevada de Santa marta Mountains along the border of Colombia and Venezuela are high quality reserves with low mining ratios that are in close proximity to the coast. Since the late 70`s and early 80`s, various mining developments have increased the production of these reserves to its current level of 37 million tons per year. Most of the production is shipped to European and to North and South American markets. Further exploitation of these reserves will require significant investments in mine development, inland transportation, and port facilities. This paper will summarize the current status of the Colombian and Venezuelan coal industry, as well as the potential and challenges for increased production and exportation.

  5. Epidemiology and Disease Burden of Pediatric Dengue in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Torres, Jaime R; Echezuría, Luís; Fernández, Mariano; Rísquez, Alejandro

    2015-12-01

    Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease that has evolved from a sporadic infection to a major public health problem in the Americas, Southeast Asia and the western Pacific, and Africa. Its incidence has increased 30-fold over the past 50 years, and although the true disease burden is not well known, the annual incidence in some areas of the Americas may reach 5%-10% of all children when underreporting is considered. We recently analyzed the disease burden of dengue in Venezuela, and we found an overall decline in case numbers and mortality over the period of 1950-2011. However, there were increases in case number and mortality during epidemic years, especially among children. In this report, we focus on the most recent period of data, from 2000 to 2011, comparing pediatric and adult case numbers and mortality. PMID:26407287

  6. Transmission of Guanarito and Pirital Viruses among Wild Rodents, Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Milazzo, Mary L.; Cajimat, Maria N.B.; Duno, Gloria; Duno, Freddy; Utrera, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Samples from rodents captured on a farm in Venezuela in February 1997 were tested for arenavirus, antibody against Guanarito virus (GTOV), and antibody against Pirital virus (PIRV). Thirty-one (48.4%) of 64 short-tailed cane mice (Zygodontomys brevicauda) were infected with GTOV, 1 Alston’s cotton rat (Sigmodon alstoni) was infected with GTOV, and 36 (64.3%) of 56 other Alston’s cotton rats were infected with PIRV. The results of analyses of field and laboratory data suggested that horizontal transmission is the dominant mode of GTOV transmission in Z. brevicauda mice and that vertical transmission is an important mode of PIRV transmission in S. alstoni rats. The results also suggested that bodily secretions and excretions from most GTOV-infected short-tailed cane mice and most PIRV-infected Alston’s cotton rats may transmit the viruses to humans. PMID:22172205

  7. Potential for Great Thrust Earthquakes in NE Colombia & NW Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilham, R. G.; Mencin, D.

    2013-05-01

    Sixty-five percent of the ≈19 mm/yr eastward velocity of the Caribbean Plate north of Aruba and the Guajira peninsula relative to the South American plate is accommodated by dextral slip on the Bocono Fault system in NW Venezuela at 12±1 mm/yr, the remaining ~3 mm/yr of shear apparently distributed to the NW of the fault (Perez et al., 2011). The N40E strike of the Bocono fault system, however, requires that 10.6±1 mm/yr of convergence should accompany this partitioned dextral shear, but GPS measurements reveal that less than 25% of this convergence occurs across the Venezuelan Andes. The remaining 6-8 mm of convergence is presumably accommodated by incipient subduction between the Bocono fault and a trench 300 km NW of the northern coast of Colombia. Hence NW Venezuela and NE Colombia may occasionally host great earthquakes. Our current poor understanding of the geometry of the plate interface permits the plate to be locked 300 km down-dip and possibly 600 km along-strike, and if the plate slips in 10 m ruptures it could do so every 1200 years in a M~9 earthquake. No great earthquake has occurred since 1492, since when ~4 m of potential slip has developed, but should slip occur on just 10% of the hypothesized décollement (100x150 km) it could do so now in an Mw=8.2 earthquake. In that a potential Mw>8 earthquake poses a future seismic and tsunami threat to the Caribbean it is important to examine whether great earthquakes have occurred previously near the NW Venezuela coast. It is possible that creep accommodates the entire convergence signal, since there is no suggestion from microseismicity for an abrupt locked-to-sliding transition, as, for example, signifies its location in the Himalaya. An alternative measure of future potential seismic energy release is to identify the locus and rate of present-day strain contraction. To this end, Venezuelan, Colombian and US (CU and UNAVCO) investigators are installing an array of more than a dozen continuous operating GPS sites in the region. Studies of tsunami deposits on the Dutch Antilles suggest that the provenance of paleotsunami responsible for moving 10-100 ton blocks of coral onshore in the past two millennia has been from the east (Sheffers, 2002), and not from the north or south as we might expect from a NW Venezuelan earthquake. The existence of precariously balanced rocks in the region provides an alternative constraint on the occurrence of large local accelerations. The survival of at least four precariously balanced megablocks on the island of Aruba suggests that horizontal accelerations here have not exceeded 1 g for the past several millennia, but refined numerical estimates of potential shaking intensity consistent with their survival have yet to be completed. Accelerations exceeded 2.5 g in the Tohuko 2011 earthquake but above the Mexican subduction zone, accelerations have typically not exceeded 0.5 g in recent Mw~7.5 earthquakes, and hence the existence of these blocks may not exclude the historical occurrence of damaging earthquakes. A broader search for surviving strong-motion indicators in Colombia and Venezuela is planned during the installation of the GPS array.

  8. Postepizootic Persistence of Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus, Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Juan-Carlos; Medina, Gladys; Vasquez, Clovis; Coffey, Lark L.; Wang, Eryu; Suárez, Alexander; Biord, Hernán; Salas, Marlene

    2005-01-01

    Five years after the apparent end of the major 1995 Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) epizootic/epidemic, focal outbreaks of equine encephalitis occurred in Carabobo and Barinas States of western Venezuela. Virus isolates from horses in each location were nearly identical in sequence to 1995 isolates, which suggests natural persistence of subtype IC VEE virus (VEEV) strains in a genetically stable mode. Serologic evidence indicated that additional outbreaks occurred in Barinas State in 2003. Field studies identified known Culex (Melanoconion) spp. vectors and reservoir hosts of enzootic VEEV but a dearth of typical epidemic vectors. Cattle serosurveys indicated the recent circulation of enzootic VEEV strains, and possibly of epizootic strains. Persistence of VEEV subtype IC strains and infection of horses at the end of the rainy season suggest the possibility of an alternative, cryptic transmission cycle involving survival through the dry season of infected vectors or persistently infected vertebrates. PMID:16485478

  9. Venezuela 2000 restructures its electric power sector to ensure competitiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez, C.E.

    1999-11-01

    Today, it is well known that the countries that are best equipped to develop their production are not those with the most natural resources but those who have the best trained people, most technical resources and that base their development on competitiveness. The State model is, definitely, not one that offers the greatest advantages, and Venezuela is an example of this. Even when, thanks to the economic boom the country enjoyed in the 70s and 80s, it was able to cost the investments required to develop its infrastructure and to prepare a first class human contingent, over the long term, competition was discouraged and waste encouraged. The result was that, even when Venezuela had vast economic resources compared to its relatively small population, it was not able to become the exception to the rule and succeed in applying this model--now considered obsolete in many countries--indefinitely. Another model based on private ownership has begun to take its place, one that has made it possible to cost the increasingly large investments required, involves opening up these sectors to private capital, and uses the phenomenon of globalization--a major driving force behind competition and one that has wrought considerable change in all corners of the increasingly smaller planet. This paper describes the steps that different sectors in the country have been taking to implement this new model in the electric power sector, such as developing draft legislation for regulating the Sector, very shortly to culminate in the passing of an electric power law by Congress; opening up the Sector to private investors (privatization); dividing the electric power industry into four business units (generation, transmission, distribution and marketing); the electric power market; and other innovations currently being implemented.

  10. Geographic Determinants of Chinese Urbanization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mccord, G. C.; Christensen, P.

    2011-12-01

    In the first years of the 21st century, the human race became primarily urban for the first time in history. With countries like India and China rapidly undergoing structural change from rural agricultural-based economies to urbanized manufacturing- and service-based economies, knowing where the coming waves of urbanization will occur would be of interest for infrastructure planning and for modeling consequences for ecological systems. We employ spatial econometric methods (geographically weighted regression, spatial lag models, and spatial errors models) to estimate two determinants of urbanization in China. The first is the role of physical geography, measured as topography-adjusted distance to major ports and suitability of land for agriculture. The second is the spatial agglomeration effect, which we estimate with a spatial lag model. We find that Chinese urbanization between 1990 and 2000 exhibited important spatial agglomeration effects, as well as significant explanatory power of nearby agricultural suitability and distance to ports, both in a nationwide model and in a model of local regression estimates. These results can help predict the location of new Chinese urbanization, and imply that climate change-induced changes in agricultural potential can affect the spatial distribution of urban areas.

  11. Geographic range limits: achieving synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Gaston, Kevin J.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding of the determinants of species' geographic range limits remains poorly integrated. In part, this is because of the diversity of perspectives on the issue, and because empirical studies have lagged substantially behind developments in theory. Here, I provide a broad overview, drawing together many of the disparate threads, considering, in turn, how influences on the terms of a simple single-population equation can determine range limits. There is theoretical and empirical evidence for systematic changes towards range limits under some circumstances in each of the demographic parameters. However, under other circumstances, no such changes may take place in particular parameters, or they may occur in a different direction, with limitation still occurring. This suggests that (i) little about range limitation can categorically be inferred from many empirical studies, which document change in only one demographic parameter, (ii) there is a need for studies that document variation in all of the parameters, and (iii) in agreement with theoretical evidence that range limits can be formed in the presence or absence of hard boundaries, environmental gradients or biotic interactions, there may be few general patterns as to the determinants of these limits, with most claimed generalities at least having many exceptions. PMID:19324809

  12. Sawfishes and Other Elasmobranch Assemblages from the Mio-Pliocene of the South Caribbean (Urumaco Sequence, Northwestern Venezuela).

    PubMed

    Carrillo-Briceño, Jorge D; Maxwell, Erin; Aguilera, Orangel A; Sánchez, Rodolfo; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R

    2015-01-01

    The Urumaco stratigraphic sequence, western Venezuela, preserves a variety of paleoenvironments that include terrestrial, riverine, lacustrine and marine facies. A wide range of fossil vertebrates associated with these facies supports the hypothesis of an estuary in that geographic area connected with a hydrographic system that flowed from western Amazonia up to the Proto-Caribbean Sea during the Miocene. Here the elasmobranch assemblages of the middle Miocene to middle Pliocene section of the Urumaco sequence (Socorro, Urumaco and Codore formations) are described. Based on new findings, we document at least 21 taxa of the Lamniformes, Carcharhiniformes, Myliobatiformes and Rajiformes, and describe a new carcharhiniform species (†Carcharhinus caquetius sp. nov.). Moreover, the Urumaco Formation has a high number of well-preserved fossil Pristis rostra, for which we provide a detailed taxonomic revision, and referral in the context of the global Miocene record of Pristis as well as extant species. Using the habitat preference of the living representatives, we hypothesize that the fossil chondrichthyan assemblages from the Urumaco sequence are evidence for marine shallow waters and estuarine habitats. PMID:26488163

  13. Sawfishes and Other Elasmobranch Assemblages from the Mio-Pliocene of the South Caribbean (Urumaco Sequence, Northwestern Venezuela)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The Urumaco stratigraphic sequence, western Venezuela, preserves a variety of paleoenvironments that include terrestrial, riverine, lacustrine and marine facies. A wide range of fossil vertebrates associated with these facies supports the hypothesis of an estuary in that geographic area connected with a hydrographic system that flowed from western Amazonia up to the Proto-Caribbean Sea during the Miocene. Here the elasmobranch assemblages of the middle Miocene to middle Pliocene section of the Urumaco sequence (Socorro, Urumaco and Codore formations) are described. Based on new findings, we document at least 21 taxa of the Lamniformes, Carcharhiniformes, Myliobatiformes and Rajiformes, and describe a new carcharhiniform species (†Carcharhinus caquetius sp. nov.). Moreover, the Urumaco Formation has a high number of well-preserved fossil Pristis rostra, for which we provide a detailed taxonomic revision, and referral in the context of the global Miocene record of Pristis as well as extant species. Using the habitat preference of the living representatives, we hypothesize that the fossil chondrichthyan assemblages from the Urumaco sequence are evidence for marine shallow waters and estuarine habitats. PMID:26488163

  14. Geographical epidemiology, spatial analysis and geographical information systems: a multidisciplinary glossary

    PubMed Central

    Rezaeian, Mohsen; Dunn, Graham; Leger, Selwyn St; Appleby, Louis

    2007-01-01

    We provide a relatively non‐technical glossary of terms and a description of the tools used in spatial or geographical epidemiology and associated geographical information systems. Statistical topics included cover adjustment and standardisation to allow for demographic and other background differences, data structures, data smoothing, spatial autocorrelation and spatial regression. We also discuss the rationale for geographical epidemiology and specific techniques such as disease clustering, disease mapping, ecological analyses, geographical information systems and global positioning systems. PMID:17234866

  15. Teaching Geographic Field Methods Using Paleoecology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Megan K.

    2014-01-01

    Field-based undergraduate geography courses provide numerous pedagogical benefits including an opportunity for students to acquire employable skills in an applied context. This article presents one unique approach to teaching geographic field methods using paleoecological research. The goals of this course are to teach students key geographic…

  16. Spatial relation query based on geographic ontology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Chong; Xu, Jun; Zhang, Jing; Si, Wangli; Liu, Bao; Zhang, Dapeng

    2009-09-01

    The description of a spatial relation is the reflection of human's cognition of spatial objects. It is not only affected by topology and metric, but also affected by geographic semantics, such as the categories of geographic entities and contexts. Currently, the researches about language aspects of spatial relations mostly focus on natural-language formalization, parsing of query sentences, and natural-language query interface. However, geographic objects are not simple geometric points, lines or polygons. In order to get a sound answer according with human cognition in spatial relation queries, we have to take geographic semantics into account. In this paper, the functions of natural-language spatial terms are designed based on previous work on natural-language formalization and human-subject tests. Then, the paper builds a geographic knowledge base based on geographic ontology using Protégé for discriminating geographic semantics. Finally, using the geographic knowledge in the knowledge base, a prototype of a query system is implemented on GIS platform.

  17. Spatial relation query based on geographic ontology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Chong; Xu, Jun; Zhang, Jing; Si, Wangli; Liu, Bao; Zhang, Dapeng

    2010-11-01

    The description of a spatial relation is the reflection of human's cognition of spatial objects. It is not only affected by topology and metric, but also affected by geographic semantics, such as the categories of geographic entities and contexts. Currently, the researches about language aspects of spatial relations mostly focus on natural-language formalization, parsing of query sentences, and natural-language query interface. However, geographic objects are not simple geometric points, lines or polygons. In order to get a sound answer according with human cognition in spatial relation queries, we have to take geographic semantics into account. In this paper, the functions of natural-language spatial terms are designed based on previous work on natural-language formalization and human-subject tests. Then, the paper builds a geographic knowledge base based on geographic ontology using Protégé for discriminating geographic semantics. Finally, using the geographic knowledge in the knowledge base, a prototype of a query system is implemented on GIS platform.

  18. 7 CFR 3565.213 - Geographic distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Geographic distribution. 3565.213 Section 3565.213 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Loan Requirements § 3565.213 Geographic distribution....

  19. 7 CFR 3565.213 - Geographic distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Geographic distribution. 3565.213 Section 3565.213 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Loan Requirements § 3565.213 Geographic distribution....

  20. 34 CFR 642.33 - Geographic distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Geographic distribution. 642.33 Section 642.33 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY... Grant? § 642.33 Geographic distribution. The Secretary, to the greatest extent possible, awards...

  1. 7 CFR 3565.213 - Geographic distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Geographic distribution. 3565.213 Section 3565.213 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Loan Requirements § 3565.213 Geographic distribution....

  2. 7 CFR 3565.213 - Geographic distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Geographic distribution. 3565.213 Section 3565.213 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Loan Requirements § 3565.213 Geographic distribution....

  3. 7 CFR 3565.213 - Geographic distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Geographic distribution. 3565.213 Section 3565.213 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Loan Requirements § 3565.213 Geographic distribution....

  4. 25 CFR 571.10 - Geographical location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Geographical location. 571.10 Section 571.10 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR COMPLIANCE AND ENFORCEMENT PROVISIONS MONITORING AND INVESTIGATIONS Subpoenas and Depositions § 571.10 Geographical location. The attendance...

  5. 25 CFR 571.10 - Geographical location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Geographical location. 571.10 Section 571.10 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR COMPLIANCE AND ENFORCEMENT PROVISIONS MONITORING AND INVESTIGATIONS Subpoenas and Depositions § 571.10 Geographical location. The attendance...

  6. Embarking on Collaborative Research in Geographic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexson, Randy Gabrys; Kemnitz, Christopher; Bell, Scott; Hardwick, Susan

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides insights into the complexities and rewards involved in conducting a collaborative research project in geographic education. Using a case study from the National Council for Geographic Education's ongoing EMBARC Project ("Encouraging our Members to Belong to a Research Community"), the authors document and analyse their ongoing…

  7. Review of the fossil matamata turtles: earliest well-dated record and hypotheses on the origin of their present geographical distribution.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Gabriel S; Rincón, Ascanio D; Solórzano, Andrés; Langer, Max C

    2016-04-01

    The matamata (Chelus fimbriatus) is a highly aquatic chelid turtle known exclusively from northern South America. Due to its extremely modified morphology, it is well circumscribed among living taxa, but that is not the case of the two extinct species ascribed to the taxon, Chelus colombianus and Chelus lewisi. These were originally described for the Miocene of Colombia and Venezuela, respectively, and are known mostly from post-cranial material. Few traits have been considered diagnostic for these fossil taxa, and their shared geographic and temporal distributions raise doubts about their distinctiveness. Here, we describe new turtle remains from the early Miocene Castillo Formation, at Cerro la Cruz, northwestern Venezuela, assigning them to C. colombianus. We also review the taxonomy and diagnostic features of the fossil species of Chelus, comparing them with the variation recognized within C. fimbriatus. All alleged differences between the fossil Chelus species were found in our sample of the extant species, and may represent intraspecific variation of a single fossil species. Further, we reviewed the fossil record of Chelus spp. and proposed a paleobiogeographic hypothesis to explain its present geographic range. PMID:26940060

  8. Review of the fossil matamata turtles: earliest well-dated record and hypotheses on the origin of their present geographical distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Gabriel S.; Rincón, Ascanio D.; Solórzano, Andrés; Langer, Max C.

    2016-04-01

    The matamata ( Chelus fimbriatus) is a highly aquatic chelid turtle known exclusively from northern South America. Due to its extremely modified morphology, it is well circumscribed among living taxa, but that is not the case of the two extinct species ascribed to the taxon, Chelus colombianus and Chelus lewisi. These were originally described for the Miocene of Colombia and Venezuela, respectively, and are known mostly from post-cranial material. Few traits have been considered diagnostic for these fossil taxa, and their shared geographic and temporal distributions raise doubts about their distinctiveness. Here, we describe new turtle remains from the early Miocene Castillo Formation, at Cerro la Cruz, northwestern Venezuela, assigning them to C. colombianus. We also review the taxonomy and diagnostic features of the fossil species of Chelus, comparing them with the variation recognized within C. fimbriatus. All alleged differences between the fossil Chelus species were found in our sample of the extant species, and may represent intraspecific variation of a single fossil species. Further, we reviewed the fossil record of Chelus spp. and proposed a paleobiogeographic hypothesis to explain its present geographic range.

  9. Composing Models of Geographic Physical Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofer, Barbara; Frank, Andrew U.

    Processes are central for geographic information science; yet geographic information systems (GIS) lack capabilities to represent process related information. A prerequisite to including processes in GIS software is a general method to describe geographic processes independently of application disciplines. This paper presents such a method, namely a process description language. The vocabulary of the process description language is derived formally from mathematical models. Physical processes in geography can be described in two equivalent languages: partial differential equations or partial difference equations, where the latter can be shown graphically and used as a method for application specialists to enter their process models. The vocabulary of the process description language comprises components for describing the general behavior of prototypical geographic physical processes. These process components can be composed by basic models of geographic physical processes, which is shown by means of an example.

  10. Geographic constraints on social network groups.

    PubMed

    Onnela, Jukka-Pekka; Arbesman, Samuel; González, Marta C; Barabási, Albert-László; Christakis, Nicholas A

    2011-01-01

    Social groups are fundamental building blocks of human societies. While our social interactions have always been constrained by geography, it has been impossible, due to practical difficulties, to evaluate the nature of this restriction on social group structure. We construct a social network of individuals whose most frequent geographical locations are also known. We also classify the individuals into groups according to a community detection algorithm. We study the variation of geographical span for social groups of varying sizes, and explore the relationship between topological positions and geographic positions of their members. We find that small social groups are geographically very tight, but become much more clumped when the group size exceeds about 30 members. Also, we find no correlation between the topological positions and geographic positions of individuals within network communities. These results suggest that spreading processes face distinct structural and spatial constraints. PMID:21483665

  11. Holonic Modelling of Large Scale Geographic Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mekni, Mehdi; Moulin, Bernard

    In this paper, we propose a novel approach to model Virtual Geographic Environments (VGE) which uses the holonic approach as a computational geographic methodology and holarchy as organizational principle. Our approach allows to automatically build VGE using data provided by Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and enables an explicit representation of the geographic environment for Situated Multi-Agent Systems (SMAS) in which agents are situated and with which they interact. In order to take into account geometric, topologic, and semantic characteristics of the geographic environment, we propose the use of the holonic approach to build the environment holarchy. We illustrate our holonic model using two different environments: an urban environment and a natural environment.

  12. The importance of trenching in paleoseismic studies in Venezuela: brief historical summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murria, J.

    2009-04-01

    Paleoseismic studies have proved to be a powerful tool in seismic hazards assessment by he contributing to asses the seismogenic potential of a given fault by expanding the time window o seismic activity beyond the limits of historical and instrumental seismicity. Trenching has been an essential tool for paleoseismic studies in Venezuela. The first paleoseismic trenching project in Venezuela goes back to 1968 when Compania Shell de Venezuela retained the services of Woodward Clyde and Associates,(WCA), USA to asses the seismic integrity of the earthen dikes of Costa Oriental of Lake Maracaibo Protection System (COLM) in western Venezuela. The study was carried out under the general coordination of this author. An important part of this project included a seismology and seismic geology study under the direction of Geologist L.S. Cluff. This was the first ever study undertaken in Venezuela and included two excavations across the Oca Fault north of the city of Maracaibo. After several years of inactivity, FUNVISIS (The Venezuelan Foundation for Seismological Research) carried out in 1980 a seismic hazard (SHA) for the Uribante Caparo Hydroelectric Project southwest Venezuela. In 1989, MARAVEN, an operating company of PETROLE0S DE VENEUELA S.A. (PDVSA) undertook the project of a products pipeline form Maracaibo to El Vigia, south of Lake Maracaibo. Again, FUNVISIS was contracted to carry out a SHA, which included the digging of 5 trenches, which were supplemented with five more trenches for the COLM project. Trenching activity contined in Venezuela in the framework of SHA project, under the direction of Dr. Audemard. In 2001 Venezuelan trenching experience was exported to the neighboring Colombia as e Dr. Audemard t undertook a palaoseismicity project which included the digging of five trenches. In conclusion, paleoseismicty studies have given us the possibility of extending the scope of both instrumental and historical seismicity by some 10,000 years, trenching has proved for paleoseismic studies to be a valuable to.

  13. Modelo Crosscultural de Pasantias para Lideres de la Educacion: Cooperacion entre Estados Unidos y Venezuela (Designing an Effective School Administrator Internship Program: United States and Venezuela Cooperation).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serafin, Ana Gil; Thompson, Eugene W.

    A model was developed of an internship program designed to give valuable cross-cultural experience to school administrators in training at universities in the United States and Venezuela. A naturalistic approach was used to develop the model. Leading school administrators and educational leadership theorists in both countries were interviewed by…

  14. Dualism methodology in geographic information visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xuepei; Li, Manchun

    2007-06-01

    The core of geographic information visualization is map making, which is characterized by the map maker usually being the map user. Potential map makers are becoming more and more, most of them are deficient in the knowledge background of cartography. It is necessary for them to derive popular map design knowledge from the complex map theories and methods to guide the practice of geographic information visualization. As an exploration into methodology, this paper has initially probed into and formed the conceptual model of geographic information visualization duality with dualistic analysis as the basic method, in the hope of establishing a framework which is easy to understand and to follow as a "map-making guide". The paper firstly expounds the theoretical basis of dualism from such aspects as geography, linguistics and philosophy; then elaborates the object matter of the methodology of dualism in geographic information visualization by developing from such two aspects as the signifier and the signified of geographic information visualization, with the semiotic linguistics as the paradigm; and finally draws a conclusion. Studies show that: the geographic information and the map design are of duality each other; the duality model of geographic information visualization is "easily understand" and "easily follow".

  15. Low Child Survival Index in a Multi-Dimensionally Poor Amerindian Population in Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Villalba, Julian A.; Liu, Yushi; Alvarez, Mauyuri K.; Calderon, Luisana; Canache, Merari; Cardenas, Gaudymar; Del Nogal, Berenice; Takiff, Howard E.; De Waard, Jacobus H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Warao Amerindians, who inhabit the Orinoco Delta, are the second largest indigenous group in Venezuela.  High Warao general mortality rates were mentioned in a limited study 21 years ago. However, there have been no comprehensive studies addressing child survival across the entire population. Objectives To determine the Child Survival-Index (CSI) (ratio: still-living children/total-live births) in the Warao population, the principal causes of childhood death and the socio-demographic factors associated with childhood deaths. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional epidemiological survey of 688 women from 97 communities in 7 different subregions of the Orinoco Delta. Data collected included socio-demographic characteristics and the reproductive history of each woman surveyed. The multidimensional poverty index (MPI) was used to classify the households as deprived across the three dimensions of the Human Development Index. Multivariable linear regression and Generalized Linear Model Procedures were used to identify socioeconomic and environmental characteristics statistically associated with the CSI. Findings The average CSI was 73.8% ±26. The two most common causes of death were gastroenteritis/diarrhea (63%) and acute respiratory tract Infection/pneumonia (18%).  Deaths in children under five years accounted for 97.3% of childhood deaths, with 54% occurring in the neonatal period or first year of life.  Most of the women (95.5%) were classified as multidimensionally poor.  The general MPI in the sample was 0.56.   CSI was negatively correlated with MPI, maternal age, residence in a traditional dwelling and profession of the head of household other than nurse or teacher. Conclusions The Warao have a low CSI which is correlated with MPI and maternal age.  Infectious diseases are responsible for 85% of childhood deaths.  The low socioeconomic development, lack of infrastructure and geographic and cultural isolation suggest that an integrated approach is urgently needed to improve the child survival and overall health of the Warao Amerindians.  PMID:24392022

  16. [Genetic structure of the population of Guarico, Venezuela, studied through isonymy].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Larralde, A; Barrai, I

    1997-01-01

    The genetic structure of the State of Guárico, Venezuela, was studied through the distribution of surnames from individuals above 40 years of age, obtained from the register of electors. The sample studied consisted in 109,200 individuals and 14,138 different surnames. For each of the 32 counties of the State, the following estimators were calculated: percentage of the population included in surnames which appear only once (estimator A), percentage of the population included in the seven most frequent surnames (estimator B), the coefficient of consanguinity due to random isonymy (n phi ii), and Karlin and McGregors ni nu, an estimator of migration. The correlation between n phi ii and B was 0.97, indicating that 94% of the variation observed in the coefficient of consanguinity due to random isonymy is due to the seven most frequent surnames. The correlation between A and ni was 0.93, so that 86% of the variation observed in ni, is due to surnames which appear only once. On the other hand, correlations between A and B, and between n phi ii and nu were non significant (0.25 and 0.01 respectively), meaning that they are measuring different features of population structure: B and n phi ii, and v were non significant (0.25 and 0.01 respectively), meaning that they are measuring different features of population structure: B and n phi ii, isolation, and A and nu, migration. The most isolated counties of Guárico, according to n phi ii and B, are Santa Rita, Espino, El Calvario, Ortiz and Santa María de Ipire. Microdifferentiation of the State was studied through the estimation of RST, which gave a value of 0.0008. Comparing this value with those obtained in other Venezuelan States, it is found that Guárico, with Aragua and Yaracuy, are among the least differentiated States, probably because of the absence of important geographical barriers and the nearness to the Capital City of our country. PMID:9640675

  17. A new species of Hemerobiella Kimmins (Neuroptera, Hemerobiidae) from Venezuela with notes on the genus.

    PubMed

    Sosa, Francisco; Lara, Rogéria I R; Martins, Caleb C

    2015-01-01

    Hemerobiella periotoi Sosa & Lara sp. nov. is described from Venezuela. The new species was collected at the edges of a mature cloud forest in Lara state. This is the third species known in Hemerobiella Kimmins, and the second recorded from Venezuela. Additionally, new Venezuelan records and illustrations of H. oswaldi Monserrat, as well as, a key to Hemerobiella species are provided. PMID:26624319

  18. Mapa Geologico de Venezuela a Escala 1:750,000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hackley, Paul C.; Urbani, Franco; Karlsen, Alex W.; Garrity, Christopher P.

    2006-01-01

    Se presenta un mapa geologico digital de Venezuela sobre un fondo de relieve sombreado. Los datos geologicos e hidrologicos del norte del rio Orinoco proceden de la digitalizacion de mapas geologicos en papel a escala 1:500.000. Estos datos fueron integrados con el mapa geologico digital del Escudo de Guayana Venezolano, a su vez derivado de hojas en papel a escala 1:500.000. La informacion sobre los tipos de fallas mostrados en el mapa es igual que en las fuentes originales. Los poligonos geologicos fueron atribuidos por edad, litologia y nombre de la unidad siguiendo el Codigo geologico de Venezuela. Se incorporaron revisiones significativas de la geologia de la Cordillera de la Costa a partir de las nuevas hojas integradas a escala 1:25.000. Toda esta informacion geologico-estructural se sobrepuso a una imagen de relieve sombreado, producida por el procesamiento de los datos de radar interferometrico con 90 m (3 arcosegundos) de resolucion espacial obtenidos por la mision topografica de radar del transbordador espacial (SRTM). Las areas de la base de datos del SRTM carentes de informacion fueron llenadas por medio de la interpolacion de los datos de las celdas adyacentes. Para producir la imagen de relieve sombreado se uso una direccion de iluminacion de 315 deg con un angulo de 65 deg sobre el horizonte. La proyeccion usada en el mapa es conica equidistante, con latitudes de 4 y 9 deg norte como paralelos estandar y una longitud de 66 deg al oeste como meridiano central. Los datos en el mapa proceden primordialment de hojas a escala 1:500.000 y el producto esta preparado para una impresion optima en escala 1:750.000. Los usuarios pueden obtener ampliaciones mayores, sin embargo no se garantiza la precision del mapa a escalas mas detalladas. Especialmente en la region de Guayana, al sobreponer los mapas geologicos sobre la reciente imagen SRTM, se notan grandes discrepancias no sistematicas tanto en contactos como en fallas. Esto es debido a que los mapas geologicos de Guayana tienen como base topografica las imagenes de radar de vision lateral (SLAR), con muy control de campo de los a?os 1970's. La correccion de estos desfases esta planificada para el futuro.

