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1

Sugar Cane Magic.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The booklet contains a story for middle-grade students which shows how the roles of men and women change through the years. The main characters are three sixth graders in Hawaii: one girl has Hawaiian ancestors, one girl has Japanese ancestors, and one boy has New England missionary ancestors. The children discover a magic stalk of sugar cane

Mower, Nancy Alpert

2

Maufacture of raw cane sugar  

SciTech Connect

Procedures used at the Pepeekeo Sugar Factory in Hawaii for producing commercial sugar, molasses and bagasse from harvested sugar cane are described. The molasses is marketed, the sugar is refined elsewhere, and the bagasse is burned to produce steam and electric power for the Pepeekeo plant. (LCL)

Not Available

1980-01-01

3

7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.305 Section 1435... LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.305 State cane sugar...

2010-01-01

4

7 CFR 1435.306 - State cane sugar allotments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.306 Section 1435... LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.306 State cane sugar...

2009-01-01

5

Improved molecular tools for sugar cane biotechnology.  

PubMed

Sugar cane is a major source of food and fuel worldwide. Biotechnology has the potential to improve economically-important traits in sugar cane as well as diversify sugar cane beyond traditional applications such as sucrose production. High levels of transgene expression are key to the success of improving crops through biotechnology. Here we describe new molecular tools that both expand and improve gene expression capabilities in sugar cane. We have identified promoters that can be used to drive high levels of gene expression in the leaf and stem of transgenic sugar cane. One of these promoters, derived from the Cestrum yellow leaf curling virus, drives levels of constitutive transgene expression that are significantly higher than those achieved by the historical benchmark maize polyubiquitin-1 (Zm-Ubi1) promoter. A second promoter, the maize phosphonenolpyruvate carboxylate promoter, was found to be a strong, leaf-preferred promoter that enables levels of expression comparable to Zm-Ubi1 in this organ. Transgene expression was increased approximately 50-fold by gene modification, which included optimising the codon usage of the coding sequence to better suit sugar cane. We also describe a novel dual transcriptional enhancer that increased gene expression from different promoters, boosting expression from Zm-Ubi1 over eightfold. These molecular tools will be extremely valuable for the improvement of sugar cane through biotechnology. PMID:24150836

Kinkema, Mark; Geijskes, Jason; Delucca, Paulo; Palupe, Anthony; Shand, Kylie; Coleman, Heather D; Brinin, Anthony; Williams, Brett; Sainz, Manuel; Dale, James L

2014-03-01

6

21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar... Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar...mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and...

2013-04-01

7

A Fluorescence Spectroscopic Study of Honey and Cane Sugar Syrup  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorescence spectroscopic properties of honey and cane sugar syrup were investigated in order to explore the use of optical techniques for detection of adulteration of honey with cane sugar syrup. Measurements showed that while the major contributor to the fluorescence of cane sugar syrup is the reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, the fluorescence of honey is dominated by flavins.

N. GHOSH; Y. VERMA; S. K. MAJUMDER; P. K. GUPTA

2005-01-01

8

Sugar markers in aerosol particles from an agro-industrial region in Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work aimed to better understand how aerosol particles from sugar cane burning contribute to the chemical composition of the lower troposphere in an agro-industrial region of São Paulo State (Brazil) affected by sugar and ethanol fuel production. During a period of 21 months, we collected 105 samples and quantified 20 saccharides by GC–MS. The average concentrations of levoglucosan (L), mannosan (M), and galactosan (G) for 24-h sampling were 116, 16, and 11 ng m?3 respectively. The three anhydrosugars had higher and more variable concentrations in the nighttime and during the sugar cane harvest period, due to more intense biomass burning practices. The calculated L/M ratio, which may serve as a signature for sugar cane smoke particles, was 9 ± 5. Although the total concentrations of the anhydrosugars varied greatly among samples, the relative mass size distributions of the saccharides were reasonably constant. Emissions due to biomass burning were estimated to correspond to 69% (mass) of the sugars quantified in the harvest samples, whereas biogenic emissions corresponded to 10%. In the non-harvest period, these values were 44 and 27%, respectively, indicating that biomass burning is an important source of aerosol to the regional atmosphere during the whole year.

Urban, R. C.; Alves, C. A.; Allen, A. G.; Cardoso, A. A.; Queiroz, M. E. C.; Campos, M. L. A. M.

2014-06-01

9

Sugar cane. Positive energy source for alcohol  

SciTech Connect

Sugar cane stands out as a renewable resource for fuel alcohol production, thanks to its unique, highly positive energy balance. It supplies its own processing fuel, bagasse. Net liquid fuel usage is only that consumed on the farm, amounting to a maximum of 0.3 volume per volume of ethanol produced. In some locations, the net liquid fuel consumption of the farm is as low as 0.12 volume/volume produced. This small debit may be offset by generating electric power and by foreseeable processing improvements. In view of the very favorable fuel balance for sugar cane, a decision to employ it as a renewable source of ethanol depends wholly on economic and political factors, which in turn are highly location-dependent.

Polack, J.A.; Birkett, H.S.; West, M.D.

1981-06-01

10

Composition of sugar cane, energy cane, and sweet sorghum suitable for ethanol production at Louisiana sugar mills.  

PubMed

A challenge facing the biofuel industry is to develop an economically viable and sustainable biorefinery. The existing potential biorefineries in Louisiana, raw sugar mills, operate only 3 months of the year. For year-round operation, they must adopt other feedstocks, besides sugar cane, as supplemental feedstocks. Energy cane and sweet sorghum have different harvest times, but can be processed for bio-ethanol using the same equipment. Juice of energy cane contains 9.8% fermentable sugars and that of sweet sorghum, 11.8%. Chemical composition of sugar cane bagasse was determined to be 42% cellulose, 25% hemicellulose, and 20% lignin, and that of energy cane was 43% cellulose, 24% hemicellulose, and 22% lignin. Sweet sorghum was 45% cellulose, 27% hemicellulose, and 21% lignin. Theoretical ethanol yields would be 3,609 kg per ha from sugar cane, 12,938 kg per ha from energy cane, and 5,804 kg per ha from sweet sorghum. PMID:20803247

Kim, Misook; Day, Donal F

2011-07-01

11

75 FR 22095 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Secretary USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota AGENCY: Office of the...today announced a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic cane sugar allotments of...

2010-04-27

12

76 FR 20305 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw Sugar Tariff...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Secretary USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota AGENCY: Office of the...today announced a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic cane sugar allotments of...

2011-04-12

13

75 FR 38764 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Secretary USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota AGENCY: Office of the...today announced a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic cane sugar allotments of...

2010-07-06

14

Kinetic study of the acid hydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic interest in xylitol production can be enhanced if the needed xylose solutions can be obtained from the hydrolysis of low-cost lignocellulosic wastes. Sugar cane bagasse is a renewable, cheap and widely available waste in tropical countries. The hydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse to obtain xylose solutions has a double consequence, the elimination of a waste and the generation of

R Aguilar; J. A Ram??rez; G Garrote; M Vázquez

2002-01-01

15

Maximizing the xylitol production from sugar cane bagasse hydrolysate by controlling the aeration rate  

SciTech Connect

Batch fermentations of sugar cane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate treated for removing the inhibitors of the fermentation were performed by Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 for xylitol production. The fermentative parameters agitation and aeration rate were studied aiming the maximization of xylitol production from this agroindustrial residue. The maximal xylitol volumetric productivity (0.87 g/L {center_dot} h) and yield (0.67 g/g) were attained at 400/min and 0.45 v.v.m. (K{sub L}a 27/h). According to the results, a suitable control of the oxygen input permitting the xylitol formation from sugar cane bagasse hydrolysate is required for the development of an efficient fermentation process for large-scale applications. 20 refs., 2 figs.

Silva, S.S.; Ribeiro, J.D.; Felipe, M.G.A. [Faculty of Chemical Enginering of Lorena (Brazil); Vitolo, M. [Univ. of Sao Paulo (Brazil)

1997-12-31

16

Insights to the clarification of sugar cane juice expressed from sugar cane stalk and trash.  

