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1

Nuevas adiciones de algas marinas para el Parque Nacional Mochima, Sucre, Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

The marine algal flora from the eastern coast of Mochima National Park, Sucre, Venezuela was studied with a total of 51 taxa identified, including eight new additions of red algae which are Erythrotrichia carnea (Dillwyn) J. Agardh, Sahlingia subintegra (Rosenvinge) Kornmann, Liagora ceranoides Lamouroux, Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile) Trevisan, Dasya corymbifera J. Agardh, Chondria dasyphylla (Woodward) C. Agardh, Herposiphonia secunda f.

Soraida Silva; Leonor Brito; Andrés Lemus

2

[New additions to the marine algae of Mochima National Park, Sucre, Venezuela].  

PubMed

The marine algal flora from the eastern coast of Mochima National Park, Sucre, Venezuela was studied with a total of 51 taxa identified, including eight new additions of red algae which are Erythrotrichia carnea (Dillwyn) J. Agardh, Sahlingia subintegra (Rosenvinge) Kornmann, Liagora ceranoides Lamouroux, Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile) Trevisan, Dasya corymbifera J. Agardh, Chondria dasyphylla (Woodward) C. Agardh, Herposiphonia secunda f. tenella (C. Agardh) M.J. Wynne and Polysiphonia subtilissima Montagne. Morphological and anatomical aspects of the specimens are described and illustrated. PMID:15264567

Silva, Soraida; Brito, Leonor; Lemus, Andrés

2003-06-01

3

[Susceptibility of M. tuberculosis to antituberculosis drugs as determined by two methods, in Sucre state, Venezuela].  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the resistance to isoniazid (INH), rifampicin (RIF), streptomycin (STR) and ethambutol (EMB), with the Canetti's proportions method (PM) and the nitrate reductase assay (NRA) of 59 clinical strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, isolated in the period of august 2005 to december 2006, in Sucre state, Venezuela. Primary and acquired drug resistance was 6.3% and 14.3%, respectively. Only one strain was found to be multidrug resistant (MDR). The overall agreement between the NRA and PM was 100% for INH, RIF and EMB, and 96% for STR. The time to obtain results was 10 to 14 days for the NRA, compared to 42 days for the PM. The NRA was easy to perform and therefore represents a useful tool for rapid and accurate determination of drug-resistant M. tuberculosis. The sequence of the rpoB gene of the RIF resistant strain demonstrated a never described mutation (change in the codon 456; TCG > CAG) in the hypervariable region of 81 base pairs where most of the mutations of the RIF resistant strains have been reported. Comparison of our results with those of the last resistance prevalence study carried out in the years 1998-1999, shows a decrease in the studied area. PMID:21365873

Mendoza, Rosmy; De Donato, Marcos; de Waard, Jacobus H; Takiff, Howard; Bello, Teresita; Chirinos, Gladys

2010-12-01

4

Experimental life cycle of Philophthalmus gralli (Trematoda: Philophthalmidae) in Venezuela.  

PubMed

Descriptions of the miracidium, mother redia, daughter redia, grandaughter redia, cercaria, metacercaria and adult stages of Philophthalmus gralli Mathis and Leger, 1910 recovered from experimental infections are presented. The intermediate host, Melanoides tuberculata, was collected from freshwater rivulets in Aguasanta and Yaguracual, Sucre State, Venezuela. Chicken were orally infected with cercariae and metacercariae, and metacercariae were introduced directly into the eyes by pipette. Both processes of infection produced adult worms. This is a new geographical record for P. gralli. PMID:12298291

Díaz, Marcos T; Hernández, Luz E; Bashirullah, Abul K

2002-06-01

5

Experimental life cycle of Philophthalmus gralli (Trematoda: Philophthalmidae) in Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

Descriptions of the miracidium, mother redia, daughter redia, grandaughter redia, cercaria, metacer- caria and adult stages of Philophthalmus gralli Mathis and Leger,1910 recovered from experimental infections are presented. The intermediate host, Melanoides tuberculata, was collected from freshwater rivulets in Aguasanta and Yaguracual, Sucre State, Venezuela. Chicken were orally infected with cercariae and metacer- cariae, and metacercariae were introduced directly into

Marcos T. Díaz; Luz E. Hernández; Abul K. Bashirullah

6

Prey composition in the carnivorous plants Utricularia inflata and U. gibba (Lentibulariaceae) from Paria Peninsula, Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carnivorous aquatic plants, genus Utricularia (Lentibulariaceae), capture small aquatic organisms, such as rotifers, copepods, and cladocerans, by means of anatomical structures named bladders. The present study aimed to determine prey size and composition in U. gibba and U. inflata, which were collected from a small lake and an herbaceous wetland, respectively, located in Paria Peninsula (Sucre State, Venezuela). Water pH,

Elizabeth Gordon; Sergio Pacheco

7

ALGUNOS ATRIBUTOS DE LA ESTRUCTURA COMUNITARIA DE LA ICTIOFAUNA DE LA LAGUNA GRANDE DE OBISPO, GOLFO DE CARIACO, VENEZUELA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Species composition, relative abundance, diversity and community structure of fishes were studied from monthly sampling during December 1995 to November1996 in the Laguna Grande de Obispo, Gulf of Cariaco, Sucre State, Venezuela. Sampling were realised in 3 stations inside the lagoon with a small beach seine and the other 4 stations with a large beach seine. Seventy four species belonging

Andrés Adolfo De Grado; Abul Bashirullah

8

Effects of the Lycopersicon chmielewskii sucrose accumulator gene ( sucr ) on fruit yield and quality parameters following introgression into tomato  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gene controlling fruit sucrose accumulation, sucr, was introgressed from the wild tomato species Lycopersicon chmielewskii into the genetic background of a hexose-accumulating cultivated tomato, L. esculentum. During introgression, the size of the L. chmielewskii chromosomal segment containing sucr was reduced by selection for recombination between RFLP markers for the sucr gene and flanking loci. The effects of sucr on

R. T. Chetelat; J. W. DeVerna; A. B. Bennett

1995-01-01

9

Patterns of Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Richness and Relative Abundance along an Aridity Gradient in Western Venezuela.  

PubMed

In xeric ecosystems, ant diversity response to aridity varies with rainfall magnitude and gradient extension. At a local scale and with low precipitation regimes, increased aridity leads to a reduction of species richness and an increased relative abundance for some ant species. In order to test this pattern in tropical environments, ant richness and relative abundance variation were evaluated along 35 km of an aridity gradient in the Araya Peninsula, state of Sucre, Venezuela. Three sampling stations comprising five transects each were set up. Pitfall traps and direct collecting from vegetation were assessed per transect. Overall, 52 species, 23 genera, and 7 subfamilies of ants were recorded in the peninsula. The total number of species and genera recorded by both sampling stations and transects decreased linearly with increasing aridity. Total relative abundance was highest in the most arid portion of the peninsula, with Crematogaster rochai (Forel) and Camponotus conspicuus zonatus (Emery) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) being the numerically dominant species. Spatial and multivariate analyses revealed significant changes in ant composition every 11 km of distance, and showed a decrease of ant diversity with the increase of harsh conditions in the gradient. Here, we discuss how local geographic and topographic features of Araya originate the aridity gradient and so affect the microhabitat conditions for the ant fauna. PMID:23949745

Pérez-Sánchez, A J; Lattke, J E; Viloria, A L

2012-12-21

10

LIVESTOCK FACILITIES AND POLLUTION OF WATER RESOURCES IN VENEZUELA: CURRENT STATUS  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The main objective of this paper was to analyze the current status of the relationship between livestock facilities in Venezuela and the pollution they can cause to water resources used for human or animal consumption. Briefly, it is informed about the geographic and economical situation in Venezuela, and about the high risks of ecosystems contamination with products derived from

Roy D. Meléndez; Yolanda Romero-Cazeaudumec; Francisco Blavia

11

Introgression into tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum ) of the L. chmielewskii sucrose accumulator gene ( sucr ) controlling fruit sugar composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

High sucrose concentration in fruit of Lycopersicon chmielewskii is governed by the recessive sucrose accumulator gene (sucr) that is situated in the pericentromeric region of chromosome 3. The sucr gene was introgressed into the genetic background of the hexose-accumulating cultivated tomato (L. esculentum cv ‘Hunt 100’) by marker-assisted selection using tightly linked RFLP markers and a tomato acid invertase cDNA

R. T. Chetelat; J. W. DeVerna; A. B. Bennett

1995-01-01

12

The eclipse from Venezuela  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The total solar eclipse of 1998 February 26 was seen in perfect conditions from Peninsula de Paraguana, Venezuela. Measurements were made of solar luminance before, during and after totality. A graph of the light levels is presented.

James, N. D.; Mason, J. W.

1998-06-01

13

[Secondary metabolites, lethality and antimicrobial activity of extracts from three corals and three marine mollusks from Sucre, Venezuela].  

PubMed

The study of biochemical activity of extracts obtained from marine organisms is gaining interest as some have proved to have efficient health or industrial applications. To evaluate lethality and antimicrobial activities, some chemical tests were performed on crude extracts of the octocorals Eunicea sp., Muricea sp. and Pseudopterogorgia acerosa and the mollusks Pteria colymbus, Phyllonotus pomum and Chicoreus brevifrons, collected in Venezuelan waters. The presence of secondary metabolites like alkaloids, unsaturated sterols and pentacyclic triterpenes in all invertebrates, was evidenced. Additionally, sesquiterpenlactones, saponins, tannins, cyanogenic and cardiotonic glycosides were also detected in some octocoral extracts, suggesting that biosynthesis of these metabolites is typical in this group. From the lethality bioassays, all extracts resulted lethal to Artemia salina (LC50<1000 microg/ml) with an increased of lethal activity with exposition time. P. pomum extract showed the highest lethality rate (LC50=46.8 microg/ml). Compared to the octocorals, mollusks extracts displayed more activity and a greater action spectrum against different bacterial strains, whereas octocorals also inhibited some fungi strains growth. Staphylococcus aureus was the most susceptible to the antimicrobial power of the extracts (66.7%), whereas Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger were not affected. The antibiosis shown by marine organisms extracts indicates that some of their biosynthesized metabolites are physiologically active, and may have possible cytotoxic potential or as a source of antibiotic components. PMID:20527468

Ordaz, Gabriel; D'Armas, Haydelba; Yáñez, Dayanis; Hernández, Juan; Camacho, Angel

2010-06-01

14

Giant fields of Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

Only 44 out of the nearly 300 oil fields discovered in Venezuela to the end of 1965 could be classified as giants, i.e., fields having resource of at least 100 million bbl of oil. Giant fields have been discovered in three of the sedimentary basins of the country. The average time lag for the recognition of an oil field as

1968-01-01

15

Mycobacterium tuberculosis ecology in Venezuela: epidemiologic correlates of common spoligotypes and a large clonal cluster defined by MIRU-VNTR-24  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis remains an endemic public health problem, but the ecology of the TB strains prevalent, and their transmission, can vary by country and by region. We sought to investigate the prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains in different regions of Venezuela. A previous study identified the most prevalent strains in Venezuela but did not show geographical distribution nor identify clonal

Edgar Abadía; Monica Sequera; Dagmarys Ortega; María Victoria Méndez; Arnelly Escalona; Omaira Da Mata; Elix Izarra; Yeimy Rojas; Rossana Jaspe; Alifiya S Motiwala; David Alland; Jacobus de Waard; Howard E Takiff

2009-01-01

16

Update on Chagas disease in Venezuela: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present article reviews the status of Chagas disease in Venezuela based on the detection of Trypanosoma cruzi infections both in referred patients with clinical presumptive diagnosis (1988-2002) and in individuals sampled from rural localities representative of the different geographical regions of the country (1995-2002). In the former group from 306 individuals examined, 174 (56.8%) were seropositive to T. cruzi;

Néstor Añez; Gladys Crisante; Agustina Rojas

2004-01-01

17

Astronomy in Venezuela  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the installation of the Observatorio Cagigal in Caracas, astronomy in Venezuela has developed steadily, and, in the last few decades, has been strong. Both theoretical and observational astronomy now flourish in Venezuela. A research group, Grupo de Astrofísica (GA) at the Universidad de Los Andes (ULA) in Mérida, started with few members but now has increased its numbers and undergone many transformations, promoting the creation of the Grupo de Astrofísica Teórica (CAT), and with other collaborators initiated the creation of a graduate study program (that offers master's and doctor's degrees) in the Postgrado de Física Fundamental of ULA. With the financial support of domestic Science Foundations such as CONICIT, CDCHT, Fundacite, and individual and collective grants, many research projects have been started and many others are planned. Venezuelan astronomy has benefitted from the interest of researchers in other countries, who have helped to improve our scientific output and instrumentation. With the important collaboration of national and foreign institutions, astronomy is becoming one of the strongest disciplines of the next decade in Venezuela.

Rosenzweig, Patricia

18

Geographic Visualization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geographic visualizations always played an important role in human history, especially in the earth sciences, long before\\u000a computer visualizations became popular. The earliest examples of geographic visualization even date back to the stone age\\u000a with map-like wall paintings depicting the surroundings of our ancestors. Since then cartography, the art and science of map-making,\\u000a has evolved continuously until today. This is

Martin Nöllenburg

2006-01-01

19

Improving exploration with geographical information system (GIS) technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Timely reliable access to data is required by Earth Scientists and Engineers evaluating geology, facilities, environment, and new business opportunities. Geographical Information System (GIS) technology has been recently implemented to provide efficient and comprehensive access to data for exploration work in Venezuela. The GIS allows rapid comparisons, queries, sorting, and evaluation of data that in the past required multiple hardware

P. B. Goodwin; M. R. Choiniere; F. W. Harris

1996-01-01

20

The Geographical \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statesmen respond to the world as they perceive and imagine it-which may not be the way the world really is. In the conduct of affairs over vast geographical spaces, such as those appropriate to present-day American foreign policy, the environmental \\

Alan K. Henrikson

1980-01-01

21

Geographical Theories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the origin of theories in geography and particularly the development of location theories. Considers the influence of economic theory on agricultural land use, industrial location, and geographic location theories. Explores a set of interrelated activities that show how the marketing process illustrates process theory. (MJP)|

Golledge, Reginald G.

1996-01-01

22

ALBA: A Political Tool for Venezuela’s Foreign Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite its founding by Hugo Chávez on the heels of the failed Free Trade Area for the Americas (FTAA) negotiations which took place November 2003, the Bolivarian Alliance for the Americas (ALBA, as it is known for its Spanish acronym) has evolved into a political tool that uses “social power” to facilitate Venezuela?s positioning as the leader of the anti-U.S.

Erich de la Fuente

2011-01-01

23

Paleoseismology in Venezuela: Objectives, methods, applications, limitations and perspectives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The privileged location of Venezuela along an active interplate deformation belt, despite of being a “so-called” developing country, has led to a long paleoseismic tradition as attested by 45 trench assessments since 1968. Since then, a first 2-trench study was carried out by the American Woodward Clyde company across the Oca fault at Sinamaica. Since 1980, all further paleoseismic studies have been performed by FUNVISIS and the Uribante Caparo hydroelectric project (southern Mérida Andes) became their first assessment where 22 huge trenches were bulldozer-dug. Except for these Compañía Anónima de Administración y Fomento Eléctrico (CADAFE) financed trenches and two others, all other assessments were for Petróleos de Venezuela S. A. —PDVSA . In this paper, geographic and geologic factors, as well as logistic limitations, conditioning success in paleoseismic studies by trenching, shall be discussed based on the Venezuelan experience developed over the years. The scientific contribution of this approach refer to: confirmation of Holocene fault activity, slip-per-event and average slip rate of a given fault (or segment), seismic potential (repeat of maximum credible earthquakes) of known faults, fault segmentation, fault interaction as consequence of stress loading by stick-slip on contiguous faults, time-space distribution of seismic activity along a given tectonic feature, seismotectonic association of historical earthquakes and landscape evolution on the short term and its implications on the long-term evolution (poorly discussed since this is really part of the field of Neotectonics). In recent years (since 1999), a new approach has been introduced in Venezuela consisting in complementing the seismic history derived from trenching studies with the evaluation of seismically induced perturbations in the continuous Quaternary sedimentary record of (either active or fossil) lakes. The future of this discipline in Venezuela heads to more trenching and lake coring in order to gather more data on the previously mentioned aspects. Other paleoseismic approaches have been developed very little in Venezuela since either climate or the geodynamic setting do not favor their application.

Audemard M., Franck A.

2005-10-01

24

The challenge of Venezuela: a SWOT analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Venezuela ranks fifth in the world in oil proven reserves and has the largest accumulation of liquid fuel in the world. With its importance as an oil country, many countries including the U.S. have expressed concerns about Venezuela’s current economic and political situation. Using the popular SWOT analysis, Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats facing the country, are identified. The discussion

Carolina Duarte; Lawrence P. Ettkin; Marilyn M. Helms; Michael S. Anderson

2006-01-01

25

Excerpts from Student Papers on Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

in Venezuela. By 1929, Venezuela was the world's second largest oil producer, after the U.S., and the world's largest oil exporter. In 1943, the Hydrocarbons Act reformed Venezuela's oil policy, closely tying oil profits to the state's income. Previously oil income was based on concessions, but the Hydrocarbons Act connected oil revenues to taxes on the mining companies. Foreign companies

Alexis Henry

26

[Diversity and abundance of mollusks in the sublittoral epifaunal community of Punta Patilla, Venezuela].  

PubMed

The diversity of a sublittoral epifaunal mollusk community of Punta Patilla, Sucre State, Venezuela, was studied from September 1990 to September 1991. We identified 25 species (14 bivalves and 11 gastropods) of mollusks that inhabit gravel, soft sand and bottoms covered by Thalassia testudinum. Total diversity indices were H' = 3.42. J' = 0.74 and 1-D = 0.85. Monthly diversity reached its maximum in March 1991 (3.12 bits/ ind.), June 1991 (2.88 bits/ind.) and September 1991 (2.95 bits/ind.); minimum diversity was recorded in August 1991 (1.20 bits/ind.). A log series model showed a diversity index alpha = 4.56 for species abundance data and alpha = 3.11 for biomass data. The more abundant species were Chione cancellata, Anigona listeri, Chione granulata and Area zebra among the bivalves, and Chicoreus brevifrons, Turritella variegata and Phllonotus pomum among the gastropods (which present maximum biomass). The average total biomass (56.80 g/m2) is low when compared to reports from other tropical zones. PMID:17354426

Prieto, Antulio; Ruiz, Lilia J; García, Natividad

27

[Susceptibility of Biomphalaria glabrata to Schistosoma mansoni from Venezuela and Brazil].  

PubMed

Schistosoma mansoni partially develops its life cycle into snails of the Family Planorbid. Biomphalaria glabrata represents an important host-intermediate. This paper reports experimental infection with miracidia vs. snail in sympatric and parapatric combination. The infection assay to sympatric combination were: BH snail (Belo Horizonte, Brasil) vs. a common geographic origin parasite, and Barbula, Carabobo State, Venezuela vs. SM Venezuela parasitic. The parapatric combination were: BH snail vs. SM; Barbula vs. BH; Caripe Monagas State, Venezuela vs. SM and Caripe vs. SM. During the study period was observed not miracid penetration. The infection percentage ranged from 88.89% in Barbula vs. SM combination to 0.00% in the Caripe vs. BH and BH vs. SM combination. We concluded which different existence of susceptibility from evaluated combination. PMID:10932760

Moreno Alvarez, M J; Delgado, V

28

Media and Consumerism in Venezuela.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Outlines opposing theories of the role of the commercial mass media in national economic development; reports on a survey of the attitudes of 636 adult residents of Barquisimeto, Venezuela, with respect to consumption, advertising, and national development, and shows how the results relate to the theory proposed by Daniel Lerner. (GT)|

Martin, Richard; And Others

1979-01-01

29

78 FR 58556 - Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Review)] Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela Determination On the...imports of silicomanganese from India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela would be likely to lead...entitled Silicomanganese from India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela: Investigation...

2013-09-24

30

[Chemical composition of essential oils from leaves of Helicteres guazumifolia (Sterculiaceae), Piper tuberculatum (Piperaceae), Scoparia dulcis (Arecaceae) and Solanum subinerme (Solanaceae) from Sucre, Venezuela].  

PubMed

Essential oils, biosynthesized and accumulated in aromatic plants, have a wide range of applications in the pharmaceutical health, cosmetics, food and agricultural industry. This study aimed to analyze the secondary metabolites in some plant species in order to contribute to their chemotaxonomy. Leaves from Helicteres guazumifolia, Piper tuberculatum, Scoparia dulcis and Solanum subinerme were collected and their essential oils were obtained by means of hydro-distillation. The oil fraction was analyzed and identified by GC/MS. The extraction yields were of 0.004, 0.032, 0.016 and 0.005%, and the oil constituents of 88.00, 89.80, 87.50 and 89.47%, respectively. The principal oils found were: non-terpenoids volatile secondary metabolites (30.28%) in H. guazumifolia; sesquiterpenoids (20.82 and 26.09%) and oxigen derivated (52.19 and 25.18%) in P. tuberculatum and S. dulcis; and oxigen diterpenoids (39.67%) in S. subinerme. The diisobuthylphtalate (13.11%) in H. guazumifolia, (-)-spathulenol (11.37%) in P. tuberculatum and trans-phytol (8.29 and 36.00%) in S. dulcis and S. subinerme, were the principal constituents in their respective essential oils. The diisooctylphtalate were the essential oil common to all species, but the volatile compounds such as trans-pinane, L-linalool, beta-ionone, isophytol, neophytadiene, trans-phytol, dibutylphtalate and methyl hexadecanoate, were only detected in three of these essences. This suggests that these plants may require similar secondary metabolites for their ecological interactions, possibly due to common environmental factors. PMID:21721229

Ordaz, Gabriel; D'Armas, Haydelba; Yáñez, Dayanis; Moreno, Shailili

2011-06-01

31

Histories of Geographical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper revisits the value of and justification for histories of geographical education as a field of research endeavour within geographical education. Four potentially fruitful areas of research are identified. These are pressure groups, especially the International Geographical Union's Commission on Geographical Education; the influence of…

Kent, Ashley

2006-01-01

32

Energy policies of the world: Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

Venezuela ranks fifth in the world in total oil output and 92 percent of its production in 1974 was exported, making it the third largest exporter after Saudi Arabia and Iran. No comprehensive energy policy has been reached yet, but important separate decisions by the government indicate policy directions. The use of energy in Venezuela has been conditioned by the

1975-01-01

33

Hyperreactive malarial splenomegaly in Venezuela.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional seroepidemiological survey seeking hyperreactive malarial splenomegaly was carried out in isolated Yanomami hamlets in Amazonas Territory in Venezuela. All 110 inhabitants greater than 1 year of age were evaluated clinically and 98 were studied immunologically. The spleen index for individuals greater than 10 years of age was 44%. Only 3 patients had Plasmodium spp. on thick blood smears. All had serological evidence of infection with Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax. Twenty-three patients were considered to show hyperreactive malarial splenomegaly. Clinical manifestations of the syndrome did not differ from those described in other parts of the world. PMID:3041852

Torres, J; Noya, O; Mondolfi, A; Peceño, C; Botto, C

1988-07-01

34

Geographic Information Systems, 1990.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Potential for geographic information systems in transportation planning and highway infrastructure management; Using geographic information system technology to enhance the pavement management process; Pavement management applications of GIS: A ...

N. C. Kassabian A. G. Tobias L. Caryton K. Solomon N. Solomon

1990-01-01

35

Republic of Venezuela. Country profile.  

PubMed

Venezuela's current economic and demographic situation is described. Venezuela is a major oil country, and the oil industry accounts for 90% of the country's foreign exchange, 70% of the government's revenues, and 15% of the gross domestic product. The economy experienced a sudden and high rate of economic growth in the mid-1970s as a result of high oil prices; however, in recent years, declining oil prices have had a negative effect on the economy. The country is now faced with a serious trade deficit, and the government recently imposed restrictions on imports. Imports in recently years had increased markedly. The emphasis on the oil industry weakened the agricultural sector and, as a result, food imports increased. In addition, the rapid economic growth experienced during the 1970s greatly increased the demand for imported consumer goods. Venezuela has the 4th highest foreign debt in the world (US$35 billion). Despite these problems Venezuela has a relatively high per capita income (US$4,140) and living standard, compared to other countries in the region. Venezuela's total population is 14.6 million, and the population is unevenly distributed. 86% of the population lives in cities of 2500 or more. 37.4% of the population and 70% of the industry is concentrated in the Federal District which contains Caracas, and in the surrounding states of Aragua, Miranda, and Carabobo. This area constitutes only 2.36% of the country's territory. Most of the oil fields are located in the state of Zulia which also contains the country's 2nd largest city (Maracaibo). The country's coastal area contains most of the agricultural lands, and the prairies just south of the coastal mountain ranges are devoted primarily to cattle raising. The remaining 58.2% of the country's territory is essentially jungle and contains only 6.9% of the country's population. The annual population growth rate is 3.11%. Although the rate declined in recent years it is higher than in most of the other countries in the region. In 1981, 1 million of the countrys, residents were foreign born. The oil industry attracted many immigrants, and illegal immigration is a serious problem. 41% of the population is under 15 years of age, the birth rate is 33-37, the death rate is 5, the infant mortality rate is 39, and life expectancy is 69 years. Average household size is 5.28. Family life is highly unstable. 32% of the couples are in informal unions, and these couples account for 52% of all births. 20% of the households are headed by low income women. The total fertility rate was 6.7 in 1961 and is currently 4.3. There are 3.2 million housing units, and 800,000 of these are classified as inadequate. 65% of the population is mestizo, 20% is European, and the remaining 15% are from various other countries or members of indigenous groups. The population is predominantly Catholic. The literacy rate is 83%; however, 71% of the males and 84% of the females in rural areas are illiterate. 31.5% of the population is in the labor force, and 27.5% of the labor force is female. 20% of the labor force is in the service sector and many of these work in the overgrown government bureaucracy. Only 15% of the labor force is engaged in the primary sector. 37% of the residents of Caracas and 80% of the country's rural residents live below the poverty level. PMID:12313690

Hakkert, R

1985-06-01

36

From Geographic Holism to Geographic Information System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substantial changes in a core idea of geography, integration, have occurred since Alexander von Humboldt published Kosmos (1845-1862). These changes are part of a larger shift in Western civilization to mechanistic reasoning. This shift led to the strengthening of system-based analysis, central to the development of geographic information systems (GIS). The duality of holism and the systems approach has led

Francis Harvey

1997-01-01

37

Geographical information science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. Research papers at conferences such as EGIS and the International Symposia on Spatial Data Handling address a set of intellectual and scientific questions which go well beyond the limited technical capabilities of current technology in geographical information systems. This paper reviews the topics which might be included in a science of geographical information. Research on these fundamental issues is

Michael F. Goodchild

1992-01-01

38

Environmental geographic information system.  

SciTech Connect

This document describes how the Environmental Geographic Information System (EGIS) was used, along with externally received data, to create maps for the Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement (SWEIS) Source Document project. Data quality among the various classes of geographic information system (GIS) data is addressed. A complete listing of map layers used is provided.

Peek, Dennis; Helfrich, Donald Alan; Gorman, Susan

2010-08-01

39

Ontologies of geographic information  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the notion of a system of ontologies specifically designed for the needs of an information science. A framework for geographic information ontologies is outlined that focuses on geographic information constructs rather than on the direct representation of real-world entities or on linguistic terms. The framework takes the form of a generative hierarchy anchored by the notion of

Helen Couclelis

2010-01-01

40

Ceuta-Tomoporo field, Venezuela  

SciTech Connect

Ceuta field is located in the southeastern part of the Maracaibo basin, western Venezuela. The field is a conspicuous high belonging to the Pueblo Viejo trend, a set of strike-slip faults trending northwest. The field has an area of 320 km and is divided into eight fault-bounded blocks where light- or medium-grade oil is being produced. The structural framework is characterized by a major left-slip fault and oil accumulations are associated with compressive and extensive structural features. The deposition of Eocene sediments in some areas may have been controlled by normal faulting and a period of shortening may have altered the character of some of the faults during the late Eocene or later. The main producing intervals are shallow-water marine or fluviodeltaic Miocene and Eocene sands with porosities ranging from 8 to 15% and a production potential of up to 3,500 BOPD from depths averaging 5,182 m (17,000 ft). The reservoirs seem to contain mixtures of hydrocarbons, probably due to the generation of oil in more than one oil kitchen and/or at different migration times from a common drainage area.

Puig, E.R.; Fernando Marcano, R. (Maraven S.A., Caracas (Venezuela))

1990-09-01

41

Improving exploration with geographical information system (GIS) technology  

SciTech Connect

Timely reliable access to data is required by Earth Scientists and Engineers evaluating geology, facilities, environment, and new business opportunities. Geographical Information System (GIS) technology has been recently implemented to provide efficient and comprehensive access to data for exploration work in Venezuela. The GIS allows rapid comparisons, queries, sorting, and evaluation of data that in the past required multiple hardware platforms, multiple software packages, paper plots, spreadsheets, and time. A vendor GIS database package formed the foundation. This GIS provided regional coverage for the entire country of Venezuela at a scale of 1:250,000. It included 36,000 wells and associated attributes, facilities, geologic maps, potential field data, and transportation networks. Essential with GIS, all of the data were transformed from multiple cartographic datums to a single map projection. Proprietary and other tabular databases were incorporated into the vendor GIS by Chevron, significantly upgrading the value of the system for company exploration. Tabular databases were either imported, linked or converted to the GIS. They included Nomad, Paradox, Oracle, Openworks, and PC-based spreadsheets containing wells, seismic, and geochemistry data. Nontabular data types incorporated into the GIS included digital outcrop log and paleosections, maps, other GIS data, Global Positioning System control points, satellite imagery and scanned photographs. The enhanced GIS has proven valuable for facilitating access to, and rapid and accurate evaluation of, large geographic areas with multiple data sources and types.

Goodwin, P.B.; Choiniere, M.R.; Harris, F.W. (Chevron Overseas Petroleum, Inc., San Ramon, CA (United States)) (and others)

1996-01-01

42

Cognitive models of geographical space  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews research in geographical cognition that provides part of the theoretical foundation of geographical information science. Free- standing researchstreams in cognitivescience, behavioural geography, and carto- graphy converged in the last decade or so with work on theoretical foundations for geographical information systems to produce a coherent research community that advances geographical information science, geographical information sys- tems, and

David M. Mark; Christian Freksa; Stephen C. Hirtle; Robert Lloyd; Barbara Tversky

1999-01-01

43

Assigning geographical focus to documents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geographical information becomes a kind of very important attribute for web documents, considering the fact that a large proportion of documents on the web contain geographical information. GIR (Geographical information retrieval) systems can identify those geographical information and extract the geographical focus in the documents automatically, hence supporting geo-related queries for information retrieval. Therefore, GIR has become a hot topic

Min Chen; Xing Lin; Yi Zhang; Xingguang Wang; Hao Yu

2010-01-01

44

Revised seismic history of the El Pilar fault, Northeastern Venezuela, from the Cariaco 1997 earthquake and recent preliminary paleoseismic results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In light of the July 9, 1997, Cariaco earthquake, it is clearly understood now that damage in the city of Cumaná located in northeastern Venezuela and frequently destroyed by the largest earthquakes since the first recorded event in 1530 is strongly enhanced by poor soil conditions that, in turn, are responsible for site amplification and widespread earthquake-induced effects. Therefore, most previous macroseismic studies of historical earthquakes must be revaluated because those localized high-intensity values at Cumaná surely led to the misestimation of past epicenters. Preliminary paleoseismic results, gathered at three exploratory trenches dug across the surface break of the Cariaco 1997 earthquake in 1998, allow us to associate the 1684 earthquake with this recently ruptured fault segment that extends between the towns of San Antonio del Golfo and Río Casanay (roughly between the two gulfs of Cariaco and Paria, state of Sucre). Other major results from the reassessment of the seismic history of this fault are: (a) the 1766 event seems to have generated in a different source to the El Pilar fault because the size of the felt area suggests that it is an intermediate-depth earthquake; (b) damage to Cumaná produced by the 1797 event suggests that this was a local earthquake, perhaps equivalent to the 1929 earthquake, which ruptured for some 30 km just east of Cumaná into the Gulf of Cariaco; and (c) seismogenic association of the 1530 and 1853 earthquakes still remains unclear but it is very likely that these ruptures occurred offshore, as suggested by the rather large tsunami waves that both events have generated, placing their hypocenters west of Cumaná in the Cariaco Trough. This reassessment also sheds light into the El Pilar fault segmentation and the behavior of its seismogenic barriers through time.

Audemard, Franck A.

2007-07-01

45

Geographical Pathology of Atherosclerosis,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The book presents results of investigations on the geographical pathology of atherosclerosis, conducted in various regions of the Soviet Union during the last 15 years. The methodology and program of study were developed on the initiative of the World Hea...

A. M. Vikhert B. S. Zhdanov E. E. Matova S. G. Aptekar

1987-01-01

46

Impacto humano sobre los carnívoros de Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty one species of Neotropical carnivores are found in Venezuela. Ten are considered in a critical situation and the Venezuelan government limits the capture of sex species by a present low population level. Up to now the distribution and habitat association of carnivores may have no positive or negative effect on human activities. Among candids the bush dog (Speothos venalicus)

Francisco J. Bisbal

1993-01-01

47

Country Analysis Briefs: Venezuela, January 2009.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Venezuela is one of the worlds largest exporters of crude oil and the largest in the Western Hemisphere. In 2007, the country was the seventh-largest net oil exporter in the world. The oil sector is of central importance to the Venezuelan economy: it acco...

2009-01-01

48

Mastery: A Lesson from Maria in Venezuela  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Children who have been born into poverty or into at-risk circumstances are often considered "disposable" and not a societal priority. These youngsters have few advocates and limited successful options in life. In the city of Maracaibo, Venezuela, there is a large population of Amerindians who are called Guajiros. These indigenous people have…

Powell, Sandra Anez; Powell, Norman W.

2012-01-01

49

Globalization and Health: Venezuela and Cuba  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the impact of globalization and neo-liberal reforms on the health of Venezuelans and Cubans during the 1980s and 1990s. It seeks to illustrate, through the lens of health care, how global economic forces affect national development and people's lives. Venezuela and Cuba struggled with severe economic crises and their health systems suffered. Cuba, however, was able to

George W. Schuyler

2002-01-01

50

Gravity Field and Plate Boundaries in Venezuela.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Free-air and simple Bouger anomaly maps of the Venezuelan continental margin are presented. The major features of the free-air map are: the large lows associated with the deep sedimentary basins, -200 mgal in the eastern Venezuela basin and -164 mgal in t...

R. A. Folinsbee

1972-01-01

51

Perspectives of CO2 Injection in Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

Venezuela's condensed and light and medium crude oil fields have been under exploitation for more than four decades using water and gas injection. To date, the expected recovery factors are about 30% and 45% of the OOIP for water and gas injection projects, respectively. Given the maturity of these resources, IOR projects will be required, but they have to be

E. Manrique; A. Ranson; V. Alvarado

52

Tityus perijanensis González-Sponga (Scorpiones, Buthidae): molecular assessment of its geographical distribution and venom lethality of Venezuelan populations.  

PubMed

An extensive field survey allowed us to expand the geographical distribution of the scorpion Tityus perijanensis in the Perijá range, western Zulia State, Venezuela, including areas where adult cases of severe scorpionism have been reported. 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing, DL(50) determination, and native PAGE suggest low genetic and venom proteomic divergence across the distribution range. The results also indicate phylogenetic divergence between T. perijanensis and T. discrepans, the species prevalent in northcentral Venezuela. T. perijanensis venom lethality (0.91-0.94 mg/kg) is comparable to that of the Brazilian T. serrulatus and ranks highest among toxic Venezuelan Tityus studied so far. The data indicate that the Perijá range should be included amongst the endemic areas of scorpionism of Venezuela and Colombia. PMID:17868753

Borges, Adolfo; Rojas-Runjaic, Fernando J M

2007-08-06

53

[Growth and survival of the green mussel P. viridis (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) in bottom culture conditions in Turpialito, Golfo de Cariaco, Venezuela].  

PubMed

Mussels represent one of the most important mollusk species for culture activities around the world, and their growth may depend on the culture system used and locality. In this study, we evaluated the growth of Perna viridis in bottom culture to test its performance when using natural food, and to decide its use as a culture species in the Gulf of Cariaco. For this, mussel seeds (35.81 +/- 1.41 mm in length) were obtained in the locality of Guaca (North coast of Sucre state) and transferred to the Hydrobiological Station of Turpialito, Gulf of Cariaco, Sucre state, Venezuela, where they were planted in "Spanish baskets" to evaluate their growth between July 2007 and February 2008. Monthly survival was determined and the maximum shell length, dry mass of muscle and remains tissues of the gonad. The environmental parameters (water temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll a, total seston and organic fraction), in the cultivation area were determined every 15 days. Monthly measurements were made of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates to seston. During the entire study the mussels showed continued growth, ultimately reaching a maximum length of 78.7 +/- 4.43 mm. However, the growth rate of the dry mass of somatic (muscle, other tissue) and reproductive tissues showed variability throughout the study, and observed a significant increase by the end of the experiment. The observed variations in the growth rate of the reproductive tissue mass depended on the reserves accumulated and food offered by the environment. The organic seston throughout the experience showed an independence of temperature and chlorophyll a values; this one maintained values above 1 mg/L, thus forming the main food resource for mussels. The high content of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates observed in the seston at the end of the study, might be mainly associated with coastal upwelling, which provides a great food contribution of phytoplankton and organic type. The high survival rate (>80%), increase in the length of the shell and the high gonad production, suggests an excellent physiological condition of P. viridis, related to the availability and quality of food particularly the organic type present in the medium. We concluded that the bottom culture can provide an alternative aquaculture production in the Gulf of Cariaco. PMID:23342526

Acosta, Vanessa; Montes, Marbelis; Cortez, Roraysi; Guevara, Miguel; Lodeiros, César

2012-12-01

54

Temporal and spatial patterns of malaria reinfection in northeastern Venezuela.  

PubMed

We stratified the risk of malaria transmission (Plasmodium vivax) in 35 villages along a coastal range in northeastern Venezuela (51 km2) where the main vector is the mosquito Anopheles aquasalis. After 20 years without local malaria transmission, reinfection of the entire area occurred from May to December 1985 by local (continuous) and jump (discontinuous) dispersal. Epidemiologic, environmental, and vector variables were investigated with the aid of a Geographic Information System. Risk factors for malaria transmission were human population density, proximity to pre-adult mosquito habitats (< 500 m), and the number of pre-adult habitats nearby. Most inhabitants, immature mosquito habitats, and malaria cases were located at low elevations and on gentle slopes. High prevalence of malaria during the dry seasons was associated with the presence of permanent bodies of water containing An. aquasalis. Occurrence of a La Niña event in 1988 (wet and cool phase of the El Niño Southern Oscillation) triggered malaria transmission to unusually high levels, consolidating infection in the area, and rendering traditional control efforts useless. We recommend tracking malaria persistence per village and associated risk factors as methods to reduce the cost of malaria control programs. PMID:10586913

Barrera, R; Grillet, M E; Rangel, Y; Berti, J; Aché, A

1999-11-01

55

Geographic Information Systems.  