  19. Structural Model of the Tucupita Field, Eastern Venezuela Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arteaga, L. A.

    2013-05-01

    The Tucupita Field has an area of 73,51 Km2, is located between the states of Monagas and Delta Amacuro, geologically is located at the greater Temblador area in the Eastern Venezuela Basin, where the Oficina Formation's sands represent the main hydrocarbons reservoirs. From the results of the seismic reprocessing realized by Fusion Petroleum Technologies, Inc., the structural model of this field was done as initial step to the geocellular model of the Oficina-40 Reservoir, which was defined as a Faulted Relay Ramp, where the normal faults are dominant with NE-SW orientation Introduction The Tucupita Field is a mature oilfield at the greater Temblador area, however most of the wells were completed in the upper sands, therefore the main study is focused in the geological characterization of the Oficina-40 Reservoir's lower sands, starting by the structural model Previous Studies 1. Proyecto Tucupita 3D The seismic data of the Tucupita Field were adquired in 1996 by Western Atlas of Venezuela for the Benton Vinccler Company. The UTM coordinates of the wells used in this project, have been taken to make this geological model 2. Soporte Geofísico Integrado The seismic project Tucupita was processed by Fusion Petroleum Technologies Inc., in Houston and consisted of reprocessing and pre-stack migration in time (PSTM) and pre-stack migration in depth (PSDM), this data belong to the Petrodelta Company Based on the regional stratigraphy, were validated the "picks" to make the structural sections to support research with hard data. After, it proceeded to interpret the structural style of the field from the seismic amplitude cube. Then, it was done the faults modelling and the stratigraphic horizons to carry out the geocellular model Three structural sections were realized, which was interpreted like a faulted monocline, whose peak is located southward, where justly the wells are located. The contact oil-water was interpreted to -5648'. Echelon faults were interpreted in a structure of the Faulted Relay Ramp (Figure 1), defined by two normal faults with orientation NE-SW, including the main fault of Tucupita Field Conclusions 1. The development of this structural model led to geological characterization of the Oficina-40 Reservoir, integrating this interpretation in a geocellular model to calculate the STOIIP.The Tucupita Field is characterized structurally as a Faulted Relay Ramp References 1. Fusion Petroleum Technologies, Inc. 2009. PROYECTO TUCUPITA SOPORTE GEOFÍSICO INTEGRADO; Figure 1. Faulted Relay Ramp, Tucupita Field

  20. The opisthobranch gastropods (Mollusca: Heterobranchia) from Venezuela: an annotated and illustrated inventory of species.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Manuel Caballer; Ortea, Jesús; Rivero, Nelsy; Tucker, Gabriela Carias; Malaquias, Manuel António E; Narciso, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    The Caribbean waters of Venezuela are composed by a large variety of habitats, with over 2800 km of coastline, islands, and islets. This area is a transitional zone between two main biogeographic provinces, the Caribbean and the Brazilian, separated by the fresh water outflows of the Orinoco and Amazon rivers, and is therefore expected to be an area of high species diversity. However, concerning the study of molluscs, Venezuela is probably the poorest known region in the Caribbean. The best compilation of opisthobranch species known in Venezuela was produced almost a decade ago, mentioning the occurrence of 57 species, plus seven determined only to genus level. In this work, 134 species are reported for Venezuela (71 are illustrated), representing about 40 % of the entire diversity of opisthobranchs known in the Caribbean. Among the species occurring in Venezuela, 49 have here the southern limit of their distribution range and only one the northern limit. Forty-six species are recorded for the first time to the country and one is a new record for the Caribbean Sea, namely Placida cremoniana. In addition, the distribution and ecology of the species are given based in literature and new data. PMID:26624440

  1. Fluorescence Time-lapse Imaging of the Complete S. venezuelae Life Cycle Using a Microfluidic Device.

    PubMed

    Schlimpert, Susan; Flärdh, Klas; Buttner, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Live-cell imaging of biological processes at the single cell level has been instrumental to our current understanding of the subcellular organization of bacterial cells. However, the application of time-lapse microscopy to study the cell biological processes underpinning development in the sporulating filamentous bacteria Streptomyces has been hampered by technical difficulties. Here we present a protocol to overcome these limitations by growing the new model species, Streptomyces venezuelae, in a commercially available microfluidic device which is connected to an inverted fluorescence widefield microscope. Unlike the classical model species, Streptomyces coelicolor, S. venezuelae sporulates in liquid, allowing the application of microfluidic growth chambers to cultivate and microscopically monitor the cellular development and differentiation of S. venezuelae over long time periods. In addition to monitoring morphological changes, the spatio-temporal distribution of fluorescently labeled target proteins can also be visualized by time-lapse microscopy. Moreover, the microfluidic platform offers the experimental flexibility to exchange the culture medium, which is used in the detailed protocol to stimulate sporulation of S. venezuelae in the microfluidic chamber. Images of the entire S. venezuelae life cycle are acquired at specific intervals and processed in the open-source software Fiji to produce movies of the recorded time-series. PMID:26967231

  2. Layers of Information: Geographic Information Systems (GIS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucking, Robert A.; Christmann, Edwin P.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Geographic Information System (GIS) which is capable of storing, manipulating, and displaying data allowing students to explore complex relationships through scientific inquiry. Explains applications of GIS in middle school classrooms and includes assessment strategies. (YDS)

  3. 47 CFR 10.450 - Geographic targeting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL WIRELESS EMERGENCY ALERTS Alert Message Requirements... targeting of Alert Messages. A Participating CMS Provider will determine which of its network facilities, elements, and locations will be used to geographically target Alert Messages. A Participating CMS...

  4. 47 CFR 10.450 - Geographic targeting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL MOBILE ALERT SYSTEM Alert Message... targeting of Alert Messages. A Participating CMS Provider will determine which of its network facilities, elements, and locations will be used to geographically target Alert Messages. A Participating CMS...

  5. 47 CFR 10.450 - Geographic targeting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL WIRELESS EMERGENCY ALERTS Alert Message Requirements... targeting of Alert Messages. A Participating CMS Provider will determine which of its network facilities, elements, and locations will be used to geographically target Alert Messages. A Participating CMS...

  6. 47 CFR 10.450 - Geographic targeting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL MOBILE ALERT SYSTEM Alert Message... targeting of Alert Messages. A Participating CMS Provider will determine which of its network facilities, elements, and locations will be used to geographically target Alert Messages. A Participating CMS...

  7. Remote sensing and geographically based information systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cicone, R. C.

    1977-01-01

    A structure is proposed for a geographically-oriented computer-based information system applicable to the analysis of remote sensing digital data. The structure, intended to answer a wide variety of user needs, would permit multiple views of the data, provide independent management of data security, quality and integrity, and rely on automatic data filing. Problems in geographically-oriented data systems, including those related to line encoding and cell encoding, are considered.

  8. Geographic index of environmental articles, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    This index was produced in accordance with the Environmental Research Geographic Location Information Act, Public Law 101-617, enacted by the United States Congress on November 16, 1990. Compiled by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, it is intended as a quick reference for locating published articles relating to environmental issues for individual geographic locations. This publication contains an extensive but limited listing of articles from forty-eight journals and five proceedings published during 1994.

  9. Enhancing robustness and immunization in geographical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Liang; Yang, Kongqing; Yang, Lei

    2007-03-01

    We find that different geographical structures of networks lead to varied percolation thresholds, although these networks may have similar abstract topological structures. Thus, strategies for enhancing robustness and immunization of a geographical network are proposed. Using the generating function formalism, we obtain an explicit form of the percolation threshold qc for networks containing arbitrary order cycles. For three-cycles, the dependence of qc on the clustering coefficients is ascertained. The analysis substantiates the validity of the strategies with analytical evidence.

  10. Sequence stratigraphy of the Maturin sub-basin (Eastern Venezuela)

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzales, G.; Mata, S.; Santiago, N.

    1996-08-01

    The prolific Eastern Venezuela Basin has an area of about 160,000 km{sup 2} and is bounded by the Pilar Fault to the North, the Guayana Shield to the South, the Baul Arch to the West and beyond the Orinoco Delta to the East. Sequence analysis of three N-S and one W-E regional transects covered by over one thousand km of seismic lines and sedimentological, biostratigraphic and electrofacies studies of 80 wells allowed the definition of the sequence stratigraphic column of the basin. Seven major unconformity bounded depositional sequences were defined from Barremian to Recent, three in the Cretaceous and four in the Tertiary. Twenty-one third-order cycles were recognized in the Tejas B supercycle (Upper Oligocene-Recent). This cycle correlates very well with the Gulf of Mexico and Global chronostratigraphic charts. In the proximal, southern area, each sequence shows transgressive sandstones in its lower section and regressive ones in the upper part, separated by claystones that include a maximum flooding surface. In the distal area, fine marine sediments predominate with local turbidities. Some electrical markers and planktonic fossils are traceable over long distances. Regional transacts show two distinct structural zones: tensional to the South and compressional to the North. The best petroleum reservoirs occur in Tertiary and to a lesser extent in Cretaceous sequences. In this basin occurs the largest oil accumulation of the world (Orinoco), as well as several giant oil fields.

  11. An obstetrics and gynaecology graduate residency programme in Venezuela.

    PubMed Central

    Faneite, P.

    1998-01-01

    We present our experience on the design and development of a gynaecology and obstetrics graduate residency programme, developed in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at the Dr Adolfo Prince Lara Hospital, Puerto Cabello, Venezuela, in which medical specialists and residents participate synergistically. From January to September 1993, curricular activities were planned and students selected. The programme started in October 1993, with six residents for a three-year programme. Courses were given by medical specialists from the Department. In addition to a Programme Coordinator, there is also a Residents' Coordinator, appointed for a two-month term of office; specific functions were assigned for residents occupying this position. All the programmed activities for three years were accomplished, including lectures and rotations, with an important record of surgical interventions. In our grade system, residents got an average of 18 over a maximum of 20 points. Residents also participated as speakers in workshops, special courses and national medicinal meetings, in which they presented a total of nine papers. Activities were evaluated bimonthly in meetings with students and each semester by the Graduate Committee. The first class graduated in September 1996. Results suggest that resident participation in graduate programmes is an important part of their education. PMID:9538482

  12. Geological study of Guafita field reservoirs, Apure basin, southwestern Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Moya, E.; Abud, J.; Hernandez, J.

    1989-03-01

    The medium-grade oil reservoirs of the Guafita field, Apure basin, southwestern Venezuela, represent the northeastern extension of the La Yuca-Cano Limon fields of Colombia. A detailed integrated reservoir study is being carried out in Guafita in order to define the geological model and to improve its development plan. The stratigraphic sequence of interest in the southern block of the Guafita field contains approximately 600 ft of sediments of Cretaceous and Oligocene-Miocene ages (Quevedo Member of the Navay and Guafita Formations, respectively). Fifteen prospective intervals, with approximately 150 ft of net oil sand, have been defined within this sequence by detailed correlation in the Colombian fields and four have been defined in the Quevedo Member. Lower delta-plain and delta-front depositional environments have been recognized from core studies in the Tertiary sediments. A combination of both structural and stratigraphic traps controls the hydrocarbon accumulations in the Guafita field, and at least two sealing shale regional markers have been defined. As a preliminary result of the approach of defining reservoir geometry and mapping each major sand body separately, the proven reserves of the Guafita field will decrease by approximately 12%. The possibility of fluid communication with the Colombian fields through the small-displacement riddle faults was established by means of juxtaposition of sand bodies.

  13. Pros and cons of power combined cycle in Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez, C.; Hernandez, S.

    1997-09-01

    In Venezuela combined cycle power has not been economically attractive to electric utility companies, mainly due to the very low price of natural gas. Savings in cost of natural gas due to a higher efficiency, characteristic of this type of cycle, does not compensate additional investments required to close the simple cycle (heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) and steam turbine island). Low gas prices have contributed to create a situation characterized by investors` reluctance to commit capital in gas pipe lines and associated equipment. The Government is taking measures to improve economics. Recently (January 1, 1997), the Ministry of Energy and Mines raised the price of natural gas, and established a formula to tie its price to the exchange rate variation (dollar/bolivar) in an intent to stimulate investments in this sector. This is considered a good beginning after a price freeze for about three years. Another measure that has been announced is the implementation of a corporate policy of outsourcing to build new gas facilities such as pipe lines and measuring and regulation stations. Under these new circumstances, it seems that combined cycle will play an important role in the power sector. In fact, some power generation projects are considering building new plants using this technology. An economical comparative study is presented between simple and combined cycles power plant. Screening curves are showed with a gas price forecast based on the government decree recently issued, as a function of plant capacity factor.

  14. Hemosporidian parasites in forest birds from Venezuela: genetic lineage analyses.

    PubMed

    Mijares, Alfredo; Rosales, Romel; Silva-Iturriza, Adriana

    2012-09-01

    Avian hemosporidian parasites of the genera Haemoproteus, Plasmodium, and Leucocytozoon are transmitted by different dipteran vectors. In the present work, we looked for the presence of these parasites in 47 birds from 12 families, which were sampled in the migratory corridor Paso de Portachuelo, located at the Henri Pittier National Park, Venezuela. The presence of the parasites was evidenced by amplification of a region of 471 bp of their cytochrome b gene. This region of the marker presents enough polymorphism to identify most of the mitochondrial lineages. Therefore, the obtained amplicons were sequenced, not only to identify the genus of the parasites sampled, but also to analyze their genetic diversity in the study area. The overall parasite prevalence was low (11%). We reported, for the first time, Plasmodium in birds of the species Formicarius analis and Chamaeza campanisona (Formicariidae) and Haemoproteus in Geotrygon linearis (Columbidae). A phylogenetic tree was generated using the Haemoproteus, Plasmodium, and Leucocytozoon sequences obtained in this study, together with representative sequences from previous studies. The highest genetic diversities between the two Haemoproteus lineages (11.70%) and among the three Plasmodium lineages (7.86%) found in this study are also similar to those found when lineages reported in the literature were used. These results indicate that in the migratory corridor Paso de Portachuleo, representative parasite lineages are found, making this location an attractive location for future studies. PMID:23050478

  15. Late quaternary environmental history of Lake Valencia, Venezuela

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Platt, Bradbury J.; Leyden, B.; Salgado-Labouriau, M.; Lewis, W.M., Jr.; Schubert, C.; Binford, M.W.; Frey, D.G.; Whitehead, D.R.; Weibezahn, F.H.

    1981-01-01

    Chemical, paleontological, and mineralogical analyses of a 7.5-meter core from the middle of Lake Valencia, Venezuela, have provided information on the paleoclimatic history of this low-elevation, low-latitude site for the last 13,000 years. The data show that dry climates existed in this region from 13,000 years before present (B.P.) until about 10,000 years B.P. The Lake Valencia Basin was occupied by intermittent saline marshes at that time. About 10,000 years B.P., a permanent lake of fluctuating salinity formed and arboreal plant communities replaced the earlier dominant xeric herbaceous vegetation and marsh plants. By 8500 years B.P., Lake Valencia reached moderate to low salinities and discharged water; the modern vegetation became established at that time. After 8500 years B.P., the lake twice ceased discharging as a result of reduced watershed moisture. The second of these drying episodes is still in progress and has been aggravated by human activities in the watershed. Copyright ?? 1981 AAAS.

  16. New Insights into Chloramphenicol Biosynthesis in Streptomyces venezuelae ATCC 10712

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Martínez, Lorena T.; Borsetto, Chiara; Gomez-Escribano, Juan Pablo; Bibb, Maureen J.; Al-Bassam, Mahmoud M.; Chandra, Govind

    2014-01-01

    Comparative genome analysis revealed seven uncharacterized genes, sven0909 to sven0915, adjacent to the previously identified chloramphenicol biosynthetic gene cluster (sven0916–sven0928) of Streptomyces venezuelae strain ATCC 10712 that was absent in a closely related Streptomyces strain that does not produce chloramphenicol. Transcriptional analysis suggested that three of these genes might be involved in chloramphenicol production, a prediction confirmed by the construction of deletion mutants. These three genes encode a cluster-associated transcriptional activator (Sven0913), a phosphopantetheinyl transferase (Sven0914), and a Na+/H+ antiporter (Sven0915). Bioinformatic analysis also revealed the presence of a previously undetected gene, sven0925, embedded within the chloramphenicol biosynthetic gene cluster that appears to encode an acyl carrier protein, bringing the number of new genes likely to be involved in chloramphenicol production to four. Microarray experiments and synteny comparisons also suggest that sven0929 is part of the biosynthetic gene cluster. This has allowed us to propose an updated and revised version of the chloramphenicol biosynthetic pathway. PMID:25267678

  17. Caribbean basin framework, 4: Maracaibo basin, northwestern Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Lugo, J. )

    1991-03-01

    The Maracaibo basin is presently located in a topographic depression on the Maracaibo block, a triangular, fault-bounded block within the Caribbean-South America plate boundary of northwestern Venezuela. Intense oil exploration over the last 50 years has produced a large amount of seismic and well data that can be used to constrain four Jurassic to Recent tectonic and depositional events that affected the region: (1). Late Jurassic rift phase and subsidence along normal faults striking north-northeast across the floor of the basin; (2) Cretaceous to early Eocene subsidence recorded by shallow to deep marine carbonate and clastic rocks that thicken from south to north and completely cover Permian rocks of the Merida arch; (3) Eocene folding, thrusting, and initial reactivation of Jurassic normal faults as convergent strike-slip and reverse faults. Eocene clastic sediments are thickest in a narrow northwest-trending foredeep on the northeastern margin of the basin; (4) Late Miocene to Recent northwest-southeast convergence is marked by continued reactivation of Jurassic normal faults as reverse and left-lateral strike-slip faults, uplift of mountain ranges bordering the basin, and deposition of up to 10 km of clastic sediment.

  18. [Balantidiasis in a rural community from Bolivar State, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Devera, R; Requena, I; Velásquez, V; Castillo, H; Guevara, R; De Sousa, M; Marín, C; Silva, M

    1999-01-01

    Balantidium coli is the etiologic agent of balantidiasis, an infrequent zoonose of worldwide distribution. The objective of the present study was to determine the clinical and epidemiological aspects of balantidiasis in a rural community in the Bolivar State in Venezuela. Fifty persons and 12 pigs were evaluated. Fecal samples were analyzed by direct examination and by the methods of Faust and Willis. The global rate of intestinal parasitoses detected was 88.0% for the human population and 83.3% for the pigs. The prevalence of human and porcine balantidiais was 12.0% (6/50) and 33.3% (4/12), respectively. The disease was only detected in children, all of them with multiple parasites and with clinical manifestations. Deficient environmental sanitation, absence of basic services in the dwellings, low socioeconomic level, and the presence of pigs infected with B. coli are the factors that explain and maintain the conditions favorable to the transmission of balantidiasis in the population studied. PMID:10488584

  19. Sedimentary sequence evolution in a Foredeep basin: Eastern Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Bejarano, C.; Funes, D.; Sarzalho, S.; Audemard, F.; Flores, G.

    1996-08-01

    Well log-seismic sequence stratigraphy analysis in the Eastern Venezuela Foreland Basin leads to study of the evolution of sedimentary sequences onto the Cretaceous-Paleocene passive margin. This basin comprises two different foredeep sub-basins: The Guarico subbasin to the west, older, and the Maturin sub-basin to the east, younger. A foredeep switching between these two sub-basins is observed at 12.5 m.y. Seismic interpretation and well log sections across the study area show sedimentary sequences with transgressive sands and coastal onlaps to the east-southeast for the Guarico sub-basin, as well as truncations below the switching sequence (12.5 m.y.), and the Maturin sub-basin shows apparent coastal onlaps to the west-northwest, as well as a marine onlap (deeper water) in the west, where it starts to establish. Sequence stratigraphy analysis of these sequences with well logs allowed the study of the evolution of stratigraphic section from Paleocene to middle Miocene (68.0-12.0 m.y.). On the basis of well log patterns, the sequences were divided in regressive-transgressive-regressive sedimentary cycles caused by changes in relative sea level. Facies distributions were analyzed and the sequences were divided into simple sequences or sub- sequences of a greater frequencies than third order depositional sequences.

  20. Meningoencephalitis by Naegleria fowleri: epidemiological study in Anzoategui state, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Cermeño, Julman R; Hernández, Isabel; El Yasin, Helal; Tinedo, Rubén; Sánchez, Raúl; Pérez, Gladys; Gravano, Rosalía; Ruiz, Aida

    2006-01-01

    A case of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis produced by Naegleria fowleri was diagnosed in the Independencia county of Anzoategui State, Venezuela. This case motivated the realization of the present epidemiological study with the aim of identifying free-living amoebae in this area. Representative water samples were taken and physicochemical and microbiologic analyses were carried out. Trophozoites and cysts of Naegleria spp, were detected in 44.4% (n=4). An excellent concordance was found among the observations of free-living amoebae in smears and those of monoxenic cultures in non-nourishing agar with Klebsiella pneumoniae (Kappa=1; p= 0.003). A variable load of aerobic mesophils was obtained. Moulds and yeast averages presented 3.0 CFU/ml (SD +/- 2.0) and 102.9 CFU/ml (SD +/- 32.2), respectively. One hundred per cent of the samples presented a most probable number of total and fecal coliforms of 240,000 NMP/100mL. Naegleria spp was present in waters of the Independence county of Anzoategui state, which constitutes a risk for people that use these sources. PMID:16906250

  1. Late Quaternary Environmental History of Lake Valencia, Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platt Bradbury, J.; Leyden, B.; Salgado-Labouriau, M.; Lewis, W. M.; Schubert, C.; Binford, M. W.; Frey, D. G.; Whitehead, D. R.; Weibezahn, F. H.

    1981-12-01

    Chemical, paleontological, and mineralogical analyses of a 7.5-meter core from the middle of Lake Valencia, Venezuela, have provided information on the paleoclimatic history of this low-elevation, low-latitude site for the last 13,000 years. The data show that dry climates existed in this region from 13,000 years before present (B.P.) until about 10,000 years B.P. The Lake Valencia Basin was occupied by intermittent saline marshes at that time. About 10,000 years B.P., a permanent lake of fluctuating salinity formed and arboreal plant communities replaced the earlier dominant xeric herbaceous vegetation and marsh plants. By 8500 years B.P., Lake Valencia reached moderate to low salinities and discharged water; the modern vegetation became established at that time. After 8500 years B.P., the lake twice ceased discharging as a result of reduced watershed moisture. The second of these drying episodes is still in progress and has been aggravated by human activities in the watershed.

  2. Structural style on southern flank of Merida Andes, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Urbina, C.; Cornelio, A. )

    1993-02-01

    The Merida Andes exhibit the most complex tectonics in western Venezuela. By studying the different ages and regional distribution of rocks, we can describe some tectonic features which are of interest to oil exploration in this area. Vertical basement movements accompanied extensional tectonics from pre-Cambrian until Eocene times. For this time interval, we reconstructed diverse normal fault systems and associated subsidence. From Eocene time onwards, compressional tectonics gave origin to anticlines and reverse, thrust and back-thrust faults. Neo-tectonic movements have modified existing structures by dislocation along transcurrent fault systems. Geochemical analyses have determined the presence of hydrocarbon source rocks equivalent to the a Luna Formation of the Maracaibo Basin; seismic, surface and subsurface data prove the existence of excellent seals in the Eocene Paguey Shale. The principal problem is to determine the timing of hydrocarbon migration with respect to the timing of trap formation. It is highly probable that the sapropelic strata of the Navay Formation, equivalent to the La Luna Formation, is presently expelling hydrocarbons to traps in the Barinas Basin, under presently existing temperature-pressure conditions.

  3. Cretaceous to Eocene passive margin sedimentation in Northeastern Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Erikson, J.P. )

    1993-02-01

    Twenty two palinspastic paleogeographic maps are presented for the Cretaceous to Eocene strata of the Serrania del Interior of northeastern Venezuela. The mapped lithologies, environmental conditions, and evolving depositional systems record [approximately]90 m.y. of dominantly marine sedimentation on the only observable Mesozoic passive margin in the Western Hemisphere. The depositional systems of the passive margin are heterogeneous at lateral (i.e., along-margin) length scales greater than [approximately]40 km. The primary lateral heterogeneity is caused by a major Lower Cretaceous deltaic system that emanated southwest of the Serrania del Interior. All important intervals, such as the laterally variable Aptian-Albian El Cantil platform limestone and the hydrocarbon source rocks of the Upper Cretaceous Querecual and San Antonio formations, are related to probable causal mechanisms and environmental conditions. Stratigraphic events have been interpreted as of either local or regional extent; based on a combination of outcrop sedimentologic analyses and regional depositional systems interpretation. The 3-dimensional distribution of depositional systems and systems tracts reveals 4-6 regional sequence boundaries separated by 4-20 m.y. Subsidence analyses support the facies interpretation of a passive margin by showing continuous, thermally dominated subsidence during the Cretaceous to Eocene interval. Subsidence and accumulation rates increased and facies changed significantly in the Oligocene, indicating the end of passive margin sedimentation and the initiation of foredeep subsidence and accumulation associated with overthrusting the eastward-advancing Caribbean Plate.

  4. Confronting Health Disparities: Latin American Social Medicine in Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Mantini-Briggs, Clara

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We explored the emergence and effectiveness of Venezuela's Misión Barrio Adentro, “Inside the Neighborhood Mission,” a program designed to improve access to health care among underserved residents of the country, hoping to draw lessons to apply to future attempts to address acute health disparities. Methods. We conducted our study in 3 capital-region neighborhoods, 2 small cities, and 2 rural areas, combining systematic observations with interviews of 221 residents, 41 health professionals, and 28 government officials. We surveyed 177 female and 91 male heads of household. Results. Interviews suggested that Misión Barrio Adentro emerged from creative interactions between policymakers, clinicians, community workers, and residents, adopting flexible, problem-solving strategies. In addition, data indicated that egalitarian physician–patient relationships and the direct involvement of local health committees overcame distrust and generated popular support for the program. Media and opposition antagonism complicated physicians’ lives and clinical practices but heightened the program's visibility. Conclusions. Top-down and bottom-up efforts are less effective than “horizontal” collaborations between professionals and residents in underserved communities. Direct, local involvement can generate creative and dynamic efforts to address acute health disparities in these areas. PMID:19150916

  5. Diel variation of nitrogen fixation in Lake Valencia, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, S.N.; Lewis, W.M. Jr.

    1984-07-01

    During 1981 the authors examined the diel variations of nitrogen fixation in Lake Valencia, Venezuela. Four species of heterocyst-bearing blue-green algae were common but subdominant in the phytoplankton. In samples taken from and incubated at 0.5 m, the rate of nitrogen fixation per unit volume of water was lowest at night, increased from dawn until early afternoon, and then diminished between late afternoon and the first hour of darkness. This pattern was caused partly by diel changes in light intensity and partly by diel migrations of heterocystous blue-green algae. The heterocyst-specific nitrogen fixation rates at 0.5 m were much less variable than the nitrogen fixation rates per unit volume of water. Heterocyst-specific rates rose rapidly in early morning and fell slowly in the evening, but were almost constant over much of the day. Heterocyst-specific nitrogen fixation rates were very close to those predicted by a model based on the light dependency of nitrogen fixation.