PubMed

Processing of juice expressed from green sugar cane containing all the trash (i.e., tops and leaves, the nonstalk component) of the sugar cane plant during sugar manufacture has been reported to lead to poor clarified juice (CJ) quality. Studies of different liming techniques have been conducted to identify which liming technique gives the best clarification performance from juice expressed from green cane containing half of all trash extracted (GE). Results have shown that lime saccharate addition to juice at 76 °C either continuous or batchwise gives satisfactory settling rates of calcium phosphate flocs (50-70 cm/min) and CJ with low turbidity and minimal amounts of mineral constituents. Surprisingly, the addition of phosphoric acid (? 300 mg/kg as P?O?), prior to liming to reduce juice turbidity (? 80%), increased the Mg (? 101%) and Si (? 148%) contents particularly for clarified GE juices. The increase was not proportional with increasing phosphoric acid dose. The nature of the flocs formed, including the zeta potential of the particles by the different liming techniques, has been used to account for the differences in clarification performance. Differences between the qualities of the CJ obtained with GE juice and that of burnt cane juices with all trash extracted (BE) have been discussed to provide further insights into GE processing. PMID:22364593

Thai, C C D; Bakir, H; Doherty, W O S

2012-03-21

17

21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section...controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills may be safely used...

2009-04-01

18

21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section...controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills may be safely used...

2010-01-01

19

76 FR 36512 - USDA Increases the Domestic Sugar Overall Allotment Quantity, Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary USDA Increases the Domestic Sugar Overall Allotment Quantity, Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments, and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota AGENCY: Office of the Secretary,...

2011-06-22

20

40 CFR 409.50 - Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...true Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory...SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Florida and Texas Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory...50 Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing...

2010-07-01

21

40 CFR 409.50 - Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory...SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Florida and Texas Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory...50 Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing...

2009-07-01

22

Seasonal hydroclimatic impacts of Brazilian sugar cane expansion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brazil is the leading producer of sugar cane in the world with roughly half used for ethanol production. Because of suitable climatic growing conditions, the majority of biofuel production is derived from sugar plantations in southeastern states. Anticipated increases in global demand for biofuels are expected to lead to future sugar cane expansion extending into Brazilian pasturelands and native cerrado. Prior to undergoing large-scale expansion an evaluation of impacts on the region's hydroclimate is warranted. Using a suite of multi-year ensemble-based simulations with the WRF modeling system, we quantify hydroclimatic consequences of sugar cane expansion across portions of south-central Brazil. Conversion from current land use to sugar cane causes opposing seasonal impacts on near-surface temperature. Proggresively greater cooling is simulated during the course of the growing season, followed by an abrupt warming shift post-harvest. Although seasonal impacts on near-surface temperature are significant, with cooling of 1C occurring during the peak of the growing season followed by warming of similar magnitude, impacts are small when annually averaged. Ensemble mean differences between the imposed sugar cane expansion and non-expansion scenario are suggestive of a drying precipitation trend, yet large uncertainty among individual members precludes definitive statements about impacts on the region's rainfall.

Georgescu, M.; Lobell, D. B.; Field, C. B.; Mahalov, A.

2012-12-01

23

Process Integration of Bioethanol from Sugar Cane and Hydrogen Production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study several alternatives for process integration of bioethanol from sugar cane and hydrogen production were evaluated. Bioethanol was produced above all in the fermentation of sweetened juice from sugar cane, stillage was removed. Stillage and bagasse are the process byproducts. The bioethanol steam reforming is an endothermic catalytic process when vaporized ethanol and steam are fed using a 1:6 molar ratio to reformer with a Ni-catalyst at atmospheric pressure and 350xC. Taking into account the processes properties mentioned above, it is possible to integrate the bioethanol production from sugar cane and its reforming by using byproducts like bagasse and stillage and to produce energy for steam reforming and bioethanol solution concentration by direct firing (for bagasse) or anaerobic digestion to get methane (for stillage).

Hernandez, L.; Kafarov, V.

24

Clarification properties of trash and stalk tissues from sugar cane.  

PubMed

The effect of the U.S. and worldwide change from burnt to unburnt (green) sugar cane harvesting on processing and the use of sugar cane leaves and tops as a biomass source has not been fully characterized. Sugar cane whole-stalks were harvested from the first ratoon (repeat) crop of five commercial, Louisiana sugar cane varieties (LCP 85-384, HoCP 96-540, L 97-128, L 99-226, and L 99-233). Replicated sample tissues of brown, dry leaves (BL), green leaves (GL), growing point region (GPR), and stalk (S) were separated. Composite juice from each tissue type was clarified following a hot lime clarification process operated by most U.S. factories. Only GPR and GL juices foamed on heating and followed the normal settling behavior of factory sugar cane juice, although GL was markedly slower than GPR. GPR juice aided settling. S juice tended to thin out rather than follow normal settling and exhibited the most unwanted upward motion of flocs. Most varietal variation in settling, mud, and clarified juice (CJ) characteristics occurred for GL. The quality rather than the quantity of impurities in the different tissues mostly affected the volume of mud produced: After 30 min of settling, mud volume per unit tissue juice degrees Brix (% dissolved solids) varied markedly among the tissues (S 1.09, BL 11.3, GPR 3.0, and GL 3.1 mL/degrees Brix). Heat transfer properties of tissue juices and CJs are described. Clarification was unable to remove all BL cellulosic particles. GL and BL increased color, turbidity, and suspended particles in CJs with BL worse than GL. This will make the future attainment of very high pol (VHP) raw sugar in the U.S. more difficult. Although optimization of factory unit processes will alleviate extra trash problems, economical strategies to reduce the amount of green and brown leaves processed need to be identified and implemented. PMID:19994855

Eggleston, Gillian; Grisham, Michael; Antoine, April

2010-01-13

25

Potential for generation of public electricity in cane sugar factories  

SciTech Connect

Sugar cane is the most efficient crop for the conversion of solar energy into biomass. The possibility of conservation of energy in cane sugar producing countries by substituting bagasse for imported oil, was studied in Guyana, South America and financed by the World Bank. The concept of cogeneration was considered, where the heat energy generated by burning bagasse of high fiber content is converted into steam and used both for electricity generation and generation of internal power. Several methods of achieving energy efficiency in this process were discussed such as efficient generation and use of the steam by using high pressure boilers, drying and pelletization of bagasse, and using sugar cane trash as fuel. About 40% of the bagasse could be available for the generation of electric energy. A method for evaluation of the power potential showed that the quantity of public electricity produced, depended on certain important process parameters, fiber content, steam conditions and process steam. The cost effectiveness of the project increases with increasing fiber content in the sugar cane.

Torisson, T.

1984-04-01

26

7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.  

...e) Past marketings and past processings will each be weighted by 0.25 and the ability to market will be weighted by 0.50 in determining the States' respective cane sugar allotments. The weights may be adjusted, as CCC deems...

2014-01-01

27

Test results from sugar cane bagasse and high fiber cane co-fired with fossil fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cofiring tests were conducted in a boiler at the Hawaiian Commercial & Sugar factory at Puunene, Hawaii. Three tests were conducted; a baseline test firing coal and fuel oil (Test 1) and two cofiring tests utilizing coal, fuel oil, and biomass. In the latter two tests, bagasse (Test 2) and a blend of bagasse and fiber cane (Test 3) were

Scott Q. Turn; Bryan M. Jenkins; Lee A. Jakeway; Linda G. Blevins; Robert B. Williams; Gary Rubenstein; Charles M. Kinoshita

2006-01-01

28

75 FR 50796 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION:...

2010-08-17

29

75 FR 53013 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-containing Products; Revision AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative....

2010-08-30

30

77 FR 57180 - Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...OFFICE OF THE TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION:...

2012-09-17

31

76 FR 50285 - Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION:...

2011-08-12

32

Replacing dried fish with fresh water spinach for growing pigs fed whole sugar cane stalks or cane juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experiment was conducted at CelAgrid (UTA, Cambodia), located in Kandal province. Whole sugar cane stalk and sugar cane juice were used as the sources of energy, and the protein source was the level of dry fish to provide 50, 100, 150 or 200 g protein per day. Fresh water spinach was chopped and fed ad libitum on the diets

Sorn Suheang; T R Preston

33

[New technologies and workers' health: mechanization of sugar cane harvesting].  

