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1

Mycobacterium tuberculosis population structure and molecular epidemiological analysis in Sucre municipality, Miranda state, Venezuela.  

PubMed

Sucre municipality is a large, densely populated marginal area in the eastern part of Caracas, Venezuela that consistently has more cases of tuberculosis than other municipalities in the country. To identify the neighborhoods in the municipality with the highest prevalence of tuberculosis, and determine whether the Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain distribution in this municipality is different from that previously found in the western part of Caracas and the rest of Venezuela, we collected data on all tuberculosis cases in the municipality diagnosed in 2005-6. We performed two separate molecular epidemiological studies, spoligotyping 44 strains in a first study, and spoligotyping 131 strains, followed by MIRU-VNTR 15 on 21 clustered isolates in the second. With spoligotyping, the most common patterns were Shared International Type SIT17 (21%); SIT42 (15%); SIT93 (11%); SIT20 (7%); SIT53 (6%), a distribution similar to other parts of Venezuela, except that SIT42 and SIT20 were more common. MIRU-VNTR 15 showed that six of seven SIT17 strains examined belonged to a large cluster previously found circulating in Venezuela, but all of the SIT42 strains were related to a cluster centered in the neighborhoods of Unión and Maca, with a MIRU-VNTR pattern not previously seen in Venezuela. It appears that a large percentage of the tuberculosis in the Sucre municipality is caused by the active transmission of two strain families centered within distinct neighborhoods, one reflecting communication with the rest of the country, and the other suggesting the insular, isolated nature of some sectors. PMID:25558753

Patiño, Margareth A; Abadía, Edgar; Solalba Gómez; Maes, Mailis; Muñoz, Mariana; Gómez, Daniela; Guzmán, Patricia; Méndez, María Victoria; Ramirez, Carmen; Mercedes, España; de Waard, Jacobus; Takiff, Howard

2014-12-01

2

Are Returns to Education on the Decline in Venezuela and Does Mission Sucre Have a Role to Play?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anecdotal evidence points to a falling standard of living for the educated in Venezuela. During this same period, President Hugo Chavez implemented several education reforms. We focus on a major university education reform known as Mission Sucre and its potential impact on returns to university education. First, we show that returns to education…

Gonzalez, Naihobe; Oyelere, Ruth Uwaifo

2011-01-01

3

[Nitrogen, phosphorus and the C/N ratio in superficial sediments of the lagoon of Chacopata, Sucre, Venezuela].  

PubMed

The basal behaviour and relationship with organic carbon (Corg) content and prevailing granulometric fractions, of organic nitrogen (Norg), total phosphorus (P-total) and C/N ratio in surface sediments of Chacopata lagoon, Sucre State, Venezuela, were studied. Concentrations and spatial gradients were determined in sixteen stations following a common method for marine sediments. Norg concentrations varied between 0.102 and 0.510% (x = 0.237%), total phosphorus between 0.012 and 0.094% (x = 0.058%) and C/N ratio between 9.27 and 44.47 (x = 20.53). The higher contents of Norg and total phosphorus are from sections with an abundance of mangroves, marine phanerogams, macroalgae, benthonic biomass and migratory birds shelters. The C/N ratio shows the typical values for carbonated sediments, indicating that the nitrogenous compounds are rapidly degraded and the organic matter presents itself as humic substances. This parameter was moderately associated with silt and clay, and showed antagonism with sand, whereas Norg and phosphorus showed no correlation with them. The organic contribution is purely autochthonous: no anthropogenous contributions were found. PMID:15266816

Fuentes Hernández, M V

2000-12-01

4

[Protozoans in superficial waters and faecal samples of individuals of rural populations of the Montes municipality, Sucre state, Venezuela].  

PubMed

In Sucre state, the Manzanares river is threatened by domestic, agricultural and industrial activities, becoming an environmental risk factor for its inhabitants. In this sense, the presence of protozoans in superficial waters of tributaries of the Manzanares river (Orinoco river, Quebrada Seca, San Juan river), Montes municipality, Sucre state, as well as the analysis of faecal samples from inhabitants of towns bordering these tributaries were evaluated. We collected faecal and water samples from may 2006 through april 2007. The superficial water samples were processed after centrifugation by the direct examination and floculation, using lugol, modified Kinyoun and trichromic colorations. Fecal samples where analyzed by direct examination with physiological saline solution and the modified Ritchie concentration method and using the other colorations techniques above mentioned. The most frequently observed protozoans in superficial waters in the three tributaries were: Amoebas, Blastocystis sp, Endolimax sp., Chilomastix sp. and Giardia sp. Whereas in faecal samples, Blastocystis hominis, Endolimax nana and Entaomeba coli had the greatest frequencies in the three communities. The inhabitants of Orinoco La Peña turned out to be most susceptible to these parasitic infections (77.60%), followed by San Juan River (46.63%) and Quebrada Seca (39.49%). The presence of pathogenic and nonpathogenic protozoans in superficial waters demonstrates the faecal contamination of the tributaries, representing a constant focus of infection for their inhabitants, inferred by the observation of the same species in both types of samples. PMID:21365874

Mora, Leonor; Martínez, Indira; Figuera, Lourdes; Segura, Merlyn; Del Valle, Guilarte

2010-12-01

5

Temporal variations of heavy metals levels in Perna viridis, on the Chacopata-Bocaripo lagoon axis, Sucre State, Venezuela.  

PubMed

Perna viridis was used as biomonitor to assess heavy metal levels in the Chacopata-Bocaripo lagoon axis, Venezuela, during rain and drought seasons. The mussels were weighed and measured. The metal concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. For rain period, the order of bioavailability was: Cu>Ni>Mn>Co>Cd>Pb, and for drought: Cu>Mn>Ni>Co>Pb>Cd. The concentrations of Ni, Co, Cd and Pb showed significant differences (P<0.05) in both periods. There was higher metal accumulation during drought season, possibly related to upwelling, since it produces an increase in primary productivity, which translates more food into organisms, making metals bioavailable for mussels. Only Cu and Mn showed significant relationships between the size and metal concentration, during drought period, it may be because of the organisms need for these essential metals in different physiological processes. PMID:25444616

Pinto, Rafael; Acosta, Vanessa; Segnini, Mary Isabel; Brito, Leonor; Martínez, Gregorio

2014-10-30

6

Venezuela.  

PubMed

The background notes by the U.S. State Department on Venezuela emphasize the unique economic conditions in this oil-rich nation, and include information on its people, geography, history, government politics, defense and foreign relations. Venezuela, located on the north coast of South America, has 17,791,000 people, growing at a rate of 2.7%. Infant mortality is 2.7/1000, and life expectancy is 70 years. Geography ranges from the scarcely populated highlands between the Orinoco river and Guyana, the Orinoco plains, to the populated Andes mountains and coast. 80% of the population is urban. Literacy is a priority at 88.4%; Technical and university education is increasing; emigration from other countries is common because of relatively good working conditions. Venezuela has a long history of self government, having become independent in 1921. Now the democratic constitutional government is effective in improving both internal and regional development and human rights. The economy is based on oil production and refining, as well as steel and aluminum, all nationalized industries. Self-sufficiency in agriculture is a national goal. Because of the rapid population growth rate, however, per capita income and GNP are stagnating. PMID:12177927

1987-04-01

7

Les succédanés du sucre durant la grossesse  

PubMed Central

Résumé Question J’ai une patiente enceinte qui consomme souvent des succédanés du sucre et elle m’a demandé si cette pratique continue pouvait nuire à sa grossesse ou à son enfant. Que devrais-je lui répondre et existe-t-il d’autres meilleurs choix durant la grossesse? Réponse Il faudrait faire plus de recherche pour déterminer plus exactement les effets de l’exposition aux succédanés du sucre in utero, mais les données disponibles ne laissent pas présager d’effets indésirables durant la grossesse. Toutefois, il est recommandé de consommer des substituts du sucre en quantités modérées et de se conformer aux doses journalières admissibles établies par les organismes de règlementation.

Pope, Eliza; Koren, Gideon; Bozzo, Pina

2014-01-01

8

The Bolivarian University of Venezuela: A Radical Alternative in the Global Field of Higher Education?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses paradoxes in the emergent global field of higher education as reflected in an alternative model of the university--the Bolivarian University of Venezuela (UBV) and the related higher education policy, Mision Sucre. With its credo in the applied social sciences, its commitment to popular pedagogy and its dependence on…

Ivancheva, Mariya

2013-01-01

9

Jose Antonio Ramos Sucre y la modernidad poetica  

E-print Network

Sucre de Ramos, descendiente de la rama principal del Gran Mariscal de Ayacucho, Antonio Jose de Sucre (Medina Obras, XVI). Clase aparte por su sangre noble, Ramos Sucre se apartaria aun mls de la sociedad por su introvertida formaci6n intelectual... paso acelerado con los cursos y presenta ez5menes para el doctorado en Ciencias Politicas en 1917, aunque no se le confiere el titulo hasta 1925 cuando la universidad reinicia actividades. Su inagotable energia adquisitiva se hace patente en que a...

Watson, William Shell

1993-01-01

10

Venezuela Bolivariana.  

E-print Network

??Im Kontext des „Linksrucks“ auf dem lateinamerikanischen Kontinent, nimmt die Bolivarische Republik Venezuela eine besondere Stellung ein, denn ihre mehr als achtzigjährige Geschichte als erdölexportierende… (more)

Schmidt, Lukas

2013-01-01

11

EVALUACION DE LA AGROINDUSTRIA DEL ALMIDON AGRIO DE YUCA (Manihot esculenta Crantz) EN CORDOBA Y SUCRE CASSAVA SOUR STARCH AGROINDUSTRY EVALUATION (Manihot esculenta Crantz) IN CORDOBA AND SUCRE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sour cassava starch is obtained from natural fermentation of sweet starch after drying using solar energy. In Colombia, production areas are the Pacific Coast (Cauca) and Caribbean region (Córdoba and Sucre). The present research focused on determining the situation of the processes and production sites in the Córdoba and Sucre department areas based on INVIMA regulations for foodstuff plants and

Marly P. Cadena; Erika C. Villarraga; Deivis E. Luján; Jairo G. Salcedo

12

Microbial activity in surface sediments of Chacopata-Bocaripo lagoon axis, Sucre State, Venezuela.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to evaluate the microbial activity of the surface sediments (0-10cm) of the Chacopata-Bocaripo lagoon axis (Ch-BLA) through microbiological parameters: microbial biomass (Cmic) dehydrogenase activity (DHS), fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis (HFDA), arginine ammonification (AA) and biochemical parameters: phosphatase (PHa) and urease (URa) activity. They were determined during transition (July 2010) and upwelling (March 2011) periods. Total organic carbon (TOC) did not vary significantly (p?0.05) between climatic periods. All the parameters studied were higher in upwelling season: Cmic (191.79mgCmickg(-1)), DHS (228.70?gTFFg(-1)24h(-1)), HFDA (204.09?g fluoresceing(-1)24h(-1)), AA (13.09?gNH4-Ng(-1)h(-1)), PHa (132.31?g pNFg(-1)h(-1)), URa (12.90?gNH4-Ng(-1)h(-1)). They appear to be controlled by the availability and quality of nutrients in each climatic period, and were useful tools for evaluating changes in microbial activity in marine sediments. PMID:25455789

Segnini de B, Mary Isabel; Gómez, Irma; Brito, Leonor; Acosta, Vanessa; Troccoli, Luis

2014-10-30

13

Universidad Central de Venezuela Facultad de Ciencias  

E-print Network

Universidad Central de Venezuela Facultad de Ciencias Escuela de Computación Lecturas en Ciencias, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Ap. 47002, Caracas 1041-A, Venezuela (mmonsalv, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Ap. 47002, Caracas 1041-A, Venezuela (mraydan

Raydan, Marcos

14

Reverse smokers's and changes in oral mucosa. Department of Sucre, Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: This work is intended to establish the prevalence of reverse smokers at the villages of Hato Nuevo, San Francisco and Cayo de Palma, Department of Sucre, Colombia, characterizing their socio-culture conditions, clinical and histological changes in the oral mucosa. Design of study: A descriptive study was done through a home to home inquiry to select the people with inclusion

Gloria J. Alvarez Gómez; Efraín Alvarez Martínez; Raúl Jiménez Gómez; Yolanda Mosquera Silva; Angela María; Gaviria Núñez; Adriana Garcés Agudelo; Alexander Alonso Duque; Alexander Zabala Castaño; Elizabeth Echeverri González; Melissa Isaac Millán; Diana Ramírez Ossa

15

Experimental Theatre in Venezuela  

E-print Network

4 LATIN AMERICAN THEATRE REVIEW Experimental Theatre in Venezuela The I Jornadas de Búsqueda y Experimentación Teatral took place March 21-May 19, 1985 in Caracas. Organized by the Centro Latinoamericano de Creación e Investigación Teatral... of the festival was to give an opportunity for experimental theatre groups to present their work and thus to show the current tendencies of unconventional theatre in Venezuela. The participating groups (among them Shock Teatral, Contradanza, Taller...

Editors

1985-10-01

16

Cephalopod Resources of Venezuela Introduction  

E-print Network

Cephalopod Resources of Venezuela Introduction The cephalopods in the Western Central Atlantic producing nations in the Western Central Atlantic are Mexico and Ven ezuela. While Venezuela has the lead in production of octopus (mainly Octopus maya). In Venezuela, both squid and octopus are produced as a by

17

THE PEARL FISHERY OF VENEZUELA  

E-print Network

THE PEARL FISHERY OF VENEZUELA Marine Biological Lafi'ir-toiy X.I B K. A. R TT JUN 2 41950 WOODS Albert M. Day, Director Special Scientific Report - Fisheries Ho. 26 THE PEARL FISHERY OF VENEZUELA Paul to Venezuela, made travel arrangements, arranged for the cooperation of Venecuelan agencies, and otheri

18

[Secondary metabolites, lethality and antimicrobial activity of extracts from three corals and three marine mollusks from Sucre, Venezuela].  

PubMed

The study of biochemical activity of extracts obtained from marine organisms is gaining interest as some have proved to have efficient health or industrial applications. To evaluate lethality and antimicrobial activities, some chemical tests were performed on crude extracts of the octocorals Eunicea sp., Muricea sp. and Pseudopterogorgia acerosa and the mollusks Pteria colymbus, Phyllonotus pomum and Chicoreus brevifrons, collected in Venezuelan waters. The presence of secondary metabolites like alkaloids, unsaturated sterols and pentacyclic triterpenes in all invertebrates, was evidenced. Additionally, sesquiterpenlactones, saponins, tannins, cyanogenic and cardiotonic glycosides were also detected in some octocoral extracts, suggesting that biosynthesis of these metabolites is typical in this group. From the lethality bioassays, all extracts resulted lethal to Artemia salina (LC50<1000 microg/ml) with an increased of lethal activity with exposition time. P. pomum extract showed the highest lethality rate (LC50=46.8 microg/ml). Compared to the octocorals, mollusks extracts displayed more activity and a greater action spectrum against different bacterial strains, whereas octocorals also inhibited some fungi strains growth. Staphylococcus aureus was the most susceptible to the antimicrobial power of the extracts (66.7%), whereas Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger were not affected. The antibiosis shown by marine organisms extracts indicates that some of their biosynthesized metabolites are physiologically active, and may have possible cytotoxic potential or as a source of antibiotic components. PMID:20527468

Ordaz, Gabriel; D'Armas, Haydelba; Yáñez, Dayanis; Hernández, Juan; Camacho, Angel

2010-06-01

19

Venezuela`s gas industry poised for long term growth  

SciTech Connect

Venezuela`s enormous gas resource, combined with a new willingness to invite outside investment, could result in rapid growth in that industry into the next century. The development of liquefied natural gas exports will depend on the future course of gas prices in the US and Europe, but reserves are adequate to supply additional projects beyond the proposed Cristobal Colon project. Venezuela`s gas reserves are likely to increase if exploration for nonassociated gas is undertaken on a larger scale. The paper discusses gas reserves in Venezuela, internal gas markets, the potential for exports, competition from Trinidad, LNG export markets, and the encouragement of foreign investment in the gas industry of Venezuela.

Croft, G.D. [Pantera Petroleum Inc., San Leandro, CA (United States)

1995-06-19

20

Un teatro campesino en Venezuela  

E-print Network

102 LATIN AMERICAN THEATRE REVIEW Un teatro campesino en Venezuela GUILLERMO KORN Producto espontáneo de la participación colectiva nació el grupo de teatro del Asentamiento Campesino Sabaneta, en el Estado Aragua de Venezuela. Las obras de su..., despertó interés. En la Universidad Central de Venezuela quieren saber más de ustedes. Para eso he venido. . . ? ¿Podrían eventualmente hacer una representación en la Escuela de Comuni cación Social? Almeida: {Claro que sí! Si nos dan un medio para...

Korn, Guillermo

1976-10-01

21

Geographic Names  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS), developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the U.S. Board on Geographic Names (BGN), contains information about the official names for places, features, and areas in the 50 States, the District of Columbia, the territories and outlying areas of the United States, including Antarctica. It is the geographic names component of The National Map. The BGN maintains working relationships with State names authorities to cooperate in achieving the standardization of geographic names. The GNIS contains records on more than 2 million geographic names in the United States - from populated places, schools, reservoirs, and parks to streams, valleys, springs, ridges, and every feature type except roads and highways. Entries include information such as the federally-recognized name and variant names and spellings for the feature; former names; the status of the name as determined by the BGN; county or counties in which each named feature is located; geographic coordinates that locate the approximate center of an aerial feature or the mouth and source of a linear feature, such as a stream; name of the cell of the USGS topographic map or maps on which the feature may appear; elevation figures derived from the National Elevation Dataset; bibliographic code for the source of the name; BGN decision dates and historical information are available for some features. Data from the GNIS are used for emergency preparedness, mapmaking, local and regional planning, service delivery routing, marketing, site selection, environmental analysis, genealogical research, and other applications.

Yost, Lou; Carswell, William J., Jr.

2009-01-01

22

Hctor L. Palacios Verdes Caracas, Venezuela  

E-print Network

Héctor L. Palacios Verdes Caracas, Venezuela Phone: ask Email: hectorpal@gmail.com Web page: http://www.ldc.usb.ve/~hlp Citizen: Venezuela Residence: Venezuela Education Ph. D. Informatics and Digital Communication December. Caracas, Venezuela. Thesis: Planning as Branch and Bound: a Constraint Programming implementation. Advisor

Palacios, Héctor

23

Enzootic transmission of yellow fever virus, Venezuela.  

PubMed

Phylogenetic analysis of yellow fever virus (YFV) strains isolated from Venezuela strongly supports YFV maintenance in situ in Venezuela, with evidence of regionally independent evolution within the country. However, there is considerable YFV movement from Brazil to Venezuela and between Trinidad and Venezuela. PMID:25531105

Auguste, Albert J; Lemey, Philippe; Bergren, Nicholas A; Giambalvo, Dileyvic; Moncada, Maria; Morón, Dulce; Hernandez, Rosa; Navarro, Juan-Carlos; Weaver, Scott C

2015-01-01

24

Enzootic Transmission of Yellow Fever Virus, Venezuela  

PubMed Central

Phylogenetic analysis of yellow fever virus (YFV) strains isolated from Venezuela strongly supports YFV maintenance in situ in Venezuela, with evidence of regionally independent evolution within the country. However, there is considerable YFV movement from Brazil to Venezuela and between Trinidad and Venezuela. PMID:25531105

Auguste, Albert J.; Lemey, Philippe; Bergren, Nicholas A.; Giambalvo, Dileyvic; Moncada, Maria; Morón, Dulce; Hernandez, Rosa; Navarro, Juan-Carlos

2015-01-01

25

Venezuela at a Crossroads: Will the re-election of Chvez be a victory for Venezuela?  

E-print Network

Venezuela at a Crossroads: Will the re-election of Chávez be a victory for Venezuela? November 2012 as having significantly changed the po- litical landscape and prospects for Venezuela, giving hope to the 44

Habib, Ayman

26

UNIVERSIDAD SIMN BOLVAR Caracas-Venezuela  

E-print Network

UNIVERSIDAD SIM�N BOLÍVAR Caracas-Venezuela INFORME TRIMESTRAL ACERCA DE LA MARCHA DE LA UNIVERSIDAD julio ­ septiembre 2004 Junio, 2005 #12;#12;UNIVERSIDAD SIM�N BOLÍVAR Caracas-Venezuela INFORME

Vásquez, Carlos

27

Universidad Central de Venezuela Facultad de Ciencias  

E-print Network

Universidad Central de Venezuela Facultad de Ciencias Escuela de Computación Lecturas en Ciencias-02 Centro CCCT Caracas, Abril, 2007. #12;Universidad Central de Venezuela Facultad de Ciencias Escuela de

Raydan, Marcos

28

Universidad Central de Venezuela Facultad de Ciencias  

E-print Network

Universidad Central de Venezuela Facultad de Ciencias Escuela de Computación Lecturas en Ciencias Construcción de Algoritmos Ernesto Coto ecoto@strix.ciens.ucv.ve Universidad Central de Venezuela. Facultad de Ciencias. Escuela de Computación. Laboratorio de Computación Gráfica (LCG) Venezuela. Caracas Apdo. 47002

Coto, Ernesto

29

Universidad Central de Venezuela Facultad de Ciencias  

E-print Network

Universidad Central de Venezuela Facultad de Ciencias Escuela de Computación Lecturas en Ciencias@lmpa.univ-littoral.fr) Departamento de Computaci´on, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Ap. 47002, Caracas 1041-A, Venezuela (mraydan@kuaimare.ciens.ucv.ve). Sponsored by the Center of Scientific Com- puting at UCV. 1 #12

Raydan, Marcos

30

Universidad Central de Venezuela Facultad de Ciencias  

E-print Network

Universidad Central de Venezuela Facultad de Ciencias Escuela de Computación Lecturas en Ciencias@opalo.ciens.ucv.ve Universidad Central de Venezuela. Facultad de Ciencias. Escuela de Computación. Laboratorio de Computación Gráfica (LCG) Venezuela. Caracas Apdo. 47002, 1041-A. ND 2003-02 Resumen Los grafos son solo abstracciones

Coto, Ernesto

31

Universidad Central de Venezuela Facultad de Ciencias  

E-print Network

Universidad Central de Venezuela Facultad de Ciencias Escuela de Computación Una herramienta para. Universidad Central de Venezuela. {ecoto, hnavarro, omaira}@opalo.ciens.ucv.ve **Laboratorio TOOLS. Escuela de Computación. Facultad de Ciencias. Universidad Central de Venezuela. amatteo@isys.ciens.ucv.ve Caracas, Enero

Coto, Ernesto

32

Universidad Central de Venezuela Facultad de Ciencias  

E-print Network

Universidad Central de Venezuela Facultad de Ciencias Escuela de Computación Lecturas en Ciencias ecoto@strix.ciens.ucv.ve ecoto@opalo.ciens.ucv.ve Universidad Central de Venezuela. Facultad de Ciencias. Escuela de Computación. Laboratorio de Computación Gráfica (LCG) Venezuela. Caracas Apdo. 47002, 1041-A ND

Coto, Ernesto

33

Universidad Central de Venezuela Facultad de Ciencias  

E-print Network

Universidad Central de Venezuela Facultad de Ciencias Escuela de Computación Lecturas en Ciencias) for some E Cn�n with E Venezuela Venezuela, Centro de C´alculo Cient´ifico y Tecnol´ogico, (zenaida.castillo@ciens.ucv.ve). 1 #12;2 R

Astudillo, Reinaldo

34

Universidad Central de Venezuela Facultad de Ciencias  

E-print Network

Universidad Central de Venezuela Facultad de Ciencias Escuela de Computación Lecturas en Ciencias ecoto@strix.ciens.ucv.ve ecoto@opalo.ciens.ucv.ve Universidad Central de Venezuela. Facultad de Ciencias. Escuela de Computación. Laboratorio de Computación Gráfica (LCG) Venezuela. Caracas Apdo. 47002, 1041-A

Coto, Ernesto

35

Some Crustacea Copepoda from Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of 38 samples of aquatic fauna from Venezuela increased the number of known species here from 28 to 66. Fifteen new species for science are described. A list of Copepoda known from the other regions of South America is presented. From this list, it can be said that only 50% of the inland water Copepoda living actually in

B. H. Dussart

1984-01-01

36

Media and Consumerism in Venezuela.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines opposing theories of the role of the commercial mass media in national economic development; reports on a survey of the attitudes of 636 adult residents of Barquisimeto, Venezuela, with respect to consumption, advertising, and national development, and shows how the results relate to the theory proposed by Daniel Lerner. (GT)

Martin, Richard; And Others

1979-01-01

37

Purposeful Play in Rural Venezuela  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how children in rural Venezuela are trained in agricultural skills by the extended family. The highly organized training encourages play and exploration as important elements in familiarzing children with implements and methods of food production. It is suggested that rural school planners draw ideas from the rural family's educative…

Chesterfield, Ray

1977-01-01

38

Venezuela offshore oil and gas production development: Past, present and future  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a short history of offshore oil and gas production in Venezuela starting in Lake Maracaibo in 1923. The main emphasis has been the results of the recent R and D and the exploratory offshore programs in areas like Orinoco Delta located in the Atlantic Ocean, Northeast and Northwest Venezuela in the Caribbean sea. In the R and D offshore program the main objectives were: (1) To establish the local environmental, oceanographical, geotechnical and seismicity conditions for the Venezuelan Continental Platform. (2) To give a technical support to the PDVSA Operating Affiliates during the exploratory programs including: (a) to develop accurate drilling vessel positioning systems; (b) evaluation of sea bottom geotechnical conditions for safely operating the jack-ups and drilling vessels involved in the exploratory wells and (c) to identify those areas which because of their special nature require further investigation to establish preliminary type of platforms required for the areas to be developed or to evaluate other solutions proposed by Foreign Consultant Engineering Companies to the PDVSA Operating Affiliated Companies. The main objective of PDVSA for the coming future will be to develop the North of Paria Gas Field through the initially named Christopher Columbus Project now Sucre Gas, S.A., a consortium conformed by LaGoven, S.A. Shell, Exxon and Mitsubishi. objective of this paper is to give an idea of the history of the Venezuelan Oil and Gas Offshore development giving emphasis to the results of the INTEVEP S.A. Red offshore program and to show some results of the particular characteristics of oceanographical, environmental, geotechnical and seismic conditions in the main areas evaluated during the exploratory program: Orinoco Delta, Gulf of Paria and North of Paria.

Perez La Salvia, H.; Schwartz, E.; Contreras, M.; Rodriguez, J.I.; Febres, G.; Gajardo, E.

1995-12-01

39

Hydrocarbon potential of Central Monagas, Eastern Venezuela Basin, Venezuela  

SciTech Connect

The Central Monagas area is part of the foreland sub-basin located on the southern flank of the Eastern Venezuela Basin. The sedimentary column of the Central Monagas is at least 7500 in thick and consists of Mesozoic (Cretaceous) and Cenozoic rocks. Interpretations of 60 regional seismic sections have been integrated with data from 12 existing wells, which cover an area of 1200 km{sup 2}. From these interpretations, basin-wide structure and interval isopach maps were constructed in order to aid the depiction of the basin architecture and tectonic history. The sub-basin developed on the southern flank of the Eastern Venezuela Basin is tightly linked to its evolution from a Mesozoic extensional regime into a Cenozoic compressional and strike-slip stage. The basin formed in the Middle Mesozoic by crustal extension of a rifting process. Regional northward tilting of the slab continued during the Late Cretaceous. Finally, the transpression of the Caribbean Plate during the Oligocene-Neogene induced the overprint of compressional deformation associated with the deposition of a foredeep wedge. Geochemical source rock analysis gave an average of 1.2 TOC, and R{sub o} of 0.66 indicating a mature, marine source. The modeling of the hydrocarbon generative history of the basin indicates that the oil migration started in the Middle Miocene, after the trap was formed. Analysis and mapping of reservoir rocks and seal rocks defined the effective area limits of these critical factors. The main play in the area is the extension of the Lower Oficina Formation which is the proven petroleum target in the Eastern Venezuela Basin.

Barrios, F.; Daza, J.; Iusco, G. [Departamento de Geologia, Lagoven, S.A., Caracas (Venezuela)

1996-08-01

40

78 FR 55096 - Ferrosilicon from Russia and Venezuela  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Preliminary)] Ferrosilicon from Russia and Venezuela Determination On the basis of the record...by reason of imports from Russia and Venezuela of ferrosilicon, provided for in subheadings...imports of ferrosilicon from Russia and Venezuela. Accordingly, effective July 19,...

2013-09-09

41

[Chemical composition of essential oils from leaves of Helicteres guazumifolia (Sterculiaceae), Piper tuberculatum (Piperaceae), Scoparia dulcis (Arecaceae) and Solanum subinerme (Solanaceae) from Sucre, Venezuela].  

PubMed

Essential oils, biosynthesized and accumulated in aromatic plants, have a wide range of applications in the pharmaceutical health, cosmetics, food and agricultural industry. This study aimed to analyze the secondary metabolites in some plant species in order to contribute to their chemotaxonomy. Leaves from Helicteres guazumifolia, Piper tuberculatum, Scoparia dulcis and Solanum subinerme were collected and their essential oils were obtained by means of hydro-distillation. The oil fraction was analyzed and identified by GC/MS. The extraction yields were of 0.004, 0.032, 0.016 and 0.005%, and the oil constituents of 88.00, 89.80, 87.50 and 89.47%, respectively. The principal oils found were: non-terpenoids volatile secondary metabolites (30.28%) in H. guazumifolia; sesquiterpenoids (20.82 and 26.09%) and oxigen derivated (52.19 and 25.18%) in P. tuberculatum and S. dulcis; and oxigen diterpenoids (39.67%) in S. subinerme. The diisobuthylphtalate (13.11%) in H. guazumifolia, (-)-spathulenol (11.37%) in P. tuberculatum and trans-phytol (8.29 and 36.00%) in S. dulcis and S. subinerme, were the principal constituents in their respective essential oils. The diisooctylphtalate were the essential oil common to all species, but the volatile compounds such as trans-pinane, L-linalool, beta-ionone, isophytol, neophytadiene, trans-phytol, dibutylphtalate and methyl hexadecanoate, were only detected in three of these essences. This suggests that these plants may require similar secondary metabolites for their ecological interactions, possibly due to common environmental factors. PMID:21721229

Ordaz, Gabriel; D'Armas, Haydelba; Yáñez, Dayanis; Moreno, Shailili

2011-06-01

42

Thinking Like a Geographer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents an activity that engages the student in the geographic inquiry process, the student acquires geographic data and analyzes geographic information to answer a geographic question. The question is: "Do students in my class have place name mastery of the 50 states?" The activity assesses students' geo-literacy and shows the…

Chernosky, Margaret Shaw

2012-01-01

43

Oil, Regionalism and the Changing Geopolitical Imaginations of Venezuela.  

E-print Network

??Through Venezuela?s past experiences with foreign influences including its relationship with foreign oil companies and international organizations like the IMF, the current Venezuelan government has… (more)

Salas, Christina Andrea

2008-01-01

44

Republic of Venezuela. Country profile.  

PubMed

Venezuela's current economic and demographic situation is described. Venezuela is a major oil country, and the oil industry accounts for 90% of the country's foreign exchange, 70% of the government's revenues, and 15% of the gross domestic product. The economy experienced a sudden and high rate of economic growth in the mid-1970s as a result of high oil prices; however, in recent years, declining oil prices have had a negative effect on the economy. The country is now faced with a serious trade deficit, and the government recently imposed restrictions on imports. Imports in recently years had increased markedly. The emphasis on the oil industry weakened the agricultural sector and, as a result, food imports increased. In addition, the rapid economic growth experienced during the 1970s greatly increased the demand for imported consumer goods. Venezuela has the 4th highest foreign debt in the world (US$35 billion). Despite these problems Venezuela has a relatively high per capita income (US$4,140) and living standard, compared to other countries in the region. Venezuela's total population is 14.6 million, and the population is unevenly distributed. 86% of the population lives in cities of 2500 or more. 37.4% of the population and 70% of the industry is concentrated in the Federal District which contains Caracas, and in the surrounding states of Aragua, Miranda, and Carabobo. This area constitutes only 2.36% of the country's territory. Most of the oil fields are located in the state of Zulia which also contains the country's 2nd largest city (Maracaibo). The country's coastal area contains most of the agricultural lands, and the prairies just south of the coastal mountain ranges are devoted primarily to cattle raising. The remaining 58.2% of the country's territory is essentially jungle and contains only 6.9% of the country's population. The annual population growth rate is 3.11%. Although the rate declined in recent years it is higher than in most of the other countries in the region. In 1981, 1 million of the countrys, residents were foreign born. The oil industry attracted many immigrants, and illegal immigration is a serious problem. 41% of the population is under 15 years of age, the birth rate is 33-37, the death rate is 5, the infant mortality rate is 39, and life expectancy is 69 years. Average household size is 5.28. Family life is highly unstable. 32% of the couples are in informal unions, and these couples account for 52% of all births. 20% of the households are headed by low income women. The total fertility rate was 6.7 in 1961 and is currently 4.3. There are 3.2 million housing units, and 800,000 of these are classified as inadequate. 65% of the population is mestizo, 20% is European, and the remaining 15% are from various other countries or members of indigenous groups. The population is predominantly Catholic. The literacy rate is 83%; however, 71% of the males and 84% of the females in rural areas are illiterate. 31.5% of the population is in the labor force, and 27.5% of the labor force is female. 20% of the labor force is in the service sector and many of these work in the overgrown government bureaucracy. Only 15% of the labor force is engaged in the primary sector. 37% of the residents of Caracas and 80% of the country's rural residents live below the poverty level. PMID:12313690

Hakkert, R

1985-06-01

45

An Energy Overview of Venezuela  

SciTech Connect

The DOE Office of Fossil Energy is maintaining a web site that is meant to provide useful business- and energy-related information about countries and regions of the world for exporters, project developers, and researchers. The site consists of more than 130 country pages (organized into seven different world regions), with each country page having its own set of links to information sources about that country. There are also more than 30 Country Energy Overviews at the web site -- each of these is a comprehensive review of a specific country's entire energy situation, including sections on Energy Policy, Oil, Natural Gas, Coal, Hydroelectric/Renewables, Nuclear Power, Energy Transmission Infrastructure, Electricity, Electric Industry Overview, Environmental Activities, Privatization, Trade, and Economic Situation. The specific country highlighted in this Country Energy Overview is Venezuela. The site is designed to be dynamic. Updates to the overviews will be made as need and resources permit.

anon.

2003-10-20

46

Massive Variability Surveys from Venezuela  

E-print Network

At the Venezuela National Astronomical Observatory we are carrying out variability surveys spanning many hundreds of square degrees near the celestial equator, using an 8k x 8k CCD Mosaic Camera optimized for drift-scanning on a 1m Schmidt telescope. Among the initial efforts was a project to obtain the first moderately deep, homogeneous sample of young stars over an area of ~180sqr.deg. encompassing the entire Orion OB1 association, one of the nearest and most active regions of star formation. The results show that variability is a powerful technique to identify pre-main sequence populations, specially in sparse areas devoid of gas and dust. We are currently developing a massive database, equipped with web-based data mining tools, that will make our data and results available to the astronomical community.

Cesar Briceno

2003-04-03

47

Geographic Information Office  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Geographic Information Office (GIO) is the principal information office for U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), focused on: Information Policy and Services, Information Technology, Science Information, Information Security, and the Federal Geographic Data Committee/Geospatial One Stop.

U.S. Geological Survey

2004-01-01

48

Geographic Media Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While the use of media permeates geographic research and pedagogic practice, the underlying literacies that link geography and media remain uncharted. This article argues that geographic media literacy incorporates visual literacy, information technology literacy, information literacy, and media literacy. Geographic media literacy is the ability…

Lukinbeal, Chris

2014-01-01

49

An Example of Educational Transformation: Venezuela.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a case study of educational development in Venezuela, with emphasis on political and cultural influences, social needs, needs of developing nations, experimentation on all levels, fellowship programs, and projections for the future. (DB)

Cirigliano, Gustavo F. J.

1979-01-01

50

Reformulated gasoline deal with Venezuela draws heat  

SciTech Connect

A fight is brewing in Congress over a deal to let Venezuela off the hook in complying with the Clean Air Act reformulated gasoline rule. When Venezuela threatened to call for a GATT panel to challenge the rule as a trade barrier, the Clinton Administration negotiated to alter the rule, a deal that members of Congress are characterizing as {open_quotes}secret{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}back door.{close_quotes}

Begley, R.

1994-04-06

51

Multidata remote sensing approach to regional geologic mapping in Venezuela  

SciTech Connect

Remote Sensing played an important role in evaluating the exploration potential of selected lease blocks in Venezuela. Data sets used ranged from regional Landsat and airborne radar (SLAR) surveys to high-quality cloud-free air photos for local but largely inaccessible terrains. The resulting data base provided a framework for the conventional analyses of surface and subsurface information available to the project team. (1) Regional surface geology and major structural elements were interpreted from Landsat MSS imagery supplemented by TM and a regional 1:250,000 airborne radar (SLAR) survey. Evidence of dextral offset, en echelon folds and major thoroughgoing faults suggest a regional transpressional system modified by local extension and readjustment between small-scale crustal blocks. Surface expression of the major structural elements diminishes to the east, but can often be extended beneath the coastal plain by drainage anomalies and subtle geomorphic trends. (2) Environmental conditions were mapped using the high resolution airborne radar images which were used to relate vegetation types to surface texture and elevation; wetlands, outcrop and cultural features to image brightness. Additional work using multispectral TM or SPOT imagery is planned to more accurately define environmental conditions and provide a baseline for monitoring future trends. (3) Offshore oil seeps were detected using ERS-1 satellite radar (SAR) and known seeps in the Gulf of Paria as analogs. While partially successful, natural surfactants, wind shadow and a surprising variety of other phenomena created {open_quotes}false alarms{close_quotes} which required other supporting data and field sampling to verify the results. Key elements of the remote sensing analyses will be incorporated into a comprehensive geographic information (GIS) which will eventually include all of Venezuela.

Baker, R.N. [E& P Technology Group, Amoco Corp., Houston, TX (United States)

1996-08-01

52

78 FR 58556 - Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela Determination On the basis of the record...silicomanganese from India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela would be likely to lead to continuation...Commissioner Pearson dissenting with respect to...

2013-09-24

53

State and Power after Neoliberalism in Bolivarian Venezuela.  

E-print Network

??ABSTRACTState and Power after Neoliberalism in Bolivarian VenezuelaDonald V. KingsburyState and Power after Neoliberalism in Bolivarian Venezuela examines the limits and possibilities of collective subject… (more)

Kingsbury, Donald V.

2012-01-01

54

Venezuela : dix ans de gouvernement Chvez Julien Rebotier1  

E-print Network

1 Venezuela : dix ans de gouvernement Chávez Julien Rebotier1 , Sandrine Revet2 Au Venezuela, le mesures phares pour le proceso, du nom donné au « processus révolutionnaire » en cours au Venezuela. L du Parti socialiste unifié du Venezuela (PSUV). Les élections régionales du 23 novembre 2008 ont, en

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

55

Venezuela slates second oil field revival round  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that Venezuela will accept bids under a second round next year from private foreign and domestic companies for production contracts to operate marginal active as well as inactive oil fields. The first such round came earlier this year, involving about 55 other marginal, inactive fields. It resulted in two contractors signed with domestic and foreign companies. It represented the first time since nationalization of the petroleum industry in Venezuela in 1976 that private companies were allowed to produce oil in the country. A public bid tender was expected at presstime last week.

Not Available

1992-12-07

56

Repblica Bolivariana de Venezuela Consejo Nacional de Universidades  

E-print Network

1 República Bolivariana de Venezuela Consejo Nacional de Universidades Núcleo de Vice requerida para una función determinada. #12;2 República Bolivariana de Venezuela Consejo Nacional de mundo tecnologizado y globalizado que habitamos. " #12;3 República Bolivariana de Venezuela Consejo

Vásquez, Carlos

57

Original article Honey production in Venezuela: effects of feeding  

E-print Network

Original article Honey production in Venezuela: effects of feeding sugar syrup on colony weight to the nectar flow was studied through a complete honey production sea- son in Venezuela. A significant honeybee / European honeybee / feeding / honey production / Venezuela INTRODUCTION Feeding honey bee

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

58

Sir --Venezuela has entered 2003 deadlocked in a dangerous political  

E-print Network

Sir -- Venezuela has entered 2003 deadlocked in a dangerous political confrontation and a general to preserve Venezuela's science and its natural environment, which is rich in biodiversity. We ask for Scientific Research, PO Box 21827, Caracas 1020A, Venezuela correspondence NATURE |VOL 421 |30 JANUARY 2003

Chapman, Clark R.

59

BROWN Y FERNNDEZ, Heliconiini de Venezuela Los Heliconiini (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae)  

E-print Network

BROWN Y FERNÁNDEZ, Heliconiini de Venezuela 29 Los Heliconiini (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae) de Venezuela KEITH S. BROWN, JR.* Y F. FERNÁNDEZ Y�PEZ** RESUMEN Se ilustran y presentan datos sobre variación, distribución y biología de las 42 especies y 88 subespecies de Heliconiini conocidas de Venezuela, con

Mallet, James

60

Four New Hypancistrus (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from Amazonas, Venezuela  

E-print Network

Four New Hypancistrus (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from Amazonas, Venezuela JONATHAN W. ARMBRUSTER. lunaorum are described based on specimens from the upper Ri´o Orinoco of southern Venezuela. Hypancistrus la base de especi´menes provenientes de la cuenca alta del ri´o Orinoco en el sur de Venezuela

Armbruster, Jonathan W.

61

Mastery: A Lesson from Maria in Venezuela  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children who have been born into poverty or into at-risk circumstances are often considered "disposable" and not a societal priority. These youngsters have few advocates and limited successful options in life. In the city of Maracaibo, Venezuela, there is a large population of Amerindians who are called Guajiros. These indigenous people have…

Powell, Sandra Anez; Powell, Norman W.

2012-01-01

62

Venezuela natural gas for vehicles project  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Gas for Vehicles (NGV) Project in Venezuela describes the development and growth of the NGV project in the country. Venezuela is a prolific oil producer with advanced exploration, production, refining and solid marketing infrastructure. Gas production is 5.2 Bscfd. The Venezuelan Government and the oil state owned company Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA), pursued the opportunity of using natural gas for vehicles based on the huge amounts of gas reserves present and produced every day associated with the oil production. A nationwide gas pipeline network crosses the country from south to west reaching the most important cities and serving domestic and industrial purposes but there are no facilities to process or export liquefied natural gas. NGV has been introduced gradually in Venezuela over the last eight years by PDVSA. One hundred forty-five NGV stations have been installed and another 25 are under construction. Work done comprises displacement or relocation of existing gasoline equipment, civil work, installation and commissioning of equipment. The acceptance and usage of the NGV system is reflected in the more than 17,000 vehicles that have been converted to date using the equivalent of 2,000 bbl oil/day.

Marsicobetre, D.; Molero, T. [Corpoven S.A., Miami, FL (United States)

1998-12-31

63

First case of human latrodectism in Venezuela.  

PubMed

The first case of envenoming by Latrodectus geometricus in Venezuela is described. The accident occurred at the victims home, in Aragua de Barcelona, Anzoátegui State. The 31-year-old female victim was bitten twice on the left scapular region, in quick succession (within seconds). She developed a hyperactive state of the central, autonomic and peripheral nervous systems with minor local symptoms. PMID:18545846

Kiriakos, Demetrio; Núñez, Paola; Parababire, Yasmely; García, Marianne; Medina, Jenny; Sousa, Leonardo De

2008-01-01

64

The history of aeronautical medicine in Venezuela  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Aerial Medical Service of the Ministry of Transportation and Communications of Venezuela was created on June 1949, and later became the Department of Aeronautical Medicine. Its functions include the medical examinations of future pilots, navigators and flight engineers. The importance of good mental and physical health in all flight and ground personnel to ensure the safety of air travel is discussed.

Iriarte, D. R.

1986-01-01

65

Geographic names of Antarctica  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The geographic nomenclature of Antarctica was long in need of an overall systematic treatment, objective in approach and based upon thorough examination of all the evidence. The results of such treatment over a period of about three years were presented in Geographical Names of Antarctica, Special Publication No. 86 of the Board on Geographical Names, in May 1947, two supplements to which were issued in 1949 and 1951. The continuing program since that publication has now covered most of the geographic naming in Antarctica. As research has filled in many of the previous gaps in knowledge, a number of names have been modified and minor amendments have been made in the policies. This revised publication brings together the greatly enlarged body of names officially standardized for use by the United States Government, together with new pertinent background information.

U.S. Board on Geographic Names; Department of the Interior; Burrill, Meredith F.; Bertrand, Kenneth J.; Alberts, Fred G.

1956-01-01

66

National Geographic Bee  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This annual contest is designed to encourage teachers to include geography in their classrooms, spark student interest in the subject, and increase public awareness about geography. Schools with students in grades four through eight are eligible for this entertaining and challenging test of geographic knowledge. This site contains details about past competitions, how to register for and participate in the competition, and links to other NGS geographic education websites.

67

Resources for Geographers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Maintained by Lance Christian and Kenneth Foote of the University of Colorado at Boulder Department of Geography, the Resources for Geographers Web site is an excellent source of information on the Internet for geographers. Links are offered for search engines, online journals, professional associations, research organizations, map collections, geo-spatial datasets, newsgroups and listservers, academic departments, jobs, educational resources, software, and miscellaneous other geography related resources.

Christian, Lance.

68

[Cooper, cadmium and lead in the fish Cyprinodon dearborni, in the sediments and in the water of two lagoons in Venezuela].  