PubMed

This chapter presents an overview of the development, capabilities, and utilization of geographic information systems (GIS). There are nearly an unlimited number of applications that are relevant to GIS because virtually all human interactions, natural and man-made features, resources, and populations have a geographic component. Everything happens somewhere and the location often has a role that affects what occurs. This role is often called spatial dependence or spatial autocorrelation, which exists when a phenomenon is not randomly geographically distributed. GIS has a number of key capabilities that are needed to conduct a spatial analysis to assess this spatial dependence. This chapter presents these capabilities (e.g., georeferencing, adjacency/distance measures, overlays) and provides a case study to illustrate how GIS can be used for both research and planning. Although GIS has developed into a relatively mature application for basic functions, development is needed to more seamlessly integrate spatial statistics and models.The issue of location, especially the geography of human activities, interactions between humanity and nature, and the distribution and location of natural resources and features, is one of the most basic elements of scientific inquiry. Conceptualizations and physical maps of geographic space have existed since the beginning of time because all human activity takes place in a geographic context. Representing objects in space, basically where things are located, is a critical aspect of the natural, social, and applied sciences. Throughout history there have been many methods of characterizing geographic space, especially maps created by artists, mariners, and others eventually leading to the development of the field of cartography. It is no surprise that the digital age has launched a major effort to utilize geographic data, but not just as maps. A geographic information system (GIS) facilitates the collection, analysis, and reporting of spatial data and related phenomena. The capabilities of GIS are much more than just mapping, although map production is one of the most utilized features. GIS applications are relevant in a tremendous number of areas ranging from basic geographic inventories to simulation models.This chapter presents a general overview of geographic information system topics. The purpose is to provide the reader with a basic understanding of a GIS, the types of data that are needed, the basic functionality of these systems, the role of spatial analysis, and an example in the form of a case study. The chapter is designed to provide advanced students and experts outside of the field of GIS sufficient information to begin to utilize GIS and spatial analytic concepts, but it is not designed to be the sole basis for becoming a GIS expert. There is a tremendous level of sophistication related to the digital cartographic databases and manipulation of those databases underlying the display and use of GIS that is more appropriately a part of geographic information science (i.e., basic research issues associated with geographic data including technical as well as theoretical aspects such as the impact on society [1]) rather than being relevant to this chapter. The utilization of GIS for conducting spatial analysis is the guiding theme for the chapter. PMID:20717487

Wieczorek, William F; Delmerico, Alan M

2009-01-01

56

Geographic Information Systems  

PubMed Central

This chapter presents an overview of the development, capabilities, and utilization of geographic information systems (GIS). There are nearly an unlimited number of applications that are relevant to GIS because virtually all human interactions, natural and man-made features, resources, and populations have a geographic component. Everything happens somewhere and the location often has a role that affects what occurs. This role is often called spatial dependence or spatial autocorrelation, which exists when a phenomenon is not randomly geographically distributed. GIS has a number of key capabilities that are needed to conduct a spatial analysis to assess this spatial dependence. This chapter presents these capabilities (e.g., georeferencing, adjacency/distance measures, overlays) and provides a case study to illustrate how GIS can be used for both research and planning. Although GIS has developed into a relatively mature application for basic functions, development is needed to more seamlessly integrate spatial statistics and models. The issue of location, especially the geography of human activities, interactions between humanity and nature, and the distribution and location of natural resources and features, is one of the most basic elements of scientific inquiry. Conceptualizations and physical maps of geographic space have existed since the beginning of time because all human activity takes place in a geographic context. Representing objects in space, basically where things are located, is a critical aspect of the natural, social, and applied sciences. Throughout history there have been many methods of characterizing geographic space, especially maps created by artists, mariners, and others eventually leading to the development of the field of cartography. It is no surprise that the digital age has launched a major effort to utilize geographic data, but not just as maps. A geographic information system (GIS) facilitates the collection, analysis, and reporting of spatial data and related phenomena. The capabilities of GIS are much more than just mapping, although map production is one of the most utilized features. GIS applications are relevant in a tremendous number of areas ranging from basic geographic inventories to simulation models. This chapter presents a general overview of geographic information system topics. The purpose is to provide the reader with a basic understanding of a GIS, the types of data that are needed, the basic functionality of these systems, the role of spatial analysis, and an example in the form of a case study. The chapter is designed to provide advanced students and experts outside of the field of GIS sufficient information to begin to utilize GIS and spatial analytic concepts, but it is not designed to be the sole basis for becoming a GIS expert. There is a tremendous level of sophistication related to the digital cartographic databases and manipulation of those databases underlying the display and use of GIS that is more appropriately a part of geographic information science (i.e., basic research issues associated with geographic data including technical as well as theoretical aspects such as the impact on society [1]) rather than being relevant to this chapter. The utilization of GIS for conducting spatial analysis is the guiding theme for the chapter.

Wieczorek, William F.; Delmerico, Alan M.

2009-01-01

57

Unequal Geographic Unequal Geographic Expectancy in Seoul.  

PubMed

This study examined life expectancies in 25 gus, administrative districts of Seoul, the capital of Korea, by gender in 1995, 2002, and 2008 to explore trends in mortality inequality among areas. The authors constructed single-decrement life tables and employed between-group variance, the Theil index, and mean log deviation to measure absolute and relative disparities in life expectancy among areas during the periods 1995-2002 and 2002-2008. It was found that life expectancy gaps between gus have widened in absolute and relative terms in both genders over the decade, and that this pattern was particularly dramatic in females after 2002. This increasing gap could be attributable to the more negative health impact on females since the late 1990s stemming from the economic crisis, eventually reflected in their places of residence. Thus, a social buffer system to narrow the health gap between geographic areas and social classes must be established. PMID:22535557

Kim, Sangmi; Yi, Seonju; Kim, Meekyung; Kim, Bokyung; Lee, Hwayoung; Jeon, Taekryeon; Cho, Youngtae

2012-05-01

58

Generation of geographical profile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To provide help for the police's investigation on serial criminals, we develop a mathematical model in the paper. First, we use Inherently Continuous Model and Improved Kinetic Model to generate the offender's geographical profile. However, there is a difference in two models' results. For better synthesizing the difference, we develop a Combination Model and generate a new geographical profile. As a result, we estimate the offender's location and carry on a series of analysis. What's more, the models created can be applied in other fields, such as market's investigation, military operations and so on.

Shen, Zhi-Bin; Zhang, Yuan-Biao; Liang, Kai-Fa; Lu, Zhen-Xing

2010-08-01

59

Geographic tongue and tenofovir.  

PubMed

A 55-year-old male patient with chronic hepatitis B was started on tenofovir. One month after initiating the new medication, he developed severe symptomatology with odynophagia and a very painful tongue. The physical examination reveals multiple erythematous patches on his tongue and a biopsy was performed. It allowed the diagnosis of benign migratory glossitis or geographic tongue. The patient was kept on tenofovir, but had to start topical corticoid therapy. Geographic tongue is a common condition that may be caused by drug idiosyncrasy, but has never before been associated to tenofovir. It is usually asymptomatic, but sometimes it causes severe symptoms, being an important impairment of quality of life. PMID:23598934

Ferreira, Alexandre Oliveira; Marinho, Rui Tato; Velosa, José; Costa, João Borges

2013-04-17

60

Generating Approximate Geographic Descriptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Georeferenced data sets are often large and complex. Natural Language Generation (NLG) systems are beginning to emerge that generate texts from such data. One of the challenges these systems face is the gener- ation of geographic descriptions referring to the location of events or patterns in the data. Based on our studies in the domain of me- teorology we present

Ross Turner; Somayajulu Sripada; Ehud Reiter

2010-01-01

61

Geographical Distribution of Phreatoicus  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE occurrence of the isopod Phreatoicus in a fresh-water stream near Cape Town, in South Africa, as recorded in your issue of June 12 by Mr. Keppel H. Barnard, is of very considerable interest from the point of view of the geographical distribution of the group. Since I described the first species of the genus in 1884 our knowledge of

Chas. Chilton

1913-01-01

62

NCSR: Geographic Information Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provides a lecture-only format and master copies for overhead transparencies suitable for a wide variety of disciplines using introductions to GIS. Topics include GIS use in analysis and natural resource management decision making, basic geographical concepts and GIS, spatial databases, digital data sources, raster and vector models, "networks and 'fuzzy logic,'" and map analysis.

Benefiel, Art

2007-05-01

63

Chernobyl: Geographic considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the geographic considerations that could effect the long range consequences of the Chernobyl accident. First, the explosion and fire lofted the radionuclides that were released, so the areas that should have been most severely effected were the areas that were downwind of the accident. Curiously, the Soviets have not mentioned the number of casualties from these areas.

Micklin

1986-01-01

64

Download Geographic Data  

Cancer.gov

The section includes Microsoft Excel (.xls) or comma-delimited text (.txt) files that provide county, state economic area (SEA), and state codes and names. There are individual files for each of the three geographic region types, as well as one file relating the three to each other.

65

e-Science initiatives in Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the context of the nascent e-Science in- frastructure in Venezuela, we describe several web- based scientific applications developed at the Cen- tro Nacional de C´ alculo Cient´ifico Universidad de Los Andes (CECALCULA), Merida, and at the Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cient´ificas (IVIC), Caracas. The different strategies that have been followed for implementing quantum chemistry and atomic physics applications are

J. L. Chaves; G. Diaz; V. Hamar; R. Isea; F. Rojas; N. Ruiz; Rodrigo Torrens; Maylett Uzcategui; Julio Flórez-lópez; H. Hoeger; C. Mendoza; Luis A. Núñez

2007-01-01

66

Thermal modeling in Ceuta, Maracaibo Basin, Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrocarbon generation from Upper Cretaceous source rocks (Fm.La Luna) in Ceuta, center-eastern Maracaibo lake area in Venezuela, is modeled here, using a kinetic method and the conventional Time-Temperature Index (TTI) procedure. Geological evolution, burial and erosional history is based on available interpretation of 3D seismic and well data. Fragmentary present-day subsurface temperature data comes from corrected measurements in a few

F. Marcano; S. Padron

1993-01-01

67

National Geographic: Coffee  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This artful National Geographic website serves up a virtual cup of coffee legends and information. The website is better suited for coffee novices than experts, as it provides mostly introductory information about this widely loved beverage. Site features include brief descriptions of significant moments in coffee history (beginning in Ethiopia around A.D. 800), an overview of basic roasts, and statistics for top coffee-producing countries (with links to country maps). The site contains a National Geographic magazine article about coffee from 1981; a list of related books and articles; and links to related websites. Site visitors will also find a Coffee Talk forum, which has not seen much activity in the past year, but has the potential to be a center for coffee-related conversation on the Web.

68

National Geographic: Blue Whales  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As a cameraman leans in to get a shot of a blue whale, this massive creature glides through the water off of Costa Rica. That's the opening photograph that visitors to this interactive article from National Geographic are presented with, and it's a rather amazing image. This interactive article and feature is derived from a March 2009 feature in the print edition of National Geographic magazine, and it features the photography of Flip Nicklin and the writing of Ken Brower. The article offers an in-depth look into the recovery of the blue whale population off the coast of Costa Rica in recent years, and along the way visitors can stop off to take a look at a special photo gallery, take a quiz on these remarkable creatures, and also watch a video the provides the story behind one of Nicklin's photographs.

Brower, Ken; Nicklin, Flip

69

National Geographic Explorer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Geographic Society has long been known for its flagship publication magazine, but they also have several other well-known public outreach programs such as their television programs. One such publication with a significant educational outreach program is the National Geographic Explorer magazine, which is geared for grades three through six. This particular website contains a host of valuable resources that complement the print magazine, many of which may be used as standalone materials to aid in learning about various topics, such as environmental degradation and wildlife. The site contains a number of educational games, such as one that asks students to identify various Ice Age animals, and others that ask students to find various topical words within a crossword. The "Kid Stuff" area is quite a find as well, containing a virtual coloring book, a map-making machine, and a photo of the day feature. Finally, there's a feedback section where people can send along ideas for future stories.

70

National Geographic: Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many people have fond memories of the special maps created as inserts placed in the National Geographic magazine from time to time. This rather special section of the National Geographic's website provides interested parties with a dazzling array of thematic maps that document the European exploration of North America, ecological zones, and the world of the poet Basho. Visitors might do well to start by looking over the "Editors' Picks" area. Here they will find atlas jigsaw puzzles to play online and "EarthPulse: A Visual Guide to Trends." The "EarthPulse" area includes vital statistics about global population trends, economic opportunity, and more. The site also includes the "Atlas Explorer", which allows users to explore detailed political maps of the USA, Africa, Europe, and the world's oceans.

2012-01-13

71

National Geographic: Environment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Environment section of the National Geographic website has so many photos, quizzes, blogs, games and news to learn from and enjoy, that visitors will probably have to make a number of return visits. For those with only a little time, visitors absolutely must check out the link "News Blog: Greatest Nature Photos" under the "Environment News" heading near the top of the page. There visitors will see several of the 40 greatest nature photos that were chosen by a conservation photography organization in celebration of Earth Day 2010. "Test your Earth IQ" quizzes on backyard birds, Yosemite, pollution, natural disasters, and going green will keep visitors plenty busy, and the quizzes are also a great way to learn something new. The "NG in the Field" section reports on the grantees of National Geographic grants. Some of the projects include, "Big Cats Initiatives", "Blue Holes Project", and "Quintana Roo Underwater Cave Project."

2010-05-14

72

National Geographic News  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Every science enthusiast will find countless, fascinating stories at this National Geographic website. The news site covers stories related to adventure and exploration, archaeology and paleontology, kids' news, science and technology, people and culture, the environment, and travel. Users can discover Special Series which cover emerging explorers, oceans, the pulse of the planet, and so much more. The incredible images warrant a visit all by themselves.

73

The Dairy Technology System in Venezuela. Summary of Research 79.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the agricultural technology system in Venezuela with emphasis on the dairy industry. An analytical framework was used to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the following components of Venezuela's agricultural technology system: policy, technology development, technology transfer, and technology use. Selected government…

Nieto, Ruben D.; Henderson, Janet L.

74

The Dairy Technology System in Venezuela. Summary of Research 79.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study examined the agricultural technology system in Venezuela with emphasis on the dairy industry. An analytical framework was used to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the following components of Venezuela's agricultural technology system: policy, technology development, technology transfer, and technology use. Selected government…

Nieto, Ruben D.; Henderson, Janet L.

75

Venezuela Country Set (1992). Foreign Economic Trends Report (December 1991).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report outlines the current economic situation and trends for Venezuela. It begins with a table of key economic indicators for the years 1989-1991. For U.S. exporters, Venezuela is a significant market. It ranks behind Mexico as the second largest in ...

1992-01-01

76

PRIMER REGISTRO DE LA FAMILIA PELAGORNITHIDAE (AVES: PELECANIFORMES) PARA VENEZUELA  

Microsoft Academic Search

First record of Pelagornithidae family from Venezuela. Pelagornithidae (Aves: Pelecaniformes) family is registered from Ve- nezuela. The specimen comes from Cave of Zumbador, which is developed in Middle Miocene limestone of the Capadare Formation exposed in Ce- rro Misión eastern Falcón state, Venezuela. The discovery of this specimen represents the first record of a vertebrate fossil for Capadare Formation and

Ascanio D. RINCÓN; Marcelo STUCCHI

77

Geographic Literacy and Young Learners.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses concerns about geographic illiteracy and research on children's formation of geographic concepts. Elaborates five themes for teaching geography to young children: location, place, human-environment interaction, movement, and region. (Contains 17 references.) (SK)

Schoenfeldt, Melinda

2001-01-01

78

Venezuela after a century of oil exploitation Chapter for the book Venezuela: Anatomy of a Collapse  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter reviews the Venezuelan oil sector's performance and compares it with the performance of the oil sector of similar oil producing countries. Oil fiscal revenue per capita evolution in the last 30 years has resembled that of the Venezuela GDP per capita. After three decades of sustained growth, it collapsed in the eighties and it has not recovered since.

Osmel Manzano

79

The mathematics of geographic profiling  

Microsoft Academic Search

We begin by describing some of the mathematical foundations of the geographic profiling problem. We then present a new mathematical framework for the geographic profiling problem based on Bayesian statistical methods that make explicit connections between assumptions on o ender behavior and the components of the mathematical model. It also can take into account local geographic features that either influence

Mike O'Leary

2009-01-01

80

Volunteered Geographic Information in Wikipedia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Volunteered geographic information (VGI) refers to the geographic subset of online user-generated content. Through Geobrowsers and online mapping services, which use geovisualization and Web technologies to share and produce VGI, a global digital commons of geographic information has emerged. A notable example is Wikipedia, an online…

Hardy, Darren

2010-01-01

81

Venezuela after a century of oil exploitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This chapter,reviews,the Venezuelan,oil sector’s performance,and compares,it with the performance,of the oil sector,of similar,oil producing,countries. Oil fiscal revenue,per capita evolution,in the last 30 years has resembled,that of the Venezuela,GDP per capita. After three decades of sustained growth, it collapsed in the eighties and it has not recovered,since. The chapter,will argue that the main,reason,for this performance,of the oil sector was unchanged,policy

Osmel Manzano

82

National Geographic Traveler  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The staff at the National Geographic Traveler magazine knows a thing or two about travel, and their print magazine is full of thoughtful suggestions about where to go in Providence, how to wander around in Bangkok, and the lighthouses of Croatia. Sprinkled across the top of the web page, visitors will find topical areas, which include "Photo of the Week", "Intelligent Travel Blog", and "Newsletter". The "Intelligent Travel Blog" is a great place to start, and there are posts on an annual worm charming festival in the United Kingdom and the value of travel for school-age children. The "Photo of the Week" features dhow boats racing, the Singapore waterfront, and other visual gems. Also, visitors can check out their archives, sign up to receive their newsletter, and subscribe to the print edition of the magazine.

83

Analyzing geographic clustered response  

SciTech Connect

In the study of geographic disease clusters, an alternative to traditional methods based on rates is to analyze case locations on a transformed map in which population density is everywhere equal. Although the analyst's task is thereby simplified, the specification of the density equalizing map projection (DEMP) itself is not simple and continues to be the subject of considerable research. Here a new DEMP algorithm is described, which avoids some of the difficulties of earlier approaches. The new algorithm (a) avoids illegal overlapping of transformed polygons; (b) finds the unique solution that minimizes map distortion; (c) provides constant magnification over each map polygon; (d) defines a continuous transformation over the entire map domain; (e) defines an inverse transformation; (f) can accept optional constraints such as fixed boundaries; and (g) can use commercially supported minimization software. Work is continuing to improve computing efficiency and improve the algorithm. 21 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

Merrill, D.W.; Selvin, S.; Mohr, M.S.

1991-08-01

84

Canadian Geographic Atlas Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Online atlases vary widely in quality, but this latest project from the Royal Canadian Geographical Society is a laudable production both in terms of its organization and also its multi-layered content. This highly interactive atlas allows users to explore all of Canada's landforms and boundaries through a pop-up atlas browser that includes a sophisticated, yet easy-to-use, interface tool by which users can zoom in or out, measure distances, and even print out the maps they create. Some of the additional features let users explore the country thematically by region (such as the Boreal Shield) or by the dynamic theme of "Extremes of Weather". There is even a "Kid's Atlas", which is specifically designed for young people with the hope that they will also learn a great deal about Canadian places and geography. Much of the material on the site is also available in French.

85

Using gazetteers to annotate geographic catalog entries  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gazetteer is a geographical dictionary containing a list of geographic names, together with their geographic locations and other descriptive information. A geographic metadata catalog holds metadata describing geographic information resources, stored in a wide variety of sources, ranging from the researchers' personal computers to large public databases. This paper argues that unique characteristics of geographic objects can be explored

Daniela Francisco Brauner; Marco Antonio casanova; Karin Koogan Breitman; Luiz Andr'e P Leme

2006-01-01

86

Fine-Tuning Geographical Profiling  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Geographical profiling is an investigative technique that analyzes the spatial pattern of a related series of crime locations\\u000a in order to predict the location of the offender’s residence. After explaining how today’s geographical profiling works, it\\u000a is argued that such profiling may be improved if characteristics of the offense, the offender, and geographical circumstances\\u000a are taken into account. Following that,

Jasper J. van der Kemp; Peter J. van Koppen

87

El Fenomeno Chavez: Hugo Chavez of Venezuela, Modern Day Bolivar.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hugo Chavez, the charismatic and controversial President of Venezuela, reached the ultimate seat of political power with his election as head of state in 1998. Carefully cultivating the image of an impoverished Venezuelan youth reaching the highest politi...

J. M. Post

2007-01-01

88

Western Venezuela Power Generation Expansion Study. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Power Tech Associates conducted this study in 2003 to determine the feasibility of creating additional power generating capacity at ENELVEN's Ramon Laguna facility in Maracaibo, Venezuela. As part of the investigation existing units are assessed and alter...

2003-01-01

89

Trypanosoma cruzi III from armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus novemcinctus) from Northeastern Venezuela and its biological behavior in murine model. Risk of emergency of Chagas' disease.  

PubMed

Trypanosoma cruzi, etiological agent of Chagas' disease, was isolated from armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus novemcinctus) captured in rural communities Northeastern Venezuela from Nueva Esparta State (no endemic for Chagas' disease), Monagas and Anzoátegui States (endemics). The isolates, genetically typed by PCR-RFLP as belonging to the TcIII DTU, have demonstrated in murine model heterogenic parasitemia, mortality and histotropism with marked parasitism in cardiac, skeletal, and smooth myocytes that showed correlation with lymphobasophilic inflammatory infiltrates. Our finding of T. cruzi infected armadillos in Isla Margarita (Nueva Esparta State), together with reports of triatomine vectors in this region, the accentuated synanthropy of armadillos, intense economic activity, migration due to tourism and the lack of environmental education programs all of them represent risks that could cause the emergence of Chagas' disease in this area. This is the first report of the TcIII DTU in Northeastern Venezuela, thus widening the geographic distribution of this DTU. PMID:22902748

Morocoima, Antonio; Carrasco, Hernán J; Boadas, Johanna; Chique, José David; Herrera, Leidi; Urdaneta-Morales, Servio

2012-08-10

90

Petroleum resources of Venezuela and Trinidad and Tobago  

SciTech Connect

The status of known and ultimately recoverable crude oil and natural gas resources of the Federal Republics of Venezuela, and Trinidad and Tobago (hereafter referred to as Trinidad) is set forth in this report. The rates that oil resources may be available to world markets are also covered in the report. A section on the petroleum geology of the region is included. The Republics of Venezuela and Trinidad share a common and ancient petroleum history. Over a century of exploration and development have resulted in the cumulative production of nearly 39 billion barrels of oil from Venezuela and over 2 billion barrels from Trinidad. Both republics have passed their peak status as oil producers. Venezuela reached its peak as the second largest producer in the world in the mid-fifties, and Trinidad attained its highest status as the eighth largest oil producer in the early forties. The report concludes that Venezuela and Trinidad have depleted slightly less than one-half of their ultimately recoverable crude oil resources. Based on feasible production rates and estimates of remaining recoverable resources, nearly two-thirds of Venezuela's oil resources and about three-fourths of Trinidad's oil resources may be depleted by the year 2000. The natural gas resources of both countries are underutilized and underdeveloped.

Not Available

1983-07-01

91

Coloring geographical threshold graphs  

SciTech Connect

We propose a coloring algorithm for sparse random graphs generated by the geographical threshold graph (GTG) model, a generalization of random geometric graphs (RGG). In a GTG, nodes are distributed in a Euclidean space, and edges are assigned according to a threshold function involving the distance between nodes as well as randomly chosen node weights. The motivation for analyzing this model is that many real networks (e.g., wireless networks, the Internet, etc.) need to be studied by using a 'richer' stochastic model (which in this case includes both a distance between nodes and weights on the nodes). Here, we analyze the GTG coloring algorithm together with the graph's clique number, showing formally that in spite of the differences in structure between GTG and RGG, the asymptotic behavior of the chromatic number is identical: {chi}1n 1n n / 1n n (1 + {omicron}(1)). Finally, we consider the leading corrections to this expression, again using the coloring algorithm and clique number to provide bounds on the chromatic number. We show that the gap between the lower and upper bound is within C 1n n / (1n 1n n){sup 2}, and specify the constant C.

Bradonjic, Milan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Percus, Allon [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Muller, Tobias [EINDHOVEN UNIV. OF TECH

2008-01-01

92

Geographic Categories: An Ontological Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the results of a series of experiments designed to establish how non-expert subjects conceptualize geospatial phenomena. Subjects were asked to give examples of geographic categories in response to a series of differently phrased elicitations. The results yield an ontology of geographic categories—a catalogue of the prime geospatial concepts and categories shared in common by human subjects independently

Barry Smith; David M. Mark

2000-01-01

93

Japanese nationalism and geographical thought  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been simultaneous emergence in many countries of the world of political disputes over aspects of national history in the 1990s. Geographical knowledge has political implications. Hence it is concerned with the formation of national identity as well as historical knowledge. This paper examines the relationships between Japanese modernisation and geographical thought, the characteristics of school textbooks and geopolitics

Akihiko Takagi

1998-01-01

94

GEOGRAPHIC INDEX OF ENVIRONMENTAL ARTICLES  

EPA Science Inventory

This index was produced in accordance with the "Environmental Research Geographic Location Act," Public Law 101-617, enacted by the U.S. Congress on Nov. 16, 1990. ompiled by EPA, it is a quick reference for finding published articles about environmental issues for geographic loc...

95

Adaptive Cartography and Geographical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The article focuses on adaptive cartography and its potential for geographical education. After briefly describing the wider context of adaptive cartography, it is suggested that this new cartographic approach establishes new demands and benefits for geographical education, especially in offering the possibility for broader individual…

Konecny, Milan; Stanek, Karel

2010-01-01

96

Geographic Tongue in Two Siblings  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report two illustrative cases of geographic tongue which occurred in 6- and 4-year-old sisters whose father had fissured tongue. The elder sister had mild atopic dermatitis and nail changes, but there was no family history suggestive of psoriasis. Histologically, the geographic tongue in the elder sister showed the same features as the oral lesions in pustular psoriasis. From a

Yoko Kuramoto; Takayosi Tadaki; Naohiro Hatchome; Hachiro Tagami

1987-01-01

97

Geographic Education in Mexican Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Do Mexico's schools provide geographic learning opportunities to students and does equal opportunity to learn exist? The site for this study was Baja California's school district of Ensenada. Geographic education in urban primary and secondary schools was examined. School administrators and select teachers from 40 schools were asked about time…

Prentice, Murray; Fredrich, Barbara

98

Digital shaded-relief map of Venezuela  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Digital Shaded-Relief Map of Venezuela is a composite of more than 20 tiles of 90 meter (3 arc second) pixel resolution elevation data, captured during the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) in February 2000. The SRTM, a joint project between the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), provides the most accurate and comprehensive international digital elevation dataset ever assembled. The 10-day flight mission aboard the U.S. Space Shuttle Endeavour obtained elevation data for about 80% of the world's landmass at 3-5 meter pixel resolution through the use of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) technology. SAR is desirable because it acquires data along continuous swaths, maintaining data consistency across large areas, independent of cloud cover. Swaths were captured at an altitude of 230 km, and are approximately 225 km wide with varying lengths. Rendering of the shaded-relief image required editing of the raw elevation data to remove numerous holes and anomalously high and low values inherent in the dataset. Customized ArcInfo Arc Macro Language (AML) scripts were written to interpolate areas of null values and generalize irregular elevation spikes and wells. Coastlines and major water bodies used as a clipping mask were extracted from 1:500,000-scale geologic maps of Venezuela (Bellizzia and others, 1976). The shaded-relief image was rendered with an illumination azimuth of 315? and an altitude of 65?. A vertical exaggeration of 2X was applied to the image to enhance land-surface features. Image post-processing techniques were accomplished using conventional desktop imaging software.

Garrity, Christopher P.; Hackley, Paul C.; Urbani, Franco

2004-01-01

99

Whither Geographic Information Science? The Varenius Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper introduces a special issue of the journal on the subject of Project Varenius, a three-year effort funded by the US National Science Foundation to advance geographic information science. Geographic information is first defined as an abstraction of primitive tuples linking geographic locations to general descriptors. Geographic concepts originate in the human mind, and are instantiated in geographic

Michael F. Goodchild; Max J. Egenhofer; Karen K. Kemp; David M. Mark; Eric Sheppard

100

PENNSYLVANIA GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM LIBRARY  

EPA Science Inventory

PENNSYLVANIA GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM (GIS) LIBRARY OFFERS AT A SCALE OF 1:24,000 FROM USGS TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS DIGITIZED COUNTY, COUNTY PARK, STATE PARK, AND STATE GAMELAND BOUNDARIES FOR THE COMMONWEALTH OF PENNSYLVANIA....

101

Geographic Information Systems: A Primer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

GIS offer a computer-based method for systematically recording, storing, retrieving, analyzing, and portraying geographically referenced information. New techniques for spatial analyses are also provided that range from multi-layer stacking and interpreta...

B. E. Davis K. L. Schultz

1990-01-01

102

Geographical Parthenogenesis: Opportunities for Asexuality  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Asexual organisms often occupy larger and more northern distribution areas than their sexual relatives. These phenomena, summarized\\u000a under the term “geographical parthenogenesis”, seem to confirm a short term advantage of asexual reproduction. Geographical\\u000a parthenogenesis may be explained by better colonizing abilities of asexual organisms, or by a swamping of sexual populations\\u000a because of introgression of asexuality. Asexual organisms may perform

Elvira Hörandl

103

Geographical categories: an ontological investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the results of a series of experiments designed to establish how non-expert subjects conceptualize geospatial phenomena. Subjects were asked to give examples of geographical categories in response to a series of diŒerently phrased elicitations. The results yield an ontology of geographical categories—a catalogue of the prime geospatial concepts and categories shared in common by human subjects independently

Barry Smith; David M. Mark

2001-01-01

104

Geographical proximity and scientific collaboration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geography, economic, socio-political and language are considered to be factors that effect the level of research collaboration. However, to-date no technique has been developed to isolate the effect of geographical proximity from the other factors. This paper presents a methodology for specifically examining geographical effects on intra-national scientific collaboration. An investigation of intra-national university-university collaboration in Canada, Australia and the

J. S. Katz

1994-01-01

105

Geographic media literacy: an introduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a media saturated world of globalization, information flow and knowledge economies, an interesting paradox exists: geographic\\u000a literacy appears to be on the decline while geographic information is on the rise. In this introduction to a collection of\\u000a essays on geographies of the media, we explore this paradox and use Baudrillard’s (1994) work on Simulacra and Simulation to argue that

Chris Lukinbeal; Jim Craine

2009-01-01

106

Tertiary evolution of the northeastern Venezuela offshore  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the northeastern offshore Venezuela, the pre-Tertiary basement consists of a deeply subducted accretionary complex of a Cretaceous island arc system that formed far to the west of its present location. The internal structure of this basement consists of metamorphic nappes that involve passive margin sequences, as well as oceanic (ophiolitic) elements. The Tertiary evolution of the northeastern Venezuela offshore is dominated by Paleogene (Middle Eocene-Oligocene) extension and Neogene transtension, interrupted by Oligocene to Middle Miocene inversions. The Paleogene extension is mainly an arc-normal extension associated with a retreating subduction boundary. It is limited to the La Tortuga and the La Blanquilla Basins and the southeastern Margarita and Caracolito subbasins. All of these basins are farther north of and not directly tied to the El Pilar fault system. On a reconstruction, these Paleogene extensional systems were located to the north of the present day Maracaibo Basin. By early Miocene the leading edge of the now overall transpressional system had migrated to a position to the north of the Ensenada de Barcelona. This relative to South America eastward migration is responsible for the Margarita strike-slip fault and the major inversions that began during the Oligocene and lasted into the Middle Miocene. The Bocono-El Pilar-Casanay-Warm Springs and the La Tortuga-Coche-North Coast fault systems are exclusively Neogene with major transtension occurring during the Late Miocene to Recent and act independently from the earlier Paleogene extensional system. They are responsible for the large Neogene transtensional basins of the area: the Cariaco trough, the Northern Tuy-Cariaco and the Paria sub-basins, and the Gulf of Paria Basin. This latest phase is characterized by strain-partitioning into strike slip faults, a transtensional northern domain and a transpressional southern domain that is responsible for the decollement tectonics and/or inversions of the Serrania del Interior and its associated Monagas foreland structures. Part of the latest (Middle Miocene to Recent) phase is the formation of a large arch that corresponds to the Margarita-Testigos-Grenada zone which perhaps was subject to mild lithospheric compression during the Plio-Pleistocene.

Ysaccis B., Raul

1998-12-01

107

New advances in molecular epizootiology of canine hematic protozoa from Venezuela, Thailand and Spain.  

PubMed

The prevalence of hematozoan infections (Hepatozoon canis and Babesia sp., particularly Babesia canis vogeli) in canids from Venezuela, Thailand and Spain was studied by amplification and sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene. H. canis infections caused simultaneously by two different isolates were confirmed by RFLP analysis in samples from all the geographic regions studied. In Venezuela, blood samples from 134 dogs were surveyed. Babesia infections were found in 2.24% of the dogs. Comparison of sequences of the 18S rRNA gene indicated that protozoan isolates were genetically identical to B. canis vogeli from Japan and Brazil. H. canis infected 44.77 per cent of the dogs. A representative sample of Venezuelan H. canis isolates (21.6% of PCR-positives) was sequenced. Many of them showed 18S rRNA gene sequences identical to H. canis Spain 2, albeit two less frequent genotypes were found in the sample studied. In Thailand, 20 dogs were analyzed. No infections caused by Babesia were diagnosed, whereas 30 per cent of the dogs were positive to hematozoan infection. Two protozoa isolates showing 99.7-100% identity to H. canis Spain 2 were found. In Spain, 250 dogs were studied. B. canis vogeli infected 0.01% of the animals. The sequence of the 18S rRNA gene in Spanish isolates of this protozoa was closely related to those previously deposited in GenBank (> 99% identity). Finally, 20 red foxes were screened for hematozoans employing semi-nested PCR and primers designed to detect Babesia/Theileria. Fifty percent of the foxes were positive to Theileria annae. In addition, it was found that the PCR assay was able as well to detect Hepatozoon infections. Thirty five percent of the foxes were infected with two different H. canis isolates showing 99.8-100% identity to Curupira 1 from Brazil. PMID:17088022

Criado-Fornelio, A; Rey-Valeiron, C; Buling, A; Barba-Carretero, J C; Jefferies, R; Irwin, P

2006-11-07

108

Digital geologic map and GIS database of Venezuela  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The digital geologic map and GIS database of Venezuela captures GIS compatible geologic and hydrologic data from the 'Geologic Shaded Relief Map of Venezuela,' which was released online as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2005-1038. Digital datasets and corresponding metadata files are stored in ESRI geodatabase format; accessible via ArcGIS 9.X. Feature classes in the geodatabase include geologic unit polygons, open water polygons, coincident geologic unit linework (contacts, faults, etc.) and non-coincident geologic unit linework (folds, drainage networks, etc.). Geologic unit polygon data were attributed for age, name, and lithologic type following the Lexico Estratigrafico de Venezuela. All digital datasets were captured from source data at 1:750,000. Although users may view and analyze data at varying scales, the authors make no guarantee as to the accuracy of the data at scales larger than 1:750,000.

Garrity, Christopher P.; Hackley, Paul C.; Urbani, Franco

2006-01-01

109

A new species of Corydalus Latreille from Venezuela (Megaloptera, Corydalidae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract A new species of dobsonfly, Corydalus wanningeri, from Venezuela, is described and illustrated. It superficially resembles Corydalus neblinensis Contreras-Ramos, with a uniform reddish coloration of body and wings. Yet, because of male genitalic structure it might be closely related to Corydalus crossi Contreras-Ramos. Specimens were collected from a rain forest transitional zone between the Orinoco lowlands and the Gran Sabana plateau, in Bolívar state. This is the 15th species of Corydalus to be recorded from Venezuela, rendering this the country with the highest number of documented Corydalus species. A key to the sexually dimorphic, long-mandibled Venezuelan species of the genus is provided.

Contreras-Ramos, Atilano; von der Dunk, Klaus

2010-01-01

110

Drought, Famine, and Geographic Diversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many Americans have heard of Ethiopia only in the context of drought, famine, and war. As they listen to the news stories, it is important for students to recognize that the media portrayals of Ethiopia are not always complete and that Ethiopia is, in fact, a geographically diverse country, including forests, grasslands, and the Blue Nile. This lesson will teach students about Ethiopia's different geographic regions. They will map the Blue Nile and Lake Tana; research and answer questions about geographical regions, climate, and agriculture of Ethiopia; research and answer questions about the current drought in Ethiopia; and write magazine articles explaining to Americans some of the things they might not have realized about Ethiopia and why it might be a good idea to learn more about the country.

111

CARTECH: A Prototype of Geographical Information System  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper all major issues related to definition, design and implementation of a prototype of the geographical information system CARTECH are presented and discussed. The prototype proposes solutions for the most important requirements for geographical information systems (GIS). Namely, the double nature (spatial and descriptive) of geographical data, the fact that querying geographical information usually involves the specification of

Franco Arcieri; Enrico Nardelli; Maurizio Talamo

1994-01-01

112

National Geographic Features: Inside Tornadoes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Geographic describes Tim Samaras and two colleagues' success in observing the bottom 30 feet of a tornado with a wisely placed camera. While users can only read the entire article by purchasing the National Geographic, the multimedia materials are amazing. Users can view images of the storm chasers at work. Everyone will enjoy the videos of the storm chasers setting up, the tornado moving over the camera, and Tim Samaras's descriptions of storm chasers' lives and tools. The website offers facts about tornadoes as well as websites and books where users can find more information.

113

The National Seismological Network of Venezuela, Future Aims and Goals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Venezuelan coastline mainly coincides with the plate tectonic boundary between the Caribbean and South American plate. The relative movement is accomodated in numerous west - east trending sub-parallel faults. The Venezuelan Andes are dominated by the broad southwest-northeast trending Bocono fault system. This plate tectonic setting causes a wide range of seismic activity in Venezuela. Among the various phenomenons

N. Orihuela; H. Rendon; G. Romero; R. Lopez; M. Sobiesiak; L. Ottemoeller; G. Tovar

2001-01-01

114

Late Pleistocene carbonate dissolution in the Venezuela Basin, Caribbean Sea  

SciTech Connect

Piston cores from water depths greater than 4000 m in the Venezuela Basin (Caribbean Sea) provide continuous late Pleistocene records of carbonate dissolution and accumulation. The authors examination of multiple dissolution indices indicate that, at least for the last 150,000 years, dissolution of carbonate in the Venezuela Basin has been more intense during interglacial than glacial periods, a pattern opposite to more general observations from the deep Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico. By virtue of its shallow sill depth (1815 m), the Venezuela Basin is relatively isolated from the mainstream of Atlantic thermohaline circulation, and presently is filled with homogeneous, relatively warm (3.8/sup 0/C) waters primarily derived from Upper North Atlantic Deep Water. During the last glacial, the enhanced preservation of carbonate in the Venezuela Basin suggests the presence of a less corrosive, more oxygenated water mass in the Atlantic near sill depth. However, this simple interpretations is potentially complicated by past changes in the rain of biogenic materials from surface waters to the deep basin in what must be an essentially closed system below sill depth. Their observations of increased interglacial dissolution may help to explain previously noted discrepancies in the local glacial to interglacial amplitude of delta/sup 18/O variations recorded by coccoliths and planktonic foraminifera.

Cofer-Shabica, N.B.; Peterson, L.C.

1985-01-01

115

Molecular epidemiologic source tracking of orally transmitted Chagas disease, Venezuela.  

PubMed

Oral outbreaks of Chagas disease are increasingly reported in Latin America. The transitory presence of Trypanosoma cruzi parasites within contaminated foods, and the rapid consumption of those foods, precludes precise identification of outbreak origin. We report source attribution for 2 peri-urban oral outbreaks of Chagas disease in Venezuela via high resolution microsatellite typing. PMID:23768982

Segovia, Maikell; Carrasco, Hernán J; Martínez, Clara E; Messenger, Louisa A; Nessi, Anaibeth; Londoño, Juan C; Espinosa, Raul; Martínez, Cinda; Alfredo, Mijares; Bonfante-Cabarcas, Rafael; Lewis, Michael D; de Noya, Belkisyolé A; Miles, Michael A; Llewellyn, Martin S

2013-07-01

116

UN CASO CLÍNICO DE MIONEUROPATÍA ALCOHÓLICA EN MÉRIDA, VENEZUELA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A clinical case of alcoholic myoneuropathy in Mérida, Venezuela. Alcohol may induce lesions at scheletical striated muscles producing toxic miopathies due to the indiscriminate and long time consumption of this social drug. A clinical case is presented: A male patient, 48 years age, chronic alcoholic (20 years evolution), admitted by the Internal Medicine Service, presenting the syndrome of alcoholic abstinence.

Manuel Méndez García; Elisnel Cáceres; Antonio Pérez Colmenares; Pedro José Salinas

117

Assessing Whether Oil Dependency in Venezuela Contributes to National Instability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of this article is on what role, if any, oil has on Venezuela's instability. When trying to explain why a resource-rich country experiences slow or negative growth, experts often point to the resource curse. The following pages explore the traditional theory behind the resource curse as well as alternative perspectives to this theory such as ownership structure and

Adam Kott

2012-01-01

118

Aqua regia extractable trace elements in surface soils of venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface soils (0–15 cm) were sampled at 10–20 km intervals along two transects in Venezuela. One (1162 km, 70 samples) ran west to east parallel with the Caribbean coastline, the other (920 km, 92 samples) ran south to north from the frontier with Brazil to the Caribbean shore. Sampling took place in both a wet and a dry season. Trace

B. E. Davies; Claudio Bifano; K. M. Phillips; J. L. Mogollon; M. Torres

1999-01-01

119

[Epidemiology of ophidism in Venezuela (1996-2004)].  

PubMed

The data of accidents caused by snakebites in Venezuela, registered at the morbidity statistics of the Direction of Epidemiology and Strategic Analysis of the Ministry of Health and Social Development were analyzed. During the years of 1996-2004, 53,792 snakebites were registered in Venezuela (5,976 cases average per year), with a higher incidence during the year 2004 (7,486 incidents). Zulia reported the highest frequency of all the states (5,975 cases); meanwhile the Midwestern region, constituted by Lara, Portuguesa, Falc6n and Yaracuy states, had a higher morbidity for snake bites. The highest incidence, distributed per states was registered in Cojedes, during the year 2001, with 228.72 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. When it was determined by regions, the highest incidence occurred during the year 2004 at los Llanos with 63.81 per 100,000 inhabitants. The median of the incidence rate for Venezuela during the period was of 21.46 accidents per 100,000 inhabitants. The classification of the endemic areas for ophidism, according to the percentiles 23, 50, 75 and 90, organized the country in: (a) states and regions of very high endemicity, (b) high endemicity, (c) middle, (d) low and (e) very low endemicity. These epidemiological data indicated that the accidents caused by snakes constitute a collective health problem in Venezuela. PMID:23947002

De Sousa, Leonardo; Bastouri-Carrasco, Jessica; Matos, Mercedes; Borges, Adolfo; Bónoli, Stefano; Vásquez-Suárez, Aleikar; Guerrero, Belsy; Rodríguez-Acosta, Alexis

2013-06-01

120

Magnetic fabric of peridotite with intersecting petrofabric surfaces, Tinaquillo, Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two intersecting structural surfaces of different ages and origins are characteristic of the Tinaquillo (Venezuela) peridotite. An older penetrative mylonitic foliation is cut by younger serpentine veinlets. The anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) is influenced by both petrofabric components. The dominant fabric surface from the AMS perspective is defined by serpentine veinlets, probably because of the abundant secondary magnetite associated

W. D. MacDonald; Brooks B. Ellwood

1988-01-01

121

Poverty rates in Venezuela: getting the numbers right.  