PubMed

In the context of reorganization of production in the sugar and alcohol industry, mechanization of sugar cane harvesting has been justified as a protective measure for the environment and workers. This article focuses on the consequences of organization of work in mechanization of sugar cane harvesting with regard to the harvester operators' health. Based on data gathered through interviews and direct observation at the workplace, changes implemented in the technological base and division of labor and organization were analyzed, identifying the work load inherent to the process and how it affects workers' health. While harvesters help decrease the physical, chemical, and mechanical work load, they increase the physiological and psychological work load. There is evidence of significant change in the pattern of work-related accidents, entailing a decrease in their frequency and increase in severity. The pattern of illness among harvester operators is similar to that of manual sugar cane cutters, with a highlight on psychosomatic illness related to the organization of work in shifts and increased tempo due to use of machinery. PMID:10203455

Scopinho, R A; Eid, F; Vian, C E; Silva, P R

1999-01-01

34

Synthesis and characterization of methylcellulose from sugar cane bagasse cellulose  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present paper, methylcellulose was produced from cellulose extracted of sugar cane bagasse, using dimethyl sulfate in heterogeneous conditions. The infrared spectra of the cellulose and of the methylcellulose present significant differences at the regions from 3600 to 2700cm?1 and from 1500 to 800cm?1. The ratio between the absorption intensities of the OH stretching band (?3400cm?1) and the CH

Rose G. P. Viera; Guimes Rodrigues Filho; Rosana M. N. de Assunção; Carla da S. Meireles; Júlia G. Vieira; Grasielle S. de Oliveira

2007-01-01

35

Sugar-cane newsprint comes to market  

SciTech Connect

Process Evaluation and Development Corp. (Peadco of Mexico City) are making commercially available a process that will for the first time produce fine-grade newsprint from bagasse with the required tear-strength and opaqueness. Various countries are showing an interest in the process, which produces newsprint 20% more cheaply than wood-pulp newsprint. In addition, sugar producers receive as much as $1.50 per ton more than the fuel-oil value of bagasse.

Not Available

1982-06-09

36

Anaerobic digestion of solid wastes of cane sugar industry  

SciTech Connect

The cane sugar manufacturing industry generates large quantities of lignocellulosic solid wastes, namely bagasse and cachaza. Bagasse is the fibrous residue of the cane after extracting the juice. Cachaza is the filter cake of the precipitated insoluble sugars. This research investigates the feasibility of anaerobic digestion of a mixture of bagasse and cachaza to produce methane. Two rations of bagasse-cachaza mix as substrates were investigated. The first one was 8:1 which represents the average ratio of bagasse and cachaza produced in a raw sugar mill. The second ratio investigated was 2.4:1 which represents the proportion of bagasse and cachaza wastes after 70% of the bagasse is burned in sugar mill boilers. An acclimated microbial culture for this substrate was developed. Organic Loading-Detention Time relationships were established for an optimum system. Pre-treatment techniques of the substrate were investigated as a means of enhancing the digestibility of the cellulosic substrate. Recirculation of the filtrate was evaluated as a method for increasing solids retention time without increasing hydraulic detention time. The kinetics of the digestion process for bagasse-cachaza mixed substrate was investigated and growth constants were determined. The bionutritional characteristics of the substrate used for the digestion were evaluated. Based on the results obtained, mass balances and preliminary economic analysis of the digestion system were developed.

Dasgupta, A.

1983-01-01

37

78 FR 57445 - Fiscal Year 2014 WTO Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...for imported raw cane sugar, refined sugar (syrups and molasses), specialty sugar, and sugar-containing products. DATES...for imports of raw cane sugar and refined sugar (syrups and molasses). Pursuant to Additional U.S. Note 8 to Chapter 17...

2013-09-18

38

Fractionation of sugar cane with hot, compressed, liquid water  

SciTech Connect

Sugar-cane bagasse and leaves (10--15 g oven-dry basis) were fractionated without size reduction by a rapid (45 s to 4 min), immersed percolation using only hot (190--230 C), compressed (P > P{sub sat}), liquid water (0.6--1.2 kg). Over 50% of the biomass could be solubilized. All of the hemicellulose, together with much of the acid-insoluble lignin in the bagasse (>60%), was solubilized, while less than 10% of the cellulose entered the liquid phase. Moreover, recovery of the hemicellulose as monomeric sugars (after a mild posthydrolysis) exceeded 80%. Less than 5% of the hemicellulose was converted to furfural. Percolation beyond that needed to immerse the biomass in hot liquid water did not result in increased solubilization. The yield of lignocellulosic residue was also not sensitive to the form of the sugar cane used (bagasse or leaves) or its moisture content (8--50%). Commercial applications for this fractionation process include the pretreatment of lignocellulosics for bioconversion to ethanol and the production of pulp and paper products.

Allen, S.G.; Kam, L.C.; Zemann, A.J.; Antal, M.J. Jr. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)] [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

1996-08-01

39

Sugar cane bagasse: an alternative fuel in the Brazilian citrus industry  

SciTech Connect

This article will briefly discuss the production of sugar cane bagasse and advantages for using it as an alternative fuel. In particular, this article will focus on how Citrosuco Paulista, (a multi-plant producer of citrus concentrates), modified its existing boilers and dryers to accommodate the new sugar cane bagasse fuel.

Guerra, J.L.; Steger, E.

1988-05-01

40

Determination of sugar cane herbicides in soil and soil treated with sugar cane vinasse by solid-phase extraction and HPLC-UV  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work reports on the development and validation of a small-scale and efficient SPE-HPLC-UV method for the simultaneous determination of the most used herbicides (diuron, hexazinone, and tebuthiuron) applied to soil and soil treated with sugar cane vinasse (soil-vinasse) in areas where sugar cane crops are grown in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The analytical procedure was optimized for

Carolina Lourencetti; Mary Rosa Rodrigues de Marchi; Maria Lúcia Ribeiro

2008-01-01

41

Antiatherosclerotic function of Kokuto, Okinawan noncentrifugal cane sugar.  

PubMed

In the present study, we investigated the effect of phenolic compounds (PCs) and policosanol of Kokuto, Okinawan noncentrifugal cane sugar, on the development of atherosclerosis. A total of 67 male Japanese quail were divided into eight dietary groups in trial 1. The dietary groups were fed the atherosclerotic diet (AD) containing 5% corn oil, 2% cholesterol, and 30% sucrose or seven different types of Kokuto. Dietary intakes of Kokuto notably prevented the development of atherosclerosis. Furthermore, there was a significant negative correlation between the serum radical scavenging activity and the degree of atherosclerosis in the dietary groups. In trial 2, a total of 63 Japanese quail were fed AD with sucrose, Kokuto, PC extracts from Kokuto, wax extracts from sugar cane, octacosanol, vitamin C, and vitamin E. As a result, the supplementation of the diet with Kokuto and PCs significantly reduced the development of atherosclerosis as compared with the ingestion of AD with sucrose. In conclusion, these findings suggest that, among various components of Kokuto, PCs play a central role for the prevention of experimental atherosclerosis in Japanese quail. PMID:19072226

Okabe, Takafumi; Toda, Takayoshi; Inafuku, Masashi; Wada, Koji; Iwasaki, Hironori; Oku, Hirosuke

2009-01-14

42

76 FR 21418 - Fiscal Year 2011 Allocation of Additional Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar and Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade...tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar and of country-by-country...

2011-04-15

43

75 FR 26316 - Allocation of Additional Fiscal Year (FY) 2010 In-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FY) 2010 In-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade...tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar. DATES: Effective Date: May 11, 2010...TRQs for imports of raw cane and refined sugar. Section 404(d)(3) of the...

2010-05-11

44

76 FR 42160 - Allocation of Additional Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 In-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FY) 2011 In-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade...tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar. USTR is also reallocating a portion of...TRQs for imports of raw cane and refined sugar. Section 404(d)(3) of the...

2011-07-18

45

75 FR 39612 - Allocation of Second Additional Fiscal Year (FY) 2010 In-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FY) 2010 In-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade...tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar. DATES: Effective Date: July 9, 2010...TRQs for imports of raw cane and refined sugar. Section 404(d) (3) of the...

2010-07-09

46

77 FR 25012 - Fiscal Year 2012 Allocation of Additional Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar and Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade...tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar and of country-by-country...