PubMed

The concentration of copper, cadmium and lead in superficial sediment, water and the fish Cyprinodon dearborni was determined in two coastal lagoons of Sucre State, Venezuela. Chacopata lagoon is hyper saline while Los Patos lagoon is hypo saline and receives significant wastewater from Cumaná city. Water, sediment and fish samples were collected in February 1998. In the laboratory, samples underwent acid digestion and were analyzed by atomic absorption spectophotometry. The mean values of the metals in C. dearborni from the Chacopata lagoon were: 159.26 +/- 210.68 microg/g for Cu, 44.71 +/- 45.58 microg/g for Cd, and 9.31 +/- 23.34 microg/g for Pb, while for Los Patos lagoon the mean values were: 64.88 +/- 16.30, 19.48 +/- 5.81 and 22.85 +/- 20.00, respectively. In the water column, the metal concentration ranges were: 2.3-11.6, 3.9-5.4 and 21-32 mg/l for copper, cadmium and lead, respectively. These results suggest that metal levels in sediment, water column and organisms in both lagoons do not differ, except for lead, even though only Los Patos receives waste water. PMID:15266812

Toledo, J; Lemus, M; Chung, K S

2000-12-01

69

Applied geointegration to hydrocarbon exploration in the San Pedro-Machango Area, Maracaibo Basin, Venezuela  

SciTech Connect

Hydrocarbon exploration has nowadays a diversity of technological resources to capture, merge and interpret information from diverse sources. To accomplish this, the integration of geodata for modeling was done through the use of new technologies like Remote Sensing and Geographical Systems of Information and applied to the San Pedro-Machango area, located in the Serrania de Trujillo, west of Costa Bolivar (onshore), eastern Maracaibo Basin, Venezuela. The main purpose of this work was to optimize the design of an exploration program in harmony with environmental conservation procedures. Starting with satellital and radar images that incorporated geophysical, geological and environmental information, they then were analyzed and merged to improve the lithological, structural and tectonic interpretation, generating an integrated model that allowed better project design. The use of a system that combines information of geographical, geodetical, geophysical and geological origins with satellital and radar images produced up to date cartography and refined results of image interpretation.

Fonseca, A.; Navarro, A. [Maraven, S.A., Caracas (Venezuela); Osorio, R.; Corvo, F.; Arismendi, J. [Instituto de Ingenieria, Caracas (Venezuela)

1996-08-01

70

Symposium on Geographic Information Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six papers on geographic information systems cover the future of geographic information systems, land information systems modernization in Wisconsin, the Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing (TIGER) System of the U.S. Bureau of the Census, satellite remote sensing, geographic information systems and sustainable development,…

Felleman, John, Ed.

1990-01-01

71

Geographic Information Systems.  

PubMed

This chapter presents an overview of the development, capabilities, and utilization of geographic information systems (GIS). There are nearly an unlimited number of applications that are relevant to GIS because virtually all human interactions, natural and man-made features, resources, and populations have a geographic component. Everything happens somewhere and the location often has a role that affects what occurs. This role is often called spatial dependence or spatial autocorrelation, which exists when a phenomenon is not randomly geographically distributed. GIS has a number of key capabilities that are needed to conduct a spatial analysis to assess this spatial dependence. This chapter presents these capabilities (e.g., georeferencing, adjacency/distance measures, overlays) and provides a case study to illustrate how GIS can be used for both research and planning. Although GIS has developed into a relatively mature application for basic functions, development is needed to more seamlessly integrate spatial statistics and models.The issue of location, especially the geography of human activities, interactions between humanity and nature, and the distribution and location of natural resources and features, is one of the most basic elements of scientific inquiry. Conceptualizations and physical maps of geographic space have existed since the beginning of time because all human activity takes place in a geographic context. Representing objects in space, basically where things are located, is a critical aspect of the natural, social, and applied sciences. Throughout history there have been many methods of characterizing geographic space, especially maps created by artists, mariners, and others eventually leading to the development of the field of cartography. It is no surprise that the digital age has launched a major effort to utilize geographic data, but not just as maps. A geographic information system (GIS) facilitates the collection, analysis, and reporting of spatial data and related phenomena. The capabilities of GIS are much more than just mapping, although map production is one of the most utilized features. GIS applications are relevant in a tremendous number of areas ranging from basic geographic inventories to simulation models.This chapter presents a general overview of geographic information system topics. The purpose is to provide the reader with a basic understanding of a GIS, the types of data that are needed, the basic functionality of these systems, the role of spatial analysis, and an example in the form of a case study. The chapter is designed to provide advanced students and experts outside of the field of GIS sufficient information to begin to utilize GIS and spatial analytic concepts, but it is not designed to be the sole basis for becoming a GIS expert. There is a tremendous level of sophistication related to the digital cartographic databases and manipulation of those databases underlying the display and use of GIS that is more appropriately a part of geographic information science (i.e., basic research issues associated with geographic data including technical as well as theoretical aspects such as the impact on society [1]) rather than being relevant to this chapter. The utilization of GIS for conducting spatial analysis is the guiding theme for the chapter. PMID:20717487

Wieczorek, William F; Delmerico, Alan M

2009-01-01

72

Organo de VENEZUELA ESPERANTO-ASOCIO 33-a Jaro = N. 77 = 2-a Semestro 2005  

E-print Network

VENEZUELA STELO Organo de VENEZUELA ESPERANTO-ASOCIO 33-a Jaro = N. 77 = 2-a Semestro 2005 ISSN venezuela kulturo, historio kaj idiosinkrazio (Venezuela Esperanto-Asocio, Caracas, 1975); b) La traduko de L A Apartado 47675, Caracas 1041 ­ A http://www.esperanto-ve.org esperanto-en-venezuela

Sirvent, Víctor F.

73

The Geographer's Craft  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Department of Geography at the University of Texas at Austin created this experimental course as an integrated approach to teach geographical techniques. The lecture and discussion notes and problems and exercises for the two semester course are available on the Internet for use by the public. Lecture topics include Aerial Photography and Remote Sensing, Cartographic Communication, and Legal Issues Relating to GIS. Digital Aerobics, Greytown, Nicaragua in 1854, and Environmental and Architectural Barriers are some of the problems that students study to increase their knowledge of geographic techniques (under Warm-up Exercises). The site also features links to related Internet resources and class projects from past semesters.

74

Venezuela: A Study of the Educational System of Venezuela and a Guide to the Academic Placement of Students from Venezuela in Educational Institutions of the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written as a guide to be used in the admission and placement of Venezuelan students in U.S. institutions of higher education, this study discusses the education system of Venezuela. The role of education in modern Venezuela and the educational structure are summarized. Information is provided on preschool and primary education, intermediate…

Hoover, Gary

75

NationalGeographic.com  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Geographic Society homepage is a gateway to sites about adventure and expedition, nature and conservation, history and culture, weather and natural forces, dinosaurs and the ancient world, science and space, maps and geography, and animals. There are also kids education sites, magazines, and news.

76

Download Geographic Data  

Cancer.gov

The section includes Microsoft Excel (.xls) or comma-delimited text (.txt) files that provide county, state economic area (SEA), and state codes and names. There are individual files for each of the three geographic region types, as well as one file relating the three to each other.

77

Le Venezuela en un clin d'oeil !  

E-print Network

Le Venezuela en un clin d'oeil ! Vie scolaire CALENDRIER UNIVERSITAIRE Peut varier d votre session à l'Université de Montréal. SYST�ME D'ENSEIGNEMENT Québec Venezuela Baccalauréat. Le Venezuela étant un pays limitrophe à la Colombie, le thème de la sécurité est un sujet important à

Charette, André

78

REPBLICA BOLIVARIANA DE VENEZUELA Consejo Nacional de Universidades  

E-print Network

REP�BLICA BOLIVARIANA DE VENEZUELA Consejo Nacional de Universidades Núcleo de Autoridades de Instituciones de Educación Universitaria de Venezuela (NAEX), reunido en sesión Ordinaria en la sede de la Dirección de Extensión de la Universidad Central de Venezuela en la ciudad de Caracas el día 15 de mayo de

Vásquez, Carlos

79

Study Abroad in Venezuela ON-SITE GUIDE 201415  

E-print Network

Study Abroad in Venezuela ON-SITE GUIDE 2014­15 S T U D Y A B R O A D THE AMERICAS #12;2 Important and can contact the on-site director if needed. In Venezuela VENUSA College 49-49 Avenida Urdaneta Edificio Guilam Mérida, Venezuela Phone: 58.274.263.7631 Fax: 58.274.263.3525 www

Weiblen, George D

80

Study Abroad in Venezuela ON-SITE GUIDE 201415  

E-print Network

Study Abroad in Venezuela ON-SITE GUIDE 2014­15 S T U D Y A B R O A D THE AMERICAS #12;2 Important and can contact the on-site director if needed. In Venezuela VENUSA College 49-49 Avenida Urdaneta Edificio Guilam Mérida, Venezuela Phone: 58.274.263.7631 Fax: 58.274.263.3525 www.VENUSAcollege.org Francy

Minnesota, University of

81

Plans to revive oil fields in Venezuela on track  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on the three operating units of Venezuela's state owned oil company Petroleos de Venezuela SA which will begin receiving bids Feb. 28 from companies interested in operating 55 inactive oil fields in nine producing areas of Venezuela. Francisco Pradas, Pdvsa executive in charge of the program, the the company expects 88 companies or combines of foreign and domestic private companies to participate in the bidding. The program, announced last year, aims to reactivate production in marginal oil fields. It will involve the first direct participation by private companies in Venezuela's oil production since nationalization in 1976.

Not Available

1992-02-24

82

78 FR 9034 - Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela: Final Results of the Expedited Second...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...A-307-820] Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela: Final Results...antidumping duty orders on silicomanganese from India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela. The Department...antidumping duty orders on silicomanganese from India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela were...

2013-02-07

83

78 FR 60846 - Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Orders  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...A-307-820] Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela: Continuation...antidumping duty orders on silicomanganese from India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela would likely...antidumping duty orders on silicomanganese from India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela,...

2013-10-02

84

77 FR 59970 - Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela; Institution of Five-Year Reviews...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela; Institution of Five-Year Reviews...Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela AGENCY: United States International...silicomanganese from India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela would be likely to lead to...

2012-10-01

85

78 FR 13380 - Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela; Scheduling of Full Five-Year Reviews...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela; Scheduling of Full Five-Year Reviews...Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela AGENCY: United States International...silicomanganese from India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela would be likely to lead to...

2013-02-27

86

78 FR 4437 - Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, Venezuela: Notice of Commission Determination To Conduct...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, Venezuela: Notice of Commission Determination...silicomanganese from India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela would be likely to lead to continuation...to the review on subject imports from Venezuela was adequate, and [[Page...

2013-01-22

87

Common Distribution Patterns of Marsupials Related to Physiographical Diversity in Venezuela  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study is to identify significant biotic regions (groups of areas with similar biotas) and biotic elements (groups of taxa with similar distributions) for the marsupial fauna in a part of northern South America using physiographical areas as Operational Geographical Units (OGUs). We considered Venezuela a good model to elucidate this issue because of its high diversity in landscapes and the relatively vast amount of information available on the geographical distribution of marsupial species. Based on the presence-absence of 33 species in 15 physiographical sub-regions (OGUs) we identified Operational Biogeographical Units (OBUs) and chorotypes using a quantitative analysis that tested statistical significance of the resulting groups. Altitudinal and/or climatic trends in the OBUs and chorotypes were studied using a redundancy analysis. The classification method revealed four OBUs. Strong biotic boundaries separated: i) the xerophytic zone of the Continental coast (OBU I); ii) the sub-regions north of the Orinoco River (OBU III and IV); and those south to the river (OBU II). Eleven chorotypes were identified, four of which included a single species with a restricted geographic distribution. As for the other chorotypes, three main common distribution patterns have been inferred: i) species from the Llanos and/or distributed south of the Orinoco River; ii) species exclusively from the Andes; and iii) species that either occur exclusively north of the Orinoco River or that show a wide distribution throughout Venezuela. Mean altitude, evapotranspiration and precipitation of the driest month, and temperature range allowed us to characterize environmentally most of the OBUs and chorotypes obtained. PMID:24806452

Ventura, Jacint; Bagaria, Guillem; Sans-Fuentes, Maria Assumpció; Pérez-Hernández, Roger

2014-01-01

88

Common distribution patterns of marsupials related to physiographical diversity in Venezuela.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to identify significant biotic regions (groups of areas with similar biotas) and biotic elements (groups of taxa with similar distributions) for the marsupial fauna in a part of northern South America using physiographical areas as Operational Geographical Units (OGUs). We considered Venezuela a good model to elucidate this issue because of its high diversity in landscapes and the relatively vast amount of information available on the geographical distribution of marsupial species. Based on the presence-absence of 33 species in 15 physiographical sub-regions (OGUs) we identified Operational Biogeographical Units (OBUs) and chorotypes using a quantitative analysis that tested statistical significance of the resulting groups. Altitudinal and/or climatic trends in the OBUs and chorotypes were studied using a redundancy analysis. The classification method revealed four OBUs. Strong biotic boundaries separated: i) the xerophytic zone of the Continental coast (OBU I); ii) the sub-regions north of the Orinoco River (OBU III and IV); and those south to the river (OBU II). Eleven chorotypes were identified, four of which included a single species with a restricted geographic distribution. As for the other chorotypes, three main common distribution patterns have been inferred: i) species from the Llanos and/or distributed south of the Orinoco River; ii) species exclusively from the Andes; and iii) species that either occur exclusively north of the Orinoco River or that show a wide distribution throughout Venezuela. Mean altitude, evapotranspiration and precipitation of the driest month, and temperature range allowed us to characterize environmentally most of the OBUs and chorotypes obtained. PMID:24806452

Ventura, Jacint; Bagaria, Guillem; Sans-Fuentes, Maria Assumpció; Pérez-Hernández, Roger

2014-01-01

89

National Geographic: Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many people have fond memories of the special maps created as inserts placed in the National Geographic magazine from time to time. This rather special section of the National Geographic's website provides interested parties with a dazzling array of thematic maps that document the European exploration of North America, ecological zones, and the world of the poet Basho. Visitors might do well to start by looking over the "Editors' Picks" area. Here they will find atlas jigsaw puzzles to play online and "EarthPulse: A Visual Guide to Trends." The "EarthPulse" area includes vital statistics about global population trends, economic opportunity, and more. The site also includes the "Atlas Explorer", which allows users to explore detailed political maps of the USA, Africa, Europe, and the world's oceans.

2012-01-13

90

National Geographic: Blue Whales  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As a cameraman leans in to get a shot of a blue whale, this massive creature glides through the water off of Costa Rica. That's the opening photograph that visitors to this interactive article from National Geographic are presented with, and it's a rather amazing image. This interactive article and feature is derived from a March 2009 feature in the print edition of National Geographic magazine, and it features the photography of Flip Nicklin and the writing of Ken Brower. The article offers an in-depth look into the recovery of the blue whale population off the coast of Costa Rica in recent years, and along the way visitors can stop off to take a look at a special photo gallery, take a quiz on these remarkable creatures, and also watch a video the provides the story behind one of Nicklin's photographs.

Brower, Ken

91

Geograph British Isles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There are a number of available photo weblogs that aim to offer a representative view of various cities, locales, or certain landforms around different parts of the world. The Geograph British Isles website aims to collect a geographically representative photograph for every single square kilometer of the British Isles, and so far it would be fair to say they are doing a fine job. Users of the site may elect to contribute their own photographs, or browse through the existing photos using an interactive map of the British Isles or through a search engine. To get some sense of what people are photographing for the project, visitors can look at the recent photos section on the right-hand side of the site's homepage. They may also want to peek in at the community forums, which seem to have a number of lively discussions going on regarding the site and the photos [Note: Registration is required to enter this part of the site

92

Geographic Variations in Risk  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an important cause of mortality with marked geographic variations in Great Britain. Additional factors beyond cigarette smoking are likely to influence these variations, but direct information on smoking by area is not readily available. We compared methods of jointly modeling the spatial distribution of mortality from COPD and lung cancer, using the latter as a proxy for smoking, to identify areas in which risk factors other than smoking may be important. Methods We obtained district-level mortality and population data for men aged 45 years or older in 1981–1999 in Great Britain. Three models were compared: Bayesian ecological regression using observed (model 1) or spatially smoothed (model 2) lung cancer standardized mortality ratio (SMR) as a smoking proxy, and bivariate regression (model 3) treating smoking as a spatial latent variable common to both diseases. Results Model selection criteria favored models 2 and 3 over model 1. Between 9% (model 3) and 25% (model 2) of spatial variation in COPD mortality was estimated to be unrelated to smoking. After adjustment for lung cancer as a proxy for smoking, both models showed similar geographic patterns of higher COPD mortality in conurbation and mining areas, historically associated with heavy industry and higher air pollution levels. Conclusions Joint modeling of multiple diseases can be used to investigate geographic variations in risk. These models reveal patterns that are adjusted for the effects of shared area-level risk factors for which no direct data are available. PMID:19318951

Best, Nicky; Hansell, Anna Louise

2010-01-01

93

Geographic data from space  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Space science has been called “the collection of scientific problems to which space vehicles can make some specific contributions not achievable by ground-based experiments.” Geography, the most spatial of the sciences, has now been marked as one of these “space sciences.” The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is sponsoring an investigation to identify the Potential geographic benefits from the nation’s space program. This is part of NASA’s long-range inquiry to determine the kinds of scientific activities which might profitably be carried out on future space missions. Among such future activities which are now being planned by NASA are a series of manned earth orbital missions, many of which would be devoted to research. Experiments in physics, astronomy, geophysics, meteorology, and biology are being discussed for these long-range missions. The question which is being put to geographers is, essentially, what would it mean to geographic research to have an observation satellite (or many such satellites) orbiting the earth, gathering data about earth-surface features and environments?

Alexander, Robert H.

1964-01-01

94

Trypanosoma evansi in capybara from Venezuela.  

PubMed

During the slaughtering season of February and March 1991, 559 capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) were tested for Trypanosoma evansi in two areas in Venezuela: El Frio Ranch and El Cedral Ranch. Blood and serum samples were evaluated for T. evansi. Forty-eight (9%) of 559 capybaras had T. evansi using the microcentrifugation technique. Further, 279 (50%) of the 559 capybaras had antibodies against T. evansi immunofluorescence test in both ranches. Thus, capybaras may be important in the epizootiology of T. evansi in this enzootic area. PMID:9131577

Arias, J F; García, F; Rivera, M; López, R

1997-04-01

95

e-Science perspectives in Venezuela  

E-print Network

We describe the e-Science strategy in Venezuela, in particular initiatives by the Centro Nacional de Calculo Cientifico Universidad de Los Andes (CECALCULA), Merida, the Universidad de Los Andes (ULA), Merida, and the Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas (IVIC), Caracas. We present the plans for the Venezuelan Academic Grid and the current status of Grid ULA supported by Internet2. We show different web-based scientific applications that are being developed in quantum chemistry, atomic physics, structural damage analysis, biomedicine and bioclimate within the framework of the E-Infrastructure shared between Europe and Latin America (EELA)

Díaz, G; Hamar, V; Hoeger, H; Mendoza, C; Mendez, Z; Núñez, L A; Ruiz, N; Torrens, R; Uzcategui, M

2008-01-01

96

GEOGRAPHIC NAMES INFORMATION SYSTEM (GNIS)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS), developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Board on Geographic Names (BGN), contains information about physical and cultural geographic features in the United States and associated areas, both current and h...

97

Volunteered Geographic Information in Wikipedia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Volunteered geographic information (VGI) refers to the geographic subset of online user-generated content. Through Geobrowsers and online mapping services, which use geovisualization and Web technologies to share and produce VGI, a global digital commons of geographic information has emerged. A notable example is Wikipedia, an online collaborative…

Hardy, Darren

2010-01-01

98

Using the Five Themes of Geography to Teach about Venezuela.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maintains that Venezuela has many U.S. ties because of its relative proximity and economic significance. Asserts that the Five Themes of Geography can be used to design effective classroom lessons about Venezuela. Presents five activities that include student objectives, necessary materials, and step-by-step instructional procedures. (CFR)

Sunal, Cynthia Szymanski; And Others

1995-01-01

99

Critical Pedagogy and Empowering in Teacher Education in Venezuela.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper addresses the issue of the relationship between critical pedagogy and English as a foreign language (EFL) in Venezuela. Teacher-researchers have come to see the issues confronting nonnative educators in ELT as a more important issue than in previous years. They are particularly concerned about the current situation in Venezuela

Chacon, Carmen T.; Alvarez, Luisa Cristina

100

View of the Caribbean coast of Venezuela  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A near vertical view of the Caribbean coast of Venezuela is seen in this Skylab 3 Earth Resources Experiment Package S190-B (five-inch earth terrain camera) photograph taken from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. The large body of water is the Golfo de Venezuela; and the major land mass is the Peninsula de Paraguana. The view is looking northward from the mouth of the Golfete de Coro and Punta Cardon to Punta Macolia. The peninsula is connected to the Venezuelan mainland by the narrow strip of land in the most easterly corner of the picture. The dry, arid climate of the peninsula is indicated by sparse vegetation and the abundance of sand dunes. The highest point is about 2,700 feet above the sea and is the conspicuous black spot. Old raised shorelines features appear as streaks parallel to the Golfete de Coro. Water of the Golfete de Coro is red from the high sediment content. The streaks in the water off the peninsula is apparently an effect of wind which is blowing sand and w

1973-01-01

101

Occurrence of methylmercury in Lake Valencia, Venezuela  

SciTech Connect

The presence of mercury in the environment has received renewed attention during recent years. This is in part due to the known human health and ecological effects of the highly toxic organomercury compounds, and to the fact that novel and improved analytical techniques such as atomic fluorescence spectroscopy (AFS) and capillary chromatography with AFS detection, have enhanced significantly the detection of trace amounts of mercury and organo mercurials in environmental samples. Such techniques have allowed for a better understanding of the biogeochemical cycle of mercury in the aquatic environment. This paper reports on the presence of methylmercury in the water column and sediments of a hyper-eutrophic lake. Lake Valencia is a freshwater lake located in North-Central Venezuela`s Aragua Valley. The lake`s surface area covers approximately 350 km{sup 2}, with a mean depth of 19 m and a maximum depth of 41 m. Due to the discharge of waste waters from the cities of Maracay and Valencia, as well as from other smaller villages and agricultural areas in its watershed, Lake Valencia has become hyper-eutrophic. The population of phytoplankton, particularly of blue-green algae, has increased dramatically during the last two decades resulting in anoxic conditions in the lower part of the water column during most of the year. In addition, concentrations of anthropogenic chemicals, including heavy metals, have increased in the Lake during the last four decades. 15 refs., 2 figs.

Jaffe, R.; Cai, Y.; West-Thomas, J. [Florida International Univ., Miami, FL (United States)] [and others

1997-12-31

102

[Karyotyping of Holochilus venezuelae (Rodentia, Cricetidae)].  

PubMed

We studied the cariotype of Holochilus venezuelae from 28 individuals (14 males and 14 females). Chromosome preparations were obtained by applying colchicine to live animals, followed by hypotonic shock, acetic methanol fixation and Giemsa staining of bone marrow cells. Metaphase configurations were photographed with a M-20 Wild automatic photomicroscope, and 10 karyotype from each animal were prepared from enlarged prints. Idiograms were calculated from the mean length of each chromosome pair and expressed as percentage of the length of the haploid autosome set plus one X chromosome. Results indicate the presence of six karyomorphs and the most frequent karyotype, considered basic for the species, was 2n = 44 (NF = 56), which consists of seven pairs of metacentric chromosomes (five large, one small and one microchromosome), comprising 59.5% of the haplid set; fourteen acrocentric pairs (nine small and five microchromosomes) representing 32.0% of the set; and the sexual pair, which is acrocentric, represent 6% (X) and 2.5% (Y) of the haploid set. The chromosome polymorphisms can be interpreted as the result of Robertsonian changes (fusion) and from the presence of accessory chromosomes (supernumerary). The karyotypical characteristics of the population sample studied suggest the existence of reproductive isolation through chromosomal hybrid sterility with H. brasiliensis (2n = 56 and 2n = 50), which means that H. venezuelae can be considered an allospecie. PMID:2701257

Aguilera, M; Pérez-Zapata, A

1989-01-01

103

Geographical Influences on Climate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson students use climatograms from different U.S. locations to observe patterns in temperature and precipitation. After describing geographical features near these locations, they will use graphs to compare and find patterns in the effects that mountains, oceans, elevation, and latitude have on temperature and precipitation. A research activity will then ask students to gather information on temperature and precipitation patterns around the world using the MY NASA DATA Live Access Server and other sources, with the goal of creating their own climatogram. This lesson uses the 5E instructional model.

104

Geographic Information Science Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From Foothill College and the Using a Web-Based GIS to Teach Problem-Based Science in High School and College project, this pdf contains a syllabus for a course titled Geographic Information Science Project. The objective of the course is to introduce students to a variety of projects including "constructing a Web GIS site, building a GIS or image database, and conducting a GIS or remote sensing analysis." The project is the main component of the course and students gain significant experience working in teams.

2012-05-04

105

Geographic information systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information and activities are provided to: (1) enhance the ability to distinguish between a Geographic Information System (GIS) and a data management system; (2) develop understanding of spatial data handling by conventional methods versus the automated approach; (3) promote awareness of GIS design and capabilities; (4) foster understanding of the concepts and problems of data base development and management; (5) facilitate recognition of how a computerized GIS can model conditions in the present "real world" to project conditions in the future; and (6) appreciate the utility of integrating LANDSAT and other remotely sensed data into the GIS.

Campbell, W. J.

1982-01-01

106

CHAPTER THREE Cognition of Geographic Information  

E-print Network

CHAPTER THREE Cognition of Geographic Information Daniel R. Montello, University of California the cognition of geographic infor- mation. Cognition of geographic information deals with human perception as geospatial information. Research in cognition is relevant to many issues involving geographic information

Montello, Daniel R.

107

e-Science initiatives in Venezuela  

E-print Network

Within the context of the nascent e-Science infrastructure in Venezuela, we describe several web-based scientific applications developed at the Centro Nacional de Calculo Cientifico Universidad de Los Andes (CeCalCULA), Merida, and at the Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas (IVIC), Caracas. The different strategies that have been followed for implementing quantum chemistry and atomic physics applications are presented. We also briefly discuss a damage portal based on dynamic, nonlinear, finite elements of lumped damage mechanics and a biomedical portal developed within the framework of the \\textit{E-Infrastructure shared between Europe and Latin America} (EELA) initiative for searching common sequences and inferring their functions in parasitic diseases such as leishmaniasis, chagas and malaria.

Chaves, J L; Hamar, V; Isea, R; Rojas, F; Ruiz, N; Torrens, R; Uzcategui, M; Florez-Lopez, J; Hoeger, H; Mendoza, C; Núñez, L A

2007-01-01

108

Digital shaded-relief map of Venezuela  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Digital Shaded-Relief Map of Venezuela is a composite of more than 20 tiles of 90 meter (3 arc second) pixel resolution elevation data, captured during the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) in February 2000. The SRTM, a joint project between the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), provides the most accurate and comprehensive international digital elevation dataset ever assembled. The 10-day flight mission aboard the U.S. Space Shuttle Endeavour obtained elevation data for about 80% of the world's landmass at 3-5 meter pixel resolution through the use of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) technology. SAR is desirable because it acquires data along continuous swaths, maintaining data consistency across large areas, independent of cloud cover. Swaths were captured at an altitude of 230 km, and are approximately 225 km wide with varying lengths. Rendering of the shaded-relief image required editing of the raw elevation data to remove numerous holes and anomalously high and low values inherent in the dataset. Customized ArcInfo Arc Macro Language (AML) scripts were written to interpolate areas of null values and generalize irregular elevation spikes and wells. Coastlines and major water bodies used as a clipping mask were extracted from 1:500,000-scale geologic maps of Venezuela (Bellizzia and others, 1976). The shaded-relief image was rendered with an illumination azimuth of 315? and an altitude of 65?. A vertical exaggeration of 2X was applied to the image to enhance land-surface features. Image post-processing techniques were accomplished using conventional desktop imaging software.

Garrity, Christopher P.; Hackley, Paul C.; Urbani, Franco

2004-01-01

109

Analyzing geographic clustered response  

SciTech Connect

In the study of geographic disease clusters, an alternative to traditional methods based on rates is to analyze case locations on a transformed map in which population density is everywhere equal. Although the analyst's task is thereby simplified, the specification of the density equalizing map projection (DEMP) itself is not simple and continues to be the subject of considerable research. Here a new DEMP algorithm is described, which avoids some of the difficulties of earlier approaches. The new algorithm (a) avoids illegal overlapping of transformed polygons; (b) finds the unique solution that minimizes map distortion; (c) provides constant magnification over each map polygon; (d) defines a continuous transformation over the entire map domain; (e) defines an inverse transformation; (f) can accept optional constraints such as fixed boundaries; and (g) can use commercially supported minimization software. Work is continuing to improve computing efficiency and improve the algorithm. 21 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

Merrill, D.W.; Selvin, S.; Mohr, M.S.

1991-08-01

110

USGS Geographic Data Download  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US Geological Survey Geographic (USGS) Data Download Web site contains a large selection of downloadable digital elevation models (DEM) in various formats. Visitors will find links to 1:250,000 Scale Digital Elevation Models, 1:24,000 Scale Digital Elevation Models, 30 Meter Resolution National Elevation Dataset, 1:2,000,000 Digital Line Graphs, 1:100,000 Scale Digital Line Graphs, 1:24,000 Scale Digital Line Graphs, 1:250,000 and 1:100,000 Scale Land Use Land Cover, National Land Cover Data, and National Hydrography Dataset. The site provides examples, status maps, user guides, and other information about each data set, making it a great overall resource for these helpful topographic models. [JAB

111

National Geographic: Redwoods  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Astounding, beautiful, fantastical, and enormous, these are all apt descriptions of the redwoods of the Pacific coast. National Geographic's website offers a multimedia presentation about these majestic trees which includes the cover story, "The Super Trees", from their October 2009 magazine, and details under "Tune In", on when to watch the corresponding broadcast "Explorer: Climbing Redwood Giants". In addition to an online photo "Jigsaw Puzzle" of a 300-foot California redwood that visitors can time themselves putting together, there is also a great 2.5-minute "Video" of the photographer's attempt to create a composite photo of an entire redwood tree. The "Living Giants" interactive time line shows the historical moments a 2000-year-old redwood has lived through, including the reign of Genghis Khan, the signing of the Magna Carta, and the settlement at Jamestown.

112

National Geographic Traveler  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The staff at the National Geographic Traveler magazine knows a thing or two about travel, and their print magazine is full of thoughtful suggestions about where to go in Providence, how to wander around in Bangkok, and the lighthouses of Croatia. Sprinkled across the top of the web page, visitors will find topical areas, which include "Photo of the Week", "Intelligent Travel Blog", and "Newsletter". The "Intelligent Travel Blog" is a great place to start, and there are posts on an annual worm charming festival in the United Kingdom and the value of travel for school-age children. The "Photo of the Week" features dhow boats racing, the Singapore waterfront, and other visual gems. Also, visitors can check out their archives, sign up to receive their newsletter, and subscribe to the print edition of the magazine.

113

Canadian Geographic Atlas Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Online atlases vary widely in quality, but this latest project from the Royal Canadian Geographical Society is a laudable production both in terms of its organization and also its multi-layered content. This highly interactive atlas allows users to explore all of Canada's landforms and boundaries through a pop-up atlas browser that includes a sophisticated, yet easy-to-use, interface tool by which users can zoom in or out, measure distances, and even print out the maps they create. Some of the additional features let users explore the country thematically by region (such as the Boreal Shield) or by the dynamic theme of "Extremes of Weather". There is even a "Kid's Atlas", which is specifically designed for young people with the hope that they will also learn a great deal about Canadian places and geography. Much of the material on the site is also available in French.

114

National Geographic-Adventure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The promise of any sort of adventure can be a magic tonic to any rather dull and ordinary day. National Geographic knows a few things about adventure, and this website brings together fascinating photographs, essays, itineraries, and other items that will be most useful to the casual or extreme adventurer. Visitors can look over the "Beyond the Edge" blog, which features everything from meditations on skiing the Jackson Hole backcountry to a video tour of the Powder Highway in British Columbia. Users shouldn't miss some of the "best of" lists here, which include "World's Best Ski Towns" and "Word's Best Surf Towns." A list that will give cause for inspiration (and perhaps debate) is the "Ultimate Adventure Bucket List," which includes activities like hiking up to Machu Picchu and a trek around Java's volcanoes.

115

National Geographic: Crittercam  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What would it be like to be a harbor seal? Wouldn't it be fascinating to go on the prowl with lions? With assistance from the National Science Foundation and the National Geographic, Crittercam makes it possible, both on television and on this fine website. The Crittercam device (which fits safely and securely on animals) was initially conceived by Greg Marshall, who got the idea after observing a remora clinging onto a shark off the coast of Belize, and thought that it might be possible to attach a camera in a similar fashion. From the main page, visitors can learn about the Crittercam itself, and watch a number of clips of seals, lions, hawksbill turtles, and humpback whales in their natural environments. Moving to the Previews area, visitors can watch streaming clips from the television program as well. Finally, visitors can also download a screen saver that features a pilot whale.

116

Tax effects upon oil field development in Venezuela  

E-print Network

Important reforms have been made to the oil sector tax code in Venezuela. Given its diversity of oil resources, there was a concern that some resources were not being exploited because of the structure of the tax code. ...

Manzano, Osmel

2000-01-01

117

A reservoir management strategy for multilayered reservoirs in eastern Venezuela  

E-print Network

A reservoir management strategy has been developed for a field located in eastern Venezuela. The field contains deep, high pressure, multilayer reservoirs. A thorough formation evaluation was accomplished using the log data, core data, PVT data...

Espinel Diaz, Arnaldo Leopoldo

2012-06-07

118

Hydrogen: BOC-FW venture secures major Venezuela project  

SciTech Connect

BOC Gases and Foster Wheeler Power Systems (FW) have been awarded a $50-million project to supply a 50-million cu ft/day hydrogen (H{sub 2}) plant to Lagoven`s Amuay, Venezuela refinery for 1997 startup. BOC and FW have also formed a marketing agreement for on-site H{sub 2} plants in the Americas, extending a previous relationship covering Chile and Venezuela.

Wood, A.

1995-07-26

119

Morphological characters of adult Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) marajoara in Venezuela.  

PubMed

A morphometric study was carried out to find diagnostic characters with which to update taxonomic keys for field identification of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) marajoara and the 3 other sympatric Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) species (An. darlingi, An. argyritarsis, and An. braziliensis) that occur in Venezuela. Diagnostic random amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction markers from wild-caught specimens showed that An. marajoara was the only species in the Anopheles albitarsis complex collected in Venezuela. PMID:12825659

Rubio-Palis, Yasmin; Wilkerson, Richard; Guzmán, Hernán

2003-06-01

120

Determinants of Dentists' Geographic Distribution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A model for explaining the geographic distribution of dentists' practice locations is presented and applied to particular market areas in Connecticut. Results show geographic distribution is significantly related to a few key variables, including demography, disposable income, and housing prices. Implications for helping students make practice…

Beazoglou, Tryfon J.; And Others

1992-01-01

121

Geographic Education in Mexican Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Do Mexico's schools provide geographic learning opportunities to students and does equal opportunity to learn exist? The site for this study was Baja California's school district of Ensenada. Geographic education in urban primary and secondary schools was examined. School administrators and select teachers from 40 schools were asked about time…

Prentice, Murray; Fredrich, Barbara

122

Adaptive Cartography and Geographical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article focuses on adaptive cartography and its potential for geographical education. After briefly describing the wider context of adaptive cartography, it is suggested that this new cartographic approach establishes new demands and benefits for geographical education, especially in offering the possibility for broader individual…

Konecny, Milan; Stanek, Karel

2010-01-01

123

National Center for Geographic Information  

E-print Network

of organizational theory, management information systems (MIS), and behavioral theory. Group 3: The final groupNCGIA National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis NCGIA Research Initiative 9 Institutions Sharing Geographic Information Scientific Report for the Specialist Meeting 26-29 February 1992

California at Santa Barbara, University of

124

Petroleum resources of Venezuela and Trinidad and Tobago  

SciTech Connect

The status of known and ultimately recoverable crude oil and natural gas resources of the Federal Republics of Venezuela, and Trinidad and Tobago (hereafter referred to as Trinidad) is set forth in this report. The rates that oil resources may be available to world markets are also covered in the report. A section on the petroleum geology of the region is included. The Republics of Venezuela and Trinidad share a common and ancient petroleum history. Over a century of exploration and development have resulted in the cumulative production of nearly 39 billion barrels of oil from Venezuela and over 2 billion barrels from Trinidad. Both republics have passed their peak status as oil producers. Venezuela reached its peak as the second largest producer in the world in the mid-fifties, and Trinidad attained its highest status as the eighth largest oil producer in the early forties. The report concludes that Venezuela and Trinidad have depleted slightly less than one-half of their ultimately recoverable crude oil resources. Based on feasible production rates and estimates of remaining recoverable resources, nearly two-thirds of Venezuela's oil resources and about three-fourths of Trinidad's oil resources may be depleted by the year 2000. The natural gas resources of both countries are underutilized and underdeveloped.

Not Available

1983-07-01

125

Geographical Database Integrity Validation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Airport Safety Modeling Data (ASMD) was developed at the request of a 1997 White House Conference on Aviation Safety and Security. Politicians, military personnel, commercial aircraft manufacturers and the airline industry attended the conference. The objective of the conference was to study the airline industry and make recommendations to improve safety and security. One of the topics discussed at the conference was the loss of situational awareness by aircraft pilots. Loss of situational awareness occurs when a pilot loses his geographic position during flight and can result in crashes into terrain and obstacles. It was recognized at the conference that aviation safety could be improved by reducing the loss of situational awareness. The conference advised that a system be placed in the airplane cockpit that would provide pilots with a visual representation of the terrain around airports. The system would prevent airline crashes during times of inclement weather and loss of situational awareness. The system must be based on accurate data that represents terrain around airports. The Department of Defense and the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) released ASMD to be used for the development of a visual system for aircraft pilots. ASMD was constructed from NIMA digital terrain elevation data (DTED).

Jacobs, Derya; Kauffman, Paul; Blackstock, Dexter

2000-01-01

126

[Highest mosquito records (Diptera: Culicidae) in Venezuela].  

PubMed

Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are holometabolous insects with aquatic immature stages, which use a broad variety of larval habitats, from ground water bodies to Phytothelmata (water deposits in plants) and artificial deposits. The availability of breeding sites often determines the upper limits of mosquito ranges. We built a database with 9,607 records with 432 localities, 19 genera and 254 species. The Andean mountains have 77% of the highest mosquito records including Aedes euris with record at 3,133 m, followed by three species of Anopheles--subgenera Kerteszia--with the upper limit of 2,680 m. Wyeomyia bicornis and Culex daumastocampa at 2,550 m were the highest records in the Central-Coastal cordillera, while the highest record in Pantepui was Wyeomyia zinzala at 2,252 m. The species associated with phytothelmata (Bromeliaceae and Sarraceniaceae) represent 60% of the records. The upper limits of Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles (Kerteszia) species could represent the theoretical limit for transmission of filariasis or arboviruses, by Culex, and malaria by Anopheles (Kerteszia) in Venezuela. Similarly, a vector of Dengue, Aedes aegypti, has not been not recorded above 2,000 m. PMID:20411719

Navarro, Juan-Carlos; Del Ventura, Fabiola; Zorrilla, Adriana; Liria, Jonathan

2010-03-01

127

Atmospheric formic and acetic acids in Venezuela  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas, phase and rain concentrations of HCOOH and CH 3COOH have been measured at various sites in the savannah climatic region, a cloud forest site and a coastal site in Venezuela. Gas phase and rain water were sampled using the aqueous scrubber technique and a wet only collector, respectively. Analyses were made by ion chromatography. The results indicate that formic and acetic acids are important components of the Venezuelan atmosphere. They are homogeneously distributed, suggesting a widespread source. Boundary layer concentrations during the dry season (HCOOH, 1.8 ppbv; CH 3COOH, 1.25 ppbv) are higher than in the wet season (HCOOH, 1.0 ppbv; CH 3COOH, 0.7 ppbv), mainly due to a longer lifetime of the acid during the dry season (˜6 days) compared with the wet season (˜2 days). The overall concentrations in rain are 7.0 and 4.0 ?M for formic and acetic acids, respectively. The estimated annual total depositions are: HCOOH, 17 mmol m -2 yr -1 and CH 3COOH,10 mmol m -2 yr -1; around half of the acids are removed by dry deposition. It is established that a larger source (˜1.8 times) of both acids is present during the wet season. We speculate that atmospheric oxidation of hydrocarbons should be the main source of HCOOH and CH 3COOH in the Venezuelan atmosphere; soil emissions could make a significant contribution during the dry season.

Sanhueza, Eugenio; Figueroa, Luis; Santana, Magaly

128

Population structure of guppies in north-eastern Venezuela, the area of putative incipient speciation  

PubMed Central

Background Geographic barriers to gene flow and divergence among populations in sexual traits are two important causes of genetic isolation which may lead to speciation. Genetic isolation may be facilitated if these two mechanisms act synergistically. The guppy from the Cumaná region (within the Cariaco drainage) of eastern Venezuela has been previously described as a case of incipient speciation driven by sexual selection, significantly differentiated in sexual colouration and body shape from the common guppy, Poecilia reticulata. The latter occurs widely in northern Venezuela, including the south-eastern side of Cordillera de la Costa, where it inhabits streams belonging to the San Juan drainage. Here, we present molecular and morphological analyses of differentiation among guppy populations in the Cariaco and San Juan drainages. Our analyses are based on a 953 bp long mtDNA fragment, a set of 15 microsatellites (519 fish from 20 populations), and four phenotypic traits. Results Both microsatellite and mtDNA data showed that guppies inhabiting the two drainages are characterised by a significant genetic differentiation, but a higher proportion of the genetic variance was distributed among populations within regions. Most guppies in the Cariaco drainage had mtDNA from a distinct lineage, but we also found evidence for widespread introgression of mtDNA from the San Juan drainage into the Cariaco drainage. Phenotypically, populations in the two regions differed significantly only in the number of black crescents. Phenotypic clustering did not support existence of two distinct groupings, but indicated a degree of distinctiveness of Central Cumaná (CC) population. However, CC population showed little differentiation at the neutral markers from the proximate populations within the Cariaco drainage. Conclusions Our findings are consistent with only partial genetic isolation between the two geographic regions and indicate that the geographic barrier of Cordillera de la Costa has not played an important role in strengthening the incomplete pre-zygotic reproductive barrier between Cumaná and common guppy. Significant phenotypic differentiation between genetically similar (in terms of neutral variation) populations suggests that mate choice can maintain divergence at sexually selected traits despite gene flow. However, neither genetic nor phenotypic clustering supported delineation of two species within the region. PMID:24533965

2014-01-01

129

Trypanosoma cruzi III from armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus novemcinctus) from Northeastern Venezuela and its biological behavior in murine model. Risk of emergency of Chagas' disease.  

PubMed

Trypanosoma cruzi, etiological agent of Chagas' disease, was isolated from armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus novemcinctus) captured in rural communities Northeastern Venezuela from Nueva Esparta State (no endemic for Chagas' disease), Monagas and Anzoátegui States (endemics). The isolates, genetically typed by PCR-RFLP as belonging to the TcIII DTU, have demonstrated in murine model heterogenic parasitemia, mortality and histotropism with marked parasitism in cardiac, skeletal, and smooth myocytes that showed correlation with lymphobasophilic inflammatory infiltrates. Our finding of T. cruzi infected armadillos in Isla Margarita (Nueva Esparta State), together with reports of triatomine vectors in this region, the accentuated synanthropy of armadillos, intense economic activity, migration due to tourism and the lack of environmental education programs all of them represent risks that could cause the emergence of Chagas' disease in this area. This is the first report of the TcIII DTU in Northeastern Venezuela, thus widening the geographic distribution of this DTU. PMID:22902748

Morocoima, Antonio; Carrasco, Hernán J; Boadas, Johanna; Chique, José David; Herrera, Leidi; Urdaneta-Morales, Servio

2012-11-01

130

Transportation Routing Analysis Geographic Information System (TRAGIS)  

E-print Network

Transportation Routing Analysis Geographic Information System (TRAGIS) Model and Network Databases The Transportation Routing Analysis Geographic Information System (TRAGIS) model is a geographic information system tool for modeling transportation routing. TRAGIS offers numerous options for route calculation

131

Geographical Parthenogenesis: Opportunities for Asexuality  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Asexual organisms often occupy larger and more northern distribution areas than their sexual relatives. These phenomena, summarized\\u000a under the term “geographical parthenogenesis”, seem to confirm a short term advantage of asexual reproduction. Geographical\\u000a parthenogenesis may be explained by better colonizing abilities of asexual organisms, or by a swamping of sexual populations\\u000a because of introgression of asexuality. Asexual organisms may perform

Elvira Hörandl

132

Malaria Control and Elimination,1 Venezuela, 1800s–1970s  

PubMed Central

Venezuela had the highest number of human malaria cases in Latin American before 1936. During 1891–1920, malaria was endemic to >600,000 km2 of this country; malaria death rates led to major population decreases during 1891–1920. No pathogen, including the influenza virus that caused the 1918 pandemic, caused more deaths than malaria during 1905–1945. Early reports of malaria eradication in Venezuela helped spark the world’s interest in global eradication. We describe early approaches to malaria epidemiology in Venezuela and how this country developed an efficient control program and an approach to eradication. Arnoldo Gabaldón was a key policy maker during this development process. He directed malaria control in Venezuela from the late 1930s to the end of the 1970s and contributed to malaria program planning of the World Health Organization. We discuss how his efforts helped reduce the incidence of malaria in Venezuela and how his approach diverged from World Health Organization guidelines.

Villegas, Leopoldo; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam

2014-01-01

133

Malaria control and elimination, Venezuela, 1800s –1970s.  