PubMed

This article looks at household and individual poverty rates in Venezuela over the past seven years. For more than a year, the statement that poverty in Venezuela has increased under the government of President Hugo Chávez has appeared in scores of major newspapers, on major television and radio programs, and even in publications devoted to foreign policy. There are no data to support such statements, and in fact the available data show a decline in poverty for both individuals and households over the seven-year period: the percentage of people in poverty declined from 50 percent in the first quarter of 1999 to 43.7 percent in 2005. Further, there is no evidence to suggest any change in the methodology for measuring poverty during this period, as has been alleged in a number of reports. The article also examines briefly the impact of significant changes in non-cash benefits such as free health care, which are not taken into account in the measured poverty rate, on poor people in Venezuela. Finally, the authors look at how the mistakes in reporting on Venezuela's poverty rate were made; an appendix gives examples of mistakes in major media and foreign policy publications. PMID:17175848

Weisbrot, Mark; Sandoval, Luis; Rosnick, David

2006-01-01

122

Medical Genetics in Zulia, a State of Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zulia is a state located in the northwest of Venezuela. Congenital malformations, deformities and chromosomal anomalies are the second cause of infant and neonatal mortality. There are seven public and private groups providing genetic services, the most important of which, the Medical Genetic Unit at the Zulia University was created in 1973. So far, this unit has provided genetic services

Sandra González-Ferrer; Lennie Pineda-Bernal; Wilmer Delgado-Luengo; Heber Villalobos-Cabrera

2004-01-01

123

The Market for Building Products and Construction Equipment in Venezuela.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The market research was undertaken to study the present and potential US share of the market in Venezuela for building products and construction equipment; to examine growth trends in Venezuelan end-user industries over the next few years; to identify spe...

1976-01-01

124

Oil and development in Venezuela during the Twentieth Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book provides a useful contribution to data on national income accounts and balance-of-payments statistics of Venezuela from 1910 to 1990. The author provides a brief introduction to theories of the relation between the growth of exports and economic development. He believes that positive effects of export growth include increased efficiency in the rest of the economy, increased national income

J. Salazar-Carrillo; R. D. Cruz

1994-01-01

125

Epidemiological aspects of human and canine visceral leishmaniasis in Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To report recent data on the distribution of human and canine visceral leishma- niasis (VL) in Venezuela, and to highlight problems associated with effective control measures. Methods. We report the number of cases, incidence rate, age and sex distribution, and mor- tality rates for human VL (HVL) for the period of 1995 through 2000, based on National Reg- istry

Olga Zerpa; Marian Ulrich; Rafael Borges; Vestalia Rodríguez; Marta Centeno; Emilia Negrón; Doris Belizario; Jacinto Convit

2003-01-01

126

Geology and geochemistry of crude oils, Bolivar Coastal Fields, Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bolivar Coastal Fields (BCF) are located on the eastern margin of Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela. They form the largest oil field outside of the Middle East and contain oil which is mostly heavy with a gravity less than 22° API. Lake Maracaibo is now in an intermontane basin enclosed on three sides by the Andes Mountains. The area has a

M. Bockmeulen; C. Barker; P. A. Dickey

1983-01-01

127

Geology and geochemistry of crude oils, Bolivar coastal fields, Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bolivar Coastal Fields (BCF) are located on the eastern margin of Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela. They form the largest oil field outside of the Middle East and contain mostly heavy oil with a gravity less than 22° API. Thirty crude oils from the BCF were collected along two parallel and generally southwest-northeast trends. These oils were characterized by their API

H. Bockmeulen; C. Barker; P. A. Dickey

1983-01-01

128

SOIL SURVEY GEOGRAPHIC DATABASE (SSURGO)  

EPA Science Inventory

This data set is a digital soil survey and is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. This data set consists of georeferenced digital map data and computerized attribute data. The map data are in a 7.5 minute quadrangle ...

129

Spatial Cognition and Geographical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the influence of teaching styles and curriculum on development of geographic concepts in children. Implications of this influence for geography curriculum development are examined. Available from: Sydney Teachers College, P.O. Box 63, Camperdown, N.S.W. 2050, Australia. (Author/DB)

Stringer, W. N.

1976-01-01

130

WHATEVER HAPPENED TO GEOGRAPHIC CARTOGRAPHY?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative decline of geographic cartography in the past several decades is based more on convenience and circumstance than on theoretical justification. Contemporary split-brain studies reveal much about brain lateralization in human beings and shed dramatic new light on the essential role visualization plays in creative, productive thought. Opportunities made possible by recent developments in remote sensing and computer mapping

Phillip C. Muehrcke

1981-01-01

131

Geographic medicine and clinical microbiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of a computer program for simulation, diagnosis and informatics in Geographic Medicine and Clinical Microbiology. The GIDEON (Global Infectious Diseases and EpidemiOgy Network) software follows the status of all infectious diseases and pathogens in all countries; in addition to the pharmacology and use of all antiinfective agents and vaccines in the field.

Stephen A. Berger

1998-01-01

132

La dinámica político-territorial de Venezuela, los planes de ordenamiento y el ingreso petrolero Territorial planning, oil income and the political territorial dinamics in Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Venezuela, whenever the oil income has risen, efforts have been made to revert the concentration of population. This strategy is caused by a supposed hyper concentration of population that is questionable when compared to international indicators. The actual government of Venezuela copies these previous attempts. It promotes new axis of development with huge inversions; even though the distributive dynamics

133

Seismological Parameters in the Northern Andes, Venezuela  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Venezuelas tectonic setting as part of the plate boundary between the Caribbean and the South American plate causes two major seismologically active fault systems: the roughly west - east trending strike slip fault system along the coast with numerous sub-parallel faults and the Bocono fault system, which dominates the Venezuelan southwest - northeast striking Andes. The main Bocono fault reaches a total length of about 500 km and has a width of approximately 100 km between the southern and northern baseline of the mountain slopes which are marked by inverse faults. This is believed to be due to strain partitioning, a concept which seems to apply as well to the Bocono fault system. The whole fault system is characterized by a high seismicity rate of small scale and intermediate event magnitudes ranging from 1.5 to 6.3 in the last fifty years. In this study we would like to present an investigation on 39 focal mechanism solutions and a b-value mapping of the Andean region with the main goal to throw light on the stess and strain situation. For recompiling the focal memchanisms calculated from first motion polarities, various sources had to been used: seismograms from stations of the local and regional networks of the Seismological Center of ULA, the national seismic network operated by FUNVISIS, the seismic network Lago Maracaibo of PDVSA and the local seismic network of DESURCA. For the b-value mapping we used the two catalogues of ULA and DESURCA of which the last one registered more than 6500 events from 1994 to 1999. The set of focal mechanism solutions studied showed normal, strike slip, and reverse faulting mechanisms concentrated in distinct areas of the Bocono fault system and thus resulting in a zonation also supported by the determinations of the azimuths of the maximum horizontal stress SHmax. This hypothesis of the zonation of the Andes region is strongly supported by the results of the b-value mapping. The zonation as seen in the varying major stress and strain axes is also exhilbited in the spacial distribution of the b-values. Remarkable is especially a zone in the north - eastern part of the study area with a cluster of normal fault events which is congruent with the maximum b-values observed in the b-value map.

Sobiesiak, M.; Palme de Osechas, C.; Choy, J. E.; Morandi S., M. T.; Campo, M.; Granado Ruiz, C.

2001-12-01

134

National States Geographic Information Council  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With the exponential growth in geographic information systems (GIS) across the United States, there are a number of organizations with an interest in coordinating a variety of activities around the sustained growth and management of these various systems. One such group is the National States Geographic Information Council (NSGIC). With members drawn from the federal government, academia, and the private sector, the Council is committed to advocating on behalf of these state GIS agencies in the interest of creating efficient and accessible databases. A good place to start on their website is the ÂHot Topics area, which provides access to their blog and information about some of their latest initiatives, which include those that address homeland security and topographic accuracy. Additionally, visitors can also learn more about their events and conferences, and also about membership opportunities.

135

Spatially coded semantic information about geographical terms.  

PubMed

The cognitive representations supporting our conceptual knowledge of geographical terms such as country and city names have rarely been explored. It has been hypothesised that semantic information about geographical terms is spatially coded (Crutch & Warrington, 2003). The aim of the current study was to assess whether the findings from this previous single case study generalise to other patients and to different classes of geographical terms. Two globally aphasic stroke patients were administered a series of spoken word to written word matching tasks in which they had to repeatedly identify places from the same geographical area (e.g. Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland) or different geographical areas (e.g. Norway, India, Spain, Brazil). The patients replicated previous findings by showing that response accuracy was significantly affected by the real-world geographical proximity of the places being examined. Error rates were significantly higher when identifying geographically close as compared with geographically distant countries and cities. They were also significantly less accurate identifying the names of towns in Greater London drawn from the same geographical area (e.g. northwest, northeast, southwest, southeast) than from different geographical areas. Furthermore, it was found that geographical proximity effects occurred even between different types of geographical terms (e.g. England, London, Surrey, Thames). These results suggest that the comprehension of spoken and written geographical terms is directly influenced by their real-world location. PMID:20385150

Crutch, Sebastian J; Warrington, Elizabeth K

2010-04-10

136

Geographic Analysis of Cultural Consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this chapter, the authors make use of a large database on ticket sales relating to the performing arts in London to investigate\\u000a the propensities at which different sociodemographic groups use cultural provision and to develop an ecological model of attendance\\u000a which includes derived variables relating to the geographical accessibility of purchasing addresses and commuting patterns.\\u000a They find that the

Orian Brook; Paul Boyle; Robin Flowerdew

137

Geographic Trends in Invasive Candidiasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Candida species are one of the most important causes of bloodstream infection (BSI) in tertiary-care hospitals worldwide. The incidence\\u000a of candidemia and the Candida species causing these infections may vary geographically. Although C. albicans remains the species most commonly isolated, there is clear evidence showing increasing rates of BSI caused by Candida non-albicans species around the world. C. glabrata is

Angela S. Nishikaku; Analy S. A. Melo; Arnaldo L. Colombo

2010-01-01

138

Geographic names of the Antarctic  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This gazetteer contains 12,710 names approved by the United States Board on Geographic Names and the Secretary of the Interior for features in Antarctica and the area extending northward to the Antarctic Convergence. Included in this geographic area, the Antarctic region, are the off-lying South Shetland Islands, the South Orkney Islands, the South Sandwich Islands, South Georgia, Bouvetøya, Heard Island, and the Balleny Islands. These names have been approved for use by U.S. Government agencies. Their use by the Antarctic specialist and the public is highly recommended for the sake of accuracy and uniformity. This publication, which supersedes previous Board gazetteers or lists for the area, contains names approved as recently as December 1994. The basic name coverage of this gazetteer corresponds to that of maps at the scale of 1:250,000 or larger for coastal Antarctica, the off-lying islands, and isolated mountains and ranges of the continent. Much of the interior of Antarctica is a featureless ice plateau. That area has been mapped at a smaller scale and is nearly devoid of toponyms. All of the names are for natural features, such as mountains, glaciers, peninsulas, capes, bays, islands, and subglacial entities. The names of scientific stations have not been listed alphabetically, but they may appear in the texts of some decisions. For the names of submarine features, reference should be made to the Gazetteer of Undersea Features, 4th edition, U.S. Board on Geographic Names, 1990.

U.S. Board on Geographic Names; U.S. Geological Survey; Defense Mapping Agency; National Science Foundation; Compiled and edited by Alberts, Fred G.

1995-01-01

139

Snippet Generation for Geographic Information Retrieval  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geographic information retrieval (GIR) aims at the retrieval of geographic-related documents based through the use of not only on keyword relevance but also on geographic relationships between the query and the geographic information in the texts. However, how to show search results in GIR has not been studied well, especially with regard to generating snippets that reflect the geographic part of the query. This paper proposes a novel snippet generation method. Our method first converts geographic phrases in the target text into geographic coordinates, then scores each of them according to their distance from the query using the coordinates. Next, it extracts fragments of the target text based on the distribution of the query keyword and geographic scores, and presents the combined fragments as a snippet. Evaluations are conducted with regard to two different aspects. Both attributes confirm the effectiveness of our method.

Toda, Hiroyuki; Yasuda, Norihito; Okumura, Manabu; Matsuura, Yumiko; Kataoka, Ryoji

140

Introduction to distributed geographic information processing research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distributed geographic information processing (DGIP) refers to the processing of geographic information across dispersed processing units through computer networks and other communication channels. DGIP has become increasingly important in the past decade with the popularization of computer networks, the growth of distributed data repositories, and the collaboration of researchers, developers, and users among multiple disciplines using geographic information. DGIP focuses

C. Yang; R. Raskin

2009-01-01

141

Brucella suis infections in collared peccaries in Venezuela.  

PubMed

A bacteriologic and serologic study was conducted on two ranches in the states of Apure and Guarico, Venezuela for brucellosis in collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu). One hundred thirty-nine peccaries were necropsied and tissues were cultured. Forty-three isolations of Brucella suis biovar 1, were made from lymph nodes and spleens of 25 males and 18 females. Antibody to Brucella sp. was detected in sera from 122 animals by the rapid plate agglutination, standard tube agglutination, 2-mer-captoethanol, rivanol, complement fixation and card tests. Young animals had infection and reactor rates nearly as high as the older animals indicating most were infected at a relative early age. Results suggest that this species may transmit brucellosis when living with domestic animals. This is the first report of B. suis biovar 1 from collared peccaries in Venezuela. PMID:1920669

Lord, V R; Lord, R D

1991-07-01

142

A biostratigraphic sequence analysis in Cretaceous sediments from Eastern Venezuela  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the results of a high resolution biostratigraphic study integrated with petrophysic analyses, of the Late Cretaceous sequence in several wells from the Maturin Sub-Basin, Eastern Venezuela. The main objective of this study is to integrate the different faunal and floral assemblages to the sedimentological evolution of the basin using sequential analysis techniques. This technique was applied using mainly terrestrial and marine palynomorphs which were relatively abundant and diverse as compared to the scarcity of foraminifera and nonnofossils. Based on the percentages of abundance and the diversity of the different groups of microfoss it was possible to establish the maximum flooding surfaces and condensation levels which allowed the definition of the possible candidates for the sequence boundaries. On the other hand, the identified bioevents made possible the definition of the chronostratigraphic datums of the sequence under study. The results obtained will contribute to optimize the exploration and development programs of the oil fields in Eastern Venezuela.

Paredes, I.; Carillo, M.; Fasola, A.; Luna, F. (Intevep S.A., Caracas (Venezuela))

1993-02-01

143

Venezuela bets on heavy crude for long term  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the heart of eastern Venezuela lies the Orinoco Belt, a vast reserve of heavy crudes and bitumen that equate to only 8° to 10° API. At the beginning of the 1920s, a number of foreign companies explored this area. However, they realized that this crude was too heavy to be produced commercially and abandoned their exploratory sites. In 1978--1980,

1997-01-01

144

Sequence stratigraphy of the Maturin sub-basin (Eastern Venezuela)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prolific Eastern Venezuela Basin has an area of about 160,000 km² and is bounded by the Pilar Fault to the North, the Guayana Shield to the South, the Baul Arch to the West and beyond the Orinoco Delta to the East. Sequence analysis of three N-S and one W-E regional transects covered by over one thousand km of seismic

G. Gonzales; S. Mata; N. Santiago

1996-01-01

145

Use of molluscicides in the control of bilharziasis in Venezuela*  

PubMed Central

The application of molluscicides to the breeding-places of Australorbis glabratus—the intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni in Venezuela—is discussed, with special reference to the equipment required and the techniques employed. The characteristics of the three molluscicides in use—copper sulfate, sodium pentachlorophenate, and copper pentachlorophenate—are outlined, and the treatment both of running waters (irrigation canals and streams) and of still waters (ponds and marshes) is described in detail.

Jove, Jose Antonio

1956-01-01

146

Ecological observations on Heteropsis Spp. (Araceae) in Southern Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article contributes a brief review of the ethnobotany and ontogeny ofHeteropsis spp. (Araceae), reports the distribution and density of Heteropsis spp. in a tropical lowland rainforest in southern Venezuela,\\u000a and explores the environmental variables that correlate best with the observedHeteropsis densities.Heteropsis occurred on 26% of the 4091 trees (?10 cm DBH) inventoried in 67 plots (of 0.1 hectare, each).

Claudia Knab-Vispo; Bruce Hoffman; Timothy Moermond; Conrad Vispo

2003-01-01

147

Cretaceous to Eocene passive margin sedimentation in Northeastern Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty two palinspastic paleogeographic maps are presented for the Cretaceous to Eocene strata of the Serrania del Interior of northeastern Venezuela. The mapped lithologies, environmental conditions, and evolving depositional systems record [approximately]90 m.y. of dominantly marine sedimentation on the only observable Mesozoic passive margin in the Western Hemisphere. The depositional systems of the passive margin are heterogeneous at lateral (i.e.,

1993-01-01

148

Radioisotope Concentration in Lake Sediments of Maracaibo, Venezuela  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Maracaibo Lake is one of the most important water basing and oil producing regions in Venezuela. Changes in the local environment have been monitored for chemical pollution in the past. For this study we selected a set of sediment samples collected in the shore and analyzed for its radioisotope content. Results show the gamma emitting isotopes distribution. Isotopes concentrations have been determined within the natural K, Th and U families.

Salas, A. Rangel; Viloria, T.; Sajo-Bohus, L.; Barros, H.; Greaves, E. D.; Palacios, D.

2007-10-01

149

Venezuela and Education Transformation for the Development of the People  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a To write about education in Venezuela in only one chapter is indeed challenging, maybe even more challenging than the huge\\u000a changes that have occurred in the education system especially in the last ten years. Before 1999, there were changes marked\\u000a by the country’s historical development (López de D’Amico and González 2006), nevertheless the changes that have taken place\\u000a in the

Rosa López de D’Amico; Maritza Loreto; Orlando Mendoza

150

Low Cost Feeding Strategies for Dual Purpose Cattle in Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT This simulation study was to evaluate low cost feeding strategies in response to higher cost of commercial,concentrates to maintain,current milk,sales from,dual purpose,cattle herds in the humid,low- lands of western,Venezuela. Data were from,farm,surveys,in 1987 and,1988. Baseline net margins from milk and beef per cow per year were $132 and $99 for two farm cases with average daily milk of 10

P. W. Townsend; R. W. Blake; F. J. Holmann; P. J. Van Soest; C. J. Sniffen; D. G. Sisler

1990-01-01

151

Diversified techniques are key to successful Venezuela operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Texas Petroleum Co.'s Mata field is an 84,453-acre concession separated into 3 blocks that contain a total of 463 reservoirs. It is one of E. Venezuela's major fields and currently produces an average of 22,500 bpd. Production is highly diversified, i.e., natural flow, gas lift, hydraulic pump, and rod pumping. Crude gravities range from 10° to 50° API, so production

J. C. Acosta; F. D. Verde

1975-01-01

152

Preliminary survey of Cacajao melanocephalus melanocephalus in Southern Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a survey of Cacajao melanocephalus melanocephalusin southern Amazonas, Venezuela, to update information on their distribution and to select a site for a longitudinal study.\\u000a We surveyed along the Rio Negro, Brazo Casiquiare, Rio Pasimoni, and Rio Baria and interviewed local people. We observed C. m. melanocephalusfour times along the Rio Pasimoni (N =2)and the Rio Baria (N =2).Group

Shawn M. Lehman; Kimberly L. Robertson

1995-01-01

153

Radioisotope Concentration in Lake Sediments of Maracaibo, Venezuela  

SciTech Connect

Maracaibo Lake is one of the most important water basing and oil producing regions in Venezuela. Changes in the local environment have been monitored for chemical pollution in the past. For this study we selected a set of sediment samples collected in the shore and analyzed for its radioisotope content. Results show the gamma emitting isotopes distribution. Isotopes concentrations have been determined within the natural K, Th and U families.

Salas, A. Rangel; Viloria, T. [La Universidad del Zulia (Venezuela); Sajo-Bohus, L.; Barros, H.; Greaves, E. D.; Palacios, D. [Universidad Simon Bolivar (Venezuela)

2007-10-26

154

Diversity and composition of dengue virus type 2 in Venezuela.  

PubMed

Dengue is a mosquito-borne disease caused by four closely related dengue virus (genus Flavivirus)serotypes (DENV-1–4). The clinical outcomes vary from mild febrile illness to life-threatening haemorrhagic manifestations. DENVs are endemic in the tropics and subtropics globally and currently no specific treatment or vaccines are available. In Venezuela, the American-Asian genotype of DENV-2 is the most prevalent and has been associated with severe disease outcomes.We aimed to follow-up the molecular epidemiology of DENV-2 in Venezuela to investigate if the evolution of the virus has remained the same throughout time or if the same dynamics documented in Brazil (hyperendemic co-circulation) also occurred. The results show that whereas the epidemiology of DENV in several endemic areas is characterized by serotype replacements through time, in Venezuela the American-Asian genotype DENV-2 has evolved into several genetic lineages and has remained in hyperendemic co-circulation with the other serotypes. PMID:23110744

Huhtamo, E; Comach, G; Sierra, G; Camacho, D E; Sironen, T; Vapalahti, O; Uzcátegui, N Y

2012-10-31

155

Egalitarian policies and social determinants of health in Bolivarian Venezuela.  

PubMed

In 1999, newly-elected Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez initiated a far-reaching social movement as part of a political project known as the Bolivarian Revolution. Inspired by the democratic ideologies of Simón Bolívar, this movement was committed to reducing intractable inequalities that defined Venezuela's Fourth Republic (1958-1998). Given the ambitious scope of these reforms, Venezuela serves as an instructive example to understand the political context of social inequalities and population health. In this article, we provide a brief overview of the impact of egalitarian policies in Venezuela, stressing: (a) the socialist reforms and social class changes initiated by the Bolivarian Movement; (b) the impact of these reforms and changes on poverty and social determinants of health; (c) the sustainability of economic growth to continue pro-poor policies; and (d) the implications of egalitarian policies for other Latin American countries. The significance and implications of Chávez's achievements are now further underscored given his recent passing, leading one to ask whether political support for Bolivarianism will continue without its revolutionary leader. PMID:24066420

Muntaner, Caries; Benach, Joan; Páez Victor, María; Ng, Edwin; Chung, Haejoo

2013-01-01

156

Geographic Uncertainty in Environmental Security  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This volume contains 17 papers presented at the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Fuzziness and Uncertainty held in Kiev, Ukraine, 28 June to 1 July 2006. Eleven of the papers deal with fuzzy set concepts, while the other six (papers 5, 7, 13, 14, 15, and 16) are not fuzzy. A reader with no prior exposure to fuzzy set theory would benefit from having an introductory text at hand, but the papers are accessible to a wide audience. In general, the papers deal with broad issues of classification and uncertainty in geographic information.

Ahlquist, Jon

2008-06-01

157

National Geographic Society Map Machine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For those interested in map information, National Geographic's Map Machine is an effective place to start. Map Machine's Atlas allows users to click on a world map or on continent or country menus to retrieve country maps, with concise information and flags. There are also selected area maps available, created from weather satellite data, as well as political and physical maps and a Macromedia Shockwave enhanced world map that allows users to view a world map interactively. The quality of the maps is the quality of the site.

1996-01-01

158

Geographic profiling and animal foraging.  

PubMed

Geographic profiling was originally developed as a statistical tool for use in criminal cases, particularly those involving serial killers and rapists. It is designed to help police forces prioritize lists of suspects by using the location of crime scenes to identify the areas in which the criminal is most likely to live. Two important concepts are the buffer zone (criminals are less likely to commit crimes in the immediate vicinity of their home) and distance decay (criminals commit fewer crimes as the distance from their home increases). In this study, we show how the techniques of geographic profiling may be applied to animal data, using as an example foraging patterns in two sympatric colonies of pipistrelle bats, Pipistrellus pipistrellus and P. pygmaeus, in the northeast of Scotland. We show that if model variables are fitted to known roost locations, these variables may be used as numerical descriptors of foraging patterns. We go on to show that these variables can be used to differentiate patterns of foraging in these two species. PMID:16263134

Le Comber, Steven C; Nicholls, Barry; Rossmo, D Kim; Racey, Paul A

2005-11-02

159

Was the Apertura Petrolera in Venezuela beneficial from the economical perspective?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of private participation of the oil industry in Venezuela, known as Apertura Petrolera (AP), progressed for a few years until the end of 1998 when national elections brought to power a new administration with different intentions for the oil industry, then the process halted. Venezuela's oil industry performance affects, to a large degree, the country's economy due to

Jose Rafael Duque Ramirez

160

Correlation of the Jurassic through Oligocene Stratigraphic Units of Trinidad and Northeastern Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Jurassic through Oligocene stratigraphies of Trinidad and the Serrania del Interior of eastern Venezuela exhibit many similarities because of their proximity on the passive continental margin of northeastern South America. A slightly later subsidence in eastern Venezuela, and the generally deeper-water sedimentation in Trinidad, is interpreted to be the result of a serration of the original rift margin, producing

Sam Algar; Johan P. Erikson

1995-01-01

161

PERCEPCIÓN DEL VALOR NUTRICIONAL Y PREFERENCIAS DE ALIMENTOS EN ESCOLARES DE QUINTO GRADO. MÉRIDA, VENEZUELA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perception of nutritional value and preferences of foods in primary school children. Mérida. Venezuela. A nutritional questionnaire was applied to a sample of fifth-grade school children attending school in Mérida, Venezuela. Two-hundred and eleven children were asked to evaluate the perceived nutritional value as well as their personal preference for a variety of prepared food groups. The results showed that

Pedro López; Luis Esqueda; Fernando Rivas; Rosalba Chacón; Armando Buccé

162

47 CFR 27.904 - Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation. 27.904 Section...27.904 Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation. An entity that acquires...MHz band licensee's geographic area or spectrum subject to a geographic...

2011-10-01

163

47 CFR 27.805 - Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation. 27.805 Section...27.805 Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation. An entity that acquires...GHz band licensee's geographic area or spectrum subject to a geographic...

2011-10-01

164

47 CFR 27.805 - Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation. 27.805 Section...27.805 Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation. An entity that acquires...GHz band licensee's geographic area or spectrum subject to a geographic...

2012-10-01

165

47 CFR 27.904 - Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation. 27.904 Section...27.904 Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation. An entity that acquires...MHz band licensee's geographic area or spectrum subject to a geographic...

2012-10-01

166

Venezuela positioning itself to take key market role in wake of Gulf War  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on Venezuela which continues efforts to position itself in world markets to capitalize on fallout from the Persian Gulf war. The central government and state oil company Petroleos de Venezuela SA have accelerated already ambitious plans to expand activities in upstream and downstream oil and gas sectors. Pvdsa has sharply increased its 1991-96 investment program from the level planned at the end of last year. The goal is to put Venezuela on a par with major Persian Gulf oil exporters in terms of productive capacity. Linchpin of those efforts could well be further steps toward privatization of Venezuela's oil sector. For the first time since nationalization in 1976, private foreign and domestic companies are being permitted to participate in Venezuelan exploration and development. In addition, the government is trimming the onerous tax burden the oil sector has carried in Venezuela, as well as its heavy subsidy of domestic petroleum products.

Not Available

1991-08-19

167

[Health regions and geographic scales].  

PubMed

The present article aims to discuss how the so-called health regions have been organized in Brazil since the respective governing ruling was issued (NOAS - SUS 01/2001). In order to clarify this new context, the author emphasises such concepts as region and geographic scale. The regional division under this ruling is based on the regional planning concept underlying the country's territorial policies since the founding of the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE). However, the apportionment in health regions has been both a requirement for improving the Unified National Health System (SUS) and a qualitative change in the national health policy. It is necessary to move forward by relating the regional division to the issue of scale. What is at stake is whether the regionalization of health in Brazil represents an improvement in the mediations between the various scales in the SUS. PMID:16021239

Guimarães, Raul Borges

2005-07-11

168

Tarahumara People: National Geographic Magazine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Tarahumara people of northern Mexico are well known for their long-distance running ability, and they have survived a variety of challenges over the past five hundred years, including the influx of Spanish conquistadors into their region. Recently, National Geographic sent Cynthia Gorney and photographer Robb Kendrick to take an investigative look into this unique group of people. Visitors can read their account here on this interactive feature, which contains both the published text and the accompanying photographs. The article looks at how the Tarahumara are coping with the increasing pressures of modernity, along with offering some commentary on their own cultural and social milieu. Additionally, visitors should not miss the GeoPedia article on the Tarahumara, as it features other online resources about them and an extensive bibliography.

169

Teachers Homepage: National Geographic Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Geographic Education website is a wonderful find, as it includes resources for educators who wish to incorporate spatial knowledge, cultural geography, and a wide range of related subjects into their classrooms. The Fast Fact on the top left-hand side of the page is a great place to start: it currently features information on how to make a simple compass and understand navigation. Moving along, the Teaching Resources area contains teaching units on political boundaries, the environmental conditions in the solar system, and extreme weather. One particularly fun area here is the Graphic Organizers Collection. Here visitors can download an assortment of blank, black-and-white graphic organizers that are designed to help students with problem solving, decision making, studying, planning research, brainstorming, and writing. The site is rounded out (appropriately enough) by the What is Geo-Literacy? section. Here visitors can look at cartoons, articles, and videos that talk about the importance of this subject.

2012-07-13

170

Hydrocarbon systems of Northeastern Venezuela: plate through molecular scale-analysis of the genesis and evolution of the Eastern Venezuela Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prolific, oil-bearing basins of eastern Venezuela developed through an unusual confluence of Atlantic, Caribbean and Pacific plate tectonic events. Mesozoic rifting and passive margin development created ideal conditions for the deposition of world-class hydrocarbon source rocks. In the Cenozoic, transpressive, west-to-east movement of the Caribbean plate along the northern margin of Venezuela led to the maturation of those source

L. L Summa; E. D Goodman; M Richardson; I. O Norton; A. R Green

2003-01-01

171

The Credibility of Volunteered Geographic Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proliferation of information sources as a result of networked computers and other interconnected devices has prompted\\u000a significant changes in the amount, availability, and nature of geographic information. Among the more significant changes\\u000a is the increasing amount of readily available volunteered geographic information. Although volunteered information has fundamentally enhanced geographic data, it has also prompted\\u000a concerns with regard to its

Andrew J. Flanagin; Miriam J. Metzger

2008-01-01

172

Venezuela No. 1 oil import source in S. America  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that with the exception of Venezuela, the U.S. is likely to import much oil from South American countries through 2010, the General Accounting Office reports. GAO, a congressional watchdog agency, noted the U.S. imports about 4% of its oil from Colombia, Ecuador, and Trinidad and Tobago and possibly could import from Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, and Peru in the future. It the the eight countries' crude oil reserves are expected to increase about 30% by 2000, then slide about 2% by 2010. Their oil production is expected to climb about 21% over 1990 by 2000, then level off until 2010.

Not Available

1992-08-10

173

Virtual Geographic Environment: A Workspace for Computer-Aided Geographic Experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

A virtual geographic environment (VGE) is a type of workspace for computer-aided geographic experiments (CAGEs) and geographic analyses. By supporting geo-visualization, geo-simulation, geo-collaboration, and human participation, it provides open virtual environments that correspond to the real world to assist computer-aided geographic experiments involving both the physical and human dimensions. Based on a discussion of how VGEs can contribute to CAGEs

Hui Lin; Min Chen; Guonian Lu

2012-01-01

174

Geographic range limits: achieving synthesis  

PubMed Central

Understanding of the determinants of species' geographic range limits remains poorly integrated. In part, this is because of the diversity of perspectives on the issue, and because empirical studies have lagged substantially behind developments in theory. Here, I provide a broad overview, drawing together many of the disparate threads, considering, in turn, how influences on the terms of a simple single-population equation can determine range limits. There is theoretical and empirical evidence for systematic changes towards range limits under some circumstances in each of the demographic parameters. However, under other circumstances, no such changes may take place in particular parameters, or they may occur in a different direction, with limitation still occurring. This suggests that (i) little about range limitation can categorically be inferred from many empirical studies, which document change in only one demographic parameter, (ii) there is a need for studies that document variation in all of the parameters, and (iii) in agreement with theoretical evidence that range limits can be formed in the presence or absence of hard boundaries, environmental gradients or biotic interactions, there may be few general patterns as to the determinants of these limits, with most claimed generalities at least having many exceptions.

Gaston, Kevin J.

2009-01-01

175

On Education and Geographers: The Role of Cognitive Developmental Theory in Geographic Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current focus on geographic ignorance within the discipline and within the mass media offers another opportunity to reform the teaching of geography at all grade levels. Previous reforms have met with little success. We argue that current efforts will succeed only if we integrate ideas from geography, child development, and education. Programs of geographic education must link geographic content

Roger M. Downs; Lynn S. Liben; Debra G. Daggs

1988-01-01

176

Relating Geographic Pattern to Phylogenetic Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observed patterns of within-species geographic variation may reflect phylogenetic history or ecogenetic adaptation, and it is frequently desirable to evaluate their relative contributions. Phylogenetic information can be recovered from relatively neutrally evolving molecular markers, but to what extent are they useful in understanding the causes of observed geographic patterns within species? In the lacertid lizard Gallotia galloti (Western Canary islands),

R. S. Thorpe; A. Malhotra; H. Black; J. C. Daltry; W. Wuster

1995-01-01

177

Questions and Answers: Implications for Geographical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents examples of how fundamental geographic concepts, such as location and spatial interaction, may be used in the secondary classroom to stimulate inquiry learning. Available from: Business Manager, Geographical Education, Sydney Teachers College, P.O. Box 63, Camperdown, N.S.W. 2050, Australia. (Author/DB)

Slater, Frances A.

1975-01-01

178

Gazetiki: automatic creation of a geographical gazetteer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geolocalized databases are becoming necessary in a wide variety of application domains. Thus far, the creation of such databases has been a costly, manual process. This drawback has stimulated interest in automating their construction, for example, by mining geographical information from the Web. Here we present and evaluate a new automated technique for creating and enriching a geographical gazetteer, called

Adrian Popescu; Gregory Grefenstette; Pierre-alain Moëllic

2008-01-01

179

THE MARXIST APPROACH TO THE GEOGRAPHICAL ENVIRONMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The geographical environment and its influence on the development of society has remained a dominant theme in Soviet geography for several decades. The ideas of the 19th century Russian historians, such as Mechnikov, on the role of the geographical environment influenced early Marxist scholars, in particular Plekhanov, whose theories formed the basis for Baranskiy's early philosophy of geography. Attemps by

IAN M. MATLEY

1966-01-01

180

GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEMS USED IN BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Communities are constantly in competition with one another to attract businesses. New and better ways to market a community constantly go through experimentation. One tool that has come to the forefront is the use of a geographic information system (GIS). Lately, more and more communities are adopting this tool for land use planning and for economic development planning. Geographical Information

Laura Danilescu

2008-01-01

181

Building the National Historical Geographic Information System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Historical Geographic Information System (NHGIS) is a new project to make a rich body of aggregate census data accessible within a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) framework for historical population research. The authors are developing a database incorporating all available aggregate census information for the United States between 1790 and 2000, including all surviving machine-readable aggregate data and new

Catherine A. Fitch; Steven Ruggles

2003-01-01

182

Categorizing web queries according to geographical locality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Web pages (and resources, in general) can be characterized according to their geographical locality. For example, a web page with general information about wildflowers could be considered a global page, likely to be of interest to a geographically broad audience. In contrast, a web page with listings on houses for sale in a specific city could be regarded as a

Luis Gravano; Vasileios Hatzivassiloglou; Richard Lichtenstein

2003-01-01

183

Geographic Perspectives on Latin American Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1975 geographers have made important contributions to the growing body of empirical and theoretical work on Latin American women. Some, but not all, of these contributions reflect a feminist perspective. Principal topics of investigation include migration of women, their physical well-being and their role in maintaining their families' health and their households' survival. Geographers are also studying how rural

Linda Greenow

184

Ontology-driven geographic information systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a geographic information system architecture based on ontologies. Ontology plays a central role in the definition of all aspects and components of an information system in the so-called ontology-driven information systems. The system presented here uses a container of interoperable geographic objects. The objects are extracted from multiple independent data sources and are derived from a strongly

Frederico T. Fonseca; Max J. Egenhofer

1999-01-01

185

Geographic constraints on social network groups.  

PubMed

Social groups are fundamental building blocks of human societies. While our social interactions have always been constrained by geography, it has been impossible, due to practical difficulties, to evaluate the nature of this restriction on social group structure. We construct a social network of individuals whose most frequent geographical locations are also known. We also classify the individuals into groups according to a community detection algorithm. We study the variation of geographical span for social groups of varying sizes, and explore the relationship between topological positions and geographic positions of their members. We find that small social groups are geographically very tight, but become much more clumped when the group size exceeds about 30 members. Also, we find no correlation between the topological positions and geographic positions of individuals within network communities. These results suggest that spreading processes face distinct structural and spatial constraints. PMID:21483665

Onnela, Jukka-Pekka; Arbesman, Samuel; González, Marta C; Barabási, Albert-László; Christakis, Nicholas A

2011-04-05

186

A new baseline for fascioliasis in Venezuela: lymnaeid vectors ascertained by DNA sequencing and analysis of their relationships with human and animal infection  

PubMed Central

Background Human and animal fascioliasis poses serious public health problems in South America. In Venezuela, livestock infection represents an important veterinary problem whereas there appear to be few human cases reported, most of which are passively detected in health centres. However, results of recent surveys suggest that the situation may be underestimated in particular areas. To obtain a baseline for future fascioliasis assessment, studies were undertaken by means of rDNA ITS-2 and ITS-1 and mtDNA cox1 sequencing to clarify the specific status of Venezuelan lymnaeids, their geographical distribution and fascioliasis transmission capacity, by comparison with other American countries and other continents. Results Results obtained completely change the lymnaeid scenario known so far. The relatively rich lymnaeid fauna of Venezuela has been proven to include (i) Lymnaea meridensis and L. neotropica as the only native members, (ii) L. cubensis and Pseudosuccinea columella introduced from the Caribbean area, and (iii) Galba truncatula and L. schirazensis introduced from the Old World. The absence of representatives of the stagnicoline and Radix groups is remarkable. Four species are fascioliasis vectors: G. truncatula, L. cubensis and L. neotropica, which have the capacity to give rise to human endemic areas, and P. columella, which is a source of animal infection and is responsible for the spread of disease. Vector capacity in the apparently highland endemic L. meridensis is to be confimed, although may be expected given its phylogenetic relationships. Similarly as elsewhere, the non-transmitting L. schirazensis has been confused with L. cubensis, also with G. truncatula and possibly with L. neotropica. Conclusions The new scenario leads to the re-opening of many disease aspects. In Venezuela, altitude appears to be the main factor influencing fascioliasis distribution. Human infection shows an altitude pattern similar to other Andean countries, although a differing highland/lowland impact on animal infection does not appear evident. The overlap of G. truncatula, L. cubensis and probably also L. neotropica in temperate and cold zones suggests a higher risk for human infection in mid and high altitude areas. A lymnaeid species mapping by means of DNA markers becomes a priority to determine human and animal fascioliasis distribution in Venezuela, owing to the importance of lymnaeid vectors in defining transmission and epidemiological patterns.

2011-01-01

187

José María Vargas (1786-1854): Reformer of Anatomical Studies in Venezuela.  

PubMed

José María Vargas (1786-1854): Venezuelan medical doctor, surgeon, optician, anatomist, chemist, botanist, professor, geologist, mineralogist, and mathematician. Second President of Venezuela (1835-1836), First republican dean, he reformed medicine studies in 1827 establishing human anatomical dissection in the Universidad Central de Venezuela where he taught human anatomy between 1827 and 1853 along with surgery and chemistry. In 1838, he wrote Curso de Lecciones y demostraciones Anatómicas, the first book on the subject printed in Venezuela for the teaching of human anatomy. Clin. Anat., 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23650143

Reverón, Rafael Romero

2013-05-01

188

Renal diseases in children in Venezuela, South America.  