2012-04-26

47

75 FR 14479 - Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2010 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade...tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar. DATES: Effective Date: March 25, 2010...TRQs for imports of raw cane and refined sugar. Section 404(d)(3) of the...

2010-03-25

48

Monitoring Freeze Injury and Evaluating Losingto Sugar-Cane Using RS and GPS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From Jan 12th to Feb 12th 2008, the most severity cold chilling and freeze injury weather took place during the last 50 years in the southern of China.Sugar-cane was suffered injury severity. However, the losing of sugar-cane which it was aroused by thisweather disaster had not been exactitude evaluated till on Apr 1st, 2008. It was not only affected the sugar-cane ordinary harvesting and crushing, but also affected reserving sugar-cane seed for planting. Freeze injury is common disaster for sugar-cane in southern of China and monitoring freeze injury using RS and GIS are of great economic significance but little research work about it has been done in China Freeze injuring is not only related to crop growth stage and the cold air intension from northern to southern and weather types, but also consanguineous related to land form and physiognomy and geographical latitude and height above sea level etc and crop planting spatial distribution. The case study of Guangxi province which is the biggest region of sugar-cane planting in China in this paper, the values of sugar-cane NDVI among the freeze injury occur former and after in early 2008 and without freeze injury occur in the same term 2007 were analyzed and compared based on the sugar-cane planting spatial distribution information which were carried out by using multi-phase EOS/MODIS data. The result showed that it was not only commendably reflected the spatial distribution of freeze injury but also reflected the sugarcane suffered from degree using the values of sugar-cane NDVIof freeze injury occur former and after. The field sample investigation data of using GPS was integrated with the NDVI, the evaluation of region sugar-cane suffer from freeze injury losing could quickly and exactly realize.

Tan, Zongkun; Ding, Meihua; Wang, Longhe; Yang, Xin; Ou, Zhaorong

49

The use of Lactobacillus species as starter cultures for enhancing the quality of sugar cane silage.  

PubMed

Sugar cane (Saccharum spp.) is a forage crop widely used in animal feed because of its high dry matter (DM) production (25 to 40t/ha) and high energy concentration. The ensiling of sugar cane often incurs problems with the growth of yeasts, which leads to high losses of DM throughout the fermentative process. The selection of specific inoculants for sugar cane silage can improve the quality of the silage. The present study aimed to select strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from sugar cane silage and to assess their effects when used as additives on the same type of silage. The LAB strains were inoculated into sugar cane broth to evaluate their production of metabolites. The selected strains produced higher concentrations of acetic and propionic acids and resulted in better silage characteristics, such as low yeast population, lower ethanol content, and lesser DM loss. These data confirmed that facultative heterofermentative strains are not good candidates for sugar cane silage inoculation and may even worsen the quality of the silage fermentation by increasing DM losses throughout the process. Lactobacillus hilgardii strains UFLA SIL51 and UFLA SIL52 resulted in silage with the best characteristics in relation to DM loss, low ethanol content, higher LAB population, and low butyric acid content. Strains UFLA SIL51 and SIL52 are recommended as starter cultures for sugar cane silage. PMID:24359831

Avila, C L S; Carvalho, B F; Pinto, J C; Duarte, W F; Schwan, R F

2014-02-01

50

Diets Based on Sugar Cane Treated with Calcium Oxide for Lambs  

PubMed Central

This experiment was conducted to evaluate the intake, nutrient apparent digestibility and the effect of total collection days (two and four days) on apparent digestibility estimates for lambs fed diets containing sugar cane treated with calcium oxide (CaO). Eight Santa Inês castrated male lambs with a 16.6±1.8 kg body weight were used. The lambs were distributed in two 4×4 Latin squares, with four experimental periods of 14 d each. The animals were kept in 1.2 m2 individual pens, and the intake and digestibility evaluations were performed during the last four days of each period. The diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous, containing 14% crude protein (CP), and presenting 70% sugar cane treated with 0, 0.75, 1.5 or 2.25% of CaO (as-fed basis), corrected with 1% urea, and 30% concentrate. The sugar cane with added CaO was chopped, treated, and offered to the animals after 24 h of storage. The sugar cane with CaO increased the DM, OM, CP, NDF, NDFap, TC, NFCap and TDN intake (kg/d), when compared to natural sugar cane, and produced the same intake expressed as a percentage of body weight (% BW). The NFCap digestibility of the CaO-treated sugar cane was inferior to the NFCap digestibility in natural sugar cane. There was a linear increase in the DM intake with the CaO-added sugar cane, but the DM and NDF digestibility and the TDN content decreased linearly. The chemical treatment of sugar cane with CaO increases the intake but does not improve the nutrient digestibility. Two days of total fecal collection were found to be sufficient to estimate the total apparent digestibility in lambs.

Carvalho, G. G. P.; Garcia, R.; Pires, A. J. V.; Silva, R. R.; Detmann, E.; Filho, A. Eustaquio; Ribeiro, L. S. O.; Carvalho, L. M.

2013-01-01

51

Chemistry based on renewable raw materials: perspectives for a sugar cane-based biorefinery.  

PubMed

Carbohydrates are nowadays a very competitive feedstock for the chemical industry because their availability is compatible with world-scale chemical production and their price, based on the carbon content, is comparable to that of petrochemicals. At the same time, demand is rising for biobased products. Brazilian sugar cane is a competitive feedstock source that is opening the door to a wide range of bio-based products. This essay begins with the importance of the feedstock for the chemical industry and discusses developments in sugar cane processing that lead to low cost feedstocks. Thus, sugar cane enables a new chemical industry, as it delivers a competitive raw material and a source of energy. As a result, sugar mills are being transformed into sustainable biorefineries that fully exploit the potential of sugar cane. PMID:21637329

Villela Filho, Murillo; Araujo, Carlos; Bonfá, Alfredo; Porto, Weber

2011-01-01

52

Chemistry Based on Renewable Raw Materials: Perspectives for a Sugar Cane-Based Biorefinery  

PubMed Central

Carbohydrates are nowadays a very competitive feedstock for the chemical industry because their availability is compatible with world-scale chemical production and their price, based on the carbon content, is comparable to that of petrochemicals. At the same time, demand is rising for biobased products. Brazilian sugar cane is a competitive feedstock source that is opening the door to a wide range of bio-based products. This essay begins with the importance of the feedstock for the chemical industry and discusses developments in sugar cane processing that lead to low cost feedstocks. Thus, sugar cane enables a new chemical industry, as it delivers a competitive raw material and a source of energy. As a result, sugar mills are being transformed into sustainable biorefineries that fully exploit the potential of sugar cane.

Villela Filho, Murillo; Araujo, Carlos; Bonfa, Alfredo; Porto, Weber

2011-01-01

53

Industrial-hygiene survey report, worker exposures during sugar cane harvesting, Florida Sugar Cane League, Clewiston, Florida  

SciTech Connect

Literature dealing with commercially important plant species that contain amorphous silica was reviewed. Specifically, results were presented of a field survey of sugar cane field workers in Florida. Determinations were made of the airborne concentration of amorphous silica fibers to which these workers were exposed. The airborne fibers ranged in size from 3.5 to 65 micrometers long with an average diameter of 0.6 micrometers. The concentration of these fibers in the air was as high as 300,000 fibers per cubic meter during cane-cutting activities. Polyaromatic hydrocarbon concentrations were detected in the burnt leaf, but the concentrations in air were well below the limit of detection. The author recommends that comprehensive monitoring be considered for exposure to biogenic fibers among field workers, as well as refinery workers. The author also suggests that exposure to biogenic silicates in other industries which involve processing of agricultural commodities should be investigated. Solubility and persistence of these particular fibers in biological fluids should be considered.

Boeniger, M.

1986-12-01

54

Ethanol Production from Sugar Cane: Assessing the Possibilities of Improving Energy Efficiency through Exergetic Cost Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sugar and ethanol production is one of the most important economical activities in Brazil, mainly due its high efficiency and competitiveness. Ethanol production is done by a series of steps: juice extraction, treatment, fermentation, and distillation. The juice extraction and treatment is a common operation of both the sugar and ethanol industries. The process begins with the sugar cane

Marcelo Modesto; Roger J. Zemp; Sílvia A. Nebra

2009-01-01

55

Production and Evaluation of Sugar Cane Fiber Geotextiles. Report 2. Field Testing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Prior research involved the production and laboratory testing of sugar cane fiber geotextiles for soil erosion control. Comparative preliminary studies were conducted on test slopes to determine slope stability, in horticulture plots to determine grass pr...