PubMed

Venezuela had the highest number of human malaria cases in Latin American before 1936. During 1891–1920,malaria was endemic to >600,000 km2 of this country; malaria death rates led to major population decreases during 1891–1920. No pathogen, including the influenza virus that caused the 1918 pandemic, caused more deaths than malaria during 1905–1945. Early reports of malaria eradication in Venezuela helped spark the world's interest in global eradication. We describe early approaches to malaria epidemiology in Venezuela and how this country developed an efficient control program and an approach to eradication.Arnoldo Gabaldón was a key policy maker during this development process. He directed malaria control in Venezuela from the late 1930s to the end of the 1970s and contributed to malaria program planning of the World Health Organization.We discuss how his efforts helped reduce the incidence of malaria in Venezuela and how his approach diverged from World Health Organization guidelines. PMID:25396258

Griffing, Sean M; Villegas, Leopoldo; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam

2014-10-01

134

David Meets Goliath on the Information Superhighway: Venezuela in the Context of the Electronic Communication Networks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses Venezuela's information and communications technology infrastructure and usage patterns; examines future networking plans; and addresses political and economic considerations linked to the information and technology problems in Venezuela and in Latin America in general. (LRW)

Sanchez-Vegas, Saadia

1995-01-01

135

78 FR 44969 - Ferrosilicon From Russia and Venezuela; Institution of Antidumping Duty Investigations and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...731-TA-1224-1225 (Preliminary)] Ferrosilicon From Russia and Venezuela; Institution of Antidumping Duty Investigations and Scheduling...materially retarded, by reason of imports from Russia and Venezuela of Ferrosilicon, provided for in subheadings...

2013-07-25

136

Molecular architecture of DesV from Streptomyces venezuelae: A PLP-dependent transaminase involved in  

E-print Network

Molecular architecture of DesV from Streptomyces venezuelae: A PLP-dependent transaminase involved are required for its biosynthesis in Streptomyces venezuelae. The focus of this article is DesV, which

Holden, Hazel

137

Accelerated Publications Three-Dimensional Structure of DesVI from Streptomyces Venezuelae: A Sugar  

E-print Network

Accelerated Publications Three-Dimensional Structure of DesVI from Streptomyces Venezuelae: A Sugar for the biosynthesis of dTDP-desosamine in Streptomyces Venezuelae, with the last step catalyzed by DesVI, an N

Holden, Hazel

138

Syllidae (Annelida, Polychaeta) from the Caribbean coast of Venezuela  

PubMed Central

Abstract Venezuela possesses a great variety of coastal environments allowing for a high diversity of marine species. However, systematic studies on marine invertebrates are scarce, especially on polychaetes. The family Syllidae is poorly known, and only 14 genera and 42 species have been reported from this country. A total of 13 genera and 26 species the Syllidae were identified from benthic samples collected on different substrata of the northeastern coast of Venezuela. Of these, seven genera and 16 species constitute new records for Venezuela: Odontosyllis guillermoi, Syllides floridanus, Salvatoria clavata, Salvatoria limbata, Sphaerosyllis longicauda, Parapionosyllis longicirrata, Trypanosyllis parvidentata, Trypanosyllis vittigera, Opisthosyllis sp., Syllis amica, Syllis armillaris, Syllis gracilis, Syllis pseudoarmillaris, Syllis vittata, Parasphaerosyllis indica and Myrianida convoluta. PMID:21998503

Liñero-Arana, Ildefonso; Díaz Díaz, Oscarn

2011-01-01

139

Digital geologic map and GIS database of Venezuela  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The digital geologic map and GIS database of Venezuela captures GIS compatible geologic and hydrologic data from the 'Geologic Shaded Relief Map of Venezuela,' which was released online as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2005-1038. Digital datasets and corresponding metadata files are stored in ESRI geodatabase format; accessible via ArcGIS 9.X. Feature classes in the geodatabase include geologic unit polygons, open water polygons, coincident geologic unit linework (contacts, faults, etc.) and non-coincident geologic unit linework (folds, drainage networks, etc.). Geologic unit polygon data were attributed for age, name, and lithologic type following the Lexico Estratigrafico de Venezuela. All digital datasets were captured from source data at 1:750,000. Although users may view and analyze data at varying scales, the authors make no guarantee as to the accuracy of the data at scales larger than 1:750,000.

Garrity, Christopher P.; Hackley, Paul C.; Urbani, Franco

2006-01-01

140

Events affecting gold exploration in Venezuela since 1999  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The structure of the gold mining industry in Venezuela has changed significantly since 1999 as a result of Government policy changes and industry response to these changes. This report documents the policy decisions that have affected the mining industry, discusses the response of the industry on a site by site basis, and suggests possible effects of these changes on the global economy. For the short term, at least, it appears that these changes have made Venezuela a more difficult place to invest for U.S. and Canadian companies, while investment by Chinese entities has been encouraged.

Wilburn, David R.

2014-01-01

141

Potential role of event-driven sediment transport on sediment accumulation in the Cariaco Basin, Venezuela  

E-print Network

Basin, Venezuela Laura Lorenzoni a, , Claudia R. Benitez-Nelson b,c , Robert C. Thunell b,c , David, Venezuela e Venezuelan Foundation for Seismological Research (FUNVISIS), Apartado Postal 76880, Caracas 1070-A, Venezuela a b s t r a c ta r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 8 June 2011 Received

Meyers, Steven D.

142

EPIDEMIOLOGY OF BOVINE LEUKEMIA IN VENEZUELA C. MARN NANCY M. DE LPEZ LUISA ALVAREZ O. LOZANO  

E-print Network

EPIDEMIOLOGY OF BOVINE LEUKEMIA IN VENEZUELA C. MARÍN NANCY M. DE L�PEZ LUISA ALVAREZ O. LOZANO W. ESPANA H. CASTA�OS A. LE�N '! Instltuto de Investigaciones Veterinarias, Apartado 70. Maracay. Venezuela. R6sum6 EPIDEMIOLOGIE DE LA LEUCOSE BOVINE AU VENEZUELA. - Environ 20 000 bovins de races autochtones

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

143

Ingeniero Diana Awais GACETA OFICIAL DE LA REPBLICA BOLIVARIANA DE VENEZUELA  

E-print Network

Ingeniero Diana Awais GACETA OFICIAL DE LA REP�BLICA BOLIVARIANA DE VENEZUELA A�O CXXX-MES IX Funcional, que en ella se especifican. REP�BLICA BOLIVARIANA DE VENEZUELA CONSEJO NACIONAL DE UNIVERSIDADES de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela, introduce innovaciones en el campo jurídico

Vásquez, Carlos

144

Quantifying the seasonal variations in fluvial and eolian sources of terrigenous material to Cariaco Basin, Venezuela  

E-print Network

to Cariaco Basin, Venezuela Aurora C. Elmore a,*, Robert C. Thunell b , Richard Styles b , David Black c, Venezuela a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 27 February 2008 Accepted 10 November 2008 the northern continental shelf of Venezuela and consists of two 1400 m deep sub-basins separated by an 900 m

Meyers, Steven D.

145

Receiver function study of the crustal structure of the southeastern Caribbean plate boundary and Venezuela  

E-print Network

and Venezuela Fenglin Niu,1 Tammy Bravo,2 Gary Pavlis,2 Frank Vernon,3 Herbert Rendon,4 Maximiliano Bezada,1 broadband array deployed under the BOLIVAR project and the permanent national seismic network of Venezuela northeastern Venezuela and the Venezuelan Andes. There is a good correlation between crustal structure

Niu, Fenglin

146

Mantle flow beneath northwestern Venezuela: Seismic evidence for a deep origin of the Mrida Andes  

E-print Network

Mantle flow beneath northwestern Venezuela: Seismic evidence for a deep origin of the Mérida Andes University, Houston, TX, USA b Fundación de Investigaciones Simológicas (FUNVISIS), Caracas, Venezuela a b wave splitting from SKS data recorded by the national seismic network of Venezuela and a linear

Niu, Fenglin

147

NATURAL HAZARDS ON ALLUVIAL FANS: THE VENEZUELA DEBRIS FLOW AND FLASH FLOOD DISASTER  

E-print Network

NATURAL HAZARDS ON ALLUVIAL FANS: THE VENEZUELA DEBRIS FLOW AND FLASH FLOOD DISASTER In December Venezuela. Rainfall on December 2-3 totaled 200 millimeters (8 inches) and was followed by a major storm, Denver, Colorado, Naples, Italy, and Vargas, Venezuela. In time scales spanning thousands of years

Eaton, L. Scott

148

Nitrogen isotope dynamics of the Cariaco Basin, Venezuela Robert C. Thunell,1  

E-print Network

Nitrogen isotope dynamics of the Cariaco Basin, Venezuela Robert C. Thunell,1 Daniel M. Sigman,2 of Venezuela. Water column denitrification occurring in the basin has only a very small isotopic imprint-Karger, Y. Astor, and R. Varela (2004), Nitrogen isotope dynamics of the Cariaco Basin, Venezuela, Global

Sigman, Daniel M.

149

POTENTIAL EFFECTS OF GLOBAL CLIMATIC CHANGE ON THE PHENOLOGY AND YIELD OF MAIZE IN VENEZUELA *  

E-print Network

POTENTIAL EFFECTS OF GLOBAL CLIMATIC CHANGE ON THE PHENOLOGY AND YIELD OF MAIZE IN VENEZUELA de Ciencias, Universidad de Los Andes, Mdrida 5101, Venezuela 21nstitute of Applied Sciences, Venezuela 4Centro de Estudios Avanzados del Clima Tropical (CEACT), Ministerio deI Ambiente y de los

Robock, Alan

150

Evidence for clonal propagation in natural isolates of Plasmodium falciparum from Venezuela  

E-print Network

Evidence for clonal propagation in natural isolates of Plasmodium falciparum from Venezuela Ludmel, Estado Aragua, Venezuela; Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, 2001 We have analyzed 75 isolates of Plasmodium falciparum, collected in Venezuela during both the dry

151

Pathogenicity of seven species of the Botryosphaeriaceae on Eucalyptus clones in Venezuela  

E-print Network

Pathogenicity of seven species of the Botryosphaeriaceae on Eucalyptus clones in Venezuela S. R Milla, 5101-A Mérida, Venezuela. B Department of Genetics, Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology found on Eucalyptus spp. in Venezuela. An initial inoculation trial was conducted using seven species

152

BREEDING BIOLOGY AND NATURAL HISTORY OF THE SLATE-THROATED WHITESTART IN VENEZUELA  

E-print Network

BREEDING BIOLOGY AND NATURAL HISTORY OF THE SLATE-THROATED WHITESTART IN VENEZUELA ROMA´ N A´ National Park, Venezuela. Nesting activity peaked in late April and May. Only the female built the nest is the most common race in the Andes of Venezuela, Colombia, and part of Ecuador. Genetic information for our

Martin, Thomas E.

153

MTODO DE LOCALIZACIN DE LOS HERIDOS EN EL CASO DE UN TERREMOTO EN MRIDA, VENEZUELA.  

E-print Network

M�TODO DE LOCALIZACI�N DE LOS HERIDOS EN EL CASO DE UN TERREMOTO EN M�RIDA, VENEZUELA. Methodology for the localization of injured in case of an earthquake in Mérida, Venezuela. Julien Rebotier *11 rue Duvergier 75019) julio - diciembre 2006, pp 187-200. Resumen: Mérida (Venezuela) es particularmente sensible a la amenaza

Boyer, Edmond

154

TWO NEW SPECIES OF LEPIDOCYRTUS FROM PARAMO DE MUCUBAJI MERIDA, VENEZUELA  

E-print Network

TWO NEW SPECIES OF LEPIDOCYRTUS FROM PARAMO DE MUCUBAJI MERIDA, VENEZUELA (COLLEMBOLA ejemplares colectados en Paramo de Mucubaji, Estado de Merida, Venezuela. Los individuos fueron encontrados in Venezuela but only one, L. summersii (MacGillivray) 1894, has been described or reported from this country

Mari-Mutt, José A.

155

BREEDING BIOLOGY OF THE GOLDEN-FACED TYRANNULET (ZIMMERIUS CHRYSOPS) IN VENEZUELA  

E-print Network

BREEDING BIOLOGY OF THE GOLDEN-FACED TYRANNULET (ZIMMERIUS CHRYSOPS) IN VENEZUELA WILLIAM GOULDING1 Park, Venezuela during the 2002 to 2008 breeding seasons. The enclosed nest was similar to descriptions, it is broadly distributed with a range that extends from Peru, north through the Andes to Colombia and Venezuela

Martin, Thomas E.

156

Drought, Famine, and Geographic Diversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many Americans have heard of Ethiopia only in the context of drought, famine, and war. As they listen to the news stories, it is important for students to recognize that the media portrayals of Ethiopia are not always complete and that Ethiopia is, in fact, a geographically diverse country, including forests, grasslands, and the Blue Nile. This lesson will teach students about Ethiopia's different geographic regions. They will map the Blue Nile and Lake Tana; research and answer questions about geographical regions, climate, and agriculture of Ethiopia; research and answer questions about the current drought in Ethiopia; and write magazine articles explaining to Americans some of the things they might not have realized about Ethiopia and why it might be a good idea to learn more about the country.

157

Ontologies for geographic information processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of geographical information systems (GIS) and the interoperability between these systems demands new requirements for the description of the underlying data. The exchange of data between GIS systems is problematic and often fails due to confusion in the meaning of concepts. The term semantic translator, a translator between GIS systems and/or catalogue systems which gives the user the option to map data between the systems is a topic of current research. This paper provides an overview of formal ontologies and how they can be used for geographical information processing. A description of an intelligent broker architecture for semantic-based information retrieval is introduced, and shows how this approach can be used for general purposes. In conclusion we attempt to provide a roadmap for the use of ontologies for geographic information processing.

Visser, U.; Stuckenschmidt, H.; Schuster, G.; Vögele, T.

2002-02-01

158

Evaluating geographic information systems technology  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Computerized geographic information systems (GISs) are emerging as the spatial data handling tools of choice for solving complex geographical problems. However, few guidelines exist for assisting potential users in identifying suitable hardware and software. A process to be followed in evaluating the merits of GIS technology is presented. Related standards and guidelines, software functions, hardware components, and benchmarking are discussed. By making users aware of all aspects of adopting GIS technology, they can decide if GIS is an appropriate tool for their application and, if so, which GIS should be used.

Guptill, Stephen C.

1989-01-01

159

National Geographic Features: Inside Tornadoes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Geographic describes Tim Samaras and two colleagues' success in observing the bottom 30 feet of a tornado with a wisely placed camera. While users can only read the entire article by purchasing the National Geographic, the multimedia materials are amazing. Users can view images of the storm chasers at work. Everyone will enjoy the videos of the storm chasers setting up, the tornado moving over the camera, and Tim Samaras's descriptions of storm chasers' lives and tools. The website offers facts about tornadoes as well as websites and books where users can find more information.

160

National Geographic Features: Inside Tornadoes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Geographic describes Tim Samaras and two colleagues' success in observing the bottom 30 feet of a tornado with a wisely placed camera. While users can only read the entire article by purchasing the National Geographic, the multimedia materials are amazing. Users can view images of the storm chasers at work. Everyone will enjoy the videos of the storm chasers setting up, the tornado moving over the camera, and Tim Samaras's descriptions of storm chasers' lives and tools. The website offers facts about tornadoes as well as websites and books where users can find more information.

2005-11-05

161

Pedernales oilfield, eastern Venezuela: The first 100 years  

SciTech Connect

Petroleum seeps and surface tar mats attracted oil explorers to Pedernales in eastern Venezuela 100 years ago. Commercial production from the Pedernales Field was established by Creole in 1933. In three production periods, broken by WWII and the end of the Creole-Texaco refining contract, Creole and Lagoven produced about 60 MMSTB from about 60 wells in about 60 years. Peak production was in the late 1950s, when the field delivered 12,000 BOPD. Production was stopped in 1986. In March 1993, BP Venezuela acquired the license to reactivate Pedernales on behalf of Lagoven, and BP`s first well in the field was drilled in August 1994. A second was completed in early 1995. The production from each well was sufficiently encouraging for commerciality to be declared in March 1995. Phase 1 of the field reactivation demanded a production rate of 11,500 BOPD. As of now (September, 1995) six wells, including one gas disposal well, have been completed. Wells have been placed using a combination of old well data and mapping based on a close spaced 2D seismic survey shot in early 1994. Results from these first few wells indicate that the required production rate will be achieved despite severely depleted reservoir pressures. This paper tells the story of reactivation and re-evaluation of one of eastern Venezuela`s oldest oilfields.

Gluyas, J.; Oliver, J.; Wilson, W. [BP Las Mercedes Caracas (Venezuela)

1996-08-01

162

Temperature, heat, and mixing in Lake Valencia, Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Water temperature profiles, weather data, and lake level data spanning a 2-year period for Lake Valencia, Venezuela (10”N, 67”W), are used in an analysis of thermal regime, mixing, ancl heat flux, The lake, which has an arca of 350 km2 and mean depth of 19 m, is warm monomictic; it becomes isothermal annually near the end of November, at

WILLIAM M. JR. LEWIS

1983-01-01

163

Genetic Characterization of Rabies Field Isolates from Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty samples from cases of rabies in humans and domestic animals diagnosed in Venezuela between 1990 and 1994 and one sample from a vampire bat collected in 1976 were characterized by reactivity to monoclonal antibodiesagainsttheviralnucleoproteinandbypatternsofnucleotidesubstitutioninthenucleoproteingene. Three antigenic variants were found: 1, 3, and 5. Antigenic variant 1 included all samples from dogs and humans infected by contact with rabid dogs.

CARLOS A. DEMATTOS; CECILIA C. DEMATTOS; JEAN S. SMITH; EDITH T. MILLER; SARA PAPO; ANTONIO UTRERA; ANDBENNIE I. OSBURN

164

An investigation of rainfall variability and distribution in Venezuela  

E-print Network

'966. Grosske, F. , Sabre I a Pluviosidad en Caracas, Universidad Central De Venezuela, Facultad De Ingenieria, Depart- amento De Meteorogia e Hidrologia, 144 pp. , Marzo 1967. Henry, tI. K. , Gr if'ithes, 3- F . , Cobb, G. L. and Coligado, M. C. , "Research...

Gibson, Donald Reid

1968-01-01

165

MODIS detects oil spills in Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

Starting December 2002, the oil industry operating in and around Lake Maracaibo in Venezuela suffered a series of accidents (Figure 1). Fires, the sinking of two barges, rupture of oil pipelines, spills from floating oil storage and transfer stations, and malfunctioning of oil extraction platforms led to extensive oil spills. Local and federal Venezuelan government oil industry experts directly observed

Chuanmin Hu; Frank E. Müller-Karger; Douglas Myhre; Brock Murch; Ana L. Odriozola; Gonzalo Godoy

2003-01-01

166

Late Pleistocene carbonate dissolution in the Venezuela Basin, Caribbean Sea  

SciTech Connect

Piston cores from water depths greater than 4000 m in the Venezuela Basin (Caribbean Sea) provide continuous late Pleistocene records of carbonate dissolution and accumulation. The authors examination of multiple dissolution indices indicate that, at least for the last 150,000 years, dissolution of carbonate in the Venezuela Basin has been more intense during interglacial than glacial periods, a pattern opposite to more general observations from the deep Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico. By virtue of its shallow sill depth (1815 m), the Venezuela Basin is relatively isolated from the mainstream of Atlantic thermohaline circulation, and presently is filled with homogeneous, relatively warm (3.8/sup 0/C) waters primarily derived from Upper North Atlantic Deep Water. During the last glacial, the enhanced preservation of carbonate in the Venezuela Basin suggests the presence of a less corrosive, more oxygenated water mass in the Atlantic near sill depth. However, this simple interpretations is potentially complicated by past changes in the rain of biogenic materials from surface waters to the deep basin in what must be an essentially closed system below sill depth. Their observations of increased interglacial dissolution may help to explain previously noted discrepancies in the local glacial to interglacial amplitude of delta/sup 18/O variations recorded by coccoliths and planktonic foraminifera.

Cofer-Shabica, N.B.; Peterson, L.C.

1985-01-01

167

Fruiting Capsule of a Pachira Species from Estado Amazonas, Venezuela  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fruiting capsule of a Pachira species from Estado Amazonas, Venezuela, which has been opened to show its large, floatable seeds. The seeds of other species in this genus of tropical trees are smaller and surrounded by dense, non-wettable hairs. Pachira is a member of the traditional family Bombacaceae, which like the Sterculiaceae and Tiliaceae has been found to be non-monophyletic.

Gustavo A. Romero

2004-03-09

168

Be dating of river terraces of Santo Domingo river, on Southeastern flank of the Mrida Andes, Venezuela: Tectonic and climatic  

E-print Network

, Venezuela: Tectonic and climatic implications Oswaldo Guzmán a, b, *, Riccardo Vassallo b , Franck Audemard, Caracas 1081-A, Venezuela b ISTerre, Université de Savoie, CNRS, F-73376 Le Bourget du Lac, France c, Venezuela d Escuela de Geología, Minas y Geofísica, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Central de Venezuela

169

Territorial Decentration and Geographic Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Territorial decentration is a question of major significance to geographic educators. This paper reports the findings of a research project designed to determine the territorial decentration of an American sample of children. The primary purpose of the research was to determine if Piaget's territorial decentration stages are appropriate for…

Stoltman, Joseph P.

170

Geographic routing without location information  

Microsoft Academic Search

For many years, scalable routing for wireless communication systems was a compelling but elusive goal. Recently, several routing algorithms that exploit geographic information (e.g. GPSR) have been proposed to achieve this goal. These algorithms refer to nodes by their location, not address, and use those coordinates to route greedily, when possible, towards the destination. However, there are many situations where

Ananth Rao; Sylvia Ratnasamy; Christos Papadimitriou; Scott Shenker; Ion Stoica

2003-01-01

171

National States Geographic Information Council  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With the exponential growth in geographic information systems (GIS) across the United States, there are a number of organizations with an interest in coordinating a variety of activities around the sustained growth and management of these various systems. One such group is the National States Geographic Information Council (NSGIC). With members drawn from the federal government, academia, and the private sector, the Council is committed to advocating on behalf of these state GIS agencies in the interest of creating efficient and accessible databases. A good place to start on their website is the â??Hot Topicsâ? area, which provides access to their blog and information about some of their latest initiatives, which include those that address homeland security and topographic accuracy. Additionally, visitors can also learn more about their events and conferences, and also about membership opportunities.

172

GRADUATE CERTIFICATE PROGRAM GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SCIENCES  

E-print Network

GRADUATE CERTIFICATE PROGRAM GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SCIENCES Department of Geography University Information Sciences (GIScience) study geospatial phenomena using an integrated set of spatial digital Certificate Program in Geographic Information Sciences offered within the Department of Geography is designed

Doyle, Martin

173

33 CFR 165.8 - Geographic coordinates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Geographic coordinates. 165.8 Section 165.8 Navigation and Navigable Waters...LIMITED ACCESS AREAS General § 165.8 Geographic coordinates. ...are not intended for plotting on maps or charts whose referenced...

2011-07-01

174

33 CFR 165.8 - Geographic coordinates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Geographic coordinates. 165.8 Section 165.8 Navigation and Navigable Waters...LIMITED ACCESS AREAS General § 165.8 Geographic coordinates. ...are not intended for plotting on maps or charts whose referenced...

2010-07-01

175

Where Is "Away"?--A Geographic Concept.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides a lesson plan on the geographic and civic aspects of municipal wastes. Offers action activities for students. Maintains that students will become familiar with the geographic, moral, and political features of municipal waste disposal. (RW)

Fernald, Edward A; Allen, Rodney F.

1990-01-01

176

Seminar in Geographical Information Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the syllabus to a graduate-level course concerned with the study of current trends in geographically oriented information processing systems. The syllabus is organized around daily topics for which additional readings, notes, and web sites are available as supplemental learning materials. Topics covered include theoretical perspectives of GIS, ontology, uncertainty in GIS, spatial analysis, geospatial data mining and knowledge discovery, communication, visualization, generalization, geolibraries, scale, time representation, terrain representation, GIScience, and finally, GIS and Society.

Goodchild, Michael F.

2008-03-25

177

Geographic names of the Antarctic  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This gazetteer contains 12,710 names approved by the United States Board on Geographic Names and the Secretary of the Interior for features in Antarctica and the area extending northward to the Antarctic Convergence. Included in this geographic area, the Antarctic region, are the off-lying South Shetland Islands, the South Orkney Islands, the South Sandwich Islands, South Georgia, Bouvetøya, Heard Island, and the Balleny Islands. These names have been approved for use by U.S. Government agencies. Their use by the Antarctic specialist and the public is highly recommended for the sake of accuracy and uniformity. This publication, which supersedes previous Board gazetteers or lists for the area, contains names approved as recently as December 1994. The basic name coverage of this gazetteer corresponds to that of maps at the scale of 1:250,000 or larger for coastal Antarctica, the off-lying islands, and isolated mountains and ranges of the continent. Much of the interior of Antarctica is a featureless ice plateau. That area has been mapped at a smaller scale and is nearly devoid of toponyms. All of the names are for natural features, such as mountains, glaciers, peninsulas, capes, bays, islands, and subglacial entities. The names of scientific stations have not been listed alphabetically, but they may appear in the texts of some decisions. For the names of submarine features, reference should be made to the Gazetteer of Undersea Features, 4th edition, U.S. Board on Geographic Names, 1990.

U.S. Board on Geographic Names; U.S. Geological Survey; Defense Mapping Agency; National Science Foundation

1995-01-01

178

A biostratigraphic sequence analysis in Cretaceous sediments from Eastern Venezuela  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the results of a high resolution biostratigraphic study integrated with petrophysic analyses, of the Late Cretaceous sequence in several wells from the Maturin Sub-Basin, Eastern Venezuela. The main objective of this study is to integrate the different faunal and floral assemblages to the sedimentological evolution of the basin using sequential analysis techniques. This technique was applied using mainly terrestrial and marine palynomorphs which were relatively abundant and diverse as compared to the scarcity of foraminifera and nonnofossils. Based on the percentages of abundance and the diversity of the different groups of microfoss it was possible to establish the maximum flooding surfaces and condensation levels which allowed the definition of the possible candidates for the sequence boundaries. On the other hand, the identified bioevents made possible the definition of the chronostratigraphic datums of the sequence under study. The results obtained will contribute to optimize the exploration and development programs of the oil fields in Eastern Venezuela.

Paredes, I.; Carillo, M.; Fasola, A.; Luna, F. (Intevep S.A., Caracas (Venezuela))

1993-02-01

179

Research and Research Methods in Geographical Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of papers examines research methods in geographical education in nine countries. "Research Methods in the History of Geographical Education" (William Marsden, the United Kingdom) examines the methods used and some of the research undertaken in the history of geographical education. "Research Methods in Investigating Children's and…

Graves, Norman J., Ed.

180

Consideration of regulations of baby foods containing soybeans in Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quality standards for industrially processed food products are being prepared by a joint committee composed of the private\\u000a sector, government and universities. These standards include specific dispositions which, if necessary, allow utilization\\u000a of different ingredients-soya protein derivatives among them- to improve the quality and quantity of the protein or to balance\\u000a the amino acid profile. Despite these efforts, in Venezuela,

J. F. Chavez

1981-01-01

181

Use of molluscicides in the control of bilharziasis in Venezuela*  

PubMed Central

The application of molluscicides to the breeding-places of Australorbis glabratus—the intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni in Venezuela—is discussed, with special reference to the equipment required and the techniques employed. The characteristics of the three molluscicides in use—copper sulfate, sodium pentachlorophenate, and copper pentachlorophenate—are outlined, and the treatment both of running waters (irrigation canals and streams) and of still waters (ponds and marshes) is described in detail. PMID:13356139

Jove, José Antonio

1956-01-01

182

Two new Larainae species from Guayana region, Venezuela (Coleoptera: Elmidae).  

PubMed

Two new species of the subfamily Larainae (Insecta: Coleoptera: Elmidae), Hexanchorus angeli n. sp. and Hypsilara autanai n. sp., are described from Guyana region in Venezuela. We provide habitus photographs, detail drawings of both male and female genitalia, and description of morphological features important for discrimination of the new species. Molecular differences within genera were measured using 816bp fragment of mtDNA gene for cytochrome oxidase c subunit I. Sequence divergences among species are discussed. PMID:24872290

Laššová, Kristína; Ciampor, Fedor; Ciamporová-Za?ovi?ová, Zuzana

2014-01-01

183

Breeding systems in a montane tropical cloud forest in Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

The breeding systems, reproductive efficacies and population densities of 75 species of trees, shrubs, perennial herbs and\\u000a vines in a montane tropical cloud forest in Venezuela are investigated. 56.96% and 44.32% of the trees, versus the other life\\u000a forms considered, respectively possess obligate outbreeding mechanisms. Two shrubs are non-pseudogamous apomicts. The percentage\\u000a of dioecy among tree species (31%) is among

Claudia Sobrevila; Mary T. Kalin Arroyo

1982-01-01

184

Risk factors for dialysis-associated hepatitis C in Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk factors for dialysis-associated hepatitis C in Venezuela. Utilizing the first and second generation of enzyme immunoassays which detect antibodies to the C virus we investigated the frequency of anti-HCV antibodies in 315 patients undergoing hemodialysis. Other subpopulations at risk were used as reference groups. One hundred and twenty-three samples (39%) from the hemodialysis group repeatedly showed anti-HCV positive antibodies

Grete Y Muller; Mercedes E Zabaleta; Anabella Arminio; Carmen J Colmenares; Freya I Capriles; Nicolás E Bianco; Irma V Machado

1992-01-01

185

Curie point depth in Venezuela and the Eastern Caribbean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We estimate the Curie point depth (CPD) variations of Venezuela (continental crust, South American plate) and the Eastern Caribbean (oceanic crust, Caribbean Plate) by using spectral analysis of the magnetic anomalies, extracted from the 2010 Enhanced Magnetic Model (EMM2010), available at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). To test the reliability of the spectral content of this model, for a small region, we compare he CPD derived from the EMM2010 against the one from aeromagnetic data. We also compile heat flow data from previous studies to correlate them with the CPD lateral variations. The estimations show that the CPD in Venezuela and the Eastern Caribbean ranges between 54 and 17 km. The mean depth value within the continental crust is around 38 km. On the Guayana Shield, it has a mean value of 42 km and reaches a maximum of 54 km. As the Moho depth is at most 50 km, the upper mantle beneath the craton is magnetized. Continental lateral variations appear to be linked to the isostatic state and age of the different provinces, and mark the limit between the Precambrian and the Paleozoic provinces. The Maracaibo Basin is revealed as a thermally stable one with a constant CPD, while the Eastern Venezuela Basin is thermally affected. Most of the Eastern Caribbean seems stable, with a large non-perturbed area with a mean CPD value of 23 km. As the crustal thickness is at most 20 km, the isotherm is located within the upper mantle. A CPD minimum located on the Lesser Antilles arc is concentrated in its northern part, and can be related to the subduction zone that is most active. Finally, a shallow area within the Eastern Caribbean corresponds to the thin crust region in the Venezuela Basin, although it might be linked to mantle dynamics.

Arnaiz-Rodríguez, Mariano S.; Orihuela, Nuris

2013-04-01

186

Radioisotope Concentration in Lake Sediments of Maracaibo, Venezuela  

SciTech Connect

Maracaibo Lake is one of the most important water basing and oil producing regions in Venezuela. Changes in the local environment have been monitored for chemical pollution in the past. For this study we selected a set of sediment samples collected in the shore and analyzed for its radioisotope content. Results show the gamma emitting isotopes distribution. Isotopes concentrations have been determined within the natural K, Th and U families.

Salas, A. Rangel; Viloria, T. [La Universidad del Zulia (Venezuela); Sajo-Bohus, L.; Barros, H.; Greaves, E. D.; Palacios, D. [Universidad Simon Bolivar (Venezuela)

2007-10-26

187

Late Quaternary Environmental History of Lake Valencia, Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical, paleontological, and mineralogical analyses of a 7.5-meter core from the middle of Lake Valencia, Venezuela, have provided information on the paleoclimatic history of this low-elevation, low-latitude site for the last 13,000 years. The data show that dry climates existed in this region from 13,000 years before present (B.P.) until about 10,000 years B.P. The Lake Valencia Basin was occupied

J. Platt Bradbury; B. Leyden; M. Salgado-Labouriau; W. M. Lewis; C. Schubert; M. W. Binford; D. G. Frey; D. R. Whitehead; F. H. Weibezahn

1981-01-01

188

CR Mission ORENOQUE Venezuela 07 25 mars 2000  

E-print Network

CR Mission ORENOQUE Venezuela 07 ­ 25 mars 2000 Jean GUILLARD Cette mission est la première de l des zones estuariennes du delta de l'Orénoque ». Une mission exploratoire a été réalisée en octobre 99 afin de préciser les conditions d'échantillonnage (cf. CR Mission oct. 99). Ce programme est une

Guillard, Jean

189

Inventory of related wild species of priority crops in Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prerequisite in any conservation programme of Plant Genetic Resources is estimation of diversity. The inventory of wild\\u000a and naturalized relatives of priority crops in Venezuela (CWR) is based on the main Catalogues of Flora in the country, selecting\\u000a taxa closely related to crops, according to the concepts of “gene pool” and “taxonomic group”. We included 47 genera, 217\\u000a species

Chiara BerlingeriManuel; Manuel B. Crespo

190

Paleogeographic maps, Maturin basin of east Venezuela and Trinidad  

SciTech Connect

The northern margin of the Maturin basin of east Venezuela and Trinidad is part of the Caribbean-South American plate-boundary zone, and deformation within the zone reflects relative motions of these two plates. Stratigraphic sections within this zone do not record sedimentation at a fixed site but rather the different paleogeographic locations occupied by a piece of lithosphere as it migrated through space and time. This paper presents a method of restoring stratigraphic control to its site of deposition. The method assumes a constant rate of 2 cm/yr of relative eastward motion for the Caribbean plate in the vicinity of Trinidad and a uniform distribution of shear among numerous wrench faults within the boundary zone. A compressional component is independently derived by restoring a north-northeast-south-southeast cross section through Trinidad. Lithostratigraphic reference sections from Venezuela and Trinidad are reinterpreted as a paleoshelf edge which has undergone more than 90{degree} of clockwise rotation since the middle Eocene. The buried thrust front found productive in Venezuela at El Furrial is traced eastward across Trinidad and into the offshore. Restored paleogeographic maps are presented for middle Pliocene (3 m.y.); middle Miocene (14 m.y.); the Oligocene-Miocene boundary (22 m.y.) and middle Eocene (45 m.y.).

Rohr, G.M.

1990-05-01

191

Venezuela recasts itself as a new frontier in the Americas  

SciTech Connect

In January of this year, Venezuela captured the attention of the international energy community by welcoming back the foreign oil companies that, 20 years earlier, it had shut out of the country by nationalizing the hydrocarbon sector. The tool used to attract that attention, a new exploration bidding round, is the most publicized event staged to date in the country`s aperture process. However, it is only the latest in a series of steps taken by officials to bring international oil and gas companies back to Caracas. Venezuela`s physical attraction is easily understood. The country possesses roughly one-half of Latin America`s (including Mexico) 125 billion bbl of established, conventional crude oil reserves, plus an estimated 300 billion bbl of additional, nonconventional reserves in the ultra-heavy crude belt of the Orinoco basin. Averaging 2.8 million bpd in 1996, Venezuelan crude production represents over 35% of regional oil output. Natural gas reserves total 138 Tcf, or just over one-half of the region`s total reserves of 274 Tcfg. Annual gas output averages just under 5 Tcf, of which roughly 30% is reinjected as part of tertiary oil recovery schemes. This paper reviews the incentives, deregulation, and government policies to restore the oil and gas industry to the country.

Reinsch, A.E. [Canadian Energy Research Inst., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

1996-09-01

192

Geologic map of the Venezuela part of the Puerto Ayacucho 2 degrees x 3 degrees Quadrangle, Amazonas Federal Territory, Venezuela  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This map is one of a series of 1:500,000-scale maps that, along with several other products, stems from a cooperative agreement between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Corporacion Venezolana de Guayana, Tecnica Minera, C.A. (TECMIN), a Venezuelan Government-owned mining and mineral exploration company. The agreement covered cooperative work carried out in the Precambrian Shield of southern Venezuela during 1987-1991 and included a geologic and mineral resource inventory, technology transfer, and scientific training (Wynn and others, in press). The Precambrian Guayana Shield (Escudo de Guyana, not to be confused with the neighboring country of Guyana) includes some of the oldest known rocks in the world (Mendoza, 1977) and also covers parts of neighboring Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana, Columbia, and Brazil. In Venezuela, it underlies most of Bolivar state and all of the Amazonas Federal Territory (see index map).

Wynn, Jeffrey C.; Olmore, Steven D.; Mendoza, Vicente; Garcia, Andres; Rendon, Ines; Estanga, Yasmin; Rincon, Haydee; Martinez, Felix; Lugo, Elis; Rivero, Nelson; Schruben, Paul G.

1994-01-01

193

Radioactive source materials in Los Estados Unidos de Venezuela  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report summarizes the data available on radioactive source materials in Los Estados Unidos de Venezuela accumulated by geologists of the Direccions Tecnica de Geolgia and antecedent agencies prior to June 1951, and the writers from June to November 1951. The investigation comprised preliminary study, field examination, office studies, and the preparation of this report, in which the areas and localities examined are described in detail, the uranium potentialities of Venezuela are summarized, and recommendations are made. Preliminary study was made to select areas and rock types that were known or reported to be radioactive or that geologic experience suggests would be favorable host for uranium deposits, In the office, a study of gamma-ray well logs was started as one means of amassing general radiometric data and of rapidly scanning many of ye rocks in northern Venezuela; gamma-ray logs from about 140 representative wells were examined and their peaks of gamma intensity evaluated; in addition samples were analyzed radiometrically, and petrographically. Radiometic reconnaissance was made in the field during about 3 months of 1951, or about 12 areas, including over 100 localities in the State of Miranda, Carabobo, Yaracuy, Falcon, Lara, Trujillo, Zulia, Merida, Tachira, Bolivar, and Territory Delta Amacuro. During the course of the investigation, both in the filed and office, information was given about geology of uranium deposits, and in techniques used in prospecting and analysis. All studies and this report are designed to supplement and to strengthen the Direccion Tecnica de Geologias's program of investigation of radioactive source in Venezuela now in progress. The uranium potentialities of Los Estados de Venezuela are excellent for large, low-grade deposits of uraniferous phospahtic shales containing from 0.002 to 0.027 percent uranium; fair, for small or moderate-sized, low-grade placer deposits of thorium, rare-earth, and uranium minerals; poor, for high-grade hydrothermal pitchblende deposits; and highly possible for small, medium- to high-grade despots of carnotite-or copper-uranium bearing sandstone. Recommendations for the Venezuelan uranium program include 1) the systematic collection of a mass general radiometric data by examining sample collections, expanding the gamma-ray program, encouraging the use of Geiger counter by field geologists, and by enlisting the aid of the general public; 2) , the examination of specific areas or localities, chosen on the basis of geologic favorability from the results of the amassing of data, or obtained by hints and rumors; 3), the organization of a unit within the Direccion Tecnica de Geologica to direct, collection, and collate metric data. It is emphasized that to be most fruitful the program requires the application of sounds and imaginative geologic theory.

Wyant, Donald G.; Sharp, William N.; Rodriguez, Carlos Ponte

1953-01-01

194

Au-del de la Revolucin ! Un regard critique sur le Venezuela contemporain  

E-print Network

1 Au-delà de la ¡ Revolución ! Un regard critique sur le Venezuela contemporain Julien REBOTIER du Venezuela, affecte á différents degrés la géopolitique régionale, mais peine á consacrer les cambia la cara de Venezuela, modifica la geopolítica regional a diferentes grados, pero no logra que

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

195

Les risques sismiques Mrida (Venezuela). Pour une association des communauts la prvention de catastrophe dans les  

E-print Network

Les risques sismiques à Mérida (Venezuela). Pour une association des communautés à la prévention de louest) et de Trujillo (à lest) sont les trois états andins du Venezuela. Ils occupent le tracé de la cordillère andine du Venezuela qui se dégrade au nord-est dans létat de Lara en une transition montagneuse

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

196

Sesin 3 -Sistemas Distribuidos y Aplicaciones Mdicas 89 Escuela de Computacin Universidad Central de Venezuela UCV  

E-print Network

Central de Venezuela UCV #12;II Simposio Científico y Tecnológico en Computación 201290 Escuela de Computación Universidad Central de Venezuela UCV #12;Sesión 3 - Sistemas Distribuidos y Aplicaciones Médicas 91 Escuela de Computación Universidad Central de Venezuela UCV #12;II Simposio Científico y

Coto, Ernesto

197

Regional structure and tectonic history of the obliquely colliding Columbus foreland basin, offshore Trinidad and Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cenozoic eastward migration of the Caribbean plate relative to the South American plate is recorded by an 1100-km-long Venezuela-Trinidad foreland basin which is oldest in western Venezuela (65–55Ma), of intermediate age in eastern Venezuela (34–20Ma) and youngest beneath the shelf and slope area of eastern offshore Trinidad (submarine Columbus basin, 15.0Ma-Recent). In this study of the regional structure, fault families,

Emilio Garciacaro; Paul Mann; Alejandro Escalona

2011-01-01

198

The hyper Americans! : Modern architecture in Venezuela during the 1950s.  

E-print Network

??During the 1950s, Venezuela embarked in an architectural venture marked by aesthetic, programmatic, and technological explorations. Politically framed by the international tension of the Cold… (more)

Villota Peña, Jorge

2014-01-01

199

Geographical variation in neonatal phenotype  

PubMed Central

Background Recent studies have shown associations between size and body proportions at birth and health outcomes throughout the life cycle, but there are few data on how neonatal phenotype varies in different populations around the world. Methods Data from the UK, Finland, India, Sri Lanka, China, DR Congo, Nigeria and Jamaica (N=22 067) were used to characterise geographical differences in phenotype in singleton, liveborn newborns. Measurements included birthweight, placental weight, length, head, chest, abdominal and arm circumferences and skinfolds. Results Neonates in Europe were the largest, followed by Jamaica, East Asia (China), then Africa and South Asia. Birthweight varied widely (mean values 2730g to 3570g), but in contrast, head circumference was similar in all except China (markedly smaller). The main difference in body proportions between populations was the head to length ratio, with small heads relative to length in China and large heads relative to length in South Asia and Africa. Conclusions These marked geographical differences in neonatal phenotype need to be considered when investigating determinants of fetal growth, and optimal phenotype for short-term and long-term outcomes. PMID:16929412

Leary, Sam; Fall, Caroline; Osmond, Clive; Lovel, Hermione; Campbell, Doris; Eriksson, Johan; Forrester, Terrence; Godfrey, Keith; Hill, Jacqui; Jie, Mi; Law, Catherine; Newby, Rachel; Robinson, Sian; Yajnik, Chittaranjan

2009-01-01

200

The Geographic Flow of Music  

E-print Network

The social media website last.fm provides a detailed snapshot of what its users in hundreds of cities listen to each week. After suitably normalizing this data, we use it to test three hypotheses related to the geographic flow of music. The first is that although many of the most popular artists are listened to around the world, music preferences are closely related to nationality, language, and geographic location. We find support for this hypothesis, with a couple of minor, yet interesting, exceptions. Our second hypothesis is that some cities are consistently early adopters of new music (and early to snub stale music). To test this hypothesis, we adapt a method previously used to detect the leadership networks present in flocks of birds. We find empirical support for the claim that a similar leadership network exists among cities, and this finding is the main contribution of the paper. Finally, we test the hypothesis that large cities tend to be ahead of smaller cities-we find only weak support for this hy...

Lee, Conrad

2012-01-01

201

Geographic profiling and animal foraging.  

PubMed

Geographic profiling was originally developed as a statistical tool for use in criminal cases, particularly those involving serial killers and rapists. It is designed to help police forces prioritize lists of suspects by using the location of crime scenes to identify the areas in which the criminal is most likely to live. Two important concepts are the buffer zone (criminals are less likely to commit crimes in the immediate vicinity of their home) and distance decay (criminals commit fewer crimes as the distance from their home increases). In this study, we show how the techniques of geographic profiling may be applied to animal data, using as an example foraging patterns in two sympatric colonies of pipistrelle bats, Pipistrellus pipistrellus and P. pygmaeus, in the northeast of Scotland. We show that if model variables are fitted to known roost locations, these variables may be used as numerical descriptors of foraging patterns. We go on to show that these variables can be used to differentiate patterns of foraging in these two species. PMID:16263134

Le Comber, Steven C; Nicholls, Barry; Rossmo, D Kim; Racey, Paul A

2006-05-21

202

Potential geographical distribution of the red palm mite in South America.  