PubMed

The present study reports epidemiological data on renal disorders in children in Venezuela. Information was obtained from 14 centers for the period January through December 1998. A total of 3,624 patients were evaluated as either a first outpatient consultation or as a first hospital admission. Nearly 70% of the patients could be grouped in one of the following categories: (1) urinary tract infections (32%), with detection of abnormalities of the urinary tract in 25%, (2) metabolic disorders (28%), mainly idiopathic hypercalciuria and hyperuricosuria, (3) glomerulonephritis (9.5%). The other 30% corresponded to urolithiasis 7%; renal tubular acidosis 5.6%; nephrotic syndrome 4.5%; primary hematuria 4.2%; acute renal failure 2.8% (43% were secondary to acute dehydration, 15% to birth asphyxia, 14% to septicemia, and 23% to multiple factors); chronic renal failure 1.6% (secondary to glomerulopathies, predominantly focal glomerulosclerosis, structural abnormalities of the urinary tract, hereditary disorders, and renal hypoplasia/dysplasia); miscellaneous diseases 4.8%. Hence, the spectrum of renal disorders in Venezuela is wide, sharing similarities with countries of both the developed and developing world. These data will hopefully contribute to the development of national healthcare policies appropriate to the epidemiology of the country. PMID:12172777

Orta-Sibu, Nelson; Lopez, Michelle; Moriyon, Juan C; Chavez, Juan B

2002-06-07

189

Tectonic significance of paleomagnetic data from northern Venezuela  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A paleomagnetic study, mostly of basic intrusive rocks of Cretaceous and Tertiary age from northern Venezuela, includes 153 samples from 31 sites, of which only 6 sites failed to give consistent results. Fifteen sites within the Caribbean Mountains have easterly declinations with shallow, mixed positive and negative inclinations. These anomalous vectors are interpreted to be the result of tectonic rotation about vertical axes rather than to reflect anomalous magnetic field orientations associated with a polarity transition. Although these sample sites are within igneous intrusive bodies with no control on the original attitude during acquisition of the natural remanent magnetization, the relative conformity of data from numerous separate intrusions requires an average 90° megatectonic rotation of both the Villa de Cura and Tinaco tectonic belts of the Caribbean Mountains. On the other hand, seven sites from the Paraguana Peninsula (and two sites from the younger Tertiary Falcon basin) have southerly declination and positive inclination. These vectors can be explained by rotation about horizontal east-west axes during Cenozoic folding. A compilation of available paleomagnetic data from rocks of Cretaceous age in the Caribbean indicates that anomalous declinations are widespread in both the Greater Antilles and Caribbean Mountains. We interpret these data to support previous suggestions of megatectonic rotations of a more linear, north-south trending Mesozoic island arc system that included portions of the Greater Antilles and Caribbean Mountains of Venezuela.

Skerlec, G. M.; Hargraves, R. B.

1980-10-01

190

Dualism methodology in geographic information visualization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The core of geographic information visualization is map making, which is characterized by the map maker usually being the map user. Potential map makers are becoming more and more, most of them are deficient in the knowledge background of cartography. It is necessary for them to derive popular map design knowledge from the complex map theories and methods to guide the practice of geographic information visualization. As an exploration into methodology, this paper has initially probed into and formed the conceptual model of geographic information visualization duality with dualistic analysis as the basic method, in the hope of establishing a framework which is easy to understand and to follow as a "map-making guide". The paper firstly expounds the theoretical basis of dualism from such aspects as geography, linguistics and philosophy; then elaborates the object matter of the methodology of dualism in geographic information visualization by developing from such two aspects as the signifier and the signified of geographic information visualization, with the semiotic linguistics as the paradigm; and finally draws a conclusion. Studies show that: the geographic information and the map design are of duality each other; the duality model of geographic information visualization is "easily understand" and "easily follow".

Han, Xuepei; Li, Manchun

2007-07-01

191

Pyrolysis Kinetics Applied to Prediction of Oil Generation in the Maracaibo Basin, Venezuela.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We use chemical kinetic parameters for oil generation derived from modified Rock-Eval and Pyromat instruments, coupled with thermal history models, to predict the timing and extent of oil generation in the Maracaibo Basin of Venezuela. The vitrinite refle...

J. J. Sweeney S. Talukdar A. K. Burnham C. Vallejos

1989-01-01

192

Biosynthesis of plant-specific flavones and flavonols in Streptomyces venezuelae.  

PubMed

Recently, recombinant Streptomyces venezuelae has been established as a heterologous host for microbial production of flavanones and stilbenes, a class of plant-specific polyketides. In the present work, we expanded the applicability of the S. venezuelae system to the production of more diverse plant polyketides including flavones and flavonols. A plasmid with the synthetic codon-optimized flavone synthase I gene from Petroselium crispum was introduced to S. venezuelae DHS2001 bearing a deletion of the native pikromycin polyketide synthase gene, and the resulting strain generated flavones from exogenously fed flavanones. In addition, a recombinant S. venezuelae mutant expressing a codon-optimized flavanone 3beta-hydroxylase gene from Citrus siensis and a flavonol synthase gene from Citrus unshius also successfully produced flavonols. PMID:20890094

Park, Sung Ryeol; Paik, Ji Hye; Ahn, Mi Sun; Park, Je Won; Yoon, Yeo Joon

2010-09-01

193

Biological and phylogenetic characterization of a genotype VII Newcastle disease virus from Venezuela: Efficacy of vaccination  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Here we describe the characterization a virulent genotype VII Newcastle disease virus (NDV) from Venezuela and evaluate the efficacy of heterologous genotype commercial vaccination under field and controlled rearing conditions. Biological pathotyping and molecular analysis were applied. Results sh...

194

Characterization of antigenetic serotypes from the dengue virus in Venezuela by means of Grid Computing.  

PubMed

This work determines the molecular epidemiology of dengue virus in Venezuela by means of phylogenetic calculations performed on the EELA-2 Grid infrastructure with the PhyloGrid application, an open source tool that allows users performing phylogeny reconstruction in their research. In this study, a total of 132 E nucleotide gene sequences of dengue virus from Venezuela recorded in GenBank(R) have been processed in order to reproduce and validate the topology described in the literature. PMID:20543442

Isea, Raúl; Montes, Esther; Rubio-Montero, Antonio J; Rosales, José D; Rodríguez-Pascual, Manuel A; Mayo, Rafael

2010-01-01

195

Geographic information system environmental monitoring networks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Examples of environmental remote monitoring networks are described to emphasize the strengths and weaknesses of computerized geographic information systems, their complexity and interdisciplinary characteristics, and some critical issues in light of diffe...

K. J. Beek A. G. Fabbri

1991-01-01

196

Handbook for Economic Development Geographic Information Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of geographic information system (GIS) technology is to answer 'where' questions through the manipulation of data by location. In the private sector, most business expansion decisions involve 'where' questions, such as identifying new plant or...

W. J. Drummond A. C. Nelson

1998-01-01

197

PENNSYLVANIA GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM LIBRARY: COUNTY BOUNDARIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Pennsylvania Geographic Information System (GIS) Library provides a data set of complete digitized county boundaries of the Commonwealth Of Pennsylvania at a scale of 1:24,000 from USGS topographic maps. The data format is ARC/INFO Export....

198

Data Systems Requirements for Geographic Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Orbiting sensors hold great promise of obtaining heretofore unavailable data for geographic research, data which, for example, are needed to increase our knowledge of the surface energy and water budgets; of the worldwide influence of man's activities on ...

W. L. Garrison R. Alexander W. Bailey M. F. Dacey D. F. Marble

1965-01-01

199

Geographic Information Systems for Cumulative Impact Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are a valuable tool for assessing cumulative environmental impact, the incremental impact of an action when added to other past, present, and reasonable foreseeable future actions. GIS can be used to quantify rates of ...

C. A. Johnson N. E. Deterbeck J. P. Bonde G. J. Niemi

1988-01-01

200

CNWRA Regional Hydrogeology Geographic Information System Database.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Geographic Information System (GIS) database for the Research Project on Regional Hydrogeologic Processes of the Death Valley Region was developed to facilitate the evaluation of existing conceptual models and the construction of alternative conceptua...

G. Wittmeyer R. Klar G. Rice W. Murphy

1995-01-01

201

Principles and Methods of Medical Geographic Mapping.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Key problems in mapping in the field of medical geography; Experience in compiling small-scale specialized zoogeographic maps with medical geographic content; Experience in mapping the population of black-legged ticks carriers of natural focal i...

1969-01-01

202

Host and Geographic Distribution of 'Arceuthobium oxycedri'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Data on hosts and geographic distribution of the juniper dwarf mistletoe, Arceuthobium oxycedri, are updated in light of changes in host nomenclature, political geography, and interpretation of reports and labels. Seventeen species of Juniperus, 3 Chamaec...

W. M. Ciesla B. W. Geils R. P. Adams

2002-01-01

203

47 CFR 95.823 - Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation. 95.823 Section...95.823 Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation. (a) Eligibility...approval of geographic partitioning or spectrum disaggregation of 218-219 MHz...

2011-10-01

204

47 CFR 95.823 - Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation. 95.823 Section...95.823 Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation. (a) Eligibility...approval of geographic partitioning or spectrum disaggregation of 218-219 MHz...

2012-10-01

205

47 CFR 95.823 - Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation. 95...Requirements § 95.823 Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation. (a...seeking Commission approval of geographic partitioning or spectrum disaggregation of...

2010-10-01

206

47 CFR 95.823 - Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 false Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation. 95...Requirements § 95.823 Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation. (a...seeking Commission approval of geographic partitioning or spectrum disaggregation of...

2009-10-01

207

Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico Geographic Data Atlas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Geographic Data Atlas is published jointly by the Environmental Geographic Information System (EGIS) and the Facilities Geographic Information System (FGIS) to support the data-gathering efforts of Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) for ...

D. R. Bleakly L. Eshelman

1999-01-01

208

The Geographic Distribution of Physicians Revisited  

PubMed Central

Context While there is debate over whether the U.S. is training too many physicians, many seem to agree that physicians are geographically maldistributed, with too few in rural areas. Objective Official definitions of shortage areas assume the market for physician services is based on county boundaries. We wished to ascertain how the picture of a possible shortage changes using alternative measures of geographic access. We measure geographic access by the number of full-time equivalent physicians serving a community divided by the expected number of patients (possibly both from within the community and outside) receiving care from those physicians. Moreover, we wished to determine how the geographic distribution of physicians had changed since previous studies, in light of the large increase in physician numbers. Design Cross-sectional data analyses of alternative measures of geographic access to physicians in 23 states with low physician–population ratios. Results Between 1979 and 1999, the number of physicians doubled in the sample states. Although most specialties experienced greater diffusion everywhere, smaller specialties had not yet diffused to the smallest towns. Multiple measures of geographic access, including physician-to-population ratios, average distance traveled to the nearest physician, and projected average caseload per physician, confirm that residents of metropolitan areas have better geographic access to physicians. Physician-to-population ratios exhibit the largest degree of geographic disparity, but ratios in rural counties adjacent to metropolitan areas are smaller than in those not adjacent to metropolitan areas. Distance-traveled and caseload models that allow patients to cross county lines show less disparity and indicate that residents of isolated rural counties have less access than those living in counties adjacent to metropolitan areas. Conclusion Geographic access to physicians has continued to improve over the past two decades, although some smaller specialties have not diffused to the most rural areas. While substantial variation in the supply of physicians across communities remains, current measures of geographic access to physicians overstate the extent of maldistribution and yield an incorrect ranking of areas according to geographic accessibility of physicians.

Rosenthal, Meredith B; Zaslavsky, Alan; Newhouse, Joseph P

2005-01-01

209

Ectopic geographic tongue--a case report.  

PubMed

This report describes a case of 'ectopic' geographic tongue where lesions, clinically and histologically similar to those normally confined to the tongue, presented on the floor of the mouth and cheek mucosa. The patient, a type II diabetic, had a history of thrombocytopaenia and, more recently, autoimmune haemolytic anaemia. Clinical Relevance: Geographic tongue is a common oral medicine condition and the purpose of this paper is to highlight the fact that it can present ectopically on the oral mucosa. PMID:17432777

Borrie, Felicity; Musthyala, Rajitha; Macintyre, David

2007-03-01

210

The Geographic Scale of Metropolitan Racial Segregation  

PubMed Central

This article addresses an aspect of racial residential segregation that has been largely ignored in prior work: the issue of geographic scale. In some metropolitan areas, racial groups are segregated over large regions, with predominately white regions, predominately black regions, and so on, whereas in other areas, the separation of racial groups occurs over much shorter distances. Here we develop an approach—featuring the segregation profile and the corresponding macro/micro segregation ratio—that offers a scale-sensitive alternative to standard methodological practice for describing segregation. Using this approach, we measure and describe the geographic scale of racial segregation in the 40 largest U.S. metropolitan areas in 2000. We find considerable heterogeneity in the geographic scale of segregation patterns across both metropolitan areas and racial groups, a heterogeneity that is not evident using conventional “aspatial” segregation measures. Moreover, because the geographic scale of segregation is only modestly correlated with the level of segregation in our sample, we argue that geographic scale represents a distinct dimension of residential segregation. We conclude with a brief discussion of the implications of our findings for investigating the patterns, causes, and consequences of residential segregation at different geographic scales.

REARDON, SEAN F.; MATTHEWS, STEPHEN A.; O'SULLIVAN, DAVID; LEE, BARRETT A.; FIREBAUGH, GLENN; FARRELL, CHAD R.; BISCHOFF, KENDRA

2008-01-01

211

Canine visceral leishmaniasis on Margarita Island (Nueva Esparta, Venezuela).  

PubMed

The frequency of American visceral leishmaniasis affecting humans on Margarita Island, Venezuela, has increased in recent years, and infected dogs appear to constitute the principal source of infection. ELISA tests with Leishmania donovani promastigotes and rK39 antigen from L. chagasi in serum from 541 dogs were positive in 33.1% and 21.6% of the samples, respectively. A second blood sample taken from 50 animals after 8-10 months revealed an increase from 24% to 40% of ELISA positivity to both antigens, suggesting high susceptibility and transmission in the canine population. Among 42 serologically positive dogs, 33% of which showed clinical signs of disease, 79% were positive in polymerase chain reactions using primers specific for the L. donovani complex. Control measures including epidemiological hypersurveillance, the humane sacrifice of infected dogs, and rapid diagnosis and treatment of human cases have been initiated. PMID:11132371

Zerpa, O; Ulrich, M; Negrón, E; Rodríguez, N; Centeno, M; Rodríguez, V; Barrios, R M; Belizario, D; Reed, S; Convit, J

212

Transmission of Guanarito and Pirital Viruses among Wild Rodents, Venezuela  

PubMed Central

Samples from rodents captured on a farm in Venezuela in February 1997 were tested for arenavirus, antibody against Guanarito virus (GTOV), and antibody against Pirital virus (PIRV). Thirty-one (48.4%) of 64 short-tailed cane mice (Zygodontomys brevicauda) were infected with GTOV, 1 Alston’s cotton rat (Sigmodon alstoni) was infected with GTOV, and 36 (64.3%) of 56 other Alston’s cotton rats were infected with PIRV. The results of analyses of field and laboratory data suggested that horizontal transmission is the dominant mode of GTOV transmission in Z. brevicauda mice and that vertical transmission is an important mode of PIRV transmission in S. alstoni rats. The results also suggested that bodily secretions and excretions from most GTOV-infected short-tailed cane mice and most PIRV-infected Alston’s cotton rats may transmit the viruses to humans.

Milazzo, Mary L.; Cajimat, Maria N.B.; Duno, Gloria; Duno, Freddy; Utrera, Antonio

2011-01-01

213

Hepatitis C virus infection in hemodialysis patients in Maracaibo, Venezuela.  

PubMed

Over a two year period, the incidence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection was evaluated in 29 hemodialysis patients, aged between 15 and 75 years (mean ± SD: 45 ± 39.5 years), from the University Hospital Hemodyalisis Unit, Maracaibo, Zulia State, Venezuela. Anti-HCV antibodies were determined using a fourth generation ELISA (Innotest HCV Ab IV) kit and positive blood samples were tested using a recombinant assay kit (Inno-LIA HCV Ab III), both kits from Innogenetics N.V., Belgium. The findings indicate a lack of HCV seroconversion in the hemodialysis patients over the study period, confirmed by the recombinant assay. Risk factors for HCV infection were 0.3270 (95% confidence interval: 0.01323-8.080) in patients undergoing hemodialysis. The findings suggest a lack of significant sources for HCV infection due to the preventive measures to avoid its transmission in the hemodialysis unit. PMID:22370755

Monsalve-Castillo, Francisca; Gómez-Gamboa, Liliana; Chacín-Bonilla, Leonor; Porto-Espinoza, Leticia; Costa-León, Luciana

214

[Molecular identification of bovine enteric calciviruses in Venezuela].  

PubMed

Caliciviruses are a well-established cause of respiratory, vesicular and hemorrhagic diseases in animals. In addition, these viruses are an important cause of enteric diseases in humans. Recently, molecular analysis of several bovine enteric calicivirus isolates indicated that they are genetically close to human enteric calicivirus. To investigate if bovine enteric caliciviruses circulate in Venezuela, 129 stool samples collected between 1994 and 2000 were assayed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction amplification. The presence of calicivirus was confirmed in one of the samples analyzed, collected in the Lara State from a healthy calf, 2 months old. Phylogenetic studies based on partial RNA polymerase sequences indicated that the Venezuelan isolate (Bo/NV/Lara/2000/VE) is most closely related to the genogroup III, genus Noroviruses. PMID:14976786

Alcalá, Ana C; Hidalgo, Mayra A; Obando, César; Vizzi, Esmeralda; Liprandi, Ferdinando; Ludert, Juan E

2003-01-01

215

Geology and geochemistry of crude oils, Bolivar coastal fields, Venezuela  

SciTech Connect

The Bolivar Coastal Fields (BCF) are located on the eastern margin of Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela. They form the largest oil field outside of the Middle East and contain mostly heavy oil with a gravity less than 22/sup 0/ API. Thirty crude oils from the BCF were collected along two parallel and generally southwest-northeast trends. These oils were characterized by their API gravity, percent saturates, aromatics, NSO and asphalitic compounds, gas chromatograms for whole oils, C/sub 4/-C/sub 7/ fractions, and aromatics. Also, 24 associated waters were sampled and analyzed for Ca/sup + +/, Mg/sup + +/, Na/sup +/, HCO/sub 3//sup -/, CO/sub 3//sup - -/, SO/sub 4//sup - -/, pH, and total dissolved solids (TDS). The geological and geochemical significances of these analyses are discussed with particular emphasis on the genesis of the petroleum.

Bockmeulen, H. (Inst. Techologico Venezolano del Petroleo, Los Teques, Venezuela); Barker, C.; Dickey, P.A.

1983-02-01

216

Embodying racism: race, rhinoplasty, and self-esteem in Venezuela.  

PubMed

In this article, I examine how race motivates women's decisions to undergo aesthetic rhinoplasty in Caracas, Venezuela. Through a combination of cultural domain analysis and thematic analysis of qualitative interviews, I explore how the preference for whiteness and associated facial features dovetail with the aesthetic ideals promoted by cosmetic surgeons. Rhinoplasty is offered by physicians and interpreted by patients as a resolution to body dissatisfaction and low self-esteem. The clinical ethos of objectivity established by cosmetic surgeons fails to acknowledge how perceptions of the self and body are strongly tied to racial marginalization: patients' efforts to alter the nose reveal attempts to change not only how the body looks, but how it is lived. As a result, cosmetic surgery only acts as a stop-gap measure to heighten one's self-esteem and body image. PMID:23349127

Gulbas, Lauren E

2012-11-30

217

The National Seismological Network of Venezuela, Future Aims and Goals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Venezuelan coastline mainly coincides with the plate tectonic boundary between the Caribbean and South American plate. The relative movement is accomodated in numerous west - east trending sub-parallel faults. The Venezuelan Andes are dominated by the broad southwest-northeast trending Bocono fault system. This plate tectonic setting causes a wide range of seismic activity in Venezuela. Among the various phenomenons which can be observed are micro seismicity, ranging from magnitude 1 to 3, earthquake swarms with large numbers of small scale events concentrated in specific areas and last but not least macro seismic activity with earthquakes of magnitudes larger than 6 including the consequent aftershock sequences. The most recent destructive earthquake of Mw=6.9 on July 9th, 1997 near the villages of Cariaco and Casanay in the north eastern coastal region, gave way to the project of the modernization of the national seismological network of Venezuela, funded by the Venezuelan government and operated by FUNVISIS (Venezuelan Foundation of Seismological Research). The new network will consist of 35 broadband seismic stations of which 8 are running up to now. Data transfer is realized by satellite links, each station broadcasting continously with a sample rate of 100 samples/s to the central site in FUNVISIS (Caracas) where the data gets processed and analysed. The general concept includes also local networks with short period seismometers and an extended accelerograph network. We would like to present future aims and goals of the new network: making available complete seismological catalogues and bulletins, including local networks to apply high resolution methods to the achieved data sets, contributing to global seismology.

Orihuela, N.; Rendon, H.; Romero, G.; Lopez, R.; Sobiesiak, M.; Ottemoeller, L.; Tovar, G.

2001-12-01

218

Geographical distribution of the dermatophytes: a review.  

PubMed

In these days of rapid transit from continent to continent, and the increasing mobility of people, agents of disease are no longer geographically restricted. Disease contracted half way across the world may become manifest in a country in which the pathogen is not normally found. Thus knowledge of the geographical distribution of pathogens becomes increasingly important when a diagnosis is being made. This is as true of ringworm fungi as of any other group of microorganisms. In the last 12 years, in the Mycological Reference Laboratory, an increasing number of exotic dermatophytes have been seen, related in part at least to the great increase in the number of non-British residents. Not all species of dermatophytes are cosmopolitan in their distribution throughout the world. While some have been recorded from every continent, others have geographically limited areas of greater or lesser extent. Surveys taken at intervals in a country may show a rise and fall in occurrence of several species as habits change, populations move and medical facilities became increasingly well-distributed. There have been few geographical surveys of ringworm fungi that have covered the world. Ajello (1960, 1974) has reviewed the individual species with regard to geographical location, while Vanbreuseghem & de Vroey (1970) attempted to estimate the relative importance of the various species in terms of numbers of isolations reported. This paper therefore reviews the world dermatophyte flora in terms of the dominant agents in the various countries, and some of the changes that have been recorded. PMID:75918

Philpot, C M

1978-04-01

219

An intelligent method for geographic Web search  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While the electronically available information in the World-Wide Web is explosively growing and thus increasing, the difficulty to find relevant information is also increasing for search engine user. In this paper we discuss how to constrain web queries geographically. A number of search queries are associated with geographical locations, either explicitly or implicitly. Accurately and effectively detecting the locations where search queries are truly about has huge potential impact on increasing search relevance, bringing better targeted search results, and improving search user satisfaction. Our approach focus on both in the way geographic information is extracted from the web and, as far as we can tell, in the way it is integrated into query processing. This paper gives an overview of a spatially aware search engine for semantic querying of web document. It also illustrates algorithms for extracting location from web documents and query requests using the location ontologies to encode and reason about formal semantics of geographic web search. Based on a real-world scenario of tourism guide search, the application of our approach shows that the geographic information retrieval can be efficiently supported.

Mei, Kun; Yuan, Ying

2008-11-01

220

Geographic tongue: clinical characteristics of 188 cases.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics and assess other factors associated with geographic tongue in Thailand. One hundred and eighty-eight Thais with geographic tongue and 188 controls were interviewed regarding their medical history, symptoms, and the nature and migratory pattern of their lesions. Variations in the clinical appearance, lesion location, and any associated tongue fissures were recorded. The age range for the 188 subjects was 9 to 79 years. The highest incidence (39.4%) occurred in the 20-29 age group. Women were affected more than men (1.5:1). The leading group of medical conditions consisted of allergy-related disorders; however, the incidence of these problems among both subjects and controls was not significantly different (55.2% vs. 44.8%). Our results demonstrated a significant co-existence of geographic tongue and fissured tongue. Most of the geographic tongue lesions manifested a typical appearance consisting of a central atrophic area bounded by a raised white circinate line (69.1%) with multiple tongue sites affected (62.8%). The most common locations were at the lateral margins and tip of the tongue. The majority of our subjects (75.5%) were asymptomatic. The results of this study correspond with the findings of previous geographic tongue studies in other populations. PMID:15719084

Jainkittivong, Aree; Langlais, Robert P

2005-02-15

221

FLORA MARINA DE LA PENÍNSULA DE MACANAO, ISLA DE MARGARITA, VENEZUELA. I. CHLOROPHYTAY PHAEOPHYCEAE Marine flora of the Peninsula of Macanao, Margarita Island, Venezuela. I. Chlorophyta and Phaeophyceae  

Microsoft Academic Search

A taxonomic study of the benthic marine algae of the phylum Chlorophyta and the class Phaeophyceae is given for the Peninsula of Macanao, Margarita Island, Venezuela. Twenty six species are described that represent new records for the area, enlarging the phycofloristic catalog of the region and the range of national distribution of the taxa. Com- plete diagnostic description and figures

Paola PARDO; María A. SOLÉ

2007-01-01

222

Cross sector partnership results in increased marine biodiversity information, awareness, and an initial biodiversity action plan in the Gulf of Paria, Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes how a pro-active cross sector partnership between organizations has successfully contributed to a better understanding of marine biodiversity and consensus among stakeholders on conservation priorities in the Gulf of Paria, Venezuela. ConocoPhillips Venezuela and its partners discovered offshore oil resources in the Gulf of Paria, northeastern Venezuela in 1999, and have since been making progress on their

F. D. Rodriguez; A. S. Carter; A. D. Rawa

2005-01-01

223

Innovative security assessment during the facility design stage: protecting people, assets and the marine environment in the Gulf of Paria, Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explains how ConocoPhillips Venezuela adapted existing methodology to respond Venezuelan and international security regulations by completing an innovative security vulnerability assessment (SVA) of planned offshore facilities and activities in the Gulf of Paria, northeastern Venezuela. Following the discovery of offshore oil resources in the Gulf of Paria, northeastern Venezuela in 1999, ConocoPhillips and its partners began planning operations

F. D. Rodriguez; J. Betancourt; W. Perry

2005-01-01

224

Geographic Proximity, Trade and International Conflict\\/Cooperation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the interactive effect of distance and trade on international conflict and cooperation. The effect of geographic distance depends on trade, while the effect of trade varies with geographic distance. Trade reduces conflict to a greater extent when dyads are geographically close, but has a greater effect on cooperation when countries are more distant. Geographic proximity increases conflict

John Robst; Solomon W Polachek; Yuan-Ching Chang

2006-01-01

225

Geographic Proximity, Trade, and International Conflict\\/Cooperation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the interactive effect of distance and trade on international conflict and cooperation. The effect of geographic distance depends on trade, while the effect of trade varies with geographic distance. Trade reduces conflict to a greater extent when dyads are geographically close, but has a greater effect on cooperation when countries are more distant. Geographic proximity increases conflict

John Robst; Solomon Polachek; Yuan-Ching Chang

2007-01-01

226

Editorial: Geographic Information Systems and Intelligent Transportation Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transportation, the process by which people, services, and commodities move across the geographic landscape, is one of the most important of geographic phenomena, and a potentially rich area of application for geographic information technologies. Geographic information is vital for navigation, for the tracking of vehicles and shipments, for the prediction of demand, and for many other purposes. Over the past

Patrick Bergougnoux

2000-01-01

227

The geographical and institutional proximity of research collaboration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collaboration and the exchange of knowledge are supposedly made easier by geographical proximity because of the tacit character of knowledge. Recently a number of scholars' criticised this view on geographical proximity as being oversimplified and argued that the precise role of geographical proximity for knowledge exchange and collaboration still remains unclear. This paper analyses the role of geographical proximity for

Roderik Ponds; Frank van Oort; Koen Frenken

2007-01-01

228

Enhancing robustness and immunization in geographical networks  

SciTech Connect

We find that different geographical structures of networks lead to varied percolation thresholds, although these networks may have similar abstract topological structures. Thus, strategies for enhancing robustness and immunization of a geographical network are proposed. Using the generating function formalism, we obtain an explicit form of the percolation threshold q{sub c} for networks containing arbitrary order cycles. For three-cycles, the dependence of q{sub c} on the clustering coefficients is ascertained. The analysis substantiates the validity of the strategies with analytical evidence.

Huang Liang [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Department of Physics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Yang Kongqing [Center for Complex Systems, Jimei University, Xiamen 361021 (China); Department of Physics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Yang Lei [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Department of Physics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Beijing-Hong Kong-Singapore Joint Centre for Nonlinear and Complex Systems, Hong Kong (China); Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong (China)

2007-03-15

229

Mapa Geologico de Venezuela a Escala 1:750,000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Se presenta un mapa geologico digital de Venezuela sobre un fondo de relieve sombreado. Los datos geologicos e hidrologicos del norte del rio Orinoco proceden de la digitalizacion de mapas geologicos en papel a escala 1:500.000. Estos datos fueron integrados con el mapa geologico digital del Escudo de Guayana Venezolano, a su vez derivado de hojas en papel a escala 1:500.000. La informacion sobre los tipos de fallas mostrados en el mapa es igual que en las fuentes originales. Los poligonos geologicos fueron atribuidos por edad, litologia y nombre de la unidad siguiendo el Codigo geologico de Venezuela. Se incorporaron revisiones significativas de la geologia de la Cordillera de la Costa a partir de las nuevas hojas integradas a escala 1:25.000. Toda esta informacion geologico-estructural se sobrepuso a una imagen de relieve sombreado, producida por el procesamiento de los datos de radar interferometrico con 90 m (3 arcosegundos) de resolucion espacial obtenidos por la mision topografica de radar del transbordador espacial (SRTM). Las areas de la base de datos del SRTM carentes de informacion fueron llenadas por medio de la interpolacion de los datos de las celdas adyacentes. Para producir la imagen de relieve sombreado se uso una direccion de iluminacion de 315 deg con un angulo de 65 deg sobre el horizonte. La proyeccion usada en el mapa es conica equidistante, con latitudes de 4 y 9 deg norte como paralelos estandar y una longitud de 66 deg al oeste como meridiano central. Los datos en el mapa proceden primordialment de hojas a escala 1:500.000 y el producto esta preparado para una impresion optima en escala 1:750.000. Los usuarios pueden obtener ampliaciones mayores, sin embargo no se garantiza la precision del mapa a escalas mas detalladas. Especialmente en la region de Guayana, al sobreponer los mapas geologicos sobre la reciente imagen SRTM, se notan grandes discrepancias no sistematicas tanto en contactos como en fallas. Esto es debido a que los mapas geologicos de Guayana tienen como base topografica las imagenes de radar de vision lateral (SLAR), con muy control de campo de los a?os 1970's. La correccion de estos desfases esta planificada para el futuro.

Hackley, Paul C.; Urbani, Franco; Karlsen, Alex W.; Garrity, Christopher P.

2006-01-01

230

Geographical Information Systems risk assessment models for zoonotic fascioliasis in the South American Andes region.  

PubMed

The WHO recognises Fasciola hepatica to be an important human health problem. The Andean countries of Peru, Bolivia and Chile are those most severely affected by this distomatosis, though areas of Ecuador, Colombia and Venezuela are also affected. As part of a multidisciplinary project, we present results of use of a Geographical Information Systems (GIS) forecast model to conduct an epidemiological analysis of human and animal fasciolosis in the central part of the Andes mountains. The GIS approach enabled us to develop a spatial and temporal epidemiological model to map the disease in the areas studied and to classify transmission risk into low, moderate and high risk areas so that areas requiring the implementation of control activities can be identified. Current results are available on a local scale for: (1) the northern Bolivian Altiplano, (2) Puno in the Peruvian Altiplano, (3) the Cajamarca and Mantaro Peruvian valleys, and (4) the Ecuadorian provinces of Azuay, Cotopaxi and Imbabura. Analysis of results demonstrated the validity of a forecast model that combines use of climatic data to calculate of forecast indices with remote sensing data, through the classification of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) maps. PMID:16044684

Fuentes, M V; Sainz-Elipe, S; Nieto, P; Malone, J B; Mas-Coma, S

2005-03-01

231

EFECTO DE LA APLICACIÓN DE RESIDUOS ORGÁNICOS SOBRE EL CULTIVO DEL MAÍZ EN SUELOS DEGRADADOS DEL ESTADO YARACUY, VENEZUELA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of applications of organic residues on maize performance in two soils of Yaracuy State, Venezuela The intense land cultivation for maize cropping on the last 50 years in Yaracuy State, Venezuela, caused an accelerated soil degradation expressed by loss of soil organic matter and crop productivity. With the objective of improving those parameters, the use of organic residues were

Isabel Arrieche; Orlando Mora

2005-01-01

232

Florística y fisonomía de un matorral xerófilo espinoso intervenido en Punta de Piedras, Municipio Miranda, Estado Zulia, Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

Floristic and physiognomic characteristics of disturbed thorny xerophytic scrubland in Punta de Piedras, Miranda Municipality, Zulia State, Venezuela. We determined the floristic and physiognomic aspects of disturbed thorny xerophytic scrubland in Punta de Piedras, Miranda Municipality, Zulia State, Venezuela. Botanical sampling was done twice monthly (November 2005-June 2006), in both rainy and dry seasons, for a total of 16 samples.

Antonio Vera; Maritza Martínez; Yin Ayala; Sadieth Montes; Anderson González

2009-01-01

233

Virtual Geographic Environments (VGEs): A New Generation of Geographic Analysis Tool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Virtual Geographic Environments (VGEs) are proposed as a new generation of geographic analysis tool to contribute to human understanding of the geographic world and assist in solving geographic problems at a deeper level. The development of VGEs is focused on meeting the three scientific requirements of Geographic Information Science (GIScience) — multi-dimensional visualization, dynamic phenomenon simulation, and public participation. To provide a clearer image that improves user understanding of VGEs and to contribute to future scientific development, this article reviews several aspects of VGEs. First, the evolutionary process from maps to previous GISystems and then to VGEs is illustrated, with a particular focus on the reasons VGEs were created. Then, extended from the conceptual framework and the components of a complete VGE, three use cases are identified that together encompass the current state of VGEs at different application levels: 1) a tool for geo-object-based multi-dimensional spatial analysis and multi-channel interaction, 2) a platform for geo-process-based simulation of dynamic geographic phenomena, and 3) a workspace for multi-participant-based collaborative geographic experiments. Based on the above analysis, the differences between VGEs and other similar platforms are discussed to draw their clear boundaries. Finally, a short summary of the limitations of current VGEs is given, and future directions are proposed to facilitate ongoing progress toward forming a comprehensive version of VGEs.

Lin, Hui; Chen, Min; Lu, Guonian; Zhu, Qing; Gong, Jiahua; You, Xiong; Wen, Yongning; Xu, Bingli; Hu, Mingyuan

2013-11-01

234

PENNSYLVANIA GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM LIBRARY: STATE GAMELAND  

EPA Science Inventory

Pennsylvania Geographic Information System (GIS) Library provides a data set of state gameland boundaries digitized from 1:24,000 USGS topographic maps and verified from Pennsylvania Fish and Game Department information. Coverage is incomplete, certain areas are not mapped when ...

235

Long Island Geographic Information System (LI GIS)  

Cancer.gov

The Geographic Information System for Breast Cancer Studies on Long Island (LI GIS) is a unique research tool combining an extensive collection of data and other geospatial resources. The LI GIS is designed primarily to study potential relationships between environmental exposures and breast cancer in Nassau and Suffolk counties (Long Island), NY; however, its application can be extended to the study of other diseases.

236

Generalized Geographic Mapping System for Computer Graphics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Generalized Geographic Mapping System (GGMS) is a computer program that draws accurately proportioned maps virtually anywhere in the world, using a variety of land mass data bases. The GGMS is written in standard FORTRAN IV and is machine-independent ...

D. B. Koi

1985-01-01

237

Frontiers in Geographical Teaching. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Composed of three parts, "Concepts,""Techniques," and "Teaching," this volume of essays by British geographers emerged from the editors' geography education courses and symposia at Cambridge University. It is addressed to two questions: what is happening in geography? and, what impact does this have on school geography? "Concepts" has seven essays…

Chorley, Richard J., Ed.; Haggett, Peter, Ed.

238

ECOLOGICAL RESEARCH APPLICATIONS OF GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Although the importance of Geographic Information Systems (GISs) in natural resource management has been widely acknowledged, the potential of GlS as an ecological research tool has just begun to be explored. The establishment of a major GIS facility at the University of Minnesot...

239

Metropolitan America: Geographic Perspectives and Teaching Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This volume is a collection of papers by participants in the 1970 Annual Meeting of the National Council for Geographic Education. The presentations are an amplification of the substantive material on Metropolitan America presented at the Detroit meeting by lecturers and field trip leaders and include newly developed teaching materials on the…

Swartz, Robert D.; And Others

240

GEOGRAPHIC INDEX OF ENVIRONMENTAL ARTICLES - 1992  

EPA Science Inventory

This index was produced in accordance with the Environmental Research Geographic Location Information Act, Public Law 101-617, enacted by the United States Congress on November 16, 1990. ompiled by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, it is intended as a quick reference for ...

241

GEOGRAPHIC INDEX OF ENVIRONMENTAL ARTICLES - 1993  

EPA Science Inventory

This index was produced in accordance with the Environmental Research Geographic Location Information Act, Public Law 101-617, enacted by the United States Congress on November 16, 1990. ompiled by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, it is intended as a quick reference for ...

242

Modeling Geographic Behavior in Riotous Crowds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under some conditions, tensions among crowd members, harbored a priori or developed on site, might catalyze a crowd to riot, with dramatic consequences. We know perhaps less than we would like to about the processes that drive rioting in crowds because they are difficult to study. In particular, we know relatively little about the influence of geographic behavior on rioting,

Paul M. Torrens; Aaron W. McDaniel

2012-01-01

243

Maximum entropy modeling of species geographic distributions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The availability of detailed environmental data, together with inexpensive and powerful computers, has fueled a rapid increase in predictive modeling of species environmental requirements and geographic distributions. For some species, detailed presence\\/absence occurrence data are available, allowing the use of a variety of standard statistical techniques. However, absence data are not available for most species. In this paper, we introduce

Steven J. Phillips; Robert P. Anderson; Robert E. Schapire

2006-01-01

244

The case for geographical push-caching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most wide-area caching schemes are client initiated. Decisions on when and where to cache information are made without the benefit of the server's global knowledge of the situation. We believe that the server should play a role in making these caching decisions, and we propose geographical push-caching as a way of bringing the server back into the loop. The World

James S. Gwertzman; Margo Seltzer

1995-01-01

245

A Capstone Course of "Geographic Ideas"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Through an instructional approach, this article offers a template for a classroom-based geography capstone course grounded in pedagogical elements of synthesis and reflection, as based on exploration of ten key geographic ideas. It provides insights into course goals, structure, and components for instructors who may wish to implement it in…

Hovorka, Alice Judith

2009-01-01

246

Promoting Geographic Information System Usage across Campus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article the authors discuss how they implemented and promoted Geographic Information System (GIS) applications at Weber State University (WSU), a four-year public institution with two campuses. GIS is a type of computer system made of hardware, software, and data that allows the mapping of spatially related layers that have a common…

Spiegel, Shaun; Kinikin, Janae

2004-01-01

247

Geographical information systems and location science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the 1970s the field of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) has evolved into a mature research and application area involving a number of academic fields including Geography, Civil Engineering, Computer Science, Land Use Planning, and Environmental Science. GIS can support a wide range of spatial queries that can be used to support location studies. GIS will play a significant role

Richard L. Church

2002-01-01

248

U-PLANT GEOGRAPHIC ZONE CLEANUP PROTOTYPE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U Plant geographic zone (UPZ) occupies 0.83 square kilometers on the Hanford Site Central Plateau (200 Area). It encompasses the U Plant canyon (221-U Facility), ancillary facilities that supported the canyon, soil waste sites, and underground pipelines. The UPZ cleanup initiative coordinates the cleanup of the major facilities, ancillary facilities, waste sites, and contaminated pipelines (collectively identified as ''cleanup

2006-01-01

249

U Plant Geographic Zone Cleanup Prototype  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U Plant geographic zone (UPZ) occupies 0.83 square kilometers on the Hanford Site Central Plateau (200 Area). It encompasses the U Plant canyon (221-U Facility), ancillary facilities that supported the canyon, soil waste sites, and underground pipelines. The UPZ cleanup initiative coordinates the cleanup of the major facilities, ancillary facilities, waste sites, and contaminated pipelines (collectively identified as 'cleanup

L. D. Romine; K. D. Leary; M. B. Lackey; J. R. Robertson

2006-01-01

250

Representing Historical Knowledge in Geographic Information Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A growing number of historical scholars in social science and humanities fields are using geographic information systems (GIS) to help investigate spatial questions and map their findings. The nature of historical data and historiographic practices present several challenges in using GIS that have been addressed only partially to date. For…

Grossner, Karl Eric

2010-01-01

251

An Overview of Geographic Information Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Geographic information system (GIS) technology is a rapidly growing and powerful method for managing and analyzing spatial data and information for libraries. This article introduces GIS basic concepts, reviews GIS usage in libraries, and presents some challenges, strengths, and opportunities for libraries and GIS. Six figures illustrate the…

Cox, Allan B.; Gifford, Fred

1997-01-01

252

Data Representations for Geographic Information Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Surveys the field and literature of geographic information systems (GIS) and spatial data representation as it relates to GIS. Highlights include GIS terms, data types, and operations; vector representations and raster, or grid, representations; spatial indexing; elevation data representations; large spatial databases; and problem areas and…

Shaffer, Clifford A.