J. R. Collier B. J. Collier J. L. Thames M. M. ElSunni

1997-01-01

56

Soil temperature in a sugar-cane crop as a function of the management system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air and soil temperatures are, by far, the most important state variables of agroecosystems. In the case of sugar-cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) they affect plant development, maturation and a series of biological and physical-chemical soil processes. This paper presents a comparative study of three management practices, applied to the first ratoon of a sugar-cane crop established on a Rhodic Kandiudox

J. C. M. Oliveira; L. C. Timm; T. T. Tominaga; F. A. M. Cássaro; K. Reichardt; O. O. S. Bacchi; D. Dourado-Neto; G. M. de S. Câmara

2001-01-01

57

Diffusion of moisture in drying of sugar cane fibers and bundles  

SciTech Connect

Sugar cane fibers and arrangements of fibers in cylindrical bundles were dried in a thermoanalyzer and their diffusive coefficients were calculated using the slope method. The effect of temperature, moisture content as well as structural changes were analyzed. Diffusion coefficients changed nonlinearly with moisture content and followed an Arrhenius-like functionality with temperature. The analysis of these effects suggested a liquid diffusion transport mechanism of moisture transfer inside sugar cane fibers and bundles.

Rodriguez-Ramirez, J.; Quintana-Hernandez, P.A.; Mendez-Lagunas, L.; Martinez-Gonzalez, G.; Gonzalez-Alatorre, G.

2000-05-01

58

Exploiting Pulsed Flows for Heating Improvement: Application to Determination of Total Reducing Sugars in Molasses and SugarCane Juices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laminar and pulsed flows typical of multi-commuted and multi-pumping flow systems, were evaluated in rela- tion to analytical procedures carried out at high temperatures. As application, the spectrophotometric determination of to- tal reducing sugars (TRS, hydrolyzed sucrose plus reducing sugars) in sugar-cane juice and molasses was selected. The method involves in-line hydrolysis of sucrose and alkaline degradation of the reducing

Evandro R. Alves; Mario A. Feres; Elias A. G. Zagatto; Jose L. F. C. Lima

2009-01-01

59

Accumulation of recombinant cellobiohydrolase and endoglucanase in the leaves of mature transgenic sugar cane.  

PubMed

A major strategic goal in making ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass a cost-competitive liquid transport fuel is to reduce the cost of production of cellulolytic enzymes that hydrolyse lignocellulosic substrates to fermentable sugars. Current production systems for these enzymes, namely microbes, are not economic. One way to substantially reduce production costs is to express cellulolytic enzymes in plants at levels that are high enough to hydrolyse lignocellulosic biomass. Sugar cane fibre (bagasse) is the most promising lignocellulosic feedstock for conversion to ethanol in the tropics and subtropics. Cellulolytic enzyme production in sugar cane will have a substantial impact on the economics of lignocellulosic ethanol production from bagasse. We therefore generated transgenic sugar cane accumulating three cellulolytic enzymes, fungal cellobiohydrolase I (CBH I), CBH II and bacterial endoglucanase (EG), in leaves using the maize PepC promoter as an alternative to maize Ubi1 for controlling transgene expression. Different subcellular targeting signals were shown to have a substantial impact on the accumulation of these enzymes; the CBHs and EG accumulated to higher levels when fused to a vacuolar-sorting determinant than to an endoplasmic reticulum-retention signal, while EG was produced in the largest amounts when fused to a chloroplast-targeting signal. These results are the first demonstration of the expression and accumulation of recombinant CBH I, CBH II and EG in sugar cane and represent a significant first step towards the optimization of cellulolytic enzyme expression in sugar cane for the economic production of lignocellulosic ethanol. PMID:21356003

Harrison, Mark D; Geijskes, Jason; Coleman, Heather D; Shand, Kylie; Kinkema, Mark; Palupe, Anthony; Hassall, Rachael; Sainz, Manuel; Lloyd, Robyn; Miles, Stacy; Dale, James L

2011-10-01

60

Biological nitrogen fixation in sugar cane: A key to energetically viable biofuel production  

SciTech Connect

The advantages of producing biofuels to replace fossil energy sources are derived from the fact that the energy accumulated in the biomass in captured directly from photosynthesis and is thus renewable, and that the cycle of carbon dioxide fixation by the crop, followed by burning of the fuel makes no overall contribution to atmospheric CO{sub 2} or, consequently, to global warming. However, these advantages are negated if large quantities of fossil fuels need to be used to grow or process the biofuel crop. In this regard, the Brazilian bioethanol program, based on the fermentation/distillation of sugar cane juice, is particularly favorable, not only because the crop is principally hand harvested, but also because of the low nitrogen fertilizer use on sugar cane in Brazil. Recent {sup 15}N and N balance studies have shown that in some Brazilian cane varieties, high yields are possible without N fertilization because the plants are able to obtain large contributions of nitrogen from plant-associated biological N{sub 2} fixation (BNF). The N{sub 2}-fixing acid-tolerant bacterium Acetobacter diazotrophicus was first found to occur within roots, stems, and leaves of sugar cane. Subsequently, two species of Herbaspirillum also have been found to occur within the interior of all sugar cane tissues. The discovery of these, and other N{sub 2}-fixing bacteria that survive poorly in soil but thrive within plant tissue (endophytic bacteria), may account for the high BNF contributions observed in sugar cane. Further study of this system should allow the gradual elimination of N fertilizer use on sugar cane, at least in Brazil, and opens up the possibility of the extension of this efficient N{sub 2}-fixing system to cereal and other crops with consequent immense potential benefits to tropical agriculture. 44 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

Boddey, R.M. [Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Agrobiologia, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

1995-05-01

61

Pretreatment of sugar cane bagasse hemicellulose hydrolyzate for ethanol production by yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugar cane bagasse hemicellulose hydrolyzate was prepared by dilute sulfuric acid (3% w\\/v) hydrolysis with a high-solid, low-liquid\\u000a ratio followed by leaching. The hydrolyzate contains 11% (w\\/v) of fermentable sugars with xylose as the major component, which\\u000a comprises up to 75% of the total reducing sugars. The neutralized hydrolyzate exhibited strong inhibition toward cell growth\\u000a and ethanol production by yeasts.

C. S. Gong; C. S. Chen; L. F. Chen

1993-01-01

62

Study of the hydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse using phosphoric acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work, samples of sugar cane bagasse were hydrolysed with phosphoric acid under mild conditions (H3PO4 2–6%, time 0–300min and 122°C) to study the feasibility of using the liquid phase as fermentation media. Solid yield, sugar concentrations and decomposition product concentrations were measured. The composition of hydrolysates, their purity and the ratio sugars\\/inhibitors were analyzed. Kinetic models were

Sara Gámez; Juan Jose González-Cabriales; José Alberto Ramírez; Gil Garrote; Manuel Vázquez

2006-01-01

63

Chemometric Characterization of Alembic and Industrial Sugar Cane Spirits from Cape Verde and Cear?, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Sugar cane spirits are some of the most popular alcoholic beverages consumed in Cape Verde. The sugar cane spirit industry in Cape Verde is based mainly on archaic practices that operate without supervision and without efficient control of the production process. The objective of this work was to evaluate samples of industrial and alembic sugar cane spirits from Cape Verde and Ceará, Brazil using principal component analysis. Thirty-two samples of spirits were analyzed, twenty from regions of the islands of Cape Verde and twelve from Ceará, Brazil. Of the samples obtained from Ceará, Brazil seven are alembic and five are industrial spirits. The components analyzed in these studies included the following: volatile organic compounds (n-propanol, isobutanol, isoamylic, higher alcohols, alcoholic grade, acetaldehyde, acetic acid, acetate); copper; and sulfates.