PubMed

Among pests that have recently been introduced into the Americas, the red palm mite, Raoiella indica Hirst (Prostigmata: Tenuipalpidae), is the most invasive. This mite has spread rapidly to several Caribbean countries, United States of America, Mexico, Venezuela, Colombia and Brazil. The potential dispersion of R. indica to other regions of South America could seriously impact the cultivation of coconuts, bananas, exotic and native palms and tropical flowers such as the Heliconiaceae. To facilitate the development of efficacious R. indica management techniques such as the adoption of phytosanitary measures to prevent or delay the dispersion of this pest, the objective of this paper was to estimate the potential geographical distribution of R. indica in South America using a maximum entropy model. The R. indica occurrence data used in this model were obtained from extant literature, online databases and field sampling data. The model predicted potential suitable areas for R. indica in northern Colombia, central and northern Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, east French Guiana and many parts of Brazil, including Roraima, the eastern Amazonas, northern Pará, Amapá and the coastal zones, from Pará to north of Rio de Janeiro. These results indicate the potential for significant R. indica related economic and social impacts in all of these countries, particularly in Brazil, because the suitable habitat regions overlap with agricultural areas for R. indica host plants such as coconuts and bananas. PMID:23297112

Amaro, George; de Morais, Elisangela Gomes Fidelis

2013-07-01

203

A new approach to the oil business in Venezuela  

SciTech Connect

Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. (PDVSA) has been meeting during the past two years with a considerable number of companies (groups) with a view to possible associations for the reactivation of known fields, joint activities in barely explored areas and the exploitation, refining, upgrading and marketing of crudes from the Orinoco Belt holder of immense reserves of extra-heavy crudes and bitumens. In Venezuela, a new approach to the oil business is under way. On January 1976, the law nationalizing the Venezuelan oil industry became effective establishing that the government retains the sole rights to the country's petroleum industry. However, Article 5 of the law made provision for associations in cases considered to be of [open quotes]National Interest.[close quotes] PDVSA became the wholly government-owned holding entity, encompassing 26 subsidiaries and affiliates. Other energy segments, particularly coal and petrochemicals, were not included in the law and since 1984 several associations with non-governmental entities have been established in Venezuela and very valuable experience has been garnered. Similarly, partnerships and acquisitions have been made in Europe and USA, mostly in refining, through PDVSA. The international petroleum industry foresees a modest, but steady increase in production during the coming decade, particularly in the second half of the nineties. This effect, added to the globalization concept, is making the traditional vertically integrated oil companies look for diverse [open quotes]lateral[close quotes] associations between groups, private and/or state owned with common interests, that will give greater security to sources of supply and market share.

Pradas, F.; Valdes, G. (Petroleos de Venezuela, Caracas (Venezuela))

1993-02-01

204

Present Status of Historical Seismicity Studies in Colombia and Venezuela  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After the publication of the SISRA (CERESIS-1985) regional project, a unified catalog of seismic parameters and intensities for South America, researchers in historical seismicity have continued advancing on different scales in the area of this study of seismic hazard. The most important initiatives carried out in this area in Colombia and Venezuela can be grouped as follows: a) Reviews of destructive earthquakes in national and international historic archives, principally by Altez and FUNVISIS in Venezuela and Espinosa, Salcedo, and Sarabia et al in Colombia, leading to the preparation of seismologic catalogues, scientific and dissemination articles, reports, books, among others. b) Organization and systematization of historic information to develop public domain data bases and information, specifically the Historic Seismologic Teleinformation System in Venezuela, carried out between 2004 and 2008 under the coordination of Christl Palme and accessible on-line: http://sismicidad.ciens.ula.ve. As well, the "Historia Sísmica de Colombia 1550-1830" (Seismic History in Colombia 1550-1830) data base, in CD-ROM, by Espinosa Baquero (2003) and the historic seismicity information system of Colombia (Servicio Geológico Colombiano-Universidad Nacional de Colombia), published on the internet in 2012: http://agata.ingeominas.gov.co:9090/SismicidadHistorica/. c) Macroseismic studies for the development of intensity attenuation equations and the quantification and revaluation of basic historic earthquake parameters using isoseismal maps (Rengifo et al., Palme et al., Salcedo et al., among others) and procedures such as Boxer and Bakun & Wentworth (Palme et al., Dimaté, among others), which have produced significant changes in the parameters of some of the large earthquakes. d) Symposiums of researchers to promote interest and development in the discipline, including Jornadas Venezolanas de Sismología Histórica (Venezuelan Congress of Historical Seismology), held periodically between 1997 and 2012, the year of the sixth edition. As well, national and international research groups have been formed to work actively on global projects, such as the Geophysics Laboratory of Universidad de Los Andes in Venezuela. In the future, international groups will be formed to jointly treat issues including localization and size of destructive events along borders, common scales for the evaluation of intensities, integrated data bases, etc. Additionally the methods employed will be validated by paleoseismology, neotectonics and instrumental seismicity, among others.

Sarabia, A.; Cifuentes, H.; Altez Ortega, R.; Palme, C.; Dimate, C.

2013-05-01

205

Venezuela No. 1 oil import source in S. America  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that with the exception of Venezuela, the U.S. is likely to import much oil from South American countries through 2010, the General Accounting Office reports. GAO, a congressional watchdog agency, noted the U.S. imports about 4% of its oil from Colombia, Ecuador, and Trinidad and Tobago and possibly could import from Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, and Peru in the future. It the the eight countries' crude oil reserves are expected to increase about 30% by 2000, then slide about 2% by 2010. Their oil production is expected to climb about 21% over 1990 by 2000, then level off until 2010.

Not Available

1992-08-10

206

Teachers Homepage: National Geographic Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Geographic Education website is a wonderful find, as it includes resources for educators who wish to incorporate spatial knowledge, cultural geography, and a wide range of related subjects into their classrooms. The Fast Fact on the top left-hand side of the page is a great place to start: it currently features information on how to make a simple compass and understand navigation. Moving along, the Teaching Resources area contains teaching units on political boundaries, the environmental conditions in the solar system, and extreme weather. One particularly fun area here is the Graphic Organizers Collection. Here visitors can download an assortment of blank, black-and-white graphic organizers that are designed to help students with problem solving, decision making, studying, planning research, brainstorming, and writing. The site is rounded out (appropriately enough) by the What is Geo-Literacy? section. Here visitors can look at cartoons, articles, and videos that talk about the importance of this subject.

207

Clay mineralogy of surface sediments as a tool for deciphering river contributions to the Cariaco Basin (Venezuela)  

E-print Network

Basin (Venezuela) V. Bout-Roumazeilles,1 A. Riboulleau,1 E. Armynot du Châtelet,1 L. Lorenzoni,3 N for deciphering river contributions to the Cariaco Basin (Venezuela), J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 118, doi:10

Meyers, Steven D.

208

Using the Five Themes of Geography To Teach about Venezuela and Mexico.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Activities that employ the five themes of geography--location, place, relationships within places, movement, and regions--to teach about Venezuela and Mexico are described in this document. Each theme has objectives, a list of materials, and three types of activities--exploration, invention, and expansion. Background information on Venezuela and…

Sunal, Cynthia Szymanski; Christensen, Lois

209

Molecular and Antigenic Comparison of Ehrlichia canis Isolates from Dogs, Ticks, and a Human in Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

We previously culture isolated a strain of Ehrlichia canis, the causative agent of canine ehrlichiosis, from a human in Venezuela. In the present study, we examined whether dogs and ticks are infected with E. canis in Venezuela and, if so, whether this is the same strain as the human isolate. PCR analysis using E. canis-specific primers revealed that 17 of

AHMET UNVER; MIRIAM PEREZ; NELSON ORELLANA; HAIBIN HUANG; YASUKO RIKIHISA; Departmento de Medicina Cirugia

2001-01-01

210

Earnings and Education in Venezuela: An Update from the 1987 Household Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses data from Venezuela's 1987 Household Survey to update returns to education and compare them to 1975 and 1984 figures. Returns to education have been maintained despite the educational explosion occurring in Venezuela during the period investigated. Although higher education is most heavily subsidized, primary education remains the most…

Psacharopoulos, George; Alam, Asad

1991-01-01

211

Wages and foreign ownership A comparative study of Mexico, Venezuela, and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the relationship between wages and foreign investment in Mexico, Venezuela, and the United States. Despite very different economic conditions and levels of development, we find one fact that is robust across all three countries: higher levels of foreign investment are associated with higher wages. However, in Mexico and Venezuela, foreign investment is associated with higher wages only

Brian Aitken; Ann Harrison; Robert E. Lipsey

1996-01-01

212

Ecology of an isolated mangrove lagoon (Playa Medina, Venezuela) and its potential  

E-print Network

Ecology of an isolated mangrove lagoon (Playa Medina, Venezuela) and its potential use as sewage conditions of a coastal mangrove lagoon in Venezuela which is completely isolated from the sea, lacking any is to relate some of the effects of disconnection, with the potential use of the mangrove as a sewage pond

Vegas Vlarrúbia, Teresa

213

Socio-Economic Aspects of National Communication Systems: III. Radio Broadcasting in Venezuela. Communication and Society, 12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The third in a series that examines the role of radio broadcasting in the process of socioeconomic and cultural change in three countries with different types of broadcasting organization--Austria, Czechoslovakia, and Venezuela--this volume focuses on Venezuela. An overview of radio broadcasting in Venezuela describes various aspects and provides…

Capriles, Oswaldo; And Others

214

Comparison of species-specific oxygen isotope paleotemperature equations: Sensitivity analysis using planktonic foraminifera from the Cariaco Basin, Venezuela  

E-print Network

using planktonic foraminifera from the Cariaco Basin, Venezuela Katherine E. Wejnert a, , Robert C, Venezuela a b s t r a c ta r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 6 December 2011 Received in revised biweekly sediment trap samples collected in Cariaco Basin, Venezuela between 2003 and 2008. Sixteen

Meyers, Steven D.

215

EL IMPACTO DEL CONFLICTO POLTICO SOBRE LAS ORGANIZACIONES DE LA SOCIEDAD CIVIL EN VENEZUELA: EL DILEMA ENTRE PARTICIPACIN Y REPRESENTACIN.  

E-print Network

EL IMPACTO DEL CONFLICTO POLÍTICO SOBRE LAS ORGANIZACIONES DE LA SOCIEDAD CIVIL EN VENEZUELA: EL Universidad Central de Venezuela gomezcal@cantv.net RESUMEN: En los años recientes, la pérdida de legitimidad, conflicto político, Venezuela #12;INTRODUCCI�N En este trabajo intentamos analizar algunos de los impactos

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

216

Expression of the chaplin and rodlin hydrophobic sheath proteins in Streptomyces venezuelae is controlled by sBldN  

E-print Network

Expression of the chaplin and rodlin hydrophobic sheath proteins in Streptomyces venezuelae) genes by exploiting a new model species, Streptomyces venezuelae, which sporulates in liquid culture discussed in this report, Streptomy- ces venezuelae has two long chaplins (ChpB and ChpC) and four short

Buttner, Mark

217

Raptor abundance and distribution in the Llanos wetlands of Venezuela  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Llanos of Venezuela is a 275 000-km2 freshwater wetland long recognized as an important habitat for waterbirds. However, little information exists on the raptor community of the region. We conducted raptor surveys in the Southwestern and Western Llanos during 2000-02 and detected 28 species representing 19 genera. Overall, areas of the Llanos that we sampled contained 52% of all raptor species and more than 70% of the kites, buteos, and subbuteos known to inhabit Venezuela. Regional differences in the mean number per route for four of the 14 most common species, the Crested Caracara (Caracara plancus), Black-collared Hawk (Busarellus nigricollis), American Kestrel (Falco sparverius), and Osprey (Pandion haliaetus), were significant (P < 0.0018) in relation to the wet or dry seasons. Of the 14 less common species, six were detected in only one season (wet or dry). The Southwestern and Western regions of the Llanos support a rich raptor community composed primarily of nonmigratory wetland-dependent and upland-terrestrial species. ?? 2005 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

Jensen, W.J.; Gregory, M.S.; Baldassarre, G.A.; Vilella, F.J.; Bildstein, K.L.

2005-01-01

218

Venezuela, Trinidad and Tobago: crude oil potential from known deposits  

SciTech Connect

This report presents an analysis of the future oil supply potential from the known fields of the republics of Venezuela and Trinidad and Tobago. Presented herein are estimates of (1) original oil in place; (2) ultimate recovery; (3) remaining reserves; and (4) projected supply patterns. A discussion of the methodology for projecting supply patterns is also presented. This analysis does not include recoverable resources from nonconventional deposits such as tar sands and oil shale. The Republic of Venezuela ranked 7th in 1979 in production among the oil producers of the world and is one of the leading exporters of crude oil. During 1979, production averaged about 2.3 million (MM) barrels of oil per day (bopd). It exported an average of 1.2 MM bopd of crude oil in 1978 and 690 thousand (M) bopd of refined products during the first eleven months of 1978. Thus, it exported all but 12 to 13 percent of the petroleum produced in 1978; the rest is consumed domestically. About 1/3 of the country's exports are received by the United States, and it was the 5th and 3rd largest supplier of crude oil and refined products to the United States in 1978 and 1979, respectively.

Dietzman, W.D.; Rafidi, N.R.; Warner, A.J.

1981-07-01

219

Intestinal helminths of capybaras, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris, from Venezuela.  

PubMed

Quantitative parameters of intestinal helminth species and their potential relations to host characteristics in a population of capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) from Venezuela are reported for the first time. The intestines of 40 capybaras were collected during the 1992-annual harvest at Hato El Cedral. Six helminth species were found: 2 cestodes (Monoecocestus macrobursatum, M. hagmanni), 2 nematodes (Viannella hydrochoeri, Protozoophaga obesa), and 2 trematodes (Hippocrepis hippocrepis, Taxorchis schistocotyle). This is the first report for M. macrobursatum in Venezuela. Helminth abundance did not differ between sexes or age classes. Although patterns of distribution for all helminth species were overdispersed, the high prevalence found for all species (over 70%) and the high abundance observed for nematodes made it difficult to assess the effect that these helminths may produce on capybaras. Nevertheless, the negative associations found between the body condition of capybaras and helminth intensity for M. macrobursatum and V. hydrochoeri, might be pointing out potential host population regulatory role for these parasites which require further research. PMID:15558163

Salas, Viviana; Herrera, Emilio A

2004-10-01

220

Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) in Margarita Island, Venezuela.  

PubMed

A severe outbreak of Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) occurred in Manzanillo and Guayacán, northwestern coast of Margarita Island, Venezuela, between August and October 1991. A bloom of dinoflagellates including Prorocentrum gracile, Gymnodinium catenatum and Alexandrium tamarense seemed to be responsible for this outbreak. Levels of PSP toxins in mussels (Perna perna) exceeded the international safety limit of saxitoxin, 80 microg STX/100 microg meat. PSP toxin values varied between 2548 and 115 microg STX/100 g meat in Manzanillo, and between 1422 and 86 microg STX/100 g meat in Guayacán. At both locations, the highest levels were detected in August, when 24 patients exhibited typical symptoms of PSP toxicity after consuming cooked mussels (16 required hospitalization). A high pressure liquid chromatographic (HPLC) procedure was recently used on the 1991 samples. The major toxin detected in samples of both locations was decarbamoyl saxitoxin (dcSTX), but low concentrations of saxitoxin were also found in Manzanillo samples. Gonyautoxins GTX1, GTX2 and GTX3 were detected only at Guayacán, while in both locations, decarbamoylgonyatouxin (dcGTX2,3) toxins were detected. These findings represent the first time that causative toxins of PSP in Venezuela have been chemically identified, and confirm the presence of dcSTX and dcGTX in mussels from the Caribbean Sea. The presence of dcSTX and dcGTX in shellfish is indicative that Gymnodinium catenatum was a causative organism for outbreak of PSP. PMID:17465121

La Barbera-Sánchez, Amelia; Franco Soler, Jose; Rojas de Astudillo, Luisa; Chang-Yen, Ivan

2004-09-01

221

Discovering geographic web services in search engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – There is an open discussion in the geographic information community about the use of digital libraries or search engines for the discovery of resources. Some researchers suggest that search engines are a feasible alternative for searching geographic web services based on anecdotal evidence. The purpose of this study is to measure the performance of Bing (formerly Microsoft Live

Francisco J. Lopez-Pellicer; Aneta J. Florczyk; Rubén Béjar; Pedro R. Muro-Medrano; F. Javier Zarazaga-Soria

2011-01-01

222

Categorizing web queries according to geographical locality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Web pages (and resources, in general) can be characterized according to their geographical locality. For example, a web page with general information about wildflowers could be considered a global page, likely to be of interest to a geographically broad audience. In contrast, a web page with listings on houses for sale in a specific city could be regarded as a

Luis Gravano; Vasileios Hatzivassiloglou; Richard Lichtenstein

2003-01-01

223

The ontology of virtual geographical environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

After the concept of virtual geographical environment (VGE) has been initiated, related issues to it are becoming research hotspots in geographic information science. It shows its comprehensive application prospects in different fields to human; even in geography some celebrated scholars think that VGE is becoming new generation language after verbal language, maps, GIS. The concept initiation of VGE is just

Kai Liu; Wei Hao; Yaochen Qin

2010-01-01

224

NATIONAL CENTER FOR GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION AND ANALYSIS  

E-print Network

NATIONAL CENTER FOR GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION AND ANALYSIS ANNUAL REPORT Year 8 (January 1, 1996 University of Maine 30 June 1997 #12;NATIONAL CENTER FOR GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION AND ANALYSIS ANNUAL REPORT and Analysis was announced by the National Science Foundation on August 19, 1988, and awarded to a consortium

California at Santa Barbara, University of

225

NATIONAL CENTER FOR GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION AND ANALYSIS  

E-print Network

NATIONAL CENTER FOR GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION AND ANALYSIS ANNUAL REPORT Year 2 (December 1, 1989 University of Maine January 19, 1991 #12;NATIONAL CENTER FOR GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION AND ANALYSIS ANNUAL Information and Analysis was announced by the National Science Foundation on August 19, 1988, and awarded

California at Santa Barbara, University of

226

NATIONAL CENTER FOR GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION AND ANALYSIS  

E-print Network

NATIONAL CENTER FOR GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION AND ANALYSIS ANNUAL REPORT Year 3 (December 1, 1990 University of Maine January 28, 1992 #12;NATIONAL CENTER FOR GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION AND ANALYSIS ANNUAL Information and Analysis was announced by the National Science Foundation on August 19, 1988, and awarded

California at Santa Barbara, University of

227

National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis  

E-print Network

NCGIA National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis Teaching Introductory Geographical Data Analysis with GIS: A Laboratory Guide for an Integrated SpaceStat/ldrisi Environment Edited for Spatial Analysis State University of New York University of Maine University of California 301 Wilkeson

California at Santa Barbara, University of

228

NATIONAL CENTER FOR GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION AND ANALYSIS  

E-print Network

NATIONAL CENTER FOR GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION AND ANALYSIS ANNUAL REPORT Year 4 (December 1, 1991 University of Maine February 28, 1993 #12;NATIONAL CENTER FOR GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION AND ANALYSIS ANNUAL Information and Analysis was announced by the National Science Foundation on August 19, 1988, and awarded

California at Santa Barbara, University of

229

NATIONAL CENTER FOR GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION AND ANALYSIS  

E-print Network

NATIONAL CENTER FOR GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION AND ANALYSIS ANNUAL REPORT Year 1 (December 1, 1988 University of Maine February 26, 1990 #12;NATIONAL CENTER FOR GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION AND ANALYSIS ANNUAL and Analysis was announced by NSF on August 19, 1988, and awarded to a consortium of the University

California at Santa Barbara, University of

230

NATIONAL CENTER FOR GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION AND ANALYSIS  

E-print Network

NATIONAL CENTER FOR GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION AND ANALYSIS ANNUAL REPORT Year 5 (December 1, 1992 University of Maine April 26, 1994 #12; NATIONAL CENTER FOR GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION AND ANALYSIS ANNUAL REPORT and Analysis was announced by the National Science Foundation on August 19, 1988, and awarded to a consortium

California at Santa Barbara, University of

231

NATIONAL CENTER FOR GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION AND ANALYSIS  

E-print Network

NATIONAL CENTER FOR GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION AND ANALYSIS ANNUAL REPORT Year 7 (January 1, 1995 University of Maine 30 March 1996 #12;i NATIONAL CENTER FOR GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION AND ANALYSIS ANNUAL REPORT and Analysis was announced by the National Science Foundation on August 19, 1988, and awarded to a consortium

California at Santa Barbara, University of

232

Teaching Geographic Field Methods Using Paleoecology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Field-based undergraduate geography courses provide numerous pedagogical benefits including an opportunity for students to acquire employable skills in an applied context. This article presents one unique approach to teaching geographic field methods using paleoecological research. The goals of this course are to teach students key geographic…

Walsh, Megan K.

2014-01-01

233

Qualitative reasoning about consistency in geographic information  

E-print Network

Qualitative reasoning about consistency in geographic information Matt Duckham a,, Jenny Lingham b reasoning system for describing consistency between different geographic data sets. Consistency is closely how automated reasoning about consistency can be used to sup- port the integration of heterogeneous

Duckham, Matt

234

Cartography, Geographic Information, and Public Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cartography is undergoing a digital transition with geographic data becoming available in machine-readable form and with the diminishing need to draw and print maps in order to communicate information. This automation will force cartographers to concentrate upon the institutional aspects of information management. Implications for geographic…

Monmonier, Mark S.

1982-01-01

235

The geographical spread of influenza.  

PubMed Central

How infectious diseases spread in space within one cycle of an epidemic is an important question that has received considerable theoretical attention. There are, however, few empirical studies to support theoretical approaches, because data are scarce. Weekly reports obtained since 1984 from a network of general practitioners spanning the entire French territory allows the analysis of the spatio-temporal dynamics of influenza over a fine spatial scale. This analysis indicates that diffusion over long distances, possibly due to global transportation systems, is so quick that homogeneous global mixing occurs before the epidemic builds up within infected patches. A simple model in which the total number of cases is given by the empirical time-series and cases are randomly assigned to patches according to the population weight of the patches exhibits the same spatio-temporal properties as real epidemic cycles: homogeneous mixing models constitute appropriate descriptions, except in the vicinity of the epidemic's peak, where geographic heterogeneities play a role. PMID:9921681

Bonabeau, E; Toubiana, L; Flahault, A

1998-01-01

236

Potential for Great Thrust Earthquakes in NE Colombia & NW Venezuela  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sixty-five percent of the ?19 mm/yr eastward velocity of the Caribbean Plate north of Aruba and the Guajira peninsula relative to the South American plate is accommodated by dextral slip on the Bocono Fault system in NW Venezuela at 12±1 mm/yr, the remaining ~3 mm/yr of shear apparently distributed to the NW of the fault (Perez et al., 2011). The N40E strike of the Bocono fault system, however, requires that 10.6±1 mm/yr of convergence should accompany this partitioned dextral shear, but GPS measurements reveal that less than 25% of this convergence occurs across the Venezuelan Andes. The remaining 6-8 mm of convergence is presumably accommodated by incipient subduction between the Bocono fault and a trench 300 km NW of the northern coast of Colombia. Hence NW Venezuela and NE Colombia may occasionally host great earthquakes. Our current poor understanding of the geometry of the plate interface permits the plate to be locked 300 km down-dip and possibly 600 km along-strike, and if the plate slips in 10 m ruptures it could do so every 1200 years in a M~9 earthquake. No great earthquake has occurred since 1492, since when ~4 m of potential slip has developed, but should slip occur on just 10% of the hypothesized décollement (100x150 km) it could do so now in an Mw=8.2 earthquake. In that a potential Mw>8 earthquake poses a future seismic and tsunami threat to the Caribbean it is important to examine whether great earthquakes have occurred previously near the NW Venezuela coast. It is possible that creep accommodates the entire convergence signal, since there is no suggestion from microseismicity for an abrupt locked-to-sliding transition, as, for example, signifies its location in the Himalaya. An alternative measure of future potential seismic energy release is to identify the locus and rate of present-day strain contraction. To this end, Venezuelan, Colombian and US (CU and UNAVCO) investigators are installing an array of more than a dozen continuous operating GPS sites in the region. Studies of tsunami deposits on the Dutch Antilles suggest that the provenance of paleotsunami responsible for moving 10-100 ton blocks of coral onshore in the past two millennia has been from the east (Sheffers, 2002), and not from the north or south as we might expect from a NW Venezuelan earthquake. The existence of precariously balanced rocks in the region provides an alternative constraint on the occurrence of large local accelerations. The survival of at least four precariously balanced megablocks on the island of Aruba suggests that horizontal accelerations here have not exceeded 1 g for the past several millennia, but refined numerical estimates of potential shaking intensity consistent with their survival have yet to be completed. Accelerations exceeded 2.5 g in the Tohuko 2011 earthquake but above the Mexican subduction zone, accelerations have typically not exceeded 0.5 g in recent Mw~7.5 earthquakes, and hence the existence of these blocks may not exclude the historical occurrence of damaging earthquakes. A broader search for surviving strong-motion indicators in Colombia and Venezuela is planned during the installation of the GPS array.

Bilham, R. G.; Mencin, D.

2013-05-01

237

Swarms in Venezuela: characterization of the involved seismicity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A swarm is a gradual increase and decay of seismicity in time forming a cluster of seismic events without the occurrence of a particular mainshock or major earthquake. In Venezuela, there are few sequences of the swarm type in the instrumental age of seismology. These swarms are not related to volcanic activity and there is few studied evidence to lead the understanding of the triggering mechanism of the venezuelan swarm activity. We compile instrumental information in order to reassess and compare five swarms occurred in 1989, 1991, 1995, 2006 and 2011. Four of these swarms are located in areas where predominant quaternary faults generate most of the background seismicity. We investigated the statistical properties of these swarms and activity patterns under the frequency size distribution and the interevent-time distribution to study the time between two consecutive events as a stationary point process.

Vasquez, R.; Granado, C.; Borges, N.

2013-05-01

238

Venezuela's stake in US refining may grow: xenophobia addressed  

SciTech Connect

Is this an invasion of U.S. oil industry sovereignty, or a happy marriage of upstream and downstream between US and foreign interests. Venezuela, a founding member of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries who has also been a chief supplier to the US during times of peace and war, now owns half of two important US refining and marketing organizations. Many US marketers have felt uneasy about this foreign penetration of their turf. In this issue, for the sake of public information, the entire policy statement from the leader of that Venezuelan market strategy is provided. This issue also contains the following: (1) ED refining netback data for the US Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore as of late September, 1987; and (2) ED fuel price/tax series for countries of the Eastern Hemisphere, Sept. 19 edition. 4 figures, 6 tables.

Not Available

1987-09-23

239

Simuliidae and their relation to human onchocerciasis in northern Venezuela  

PubMed Central

A study of the vectors of onchocerciasis was carried out in 1961 in northern Venezuela at the request of the Venezuelan Government. This article, based on the report submitted, records various observations made—mainly during the dry season—on the identification and biology of the Simuliidae and on the possibilities of controlling them. Twelve Simulium forms were encountered; special attention was paid to the two common man-biting species; S. exiguum, which was abundant but of uncertain relation to onchocerciasis, and S. metallicum. The authors conclude that S. metallicum is the main or only vector in the area studied, but that S. exiguum might possibly also transmit onchocerciasis in certain places near large streams where it is found in great numbers. PMID:20604129

Lewis, D. J.; de Aldecoa, R. Ibáñez

1962-01-01

240

Seismic anisotropy and mantle flow beneath western Venezuela  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We measured shear wave splitting from SKS and SKKS data recorded by the national seismic network of Venezuela and a linear broadband PASSCAL/Rice seismic array across the Merida Andes. The linear array was installed as a second phase of the passive seismic component of the BOLIVAR project (Broadband Onshore-offshore Lithospheric Investigation of Venezuela and the Antilles arc Region) to better understand the complicated regional tectonics in western Venezuela. Polarization direction (?) of the faster S wave and delay time (?t) between the fast and slow wavelets from 20 stations were obtained using a stacking method proposed by Wolfe and Silver (1998). For each station, SKS or SKKS waveform data from 2 to 36 earthquakes, mostly from the Tonga subduction zone, were selected for splitting analysis. We assumed that shear wave splitting observed at each station is caused by upper mantle seismic anisotropy beneath the station. The best splitting parameters (?,?t) were estimated when the summed eigenvalue ratio ?(SNRi[?2i(?,?t)/?1i(?,?t)]) of the covariance matrix of the corrected particle motion reaches its minimum. We used signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) calculated from a noise time window before SKS as the weight of the summation. The fast polarization directions can be divided into 3 zones, all in agreement with local GPS data: The first zone is the stations north of the dextral strike-slip Oca fault, an extinct part of the San Sebastian-El Pilar plate boundary zone. These stations show the largest split times (1.6-2.0s), oriented in a roughly EW direction, and are similar to splitting observations made further to the east along the strike slip plate boundary. Zone two is the Maracaibo block, bounded on the southeast by the right lateral Bocono fault, where split orientations are at N45°E, suggesting that the observed seismic anisotropy is likely caused by lithospheric deformation parallel to the Bocono. Zone three is east of the Bocono fault inside the Barinas-Apure Basin, where the measured split times are smaller (0.6-1.0s) with an EW fast direction that is consistent with those observed at the Guarico Basin, Maturin Basin and the Guayana shield in the east (Growdon et al., 2009), and are interpreted as orientation with the motion of the continent. Russo and Silver (1994) proposed that the rollback of the Nazca plate induced a trench-parallel NS flow that passes around the northwest corner of the subducting plate and along the northern edge of South America, forming an eastward flow beneath the southern Caribbean plate. The observed seismic anisotropy in western Venezuela can be roughly explained by a combination of this corner flow, the westward drift of the South America continent due to the opening of Atlantic Ocean, modulated by the northward escape of the Maracaibo block.

Masy, J.; Niu, F.; Levander, A.

2009-12-01

241

Venezuela 2000 restructures its electric power sector to ensure competitiveness  

SciTech Connect

Today, it is well known that the countries that are best equipped to develop their production are not those with the most natural resources but those who have the best trained people, most technical resources and that base their development on competitiveness. The State model is, definitely, not one that offers the greatest advantages, and Venezuela is an example of this. Even when, thanks to the economic boom the country enjoyed in the 70s and 80s, it was able to cost the investments required to develop its infrastructure and to prepare a first class human contingent, over the long term, competition was discouraged and waste encouraged. The result was that, even when Venezuela had vast economic resources compared to its relatively small population, it was not able to become the exception to the rule and succeed in applying this model--now considered obsolete in many countries--indefinitely. Another model based on private ownership has begun to take its place, one that has made it possible to cost the increasingly large investments required, involves opening up these sectors to private capital, and uses the phenomenon of globalization--a major driving force behind competition and one that has wrought considerable change in all corners of the increasingly smaller planet. This paper describes the steps that different sectors in the country have been taking to implement this new model in the electric power sector, such as developing draft legislation for regulating the Sector, very shortly to culminate in the passing of an electric power law by Congress; opening up the Sector to private investors (privatization); dividing the electric power industry into four business units (generation, transmission, distribution and marketing); the electric power market; and other innovations currently being implemented.

Alvarez, C.E. [Electrical Power Sector, Caracas (Venezuela)

1999-11-01

242

A new baseline for fascioliasis in Venezuela: lymnaeid vectors ascertained by DNA sequencing and analysis of their relationships with human and animal infection  

PubMed Central

Background Human and animal fascioliasis poses serious public health problems in South America. In Venezuela, livestock infection represents an important veterinary problem whereas there appear to be few human cases reported, most of which are passively detected in health centres. However, results of recent surveys suggest that the situation may be underestimated in particular areas. To obtain a baseline for future fascioliasis assessment, studies were undertaken by means of rDNA ITS-2 and ITS-1 and mtDNA cox1 sequencing to clarify the specific status of Venezuelan lymnaeids, their geographical distribution and fascioliasis transmission capacity, by comparison with other American countries and other continents. Results Results obtained completely change the lymnaeid scenario known so far. The relatively rich lymnaeid fauna of Venezuela has been proven to include (i) Lymnaea meridensis and L. neotropica as the only native members, (ii) L. cubensis and Pseudosuccinea columella introduced from the Caribbean area, and (iii) Galba truncatula and L. schirazensis introduced from the Old World. The absence of representatives of the stagnicoline and Radix groups is remarkable. Four species are fascioliasis vectors: G. truncatula, L. cubensis and L. neotropica, which have the capacity to give rise to human endemic areas, and P. columella, which is a source of animal infection and is responsible for the spread of disease. Vector capacity in the apparently highland endemic L. meridensis is to be confimed, although may be expected given its phylogenetic relationships. Similarly as elsewhere, the non-transmitting L. schirazensis has been confused with L. cubensis, also with G. truncatula and possibly with L. neotropica. Conclusions The new scenario leads to the re-opening of many disease aspects. In Venezuela, altitude appears to be the main factor influencing fascioliasis distribution. Human infection shows an altitude pattern similar to other Andean countries, although a differing highland/lowland impact on animal infection does not appear evident. The overlap of G. truncatula, L. cubensis and probably also L. neotropica in temperate and cold zones suggests a higher risk for human infection in mid and high altitude areas. A lymnaeid species mapping by means of DNA markers becomes a priority to determine human and animal fascioliasis distribution in Venezuela, owing to the importance of lymnaeid vectors in defining transmission and epidemiological patterns. PMID:21999170

2011-01-01

243

PENNSYLVANIA GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM LIBRARY: COUNTY BOUNDARIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Pennsylvania Geographic Information System (GIS) Library provides a data set of complete digitized county boundaries of the Commonwealth Of Pennsylvania at a scale of 1:24,000 from USGS topographic maps. The data format is ARC/INFO Export....

244

Remote sensing and geographically based information systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A structure is proposed for a geographically-oriented computer-based information system applicable to the analysis of remote sensing digital data. The structure, intended to answer a wide variety of user needs, would permit multiple views of the data, provide independent management of data security, quality and integrity, and rely on automatic data filing. Problems in geographically-oriented data systems, including those related to line encoding and cell encoding, are considered.

Cicone, R. C.

1977-01-01

245

A Geographic Information Retrieval Approach to Locate Pharmacies on Duty  

E-print Network

Geographic Information Retrieval (GIR), Geographic Information Systems (GIS), Toponym Disambiguation 1 how much information exist nowadays in the big cloud that we call Internet, especially information

Rosso, Paolo

246

A reservoir characterization for a complex multilayered system in Eastern Venezuela  

E-print Network

A RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION FOR A COMPI. EX MULTILAYERED SYSTEM IN EASTERN VENEZUELA A Thesis by CARMEN ESTHER AVILA Submitted to the Once of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree...

Avila, Carmen Esther

1998-01-01

247

A revision of the Larainae (Coleoptera, Elmidae) of Venezuela, with description of nine new species  

E-print Network

The species of the riffle beetle subfamily Larainae occurring in Venezuela are revised. Examination of 756 specimens yielded 22 species in nine genera occurring throughout the country. Seven species are newly recorded from the country: Phanoceroides...

Maier, Crystal A.

2013-09-05

248

A Descriptive Chronology of Films by Women in Venezuela, 1952-92.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers an annotated chronology of Venezuelan films, representing a first step toward a general history of women's filmmaking in Venezuela. Suggests that the participation of women directors closely follows the curve of national film production in general. (RS)

Schwartzman, Karen

1993-01-01

249

Biological and phylogenetic characterization of a genotype VII Newcastle disease virus from Venezuela: Efficacy of vaccination  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Here we describe the characterization a virulent genotype VII Newcastle disease virus (NDV) from Venezuela and evaluate the efficacy of heterologous genotype commercial vaccination under field and controlled rearing conditions. Biological pathotyping and molecular analysis were applied. Results sh...

250

Decentralization and Regionalization in the Ministry of Education: The Case of Venezuela  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research is an effort to analyze the process of organizational change as it takes place within one segment of the public administration mechanism in Venezuela--The Ministry of Education. (Editor/RK)

Hanson, Mark

1976-01-01

251

Correlation of the Jurassic through Oligocene Stratigraphic Units of Trinidad and Northeastern Venezuela  

SciTech Connect

The Jurassic through Oligocene stratigraphies of Trinidad and the Serrenia del Interior of eastern Venezuela exhibit many similarities because of their proximity on the passive continental margins of northeastern South America. A slightly later subsidence in eastern Venezuela, and the generally deeper-water sedimentation in Trinidad, is interpreted to be the result of a serration of the original rift margin, producing an eastern Venezuela promontory and Trinidadian re-entrant. We interpret these serrations to be the result of oblique (NW-SE) spreading of North and South America during Middle and late Jurassic time. The stratigraphies of northeastern Venezuela and Trinidad contrast in the Hauterivan-Albian interval, with dynamic shallow shelf environments prevailing in the Serrenia del Interior and deeper marine submarine-fan deposition in Trinidad. Both areas develop middle to Upper Cretaceous source rocks during a time of eustatic sea level high and widespread oceanic anoxia. 15 refs., 4 fig.

Algar, S. [Enterprise Oil, London (United Kingdom); Erikson, J.P. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

1995-04-01

252

Phytomass structure of natural plant communities on spodosols in southern Venezuela: the Bana woodland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bana, or Low Amazon Caatinga is an evergreen sclerophyllous woodland. It occurs on bleached quartz sands in the lowlands of SW Venezuela, where it occupies relatively small ‘islands’ amidst Tall Amazon Caatinga which is exclusively developed on tropaquods.

F. Bongers; D. Engelen; H. Klinge

1985-01-01

253

EVALUACIÓN COMPARATIVA DE HÍBRIDOS DE GIRASOL (Helianthus annus L.) EN DOS ZONAS PRODUCTORAS DE VENEZUELA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) hybrids evaluation in two producing areas of Venezuela In the commercial sunflower sowing of Venezuela imported hybrid seeds are used, so the genetic materials have to be previously evaluated to know their performance in the growing zones. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the hybrids MG2, MG4, EM787032, EM777364, EM776541, TRISOL 600, M742, and

Jesús Ávila; Antonio Díaz; Ramiro De La Cruz; Novis Moreno; Dimas Romero; Ramón Cáceres; Luis Gutiérrez; Régulo Flores

2007-01-01

254

Four new species of Andean Pilea (Urticaceae), with additional notes on the genus in Venezuela  

PubMed Central

Abstract Four new species of Pilea (Urticaceae) from the Andes of Venezuela are described and illustrated: Pilea matthewii sp. nov., Pilea miguelii sp. nov., Pilea nicholasii sp. nov., and Pilea nidiae sp. nov. The affinities of these species and their positions within the informal classifications of Pilea proposed by Weddell and Killip are discussed. Notes on other species of Pilea found in Venezuela also are presented. PMID:25383012

Dorr, Laurence J.; Stergios, Basil

2014-01-01

255

Structural Model of the Tucupita Field, Eastern Venezuela Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Tucupita Field has an area of 73,51 Km2, is located between the states of Monagas and Delta Amacuro, geologically is located at the greater Temblador area in the Eastern Venezuela Basin, where the Oficina Formation's sands represent the main hydrocarbons reservoirs. From the results of the seismic reprocessing realized by Fusion Petroleum Technologies, Inc., the structural model of this field was done as initial step to the geocellular model of the Oficina-40 Reservoir, which was defined as a Faulted Relay Ramp, where the normal faults are dominant with NE-SW orientation Introduction The Tucupita Field is a mature oilfield at the greater Temblador area, however most of the wells were completed in the upper sands, therefore the main study is focused in the geological characterization of the Oficina-40 Reservoir's lower sands, starting by the structural model Previous Studies 1. Proyecto Tucupita 3D The seismic data of the Tucupita Field were adquired in 1996 by Western Atlas of Venezuela for the Benton Vinccler Company. The UTM coordinates of the wells used in this project, have been taken to make this geological model 2. Soporte Geofísico Integrado The seismic project Tucupita was processed by Fusion Petroleum Technologies Inc., in Houston and consisted of reprocessing and pre-stack migration in time (PSTM) and pre-stack migration in depth (PSDM), this data belong to the Petrodelta Company Based on the regional stratigraphy, were validated the "picks" to make the structural sections to support research with hard data. After, it proceeded to interpret the structural style of the field from the seismic amplitude cube. Then, it was done the faults modelling and the stratigraphic horizons to carry out the geocellular model Three structural sections were realized, which was interpreted like a faulted monocline, whose peak is located southward, where justly the wells are located. The contact oil-water was interpreted to -5648'. Echelon faults were interpreted in a structure of the Faulted Relay Ramp (Figure 1), defined by two normal faults with orientation NE-SW, including the main fault of Tucupita Field Conclusions 1. The development of this structural model led to geological characterization of the Oficina-40 Reservoir, integrating this interpretation in a geocellular model to calculate the STOIIP.The Tucupita Field is characterized structurally as a Faulted Relay Ramp References 1. Fusion Petroleum Technologies, Inc. 2009. PROYECTO TUCUPITA SOPORTE GEOFÍSICO INTEGRADO; Figure 1. Faulted Relay Ramp, Tucupita Field

Arteaga, L. A.

2013-05-01

256

Mapa Geologico de Venezuela a Escala 1:750,000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Se presenta un mapa geologico digital de Venezuela sobre un fondo de relieve sombreado. Los datos geologicos e hidrologicos del norte del rio Orinoco proceden de la digitalizacion de mapas geologicos en papel a escala 1:500.000. Estos datos fueron integrados con el mapa geologico digital del Escudo de Guayana Venezolano, a su vez derivado de hojas en papel a escala 1:500.000. La informacion sobre los tipos de fallas mostrados en el mapa es igual que en las fuentes originales. Los poligonos geologicos fueron atribuidos por edad, litologia y nombre de la unidad siguiendo el Codigo geologico de Venezuela. Se incorporaron revisiones significativas de la geologia de la Cordillera de la Costa a partir de las nuevas hojas integradas a escala 1:25.000. Toda esta informacion geologico-estructural se sobrepuso a una imagen de relieve sombreado, producida por el procesamiento de los datos de radar interferometrico con 90 m (3 arcosegundos) de resolucion espacial obtenidos por la mision topografica de radar del transbordador espacial (SRTM). Las areas de la base de datos del SRTM carentes de informacion fueron llenadas por medio de la interpolacion de los datos de las celdas adyacentes. Para producir la imagen de relieve sombreado se uso una direccion de iluminacion de 315 deg con un angulo de 65 deg sobre el horizonte. La proyeccion usada en el mapa es conica equidistante, con latitudes de 4 y 9 deg norte como paralelos estandar y una longitud de 66 deg al oeste como meridiano central. Los datos en el mapa proceden primordialment de hojas a escala 1:500.000 y el producto esta preparado para una impresion optima en escala 1:750.000. Los usuarios pueden obtener ampliaciones mayores, sin embargo no se garantiza la precision del mapa a escalas mas detalladas. Especialmente en la region de Guayana, al sobreponer los mapas geologicos sobre la reciente imagen SRTM, se notan grandes discrepancias no sistematicas tanto en contactos como en fallas. Esto es debido a que los mapas geologicos de Guayana tienen como base topografica las imagenes de radar de vision lateral (SLAR), con muy control de campo de los a?os 1970's. La correccion de estos desfases esta planificada para el futuro.

Hackley, Paul C.; Urbani, Franco; Karlsen, Alex W.; Garrity, Christopher P.

2006-01-01

257

Comparison of immunization strategies in geographical networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The epidemic spread and immunizations in geographically embedded scale-free (SF) and Watts-Strogatz (WS) networks are numerically investigated. We make a realistic assumption that it takes time which we call the detection time, for a vertex to be identified as infected, and implement two different immunization strategies: one is based on connection neighbors (CN) of the infected vertex with the exact information of the network structure utilized and the other is based on spatial neighbors (SN) with only geographical distances taken into account. We find that the decrease of the detection time is crucial for a successful immunization in general. Simulation results show that for both SF networks and WS networks, the SN strategy always performs better than the CN strategy, especially for more heterogeneous SF networks at long detection time. The observation is verified by checking the number of the infected nodes being immunized. We found that in geographical space, the distance preferences in the network construction process and the geographically decaying infection rate are key factors that make the SN immunization strategy outperforms the CN strategy. It indicates that even in the absence of the full knowledge of network connectivity we can still stop the epidemic spread efficiently only by using geographical information as in the SN strategy, which may have potential applications for preventing the real epidemic spread.

Wang, Bing; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Kim, Beom Jun

2009-10-01

258

Geographical distribution of the dermatophytes: a review.  

PubMed Central

In these days of rapid transit from continent to continent, and the increasing mobility of people, agents of disease are no longer geographically restricted. Disease contracted half way across the world may become manifest in a country in which the pathogen is not normally found. Thus knowledge of the geographical distribution of pathogens becomes increasingly important when a diagnosis is being made. This is as true of ringworm fungi as of any other group of microorganisms. In the last 12 years, in the Mycological Reference Laboratory, an increasing number of exotic dermatophytes have been seen, related in part at least to the great increase in the number of non-British residents. Not all species of dermatophytes are cosmopolitan in their distribution throughout the world. While some have been recorded from every continent, others have geographically limited areas of greater or lesser extent. Surveys taken at intervals in a country may show a rise and fall in occurrence of several species as habits change, populations move and medical facilities became increasingly well-distributed. There have been few geographical surveys of ringworm fungi that have covered the world. Ajello (1960, 1974) has reviewed the individual species with regard to geographical location, while Vanbreuseghem & de Vroey (1970) attempted to estimate the relative importance of the various species in terms of numbers of isolations reported. This paper therefore reviews the world dermatophyte flora in terms of the dominant agents in the various countries, and some of the changes that have been recorded. PMID:75918

Philpot, C. M.

1978-01-01

259

Introduction to the Complex Geospatial Web in Geographical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Geospatial Web is emerging in the geographical education landscape in all its complexity. How will geographers and educators react? What are the most important facets of this development? After reviewing the possible impacts on geographical education, it can be conjectured that the Geospatial Web will eventually replace the usual geographical…

Papadimitriou, Fivos

2010-01-01

260

Efficient query processing in geographic web search engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geographic web search engines allow users to constrain and or- der search results in an intuitive manner by focusing a query on a particular geographic region. Geographic search technology, also called local search, has recently received significant interest from major search engine companies. Academic research in this area has focused primarily on techniques for extracting geographic knowl- edge from the

Yen-yu Chen; Torsten Suel; Alexander Markowetz

2006-01-01

261

Late quaternary environmental history of Lake Valencia, Venezuela  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chemical, paleontological, and mineralogical analyses of a 7.5-meter core from the middle of Lake Valencia, Venezuela, have provided information on the paleoclimatic history of this low-elevation, low-latitude site for the last 13,000 years. The data show that dry climates existed in this region from 13,000 years before present (B.P.) until about 10,000 years B.P. The Lake Valencia Basin was occupied by intermittent saline marshes at that time. About 10,000 years B.P., a permanent lake of fluctuating salinity formed and arboreal plant communities replaced the earlier dominant xeric herbaceous vegetation and marsh plants. By 8500 years B.P., Lake Valencia reached moderate to low salinities and discharged water; the modern vegetation became established at that time. After 8500 years B.P., the lake twice ceased discharging as a result of reduced watershed moisture. The second of these drying episodes is still in progress and has been aggravated by human activities in the watershed. Copyright ?? 1981 AAAS.