  6. Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Pregnant Women in Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J.; Barbella, Rosa A.; Case, Cynthia; Arria, Melissa; Ravelo, Marisela; Perez, Henry; Urdaneta, Oscar; Gervasio, Gloria; Rubio, Nestor; Maldonado, Andrea; Aguilera, Ymora; Viloria, Anna; Blanco, Juan J.; Colina, Magdary; Hernández, Elizabeth; Araujo, Elianet; Cabaniel, Gilberto; Benitez, Jesús; Rifakis, Pedro

    2006-01-01

    Introduction. Intestinal parasitic infections, especially due to helminths, increase anemia in pregnant women. The results of this are low pregnancy weight gain and IUGR, followed by LBW, with its associated greater risks of infection and higher perinatal mortality rates. For these reasons, in the setting of no large previous studies in Venezuela about this problem, a national multicentric study was conducted. Methods. Pregnant women from nine states were studied, a prenatal evaluation with a coproparasitological study. Univariated and multivariated analyses were made to determine risk factors for intestinal parasitosis and related anemia. Results. During 19 months, 1038 pregnant women were included and evaluated. Intestinal parasitosis was evidenced in 73.9%: A lumbricoides 57.0%, T trichiura 36.0%, G lamblia 14.1%, E hystolitica 12.0%, N americanus 8.1%, E vermicularis 6.3%, S stercoralis 3.3%. Relative risk for anemia in those women with intestinal parasitosis was 2.56 (P < .01). Discussion. Intestinal parasitoses could be associated with conditions for development of anemia at pregnancy. These features reflect the need of routine coproparasitological study among pregnant women in rural and endemic zones for intestinal parasites. Further therapeutic and prophylactic protocols are needed. Additional research on pregnant intestinal parasitic infection impact on newborn health is also considered. PMID:17093349

  7. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy, National Geographic Society Photograph, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy, National Geographic Society Photograph, 1971 Courtesy, National Geographic Society LIBRARY, 1971 - Townsend House, 2121 Massachusetts Avenue Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  8. First Report of Cowpea Mild Mottle Carlavirus on Yardlong Bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) in Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Miriam; Fernández-Rodríguez, Thaly; Garrido, Mario José; Mejías, Alexander; Romano, Mirtha; Marys, Edgloris

    2012-01-01

    Yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) plants with virus-like systemic mottling and leaf distortion were observed in both experimental and commercial fields in Aragua State, Venezuela. Symptomatic leaves were shown to contain carlavirus-like particles. RT-PCR analysis with carlavirus-specific primers was positive in all tested samples. Nucleotide sequences of the obtained amplicons showed 84%–74% similarity to corresponding sequences of Cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV) isolates deposited in the GenBank database. This is the first report of CPMMV in Venezuela and is thought to be the first report of CPMMV infecting yardlong bean. PMID:23242372

  9. First report of Cowpea mild mottle Carlavirus on yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Brito, Miriam; Fernández-Rodríguez, Thaly; Garrido, Mario José; Mejías, Alexander; Romano, Mirtha; Marys, Edgloris

    2012-12-01

    Yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) plants with virus-like systemic mottling and leaf distortion were observed in both experimental and commercial fields in Aragua State, Venezuela. Symptomatic leaves were shown to contain carlavirus-like particles. RT-PCR analysis with carlavirus-specific primers was positive in all tested samples. Nucleotide sequences of the obtained amplicons showed 84%-74% similarity to corresponding sequences of Cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV) isolates deposited in the GenBank database. This is the first report of CPMMV in Venezuela and is thought to be the first report of CPMMV infecting yardlong bean. PMID:23242372

  10. Geographical distribution of the dermatophytes: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Philpot, C. M.

    1978-01-01

    In these days of rapid transit from continent to continent, and the increasing mobility of people, agents of disease are no longer geographically restricted. Disease contracted half way across the world may become manifest in a country in which the pathogen is not normally found. Thus knowledge of the geographical distribution of pathogens becomes increasingly important when a diagnosis is being made. This is as true of ringworm fungi as of any other group of microorganisms. In the last 12 years, in the Mycological Reference Laboratory, an increasing number of exotic dermatophytes have been seen, related in part at least to the great increase in the number of non-British residents. Not all species of dermatophytes are cosmopolitan in their distribution throughout the world. While some have been recorded from every continent, others have geographically limited areas of greater or lesser extent. Surveys taken at intervals in a country may show a rise and fall in occurrence of several species as habits change, populations move and medical facilities became increasingly well-distributed. There have been few geographical surveys of ringworm fungi that have covered the world. Ajello (1960, 1974) has reviewed the individual species with regard to geographical location, while Vanbreuseghem & de Vroey (1970) attempted to estimate the relative importance of the various species in terms of numbers of isolations reported. This paper therefore reviews the world dermatophyte flora in terms of the dominant agents in the various countries, and some of the changes that have been recorded. PMID:75918

  11. Gene genealogies in geographically structured populations.

    PubMed Central

    Epperson, B K

    1999-01-01

    Population genetics theory has dealt only with the spatial or geographic pattern of degrees of relatedness or genetic similarity separately for each point in time. However, a frequent goal of experimental studies is to infer migration patterns that occurred in the past or over extended periods of time. To fully understand how a present geographic pattern of genetic variation reflects one in the past, it is necessary to build genealogy models that directly relate the two. For the first time, space-time probabilities of identity by descent and coalescence probabilities are formulated and characterized in this article. Formulations for general migration processes are developed and applied to specific types of systems. The results can be used to determine the level of certainty that genes found in present populations are descended from ancient genes in the same population or nearby populations vs. geographically distant populations. Some parameter combinations result in past populations that are quite distant geographically being essentially as likely to contain ancestors of genes at a given population as the past population located at the same place. This has implications for the geographic point of origin of ancestral, "Eve," genes. The results also form the first model for emerging "space-time" molecular genetic data. PMID:10353919

  12. Comparison of immunization strategies in geographical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bing; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Kim, Beom Jun

    2009-10-01

    The epidemic spread and immunizations in geographically embedded scale-free (SF) and Watts-Strogatz (WS) networks are numerically investigated. We make a realistic assumption that it takes time which we call the detection time, for a vertex to be identified as infected, and implement two different immunization strategies: one is based on connection neighbors (CN) of the infected vertex with the exact information of the network structure utilized and the other is based on spatial neighbors (SN) with only geographical distances taken into account. We find that the decrease of the detection time is crucial for a successful immunization in general. Simulation results show that for both SF networks and WS networks, the SN strategy always performs better than the CN strategy, especially for more heterogeneous SF networks at long detection time. The observation is verified by checking the number of the infected nodes being immunized. We found that in geographical space, the distance preferences in the network construction process and the geographically decaying infection rate are key factors that make the SN immunization strategy outperforms the CN strategy. It indicates that even in the absence of the full knowledge of network connectivity we can still stop the epidemic spread efficiently only by using geographical information as in the SN strategy, which may have potential applications for preventing the real epidemic spread.

  13. An intelligent method for geographic Web search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Kun; Yuan, Ying

    2008-10-01

    While the electronically available information in the World-Wide Web is explosively growing and thus increasing, the difficulty to find relevant information is also increasing for search engine user. In this paper we discuss how to constrain web queries geographically. A number of search queries are associated with geographical locations, either explicitly or implicitly. Accurately and effectively detecting the locations where search queries are truly about has huge potential impact on increasing search relevance, bringing better targeted search results, and improving search user satisfaction. Our approach focus on both in the way geographic information is extracted from the web and, as far as we can tell, in the way it is integrated into query processing. This paper gives an overview of a spatially aware search engine for semantic querying of web document. It also illustrates algorithms for extracting location from web documents and query requests using the location ontologies to encode and reason about formal semantics of geographic web search. Based on a real-world scenario of tourism guide search, the application of our approach shows that the geographic information retrieval can be efficiently supported.

  14. Geographical Information Systems risk assessment models for zoonotic fascioliasis in the South American Andes region.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, M V; Sainz-Elipe, S; Nieto, P; Malone, J B; Mas-Coma, S

    2005-03-01

    The WHO recognises Fasciola hepatica to be an important human health problem. The Andean countries of Peru, Bolivia and Chile are those most severely affected by this distomatosis, though areas of Ecuador, Colombia and Venezuela are also affected. As part of a multidisciplinary project, we present results of use of a Geographical Information Systems (GIS) forecast model to conduct an epidemiological analysis of human and animal fasciolosis in the central part of the Andes mountains. The GIS approach enabled us to develop a spatial and temporal epidemiological model to map the disease in the areas studied and to classify transmission risk into low, moderate and high risk areas so that areas requiring the implementation of control activities can be identified. Current results are available on a local scale for: (1) the northern Bolivian Altiplano, (2) Puno in the Peruvian Altiplano, (3) the Cajamarca and Mantaro Peruvian valleys, and (4) the Ecuadorian provinces of Azuay, Cotopaxi and Imbabura. Analysis of results demonstrated the validity of a forecast model that combines use of climatic data to calculate of forecast indices with remote sensing data, through the classification of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) maps. PMID:16044684

  15. STSHV a teleinformatic system for historic seismology in Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choy, J. E.; Palme, C.; Altez, R.; Aranguren, R.; Guada, C.; Silva, J.

    2013-05-01

    From 1997 on, when the first "Jornadas Venezolanas de Sismicidad Historica" took place, a big interest awoke in Venezuela to organize the available information related to historic earthquakes. At that moment only existed one published historic earthquake catalogue, that from Centeno Grau published the first time in 1949. That catalogue had no references about the sources of information. Other catalogues existed but they were internal reports for the petroleum companies and therefore difficult to access. In 2000 Grases et al reedited the Centeno-Grau catalogue, it ended up in a new, very complete catalogue with all the sources well referenced and updated. The next step to organize historic seismicity data was, from 2004 to 2008, the creation of the STSHV (Sistema de teleinformacion de Sismologia Historica Venezolana, http://sismicidad.hacer.ula.ve ). The idea was to bring together all information about destructive historic earthquakes in Venezuela in one place in the internet so it could be accessed easily by a widespread public. There are two ways to access the system. The first one, selecting an earthquake or a list of earthquakes, and the second one, selecting an information source or a list of sources. For each earthquake there is a summary of general information and additional materials: a list with the source parameters published by different authors, a list with intensities assessed by different authors, a list of information sources, a short text summarizing the historic situation at the time of the earthquake and a list of pictures if available. There are searching facilities for the seismic events and dynamic maps can be created. The information sources are classified in: books, handwritten documents, transcription of handwritten documents, documents published in books, journals and congress memories, newspapers, seismologic catalogues and electronic sources. There are facilities to find specific documents or lists of documents with common characteristics. For each document general information is displayed together with an extract of the information relating to the earthquake. If the complete document was available and no problem with the publishers rights a pdf copy of the document was included. We found this system extremely useful for studying historic earthquakes, as one can access immediately previous research works about an earthquake and it allows to check easily the historic information and so to validate the intensity data. So far, the intensity data have not been completed for earthquakes after 2000. This information would be important for improving calibration of intensity - magnitude calibrations of historic events, and is a work in progress. On the other hand, it is important to mention that "El Catálogo Sismológico Venezolano del siglo XX" (The Seismological Venezuelan Catalog), published in 2012, updates seismic information up to 2007, and that the STSHV was one of its primary sources of information.

  16. A modern regional geological analysis of Venezuela - lessons from a major new world oil province on exploration in mature areas

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, M. ); Audemard, F. ); Valdes, G. )

    1993-09-01

    Venezuela has produced some 44 billion bbl of oil since the early part of the century. As such, it represents one of the world's major oil producers and a mature petroleum province. However, major tracts of Venezuela's sedimentary basins remain underexplored and large discoveries are still being made in new and old reservoir systems. A regional geological analysis of Venezuela, focusing on basin evolution and sequence stratigraphy and incorporating data from the three national oil companies, is presented. The analysis presents a regionally consistent tectonostratigraphic model capable of explaining the evolution of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic basins of Venezuela and placing the major reservoir facies in their regional tectonic and sequence stratigraphic context. Four regional cross sections describe the stratigraphic and structural model. The model recognizes a Jurassic rifting event and inversion, succeeded by an Early Cretaceous passive margin. In western Venezuela, the Early Cretaceous passive subsidence is enhanced locally by extension related to the Colombian active margin. Venezuela experienced a major change in the Campanian with the initial collision of the Caribbean arc, recorded by foreland structuring and widespread stratigraphic changes. From the Campanian onward, the tectonostratigraphic evolution can be modeled in terms of a progressive southeast-directed arc-continent collision and the migration of the associated foredeep and rift basins. Within the tectonic framework, the major sequence stratigraphic units are identified and the reservoir distribution interpreted. This model provides a strong predictive tool to extrapolate reservoir systems into Venezuela's underexplored areas and to readdress its traditional areas.

  17. Wider sampling reveals a non-sister relationship for geographically contiguous lineages of a marine mussel

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Regina L; Nicastro, Katy R; Costa, Joana; McQuaid, Christopher D; Serrão, Ester A; Zardi, Gerardo I

    2014-01-01

    The accuracy of phylogenetic inference can be significantly improved by the addition of more taxa and by increasing the spatial coverage of sampling. In previous studies, the brown mussel Perna perna showed a sister–lineage relationship between eastern and western individuals contiguously distributed along the South African coastline. We used mitochondrial (COI) and nuclear (ITS) sequence data to further analyze phylogeographic patterns within P. perna. Significant expansion of the geographical coverage revealed an unexpected pattern. The western South African lineage shared the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) with specimens from Angola, Venezuela, and Namibia, whereas eastern South African specimens and Mozambique grouped together, indicating a non-sister relationship for the two South African lineages. Two plausible biogeographic scenarios to explain their origin were both supported by the hypotheses-testing analysis. One includes an Indo-Pacific origin for P. perna, dispersal into the Mediterranean and Atlantic through the Tethys seaway, followed by recent secondary contact after southward expansion of the western and eastern South African lineages. The other scenario (Out of South Africa) suggests an ancient vicariant divergence of the two lineages followed by their northward expansion. Nevertheless, the “Out of South Africa” hypothesis would require a more ancient divergence between the two lineages. Instead, our estimates indicated that they diverged very recently (310 kyr), providing a better support for an Indo-Pacific origin of the two South African lineages. The arrival of the MRCA of P. perna in Brazil was estimated at 10 [0–40] kyr. Thus, the hypothesis of a recent introduction in Brazil through hull fouling in wooden vessels involved in the transatlantic itineraries of the slave trade did not receive strong support, but given the range for this estimate, it could not be discarded. Wider geographic sampling of marine organisms shows that lineages with contiguous distributions need not share a common ancestry. PMID:25360249

  18. Wider sampling reveals a non-sister relationship for geographically contiguous lineages of a marine mussel.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Regina L; Nicastro, Katy R; Costa, Joana; McQuaid, Christopher D; Serrão, Ester A; Zardi, Gerardo I

    2014-06-01

    The accuracy of phylogenetic inference can be significantly improved by the addition of more taxa and by increasing the spatial coverage of sampling. In previous studies, the brown mussel Perna perna showed a sister-lineage relationship between eastern and western individuals contiguously distributed along the South African coastline. We used mitochondrial (COI) and nuclear (ITS) sequence data to further analyze phylogeographic patterns within P. perna. Significant expansion of the geographical coverage revealed an unexpected pattern. The western South African lineage shared the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) with specimens from Angola, Venezuela, and Namibia, whereas eastern South African specimens and Mozambique grouped together, indicating a non-sister relationship for the two South African lineages. Two plausible biogeographic scenarios to explain their origin were both supported by the hypotheses-testing analysis. One includes an Indo-Pacific origin for P. perna, dispersal into the Mediterranean and Atlantic through the Tethys seaway, followed by recent secondary contact after southward expansion of the western and eastern South African lineages. The other scenario (Out of South Africa) suggests an ancient vicariant divergence of the two lineages followed by their northward expansion. Nevertheless, the "Out of South Africa" hypothesis would require a more ancient divergence between the two lineages. Instead, our estimates indicated that they diverged very recently (310 kyr), providing a better support for an Indo-Pacific origin of the two South African lineages. The arrival of the MRCA of P. perna in Brazil was estimated at 10 [0-40] kyr. Thus, the hypothesis of a recent introduction in Brazil through hull fouling in wooden vessels involved in the transatlantic itineraries of the slave trade did not receive strong support, but given the range for this estimate, it could not be discarded. Wider geographic sampling of marine organisms shows that lineages with contiguous distributions need not share a common ancestry. PMID:25360249

  19. Coal bed methane potential in Venezuela-The forgotten resource

    SciTech Connect

    Vasquez-Herrera, A.R.; Bereskin, S.R.; McLennan, J.D.

    1996-08-01

    In nations already possessing riches of hydrocarbons situated in conventional reservoirs, evaluation of coal-bearing sequences for potential gas is logically delayed or ignored. Nonetheless, Venezuelan coals have long been recognized as stratigraphically associated with oil accumulations, but because coalbed methane (CBM) is a relatively new worldwide phenomenon, CBM potential has not been widely assessed in the country. Two general areas contain vast accumulations of coal for potential CBM activity: (1) the Maracaibo basin, containing the Guasare (northwest), Lobatera-Santo Domingo (southwest) and Urumaco (northeast) districts; and (2) the Oficina basin in eastern Venezuela possessing abundant accumulations related to the Faja Petrolifera de Orinoco (Orinoco Oil Belt). In both basins, high volatile bituminous and lignitic coals of mostly Oligo-Miocene age are abundantly found. Older coals are also present especially in the Maracaibo area. Two factors represent powerful incentives for CBM exploitation: addition of known reserves for economic considerations, and aid in bringing heavy crude oil to the surface by additional gas lift and oil viscosity reduction. Other favorable factors important for CBM methodology include: (1) abundant coals lying above known conventional reservoir targets; (2).6 - 1% vitrinite reflectance measurements in the Orinoco Oil Belt; (3) many coals occurring above 1500 m; (4) documented mine explosions especially in the 1920s and 1930s; (5) a strong tectonic overprint to perhaps add shear fractures to already cleated coals; (6) individual coal thickness up to 12 m with averages in the .8 m range; and (7) gas shows while drilling coal-rich intervals.

  20. Lithospheric scale model of Merida Andes, Venezuela (GIAME Project)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, M.; Orihuela, N. D.; Klarica, S.; Gil, E.; Levander, A.; Audemard, F. A.; Mazuera, F.; Avila, J.

    2013-05-01

    Merida Andes (MA) is one of the most important orogenic belt in Venezuela and represents the northern culmination of South America Andes. During the last 60 years, several models have been proposed to explain the shallow and deep structure, using different geological, geophysical, seismological, geochemical and petrologic concepts; nevertheless, most of them have applied local observation windows, and do not represent the major structure of MA. Therefore, a multidisciplinary research group, coordinated by FUNVISIS, in close cooperation with UCV, ULA and PDVSA, is proposed in order to get the outlined goals in the project entitled GIAME ("Geociencia Integral de los Andes de MErida") was established, which aims to generate a lithospheric scale model and the development of a temporal dynamic model for the MA. As a base for lithospheric investigations of the Merida Andes, we are proposing three wide angle seismic profiles across the orogen on three representative sites, in order to determine the inner structure and its relation with the orogen's gravimetric root. To the date, there are no seismic studies at lithospheric scale which cross MA. The wide angle seismic will be complemented with the re-processing and re-interpretation of existing reflection seismic data, which will allow to establish a relationship between MA and its associated flexural basins (Maracaibo and Barinas-Apure basins). Depending on the results of the VENCORP Project (VENezuelan COntinental Reflection Profiling), which might show some reliable results about crustal features and Moho reflectors along three long seismic profiles at Caribbean Moutain system, a reflection seismic profile across the central portion of MA is proposed. Additional tasks, consisting in MA quaternary deformation studies, using research methods like neotectonics and paleoseismology, georadar, numerical modeling, cinematic GPS, SAR interferometry, thermocronology, detailed studies on regional geology, flexural modeling, gravity modeling, among others, will be carried out. We expect this project is going to help to solve many of the doubts regarding the origin, evolution and structural configuration of the Merida Andes.

  1. Pre-Service Geography Teachers' Confidence in Geographical Subject Matter Knowledge and Teaching Geographical Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harte, Wendy; Reitano, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This research tracked the confidence of 16 undergraduate and postgraduate pre-service geography teachers as they completed a single semester, senior phase geography curriculum course. The study focused specifically on the pre-service teachers' confidence in geographical subject matter knowledge and their confidence in teaching geographical skills.…

  2. A Framework for Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA) based on geographic ontology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, H. Y.; Li, H. T.; Yan, L.; Lu, X. J.

    2015-06-01

    GEOBIA (Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis) is not only a hot topic of current remote sensing and geographical research. It is believed to be a paradigm in remote sensing and GIScience. The lack of a systematic approach designed to conceptualize and formalize the class definitions makes GEOBIA a highly subjective and difficult method to reproduce. This paper aims to put forward a framework for GEOBIA based on geographic ontology theory, which could implement "Geographic entities - Image objects - Geographic objects" true reappearance. It consists of three steps, first, geographical entities are described by geographic ontology, second, semantic network model is built based on OWL(ontology web language), at last, geographical objects are classified with decision rule or other classifiers. A case study of farmland ontology was conducted for describing the framework. The strength of this framework is that it provides interpretation strategies and global framework for GEOBIA with the property of objective, overall, universal, universality, etc., which avoids inconsistencies caused by different experts' experience and provides an objective model for mage analysis.

  3. Photographic Mosaics and Geographic Generalizations: A Perceptual Approach to Geographic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castner, Henry W.

    2003-01-01

    If vision can be considered the basis of geographic inquiry, then it must involve looking with discrimination--the ability to discern clues in our surroundings that speak to spatial processes or patterns in all aspects of geography--physical, cultural, economic, and so on. Geographic thinking also involves making spatial generalizations. We do…

  4. [Health services provision and geographic accessibility].

    PubMed

    Olivet, Miquel; Aloy, Joan; Prat, Esther; Pons, Xavier

    2008-12-01

    This study describes the health services available in Catalonia, Spain as part of the situation analysis of the healthcare map, setting a starting point for the process of adapting services to the needs of the population. It also includes an analysis of the geographic accessibility to healthcare centres in the public health system, through the use of a geographic information system (GIS), with geo-referencing variables and calculations of travel times and distances. The principal results show, on one hand, the adaptation of the Catalan healthcare network to the distribution of the population, with a high level of geographic proximity of the services to the population, and a high degree of capillarity, principally in primary healthcare; and on the other hand, the importance that GIS tools and procedures may acquire in healthcare planning is highlighted. PMID:19195473

  5. Geographic variation in marine turtle fibropapillomatosis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greenblatt, R.J.; Work, T.M.; Dutton, P.; Sutton, C.A.; Spraker, T.R.; Casey, R.N.; Diez, C.E.; Parker, D.; St. Ledger, J.; Balazs, G.H.; Casey, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    We document three examples of fibropapillomatosis by histology, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and sequence analysis from three different geographic areas. Tumors compatible in morphology with fibropapillomatosis were seen in green turtles from Puerto Rico and San Diego (California) and in a hybrid loggerhead/ hawksbill turtle from Florida Bay (Florida). Tumors were confirmed as fibropapillomas on histology, although severity of disease varied between cases. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses revealed infection with the fibropapilloma-associated turtle herpesvirus (FPTHV) in all cases, albeit at highly variable copy numbers per cell. Alignment of a portion of the polymerase gene from each fibropapilloma-associated turtle herpesvirus isolate demonstrated geographic variation in sequence. These cases illustrate geographic variation in both the pathology and the virology of fibropapillomatosis.

  6. Late Pleistocene and Holocene Hydroclimate Variability in the Tropical Andes from Alpine Lake Sediments, Cordillera de Mérida, Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, D. J.; Abbott, M. B.; Polissar, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    The tropics play a major role in the global hydrologic cycle and changes to tropical rainfall patterns have critical implications for water resources and ecosystem dynamics over large geographic scales. In tropical South America, late Pleistocene and Holocene precipitation variability has been documented in geologic records and associated with numerous external and internal variables, including changes in summer insolation, South American summer monsoon strength, Pacific Ocean sea surface temperatures, continental moisture recycling, and other climate processes. However, there are few records from the northern hemisphere tropical Americas, a key region for understanding interhemispheric linkages and the drivers of tropical hydroclimate variability. Here, we present a ~13 ka record of coupled hydroclimate and environmental changes from Laguna Brava, a small (~0.07 km2), hydrologically closed lake basin situated at 2400 m asl in the Cordillera de Mérida, Venezuela. Sediment cores collected from varying water depths and proximity to shore are placed in a chronologic framework using radiocarbon ages from terrestrial macrofossils, and analyzed for a suite of physical, bulk geochemical, and stable isotopic parameters. Compound specific hydrogen isotope (D/H) measurements of terrestrial plant waxes (long-chain n-alkanes) show a sharp increase in the late Pleistocene, followed by a long-term trend toward more negative values that suggest a ~20‰ decrease in the D/H ratios of South American tropical precipitation during the Holocene. This pattern is consistent in sign and magnitude to other South American precipitation reconstructions from both hemispheres, indicating interhemispheric similarities in tropical hydroclimate variability. Superimposed on this continent-scale trend are changes in moisture balance and environmental conditions in the Venezuelan Andes. We reconstruct these parameters at Laguna Brava at multidecadal and centennial resolution and evaluate this record within the context of late Pleistocene and Holocene South American tropical hydroclimate variability and global climate changes.

  7. New Neotropical Sebacinales Species from a Pakaraimaea dipterocarpacea Forest in the Guayana Region, Southern Venezuela: Structural Diversity and Phylogeography

    PubMed Central

    Moyersoen, Bernard; Weiß, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Pakaraimaea dipterocarpacea, a member of the Dipterocarpaceae endemic in the Guayana region, is associated with a diverse community of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi. Amongst the 41 ECM fungal species detected in a 400 m2 P. dipterocarpacea ssp. nitida plot in Southern Venezuela, three species belonged to the Sebacinales. We tested whether ECM anatomotype characterization can be used as a feasible element in an integrative taxonomy in this diverse fungal group, where the relevance of fruitbody morphology for species delimitation seems limited. Using a combination of ECM morpho-anatomical characterizations and phylogenetic analyses based on nuclear ITS and LSU sequences, we report three new species. The main distinguishing features of Sebacina guayanensis are the yellowish cell walls together with conspicuous undifferentiated, uniform compact (type B) rhizomorphs. Staghorn-like hyphae are characteristic of S. tomentosa. The combination of clusters of thick-walled emanating hyphae, including hyphae similar to awl-shaped cystidia with basal dichotomous or trichotomous ramifications, and the presence of type B rhizomorphs were characteristic of a third, yet unnamed species. The three species belong to three different, possibly specifically tropical clades in Sebacinales Group A. The geographic distribution of phylogenetically related strains was wide, including a Dicymbe forest in Guyana and an Ecuadorian rainforest with Coccoloba species. We show that ECM morpho-anatomy can be used, in combination with other analyses, to delineate species within Sebacinales Group A. In addition to phylogenetic information, type B rhizomorphs observed in different Sebacinales clades have important ecological implications for this fungal group. The phylogeography of Sebacinales suggests that dispersion and host jump are important radiation mechanisms that shaped P. dipterocarpacea ECM fungal community. This study emphasizes the need for more sequence data to evaluate the hypothesis that phylogeographic relationships between neo- and paleotropical ECM fungal species could be attributed to the vicariance of cross-continental hosts such as the Dipterocarpacae. PMID:25072467

  8. Enhancing robustness and immunization in geographical networks

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Liang; Yang Kongqing; Yang Lei

    2007-03-15

    We find that different geographical structures of networks lead to varied percolation thresholds, although these networks may have similar abstract topological structures. Thus, strategies for enhancing robustness and immunization of a geographical network are proposed. Using the generating function formalism, we obtain an explicit form of the percolation threshold q{sub c} for networks containing arbitrary order cycles. For three-cycles, the dependence of q{sub c} on the clustering coefficients is ascertained. The analysis substantiates the validity of the strategies with analytical evidence.

  9. Geographic information system/watershed model interface

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, Gary T.

    1989-01-01

    Geographic information systems allow for the interactive analysis of spatial data related to water-resources investigations. A conceptual design for an interface between a geographic information system and a watershed model includes functions for the estimation of model parameter values. Design criteria include ease of use, minimal equipment requirements, a generic data-base management system, and use of a macro language. An application is demonstrated for a 90.1-square-kilometer subbasin of the Patuxent River near Unity, Maryland, that performs automated derivation of watershed parameters for hydrologic modeling.

  10. Global change: Geographical approaches (A Review)*

    PubMed Central

    Kotlyakov, V. M.; Mather, J. R.; Sdasyuk, G. V.; White, G. F.

    1988-01-01

    The International Geosphere Biosphere Program sponsored by the International Council of Scientific Unions is directing attention to geophysical and biological change as influenced by human modifications in global energy and mass exchanges. Geographers in the Soviet Union and the United States have joined in critical appraisal of their experience in studying environmental change. This initial report is on some promising approaches, such as the reconstruction of earlier landscape processes, modeling of the dynamics of present-day landscapes, analysis of causes and consequences of anthropogenic changes in specified regions, appraisal of social response to change, and enhanced geographic information systems supported by detailed site studies. PMID:16593971

  11. Location of geographical objects in crisis situations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybansky, M.; Kratochvil, V.

    2014-02-01

    This article summarizes the various expressions of object positioning using different coordinate data and different methods, such as use of maps, exploiting the properties of digital Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) networks, Global Navigational Satellite Systems (GNSS), Inertial Navigation Systems (INS), Inertial Measurement Systems (IMS), hybrid methods and non-contact (remote sensing) methods; all with varying level of accuracy. Furthermore, the article describes some geographical identifiers and verbal means to describe location of geographical objects such as settlements, rivers, forest, roads, etc. All of the location methods have some advantages and disadvantages, especially in emergency situations, when usually the crisis management has a lack of time in a decision process.

  12. Geographical variation in Plasmodium vivax relapse

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Plasmodium vivax has the widest geographic distribution of the human malaria parasites and nearly 2.5 billion people live at risk of infection. The control of P. vivax in individuals and populations is complicated by its ability to relapse weeks to months after initial infection. Strains of P. vivax from different geographical areas are thought to exhibit varied relapse timings. In tropical regions strains relapse quickly (three to six weeks), whereas those in temperate regions do so more slowly (six to twelve months), but no comprehensive assessment of evidence has been conducted. Here observed patterns of relapse periodicity are used to generate predictions of relapse incidence within geographic regions representative of varying parasite transmission. Methods A global review of reports of P. vivax relapse in patients not treated with a radical cure was conducted. Records of time to first P. vivax relapse were positioned by geographic origin relative to expert opinion regions of relapse behaviour and epidemiological zones. Mixed-effects meta-analysis was conducted to determine which geographic classification best described the data, such that a description of the pattern of relapse periodicity within each region could be described. Model outputs of incidence and mean time to relapse were mapped to illustrate the global variation in relapse. Results Differences in relapse periodicity were best described by a historical geographic classification system used to describe malaria transmission zones based on areas sharing zoological and ecological features. Maps of incidence and time to relapse showed high relapse frequency to be predominant in tropical regions and prolonged relapse in temperate areas. Conclusions The results indicate that relapse periodicity varies systematically by geographic region and are categorized by nine global regions characterized by similar malaria transmission dynamics. This indicates that relapse may be an adaptation evolved to exploit seasonal changes in vector survival and therefore optimize transmission. Geographic patterns in P. vivax relapse are important to clinicians treating individual infections, epidemiologists trying to infer P. vivax burden, and public health officials trying to control and eliminate the disease in human populations. PMID:24731298

  13. 48 CFR 725.702 - Designation of authorized geographic code.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... geographic code. 725.702 Section 725.702 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL... authorized geographic code. (a) The authorized geographic code or codes for an USAID contract shall be specified in the Schedule of each contract and shown on its cover page. If no geographic code is...

  14. 48 CFR 725.702 - Designation of authorized geographic code.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... geographic code. 725.702 Section 725.702 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL... authorized geographic code. (a) The authorized geographic code or codes for an USAID contract shall be specified in the Schedule of each contract and shown on its cover page. If no geographic code is...

  15. 48 CFR 725.702 - Designation of authorized geographic code.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... geographic code. 725.702 Section 725.702 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL... authorized geographic code. (a) The authorized geographic code or codes for an USAID contract shall be specified in the Schedule of each contract and shown on its cover page. If no geographic code is...

  16. 48 CFR 725.702 - Designation of authorized geographic code.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... geographic code. 725.702 Section 725.702 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL... authorized geographic code. (a) The authorized geographic code or codes for an USAID contract shall be specified in the Schedule of each contract and shown on its cover page. If no geographic code is...

  17. Introduction to the Complex Geospatial Web in Geographical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadimitriou, Fivos

    2010-01-01

    The Geospatial Web is emerging in the geographical education landscape in all its complexity. How will geographers and educators react? What are the most important facets of this development? After reviewing the possible impacts on geographical education, it can be conjectured that the Geospatial Web will eventually replace the usual geographical…

  18. Resurrection Symphony: "El Sistema" as Ideology in Venezuela and Los Angeles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The explosive growth of Venezuela's "El Sistema" is rewriting the agenda of musical education in the West. Many commentators from the world of classical music react to the spectacle of dedicated young colonial musicians playing European masterworks as a kind of "miracle," accepting "Sistema" founder José Antonio…

  19. Teachers' Perceived Efficacy among English as a Foreign Language Teachers in Middle Schools in Venezuela

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chacon, C.T.