Pereira, Regina F. R.; Vidal, Carla B.; de Lima, Ari C. A.; Melo, Diego Q.; Dantas, Allan N. S.; Lopes, Gisele S.; do Nascimento, Ronaldo F.; Gomes, Clerton L.; da Silva, Maria Nataniela

2012-01-01

64

Design and Installation of Irrigation System for the Expansion of Sugar cane- Industries in Ahvaz, IRAN.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents achievements of a twelve years ongoing project expansion of sugar cane- industries as a major agricultural development in Ahvaz, IRAN. The entire project is divided in to seven units and each unit provides irrigation water for 30,000 acres of sugar cane farms in Ahwaz. Absou Inc. is one of the consulting firms that is in charge of design and overseeing installation of irrigation system as well as the development of lands for sugar-cane cultivation at one of the units, called Farabi unit .In general, the mission of project is to Pump fresh water from Karoon River and direct it to the sugar cane farm for irrigation. In particular, the task of design and installation include, (1) build a pumping station at Karoon River with capacity of 1271 ft3/sec, (2) transfer water by main channel from Karoon rive to the farm site 19 miles (3) install a secondary pumping stations which direct water from main channel to drainage pipes and provides water for local farms (4) build a secondary channels which carries water with pipe lines with total length of 42 miles and diameter of 16 to 32 inch. (5) install drainage pump stations and collectors (6) level the ground surface and prepare it for irrigation (7) build railroad for carrying sugar canes (23 miles). Thus far, more than 15,000 acres of farm in Farabi unit is under sugar cane cultivation. The presentation will illustrate more details about different aspects of the project including design, installation and construction phases.

Afshari, E.; Afshari, S.

2005-12-01

65

Dosimetric evaluation of sucrose and granulated cane sugar in the therapeutic dose range.  

PubMed

Granulated cane sugar has been used as a dosimetric material to report dose in high dose accidental irradiations. The purpose of this study was to assess whether clinical dosimetry is also plausible with such a commonly available material. The behavior of cane sugar was explored with respect to therapeutically relevant radiation quantities (dose, dose rate) and qualities (energy, radiation type) as well as under different temperature conditions. The stability of the signal postirradiation was also measured. Absorbed dose was measured by spectrophotometric readout of a ferrous ammonium sulfate xylenol orange (FX)-sugar solution in 10 cm path length cells. A visible color change was produced as a function of dose when the irradiated sugar samples were dissolved in FX solution (10% dilution by mass). A comparison of the optical absorbance spectra and dose response of cane sugar with analytical grade sucrose was done to establish a benchmark standard from which subsequent dosimetry measurements can be validated. The response of the sugar dosimeter read at 590 nm was found to be linear over the dose range of 100-2000 cGy, independent of energy (6-18 MV) and of the average dose rate (100-500 cGy/min). The readout of sugar samples irradiated with mixed photon and electron fields was also shown to be independent of radiation type (photons and electrons). Sugar temperature (20-40 degrees C) during irradiation did not affect dose estimates, making it a promising dosimeter for in vivo dosimetry, particularly in cases where the dosimeter must remain in contact with the patient for an extended period of time. Sugar can be used as an integrating dosimeter, since it exhibits no fractionation effects. Granulated cane sugar is cost effective, safe, soft tissue equivalent, and can be used under various experimental conditions, making it a suitable dosimeter for some radiotherapy applications. PMID:19472641

Davidson, Melanie T M; Jordan, Kevin J

2009-04-01

66

40 CFR 409.60 - Applicability; description of the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...description of the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar processing subcategory...CATEGORY Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory...description of the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar processing...

2013-07-01

67

Structural and physicochemical characteristics of starch from sugar cane and sweet sorghum stalks.  

PubMed

The starch present in sugar cane and sorghum juice has been considered a problem to the sugar industry. The objective of this work was to study the structural and physicochemical characteristics of the starch present in sugar cane and sweet sorghum. Sugar cane and sweet sorghum starches presented small granules (maximum 5.9 and 7.9?m), A-type diffraction pattern, high degree of relative crystallinity (44.4 and 42.0%), and low amylose content (17.5 and 16.4%), respectively. Sugar cane starch presented more uniformity in granule shape and size, more homogeneity in amylose chain length, higher number of long lateral chains of amylopectin, and higher susceptibility to enzymatic digestion. Besides being in higher amount in the juice, sweet sorghum starch presented lower values for thermal properties of gelatinization, as well as higher swelling factor, which can cause more problems during processing. Additional studies are needed to evaluate the variety and maturity influence on these properties. PMID:25037392

Alves, Fernanda Viginotti; Polesi, Luís Fernando; Aguiar, Cláudio Lima; Sarmento, Silene Bruder Silveira

2014-10-13

68

Firmicutes dominate the bacterial taxa within sugar-cane processing plants  

PubMed Central

Sugar cane processing sites are characterised by high sugar/hemicellulose levels, available moisture and warm conditions, and are relatively unexplored unique microbial environments. The PhyloChip microarray was used to investigate bacterial diversity and community composition in three Australian sugar cane processing plants. These ecosystems were highly complex and dominated by four main Phyla, Firmicutes (the most dominant), followed by Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Chloroflexi. Significant variation (p < 0.05) in community structure occurred between samples collected from ‘floor dump sediment’, ‘cooling tower water’, and ‘bagasse leachate’. Many bacterial Classes contributed to these differences, however most were of low numerical abundance. Separation in community composition was also linked to Classes of Firmicutes, particularly Bacillales, Lactobacillales and Clostridiales, whose dominance is likely to be linked to their physiology as ‘lactic acid bacteria’, capable of fermenting the sugars present. This process may help displace other bacterial taxa, providing a competitive advantage for Firmicutes bacteria.

Sharmin, Farhana; Wakelin, Steve; Huygens, Flavia; Hargreaves, Megan

2013-01-01

69

Firmicutes dominate the bacterial taxa within sugar-cane processing plants.  

PubMed

Sugar cane processing sites are characterised by high sugar/hemicellulose levels, available moisture and warm conditions, and are relatively unexplored unique microbial environments. The PhyloChip microarray was used to investigate bacterial diversity and community composition in three Australian sugar cane processing plants. These ecosystems were highly complex and dominated by four main Phyla, Firmicutes (the most dominant), followed by Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Chloroflexi. Significant variation (p < 0.05) in community structure occurred between samples collected from 'floor dump sediment', 'cooling tower water', and 'bagasse leachate'. Many bacterial Classes contributed to these differences, however most were of low numerical abundance. Separation in community composition was also linked to Classes of Firmicutes, particularly Bacillales, Lactobacillales and Clostridiales, whose dominance is likely to be linked to their physiology as 'lactic acid bacteria', capable of fermenting the sugars present. This process may help displace other bacterial taxa, providing a competitive advantage for Firmicutes bacteria. PMID:24177592

Sharmin, Farhana; Wakelin, Steve; Huygens, Flavia; Hargreaves, Megan

2013-01-01

70

Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic study of thermal degradation of sugar cane bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal degradation of sugar cane bagasse has been studied between 200 and 800 °C under a nitrogen gas flow. Different experimental parameters of the pyrolysis have been investigated, including holding temperature, time duration of pyrolysis, and heating rate. The solid residues obtained were then analyzed by classical elemental analysis and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy.The most important structure modifications appeared

Ketty Bilba; Alex Ouensanga

1996-01-01

71

Infection and Colonization of Sugar Cane and Other Graminaceous Plants by Endophytic Diazotrophs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agriculturally important grasses such as sugar cane (Saccharum sp.), rice (Oryza sativa), wheat (Triticum aestivum) sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), maize (Zea mays), Panicum maximum, Brachiaria spp., and Pennisetum purpureum contain numerous diazotrophic bacteria, such as, Acetobacter diazotrophicus, Herbaspirillum spp., Azospirillum spp. These bacteria do not usually cause disease symptoms in the plants with which they are associated and the more numerous

Euan K. James; Fábio L. Olivares

1998-01-01

72

Lack of effect of sugar cane policosanol on plasma cholesterol in Golden Syrian hamsters.  