1992-01-01

253

Geographic Information Systems as an Educational Tool.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the use of a Geographic Information System (GIS) as the foundation for a college-level geography course. Asserts that students develop creative and problem-solving skills as they develop databases of information. Concludes that the activity produced practical products that were used subsequently by local officials and citizens. (CFR)|

White, Kenneth L.; Simms, Michelle

1993-01-01

254

Qualitative geographical variation in interspecific interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore geographical variation in the density relationship between potential competitor forest bird groups, resident Parus spp. and migrant Fringilla spp., across Europe using published bird census results. In addition, we summarized results from three experimental studies from northern Europe on their density associations. Based on anticipated changes in the relative intensity of positive and competitive interactions we predicted a

Mikko Mönkkönen; Jukka T. Forsman; Robert L. Thomson

2004-01-01

255

Geographic Variation in Sea Otters, Enhydra lutris  

Microsoft Academic Search

Univariate and multivariate analyses of 20 skull characters of 304 adult sea otters from throughout the geographic range strongly suggest that three subspecies should be recognized. The nominate form, Enhydra lutris lutris, occurs from the Kuril Islands north to the Commander Islands in the western Pacific Ocean. Individuals of E. l. lutris are characterized by large size and wide skulls

Don E. Wilson; Michael A. Bogan; Brownell Jr. Robert L; A. M. Burdin; M. K. Maminov

1991-01-01

256

Geographical Study of American Blues Culture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Music is not often utilized in teaching geography, despite the fact that many scholars orient their research around analyzing both the historical and spatial dimensions of musical expression. This article reports on the use of a teaching module that utilizes blues culture as a lens to understand the geographical history of the United States. The…

Strait, John B.

2010-01-01

257

Geographic Proximity and Foreign Military Intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proceeding from assumptions about interests and costs, two basic questions about the relation of foreign military intervention and geographic proximity are examined: (1) whether various types of intervening countries usually send troops to distant or nearby states; (2) whether certain types of military intervention are more likely to occur near to or far from the intervener. Data on categories of

Frederic S. Pearson

1974-01-01

258

Management of Multiply Represented Geographic Entities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple representation of geographic information oc- curs when a real-world entity is represented more than once in the same or different databases. In this paper, we propose a new approach to the modeling of multiply represented en- tities and the relationships among the entities and their rep- resentations. A Multiple Representation Management Sys- tem is outlined that can manage multiple

Anders Friis-christensen; David Skogan; Christian S. Jensen; Gerhard Skagestein; Nectaria Tryfona

2002-01-01

259

Geographic Profile of Employment and Unemployment, 1999  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Released last week, the Bureau of Labor Statistics' (BLS) Geographic Profile of Employment and Unemployment, 1999 presents 28 tables of employment and unemployment data from two sources, the Census Bureau's Current Population Survey (CPS) and the Local Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS) program. The 159-page report may be downloaded in its entirety or by table in .pdf format.

2001-01-01

260

Geographical dispersal of mobile communication networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we analyze statistical properties of a communication network constructed from the records of a mobile phone company. The network consists of 2.5 million customers that have placed 810 million communications (phone calls and text messages) over a period of 6 months and for whom we have geographical home localization information. It is shown that the degree distribution in this network has a power-law degree distribution k and that the probability that two customers are connected by a link follows a gravity model, i.e. decreases as d, where d is the distance between the customers. We also consider the geographical extension of communication triangles and we show that communication triangles are not only composed of geographically adjacent nodes but that they may extend over large distances. This last property is not captured by the existing models of geographical networks and in a last section we propose a new model that reproduces the observed property. Our model, which is based on the migration and on the local adaptation of agents, is then studied analytically and the resulting predictions are confirmed by computer simulations.

Lambiotte, Renaud; Blondel, Vincent D.; de Kerchove, Cristobald; Huens, Etienne; Prieur, Christophe; Smoreda, Zbigniew; van Dooren, Paul

2008-09-01

261

Securing Geographic Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the security of geographic routing (GR) that is widely used in ad hoc and wireless sensor networks due to its scalability. In GR, a node greedily forwards a packet to the neighbor that is closest to the destination. Thus, GR only requires a node to maintain the location information of its one hop neighbors. However, very little work

K. D. Kang; K. Liu; N. Abu-Ghazaleh

262

Geographic Information Science: New methods and technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geographical Information Science is essentially computational ge- ography and has its own research program, namely all aspects of formal models for spatial natural processes and the interaction of humans with the environment in space and time. This is not a question of technology and technology-related research; but technology influences what questions can be researched eectively. Collection of data in the

Andrew U. Frank

263

The Global Struggle over Geographic Indications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geographic indications (GIs) stand at the intersection of three hotly debated issues in international law: international trade, intellectual property and agricultural policy. Akin to a trademark, a GI identifies a good as originating in a particular region, where a given quality of the good is attributable to its place of origin. Well-known GIs include champagne and prosciutto di Parma. Although

Kal Raustiala; Stephen R. Munzer

2007-01-01

264

Finding geographically representative music via social media  

Microsoft Academic Search

People can draw a myriad of semantic associations with music. The semantics can be geographical, ethnographical, society- or time-driven, or simply personal. For certain types of music, however, this semantic association is more prominent and coherent across most peoples. Such music can often serve as an ideal accompaniment for a user activity or setting (that shares the semantics of the

Charles Parker; Dhiraj Joshi; Phoury Lei; Jiebo Luo

2011-01-01

265

Kernel density estimation with geographically masked points  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geographic masking displaces points to hide their identities. It has been used in health-related studies to protect patients' confidentialities. The main concern in this process is the balance between the protection of confidentiality and the preservation of the original spatial pattern. However, there is paucity in literature on quantification of this balance. We conducted a preliminary research on the most

Xun Shi; Jennifer Alford-Teaster; Tracy Onega

2009-01-01

266

Object Fusion in Geographic Information Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given two geographic databases, a fusion algo- rithm should produce all pairs of correspond- ing objects (i.e., objects that represent the same real-world entity). Four fusion algo- rithms, which only use locations of objects, are described and their performance is mea- sured in terms of recall and precision. These algorithms are designed to work even when lo- cations are imprecise

Catriel Beeri; Yaron Kanza; Eliyahu Safra; Yehoshua Sagiv

2004-01-01

267

Geographers Performing Nationalism and Hetero-masculinity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our article builds upon the insights of recent critical geographic inquiry that has examined the involvement of geography in a multitude of power relations, and in particular the processes of European imperialism and colonisation. The focus of this article, however, is the involvement of the discipline of geography in the constitution and maintenance of a hetero-masculine nationalist discourse. We focus

Matthew G. Henry; Lawrence D. Berg

2006-01-01

268

A new quality of geographical knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with the current tendencies of the advancement of science, primarily as regards integration and synthesis of knowledge of territorial organization. Within this context, the focus is on the principles of developing an understanding of partial systems, the advancement of research in the field of paleoreconstructions and geographical forecasting, novel techniques of landscape and atlas mapping, and

A. N. Antipov

2009-01-01

269

Representing Historical Knowledge in Geographic Information Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A growing number of historical scholars in social science and humanities fields are using geographic information systems (GIS) to help investigate spatial questions and map their findings. The nature of historical data and historiographic practices present several challenges in using GIS that have been addressed only partially to date. For…

Grossner, Karl Eric

2010-01-01

270

Science Fiction for Geographers: Selected Works.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explains how college level teachers of geography can use works of science fiction to help students understand geographical settings and create impressionistic pictures of a given region in their minds. Particular areas in which science fiction is useful include invented terrestrial landscapes, specialized extraterrestrial landscapes, disaster…

Elbow, Gary S.; Martinson, Tom L.

1980-01-01

271

Historical and geographic regionalization versus electoral geography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper aims to accomplish two key goals: 1) The identification of electoral geography as a means of regionalizing geographic space, 2) The identification of the degree of correlation between social, economic, and political aspects of history and the civilizational and cultural factors that shape communities across different regions.The paper utilizes long-term trends observed based on election data such as

Lech Haydukiewicz

2011-01-01

272

Geographic Variation in Health Care Spending.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper by the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) examines the amount of and trends in geographic variation in health care spending, and the root causes of that variation. It also examines the relationship between spending and quality of care, and it di...

2008-01-01

273

Cellular automata and geographic information systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contemporary geographic information systems (GIS) suffer from a variety of problems. These include poor performance for many operators, poor ability to handle dynamic spatial models, and poor handling of the temporal dimension. Cellular automata (CA) have much in common with raster GIS and also excel in many of the areas in which GIS are deficient. Specifically, CA provide explicit handling

D. F. Wagner

1997-01-01

274

Geographical Information Systems for Dengue Surveillance  

PubMed Central

This review provides details on the role of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) in current dengue surveillance systems and focuses on the application of open access GIS technology to emphasize its importance in developing countries, where the dengue burden is greatest. It also advocates for increased international collaboration in transboundary disease surveillance to confront the emerging global challenge of dengue.

Duncombe, Jennifer; Clements, Archie; Hu, Wenbiao; Weinstein, Philip; Ritchie, Scott; Espino, Fe Esperanza

2012-01-01

275

A digital library for geographically referenced materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presently, maps, aerial photos, and other material referenced in geographic terms, such as by the names of communities that appear in the material, are largely inaccessible. Much of the information is only on paper or film, and can be found only in major research libraries. There is a need to make such material more widely available. The goal of the

Terence R. Smith

1996-01-01

276

Validating a Geographical Image Retrieval System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Summarizes a prototype geographical image retrieval system that demonstrates how to integrate image processing and information analysis techniques to support large-scale content-based image retrieval. Describes an experiment to validate the performance of this image retrieval system against that of human subjects by examining similarity analysis…

Zhu, Bin; Chen, Hsinchun

2000-01-01

277

Ocean Waste Disposal in Selected Geographic Areas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents the results of an intensive fact finding survey of ocean waste disposal practices in six geographic areas. The areas were the New York Bight; Charleston, South Carolina; segments of the Gulf of Mexico Coast; Southern California; San Fr...

1973-01-01

278

Clockwise block rotations in the Perija Mountains, Venezuela  

SciTech Connect

Paleomagnetic analyses of Mesozoic sedimentary rocks (8 sites, 115 samples) from the Perija Mountains, Venezuela, yield well-grouped directions of both polarities. Fold tests imply that the magnetization of the Jurassic La Quinta Formation is pre-mid-Cretaceous in age and that the Lower Cretaceous Cogollo Group acquired its magnetization prior to its mid-Tertiary deformation. These data as well as the results from the Cretaceous Apon and La Luna Formations yield consistent northeast or southwest declinations and inclinations corresponding to the present latitude of the sampling area. The clockwise rotations indicated by these data are interpreted to be the result of rotation of fault-bounded blocks in a left-lateral strike-slip zone. Faults such as the Cogollo, La Ge, and Totumo faults which intersect the Perija-Tigre fault at low angles, had initially a north-northwest strike. The Late Oligocene northwest-southeast compression which initiated the uplift of the Perija Mountains rotated these faults to their present north-northeast orientation imparting the observed left-lateral slip. Our paleomagnetic data measure the corresponding rotation of the fault-bounded blocks. Model calculations suggest that a displacement on these faults of less than ten kilometers would be sufficient to cause the observed approximately 45[degrees] clockwise rotations.

Gose, W.A. (Univ. of Texas, Austin (United States)); Perarnau, A. (Intevep, Los Teques (Venezuela)); Castillo, J. (Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela))

1993-02-01

279

Meningoencephalitis by Naegleria fowleri: epidemiological study in Anzoategui state, Venezuela.  

PubMed

A case of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis produced by Naegleria fowleri was diagnosed in the Independencia county of Anzoategui State, Venezuela. This case motivated the realization of the present epidemiological study with the aim of identifying free-living amoebae in this area. Representative water samples were taken and physicochemical and microbiologic analyses were carried out. Trophozoites and cysts of Naegleria spp, were detected in 44.4% (n=4). An excellent concordance was found among the observations of free-living amoebae in smears and those of monoxenic cultures in non-nourishing agar with Klebsiella pneumoniae (Kappa=1; p= 0.003). A variable load of aerobic mesophils was obtained. Moulds and yeast averages presented 3.0 CFU/ml (SD +/- 2.0) and 102.9 CFU/ml (SD +/- 32.2), respectively. One hundred per cent of the samples presented a most probable number of total and fecal coliforms of 240,000 NMP/100mL. Naegleria spp was present in waters of the Independence county of Anzoategui state, which constitutes a risk for people that use these sources. PMID:16906250

Cermeño, Julman R; Hernández, Isabel; El Yasin, Helal; Tinedo, Rubén; Sánchez, Raúl; Pérez, Gladys; Gravano, Rosalía; Ruiz, Aida

280

Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Pregnant Women in Venezuela  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Intestinal parasitic infections, especially due to helminths, increase anemia in pregnant women. The results of this are low pregnancy weight gain and IUGR, followed by LBW, with its associated greater risks of infection and higher perinatal mortality rates. For these reasons, in the setting of no large previous studies in Venezuela about this problem, a national multicentric study was conducted. Methods. Pregnant women from nine states were studied, a prenatal evaluation with a coproparasitological study. Univariated and multivariated analyses were made to determine risk factors for intestinal parasitosis and related anemia. Results. During 19 months, 1038 pregnant women were included and evaluated. Intestinal parasitosis was evidenced in 73.9%: A lumbricoides 57.0%, T trichiura 36.0%, G lamblia 14.1%, E hystolitica 12.0%, N americanus 8.1%, E vermicularis 6.3%, S stercoralis 3.3%. Relative risk for anemia in those women with intestinal parasitosis was 2.56 (P<.01). Discussion. Intestinal parasitoses could be associated with conditions for development of anemia at pregnancy. These features reflect the need of routine coproparasitological study among pregnant women in rural and endemic zones for intestinal parasites. Further therapeutic and prophylactic protocols are needed. Additional research on pregnant intestinal parasitic infection impact on newborn health is also considered.

Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J.; Barbella, Rosa A.; Case, Cynthia; Arria, Melissa; Ravelo, Marisela; Perez, Henry; Urdaneta, Oscar; Gervasio, Gloria; Rubio, Nestor; Maldonado, Andrea; Aguilera, Ymora; Viloria, Anna; Blanco, Juan J.; Colina, Magdary; Hernandez, Elizabeth; Araujo, Elianet; Cabaniel, Gilberto; Benitez, Jesus; Rifakis, Pedro

2006-01-01

281

Sequence stratigraphy of the Maturin sub-basin (Eastern Venezuela)  

SciTech Connect

The prolific Eastern Venezuela Basin has an area of about 160,000 km{sup 2} and is bounded by the Pilar Fault to the North, the Guayana Shield to the South, the Baul Arch to the West and beyond the Orinoco Delta to the East. Sequence analysis of three N-S and one W-E regional transects covered by over one thousand km of seismic lines and sedimentological, biostratigraphic and electrofacies studies of 80 wells allowed the definition of the sequence stratigraphic column of the basin. Seven major unconformity bounded depositional sequences were defined from Barremian to Recent, three in the Cretaceous and four in the Tertiary. Twenty-one third-order cycles were recognized in the Tejas B supercycle (Upper Oligocene-Recent). This cycle correlates very well with the Gulf of Mexico and Global chronostratigraphic charts. In the proximal, southern area, each sequence shows transgressive sandstones in its lower section and regressive ones in the upper part, separated by claystones that include a maximum flooding surface. In the distal area, fine marine sediments predominate with local turbidities. Some electrical markers and planktonic fossils are traceable over long distances. Regional transacts show two distinct structural zones: tensional to the South and compressional to the North. The best petroleum reservoirs occur in Tertiary and to a lesser extent in Cretaceous sequences. In this basin occurs the largest oil accumulation of the world (Orinoco), as well as several giant oil fields.

Gonzales, G.; Mata, S.; Santiago, N. [Departamento de Geologia, Lagoven, S.A., Caracas (Venezuela)

1996-08-01

282

Cretaceous to Eocene passive margin sedimentation in Northeastern Venezuela  

SciTech Connect

Twenty two palinspastic paleogeographic maps are presented for the Cretaceous to Eocene strata of the Serrania del Interior of northeastern Venezuela. The mapped lithologies, environmental conditions, and evolving depositional systems record [approximately]90 m.y. of dominantly marine sedimentation on the only observable Mesozoic passive margin in the Western Hemisphere. The depositional systems of the passive margin are heterogeneous at lateral (i.e., along-margin) length scales greater than [approximately]40 km. The primary lateral heterogeneity is caused by a major Lower Cretaceous deltaic system that emanated southwest of the Serrania del Interior. All important intervals, such as the laterally variable Aptian-Albian El Cantil platform limestone and the hydrocarbon source rocks of the Upper Cretaceous Querecual and San Antonio formations, are related to probable causal mechanisms and environmental conditions. Stratigraphic events have been interpreted as of either local or regional extent; based on a combination of outcrop sedimentologic analyses and regional depositional systems interpretation. The 3-dimensional distribution of depositional systems and systems tracts reveals 4-6 regional sequence boundaries separated by 4-20 m.y. Subsidence analyses support the facies interpretation of a passive margin by showing continuous, thermally dominated subsidence during the Cretaceous to Eocene interval. Subsidence and accumulation rates increased and facies changed significantly in the Oligocene, indicating the end of passive margin sedimentation and the initiation of foredeep subsidence and accumulation associated with overthrusting the eastward-advancing Caribbean Plate.

Erikson, J.P. (Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH (United States))

1993-02-01

283

Chemostratigraphy: Applications in the Tachira depression, Tachira State, Venezuela  

SciTech Connect

Rock analyses (40 chemical parameters) from densely sampled Cretaceous sections from La Luna, Navay, Aguardiente and Escandalosa formations in southwestern Venezuela, combined with multivariate statistical analysis, allowed statistical characterization of formations, environmentally meaningful clustering of correlated geochemical variables, as well as calculation of chemical accumulation rates. Chemofacies, defined from accumulation rates, were used for correlation and depositional environment definition. Organic matter maturity does not affect NiN ratios, but causes homogenization in Ca/Sr ratios. Th/V ratios clearly separate shelf vs. oceanic fades, closely matching those from biofacies analysis. Cycles in Th/V repeat every 60 in (Navay) to 20 in (La Luna), corresponding to Milankovitch climatic cycles. Shales (high Th/V) represent cooler-shallower sedimentation periods, and lodestones (low Th/V) represent warmer-deeper ones. Differences in accumulation rates were used for establishing changes in: source rock (La-Ce), either due to tectonism or variations in marine current pattern; redox conditions (Ni-V); clay mineralogy (Al-K); energy level (Al-Si); and salinity (Mg-Na). Finally, chemostratigraphy, combined with reliable structural and stratigraphical field data, has proven to be a powerful tool for unravelling tectono-stratigraphical histories.

Briceno, H.; Ostos, M.; Yoris, F. [Caracas (Venezuela)] [and others

1996-08-01

284

Confronting Health Disparities: Latin American Social Medicine in Venezuela  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We explored the emergence and effectiveness of Venezuela's Misión Barrio Adentro, “Inside the Neighborhood Mission,” a program designed to improve access to health care among underserved residents of the country, hoping to draw lessons to apply to future attempts to address acute health disparities. Methods. We conducted our study in 3 capital-region neighborhoods, 2 small cities, and 2 rural areas, combining systematic observations with interviews of 221 residents, 41 health professionals, and 28 government officials. We surveyed 177 female and 91 male heads of household. Results. Interviews suggested that Misión Barrio Adentro emerged from creative interactions between policymakers, clinicians, community workers, and residents, adopting flexible, problem-solving strategies. In addition, data indicated that egalitarian physician–patient relationships and the direct involvement of local health committees overcame distrust and generated popular support for the program. Media and opposition antagonism complicated physicians’ lives and clinical practices but heightened the program's visibility. Conclusions. Top-down and bottom-up efforts are less effective than “horizontal” collaborations between professionals and residents in underserved communities. Direct, local involvement can generate creative and dynamic efforts to address acute health disparities in these areas.

Mantini-Briggs, Clara

2009-01-01

285

[Breeding systems of the Paraguaná coastal plain plants, Venezuela. ].  

PubMed

Breeding systems were evaluated for 51 plant species according to life form, pollination system, vegetation type, and phenology, in the coastal plain of Paraguaná Peninsula, Venezuela. Sexual systems were no associated to life form, pollination system, vegetation type, and phenology. The frequency distribution of sexual system was 82.3% hermaphroditism, 15.6% monoecy, and 1.9% dioecy. All sexual systems had a peak during the lowest rainfall. Genetic system distribution was 64.8% self-compatibility (including partially self-compatibility) and 35.2% self-incompatibility. Among self-compatible species, 45.1% were autogamous (19.6% not autogamous). The genetic systems were associated significantly to: (1) plant life form: self-compatible species tend to be herbaceous and self-incompatible plants tend to be woody species; (2) vegetation type: self-compatible species were predominant in the three vegetation types, but in the mangrove the frequency of self-compatible and self-incompatibles was similar; and (3) pollination system: most of the self-compatible species were polyphilous. Mating systems: xenogamous and autogamous species were associated only with plant life forms. Xenogamous plants were mostly woody species and autogamous plants were mostly herbaceous species. The high incidence of hermaphroditism, self-compatibility, and autogamy are related to herbaceous life form, polyphilous pollination system, and climatic conditions, together the insularity of the Paraguaná peninsula. PMID:17354451

Lemus-Jiménez, Luis José; Ramírez, Nelson

286

An empirical test of geographic knowledge spillovers using geographic information systems and firm-level data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most research on economic geography focuses on large geographic areas, such as nations and states. I use a geographic information system and a firm-level dataset to explore agglomeration and spillovers at the firm level over discrete distances. I calculate the distance between each firm-pair to explore co-location, and use these calculations to devise a test of spillovers: is participation in

Scott J. Wallsten

2001-01-01

287

The problem of geographic market definition: Geographic proximity vs. economic significance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary and Conclusions  This paper has challenged the views that geographic markets must be made up of contiguous areas and that one should expand\\u000a continuously from some baseline location when applying a shipments-based market definition procedure. If volume of shipments,\\u000a rather than immediate proximity, is used as the ranking criterion for adding trading locations to meet the threshold percentages,\\u000a geographic markets

Steven E. Crane; Patrick J. Welch

1991-01-01

288

Geographical identification of cadavers by human parasites.  

PubMed

Increasing numbers of unidentified cadavers have recently become an important forensic problem in many countries. To identify such cadavers, DNA typing method is widely used. However, as this technique requires reference DNA samples, a method that would quickly narrow down possible candidates for the cadavers is needed to enable rapid identification. Unfortunately, no really reliable methods suitable for this purpose have been available; however, methods using the human parasites, JC virus, BK virus and EB virus, have been reported. These new methods narrow down the candidates by elucidating geographic origins. Though not detectable in all cases, results using such methods with several parasites have enabled us to estimate geographic origins of unidentified cadavers with a high detection rate. PMID:19083803

Ikegaya, Hiroshi

2007-12-03

289

Ecologic and Geographic Distribution of Filovirus Disease  

PubMed Central

We used ecologic niche modeling of outbreaks and sporadic cases of filovirus-associated hemorrhagic fever (HF) to provide a large-scale perspective on the geographic and ecologic distributions of Ebola and Marburg viruses. We predicted that filovirus would occur across the Afrotropics: Ebola HF in the humid rain forests of central and western Africa, and Marburg HF in the drier and more open areas of central and eastern Africa. Most of the predicted geographic extent of Ebola HF has been observed; Marburg HF has the potential to occur farther south and east. Ecologic conditions appropriate for Ebola HF are also present in Southeast Asia and the Philippines, where Ebola Reston is hypothesized to be distributed. This first large-scale ecologic analysis provides a framework for a more informed search for taxa that could constitute the natural reservoir for this virus family.

Bauer, John T.; Mills, James N.

2004-01-01

290

Investigating urban geochemistry using Geographical Information Systems.  

PubMed

Geographical Information System (GIS) is an interactive digital extension of the two-dimensional paper map. Customised maps are created by the selection and aggregation of data from independent sources to assist studies in urban geochemistry. The metropolitan area of Wolverhampton, in the West Midlands, UK is used to illustrate the types of output that can be generated. These include: geographic and geological feature; geochemical data and land use. Multi-layered maps can be used to investigate spatial relationships, for example, between elevated concentrations of metals in soils and industrial land use. Such maps can also be used to assist the assessment of potential exposure of groundwater, ecosystems and humans using maps incorporating guideline values for metals in soils. PMID:11732156

Thums, C; Farago, M

2001-01-01

291

Integration of Geographic Information into Multidimensional Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data warehousing and On Line Analytical Processing (OLAP) are technologies intended to support business intelligence. Spatial\\u000a OLAP integrates spatial data into OLAP systems. Spatial OLAP models reformulate main OLAP concepts to define spatial dimensions\\u000a and measures, and spatio-multidimensional navigation operators. Spatial OLAP reduces geographic information to its spatial\\u000a component without taking into account map generalization relationships into the multidimensional decision

Sandro Bimonte; Anne Tchounikine; Michela Bertolotto

2008-01-01

292

Maximum Entropy Inference for Geographical Information Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

An immediate problem in approaching GIS (Geographic Information Systems) consists in giving a sufficiently agreed definition\\u000a of what GIS actually are. For present purposes it seems reasonable to consider GIS as being characterized by a twofold nature.\\u000a On the one hand, GIS consist of a technology used for certain purposes. From this perspective, the crucial issues in GIS research amount

Hykel Hosni; Maria Vittoria Masserotti; Chiara Renso

293

National Geographic: Stone Skipping Gets Scientific  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article in National Geographic tells us how and why the magic angle of 20 degrees allows for the most number of skips when skipping stones. How does the author know this? Well, a French scientist constructed a stone-skipping machine to find out the optimal speed, spin, and angle for the maximum number of bounces. Learn more about the physics of stone skipping in this article.

294

Geographical Information Systems and Geography Teaching  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The growing popularisation of spatial tools all point to a growing need for spatial perspective. Recent international publications\\u000a in the field of geography in education state that Geographical Information Systems (GIS) are an important tool to promote\\u000a spatial literacy. In secondary education, there is a slowly growing interest in GIS. Besides differences, the developments\\u000a in this field in the different

Joop van der Schee; Henk J. Scholten

295

Estimating the accuracy of geographical imputation  

PubMed Central

Background To reduce the number of non-geocoded cases researchers and organizations sometimes include cases geocoded to postal code centroids along with cases geocoded with the greater precision of a full street address. Some analysts then use the postal code to assign information to the cases from finer-level geographies such as a census tract. Assignment is commonly completed using either a postal centroid or by a geographical imputation method which assigns a location by using both the demographic characteristics of the case and the population characteristics of the postal delivery area. To date no systematic evaluation of geographical imputation methods ("geo-imputation") has been completed. The objective of this study was to determine the accuracy of census tract assignment using geo-imputation. Methods Using a large dataset of breast, prostate and colorectal cancer cases reported to the New Jersey Cancer Registry, we determined how often cases were assigned to the correct census tract using alternate strategies of demographic based geo-imputation, and using assignments obtained from postal code centroids. Assignment accuracy was measured by comparing the tract assigned with the tract originally identified from the full street address. Results Assigning cases to census tracts using the race/ethnicity population distribution within a postal code resulted in more correctly assigned cases than when using postal code centroids. The addition of age characteristics increased the match rates even further. Match rates were highly dependent on both the geographic distribution of race/ethnicity groups and population density. Conclusion Geo-imputation appears to offer some advantages and no serious drawbacks as compared with the alternative of assigning cases to census tracts based on postal code centroids. For a specific analysis, researchers will still need to consider the potential impact of geocoding quality on their results and evaluate the possibility that it might introduce geographical bias.

Henry, Kevin A; Boscoe, Francis P

2008-01-01

296

Resilience to natural hazards: a geographic perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resilience is increasingly used as an approach for understanding the dynamics of natural disaster systems. This article presents\\u000a the origin of resilience and provides an overview of its development to date, which draws on the wide literature on ecological\\u000a science, social science, social–environmental system and natural hazards. From a geographic perspective, the model of disaster\\u000a resilience of “Loss–Response” of Location

Hongjian Zhou; Jing’ai Wang; Jinhong Wan; Huicong Jia

2010-01-01

297

Geographically isolated wetlands of the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

While many wetlands form along floodplains of rivers, streams, lakes, and estuaries, others have developed in depressions\\u000a far removed from such waters. Depressional wetlands completely surrounded by upland have traditionally been called “isolated\\u000a wetlands.” Isolated wetlands are not confined to basins, as some occur on broad flats and others form on slopes. The term\\u000a “geographically isolated wetlands” better describes these

Ralph W. Tiner

2003-01-01

298

Geographic location tags on digital images  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe an end-to-end system that capitalizes on geographic location tags for digital photographs. The World Wide Media eXchange (WWMX) database indexes large collections of image media by several pieces of metadata including timestamp, owner, and critically, location stamp. The location where a photo was shot is important because it says much about its semantic content, while being relatively easy

Kentaro Toyama; Ron Logan; Asta Roseway

2003-01-01

299

Geographical information system for flight safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a geographical information system for terrain and obstacle awareness and alerting that extracts information from high-resolution satellite images. On-board terrain elevation databases are being increasingly used in aircraft terrain awareness and warning systems (TAWS), offering a step change in capability from the radar altimeter-based ground proximity warning system. However, to enhance the safety of flight of small

Hiromichi Yamamoto; Kohzo Homma; Hiromi Gomi; Satoru Kitagata; Kazuhiro Kumasaka; Tetsuya Oikawa

2003-01-01

300

Experiential And Formal Models Of Geographic Space  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT This paper is concerned not with space and spatial relations as objective entities of the world, but rather with human experience and perception of phenomena,and relations in space. The goal arising from this concern is to identify models,of space that can be used both in cognitive science and in the design and implementation,of geographic information systems (GISs). Experiential models

Andrew U. Frank; David M. Mark

1995-01-01

301

Coal bed methane potential in Venezuela-The forgotten resource  

SciTech Connect

In nations already possessing riches of hydrocarbons situated in conventional reservoirs, evaluation of coal-bearing sequences for potential gas is logically delayed or ignored. Nonetheless, Venezuelan coals have long been recognized as stratigraphically associated with oil accumulations, but because coalbed methane (CBM) is a relatively new worldwide phenomenon, CBM potential has not been widely assessed in the country. Two general areas contain vast accumulations of coal for potential CBM activity: (1) the Maracaibo basin, containing the Guasare (northwest), Lobatera-Santo Domingo (southwest) and Urumaco (northeast) districts; and (2) the Oficina basin in eastern Venezuela possessing abundant accumulations related to the Faja Petrolifera de Orinoco (Orinoco Oil Belt). In both basins, high volatile bituminous and lignitic coals of mostly Oligo-Miocene age are abundantly found. Older coals are also present especially in the Maracaibo area. Two factors represent powerful incentives for CBM exploitation: addition of known reserves for economic considerations, and aid in bringing heavy crude oil to the surface by additional gas lift and oil viscosity reduction. Other favorable factors important for CBM methodology include: (1) abundant coals lying above known conventional reservoir targets; (2).6 - 1% vitrinite reflectance measurements in the Orinoco Oil Belt; (3) many coals occurring above 1500 m; (4) documented mine explosions especially in the 1920s and 1930s; (5) a strong tectonic overprint to perhaps add shear fractures to already cleated coals; (6) individual coal thickness up to 12 m with averages in the .8 m range; and (7) gas shows while drilling coal-rich intervals.

Vasquez-Herrera, A.R. [VVA Consultores, Caracas (Venezuela); Bereskin, S.R.; McLennan, J.D. [TerraTek, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

1996-08-01

302

48 CFR 725.706 - Geographic source waivers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Authority to waive source, origin, nationality, and transportation services requirements is set forth in chapters 103 and 310 of the ADS. (b) The contracting officer shall insert the authorized geographic code based on an approved geographic source...

2012-10-01

303

48 CFR 725.706 - Geographic source waivers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Authority to waive source, origin, nationality, and transportation services requirements is set forth in chapters 103 and 310 of the ADS. (b) The contracting officer shall insert the authorized geographic code based on an approved geographic source...

2011-10-01

304

47 CFR 27.15 - Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation. 27.15 Section...27.15 Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation. (a) Eligibility...service area or disaggregate their licensed spectrum at any time following the grant of...

2012-10-01

305

47 CFR 27.15 - Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation. 27.15 Section...27.15 Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation. (a) Eligibility...service area or disaggregate their licensed spectrum at any time following the grant of...

2011-10-01

306

47 CFR 27.15 - Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation. 27...and Licenses § 27.15 Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation. (a... (1) Parties seeking approval for partitioning and disaggregation shall...

2010-10-01

307

47 CFR 27.15 - Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 false Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation. 27...and Licenses § 27.15 Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation. (a... (1) Parties seeking approval for partitioning and disaggregation shall...

2009-10-01

308

The Decision to Call the Police: A Comparative Study of the United States and Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cross-national studies of the police have indicated that cultural and attitudinal variables are important determinants of citizens' decision to call the police. In contrast, crime victimization surveys conducted within countries have indicated that crime seriousness is the only important variable. In the present study, data from household surveys conducted in the United States and Venezuela are used to test the

Christopher Birkbeck; Luis Gerardo Gabaldón; Gary LaFree

1993-01-01

309

Rural Development in Venezuela and the Guianas: A Bibliography. Training and Methods Series Number 20.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The bibliography cites 930 materials dealing with Venezuela and the Guianas. Published between 1949 and 1972, the materials are found in the Land Tenure Center Library at the University of Wisconsin. Topics covered are: agriculture, agrarian reform, economic affairs, economic cooperation, human resources, American Indians, industry, law, money,…

Anderson, Teresa, Comp.; And Others

310

Geophysical studies for the identification of basin effects in urban areas in Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban areas in northern Venezuela are subject to a moderate seismic hazard due to the interactions between the Caribbean and south American plates, which has been evidenced by historical damaging earthquakes as for example the 1812 and the 1967 earthquakes with a magnitude of 7.2 and 6.5, respectively. Strong damages in Caracas during the 1967 earthquake have been asociated to

M. Schmitz; V. Rocabado; J. Sánchez; C. Reinoza; E. Amaris; C. Cornou

2007-01-01

311

Teachers' Perceived Efficacy among English as a Foreign Language Teachers in Middle Schools in Venezuela  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Teachers' sense of efficacy has been shown to influence teachers' actions and student outcomes. This study explored self-efficacy beliefs among English as a Foreign Language teachers in selected schools in Venezuela. Data were collected through a survey administered to 100 teachers. The Teacher Sense of Efficacy Scale (Tschannen-Moran & Woolfolk…

Chacon, C.T.

2005-01-01

312

ECOLOGICAL STUDIES OF ENZOOTIC VENEZUELAN EQUINE ENCEPHALITIS IN NORTH-CENTRAL VENEZUELA 1997–1998  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. From 1997–1998, we investigated the possible continuous circulation of epizootic Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) virus suggested by a 1983 subtype IC interepizootic mosquito isolate made in Panaquire, Miranda State, Venezuela. The study area was originally covered by lowland tropical rainforest but has been converted into cacao plantations. Sentinel hamsters, small mammal trapping, mosquito collections, and human serosurveys were used

Rosa Alba Salas; Carmen Z. Garcia; Jonathan Liria; Roberto Barrera; Juan Carlos Navarro; Gladys Medina; Clovis Vasquez; Zoraida Fernandez; Scott C. Weaver

313

Análisis del metabolismo energético y de materiales de Brasil, Chile y Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

El artículo presenta una aplicación de las metodologías de Análisis de Flujo de Materiales y Análisis Integrado Multi- Escala del Metabolismo Social (MSIASM, siglas en inglés) para la caracterización de modelos de desarrollo económico de Brasil, Chile, y Venezuela, mediante la utilización combinada de datos económicos y de uso de energía y materiales para diferentes sectores y en diversos niveles

Nina Eisenmenger; Jesús Ramos Martín; Heinz Schandl

2007-01-01

314

Oblique Collision of the Leeward Antilles, Offshore Venezuela: Linking Onshore and Offshore Data from BOLIVAR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinematic history of the Leeward Antilles (offshore Venezuela) can be characterized with the integration of onshore outcrop data and offshore seismic reflection data. Deformation structures and seismic interpretation show that oblique convergence and wrench tectonics have controlled the diachronous deformation identified along the Caribbean - South America plate boundary. Field studies of structural features in outcrop indicate one generation

A. G. Beardsley; H. G. Avé Lallemant; A. Levander; S. A. Clark

2006-01-01

315

Arbuscular mycorrhizas in coastal sand dunes of the Paraguaná Peninsula, Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization was measured in the most abundant plant species of the Paraguaná Peninsula, northwestern Venezuela. These plant species included: Acacia tortuosa, Argusia gnaphalodes, Croton punctatus, Croton rhamnifolius, Egletes prostrata, Melochia tomentosa, Panicum vaginatum, Scaevola plumieri, Sporobolus virginicus, Suriana maritima, Leptothrium rigidum, and Fimbristylis cymosa. Mycorrhizal colonization was assessed using the Trouvelot et al. (1986) method that allows for

C. Alarcón; G. Cuenca

2005-01-01

316

High resolution paleoclimatic reconstruction of the last deglaciation in the intertropical Cariaco basin (Venezuela)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is a high-resolution reconstruction of the paleoclimate record of the last 16 ka of the Cariaco Basin, using a combination of geochemical and grain-size analyses. The studied core was collected at the ODP site 1002 on the western edge of the central saddle of the basin (off Venezuela). An age model was determined using a

M. Aycard; V. Bout-Roumazeilles; N. Tribovillard; F. Baudin

2003-01-01

317

Late Pleistocene cingulates (Mammalia: Xenarthra) from Mene de Inciarte Tar Pits, Sierra de Perijá, western Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new assemblage of Cingulata (Xenarthra) from the late Pleistocene of northwestern Venezuela is reported. The fauna includes Dasypus sabanicola, Propraopus sulcatus, and Pampatherium humboldtii, all three of which are reported for the first time from the Venezuelan Pleistocene. Glyptodon clavipes is also reported. A systematic problem with the species of Propraopus is reported, with a suggestion for the probable

Ascanio D. Rincón; Richard S. White; H. Gregory Mcdonald

2008-01-01

318

The Effect of Wage Compression and Alternative Labor Market Opportunities on Teacher Quality in Venezuela  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper examines the effect of teacher relative wages and teacher wage dispersion on high school graduates' preferences for teaching majors in College. This approximation to teacher quality is appropriate in a country like Venezuela as opposed to the US since the rigidity of the tertiary school system significantly limits mobility between…

Ortega, Daniel E.

2010-01-01

319

TOXOPLASMA GONDII INFECTIONS IN CHICKENS FROM VENEZUELA: ISOLATION, TISSUE DISTRIBUTION, AND MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, in free-ranging chickens is a good indicator of the prevalence of T. gondii oocysts in the soil because chickens feed from the ground. The prevalence of T. gondii in 46 free-range chickens (Gallus domesticus) from Venezuela was determined. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed by the modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibodies were found in 16

J. P. Dubey; A. Lenhart; C. E. Castillo; L. Alvarez; P. Marcet; C. Sreekumar; T. Lehmann

2005-01-01

320

3D seismic interpretation-Norte de Paria, offshore Eastern Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

During 1991 a 1600 km[sup 2] 3D seismic survey was acquired for the Cristobal Colon Project, a joint venture of Lagoven (33%), Shell (30%), Exxon (29%) and Mitsubishi (8%). The objective is to evaluate the volumes of gas in the Mejillones, Patao, Dragon, and Rio Caribe gas fields, located north of the Paria Peninsula in offshore eastern Venezuela, in order

R. Ramirez de Arellano; L. van Bommel; F. Riart; J. Gil

1993-01-01

321

Counter-Hegemonic Regionalism and Higher Education for All: Venezuela and the ALBA  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper employs new regionalism theory and regulatory regionalism theory in its analysis and theorisation of the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America (ALBA) as a counter-hegemonic Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) regionalism. As (initially) the regionalisation of Venezuela's Bolivarian Revolution, ALBA is centred around the…

Muhr, Thomas

2010-01-01

322

The Universidad Nacional Abierta of Venezuela. A Case Study in Distance Learning Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A brief description of the country of Venezuela (geography, population, economy, internal communications, and politics) and its educational system introduce a description of the Universidad Nacional Abierta (UNA). The UNA was opened in July 1978 to expand the national system of higher education by the use of distance learning techniques. These…

Friedman, H. Z.