Platt, Bradbury J.; Leyden, B.; Salgado-Labouriau, M.; Lewis, W.M., Jr.; Schubert, C.; Binford, M.W.; Frey, D.G.; Whitehead, D.R.; Weibezahn, F.H.

1981-01-01

262

Sedimentary sequence evolution in a Foredeep basin: Eastern Venezuela  

SciTech Connect

Well log-seismic sequence stratigraphy analysis in the Eastern Venezuela Foreland Basin leads to study of the evolution of sedimentary sequences onto the Cretaceous-Paleocene passive margin. This basin comprises two different foredeep sub-basins: The Guarico subbasin to the west, older, and the Maturin sub-basin to the east, younger. A foredeep switching between these two sub-basins is observed at 12.5 m.y. Seismic interpretation and well log sections across the study area show sedimentary sequences with transgressive sands and coastal onlaps to the east-southeast for the Guarico sub-basin, as well as truncations below the switching sequence (12.5 m.y.), and the Maturin sub-basin shows apparent coastal onlaps to the west-northwest, as well as a marine onlap (deeper water) in the west, where it starts to establish. Sequence stratigraphy analysis of these sequences with well logs allowed the study of the evolution of stratigraphic section from Paleocene to middle Miocene (68.0-12.0 m.y.). On the basis of well log patterns, the sequences were divided in regressive-transgressive-regressive sedimentary cycles caused by changes in relative sea level. Facies distributions were analyzed and the sequences were divided into simple sequences or sub- sequences of a greater frequencies than third order depositional sequences.

Bejarano, C.; Funes, D. [Corpoven S.A., Puerto La Cruz (Venezuela); Sarzalho, S.; Audemard, F.; Flores, G. [Caracas (Venezuela)

1996-08-01

263

Cretaceous to Eocene passive margin sedimentation in Northeastern Venezuela  

SciTech Connect

Twenty two palinspastic paleogeographic maps are presented for the Cretaceous to Eocene strata of the Serrania del Interior of northeastern Venezuela. The mapped lithologies, environmental conditions, and evolving depositional systems record [approximately]90 m.y. of dominantly marine sedimentation on the only observable Mesozoic passive margin in the Western Hemisphere. The depositional systems of the passive margin are heterogeneous at lateral (i.e., along-margin) length scales greater than [approximately]40 km. The primary lateral heterogeneity is caused by a major Lower Cretaceous deltaic system that emanated southwest of the Serrania del Interior. All important intervals, such as the laterally variable Aptian-Albian El Cantil platform limestone and the hydrocarbon source rocks of the Upper Cretaceous Querecual and San Antonio formations, are related to probable causal mechanisms and environmental conditions. Stratigraphic events have been interpreted as of either local or regional extent; based on a combination of outcrop sedimentologic analyses and regional depositional systems interpretation. The 3-dimensional distribution of depositional systems and systems tracts reveals 4-6 regional sequence boundaries separated by 4-20 m.y. Subsidence analyses support the facies interpretation of a passive margin by showing continuous, thermally dominated subsidence during the Cretaceous to Eocene interval. Subsidence and accumulation rates increased and facies changed significantly in the Oligocene, indicating the end of passive margin sedimentation and the initiation of foredeep subsidence and accumulation associated with overthrusting the eastward-advancing Caribbean Plate.

Erikson, J.P. (Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH (United States))

1993-02-01

264

Confronting Health Disparities: Latin American Social Medicine in Venezuela  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We explored the emergence and effectiveness of Venezuela's Misión Barrio Adentro, “Inside the Neighborhood Mission,” a program designed to improve access to health care among underserved residents of the country, hoping to draw lessons to apply to future attempts to address acute health disparities. Methods. We conducted our study in 3 capital-region neighborhoods, 2 small cities, and 2 rural areas, combining systematic observations with interviews of 221 residents, 41 health professionals, and 28 government officials. We surveyed 177 female and 91 male heads of household. Results. Interviews suggested that Misión Barrio Adentro emerged from creative interactions between policymakers, clinicians, community workers, and residents, adopting flexible, problem-solving strategies. In addition, data indicated that egalitarian physician–patient relationships and the direct involvement of local health committees overcame distrust and generated popular support for the program. Media and opposition antagonism complicated physicians’ lives and clinical practices but heightened the program's visibility. Conclusions. Top-down and bottom-up efforts are less effective than “horizontal” collaborations between professionals and residents in underserved communities. Direct, local involvement can generate creative and dynamic efforts to address acute health disparities in these areas. PMID:19150916

Mantini-Briggs, Clara

2009-01-01

265

New insights into chloramphenicol biosynthesis in Streptomyces venezuelae ATCC 10712.  

PubMed

Comparative genome analysis revealed seven uncharacterized genes, sven0909 to sven0915, adjacent to the previously identified chloramphenicol biosynthetic gene cluster (sven0916-sven0928) of Streptomyces venezuelae strain ATCC 10712 that was absent in a closely related Streptomyces strain that does not produce chloramphenicol. Transcriptional analysis suggested that three of these genes might be involved in chloramphenicol production, a prediction confirmed by the construction of deletion mutants. These three genes encode a cluster-associated transcriptional activator (Sven0913), a phosphopantetheinyl transferase (Sven0914), and a Na(+)/H(+) antiporter (Sven0915). Bioinformatic analysis also revealed the presence of a previously undetected gene, sven0925, embedded within the chloramphenicol biosynthetic gene cluster that appears to encode an acyl carrier protein, bringing the number of new genes likely to be involved in chloramphenicol production to four. Microarray experiments and synteny comparisons also suggest that sven0929 is part of the biosynthetic gene cluster. This has allowed us to propose an updated and revised version of the chloramphenicol biosynthetic pathway. PMID:25267678

Fernández-Martínez, Lorena T; Borsetto, Chiara; Gomez-Escribano, Juan Pablo; Bibb, Maureen J; Al-Bassam, Mahmoud M; Chandra, Govind; Bibb, Mervyn J

2014-12-01

266

Chemostratigraphy: Applications in the Tachira depression, Tachira State, Venezuela  

SciTech Connect

Rock analyses (40 chemical parameters) from densely sampled Cretaceous sections from La Luna, Navay, Aguardiente and Escandalosa formations in southwestern Venezuela, combined with multivariate statistical analysis, allowed statistical characterization of formations, environmentally meaningful clustering of correlated geochemical variables, as well as calculation of chemical accumulation rates. Chemofacies, defined from accumulation rates, were used for correlation and depositional environment definition. Organic matter maturity does not affect NiN ratios, but causes homogenization in Ca/Sr ratios. Th/V ratios clearly separate shelf vs. oceanic fades, closely matching those from biofacies analysis. Cycles in Th/V repeat every 60 in (Navay) to 20 in (La Luna), corresponding to Milankovitch climatic cycles. Shales (high Th/V) represent cooler-shallower sedimentation periods, and lodestones (low Th/V) represent warmer-deeper ones. Differences in accumulation rates were used for establishing changes in: source rock (La-Ce), either due to tectonism or variations in marine current pattern; redox conditions (Ni-V); clay mineralogy (Al-K); energy level (Al-Si); and salinity (Mg-Na). Finally, chemostratigraphy, combined with reliable structural and stratigraphical field data, has proven to be a powerful tool for unravelling tectono-stratigraphical histories.

Briceno, H.; Ostos, M.; Yoris, F. [Caracas (Venezuela)] [and others

1996-08-01

267

Late quaternary environmental history of lake valencia, Venezuela.  

PubMed

Chemical, paleontological, and mineralogical analyses of a 7.5-meter core from the middle of Lake Valencia, Venezuela, have provided information on the paleoclimatic history of this low-elevation, low-latitude site for the last 13,000 years. The data show that dry climates existed in this region from 13,000 years before present (B.P.) until about 10,000 years B.P. The Lake Valencia Basin was occupied by intermittent saline marshes at that time. About 10,000 years B.P., a permanent lake of fluctuating salinity formed and arboreal plant communities replaced the earlier dominant xeric herbaceous vegetation and marsh plants. By 8500 years B.P., Lake Valencia reached moderate to low salinities and discharged water; the modern vegetation became established at that time. After 8500 years B.P., the lake twice ceased discharging as a result of reduced watershed moisture. The second of these drying episodes is still in progress and has been aggravated by human activities in the watershed. PMID:17812244

Bradbury, J P; Leyden, B; Salgado-Labouriau, M; Lewis, W M; Schubert, C; Binford, M W; Frey, D G; Whitehead, D R; Weibezahn, F H

1981-12-18

268

New Insights into Chloramphenicol Biosynthesis in Streptomyces venezuelae ATCC 10712  

PubMed Central

Comparative genome analysis revealed seven uncharacterized genes, sven0909 to sven0915, adjacent to the previously identified chloramphenicol biosynthetic gene cluster (sven0916–sven0928) of Streptomyces venezuelae strain ATCC 10712 that was absent in a closely related Streptomyces strain that does not produce chloramphenicol. Transcriptional analysis suggested that three of these genes might be involved in chloramphenicol production, a prediction confirmed by the construction of deletion mutants. These three genes encode a cluster-associated transcriptional activator (Sven0913), a phosphopantetheinyl transferase (Sven0914), and a Na+/H+ antiporter (Sven0915). Bioinformatic analysis also revealed the presence of a previously undetected gene, sven0925, embedded within the chloramphenicol biosynthetic gene cluster that appears to encode an acyl carrier protein, bringing the number of new genes likely to be involved in chloramphenicol production to four. Microarray experiments and synteny comparisons also suggest that sven0929 is part of the biosynthetic gene cluster. This has allowed us to propose an updated and revised version of the chloramphenicol biosynthetic pathway. PMID:25267678

Fernández-Martínez, Lorena T.; Borsetto, Chiara; Gomez-Escribano, Juan Pablo; Bibb, Maureen J.; Al-Bassam, Mahmoud M.; Chandra, Govind

2014-01-01

269

National Geographic GeoBee Challenge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is associated with the National Geographic Society's (NGS) Geographic Bee, an annual national competition where students answer a wide variety of geography related questions. To encourage learning along these same lines, the GeoBee Challenge is a brief online quiz of five geography related questions similar to the ones in the "real Bee." The intent is to promote geography learning and provide a fun method for teachers to include the subject into the classroom. The material has been prepared by the National Geographical Society and is appropriate for grades 4-8. Any question answered incorrectly is noted, and students are encouraged to try again. New questions are posted every day with the 3 previous quizzes also available. Fun, challenging stuff. This site is also reviewed in the July 12, 2002 Scout Report.

1998-01-01

270

Mapping the geographical diffusion of new words  

E-print Network

Language in social media is rich with linguistic innovations, most strikingly in the new words and spellings that constantly enter the lexicon. Despite assertions about the power of social media to connect people across the world, we find that many of these neologisms are restricted to geographically compact areas. Even for words that become ubiquituous, their growth in popularity is often geographical, spreading from city to city. Thus, social media text offers a unique opportunity to study the diffusion of lexical change. In this paper, we show how an autoregressive model of word frequencies in social media can be used to induce a network of linguistic influence between American cities. By comparing the induced network with the geographical and demographic characteristics of each city, we can measure the factors that drive the spread of lexical innovation.

Eisenstein, Jacob; Smith, Noah A; Xing, Eric P

2012-01-01

271

Geographical variation in Plasmodium vivax relapse  

PubMed Central

Background Plasmodium vivax has the widest geographic distribution of the human malaria parasites and nearly 2.5 billion people live at risk of infection. The control of P. vivax in individuals and populations is complicated by its ability to relapse weeks to months after initial infection. Strains of P. vivax from different geographical areas are thought to exhibit varied relapse timings. In tropical regions strains relapse quickly (three to six weeks), whereas those in temperate regions do so more slowly (six to twelve months), but no comprehensive assessment of evidence has been conducted. Here observed patterns of relapse periodicity are used to generate predictions of relapse incidence within geographic regions representative of varying parasite transmission. Methods A global review of reports of P. vivax relapse in patients not treated with a radical cure was conducted. Records of time to first P. vivax relapse were positioned by geographic origin relative to expert opinion regions of relapse behaviour and epidemiological zones. Mixed-effects meta-analysis was conducted to determine which geographic classification best described the data, such that a description of the pattern of relapse periodicity within each region could be described. Model outputs of incidence and mean time to relapse were mapped to illustrate the global variation in relapse. Results Differences in relapse periodicity were best described by a historical geographic classification system used to describe malaria transmission zones based on areas sharing zoological and ecological features. Maps of incidence and time to relapse showed high relapse frequency to be predominant in tropical regions and prolonged relapse in temperate areas. Conclusions The results indicate that relapse periodicity varies systematically by geographic region and are categorized by nine global regions characterized by similar malaria transmission dynamics. This indicates that relapse may be an adaptation evolved to exploit seasonal changes in vector survival and therefore optimize transmission. Geographic patterns in P. vivax relapse are important to clinicians treating individual infections, epidemiologists trying to infer P. vivax burden, and public health officials trying to control and eliminate the disease in human populations. PMID:24731298

2014-01-01

272

Enhancing robustness and immunization in geographical networks  

SciTech Connect

We find that different geographical structures of networks lead to varied percolation thresholds, although these networks may have similar abstract topological structures. Thus, strategies for enhancing robustness and immunization of a geographical network are proposed. Using the generating function formalism, we obtain an explicit form of the percolation threshold q{sub c} for networks containing arbitrary order cycles. For three-cycles, the dependence of q{sub c} on the clustering coefficients is ascertained. The analysis substantiates the validity of the strategies with analytical evidence.

Huang Liang [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Department of Physics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Yang Kongqing [Center for Complex Systems, Jimei University, Xiamen 361021 (China); Department of Physics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Yang Lei [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Department of Physics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Beijing-Hong Kong-Singapore Joint Centre for Nonlinear and Complex Systems, Hong Kong (China); Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong (China)

2007-03-15

273

The Geographic Information Systems: GRASS HOWTO  

E-print Network

This document describes how to acquire, install and configure a powerful scientific public-domain Geographic Information System (GIS): the Geographic Resources Analysis Support System (GRASS). It provides information on other resources for learning more about GRASS, GIS in general, for acquiring data, etc. This document also encourages the Linux community to consider enhancing this software as a major application of UNIX/Linux. ("When will Linux become bundled with public domain or Linux Public License 'killer apps'"?) For more on this topic, see Section 8 below. Table of Contents

David Hastings Department; David A. Hastings

274

Bismark State College: Geographic Information Systems Technician  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bismarck State College offers a program certificate, a certificate of completion, and an Associate in Applied Science degree in Geographic Information Systems (GIS). GIS is the only software program available that can capture and store geospatial data, which allows users to ask and answer complex questions about the world around us through complex geographic queries. GIScience is the multidisciplinary science behind the technology that incorporates cartography, geodesy, photogrammetry, remote sensing, GPS, and other geospatial sciences with the technology. Visit this page for more information on Bismark State College's GIS curriculum.

2011-04-26

275

The National Council for Geographic Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Council for Geographic Education (NCGE) is an international organization that emphasizes the importance of geographic education at all age levels â?? in school and out. They boast a membership of â??teachers, professors, students, and other individuals who believe in the importance of geography, both in and out of school.â? NCGE distributes two widely-known and well-subscribed journals, the Journal of Geography and The Geography Teacher. These journals are available to all members along with other e-leaning publications and web-based teaching resources.

276

Virtual Geographic Environments (VGEs): A New Generation of Geographic Analysis Tool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Virtual Geographic Environments (VGEs) are proposed as a new generation of geographic analysis tool to contribute to human understanding of the geographic world and assist in solving geographic problems at a deeper level. The development of VGEs is focused on meeting the three scientific requirements of Geographic Information Science (GIScience) — multi-dimensional visualization, dynamic phenomenon simulation, and public participation. To provide a clearer image that improves user understanding of VGEs and to contribute to future scientific development, this article reviews several aspects of VGEs. First, the evolutionary process from maps to previous GISystems and then to VGEs is illustrated, with a particular focus on the reasons VGEs were created. Then, extended from the conceptual framework and the components of a complete VGE, three use cases are identified that together encompass the current state of VGEs at different application levels: 1) a tool for geo-object-based multi-dimensional spatial analysis and multi-channel interaction, 2) a platform for geo-process-based simulation of dynamic geographic phenomena, and 3) a workspace for multi-participant-based collaborative geographic experiments. Based on the above analysis, the differences between VGEs and other similar platforms are discussed to draw their clear boundaries. Finally, a short summary of the limitations of current VGEs is given, and future directions are proposed to facilitate ongoing progress toward forming a comprehensive version of VGEs.

Lin, Hui; Chen, Min; Lu, Guonian; Zhu, Qing; Gong, Jiahua; You, Xiong; Wen, Yongning; Xu, Bingli; Hu, Mingyuan

2013-11-01

277

STSHV a teleinformatic system for historic seismology in Venezuela  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From 1997 on, when the first "Jornadas Venezolanas de Sismicidad Historica" took place, a big interest awoke in Venezuela to organize the available information related to historic earthquakes. At that moment only existed one published historic earthquake catalogue, that from Centeno Grau published the first time in 1949. That catalogue had no references about the sources of information. Other catalogues existed but they were internal reports for the petroleum companies and therefore difficult to access. In 2000 Grases et al reedited the Centeno-Grau catalogue, it ended up in a new, very complete catalogue with all the sources well referenced and updated. The next step to organize historic seismicity data was, from 2004 to 2008, the creation of the STSHV (Sistema de teleinformacion de Sismologia Historica Venezolana, http://sismicidad.hacer.ula.ve ). The idea was to bring together all information about destructive historic earthquakes in Venezuela in one place in the internet so it could be accessed easily by a widespread public. There are two ways to access the system. The first one, selecting an earthquake or a list of earthquakes, and the second one, selecting an information source or a list of sources. For each earthquake there is a summary of general information and additional materials: a list with the source parameters published by different authors, a list with intensities assessed by different authors, a list of information sources, a short text summarizing the historic situation at the time of the earthquake and a list of pictures if available. There are searching facilities for the seismic events and dynamic maps can be created. The information sources are classified in: books, handwritten documents, transcription of handwritten documents, documents published in books, journals and congress memories, newspapers, seismologic catalogues and electronic sources. There are facilities to find specific documents or lists of documents with common characteristics. For each document general information is displayed together with an extract of the information relating to the earthquake. If the complete document was available and no problem with the publishers rights a pdf copy of the document was included. We found this system extremely useful for studying historic earthquakes, as one can access immediately previous research works about an earthquake and it allows to check easily the historic information and so to validate the intensity data. So far, the intensity data have not been completed for earthquakes after 2000. This information would be important for improving calibration of intensity - magnitude calibrations of historic events, and is a work in progress. On the other hand, it is important to mention that "El Catálogo Sismológico Venezolano del siglo XX" (The Seismological Venezuelan Catalog), published in 2012, updates seismic information up to 2007, and that the STSHV was one of its primary sources of information.

Choy, J. E.; Palme, C.; Altez, R.; Aranguren, R.; Guada, C.; Silva, J.

2013-05-01

278

Geographical Education and Film: An Experimental Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A course to make college level geography students (London School of Economics) aware of the nature of film and television and to indicate the importance of these media to the geographer is described. The course emphasizes activities and involvement so that students can develop judgments about how film and television shape reality. (KC)

Jenkins, Alan; Youngs, Martyn

1983-01-01

279

Unraveling Geographic Interdependencies in Electric Power Infrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interdependencies among infrastructure systems are now becoming commonplace, and present both opportunities and vulnerabilities. Initial attention was paid to functional interdependencies among infrastructure systems regardless of locational characteristics. Using electric power as a focal point, geographic interdependencies are evaluated, that is, outages that spread across several states rather than being confined to single states. The analysis evaluates the extent to

Carlos E. Restrepo; Jeffrey S. Simonoff; Rae Zimmerman

2006-01-01

280

Geographic Information System Applied in Archaeological Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The use of GIS in archaeological sites is pointed out and an application at the site of ancient Messene is presented. To create the cartographic base for the GIS, maps of the region supplied by the HGMS (Hellenic Geographical Military Service) were digitized. Separate layers were used for every separate object entity such as roads, findings, buildings, waters and

Kostas TOKMAKIDIS

281

Teaching Geographic Concepts through Fieldwork and Competition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the benefits of combining field-based learning within the context of a competitive setting in the geography curriculum. Findings and data are presented based on experiences gathered from teaching an upper-level university geography course that combined geographic techniques and theory into a game of capture-the-flag.…

Hupy, Joseph P.

2011-01-01

282

Science Fiction for Geographers: Selected Works.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how college level teachers of geography can use works of science fiction to help students understand geographical settings and create impressionistic pictures of a given region in their minds. Particular areas in which science fiction is useful include invented terrestrial landscapes, specialized extraterrestrial landscapes, disaster…

Elbow, Gary S.; Martinson, Tom L.

1980-01-01

283

Relation Between Psoriasis and Geographic Tongue  

PubMed Central

The aim this article is to investigate the link between geographic tongue and psoriasis skin disease. Our review paper of the literature will handle strict study about the relation between geographic tongue and psoriasis. Our search has identified only limited studies available in English written literature starting from 2006-2013 using pubMed – indexed for MEDLINE. The result of this review suggests that geographic tongue may be an oral manifestation of psoriasis.There is no clear evidence in literature about association with gender and aetiology except one study which shows that benign migratory glossitis is more prevalent in young, nonsmoker and atopic or allergic individuals. Treatment for oral lesions is not standardized. A geographic tongue is significantly more frequent in psoriatic patients but only a limited data is available to date to strongly validate the association between these two entities.We recommend the general practitioner to have a good understanding about the clinical presentation, pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of this lesion. Psoriatic patients should be encouraged to undergo routine dental checkups. PMID:25584342

Umair, Ayesha; Babaker, Zynab; SN, Azzeghaiby; Gazal, Giath; Sarraj, Faysal

2014-01-01

284

Representing Historical Knowledge in Geographic Information Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A growing number of historical scholars in social science and humanities fields are using geographic information systems (GIS) to help investigate spatial questions and map their findings. The nature of historical data and historiographic practices present several challenges in using GIS that have been addressed only partially to date. For…

Grossner, Karl Eric

2010-01-01

285

Validating a Geographical Image Retrieval System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes a prototype geographical image retrieval system that demonstrates how to integrate image processing and information analysis techniques to support large-scale content-based image retrieval. Describes an experiment to validate the performance of this image retrieval system against that of human subjects by examining similarity analysis…

Zhu, Bin; Chen, Hsinchun

2000-01-01

286

Assessing Students' Acquisition of Basic Geographical Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports the findings of a survey conducted to investigate students' knowledge of geography, such as an accurate understanding of the basic vocabulary and essential concepts associated with the representative geographic locations, described here as "spatial landmarks". The factors that influence their learning, and how their perceived…

Dal, Burckin

2008-01-01

287

Inferring Geographic Isolation of Wolverines in California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delineating a species' geographic range using the spatial distribution of museum specimens or even contemporary detection- non-detection data can be difficult. This is particularly true at the periphery of a species range where species' distributions are often disjunct. Wolverines (Gulo gulo) are wide-ranging mammals with discontinuous and potentially isolated populations at the periphery of their range. One potentially disjunct population

288

Geographical information systems and location science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the 1970s the field of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) has evolved into a mature research and application area involving a number of academic fields including Geography, Civil Engineering, Computer Science, Land Use Planning, and Environmental Science. GIS can support a wide range of spatial queries that can be used to support location studies. GIS will play a significant role

Richard L. Church

2002-01-01

289

BachelorofScience ComputerScienceandGeographical  

E-print Network

_____ Computer Science 3770 - Human-Computer Interaction _____ Computer Science 3780 - Data CommunicationsBachelorofScience ComputerScienceandGeographical InformationScience This is a planning guide: ____________________________________ Major in Computer Science and GIS: www.uleth.ca/artsci/gis Departments: Geography, and Mathematics

Seldin, Jonathan P.

290

BachelorofScience ComputerScienceandGeographical  

E-print Network

3770 - Human-Computer Interaction ___ Computer Science 3780 - Data Communications and NetworkingBachelorofScience ComputerScienceandGeographical InformationScience This is a planning guide in Computer Science and GIS: www.uleth.ca/artsci/gis Academic Calendar: www

Seldin, Jonathan P.

291

National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis  

E-print Network

NCGIA National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis Spatial Analysis on the Sphere Report 94-7 October 1994 Simonett Center for Spatial Analysis State University of New York University@ubvms.cc.buffalo.edu ncgia@spatial.maine.edu ncgia@ncgia.ucsb.edu #12;ABSTRACT Methods of analysis on a spherical earth

California at Santa Barbara, University of

292

The Geographic Distribution of Indochinese Refugees.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents information regarding the geographic distribution of Indochinese refugees in the United States and how it compares to that of the overall U.S. population and the non-refugee legal immigrant population. The following information is reported: Seventy percent of all Indochinese refugees currently reside in 10 States, with…

Forbes, Susan

293

Geographical and Environmental Education in Albania  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing on a wide range of secondary and primary materials as well as personal experience of Albania dating from the 1970s to the present day, this paper describes and critically evaluates current geographical and environmental education in Albania in relation to three dimensions: (1) the changing nature of the curriculum over the past 20 years;…

Hall, Derek

2004-01-01

294

Representing Complex Geographic Phenomena in GIS  

E-print Network

processing strategies (Lmielinski and Mannila 1996). Geographic information scien- tists face an even greater (Egenhofer 1992; Samet and Aref 1995; Yuan 1999). Because GIS software cannot facilitate information as individuals prior to any recognition of their attributes (Couclelis 1992). Many GIS researchers applied

Yuan, May

295

Geographic Profile of Employment and Unemployment, 1999  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Released last week, the Bureau of Labor Statistics' (BLS) Geographic Profile of Employment and Unemployment, 1999 presents 28 tables of employment and unemployment data from two sources, the Census Bureau's Current Population Survey (CPS) and the Local Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS) program. The 159-page report may be downloaded in its entirety or by table in .pdf format.

2001-01-01

296

Displaying Geographically-Based Domestic Statistics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Decision Information Display System (DIDS) is rapid-response information-retrieval and color-graphics display system. DIDS transforms tables of geographically-based domestic statistics (such as population or unemployment by county, energy usage by county, or air-quality figures) into high-resolution, color-coded maps on television display screen.

Quann, J.; Dalton, J.; Banks, M.; Helfer, D.; Szczur, M.; Winkert, G.; Billingsley, J.; Borgstede, R.; Chen, J.; Chen, L.; Fuh, J.; Cyprych, E.

1982-01-01

297

Maximum entropy modeling of species geographic distributions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The availability of detailed environmental data, together with inexpensive and powerful computers, has fueled a rapid increase in predictive modeling of species environmental requirements and geographic distributions. For some species, detailed presence\\/absence occurrence data are available, allowing the use of a variety of standard statistical techniques. However, absence data are not available for most species. In this paper, we introduce

Steven J. Phillips; Robert P. Anderson; Robert E. Schapire

2006-01-01

298

GENERATING TEXT DESCRIPTIONS FOR GEOGRAPHICALLY DISTRIBUTED SENSORS  

E-print Network

. For example, in the hydrologic domain, humans describe spatial events using sentences like "there is heavy of geographically distributed sensors and different types of quantitative measures, need software tools to help this problem in the context of a web application in the domain of hydrology which is part of a more complex

Molina, Martín

299

Geographical information modelling for land resource survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing popularity of geographical information systems (GIS) has at least three major implications for land resources survey. Firstly, GIS allows alternative and richer representation of spatial phenomena than is possible with the traditional paper map. Secondly, digital technology has improved the accessibility of ancillary data, such as digital elevation models and remotely sensed imagery, and the possibilities of incorporating

Bruin de S

2000-01-01

300

Geographical information systems for dengue surveillance.  

PubMed

This review provides details on the role of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) in current dengue surveillance systems and focuses on the application of open access GIS technology to emphasize its importance in developing countries, where the dengue burden is greatest. It also advocates for increased international collaboration in transboundary disease surveillance to confront the emerging global challenge of dengue. PMID:22556070

Duncombe, Jennifer; Clements, Archie; Hu, Wenbiao; Weinstein, Philip; Ritchie, Scott; Espino, Fe Esperanza

2012-05-01

301

PENNSYLVANIA GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM LIBRARY: STATE GAMELAND  

EPA Science Inventory

Pennsylvania Geographic Information System (GIS) Library provides a data set of state gameland boundaries digitized from 1:24,000 USGS topographic maps and verified from Pennsylvania Fish and Game Department information. Coverage is incomplete, certain areas are not mapped when ...

302

Jared M. Diamond: physiologist, ornithologist, geographer, ecologist  

E-print Network

Jared M. Diamond: physiologist, ornithologist, geographer, ecologist John C. Mittermeier Louisiana State University, BIOL 7083 April 3, 2014 #12;Why Jared Diamond? #12;#12;1937 1961 1966 1964 #12;In Diamond's words, he divides his time between four things 1. Teaching undergraduate geography 2. Field

Harms, Kyle E.

303

Geographical Distribution of Crater Depths on Mars  

E-print Network

., (2009) Machine Cataloging of Impact Craters on Mars. Icarus, 203, p.77-87. #12;Detected craters · 75 Utopia Planitia J. Boyce et al., (2006), Deep impact craters in the Isidis and southwestern UtopiaGeographical Distribution of Crater Depths on Mars Tomasz F. Stepinski #12;Content · Global auto

Stepinski, Tomasz F.

304

Perceiving Virtual Geographical Slant: Action Influences Perception  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 4 experiments, the authors varied the extent and nature of participant movement in a virtual environment to examine the influence of action on estimates of geographical slant. Previous studies showed that people consciously overestimate hill slant but can still accurately guide an action toward the hill (D. R. Proffitt, M. Bhalla, R.…

Creem-Regehr, Sarah H.; Gooch, Amy A.; Sahm, Cynthia S.; Thompson, William B.

2004-01-01

305

Bootstrapping Multilingual Geographical Gazetteers from Corpora  

E-print Network

corpora is presented. First, a small seed-list of geographical names is matched to an unannotated dataset between the initial seed-list and the final gazetteer and thereby to evaluate the performance problems to natural language processing tools if one wants to extract information from these sources. One

Tilburg, Universiteit van

306

Neogene history of the Carapita Formation, Eastern Venezuela basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The planktonic and benthic foraminifera from the lower to middle Miocene shales of the Carapita Formation of Eastern Venezuela in three exploration wells and one outcrop section are analyzed with the objectives of establishing a precise biostratigraphy of the formation and its bathymetric history. Comparison with the well-preserved microfaunas of the correlative Cipero Formation of Trinidad made possible the achievement of these objectives. The formation, up to 4500 to 6000 m thick in outcrops, extends from northeastern Anzoategui and North of Monagas States to the Gulf of Paria and is both an important oil reservoir towards the east and the main seal rock for the Oligocene reservoir in the north of Monagas State. In the area studied the Carapita Formation spans lower to lower middle Miocene Zones N6/M3 to N9/M6; its upper part is unconstrained as only rare long ranging early Miocene to early Pliocene planktonic foraminifera occur above the Orbulina datum. Unexpectedly, we found that the four lower to middle Miocene sections are highly discontinuous, with hiastuses as long as 4 Myr. Based on the abundance patterns of sixty-nine species of benthic foraminifera and analysis of morphotype abundance following the methodology of Corliss and Chen (1988) and Corliss and Fois (1993), we show that the Carapita Formation was deposited at outer neritic to middle bathyal depths (?200--1000 m), whereas the Cipero Formation was deposited at middle to lower bathyal depths (?600--2000 m). Importantly, the bathymetric changes are associated with unconformities in all sections, strongly suggesting that both (shallowing and associated unconformities) were tectonically induced.

Sanchez Zambrano, Dennis Alberto

307

Lithospheric scale model of Merida Andes, Venezuela (GIAME Project)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Merida Andes (MA) is one of the most important orogenic belt in Venezuela and represents the northern culmination of South America Andes. During the last 60 years, several models have been proposed to explain the shallow and deep structure, using different geological, geophysical, seismological, geochemical and petrologic concepts; nevertheless, most of them have applied local observation windows, and do not represent the major structure of MA. Therefore, a multidisciplinary research group, coordinated by FUNVISIS, in close cooperation with UCV, ULA and PDVSA, is proposed in order to get the outlined goals in the project entitled GIAME ("Geociencia Integral de los Andes de MErida") was established, which aims to generate a lithospheric scale model and the development of a temporal dynamic model for the MA. As a base for lithospheric investigations of the Merida Andes, we are proposing three wide angle seismic profiles across the orogen on three representative sites, in order to determine the inner structure and its relation with the orogen's gravimetric root. To the date, there are no seismic studies at lithospheric scale which cross MA. The wide angle seismic will be complemented with the re-processing and re-interpretation of existing reflection seismic data, which will allow to establish a relationship between MA and its associated flexural basins (Maracaibo and Barinas-Apure basins). Depending on the results of the VENCORP Project (VENezuelan COntinental Reflection Profiling), which might show some reliable results about crustal features and Moho reflectors along three long seismic profiles at Caribbean Moutain system, a reflection seismic profile across the central portion of MA is proposed. Additional tasks, consisting in MA quaternary deformation studies, using research methods like neotectonics and paleoseismology, georadar, numerical modeling, cinematic GPS, SAR interferometry, thermocronology, detailed studies on regional geology, flexural modeling, gravity modeling, among others, will be carried out. We expect this project is going to help to solve many of the doubts regarding the origin, evolution and structural configuration of the Merida Andes.

Schmitz, M.; Orihuela, N. D.; Klarica, S.; Gil, E.; Levander, A.; Audemard, F. A.; Mazuera, F.; Avila, J.

2013-05-01

308

Vertical fluxes of particulate biogenic material through the euphotic and twilight zones in the Cariaco Basin, Venezuela  

E-print Network

in the Cariaco Basin, Venezuela Enrique Montes a,n , Frank Muller-Karger a , Robert Thunell b , David Hollander, Venezuela a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 2 May 2011 Received in revised form 5 May 2012

Meyers, Steven D.

309

RESIDUOS DE PLAGUICIDAS ORGANOCLORADOS Y ORGANOFOSFORADOS EN EL CULTIVO DE CEBOLLA EN LA DEPRESIÓN DE QUÍBOR, VENEZUELA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Residues of organochlorines and organophosphorus pesticides in onion crop in Quibor depression, Venezuela The accumulation in onion crops of organophosphorus (OF) and organochlorines (OC) pesticide residues in production systems that used pest chemical control in Quíbor Depression, Lara State, Venezuela, was evaluated. Three representative onion production systems were selected, registering all types of pesticides used during the crop cycle. At

Francis Pierre; Pedro Betancourt

2007-01-01

310

New neotropical sebacinales species from a Pakaraimaea dipterocarpacea forest in the Guayana Region, Southern Venezuela: structural diversity and phylogeography.  

PubMed

Pakaraimaea dipterocarpacea, a member of the Dipterocarpaceae endemic in the Guayana region, is associated with a diverse community of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi. Amongst the 41 ECM fungal species detected in a 400 m2 P. dipterocarpacea ssp. nitida plot in Southern Venezuela, three species belonged to the Sebacinales. We tested whether ECM anatomotype characterization can be used as a feasible element in an integrative taxonomy in this diverse fungal group, where the relevance of fruitbody morphology for species delimitation seems limited. Using a combination of ECM morpho-anatomical characterizations and phylogenetic analyses based on nuclear ITS and LSU sequences, we report three new species. The main distinguishing features of Sebacina guayanensis are the yellowish cell walls together with conspicuous undifferentiated, uniform compact (type B) rhizomorphs. Staghorn-like hyphae are characteristic of S. tomentosa. The combination of clusters of thick-walled emanating hyphae, including hyphae similar to awl-shaped cystidia with basal dichotomous or trichotomous ramifications, and the presence of type B rhizomorphs were characteristic of a third, yet unnamed species. The three species belong to three different, possibly specifically tropical clades in Sebacinales Group A. The geographic distribution of phylogenetically related strains was wide, including a Dicymbe forest in Guyana and an Ecuadorian rainforest with Coccoloba species. We show that ECM morpho-anatomy can be used, in combination with other analyses, to delineate species within Sebacinales Group A. In addition to phylogenetic information, type B rhizomorphs observed in different Sebacinales clades have important ecological implications for this fungal group. The phylogeography of Sebacinales suggests that dispersion and host jump are important radiation mechanisms that shaped P. dipterocarpacea ECM fungal community. This study emphasizes the need for more sequence data to evaluate the hypothesis that phylogeographic relationships between neo- and paleotropical ECM fungal species could be attributed to the vicariance of cross-continental hosts such as the Dipterocarpacae. PMID:25072467

Moyersoen, Bernard; Wei?, Michael

2014-01-01

311

Wider sampling reveals a non-sister relationship for geographically contiguous lineages of a marine mussel  

PubMed Central

The accuracy of phylogenetic inference can be significantly improved by the addition of more taxa and by increasing the spatial coverage of sampling. In previous studies, the brown mussel Perna perna showed a sister–lineage relationship between eastern and western individuals contiguously distributed along the South African coastline. We used mitochondrial (COI) and nuclear (ITS) sequence data to further analyze phylogeographic patterns within P. perna. Significant expansion of the geographical coverage revealed an unexpected pattern. The western South African lineage shared the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) with specimens from Angola, Venezuela, and Namibia, whereas eastern South African specimens and Mozambique grouped together, indicating a non-sister relationship for the two South African lineages. Two plausible biogeographic scenarios to explain their origin were both supported by the hypotheses-testing analysis. One includes an Indo-Pacific origin for P. perna, dispersal into the Mediterranean and Atlantic through the Tethys seaway, followed by recent secondary contact after southward expansion of the western and eastern South African lineages. The other scenario (Out of South Africa) suggests an ancient vicariant divergence of the two lineages followed by their northward expansion. Nevertheless, the “Out of South Africa” hypothesis would require a more ancient divergence between the two lineages. Instead, our estimates indicated that they diverged very recently (310 kyr), providing a better support for an Indo-Pacific origin of the two South African lineages. The arrival of the MRCA of P. perna in Brazil was estimated at 10 [0–40] kyr. Thus, the hypothesis of a recent introduction in Brazil through hull fouling in wooden vessels involved in the transatlantic itineraries of the slave trade did not receive strong support, but given the range for this estimate, it could not be discarded. Wider geographic sampling of marine organisms shows that lineages with contiguous distributions need not share a common ancestry. PMID:25360249

Cunha, Regina L; Nicastro, Katy R; Costa, Joana; McQuaid, Christopher D; Serrão, Ester A; Zardi, Gerardo I

2014-01-01

312

Wider sampling reveals a non-sister relationship for geographically contiguous lineages of a marine mussel.  

PubMed

The accuracy of phylogenetic inference can be significantly improved by the addition of more taxa and by increasing the spatial coverage of sampling. In previous studies, the brown mussel Perna perna showed a sister-lineage relationship between eastern and western individuals contiguously distributed along the South African coastline. We used mitochondrial (COI) and nuclear (ITS) sequence data to further analyze phylogeographic patterns within P. perna. Significant expansion of the geographical coverage revealed an unexpected pattern. The western South African lineage shared the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) with specimens from Angola, Venezuela, and Namibia, whereas eastern South African specimens and Mozambique grouped together, indicating a non-sister relationship for the two South African lineages. Two plausible biogeographic scenarios to explain their origin were both supported by the hypotheses-testing analysis. One includes an Indo-Pacific origin for P. perna, dispersal into the Mediterranean and Atlantic through the Tethys seaway, followed by recent secondary contact after southward expansion of the western and eastern South African lineages. The other scenario (Out of South Africa) suggests an ancient vicariant divergence of the two lineages followed by their northward expansion. Nevertheless, the "Out of South Africa" hypothesis would require a more ancient divergence between the two lineages. Instead, our estimates indicated that they diverged very recently (310 kyr), providing a better support for an Indo-Pacific origin of the two South African lineages. The arrival of the MRCA of P. perna in Brazil was estimated at 10 [0-40] kyr. Thus, the hypothesis of a recent introduction in Brazil through hull fouling in wooden vessels involved in the transatlantic itineraries of the slave trade did not receive strong support, but given the range for this estimate, it could not be discarded. Wider geographic sampling of marine organisms shows that lineages with contiguous distributions need not share a common ancestry. PMID:25360249

Cunha, Regina L; Nicastro, Katy R; Costa, Joana; McQuaid, Christopher D; Serrão, Ester A; Zardi, Gerardo I

2014-06-01

313

Holocene evolution of the western Orinoco Delta, Venezuela  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The pristine nature of the Orinoco Delta of eastern Venezuela provides unique opportunities to study the geologic processes and environments of a major tropical delta. Remote-sensing images, shallow cores, and radiocarbon-dating of organic remains form the basis for describing deltaic environments and interpreting the Holocene history of the delta. The Orinoco Delta can be subdivided into two major sectors. The southeast sector is dominated by the Rio Grande-the principal distributary-and complex networks of anastomosing fluvial and tidal channels. The abundance of siliciclastic deposits suggests that fluvial processes such as over-bank flooding strongly influence this part of the delta. In contrast, the northwest sector is represented by few major distributaries, and overbank sedimentation is less widespread relative to the southeast sector. Peat is abundant and occurs in herbaceous and forested swamps that are individually up to 200 km2 in area. Northwest-directed littoral currents transport large volumes of suspended sediment and produce prominent mudcapes along the northwest coast. Mapping of surface sediments, vegetation, and major landforms identified four principal geomorphic systems within the western delta plain: (1) distributary channels, (2) interdistributary flood basins, (3) fluvial-marine transitional environments, and (4) marine-influenced coastal environments. Coring and radiocarbon dating of deltaic deposits show that the northern delta shoreline has prograded 20-30 km during the late Holocene sea-level highstand. Progradation has been accomplished by a combination of distributary avulsion and mudcape progradation. This style of deltaic progradation differs markedly from other deltas such as the Mississippi where distributary avulsion leads to coastal land loss, rather than shoreline progradation. The key difference is that the Orinoco Delta coastal zone receives prodigious amounts of sediment from northwest-moving littoral currents that transport sediment from as far away as the Amazon system (???1600 km). Late Holocene progradation of the delta has decreased delta-plain gradients, increased water levels, and minimized over-bank flooding and siliciclastic sedimentation in the northwest sector. These conditions, coupled with large amounts of direct precipitation, have led to widespread peat accumulation in interdistributary basins. Because peat-forming environments cover up to 5000 km2 of the delta plain, the Orinoco may be an excellent analogue for interpreting ancient deltaic peat deposits.

Aslan, A.; White, W.A.; Warne, A.G.; Guevara, E.H.

2003-01-01

314

Seismic microzoning projects and their implementation in Venezuela  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Site effects have been recognized to play an important role in damage distribution of destructive earthquakes. These effects have been observed in Venezuela especially during the 1967 Caracas earthquake, when 4 buildings with 10 and more storeys during the Caracas 1967 earthquake collapsed, and a big number of them in the same deep sediment area have been seriously damaged. This motivated the development of studies regarding the subsurface configuration of Caracas and Barquisimeto during the last decade, with a seismic microzoning project realized in both cities from 2005 to 2009. The main results of this project were the development of design response spectra for the different microzones within the sedimentary basin, as well as estimates of landslide hazard. Implementation of the results in municipality ordinances is actually discussed with local authorities. They are aimed to address mitigation for new constructions by the application of the specific design spectra, for existing buildings via evaluation and retrofitting strategies, and for slope areas (informal, as well as formal developments) due to the identification of areas that may not be developed or require detailed studies of slope stabilities. Since then, seismic microzoning studies were started in Cumaná, Guarenas/Guatire and Lara state, and within a broader context of integrated risk management, which includes flooding, landslide and technological risks, in Mérida, Valencia, Maracay, Barcelona/Puerto La Cruz and Valle de la Pascua. The projects are coordinated by the Venezuelan Foundation for Seismological Research (FUNVISIS) in cooperation with local universities. Efforts are done to unable local researchers to apply the methodologies in other cities as Valera, Trujillo, Boconó, San Cristóbal and Tucacas. A unified seismic hazard map as input motion to these studies is actually in development. Depending on the local characteristics, building inventory and vulnerability analysis are done for risk analysis. Further members of the "Grupo de trabajo: Investigaciones aplicadas a la gestion integral del riesgo en espacios urbanos" are: Oscar Andrés López, Milgreya Cerrada, Rafael Torres, Oscar Ramírez, Elieser Sanzonetti, José Heredia, Jaime Avendaño, Fernando Mazuera, Luis Molina, Alexi Suárez, Víctor Rocabado, Mónica Paolini, Luis Yegres, Leonardo Alvarado, Herbert Rendón, Luz Rodríguez, Jorge González.

Schmitz, M.; Cano, V.; Olbrich, F.; Vallee, M.; Morales, C.; Arreaza, A.; Mendes, K.; Klarica, S.; Alvarez Gomez, J.; Aray, J.; Vielma, J.; Pombo, A.; Diaz, J.; Grupo de trabajo

2013-05-01

315

CONDICIONES DE TRABAJO EN VENEZUELA EN EL PERODO 1999-2005: ELEMENTOS PARA UN BALANCE DE LA CUESTIN LABORAL EN EL PROCESO BOLIVARIANO  

E-print Network

CONDICIONES DE TRABAJO EN VENEZUELA EN EL PERÍODO 1999-2005: ELEMENTOS PARA UN BALANCE DE LA; informalidad; desempleo; salarios. #12;1. Introducción: el proyecto económico del proceso bolivariano Venezuela vigor de la nueva Constitución de 1999, en Venezuela se ha abierto un espacio político fabuloso donde el

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

316

USGS Geographic Analysis and Monitoring Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located within the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the Geographic Analysis and Monitoring Program (GAM) conducts various geographic assessments around the United States with an eye towards fostering a greater understanding of the causes and consequences of natural and human-induced processes that shape the landscape over time. Currently, GAM is engaged in dozens of projects, and this website provides summary information about the focus of each specialized endeavor. Visitors can begin their search by looking at an interactive map of the US. By clicking on each state, visitors can learn about the ongoing work in each locale. Additionally, visitors can also browse the current studies by theme, such as fire science, human health, environmental hazards, and topographic science. For persons looking for studies with a broader directive, the site also lists national and international studies, such as those looking at Lyme disease and the status and trends of the nation's transportation network.