PubMed

Policosanol is a mixture of higher aliphatic alcohols shown to have beneficial effects on plasma lipid levels in animals and humans. Over 50 studies have reported significant reductions in plasma cholesterol using policosanol obtained from Cuban sugar cane (Dalmer, La Havana, Cuba). However, other research groups using policosanol from alternative sources have failed to reproduce the efficacy of these alcohols observed in earlier studies. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to compare the cholesterol-lowering effect of the Dalmer sugar cane policosanol (SCP) product versus an alternative mixture of similar policosanol composition. Forty-eight male Golden Syrian hamsters were randomly assigned to four groups and fed experimental diets ad libitum for a period of 4 weeks: (i) non-cholesterol control, (ii) 0.1% cholesterol control, (iii) 0.1% cholesterol diet supplemented with 275 mg/kg diet of Dalmer Cuban sugar cane policosanol and (iv) 0.1% cholesterol diet supplemented with 275 mg/kg diet of alternative sugar cane policosanol. Hamsters were sacrificed and blood was collected at the end of the feeding period. Body weights and food intakes were similar across study groups. Neither of the two policosanol treatments had any significant effect on plasma lipid levels, as compared to cholesterol control. The outcome of the present study questions the clinical usefulness of policosanol mixtures as cholesterol-lowering nutraceuticals. PMID:17123537

Kassis, Amira N; Marinangeli, Christopher P F; Jain, Deepak; Ebine, Naoyuki; Jones, Peter J H

2007-09-01

73

Increased estimates of air-pollution emissions from Brazilian sugar-cane ethanol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accelerating biofuel production has been promoted as an opportunity to enhance energy security, offset greenhouse-gas emissions and support rural economies. However, large uncertainties remain in the impacts of biofuels on air quality and climate. Sugar-cane ethanol is one of the most widely used biofuels, and Brazil is its largest producer. Here we use a life-cycle approach to produce spatially and temporally explicit estimates of air-pollutant emissions over the whole life cycle of sugar-cane ethanol in Brazil. We show that even in regions where pre-harvest field burning has been eliminated on half the croplands, regional emissions of air pollutants continue to increase owing to the expansion of sugar-cane growing areas, and burning continues to be the dominant life-cycle stage for emissions. Comparison of our estimates of burning-phase emissions with satellite estimates of burning in São Paulo state suggests that sugar-cane field burning is not fully accounted for in satellite-based inventories, owing to the small spatial scale of individual fires. Accounting for this effect leads to revised regional estimates of burned area that are four times greater than some previous estimates. Our revised emissions maps thus suggest that biofuels may have larger impacts on regional climate forcing and human health than previously thought.

Tsao, C.-C.; Campbell, J. E.; Mena-Carrasco, M.; Spak, S. N.; Carmichael, G. R.; Chen, Y.

2012-01-01

74

Sugar cane management with humic extract and organic and mineral fertilizer: impacts on Oxisol some physical properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present investigation has as objective to study the impact of cultive systems, humic extract and organic and mineral fertilizers on Oxisol some physical properties cultivated of sugar cane. It was developed in Aparecida do Taboado, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, in Manufactores Alcoolvale. The study was in sugar cane culture implanted on 3th and 4th cycle. The experimental design was at randomized blocks following scheme in zone with eight treatments and four replications. The two treatments in main zone were represented by cultivation systems (with and without chisel) and the subzone fertilization (T1-mineral, T2-mineral+sugar cane residue, T3-mineral+humic and fulvic acids and T4-mix of mineral, sugar cane residue and humic and fulvic acids). In three soil layers: 0.00-0.05; 0.10-0.20 and 0.20-0.40 m were studied the physical soil properties: macroporosity, microporosity, total porosity and soil bulk density. Also evaluate the technological quality of sugar cane. The conclusions are: the application of mineral fertilizer+sugar cane residue+humic extract (Humitec ®) and cropping system with chisel were more effective in improving soil physical; the system of crop of sugar cane ratton implanted in the 2th and 3th cycle, without the use of chisel was better in the recovery of soil physical properties; the crop system without the chisel and the combination of mineral fertilizer+sugar cane residue was promising to increase of Brix, Pol juice, Pol sugar cane and total recoverable sugars Pol.

Alves, M. C.; Campos, F. S.; Souza, Z. M.

2012-04-01

75

Spatial relationship between the productivity of cane sugar and soil electrical conductivity measured by electromagnetic induction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cultivation of sugar cane in Brazil occupies a prominent place in national production chain, because the country is the main world producer of sugar and ethanol. Accordingly, studies are needed that allow an integrated production and technified, and especially that estimates of crops are consistent with the actual production of each region. The objective of this study was to determine the spatial relationship between the productivity of cane sugar and soil electrical conductivity measured by electromagnetic induction. The field experiment was conducted at an agricultural research site located in Goiana municipality, Pernambuco State, north-east of Brazil (Latitude 07 ° 34 '25 "S, Longitude 34 ° 55' 39" W). The surface of the studied field is 6.5 ha, and its mean height 8.5 m a.s.l. This site has been under sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum sp.) monoculture during the last 24 years and it was managed burning the straw each year after harvesting, renewal of plantation was performed every 7 years. Studied the field is located 10 km east from Atlantic Ocean and it is representative of the regional landscape lowlands, whose soils are affected by salinity seawater, sugarcane plantations with the main economical activity. Soil was classified an orthic the Podsol. The productivity of cane sugar and electrical conductivity were measured in 90 sampling points. The productivity of cane sugar was determined in each of the sampling points in plots of 9 m2. The Apparent soil electrical conductivity (ECa, mS m-1) was measured with an electromagnetic induction device EM38-DD (Geonics Limited). The equipment consists of two units of measurement, one in a horizontal dipole (ECa-H) to provide effective measurement distance of 1.5 m approximately and other one in vertical dipole (ECa-V) with an effective measurement depth of approximately 0.75 m. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and geostatistical tools. The results showed that productivity in the study area reached values above 200 t ha-1, with higher values of productivity are concentrated in the region northern terrain. The maps of soil electrical conductivity (ECa-V and ECa-H) showed behavior similar to the productivity of cane sugar. The linear correlation showed values of 0.74 (yield x ECa-H) and 0.85 (yield x ECa-V). The adjusted semivariograms showed no similarity in the spatial pattern of pairs of semivariance. The electrical conductivity measured by electromagnetic induction has been shown as an important tool for predicting the productivity of sugar cane, however more studies are needed to determine the magnitude of the differences between such attributes.

Siqueira, Glecio; Silva, Jucicléia; Bezerra, Joel; Silva, Enio; Montenegro, Abelardo

2013-04-01

76

Volatilisation of alkali and alkaline earth metallic species during the pyrolysis of biomass: differences between sugar cane bagasse and cane trash  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugar cane bagasse and cane trash were pyrolysed in a novel quartz fluidised-bed\\/fixed-bed reactor. Quantification of the Na, K, Mg and Ca in chars revealed that pyrolysis temperature, heating rate, valence and biomass type were important factors influencing the volatilisation of these alkali and alkaline earth metallic (AAEM) species. Pyrolysis at a slow heating rate (?10Kmin?1) led to minimal (often

Daniel M. Keown; George Favas; Jun-ichiro Hayashi; Chun-Zhu Li

2005-01-01

77

Briquetting of charcoal from sugar-cane bagasse fly ash (scbfa) as an alternative fuel.  

PubMed

Brazil is the largest worldwide producer of alcohol and sugar from sugar-cane and has an extensive alternative program for car fuel which is unique. The objective of this work is to offer one management option of a solid residue produced by this industrial segment. The pressed sugar-cane bagasse is burned to produce steam and electricity by cogeneration. The combustion yields both bottom and fly ashes which contain high amounts of silicon oxide as a major component. Fly ash which contains a high volume (>30% by weight) of charcoal was used in this work. The ash was sieved to separate the thick charcoal from inorganic materials which are concentrated in the thinner fraction. The briquettes were hand pressed using charcoal mixed with a binder (starch) obtained from cassava flour (a tropical root). The results (density, mechanical resistance) obtained with 8% by weight of starch binder are presented here. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to characterize the ashes and the briquettes. The results show that sugar-cane bagasse fly ash (SCBFA) can be used to produce briquettes with an average density of 1.12gcm(-3) and an average calorific value of 25,551kJ/kg. PMID:20133118

Teixeira, S R; Pena, A F V; Miguel, A G

2010-05-01

78

Evaluation of holocellulase production by plant-degrading fungi grown on agro-industrial residues.  