323

An Innovative Project in Educational Technology: The Panama-Venezuela Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a project which is being implemented in the field of educational technology in Panama and Venezuela. The project emphasizes inservice training of a cadre of professionals who will direct efforts to identify and resolve significant problems in education. (Author/CHC)|

Rojas, Alicia Mabel

1980-01-01

324

Geological Studies in eastern Venezuela and Trinidad from Cretaceous passive margin to Neogene transpressional thrust belt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sedimentological and structural analyses of Trinidad's Northern and Central ranges and Venezuela's Serrania del Interior have led to new interpretations of northeastern. South America's tectonic evolution within the Southern Caribbean Plate Boundary Zone. Medial ( ) Jurassic through early Cenozoic passive margin sediments make up the majority of these areas and were deposited somewhat to the WNW (between 80 and

S. T. Algar; J. E. Erikson; J. L. Pindell

1991-01-01

325

Distribution of Lymnaeidae (Mollusca: Pulmonata), intermediate snail hosts of Fasciola hepatica in Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extensive malacological survey was carried out between 2005-2009 in order to clarify the exact number of lymnaeid species which may be intermediate hosts of Fasciola hepatica in Venezuela. Four species were discovered during this survey, including two local species: Lymnaea cubensis and Lymnaea cousini and two exotic species: Lymnaea truncatula and Lymnaea columella. The most common local species was

JP Pointier; O Noya; B Alarcón de Noya; A Théron

2009-01-01

326

Comparison of the petroleum systems of East Venezuela in their tectonostratigraphic context  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Maturin and Guarico subbasins of East Venezuela record the transition from Cretaceous passive margin to Tertiary foreland basin with local post-orogenic transtensional basins. Petroleum is reservoired in several units ranging from Albian (El Cantil Formation) to Pliocene (Las Piedras Formation) age. Source rocks are principally in the Upper Cretaceous (Querecual Formation), and Miocene (Carapita Formation) in the Maturin subbasin

N. J. Stronach; H. M. Kerr; J. Scotchmer; V. Hunter

1996-01-01

327

Military coups in the post-cold war era: Pakistan, Ecuador and Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article compares the failed military coups in Ecuador (2000) and Venezuela (2002) with the successful 1999 military putsch in Pakistan in order to identify what factors affect coup outcomes in third-wave democracies. The unity of the armed forces in support of the Pakistani coup, and its division in the two Latin American cases, are critical in explaining the divergent

Steven Barracca

2007-01-01

328

The Uses of Conspiracy Theories for the Construction of a Political Religion in Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyses conspiracy theories as part of the wider discourses of missionary politics. It presents a case study of Venezuela and describes how its leaders use conspiracy theories as political tools. Through quotes taken form Venezuelan president Chavez's public speeches and other sources, and through a short analysis of the ideological basis of his discourses, it shows how conspiracy

Hugo Antonio; Pérez Hernáiz

2008-01-01

329

Characterization of hepatitis D virus genotype III among Yucpa Indians in Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complete genome sequences of hepatitis D virus (HDV) strains isolated from three Yucpa Amerindians in Venezuela were determined and found to be genotype III. Comparison of these three genotype III sequences demonstrated the presence of a hypervariable region containing numerous substitutions, insertions\\/deletions and a highly conserved region containing the self-cleavage do- mains, which have been reported previously for genotypes

Tatsunori Nakano; Craig N. Shapiro; Stephan C. Hadler; John L. Casey; Masashi Mizokami; Etsuro Orito; Betty H. Robertson

2001-01-01

330

Lobomycosis in Man and Lobomycosis-like Disease in Bottlenose Dolphin, Venezuela  

PubMed Central

We report 1 case of lobomycosis caused by Lacazia loboi in a fisherman and 1 case of lobomycosis-like disease in a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) along the coast of Venezuela. These findings suggest that the marine environment is a likely habitat for L. loboi and a reservoir for infection.

Bermudez, Luis; Van Bressem, Marie-Francoise; Reyes-Jaimes, Oscar; Sayegh, Alejandro J.

2009-01-01

331

Universities, public policy and economic development in Latin America: the cases of Mexico and Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the establishment of national university systems in Mexico and Venezuela, three principal demands have dominated the formulation of university policy: the ideological demand imposed by government rhetoric and national aspirations (a demand reflected in federal expenditure), the demand of the national economy for different areas and levels of professional expertise, and the broad-based political and social demand for upward

David E. Lorey

1992-01-01

332

Pyrolysis kinetics applied to prediction of oil generation in the Maracaibo Basin, Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use chemical kinetic parameters for oil generation derived from modified Rock-Eval and Pyromat instruments, coupled with thermal history models, to predict the timing and extent of oil generation in the Maracaibo Basin of Venezuela. The vitrinite reflectance model developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is used to calibrate thermal history models with measured vitrinite reflectance profiles. We examine the

J. J. Sweeney; S. Talukdar; A. K. Burnham; C. Vallejos; TX The Woodlands

1989-01-01

333

Comparison of fish assemblages in two littoral habitats in a Neotropical morichal stream in Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

Morichales are lowland streams in South American savannas with riparian forest dominated by the moriche palm (Mauritia flexuosa ). We sampled littoral habitats from ten flooded vegetated patches (dominated by Mauritiella aculeate) and six sand banks in two months of the dry season (Feb-Mar 2005) in a stream in the savannas of Apure State, Venezuela. We collected samples that compromised

Carmen G. Montaña; Craig A. Layman; Donald C. Taphorn

2008-01-01

334

Actividad microbiana en suelos de sabanas de los Llanos Orientales de Venezuela convertidas en pasturas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Micr obial activity in Eastern Venezuelan savannas turned into grasslands. We studied the effects of season and management practices on chemical properties and biochemical parameters in a typical Ultisol soil of native and introduced pastures of the Eastern savannas of Venezuela. Sseason, soil management, and their interaction, significantly affected chemical properties and biochemical parameters. The total carbon and the water

Y. Gómez; J. Paolini

2006-01-01

335

Subsidence related horizontal earth movements in the Tia Juana field, State of Zulia, Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subsidence due to oil exploitation in the Bolivar Coast fields in western Venezuela has been monitored since 1926. Related horizontal earth movements have been measured by geodetic methods during the last 10 yr in the northern Tia Juana field area in and around the Ule tank farm and the GLP gas liquefaction plant. Damage to storage tanks and increasing appearance

W. F. Scherer; M. A. Pedroza

1990-01-01

336

Use of the Global Positioning System (GPS) for Ground Subsidence Measurements in Western Venezuela Oil Fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil production along the east coast of Lake Maracaibo in Western Venezuela produces ground subsidence which affects an area of about 1000 km2 in die form of three subsidence basins. Since 1929 the accumulative subsidence has reached 5 m with the present rate of subsidence reaching 0.2 m per year in some locations. A levelling network consisting of over 1600

A. CHRZANOWSKI; Y. Q. CHEN; T. POPLAWSKI

1991-01-01

337

Chemical kinetic model of hydrocarbon generation, expulsion, and destruction applied to the Maracaibo basin, Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the development and application of a compositional chemical model of hydrocarbon generation, expulsion,a nd destruction for the Cretaceous La Luna Formation source rock of the Maraciabo basin, Venezuela. Applications include both laboratory and geological settings. Laboratory pyrolysis experiments were used to study bulk oil generation, expulsion, and associated changes in composition of the kerogen, extractable organic matter,

J. J. Sweeney; R. L. Braun; A. K. Burnham

1995-01-01

338

Five Years of Cyclotron Radioisotope Production Experiences at the First PET-CT in Venezuela  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Five years operation of a compact cyclotron installed at PET-CT facility in Caracas, Venezuela is given. Production rate of 18F labeled FDG, operation and radiation monitoring experience are included. We conclude that 18FDG CT-PET is the most effective technique for patient diagnosis.

Colmenter, L.; Sajo-Bohus, L.; Liendo, J. A.; Greaves, E. D.; Coelho, D.; Barros, H.; Castillo, J.; Esteves, L. M.; Ruiz, N.; Morales, L.; Lugo, I.

2007-10-01

339

Development of Caribbean plate tectonics: A contribution from oil exploration in Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following several huge oil and gas discoveries during the mid-1980s in the Northern Venezuela overthrust belt more detailed geological and geophysical studies have increased their perception of structural control on sedimentary basin development. Significant improvements in seismic data quality and seismic lines positioned close to outcrops of the frontal thrust give evidence of Miocene to Pleistocene thin-skinned tectonics as the

J. Fuentes; S. Oum; R. Lander

1990-01-01

340

THE MARKET FOR BROILERS THROUGH FAST-FOOD OUTLETS IN VENEZUELA  

Microsoft Academic Search

PROAGRO is the leading firm in the broiler business in Venezuela. It is integrated through hatchery, grow-out, processing and distribution activities. As a consequence of strict price regulation policies enforced by the government in the poultry products, PROAGRO experienced serious injury to its profitability over the last few years. The most severe regulations were applied to PROAGRO's chief product (whole,

Jose E. Gomez

1978-01-01

341

Considerations for Improving Geographic Information System Research in Public Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many activities to promote better health and to reduce disease are directed at the changing environments in which people live. In response to the University Consortium for Geographic Information Science (UCGIS) 1999 Summer Assembly application challenge, this paper describes the uses of geographic information systems in the field of public health care. With the geographic information system, observations regarding the

Gerard Rushton; Gregory Elmes; Robert McMaster

2000-01-01

342

Building GML-native web-based geographic information systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disaster response systems are designed to facilitate decision-making based on large amounts of heterogeneous geographic information. Most geographic information systems (GISs) use relational databases to manipulate information efficiently. However, they suffer from interoperability issues because they need to expend significant effort mapping heterogeneous geographic information, which may have complicated structures, into relational data models, and vice versa. Geography Markup Language

Chia-Hsin Huang; Tyng-Ruey Chuang; Dong-Po Deng; Hahn-Ming Lee

2009-01-01

343

Geographic Information Systems: A Kaleidoscope. Resources in Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are a combination of maps and databases that provides geographical information not otherwise possible. The result of combining street data and geographic data is a precision map showing exact street locations. GIS can be used by delivery people, emergency vehicles, and taxicabs. (JOW)|

Deal, Walter F.

1998-01-01

344

GLOBAL INDEXING OF 3D VECTOR GEOGRAPHIC FEATURES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geographic data management is essential for development of geo-related applications and systems. Fast access to a subset of data related to an area of interest with a sufficient precision is a common need for geographic applications. The mechanism for organizing data in the database determines how geographic features can be represented, whether or not the underlying database can be distributed

J. Kolar

2004-01-01

345

Assessing the impact of geographically correlated network failures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Communication networks are vulnerable to natural disasters, such as earthquakes or floods, as well as to human attacks, such as an electromagnetic pulse (EMP) attack. Such real-world events have geographical locations, and therefore, the geographical structure of the network graph affects the impact of these events. In this paper we focus on assessing the vulnerability of (geographical) networks to such

Sebastian Neumayer; Gil Zussman; Reuven Cohen; Eytan Modiano

2008-01-01

346

Securing Geographical Routing in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present geographical secure path routing, an infrastructure free geographic routing protocol, that is resilient to disruptions caused by malicious or faulty no des. Geographic locations of anonymous nodes are authenticated in order to provide location authenticat ion and location privacy simultaneously. Our protocol also authenticates the routing paths taken by individual messages. This provides a basis for ge- ographic

Vivek Pathak; Danfeng Yao; Liviu Iftode

347

Towards a holistic approach to geographic research on film  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geographers' interest in film has increased during the last 20 years. Methodological and theoretical perspectives tend, however, to be bipolar and reflect either cognitive or social approaches. Work reflecting these approaches is reviewed with geographic research grounded in transactionalism and postmodernism as examples. A geographic view of film that recognizes the importance of more than one theoretical framework, positions the

Christina Kennedy; Christopher Lukinbeal

1997-01-01

348

Design and Implementation of a Geographic Search Engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe the design and initial implementation of a geographic search engine prototype for Germany, based on a large crawl of the de domain. Geographic search engines provide a flex- ible interface to the Web that allows users to constrain and order search results in an intuitive manner, by focusing a query on a par- ticular geographic

Alexander Markowetz; Yen-yu Chen; Torsten Suel; Xiaohui Long; Bernhard Seeger

2005-01-01

349

Applying Internet Geographic Information System for Water Quality Monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explains the fundamental concepts of Internet geographic information system (GIS) technology and illustrates its capabilities using the example of water quality monitoring in San Diego Bay Watershed, California. Internet GIS technology has democratized public access to geographic data and information services, and software applications such as Google Earth provide millions of users with instantaneous access to digital geographic

Piotr Jankowski; Ming-Hsiang Tsou; Richard D. Wright

2007-01-01

350

The application of geographic information system in HBV genotype  

Microsoft Academic Search

The geographic information system is an application engineering technology of the management and the analysis spatial data, with gathering, management, processing, and analysis of the spatial data. The geographic information system can be use to solve the complex plan and the management question. Molecular biology rapidly expands causes thorough understanding about HBV. But the research concerning the geographic distribution of

ShuQin Zhu; MiaoHeng Wang

2011-01-01

351

Earth's Active Volcanoes by Geographic Region  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes active volcanoes from around the world by using the volcano links from the Michigan Technological University and the homepages of observatories at active volcanoes. Each volcano section contains photo images, maps, and reference text. Some sections contain bibliographies, volcano reports, and video clips of lahars. The volcanoes are organized by the following geographic regions: Africa and surrounding islands; the Southwest Pacific, Southeast Asia, and India; East Asia including Japan and Kamchatka; Antarctica; the North Atlantic and Iceland; the Mediterranean; South America and surrounding islands; Central Pacific, South Pacific and New Zealand; Alaska and the Northern Pacific Region; North America; and Central America.

352

More on the geographical distribution of physicians.  

PubMed

This paper presents more empirical evidence on the geographical distribution of physicians. Probit procedure and data for the Province of Quebec were used. The results are consistent with the standard location theory and therefore with those of Newhouse et al. (1982a). They also show that quality of leisure, distance to central city areas, average income and presence of a hospital are significant in explaining the probability that at least one physician (specialist or general practitioner) is present in a given town. Other variables were also considered. PMID:10285443

Dionne, G; Langlois, A; Lemire, N

1987-12-01

353

National Geographic Magazine: Saving Africa's Eden  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Geographic Web site contains an online, multimedia supplement to a feature article from the September 2003 issue of the magazine, which takes an in-depth look at the prospect of setting aside an amazing 11% of Gabon's intact wilderness for conservation and ecotourism. The Web site includes an excerpt from the print article, but extra Web features are the real attraction. Visitors will find an online-only photo gallery, field notes from photographer Michael Nichols, and a handful of other cool features like the video clip featuring ecologist Mike Fay as he treks through Gabon's virtually unexplored wilderness.

2003-01-01

354

Geographical information systems and tropical medicine  

PubMed Central

In terms of their applicability to the field of tropical medicine, geographical information systems (GIS) have developed enormously in the last two decades. This article reviews some of the pertinent and representative applications of GIS, including the use of such systems and remote sensing for the mapping of Chagas disease and human helminthiases, the use of GIS in vaccine trials, and the global applications of GIS for health-information management, disease epidemiology, and pandemic planning. The future use of GIS as a decision-making tool and some barriers to the widespread implementation of such systems in developing settings are also discussed.

KHAN, O. A.; DAVENHALL, W.; ALI, M.; CASTILLO-SALGADO, C.; VAZQUEZ-PROKOPEC, G.; KITRON, U.; SOARES MAGALHAES, R. J.; CLEMENTS, A. C. A.

2013-01-01

355

Greedy connectivity of geographically embedded graphs.  

PubMed

We introduce a measure of greedy connectivity for geographical networks (graphs embedded in space) and where the search for connecting paths relies only on local information, such as a node's location and that of its neighbors. Constraints of this type are common in everyday life applications. Greedy connectivity accounts also for imperfect transmission across established links and is larger the higher the proportion of nodes that can be reached from other nodes with a high probability. Greedy connectivity can be used as a criterion for optimal network design. PMID:20866691

Sun, Jie; ben-Avraham, Daniel

2010-07-20

356

Technical Assistance for Improvements and Privatization of the Water and Sanitation System of Isla Margarita, Venezuela. Final Report. Volume 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report, funded by the Trade Development Agency, was conducted by Envirosoft-Engineering and Science, Inc. It details the technical assistance given for improvements and privatization of the water and sanitation systems of Isla Margaita, Venezuela. Th...

1998-01-01

357

Book Review: "Educational Reform and Administrative Development: The Cases of Columbia and Venezuela," by E. Mark Hanson.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews "Educational Reform and Administrative Development: The Cases of Colombia and Venezuela," by E. Mark Hanson, which relates the policy-making and administrative structures of these two countries to their political, historical, and cultural contexts. (TE)|

Lynch, Patrick D.

1988-01-01

358

Geographic Maldistribution of Primary Care for Children  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: This study examines growth in the primary care physician workforce for children and examines the geographic distribution of the workforce. METHODS: National data were used to calculate the local per-capita supply of clinically active general pediatricians and family physicians, measured at the level of primary care service areas. RESULTS: Between 1996 and 2006, the general pediatrician and family physician workforces expanded by 51% and 35%, respectively, whereas the child population increased by only 9%. The 2006 per-capita supply varied by >600% across local primary care markets. Nearly 15 million children (20% of the US child population) lived in local markets with <710 children per child physician (average of 141 child physicians per 100 000 children), whereas another 15 million lived in areas with >4400 children per child physician (average of 22 child physicians per 100 000 children). In addition, almost 1 million children lived in areas with no local child physician. Nearly all 50 states had evidence of similar extremes of physician maldistribution. CONCLUSIONS: Undirected growth of the aggregate child physician workforce has resulted in profound maldistribution of physician resources. Accountability for public funding of physician training should include efforts to develop, to use, and to evaluate policies aimed at reducing disparities in geographic access to primary care physicians for children.

Lan, Jia; Chang, Chiang-hua; Goodman, David C.

2011-01-01

359

GEODE Initiative: Geographic Data in Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Geographic Data in Education (GEODE) Initiative is dedicated to the improvement of Earth and environmental science education through the use of data visualization and analysis tools to support inquiry-based pedagogy. The goal is to demonstrate that scientific visualization, incorporated into inquiry-based learning, can enable students of diverse abilities to develop an understanding of complex scientific phenomena. This project designs and evaluates learning software, develops and field tests middle and high school curricula, and investigates the process by which students learn to make sense of scientific visualizations. Software products are WorldWatcher, a tool which supports the study of climate and global climate change, and MyWorld GIS, a vector-based geographic information system software that runs in Java on Windows NT, 98, ME, 2000, and MacOS X. Curricula are The Global Warming Project, an eight week, stand alone unit in which middle school students learn about many of the scientific factors that contribute to the controversial global warming debate, and Looking At The Environment, a year long, visually intensive high school environmental science curriculum centered on three key issues: the relationship between population growth and resource availability; electricity generation and meeting the demand for energy; managing water resources for agricultural use and human consumption.

Edelson, Daniel

2008-03-20

360

Geographic Gossip: Efficient Averaging for Sensor Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gossip algorithms for distributed computation are attractive due to their simplicity, distributed nature, and robustness in noisy and uncertain environments. However, using standard gossip algorithms can lead to a significant waste in energy by repeatedly recirculating redundant information. For realistic sensor network model topologies like grids and random geometric graphs, the inefficiency of gossip schemes is related to the slow mixing times of random walks on the communication graph. We propose and analyze an alternative gossiping scheme that exploits geographic information. By utilizing geographic routing combined with a simple resampling method, we demonstrate substantial gains over previously proposed gossip protocols. For regular graphs such as the ring or grid, our algorithm improves standard gossip by factors of $n$ and $\\sqrt{n}$ respectively. For the more challenging case of random geometric graphs, our algorithm computes the true average to accuracy $\\epsilon$ using $O(\\frac{n^{1.5}}{\\sqrt{\\log n}} \\log \\epsilon^{-1})$ radio transmissions, which yields a $\\sqrt{\\frac{n}{\\log n}}$ factor improvement over standard gossip algorithms. We illustrate these theoretical results with experimental comparisons between our algorithm and standard methods as applied to various classes of random fields.

Dimakis, Alexandros D. G.; Sarwate, Anand D.; Wainwright, Martin J.

361

HIV CARE FOR GEOGRAPHICALLY MOBILE POPULATIONS  

PubMed Central

The interaction between mobility and HIV risk is well recognized, but what happens to those same individuals, once infected, as they transition to living with HIV? Does mobility affect their transition into HIV care? If so, do mobile and non-mobile populations achieve similar success with HIV treatment? The definition of mobility has changed over the centuries to encompass a complex phenotype including permanent migration, frequent travel, circular migration, and distance from HIV treatment centers. The heterogeneity of these definitions leads to discordant findings. Investigations show that mobility has an impact on HIV risk, but fewer data exist on the impact of geographic mobility on HIV care and treatment. This review will examine existing data on the impact of geographic mobility on access to and maintenance in HIV care and on adherence to antiretroviral therapy. It will also expand the concept of mobility to include data on the impact of the distance from residence to clinic on HIV care and treatment adherence. Our conclusions are that the existing literature is limited by varying definitions of mobility and the inherent oversimplification necessary to apply a “mobility measure” in a statistical analysis. The impact of mobility on HIV treatment outcomes deserves further exploration to both define the phenomenon and target interventions to these at-risk populations.

Taylor, Barbara S.; Garduno, L. Sergio; Reyes, Emily V.; Valino, Raziel; Rojas, Rita; Donastorg, Yeycy; Brudney, Karen; Hirsch, Jennifer

2011-01-01

362

Toward a Geographically-Integrated, Connected World History: Employing Geographic Information Systems (GIS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past decade, historical groups, ranging from the Organization of American Historians to the World History Association, have called for research and teaching focused on the ways that the history of any place has been shaped by the place's interactive connections to other geographic locations. This work demands the aggregation and connection of a huge amount of information, which

J. B. Owens

2007-01-01

363

The Cost of Geographic Mobility: Negro-White Differences in Geographic Mobility: The Propensity to Move.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The three reports which comprise the document concern: (1) The cost of migration from one labor market area to the other; (2) The movement away from a labor market area during a one year period; (3) The relative pattern of White and Negro geographic mobil...

J. B. Lansing N. Barth E. Mueller W. Ladd

1964-01-01

364

Geographical Representations Embedded within Souvenirs in Niagara: The Case of Geographically Displaced Authenticity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although souvenirs take on many forms, functions and representations, they are often formally associated with a specific geographical place. Niagara Falls, Canada is one of the most visited tourist attractions in the world. International tourists often only visit Niagara Falls and one or two other major destinations such as Vancouver or Toronto while in Canada. Recognizing this, souvenir shops sell

Atsuko Hashimoto; David J. Telfer

2007-01-01

365

Integrating Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Applications into Business Courses Using Online Business Geographics Modules  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although the value of geographic information systems (GIS) technologies is recognized by practitioners and educators alike, GIS instruction has yet to make significant inroads into business curricula. In this article, the authors discuss the constraints of integrating GIS tools into business education. They develop a prototype module for…

Miller, Fred; Mangold, W. Glynn; Holmes, Terry

2006-01-01

366

Household energy use in urban Venezuela: Implications from surveys in Maracaibo, Valencia, Merida, and Barcelona-Puerto La Cruz  

SciTech Connect

This report identifies the most important results of a comparative analysis of household commercial energy use in Venezuelan urban cities. The use of modern fuels is widespread among all cities. Cooking consumes the largest share of urban household energy use. The survey documents no use of biomass and a negligible use of kerosene for cooking. LPG, natural gas, and kerosene are the main fuels available. LPG is the fuel choice of low-income households in all cities except Maracaibo, where 40% of all households use natural gas. Electricity consumption in Venezuela`s urban households is remarkably high compared with the levels used in households in comparable Latin American countries and in households of industrialized nations which confront harsher climatic conditions and, therefore, use electricity for water and space heating. The penetration of appliances in Venezuela`s urban households is very high. The appliances available on the market are inefficient, and there are inefficient patterns of energy use among the population. Climate conditions and the urban built form all play important roles in determining the high level of energy consumption in Venezuelan urban households. It is important to acknowledge the opportunities for introducing energy efficiency and conservation in Venezuela`s residential sector, particularly given current economic and financial constraints, which may hamper the future provision of energy services.

Figueroa, M.J.; Sathaye, J.

1993-08-01

367

The geographical accessibility of hospitals to the aged: a geographic information systems analysis within Illinois.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE. This article uses geographic information systems and their related tools to empirically measure and display the geographic accessibility of the aged population to hospital facilities within Illinois. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SETTING. Geographic accessibility of Illinois' aged population is measured from each of the state's 10,796 census block groups to the state's 214 hospital facilities. Block group demographic compositions and centroids are obtained from 1990 census files. Hospital coordinates are obtained by the authors. STUDY DESIGN. Of five alternative measures of accessibility considered, empirical estimates are obtained for two: choice set and minimum distance. Access to both general hospitals and the subset having specialized geriatric facilities is measured with special attention to differences in accessibility between the aged within metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) and those outside MSAs. Cumulative accessibility distributions and their summary statistics provide a basis of comparison among subgroups. DATA COLLECTION AND EXTRACTION. Geographic information systems (GIS) and their related tools are used as a means of efficiently capturing, organizing, storing, and retrieving the required data. Hospitals and census block groups are geocoded to specific locations in the database, and aspatial attributes are assigned to the hospitals and block groups. The GIS database is queried to produce shaded isarithm and point distribution maps that show the location of hospitals relative to surrounding aged populations. CONCLUSION. The vast majority of Illinois' aged population is within close proximity to hospital facilities. Eighty percent (1,147,504 persons) of the aged in Illinois are within 4.8 miles (7.7 km) of a hospital and 11.6 miles (18.7 km) of two hospitals. However, geographic accessibility differences between the aged living in MSAs and those living outside MSAs to hospitals offering geriatric services are substantial; but there is no evidence that the aged's geographical accessibility to hospitals is less favorable than that of the general population. Detailed accessibility measures permitted by geographic information system technology call into question the continued use of crude empirical accessibility measures. Images Figure 2

Love, D; Lindquist, P

1995-01-01

368

Geology and geomorphology of the Roraima group, southeastern Venezuela  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A moderately detailed, accurate geologic geomorphologic map of the Roraima region at a 1:250,000 scale was prepared. This provides a suitable base for future, more detailed studies. It is recommended that the Roraima Formation be raised to Group status and include three apparently conformable but lithogically separable Formations from the base upwards, these are the Canaima, Gualaquinima, and Auyantepui formation. Two composite stratigraphic sections are established and formational thicknesses determined near Santa Elena de U. and Canaima. Radar imagery and aerial photo interpretation allows improved mapping of regional and local structures. Broad, gentle, postdepositional folding of the Roraima into anteclises and syneclises apparently was followed by intrusion of basic dikes and sills; the principal host is the Canaima Formation. Diamond bearing places in the present alluvial valleys are the result of continuous deposition, reworking and redeposition of older, more geographically disjunct floodplain and deltaic sediments.

Yanezpintado, G.

369

Sex differential mortality: geographic variations in Korea.  

PubMed

Park provides information on the extent and nature of geographic variations of sex mortality differentials from all causes. He also discusses the relationship between environmental conditions and mortality. The mortality database is derived from the 1982 Vital Statistics. The population database is derived from the 1980 Population and Housing Census Report. For socio-environmental indicators, data are derived from various censuses conducted in Korea circa 1980 as reported in the 1980 Population and Census Report, the 1983 Social Indicators in Korea, and the 1981 Year Book of Labour Statistics. In this study, deaths from all causes in Korea circa 1980 are included, and provinces are used as the unit of analysis. Death rates are age adjusted by the direct method using the age distribution of the 1980 Korea Complete Enumeration Population as the standard. As a measure of sex mortality differentials, the ratio of male to female age adjusted death rates is used. Standard errors of mortality rates are calculated to determine how confident one can be that the rate of a particular province differs from the rate of Korea as a whole. The author found that the mortality rates in Korea are not randomly distributed geographically. Male and female death rates usually coincide spatially. However, in Jeju and Chungnam, mortality patterns are significantly different by sex. This suggests that explanatory variables for sex differentials in mortality are strongly tied to socioenvironmental conditions of the area rather than biological conditions of each sex. In most provinces, male children have a higher risk of death than female children, which confirms that sex differentials in childhood mortality reflect innate biological sex differences. However, in some predominantly rural provinces, females have a higher risk of death than male children, suggesting that socioenvironmental effects far exceed biological influences. The factor most commonly mentioned as an influence on sex mortality differentials is the relative socioeconomic status of women and girls. Higher female versus male mortality is attributable to the subordinate position of women and the relative discriminatory parental care of female children. In Korea, mortality differentials over geographic aggregation by the province level suggest that urban areas have lower mortality for both sexes than rural areas. This implies significant differences in lifestyles, quality of physical environment, occupational characteristics, industry distribution, and accessibility to medical services. PMID:12281389

Park, K A

1988-07-01

370

Geographic Information System Interactive Map Server  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cornell University's Institute for the Study of the Continents (INSTOC) has launched this interactive, data-rich Website to provide regional "maps showing major geographic features of a region, along with such information as the location of earthquake faults, a record of earthquake occurrences and technical data about the events." The Geoscience Interactive Database (Java applet with accompanying User Guide) enables users to interact dynamically with "large volumes of organized digital data sets, map and display any parts of selected data," and create unique maps for download (in postscript or JPEG formats). In addition to the database, INSTOC offers information about their current projects, highlighted at the Webpage, including Building the Digital Earth, Active Tectonics Studies in the Dead Sea Fault Zone, and The Saudi Arabia Seismology Project, among others.

371

Modeling a geographically distributed MEMS fabrication network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Manufacturing is typically limited to fabrication of parts at a single location, with some sites assembling components from parts made elsewhere. The age of ubiquitous information transfer has made it conceivable to distribute manufacturing geographically, in order to provide access to unique manufacturing capabilities in a flexible manner. If the overhead of a distributed manufacturing network can be adequately reduced, it has the potential to make previously cost ineffective low volume and custom applications economically feasible. The MEMS-Exchange is an infrastructural service available to the domestic microelectromechanical systems community that provides an interface between MEMS designers and microfabrication facilities (academic, commercial, and government labs) which allows designers to develop and exercise custom process sequences in order to realize their devices.

Benard, William L.; Huff, Michael A.

2001-04-01

372

ORNL and the geographic information systems revolution  

SciTech Connect

Explorers from competing teams race to find a mysterious lost city in the heart of Africa. The American team is continuously in touch with its Houston home base through satellite communications. In flight, team leader Karen Ross displays a map of Africa on her computer screen and notes the multicolored lines suggesting different routes from city to city and into the rain forest. Each pathway is accompanied by a precise estimate of travel time to the final destination. Zooming in on the target area, she switches to satellite images and interprets them in shades of blue, purple, and green. At each checkpoint, the team reports its progress and gets a revised estimate of arrival time. Beset by difficulties, the explorers ask for a faster route, but the computer says the alternative is too dangerous. A simulation model with data representing geology, terrain, vegetation, weather, and many other geographic factors predicts local hazards, including the impending eruption of a nearby volcano. The Americans take the faster route anyway and beat the odds. This fictional account of emerging geographic information system (GIS) technologies comes from Michael Crichton`s 1980 novel Congo, which was made into a 1995 movie. The same technologies were highlighted in Clive Cussler`s 1988 techno-thriller Treasure. In reality, GIS technology began more than a quarter of a century ago at key universities and government laboratories in the United States and Canada. Since 1969, Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been among the leading institutions in this diverse, now booming field. GIS has been evolving through new forms and applications ever since.

Dobson, J.E.; Durfee, R.C.

1995-12-31

373

Barrio Adentro and the reduction of health inequalities in Venezuela: an appraisal of the first years.  

PubMed

This article presents an update on the characteristics and performance of Venezuela's Bolivarian health care system, Barrio Adentro (Inside the Neighborhood). During its first five years of existence, Barrio Adentro has improved access and utilization of health services by reaching approximately 17 million impoverished and middle-class citizens all over Venezuela. This was achieved in approximately two years and provides an example of an immense "South-South" cooperation and participatory democracy in health care. Popular participation was achieved with the Comités de Salud (health committees) and more recently with the Consejos Comunales (community councils), while mostly Cuban physicians provided medical care. Examination of a few epidemiological indicators for the years 2004 and 2005 of Barrio Adentro reveals the positive impact of this health care program, in particular its primary care component, Barrio Adentro I. Continued political commitment and realistic evaluations are needed to sustain and improve Barrio Adentro, especially its primary care services. PMID:19326784

Armada, Francisco; Muntaner, Caries; Chung, Haejoo; Williams-Brennan, Leslie; Benach, Joan

2009-01-01

374

Review of the Berosus Leach of Venezuela (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae, Berosini) with description of fourteen new species  

PubMed Central

Abstract The species of the water scavenger beetle genus Berosus Leach occurring in Venezuela are reviewed. Thirty-six species are recorded, including fifteen new species, fourteen of which are described here as new: Berosus aragua sp. n., Berosus asymmetricus sp. n., Berosus capanaparo sp. n., Berosus castaneus sp. n., Berosus corozo sp. n., Berosus ebeninus sp. n., Berosus garciai sp. n., Berosus humeralis sp. n., Berosus jolyi sp. n., Berosus llanensis sp. n., Berosus megaphallus sp. n., Berosus ornaticollis sp. n., Berosus repertus sp. n., and Berosus tramidrum sp. n. The fifteenth new species, known from a single female, is left undescribed pending the collection of males. Twelve species are recorded from Venezuela for the first time: Berosus ambogynus Mouchamps, Berosus consobrinus Knisch, Berosus elegans Knisch, Berosus geayi d’Orchymont, Berosus ghanicus d’Orchymont, Berosus guyanensis Queney, Berosus holdhausi Knisch, Berosus marquardti Knisch, Berosus olivae Queney, Berosus reticulatus Knisch, Berosus wintersteineri Knisch, and Berosus zimmermanni Knisch.

Oliva, Adriana; Short, Andrew E. Z.

2012-01-01

375

A multi-Agent system architecture for geographic information gathering  

Microsoft Academic Search

World Wide Web (WWW) is a vast repository of information, including a great deal of geographic information. But the location\\u000a and retrieval of geographic information will require a significant amount of time and effort. In addition, different users\\u000a usually have different views and interests in the same information. To resolve such problems, this paper first proposed a\\u000a model of geographic

Gang-yi Gao; Shen-kang Wang

2004-01-01

376

Bioclastic carbonates of Margarita Island, Venezuela, as a key to exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reef-derived bioclastic carbonates interlayered with autochthonous deep marine shales are known from the Eocene section of\\u000a Margarita Island in northeastern Venezuela. They consist mainly of turbidity-current deposited graded biocalcirudites, biocalcarenites,\\u000a and biocalcisiltites that usually show the Bouma sequence. They alternate with pelagic shales containingglobigerina and radiolaria. There are also very common intercalations of reworked and sorted, thinly bedded biocalcilutite and

G. Nicolas; J. Munoz

1986-01-01

377

New particle formation events observed at a high altitude site Pico Espejo, Venezuela  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Formation and growth events of nucleation mode particles (10-25 nm in diameter) were analyzed from 27 month period of particle size distribution measurements at the high altitude site Pico Espejo in Venezuela. Particle formation was observed both in air masses connected to boundary layer air and in free tropospheric conditions. The frequency and magnitude of particle formation at this high altitude site was comparable to many observations at lower altitude sites.

Nieminen, Tuomo; Kontkanen, Jenni; Krejci, Radovan; Ström, Johan; Tunved, Peter; Hamburger, Thomas; Calderon, Silvia; Hoffman, Pedro

2013-05-01

378

The Cuba-Venezuela Alliance: “Emancipatory Neo-Bolivarismo” Or Totalitarian Expansion?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the background as well as the ideological foundations underpinning the Cuba-Venezuela alliance. Castro and Chavez are now trying to consolidate a new political axis in Latin America, funded by Chavez’ oil diplomacy. Similarities with the Cuban experiment are highlighted, as well as Castro’s collaboration with the leadership of the Movimiento Revolucionario Bolivariano-MBR 200. The various dimensions of

Hernán Yánez

2005-01-01

379

Rapidly growing mycobacterial infection following liposuction and liposculpture--Caracas, Venezuela, 1996-1998.  

PubMed

During October 1996-March 1998, nine patients in eight hospitals in Caracas, Venezuela, acquired surgical-site infections (SSI) caused by rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM). All episodes of RGM infection occurred within 2 months after liposuction or liposculpture (aesthetic surgical procedures). This report describes the findings of an epidemiologic investigation of this cluster by the Venezuelan Ministry of Health and underscores the importance of sterilizing surgical equipment to prevent nosocomial infections. PMID:9879630

1998-12-18

380

Applications of Planktonic foraminifera in the Paleogene of the Eastern Venezuela-Trinidad Basin  

SciTech Connect

Following increased interest in the petroleum potential of the Eastern Venezuela-Trinidad Basin, a revision of the planktonic foraminifera from the Paleogene was undertaken. The application of evolutionary trends in microperforate, medioperforate and macroperforate lineages for petroleum exploration is assessed. Scanning Electron Microscope illustrations are presented for over 100 taxa currently applied in high resolution biostratigraphy, sequence stratigraphy and paleoceanography of the region. These will allow more rapid and reliable recognition of zones, hiatuses and sequence boundaries.

Radford, S. [Department of Geology, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

1996-08-01

381

Chronology of mercury enrichment factors in reef corals from western Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mining and deforestation in the early 20th century, the development of petrochemical industries during the 1950s, and the constant weathering of natural deposits of cinabrium (HgS) have made Golfo Triste, Venezuela, a region impacted by mercury (Hg). We studied the chronology of Hg in coral skeletons of Siderastrea siderea (1 colony, 1900–1996) and Montastraea faveolata (2 colonies, 1930–1999) from Parque

Ruth Ramos; Roberto Cipriani; Hector M. Guzman; Elia García

2009-01-01

382

Resistance to U.S. Economic Hegemony in Latin America: Hugo Chávez and Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent years have seen increasing opposition to U.S. political and economic influence in Latin America. Venezuela is a key player in the South American economy. This project researches the country’s history from the 1950s to the present and the role of the U.S. in its formation. Through political economy, this study asks if recent political changes are due to the

Rachel M. Jacques

2005-01-01

383

Receiver function study of the crustal structure of the southeastern Caribbean plate boundary and Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated crustal thickness and composition across the southeastern Caribbean plate boundary with the receiver function technique. We used teleseismic data recorded by a temporary broadband array deployed under the BOLIVAR project and the permanent national seismic network of Venezuela. We used the primary P-to-S conversion and crustal reverberations to estimate crustal thickness and average crustal VP\\/VS ratio over

Fenglin Niu; Tammy Bravo; Gary Pavlis; Frank Vernon; Herbert Rendon; Maximiliano Bezada; Alan Levander

2007-01-01

384

Rainwater chemestry at the western savannah region of the Lake Maracaibo Basin, Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major part of Venezuela oil production is located in and around the Lake Maracaibo Basin. The samples were collected over a 1-year period at Catatumbo and La Esperanza sites. The rainwater was acidic, with a VWA-pH of 4.6 for Catatumbo and 4.2 for La Esperanza. This acidity is made up in 93% by inorganic acids (mainly H2SO4), and NH4+

J. A. Morales; C. Bifano; A. Escalona

1995-01-01

385

Hydrocarbon Magnetic Authigenesis Mechanisms in Well and Soil Samples: Review of Studies in Venezuela  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent studies we have tried to establish the correlation between shallow micromagnetic anomalies from oil wells and soil samples, with the underlying reservoir. We have combined rock magnetic experiments with Electronic Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) studies. Logs of Magnetic Susceptibility (MS), Extractable Organic Matter Concentration (EOMC) and Organic Matter Free Radical Concentration (OMFRC) have been compared. Additionally, rock magnetic and EPR experiments were carried out to identify the magnetic phases responsible for these anomalies. In wells from oil fields located in western Venezuela, MS and EOMC anomalies coincide at the same depth levels, and OMFRC anomalies lie close to them. These anomalies are associated to framboids of authigenic magnetite. In samples from eastern Venezuela oil fields, MS anomalies seem to be caused mainly by the presence of Fe sulphides (i.e. greigite). EOMC peaks do not coincide at the same depth levels of their MS counterparts. These results lead us to the conclusion that two different authigenic processes could operate. In western Venezuela, secondary magnetic minerals could be produced by the achievement of proper themochemical conditions, reached at shallow depth levels, combined with the presence of organic matter. The hydrocarbon gas leakage alters the organic matter, and a net electron transfer from this degraded matter to Fe(III) should occur, precipitating Fe(II) magnetic minerals (e.g. magnetite). Results from soil samples at a nearby prospective area suggest a similar process. In this case the alteration of organic matter has been observed via remote sensors. On the other hand, in eastern Venezuela oil fields, high concentrations of H2S at shallow depth levels, might allow the formation of secondary Fe-sulphides without the presence of organic matter. Different results for these two areas could be linked to their inherent distinct structural complexities and chemical properties of their hydrocarbons.

Aldana, M.; Diaz, M.; Costanzo, V.