317

47 CFR 22.503 - Paging geographic area authorizations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Paging geographic area authorizations. The FCC considers applications for and issues...this section. (a) Channels. The FCC may issue a paging geographic area authorization...Department of Commerce's 172 EAs, the FCC shall separately license Guam and the...

2012-10-01

318

47 CFR 22.503 - Paging geographic area authorizations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Paging geographic area authorizations. The FCC considers applications for and issues...this section. (a) Channels. The FCC may issue a paging geographic area authorization...Department of Commerce's 172 EAs, the FCC shall separately license Guam and the...

2011-10-01

319

Geographic dispersion in teams : its history, experience, measurement, and change  

E-print Network

This thesis begins with the simple argument that geographic dispersion has gone surprisingly unexamined despite its role as the domain-defining construct for geographically dispersed teams (a.k.a. "virtual teams"). The ...

O'Leary, Michael Boyer, 1969-

2002-01-01

320

U-PLANT GEOGRAPHIC ZONE CLEANUP PROTOTYPE  

SciTech Connect

The U Plant geographic zone (UPZ) occupies 0.83 square kilometers on the Hanford Site Central Plateau (200 Area). It encompasses the U Plant canyon (221-U Facility), ancillary facilities that supported the canyon, soil waste sites, and underground pipelines. The UPZ cleanup initiative coordinates the cleanup of the major facilities, ancillary facilities, waste sites, and contaminated pipelines (collectively identified as ''cleanup items'') within the geographic zone. The UPZ was selected as a geographic cleanup zone prototype for resolving regulatory, technical, and stakeholder issues and demonstrating cleanup methods for several reasons: most of the area is inactive, sufficient characterization information is available to support decisions, cleanup of the high-risk waste sites will help protect the groundwater, and the zone contains a representative cross-section of the types of cleanup actions that will be required in other geographic zones. The UPZ cleanup demonstrates the first of 22 integrated zone cleanup actions on the Hanford Site Central Plateau to address threats to groundwater, the environment, and human health. The UPZ contains more than 100 individual cleanup items. Cleanup actions in the zone will be undertaken using multiple regulatory processes and decision documents. Cleanup actions will include building demolition, waste site and pipeline excavation, and the construction of multiple, large engineered barriers. In some cases, different cleanup actions may be taken at item locations that are immediately adjacent to each other. The cleanup planning and field activities for each cleanup item must be undertaken in a coordinated and cohesive manner to ensure effective execution of the UPZ cleanup initiative. The UPZ zone cleanup implementation plan (ZCIP) was developed to address the need for a fundamental integration tool for UPZ cleanup. As UPZ cleanup planning and implementation moves forward, the ZCIP is intended to be a living document that will provide a focal point for integrating UPZ actions, including field cleanup activities, waste staging and handling, and post-cleanup monitoring and institutional controls.

ROMINE, L.D.

2006-02-01

321

The Potential Geographic Range of Pyrenophora semeniperda.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT There is no evidence that Pyrenophora semeniperda, the causal agent of leaf spotting in many annual and perennial grasses, currently occurs in Europe or Asia. However, there is potential phytosanitary concern that the importation of infected commodities could result in the introduction of this fungus into Eurasia, putting crops at risk and possibly resulting in economic losses. To assist in assessing the risk of geographic range extension of P. semeniperda, an analysis was undertaken to estimate the potential global distribution of this species, based on climatic suitability. Geographic distribution data for P. semeniperda in part of its current range were used to fit parameter values in a CLIMEX pest risk assessment model, and the remaining distribution data were used to validate the model. The CLIMEX model correctly predicts that virtually all locations where P. semeniperda has been found are climatically suitable. Only five locations worldwide where the fungus was recorded present are predicted as being unsuitable. These "outliers" may have been transient populations occurring during a favorable season and then dying out. Exploratory adjustments of the model to accommodate these records created unsatisfactory distortions in the projected climatic suitability surfaces, extending the suitable climatic zone beyond well-established traditional range boundaries. We are therefore confident that the model is credibly predicting the potential distribution of P. semeniperda worldwide. The CLIMEX model suggests that P. semeniperda could potentially extend its range throughout Europe and temperate regions of Asia, Africa, and South America. Our heavy reliance upon geographic data to build this CLIMEX model departs from most previous published examples in plant pathology, which have depended primarily upon experimentally derived physiological data to estimate model parameters. The use of geographic data to infer climate parameters is popular in CLIMEX models of weeds and arthropod pests and can provide decision-makers with early risk assessments of potential pathogen invasions, particularly where the pathogens have long, or difficult-to-study, lifecycles. PMID:18943099

Yonow, Tania; Kriticos, Darren J; Medd, Richard W

2004-08-01

322

GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND PUBLIC HEALTH  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract Geographic information,systems (GIS) and analyses based on GIS have become,widespread,and well accepted. GIS is not the complete,solution to understand- ing the distribution of disease and the problems,of public health but is an important way,in which to better illuminate how,humans,interact with their environment,to create or deter health. Public health and health care have been substantially transformed by informa-

Thomas C. Ricketts

2003-01-01

323

Advanced Data Structure and Geographic Information Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current state of the art in specified areas of Geographic Information Systems GIS technology is examined. Study of the question of very large, efficient, heterogeneous spatial databases is required in order to explore the potential application of remotely sensed data for studying the long term habitability of the Earth. Research includes a review of spatial data structures and storage, development of operations required by GIS, and preparation of a testbed system to compare Vaster data structure with NASA's Topological Raster Structure.

Peuquet, D. (principal investigator)

1984-01-01

324

What about people in geographic information science?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geographic information systems (GIS) are convenient and potentially powerful platforms for transportation and urban analysis. Most GIS-based tools for transportation and urban analysis continue a place-based representation that is increasingly ill-suited to answer important questions in theory, policy and practice. The increasing disconnection between people and places means that a people-based representation is required to address questions of access, exclusion

Harvey J. Miller

2003-01-01

325

Using Geographic Patterns to Discover Environmental Carcinogens  

Cancer.gov

Dr. Brian Henderson of the University of Southern California moderates a session on opportunities for global health epidemiologic research. Dr. William Blot of the International Epidemiology Institute and Vanderbilt University speaks about using geographic patterns to discover environmental carcinogens. These presentations were part of Cancer Epidemiology: From Pedigrees to Populations, a scientific symposium honoring 50 years of visionary leadership by Dr. Joseph F. Fraumeni, Jr., hosted by NCI’s Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics (DCEG).

326

GARRAPATAS (ACARI: IXODIDAE) RECOLECTADAS DE CANINOS BAJO ASISTENCIA VETERINARIA EN MARACAIBO, VENEZUELA. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) Collected From Canines Under Veterinary Care in Maracaibo, Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

LUZ) in Maracaibo, Venezuela. For this, were collected 624 ticks from 64 dogs, those were identified. All of them were identified as Rhipicephalus sanguineus. The mean intensity was 9.8 ticks per dog (range: 2-55). Were collected 366 ticks female and 258 ticks male. Sexual ratio (male:female) was 1:1.4. There were 33 (51.69%) male dogs parasitized and 31 (48.4%) female dogs.

Roger A. Ramírez-Barrios; Everts Chacín; Glen Barboza; Gibson Fernández; Zulayne Valera; Alberto Villalobos; Francisco Angulo-Cubillán

2008-01-01

327

Geographical mobility in Wiltshire, 1754-1914.  

PubMed

The aim of this paper is to determine the birthplaces, rather than residences, of spouses married in two parishes in England and to consider the effect of local topography, religion and occupation on pre-marital geographic mobility. A wide array of primary documentary sources was used to construct a database of over 22,000 individuals who lived in south-west Wiltshire in the eighteenth, nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Individuals were arranged in family groups and pedigrees traced for several generations. Data were included on birthplace, religious affiliation, occupation and many other variables. Geographical mobility calculated from birthplace was higher than estimates derived from residence prior to marriage. Brides had shorter marital distances than grooms. There were noticeable changes in the frequency of marital distance at 4 miles and 11 miles. Spouses born outside the parish of marriage were more likely to come from certain villages in ways which cannot be explained merely by distance and size. The Somerset-Wiltshire border formed a barrier, although a porous one, to the flow of marriage partners. Occupation influenced geographical mobility: grooms from higher-status occupational groups were more likely to be born further away than grooms from lower-status occupational groups. Catholic grooms were more likely to be born in the parish of marriage than Protestant grooms, but were also more likely to be born more than 11 miles away. PMID:23057182

Day, Cathy

2012-01-01

328

Geographical assemblages of European raptors and owls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we look for geographical structure patterns in European raptors (Order: Falconiformes) and owls (Order: Strigiformes). For this purpose we have conducted our research using freely available tools such as statistical software and databases. To perform the study, presence-absence data for the European raptors and owl species (Class Aves) were downloaded from the BirdLife International website. Using the freely available "pvclust" R-package, we applied similarity Jaccard index and cluster analysis in order to delineate biogeographical relationships for European countries. According to the cluster of similarity, we found that Europe is structured into two main geographical assemblages. The larger length branch separated two main groups: one containing Iceland, Greenland and the countries of central, northern and northwestern Europe, and the other group including the countries of eastern, southern and southwestern Europe. Both groups are divided into two main subgroups. According to our results, the European raptors and owls could be considered structured into four meta-communities well delimited by suture zones defined by Remington (1968) [Remington, C.L., 1968. Suture-zones of hybrid interaction between recently joined biotas. Evol. Biol. 2, 321-428]. Climatic oscillations during the Quaternary Ice Ages could explain at least in part the modern geographical distribution of the group.

López-López, Pascual; Benavent-Corai, José; García-Ripollés, Clara

2008-09-01

329

Towards a holistic approach to geographic research on film  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geographers' interest in film has increased during the last 20 years. Methodological and theoretical perspectives tend, however, to be bipolar and reflect either cognitive or social approaches. Work reflecting these approaches is reviewed with geographic research grounded in transactionalism and postmodernism as examples. A geographic view of film that recognizes the importance of more than one theoretical framework, positions the

Christina Kennedy; Christopher Lukinbeal

1997-01-01

330

The geographic selection mosaic for squirrels, crossbills and Aleppo pine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interactions between many species are structured in a geographic mosaic of populations among which selection is divergent. Here we tested the hypothesis that such a geographic selection mosaic arises for common crossbills (Loxia curvirostra) feeding on seeds in the cones of Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis) because of geographic variation in the occurrence of European red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris). On

E. T. MEZQUIDA; C. W. BENKMAN

331

Geographical Inquiry in Australian Schools: A Retrospective Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the occurrence of geographical inquiry in the Australian curriculum since Geography became a high school subject in 1911. In this historical overview, I reflect upon my own experiences of undertaking geographical inquiry during the 1970s and 1980s. Primary school geographical inquiry experiences can be virtually non-existent…

Kidman, Gillian

2012-01-01

332

Effect of Geographic Distance on Distance Education: An Empirical Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the effect of geographic distance on students' distance learning experience with the aim to provide tentative answers to a fundamental question--does geographic distance matter in distance education? Using educational outcome data collected from an online master's program in Geographic Information Systems, this…

Luo, Heng; Robinson, Anthony C.; Detwiler, Jim

2014-01-01

333

Geographic Information Systems: A Kaleidoscope. Resources in Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are a combination of maps and databases that provides geographical information not otherwise possible. The result of combining street data and geographic data is a precision map showing exact street locations. GIS can be used by delivery people, emergency vehicles, and taxicabs. (JOW)

Deal, Walter F.

1998-01-01

334

Geographic information retrieval: Modeling uncertainty of user's context  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geographic information retrieval (GIR) is nowadays a hot research issue that involves the management of uncertainty and imprecision and the modeling of user preferences and context. Indexing the geographic content of documents implies dealing with the ambiguity, synonymy and homonymy of geographic names in texts. On the other side, the evaluation of queries specifying both content based conditions and spatial

Gloria Bordogna; Giorgio Ghisalberti; Giuseppe Psaila

335

THE MARKET FOR BROILERS THROUGH FAST-FOOD OUTLETS IN VENEZUELA  

Microsoft Academic Search

PROAGRO is the leading firm in the broiler business in Venezuela. It is integrated through hatchery, grow-out, processing and distribution activities. As a consequence of strict price regulation policies enforced by the government in the poultry products, PROAGRO experienced serious injury to its profitability over the last few years. The most severe regulations were applied to PROAGRO's chief product (whole,

Jose E. Gomez

1978-01-01

336

The Boscan Field-Venezuela's giant stratigraphic trap with a complex history  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Boscan Field lies in the northwest quadrant of the Maracaibo Basin, Venezuela. It is a large stratigraphic trap that has produced more than 800 million barrels of heavy oil since 1946, principally from Eocene fluvial-deltaic clastic reservoirs. These are faulted, folded, and are truncated by a pre-Oligocene unconformity. The geochronology of the Boscan Field has been interpreted as follows:

D. C. Swanson; J. Jaimes; C. Valdez; B. Pirela; F. Puche; D. Rojas; E. Moya

1993-01-01

337

The nitrogen cycle in a ‘Terra Firme’ rainforest on oxisol in the Amazon territory of Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

Standing stocks and fluxes of nitrogen, including nitrogen fixation and denitrification, were measured in a tropical rainforest on Oxisol in the Amazon Territory of Venezuela. The standing stock of nitrogen was comparable to that of temperate forests, but was higher than that in an adjacent forest on Spodosol. Fluxes were higher than in forests in the temperate zone, but lower

C. Jordan; W. Caskey; G. Escalante; R. Herrera; F. Montagnini; R. Todd; C. Uhl

1982-01-01

338

TOXOPLASMA GONDII INFECTIONS IN CHICKENS FROM VENEZUELA: ISOLATION, TISSUE DISTRIBUTION, AND MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging chickens is a good indicator of the prevalence of T. gondii oocysts in the soil because chickens feed from the ground. The prevalence of T. gondii in 46 free-range chickens (Gallus domesticus) from Venezuela was determined. Antibodies to T. gondii ...

339

The Effect of Wage Compression and Alternative Labor Market Opportunities on Teacher Quality in Venezuela  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the effect of teacher relative wages and teacher wage dispersion on high school graduates' preferences for teaching majors in College. This approximation to teacher quality is appropriate in a country like Venezuela as opposed to the US since the rigidity of the tertiary school system significantly limits mobility between…

Ortega, Daniel E.

2010-01-01

340

Five Years of Cyclotron Radioisotope Production Experiences at the First PET-CT in Venezuela  

SciTech Connect

Five years operation of a compact cyclotron installed at PET-CT facility in Caracas, Venezuela is given. Production rate of {sup 18}F labeled FDG, operation and radiation monitoring experience are included. We conclude that {sup 18}FDG CT-PET is the most effective technique for patient diagnosis.

Colmenter, L.; Coelho, D.; Esteves, L. M.; Ruiz, N.; Morales, L.; Lugo, I. [Centro Diagnostico Docente, Las Mercedes, Caracas (Venezuela); Sajo-Bohus, L.; Liendo, J. A.; Greaves, E. D.; Barros, H. [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Seccion de Fisica Nuclear, Caracas (Venezuela); Castillo, J. [University of Applied Science of Aachen (Germany)

2007-10-26

341

Levels, chemical fractionation, and solubility of lead in roadside soils of Caracas, Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author investigated the level, chemical fractions, and solubility of Pb in several roadside soils of heavily traveled areas of Caracas, Venezuela. Using 1 N HNOâ extraction, he studied the levels of lead in 25 roadside soil samples and found a very high level of Pb (average enrichment factor 21.0), indicating a strong lead pollution of Caracas roadside soils by

J. GARCIA-MIRAGAYA

1984-01-01

342

Teachers' Perceived Efficacy among English as a Foreign Language Teachers in Middle Schools in Venezuela  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers' sense of efficacy has been shown to influence teachers' actions and student outcomes. This study explored self-efficacy beliefs among English as a Foreign Language teachers in selected schools in Venezuela. Data were collected through a survey administered to 100 teachers. The Teacher Sense of Efficacy Scale (Tschannen-Moran & Woolfolk…

Chacon, C.T.

2005-01-01

343

Phytomass structure of natural plant communities on spodosols in southern Venezuela: The tall Amazon Caatinga forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phytomass structure of the evergreen lowland forest vegetation (Tall Amazon Caatinga) supported by tropaquods near San Carlos de Rio Negro, Federal Amazon Territory of Venezuela was studied in 13 10 m× 10 m plots. The plots were laid out subjectively to cover a low topographical gradient along which the forest on tropaquod is grading into a low woodland (Bana,

H. Klinge; R. Herrera

1983-01-01

344

The Population Structure of Red Howler Monkeys (Alouatta seniculus) in Trinidad and Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

The small troops and roughly even adult sexual ratio of Alouatta seniculus, studied in Bush Bush Forest in Trinidad and on the ranch Hato Masaguaral in the llanos of Venezuela, are more similar to A. caraya than to A. palliata. Other aspects of the troop composition are discussed. Though the red howler prefers certain types of habitat including tall trees,

M. K. Neville

1972-01-01

345

Counter-Hegemonic Regionalism and Higher Education for All: Venezuela and the ALBA  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper employs new regionalism theory and regulatory regionalism theory in its analysis and theorisation of the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America (ALBA) as a counter-hegemonic Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) regionalism. As (initially) the regionalisation of Venezuela's Bolivarian Revolution, ALBA is centred around the idea…

Muhr, Thomas

2010-01-01

346

ACUTE CHAGAS' DISEASE IN WESTERN VENEZUELA: A CLINICAL, SEROPARASITOLOGIC, AND EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

A clinical, parasitologic, and serologic study carried out between 1988 and 1996 on 59 acute-phase patients in areas of western Venezuela where Chagas' disease is endemic showed 19 symptomatic patterns or groups of symptoms appearing in combination with different frequencies. The symptomatic pattern with the highest frequency was that showing simultaneously fever, myalgia, headache, and Romana's sign, which was detected

NESTOR ANEZ; HUGO CARRASCO; HENRY PARADA; GLADYS CRISANTE; AGUSTINA ROJAS; NESTOR GONZALEZ; JOSE LUIS RAMIREZ; PALMIRA GUEVARA; CHRISTIAN RIVERO; RAFAEL BORGES; JOSE VICENTE SCORZA

347

A Gene Cluster for Macrolide Antibiotic Biosynthesis in Streptomyces venezuelae: Architecture of Metabolic Diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a survey of microbial systems capable of generating unusual metabolite structural variability, Streptomyces venezuelae ATCC 15439 is notable in its ability to produce two distinct groups of macrolide antibiotics. Methymycin and neomethymycin are derived from the 12-membered ring macrolactone 10-deoxymethynolide, whereas narbomycin and pikromycin are derived from the 14-membered ring macrolactone, narbonolide. This report describes the cloning and characterization

Yongquan Xue; Lishan Zhao; Hung-Wen Liu; David H. Sherman

1998-01-01

348

Comprehensive Education Bolivarian-Style: The Alternative School in Barrio Pueblo Nuevo, Venezuela  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author traces revolutionary developments in an alternative school in Barrio Pueblo Nuevo, Mérida, in the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, a school that caters for students between 4 and 14. He begins by recounting some fieldwork done at the school on his behalf by Edward Ellis in 2010. He goes on to discuss a video made at…

Cole, Mike

2014-01-01

349

UNA NUEVA ESPECIE DE PROCTOPORUS (SAURIA: GYMNOPHTHALMIDAE) DE LOS ANDES DE VENEZUELA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new species is described of lizard of the genus Proctoporus, belonging to the P. luctuosus group and closely related whith P. achlyens and P. shrevei, from the Cordillera de la Costa de Venezuela and Trinidad Island respectively. This species, an inhabitant in the terminal branches of the Cordillera de Mérida South of the Depresión de Barquisimeto, is the first

Juan Elías GARCIA-PEREZ; Enrique Elías YUSTIZ

350

Formation of the Maturín Foreland Basin, eastern Venezuela: Thrust sheet loading or subduction dynamic topography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Maturín Basin in eastern Venezuela is considered a good example of a peripheral foreland basin. Earthquake and tomographic data indicate that eastern Venezuela is affected by the oblique subduction of the South American Plate underneath the Caribbean Plate. New forward flexural isostatic modeling of eastern Venezuela has been carried out in order to determine whether the Maturín Basin was generated purely by thrust sheet loading from the Serranía and Monagas Foreland Thrust Belts. A sequence of forward models from middle Miocene to Present was generated for 3 profiles across the Serranía del Interior Thrust Belt, the Monagas Foreland Thrust Belt, and the Maturín Foreland Basin. The predictions of these models are constrained using seismic reflection and well data. The flexural isostatic modeling shows that thrust sheet loading associated with the Serranía del Interior and Monagas Foreland thrust belts is insufficient to generate the observed subsidence within the Maturín Basin. Dynamic fluid flow modeling of subduction related dynamic topography of eastern Venezuela has been used to investigate the influence of South American Plate subduction on the generation of the accommodation space observed in the Maturín Basin. Fluid flow modeling of subduction related dynamic topography suggests that the subduction of the South American lithospheric mantle caused downward deflection of the South American crust affecting the Maturín Basin and the Serranía Thrust Belt. This modeling suggests that the Maturín Basin subsidence has two components: 55% related to thrust sheet loading and 45% driven by continental subduction.

JáCome, Maria I.; Kusznir, Nick; Audemard, Felipe; Flint, Steve

2003-10-01

351

Modern climate forcing of terrigenous deposition in the tropics (Cariaco Basin, Venezuela)  

Microsoft Academic Search

One approach to deciphering tropical Quaternary paleoclimate records has been to study the composition of terrigenous material in order to infer past changes in hydrologic and atmospheric conditions. Here we present the inorganic geochemistry (major and trace elements) of modern sediment traps and shelf sediments in the tropical Cariaco Basin, Venezuela, in order to characterize seasonal variation in deposition of

Nahysa C. Martinez; R. W. Murray; Robert C. Thunell; Larry C. Peterson; Frank Muller-Karger; Yrene Astor; Ramon Varela

2007-01-01

352

Early Sexual Maturity Among Pume Foragers of Venezuela: Fitness Implications of Teen Motherhood  

E-print Network

Early Sexual Maturity Among Pume´ Foragers of Venezuela: Fitness Implications of Teen Motherhood their late teens. Am J Phys Anthropol 136:338­350, 2008. VVC 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Age at first birth is tied biology literature on teen pregnancy, objectives are to first to describe these patterns and then discuss

Kramer, Karen L.

353

The Peasantry as an Emerging Political Factor in Mexico, Bolivia, and Venezuela.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the potential role of the peasantry in the determination of political power in Latin America. Case studies of Mexico, Bolivia, and Venezuela illustrate that the framework of political change is of major importance because it is crucial in determining the properties of the political system to follow. The previous involvement of…

Lord, Peter P.

354

Applications of Planktonic foraminifera in the Paleogene of the Eastern Venezuela-Trinidad Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following increased interest in the petroleum potential of the Eastern Venezuela-Trinidad Basin, a revision of the planktonic foraminifera from the Paleogene was undertaken. The application of evolutionary trends in microperforate, medioperforate and macroperforate lineages for petroleum exploration is assessed. Scanning Electron Microscope illustrations are presented for over 100 taxa currently applied in high resolution biostratigraphy, sequence stratigraphy and paleoceanography of

1996-01-01

355

Teachers’ perceived efficacy among English as a foreign language teachers in middle schools in Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teachers’ sense of efficacy has been shown to influence teachers’ actions and student outcomes. This study explored self-efficacy beliefs among English as a Foreign Language teachers in selected schools in Venezuela. Data were collected through a survey administered to 100 teachers. The Teacher Sense of Efficacy Scale (Tschannen-Moran & Woolfolk Hoy, 2001) was used to assess efficacy for management, engagement,

Carmen Teresa Chacón

2005-01-01

356

Factors Affecting Student Success at the National Open University of Venezuela.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Findings of this analysis of the effect of selected variables on attrition in the introductory course of the National Open University of Venezuela suggest that noninstitutional variables accounted for the largest proportion of variance of student completion. Counseling and course redesign are recommended to enhance student motivation to complete…

de Freitas, Katia Siqueira; Lynch, Patrick

1986-01-01

357

A modern regional geological analysis of Venezuela - lessons from a major new world oil province on exploration in mature areas  

SciTech Connect

Venezuela has produced some 44 billion bbl of oil since the early part of the century. As such, it represents one of the world's major oil producers and a mature petroleum province. However, major tracts of Venezuela's sedimentary basins remain underexplored and large discoveries are still being made in new and old reservoir systems. A regional geological analysis of Venezuela, focusing on basin evolution and sequence stratigraphy and incorporating data from the three national oil companies, is presented. The analysis presents a regionally consistent tectonostratigraphic model capable of explaining the evolution of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic basins of Venezuela and placing the major reservoir facies in their regional tectonic and sequence stratigraphic context. Four regional cross sections describe the stratigraphic and structural model. The model recognizes a Jurassic rifting event and inversion, succeeded by an Early Cretaceous passive margin. In western Venezuela, the Early Cretaceous passive subsidence is enhanced locally by extension related to the Colombian active margin. Venezuela experienced a major change in the Campanian with the initial collision of the Caribbean arc, recorded by foreland structuring and widespread stratigraphic changes. From the Campanian onward, the tectonostratigraphic evolution can be modeled in terms of a progressive southeast-directed arc-continent collision and the migration of the associated foredeep and rift basins. Within the tectonic framework, the major sequence stratigraphic units are identified and the reservoir distribution interpreted. This model provides a strong predictive tool to extrapolate reservoir systems into Venezuela's underexplored areas and to readdress its traditional areas.

Daly, M. (BP Exploracion de Venezuela, Stockley Park, Middlesex (United Kingdom)); Audemard, F. (Intevep, Miranda (Venezuela)); Valdes, G. (Petroleos de Venezuela, Caracas (Venezuela))

1993-09-01

358

Geographic Information Systems and Web Page Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Facilities Engineering and Architectural Branch is responsible for the design and maintenance of buildings, laboratories, and civil structures. In order to improve efficiency and quality, the FEAB has dedicated itself to establishing a data infrastructure based on Geographic Information Systems, GIS. The value of GIS was explained in an article dating back to 1980 entitled "Need for a Multipurpose Cadastre" which stated, "There is a critical need for a better land-information system in the United States to improve land-conveyance procedures, furnish a basis for equitable taxation, and provide much-needed information for resource management and environmental planning." Scientists and engineers both point to GIS as the solution. What is GIS? According to most text books, Geographic Information Systems is a class of software that stores, manages, and analyzes mapable features on, above, or below the surface of the earth. GIS software is basically database management software to the management of spatial data and information. Simply put, Geographic Information Systems manage, analyze, chart, graph, and map spatial information. GIS can be broken down into two main categories, urban GIS and natural resource GIS. Further still, natural resource GIS can be broken down into six sub-categories, agriculture, forestry, wildlife, catchment management, archaeology, and geology/mining. Agriculture GIS has several applications, such as agricultural capability analysis, land conservation, market analysis, or whole farming planning. Forestry GIs can be used for timber assessment and management, harvest scheduling and planning, environmental impact assessment, and pest management. GIS when used in wildlife applications enables the user to assess and manage habitats, identify and track endangered and rare species, and monitor impact assessment.

Reynolds, Justin

2004-01-01

359

GeoDMA—Geographic Data Mining Analyst  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remote sensing images obtained by remote sensing are a key source of data for studying large-scale geographic areas. From 2013 onwards, a new generation of land remote sensing satellites from USA, China, Brazil, India and Europe will produce in 1 year as much data as 5 years of the Landsat-7 satellite. Thus, the research community needs new ways to analyze large data sets of remote sensing imagery. To address this need, this paper describes a toolbox for combing land remote sensing image analysis with data mining techniques. Data mining methods are being extensively used for statistical analysis, but up to now have had limited use in remote sensing image interpretation due to the lack of appropriate tools. The toolbox described in this paper is the Geographic Data Mining Analyst (GeoDMA). It has algorithms for segmentation, feature extraction, feature selection, classification, landscape metrics and multi-temporal methods for change detection and analysis. GeoDMA uses decision-tree strategies adapted for spatial data mining. It connects remotely sensed imagery with other geographic data types using access to local or remote database. GeoDMA has methods to assess the accuracy of simulation models, as well as tools for spatio-temporal analysis, including a visualization of time-series that helps users to find patterns in cyclic events. The software includes a new approach for analyzing spatio-temporal data based on polar coordinates transformation. This method creates a set of descriptive features that improves the classification accuracy of multi-temporal image databases. GeoDMA is tightly integrated with TerraView GIS, so its users have access to all traditional GIS features. To demonstrate GeoDMA, we show two case studies on land use and land cover change.

Körting, Thales Sehn; Garcia Fonseca, Leila Maria; Câmara, Gilberto

2013-08-01

360

Six Essential Elements- National Geographic Photograph Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is the fourth in a unit of five lessons on the Six Essential Elements of Geography. In this lesson students will apply recently acquired knowledge regarding the Six Essential Elements of Geography. They will utilize National Geographic magazines to find examples of the six Elements and write to explain how the photograph fits the element. First, they will do this activity in groups; groups will each be assigned one Element. Second, students will individually find an example of all six Elements. At the end of the lesson, students will present their work to the class.

Patricia Steed

2012-08-01

361

Digital Mapping and Geographic Information Systems (GIS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Geographic information systems (GIS), once used predominantly by experts in cartography and computer programming, have become pervasive in everyday business and consumer use. This unit explores GIS in general as a technology about which much more can be learned, and it also explores applications of that technology. Students experience GIS technology through the use of Google Earth on the environmental topic of plastics in the ocean in an area known as the Great Pacific Garbage Patch. The use of this topic in GIS makes the unit multidisciplinary, incorporating the physics of ocean currents, the chemistry associated with pollutant degradation and chemical sorption to organic-rich plastics, and ecological impact to aquatic biota.

National Science Foundation GK-12 and Research Experience for Teachers (RET) Programs,

362

National Geographic Magazine: Saving Africa's Eden  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Geographic Web site contains an online, multimedia supplement to a feature article from the September 2003 issue of the magazine, which takes an in-depth look at the prospect of setting aside an amazing 11% of Gabon's intact wilderness for conservation and ecotourism. The Web site includes an excerpt from the print article, but extra Web features are the real attraction. Visitors will find an online-only photo gallery, field notes from photographer Michael Nichols, and a handful of other cool features like the video clip featuring ecologist Mike Fay as he treks through Gabon's virtually unexplored wilderness.

2003-01-01

363

Earth's Active Volcanoes by Geographic Region  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes active volcanoes from around the world by using the volcano links from the Michigan Technological University and the homepages of observatories at active volcanoes. Each volcano section contains photo images, maps, and reference text. Some sections contain bibliographies, volcano reports, and video clips of lahars. The volcanoes are organized by the following geographic regions: Africa and surrounding islands; the Southwest Pacific, Southeast Asia, and India; East Asia including Japan and Kamchatka; Antarctica; the North Atlantic and Iceland; the Mediterranean; South America and surrounding islands; Central Pacific, South Pacific and New Zealand; Alaska and the Northern Pacific Region; North America; and Central America.

364

Geographical Aspects of Cancer in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Cancer is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in Tanzania. According to the Tanzanian Cancer Registry, which records all histologically confirmed malignant tumors, the number of reported cancer cases has increased significantly over the past three decades. The most commonly diagnosed tumors are cervix cancer, skin cancer, primary liver cancer, Kaposi's sarcoma, and Burkitt's lymphoma. Geographical and tribal variations exist in disease frequency. Environmental factors appear to have a major role in the distribution. Through elimination of these factors, cancer in Tanzania could be reduced if not totally prevented. ImagesFigure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8 PMID:6631988

Alexander, George A.

1983-01-01

365

Forces of Nature: National Geographic Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This dynamic site from National Geographic Education features invigorating ganders into four of natureâÂÂs most devastating forces. Start with Tornadoes. Six sections â What is a Tornado, What Causes Tornadoes, and Characteristics of Tornadoes, among others â provide an informative overview of these sudden, sometimes devastating wind events. Next, take a look at Volcanoes, and click on headings like Where Do Volcanoes Occur? and How Do Volcanoes Erupt? Hurricanes and Earthquakes each deserve careful attention, especially the interactive, Spin Off Your Own Hurricane, where you can learn how hurricanes are made by building one yourself.

366

Neotropical genera of Naucoridae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Nepomorpha): new species of Placomerus and Procryphocricos from Guyana and Venezuela.  

PubMed

The Neotropical fauna of saucer bugs (Naucoridae) currently includes four monotypic genera. Recent extensive collecting in Venezuela has produced three new species in two of these genera. In addition, undetermined Guyanan specimens of one of the new species were found in the United States National Museum of Natural History. Thus, described here are Placomerus obscuratus n. sp. from Guyana and Venezuela with brachypterous and macropterous hindwing forms, and two species of Procryphocricos from Venezuela. Procryphocricos quiu n. sp. is described from the brachypterous forewing form and Procryphocricos macoita n. sp. from both brachypterous and macropterous forms. Previously described species also are discussed. PMID:24869509

Sites, Robert W; Camacho, Jesús

2014-01-01

367

Geographic variation in the frequency of isolation and fluconazole and voriconazole susceptibilities of Candida glabrata: an assessment from the ARTEMIS DISK Global Antifungal Surveillance Program.  

PubMed

Geographic differences in frequency and azole resistance among Candida glabrata may impact empiric antifungal therapy choice. We examined geographic variation in isolation and azole susceptibility of C. glabrata. We examined 23 305 clinical isolates of C. glabrata during ARTEMIS DISK global surveillance. Susceptibility testing to fluconazole and voriconazole was assessed by disk diffusion, and the results were grouped by geographic location: North America (NA) (2470 isolates), Latin America (LA) (2039), Europe (EU) (12 439), Africa and the Middle East (AME) (728), and Asia-Pacific (AP) (5629). Overall, C. glabrata accounted for 11.6% of 201 653 isolates of Candida and varied as a proportion of all Candida isolated from 7.4% in LA to 21.1% in NA. Decreased susceptibility (S) to fluconazole was observed in all geographic regions and ranged from 62.8% in AME to 76.7% in LA. Variation in fluconazole susceptibility was observed within each region: AP (range, 50-100% S), AME (48-86.9%), EU (44.8-88%), LA (43-92%), and NA (74.5-91.6%). Voriconazole was more active than fluconazole (range, 82.3-84.2% S) with similar regional variation. Among 22 sentinel sites participating in ARTEMIS from 2001 through 2007 (84 140 total isolates, 8163 C. glabrata), the frequency of C. glabrata isolation increased in 14 sites and the frequency of fluconazole resistance (R) increased in 11 sites over the 7-year period of study. The sites with the highest cumulative rates of fluconazole R were in Poland (22% R), the Czech Republic (27% R), Venezuela (27% R), and Greece (33% R). C. glabrata was most often isolated from blood, normally sterile body fluids and urine. There is substantial geographic and institutional variation in both frequency of isolation and azole resistance among C. glabrata. Prompt species identification and fluconazole susceptibility testing are necessary to optimize therapy for invasive candidiasis. PMID:20338711

Pfaller, Michael A; Diekema, Daniel J; Gibbs, David L; Newell, Vance A; Barton, Richard; Bijie, Hu; Bille, Jacques; Chang, Shan-Chwen; da Luz Martins, Maria; Duse, Adriano; Dzierzanowska, Danuta; Ellis, David; Finquelievich, Jorge; Gould, Ian; Gur, Deniz; Hoosen, Anwar; Lee, Kyungwon; Mallatova, Nada; Mallie, Michele; Peng, N G Kee; Petrikos, George; Santiago, Axel; Trupl, Jan; VanDen Abeele, Ann Marie; Wadula, Jeannette; Zaidi, Mussaret

2010-06-01

368

Geographic Maldistribution of Primary Care for Children  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: This study examines growth in the primary care physician workforce for children and examines the geographic distribution of the workforce. METHODS: National data were used to calculate the local per-capita supply of clinically active general pediatricians and family physicians, measured at the level of primary care service areas. RESULTS: Between 1996 and 2006, the general pediatrician and family physician workforces expanded by 51% and 35%, respectively, whereas the child population increased by only 9%. The 2006 per-capita supply varied by >600% across local primary care markets. Nearly 15 million children (20% of the US child population) lived in local markets with <710 children per child physician (average of 141 child physicians per 100 000 children), whereas another 15 million lived in areas with >4400 children per child physician (average of 22 child physicians per 100 000 children). In addition, almost 1 million children lived in areas with no local child physician. Nearly all 50 states had evidence of similar extremes of physician maldistribution. CONCLUSIONS: Undirected growth of the aggregate child physician workforce has resulted in profound maldistribution of physician resources. Accountability for public funding of physician training should include efforts to develop, to use, and to evaluate policies aimed at reducing disparities in geographic access to primary care physicians for children. PMID:21172992

Lan, Jia; Chang, Chiang-hua; Goodman, David C.

2011-01-01

369

Geographic Wormhole Detection in Wireless Sensor Networks  

PubMed Central

Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are ubiquitous and pervasive, and therefore; highly susceptible to a number of security attacks. Denial of Service (DoS) attack is considered the most dominant and a major threat to WSNs. Moreover, the wormhole attack represents one of the potential forms of the Denial of Service (DoS) attack. Besides, crafting the wormhole attack is comparatively simple; though, its detection is nontrivial. On the contrary, the extant wormhole defense methods need both specialized hardware and strong assumptions to defend against static and dynamic wormhole attack. The ensuing paper introduces a novel scheme to detect wormhole attacks in a geographic routing protocol (DWGRP). The main contribution of this paper is to detect malicious nodes and select the best and the most reliable neighbors based on pairwise key pre-distribution technique and the beacon packet. Moreover, this novel technique is not subject to any specific assumption, requirement, or specialized hardware, such as a precise synchronized clock. The proposed detection method is validated by comparisons with several related techniques in the literature, such as Received Signal Strength (RSS), Authentication of Nodes Scheme (ANS), Wormhole Detection uses Hound Packet (WHOP), and Wormhole Detection with Neighborhood Information (WDI) using the NS-2 simulator. The analysis of the simulations shows promising results with low False Detection Rate (FDR) in the geographic routing protocols. PMID:25602616

Sookhak, Mehdi; Akhundzada, Adnan; Sookhak, Alireza; Eslaminejad, Mohammadreza; Gani, Abdullah; Khurram Khan, Muhammad; Li, Xiong; Wang, Xiaomin

2015-01-01

370

Intervehicle communication protocol using geographical routing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present an inter-vehicle communication protocol based on geographical routing. Our proposed protocol enables point-to-point communications between cars in highway. The protocol is designed for highway travelers but can be used in any mobile ad-hoc network. The highway is divided in virtual cells, which moves as the vehicles moves. The cell members choose a center that will behave for a certain time interval as a Base Station. Every node has its geographical position given by Global Positioning System (GPS). When a source node has a message for a destination node, forwards it to its Cell Center. Then the message is forwarded through the other Cell Centers. The Cell Centers first verifies if the destination node belongs to their cell. Finally the destination Cell Center will send the message to the destination node. Our simulation results show that our proposed protocol improves the network utilization compared to existing inter-vehicles protocols. The protocol can be used to implement differentiated mobile services and message prioritization.

Durresi, Mimoza; Ozguner, Fusun

2001-07-01

371

GEODE Initiative: Geographic Data in Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Geographic Data in Education (GEODE) Initiative is dedicated to the improvement of Earth and environmental science education through the use of data visualization and analysis tools to support inquiry-based pedagogy. The goal is to demonstrate that scientific visualization, incorporated into inquiry-based learning, can enable students of diverse abilities to develop an understanding of complex scientific phenomena. This project designs and evaluates learning software, develops and field tests middle and high school curricula, and investigates the process by which students learn to make sense of scientific visualizations. Software products are WorldWatcher, a tool which supports the study of climate and global climate change, and MyWorld GIS, a vector-based geographic information system software that runs in Java on Windows NT, 98, ME, 2000, and MacOS X. Curricula are The Global Warming Project, an eight week, stand alone unit in which middle school students learn about many of the scientific factors that contribute to the controversial global warming debate, and Looking At The Environment, a year long, visually intensive high school environmental science curriculum centered on three key issues: the relationship between population growth and resource availability; electricity generation and meeting the demand for energy; managing water resources for agricultural use and human consumption.

Edelson, Daniel

2008-03-20

372

Geographic wormhole detection in wireless sensor networks.  

PubMed

Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are ubiquitous and pervasive, and therefore; highly susceptible to a number of security attacks. Denial of Service (DoS) attack is considered the most dominant and a major threat to WSNs. Moreover, the wormhole attack represents one of the potential forms of the Denial of Service (DoS) attack. Besides, crafting the wormhole attack is comparatively simple; though, its detection is nontrivial. On the contrary, the extant wormhole defense methods need both specialized hardware and strong assumptions to defend against static and dynamic wormhole attack. The ensuing paper introduces a novel scheme to detect wormhole attacks in a geographic routing protocol (DWGRP). The main contribution of this paper is to detect malicious nodes and select the best and the most reliable neighbors based on pairwise key pre-distribution technique and the beacon packet. Moreover, this novel technique is not subject to any specific assumption, requirement, or specialized hardware, such as a precise synchronized clock. The proposed detection method is validated by comparisons with several related techniques in the literature, such as Received Signal Strength (RSS), Authentication of Nodes Scheme (ANS), Wormhole Detection uses Hound Packet (WHOP), and Wormhole Detection with Neighborhood Information (WDI) using the NS-2 simulator. The analysis of the simulations shows promising results with low False Detection Rate (FDR) in the geographic routing protocols. PMID:25602616

Sookhak, Mehdi; Akhundzada, Adnan; Sookhak, Alireza; Eslaminejad, Mohammadreza; Gani, Abdullah; Khurram Khan, Muhammad; Li, Xiong; Wang, Xiaomin

2015-01-01

373

Geographical Education and Society. Papers Presented at Commission on Geographical Education International Geographical Union (Sitges, Spain, August 25-31, 1986).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational discourse is totally completely imbued with the values that affect the societies to which individuals belong. Those in the field of geographical education must examine those values in order to determine what type of geographical education is best for each society. The following papers contribute to this knowledge: "Presentation"…

Hernando, Agustin, Ed.

374

Integrating Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Applications into Business Courses Using Online Business Geographics Modules  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the value of geographic information systems (GIS) technologies is recognized by practitioners and educators alike, GIS instruction has yet to make significant inroads into business curricula. In this article, the authors discuss the constraints of integrating GIS tools into business education. They develop a prototype module for…

Miller, Fred; Mangold, W. Glynn; Holmes, Terry

2006-01-01

375

Misión Madres Del Barrio: A Bolivarian Social Program Recognizing Housework and Creating A Caring Economy in Venezuela  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT: This thesis began as a project about Misión Madres del Barrio; and it quickly transformed into a glimpse of the Bolivarian Revolution underway in Venezuela. Misión Madres del Barrio (MMB) is one of the pioneering social programs...

Fischer-Hoffman, Cory

2008-08-20

376

Book Review: "Educational Reform and Administrative Development: The Cases of Columbia and Venezuela," by E. Mark Hanson.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews "Educational Reform and Administrative Development: The Cases of Colombia and Venezuela," by E. Mark Hanson, which relates the policy-making and administrative structures of these two countries to their political, historical, and cultural contexts. (TE)

Lynch, Patrick D.

1988-01-01

377

Risk prevention and policy formulation : responding to the 1999 mud-floods catastrophe in El Litoral Central, Venezuela  

E-print Network

Fifteen days of constant and intense rainfall in Venezuela culminated on December 16 1999, in catastrophic landslides and flooding along 25 miles of the Vargas State coastal strip. This catastrophe ravaged the Caracas ...

Parisca-Blanco, Sonia

2005-01-01

378

Geographic Information Systems and Web Page Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Facilities Engineering and Architectural Branch is responsible for the design and maintenance of buildings, laboratories, and civil structures. In order to improve efficiency and quality, the FEAB has dedicated itself to establishing a data infrastructure based on Geographic Information Systems, GIs. The value of GIS was explained in an article dating back to 1980 entitled "Need for a Multipurpose Cadastre which stated, "There is a critical need for a better land-information system in the United States to improve land-conveyance procedures, furnish a basis for equitable taxation, and provide much-needed information for resource management and environmental planning." Scientists and engineers both point to GIS as the solution. What is GIS? According to most text books, Geographic Information Systems is a class of software that stores, manages, and analyzes mapable features on, above, or below the surface of the earth. GIS software is basically database management software to the management of spatial data and information. Simply put, Geographic Information Systems manage, analyze, chart, graph, and map spatial information. At the outset, I was given goals and expectations from my branch and from my mentor with regards to the further implementation of GIs. Those goals are as follows: (1) Continue the development of GIS for the underground structures. (2) Extract and export annotated data from AutoCAD drawing files and construct a database (to serve as a prototype for future work). (3) Examine existing underground record drawings to determine existing and non-existing underground tanks. Once this data was collected and analyzed, I set out on the task of creating a user-friendly database that could be assessed by all members of the branch. It was important that the database be built using programs that most employees already possess, ruling out most AutoCAD-based viewers. Therefore, I set out to create an Access database that translated onto the web using Internet Explorer as the foundation. After some programming, it was possible to view AutoCAD files and other GIS-related applications on Internet Explorer, while providing the user with a variety of editing commands and setting options. I was also given the task of launching a divisional website using Macromedia Flash and other web- development programs.