    2005-01-01

    Teachers' sense of efficacy has been shown to influence teachers' actions and student outcomes. This study explored self-efficacy beliefs among English as a Foreign Language teachers in selected schools in Venezuela. Data were collected through a survey administered to 100 teachers. The Teacher Sense of Efficacy Scale (Tschannen-Moran & Woolfolk…

  20. Education, Democracy and Social Change: Venezuela's Education Missions in Theory and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Maura

    2015-01-01

    The "Bolivarian Revolution" in Venezuela is conceptualised as a pedagogical project that aims to develop "twenty-first century Socialism" through state-grassroots collaboration in the reorganisation of political space in order to develop participatory, democratic institutions and processes. The cornerstones of this project to…

  1. 78 FR 77423 - Ferrosilicon From the Russian Federation and Venezuela: Postponement of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... Russian Federation and Venezuela: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigations, 78 FR 49471 (August 14, 2013) (``Initiation Notice''). \\2\\ See id., 78 FR at 49474. As explained in the memorandum from the... Automobile, Aerospace and Agricultural Implement Workers of America (``UAW''). \\5\\ See Letter to...

  2. The Effect of Wage Compression and Alternative Labor Market Opportunities on Teacher Quality in Venezuela

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortega, Daniel E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of teacher relative wages and teacher wage dispersion on high school graduates' preferences for teaching majors in College. This approximation to teacher quality is appropriate in a country like Venezuela as opposed to the US since the rigidity of the tertiary school system significantly limits mobility between…

  3. Rural Development in Venezuela and the Guianas: A Bibliography. Training and Methods Series Number 20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Teresa, Comp.; And Others

    The bibliography cites 930 materials dealing with Venezuela and the Guianas. Published between 1949 and 1972, the materials are found in the Land Tenure Center Library at the University of Wisconsin. Topics covered are: agriculture, agrarian reform, economic affairs, economic cooperation, human resources, American Indians, industry, law, money,…

  4. Counter-Hegemonic Regionalism and Higher Education for All: Venezuela and the ALBA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhr, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    This paper employs new regionalism theory and regulatory regionalism theory in its analysis and theorisation of the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America (ALBA) as a counter-hegemonic Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) regionalism. As (initially) the regionalisation of Venezuela's Bolivarian Revolution, ALBA is centred around the idea…

  5. Comprehensive Education Bolivarian-Style: The Alternative School in Barrio Pueblo Nuevo, Venezuela

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Mike

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author traces revolutionary developments in an alternative school in Barrio Pueblo Nuevo, Mérida, in the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, a school that caters for students between 4 and 14. He begins by recounting some fieldwork done at the school on his behalf by Edward Ellis in 2010. He goes on to discuss a video made at…

  6. Adapting EVIAVE methodology as a planning and decision-making tool in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Zamorano, M; Paolini, A; Ramos, A; Rodríguez, M L

    2009-12-30

    Landfills in Venezuela have serious problems regarding their location, design and operation. In fact, basic waste disposal is one of the main weaknesses of the municipal waste management in this country. The Venezuelan Ministry of Environment and Renewable Resources has studied and identified the negative impacts of operating landfills, but no program has been implemented to determine the cause-effect relation of these impacts or to design strategies to counteract with the serious environmental and health risks generated. This paper describes how EVIAVE methodology can be successfully used for landfill diagnosis, and shows how this type of landfill diagnosis was applied in Venezuela. For our research study, we carried out both a quantitative and qualitative evaluation of the environmental problems generated by 22 landfills in Venezuela. Our study was based on the following environmental indexes: Landfill Environment, Environmental Risk, Environmental Value, and Probability of Contamination. For the purposes of our study, it was first necessary to adapt EVIAVE to the legal system and social context in Venezuela. The results obtained confirmed the applicability of this methodology to Venezuelan landfills. EVIAVE was found to be an effective planning tool that provided crucial information for the development of action plans, which would improve landfill operation, and help make decisions pertaining to their closure, sealing and eventual recovery. PMID:19699030

  7. Education, Democracy and Social Change: Venezuela's Education Missions in Theory and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Maura

    2015-01-01

    The "Bolivarian Revolution" in Venezuela is conceptualised as a pedagogical project that aims to develop "twenty-first century Socialism" through state-grassroots collaboration in the reorganisation of political space in order to develop participatory, democratic institutions and processes. The cornerstones of this project to…

  8. Counter-Hegemonic Regionalism and Higher Education for All: Venezuela and the ALBA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhr, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    This paper employs new regionalism theory and regulatory regionalism theory in its analysis and theorisation of the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America (ALBA) as a counter-hegemonic Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) regionalism. As (initially) the regionalisation of Venezuela's Bolivarian Revolution, ALBA is centred around the idea…

  9. Five Years of Cyclotron Radioisotope Production Experiences at the First PET-CT in Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Colmenter, L.; Coelho, D.; Esteves, L. M.; Ruiz, N.; Morales, L.; Lugo, I.; Sajo-Bohus, L.; Liendo, J. A.; Greaves, E. D.; Barros, H.; Castillo, J.

    2007-10-26

    Five years operation of a compact cyclotron installed at PET-CT facility in Caracas, Venezuela is given. Production rate of {sup 18}F labeled FDG, operation and radiation monitoring experience are included. We conclude that {sup 18}FDG CT-PET is the most effective technique for patient diagnosis.

  10. Resurrection Symphony: "El Sistema" as Ideology in Venezuela and Los Angeles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The explosive growth of Venezuela's "El Sistema" is rewriting the agenda of musical education in the West. Many commentators from the world of classical music react to the spectacle of dedicated young colonial musicians playing European masterworks as a kind of "miracle," accepting "Sistema" founder José Antonio…

  11. 77 FR 59970 - Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela; Institution of Five-Year Reviews...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ... silicomanganese from India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela (73 FR 841, January 4, 2008). The Commission is now... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE... amended at 74 FR 2847 (January 16, 2009). \\1\\ No response to this request for information is required if...

  12. 78 FR 9034 - Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela: Final Results of the Expedited Second...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-07

    ...On October 1, 2012, the Department of Commerce (``Department'') initiated the second sunset reviews of the antidumping duty orders on silicomanganese from India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela. The Department finds that revocation of these antidumping duty orders would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of dumping at the rates identified in the ``Final Results of Reviews'' section of......

  13. Five Years of Cyclotron Radioisotope Production Experiences at the First PET-CT in Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colmenter, L.; Sajo-Bohus, L.; Liendo, J. A.; Greaves, E. D.; Coelho, D.; Barros, H.; Castillo, J.; Esteves, L. M.; Ruiz, N.; Morales, L.; Lugo, I.

    2007-10-01

    Five years operation of a compact cyclotron installed at PET-CT facility in Caracas, Venezuela is given. Production rate of 18F labeled FDG, operation and radiation monitoring experience are included. We conclude that 18FDG CT-PET is the most effective technique for patient diagnosis.

  14. The National Geographic Society's Teaching Geography Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bockenhauer, Mark H.

    1993-01-01

    Contends that the National Geographic Society's Teaching Geography Project is an inservice teacher education success story. Describes the origins, objectives, and development of the project. Summarizes the impact of the project and contends that its success is the result of the workshop format and guided practice in instructional strategies. (CFR)

  15. Geographic information systems and public health.

    PubMed

    Ricketts, Thomas C

    2003-01-01

    Geographic information systems (GIS) and analyses based on GIS have become widespread and well accepted. GIS is not the complete solution to understanding the distribution of disease and the problems of public health but is an important way in which to better illuminate how humans interact with their environment to create or deter health. PMID:12471275

  16. Enhancing Geographic Learning and Literacy through Filmmaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dando, Christina E.; Chadwick, Jacob J.

    2014-01-01

    In this media-saturated society, students need to think more critically about the media they encounter and that they are producing. Through filmmaking, students can link geographic theory and the real world, bridging the distance from readings/lectures/discussions to the geography on the ground, making the abstract concrete. But constructing films…

  17. Science Fiction for Geographers: Selected Works.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elbow, Gary S.; Martinson, Tom L.

    1980-01-01

    Explains how college level teachers of geography can use works of science fiction to help students understand geographical settings and create impressionistic pictures of a given region in their minds. Particular areas in which science fiction is useful include invented terrestrial landscapes, specialized extraterrestrial landscapes, disaster…

  18. Teaching Geographic Concepts through Fieldwork and Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hupy, Joseph P.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the benefits of combining field-based learning within the context of a competitive setting in the geography curriculum. Findings and data are presented based on experiences gathered from teaching an upper-level university geography course that combined geographic techniques and theory into a game of capture-the-flag.…

  19. Representing Historical Knowledge in Geographic Information Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossner, Karl Eric

    2010-01-01

    A growing number of historical scholars in social science and humanities fields are using geographic information systems (GIS) to help investigate spatial questions and map their findings. The nature of historical data and historiographic practices present several challenges in using GIS that have been addressed only partially to date. For…

  20. Promoting Geographic Information System Usage across Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiegel, Shaun; Kinikin, Janae

    2004-01-01

    In this article the authors discuss how they implemented and promoted Geographic Information System (GIS) applications at Weber State University (WSU), a four-year public institution with two campuses. GIS is a type of computer system made of hardware, software, and data that allows the mapping of spatially related layers that have a common…

  1. Teaching Geographic Field Methods Using Paleoecology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Megan K.

    2014-01-01

    Field-based undergraduate geography courses provide numerous pedagogical benefits including an opportunity for students to acquire employable skills in an applied context. This article presents one unique approach to teaching geographic field methods using paleoecological research. The goals of this course are to teach students key geographic…

  2. Object-Oriented Geographical Database Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, M. L.; Bryant, N.; Sapounas, D.

    1996-01-01

    Terbase is an Object-Oriented database system under development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Terbase is designed for flexibility, reusability, maintenace ease, multi-user collaboration and independence, and efficiency. This paper details the design and development of Terbase as a geographic data server...

  3. Threading One's Way Through the Geographic Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Paul F.

    1982-01-01

    Designed for students in grades 7 through 12, the paper presents illustrative resource materials for teaching concepts related to geographic regions. Emphasis is on giving students an understanding of the interrelationship between regional characteristics and human behavior. The paper introduces students to the following notions: environmental…

  4. Frontiers in Geographical Teaching. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chorley, Richard J., Ed.; Haggett, Peter, Ed.

    Composed of three parts, "Concepts,""Techniques," and "Teaching," this volume of essays by British geographers emerged from the editors' geography education courses and symposia at Cambridge University. It is addressed to two questions: what is happening in geography? and, what impact does this have on school geography? "Concepts" has seven essays…

  5. Frontiers in Geographical Teaching. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chorley, Richard J., Ed.; Haggett, Peter, Ed.

    Composed of three parts, "Concepts,""Techniques," and "Teaching," this volume of essays by British geographers emerged from the editors' geography education courses and symposia at Cambridge University. It is addressed to two questions: what is happening in geography? and, what impact does this have on school geography? "Concepts" has seven essays…

  6. Mapware: Educational Applications of Geographic Information Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinker, Robert F.

    1992-01-01

    Analyzes the applicability to mathematics and science education of geographic information systems. Gives examples of possible applications involving aerosol detection in the atmosphere, verification of satellite images, and the Kidnet Project. Sketches out a research agenda and describes needed characteristics of the software when applied to…

  7. The Geographic Distribution of Indochinese Refugees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, Susan

    This paper presents information regarding the geographic distribution of Indochinese refugees in the United States and how it compares to that of the overall U.S. population and the non-refugee legal immigrant population. The following information is reported: Seventy percent of all Indochinese refugees currently reside in 10 States, with…

  8. Interactive Computer Programs for Geographic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lougeay, Cheryl

    Examples of computer programs illustrate how instructors can introduce students to geographic concepts and models while creating a thinking environment in the classroom. The programs are designed to assist students in computational tasks and to provide both graphic and numeric output which will be stimulating. A population pyramid program…

  9. Enhancing Geographic Learning and Literacy through Filmmaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dando, Christina E.; Chadwick, Jacob J.

    2014-01-01

    In this media-saturated society, students need to think more critically about the media they encounter and that they are producing. Through filmmaking, students can link geographic theory and the real world, bridging the distance from readings/lectures/discussions to the geography on the ground, making the abstract concrete. But constructing films…

  10. Geography and Geographical Information Science: Interdisciplinary Integrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellul, Claire

    2015-01-01

    To understand how Geography and Geographical Information Science (GIS) can contribute to Interdisciplinary Research (IDR), it is relevant to articulate the differences between the different types of such research. "Multidisciplinary" researchers work in a "parallel play" mode, completing work in their disciplinary work streams…

  11. Geography and Geographical Information Science: Interdisciplinary Integrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellul, Claire

    2015-01-01

    To understand how Geography and Geographical Information Science (GIS) can contribute to Interdisciplinary Research (IDR), it is relevant to articulate the differences between the different types of such research. "Multidisciplinary" researchers work in a "parallel play" mode, completing work in their disciplinary work streams…

  12. The Geographic Distribution of Indochinese Refugees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, Susan

    This paper presents information regarding the geographic distribution of Indochinese refugees in the United States and how it compares to that of the overall U.S. population and the non-refugee legal immigrant population. The following information is reported: Seventy percent of all Indochinese refugees currently reside in 10 States, with…

  13. Diversity, Disability, and Geographic Digital Divide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumari, Melati; Carr, Erika; Ndebe-Ngovo, Manjerngie

    2006-01-01

    The phenomenon called digital divide was the focus of this paper. Diversity, disability, and geographical digital divide were relevant to this collaborative project. An extensive review of the literature was conducted for the completion of this project. The evidence for the digital divide in terms of race, level of education, and gender in the…

  14. Promoting Geographic Information System Usage across Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiegel, Shaun; Kinikin, Janae

    2004-01-01

    In this article the authors discuss how they implemented and promoted Geographic Information System (GIS) applications at Weber State University (WSU), a four-year public institution with two campuses. GIS is a type of computer system made of hardware, software, and data that allows the mapping of spatially related layers that have a common…

  15. Teaching Geographic Concepts through Fieldwork and Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hupy, Joseph P.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the benefits of combining field-based learning within the context of a competitive setting in the geography curriculum. Findings and data are presented based on experiences gathered from teaching an upper-level university geography course that combined geographic techniques and theory into a game of capture-the-flag.…

  16. Representing Historical Knowledge in Geographic Information Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossner, Karl Eric

    2010-01-01

    A growing number of historical scholars in social science and humanities fields are using geographic information systems (GIS) to help investigate spatial questions and map their findings. The nature of historical data and historiographic practices present several challenges in using GIS that have been addressed only partially to date. For…

  17. Displaying Geographically-Based Domestic Statistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quann, J.; Dalton, J.; Banks, M.; Helfer, D.; Szczur, M.; Winkert, G.; Billingsley, J.; Borgstede, R.; Chen, J.; Chen, L.; Fuh, J.; Cyprych, E.

    1982-01-01

    Decision Information Display System (DIDS) is rapid-response information-retrieval and color-graphics display system. DIDS transforms tables of geographically-based domestic statistics (such as population or unemployment by county, energy usage by county, or air-quality figures) into high-resolution, color-coded maps on television display screen.

  18. Science Fiction for Geographers: Selected Works.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elbow, Gary S.; Martinson, Tom L.

    1980-01-01

    Explains how college level teachers of geography can use works of science fiction to help students understand geographical settings and create impressionistic pictures of a given region in their minds. Particular areas in which science fiction is useful include invented terrestrial landscapes, specialized extraterrestrial landscapes, disaster…

  19. GEOGRAPHIC INDEX OF ENVIRONMENTAL ARTICLES - 1993

    EPA Science Inventory

    This index was produced in accordance with the Environmental Research Geographic Location Information Act, Public Law 101-617, enacted by the United States Congress on November 16, 1990. ompiled by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, it is intended as a quick reference for ...

  20. GEOGRAPHIC INDEX OF ENVIRONMENTAL ARTICLES - 1992

    EPA Science Inventory

    This index was produced in accordance with the Environmental Research Geographic Location Information Act, Public Law 101-617, enacted by the United States Congress on November 16, 1990. ompiled by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, it is intended as a quick reference for ...

  1. Federal Government Applications - Geographic Information Systems & Science

    Cancer.gov

    TOXMAP - a Geographic Information System (GIS) from the US National Library of Medicine (NLM) that uses maps of the United States to help users visually explore data from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)'s Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) and Superfund Program.

  2. Geographic Education in Turkish High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tas, Halil I.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a review of geographic curricula, teaching methods, materials and assessments in Turkish high schools. Geopolitics and political instability have contributed to large fluctuations in emphasis on geography in Turkish education and have also affected the content of the geography curriculum.

  3. Geographical Study of American Blues Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strait, John B.

    2010-01-01

    Music is not often utilized in teaching geography, despite the fact that many scholars orient their research around analyzing both the historical and spatial dimensions of musical expression. This article reports on the use of a teaching module that utilizes blues culture as a lens to understand the geographical history of the United States. The…

  4. Geographic Education and Careers in Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greiner, Alyson L.; Wikle, Thomas A.; Spencer, Jennifer M.

    2002-01-01

    Disciplinary concern with career options and opportunities has fluctuated over the years. Not surprisingly, geography continues to be incorrectly stereotyped as a field of study offering limited employment prospects. While geographic education has long focused on content, it must also embrace the importance of educating instructors, students, and…

  5. Validating a Geographical Image Retrieval System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Bin; Chen, Hsinchun

    2000-01-01

    Summarizes a prototype geographical image retrieval system that demonstrates how to integrate image processing and information analysis techniques to support large-scale content-based image retrieval. Describes an experiment to validate the performance of this image retrieval system against that of human subjects by examining similarity analysis…

  6. The impact of climate change on the geographical distribution of two vectors of Chagas disease: implications for the force of infection.

    PubMed

    Medone, Paula; Ceccarelli, Soledad; Parham, Paul E; Figuera, Andreína; Rabinovich, Jorge E

    2015-04-01

    Chagas disease, caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, is the most important vector-borne disease in Latin America. The vectors are insects belonging to the Triatominae (Hemiptera, Reduviidae), and are widely distributed in the Americas. Here, we assess the implications of climatic projections for 2050 on the geographical footprint of two of the main Chagas disease vectors: Rhodnius prolixus (tropical species) and Triatoma infestans (temperate species). We estimated the epidemiological implications of current to future transitions in the climatic niche in terms of changes in the force of infection (FOI) on the rural population of two countries: Venezuela (tropical) and Argentina (temperate). The climatic projections for 2050 showed heterogeneous impact on the climatic niches of both vector species, with a decreasing trend of suitability of areas that are currently at high-to-moderate transmission risk. Consequently, climatic projections affected differently the FOI for Chagas disease in Venezuela and Argentina. Despite the heterogeneous results, our main conclusions point out a decreasing trend in the number of new cases of Tr. cruzi human infections per year between current and future conditions using a climatic niche approach. PMID:25688019

  7. Seismic microzoning projects and their implementation in Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, M.; Cano, V.; Olbrich, F.; Vallee, M.; Morales, C.; Arreaza, A.; Mendes, K.; Klarica, S.; Alvarez Gomez, J.; Aray, J.; Vielma, J.; Pombo, A.; Diaz, J.; Grupo de trabajo

    2013-05-01

    Site effects have been recognized to play an important role in damage distribution of destructive earthquakes. These effects have been observed in Venezuela especially during the 1967 Caracas earthquake, when 4 buildings with 10 and more storeys during the Caracas 1967 earthquake collapsed, and a big number of them in the same deep sediment area have been seriously damaged. This motivated the development of studies regarding the subsurface configuration of Caracas and Barquisimeto during the last decade, with a seismic microzoning project realized in both cities from 2005 to 2009. The main results of this project were the development of design response spectra for the different microzones within the sedimentary basin, as well as estimates of landslide hazard. Implementation of the results in municipality ordinances is actually discussed with local authorities. They are aimed to address mitigation for new constructions by the application of the specific design spectra, for existing buildings via evaluation and retrofitting strategies, and for slope areas (informal, as well as formal developments) due to the identification of areas that may not be developed or require detailed studies of slope stabilities. Since then, seismic microzoning studies were started in Cumaná, Guarenas/Guatire and Lara state, and within a broader context of integrated risk management, which includes flooding, landslide and technological risks, in Mérida, Valencia, Maracay, Barcelona/Puerto La Cruz and Valle de la Pascua. The projects are coordinated by the Venezuelan Foundation for Seismological Research (FUNVISIS) in cooperation with local universities. Efforts are done to unable local researchers to apply the methodologies in other cities as Valera, Trujillo, Boconó, San Cristóbal and Tucacas. A unified seismic hazard map as input motion to these studies is actually in development. Depending on the local characteristics, building inventory and vulnerability analysis are done for risk analysis. Further members of the "Grupo de trabajo: Investigaciones aplicadas a la gestion integral del riesgo en espacios urbanos" are: Oscar Andrés López, Milgreya Cerrada, Rafael Torres, Oscar Ramírez, Elieser Sanzonetti, José Heredia, Jaime Avendaño, Fernando Mazuera, Luis Molina, Alexi Suárez, Víctor Rocabado, Mónica Paolini, Luis Yegres, Leonardo Alvarado, Herbert Rendón, Luz Rodríguez, Jorge González.

  8. Holocene evolution of the western Orinoco Delta, Venezuela

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aslan, A.; White, W.A.; Warne, A.G.; Guevara, E.H.

    2003-01-01

    The pristine nature of the Orinoco Delta of eastern Venezuela provides unique opportunities to study the geologic processes and environments of a major tropical delta. Remote-sensing images, shallow cores, and radiocarbon-dating of organic remains form the basis for describing deltaic environments and interpreting the Holocene history of the delta. The Orinoco Delta can be subdivided into two major sectors. The southeast sector is dominated by the Rio Grande-the principal distributary-and complex networks of anastomosing fluvial and tidal channels. The abundance of siliciclastic deposits suggests that fluvial processes such as over-bank flooding strongly influence this part of the delta. In contrast, the northwest sector is represented by few major distributaries, and overbank sedimentation is less widespread relative to the southeast sector. Peat is abundant and occurs in herbaceous and forested swamps that are individually up to 200 km2 in area. Northwest-directed littoral currents transport large volumes of suspended sediment and produce prominent mudcapes along the northwest coast. Mapping of surface sediments, vegetation, and major landforms identified four principal geomorphic systems within the western delta plain: (1) distributary channels, (2) interdistributary flood basins, (3) fluvial-marine transitional environments, and (4) marine-influenced coastal environments. Coring and radiocarbon dating of deltaic deposits show that the northern delta shoreline has prograded 20-30 km during the late Holocene sea-level highstand. Progradation has been accomplished by a combination of distributary avulsion and mudcape progradation. This style of deltaic progradation differs markedly from other deltas such as the Mississippi where distributary avulsion leads to coastal land loss, rather than shoreline progradation. The key difference is that the Orinoco Delta coastal zone receives prodigious amounts of sediment from northwest-moving littoral currents that transport sediment from as far away as the Amazon system (???1600 km). Late Holocene progradation of the delta has decreased delta-plain gradients, increased water levels, and minimized over-bank flooding and siliciclastic sedimentation in the northwest sector. These conditions, coupled with large amounts of direct precipitation, have led to widespread peat accumulation in interdistributary basins. Because peat-forming environments cover up to 5000 km2 of the delta plain, the Orinoco may be an excellent analogue for interpreting ancient deltaic peat deposits.

  9. Book Review: "Educational Reform and Administrative Development: The Cases of Columbia and Venezuela," by E. Mark Hanson.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Patrick D.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews "Educational Reform and Administrative Development: The Cases of Colombia and Venezuela," by E. Mark Hanson, which relates the policy-making and administrative structures of these two countries to their political, historical, and cultural contexts. (TE)

  10. Geographic exposure modeling: a valuable extension of geographic information systems for use in environmental epidemiology.

    PubMed Central

    Beyea, J

    1999-01-01

    Geographic modeling of individual exposures using air pollution modeling techniques can help in both the design of environmental epidemiologic studies and in the assignment of measures that delineate regions that receive the highest exposure in space and time. Geographic modeling can help in the interpretation of environmental sampling data associated with airborne concentration or deposition, and can act as a sophisticated interpolator for such data, allowing values to be assigned to locations between points where the data have actually been collected. Recent advances allow for quantification of the uncertainty in a geographic model and the resulting impact on estimates of association, variability, and study power. In this paper we present the terminology and methodology of geographic modeling, describe applications to date in the field of epidemiology, and evaluate the potential of this relatively new tool. PMID:10229717

  11. Household energy use in urban Venezuela: Implications from surveys in Maracaibo, Valencia, Merida, and Barcelona-Puerto La Cruz

    SciTech Connect

    Figueroa, M.J.; Sathaye, J.

    1993-08-01

    This report identifies the most important results of a comparative analysis of household commercial energy use in Venezuelan urban cities. The use of modern fuels is widespread among all cities. Cooking consumes the largest share of urban household energy use. The survey documents no use of biomass and a negligible use of kerosene for cooking. LPG, natural gas, and kerosene are the main fuels available. LPG is the fuel choice of low-income households in all cities except Maracaibo, where 40% of all households use natural gas. Electricity consumption in Venezuela`s urban households is remarkably high compared with the levels used in households in comparable Latin American countries and in households of industrialized nations which confront harsher climatic conditions and, therefore, use electricity for water and space heating. The penetration of appliances in Venezuela`s urban households is very high. The appliances available on the market are inefficient, and there are inefficient patterns of energy use among the population. Climate conditions and the urban built form all play important roles in determining the high level of energy consumption in Venezuelan urban households. It is important to acknowledge the opportunities for introducing energy efficiency and conservation in Venezuela`s residential sector, particularly given current economic and financial constraints, which may hamper the future provision of energy services.

  12. Seasonal and geographical variation of blocking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shukla, J.; Mo, K. C.

    1983-01-01

    An examination of grid point values of daily 500 mb geopotential height over the Northern Hemisphere for the 1963-1977 period has been conducted in order to calculate the seasonal frequency blocking variation and its geographical location, where blocking events require the persistence of a large positive anomaly for seven days or more. The geographical locations of the maximum frequency, characterized by three distinctly different maxima, remain nearly the same for all four seasons. Large persistent negative anomalies during the winter season are mostly associated with local high index flow. An examination of the seasonal variability of persistent characteristics of wave numbers 1-4, for 500 mb geopotential height between 50 and 70 deg N, shows that the large scale planetary waves have preferred phase locations for persistence beyond seven days.

  13. Transmission and visualization of large geographical maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liqiang; Zhang, Liang; Ren, Yingchao; Guo, Zhifeng

    Transmission and visualization of large geographical maps have become a challenging research issue in GIS applications. This paper presents an efficient and robust way to simplify large geographical maps using frame buffers and Voronoi diagrams. The topological relationships are kept during the simplification by removing the Voronoi diagram's self-overlapped regions. With the simplified vector maps, we establish different levels of detail (LOD) models of these maps. Then we introduce a client/server architecture which integrates our out-of-core algorithm, progressive transmission and rendering scheme based on computer graphics hardware. The architecture allows the viewers to view different regions interactively at different LODs on the network. Experimental results show that our proposed scheme provides an effective way for powerful transmission and manipulation of large maps.

  14. Investigating urban geochemistry using Geographical Information Systems.

    PubMed

    Thums, C; Farago, M

    2001-01-01

    Geographical Information System (GIS) is an interactive digital extension of the two-dimensional paper map. Customised maps are created by the selection and aggregation of data from independent sources to assist studies in urban geochemistry. The metropolitan area of Wolverhampton, in the West Midlands, UK is used to illustrate the types of output that can be generated. These include: geographic and geological feature; geochemical data and land use. Multi-layered maps can be used to investigate spatial relationships, for example, between elevated concentrations of metals in soils and industrial land use. Such maps can also be used to assist the assessment of potential exposure of groundwater, ecosystems and humans using maps incorporating guideline values for metals in soils. PMID:11732156

  15. Geographic Analysis of the Radiation Oncology Workforce

    SciTech Connect

    Aneja, Sanjay; Smith, Benjamin D.; Gross, Cary P.; Wilson, Lynn D.; Haffty, Bruce G.; Roberts, Kenneth; Yu, James B.

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To evaluate trends in the geographic distribution of the radiation oncology (RO) workforce. Methods and Materials: We used the 1995 and 2007 versions of the Area Resource File to map the ratio of RO to the population aged 65 years or older (ROR) within different health service areas (HSA) within the United States. We used regression analysis to find associations between population variables and 2007 ROR. We calculated Gini coefficients for ROR to assess the evenness of RO distribution and compared that with primary care physicians and total physicians. Results: There was a 24% increase in the RO workforce from 1995 to 2007. The overall growth in the RO workforce was less than that of primary care or the overall physician workforce. The mean ROR among HSAs increased by more than one radiation oncologist per 100,000 people aged 65 years or older, from 5.08 per 100,000 to 6.16 per 100,000. However, there remained consistent geographic variability concerning RO distribution, specifically affecting the non-metropolitan HSAs. Regression analysis found higher ROR in HSAs that possessed higher education (p = 0.001), higher income (p < 0.001), lower unemployment rates (p < 0.001), and higher minority population (p = 0.022). Gini coefficients showed RO distribution less even than for both primary care physicians and total physicians (0.326 compared with 0.196 and 0.292, respectively). Conclusions: Despite a modest growth in the RO workforce, there exists persistent geographic maldistribution of radiation oncologists allocated along socioeconomic and racial lines. To solve problems surrounding the RO workforce, issues concerning both gross numbers and geographic distribution must be addressed.

  16. Advanced Data Structure and Geographic Information Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peuquet, D. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    The current state of the art in specified areas of Geographic Information Systems GIS technology is examined. Study of the question of very large, efficient, heterogeneous spatial databases is required in order to explore the potential application of remotely sensed data for studying the long term habitability of the Earth. Research includes a review of spatial data structures and storage, development of operations required by GIS, and preparation of a testbed system to compare Vaster data structure with NASA's Topological Raster Structure.

  17. Geographic Information Systems and travel health.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Irmgard L; Puotinen, Marji

    2002-01-01

    Questions dealing with space and/or location have always been integral to understanding and addressing health issues, such as charting the spread of a disease. Health researchers have traditionally used paper maps to explore the spatial dimensions of health. However, due to advances in technology, it is now possible to ask such questions using a suite of computer-based methods and tools that are collectively known as a Geographic Information System (GIS). PMID:12962585

  18. An Introduction to Urban Geographic Information Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huxhold, William E.

    1991-03-01

    A nuts-and-bolts introduction to geographic information systems (GIS), this book outlines the basic concepts and diverse uses of this technology in a local government environment. Emphasizing the value of integrating data from various sources, the book provides a set of tools for improving the way public services are delivered, resources are managed, and policy decisions are made. Rather than stressing the computer technology that is so rapidly changing in the GIS industry, this book concentrates on the concepts upon which this technology is based: information systems design, computer-aided mapping, topological data structures, geographic base files, and land records systems. It also provides the latest information on the U.S. Census Bureau's TIGER files and the Global Positioning Satellite System established by the U.S. Department of Defense. Special features include fourteen case studies, a chapter describing the enormous effort required to set up and manage a typical GIS project, and an appendix on who is using GIS technology and how it is being used. Whether they run the GIS or help run the government, readers of An Introduction to Urban Geographic Information Systems will learn efficient and effective methods for improving the impact that local government has on its citizens.