2008-05-01

386

Mercury Pollution from Artisanal Gold Mining in Block B, El Callao, Bolivar State, Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technical and health aspects of the gold mining activity conducted by artisanal and small-scale miners in the Block B, El Callao, Bolívar State, Venezuela, were evaluated. The area, with 1731 inhabitants, is a legal mining concession of CVG-Minerven rented to small-scale mining individuals\\/companies. Miners extract the ore from 30-80 m deep shafts using explosives and transport it in small

Marcello M. Veiga; Dario Bermudez; Heloisa Pacheco-Ferreira; Luiz Pedroso; Aaron Gunson; Gilberto Berrios; Ligia Vos; Pablo Huidobro; Monika Roeser

387

A review of geographic variation and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) applications in prescription drug use research.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: While understanding geography's role in healthcare has been an area of research for over 40 years, the application of geography-based analyses to prescription medication use is limited. The body of literature was reviewed to assess the current state of such studies to demonstrate the scale and scope of projects in order to highlight potential research opportunities. OBJECTIVE: To review systematically how researchers have applied geography-based analyses to medication use data. METHODS: Empiric, English language research articles were identified through PubMed and bibliographies. Original research articles were independently reviewed as to the medications or classes studied, data sources, measures of medication exposure, geographic units of analysis, geospatial measures, and statistical approaches. RESULTS: From 145 publications matching key search terms, forty publications met the inclusion criteria. Cardiovascular and psychotropic classes accounted for the largest proportion of studies. Prescription drug claims were the primary source, and medication exposure was frequently captured as period prevalence. Medication exposure was documented across a variety of geopolitical units such as countries, provinces, regions, states, and postal codes. Most results were descriptive and formal statistical modeling capitalizing on geospatial techniques was rare. CONCLUSION: Despite the extensive research on small area variation analysis in healthcare, there are a limited number of studies that have examined geographic variation in medication use. Clearly, there is opportunity to collaborate with geographers and GIS professionals to harness the power of GIS technologies and to strengthen future medication studies by applying more robust geospatial statistical methods. PMID:23333430

Wangia, Victoria; Shireman, Theresa I

2013-01-17

388

Young Americans Still Having Difficulty with Global Geographic Knowledge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In a report released earlier this week, the National Geographic Society announced the results of a recent survey of geographic knowledge among young persons (ages 18 to 24), from nine different countries. Conducted with the assistance of the RoperASW group, the survey revealed some rather disturbing gaps in the geographic knowledge base of young Americans and other young people around the world. Among the young people surveyed in the United States, nearly 30 percent could not locate the Pacific Ocean and more than half could not locate India, home of almost 20 percent of the world's population. John Fahey, the president of the National Geographic Society, also commented that, while nine out of 1young Americans could identify the United States on a world map, "it does make you wonder about the other 10 percent."The first link leads to a recent news article on this geographic survey that appeared in the Chicago Sun-Times. The second link will take visitors to the results of the National Geographic Survey, which also provides a sample quiz for persons to test their own geographic knowledge. Also sponsored by National Geographic, the third link features dozens of helpful thematic maps, dealing with historical and contemporary themes, such as political and cultural maps of the world. The fourth link leads to a 2001 report on improving secondary geographic education from the Royal Geographic Society. Provided by the Environmental Design Library at the University of California at Berkeley, the fifth site is an excellent annotated bibliography of source material for persons interested in learning and researching the cultural landscape of the United States. The sixth link leads to some famous remarks given by Carl Sauer (one of the 20th century's most respected geographers) on the subject of historical geography and its importance to understanding human communities. The final link leads to a sardonic editorial by Gillian Ferguson of the Scotsman newspaper in Scotland on these recent survey results.

Grinnell, Max

2002-01-01

389

Evolution of Dengue Virus Type 3 Genotype III in Venezuela: Diversification, Rates and Population Dynamics  

PubMed Central

Background Dengue virus (DENV) is a member of the genus Flavivirus of the family Flaviviridae. DENV are comprised of four distinct serotypes (DENV-1 through DENV-4) and each serotype can be divided in different genotypes. Currently, there is a dramatic emergence of DENV-3 genotype III in Latin America. Nevertheless, we still have an incomplete understanding of the evolutionary forces underlying the evolution of this genotype in this region of the world. In order to gain insight into the degree of genetic variability, rates and patterns of evolution of this genotype in Venezuela and the South American region, phylogenetic analysis, based on a large number (n = 119) of envelope gene sequences from DENV-3 genotype III strains isolated in Venezuela from 2001 to 2008, were performed. Results Phylogenetic analysis revealed an in situ evolution of DENV-3 genotype III following its introduction in the Latin American region, where three different genetic clusters (A to C) can be observed among the DENV-3 genotype III strains circulating in this region. Bayesian coalescent inference analyses revealed an evolutionary rate of 8.48 × 10-4 substitutions/site/year (s/s/y) for strains of cluster A, composed entirely of strains isolated in Venezuela. Amino acid substitution at position 329 of domain III of the E protein (A?V) was found in almost all E proteins from Cluster A strains. Conclusions A significant evolutionary change between DENV-3 genotype III strains that circulated in the initial years of the introduction in the continent and strains isolated in the Latin American region in recent years was observed. The presence of DENV-3 genotype III strains belonging to different clusters was observed in Venezuela, revealing several introduction events into this country. The evolutionary rate found for Cluster A strains circulating in Venezuela is similar to the others previously established for this genotype in other regions of the world. This suggests a lack of correlation among DENV genotype III substitution rate and ecological pattern of virus spread.

2010-01-01

390

National Geographic Video: Animals, Travel, Kids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The "Video" section of the wonderful National Geographic website has so much to offer visitors. Many of the videos are just several minutes long, such as the two minute and twelve second video taken of an Australian sea lion attacking and eating an octopus, with a "Crittercam" that is attached to the sea lion. The videos are divided into six categories, including "Adventure", "Animals", "Environment", "Kids", "Movies", and "Music Videos". Within each of the categories, there are at least half a dozen subcategories, so visitors have a constant supply of videos, with new videos added frequently. The homepage of the Video section has "Featured Videos", and presently includes a very timely four minute segment entitled "Egypt Antiquities Damaged, At Risk During Unrest" about the damage that looters had done to artifacts at the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. The "Movies" category contains mainly clips or previews from films, and visitors should check out the four clips from the movie "God Grew Tired of Us", about former child soldiers of Africa.

391

Predicting Geographic Variation in Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, Colombia  

PubMed Central

Approximately 6,000 cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis are reported annually in Colombia, a greater than twofold increase since the 1980s. Such reports certainly underestimate true incidence, and their geographic distribution is likely biased by local health service effectiveness. We investigated how well freely available environmental data explain the distribution of cases among 1,079 municipalities. For each municipality, a unique predictive logistic regression model was derived from the association among remaining municipalities between elevation, land cover (preclassified maps derived from satellite images), or both, and the odds of at least one case being reported. Land cover had greater predictive power than elevation; using both datasets improved accuracy. Fitting separate models to different ecologic zones, reflecting transmission cycle diversity, enhanced the accuracy of predictions. We derived measures that can be directly related to disease control decisions and show how results can vary, depending on the threshold selected for predicting a disease-positive municipality. The results identify areas where disease is most likely to be underreported.

Campbell-Lendrum, Diarmid H.; Davies, Clive R.

2004-01-01

392

Geographic information system based manure application plan.  

PubMed

A geographic information system (GIS) based manure application plan has been developed for the site-specific application of animal waste to agricultural fields in the Westbrook sub-catchment of the Murray-Darling Basin, south-east Queensland, Australia. Sites suitable for animal waste application were identified using a GIS based weighted linear combination (WLC) model. The degree of land suitability for animal waste application was determined using a range of social, economic, environmental, and agricultural factors. As eutrophication and toxic blue-green algae blooms are a known problem in the catchment, the manure application rates were limited to the rate of crop phosphorus removal. Maximum manure application rate was calculated spatially by taking the crop nutrient (P2O5) requirement and the manure nutrient (P2O5) content into account. The environmental suitability of the fields receiving animal waste was considered in prescribing the final application rate of solid and liquid manures generated by local animal production facilities. The degree of site suitability of the agricultural fields was also used to suggest manure management practices to minimise the socio-environmental risks and increase the nutrient use efficiency of the applied manure. The amount of ammonium nitrogen (NH4-N) that would be added to the soil by satisfying the P2O5 requirement using manure sources was also calculated and an applied NH4-N map was created. This map could be used to assist farmers identify additional nitrogen requirements after manure application. PMID:11995243

Basnet, Badri B; Apan, Armando A; Raine, Steven R

2002-02-01

393

Genetic Evidence of Geographical Groups among Neanderthals  

PubMed Central

The Neanderthals are a well-distinguished Middle Pleistocene population which inhabited a vast geographical area extending from Europe to western Asia and the Middle East. Since the 1950s paleoanthropological studies have suggested variability in this group. Different sub-groups have been identified in western Europe, in southern Europe and in the Middle East. On the other hand, since 1997, research has been published in paleogenetics, carried out on 15 mtDNA sequences from 12 Neanderthals. In this paper we used a new methodology derived from different bioinformatic models based on data from genetics, demography and paleoanthropology. The adequacy of each model was measured by comparisons between simulated results (obtained by BayesianSSC software) and those estimated from nucleotide sequences (obtained by DNAsp4 software). The conclusions of this study are consistent with existing paleoanthropological research and show that Neanderthals can be divided into at least three groups: one in western Europe, a second in the Southern area and a third in western Asia. Moreover, it seems from our results that the size of the Neanderthal population was not constant and that some migration occurred among the demes.

Fabre, Virginie; Condemi, Silvana; Degioanni, Anna

2009-01-01

394

National Geographic Online: The Underground Railroad  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Just in time to celebrate Black History Month, this multimedia educational Web site from National Geographic offers a diverse set of materials that describe the Underground Railroad, the famed network of individuals who helped transport African-Americans to freedom before the abolition of slavery. Students will want to start by taking The Journey, which, with the aid of visual materials (such as historical photographs of slaves and abolitionists) and audio selections (such as popular spirituals of the day), allows young people to make decisions about what to do in order to reach the North and freedom. Next, visitors can look at a map of the Underground Railroad routes, including those specific to Harriet Tubman. Also, a nice timeline provides some context to the history of slavery in the New World, beginning with the importing of slaves by Spaniards to Santo Domingo in 1501, and concluding in 1865 when slavery was abolished by the passage of the 13th Amendment. The site is rounded out by a number of educational resources for teachers, divided by grade levels.

2003-01-01

395

Worldwide geographical distribution of ophthalmology publications.  

PubMed

International peer-reviewed publications form the basis of evidence-based medicine and are one of the main indicators of ophthalmology research activity. This paper examines the origins of such articles in relation to geographical location, population demographics and economic research profiles. Publications from five ophthalmology journals over 5 years were analysed using the Medline/Pubmed search engine. Country of origin was ascertained based on the address of the corresponding author. Worldwide ophthalmology research output was analysed in relation to population demographics and research expenditure. In total, 7,754 articles from 67 countries from 2002 to 2006 were analysed. The overall number of articles published increased by over 29% during this period. The United States (US) produced the greatest number of articles. Singapore produced the most publications per 10(6) population. There was a relationship between gross domestic product (GDP) greater than $20,000 and population-adjusted output. The US followed by the United Kingdom and Japan were the greatest gross contributors. Population-adjusted figures revealed that Singapore, Iceland and Australia were the most prolific nations. There was a relationship between GDP and the top-ranked population-adjusted countries. The top 10 most productive population-adjusted countries spend relatively more on research and development than the top 10 gross contributors. PMID:19023523

Guerin, Marc B; Flynn, Thomas H; Brady, Janice; O'Brien, Colm J

2008-11-21

396

Glacial geomorphology and geographic information systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent developments in the field of glacial geomorphology have dramatically increased the need to acquire, maintain, manipulate, and analyze large amounts of landform, landscape and sediment data. The use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has provided new platforms and tools for analysis and visualization of geomorphic data. Glacial geomorphologists have used GIS to integrate multi-source data, manage multi-scale studies, identify previously unrecognized spatial and temporal relationships and patterns in geomorphic data, and to link landform data with numerical models as part of model calibration and verification. GIS-based analyses associated with numerical modeling are improving our understanding of glacial landscape evolution and are allowing new quantitative and systematic examinations of spatial and temporal patterns of glacial landforms and processes. This has allowed for the development of insights and concepts that would be unlikely to arise using traditional methods alone. Key recommendations for future research and applications in glacial geomorphology include enhanced GIS education and dissemination, the development of standards and conventions for glacial geomorphic data, community projects to collect data into readily accessible databases, and enhanced use of linked GIS — model frameworks to address major issues in glacial geomorphology.

Napieralski, Jacob; Harbor, Jon; Li, Yingkui

2007-11-01

397

GEOGRAPHIC ESTIMATION OF RUNOFF-MODEL PARAMETERS.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U. S. Geological Survey is developing techniques to estimate and evaluate unit-hydrograph and loss-rate parameter values for rainfall-runoff models using Geographic Information System (GIS) procedures. The data base includes basin, soil, and climatological characteristics that will be stored in a GIS, and unit-hydrograph and loss-rate parameters obtained from calibration of a commonly used flood-hydrograph rainfall-runoff model for 616 storms in 98 gaged drainage basins. Development of unit-hydrograph and loss-rate parameter-estimation techniques includes statistical methods (exploratory data analysis, regression analysis, and categorical data analysis) to relate the model parameters to hydrologic characteristics. The estimation techniques are evaluated by use of error analysis of simulated hydrograph characteristics (peak discharge, flood volume, and time to peak discharge). The hydrographs will be simulated with parameters estimated by the techniques for (1) 102 storms occurring at 36 gaged basins; and (2) a large storm system (one which produced floods with a 50-to 100-year recurrence interval).

Schmidt, Arthur, R.; Weiss, Linda, S.; Oberg, Kevin, A.

1987-01-01

398

An Association Rule Discovery System for Geographic Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

An association rule discovery system has been developed for geographic data. Association rules are applicable to the interpretation of remote sensing images, in which ancillary data are used to guide land cover mapping. The software system developed, called Aspect, works with standard geographic data formats and extends the association rule formulation to handle spatial relationships. Multiple strategies provide guidance for

Laura C. Rodman; John Jackson; Robert Huizar; Ross K. Meentemeyer

2006-01-01

399

Lived and Imagined: Information and Storytelling in Geographic Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This dissertation investigates the relationship between storytelling and information in the narration of geographic space. While storytelling has historically shaped our understanding of geography, modern practices in data collection, cartography, and geographic visualization enable one-way forms of representation that remove the negotiation and…

Kabisch, Eric Alan

2011-01-01

400

An integrated geographic information service model based on 3G  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 3G technology brings a great increase of wireless data transmission capacity, makes it possible for mobile geographic information services. Analyzing a series problems caused by mobile devices with a limited resource, a new integrated geographic information service mechanism is discussed based on 3G. The three key technologies, adaptive interactive mechanism, asynchronous transfer strategy and map cache management are discussed

Zhirong Chen; Yuzhi Huang

2010-01-01

401

Geographic Information Quality Management and Standardization in Finnish Defence Forces  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The main issue in Geographic Information Quality Management (GIQM) and standardization is to achieve interoperability through standardization. This still ongoing research project defines a quality model for geographic information in Finnish Defence Forces (FDF). The quality model is strongly based on international ISO standardization. The quality model defines a basis for consistent concepts and methods for GIQM. FDF quality

Kari INGBERG

402

Geographic Variations in Public Schools' Costs. Working Paper Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report addresses the following question: How much more or less does it cost to provide the same levels of educational resources across different geographic locations in the United States? To answer this question, the report develops a comprehensive geographic cost-of-education index (GCEI) that focuses on the prices of inputs (personnel and…

Chambers, Jay G.

403

A soft knowledge modeling approach for geographically dispersed financial organizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fund management is a major function for most financial sector enterprises with geographically dispersed activities. The risk associated to such managerial decisions affects directly the continuity, profitability and reputation of the enterprise. This paper presents a knowledge modeling methodology tool to act as a decision support mechanism for geographically dispersed financial enterprises. The underlying research addresses the problem of financial

Michael Glykas; George Xirogiannis

2005-01-01

404

Free and Open Source Geographic Information Tools for Landscape Ecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geographic Information tools (GI tools) have become an essential component of research in landscape ecology. In this article we review the use of GIS (Geographic Information Systems) and GI tools in landscape ecology, with an emphasis on free and open source software (FOSS) projects. Specifically, we introduce the background and terms related to the free and open source software movement,

Stefan Steiniger; Geoffrey J. Hay

405

Utilizing geographic information systems (GIS) in library research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this research paper is to explore library research that uses geographic information systems (GIS) as a tool to measure and analyze library services and establish future directions for this research area. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This study reviews the library literature using GIS. The study searched full text for geographic information systems in two databases, Library Literature

Bradley Wade Bishop; Lauren H. Mandel

2010-01-01

406

Geographic Information Systems and Medical Geography: Toward a New Synergy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The past decade has witnessed wide-ranging applications of geographic information systems (GIS) in public health. The literature on GIS and medical geography has predominantly focused on how GIS can be applied as analytical and visualization tools to examine the geographic aspects of disease and health services. While GIS applications in medical geography are important and have been growing rapidly, this

Daniel Z. Sui

2007-01-01

407

Representation and Spatial Analysis in Geographic Information Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A common—perhaps modal—representation of geography in spatial analysis and geographic information systems is native (unexamined) objects interacting based on simple distance and connectivity relationships within an empty Euclidean space. This is only one possibility among a large set of geographic representations that can support quantitative analysis. Through the vehicle of GIS, many researchers are adopting this representation without realizing its

Harvey J. Miller; Elizabeth A. Wentz

2003-01-01

408

The use of geographical information systems in climatology and meteorology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proliferation of 'commercial off the shelf' geographical information systems into the scientific community has resulted in the widespread use of spatial climate data in a variety of applications. This paper presents a review of the role of geographical information systems in climatology and meteorology by i) discussing methods used to derive and refine spatial climate data and ii) reviewing

Lee Chapman; John E. Thornes

2003-01-01

409

A geographic information system for fisheries management in American Samoa  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study illustrates a geographic information system developed to effectively analyze and visualize temporal and spatial patterns of the longline fishery in the American Samoa's Exclusive Economic Zone. The pelagic and tuna fishery in American Samoa has historically been an important component of the traditional domestic fisheries and nation's economy. This paper presents an innovative way to utilize the geographic

Francesca Riolo

2006-01-01

410

Assessing consumer response to protected geographical identification labeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumers' attitudes toward quality and desire for cultural identification have generated a growing demand for agricultural products that carry a strong identification with a particular geographical region. Many of these products are currently protected by European Legislation. A hedonic approach was used in order to calculate consumers' willingness to pay for fresh meat products that carry the Protected Geographical Identification

Maria Luz Loureiro; Jill J. McCluskey

2000-01-01

411

Citation of research in journals of interest to applied geographers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citation statistics from 1997 to 2004 for 393 journals of interest to applied geographers were examined. Manuscripts in serials with economic, environmental, inter-disciplinary, global, and contemporary foci are cited most frequently—an advantageous trend for applied geographers. Physical geography articles tend to be cited more frequently than those in human geography, but undercounts of citations of books and other monographs may

Robert V. Rohli; Kam-biu Liu

2008-01-01

412

Geographical variation in prevalence of hypertension within The Gambia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypertension has become an important public health problem for sub-Sahara Africa. In a previous nationwide study, we observed a high degree of geographical variation in the prevalence of diastolic hypertension. Geographical variation provides essential background information for the development of community randomised trials could suggest aetiological mechanisms, inform control strategies and prompt further research questions. We designed a follow-up study

MAB van der Sande; PJM Milligan; GEL Walraven; WMV Dolmans; M Newport; OA Nyan; WAS Banya; Th Thien; R Ward; KPWJ McAdam

2001-01-01

413

Spatial bayesian learning algorithms for geographic information retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increasing amount of freely available Geographic Information System (GIS) data on the Internet has stimulated recent research into Geographic Information Retrieval (GIR). Typically, GIR looks at the problem of retrieving GIS datasets on a theme by theme basis. However in practice, themes are generally not analysed in isolation. More often than not multiple themes are required to create a

Arron R. Walker; Binh Pham; Miles Moody

2005-01-01

414

The Geographical and Institutional Proximity of Scientific Collaboration Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The geography of innovation has established itself as a central subject in economic geography. Geographical proximity to firms and organizations like universities is supposed to have a positive effect on a firms’ innovative performance. One of the reasons causing these positive agglomeration effects is the fact that collaboration is eased by geographical proximity. Although the role of proximity for collaboration

Frank Van Oort; Roderik Ponds; Koen Frenken

2006-01-01

415

Using a Computational Grid for Geographic Information Analysis: A Reconnaissance  

Microsoft Academic Search

High performance computing has undergone a radical transformation during the past decade. Though monolithic supercomputers continue to be built with significantly increased computing power, geographically distributed computing resources are now routinely linked using high-speed networks to address a broad range of computationally complex problems. These confederated resources are referred to collectively as a computational Grid. Many geographical problems exhibit characteristics

Marc P. Armstrong; Mary Kathryn Cowles; Shaowen Wang

2005-01-01

416

Geographic routing with limited information in sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geographic routing with greedy relaying strategies have been widely studied as a routing scheme in sensor networks. These schemes assume that the nodes have perfect information about the location of the destination. We consider three scenarios: (i) where nodes have location errors (imprecise GPS), (ii) where only coarse geographic information about the destination is available, such as the quadrant or

Sundar Subramanian; Sanjay Shakkottai

2005-01-01

417

Geographic Profiles: A Technique for Teaching Spatial Relationships.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a learning activity that focuses on geographic profiles. Students are divided into five groups and are responsible for creating a profile of one geographic data set. The five data sets are based on thematic maps of the United States found in "Goode's World Atlas, 19th edition." (CMK)

Mealor, W. Theodore, Jr.; Giannangelo, Duane

2001-01-01

418

Geographic Localization of Knowledge Spillovers as Evidenced by Patent Citations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compare the geographic location of patent citations to those of the cited patents, as evidence of the extent to which knowledge spillovers are geographically localized. We find that citations to U.S. patents are more likely to come from the U.S., and more likely to come from the same state and SMSA as the cited patents than one would expect

Adam B. Jaffe; Manuel Trajtenberg; Rebecca Henderson

1992-01-01

419

Sensitivity of distributional prediction algorithms to geographic data completeness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sensitivity of one algorithm for prediction of geographic distributions of species from point data to depth of geographic information was tested for three species of North American birds. Test species were chosen to represent three distinct distributional patterns—western North America (Pygmy Nuthatch Sitta pygmaea), eastern North America (Barred Owl Strix varia), and the Great Plains in the central part

A Townsend Peterson; Kevin P Cohoon

1999-01-01

420

PREDICTING SPECIES' GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTIONS BASED ON ECOLOGICAL NICHE MODELING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent developments in geographic information systems and their application to conservation biology open doors to exciting new synthetic analyses. Exploration of these possibilities, however, is limited by the quality of information available: most biodiversity data are incomplete and characterized by biased sampling. Inferential procedures that pro- vide robust and reliable predictions of species' geographic distributions thus become critical to biodiversity

A. Townsend Peterson

2001-01-01

421

Sink-Initiated Geographic Multicasting Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

There have been many geographic multicasting protocols proposed for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). These protocols tend to exploit a SOurce-initiated Geographic Multicasting (SOGM) approach which consists of three phases: first, a source collects the position information of all sink nodes; second, the source constructs a multicast tree through the position information; third, the source forwards data down the multicast tree.

Jeongcheol Lee; Euisin Lee; Hosung Park; Sang-Ha Kim

2010-01-01

422

Geographic Location and Social Work Supervision in Child Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the idea of person in the environment is a dominant paradigm in social work, the concept of environment does not emphasize the idea of geographic location. This qualitative research explores social work supervision of child welfare workers from the perspective of geographic place. Ten supervisors from urban communities and 12 supervisors from northern remote communities were interviewed to assess

Glen Schmidt

2008-01-01

423

Public Participation Geographic Information Systems: A Literature Review and Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public participation geographic information systems (PPGIS) pertains to the use of geographic information systems (GIS) to broaden public involvement in policymaking as well as to the value of GIS to promote the goals of nongovernmental organizations, grassroots groups, and community-based organizations. The article first traces the social history of PPGIS. It then argues that PPGIS has been socially constructed by

Renee Sieber

2006-01-01

424

Sarasota County, Geographic Information Systems and Watershed Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Once only used to create maps, Geographic Information System (GIS) data analysis has become a cost effective tool to identify and prioritize projects within a watershed. Sarasota County has been building a vast library of geographic data for several years and recently utilized this information within the context of watershed management. Two projects are discussed, the reprioritization of the Phillippi

Jon S. Perry

425

GPEB: Power-efficient geographic broadcasting in sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nodes in a sensor network, operating on power limited batteries, must save power to minimize the need for battery replacement. In this paper, we study the power efficiency issues related to geographic broadcast protocols in wireless sensor networks. Specifically, we study the problems in existing flooding based and pruning based broadcast algorithm and propose a new geographic power efficient broadcast

Shibo Wu; K. S. Candan

2008-01-01

426

Tweeting from the Town Square: Measuring Geographic Local Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines tweets about two geographically local events a shooting and a building collapse that took place in Wichita, Kansas and Atlanta, Georgia, respectively. Most Internet research has focused on examining ways the Internet can connect people across long distances, yet there are benefits to being connected to others who are nearby. People in close geographic proximity can provide

Sarita Yardi; Danah Boyd

2010-01-01

427

A Model for Geographic Knowledge Extraction on Web Documents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is an increasing interest on doing research in the field of information retrieval which aims to incorporate new dimensions, apart from text based retrieval, to the Web search engines. Geographical Information Retrieval (GIR) aims to index Web resources using a geographic context. The process of identifying the geographic context starts with the detection of different types of geographic references associated to the documents, as for example, the occurrence of place names. This paper presents a model for detecting geographic references in Web documents based on a set of heuristics. Moreover, new concepts and methods for disambiguation of many places with the same name are addressed. Finally, a prototype was built, called GeoSEn which aimed to validate the effectiveness of the proposed model.

Campelo, Cláudio Elizio Calazans; de Souza Baptista, Cláudio

428

Developing a curriculum in geographic information systems: the national center for geographic information and analysis core curriculum project  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a major effort by the National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis (NCGIA) to develop teaching materials in support of courses in Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The project is motivated by the current high level of demand for GIS professionals and by the need to distinguish between software training on the one hand, and education in the intellectual

Karen K. Kemp; Michael F. Goodchild

1991-01-01

429

Geographic and environmental factors in pediatric cancer  

SciTech Connect

It is important to determine the relative contributions of genetic and environmental factors to the etiology of childhood cancer in order to elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms involved and to develop effective means of primary prevention. Geographic differences in cancer incidence as well as changes in incidence over calendar time have long been used to generate clues to possible etiologic agents. The important role of genetic factors in childhood cancer is clear, and is exemplified by the observations in retinoblastoma. The importance of the contributions of environmental factors in general and of specific factors in particular, to the etiology of cancers in children, has proven more difficult to determine. A variety of environmental factors have been implicated to varying degrees in the etiology of different childhood cancers. These factors include physical agents such as radiation, chemical agents such as nitrosamines, and organic solvents, and infectious agents such as the Epstein-Barr virus. The observations that certain compounds may act as teratogens when a prenatal exposure occurs early in pregnancy and as carcinogens when the exposure occurs late in pregnancy, suggests that there may be a continuum of teratogenesis and carcinogenesis. This finding has major implications for the possible biologic mechanisms that could be involved in childhood cancers and for the design of future research of their etiology and prevention. The etiology of childhood cancer should be viewed as an interaction of environmental factors to which the child or his parent were exposed together with varying degrees of genetically determined susceptibility of the child to the carcinogenic effects of these factors.

Gordis, L.

1986-07-15

430

The East Asia geographic map series  

SciTech Connect

During the last 15 years, the Circum-Pacific Map Project Northwest Quadrant Panel (NWQP) has created a map inventory of geoscience data at a scale of 1:10,000,000. Now, for East Asia, a second set of thematic maps is being initiated cooperatively by the Circum-Pacific Council for Energy and Mineral Resources and the Committee for Coordination of Joint Prospecting for Mineral Resources in Asian Offshore Areas (CCOP). These new maps will constitute the East Asia Map Project, and they will present geoscience parameters at a scale of 1:2,000,000 that can be used to evaluate the potential for undiscovered resources with the application of new deposit modeling methodologies. The following map series are being compiled or are under consideration: geography, geotectonics, geophysics, mineral resources, energy resources, and hazards. The U.S, Geological Survey (USGS) is compiling the East Asia Geographic Map Series. Shorelines, rivers, and international boundaries have been computer plotted by the National Mapping Division from the most detailed version of the World Data Bank II (WDB II). This publicly available bank was hand digitized from a 1:3,000,000-scale global map compiled from a variety of sources. The East Asia series is composed of eight overlapping sheets with Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area Projection having a common point of origin at 120{degree}E and 15{degree}N; neatlines for each sheet are 39{degree} {times} 54.4{degree}. Titles reflect each map's coverage: Sheet 1, Japan/Korea/Northeast China; Sheet 2, Southeast China; Sheet 3, Southeast Asia; Sheet 4, Philippines; Sheet 5, Malaysia/ West Indonesia; Sheet 6, East Indonesia; Sheet 7, Papua New Guinea/ Solomon Islands; and Sheet 8, Western Pacific Islands. Contours have been scribed by the USGS's Office of International Geology.

Terman, M.J.; Bell, E.P. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (USA))

1990-06-01

431

Life-history and ecological correlates of geographic variation in egg and clutch mass among passerine species  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Broad geographic patterns in egg and clutch mass are poorly described, and potential causes of variation remain largely unexamined. We describe interspecific variation in avian egg and clutch mass within and among diverse geographic regions and explore hypotheses related to allometry, clutch size, nest predation, adult mortality, and parental care as correlates and possible explanations of variation. We studied 74 species of Passeriformes at four latitudes on three continents: the north temperate United States, tropical Venezuela, subtropical Argentina, and south temperate South Africa. Egg and clutch mass increased with adult body mass in all locations, but differed among locations for the same body mass, demonstrating that egg and clutch mass have evolved to some extent independent of body mass among regions. A major portion of egg mass variation was explained by an inverse relationship with clutch size within and among regions, as predicted by life-history theory. However, clutch size did not explain all geographic differences in egg mass; eggs were smallest in South Africa despite small clutch sizes. These small eggs might be explained by high nest predation rates in South Africa; life-history theory predicts reduced reproductive effort under high risk of offspring mortality. This prediction was supported for clutch mass, which was inversely related to nest predation but not for egg mass. Nevertheless, clutch mass variation was not fully explained by nest predation, possibly reflecting interacting effects of adult mortality. Tests of the possible effects of nest predation on egg mass were compromised by limited power and by counterposing direct and indirect effects. Finally, components of parental investment, defined as effort per offspring, might be expected to positively coevolve. Indeed, egg mass, but not clutch mass, was greater in species that shared incubation by males and females compared with species in which only females incubate eggs. However, egg and clutch mass were not related to effort of parental care as measured by incubation attentiveness. Ecological and life-history correlates of egg and clutch mass variation found here follow from theory, but possible evolutionary causes deserve further study. ?? 2006 The Society for the Study of Evolution. All rights reserved.

Martin, T. E.; Bassar, R. D.; Bassar, S. K.; Fontaine, J. J.; Lloyd, P.; Mathewson, H. A.; Niklison, A. M.; Chalfoun, A.

2006-01-01

432

Symbolic representation on geographic concepts and their mutual relationships  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cartographic language has the characteristics of natural language. As the vocabulary in cartographic language, cartographic symbols are composed of exterior form and idealistic content. Geographic concepts are the essential attribute of geographic objects and cell of geographic thinking. Geographic concepts are thinking form of human brain and are invisible, which only needed to be represented by a certain form. Aiming at the problem of symbolic representation in geographic concepts and their mutual relationships, the geometrical composition of symbols of large scale topographic maps and the semantic and geometrical relationships among symbols were analyzed, the symbols system of topographic maps was regarded as a two-dimensional graphic language, and the relationship between symbols and geographic concepts was discussed. According to concept of logic and geometrical shape of symbols the represented categories of geographic concepts and their mutual relationships on the basis of symbols of topographic maps were defined and the actual examples were given, which provides the use for reference for studying cartographic language by logic method.

Su, Li; Chen, Yijin; Zhou, Danhui

2006-10-01

433

Use of geographic data in emergency response decision making system  

SciTech Connect

Geographic data have a number of key roles in emergency response systems focused on releases of hazardous material to the environment. Maps are a key element in allowing emergency response personnel to become oriented during a response and in presenting status information effectively to these personnel. Geographic data are essential for modeling to predict dispersal patterns during a release. It is also necessary to integrate model and measurement data with demographic information in order to assess the consequences of a release. Appropriate support for such capabilities is based on a number of evolving technologies including fast computers, large databases, network technology, remote sensing and geographic information systems.

Walker, H.

1997-07-01

434

New geographical approaches to control of some parasitic zoonoses.  

PubMed Central

The advent of new technology for geographical representation and spatial analysis of databases from different sectors offers a new approach to planning and managing the control of tropical diseases. This article reviews the geographical and intersectoral aspects of the epidemiology and control of African trypanosomiasis, cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis, Chagas disease, schistosomiasis, and foodborne trematode infections. The focal nature of their transmission, increasing recognition of the importance of animal reservoirs, and the need to understand environmental factors influencing their distribution are common to all these diseases. Geographical information systems (GIS) open a completely new perspective for intersectoral collaboration in adapting new technology to promote control of these diseases.

Mott, K. E.; Nuttall, I.; Desjeux, P.; Cattand, P.

1995-01-01

435

Geographical localisation of the geomagnetic secular variation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Directly observed changes in Earth's magnetic field occur most prominently at low latitudes beneath the Atlantic hemisphere, while the Pacific is comparatively quiet. This striking hemispheric asymmetry in geomagnetic secular variation is a consequence of the geographical localisation of intense, westward moving, magnetic flux patches at the core surface. Despite its successes in explaining the main morphological properties of Earth's magnetic field, self-consistent numerical modelling of the geodynamo has so far failed to reproduce this field variation pattern. Furthermore its magnetohydrodynamic origin, an essential pre-requisite for predicting the field evolution over the future decades, has been unclear. In this presentation we report on results obtained with numerical dynamos where we modify the treatment of mechanical boundary conditions, and impose heterogeneous thermochemical boundary control from either, or both, the inner-core boundary and the core-mantle boundary. In addition to presenting an Earth-like magnetic field morphology, these new numerical models also reproduce the morphology and localization of geomagnetic secular variation. In our models, the conservation of the angular momentum in the coupled inner-core / outer core / mantle system (the inner core and the mantle being held together by gravitational coupling) creates a westward columnar gyre circling around the inner core, which localises the secular variation in a narrow latitudinal band. An additional heterogeneous thermochemical boundary control distorts this gyre (the strongest distortion being obtained with inner core heterogeneous control) and localises the field changes in a hemispherical longitudinal sector. The two effects combine to recreate the observed localisation of geomagnetic secular variation in both longitude and latitude as a reult of a westward, columnar, eccentric gyre that penetrates throughout the outer core in a manner reminiscent of recent flow inversions. We also characterise the azimuthal drift of magnetic field structures using a Radon transform method, and find overall agreement between the model and geomagnetic data previously processed in the same way. Our results suggest that conservation of angular momentum and heterogeneous thermochemical boundary control in the coupled inner core / outer core / mantle system are central to understanding how Earth's magnetic field currently evolves.

Aubert, Julien; Finlay, Christopher; Fournier, Alexandre

2013-04-01

436

Microseismicity evidence for subduction of the Caribbean plate beneath the South American Plate in northwestern Venezuela  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over 1100 microearthquakes with body wave magnitude mb<4 have been located in western Venezuela and the southwestern Caribbean region since the installation in 1980 of the Venezuelan Seismological Array, together with 120 events of mb?4, one of them with surface wave magnitude Ms˜6. This tectonically complex region is part of the boundary between the Caribbean and the South American plates. The main seismically active feature inland in western Venezuela is the northeast striking, 600-km long, 100-km wide, right-lateral strike-slip Boconó fault zone along the Venezuelan Andes. About 80% of the earthquakes located in the entire region in the period 1980-mid-1995 have occurred on this fault zone, at focal depths <20 km. Microearthquake activity at lower rates also occurs northwest of the Venezuelan Andes, both in the continental and Caribbean sea regions. Part of this activity takes place at depths down to ˜150 km. Northwest oriented seismicity depth profiles show the existence of a Benioff zone dipping to the southeast beneath northwestern Venezuela and northern Colombia. This indicates the presence of a northeast striking, southeast dipping subducted slab of the Caribbean plate beneath the South American plate. Hypocentral locations show that the northeastern end of this subduction occurs northwest of the Curaçao-Aruba region, in the vicinity of a northwest trending, right-lateral strike-slip fault zone that joins up with the northeastern end of the Boconó fault zone. This latter place turns out to be the western end of the east-west striking San Sebastián fault along the Venezuelan coast.

PéRez, Omar J.; Jaimes, Martha A.; Garciacaro, Emilio

1997-08-01

437

Residential energy use and conservation in Venezuela: Results and implications of a household survey in Caracas  

SciTech Connect

This document presents the final report of a study of residential energy use in Caracas, the capital of Venezuela. It contains the findings of a household energy-use survey held in Caracas in 1988 and examines options for introducing energy conservation measures in the Venezuelan residential sector. Oil exports form the backbone of the Venezuelan economy. Improving energy efficiency in Venezuela will help free domestic oil resources that can be sold to the rest of the world. Energy conservation will also contribute to a faster recovery of the economy by reducing the need for major investments in new energy facilities, allowing the Venezuelan government to direct its financial investments towards other areas of development. Local environmental benefits will constitute an important additional by-product of implementing energy-efficiency policies in Venezuela. Caracas`s residential sector shows great potential for energy conservation. The sector is characterized by high saturation levels of major appliances, inefficiency of appliances available in the market, and by careless patterns of energy use. Household energy use per capita average 6.5 GJ/per year which is higher than most cities in developing countries; most of this energy is used for cooking. Electricity accounts for 41% of all energy use, while LPG and natural gas constitute the remainder. Specific options for inducing energy conservation and energy efficiency in Caracas`s residential sector include energy-pricing policies, fuel switching, particularly from electricity to gas, improving the energy performance of new appliances and customer information. To ensure the accomplishment of an energy-efficiency strategy, a concerted effort by energy users, manufacturers, utility companies, government agencies, and research institutions will be needed.

Figueroa, M.J.; Ketoff, A.; Masera, O.

1992-10-01

438

[Cardiovascular risk: initial estimation in the study cohort "CDC of the Canary Islands in Venezuela"].  

PubMed

In Venezuela as in the Canary Islands (Spain), cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this research is to estimate the cardiovascular risk in the Canary Islands migrants living in Venezuela and participating in the study cohort "CDC of the Canary Islands in Venezuela". 452 individuals, aged 18 to 93 years (54.9% women), were enrolled between June 2008 and August 2009. A data survey was performed and their weight, height, abdomen and hip circumferences, and blood pressure were measured. After a 12-hour fasting period, a blood sample was obtained for glucose and lipid profile determinations. 40.5% of the subjects were over 65 years of age and 8% corresponded to the younger group (18-30 years). In men, the average age was 57.69 +/- 18.17 years and the body mass index 29.39 +/- 5.71 kg/m2, whereas women were 56.50 +/- 16.91 years and 28.20 +/- 5.57 kg/m2, respectively. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 49.1%, overweight and obesity together 75,2%, abdominal obesity 85.4%, diabetes 17.4%, impaired fasting glucose (IFG) 12.2%, elevated blood pressure 52.9%, low HDL-cholesterol 53,8% and elevated serum triglycerides 31%. Among subjects without diabetes or IFG, a third showed a high triglycerides/HDL-cholesterol ratio, indicating insulin resistance. We conclude that the Canarian-Venezuelan community suffers high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (obesity, abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, diabetes). In relation to the current population of the Canary Islands, they show a lower frequency of IFG and a higher frequency of low HDL-cholesterol. In comparison to the Venezuelan population (Zulia), they showed to have lower prevalence of IFG, low HDL cholesterol and elevated triglycerides. PMID:22523842

Viso, Miguel; Rodríguez, Zulma; Loreto, Neydys; Fernández, Yolima; Callegari, Carlos; Nicita, Graciela; González, Julio; Cabrera de León, Antonio; Reigosa, Aldo

2011-12-01

439

(Late?) Paleozoic age for the “Cretaceous” Tucutunemo Formation, northern Venezuela: Stratigraphic and tectonic implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The largely phyllitic Tucutunemo Formation of the Caribbean Mountains of north-central Venezuela has been assigned to the Early or Late Cretaceous on the basis of lithologic correlation. Reexamination of some limestones in thin section revealed a crinoid-brachiopod microfacies in which productid spine bases and sections were identified. Other forms include bryozoans, probable dasyclad algae, and a possible chaetetid. The microfacies closely resemble those of limestones of the Permian Palmarito Formation of the Venezuelan Andes. These features suggest a (late?) Paleozoic age for the Tucutunemo Formation. A range of possible tectonic settings for the formation is summarized in two autochthonous and two allochthonous models.

Benjamini, C.; Shagam, R.; Menendez, A.

1987-10-01

440

Sentinel Surveillance of Influenza-Like Illness in Two Hospitals in Maracay, Venezuela: 2006-2010  

PubMed Central

Background Limited information exists on the epidemiology of acute febrile respiratory illnesses in tropical South American countries such as Venezuela. The objective of the present study was to examine the epidemiology of influenza-like illness (ILI) in two hospitals in Maracay, Venezuela. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed a prospective surveillance study of persons with ILI who presented for care at two hospitals in Maracay, Venezuela, from October 2006 to December 2010. A respiratory specimen and clinical information were obtained from each participant. Viral isolation and identification with immunofluorescent antibodies and molecular methods were employed to detect respiratory viruses such as adenovirus, influenza A and B, parainfluenza, and respiratory sincytial virus, among others. There were 916 participants in the study (median age: 17 years; range: 1 month – 86 years). Viruses were identified in 143 (15.6%) subjects, and one participant was found to have a co-infection with more than one virus. Influenza viruses, including pandemic H1N1 2009, were the most frequently detected pathogens, accounting for 67.4% (97/144) of the viruses detected. Adenovirus (15/144), parainfluenza virus (13/144), and respiratory syncytial virus (11/144) were also important causes of ILI in this study. Pandemic H1N1 2009 virus became the most commonly isolated influenza virus during its initial appearance in 2009. Two waves of the pandemic were observed: the first which peaked in August 2009 and the second - higher than the preceding - that peaked in October 2009. In 2010, influenza A/H3N2 re-emerged as the most predominant respiratory virus detected. Conclusions/Significance Influenza viruses were the most commonly detected viral organisms among patients with acute febrile respiratory illnesses presenting at two hospitals in Maracay, Venezuela. Pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza virus did not completely replace other circulating influenza viruses during its initial appearance in 2009. Seasonal influenza A/H3N2 was the most common influenza virus in the post-pandemic phase.