Reynolds, Justin

2004-01-01

379

Cloning and functional analysis of a phosphopantetheinyl transferase superfamily gene associated with jadomycin biosynthesis in Streptomyces venezuelae ISP5230  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sequence analysis of a XhoI\\/SacI fragment of chromosomal DNA downstream of jadL in the Streptomyces venezuelae ISP5230 gene cluster for jadomycin biosynthesis detected a partial ORF similar in its deduced amino acid sequence to the hetI product involved in synthesizing a regulator of heterocyst spacing in Anabaena. By probing a phage library of S. venezuelae DNA with the XhoI\\/SacI fragment,

Liru Wang; Jennifer McVeyã; Leo C. Vining

380

Geographic Research in the USGS Western Region  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The two geography research programs of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Land Remote Sensing and Geographic Analysis and Monitoring, have very strong relevance to the USGS mission and science strategy. In the western United States, the particular niche of these geography programs is in connecting USGS science to people and communities. Reports from the National Academy of Sciences and other organizations invariably encourage the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to ensure the quality of its science while finding ways to make it more relevant to important societal issues. Much of the geography research conducted in the USGS Western Region does exactly that. In Menlo Park, California, the geography research team is focused on developing tools and techniques to help people assess risk from natural hazards and environmental impacts. In Flagstaff and Tucson, Arizona, geography scientists explore new ways to use remote sensing to help communities deal with environmental issues.

Tongue, Mara

2007-01-01

381

A situated knowledge representation of geographical information  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we present an approach to conceiving of, constructing and comparing the concepts developed and used by geographers, environmental scientists and other earth science researchers to help describe, analyze and ultimately understand their subject of study. Our approach is informed by the situations under which concepts are conceived and applied, captures details of their construction, use and evolution and supports their ultimate sharing along with the means for deep exploration of conceptual similarities and differences that may arise among a distributed network of researchers. The intent here is to support different perspectives onto GIS resources that researchers may legitimately take, and to capture and compute with aspects of epistemology, to complement the ontologies that are currently receiving much attention in the GIScience community.

Gahegan, Mark N.; Pike, William A.

2006-11-01

382

Geographic Information System Interactive Map Server  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cornell University's Institute for the Study of the Continents (INSTOC) has launched this interactive, data-rich Website to provide regional "maps showing major geographic features of a region, along with such information as the location of earthquake faults, a record of earthquake occurrences and technical data about the events." The Geoscience Interactive Database (Java applet with accompanying User Guide) enables users to interact dynamically with "large volumes of organized digital data sets, map and display any parts of selected data," and create unique maps for download (in postscript or JPEG formats). In addition to the database, INSTOC offers information about their current projects, highlighted at the Webpage, including Building the Digital Earth, Active Tectonics Studies in the Dead Sea Fault Zone, and The Saudi Arabia Seismology Project, among others.

383

Alternative geographical display strategies for bivariate relationships  

SciTech Connect

The complexity of regional water management problems necessitates the summarization of water resource data in a form that is easily analyzed visually. Computer generated maps are well suited for displaying complex relationships since they are easy to create and modify and are relatively inexpensive compared to traditional techniques. Development of new display techniques creates questions about the most effective display of data used for generic assessments. Recent attempts at displaying bivariate data geographically have not been entirely successful due to numerous data categories and complex color patterns used in cross mapping techniques. This paper offers an alternate method of displaying bivariate data which uses the degree of differences between two variables (e.g., water supply and water demand) to create a scale in which shades of two primary colors are used for positive and negative differences while a third color is used for the null case (i.e., within the confidence limits of the statistical model.)

Waterhouse, J.C.; Farrell, M.P.; Strand, R.H.

1981-01-01

384

National Geographic: WildCam Africa  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 1985, Pete Le Roux dreamed of a wildlife reserve in Africa. Twenty years later it is a successful reality, as the pond he built from an old irrigation system is alive with the sounds of elephants and impalas. Visitors to this site established by National Geographic Magazine can view "Pete's Pond" via a live webcam offered here. Of course, that's just one of the many highlights that visitors may enjoy. They may also want to read through the weblog authored by researchers Jeanette Selier and Villiers Steyn. Here they post highlights of their work, complemented by a selection of high-quality images of the animals they are studying, such as the African wild cat. Those who are cartographically minded may want to take a look at the map of the Mashatu Game Reserve, which is home to Pete's Pond and its thousands of different animal residents. Overall, this is a fine educational site, and one that warrants several visits.

2005-01-01

385

Geographic concentration of violence between intimate partners.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To explore geographic patterns of violence between intimate partners in a metropolitan area with one of the highest injury mortality rates in the nation-Duval County, Florida, which includes the city of Jacksonville. METHODS: Using police reports of all serious violent incidents in Duval County in 1992 excluding robberies, the authors analyzed patterns in the location of the incidents. Only cases for which the relationship between the offender and victim was recorded were used. RESULTS: Thematic maps reveal that census tracts with rates above the 75th percentile of assaultive violence between intimates are clustered in certain parts of the city. Concentrated poverty tracts had median rates of violence between intimate nine times higher than other tracts. CONCLUSIONS: The finding that violence between intimate partners is concentrated in central city poverty neighborhoods opens up avenues for prevention. PMID:9071275

Miles-Doan, R; Kelly, S

1997-01-01

386

Stennis Space Center Environmental Geographic Information System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As NASA's lead center for rocket propulsion testing, the John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC) monitors and assesses the off-site impacts of such testing through its Environmental Office (SSC-EO) using acoustical models and ancillary data. The SSC-EO has developed a geographical database, called the SSC Environmental Geographic Information System (SSC-EGIS), that covers an eight-county area bordering the NASA facility. Through the SSC-EGIS, the Enivronmental Office inventories, assesses, and manages the nearly 139,000 acres that comprise Stennis Space Center and its surrounding acoustical buffer zone. The SSC-EGIS contains in-house data as well as a wide range of data obtained from outside sources, including private agencies and local, county, state, and U.S. government agencies. The database comprises cadastral/geodetic, hydrology, infrastructure, geo-political, physical geography, and socio-economic vector and raster layers. The imagery contained in the database is varied, including low-resolution imagery, such as Landsat TM and SPOT; high-resolution imagery, such as IKONOS and AVIRIS; and aerial photographs. The SSC-EGIS has been an integral part of several major projects and the model upon which similar EGIS's will be developed for other NASA facilities. The Corps of Engineers utilized the SSC-EGIS in a plan to establish wetland mitigation sites within the SSC buffer zone. Mississippi State University employed the SSC-EGIS in a preliminary study to evaluate public access points within the buffer zone. The SSC-EO has also expressly used the SSC-EGIS to assess noise pollution modeling, land management/wetland mitigation assessment, environmental hazards mapping, and protected areas mapping for archaeological sites and for threatened and endangered species habitats. The SSC-EO has several active and planned projects that will also make use of the SSC-EGIS during this and the coming fiscal year.

Lovely, Janette; Cohan, Tyrus

2000-01-01

387

Investigation of Error Patterns in Geographical Databases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the research conducted in this project is to develop a methodology to investigate the accuracy of Airport Safety Modeling Data (ASMD) using statistical, visualization, and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) techniques. Such a methodology can contribute to answering the following research questions: Over a representative sampling of ASMD databases, can statistical error analysis techniques be accurately learned and replicated by ANN modeling techniques? This representative ASMD sample should include numerous airports and a variety of terrain characterizations. Is it possible to identify and automate the recognition of patterns of error related to geographical features? Do such patterns of error relate to specific geographical features, such as elevation or terrain slope? Is it possible to combine the errors in small regions into an error prediction for a larger region? What are the data density reduction implications of this work? ASMD may be used as the source of terrain data for a synthetic visual system to be used in the cockpit of aircraft when visual reference to ground features is not possible during conditions of marginal weather or reduced visibility. In this research, United States Geologic Survey (USGS) digital elevation model (DEM) data has been selected as the benchmark. Artificial Neural Networks (ANNS) have been used and tested as alternate methods in place of the statistical methods in similar problems. They often perform better in pattern recognition, prediction and classification and categorization problems. Many studies show that when the data is complex and noisy, the accuracy of ANN models is generally higher than those of comparable traditional methods.

Dryer, David; Jacobs, Derya A.; Karayaz, Gamze; Gronbech, Chris; Jones, Denise R. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

388

Household energy use in urban Venezuela: Implications from surveys in Maracaibo, Valencia, Merida, and Barcelona-Puerto La Cruz  

SciTech Connect

This report identifies the most important results of a comparative analysis of household commercial energy use in Venezuelan urban cities. The use of modern fuels is widespread among all cities. Cooking consumes the largest share of urban household energy use. The survey documents no use of biomass and a negligible use of kerosene for cooking. LPG, natural gas, and kerosene are the main fuels available. LPG is the fuel choice of low-income households in all cities except Maracaibo, where 40% of all households use natural gas. Electricity consumption in Venezuela`s urban households is remarkably high compared with the levels used in households in comparable Latin American countries and in households of industrialized nations which confront harsher climatic conditions and, therefore, use electricity for water and space heating. The penetration of appliances in Venezuela`s urban households is very high. The appliances available on the market are inefficient, and there are inefficient patterns of energy use among the population. Climate conditions and the urban built form all play important roles in determining the high level of energy consumption in Venezuelan urban households. It is important to acknowledge the opportunities for introducing energy efficiency and conservation in Venezuela`s residential sector, particularly given current economic and financial constraints, which may hamper the future provision of energy services.

Figueroa, M.J.; Sathaye, J.

1993-08-01

389

Review of the Berosus Leach of Venezuela (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae, Berosini) with description of fourteen new species  

PubMed Central

Abstract The species of the water scavenger beetle genus Berosus Leach occurring in Venezuela are reviewed. Thirty-six species are recorded, including fifteen new species, fourteen of which are described here as new: Berosus aragua sp. n., Berosus asymmetricus sp. n., Berosus capanaparo sp. n., Berosus castaneus sp. n., Berosus corozo sp. n., Berosus ebeninus sp. n., Berosus garciai sp. n., Berosus humeralis sp. n., Berosus jolyi sp. n., Berosus llanensis sp. n., Berosus megaphallus sp. n., Berosus ornaticollis sp. n., Berosus repertus sp. n., and Berosus tramidrum sp. n. The fifteenth new species, known from a single female, is left undescribed pending the collection of males. Twelve species are recorded from Venezuela for the first time: Berosus ambogynus Mouchamps, Berosus consobrinus Knisch, Berosus elegans Knisch, Berosus geayi d’Orchymont, Berosus ghanicus d’Orchymont, Berosus guyanensis Queney, Berosus holdhausi Knisch, Berosus marquardti Knisch, Berosus olivae Queney, Berosus reticulatus Knisch, Berosus wintersteineri Knisch, and Berosus zimmermanni Knisch. PMID:22811607

Oliva, Adriana; Short, Andrew E. Z.

2012-01-01

390

New particle formation events observed at a high altitude site Pico Espejo, Venezuela  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Formation and growth events of nucleation mode particles (10-25 nm in diameter) were analyzed from 27 month period of particle size distribution measurements at the high altitude site Pico Espejo in Venezuela. Particle formation was observed both in air masses connected to boundary layer air and in free tropospheric conditions. The frequency and magnitude of particle formation at this high altitude site was comparable to many observations at lower altitude sites.

Nieminen, Tuomo; Kontkanen, Jenni; Krejci, Radovan; Ström, Johan; Tunved, Peter; Hamburger, Thomas; Calderon, Silvia; Hoffman, Pedro

2013-05-01

391

Shear-wave splitting in northeast Venezuela, Trinidad, and the eastern Caribbean  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present new measurements of splitting of core shear-wave phases (SKS, SKKS, PKS) recorded at seven stations in the eastern Caribbean region. Six stations in northeastern Venezuela and Trinidad constituted the SECaSA92 temporary broadband array. The seventh station, SJG, is installed on Puerto Rico. We also attempted to measure source-side splitting of S waves from earthquakes in the Lesser Antilles

R. M. Russo; P. G. Silver; M. Franke; W. B. Ambeh; D. E. James

1996-01-01

392

Chromoblastomycosis in children and adolescents in the endemic area of the Falcón State, Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper describes 22 cases of chromoblastomycosis (CBM) caused by Cladophialophora carrionii in children and adolescents (2\\/19 years old). The patients were seen between 1992 and 2004 and all resided in a CBM endemic area in the semi-arid zone of the Falcon state, Venezuela. Twelve of the 22 patients (54.55%) had close relatives who also had CBM and 19

M. Pérez-Blanco; R. Hernández Valles; L. García-Humbría; F. Yegres

2006-01-01

393

Opportunities and constraints to biotechnological applications in the Caribbean: transgenic papayas in Jamaica and Venezuela.  

PubMed

In this opinion article, we briefly review the status of crop biotechnology research-with emphasis on the development of GM crops-in Jamaica and Venezuela. We focus on the transgenic papayas developed for both countries, and examine the factors hindering not only the development and application of this biotechnological commodity for the improvement of agricultural productivity, but also on the challenges influencing societal acceptance of the technology. PMID:21212960

Fermin, Gustavo; Tennant, Paula

2011-05-01

394

Applications of Planktonic foraminifera in the Paleogene of the Eastern Venezuela-Trinidad Basin  

SciTech Connect

Following increased interest in the petroleum potential of the Eastern Venezuela-Trinidad Basin, a revision of the planktonic foraminifera from the Paleogene was undertaken. The application of evolutionary trends in microperforate, medioperforate and macroperforate lineages for petroleum exploration is assessed. Scanning Electron Microscope illustrations are presented for over 100 taxa currently applied in high resolution biostratigraphy, sequence stratigraphy and paleoceanography of the region. These will allow more rapid and reliable recognition of zones, hiatuses and sequence boundaries.

Radford, S. [Department of Geology, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

1996-08-01

395

MICROBIAL ECOLOGY OF THE CARIACO BASIN'S REDOXCLINE: THE U.S.VENEZUELA CARIACO TIMES SERIES PROGRAM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cooperative U.S.-Venezuela CARIACO program (CArbon Retention In A Colored Ocean) has begun to elucidate the microbial\\u000a ecology of the Cariaco Basin's redoxcline. This anoxicwater column supports highly stratified microbial assemblages of prokaryotes,\\u000a protozoa and viruses, exhibiting abundance and activity maxima near the O2\\/H2S interface. In the oxic layer, abundance and activity of microheterotrophs vary annually to the same extent

Gordon T. Taylor; Maria Iabichella-Armas; Ramon Varela; Frank Müller-Karger; Xueju Lin; Mary I. Scranton

396

Distribution, status, and traditional significance of the West Indian manatee Trichechus manatus in Venezuela  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Aerial and interview surveys were conducted in 1986 to determine the current distribution, status, and traditional significance of the West Indian manatee Trichechus manatus in Venezuela. Aerial surveys provided just eight tentative sightings in 73 hours of searching. These discouraging results may have been due to poor visibility, small populations, and perhaps reduced dry season manatee activity. Results of interview surveys, however, permitted a number of important generalizations. A remnant manatee population exists in Lake Maracaibo, but none occur along the more than 1500 km of Caribbean coastline. Abundance is greatest in eastern Venezuela bordering the Golfo de Paria, in the Orinoco Delta, and in the middle Orinoco and tributaries. Local market hunting in the middle of this century probably greatly reduced manatee populations in these areas. Recent protection laws, education efforts, and manatee scarcity have resulted in a declining interest in manatee hunting. Much excellent manatee habitat persists in these regions, and a continued decline in hunting could result in an optimistic outlook for future manatee populations if the incidental take in net fisheries is controlled. Traditional beliefs and legends concerning manatees in Venezuela, including hunting taboos, show that these animals remain a colorful part of the folk culture. However, manatee protection does not pose economic hardships or infringe upon traditional spiritual beliefs.

O'Shea, Thomas J.; Correa-Viana, Martín; Ludlow, Mark E.; Robinson, John G.

1988-01-01

397

Geographical distribution of publications in the field of medical education  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The geographical distribution of publications as an indicator of the research productivity of individual countries, regions or institutions has become a field of interest. We investigated the geographical distribution of contributions to the two leading journals in the field of medical education, Academic Medicine and Medical Education. METHODS: PubMed was used to search Medline. For both journals all journal

Oktay Tutarel

2002-01-01

398

Third World Films: A Strategy for Promoting Geographic Understanding.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that feature films produced in developing nations can serve as an aid to geographic instruction because they visually represent conditions of daily life. Uses two films, "Salaam Bombay" and "Sugar Cane Alley," to illustrate geographic understanding. Appendices include information on film distributors, background readings, and study guides…

Macdonald, Gerald M.

1990-01-01

399

Teaching for Geographic Literacy: Our Afterschool Geography Club  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research describes how enrolling students in an afterschool Geography Club affects their perception of the discipline and their geographic literacy. The creation of the afterschool club at this particular school came out of the recognition of the need to increase students' exposure to geographical content. The results of this study show the…

Thomas-Brown, Karen A.

2011-01-01

400

PROCEEDINGS OF International Conference on Modelling Geographical and Environmental  

E-print Network

1 PROCEEDINGS OF International Conference on Modelling Geographical and Environmental Systems with Geographical Information Systems June 22-25 1998, Hong Kong Chinese University of Hong Kong IGU, Commission of interdependence halshs-00460947,version1-3Mar2010 Author manuscript, published in "International Conference

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

401

GEOGRAPHICAL APPROACHES TO CROP CONSERVATION: THE PARTITIONINGOF GENETIC DIVERSITY IN  

E-print Network

GEOGRAPHICAL APPROACHES TO CROP CONSERVATION: THE PARTITIONINGOF GENETIC DIVERSITY IN ANDEAN offer significant contributions to the conservation of crop genetic resources. They are used-geographic concepts. First proposed during the early 1970s, the in situ conservation ofcrop genetic resources merits

Douches, David S.

402

39 Geographic Information Science: The Grand Challenges MICHAEL F. GOODCHILD  

E-print Network

39 Geographic Information Science: The Grand Challenges MICHAEL F. GOODCHILD Many chapters; and the lack of awareness of such issues as #12;3 Geographic Information Science: The Grand Challenges scale technology; in essence the science behind the systems. Over the past twelve years there have been various

Wright, Dawn Jeannine

403

Species–Area Curves Based on Geographic Range and Occupancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The species–area relationship (SPAR) is one of the cornerstones of ecological science. We use information about the geographic distribution of species to deduce the SPAR from a new model; our results complement existing ones that explain SPARs on the basis of equilibrium theory or species-abundance relationships. We assume that each species is characterized by a geographic range and level of

Muriel Ney-Nifle; Marc Mangel

1999-01-01

404

Geographic Localization of Knowledge Spillovers as Evidenced by Patent Citations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compare the geographic location of patent citations to those of the cited patents, as evidence of the extent to which knowledge spillovers are geographically localized. We find that citations to U.S. patents are more likely to come from the U.S., and more likely to come from the same state and SMSA as the cited patents than one would expect

Adam B. Jaffe; Manuel Trajtenberg; Rebecca Henderson

1992-01-01

405

Spatial bayesian learning algorithms for geographic information retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increasing amount of freely available Geographic Information System (GIS) data on the Internet has stimulated recent research into Geographic Information Retrieval (GIR). Typically, GIR looks at the problem of retrieving GIS datasets on a theme by theme basis. However in practice, themes are generally not analysed in isolation. More often than not multiple themes are required to create a

Arron R. Walker; Binh Pham; Miles Moody

2005-01-01

406

Empirical analytic transformations between geographic and corrected geomagnetic coordinates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Based upon a mathematical model of contours of constant corrected geomagnetic latitude in a polar projection of geographic coordinates, analytic equations are developed for converting geographic coordinates to corrected geomagnetic coordinates and vice versa. The equations were programmed for use on a small computer. This treatment is restricted to the Northern Hemisphere.

Comfort, R. H.

1970-01-01

407

Lived and Imagined: Information and Storytelling in Geographic Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation investigates the relationship between storytelling and information in the narration of geographic space. While storytelling has historically shaped our understanding of geography, modern practices in data collection, cartography, and geographic visualization enable one-way forms of representation that remove the negotiation and…

Kabisch, Eric Alan

2011-01-01

408

Gene Flow and the Geographic Structure of Natural Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is abundant geographic variation in both morphology and gene frequency in most species. The extent of geographic variation results from a balance of forces tending to produce local genetic differentiation and forces tending to produce genetic homogeneity. Mutation, genetic drift due to finite population size, and natural selection favoring adaptations to local environmental conditions will all lead to the

Montgomery Slatkin

1987-01-01

409

Towards a general theory of geographic representation in GIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geographic representation has become more complex through time as researchers have added new concepts, leading to apparently endless proliferation and creating a need for simplification. We show that many of these concepts can be derived from a single foundation that we term the atomic form of geographic information. The familiar concepts of continuous fields and discrete objects can be derived

Michael F. Goodchild; May Yuan; Thomas J. Cova

2007-01-01

410

Politics and Priorities: Placing Gender in Geographic Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gender has long been implicated in geographic education, though generally implicitly until the late twentieth century. Emphasizing British and American examples, this paper examines gender representation among geographic educators, in student participation, and in learning. It then turns to pedagogical issues that arise as content and strategies…

Monk, Janice

2011-01-01

411

MODULE DESCRIPTION FORM CL 961 Geographical Information Systems (GIS)  

E-print Network

MODULE DESCRIPTION FORM CL 961 Geographical Information Systems (GIS) Module Registrar: Dr Elsa current state-of-the-art Geographical Information Systems (GIS). GIS are spatial databases that can handle of living in different areas is related to health and disease. Although GIS is a crucial analytical tool

Mottram, Nigel

412

Two Perspectives on Data Quality Geographic Knowledge Production Through GIS  

E-print Network

Two Perspectives on Data Quality Geographic Knowledge Production Through GIS: Towards a Model Report 92-12 December 1992 #12;Geographic Knowledge Production Through GIS: Towards a Model for Quality through GIS: Towards a model for quality monitoring. HELEN COUCLELIS Department of Geography University

California at Santa Barbara, University of

413

Geographic Information System (GIS) and Geospatial Applications Spring 2013  

E-print Network

By definition, Nonpoint Source Pollution (NPS) affects a water body from sources such as polluted runoff from Wang Modeling Stephen F. Austin Campus Nonpoint Source Pollution with a Geographic Information System #12;2 Modeling Stephen F. Austin Campus Nonpoint Source Pollution with a Geographic Information System

Hung, I-Kuai

414

A Case for Using MBMS in Geographical Michelle WETTERWALD  

E-print Network

. The future mobile devices will bring to people smart healthcare, living, transportation and energy are spreading at a fast pace, from telephony to vertical applications such as healthcare, transportation or energy. In the case of transportation, their target is usually a limited geographical area. Geographical

Gesbert, David

415

The Geographic Flow of Music Conrad Lee and Pdraig Cunningham  

E-print Network

The Geographic Flow of Music Conrad Lee and Pádraig Cunningham Clique Research Cluster University College Dublin 8 Belfield Office Park, Clonskeagh Dublin 4, Ireland Tel: +353 1 716 5346 Email: conradlee it to test three hypotheses related to the geographic flow of music. The first is that although many

Hammerton, James

416

Guide to College Majors in Geographic Information Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

GIS uses digital technology to help people work with geographic information. GIS professionals acquire, manage, analyze, visualize, and represent geospatial data, or information related to geographical locations. This relatively new discipline incorporates geography, cartography, spatial analysis, and fields such as geovisualization, geodesy, geocomputation, cognition, and computer science.

2012-09-24

417

Receiver Functions Imaging of the Moho and LAB in the Southern Caribbean plate boundary and Venezuela  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have made teleseismic Ps and Sp receiver functions from data recorded from 2003 to 2009 by the permanent national seismic network of Venezuela, the BOLIVAR (Broadband Onshore-offshore Lithospheric Investigation of Venezuela and the Antilles arc Region) and WAVE (Western Array for Venezuela) experiments. The receiver functions show rapid variations in Moho and lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) depths both across and along the southern Caribbean plate boundary region. We used a total of 69 events with Mw > 6 occurring at epicentral distances from 30° to 90° for the Ps receiver functions, and 43 events with Mw > 5.7 from 55° to 85° to make Sp receiver functions. For CCP stacking we constructed a 3D velocity model from numerous active source profiles (Schmitz et al., 2001; Bezada et al., 2007; Clark et al., 2008; Guedez, 2008; Magnani et al., 2009), from finite-frequency P wave upper mantle tomography model of Bezada et al., (2010) and the Rayleigh wave tomography model of Miller et al., (2009). The Moho ranges in depth from ~25 km beneath the Caribbean Large Igneous Provinces to ~55 km beneath the Mérida Andes in western Venezuela. These results are consistent with previous receiver functions studies (Niu et al., 2007) and the available active source profiles. Beneath the Maracaibo Block in northwestern Venezuela, we observe a strong positive signal at 40 to 60 km depth dipping ~6° towards the continent. We interpret this as the Moho of the Caribbean slab subducting beneath northernmost South America from the west. Beneath northern Colombia and northwestern Venezuela the top of this slab has been previously inferred from intermediate depth seismicity (Malavé and Suarez, 1995), which indicates a slab dipping between 20° - 30° beneath Lake Maracaibo. Our results could indicate that the slab is tearing beneath Lake Maracaibo as suggested previously by Masy et al. (2011). The deeper (> 100 km depth) part of the slab has been imaged using P-wave tomography (Bezada et al, 2010). Like others we attribute the uplift of the Mérida Andes to flat Caribbean slab subduction (for example Kellogg and Bonini, 1982). In central Venezuela beneath the Cordillera de la Costa we observe a positive signal shallower than the Moho at <30 km depth beneath the entire range. We interpret this as a detachment surface beneath Caribbean & arc terranes thrust onto the SA margin (Bezada et al., 2010). The lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) beneath the Mérida Andes is shallow, ~65km depth, and parallels the range. In the plate boundary region under the Cordillera de la Costa the lithosphere is also thin, ~65km, beneath the Cariaco basin the lithosphere thickens to 85 km. In the far east under Serranía del Interior the lithosphere is ~75 km. Cratonic lithosphere thickness varies from 85 to 100 km.

Masy, J.; Levander, A.; Niu, F.

2011-12-01

418

Predicting Geographic Variation in Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, Colombia  

PubMed Central

Approximately 6,000 cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis are reported annually in Colombia, a greater than twofold increase since the 1980s. Such reports certainly underestimate true incidence, and their geographic distribution is likely biased by local health service effectiveness. We investigated how well freely available environmental data explain the distribution of cases among 1,079 municipalities. For each municipality, a unique predictive logistic regression model was derived from the association among remaining municipalities between elevation, land cover (preclassified maps derived from satellite images), or both, and the odds of at least one case being reported. Land cover had greater predictive power than elevation; using both datasets improved accuracy. Fitting separate models to different ecologic zones, reflecting transmission cycle diversity, enhanced the accuracy of predictions. We derived measures that can be directly related to disease control decisions and show how results can vary, depending on the threshold selected for predicting a disease-positive municipality. The results identify areas where disease is most likely to be underreported. PMID:15200848

Campbell-Lendrum, Diarmid H.; Davies, Clive R.

2004-01-01

419

National Geographic Online: The Underground Railroad  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Just in time to celebrate Black History Month, this multimedia educational Web site from National Geographic offers a diverse set of materials that describe the Underground Railroad, the famed network of individuals who helped transport African-Americans to freedom before the abolition of slavery. Students will want to start by taking The Journey, which, with the aid of visual materials (such as historical photographs of slaves and abolitionists) and audio selections (such as popular spirituals of the day), allows young people to make decisions about what to do in order to reach the North and freedom. Next, visitors can look at a map of the Underground Railroad routes, including those specific to Harriet Tubman. Also, a nice timeline provides some context to the history of slavery in the New World, beginning with the importing of slaves by Spaniards to Santo Domingo in 1501, and concluding in 1865 when slavery was abolished by the passage of the 13th Amendment. The site is rounded out by a number of educational resources for teachers, divided by grade levels.

2003-01-01

420

National Geographic: Endangered Species Photo Map  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Geographic website has an interactive photo map of animals in the United States that are on the Endangered Species List. The map accompanies their January 2009 print and online article entitled "Countdown to Extinction," and also includes a photo gallery and the story of the successful rebound of the white rhinoceros in southern Africa. By clicking on the photo of the pygmy rabbit or "View Photo Map" on the homepage, the visitor will be taken to a map of the United States with clickable locations of 20 animal species that are endangered or threatened. Visitors should not miss taking a look at the photo and accompanying facts about the "Alabama Beach Mouse" in Alabama and the "Ocelot" in Texas. In order to learn more about the Endangered Species Act under which the creatures on the map are protected, visitors should click on the "Feature Article" link above the photo map. The "Photo Gallery" link, located above the photo map will take visitors to some arresting and elegant photos of various animal and plant species, some of which were not on the photo map. The photo of the Loggerhead Sea Turtle is beautiful, and not to be missed.

2008-01-01

421

National Geographic Video: Animals, Travel, Kids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The "Video" section of the wonderful National Geographic website has so much to offer visitors. Many of the videos are just several minutes long, such as the two minute and twelve second video taken of an Australian sea lion attacking and eating an octopus, with a "Crittercam" that is attached to the sea lion. The videos are divided into six categories, including "Adventure", "Animals", "Environment", "Kids", "Movies", and "Music Videos". Within each of the categories, there are at least half a dozen subcategories, so visitors have a constant supply of videos, with new videos added frequently. The homepage of the Video section has "Featured Videos", and presently includes a very timely four minute segment entitled "Egypt Antiquities Damaged, At Risk During Unrest" about the damage that looters had done to artifacts at the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. The "Movies" category contains mainly clips or previews from films, and visitors should check out the four clips from the movie "God Grew Tired of Us", about former child soldiers of Africa.

422

Geographic information system based manure application plan.  

PubMed

A geographic information system (GIS) based manure application plan has been developed for the site-specific application of animal waste to agricultural fields in the Westbrook sub-catchment of the Murray-Darling Basin, south-east Queensland, Australia. Sites suitable for animal waste application were identified using a GIS based weighted linear combination (WLC) model. The degree of land suitability for animal waste application was determined using a range of social, economic, environmental, and agricultural factors. As eutrophication and toxic blue-green algae blooms are a known problem in the catchment, the manure application rates were limited to the rate of crop phosphorus removal. Maximum manure application rate was calculated spatially by taking the crop nutrient (P2O5) requirement and the manure nutrient (P2O5) content into account. The environmental suitability of the fields receiving animal waste was considered in prescribing the final application rate of solid and liquid manures generated by local animal production facilities. The degree of site suitability of the agricultural fields was also used to suggest manure management practices to minimise the socio-environmental risks and increase the nutrient use efficiency of the applied manure. The amount of ammonium nitrogen (NH4-N) that would be added to the soil by satisfying the P2O5 requirement using manure sources was also calculated and an applied NH4-N map was created. This map could be used to assist farmers identify additional nitrogen requirements after manure application. PMID:11995243

Basnet, Badri B; Apan, Armando A; Raine, Steven R

2002-02-01

423

Cartographic services contract...for everything geographic  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Cartographic Services Contract (CSC) is used to award work for photogrammetric and mapping services under the umbrella of Architect-Engineer (A&E) contracting. The A&E contract is broad in scope and can accommodate any activity related to standard, nonstandard, graphic, and digital cartographic products. Services provided may include, but are not limited to, photogrammetric mapping and aerotriangulation; orthophotography; thematic mapping (for example, land characterization); analog and digital imagery applications; geographic information systems development; surveying and control acquisition, including ground-based and airborne Global Positioning System; analog and digital image manipulation, analysis, and interpretation; raster and vector map digitizing; data manipulations (for example, transformations, conversions, generalization, integration, and conflation); primary and ancillary data acquisition (for example, aerial photography, satellite imagery, multispectral, multitemporal, and hyperspectral data); image scanning and processing; metadata production, revision, and creation; and production or revision of standard USGS products defined by formal and informal specification and standards, such as those for digital line graphs, digital elevation models, digital orthophoto quadrangles, and digital raster graphics.

U.S. Geological Survey

2003-01-01

424

Inferring social ties from geographic coincidences  

PubMed Central

We investigate the extent to which social ties between people can be inferred from co-occurrence in time and space: Given that two people have been in approximately the same geographic locale at approximately the same time, on multiple occasions, how likely are they to know each other? Furthermore, how does this likelihood depend on the spatial and temporal proximity of the co-occurrences? Such issues arise in data originating in both online and offline domains as well as settings that capture interfaces between online and offline behavior. Here we develop a framework for quantifying the answers to such questions, and we apply this framework to publicly available data from a social media site, finding that even a very small number of co-occurrences can result in a high empirical likelihood of a social tie. We then present probabilistic models showing how such large probabilities can arise from a natural model of proximity and co-occurrence in the presence of social ties. In addition to providing a method for establishing some of the first quantifiable estimates of these measures, our findings have potential privacy implications, particularly for the ways in which social structures can be inferred from public online records that capture individuals’ physical locations over time. PMID:21148099

Crandall, David J.; Backstrom, Lars; Cosley, Dan; Suri, Siddharth; Huttenlocher, Daniel; Kleinberg, Jon

2010-01-01

425

Genetic Evidence of Geographical Groups among Neanderthals  

PubMed Central

The Neanderthals are a well-distinguished Middle Pleistocene population which inhabited a vast geographical area extending from Europe to western Asia and the Middle East. Since the 1950s paleoanthropological studies have suggested variability in this group. Different sub-groups have been identified in western Europe, in southern Europe and in the Middle East. On the other hand, since 1997, research has been published in paleogenetics, carried out on 15 mtDNA sequences from 12 Neanderthals. In this paper we used a new methodology derived from different bioinformatic models based on data from genetics, demography and paleoanthropology. The adequacy of each model was measured by comparisons between simulated results (obtained by BayesianSSC software) and those estimated from nucleotide sequences (obtained by DNAsp4 software). The conclusions of this study are consistent with existing paleoanthropological research and show that Neanderthals can be divided into at least three groups: one in western Europe, a second in the Southern area and a third in western Asia. Moreover, it seems from our results that the size of the Neanderthal population was not constant and that some migration occurred among the demes. PMID:19367332

Fabre, Virginie; Condemi, Silvana; Degioanni, Anna

2009-01-01

426

Teaching Poverty with Geographic Visualization and Geographic Information Systems (GIS): A Case Study of East Buffalo and Food Access  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although various methods have been used to teach about poverty in the social work classroom (e.g., quantitative, historical, and qualitative), the use of geographic visualization and geographic information systems (GIS) has become a relatively new method. In our analysis of food access on the East Side of Buffalo, New York, we demonstrate the…

Gjesfjeld, Christopher D.; Jung, Jin-Kyu

2014-01-01

427

Monitoring bird populations in small geographic areas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Numerous methods exist for monitoring bird populations, and there is a large literature describing them. There are few resources, however, that provide comprehensive advice on every step of organizing and carrying out a survey, from the early stages of planning to final use of the data. Even fewer resources are designed to meet the needs of a wide variety of potential users, from amateurs interested in change of bird life in a local study preserve to professionals testing hypotheses on the response of birds to habitat management, although much of the advice should be the same for every monitoring program. Whether survey objectives are very modest or rigorously scientific, samples must be sufficiently numerous and well distributed to provide meaningful results, and the survey should be well designed to ensure that the money and effort going into it are not wasted. This document is intended to be a complete resource for anyone planning to organize monitoring of noncolonial landbirds within a relatively small geographic area (e.g., from the size of a woodlot to a large park). The first of its two parts provides background explaining the importance of good study design and gives specific advice on all aspects of project planning and execution of high-quality data collection for the purpose of hypothesis testing. The second part is self-contained and nontechnical and describes complete plans for a site-specific checklist survey, suitable for addressing monitoring questions frequently asked by amateurs and for involvement of volunteers in data collection. Throughout are references to additional resources, from background literature to sources of existing survey protocols, analysis software, and tools for archiving data.

Dunn, E.H.; Bart, J.; Collins, B.T.; Craig, B.; Dale, B.; Downes, C.M.; Francis, C.M.; Woodley, S.; Zorn, P.

2006-01-01

428

Lithospheric Expressions of the Precambrian Shield, Mesozoic Rifting, and Cenozoic Subduction and Mountain Building in Venezuela  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Caribbean (CAR)-South American (SA) plate boundary in Venezuela is a broad zone of faulting and diffuse deformation. GPS measurements show the CAR moving approximately 2 cm/yr relative to SA, parallel to the strike slip fault system in the east, with more oblique convergence in the west (Weber et al., 2001) causing the southern edge of the Caribbean to subduct beneath northwestern South America. The west is further complicated by the motion of the triangular Maracaibo block, which is escaping northeastward relative to SA along the Bocono and Santa Marta Faults. In central and eastern Venezuela, plate motion is accommodated by transpression and transtension along the right lateral San Sebastian- El Pilar strike-slip fault system. The strike-slip system marks the northern edge of coastal thrust belts and their associated foreland basins. The Archean-Proterozoic Guayana Shield, part of the Amazonian Craton, underlies southeastern and south-central Venezuela. We used the 87 station Venezuela-U.S. BOLIVAR array (Levander et al., 2006) to investigate lithospheric structure in northern South America. We combined finite-frequency Rayleigh wave tomography with Ps and Sp receiver functions to determine lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) depth. We measured Rayleigh phase velocities from 45 earthquakes in the period band 20-100s. The phase velocities were inverted for 1D shear velocity structure on a 0.5 by 0.5 degree grid. Crustal thickness for the starting model was determined from active seismic experiments and receiver function analysis. The resulting 3D shear velocity model was then used to determine the depth of the LAB, and to CCP stack Ps and Sp receiver functions from ~45 earthquakes. The receiver functions were calculated in several frequency bands using iterative deconvolution and inverse filtering. Lithospheric thickness varies by more a factor of 2.5 across Venezuela. We can divide the lithosphere into several distinct provinces, with LAB depth reflecting the signatures of the Precambrian craton in the south, Mesozoic rifting in central Venezuela, and Neogene subduction and orogenesis in both the northeast and northwest. Specifically, LAB depth varies from 110-130 km beneath the Guayana Shield, in agreement with finite-frequency body wave tomography (Bezada et al., 2010b). To the north beneath the Serrania del Interior and Maturin Basin the Rayleigh waves image two high velocity features to depths of 200 km. The northernmost, beneath the Serrania, corresponds to the top of the subducting Atlantic plate, in agreement with P-wave tomography that images the Atlantic plate to transition zone depths. Another localized high velocity feature extending to ~200 km depth lies to the south. We speculate that this is a lithospheric drip caused by destabilization of the SA lithospheric caused by Atlantic subduction. Immediately to the west beneath the Cariaco basin the LAB is at ~50 km, marking the top of a pronounced low velocity zone. The thin lithosphere extends southwestward from the Cariaco Basin beneath the Mesozoic Espino Graben to the craton. To the west the LAB deepens to ~80 km beneath the Barinas Apure Basin and then to ~90 km beneath the Neogene Merida Andes and Maracaibo block.

Levander, A.; Masy, J.; Niu, F.

2013-05-01

429

A geographic information science perspective on hyperspectral remote sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a brief review of hyperspectral imagery and its analysis from a perspective based in Geographic Information Science. The ten original research priorities of the University Consortium for Geographic Information Science from 1996 and the five emerging themes from 2000/2001 are used as a framework to examine different aspects of management, analysis and use of hyperspectral imagery. A GIScience perspective identifies a series of issues that can develop the utility of hyperspectral imagery and gives an agenda for research that integrates hyperspectral imagery into Geographic Information Science to the benefit of both GIScience and hyperspectral remote sensing.

Aspinall, Richard

430

New geographical approaches to control of some parasitic zoonoses.  

PubMed Central

The advent of new technology for geographical representation and spatial analysis of databases from different sectors offers a new approach to planning and managing the control of tropical diseases. This article reviews the geographical and intersectoral aspects of the epidemiology and control of African trypanosomiasis, cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis, Chagas disease, schistosomiasis, and foodborne trematode infections. The focal nature of their transmission, increasing recognition of the importance of animal reservoirs, and the need to understand environmental factors influencing their distribution are common to all these diseases. Geographical information systems (GIS) open a completely new perspective for intersectoral collaboration in adapting new technology to promote control of these diseases. PMID:7743598

Mott, K. E.; Nuttall, I.; Desjeux, P.; Cattand, P.

1995-01-01

431

Use of geographic data in emergency response decision making system  

SciTech Connect

Geographic data have a number of key roles in emergency response systems focused on releases of hazardous material to the environment. Maps are a key element in allowing emergency response personnel to become oriented during a response and in presenting status information effectively to these personnel. Geographic data are essential for modeling to predict dispersal patterns during a release. It is also necessary to integrate model and measurement data with demographic information in order to assess the consequences of a release. Appropriate support for such capabilities is based on a number of evolving technologies including fast computers, large databases, network technology, remote sensing and geographic information systems.

Walker, H.

1997-07-01

432

Onchocerca-Simulium complexes in Venezuela: can human onchocerciasis spread outside its present endemic areas?  

PubMed

The compatibility between sympatric and allopatric combinations of Onchocerca volvulus-anthropophilic species of Simulium was studied in the north-eastern focus of human onchocerciasis as well as in a densely populated locality of the Amazonas State in Venezuela. The objectives were to test the conjecture that local adaptation exists between the parasite and its vectors (the Onchocerca-Simulium complex hypothesis), and assess the possibility of the infection spreading from its present distributional range. For the homologous combination, O. volvulus-S. metallicum cytospecies E in Anzoátegui State (north-eastern focus), parasite yield was 45% in contrast to 1% for the heterologous, southern parasite-S. metallicum infection. This was significantly lower than the parasite yield (4-10%) expected after allowing for the effect of density-dependent limitation of infective larval output described in this paper for S. metallicum. The population of S. exiguum s.l. from southern Venezuela allowed no larval development beyond the L1 stage of either northern or southern parasites. Mechanisms for such refractoriness probably operate at the level of the thoracic muscles, not affecting microfilarial uptake or migration out of the bloodmeal. The parasite yield of southern O. volvulus in S. oyapockense s.l. flies biting man at Puerto Ayacucho (Amazonas) was about 1%, in agreement with the figures recorded for highly compatible sympatric combinations such as O. volvulus-S. ochraceum s.l. in Guatemala. No infective larval development of the northern parasite was observed in southern S. oyapockense. These results, together with considerations of typical worm burdens in the human host, presence/absence of armed cibaria in the simuliids, parasite-induced vector mortality, and fly biting rates, suggest a lower potential for onchocerciasis to spread between the northern and southern endemic areas of Venezuela than that between Amazonian hyperendemic locations and settlements outside this focus with high densities of S. oyapockense s.l. PMID:10726276

Basáñez, M G; Yarzábal, L; Frontado, H L; Villamizar, N J

2000-02-01

433

Microseismicity evidence for subduction of the Caribbean plate beneath the South American Plate in northwestern Venezuela  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over 1100 microearthquakes with body wave magnitude mb<4 have been located in western Venezuela and the southwestern Caribbean region since the installation in 1980 of the Venezuelan Seismological Array, together with 120 events of mb?4, one of them with surface wave magnitude Ms˜6. This tectonically complex region is part of the boundary between the Caribbean and the South American plates. The main seismically active feature inland in western Venezuela is the northeast striking, 600-km long, 100-km wide, right-lateral strike-slip Boconó fault zone along the Venezuelan Andes. About 80% of the earthquakes located in the entire region in the period 1980-mid-1995 have occurred on this fault zone, at focal depths <20 km. Microearthquake activity at lower rates also occurs northwest of the Venezuelan Andes, both in the continental and Caribbean sea regions. Part of this activity takes place at depths down to ˜150 km. Northwest oriented seismicity depth profiles show the existence of a Benioff zone dipping to the southeast beneath northwestern Venezuela and northern Colombia. This indicates the presence of a northeast striking, southeast dipping subducted slab of the Caribbean plate beneath the South American plate. Hypocentral locations show that the northeastern end of this subduction occurs northwest of the Curaçao-Aruba region, in the vicinity of a northwest trending, right-lateral strike-slip fault zone that joins up with the northeastern end of the Boconó fault zone. This latter place turns out to be the western end of the east-west striking San Sebastián fault along the Venezuelan coast.

PéRez, Omar J.; Jaimes, Martha A.; Garciacaro, Emilio

1997-08-01

434

Residential energy use and conservation in Venezuela: Results and implications of a household survey in Caracas  

SciTech Connect

This document presents the final report of a study of residential energy use in Caracas, the capital of Venezuela. It contains the findings of a household energy-use survey held in Caracas in 1988 and examines options for introducing energy conservation measures in the Venezuelan residential sector. Oil exports form the backbone of the Venezuelan economy. Improving energy efficiency in Venezuela will help free domestic oil resources that can be sold to the rest of the world. Energy conservation will also contribute to a faster recovery of the economy by reducing the need for major investments in new energy facilities, allowing the Venezuelan government to direct its financial investments towards other areas of development. Local environmental benefits will constitute an important additional by-product of implementing energy-efficiency policies in Venezuela. Caracas`s residential sector shows great potential for energy conservation. The sector is characterized by high saturation levels of major appliances, inefficiency of appliances available in the market, and by careless patterns of energy use. Household energy use per capita average 6.5 GJ/per year which is higher than most cities in developing countries; most of this energy is used for cooking. Electricity accounts for 41% of all energy use, while LPG and natural gas constitute the remainder. Specific options for inducing energy conservation and energy efficiency in Caracas`s residential sector include energy-pricing policies, fuel switching, particularly from electricity to gas, improving the energy performance of new appliances and customer information. To ensure the accomplishment of an energy-efficiency strategy, a concerted effort by energy users, manufacturers, utility companies, government agencies, and research institutions will be needed.

Figueroa, M.J.; Ketoff, A.; Masera, O.