  19. Ontology for cell-based geographic information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Bin; Huang, Lina; Lu, Xinhai

    2009-10-01

    Inter-operability is a key notion in geographic information science (GIS) for the sharing of geographic information (GI). That requires a seamless translation among different information sources. Ontology is enrolled in GI discovery to settle the semantic conflicts for its natural language appearance and logical hierarchy structure, which are considered to be able to provide better context for both human understanding and machine cognition in describing the location and relationships in the geographic world. However, for the current, most studies on field ontology are deduced from philosophical theme and not applicable for the raster expression in GIS-which is a kind of field-like phenomenon but does not physically coincide to the general concept of philosophical field (mostly comes from the physics concepts). That's why we specifically discuss the cell-based GI ontology in this paper. The discussion starts at the investigation of the physical characteristics of cell-based raster GI. Then, a unified cell-based GI ontology framework for the recognition of the raster objects is introduced, from which a conceptual interface for the connection of the human epistemology and the computer world so called "endurant-occurrant window" is developed for the better raster GI discovery and sharing.

  20. Geographically isolated wetlands: Rethinking a misnomer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mushet, David M.; Calhoun, Aram J. K.; Alexander, Laurie C.; Cohen, Matthew J.; DeKeyser, Edward S.; Fowler, Laurie G.; Lane, Charles R.; Lang, Megan W.; Rains, Mark C.; Walls, Susan

    2015-01-01

    We explore the category “geographically isolated wetlands” (GIWs; i.e., wetlands completely surrounded by uplands at the local scale) as used in the wetland sciences. As currently used, the GIW category (1) hampers scientific efforts by obscuring important hydrological and ecological differences among multiple wetland functional types, (2) aggregates wetlands in a manner not reflective of regulatory and management information needs, (3) implies wetlands so described are in some way “isolated,” an often incorrect implication, (4) is inconsistent with more broadly used and accepted concepts of “geographic isolation,” and (5) has injected unnecessary confusion into scientific investigations and discussions. Instead, we suggest other wetland classification systems offer more informative alternatives. For example, hydrogeomorphic (HGM) classes based on well-established scientific definitions account for wetland functional diversity thereby facilitating explorations into questions of connectivity without an a priori designation of “isolation.” Additionally, an HGM-type approach could be used in combination with terms reflective of current regulatory or policymaking needs. For those rare cases in which the condition of being surrounded by uplands is the relevant distinguishing characteristic, use of terminology that does not unnecessarily imply isolation (e.g., “upland embedded wetlands”) would help alleviate much confusion caused by the “geographically isolated wetlands” misnomer.

  1. Evolutionary and Ecological Characterization of Mayaro Virus Strains Isolated during an Outbreak, Venezuela, 2010.

    PubMed

    Auguste, Albert J; Liria, Jonathan; Forrester, Naomi L; Giambalvo, Dileyvic; Moncada, Maria; Long, Kanya C; Morón, Dulce; de Manzione, Nuris; Tesh, Robert B; Halsey, Eric S; Kochel, Tadeusz J; Hernandez, Rosa; Navarro, Juan-Carlos; Weaver, Scott C

    2015-10-01

    In 2010, an outbreak of febrile illness with arthralgic manifestations was detected at La Estación village, Portuguesa State, Venezuela. The etiologic agent was determined to be Mayaro virus (MAYV), a reemerging South American alphavirus. A total of 77 cases was reported and 19 were confirmed as seropositive. MAYV was isolated from acute-phase serum samples from 6 symptomatic patients. We sequenced 27 complete genomes representing the full spectrum of MAYV genetic diversity, which facilitated detection of a new genotype, designated N. Phylogenetic analysis of genomic sequences indicated that etiologic strains from Venezuela belong to genotype D. Results indicate that MAYV is highly conserved genetically, showing ?17% nucleotide divergence across all 3 genotypes and 4% among genotype D strains in the most variable genes. Coalescent analyses suggested genotypes D and L diverged ?150 years ago and genotype diverged N ?250 years ago. This virus commonly infects persons residing near enzootic transmission foci because of anthropogenic incursions. PMID:26401714

  2. Review of the Berosus Leach of Venezuela (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae, Berosini) with description of fourteen new species

    PubMed Central

    Oliva, Adriana; Short, Andrew E. Z.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The species of the water scavenger beetle genus Berosus Leach occurring in Venezuela are reviewed. Thirty-six species are recorded, including fifteen new species, fourteen of which are described here as new: Berosus aragua sp. n., Berosus asymmetricus sp. n., Berosus capanaparo sp. n., Berosus castaneus sp. n., Berosus corozo sp. n., Berosus ebeninus sp. n., Berosus garciai sp. n., Berosus humeralis sp. n., Berosus jolyi sp. n., Berosus llanensis sp. n., Berosus megaphallus sp. n., Berosus ornaticollis sp. n., Berosus repertus sp. n., and Berosus tramidrum sp. n. The fifteenth new species, known from a single female, is left undescribed pending the collection of males. Twelve species are recorded from Venezuela for the first time: Berosus ambogynus Mouchamps, Berosus consobrinus Knisch, Berosus elegans Knisch, Berosus geayi d’Orchymont, Berosus ghanicus d’Orchymont, Berosus guyanensis Queney, Berosus holdhausi Knisch, Berosus marquardti Knisch, Berosus olivae Queney, Berosus reticulatus Knisch, Berosus wintersteineri Knisch, and Berosus zimmermanni Knisch. PMID:22811607

  3. Activity of Lutzomyia pseudolongipalpis and L. longipalpis s.l. (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Feliciangeli, M D; Arrivillaga, J C; Bravo, A; Arias, F

    2004-09-01

    The nocturnal activity of the phlebotomine sandfly Lutzomyia pseudolongipalpis and two populations of L. longipalpis s.l. from different American visceral leishmaniasis foci in Venezuela was studied using collection bottle rotator traps. The activity of L. pseudolongipalpis from Lara State was continuous throughout the night, while that of L. longipalpis s.l. from El Layero, Guárico State and from Santa Ana del Valle, Margarita Island, was greatest before 23:00 h. The activity of sandflies of both populations and sexes steadily decreased thereafter. These different patterns seem to correlate with genetic data that indicate the presence in Venezuela of at least two sibling species in the L. longipalpis complex. The advantages of the bottle rotator trap for this type of study are discussed. PMID:15490751

  4. New particle formation events observed at a high altitude site Pico Espejo, Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieminen, Tuomo; Kontkanen, Jenni; Krejci, Radovan; Ström, Johan; Tunved, Peter; Hamburger, Thomas; Calderon, Silvia; Hoffman, Pedro

    2013-05-01

    Formation and growth events of nucleation mode particles (10-25 nm in diameter) were analyzed from 27 month period of particle size distribution measurements at the high altitude site Pico Espejo in Venezuela. Particle formation was observed both in air masses connected to boundary layer air and in free tropospheric conditions. The frequency and magnitude of particle formation at this high altitude site was comparable to many observations at lower altitude sites.

  5. Individuals in a Collectivist World: Born in the U.S.A., Teaching in Caracas, Venezuela

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warring, Douglas F.; Huber-Warring, Tonya

    2006-01-01

    Venezuela is a country slightly larger than twice the size of California, the third largest U.S.A. state in land area. Caracas, the capitol city, is home to a population of 6 million people nested into a space that is actually smaller in size than the area of Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota, U.S.A., a city/suburb of only 2.8 million people. In…

  6. Applications of Planktonic foraminifera in the Paleogene of the Eastern Venezuela-Trinidad Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Radford, S.

    1996-08-01

    Following increased interest in the petroleum potential of the Eastern Venezuela-Trinidad Basin, a revision of the planktonic foraminifera from the Paleogene was undertaken. The application of evolutionary trends in microperforate, medioperforate and macroperforate lineages for petroleum exploration is assessed. Scanning Electron Microscope illustrations are presented for over 100 taxa currently applied in high resolution biostratigraphy, sequence stratigraphy and paleoceanography of the region. These will allow more rapid and reliable recognition of zones, hiatuses and sequence boundaries.

  7. A new species of Piaroa (Schizomida: Hubbardiidae) from Venezuela, with taxonomic notes on the genus.

    PubMed

    M, Osvaldo Villarreal; De Armas, Luis F; García, Luis Fernando

    2014-01-01

    A new species belonging to the schizomid genus Piaroa Villarreal, Giupponi and Tourinho, 2008 is described from north-western Venezuela. A complementary description of Piaroa guipongai Villarreal and Garcia, 2012 is provided including SEM pictures of relevant structures of both sexes. A key for males of Piaroa and Colombiazomus Armas and Delgado-Santa, 2012 is included. The presence of Dm3 setae on Hubbardiidae is discussed. PMID:24870907

  8. Potential role for Colombia and Venezuela in Pacific Rim coal trade

    SciTech Connect

    Dials, G.E.; Szpunar, C.B.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper we are going to focus on the role that two of the new entrants into the international coal market, Colombia and Venezuela, could play in a segment of the Pacific Rim Market. We will analyze their potential market capabilities and actions in terms of meeting the international coal trade demands of Japan, Hong Kong, South Korea, and Taiwan. 13 refs., 4 figs., 14 tabs.

  9. Geographic Accessibility to Higher Education on the Island of Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Sharon; Flannery, Darragh; Cullinan, John

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents, for the first time, comprehensive measures of geographic accessibility to higher education both within and between the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. Using geographic information system techniques, we find high levels of geographic accessibility to higher education in both jurisdictions. However, when we…

  10. Effect of Geographic Distance on Distance Education: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Heng; Robinson, Anthony C.; Detwiler, Jim

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of geographic distance on students' distance learning experience with the aim to provide tentative answers to a fundamental question--does geographic distance matter in distance education? Using educational outcome data collected from an online master's program in Geographic Information Systems, this…

  11. Introduction to the Complex Geospatial Web in Geographical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadimitriou, Fivos

    2010-01-01

    The Geospatial Web is emerging in the geographical education landscape in all its complexity. How will geographers and educators react? What are the most important facets of this development? After reviewing the possible impacts on geographical education, it can be conjectured that the Geospatial Web will eventually replace the usual geographical…

  12. 47 CFR 95.823 - Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Geographic partitioning and spectrum... Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation. (a) Eligibility. Parties seeking Commission approval of geographic partitioning or spectrum disaggregation of 218-219 MHz Service system licenses shall request...

  13. 47 CFR 95.823 - Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Geographic partitioning and spectrum... Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation. (a) Eligibility. Parties seeking Commission approval of geographic partitioning or spectrum disaggregation of 218-219 MHz Service system licenses shall request...

  14. 47 CFR 95.823 - Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Geographic partitioning and spectrum... Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation. (a) Eligibility. Parties seeking Commission approval of geographic partitioning or spectrum disaggregation of 218-219 MHz Service system licenses shall request...

  15. 47 CFR 95.823 - Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Geographic partitioning and spectrum... Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation. (a) Eligibility. Parties seeking Commission approval of geographic partitioning or spectrum disaggregation of 218-219 MHz Service system licenses shall request...

  16. 47 CFR 95.823 - Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Geographic partitioning and spectrum... Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation. (a) Eligibility. Parties seeking Commission approval of geographic partitioning or spectrum disaggregation of 218-219 MHz Service system licenses shall request...

  17. 47 CFR 27.904 - Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Geographic partitioning and spectrum... partitioning and spectrum disaggregation. An entity that acquires a portion of a 1670-1675 MHz band licensee's geographic area or spectrum subject to a geographic partitioning or spectrum disaggregation agreement...

  18. 47 CFR 27.904 - Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Geographic partitioning and spectrum... partitioning and spectrum disaggregation. An entity that acquires a portion of a 1670-1675 MHz band licensee's geographic area or spectrum subject to a geographic partitioning or spectrum disaggregation agreement...

  19. 47 CFR 27.805 - Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Geographic partitioning and spectrum... partitioning and spectrum disaggregation. An entity that acquires a portion of a 1.4 GHz band licensee's geographic area or spectrum subject to a geographic partitioning or spectrum disaggregation agreement...

  20. 47 CFR 27.904 - Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Geographic partitioning and spectrum... partitioning and spectrum disaggregation. An entity that acquires a portion of a 1670-1675 MHz band licensee's geographic area or spectrum subject to a geographic partitioning or spectrum disaggregation agreement...

  1. 47 CFR 27.805 - Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Geographic partitioning and spectrum... partitioning and spectrum disaggregation. An entity that acquires a portion of a 1.4 GHz band licensee's geographic area or spectrum subject to a geographic partitioning or spectrum disaggregation agreement...

  2. Geographical Inquiry in Australian Schools: A Retrospective Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidman, Gillian

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the occurrence of geographical inquiry in the Australian curriculum since Geography became a high school subject in 1911. In this historical overview, I reflect upon my own experiences of undertaking geographical inquiry during the 1970s and 1980s. Primary school geographical inquiry experiences can be virtually non-existent…

  3. Geographic Accessibility to Higher Education on the Island of Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Sharon; Flannery, Darragh; Cullinan, John

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents, for the first time, comprehensive measures of geographic accessibility to higher education both within and between the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. Using geographic information system techniques, we find high levels of geographic accessibility to higher education in both jurisdictions. However, when we…

  4. 33 CFR 169.10 - What geographic coordinates are used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What geographic coordinates are... coordinates are used? Geographic coordinates expressed in terms of latitude or longitude, or both, are not... of 1983 (NAD 83), unless such geographic coordinates are expressly labeled NAD 83....

  5. 33 CFR 169.10 - What geographic coordinates are used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What geographic coordinates are... coordinates are used? Geographic coordinates expressed in terms of latitude or longitude, or both, are not... of 1983 (NAD 83), unless such geographic coordinates are expressly labeled NAD 83....

  6. 33 CFR 169.10 - What geographic coordinates are used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What geographic coordinates are... coordinates are used? Geographic coordinates expressed in terms of latitude or longitude, or both, are not... of 1983 (NAD 83), unless such geographic coordinates are expressly labeled NAD 83....

  7. 33 CFR 169.10 - What geographic coordinates are used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What geographic coordinates are... coordinates are used? Geographic coordinates expressed in terms of latitude or longitude, or both, are not... of 1983 (NAD 83), unless such geographic coordinates are expressly labeled NAD 83....

  8. 33 CFR 169.10 - What geographic coordinates are used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What geographic coordinates are... coordinates are used? Geographic coordinates expressed in terms of latitude or longitude, or both, are not... of 1983 (NAD 83), unless such geographic coordinates are expressly labeled NAD 83....

  9. [Direct genetic manipulation and criminal code in Venezuela: absolute criminal law void?].

    PubMed

    Cermeño Zambrano, Fernando G De J

    2002-01-01

    The judicial regulation of genetic biotechnology applied to the human genome is of big relevance currently in Venezuela due to the drafting of an innovative bioethical law in the country's parliament. This article will highlight the constitutional normative of Venezuela's 1999 Constitution regarding this subject, as it establishes the framework from which this matter will be legally regulated. The approach this article makes towards the genetic biotechnology applied to the human genome is made taking into account the Venezuelan penal law and by highlighting the violent genetic manipulations that have criminal relevance. The genetic biotechnology applied to the human genome has another important relevance as a consequence of the reformulation of the Venezuelan Penal Code discussed by the country's National Assembly. Therefore, a concise study of the country's penal code will be made in this article to better understand what judicial-penal properties have been protected by the Venezuelan penal legislation. This last step will enable us to identify the penal tools Venezuela counts on to face direct genetic manipulations. We will equally indicate the existing punitive loophole and that should be covered by the penal legislator. In conclusion, this essay concerns criminal policy, referred to the direct genetic manipulations on the human genome that haven't been typified in Venezuelan law, thus discovering a genetic biotechnology paradise. PMID:12379984

  10. Distribution, status, and traditional significance of the West Indian manatee Trichechus manatus in Venezuela

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Shea, Thomas J.; Correa-Viana, Martín; Ludlow, Mark E.; Robinson, John G.

    1988-01-01

    Aerial and interview surveys were conducted in 1986 to determine the current distribution, status, and traditional significance of the West Indian manatee Trichechus manatus in Venezuela. Aerial surveys provided just eight tentative sightings in 73 hours of searching. These discouraging results may have been due to poor visibility, small populations, and perhaps reduced dry season manatee activity. Results of interview surveys, however, permitted a number of important generalizations. A remnant manatee population exists in Lake Maracaibo, but none occur along the more than 1500 km of Caribbean coastline. Abundance is greatest in eastern Venezuela bordering the Golfo de Paria, in the Orinoco Delta, and in the middle Orinoco and tributaries. Local market hunting in the middle of this century probably greatly reduced manatee populations in these areas. Recent protection laws, education efforts, and manatee scarcity have resulted in a declining interest in manatee hunting. Much excellent manatee habitat persists in these regions, and a continued decline in hunting could result in an optimistic outlook for future manatee populations if the incidental take in net fisheries is controlled. Traditional beliefs and legends concerning manatees in Venezuela, including hunting taboos, show that these animals remain a colorful part of the folk culture. However, manatee protection does not pose economic hardships or infringe upon traditional spiritual beliefs.

  11. Phenotypic and molecular identification of Fonsecaea pedrosoi strains isolated from chromoblastomycosis patients in Mexico and Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Carolina Rojas, O; León-Cachón, Rafael B R; Pérez-Maya, Antonio Alí; Aguirre-Garza, Marcelino; Moreno-Treviño, María G; González, Gloria M

    2015-05-01

    Chromoblastomycosis is a chronic granulomatous disease caused frequently by fungi of the Fonsecaea genus. The objective of this study was the phenotypic and molecular identification of F. pedrosoi strains isolated from chromoblastomycosis patients in Mexico and Venezuela. Ten strains were included in this study. For phenotypic identification, we used macroscopic and microscopic morphologies, carbohydrate assimilation test, urea hydrolysis, cixcloheximide tolerance, proteolitic activity and the thermotolerance test. The antifungal activity of five drugs was evaluated against the isolates. Molecular identification was performed by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) ribosomal DNA regions of the isolated strains. The physiological analysis and morphological features were variable and the precise identification was not possible. All isolates were susceptible to itraconazole, terbinafine, voriconazole and posaconazole. Amphotericin B was the least effective drug. The alignment of the 559-nucleotide ITS sequences from our strains compared with sequences of GenBank revealed high homology with F. pedrosoi (EU285266.1). In this study, all patients were from rural areas, six from Mexico and four from Venezuela. Ten isolates were identified by phenotypic and molecular analysis, using ITS sequence and demonstrated that nine isolates from Mexico and Venezuela were 100% homologous and one isolate showed a small genetic distance. PMID:25728464

  12. Distribution of Lymnaeidae (Mollusca: Pulmonata), intermediate snail hosts of Fasciola hepatica in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Pointier, J P; Noya, O; Alarcón de Noya, B; Théron, A

    2009-08-01

    An extensive malacological survey was carried out between 2005-2009 in order to clarify the exact number of lymnaeid species which may be intermediate hosts of Fasciola hepatica in Venezuela. Four species were discovered during this survey, including two local species: Lymnaea cubensis and Lymnaea cousini and two exotic species: Lymnaea truncatula and Lymnaea columella. The most common local species was L. cubensis which was found at 16 out of the 298 sampling sites. This species has a large distribution area throughout the Northern part of Venezuela and was encountered from sea level to an altitude of 1,802 m in state of Trujillo. The second local species L. cousini was collected at only two sites of the Andean Region at altitudes of 3,550 m and 4,040 m, respectively. The European L. truncatula was found at 24 sites all located in the states of Mérida and Táchira at an altitude varying between 1,540-4,000 m. The respective distribution areas of L. cubensis and L. truncatula do not appear to overlap, but more detailed malacological surveys are needed. The fourth lymnaeid species, L. columella was collected in a canal from Mérida at an altitude of 1,929 m and in an irrigation canal from the state of Guárico, at an altitude of 63 m. The role of these four lymnaeid species in the transmission of fascioliasis in Venezuela is discussed. PMID:19820844

  13. [Fatty acids profile characterization of white maize hybrids grown in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Alezones, Jesús; Avila, Manuel; Chassaigne, Alberto; Barrientos, Venancio

    2010-12-01

    In Venezuela, white corn is the most important crop regarding production, harvest area and consumption. One of its main by-products is corn oil, whose positive effect on health caused by the high content of unsaturated fatty acids has been widely recognized. In order to characterize the fatty acids profile of twelve white grained maize hybrids extensively grown in Venezuela, and the effect that divergent localities has on this profile, three semi commercial scale trials where established in Portuguesa, Yaracuy and Guárico states. Proportions of the main fatty acids in the raw oil of the different grain samples were determined using gas chromatography. Significant differences (p < 0,01) between hybrids were found for arachidic, palmitic, stearic, oleic, gadoleic and linoleic acids; non significant differences were found for linolenic acid. Significant differences between localities were found for all the fatty acids evaluated. High and significant correlations between fatty acids content were found; the most important relations were: linoleic-oleic (Rho = -0,98**), arachidic-palmitic (Rho = -0,61**), linoleic-stearic (Rho = -0,61**) and oleic-stearic (Rho = 0,58**). Corn produced in Venezuela presents lower levels of linoleic and higher levels of palmitic, stearic and oleic acids than the levels found in temperate corn. These differences involve significant changes in the nutritional properties of Venezuelan corn oil that should be considered in the development of new cultivars and industrial processes for oil production. PMID:21866691

  14. Geographic Information Processings for Astronomical Site Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, N.; Liu, Y.; Zhao, M. Y.

    2015-01-01

    The geographic information is of great importance for the site survey of ground-based telescopes. Especially, an effective utilization of the geographic information system (GIS) has been one of the most significant methods for the remote analysis of modern site survey. The astronomical site survey should give consideration to the following geographical conditions: a large relative fall, convenient traffic conditions, and far away from populated areas. Taking into account of the convenience of construction and maintenance of the observatories as well as the living conditions of the scientists-in-residence, the optimum candidate locations may meet the conditions to be at a altitude between 3000 m and 5000 m and within one-hour drive from villages/towns. In this paper, as an example, we take the regions of the Great Baicao mountain ridge at Dayao county in Yunnan province to research the role of the GIS for site survey task. The results indicate that the GIS can provide accurate and intuitive data for us to understand the three dimensional landforms, rivers, roads, villages, and the distributions of the electric power as well as to forecast the tendency of the population and city development around. According to the analysis based on the GIS, we find that the top of the Great Baicao mountain ridge is flat and droughty. There are few inhabitants to distribute around the place while the traffic conditions are convenient. Moreover, it is a natural conservation area protected by the local government, and no industry with pollution sources exists in this region. Its top is 1500 m higher than the nearby village 10 km away, and 1800 m higher than the town center 50 km away. The Great Baicao mountain ridge is definitely an isolated peak in the area of the Yi nationality of Yunnan. Therefore, the GIS data analysis is a very useful for the remote investigation stage for site survey, and the GIS is the indispensable source for modern astronomical site survey.

  15. Geographic Information Systems and Web Page Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, Justin

    2004-01-01

    The Facilities Engineering and Architectural Branch is responsible for the design and maintenance of buildings, laboratories, and civil structures. In order to improve efficiency and quality, the FEAB has dedicated itself to establishing a data infrastructure based on Geographic Information Systems, GIS. The value of GIS was explained in an article dating back to 1980 entitled "Need for a Multipurpose Cadastre" which stated, "There is a critical need for a better land-information system in the United States to improve land-conveyance procedures, furnish a basis for equitable taxation, and provide much-needed information for resource management and environmental planning." Scientists and engineers both point to GIS as the solution. What is GIS? According to most text books, Geographic Information Systems is a class of software that stores, manages, and analyzes mapable features on, above, or below the surface of the earth. GIS software is basically database management software to the management of spatial data and information. Simply put, Geographic Information Systems manage, analyze, chart, graph, and map spatial information. GIS can be broken down into two main categories, urban GIS and natural resource GIS. Further still, natural resource GIS can be broken down into six sub-categories, agriculture, forestry, wildlife, catchment management, archaeology, and geology/mining. Agriculture GIS has several applications, such as agricultural capability analysis, land conservation, market analysis, or whole farming planning. Forestry GIs can be used for timber assessment and management, harvest scheduling and planning, environmental impact assessment, and pest management. GIS when used in wildlife applications enables the user to assess and manage habitats, identify and track endangered and rare species, and monitor impact assessment.

  16. Recent trends in geographic information system research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, K. C.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reviews recent contributions to the body of published research on Geographic Information Systems (GISs). Increased usages of GISs have placed a new demand upon the academic and research community and despite some lack of formalized definitions, categorizations, terminologies, and standard data structures, the community has risen to the challenge. Examinations of published GIS research, in particular on GIS data structures, reveal a healthy, active research community which is using a truly interdisciplinary approach. Future work will undoubtably lead to a clearer understanding of the problems of handling spatial data, while producing a new generation of highly sophisticated GISs.

  17. [Geographic atrophy imaging using fundus autofluorescence method].

    PubMed

    Dolar-Szczasny, Joanna; ?wi?ch-Zubilewicz, Anna; Mackiewicz, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    Geographic atrophy is a manifestation of the advanced age-related macular degeneration and form of irreversible atrophy of retinal pigment epithelium and photoreceptor layer. Early detection of changes and the ability to evaluate disease progression accurately constitute a key problem in diagnosis and treatment planning. Fundus autofluorescence is a relatively new imaging method considered nowadays to be the best in diagnosis and observing the natural or treatment-altered course of disease. High resolution images showing the 3D distribution of retinal pigment epithelium autofluorescence as lipofuscin index can be obtained owing to the launch of the confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope. PMID:26638551

  18. Geographical Aspects of Cancer in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, George A.

    1983-01-01

    Cancer is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in Tanzania. According to the Tanzanian Cancer Registry, which records all histologically confirmed malignant tumors, the number of reported cancer cases has increased significantly over the past three decades. The most commonly diagnosed tumors are cervix cancer, skin cancer, primary liver cancer, Kaposi's sarcoma, and Burkitt's lymphoma. Geographical and tribal variations exist in disease frequency. Environmental factors appear to have a major role in the distribution. Through elimination of these factors, cancer in Tanzania could be reduced if not totally prevented. ImagesFigure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8 PMID:6631988

  19. A multidimensional representation model of geographic features

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Usery, E. Lynn; Timson, George; Coletti, Mark

    2016-01-01

    A multidimensional model of geographic features has been developed and implemented with data from The National Map of the U.S. Geological Survey. The model, programmed in C++ and implemented as a feature library, was tested with data from the National Hydrography Dataset demonstrating the capability to handle changes in feature attributes, such as increases in chlorine concentration in a stream, and feature geometry, such as the changing shoreline of barrier islands over time. Data can be entered directly, from a comma separated file, or features with attributes and relationships can be automatically populated in the model from data in the Spatial Data Transfer Standard format.