Comach, Guillermo; Teneza-Mora, Nimfa; Kochel, Tadeusz J.; Espino, Carlos; Sierra, Gloria; Camacho, Daria E.; Laguna-Torres, V. Alberto; Garcia, Josefina; Chauca, Gloria; Gamero, Maria E.; Sovero, Merly; Bordones, Slave; Villalobos, Iris; Melchor, Angel; Halsey, Eric S.

2012-01-01

441

Applications of Geographic Information Systems in Public Works.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are a unique class of computer software that represent an exciting technology that will have a significant impact on data analysis and information processing during the next decade. GIS links two different technologies...

K. P. O'Connor

1995-01-01

442

Overview of the Army GIS (Geographic Information Systems) Research Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Army Engineer Topographic Laboratories (USAETL) geographic information systems (GIS) research program seeks to define GIS requirements for operational use in the 1990's and beyond, and to develop advanced GIS processing techniques that will facil...

E. D. Porter

1987-01-01

443

Geographical Mobility: 1990 to 1995. Special Studies. Current Population Reports.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

From the local to the national level, residential mobility, internal migration, and immigration are critical in determining population growth and decline. In addition to its effect on geographic areas, migration also has a number of outcomes - such as eco...

J. P. Schachter

2000-01-01

444

Tradition and Progress: : Registration of Geographic Denominations of Origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examines provisions of the 1992 Regulation on the registration of geographical indications and designations of origin for agricultural products and foodstuffs. Also examines protection of such names under the United Kingdom Trade Marks Act and the law of passing off.

Marjorie Thienes

1994-01-01

445

Geographic variation in North American gypsy moth cycles ...  

Treesearch

Several of these species exhibit geographical variation in both the strength ... existence of subharmonic variation in cyclicity among different forest types. ... States, space-time defoliation data, spatiotemporal dynamics, virus-insect interactions.

446

Geographic patterns of genetic variation, population structure and ...  

Treesearch

Title: Geographic patterns of genetic variation, population structure and ... climate change in high elevation systems, and an outbreak of a native bark beetle make ... and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.

447

Knowledge-based geographic information systems on the ...  

Treesearch

Science.gov - We Participate ... One common component is a geographic information system designed to function intelligently. ... to the hardware and software components, the nature of intelligence in the GIS environment and typical functions ...

448

Application of a geographic information system for radiologic emergency response.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A geographic information system (GIS) is a multifunctional analytical tool that can be used to compile available data and derive information. A GIS is a computerized database management system for the capture, storage, retrieval, analysis, and display of ...

R. G. Best J. F. Doyle

1995-01-01

449

Indicator 1.07. Number and geographic distribution of forest ...  

Treesearch

The size of a species' distribution is often related to the number of genetically distinct populations that exist. Consequently ... Keywords: indicator, species, at- risk, genetic variation, geographic range. View and Print ... Last Modified: July 21, 2013.

450

Multivariate Geographic Clustering Using a Beowulf-Style Parallel Computer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The authors present an application of multivariate non-hierarchical statistical clustering to geographic environmental data from the 48 conterminous United States in order to produce maps of regions of ecological similarity called ecoregions. Nine input v...

W. W. Hargrove F. M. Hoffman

1999-01-01

451

Equalizing Access to Nursing Services -- The Geographic Dimension.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The second phase of a report on the geographic distribution of nurses analyzes data from a hospital nursing director survey and from professional hospital nurses examined in the first part of the study. Topics discussed by various authors include professi...

F. A. Sloan

1978-01-01

452

Fast Food, Race\\/Ethnicity, and Income A Geographic Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods: Using geographic information system software, all fast-food restaurants within the city limits of New Orleans, Louisiana, in 2001 were mapped. Buffers around census tracts were generated to simulate 1-mile and 0.5-mile \\

Jason P. Block; Richard A. Scribner; Karen B. DeSalvo

2004-01-01

453

48 CFR 1852.244-70 - Geographic participation in the aerospace program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Geographic participation in the aerospace program. 1852.244-70 Section...244-70 Geographic participation in the aerospace program. As prescribed in 1844...clause: Geographic Participation in the Aerospace Program (APR 1985) (a) It...

2011-10-01

454

48 CFR 1852.244-70 - Geographic participation in the aerospace program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...true Geographic participation in the aerospace program. 1852.244-70 Section...244-70 Geographic participation in the aerospace program. As prescribed in 1844...clause: Geographic Participation in the Aerospace Program (APR 1985) (a) It...

2010-10-01

455

48 CFR 1852.244-70 - Geographic participation in the aerospace program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Geographic participation in the aerospace program. 1852.244-70 Section...244-70 Geographic participation in the aerospace program. As prescribed in 1844...clause: Geographic Participation in the Aerospace Program (APR 1985) (a) It...

2012-10-01

456

48 CFR 1852.244-70 - Geographic participation in the aerospace program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Geographic participation in the aerospace program. 1852.244-70 Section...244-70 Geographic participation in the aerospace program. As prescribed in 1844...clause: Geographic Participation in the Aerospace Program (APR 1985) (a) It...

2009-10-01

457

A geographically variable model of hemlock woolly adelgid spread  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA) (Adelges tsugae) has spread through the range of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) leaving dead hemlock trees in its wake. We combined county and previously unavailable township level infestation records\\u000a with geographic variables including plant hardiness zone, elevation, forest cover type, urbanization, precipitation, temperature,\\u000a and hemlock range in a geographic information system to build models linking

Alexander M. Evans; Timothy G. Gregoire

2007-01-01

458

Geographical location in the information age: from destiny to opportunity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article argues for a possibly new significance of geographical location in the information age, a significance amounting\\u000a to more than mere spatial anchoring, on the one hand, and to less and different than absolute destiny, on the other. Hence,\\u000a we show a possible change in the significance of geographical location from destiny in the industrial age to potential opportunity

Aharon Kellerman; Maria Paradiso

2007-01-01

459

Geographic Analysis of Alaska Lake Districts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The state of Alaska has over 400,000 lakes greater than 0.01 km2 in surface area covering approximately 3.3% of the landscape. As in most lake-rich regions, these lakes are unevenly distributed on the landscape. So in order to better understand how lakes are organized on the landscape and relate this geographic organization to other climatologic, geologic, and biogeographic characteristics, we analyzed the spatial distribution of Alaska lakes. Using a combination of numerical abundance and surface-area extent of lakes, we selected lake density thresholds to identify and delineate 22 lake districts in Alaska. The total area of these 22 lakes districts occupy 16% of Alaska, yet encompass 64% of lakes and 76% of lake surface-area. The three largest lake districts are associated with the Yukon-Kuskokwin Delta, the Northern Arctic Coastal Plain, and the mountain front of the Alaskan Range on the Alaska Peninsula. Interestingly, these largest lake districts are covered by >17% lakes, while most of the smaller lake districts we identified have <10% lake cover. Of the remaining smaller lake districts, 9 are associated with mountain fronts or intermountain basins, 4 are associated with coastal plains, 3 are associated with floodplains and deltas, and 3 occur in high-elevation or mountain terrain. The highest numerical lake densities occur at deltas, while relatively lower densities occur in mountainous areas where individual lakes are often larger in surface area and likely volume. Comparison of these lake districts were made to permafrost distribution, glacial history, lithology, watershed position, and regional hydrologic budgets and regimes to better understand where lake-rich regions occur, why, and how they might change in the future. Ten of the 22 lake districts occur in areas dominated by continuous permafrost, 6 occur in areas of discontinuous or sporadic permafrost, and the other 6 occur in regions without perennially frozen soils. The majority of lake districts, 63% occur in regions that were glaciated during the last glacial maximum, yet several of the largest lake districts occur in unglaciated terrain. We also made comparisons of lake districts to other natural units used for landscape analysis including ecoregions and watersheds, and human- delineated units including National Parks (NP) and National Wildlife Refuges (NWR). Not surprisingly, 12 of these lake districts occur partly or wholly within NWRs, and all but two are associated with other state or federally managed parks or wildlife refuges. Analysis of lake districts in Alaska, or other regions on Earth, may prove to be useful for better understanding lake change, aquatic and terrestrial habitats, and regional hydrologic budgets and regimes. Such fresh views of the landscape may become increasingly important for improving natural resource science and management in Alaska, where future climate change is predicted to be very rapid.

Arp, C. D.; Jones, B. M.; Zimmerman, C. E.

2007-12-01

460

Geographical range and speciation in fossil and living molluscs.  

PubMed Central

The notion of a positive relation between geographical range and speciation rate or speciation probability may go back to Darwin, but a negative relation between these parameters is equally plausible. Here, we test these alternatives in fossil and living molluscan taxa. Late Cretaceous gastropod genera exhibit a strong negative relation between the geographical ranges of constituent species and speciation rate per species per million years; this result is robust to sampling biases against small-bodied taxa and is not attributable to phylogenetic effects. They also exhibit weak inverse or non-significant relations between geographical range and (i) the total number of species produced over the 18 million year timeframe, and (ii) the number of species in a single timeplane. Sister-group comparisons using extant molluscan species also show a non-significant relation between median geographical range and species richness of genera. These results support the view that the factors promoting broad geographical ranges also tend to damp speciation rates. They also demonstrate that a strong inverse relation between per-species speciation rate and geographical range need not be reflected in analyses conducted within a single timeplane, underscoring the inadequacy of treating net speciation as a proxy for raw per-taxon rates.

Jablonski, David; Roy, Kaustuv

2003-01-01

461

TIGER5---Extraction of geographic information from the TIGER system  

SciTech Connect

The need for geographic information in digital form is becoming apparent in many areas, including Emergency Response Planning and Management. The Bureau of Census recognized this need and developed an automated geographic data base, known as Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing (TIGER) System, to produce the geographic products for the 1990 census. The Bureau makes the information available to the public on CD-ROM disks. As distributed, the geographic information is not directly visible, and a program is needed to display the information in a graphic form. MapInfo is a commercially available program that has the capability to display maps and allows the user to perform certain geographic analyses. MapInfo runs on a variety of low-cost platforms that may be found in an average office environment, as well as on high-performance work stations. The TIGER5 program developed by the Emergency Management Information Systems (EMIS) project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory reads files directly from the Census Bureau TIGER/Line CD-ROM and creates MapInfo Exchange Format Files that can be directly imported into MapInfo. The standard default values for scaling parameters are used, and the resulting map is in the same coordinate system as the world and state maps distributed with MapInfo.

Gryder, R.K.

1992-03-01

462

Geographic Tongue and Associated Risk Factors among Iranian Dental Patients  

PubMed Central

Background Geographic Tongue is a benign disorder involving the dorsal surface of the tongue characterized by depapillated areas with leading and folded edges in yellowish or grayish white color and sometimes with unclear borders. Many studies have reported a relationship between such condition and different risk factors. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence rate and the risk factors of geographic tongue in the patients referring to the Department of Oral Medicine of Zahedan Dental School, in 2012. Methods: Using Poisson regression model, 2000 patients referred to the Department were selected for this cross-sectional study. Data collection method included an investigation into the medical history as well as doing intraoral examinations. Using SPSS 17 software and Chi-square statistical test, the collected data were analyzed. Result: Among the 2000 patients selected, 7.8% (156 persons) suffered from geographic tongue. The results of our study show that there is a significant relationship between the occurrence of geographic tongue and a history of allergy and fissured tongue (P<0.001). There was no significant statistical relationship between the occurrence of geographic tongue and gender, smoking and medication. Conclusion: The geographic tongue is more frequently in the patients suffering from atopy or allergy as well as the patients with fissured tongue.

HONARMAND, Marieh; FARHAD MOLLASHAHI, Leila; SHIRZAIY, Masomeh; SEHHATPOUR, Marziye

2013-01-01

463

Importancia de las plantas medicinales en el autocuidado de la salud en tres caseríos de Santa Ana Trujillo, Venezuela. The importance of medicinal plants in health care in three small villages of the Santa Ana county at Trujillo state, Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to gather some information about the importance of medicinal plants in the primary health care, the use of plants in three small villages of the Santa Ana county, Pampán municipality at Trujillo State, Venezuela, was quantitatively analyzed. To do this, a local epidemiology diagnosis was carried out and the etnopharmacological information obtained was recorded using the TRAMIL survey.

TEOLINDA CARRILLO-ROSARIO Y GLENDA

464

THE DIGITAL GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION EXCHANGE STANDARD AND MILITARY MAPPING (on behalf of the Digital Geographic Information Working Group)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Digital Geographic Information Working Group (DGIWG) has developed the Digital Geographic Information Exchange Standard (DIGEST) to support the exchange of geospatial data among producers and users. DIGEST enables interoperability and compatibility among national and multi-national systems and users. This paper describes the evolution and components of DIGEST, and its implementation in producing and exploiting DIGEST-compliant datasets\\/products. The paper also

Pierre J. C. Beaulieu; Herman A. Dohmann

465

Geographic location and phylogeny are the main determinants of the size of the geographical range in aquatic beetles  

PubMed Central

Background Why some species are widespread while others are very restricted geographically is one of the most basic questions in biology, although it remains largely unanswered. This is particularly the case for groups of closely related species, which often display large differences in the size of the geographical range despite sharing many other factors due to their common phylogenetic inheritance. We used ten lineages of aquatic Coleoptera from the western Palearctic to test in a comparative framework a broad set of possible determinants of range size: species' age, differences in ecological tolerance, dispersal ability and geographic location. Results When all factors were combined in multiple regression models between 60-98% of the variance was explained by geographic location and phylogenetic signal. Maximum latitudinal and longitudinal limits were positively correlated with range size, with species at the most northern latitudes and eastern longitudes displaying the largest ranges. In lineages with lotic and lentic species, the lentic (better dispersers) display larger distributional ranges than the lotic species (worse dispersers). The size of the geographical range was also positively correlated with the extent of the biomes in which the species is found, but we did not find evidence of a clear relationship between range size and age of the species. Conclusions Our findings show that range size of a species is shaped by an interplay of geographic and ecological factors, with a phylogenetic component affecting both of them. The understanding of the factors that determine the size and geographical location of the distributional range of species is fundamental to the study of the origin and assemblage of the current biota. Our results show that for this purpose the most relevant data may be the phylogenetic history of the species and its geographical location.

2011-01-01

466

[Molecular and serological diagnosis of a dengue outbreak in Coro, Falcón state, Venezuela].  

PubMed

Dengue virus (DV) is responsible for a spectrum of diseases, from a self-limited fever disease (DF, dengue fever) to the more severe forms of hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS). The aim of this study was the serological and molecular confirmation of an outbreak of dengue in Falcon state, Venezuela. A total of 54 sera from patients with clinical diagnosis of DV infection were analyzed by an enzyme immunoassays developed in Venezuela (ELISA -IgM e -IgG) and by PCR. From them, 78% exhibited DV infection (PCR+ y/o IgM+), 48% exhibited viremia by PCR and 57% were positive to IgM. An interesting observation was the high percent (76%) of patients with past or secondary infection (IgG positive), which included all the patients exhibiting clinical symptoms of DHF (n = 8). From the PCR positive sera, serotype 1 was found in 27%, serotype 2 in 54% and serotype 4 in 19%. No serotype 3 was found circulating in this population, although this serotype was already circulating in the nearby island of Aruba. The combination of serological and molecular methods allow us to obtain a fairly precise information of this outbreak. PMID:14552060

Moros, Zoila Caridad; Abad, María Jesús; Arsenak, Miriam; Martínez, Dilia; Cierco, Maria Magdalena; Costagliola, Asunta; Urbina, Leyda; Taylor, Peter; Liprandi, Ferdinando; Pujol, Flor Helene

2003-09-01

467

Comparison of the petroleum systems of East Venezuela in their tectonostratigraphic context  

SciTech Connect

The Maturin and Guarico subbasins of East Venezuela record the transition from Cretaceous passive margin to Tertiary foreland basin with local post-orogenic transtensional basins. Petroleum is reservoired in several units ranging from Albian (El Cantil Formation) to Pliocene (Las Piedras Formation) age. Source rocks are principally in the Upper Cretaceous (Querecual Formation), and Miocene (Carapita Formation) in the Maturin subbasin and in the Upper Cretaceous (Tigre Formation) and Oligocene (Roblecito and La Pascua Formations) in the Guarico subbasin. An extensive well database has been used to address the distribution and provenance of hydrocarbons in the context of a tectonostratigraphic model for the evolution of the East Venezuela basin. Nine major plays have been described, comprising thirteen petroleum systems. The principal factors influencing the components of individual petroleum systems are as follows: (1) structural controls on Upper Cretaceous source rock distribution, relating to block faulting on the proto-Caribbean passive margin; (2) paleoenvironmental controls on source rock development within the Oligocene-Miocene foreland basin; and (3) timing of subsidence and maturation within the Oligocene-Upper Miocene foreland basin and the configuration of the associated fold and thrust belt, influencing long range and local migration routes (4) local development of Pliocene post-orogenic transtensional basins, influencing hydrocarbon generation, migration and remigration north of the Pirital High.

Stronach, N.J.; Kerr, H.M.; Scotchmer, J. [Robertson Research International Ltd., Llandudno, Gwynedd (United Kingdom); Hunter, V. [Consultores Geostrat CA, Puerto La Cruz (Venezuela)

1996-08-01

468

Two new Fusicoccum species from Acacia and Eucalyptus in Venezuela, based on morphology and DNA sequence data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Botryosphaeria spp. are common endophytes of woody plants, and they also include some serious pathogens of Eucalyptus and Acacia species. Numerous anamorphs have been associated with Botryosphaeria, of which the species Fusicoccum are amongst the most common. Here, we characterize two new Fusicoccum species, isolated from Eucalyptus and Acacia trees in Venezuela, based on morphological features in culture and comparisons

Sari Mohali; Bernard Slippers; Michael J. Wingfield

2006-01-01

469

Voice, Video and Data Transmission over Electrical Power Supply Networks. PLC (Power Line Communications): A Last Mile Alternative for Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

In general terms, the public telecommunication networks in Venezuela are conformed by access, transport and core networks. The locations where does not exist telecommunications services but there are users, generally there exist electrical service, which allows the utilization of the electrical systems as the access network. During the development of this research we consulted documentation related to PLC implementations in

Luis R. Madera

2006-01-01

470

The significance of episodic rains for reproductive phenology and productivity of trees in semiarid regions of northwestern Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

The semiarid regions of northwestern Venezuela have extremely low and highly unpredictable precipitation, yet these conditions support species with contrasting phenology and leaf longevity. Episodic rains significantly increased leaf water potential (from -5 to -2.5 MPa) in several species and, in some cases, triggered flowering, leading us to hypothesize that the coexistence of species with contrasting phenology is due to differences

Míriam Díaz; Eréndira Granadillo

2005-01-01

471

Public relations and strategic issues management challenges in Venezuela: A discourse analysis of Crystallex International Corporation in Las Cristinas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation, using critical discourse analysis (CDA), seeks to develop an understanding of strategic issues management through Crystallex International Corporation’s discursive construction and management of legitimacy in the Las Cristinas mine in Venezuela. This analysis of the Las Cristinas case unearths elements that could provide useful insights about the Latin American environment in general and public relations efforts in that

Karina Peñaloza de Brooks; Damion Waymer

2009-01-01

472

EVIDENCES FOR THE PRESENCE OF A NEW PETROLEUM SYSTEM IN EASTERN-VENEZUELA: PERSPECTIVES FOR FUTURE EXPLORATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

For crude oils (from the South-Central part of the Eastern Venezuela Basin, EVB) three oil seeps (two of them located in The Paría Península region, and the other one towards the north-western side of the Orinoco river) and three reservoir rocks with oil impregnations (Junin Field, Orinoco Heavy Oil Belt) from the EVB, were analysed in this study in order

Carolina C. OLIVARES

473

Molecular epidemiology of dengue type 2 virus in Venezuela: evidence for in situ virus evolution and recombination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemic outbreaks of dengue fever (DF) were first recorded in Venezuela in 1978 and were followed by the emergence of dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) outbreaks in 1989. To gain a better understanding of the nature of these epidemics, the complete envelope (E) gene sequence of 34 Venezuelan dengue type 2 (DEN-2) viruses, isolated between 1997 and 2000 was determined. Of

N. Y. Uzcategui; D. Camacho; G. Comach; R. Cuello de Uzcategui; E. C. Holmes; E. A. Gould

2001-01-01

474

Population, Land Use and Deforestation in the Pan Amazon Basin: a Comparison of Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Perú and Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the linkages between population change, land use, and deforestation in the Amazon regions of Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Perú, and Venezuela. We begin with a brief discussion of theories of population–environment linkages, and then focus on the case of deforestation in the PanAmazon. The core of the paper reviews available data on deforestation, population growth, migration and

Stephen G. Perz; Carlos Aramburú; Jason Bremner

2005-01-01

475

FLUJOS DE COMERCIO INTRAINDUSTRIAL DE LAS EXPORTACIONES REPRESENTATIVAS ENTRE VALLE DEL CAUCA, ECUADOR Y VENEZUELA 1980 – 2006  

Microsoft Academic Search

En el presente trabajo se analiza el comportamiento del comercio intraindustrial (CII) de los subsectores representativos de la industria del Valle del Cauca con los países de Ecuador y Venezuela para el período 1980-2006 a través del índice Greenaway y Milner y el índice de Brülhart. De esta forma se corrige el problema de agregación presentado en mediciones anteriores y

Aura María Muñoz Cardona; Lina Johanna Salinas Luna

2009-01-01

476

Mantle Structure at Tectonic Corners: an Investigation of Venezuela and SE Alaska Using Shear-wave Splitting Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are in the process of making shear-wave splitting measurements to look at mantle structure in two tectonic corners: Venezuela and southeast Alaska. Both sites are in the area of recent temporary, broadband, seismic experiments. The Venezuela data came from the recently completed BOLIVAR experiment. BOLIVAR (Broadband Ocean and Land Investigations of Venezuela and the Antilles arc Region) consists of 27 PASSCAL sites, 33 FUNVISIS (Venezuelan National Network) sites, 12 broadband OBS instruments and 8 broadband stations run by Rice University. The Alaska data comes from an ongoing experiment called STEEP (SainT Elias Erosion/tectonics Project). STEEP consists of 22 broadband seismic sites in addition to available data from 6 existing broadband sites in the same area. Preliminary Bolivar experiment results show northern Venezuelan stations with fast axes oriented approximately parallel to the relative Caribbean-South American plate motion. This is consistent with previous studies. Stations in western Venezuela show northeast oriented fast axes consistent with relative motion of the Maracaibo Block. Stations to the south in the Orinoco Basin show strong spatial variations that suggest the influence of a three-dimensional flow pattern in the upper mantle of this region or unresolved data problems resulting from this deep sedimentary basin.

Growdon, M. A.; Pavlis, G. L.; Niu, F.

2006-12-01

477

Biogenic Forsterite and Opal as a Product of Biodeterioration and Lichen Stromatolite Formation in Table Mountain Systems (Tepuis) of Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biogenic physical weathering and leaching of the quartzite dominated table mountain systems of South America is a slow but strongly biologically influenced process. Observations and analyses on the basis of sample materials collected during an expedition to the protected areas of the most conspicuous tepuis of Venezuela are reported. The rock material consists of more than 98% silica, and the

2001-01-01

478

Potential of vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash) for phytoremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soils in Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

Venezuela is one of the largest oil producers in the world. For the rehabilitation of oil-contaminated sites, phytoremediation represents a promising technology whereby plants are used to enhance biodegradation processes in soil. A greenhouse study was conducted to determine the tolerance of vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash) to a Venezuelan heavy crude oil in soil. Additionally, the plant's potential for

Regine Brandt; Nicole Merkl; Rainer Schultze-Kraft; Carmen Infante; Gabriele Broll

2006-01-01

479

Palm worm: (Rhynchophorus palmarum) traditional food in Amazonas, Venezuela—nutritional composition, small scale production and tourist palatability  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the use of alerito, the larva of the Rhynchophorus palmarum (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), by the Jivi (Guajibo) community of Alcabala de Guajibo, Amazonas, Venezuela. The Indians gather the palm worms from damaged or fallen palm stems and eat them raw or roasted. We analysed the nutrient composition of the palm worm and found that it is an excellent source

H. Cerda; R. Martinez; N. Briceno; L. Pizzoferrato; P. Manzi; M. Tommaseo Ponzetta; O. Marin; M. G. Paoletti

2001-01-01

480

FENOLOGIA REPRODUCTIVA EN TRES TIPOS DE VEGETACION DE LA PLANICIE COSTERA DE LA PENINSULA DE PARAGUANA, VENEZUELA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reproductive phenology of 51 plant species was evaluated according to life form and vegetation types in a coastal plain of the Paraguaná Peninsula, Estado Falcón, Venezuela. Plant species distribution according to three vegetation types (herbaceous littoral, herbaceous psamophil, and mangrove area) was determined. Life form frequency was different according to vegetation type. Herbaceous littoral and herbaceous psamophil vegetation were dominated

Luis José Lemus-Jiménez; Nelson Ramírez

481

Micrandra inundata (Euphorbiaceae), a New Species with Unusual Wood Anatomy from Blackwater River Banks in Southern Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

Micrandra inundata is a distinctive new species adapted to seasonally flooded black-water river banks in southern Venezuela. Trees rarely exceed 10 m in height but have thick basal trunks composed of very lightweight wood. It has the smallest leaves and fruits of any known Micrandra species and appears to be most closely related to M. minor Benth. The botanical description

Paul E. Berry; Alex C. Wiedenhoeft

2004-01-01

482

Molecular characterisation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in the First National Survey of Antituberculosis Drug Resistance from Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Molecular typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains has become a valuable tool in the epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) by allowing detection of outbreaks, tracking of epidemics, identification of genotypes and transmission events among patients who would have remained undetected by conventional contact investigation. This is the first genetic biodiversity study of M. tuberculosis in Venezuela. Thus, we investigated the genetic

Liselotte Aristimuño; Raimond Armengol; Alberto Cebollada; Mercedes España; Alexis Guilarte; Carmen Lafoz; María A Lezcano; María J Revillo; Carlos Martín; Carmen Ramírez; Nalin Rastogi; Janet Rojas; Albina Vázques de Salas; Christophe Sola; Sofía Samper

2006-01-01

483

Geographic disorientation: approaching and landing at the wrong airport.  

PubMed

Geographic disorientation in aviation operations results from the failure of an aircrew to recognize and/or maintain the desired position relative to the external ground and airspace environment. Becoming lost during flight, intruding inadvertently into unauthorized airspace, selecting a wrong airway, landing on the wrong runway, and approaching the wrong airport--with or without actual landing--are some examples of inflight geographic disorientation. This is a relatively common phenomenon that can be experienced by any pilot, regardless of experience level and the type of pilot certification. This paper analyzes 75 cases of geographic disorientation that occurred among air carrier pilots plus 16 cases among general aviation pilots between 1982 and 1987. Inflight geographic disorientation can result from a variety of aeromedical and human factors (aircrew, operational, environmental) which, interacting with each other, create the ideal conditions for the occurrence of this phenomenon. The adverse consequences of geographic disorientation for the aircrew, passengers and aircraft are delineated along with specific preventive measures. PMID:2803168

Antuñano, M J; Mohler, S R; Gosbee, J W

1989-10-01

484

Geographic distribution of obstetrics and gynecology resident training positions.  

PubMed

Medical students applying to residency positions in obstetrics and gynecology often have strong geographical preferences. For training programs in obstetrics and gynecology, the distribution of categorical PGY-1 resident positions per million people was analyzed for each American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) district. Data were obtained from the 2000 U.S. census and the 2003 resident match. The data indicate that the number of PGY-1 residency training positions per million people in the United States varies by geographical region. The fewest PGY-1 residency training positions per capita are in the West. In the 2003 match, Districts VIII and IX, respectively, offered 2.1 and 2.8 PGY-1 residency positions per one million people. The greatest number of PGY-1 positions per capita are in the East. Districts I, II, and III, respectively, offered 5.7, 8.0, and 5.3 PGY-1 residency positions per one million people. Many factors are likely to contribute to the observed geographical differences. A correlation coefficient of 0.81 (P <.01) was observed between population per square mile in each ACOG district and the number of PGY-1 positions per million people. Low population density likely limits the development of residency programs in some geographical areas. To allow medical students as much geographical choice as possible, additional residency positions could be developed in the West if educational opportunities and clinical needs support such a change. PMID:15172871

Barbieri, Robert L

2004-06-01

485

Geographic and molecular variation in a natural plant transgene.  

PubMed

A PCR based survey of Festuca ovina plants from populations around the southern part of the Baltic Sea demonstrates both geographic and molecular variation in the enzyme gene PgiC2, horizontally transferred from a Poa-species. Our results show that PgiC2-a natural functional nuclear transgene-is not a local ephemeral phenomenon but is present in a very large number of individuals. We find also that its frequency is geographically variable and that it appears in more than one molecular form. The chloroplast variation in the region does not indicate any distinct subdivision due to different colonization routes after the last glaciation. Our data illustrate the geographic and molecular variation that may occur in natural populations with a polymorphic, unfixed transgene affected by diverse kinds of mutational and evolutionary processes. PMID:20128113

Vallenback, Pernilla; Bengtsson, Bengt O; Ghatnekar, Lena

2010-03-01

486

Teacher Resources-The Canadian Council for Geographic Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Canadian Council for Geographic Education (CCGE) is serious about geographic education. This site provides a range of educational materials for those with a passion for the spatial sciences. The materials here are divided into four areas: Canadian Atlas Online, Lesson Plans, Classroom Activities, and Teaching About Geographical Thinking. In the Canadian Atlas Online area, visitors can learn about "the stories that define all Canadians." Visitors to this section can create their own customized maps of Canada and read through a glossary of terms. Moving on, the Lesson Plans area contains over 100 plans that deal with the environment, cultural geography, oceanography, and international development. The Geomatics area is quite a find, as it brings together GIS-based activities to explore topics like Nunavut and crime mapping. Finally, the Classroom Activities area contains some great poster maps of the Mackenzie Delta and the South Gulf Islands.

2012-07-20

487

Scrotal tongue and geographic tongue: polygenic and associated traits.  

PubMed

The familial nature of scrotal and geographic tongue was investigated in parents and siblings of 156 probands having these conditions. The prevalence in parents and siblings was significantly higher than that in the control populations. The prevalence in sibilings from families in which at least one parent was also affected was significantly higher than that in siblings from families in which neither parent was affected. The prevalence of scrotal tongue alone in siblins was similar irrespective of the condition in the proband. The prevalence of geographic tongue alone was highest in siblins of probands having only geographic tongue. A polygenic mode of inheritance with some genes common to both conditions is suggested. PMID:1068416

Eidelman, E; Chosack, A; Cohen, T

1976-11-01

488

Negotiating the Networks of Space, Time and Substance: A Geographical Perspective on the Sustainable Citizen  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a critical geographical analysis of the emerging ideals associated with sustainable citizenship. We argue that the principles behind sustainable citizenship force us to think through the full range of geographical factors which frame citizenship and yet which are routinely overlooked in both geographical and non-geographical work on the citizen. We take the sustainable citizen to be both

ANNA BULLEN; MARK WHITEHEAD

2005-01-01

489

Predicting potential distributions of geographic events using one-class data: concepts and methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

One common problem with geographic data is that, for a specific geographic event, only occurrence information is available; information about the absence of the event is not available. We refer to these specific types of geospatial data as geographic one-class data (GOCD). Predicting the potential spatial distributions that a particular geographic event may occur from GOCD is difficult because traditional

Q. Guo; W. Li; Y. Liu; D. Tong

2011-01-01

490

The Benefits and Costs of Proliferation of Geographical Labeling for Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food product attributes related to geographical origins are a topical issue in global food trade. The provision of geographical labeling may occur through geographical indications under the mandated trade rules of the TRIPS Agreement, through trademarks, or through country-of-origin labeling. The overall effect of the expansion of geographical labeling on developing countries depends on a complex mix of market opportunities

Sven Anders; Julie A. Caswell

2009-01-01

491

Data access, charging and copyright and their implications for geographical information systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few geographical information systems generate all their own data. As geographical or spatial data are the fuel of such systems, the availability, access and price of data sets held by others becomes a matter of considerable importance. In this context, geographical information systems form only a special case of information systems in general, but geographical data are increasingly part of

David Rhind

1992-01-01

492

VGG2002, a new high-resolution geoid for Venezuela and Eastern Caribbean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a new high-resolution geoid for Venezuela and the East Caribbean Sea. The Venezuelan Gravimetric Geoid 2002 (VGG2002) covers the area between 0oN-20oN and 285oE-305oE with a resolution of 1'x1'. An additional 2o-zone was included to avoid boundary effects. About 1.5 million free-air gravity anomalies were used. They originate from PDVSA (Petróleos de Venezuela S.A.), BGI (Bureau Gravimetrique International) and the GEODAS data base of NGDC (National Geophysical Data Center). In marine areas, 1'x1' gravity anomalies derived from altimetry (S&Sv9.1) were also included. In order to determined the long wavelength geoid signal the EGM96 global geopotential model was used as reference. Short wavelength contributions were derived from a digital terrain model with 30'' (GTOPO30 model) and 2' (S&Sv8.2 model) resolution respectively. Using the GRAVSOFT software, the geoid undulations were computed with the remove-restore technique. The computation involves a spherical approximation to evaluate the Stokes integral by two dimensional spherical Fast Fourier Transform with 100% zero-padding. The terrain corrections were computed by Residual Terrain Model method using prism numeric integration and taking into account the topographic anomalies relative to a mean height surface of 15'x15' resolution. This surface was obtained by a moving average of the digital terrain model. In marine areas the height anomalies were completed by mean sea level deviations of POCM, an oceanographic model of the ocean dynamic topography. Subsequently, the quasi-geoid was converted to geoid heights. The accuracy was evaluated by about 300 GPS/leveling stations and absolute differences to TOPEX/Poseidon (nine years) mean sea surface profiles. These show that the absolute agreement with respect to the national vertical datum is generally better than 30 cm RMS for most parts of Venezuela, 15 cm RMS in coastal areas and 5 cm RMS at sea.

Acuña, G.; Bosch, W.

2003-04-01

493

Conditions for the production of jadomycin B by Streptomyces venezuelae ISP5230: Effects of heat shock, ethanol treatment and phage infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The novel benzoxazolophenanthridine antibiotic, jadomycin B, is produced byStreptomyces venezuelae ISP5230 following a 42 °C heat shock or exposure to ethanol. To further characterize these unusual culture conditions, studies were carried out using different media, varying nutrient concentrations, initial pH, and time of application of heat or ethanol stress. Highest titers of jadomycin B accumulated 48 h afterS. venezuelae

Janice L. Doull; Amrit K. Singh; Melanie Hoarel; Stephen W. Ayer

1994-01-01

494

A research of extensible synthesis evaluation model for geographic information service of quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the use of geographic information services widely, geographic information quality of service (QoS) has become one of the key factors for the success of geographic information service applications. However, how to estimate Geographic Information Service QoS reasonably is a complex issue. Based on the analysis of the current research results of geographic information QoS, this paper firstly summarized the

Dayu Cheng; Gang Han; Ying Chen

2010-01-01

495

Racial and Geographic Differences in Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment and Control of Dyslipidemia: The Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: There are racial and geographic disparities in stroke mortality, with higher rates among African Americans (AAs) and those living in the southeastern US (‘stroke belt’). Racial and geographic differences in dyslipidemia prevalence, awareness, treatment and control may, in part, account for the observed disparities in stroke mortality. Methods: Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) is a

Richard M. Zweifler; Leslie A. McClure; Virginia J. Howard; Mary Cushman; Martha K. Hovater; Monika M. Safford; George Howard; David C. Goff Jr

2011-01-01

496

New olivosyl derivatives of methymycin/pikromycin from an engineered strain of Streptomyces venezuelae.  

PubMed

A mutant strain of Streptomyces venezuelae was engineered by deletion of the entire gene cluster related to biosynthesis of the endogenous deoxysugar (TDP-D-desosamine) and replacement with genes required for biosynthesis of an intermediate sugar (TDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-D-glucose) or an exogenous sugar (TDP-D-olivose), from the oleandomycin and urdamycin deoxysugar pathways. The 'sugar-flexible' glycosyltransferase (DesVII) was able to attach the intermediate sugar and the new sugar to both 12- and 14-membered macrolactones thus producing quinovose or olivose glycosylated 10-deoxymethynolide and narbonolide, respectively. In addition, hydroxylated analogs of the new metabolites were detected. These results demonstrate a successful attempt of engineering the deoxysugar pathway for generation of novel hybrid macrolide antibiotics. PMID:15358425

Hong, Jay Sung Joong; Park, Sung Hee; Choi, Cha Yong; Sohng, Jae Kyung; Yoon, Yeo Joon

2004-09-15

497

Management of a giant deep field: El Furrial Field, Eastern Venezuela  

SciTech Connect

The Furrial Field is located in Eastern Venezuela and produces a 25 to 30{degrees} API asphaltenic crude oil from a 1500 ft thick Oligocene sand interval at a depth of 15,000 ft. The bubble point is about 4500 psi as compared to an original pressure of 11,000 psi. Oil in place is approximately 6800 million STB. Currently production is 350 MB/D from 77 well streams (Naricual Formation), and water is being injected at 400 MB/D to maintain pressure. The combination of a volumetric reservoir and asphaltenic nature of crude oil resulted in a rapid decrease in well productivity and reservoir pressure, creating the necessity to maintain reservoir pressure to maximize recovery. Discussed in this paper are the reservoir management techniques and strategies used by Lagoven to develop and operate these complex reservoirs. Acquisition and analysis of these data adequate to properly implement these management techniques are covered in detail.

Pinto, N.; Mengual, R.; Anz, J.; Rodney, C. [Lagoven, S.A., Maturin (Venezuela)

1996-08-01

498

Nutrient content of earthworms consumed by Ye'Kuana Amerindians of the Alto Orinoco of Venezuela.  

PubMed Central

For the Makiritare (Ye'Kuana) native people of the Alto Orinoco (Venezuela), earthworms (Anellida: Glossoscolecidae) are an important component of the diet. Two species in particular are widely consumed: 'kuru' (Andiorrhinus kuru n. sp.) and 'motto' (Andiorrhinus motto). We analysed eviscerated kuru body proper, and whole and smoked preparations of motto for their content of protein and amino acids, fatty acids and 20 minerals and trace elements. The samples contained large amounts of protein (64.5-72.9% of dry weight), essential amino acids, calcium and iron together with notable quantities of other important elements, indicating that these earthworms contain potentially useful quantities of many nutrients that are critical to the health of the humans who consume them.

Paoletti, M G; Buscardo, E; VanderJagt, D J; Pastuszyn, A; Pizzoferrato, L; Huang, Y-S; Chuang, L-T; Millson, M; Cerda, H; Torres, F; Glew, R H

2003-01-01

499

Genetic diversity between and within the arenavirus species indigenous to western Venezuela  

PubMed Central

The results of analyses of Z, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, glycoprotein precursor, and nucleocapsid protein gene sequence data suggested that Guanarito virus was the most common cause of Venezuelan hemorrhagic fever in a 7-year period in the 1990’s and that the evolution of Pirital virus in association with Sigmodon alstoni (Alston’s cotton rat) has occurred at a significantly higher rate than the evolution of Guanarito virus in association with Zygodontomys brevicauda (short-tailed cane mouse) on the plains of western Venezuela. The results of analyses of the primary structures of the glycoproteins of the 8 strains of Guanarito virus isolated from humans suggested that these strains would be highly cross-reactive in neutralization assays. Thus, passive antibody therapy may prove beneficial in the treatment of human disease caused by strains of Guanarito virus that are enzootic in the region in which Venezuelan hemorrhagic fever is endemic.

Fulhorst, Charles F.; Cajimat, Maria N.B.; Milazzo, Mary Louise; Paredes, Hector; de Manzione, Nuris M. C.; Salas, Rosa A.; Rollin, Pierre E.; Ksiazek, Thomas G.

2008-01-01

500

CTX-M-14 ?-lactamase-producing Citrobacter freundii isolated in Venezuela  

PubMed Central

A clinical isolate of C. freundii with reduced susceptibility to extended-spectrum ?-lactams from a woman with cystocele associated with recurrent urinary tract infection was analyzed. Susceptibility tests, double disk synergy tests (DDST) and enzymatic activity by the agar iodometric method suggested the presence of ESBLs. Conjugation experiments revealed the presence of a large conjugative plasmid (pLM07/20) with an exclusive FrepB replicon type (IncF/FIB). PCR analysis and sequencing confirmed the presence of the blaCTX-M-14 gene in the pLM07/20 from C. freundii.LM07/10. Although this is the first report of CTX-M-14 in Venezuela, we alert the medical community that future increase of these ?-lactamases in our city could be due to dissemination of plasmids into bacterial populations.

2011-01-01