1992-10-01

435

Sentinel Surveillance of Influenza-Like Illness in Two Hospitals in Maracay, Venezuela: 2006–2010  

PubMed Central

Background Limited information exists on the epidemiology of acute febrile respiratory illnesses in tropical South American countries such as Venezuela. The objective of the present study was to examine the epidemiology of influenza-like illness (ILI) in two hospitals in Maracay, Venezuela. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed a prospective surveillance study of persons with ILI who presented for care at two hospitals in Maracay, Venezuela, from October 2006 to December 2010. A respiratory specimen and clinical information were obtained from each participant. Viral isolation and identification with immunofluorescent antibodies and molecular methods were employed to detect respiratory viruses such as adenovirus, influenza A and B, parainfluenza, and respiratory sincytial virus, among others. There were 916 participants in the study (median age: 17 years; range: 1 month – 86 years). Viruses were identified in 143 (15.6%) subjects, and one participant was found to have a co-infection with more than one virus. Influenza viruses, including pandemic H1N1 2009, were the most frequently detected pathogens, accounting for 67.4% (97/144) of the viruses detected. Adenovirus (15/144), parainfluenza virus (13/144), and respiratory syncytial virus (11/144) were also important causes of ILI in this study. Pandemic H1N1 2009 virus became the most commonly isolated influenza virus during its initial appearance in 2009. Two waves of the pandemic were observed: the first which peaked in August 2009 and the second - higher than the preceding - that peaked in October 2009. In 2010, influenza A/H3N2 re-emerged as the most predominant respiratory virus detected. Conclusions/Significance Influenza viruses were the most commonly detected viral organisms among patients with acute febrile respiratory illnesses presenting at two hospitals in Maracay, Venezuela. Pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza virus did not completely replace other circulating influenza viruses during its initial appearance in 2009. Seasonal influenza A/H3N2 was the most common influenza virus in the post-pandemic phase. PMID:22984519

Comach, Guillermo; Teneza-Mora, Nimfa; Kochel, Tadeusz J.; Espino, Carlos; Sierra, Gloria; Camacho, Daria E.; Laguna-Torres, V. Alberto; Garcia, Josefina; Chauca, Gloria; Gamero, Maria E.; Sovero, Merly; Bordones, Slave; Villalobos, Iris; Melchor, Angel; Halsey, Eric S.

2012-01-01

436

Diurnal raptors in the fragmented rain forest of the Sierra Imataca, Venezuela  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The rain forest of the Sierra Imataca in eastern Venezuela has been subjected to extensive deforestation for pastures and agricultural settlements. In the last decade the opening of access roads combined with intensified logging and mining activities have fragmented a significant portion of the remaining forest. We noted local distribution and habitat use for 42 species of diurnal raptors observed in affected areas in this region. We observed some raptors considered as forest interior species and other open country species foraging and roosting in man-made openings inside the forest.

Alvarez, E.; Ellis, D.H.; Smith, D.G.; LaRue, C.T.

1996-01-01

437

Diurnal raptors in the fragmented rain forest of the Sierra Imataca, Venezuela  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The rain forest of the Sierra Imataca in eastern Venezuela has been subjected to extensive deforestation for pastures and agricultural settlements. In the last decade the opening of access roads combined with intensified logging and mining activities have fragmented a significant portion of the remaining forest. We noted local distribution and habitat use for 40 species of diurnal raptors observed in ten affected areas, including raptors considered as forest interior species and some open country species utilizing the man-made openings inside the forest for roosting and foraging.

Alvarez, E.; Ellis, D.H.; Smith, D.G.; LaRue, C.T.

1994-01-01

438

25 CFR 37.122 - Once geographic attendance boundaries are established, how can they be changed?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...geographic attendance boundaries are established, how can they be changed? 37.122 Section 37.122...geographic attendance boundaries are established, how can they be changed? (a) The Secretary can change the geographic attendance...

2013-04-01

439

48 CFR 1852.244-70 - Geographic participation in the aerospace program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...true Geographic participation in the aerospace program. 1852.244-70 Section...244-70 Geographic participation in the aerospace program. As prescribed in 1844...clause: Geographic Participation in the Aerospace Program (APR 1985) (a) It...

2010-10-01

440

48 CFR 1852.244-70 - Geographic participation in the aerospace program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Geographic participation in the aerospace program. 1852.244-70 Section...244-70 Geographic participation in the aerospace program. As prescribed in 1844...clause: Geographic Participation in the Aerospace Program (APR 1985) (a) It...

2011-10-01

441

48 CFR 1852.244-70 - Geographic participation in the aerospace program.  

...false Geographic participation in the aerospace program. 1852.244-70 Section...244-70 Geographic participation in the aerospace program. As prescribed in 1844...clause: Geographic Participation in the Aerospace Program (APR 1985) (a) It...

2014-10-01

442

48 CFR 1852.244-70 - Geographic participation in the aerospace program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Geographic participation in the aerospace program. 1852.244-70 Section...244-70 Geographic participation in the aerospace program. As prescribed in 1844...clause: Geographic Participation in the Aerospace Program (APR 1985) (a) It...

2013-10-01

443

48 CFR 1852.244-70 - Geographic participation in the aerospace program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Geographic participation in the aerospace program. 1852.244-70 Section...244-70 Geographic participation in the aerospace program. As prescribed in 1844...clause: Geographic Participation in the Aerospace Program (APR 1985) (a) It...

2012-10-01

444

47 CFR 76.984 - Geographically uniform rate structure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate...system in any geographic area in which the video programming services offered by the operator...effective competition, or (2) Any video programming offered on a per channel...

2011-10-01

445

47 CFR 76.984 - Geographically uniform rate structure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate...system in any geographic area in which the video programming services offered by the operator...effective competition, or (2) Any video programming offered on a per channel...

2012-10-01

446

47 CFR 76.984 - Geographically uniform rate structure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate...system in any geographic area in which the video programming services offered by the operator...effective competition, or (2) Any video programming offered on a per channel...

2013-10-01

447

47 CFR 76.984 - Geographically uniform rate structure.  

...BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate...system in any geographic area in which the video programming services offered by the operator...effective competition, or (2) Any video programming offered on a per channel...

2014-10-01

448

42 CFR 412.316 - Geographic adjustment factors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Prospective Payment System for Inpatient Hospital Capital Costs Basic Methodology for Determining the Federal Rate for Capital-Related Costs § 412.316 Geographic adjustment factors. (a)...

2013-10-01

449

42 CFR 412.316 - Geographic adjustment factors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Prospective Payment System for Inpatient Hospital Capital Costs Basic Methodology for Determining the Federal Rate for Capital-Related Costs § 412.316 Geographic adjustment factors. (a)...

2010-10-01

450

Land Cover Classification Method Oriented to Geographic National Conditions Investigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Developing the project of geographic national conditions investigation is in order to obtain land cover change information which is caused by natural and human social and economic activities, and serve the information for government, enterprise and public. Land cover is an important method to describe the geographic national conditions information, which can truly reflect the land surface material type and its natural attribute. It has been contained in the content system preliminary scheme as an important portion. In this paper, it discusses and analyzes on the method and key technology, with according to the land cover content that geographic national conditions watches on. Then it evaluates the applicability of automatic classification method using in land cover information extraction, and comprehensively analyzes various extraction methods' maximum effectiveness. Finally, it proposes a method that is based on high spatial resolution remote sensing imagery and can be used in engineering applications, which provides a reference method for geographic national conditions investigation.

Cheng, T.

2014-04-01

451

Thoracic trident pigmentation in Drosophila melanogaster : Differentiation of geographical populations  

E-print Network

Thoracic trident pigmentation in Drosophila melanogaster : Differentiation of geographical A phenotypic classification of trident pigmentation allowed the characterization ol any natural population by a pigmentation score, ranging from 0 to 3. After some training, independent observers could produce very similar

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

452

Technical Report DHPC-001 Distributed Geographic Information Systems  

E-print Network

GMS Data Processing Requirements 9 4.1 GMS Image Format and Pre-Processing A.2 Image and Information Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 A.3. Archiving, access and processing of scientific data are discussed in the context of geographic

Hawick, Ken

453

A software framework for classification models of geographical data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the advances of GIS (Geographical Information System), GPS (Global Positioning System) and remote sensing, spatial data has become increasingly available. A significant amount of such data is related to point localities, such as locations of landslides, species occurrences, disease cases, and transportation accidents. There is a great need to predict the potential distribution of these geographical events given their localities and influencing features. In this study, we present a framework that can integrate a range of classification algorithms to predict the geographical distribution of a specific event. The proposed framework is unique in its implementation of a number of procedures that support a variety of geographical data types such as presence-only data, two-class data, and multi-class data. The framework is developed in C++ and based on object-oriented polymorphism, which enables us to add new classifiers to the framework by implementing a number of predefined interfaces.

Liu, Yu; Guo, Qinghua; Tian, Yuan

2012-05-01

454

Energy Efficient Geographical Load Balancing via Dynamic Deferral of Workload  

E-print Network

to reduce energy cost by exploiting the electricity price differences across regions. However. INTRODUCTION Increasing energy prices and ability to dynamically track these price variations dueEnergy Efficient Geographical Load Balancing via Dynamic Deferral of Workload Muhammad Abdullah

Gupta, Rajesh

455

47 CFR 76.984 - Geographically uniform rate structure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate...system in any geographic area in which the video programming services offered by the operator...effective competition, or (2) Any video programming offered on a per channel...

2010-10-01

456

Geographic drivers of avian diversification in the Philippine archipelago  

E-print Network

I investigate the relative roles of different classes of geographical barriers in the diversification of the Philippine avifauna, by inferring the evolutionary relationships of 20 avian groups with DNA sequence data. In ...

Hosner, Peter A.

2014-05-31

457

Delineating wetlands using geographic information system and remote sensing technologies  

E-print Network

monitoring wetland is a difficult and time-demanding task because it has to be done repetitively on large areas to be effective. This study was conducted to determine if Geographical Information System (GIS) and remote sensing technologies would allow...

Villeneuve, Julie

2006-04-12

458

Review of geographic processing techniques applicable to regional analysis  

SciTech Connect

Since the early 1970s regional environmental studies have been carried out at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory using computer-assisted techniques. This paper presents an overview of some of these past experiences and the capabilities developed at the Laboratory for processing, analyzing, and displaying geographic data. A variety of technologies have resulted such as computer cartography, image processing, spatial modeling, computer graphics, data base management, and geographic information systems. These tools have been used in a wide range of spatial applications involving facility siting, transportation routing, coal resource analysis, environmental impacts, terrain modeling, inventory development, demographic studies, water resource analyses, etc. The report discusses a number of topics dealing with geographic data bases and structures, software and processing techniques, hardware systems, models and analysis tools, data acquisition techniques, and graphical display methods. Numerous results from many different applications are shown to aid the reader interested in using geographic information systems for environmental analyses. 15 refs., 64 figs., 2 tabs.

Durfee, R.C.

1988-02-01

459

Geographically Distributed Development : trends, challenges and best practices  

E-print Network

Economic and market forces as well as technological progress emerging throughout the last decade signifies the Geographically Distributed Development (GDD) or Global Software Development (GSD) as a software industry norm ...

Yin, Yuhong

2007-01-01

460

Human Conceptions of Spaces: Implications for Geographic Information Systems1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The way people conceptualize space is an important consideration for the design of geographic information systems, because a better match with peopleÕs thinking is expected to lead to easier-to- use information systems. Everyday space, the basis to geographic information systems (GISs), has been characterized in the literature as being either small-scale (from table-top to room-size spaces) or large-scale (inside-of-building spaces

Scott M. Freundschuh; Max J. Egenhofer; Boardman Hall

1997-01-01

461

Geographic Manifestation of Spanish Moss Physiology Across The Americas  

E-print Network

Geographic Manifestation of Spanish Moss Physiology Across The Americas Narayani Barve Ecology and evolutionary biology University of Kansas GIS Day, November 16, 2011 Problem • Ecological niche models use known occurrences... geography taking into account its physiological limits. Spanish Moss (Tillandsia Usneoides) • South?eastern United States to South America • Large geographical area • Heterogeneous landscape • Varied climatic conditions • CAM plant, no roots Var 1 Var 3 Var 2 Data, Schema & Parameters • ERA...

Barve, Narayani

2011-11-16

462

Geographic prospects for large-scale African mammal wildlife conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work assesses current geographic prospects for large-scale conservation of Africa’s mammals on the basis of statistics\\u000a on wildlife habitat, elephant numbers, political stability and potential for environmental tourism and concludes that these\\u000a prospects depend on events in a small number of eastern and southern African (core) countries, geographically grouped into\\u000a a ‘safari-belt’ between South-Africa and Kenya. Additional countries with

Cornelis VanderPost

2007-01-01

463

A study on Geographic National (Urban) Conditions Monitoring of Beijing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article investigated and surveyed the current situation of the policy of Geographic National (Urban) Conditions Monitoring in Beijing based on the experimental unit over China carried out by National Administration of Surveying, Mapping and Geoinformation. Then analysed the guarantee of the implement considering the characteristics of programming and construction, policy and regulation in Beijing. Finally presented the frame system of Geographic National (Urban) Conditions Monitoring which is appropriate for Beijing.

Liu, Q.

2014-04-01

464

Semantic Interoperability: A Central Issue for Sharing GeographicInformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Technical interoperability has provided geographic information communities with substantial improvements for constructing\\u000a GIS capable of very low friction and dynamic data exchanges. These technical advances stand to provide substantial advantages\\u000a for sharing geographic information, however reaping these advantages in highly heterogeneous operational and organizational\\u000a environments requires the understanding and resolution of semantic differences. While the OpenGIS consortium has made

Francis Harvey; Werner Kuhn; Hardy Pundt; Y. Bisher; Catharina Riedemann

1999-01-01

465

The power of geographical boundaries: Cultural, political, and economic border effects in a unitary nation.  

E-print Network

??Geography plays a significant, fundamental role in shaping outcomes in human societies. Among other geographical elements, borders have significant implications"they are not only geographical figures,… (more)

Chang, Bowon

2010-01-01

466

Review and synthesis of problems and directions for large scale geographic information system development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Problems and directions for large scale geographic information system development were reviewed and the general problems associated with automated geographic information systems and spatial data handling were addressed.

Boyle, A. R.; Dangermond, J.; Marble, D.; Simonett, D. S.; Tomlinson, R. F.

1983-01-01

467

TIGER5---Extraction of geographic information from the TIGER system  

SciTech Connect

The need for geographic information in digital form is becoming apparent in many areas, including Emergency Response Planning and Management. The Bureau of Census recognized this need and developed an automated geographic data base, known as Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing (TIGER) System, to produce the geographic products for the 1990 census. The Bureau makes the information available to the public on CD-ROM disks. As distributed, the geographic information is not directly visible, and a program is needed to display the information in a graphic form. MapInfo is a commercially available program that has the capability to display maps and allows the user to perform certain geographic analyses. MapInfo runs on a variety of low-cost platforms that may be found in an average office environment, as well as on high-performance work stations. The TIGER5 program developed by the Emergency Management Information Systems (EMIS) project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory reads files directly from the Census Bureau TIGER/Line CD-ROM and creates MapInfo Exchange Format Files that can be directly imported into MapInfo. The standard default values for scaling parameters are used, and the resulting map is in the same coordinate system as the world and state maps distributed with MapInfo.

Gryder, R.K.

1992-03-01

468

Resumen. La fosa de Cariaco, ubicada al sur del Caribe en el margen continental de Venezuela, ha sido el foco de muchos estudios de relevancia global sobre la qumica de las aguas marinas y la  

E-print Network

Resumen. La fosa de Cariaco, ubicada al sur del Caribe en el margen continental de Venezuela, ha ("2004"), 161-162: 215-234 #12;216 Características de la fosa de Cariaco, Venezuela Cariaco basin on the continental margin of Venezuela, has been the focus of many marine chemistry and paleoclimatology studies

Meyers, Steven D.

469

FRONTISPIECE. Three-striped Warblers (Basileuterus tristriatus) were studied in the northern Andes of Venezuela. Temperate and tropical parulids differ strongly in life histories. Three-striped Warblers have smaller clutches, longer  

E-print Network

of Venezuela. Temperate and tropical parulids differ strongly in life histories. Three-striped Warblers have(4):667­678, 2009 BREEDING BIOLOGY OF THE THREE-STRIPED WARBLER IN VENEZUELA: A CONTRAST BETWEEN TROPICAL traits of the Three-striped Warbler (Basileuterus tristriatus) from 146 nests in Venezuela and compare

Martin, Thomas E.

470

Paleogeographic evolution of foldbelts adjacent to petroleum basins of Venezuela and Trinidad  

SciTech Connect

The foldbelts of Venezuela and Trinidad have shaped the history of adjacent sedimentary basins. A set of paleogeographic maps on reconstructed bases depict the role of foldbelts in the development of the sedimentary basins of Venezuela. Some of the foldbelts are inverted, pre-Tertiary graben/passive margin systems. Other foldbelts are allochthonous nappes or parautochthons that override the Mesozoic passive margin hinge without inversion. The emergence of these foldbelts changed the course of existing river systems and provided a new source for sediments and maturation in adjacent deeps. The Merida Andes area was remobilized beginning in the Early Miocene as a zone of lateral shear, along which the Bonaire Block has moved over 200 km to the northeast, dismembering the Maracaibo and Barinas basins. Late Miocene to Recent transpression and fault reactivation have driven rapid Andean uplift with thrust-related subsidence and maturation (e.g., SE Maracaibo foredeep). To the east, uplift and erosion of the Serrania del Interior (1) curtailed mid-Tertiary fluvial systems flowing northward from the igneous and sedimentary rocks of the Guyana Shield, deflecting them eastward, and (2) removed the thick early Miocene foredeep fill into a younger foredeep. Thus, the fold-thrust belts and sedimentary basins in this region are linked in their evolutionary histories.

Goodman, E.D.; Koch, P.S.; Summa, L.L. [Exxon Production Research Company, Houston, TX (United States)] [and others

1996-08-01

471

Comparison of the petroleum systems of East Venezuela in their tectonostratigraphic context  

SciTech Connect

The Maturin and Guarico subbasins of East Venezuela record the transition from Cretaceous passive margin to Tertiary foreland basin with local post-orogenic transtensional basins. Petroleum is reservoired in several units ranging from Albian (El Cantil Formation) to Pliocene (Las Piedras Formation) age. Source rocks are principally in the Upper Cretaceous (Querecual Formation), and Miocene (Carapita Formation) in the Maturin subbasin and in the Upper Cretaceous (Tigre Formation) and Oligocene (Roblecito and La Pascua Formations) in the Guarico subbasin. An extensive well database has been used to address the distribution and provenance of hydrocarbons in the context of a tectonostratigraphic model for the evolution of the East Venezuela basin. Nine major plays have been described, comprising thirteen petroleum systems. The principal factors influencing the components of individual petroleum systems are as follows: (1) structural controls on Upper Cretaceous source rock distribution, relating to block faulting on the proto-Caribbean passive margin; (2) paleoenvironmental controls on source rock development within the Oligocene-Miocene foreland basin; and (3) timing of subsidence and maturation within the Oligocene-Upper Miocene foreland basin and the configuration of the associated fold and thrust belt, influencing long range and local migration routes (4) local development of Pliocene post-orogenic transtensional basins, influencing hydrocarbon generation, migration and remigration north of the Pirital High.

Stronach, N.J.; Kerr, H.M.; Scotchmer, J. [Robertson Research International Ltd., Llandudno, Gwynedd (United Kingdom); Hunter, V. [Consultores Geostrat CA, Puerto La Cruz (Venezuela)

1996-08-01

472

An Estimate of Recoverable Heavy Oil Resources of the Orinoco Oil Belt, Venezuela  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Orinoco Oil Belt Assessment Unit of the La Luna-Quercual Total Petroleum System encompasses approximately 50,000 km2 of the East Venezuela Basin Province that is underlain by more than 1 trillion barrels of heavy oil-in-place. As part of a program directed at estimating the technically recoverable oil and gas resources of priority petroleum basins worldwide, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated the recoverable oil resources of the Orinoco Oil Belt Assessment Unit. This estimate relied mainly on published geologic and engineering data for reservoirs (net oil-saturated sandstone thickness and extent), petrophysical properties (porosity, water saturation, and formation volume factors), recovery factors determined by pilot projects, and estimates of volumes of oil-in-place. The U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean volume of 513 billion barrels of technically recoverable heavy oil in the Orinoco Oil Belt Assessment Unit of the East Venezuela Basin Province; the range is 380 to 652 billion barrels. The Orinoco Oil Belt Assessment Unit thus contains one of the largest recoverable oil accumulations in the world.

Schenk, Christopher J.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.

2009-01-01

473

Importancia de las plantas medicinales en el autocuidado de la salud en tres caseríos de Santa Ana Trujillo, Venezuela. The importance of medicinal plants in health care in three small villages of the Santa Ana county at Trujillo state, Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to gather some information about the importance of medicinal plants in the primary health care, the use of plants in three small villages of the Santa Ana county, Pampán municipality at Trujillo State, Venezuela, was quantitatively analyzed. To do this, a local epidemiology diagnosis was carried out and the etnopharmacological information obtained was recorded using the TRAMIL survey.

TEOLINDA CARRILLO-ROSARIO Y GLENDA

474

Identification of factors affecting growth and survival of the tropical scallop Euvola (Pecten) ziczac in the Golfo de Cariaco, Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the effect of environmental variables on the growth and survival of the tropical scallop, Euvola ziczac (L.), in suspended culture at Turpialito in the Golfo de Cariaco, northeastern Venezuela. Four growth trials were run, three using 10-mm spat produced from hatchery spawnings in August 1992, which were grown at 8, 21 and 34 m in depth, and a

César J. M Lodeiros; John H Himmelman

2000-01-01

475

Molecular epidemiology of dengue type 2 virus in Venezuela: evidence for in situ virus evolution and recombination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemic outbreaks of dengue fever (DF) were first recorded in Venezuela in 1978 and were followed by the emergence of dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) outbreaks in 1989. To gain a better understanding of the nature of these epidemics, the complete envelope (E) gene sequence of 34 Venezuelan dengue type 2 (DEN-2) viruses, isolated between 1997 and 2000 was determined. Of

N. Y. Uzcategui; D. Camacho; G. Comach; R. Cuello de Uzcategui; E. C. Holmes; E. A. Gould

2001-01-01

476

Preliminary assessment of a Cretaceous-Paleogene Atlantic passive margin, Serrania del Interior and Central Ranges, Venezuela/Trinidad  

SciTech Connect

For several decades, Cretaceous arc collision was assumed along northern Venezuela based on isotopic ages of metamorphic minerals. From subsidence histories in Venezuelan/Trinidadian basins, however, it is now clear that the Cretaceous metamorphic rocks were emplaced southeastward as allochthons above an autochthonous suite of rocks in the Cenozoic, and that the pre-Cenozoic autochthonous rocks represent a Mesozoic passive margin. The passive margin rocks have been metamorphosed separately during overthrusting by the allochthons in central Venezuela, but they are uplifted but not significantly metamorphosed in Eastern Venezuela and Trinidad. There, in the Serrania del Interior and Central Ranges of Venezuela/Trinidad, Mesozoic-Paleogene passive margin sequences were uplifted in Neogene time, when the Caribbean Plate arrived from the west and transpressionally inverted the passive margin. Thus, this portion of South America's Atlantic margin subsided thermally without tectonism from Jurassic to Eocene time, and these sections comprise the only Mesozoic-Cenozoic truly passive Atlantic margin in the Western Hemisphere that is now exposed for direct study. Direct assessments of sedimentological, depositional and faunal features indicative of, and changes in, water depth for Cretaceous and Paleogene time may be made here relative to a thermally subsiding passive margin without the complications of tectonism. Work is underway, and preliminary assessments presented here suggest that sea level changes of Cretaceous-Paleogene time are not as pronounced as the frequent large and rapid sea level falls and rises that are promoted by some.

Pindell, J.L.; Drake, C.L. (Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH (United States)); Pitman, W.C. (Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Palisades, NY (United States))

1991-03-01

477

Two new Fusicoccum species from Acacia and Eucalyptus in Venezuela, based on morphology and DNA sequence data  

E-print Network

Two new Fusicoccum species from Acacia and Eucalyptus in Venezuela, based on morphology and DNA of woody plants, and they also include some serious pathogens of Eucalyptus and Acacia species. Numerous common. Here, we characterize two new Fusicoccum species, isolated from Eucalyptus and Acacia trees

478

Seismic Anisotropy and Mantle flow beneath Western Venezuela Jeniffer Masy,1 Fenglin Niu1 and Alan Levander1  

E-print Network

fault, where splitting times are the largest (1.6 - 2.5 s) with an east-west orientation. The second of Venezuela and the Antilles arc Region). At each station, SKS waveforms from 2 to 60 earthquakes, mostly from Fault, OAF = Oca- Ancon Fault. Figure 2: A) SKS waveform recorded on the radial (top) and transverse

Alvarez, Pedro J.

479

Conservation science in developing countries: an inside perspective on the struggles in sea turtle research and conservation in Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human exploitation of sea turtles in Venezuela dates back at least 800 years and continues to the present day. The first concerns about the status of sea turtle populations arose in the 1970s, and the projects from this early era were a tagging program, beach evaluation and in situ nest protection. Since then, efforts to develop a sea turtle research

Joaquín Buitrago; Hedelvy J. Guada; Emma Doyle

2008-01-01

480

Biocomplexity of deforestation in the Caparo tropical forest reserve in Venezuela: An integrated multi-agent and cellular automata model  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multi-agent model of social and environmental complexity of deforestation was developed for the Caparo Forest Reserve, Venezuela. It includes three types of agents: settlers, government, and lumber concessionaires. Settlers represent people of limited economic resources that deforest and occupy reserve land to grow crops and eventually claim property rights of this land. Their agricultural practices generate unintended environmental problems.

Niandry Moreno; Raquel Quintero; Magdiel Ablan; Rodrigo Barros; Jacinto A. Dávila; Hirma Ramírez; Giorgio Tonella; Miguel F. Acevedo

2007-01-01

481

Stochastic modeling of lower delta and coastal plain reservoir in the Eocene-Misoa Formation, Ceuta Field, Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stochastic modeling technique minimizes uncertainties in the values used for reservoir parameters and this reduces the risk in reservoir management practices. This technique was successfully employed in modeling south Ceuta field in Venezuela which will be subjected to secondary recovery due to significant pressure decline. The Lower Misoa reservoir is divided into five sedimentological units; the upper three units am

I. Azpiritxaga; E. Hernandez; M. Vivas

1995-01-01

482

Situation Report--Burma, Chile, German Democratic Republic, Indonesia, Jamaica, Poland, Singapore, St. Christopher/Nevis, Trinidad & Tobago, Venezuela.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data relating to population and family planning in ten foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Burma, Chile, German Democratic Republic, Indonesia, Jamaica, Poland, Singapore, St. Christopher/Nevis, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two…

International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

483

20. Raw Material for the Geographic Magazine. The mills of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. Raw Material for the Geographic Magazine. The mills of the Champion International Company which make paper on which the National Geographic Magazine is printed are located in Lawrence, Mass. This picture shows great piles of pulp-wood ready for conversion into paper for the The Geographic. Parts of these wood piles are more than 50 feet high. The cars shown in the picture are on a trestle 21 feet high. The Geographic magazines mailed in a single year, if laid side by side, would reach from Quito, Ecuador, across Colombia and Caribbean, thence across the United States and Canada, through the North Pole, and across Siberia, China, and Siam to Bangkok. It takes 33,000 miles of wrappers to mail one year's edition. It would require a bookshelf more than three and a half miles long to hold all the copies of this month's issue of The Geographic. (p.235.) - Champion-International Paper Company, West bank of Spicket River at Canal Street, Lawrence, Essex County, MA

484

Geographic information systems: their use in environmental epidemiologic research.  

PubMed Central

Advances in geographic information system (GIS) technology, developed by geographers, provide new opportunities for environmental epidemiologists to study associations between environmental exposures and the spatial distribution of disease. A GIS is a powerful computer mapping and analysis technology capable of integrating large quantities of geographic (spatial) data as well as linking geographic with nongeographic data (e.g., demographic information, environmental exposure levels). In this paper we provide an overview of some of the capabilities and limitations of GIS technology; we illustrate, through practical examples, the use of several functions of a GIS including automated address matching, distance functions, buffer analysis, spatial query, and polygon overlay; we discuss methods and limitations of address geocoding, often central to the use of a GIS in environmental epidemiologic research; and we suggest ways to facilitate its use in future studies. Collaborative efforts between epidemiologists, biostatisticians, environmental scientists, GIS specialists, and medical geographers are needed to realize the full potential of GIS technology in environmental health research and may lead to innovative solutions to complex questions. Images p598-a Figure 2. Figure 3. A Figure 3. B Figure 3. C Figure 3. D Figure 3. E PMID:9288494

Vine, M F; Degnan, D; Hanchette, C

1997-01-01

485

Contribution of Subduction Dynamic Topography to the Formation of the Maturin Foreland Basin Eastern Venezuela  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Maturín Basin in Eastern Venezuela, which formed during the Neogene adjacent to the Serranía del Interior Thrust Belt, is considered a good example of a peripheral foreland basin. Earthquake and tomographic data indicate that Eastern Venezuela is underthrust by the oblique subduction of the South American Plate underneath the Caribbean Plate. Our objectives are to understand the processes responsible for the formation of the Maturin Basin, and to quantitatively determine the contribution of thrust sheet loading and continental subduction. A sequence of new forward flexural isostatic models was generated from Middle Miocene to Present for 3 profiles across the Serranía del Interior Thrust Belt and Maturín Foreland Basin in order to determine the contribution of thrust sheet loading to foreland basin subsidence. The predictions of these models are constrained using seismic reflection and well data. The flexural isostatic modelling shows that thrust-sheet loading associated with the Serranía del Interior Thrust Belt is insufficient to generate the observed subsidence within the Maturín Basin. The modelled basin depth is shallower than observed by 2 km in the west and 6 km in the east. A topography and basin mass balance study, and comparison with free air gravity anomalies for other foreland basin and mountain belt systems, confirms that the mass deficiency in the Monagas Basin is too large to be regionally compensated by the mass excess in the Serranía Thrust Belt. Dynamic fluid flow modelling of subduction related dynamic topography of Eastern Venezuela has been used to investigate the influence of South American subduction on the generation of the accommodation space observed in the Maturín Basin. Fluid flow modelling of subduction related dynamic topography suggests that the subduction of the South American lithospheric mantle caused downward deflection of the South American crust affecting the Maturín Basin and the Serranía Thrust Belt. This result is consistent with earthquake and tomographic evidence. The total subsidence predicted using preferred thrust sheet loading and fluid flow models is comparable with the wavelength and amplitude of the subsidence observed in the eastern part of the Maturín Basin. This modelling suggests that the Maturín Basin subsidence has two components: 55% in amplitude related to thrust sheet loading and 45% driven by continental subduction. The subduction-related subsidence is greater in the eastern than in the western parts of the basin, consistent with the South American subduction decreasing to the west.

Jacome, M.; Kusznir, N.; Audemard, F.; Flint, S.

2001-12-01

486

THE WESTERN LAKE SUPERIOR COMPARATIVE WATERSHED FRAMEWORK: A FIELD TEST OF GEOGRAPHICALLY-DEPENDENT VS. THRESHOLD-BASED GEOGRAPHICALLY-INDEPENDENT CLASSIFICATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Stratified random selection of watersheds allowed us to compare geographically-independent classification schemes based on watershed storage (wetland + lake area/watershed area) and forest fragmentation with a geographically-based classification scheme within the Northern Lakes a...

487

Risk factors and confounders in the geographical clustering of schizophrenia.  

PubMed

In response to previous reports of geographical clustering of individuals with psychosis, a study was carried out in Denmark utilizing the national case register. Two-thousand one-hundred and ninety-nine (2199) individuals with schizophrenia were divided by place of birth into 217 geographical areas and analyzed by age, gender, month of birth, genetic relatedness, and degree of urbanization of birthplace. Heterogeneity was ascertained using log-linear Poisson regression. The greatest amount of heterogeneity was associated with degree of urbanization of place of birth. Heterogeneity was also associated with age-gender interaction and calendar period. When adjusted for these factors, there was no remaining heterogeneity, suggesting that all geographical clustering in our study was explained by the above factors. PMID:11356590

Torrey, E F; Mortensen, P B; Pedersen, C B; Wohlfahrt, J; Melbye, M

2001-04-30

488

Fast, Inclusive Searches for Geographic Names Using Digraphs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An algorithm specifies how to quickly identify names that approximately match any specified name when searching a list or database of geographic names. Based on comparisons of the digraphs (ordered letter pairs) contained in geographic names, this algorithmic technique identifies approximately matching names by applying an artificial but useful measure of name similarity. A digraph index enables computer name searches that are carried out using this technique to be fast enough for deployment in a Web application. This technique, which is a member of the class of n-gram algorithms, is related to, but distinct from, the soundex, PHONIX, and metaphone phonetic algorithms. Despite this technique's tendency to return some counterintuitive approximate matches, it is an effective aid for fast, inclusive searches for geographic names when the exact name sought, or its correct spelling, is unknown.

Donato, David I.

2008-01-01

489

Research on digital city geographic information common services platform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditional GIS (Geographic Information System) software development mode exposes many defects that will largely slow down the city informational progress. It is urgent need to build a common application infrastructure for informational project to speed up the development pace of digital city. The advent of service-oriented architecture (SOA) has motivated the adoption of GIS functionality portals that can be executed in distributed computing environment. According to the SOA principle, we bring forward and design a digital city geographic information common services platform which provides application development service interfaces for field users that can be further extended relevant business application. In the end, a public-oriented Web GIS is developed based on the platform for helping public users to query geographic information in their daily life. It indicates that our platform have the capacity that can be integrated by other applications conveniently.

Chen, Dequan; Wu, Qunyong; Wang, Qinmin

2008-10-01

490

Teacher Resources-The Canadian Council for Geographic Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Canadian Council for Geographic Education (CCGE) is serious about geographic education. This site provides a range of educational materials for those with a passion for the spatial sciences. The materials here are divided into four areas: Canadian Atlas Online, Lesson Plans, Classroom Activities, and Teaching About Geographical Thinking. In the Canadian Atlas Online area, visitors can learn about "the stories that define all Canadians." Visitors to this section can create their own customized maps of Canada and read through a glossary of terms. Moving on, the Lesson Plans area contains over 100 plans that deal with the environment, cultural geography, oceanography, and international development. The Geomatics area is quite a find, as it brings together GIS-based activities to explore topics like Nunavut and crime mapping. Finally, the Classroom Activities area contains some great poster maps of the Mackenzie Delta and the South Gulf Islands.

2012-07-20

491

Malarial parasites as geographical markers in migratory birds?  

PubMed Central

We tested the hypothesis that malarial parasites (Plasmodium and Haemoproteus) of black-throated blue warblers (Dendroica caerulescens) provide sufficient geographical signal to track population movements between the warbler's breeding and wintering habitats in North America. Our results from 1083 warblers sampled across the species' breeding range indicate that parasite lineages are geographically widespread and do not provide site-specific information. The wide distribution of malarial parasites probably reflects postnatal dispersal of their hosts as well as mixing of breeding populations on the wintering range. When compared to geographically structured parasites of sedentary Caribbean songbirds, patterns of malarial infections in black-throated blue warblers suggest that host–malaria dynamics of migratory and sedentary bird populations may be subject to contrasting selection pressures. PMID:17148365

Fallon, Sylvia M; Fleischer, Robert C; Graves, Gary R

2006-01-01

492

Tracking the evolution and geographic spread of Influenza A  

PubMed Central

The 2009 swine-origin strain of Influenza A H1N1 has spread to nearly all parts of the world, with 175 countries reporting confirmed cases thus far. Consistent with seasonal flu outbreaks, the current pandemic strain has shown rapid dispersal, with multiple examples of introduction into different geographic regions. Here we use an automated pipeline to collect data for analysis in the geospatial package GenGIS, which allows the geographic and temporal tracking of new sequence types and polymorphisms. Using this approach, we examine a pair of amino acid changes in the neuraminidase protein that are implicated in antibody recognition, and exhibit global dispersal with little or no geographic structure. PMID:20029608

Donovan Parks; MacDonald, Norman; Beiko, Robert

2009-01-01

493

Methane production from mixed tropical savanna and forest vegetation in Venezuela  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of methane concentrations in the boundary layer in the northern part of the Guayana shield, Venezuela, during the wet season (October 1988), showed the presence of substantial methane surface emissions. The measuring site is within the savanna climate region, but is affected by emissions from savanna and forest vegetation. From day versus night concentration measurements, with higher concentrations during night, a methane source strength near the site of 3-7×1011 molecules/cm2/s can be estimated, which includes emissions from small tracts of flooded soils, termites and especially tropical vegetation. Extrapolated to the entire savanna, this may imply a methane source of ~30-60 Tg yr-1 similar to the one calculated for tropical vegetation on the basis of recently published in vitro plant emission experiments by Keppler et al. (2006), which indicate emissions of ~30 Tg yr-1 for tropical savannas and grasslands and ~78 Tg yr-1 for tropical forests.

Crutzen, P. J.; Sanhueza, E.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.

2006-04-01

494

CTX-M-14 ?-lactamase-producing Citrobacter freundii isolated in Venezuela  

PubMed Central

A clinical isolate of C. freundii with reduced susceptibility to extended-spectrum ?-lactams from a woman with cystocele associated with recurrent urinary tract infection was analyzed. Susceptibility tests, double disk synergy tests (DDST) and enzymatic activity by the agar iodometric method suggested the presence of ESBLs. Conjugation experiments revealed the presence of a large conjugative plasmid (pLM07/20) with an exclusive FrepB replicon type (IncF/FIB). PCR analysis and sequencing confirmed the presence of the blaCTX-M-14 gene in the pLM07/20 from C. freundii.LM07/10. Although this is the first report of CTX-M-14 in Venezuela, we alert the medical community that future increase of these ?-lactamases in our city could be due to dissemination of plasmids into bacterial populations. PMID:21627834

2011-01-01

495

AVO in North of Paria, Venezuela: Gas methane versus condensate reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

The gas fields of North of Paria, offshore eastern Venezuela, present a unique opportunity for amplitude variations with offset (AVO) characterization of reservoirs containing different fluids: gas-condensate, gas (methane) and water (brine). AVO studies for two of the wells in the area, one with gas-condensate and the other with gas (methane) saturated reservoirs, show interesting results. Water sands and a fluid contact (condensate-water) are present in one of these wells, thus providing a control point on brine-saturated properties. The reservoirs in the second well consist of sands highly saturated with methane. Clear differences in AVO response exist between hydrocarbon-saturated reservoirs and those containing brine. However, it is also interesting that subtle but noticeable differences can be interpreted between condensate-and methane-saturated sands. These differences are attributed to differences in both in-situ fluid density and compressibility, and rock frame properties.

Regueiro, J. [Univ. Simon Bolivar, Sartenejas (Venezuela)] [Univ. Simon Bolivar, Sartenejas (Venezuela); Pena, A. [Lagoven S.A., Caracas (Venezuela)] [Lagoven S.A., Caracas (Venezuela)

1996-07-01

496

GPS-derived slip rates of active faults in eastern Venezuela, along the southeastern Caribbean PBZ  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For over 20 years, GPS campaign measurements have been performed in eastern Venezuela, as well as in other areas of the country, by different scientific groups and in the frame of different either national or international efforts and/or projects, essentially aiming at the estimation of the rate of motion along the major Quaternary faults (i.e., Boconó, San Sebastián and El Pilar faults) composing the plate boundary zone (PBZ) between the Caribbean and South America, along onshore northern and western Venezuela. The slip rates and sense of slip of those major faults derived from the comparison of several GPS campaigns carried out through the years have confirmed the slip data (fault kinematics) previously derived from geologic data, through comprehensive neotectonic and paleoseismic studies mainly made by the FUNVISIS' Earth Sciences Dpt. staff. In a rough way, we could conclude that those faults are dextrally moving at a rate in the order of 10-12 mm/a. More recently, it has been shown that the El Pilar fault has a locking depth close to 10 km deep and that about half of the PBZ dextral motion is accommodated as creep, reducing the seismic hazard for northeastern Venezuela almost by half. On the contrary, in the near past, very little attention has been paid to the secondary active faulting in eastern Venezuela. In that sense, FUNVISIS, in collaboration with the Université de Savoie, started the monitoring of these secondary features by installing 36 brass benchmarks on bedrock in that region in 2003, which have been occupied 3 times, in late 2003 and 2005 and in early 2013. The comparison between the 2003 and 2005 occupations shows promising results, such as: a) The Charagato fault on Cubagua island is left-lateral with a slip rate of about 2 mm/a; b) slip vectors across the El Pilar fault tend to head to the ESE, suggesting that the tectonic regime is compressive transcurrent to transcurrent compressional (transpressional); c) The NW-SE-trending San Francisco fault, in the eastern Interior range, appears to be dextral with a preliminary slip rate of few mm/a; d) the Northern Coast fault, paralleling the El Pilar fault, is also dextral and slips at about 2 mm/a and e) a similar situation seems to display the San Sebastián fault in the Gulf of Cariaco, north of Cumaná, near its eastern tip. We expect that the 2013 occupation, carried out over 9 years later than the first one, will allow estimating more accurately the slip rates of the slower subordinate active faults of the region. This is a contribution to cooperation projects FONACIT-ECOS Nord PI-2003000090 and -2009000818 (French codes V04U01 and V10U01, respectively), French DyETI Programme, as well as Venezuelan FONACIT 2002000478 (GEODINOS) and LOCTI (Cumaná and GIAME) projects. Michel Bechtold, Victor Cano, Luis Melo, Reinaldo Ollarves, Fabián Rada, José Antonio Rodríguez, Javier Sánchez and Aurelien Van Welden are contributing FEGAG members.

Audemard, F. A.; Beck, C.; Jouanne, F.; Reinoza, C. E.; Fegag

2013-05-01

497

Management of a giant deep field: El Furrial Field, Eastern Venezuela  

SciTech Connect

The Furrial Field is located in Eastern Venezuela and produces a 25 to 30{degrees} API asphaltenic crude oil from a 1500 ft thick Oligocene sand interval at a depth of 15,000 ft. The bubble point is about 4500 psi as compared to an original pressure of 11,000 psi. Oil in place is approximately 6800 million STB. Currently production is 350 MB/D from 77 well streams (Naricual Formation), and water is being injected at 400 MB/D to maintain pressure. The combination of a volumetric reservoir and asphaltenic nature of crude oil resulted in a rapid decrease in well productivity and reservoir pressure, creating the necessity to maintain reservoir pressure to maximize recovery. Discussed in this paper are the reservoir management techniques and strategies used by Lagoven to develop and operate these complex reservoirs. Acquisition and analysis of these data adequate to properly implement these management techniques are covered in detail.

Pinto, N.; Mengual, R.; Anz, J.; Rodney, C. [Lagoven, S.A., Maturin (Venezuela)

1996-08-01

498

Methodology to incorporate EIA in land-use ordering -- case study: The Cataniapo River basin, Venezuela  

SciTech Connect

In Venezuela, the idea of tiering information between land-use ordering instruments and impact assessment is absent. In this article the authors explore a methodological alternative to bridge the information presented in land-use ordering instruments with the information requirements for impact assessment. The methodology is based on the steps carried out for an environmental impact assessment as well as on those considered to develop land-use ordering instruments. The methodology is applied to the territorial ordering plan and its proposal for the protection zone of the Cataniapo River basin. The purpose of the protection zone is to preserve the water quality and quantity of the river basin for human consumption.

Sebastiani, M.; Llambi, L.D.; Marquez, E. [Univ. Simon Bolivar (Venezuela)] [and others] [Univ. Simon Bolivar (Venezuela); and others

1998-07-01

499

Reliability as the big persuader to privatize the electrical system in Venezuela  

SciTech Connect

Throughout the past five years, the Venezuelan authorities, especially the Fondo de Inversiones de Venezuela (FIV), have done a major effort to privatize many of the state owned industries, among them, the electrical public utilities and some important electrical power generation plants or systems based on thermal generation. Mainly along the recent past years, black and brownouts have become more frequent in the system. In other words, system reliability has been diminishing, as a consequence of investment capital and O and M expenses have been reduced to levels below the required by the system. Public opinion is exercising pressure on politicians, so signals are that Congress will probably approve during the current or beginning of next years the required laws to expedite privatization and assure incentives and guaranties to investors. This paper deals with the insides of all these aspects, and with how soon privatization will be carried out. The FIV has been committed to implement this process.

Alvarez B., C.E. [Tecnoconsult/Tecnofluor, Caracas (Venezuela). Power Div.

1998-12-31

500

Genetic diversity between and within the arenavirus species indigenous to western Venezuela  

PubMed Central

The results of analyses of Z, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, glycoprotein precursor, and nucleocapsid protein gene sequence data suggested that Guanarito virus was the most common cause of Venezuelan hemorrhagic fever in a 7-year period in the 1990’s and that the evolution of Pirital virus in association with Sigmodon alstoni (Alston’s cotton rat) has occurred at a significantly higher rate than the evolution of Guanarito virus in association with Zygodontomys brevicauda (short-tailed cane mouse) on the plains of western Venezuela. The results of analyses of the primary structures of the glycoproteins of the 8 strains of Guanarito virus isolated from humans suggested that these strains would be highly cross-reactive in neutralization assays. Thus, passive antibody therapy may prove beneficial in the treatment of human disease caused by strains of Guanarito virus that are enzootic in the region in which Venezuelan hemorrhagic fever is endemic. PMID:18586298

Fulhorst, Charles F.; Cajimat, Maria N.B.; Milazzo, Mary Louise; Paredes, Hector; de Manzione, Nuris M. C.; Salas, Rosa A.; Rollin, Pierre E.; Ksiazek, Thomas G.

2008-01-01