  20. Heavy metals in sediments, mussels and oysters from Trinidad and Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Astudillol, L Rojas de; Yen, I Chang; Bekele, I

    2005-05-01

    The Gulf of Paria is bordered by both Trinidad and Venezuela, from which various metallic pollutants and other contaminants can originate. The Gulf is still a significant source of fish, crabs and shellfish for human consumption to both countries, where concerns over the quality of this marine environment have been long expressed but never properly addressed. In addition, the circulatory current patterns in the Gulf ensure that contaminants originating from either country are likely to affect both countries eventually. Heavy metals were determined in oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae and C. virginica), green mussels (Perna viridis) and sediments from the Gulf of Paria. Samples were obtained at four sites in Trinidad and three sites in Venezuela in the Gulf of Paria, in addition to comparative samples collected from three sites on the north coast of Venezuela. Edible tissues of twelve shellfish from each location were blended and aliquots digested with concentrated nitric acid, for extraction of cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, nickel and zinc. The solutions were analysed by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. Mercury was extracted with a mixture of nitric, hydrochloric and sulphuric acids and determined by cold vapour atomic absorption. Sediments were oven-dried at 60'C, before being similarly extracted. Results showed that mercury in sediments at all sites in Trinidad and Venezuela exceeded NOAA and Canadian sediment quality guidelines, while cadmium, copper, nickel, lead and zinc also exceeded these guidelines at several sites. Heavy metal levels in oysters and green mussels varied widely with location. However, oysters from the Gulf of Paria contained significantly higher mean levels of cadmium, copper, nickel and zinc than those from the north coast of Venezuela, but this difference was not apparent in mussels. Cadmium, mercury and zinc in sediments were significantly correlated with those of mussels, but not of oysters, in which copper and zinc at several sites in the Gulf of Paria exceeded local maximum permissible levels (Cu = 20 microg g(-1) wet wt; Zn = 50 microg g(-1) wet wt) for human consumption. These findings indicate that while mussels may be better biological indicators of heavy metal pollution in sediments than oysters, the latter may provide copper and zinc contamination. Further research is needed to determine the most appropriate biological indicators of heavy metal and other pollutants in the local marine environment and to develop protocols for their use. PMID:17465143

  1. Evolution of Dengue Virus Type 3 Genotype III in Venezuela: Diversification, Rates and Population Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Dengue virus (DENV) is a member of the genus Flavivirus of the family Flaviviridae. DENV are comprised of four distinct serotypes (DENV-1 through DENV-4) and each serotype can be divided in different genotypes. Currently, there is a dramatic emergence of DENV-3 genotype III in Latin America. Nevertheless, we still have an incomplete understanding of the evolutionary forces underlying the evolution of this genotype in this region of the world. In order to gain insight into the degree of genetic variability, rates and patterns of evolution of this genotype in Venezuela and the South American region, phylogenetic analysis, based on a large number (n = 119) of envelope gene sequences from DENV-3 genotype III strains isolated in Venezuela from 2001 to 2008, were performed. Results Phylogenetic analysis revealed an in situ evolution of DENV-3 genotype III following its introduction in the Latin American region, where three different genetic clusters (A to C) can be observed among the DENV-3 genotype III strains circulating in this region. Bayesian coalescent inference analyses revealed an evolutionary rate of 8.48 × 10-4 substitutions/site/year (s/s/y) for strains of cluster A, composed entirely of strains isolated in Venezuela. Amino acid substitution at position 329 of domain III of the E protein (A?V) was found in almost all E proteins from Cluster A strains. Conclusions A significant evolutionary change between DENV-3 genotype III strains that circulated in the initial years of the introduction in the continent and strains isolated in the Latin American region in recent years was observed. The presence of DENV-3 genotype III strains belonging to different clusters was observed in Venezuela, revealing several introduction events into this country. The evolutionary rate found for Cluster A strains circulating in Venezuela is similar to the others previously established for this genotype in other regions of the world. This suggests a lack of correlation among DENV genotype III substitution rate and ecological pattern of virus spread. PMID:21087501

  2. Plants and geographical names in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Cargonja, Hrvoje; Dakovi?, Branko; Alegro, Antun

    2008-09-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to present some general observations, regularities and insights into a complex relationship between plants and people through symbolic systems like geographical names on the territory of Croatia. The basic sources of data for this research were maps from atlas of Croatia of the scale 1:100000. Five groups of maps or areas were selected in order to represent main Croatian phytogeographic regions. A selection of toponyms from each of the map was made in which the name for a plant in Croatian language was recognized (phytotoponyms). Results showed that of all plant names recognized in geographical names the most represented are trees, and among them birch and oak the most. Furthermore, an attempt was made to explain the presence of the most represented plant species in the phytotoponyms in the light of general phytogeographical and sociocultural differences and similarities of comparing areas. The findings confirm an expectation that the genera of climazonal vegetation of particular area are the most represented among the phytotoponyms. Nevertheless, there are ample examples where representation of a plant name in the names of human environment can only be ascribed to ethno-linguistic and socio-cultural motives. Despite the reductionist character of applied methodology, this research also points out some advantages of this approach for ethnobotanic and ethnolinguistic studies of greater areas of human environment. PMID:18982772

  3. Geographic wormhole detection in wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Sookhak, Mehdi; Akhundzada, Adnan; Sookhak, Alireza; Eslaminejad, Mohammadreza; Gani, Abdullah; Khurram Khan, Muhammad; Li, Xiong; Wang, Xiaomin

    2015-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are ubiquitous and pervasive, and therefore; highly susceptible to a number of security attacks. Denial of Service (DoS) attack is considered the most dominant and a major threat to WSNs. Moreover, the wormhole attack represents one of the potential forms of the Denial of Service (DoS) attack. Besides, crafting the wormhole attack is comparatively simple; though, its detection is nontrivial. On the contrary, the extant wormhole defense methods need both specialized hardware and strong assumptions to defend against static and dynamic wormhole attack. The ensuing paper introduces a novel scheme to detect wormhole attacks in a geographic routing protocol (DWGRP). The main contribution of this paper is to detect malicious nodes and select the best and the most reliable neighbors based on pairwise key pre-distribution technique and the beacon packet. Moreover, this novel technique is not subject to any specific assumption, requirement, or specialized hardware, such as a precise synchronized clock. The proposed detection method is validated by comparisons with several related techniques in the literature, such as Received Signal Strength (RSS), Authentication of Nodes Scheme (ANS), Wormhole Detection uses Hound Packet (WHOP), and Wormhole Detection with Neighborhood Information (WDI) using the NS-2 simulator. The analysis of the simulations shows promising results with low False Detection Rate (FDR) in the geographic routing protocols. PMID:25602616

  4. Geographic Wormhole Detection in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Sookhak, Mehdi; Akhundzada, Adnan; Sookhak, Alireza; Eslaminejad, Mohammadreza; Gani, Abdullah; Khurram Khan, Muhammad; Li, Xiong; Wang, Xiaomin

    2015-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are ubiquitous and pervasive, and therefore; highly susceptible to a number of security attacks. Denial of Service (DoS) attack is considered the most dominant and a major threat to WSNs. Moreover, the wormhole attack represents one of the potential forms of the Denial of Service (DoS) attack. Besides, crafting the wormhole attack is comparatively simple; though, its detection is nontrivial. On the contrary, the extant wormhole defense methods need both specialized hardware and strong assumptions to defend against static and dynamic wormhole attack. The ensuing paper introduces a novel scheme to detect wormhole attacks in a geographic routing protocol (DWGRP). The main contribution of this paper is to detect malicious nodes and select the best and the most reliable neighbors based on pairwise key pre-distribution technique and the beacon packet. Moreover, this novel technique is not subject to any specific assumption, requirement, or specialized hardware, such as a precise synchronized clock. The proposed detection method is validated by comparisons with several related techniques in the literature, such as Received Signal Strength (RSS), Authentication of Nodes Scheme (ANS), Wormhole Detection uses Hound Packet (WHOP), and Wormhole Detection with Neighborhood Information (WDI) using the NS-2 simulator. The analysis of the simulations shows promising results with low False Detection Rate (FDR) in the geographic routing protocols. PMID:25602616

  5. Enhancing Phylogeography by Improving Geographical Information from GenBank

    PubMed Central

    Scotch, Matthew; Sarkar, Indra Neil; Mei, Changjiang; Leaman, Robert; Cheung, Kei-Hoi; Ortiz, Pierina; Singraur, Ashutosh; Gonzalez, Graciela

    2011-01-01

    Phylogeography is a field that focuses on the geographical lineages of species such as vertebrates or viruses. Here, geographical data, such as location of a species or viral host is as important as the sequence information extracted from the species. Together, this information can help illustrate the migration of the species over time within a geographical area, the impact of geography over the evolutionary history, or the expected population of the species within the area. Molecular sequence data from NCBI, specifically GenBank, provide an abundance of available sequence data for phylogeography. However, geographical data is inconsistently represented and sparse across GenBank entries. This can impede analysis and in situations where the geographical information is inferred, and potentially lead to erroneous results. In this paper, we describe the current state of geographical data in GenBank, and illustrate how automated processing techniques such as named entity recognition, can enhance the geographical data available for phylogeographic studies. PMID:21723960

  6. Remote sensing research in geographic education: An alternative view

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, H.; Cary, T. K.; Goward, S. N.

    1981-01-01

    It is noted that within many geography departments remote sensing is viewed as a mere technique a student should learn in order to carry out true geographic research. This view inhibits both students and faculty from investigation of remotely sensed data as a new source of geographic knowledge that may alter our understanding of the Earth. The tendency is for geographers to accept these new data and analysis techniques from engineers and mathematicians without questioning the accompanying premises. This black-box approach hinders geographic applications of the new remotely sensed data and limits the geographer's contribution to further development of remote sensing observation systems. It is suggested that geographers contribute to the development of remote sensing through pursuit of basic research. This research can be encouraged, particularly among students, by demonstrating the links between geographic theory and remotely sensed observations, encouraging a healthy skepticism concerning the current understanding of these data.

  7. Receiver Functions Imaging of the Moho and LAB in the Southern Caribbean plate boundary and Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masy, J.; Levander, A.; Niu, F.

    2011-12-01

    We have made teleseismic Ps and Sp receiver functions from data recorded from 2003 to 2009 by the permanent national seismic network of Venezuela, the BOLIVAR (Broadband Onshore-offshore Lithospheric Investigation of Venezuela and the Antilles arc Region) and WAVE (Western Array for Venezuela) experiments. The receiver functions show rapid variations in Moho and lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) depths both across and along the southern Caribbean plate boundary region. We used a total of 69 events with Mw > 6 occurring at epicentral distances from 30° to 90° for the Ps receiver functions, and 43 events with Mw > 5.7 from 55° to 85° to make Sp receiver functions. For CCP stacking we constructed a 3D velocity model from numerous active source profiles (Schmitz et al., 2001; Bezada et al., 2007; Clark et al., 2008; Guedez, 2008; Magnani et al., 2009), from finite-frequency P wave upper mantle tomography model of Bezada et al., (2010) and the Rayleigh wave tomography model of Miller et al., (2009). The Moho ranges in depth from ~25 km beneath the Caribbean Large Igneous Provinces to ~55 km beneath the Mérida Andes in western Venezuela. These results are consistent with previous receiver functions studies (Niu et al., 2007) and the available active source profiles. Beneath the Maracaibo Block in northwestern Venezuela, we observe a strong positive signal at 40 to 60 km depth dipping ~6° towards the continent. We interpret this as the Moho of the Caribbean slab subducting beneath northernmost South America from the west. Beneath northern Colombia and northwestern Venezuela the top of this slab has been previously inferred from intermediate depth seismicity (Malavé and Suarez, 1995), which indicates a slab dipping between 20° - 30° beneath Lake Maracaibo. Our results could indicate that the slab is tearing beneath Lake Maracaibo as suggested previously by Masy et al. (2011). The deeper (> 100 km depth) part of the slab has been imaged using P-wave tomography (Bezada et al, 2010). Like others we attribute the uplift of the Mérida Andes to flat Caribbean slab subduction (for example Kellogg and Bonini, 1982). In central Venezuela beneath the Cordillera de la Costa we observe a positive signal shallower than the Moho at <30 km depth beneath the entire range. We interpret this as a detachment surface beneath Caribbean & arc terranes thrust onto the SA margin (Bezada et al., 2010). The lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) beneath the Mérida Andes is shallow, ~65km depth, and parallels the range. In the plate boundary region under the Cordillera de la Costa the lithosphere is also thin, ~65km, beneath the Cariaco basin the lithosphere thickens to 85 km. In the far east under Serranía del Interior the lithosphere is ~75 km. Cratonic lithosphere thickness varies from 85 to 100 km.

  8. Integrating Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Applications into Business Courses Using Online Business Geographics Modules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Fred; Mangold, W. Glynn; Holmes, Terry

    2006-01-01

    Although the value of geographic information systems (GIS) technologies is recognized by practitioners and educators alike, GIS instruction has yet to make significant inroads into business curricula. In this article, the authors discuss the constraints of integrating GIS tools into business education. They develop a prototype module for…

  9. Toward Geographic Literacy: Objectives for Geographic Education in the Elementary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manson, Gary; Vuicich, George

    The role of geography in the elementary school curriculum is examined in this paper, which is arranged in four parts. Part 1 briefly sketches the characteristics of geographic instruction at different periods in U.S. history. Intellectual development and social education are identified as two widely accepted goals for elementary education today.…

  10. Integrating Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Applications into Business Courses Using Online Business Geographics Modules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Fred; Mangold, W. Glynn; Holmes, Terry

    2006-01-01

    Although the value of geographic information systems (GIS) technologies is recognized by practitioners and educators alike, GIS instruction has yet to make significant inroads into business curricula. In this article, the authors discuss the constraints of integrating GIS tools into business education. They develop a prototype module for…

  11. The geographical accessibility of hospitals to the aged: a geographic information systems analysis within Illinois.

    PubMed Central

    Love, D; Lindquist, P

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. This article uses geographic information systems and their related tools to empirically measure and display the geographic accessibility of the aged population to hospital facilities within Illinois. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SETTING. Geographic accessibility of Illinois' aged population is measured from each of the state's 10,796 census block groups to the state's 214 hospital facilities. Block group demographic compositions and centroids are obtained from 1990 census files. Hospital coordinates are obtained by the authors. STUDY DESIGN. Of five alternative measures of accessibility considered, empirical estimates are obtained for two: choice set and minimum distance. Access to both general hospitals and the subset having specialized geriatric facilities is measured with special attention to differences in accessibility between the aged within metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) and those outside MSAs. Cumulative accessibility distributions and their summary statistics provide a basis of comparison among subgroups. DATA COLLECTION AND EXTRACTION. Geographic information systems (GIS) and their related tools are used as a means of efficiently capturing, organizing, storing, and retrieving the required data. Hospitals and census block groups are geocoded to specific locations in the database, and aspatial attributes are assigned to the hospitals and block groups. The GIS database is queried to produce shaded isarithm and point distribution maps that show the location of hospitals relative to surrounding aged populations. CONCLUSION. The vast majority of Illinois' aged population is within close proximity to hospital facilities. Eighty percent (1,147,504 persons) of the aged in Illinois are within 4.8 miles (7.7 km) of a hospital and 11.6 miles (18.7 km) of two hospitals. However, geographic accessibility differences between the aged living in MSAs and those living outside MSAs to hospitals offering geriatric services are substantial; but there is no evidence that the aged's geographical accessibility to hospitals is less favorable than that of the general population. Detailed accessibility measures permitted by geographic information system technology call into question the continued use of crude empirical accessibility measures. Images Figure 2 PMID:7860317

  12. Understanding of the relationship between vegetation change and physical geographic factors based on geographical detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Jing; Du, Ziqiang; Zhang, Xiaoyu

    2015-12-01

    In order to analyze the effect of physical geographic factors on vegetation change in arid and semi-arid ecosystems, assess the relative role of individual physical geographic factors and the interaction between factors on vegetation changes quantitatively, this study takes the Xinjiang area as an example, uses the GIS spatial analysis technology and Geographical Detector model based on the analysis of variance to analysis the influence of physical geographic factors on the vegetation quantitatively. First of all, the spatial-temporal variations of vegetation in Xinjiang area over the last 30 years were analyzed using 1982-2011 GIMMS NDVI3g data as the indicator of vegetation activity. Secondly, the effects of mean annual precipitation, mean annual temperature, sunshine duration, mean annual wind velocity, DEM, slope and aspect, soil type and vegetation type were selected as potential physical geographic factors. Finally, the influence of physical geographic factors on vegetation change in Xinjiang area was analyzed using the Geographical Detector model. The results show that: (1) the annual coverage of vegetation in Xinjiang area was gradually increasing in 1982-2011 years (linear rate 0.0017/a, P=0.000). (2) the area of vegetation improvement was greater than the area of vegetation degradation. The area of vegetation improvement was mainly distributed in the northern part of the Tianshan Mountains and the Tarim Watershed, the vegetation degradation region was mainly distributed in the southern and Northeast part of Xinjiang. (3) precipitation, soil and vegetation types had the greatest influence on NDVI, followed by temperature, sunshine duration and DEM, and the other factors had little effect. (4) DEM enhanced the effect of soil type on NDVI, and sunshine duration and DEM enhanced all the effect of temperature on NDVI. So, sunshine duration and DEM can be used as the auxiliary indicator in the vegetation growth monitoring. Our results brought new insights on the monitoring of vegetation dynamic and could provide a basic reference for the local inhabitants and policy-makers to restore degraded arid and semi-arid ecosystems.

  13. Geographic Information Systems and Web Page Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, Justin

    2004-01-01

    The Facilities Engineering and Architectural Branch is responsible for the design and maintenance of buildings, laboratories, and civil structures. In order to improve efficiency and quality, the FEAB has dedicated itself to establishing a data infrastructure based on Geographic Information Systems, GIs. The value of GIS was explained in an article dating back to 1980 entitled "Need for a Multipurpose Cadastre which stated, "There is a critical need for a better land-information system in the United States to improve land-conveyance procedures, furnish a basis for equitable taxation, and provide much-needed information for resource management and environmental planning." Scientists and engineers both point to GIS as the solution. What is GIS? According to most text books, Geographic Information Systems is a class of software that stores, manages, and analyzes mapable features on, above, or below the surface of the earth. GIS software is basically database management software to the management of spatial data and information. Simply put, Geographic Information Systems manage, analyze, chart, graph, and map spatial information. At the outset, I was given goals and expectations from my branch and from my mentor with regards to the further implementation of GIs. Those goals are as follows: (1) Continue the development of GIS for the underground structures. (2) Extract and export annotated data from AutoCAD drawing files and construct a database (to serve as a prototype for future work). (3) Examine existing underground record drawings to determine existing and non-existing underground tanks. Once this data was collected and analyzed, I set out on the task of creating a user-friendly database that could be assessed by all members of the branch. It was important that the database be built using programs that most employees already possess, ruling out most AutoCAD-based viewers. Therefore, I set out to create an Access database that translated onto the web using Internet Explorer as the foundation. After some programming, it was possible to view AutoCAD files and other GIS-related applications on Internet Explorer, while providing the user with a variety of editing commands and setting options. I was also given the task of launching a divisional website using Macromedia Flash and other web- development programs.

  14. Geographical Education and Society. Papers Presented at Commission on Geographical Education International Geographical Union (Sitges, Spain, August 25-31, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernando, Agustin, Ed.

    Educational discourse is totally completely imbued with the values that affect the societies to which individuals belong. Those in the field of geographical education must examine those values in order to determine what type of geographical education is best for each society. The following papers contribute to this knowledge: "Presentation"…

  15. Geographical Education and Society. Papers Presented at Commission on Geographical Education International Geographical Union (Sitges, Spain, August 25-31, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernando, Agustin, Ed.

    Educational discourse is totally completely imbued with the values that affect the societies to which individuals belong. Those in the field of geographical education must examine those values in order to determine what type of geographical education is best for each society. The following papers contribute to this knowledge: "Presentation"…

  16. [Research progress on the risk factors of geographic tongue].

    PubMed

    Huamei, Yang; Yu, Zhou; Xin, Zeng; Ga, Liao; Qianming, Chen

    2015-02-01

    Geographic tongue, also called benign migratory glossitis, is a common and superficial benign inflammatory disorder that affects the tongue epithelium. The majority of geographic tongue lesions typically manifest as irregular central erythematous patches. These lesions, which are caused by the loss of filiform papillae, are defined by an elevated whitish band-like border that can change location, size, and pattern over a period of time. Histological observations of the oral mucosa affected by geographic tongue revealed nonspecific inflammation. Some reports described cases of migratory stomatitis, wherein lesions simultaneously manifested on the extra lingual oral mucosa. This condition is also called ectopic geographic tongue, which is clinically and histologically similar to the type normally confined to the tongue. In most cases, patients are asymptomatic and do not require treatment. The condition may spontaneously exhibit periods of remission and exacerbation with good prognosis. The specific etiology of geographic tongue remains unknown. Geographic tongue is age-related and is prevalent among young individuals. Various etiological factors that have been suggested in literature include immunological factors, genetic factors, atopic or allergic tendency, emotional stress, tobacco consumption, hormonal disturbances, and zinc deficiency. Geographic tongue may coexist with other disorders, such as fissured tongue, psoriasis, diabetes mellitus, gastroin- testinal diseases, burning mouth syndrome, and Down syndrome. Experts currently disagree on whether geographic tongue is an oral manifestation of psoriasis. Moreover, some scholars suggest that geographic tongue is a prestage of fissured tongue. The objective of this review is to summarize current research on risk factors of geographic tongue. PMID:25872308

  17. Patterns and causes of geographic variation in bat echolocation pulses.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Tinglei; Wu, Hui; Feng, Jiang

    2015-05-01

    Evolutionary biologists have a long-standing interest in how acoustic signals in animals vary geographically, because divergent ecology and sensory perception play an important role in speciation. Geographic comparisons are valuable in determining the factors that influence divergence of acoustic signals. Bats are social mammals and they depend mainly on echolocation pulses to locate prey, to navigate and to communicate. Mounting evidence shows that geographic variation of bat echolocation pulses is common, with a mean 5-10 kHz differences in peak frequency, and a high level of individual variation may be nested in this geographical variation. However, understanding the geographic variation of echolocation pulses in bats is very difficult, because of differences in sample and statistical analysis techniques as well as the variety of factors shaping the vocal geographic evolution. Geographic differences in echolocation pulses of bats generally lack latitudinal, longitudinal and elevational patterns, and little is known about vocal dialects. Evidence is accumulating to support the fact that geographic variation in echolocation pulses of bats may be caused by genetic drift, cultural drift, ecological selection, sexual selection and social selection. Future studies could relate geographic differences in echolocation pulses to social adaptation, vocal learning strategies and patterns of dispersal. In addition, new statistical techniques and acoustic playback experiments may help to illustrate the causes and consequences of the geographic evolution of echolocation pulse in bats. PMID:25664901

  18. Geographic Visualization of Power-Grid Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-18

    The visualization enables the simulation analyst to see changes in the frequency through time and space. With this technology, the analyst has a bird's eye view of the frequency at loads and generators as the simulated power system responds to the loss of a generator, spikes in load, and other contingencies. The significance of a contingency to the operation of an electrical power system depends critically on how the resulting tansients evolve in time and space. Consequently, these dynamic events can only be understood when seen in their proper geographic context. this understanding is indispensable to engineers working on the next generation of distributed sensing and control systems for the smart grid. By making possible a natural and intuitive presentation of dynamic behavior, our new visualization technology is a situational-awareness tool for power-system engineers.

  19. Object-oriented Geographic Information System Framework

    SciTech Connect

    2003-03-01

    JeoViewer is an intelligent object-oriented geographic information system (GIS) framework written in Java that provides transparent linkage to any object?s data, behaviors, and optimized spatial geometry representation. Tools are provided for typical GIS functionality, data ingestion, data export, and integration with other frameworks. The primary difference between Jeo Viewer and traditional GIS systems is that traditional GIS systems offer static views of geo-spatial data while JeoViewer can be dynamically coupled to models and live data streams which dynamically change the state of the object which can be immediately represented in JeoViewer. Additionally, JeoViewer?s object-oriented paradigm provides a more natural representation of spatial data. A rich layer hierarchy allows arbitrary grouping of objects based on any relationship as well as the traditional GIS vertical ordering of objects. JeoViewer can run as a standalone product, extended with additional analysis functionality, or embedded in another framework.

  20. Distributed Object Oriented Geographic Information System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1997-02-01

    This interactive, object-oriented, distributed Geographic Information System (GIS) uses the World Wibe Web (WWW) as application medium and distribution mechanism. The software provides distributed access to multiple geo-spatial databases and presents them as if they came from a single coherent database. DOOGIS distributed access comes not only in the form of multiple geo-spatial servers but can break down a single logical server into the constituent physical servers actually storing the data. The program provides formore » dynamic protocol resolution and content handling allowing unknown objects from a particular server to download their handling code. Security and access privileges are negotiated dynamically with each server contacted and each access attempt.« less

  1. Geographic Research in the USGS Western Region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tongue, Mara

    2007-01-01

    The two geography research programs of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Land Remote Sensing and Geographic Analysis and Monitoring, have very strong relevance to the USGS mission and science strategy. In the western United States, the particular niche of these geography programs is in connecting USGS science to people and communities. Reports from the National Academy of Sciences and other organizations invariably encourage the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to ensure the quality of its science while finding ways to make it more relevant to important societal issues. Much of the geography research conducted in the USGS Western Region does exactly that. In Menlo Park, California, the geography research team is focused on developing tools and techniques to help people assess risk from natural hazards and environmental impacts. In Flagstaff and Tucson, Arizona, geography scientists explore new ways to use remote sensing to help communities deal with environmental issues.

  2. A situated knowledge representation of geographical information

    SciTech Connect

    Gahegan, Mark N.; Pike, William A.

    2006-11-01

    In this paper we present an approach to conceiving of, constructing and comparing the concepts developed and used by geographers, environmental scientists and other earth science researchers to help describe, analyze and ultimately understand their subject of study. Our approach is informed by the situations under which concepts are conceived and applied, captures details of their construction, use and evolution and supports their ultimate sharing along with the means for deep exploration of conceptual similarities and differences that may arise among a distributed network of researchers. The intent here is to support different perspectives onto GIS resources that researchers may legitimately take, and to capture and compute with aspects of epistemology, to complement the ontologies that are currently receiving much attention in the GIScience community.

  3. Geographic Visualization of Power-Grid Dynamics

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2015-06-18

    The visualization enables the simulation analyst to see changes in the frequency through time and space. With this technology, the analyst has a bird's eye view of the frequency at loads and generators as the simulated power system responds to the loss of a generator, spikes in load, and other contingencies. The significance of a contingency to the operation of an electrical power system depends critically on how the resulting tansients evolve in time andmore » space. Consequently, these dynamic events can only be understood when seen in their proper geographic context. this understanding is indispensable to engineers working on the next generation of distributed sensing and control systems for the smart grid. By making possible a natural and intuitive presentation of dynamic behavior, our new visualization technology is a situational-awareness tool for power-system engineers.« less

  4. Geographic analysis of shigellosis in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Kim, Deok Ryun; Ali, Mohammad; Thiem, Vu Dinh; Park, Jin-Kyung; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Clemens, John

    2008-12-01

    Geographic and ecological analysis may provide investigators useful ecological information for the control of shigellosis. This paper provides distribution of individual Shigella species in space, and ecological covariates for shigellosis in Nha Trang, Vietnam. Data on shigellosis in neighborhoods were used to identify ecological covariates. A Bayesian hierarchical model was used to obtain joint posterior distribution of model parameters and to construct smoothed risk maps for shigellosis. Neighborhoods with a high proportion of worshippers of traditional religion, close proximity to hospital, or close proximity to the river had increased risk for shigellosis. The ecological covariates associated with Shigella flexneri differed from the covariates for Shigella sonnei. In contrast the spatial distribution of the two species was similar. The disease maps can help identify high-risk areas of shigellosis that can be targeted for interventions. This approach may be useful for the selection of populations and the analysis of vaccine trials. PMID:18296100

  5. Comprehensive Monitoring for Heterogeneous Geographically Distributed Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnikova, N.; Karavakis, E.; Lammel, S.; Wildish, T.

    2015-12-01

    Storage capacity at CMS Tier-1 and Tier-2 sites reached over 100 Petabytes in 2014, and will be substantially increased during Run 2 data taking. The allocation of storage for the individual users analysis data, which is not accounted as a centrally managed storage space, will be increased to up to 40%. For comprehensive tracking and monitoring of the storage utilization across all participating sites, CMS developed a space monitoring system, which provides a central view of the geographically dispersed heterogeneous storage systems. The first prototype was deployed at pilot sites in summer 2014, and has been substantially reworked since then. In this paper we discuss the functionality and our experience of system deployment and operation on the full CMS scale.

  6. Geographic concentration of violence between intimate partners.

    PubMed Central

    Miles-Doan, R; Kelly, S

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To explore geographic patterns of violence between intimate partners in a metropolitan area with one of the highest injury mortality rates in the nation-Duval County, Florida, which includes the city of Jacksonville. METHODS: Using police reports of all serious violent incidents in Duval County in 1992 excluding robberies, the authors analyzed patterns in the location of the incidents. Only cases for which the relationship between the offender and victim was recorded were used. RESULTS: Thematic maps reveal that census tracts with rates above the 75th percentile of assaultive violence between intimates are clustered in certain parts of the city. Concentrated poverty tracts had median rates of violence between intimate nine times higher than other tracts. CONCLUSIONS: The finding that violence between intimate partners is concentrated in central city poverty neighborhoods opens up avenues for prevention. PMID:9071275

  7. The geographical distribution of Q fever

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Martin M.; Bertagna, P.

    1955-01-01

    The results of a WHO-assisted survey of the distribution of Q fever in 32 countries and an analysis of reports published to date indicate that Q fever exists in 51 countries on five continents. Q-fever infection was most often reported in man and the domestic ruminants, such as cattle, sheep, and goats. The disease was found to exist in most countries where investigations were carried out. Notable exceptions were Ireland, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Poland, and the Scandinavian countries. With the exception of Poland, where the results were inconclusive, all these countries import relatively few domestic ruminants—the most important animal reservoirs of human Q-fever infection. It seems, therefore, that the traffic of infected ruminants may be one of the most important, if not the most important, means for the geographical spread of Q fever. The importance, if any, of ticks associated with such traffic needs to be defined. PMID:13284560

  8. Comprehensive Monitoring for Heterogeneous Geographically Distributed Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Ratnikova, N.; Karavakis, E.; Lammel, S.; Wildish, T.

    2015-12-23

    Storage capacity at CMS Tier-1 and Tier-2 sites reached over 100 Petabytes in 2014, and will be substantially increased during Run 2 data taking. The allocation of storage for the individual users analysis data, which is not accounted as a centrally managed storage space, will be increased to up to 40%. For comprehensive tracking and monitoring of the storage utilization across all participating sites, CMS developed a space monitoring system, which provides a central view of the geographically dispersed heterogeneous storage systems. The first prototype was deployed at pilot sites in summer 2014, and has been substantially reworked since then. In this paper we discuss the functionality and our experience of system deployment and operation on the full CMS scale.

  9. ORNL and the geographic information systems revolution

    SciTech Connect

    Dobson, J.E.; Durfee, R.C.

    1995-12-31

    Explorers from competing teams race to find a mysterious lost city in the heart of Africa. The American team is continuously in touch with its Houston home base through satellite communications. In flight, team leader Karen Ross displays a map of Africa on her computer screen and notes the multicolored lines suggesting different routes from city to city and into the rain forest. Each pathway is accompanied by a precise estimate of travel time to the final destination. Zooming in on the target area, she switches to satellite images and interprets them in shades of blue, purple, and green. At each checkpoint, the team reports its progress and gets a revised estimate of arrival time. Beset by difficulties, the explorers ask for a faster route, but the computer says the alternative is too dangerous. A simulation model with data representing geology, terrain, vegetation, weather, and many other geographic factors predicts local hazards, including the impending eruption of a nearby volcano. The Americans take the faster route anyway and beat the odds. This fictional account of emerging geographic information system (GIS) technologies comes from Michael Crichton`s 1980 novel Congo, which was made into a 1995 movie. The same technologies were highlighted in Clive Cussler`s 1988 techno-thriller Treasure. In reality, GIS technology began more than a quarter of a century ago at key universities and government laboratories in the United States and Canada. Since 1969, Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been among the leading institutions in this diverse, now booming field. GIS has been evolving through new forms and applications ever since.

  10. Investigation of Error Patterns in Geographical Databases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dryer, David; Jacobs, Derya A.; Karayaz, Gamze; Gronbech, Chris; Jones, Denise R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the research conducted in this project is to develop a methodology to investigate the accuracy of Airport Safety Modeling Data (ASMD) using statistical, visualization, and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) techniques. Such a methodology can contribute to answering the following research questions: Over a representative sampling of ASMD databases, can statistical error analysis techniques be accurately learned and replicated by ANN modeling techniques? This representative ASMD sample should include numerous airports and a variety of terrain characterizations. Is it possible to identify and automate the recognition of patterns of error related to geographical features? Do such patterns of error relate to specific geographical features, such as elevation or terrain slope? Is it possible to combine the errors in small regions into an error prediction for a larger region? What are the data density reduction implications of this work? ASMD may be used as the source of terrain data for a synthetic visual system to be used in the cockpit of aircraft when visual reference to ground features is not possible during conditions of marginal weather or reduced visibility. In this research, United States Geologic Survey (USGS) digital elevation model (DEM) data has been selected as the benchmark. Artificial Neural Networks (ANNS) have been used and tested as alternate methods in place of the statistical methods in similar problems. They often perform better in pattern recognition, prediction and classification and categorization problems. Many studies show that when the data is complex and noisy, the accuracy of ANN models is generally higher than those of comparable traditional methods.

  11. Stennis Space Center Environmental Geographic Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovely, Janette; Cohan, Tyrus

    2000-01-01

    As NASA's lead center for rocket propulsion testing, the John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC) monitors and assesses the off-site impacts of such testing through its Environmental Office (SSC-EO) using acoustical models and ancillary data. The SSC-EO has developed a geographical database, called the SSC Environmental Geographic Information System (SSC-EGIS), that covers an eight-county area bordering the NASA facility. Through the SSC-EGIS, the Enivronmental Office inventories, assesses, and manages the nearly 139,000 acres that comprise Stennis Space Center and its surrounding acoustical buffer zone. The SSC-EGIS contains in-house data as well as a wide range of data obtained from outside sources, including private agencies and local, county, state, and U.S. government agencies. The database comprises cadastral/geodetic, hydrology, infrastructure, geo-political, physical geography, and socio-economic vector and raster layers. The imagery contained in the database is varied, including low-resolution imagery, such as Landsat TM and SPOT; high-resolution imagery, such as IKONOS and AVIRIS; and aerial photographs. The SSC-EGIS has been an integral part of several major projects and the model upon which similar EGIS's will be developed for other NASA facilities. The Corps of Engineers utilized the SSC-EGIS in a plan to establish wetland mitigation sites within the SSC buffer zone. Mississippi State University employed the SSC-EGIS in a preliminary study to evaluate public access points within the buffer zone. The SSC-EO has also expressly used the SSC-EGIS to assess noise pollution modeling, land management/wetland mitigation assessment, environmental hazards mapping, and protected areas mapping for archaeological sites and for threatened and endangered species habitats. The SSC-EO has several active and planned projects that will also make use of the SSC-EGIS during this and the coming fiscal year.

  12. Cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania chagasi/Le. infantum in an endemic area of Guarico State, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    De Lima, H; Rodríguez, N; Feliciangeli, M D; Barrios, M A; Sosa, A; Agrela, I; Sánchez, E; Lopez, O

    2009-07-01

    This study reports cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) caused by Leishmania chagasi/Le. infantum in Venezuela, with some atypical characteristics. Out of 63 cases of CL in the suburbs of Altagracia de Orituco, Guarico State, Venezuela, 30 presented clinical, parasitological, immunological and epidemiological features different from those of the classical CL known in the country. The initial lesion was small and nodular, which, if not treated, might progress to a superficial ulcer. No secondary infection was observed. The identification of the isolates was carried out by molecular techniques. Twelve species of phlebotomine sandflies were caught, the most abundant being Lutzomyia evansi and Lu. longipalpis s.l., known vectors of Le. chagasi/Le. infantum. The existence of Le. chagasi/Le. infantum and its vectors in an endemic area of CL has implications and we suggest that epidemiological studies should be carried out to obtain a clearer picture of the extent of this CL form in Venezuela. PMID:19150102

  13. [Cardiovascular risk: initial estimation in the study cohort "CDC of the Canary Islands in Venezuela"].

    PubMed

    Viso, Miguel; Rodríguez, Zulma; Loreto, Neydys; Fernández, Yolima; Callegari, Carlos; Nicita, Graciela; González, Julio; Cabrera de León, Antonio; Reigosa, Aldo

    2011-12-01

    In Venezuela as in the Canary Islands (Spain), cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this research is to estimate the cardiovascular risk in the Canary Islands migrants living in Venezuela and participating in the study cohort "CDC of the Canary Islands in Venezuela". 452 individuals, aged 18 to 93 years (54.9% women), were enrolled between June 2008 and August 2009. A data survey was performed and their weight, height, abdomen and hip circumferences, and blood pressure were measured. After a 12-hour fasting period, a blood sample was obtained for glucose and lipid profile determinations. 40.5% of the subjects were over 65 years of age and 8% corresponded to the younger group (18-30 years). In men, the average age was 57.69 +/- 18.17 years and the body mass index 29.39 +/- 5.71 kg/m2, whereas women were 56.50 +/- 16.91 years and 28.20 +/- 5.57 kg/m2, respectively. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 49.1%, overweight and obesity together 75,2%, abdominal obesity 85.4%, diabetes 17.4%, impaired fasting glucose (IFG) 12.2%, elevated blood pressure 52.9%, low HDL-cholesterol 53,8% and elevated serum triglycerides 31%. Among subjects without diabetes or IFG, a third showed a high triglycerides/HDL-cholesterol ratio, indicating insulin resistance. We conclude that the Canarian-Venezuelan community suffers high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (obesity, abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, diabetes). In relation to the current population of the Canary Islands, they show a lower frequency of IFG and a higher frequency of low HDL-cholesterol. In comparison to the Venezuelan population (Zulia), they showed to have lower prevalence of IFG, low HDL cholesterol and elevated triglycerides. PMID:22523842

  14. [Urban construction, professions, and immigration at the origin of urban studies in Venezuela, 1870-1957].

    PubMed

    Martin Frechilla, J J

    1996-01-01

    The individuals and circumstances involved in the creation of the first graduate urban studies program in Venezuela are recalled, beginning with the odernization of Caracas under the impulse of President Antonio Guzman Blanco, elected in 1870. Guzman Blanco converted himself into Venezuela's first urbanist with the establishment of organizational frameworks and completion of massive public works projects, which were based largely on the urban models of the US and Europe. Engineering and public health were consolidated as the two most influential sources of professional competence for guiding urban development. By the mid-1930s, growth fueled by petroleum revenues was causing rapid urbanization, and it became apparent that trained professionals able to manage the increasingly complex tasks of urban planning were in short supply. A new surge of modernizing construction began in 1936 and led to a cooperative arrangement with a French firm, whose personnel were to be required to train Venezuelan engineers for future service in urban planning. An influx of refugees from the Spanish Civil War and the increasing influence of urban planning processes in the US were also observed. The National Commission on Urbanism was created in 1946 as a dependency of the Ministry of Planning to facilitate public administration of the development and control of cities. Throughout the period, a debate was underway on the need for a multidisciplinary approach to urban planning versus a primarily architectural or engineering approach. In 1957, some consensus was reached on the need for urban planning to be viewed as more than a speciality of architecture. A framework was developed for a graduate program in 1969 in the Central University of Venezuela. The National Commission on Urbanism was disbanded in 1957, largely because of its excessive focus on architecture to the exclusion of other disciplines relevant to the urbanization process. PMID:12321404

  15. pfmdr1 Amplification and Fixation of pfcrt Chloroquine Resistance Alleles in Plasmodium falciparum in Venezuela ? †

    PubMed Central

    Griffing, Sean; Syphard, Luke; Sridaran, Sankar; McCollum, Andrea M.; Mixson-Hayden, Tonya; Vinayak, Sumiti; Villegas, Leopoldo; Barnwell, John W.; Escalante, Ananias A.; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam

    2010-01-01

    Molecular tools are valuable for determining evolutionary history and the prevalence of drug-resistant malaria parasites. These tools have helped to predict decreased sensitivity to antimalarials and fixation of multidrug resistance genotypes in some regions. In order to assess how historical drug policies impacted Plasmodium falciparum in Venezuela, we examined molecular changes in genes associated with drug resistance. We examined pfmdr1 and pfcrt in samples from Sifontes, Venezuela, and integrated our findings with earlier work describing dhfr and dhps in these samples. We characterized pfmdr1 genotypes and copy number variation, pfcrt genotypes, and proximal microsatellites in 93 samples originating from surveillance from 2003 to 2004. Multicopy pfmdr1 was found in 12% of the samples. Two pfmdr1 alleles, Y184F/N1042D/D1246Y (37%) and Y184F/S1034C/N1042D/D1246Y (63%), were found. These alleles share ancestry, and no evidence of strong selective pressure on mutations was found. pfcrt chloroquine resistance alleles are fixed with two alleles: StctVMNT (91%) and SagtVMNT (9%). These alleles are associated with strong selection. There was also an association between pfcrt, pfmdr1, dhfr, and dhps genotypes/haplotypes. Duplication of pfmdr1 suggests a potential shift in mefloquine sensitivity in this region, which warrants further study. A bottleneck occurred in P. falciparum in Sifontes, Venezuela, and multidrug resistance genotypes are present. This population could be targeted for malaria elimination programs to prevent the possible spread of multidrug-resistant parasites. PMID:20145087

  16. Microseismicity evidence for subduction of the Caribbean plate beneath the South American Plate in northwestern Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    PéRez, Omar J.; Jaimes, Martha A.; Garciacaro, Emilio

    1997-08-01

    Over 1100 microearthquakes with body wave magnitude mb<4 have been located in western Venezuela and the southwestern Caribbean region since the installation in 1980 of the Venezuelan Seismological Array, together with 120 events of mb?4, one of them with surface wave magnitude Ms˜6. This tectonically complex region is part of the boundary between the Caribbean and the South American plates. The main seismically active feature inland in western Venezuela is the northeast striking, 600-km long, 100-km wide, right-lateral strike-slip Boconó fault zone along the Venezuelan Andes. About 80% of the earthquakes located in the entire region in the period 1980-mid-1995 have occurred on this fault zone, at focal depths <20 km. Microearthquake activity at lower rates also occurs northwest of the Venezuelan Andes, both in the continental and Caribbean sea regions. Part of this activity takes place at depths down to ˜150 km. Northwest oriented seismicity depth profiles show the existence of a Benioff zone dipping to the southeast beneath northwestern Venezuela and northern Colombia. This indicates the presence of a northeast striking, southeast dipping subducted slab of the Caribbean plate beneath the South American plate. Hypocentral locations show that the northeastern end of this subduction occurs northwest of the Curaçao-Aruba region, in the vicinity of a northwest trending, right-lateral strike-slip fault zone that joins up with the northeastern end of the Boconó fault zone. This latter place turns out to be the western end of the east-west striking San Sebastián fault along the Venezuelan coast.

  17. Residential energy use and conservation in Venezuela: Results and implications of a household survey in Caracas

    SciTech Connect

    Figueroa, M.J.; Ketoff, A.; Masera, O.

    1992-10-01

    This document presents the final report of a study of residential energy use in Caracas, the capital of Venezuela. It contains the findings of a household energy-use survey held in Caracas in 1988 and examines options for introducing energy conservation measures in the Venezuelan residential sector. Oil exports form the backbone of the Venezuelan economy. Improving energy efficiency in Venezuela will help free domestic oil resources that can be sold to the rest of the world. Energy conservation will also contribute to a faster recovery of the economy by reducing the need for major investments in new energy facilities, allowing the Venezuelan government to direct its financial investments towards other areas of development. Local environmental benefits will constitute an important additional by-product of implementing energy-efficiency policies in Venezuela. Caracas`s residential sector shows great potential for energy conservation. The sector is characterized by high saturation levels of major appliances, inefficiency of appliances available in the market, and by careless patterns of energy use. Household energy use per capita average 6.5 GJ/per year which is higher than most cities in developing countries; most of this energy is used for cooking. Electricity accounts for 41% of all energy use, while LPG and natural gas constitute the remainder. Specific options for inducing energy conservation and energy efficiency in Caracas`s residential sector include energy-pricing policies, fuel switching, particularly from electricity to gas, improving the energy performance of new appliances and customer information. To ensure the accomplishment of an energy-efficiency strategy, a concerted effort by energy users, manufacturers, utility companies, government agencies, and research institutions will be needed.

  18. Geographical Topics Learning of Geo-Tagged Social Images.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoming; Ji, Shufan; Wang, Senzhang; Li, Zhoujun; Lv, Xueqiang

    2016-03-01

    With the availability of cheap location sensors, geotagging of images in online social media is very popular. With a large amount of geo-tagged social images, it is interesting to study how these images are shared across geographical regions and how the geographical language characteristics and vision patterns are distributed across different regions. Unlike textual document, geo-tagged social image contains multiple types of content, i.e., textual description, visual content, and geographical information. Existing approaches usually mine geographical characteristics using a subset of multiple types of image contents or combining those contents linearly, which ignore correlations between different types of contents, and their geographical distributions. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a novel method to discover geographical characteristics of geo-tagged social images using a geographical topic model called geographical topic model of social images (GTMSIs). GTMSI integrates multiple types of social image contents as well as the geographical distributions, in which image topics are modeled based on both vocabulary and visual features. In GTMSI, each region of the image would have its own topic distribution, and hence have its own language model and vision pattern. Experimental results show that our GTMSI could identify interesting topics and vision patterns, as well as provide location prediction and image tagging. PMID:25861092

  19. Evolution of research in health geographics through the International Journal of Health Geographics (2002-2015).

    PubMed

    Pérez, Sandra; Laperrière, Vincent; Borderon, Marion; Padilla, Cindy; Maignant, Gilles; Oliveau, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    Health geographics is a fast-developing research area. Subjects broached in scientific literature are most varied, ranging from vectorial diseases to access to healthcare, with a recent revival of themes such as the implication of health in the Smart City, or a predominantly individual-centered approach. Far beyond standard meta-analyses, the present study deliberately adopts the standpoint of questioning space in its foundations, through various authors of the International Journal of Health Geographics, a highly influential journal in that field. The idea is to find space as the common denominator in this specialized literature, as well as its relation to spatial analysis, without for all that trying to tend towards exhaustive approaches. 660 articles have being published in the journal since launch, but 359 articles were selected based on the presence of the word "Space" in either the title, or the abstract or the text over 13 years of the journal's existence. From that database, a lexical analysis (tag cloud) reveals the perception of space in literature, and shows how approaches are evolving, thus underlining that the scope of health geographics is far from narrowing. PMID:26790403

  20. Characterization of l-Digitoxosyl-phenanthroviridin from Streptomyces venezuelae ISP5230.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Andrew W; Martinez-Farina, Camilo F; Syvitski, Raymond T; Jakeman, David L

    2015-08-28

    The jadomycin-derived compound l-digitoxosyl-phenanthroviridin was isolated from fermentations of Streptomyces venezuelae ISP5230 grown in nutrient-deficient media with l-lysine as the sole nitrogen source. Structural elucidation was accomplished using a combination of high-resolution MS, LC-MS/MS, and 1D- and 2D-NMR. The compound was evaluated against the National Cancer Institute (NCI) 60 human tumor cell line screen in both the one-dose and five-dose screens, and cytotoxicity was compared to a small library of jadomycin analogues to probe the structure-activity relationship. PMID:26203536

  1. Diurnal raptors in the fragmented rain forest of the Sierra Imataca, Venezuela

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alvarez, E.; Ellis, D.H.; Smith, D.G.; LaRue, C.T.

    1996-01-01

    The rain forest of the Sierra Imataca in eastern Venezuela has been subjected to extensive deforestation for pastures and agricultural settlements. In the last decade the opening of access roads combined with intensified logging and mining activities have fragmented a significant portion of the remaining forest. We noted local distribution and habitat use for 42 species of diurnal raptors observed in affected areas in this region. We observed some raptors considered as forest interior species and other open country species foraging and roosting in man-made openings inside the forest.

  2. Diurnal raptors in the fragmented rain forest of the Sierra Imataca, Venezuela

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alvarez, E.; Ellis, D.H.; Smith, D.G.; LaRue, C.T.

    1994-01-01

    The rain forest of the Sierra Imataca in eastern Venezuela has been subjected to extensive deforestation for pastures and agricultural settlements. In the last decade the opening of access roads combined with intensified logging and mining activities have fragmented a significant portion of the remaining forest. We noted local distribution and habitat use for 40 species of diurnal raptors observed in ten affected areas, including raptors considered as forest interior species and some open country species utilizing the man-made openings inside the forest for roosting and foraging.

  3. Molecular Evidence of Anaplasma platys Infection in Two Women from Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Arraga-Alvarado, Cruz M.; Qurollo, Barbara A.; Parra, Omaira C.; Berrueta, Maribel A.; Hegarty, Barbara C.; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents two case reports of Anaplasma platys detection in two women from Venezuela. Both patients were exposed to Rhipicephalus sanguineus, the presumed tick vector, and experienced chronic, nonspecific clinical signs including headaches and muscle pains. Intra-platelet inclusion bodies resembling A. platys were observed in buffy coat smears and A. platys DNA was amplified and sequenced from whole blood; however, treatment with doxycycline did not alleviate their symptoms. These cases provide further support for A. platys as a zoonotic tick-borne pathogen, most likely of low pathogenicity; nonetheless, the cause of illness in humans by A. platys is yet to be confirmed. PMID:25266347

  4. A study on the genus Agrilaxia Kerremans, 1903 from Venezuela (Coleoptera: Buprestidae: Buprestinae: Anthaxiini).

    PubMed

    Bílý, Svatopluk

    2015-01-01

    Study on the genus Agrilaxia Kerremans, 1903 from Venezuela. Altogether eight species were recorded from this country, four of them are described in this paper: Agrilaxia (Agrilaxia) biformis sp. nov., A. (A.) michaeli sp. nov., A. (A.) stephani sp. nov. and A. (A.) venezuelana sp. nov. All species are illustrated and new species are compared with the most similar/related species. A male of Agrilaxia (A.) balloui Fisher, 1942 is described and the male genitalia are illustrated. New country records are given for Agrilaxia (A.) balloui, A. (A.) costaricensis Obenberger, 1922, A. (A.) glabra Bílý & Brûlé 2013 and A. (A.) simillima Cobos, 1972. PMID:26624473

  5. Sentinel Surveillance of Influenza-Like Illness in Two Hospitals in Maracay, Venezuela: 2006–2010

    PubMed Central

    Comach, Guillermo; Teneza-Mora, Nimfa; Kochel, Tadeusz J.; Espino, Carlos; Sierra, Gloria; Camacho, Daria E.; Laguna-Torres, V. Alberto; Garcia, Josefina; Chauca, Gloria; Gamero, Maria E.; Sovero, Merly; Bordones, Slave; Villalobos, Iris; Melchor, Angel; Halsey, Eric S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Limited information exists on the epidemiology of acute febrile respiratory illnesses in tropical South American countries such as Venezuela. The objective of the present study was to examine the epidemiology of influenza-like illness (ILI) in two hospitals in Maracay, Venezuela. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed a prospective surveillance study of persons with ILI who presented for care at two hospitals in Maracay, Venezuela, from October 2006 to December 2010. A respiratory specimen and clinical information were obtained from each participant. Viral isolation and identification with immunofluorescent antibodies and molecular methods were employed to detect respiratory viruses such as adenovirus, influenza A and B, parainfluenza, and respiratory sincytial virus, among others. There were 916 participants in the study (median age: 17 years; range: 1 month – 86 years). Viruses were identified in 143 (15.6%) subjects, and one participant was found to have a co-infection with more than one virus. Influenza viruses, including pandemic H1N1 2009, were the most frequently detected pathogens, accounting for 67.4% (97/144) of the viruses detected. Adenovirus (15/144), parainfluenza virus (13/144), and respiratory syncytial virus (11/144) were also important causes of ILI in this study. Pandemic H1N1 2009 virus became the most commonly isolated influenza virus during its initial appearance in 2009. Two waves of the pandemic were observed: the first which peaked in August 2009 and the second - higher than the preceding - that peaked in October 2009. In 2010, influenza A/H3N2 re-emerged as the most predominant respiratory virus detected. Conclusions/Significance Influenza viruses were the most commonly detected viral organisms among patients with acute febrile respiratory illnesses presenting at two hospitals in Maracay, Venezuela. Pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza virus did not completely replace other circulating influenza viruses during its initial appearance in 2009. Seasonal influenza A/H3N2 was the most common influenza virus in the post-pandemic phase. PMID:22984519

  6. [Outbreak of dengue in San Jose of Guaribe, Venezuela. Preliminary report].

    PubMed

    Caraballo, A; Hernández, J

    1991-01-01

    An outbreak of dengue in the Municipality San José of Guaribe, Guarico State about the middle of September and to beginning October 1990 is reported. A total 97 cases without death and the serologic study in a population sample showed type 2 virus. The quick intervention, the effectiveness of the measures of control, one attention medical opportune and the early serologic diagnostic to contribute of the outbreak control. This is the first description of a dengue outbreak in the Guarico State, Venezuela. PMID:1844971

  7. Most frequent mutation c.3402delC (p.Ala1135GlnfsX13) among Wilson disease patients in Venezuela has a wide distribution and two old origins.

    PubMed

    Paradisi, Irene; De Freitas, Laura; Arias, Sergio

    2015-02-01

    Wilson disease is an infrequent autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the ATP7B gene (13q14.3) producing pathologic phenotypes due to copper accumulation in critical tissues. The aim of the research was to probe Wilson disease genetic epidemiology in Venezuela, through the identification in diagnosed index cases, of ATP7B locus mutations, their geographic distribution, frequency, in-phase haplotypes and probable ethnic ancestry. During the last three decades 33 independent Wilson disease families from the country at large were ascertained and diagnosed through severely reduced ceruloplasmin activity, higher urinary copper excretion, and specific clinical signs. Molecular studies of the ATP7B gene were accomplished in 26 of the families. Disease prevalence was estimated as 1:94,000 families between 1985 and 2013, showing geographic aggregation in the state of Zulia with 1:27,000 families in it. DNA analysis in 26 families revealed 13 different mutations. The c.3402delC was the most frequent one (26.9%), presenting two independent in-phase haplotypes, both of likely European descent; which is followed by the not previously reported p.G691V (9.6%) and by the frequent European H1069Q (7.7%). Known mutations c.51 + 4A > T, c.1285 + 5G > T, M645R, T788I, V845SfsX28, T977M, L1088X, T1220M, R1319X and a novel P767L showed frequencies between 5.8 and 1.9%. Despite the ample mutation heterogeneity for Wilson disease in the country, the findings provide a diagnostic algorithm to ease mutation assessment in new patients; the predominant c.3402delC displayed wide geographic distribution and two genetic origins. PMID:25497208

  8. Object-oriented Geographic Information System Framework

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2003-03-01

    JeoViewer is an intelligent object-oriented geographic information system (GIS) framework written in Java that provides transparent linkage to any object’s data, behaviors, and optimized spatial geometry representation. Tools are provided for typical GIS functionality, data ingestion, data export, and integration with other frameworks. The primary difference between Jeo Viewer and traditional GIS systems is that traditional GIS systems offer static views of geo-spatial data while JeoViewer can be dynamically coupled to models and live datamore » streams which dynamically change the state of the object which can be immediately represented in JeoViewer. Additionally, JeoViewer’s object-oriented paradigm provides a more natural representation of spatial data. A rich layer hierarchy allows arbitrary grouping of objects based on any relationship as well as the traditional GIS vertical ordering of objects. JeoViewer can run as a standalone product, extended with additional analysis functionality, or embedded in another framework.« less

  9. Fundamental procedures of geographic information analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, J. K.; Tomlin, C. D.

    1981-01-01

    Analytical procedures common to most computer-oriented geographic information systems are composed of fundamental map processing operations. A conceptual framework for such procedures is developed and basic operations common to a broad range of applications are described. Among the major classes of primitive operations identified are those associated with: reclassifying map categories as a function of the initial classification, the shape, the position, or the size of the spatial configuration associated with each category; overlaying maps on a point-by-point, a category-wide, or a map-wide basis; measuring distance; establishing visual or optimal path connectivity; and characterizing cartographic neighborhoods based on the thematic or spatial attributes of the data values within each neighborhood. By organizing such operations in a coherent manner, the basis for a generalized cartographic modeling structure can be developed which accommodates a variety of needs in a common, flexible and intuitive manner. The use of each is limited only by the general thematic and spatial nature of the data to which it is applied.

  10. GEOGRAPHIC ESTIMATION OF RUNOFF-MODEL PARAMETERS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmidt, Arthur R.; Weiss, Linda S.; Oberg, Kevin A.

    1987-01-01

    The U. S. Geological Survey is developing techniques to estimate and evaluate unit-hydrograph and loss-rate parameter values for rainfall-runoff models using Geographic Information System (GIS) procedures. The data base includes basin, soil, and climatological characteristics that will be stored in a GIS, and unit-hydrograph and loss-rate parameters obtained from calibration of a commonly used flood-hydrograph rainfall-runoff model for 616 storms in 98 gaged drainage basins. Development of unit-hydrograph and loss-rate parameter-estimation techniques includes statistical methods (exploratory data analysis, regression analysis, and categorical data analysis) to relate the model parameters to hydrologic characteristics. The estimation techniques are evaluated by use of error analysis of simulated hydrograph characteristics (peak discharge, flood volume, and time to peak discharge). The hydrographs will be simulated with parameters estimated by the techniques for (1) 102 storms occurring at 36 gaged basins; and (2) a large storm system (one which produced floods with a 50-to 100-year recurrence interval).

  11. Study on geographic information service combination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xia; Li, Deren; Zhu, Xinyan; Yu, Zhanwu

    2006-10-01

    The Combination of Geographic Information Services (GIServices) is studied in this paper. First, the way of GIServices combination is analyzed. Based on GIServices combination ways depicted by Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA), OpenGIS (OGC) Web Services Architecture and International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 19119, GIServices combinations are classified into Discrete Service Combination, Chaining Service Combination and Hybrid Service Combination in this paper. Then, the model of GIServices combination is focused. A high-level GIServices combination model based on Petri Net is proposed to improve those proposed by former researchers. The proposed high-level model can represent services combination relationship more clearly and can help to control services combination behavior in an easier way. Since searching GIService that can accomplish certain GIS task is a key step of implementing GIServices combination, GIServices taxonomy is then studied. A multi-level task-oriented GIServices taxonomy is proposed in this paper. Correspondence between GIS tasks and GIServices can be established more easily with the proposed multi-level task-oriented GIServices taxonomy. Finally, a case study is made to support the proposed theories.

  12. Genetic Evidence of Geographical Groups among Neanderthals

    PubMed Central

    Fabre, Virginie; Condemi, Silvana; Degioanni, Anna

    2009-01-01

    The Neanderthals are a well-distinguished Middle Pleistocene population which inhabited a vast geographical area extending from Europe to western Asia and the Middle East. Since the 1950s paleoanthropological studies have suggested variability in this group. Different sub-groups have been identified in western Europe, in southern Europe and in the Middle East. On the other hand, since 1997, research has been published in paleogenetics, carried out on 15 mtDNA sequences from 12 Neanderthals. In this paper we used a new methodology derived from different bioinformatic models based on data from genetics, demography and paleoanthropology. The adequacy of each model was measured by comparisons between simulated results (obtained by BayesianSSC software) and those estimated from nucleotide sequences (obtained by DNAsp4 software). The conclusions of this study are consistent with existing paleoanthropological research and show that Neanderthals can be divided into at least three groups: one in western Europe, a second in the Southern area and a third in western Asia. Moreover, it seems from our results that the size of the Neanderthal population was not constant and that some migration occurred among the demes. PMID:19367332

  13. Ecoregions and ecoregionalization: geographical and ecological perspectives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loveland, Thomas R.; Merchant, James W.

    2005-01-01

    Ecoregions, i.e., areas exhibiting relative homogeneity of ecosystems, are units of analysis that are increasingly important in environmental assessment and management. Ecoregions provide a holistic framework for flexible, comparative analysis of complex environmental problems. Ecoregions mapping has intellectual foundations in both geography and ecology. However, a hallmark of ecoregions mapping is that it is a truly interdisciplinary endeavor that demands the integration of knowledge from a multitude of sciences. Geographers emphasize the role of place, scale, and both natural and social elements when delineating and characterizing regions. Ecologists tend to focus on environmental processes with special attention given to energy flows and nutrient cycling. Integration of disparate knowledge from the many key sciences has been one of the great challenges of ecoregions mapping, and may lie at the heart of the lack of consensus on the “optimal” approach and methods to use in such work. Through a review of the principal existing US ecoregion maps, issues that should be addressed in order to advance the state of the art are identified. Research related to needs, methods, data sources, data delivery, and validation is needed. It is also important that the academic system foster education so that there is an infusion of new expertise in ecoregion mapping and use.

  14. Cartographic services contract...for everything geographic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Cartographic Services Contract (CSC) is used to award work for photogrammetric and mapping services under the umbrella of Architect-Engineer (A&E) contracting. The A&E contract is broad in scope and can accommodate any activity related to standard, nonstandard, graphic, and digital cartographic products. Services provided may include, but are not limited to, photogrammetric mapping and aerotriangulation; orthophotography; thematic mapping (for example, land characterization); analog and digital imagery applications; geographic information systems development; surveying and control acquisition, including ground-based and airborne Global Positioning System; analog and digital image manipulation, analysis, and interpretation; raster and vector map digitizing; data manipulations (for example, transformations, conversions, generalization, integration, and conflation); primary and ancillary data acquisition (for example, aerial photography, satellite imagery, multispectral, multitemporal, and hyperspectral data); image scanning and processing; metadata production, revision, and creation; and production or revision of standard USGS products defined by formal and informal specification and standards, such as those for digital line graphs, digital elevation models, digital orthophoto quadrangles, and digital raster graphics.

  15. Do geographically isolated wetlands influence landscape functions?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cohen, Matthew J.; Creed, Irena F.; Alexander, Laurie C.; Basu, Nandita; Calhoun, Aram J. K.; Craft, Christopher; D’Amico, Ellen; DeKeyser, Edward S.; Fowler, Laurie; Golden, Heather E.; Jawitz, James W.; Kalla, Peter; Kirkman, L. Katherine; Lane, Charles R.; Lang, Megan; Leibowitz, Scott G.; Lewis, David Bruce; Marton, John; McLaughlin, Daniel L.; Mushet, David M.; Raanan-Kiperwas, Hadas; Rains, Mark C.; Smith, Lora; Walls, Susan C.

    2015-01-01

    Geographically isolated wetlands (GIWs), those surrounded by uplands, exchange materials, energy, and organisms with other elements in hydrological and habitat networks, contributing to landscape functions, such as flow generation, nutrient and sediment retention, and biodiversity support. GIWs constitute most of the wetlands in many North American landscapes, provide a disproportionately large fraction of wetland edges where many functions are enhanced, and form complexes with other water bodies to create spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the timing, flow paths, and magnitude of network connectivity. These attributes signal a critical role for GIWs in sustaining a portfolio of landscape functions, but legal protections remain weak despite preferential loss from many landscapes. GIWs lack persistent surface water connections, but this condition does not imply the absence of hydrological, biogeochemical, and biological exchanges with nearby and downstream waters. Although hydrological and biogeochemical connectivity is often episodic or slow (e.g., via groundwater), hydrologic continuity and limited evaporative solute enrichment suggest both flow generation and solute and sediment retention. Similarly, whereas biological connectivity usually requires overland dispersal, numerous organisms, including many rare or threatened species, use both GIWs and downstream waters at different times or life stages, suggesting that GIWs are critical elements of landscape habitat mosaics. Indeed, weaker hydrologic connectivity with downstream waters and constrained biological connectivity with other landscape elements are precisely what enhances some GIW functions and enables others. Based on analysis of wetland geography and synthesis of wetland functions, we argue that sustaining landscape functions requires conserving the entire continuum of wetland connectivity, including GIWs.

  16. Geographic Clusters of Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Mouch, Saif; Selmi, Carlo; Benson, Gordon D.; Kenny, Thomas P.; Invernizzi, Pietro; Zuin, Massimo; Podda, Mauro; Rossaro, Lorenzo; Gershwin, M. Eric

    2003-01-01

    Genetic and environmental factors have been widely suggested to contribute to the pathogenesis of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), an autoimmune disease of unknown etiology leading to destruction of small bile ducts. Interestingly, epidemiologic data indicate a variable prevalence of the disease in different geographical areas. The study of clusters of PBC may provide clues as to possible triggers in the induction of immunopathology. We report herein four such unique PBC clusters that suggest the presence of both genetic and environmental factors in the induction of PBC. The first cluster is represented by a family of ten siblings of Palestinian origin that have an extraordinary frequency of PBC (with 5/8 sisters having the disease). Second, we describe the cases of a husband and wife, both having PBC. A family in which PBC was diagnosed in two genetically unrelated individuals, who lived in the same household, represents the third cluster. Fourth, we report a high prevalence of PBC cases in a very small area in Alaska. Although these data are anedoctal, the study of a large number of such clusters may provide a tool to estimate the roles of genetics and environment in the induction of autoimmunity. PMID:14768943

  17. Inferring social ties from geographic coincidences

    PubMed Central

    Crandall, David J.; Backstrom, Lars; Cosley, Dan; Suri, Siddharth; Huttenlocher, Daniel; Kleinberg, Jon

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the extent to which social ties between people can be inferred from co-occurrence in time and space: Given that two people have been in approximately the same geographic locale at approximately the same time, on multiple occasions, how likely are they to know each other? Furthermore, how does this likelihood depend on the spatial and temporal proximity of the co-occurrences? Such issues arise in data originating in both online and offline domains as well as settings that capture interfaces between online and offline behavior. Here we develop a framework for quantifying the answers to such questions, and we apply this framework to publicly available data from a social media site, finding that even a very small number of co-occurrences can result in a high empirical likelihood of a social tie. We then present probabilistic models showing how such large probabilities can arise from a natural model of proximity and co-occurrence in the presence of social ties. In addition to providing a method for establishing some of the first quantifiable estimates of these measures, our findings have potential privacy implications, particularly for the ways in which social structures can be inferred from public online records that capture individuals’ physical locations over time. PMID:21148099

  18. Evaluacion de Programas de Alfabetizacion. Consulta Tecnica Regional (Maracaibo, Venezuela, 30 Noviembre-6 Diciembre 1987) Informe Final. (Evaluation of Literacy Programs. Regional Technical Meeting (Maracaibo, Venezuela, November 30-December 6, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    The objectives of this seminar were to identify problems in evaluating literacy programs and to design a working strategy to confront them. Four presentations included national case studies from Brazil, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Venezuela. Central questions asked concerned who and what were evaluated and how were the results to be used. In Brazil,…

  19. Connecting the Demographic Dots: Geographic Mobility and Birth Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    Having a child is a major determinant of geographic mobility. Little is known, however, about the opposite process--whether geographic mobility is a determinant of fertility. Drawing on social and human capital theories and research on fertility and migration to develop competing hypotheses, the author examines the effects of mobility on changes…

  20. Geographic Differences in the Earnings of Economics Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, John V.; Xu, Weineng

    2014-01-01

    Economics has been shown to be a relatively high-earning college major, but geographic differences in earnings have been largely overlooked. The authors of this article use the American Community Survey to examine geographic differences in both absolute earnings and relative earnings for economics majors. They find that there are substantial…

  1. 13 CFR 108.130 - Identified Low Income Geographic Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Identified Low Income Geographic Areas. 108.130 Section 108.130 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS... Identified Low Income Geographic Areas. A NMVC Company must identify the specific LI Areas in which...

  2. 13 CFR 108.130 - Identified Low Income Geographic Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Identified Low Income Geographic Areas. 108.130 Section 108.130 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS... Identified Low Income Geographic Areas. A NMVC Company must identify the specific LI Areas in which...

  3. 13 CFR 108.130 - Identified Low Income Geographic Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identified Low Income Geographic Areas. 108.130 Section 108.130 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS... Identified Low Income Geographic Areas. A NMVC Company must identify the specific LI Areas in which...

  4. 13 CFR 108.130 - Identified Low Income Geographic Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Identified Low Income Geographic Areas. 108.130 Section 108.130 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS... Identified Low Income Geographic Areas. A NMVC Company must identify the specific LI Areas in which...

  5. 13 CFR 108.130 - Identified Low Income Geographic Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Identified Low Income Geographic Areas. 108.130 Section 108.130 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS... Identified Low Income Geographic Areas. A NMVC Company must identify the specific LI Areas in which...

  6. Applications of Geographic Research: Viewpoints from Michigan State University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, Harold A., Ed.; Winters, Marjorie K., Ed.

    Eighteen essays discuss applications of geographic research covering a variety of topics and methodologies. All authors are faculty, graduates, or graduate students of the geography department at Michigan State University. The most frequently discussed themes include economic, political, social, and medical uses of geographic research. Two papers…

  7. Education Participation and Outcomes by Geographic Location. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Roger G.

    Data from the Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) were analyzed to assess the viability of using the LSAY study data for national reporting of outcomes by geographic location and to identify variations in young Australians' education participation and outcomes by geographic region. The analysis revealed several sample distribution…

  8. 47 CFR 22.911 - Cellular geographic service area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... licensee of the system so extended files a system information update in accordance with § 22.947(c). (3... Cellular Geographic Service Area (CGSA) of a cellular system is the geographic area considered by the FCC to be served by the cellular system. The CGSA is the area within which cellular systems are...

  9. 47 CFR 22.911 - Cellular geographic service area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... licensee of the system so extended files a system information update in accordance with § 22.947(c). (3... Cellular Geographic Service Area (CGSA) of a cellular system is the geographic area considered by the FCC to be served by the cellular system. The CGSA is the area within which cellular systems are...

  10. 47 CFR 22.911 - Cellular geographic service area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... system information update in accordance with § 22.947(c). (3) For original systems in MSAs, extensions of... Cellular Geographic Service Area (CGSA) of a cellular system is the geographic area considered by the FCC to be served by the cellular system. The CGSA is the area within which cellular systems are...

  11. Seeking Younger Children's "Voices" in Geographical Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catling, Simon

    2005-01-01

    While there has been research into children's geographical and environmental understanding, comparatively little has provided insight into children's perspectives on their geographical learning. Some depth of understanding is available about children's personal local environmental experience and about spatial cognition, but there is much about…

  12. Lived and Imagined: Information and Storytelling in Geographic Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabisch, Eric Alan

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the relationship between storytelling and information in the narration of geographic space. While storytelling has historically shaped our understanding of geography, modern practices in data collection, cartography, and geographic visualization enable one-way forms of representation that remove the negotiation and…

  13. 48 CFR 725.706 - Geographic source waivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Geographic source waivers. 725.706 Section 725.706 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Source, Origin, and Nationality 725.706 Geographic source waivers. (a) Authority to waive source,...

  14. Multimodal Geographic Information Systems: Adding Haptic and Auditory Displays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeong, Wooseob

    2001-01-01

    This study consists of two experiments. Pitch, volume, and tempo in auditory-haptic geographic information systems were compared in terms of effectiveness for multimodal interface; volume was determined to be better. Auditory display with volume and haptic display with vibration were compared and the results showed that, in more complex geographic…

  15. Acquired Levels of Geographical Concepts among 5th Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balci, Ali

    2010-01-01

    In this research, the geographical concepts that are recommended to be taught for primary school fifth grade students are analyzed. Three of these concepts are in developmental level whereas eight of them are in consolidation level. Of the three geographical concepts which it is recommended the students acquire at a developmental level, it was…

  16. 47 CFR 27.15 - Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... revising (d). At 72 FR 67580, Nov. 29, 2007 § 27.15 was corrected. This text contains information... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Geographic partitioning and spectrum... Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation. (a) Eligibility. (1) Parties seeking approval...

  17. Connecting the Demographic Dots: Geographic Mobility and Birth Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    Having a child is a major determinant of geographic mobility. Little is known, however, about the opposite process--whether geographic mobility is a determinant of fertility. Drawing on social and human capital theories and research on fertility and migration to develop competing hypotheses, the author examines the effects of mobility on changes…

  18. Geographic Differences in the Earnings of Economics Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, John V.; Xu, Weineng

    2014-01-01

    Economics has been shown to be a relatively high-earning college major, but geographic differences in earnings have been largely overlooked. The authors of this article use the American Community Survey to examine geographic differences in both absolute earnings and relative earnings for economics majors. They find that there are substantial…

  19. Politics and Priorities: Placing Gender in Geographic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monk, Janice

    2011-01-01

    Gender has long been implicated in geographic education, though generally implicitly until the late twentieth century. Emphasizing British and American examples, this paper examines gender representation among geographic educators, in student participation, and in learning. It then turns to pedagogical issues that arise as content and strategies…

  20. Geographic and Institutional Origin of Arkansas College Students, Fall 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branscum, Joanne

    Information on the geographic and institutional origins of students at Arkansas state and independent colleges and universities in the fall 1980 are presented in the first analytic report on these topics. Geographic origin is the legal residence of a student when admitted to an institution, and the institutional origin of undergraduate transfer…

  1. Lived and Imagined: Information and Storytelling in Geographic Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabisch, Eric Alan

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the relationship between storytelling and information in the narration of geographic space. While storytelling has historically shaped our understanding of geography, modern practices in data collection, cartography, and geographic visualization enable one-way forms of representation that remove the negotiation and…

  2. Third World Films: A Strategy for Promoting Geographic Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macdonald, Gerald M.

    1990-01-01

    Suggests that feature films produced in developing nations can serve as an aid to geographic instruction because they visually represent conditions of daily life. Uses two films, "Salaam Bombay" and "Sugar Cane Alley," to illustrate geographic understanding. Appendices include information on film distributors, background readings, and study guides…

  3. Paleogeographic evolution of foldbelts adjacent to petroleum basins of Venezuela and Trinidad

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, E.D.; Koch, P.S.; Summa, L.L.

    1996-08-01

    The foldbelts of Venezuela and Trinidad have shaped the history of adjacent sedimentary basins. A set of paleogeographic maps on reconstructed bases depict the role of foldbelts in the development of the sedimentary basins of Venezuela. Some of the foldbelts are inverted, pre-Tertiary graben/passive margin systems. Other foldbelts are allochthonous nappes or parautochthons that override the Mesozoic passive margin hinge without inversion. The emergence of these foldbelts changed the course of existing river systems and provided a new source for sediments and maturation in adjacent deeps. The Merida Andes area was remobilized beginning in the Early Miocene as a zone of lateral shear, along which the Bonaire Block has moved over 200 km to the northeast, dismembering the Maracaibo and Barinas basins. Late Miocene to Recent transpression and fault reactivation have driven rapid Andean uplift with thrust-related subsidence and maturation (e.g., SE Maracaibo foredeep). To the east, uplift and erosion of the Serrania del Interior (1) curtailed mid-Tertiary fluvial systems flowing northward from the igneous and sedimentary rocks of the Guyana Shield, deflecting them eastward, and (2) removed the thick early Miocene foredeep fill into a younger foredeep. Thus, the fold-thrust belts and sedimentary basins in this region are linked in their evolutionary histories.

  4. Quaternary tectonics and present stress tensor of the inverted northern Falcón Basin, northwestern Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audemard M, Franck A.

    2001-02-01

    The Tertiary Falcón Basin in northwestern Venezuela has a privileged position in the geodynamic puzzle of northwestern South America, occurring in a region where several major plates (Caribbean, South America and Nazca) and minor lithospheric blocks (Maracaibo, Bonaire and Western Colombia) are interacting. A combination of good exposures due to aridity and a near-continuous sedimentary record in a now inverted basin helps to unravel the Neogene and Quaternary geodynamic evolution of this region. A neotectonic and microtectonic investigation of the Plio-Quaternary sedimentary rocks of the northern Falcón Basin reveals that this region is subject to a compressive to transpressive regime at present. This regime is characterized by a NNW-SSE oriented maximum horizontal stress, and a ENE-WSW trending intermediate (or minimum) horizontal stress, as is confirmed by focal mechanism solutions. This stress field is in agreement both with the NNE-directed extrusion of the Maracaibo and Bonaire blocks in Western Venezuela, where the Falcón Basin is located, and present-day transpression along the Caribbean-South America plate boundary zone.

  5. Evidence for clonal propagation in natural isolates of Plasmodium falciparum from Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Urdaneta, Ludmel; Lal, Altaf; Barnabé, Christian; Oury, Bruno; Goldman, Ira; Ayala, Francisco J.; Tibayrenc, Michel

    2001-01-01

    We have analyzed 75 isolates of Plasmodium falciparum, collected in Venezuela during both the dry (November) and rainy (May–July) seasons, with a range of genetic markers including antigen genes and 14 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers. Thirteen P. falciparum stocks from Kenya and four other Plasmodium species are included in the analysis for comparison. Cross-hybridization shows that the 14 RAPD primers reveal 14 separate regions of the parasite's genome. The P. falciparum isolates are a monophyletic clade, significantly different from the other Plasmodium species. We identify three RAPD characters that could be useful as “tags” for rapid species identification. The Venezuelan genotypes fall into two discrete genetic subdivisions associated with either the dry or the rainy season; the isolates collected in the rainy season exhibit greater genetic diversity. There is significant linkage disequilibrium in each seasonal subsample and in the full sample. In contrast, no linkage disequilibrium is detected in the African sample. These results support the hypothesis that the population structure of P. falciparum in Venezuela, but not in Africa, is predominantly clonal. However, the impact of genetic recombination on Venezuelan P. falciparum seems higher than in parasitic species with long-term clonal evolution like Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas' disease. The genetic structure of the Venezuelan samples is similar to that of Escherichia coli, a bacterium that propagates clonally, with occasional genetic recombination. PMID:11371616

  6. Serological prevalence of Babesia caballi and Theileria equi in horses of Lara State, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Mujica, Franklin F; Perrone, Trina; Forlano, María; Coronado, Alfredo; Meléndez, Roy D; Barrios, Nailuj; Alvarez, Rafael; Granda, Fernando

    2011-05-31

    The main objective of this study was to demonstrate the occurrence of equine piroplasmosis (EP) in horses of Lara State, Venezuela, and to correlate it with the factors host's sex and age in order to know the epidemiology of this disease at the Venezuelan Centroccidental Region. Antibody levels to Babesia caballi and Theileria equi were assessed in 360 equine serum samples, collected from 9 municipalities of Lara State, using an ELISA technique with recombinant antigens and monoclonal antibodies (Mabs). Antibodies to B. caballi were found in 254 horses (70.6%), whereas 181 animals (50.3%) were detected as seropositives to T. equi. In addition, 128 samples (35.56%) were seropositives to both hemoparasites. There were no significant differences between the seropositivity to B. caballi and T. equi with the factors sex and age of the horses. These results show that Lara State is an enzootic area for equine piroplasmosis, and are a contribution to a partial knowledge of the dynamic of this disease in Venezuela. PMID:21273001

  7. An Estimate of Recoverable Heavy Oil Resources of the Orinoco Oil Belt, Venezuela

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.

    2009-01-01

    The Orinoco Oil Belt Assessment Unit of the La Luna-Quercual Total Petroleum System encompasses approximately 50,000 km2 of the East Venezuela Basin Province that is underlain by more than 1 trillion barrels of heavy oil-in-place. As part of a program directed at estimating the technically recoverable oil and gas resources of priority petroleum basins worldwide, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated the recoverable oil resources of the Orinoco Oil Belt Assessment Unit. This estimate relied mainly on published geologic and engineering data for reservoirs (net oil-saturated sandstone thickness and extent), petrophysical properties (porosity, water saturation, and formation volume factors), recovery factors determined by pilot projects, and estimates of volumes of oil-in-place. The U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean volume of 513 billion barrels of technically recoverable heavy oil in the Orinoco Oil Belt Assessment Unit of the East Venezuela Basin Province; the range is 380 to 652 billion barrels. The Orinoco Oil Belt Assessment Unit thus contains one of the largest recoverable oil accumulations in the world.

  8. Comparison of the petroleum systems of East Venezuela in their tectonostratigraphic context

    SciTech Connect

    Stronach, N.J.; Kerr, H.M.; Scotchmer, J.; Hunter, V.

    1996-08-01

    The Maturin and Guarico subbasins of East Venezuela record the transition from Cretaceous passive margin to Tertiary foreland basin with local post-orogenic transtensional basins. Petroleum is reservoired in several units ranging from Albian (El Cantil Formation) to Pliocene (Las Piedras Formation) age. Source rocks are principally in the Upper Cretaceous (Querecual Formation), and Miocene (Carapita Formation) in the Maturin subbasin and in the Upper Cretaceous (Tigre Formation) and Oligocene (Roblecito and La Pascua Formations) in the Guarico subbasin. An extensive well database has been used to address the distribution and provenance of hydrocarbons in the context of a tectonostratigraphic model for the evolution of the East Venezuela basin. Nine major plays have been described, comprising thirteen petroleum systems. The principal factors influencing the components of individual petroleum systems are as follows: (1) structural controls on Upper Cretaceous source rock distribution, relating to block faulting on the proto-Caribbean passive margin; (2) paleoenvironmental controls on source rock development within the Oligocene-Miocene foreland basin; and (3) timing of subsidence and maturation within the Oligocene-Upper Miocene foreland basin and the configuration of the associated fold and thrust belt, influencing long range and local migration routes (4) local development of Pliocene post-orogenic transtensional basins, influencing hydrocarbon generation, migration and remigration north of the Pirital High.

  9. Evolutionary and Ecological Characterization of Mayaro Virus Strains Isolated during an Outbreak, Venezuela, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Auguste, Albert J.; Liria, Jonathan; Forrester, Naomi L.; Giambalvo, Dileyvic; Moncada, Maria; Long, Kanya C.; Morón, Dulce; de Manzione, Nuris; Tesh, Robert B.; Halsey, Eric S.; Kochel, Tadeusz J.; Hernandez, Rosa; Navarro, Juan-Carlos

    2015-01-01

    In 2010, an outbreak of febrile illness with arthralgic manifestations was detected at La Estación village, Portuguesa State, Venezuela. The etiologic agent was determined to be Mayaro virus (MAYV), a reemerging South American alphavirus. A total of 77 cases was reported and 19 were confirmed as seropositive. MAYV was isolated from acute-phase serum samples from 6 symptomatic patients. We sequenced 27 complete genomes representing the full spectrum of MAYV genetic diversity, which facilitated detection of a new genotype, designated N. Phylogenetic analysis of genomic sequences indicated that etiologic strains from Venezuela belong to genotype D. Results indicate that MAYV is highly conserved genetically, showing ≈17% nucleotide divergence across all 3 genotypes and 4% among genotype D strains in the most variable genes. Coalescent analyses suggested genotypes D and L diverged ≈150 years ago and genotype diverged N ≈250 years ago. This virus commonly infects persons residing near enzootic transmission foci because of anthropogenic incursions. PMID:26401714

  10. Production optimization of sucker rod pumping wells producing viscous oil in Boscan field, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Guirados, C.; Sandoval, J.; Rivas, O.; Troconis, H.

    1995-12-31

    Boscan field is located in the western coast of Maracaibo lake and is operated by Maraven S.A., affiliate of Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. It has 315 active wells, 252 of which are produced with sucker rod pumping. Other artificial lift methods currently applied in this field are hydraulic (piston) pumping (39 wells) and ESP (24 wells). This paper presents the results of the production optimization of two sucker rod pumping wells of Boscan field producing viscous oil. This optimization has been possible due to the development of a new production scheme and the application of system analysis in completion design. The new production scheme involves the utilization of a subsurface stuffing box assembly and a slotted housing, both designed and patented by Intevep S.A., affiliate of Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. The completion design method and software used in the optimization study were also developed by Intevep S.A. The new production scheme and design method proved to be effective in preventing the causes of the above mentioned problems, allowing the increase of oil production under better operating conditions.

  11. Complete genome sequence of Streptomyces venezuelae ATCC 15439, a promising cell factory for production of secondary metabolites.

    PubMed

    Song, Ju Yeon; Yoo, Young Ji; Lim, Si-Kyu; Cha, Sun Ho; Kim, Ji-Eun; Roe, Jung-Hye; Kim, Jihyun F; Yoon, Yeo Joon

    2016-02-10

    Streptomyces venezuelae ATCC 15439, which produces 12- and 14-membered ring macrolide antibiotics, is a platform strain for heterologous expression of secondary metabolites. Its 9.05-Mb genome sequence revealed an abundance of genes involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites and their precursors, which should be useful for the production of bioactive compounds. PMID:26718561

  12. Assessing the Educational and Financial Needs of Small-Scale Dairy Farmers in Socopo, Venezuela. Summary of Research 64.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieto, Ruben D.; Henderson, Janet L.

    The process of transferring agricultural technology in many countries was studied to determine the perceived educational and financial needs of small-scale dairy farmers in Socopo, Venezuela. The following data were collected: (1) demographic characteristics--age, educational level, farm size, number of lactating cows, dairy farming experience,…

  13. Antifungal Susceptibilities, Varieties, and Electrophoretic Karyotypes of Clinical Isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans from Brazil, Chile, and Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Calvo, Belinda M.; Colombo, Arnaldo L.; Fischman, Olga; Santiago, A.; Thompson, L.; Lazera, Marcia; Telles, Flavio; Fukushima, Kazutaka; Nishimura, Kazuko; Tanaka, Reiko; Myiajy, Makoto; Moretti-Branchini, M. Luiza

    2001-01-01

    One hundred clinical isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and non-HIV-infected patients from Brazil, Chile, and Venezuela were separated according to varieties and tested for antifungal susceptibility. A high susceptibility to antifungal agents was observed among all the isolates. The electrophoretic karyotyping of 51 strains revealed good discrimination among Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans strains. PMID:11376089

  14. Preliminary assessment of a Cretaceous-Paleogene Atlantic passive margin, Serrania del Interior and Central Ranges, Venezuela/Trinidad

    SciTech Connect

    Pindell, J.L.; Drake, C.L. ); Pitman, W.C. )

    1991-03-01

    For several decades, Cretaceous arc collision was assumed along northern Venezuela based on isotopic ages of metamorphic minerals. From subsidence histories in Venezuelan/Trinidadian basins, however, it is now clear that the Cretaceous metamorphic rocks were emplaced southeastward as allochthons above an autochthonous suite of rocks in the Cenozoic, and that the pre-Cenozoic autochthonous rocks represent a Mesozoic passive margin. The passive margin rocks have been metamorphosed separately during overthrusting by the allochthons in central Venezuela, but they are uplifted but not significantly metamorphosed in Eastern Venezuela and Trinidad. There, in the Serrania del Interior and Central Ranges of Venezuela/Trinidad, Mesozoic-Paleogene passive margin sequences were uplifted in Neogene time, when the Caribbean Plate arrived from the west and transpressionally inverted the passive margin. Thus, this portion of South America's Atlantic margin subsided thermally without tectonism from Jurassic to Eocene time, and these sections comprise the only Mesozoic-Cenozoic truly passive Atlantic margin in the Western Hemisphere that is now exposed for direct study. Direct assessments of sedimentological, depositional and faunal features indicative of, and changes in, water depth for Cretaceous and Paleogene time may be made here relative to a thermally subsiding passive margin without the complications of tectonism. Work is underway, and preliminary assessments presented here suggest that sea level changes of Cretaceous-Paleogene time are not as pronounced as the frequent large and rapid sea level falls and rises that are promoted by some.

  15. Hydrolutos gransabanensis sp.n. (Orthoptera: Anostostomatidae), a new semi-aquatic Lutosini species from Gran Sabana (Venezuela).

    PubMed

    Derka, Tomás; Fedor, Peter; Svitok, Marek; Trizna, Milan

    2013-01-01

    Hydrolutos gransabanensis, a new species of Lutosini (Orthoptera: Anostostomatidae) from the cave Cueva El Tigre (Santa Elena de Uairén, SE Venezuela) is described and figured for both sexes. This is the first record of Hydrolutos species out of tepui systems. The genus is recently known by 6 apterous species from Venezuelan Guayana region. PMID:25243298

  16. On the National Geographical Condition Monitoring Several Strategic Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gui, D.; Lin, Z.; Zhang, C.; Liu, F.

    2012-08-01

    The state council of China approved national sustainable development strategy for land and natural resources research in the overall plan, presenting "building digital China, monitoring the national geographical conditions, developing geographical information industry, constructing surveying and mapping power Country," 24 character strategy. National geographical conditions monitoring is the new requirements of economic and social development, and also is important role and strategic tasks for surveying and mapping services to the scientific development of the sector initiative. In this paper, the content, main tasks and facing situation of national geographical conditions monitoring in China are elaborated analyzed. At last, several initiatives to promote national geographical situation monitoring realization, standardization and normalization are introduced. There are four parts in the paper as below.

  17. Development of Virtual Geographic Environments and Geography Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Fengru; Lin, Hui; Chen, Bin

    Geographic environment is a combination of natural and cultural environments under which humans survive. Virtual Geographic Environment (VGE) is a new multi-disciplinary initiative that links geosciences, geographic information sciences and information technologies. A VGE is a virtual representation of the natural world that enables a person to explore and interact with vast amounts of natural and cultural information on the physical and cultural environment in cyberspace. Virtual Geography and Experimental Geography are the two closest fields that associate with the development of VGE from the perspective of geography. This paper discusses the background of VGE, introduces its research progress, and addresses key issues of VGE research and the significance for geography research from Experimental Geography and Virtual Geography. VGE can be an extended research object for the research of Virtual Geography and enrich the contents of future geography, while VGE can also be an extended research method for Experimental Geography that geographers can operate virtual geographic experiments based on VGE platforms.

  18. Do geographically isolated wetlands influence landscape functions?

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Matthew J.; Creed, Irena F.; Alexander, Laurie; Basu, Nandita B.; Calhoun, Aram J. K.; Craft, Christopher; D’Amico, Ellen; DeKeyser, Edward; Fowler, Laurie; Golden, Heather E.; Jawitz, James W.; Kalla, Peter; Kirkman, L. Katherine; Lane, Charles R.; Lang, Megan; Leibowitz, Scott G.; Lewis, David Bruce; Marton, John; McLaughlin, Daniel L.; Mushet, David M.; Raanan-Kiperwas, Hadas; Rains, Mark C.; Smith, Lora; Walls, Susan C.

    2016-01-01

    Geographically isolated wetlands (GIWs), those surrounded by uplands, exchange materials, energy, and organisms with other elements in hydrological and habitat networks, contributing to landscape functions, such as flow generation, nutrient and sediment retention, and biodiversity support. GIWs constitute most of the wetlands in many North American landscapes, provide a disproportionately large fraction of wetland edges where many functions are enhanced, and form complexes with other water bodies to create spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the timing, flow paths, and magnitude of network connectivity. These attributes signal a critical role for GIWs in sustaining a portfolio of landscape functions, but legal protections remain weak despite preferential loss from many landscapes. GIWs lack persistent surface water connections, but this condition does not imply the absence of hydrological, biogeochemical, and biological exchanges with nearby and downstream waters. Although hydrological and biogeochemical connectivity is often episodic or slow (e.g., via groundwater), hydrologic continuity and limited evaporative solute enrichment suggest both flow generation and solute and sediment retention. Similarly, whereas biological connectivity usually requires overland dispersal, numerous organisms, including many rare or threatened species, use both GIWs and downstream waters at different times or life stages, suggesting that GIWs are critical elements of landscape habitat mosaics. Indeed, weaker hydrologic connectivity with downstream waters and constrained biological connectivity with other landscape elements are precisely what enhances some GIW functions and enables others. Based on analysis of wetland geography and synthesis of wetland functions, we argue that sustaining landscape functions requires conserving the entire continuum of wetland connectivity, including GIWs. PMID:26858425

  19. Automation technology using Geographic Information System (GIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Cynthia L.

    1994-01-01

    Airport Surface Movement Area is but one of the actions taken to increase the capacity and safety of existing airport facilities. The System Integration Branch (SIB) has designed an integrated system consisting of an electronic moving display in the cockpit, and includes display of taxi routes which will warn controllers and pilots of the position of other traffic and warning information automatically. Although, this system has in test simulation proven to be accurate and helpful; the initial process of obtaining an airport layout of the taxi-routes and designing each of them is a very tedious and time-consuming process. Other methods of preparing the display maps are being researched. One such method is the use of the Geographical Information System (GIS). GIS is an integrated system of computer hardware and software linking topographical, demographic and other resource data that is being referenced. The software can support many areas of work with virtually unlimited information compatibility due to the system's open architecture. GIS will allow us to work faster with increased efficiency and accuracy while providing decision making capabilities. GIS is currently being used at the Langley Research Center with other applications and has been validated as an accurate system for that task. GIS usage for our task will involve digitizing aerial photographs of the topology for each taxi-runway and identifying each position according to its specific spatial coordinates. The information currently being used can be integrated with the GIS system, due to its ability to provide a wide variety of user interfaces. Much more research and data analysis will be needed before this technique will be used, however we are hopeful this will lead to better usage of man-power and technological capabilities for the future.

  20. Do geographically isolated wetlands influence landscape functions?

    PubMed

    Cohen, Matthew J; Creed, Irena F; Alexander, Laurie; Basu, Nandita B; Calhoun, Aram J K; Craft, Christopher; D'Amico, Ellen; DeKeyser, Edward; Fowler, Laurie; Golden, Heather E; Jawitz, James W; Kalla, Peter; Kirkman, L Katherine; Lane, Charles R; Lang, Megan; Leibowitz, Scott G; Lewis, David Bruce; Marton, John; McLaughlin, Daniel L; Mushet, David M; Raanan-Kiperwas, Hadas; Rains, Mark C; Smith, Lora; Walls, Susan C

    2016-02-23

    Geographically isolated wetlands (GIWs), those surrounded by uplands, exchange materials, energy, and organisms with other elements in hydrological and habitat networks, contributing to landscape functions, such as flow generation, nutrient and sediment retention, and biodiversity support. GIWs constitute most of the wetlands in many North American landscapes, provide a disproportionately large fraction of wetland edges where many functions are enhanced, and form complexes with other water bodies to create spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the timing, flow paths, and magnitude of network connectivity. These attributes signal a critical role for GIWs in sustaining a portfolio of landscape functions, but legal protections remain weak despite preferential loss from many landscapes. GIWs lack persistent surface water connections, but this condition does not imply the absence of hydrological, biogeochemical, and biological exchanges with nearby and downstream waters. Although hydrological and biogeochemical connectivity is often episodic or slow (e.g., via groundwater), hydrologic continuity and limited evaporative solute enrichment suggest both flow generation and solute and sediment retention. Similarly, whereas biological connectivity usually requires overland dispersal, numerous organisms, including many rare or threatened species, use both GIWs and downstream waters at different times or life stages, suggesting that GIWs are critical elements of landscape habitat mosaics. Indeed, weaker hydrologic connectivity with downstream waters and constrained biological connectivity with other landscape elements are precisely what enhances some GIW functions and enables others. Based on analysis of wetland geography and synthesis of wetland functions, we argue that sustaining landscape functions requires conserving the entire continuum of wetland connectivity, including GIWs. PMID:26858425