PubMed

Agaricus brasiliensis CS1, Pleurotus ostreatus H1 and Aspergillus flavus produced holocellulases when grown in solid and submerged liquid cultures containing agro-industrial residues, including sugar cane bagasse and dirty cotton residue, as substrates. These isolates proved to be efficient producers of holocellulases under the conditions used in this screening. Bromatological analysis of agro-industrial residues showed differences in protein, fiber, hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin content. Maximal holocellulase activity (hemicellulase, cellulase and pectinase) was obtained using solid-state cultivation with 10% substrate concentration. In this case, remarkably high levels of xylanase and polygalacturonase activity (4,008 and 4,548 IU/l, respectively) were produced by A. flavus when grown in media containing corn residue, followed by P. ostreatus H1 with IU/l values of 1,900 and 3,965 when cultivated on 5% and 10% sugar cane bagasse, respectively. A. brasiliensis CS1 showed the highest reducing sugar yield (11.640 mg/ml) when grown on medium containing sugar cane bagasse. A. brasiliensis was also the most efficient producer of protein, except when cultivated on dirty cotton residue, which induced maximal production in A. flavus. Comparison of enzymatic hydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse and dirty cotton residue by crude extracts of A. brasiliensis CS1, P. ostreatus H1 and A. flavus showed that the best reducing sugar yield was achieved using sugar cane bagasse as a substrate. PMID:20221846

de Siqueira, Félix Gonçalves; de Siqueira, Aline Gonçalves; de Siqueira, Eliane Gonçalves; Carvalho, Marly Azevedo; Peretti, Beatriz Magalhães Pinto; Jaramillo, Paula Marcela Duque; Teixeira, Ricardo Sposina Sobral; Dias, Eustáquio Souza; Félix, Carlos Roberto; Filho, Edivaldo Ximenes Ferreira

2010-09-01

79

Preliminary statistical studies concerning the Campos RJ sugar cane area, using LANDSAT imagery and aerial photographs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The two phase sampling technique was applied to estimate the area cultivated with sugar cane in an approximately 984 sq km pilot region of Campos. Correlation between existing aerial photography and LANDSAT data was used. The two phase sampling technique corresponded to 99.6% of the results obtained by aerial photography, taken as ground truth. This estimate has a standard deviation of 225 ha, which constitutes a coefficient of variation of 0.6%.

Parada, N. D. J. (principal investigator); Costa, S. R. X.; Paiao, L. B. F.; Mendonca, F. J.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Duarte, V.

1983-01-01

80

Effect of the atmosphere on the classification of LANDSAT data. [Identifying sugar canes in Brazil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. In conjunction with Turner's model for the correction of satellite data for atmospheric interference, the LOWTRAN-3 computer was used to calculate the atmospheric interference. Use of the program improved the contrast between different natural targets in the MSS LANDSAT data of Brasilia, Brazil. The classification accuracy of sugar canes was improved by about 9% in the multispectral data of Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo.

Dejesusparada, N. (principal investigator); Morimoto, T.; Kumar, R.; Molion, L. C. B.

1979-01-01

81

Estimation of the sugar cane cultivated area from LANDSAT images using the two phase sampling method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A two phase sampling method and the optimal sampling segment dimensions for the estimation of sugar cane cultivated area were developed. This technique employs visual interpretations of LANDSAT images and panchromatic aerial photographs considered as the ground truth. The estimates, as a mean value of 100 simulated samples, represent 99.3% of the true value with a CV of approximately 1%; the relative efficiency of the two phase design was 157% when compared with a one phase aerial photographs sample.

Parada, N. D. J. (principal investigator); Cappelletti, C. A.; Mendonca, F. J.; Lee, D. C. L.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.

1982-01-01

82

Use of Sugar Cane Vinasse to Mitigate Aluminum Toxicity to Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Owing to its toxicity, aluminum (Al), which is one of the most abundant metals, inhibits the productivity of many cultures\\u000a and affects the microbial metabolism. The aim of this work was to investigate the capacity of sugar cane vinasse to mitigate\\u000a the adverse effects of Al on cell growth, viability, and budding, as the likely result of possible chelating action.

Ricardo Pinheiro de Souza Oliveira; Beatriz Rivas Torres; Mario Zilli; Daniela de Araújo Viana Marques; Luiz Carlos Basso; Attilio Converti

2009-01-01

83

Lipase production by solid state fermentation of olive cake and sugar cane bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive oil cake (OOC) from Morocco and sugar cane bagasse (SCB) were used for lipase production using thermostable fungal cultures of Rhizomucor pusillus and Rhizopus rhizopodiformis. The maximum production of lipase by Rhizomucor pusillus and Rhizopus rhizopodiformis in solid state fermentation (SSF) using SCB, was 4.99 U\\/g DM equivalent to 1.73 U\\/ml and 2.67 U\\/g DM equivalent to 0.97 U\\/ml,

J Cordova; M Nemmaoui; A Morin; S Roussos; M Raimbault; B Benjilali

1998-01-01

84

Mixed culture solid substrate fermentation of Trichoderma reesei with Aspergillus niger on sugar cane bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trichoderma reesei LM-UC4, the parent strain, and its hypercellulolytic mutant LM-UC4E1 were co-cultured with Aspergillus niger ATCC 10864 in solid substrate fermentation on alkali-treated sugar cane for cellulolytic enzyme production. Bagasse was supplemented with either soymeal or with ammonium sulfate and urea, and fermented at 80% moisture content and 30°C. Mixed culturing produced better results with the inorganic supplement. The

Marcel Gutierrez-Correa; Leticia Portal; Patricia Moreno; Robert P. Tengerdy

1999-01-01

85

NADP-dependent malate dehydrogenase (decarboxylating) from sugar cane leaves. Kinetic properties of different oligomeric structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

NADP-dependent malate dehydrogenase (decarboxylating) from sugar cane leaves was inhibited by increasing the ionic strength in the assay medium. The inhibitory effect was higher at pH 7.0 than 8.0, with median inhibitory concentrations (ICs0) of 89 mM and 160 mM respectively, for inhibition by NaCl. Gel-filtration experiments indicated that the enzyme dissociated into dimers and monomers when exposed to high

Alberto A. IGLESIAS; Carlos S. ANDREO

1990-01-01

86

Differentially delayed root proteome responses to salt stress in sugar cane varieties.  

PubMed

Soil salinity is a limiting factor to sugar cane crop development, although in general plants present variable mechanisms of tolerance to salinity stress. The molecular basis underlying these mechanisms can be inferred by using proteomic analysis. Thus, the objective of this work was to identify differentially expressed proteins in sugar cane plants submitted to salinity stress. For that, a greenhouse experiment was established with four sugar cane varieties and two salt conditions, 0 mM (control) and 200 mM NaCl. Physiological and proteomics analyses were performed after 2 and 72 h of stress induction by salt. Distinct physiological responses to salinity stress were observed in the varieties and linked to tolerance mechanisms. In proteomic analysis, the roots soluble protein fraction was extracted, quantified, and analyzed through bidimensional electrophoresis. Gel images analyses were done computationally, where in each contrast only one variable was considered (salinity condition or variety). Differential spots were excised, digested by trypsin, and identified via mass spectrometry. The tolerant variety RB867515 showed the highest accumulation of proteins involved in growth, development, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, reactive oxygen species metabolization, protein protection, and membrane stabilization after 2 h of stress. On the other hand, the presence of these proteins in the sensitive variety was verified only in stress treatment after 72 h. These data indicate that these stress responses pathways play a role in the tolerance to salinity in sugar cane, and their effectiveness for phenotypical tolerance depends on early stress detection and activation of the coding genes expression. PMID:24251627

Pacheco, Cinthya Mirella; Pestana-Calsa, Maria Clara; Gozzo, Fabio Cesar; Mansur Custodio Nogueira, Rejane Jurema; Menossi, Marcelo; Calsa, Tercilio

2013-12-01

87

Environmental repercussions of cane-sugar industries on the Chhoti Gandak river basin, Ganga Plain, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chhoti Gandak river basin, situated in the Ganga Plain, is one of India’s most productive cane-sugar industrial belts. Soil\\u000a and groundwater samples were collected to investigate the impacts of these industries on the environment of the Chhoti Gandak\\u000a river basin with special reference to soil and water. The results show that concentration of most metals are affected by industrial\\u000a activities

Vikram Bhardwaj; Dhruv Sen Singh; Abhay K. Singh

2010-01-01

88

Lack of cholesterol-lowering efficacy of Cuban sugar cane policosanols in hypercholesterolemic persons13  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: More than 50 studies have reported substantial re- ductions in plasma lipid concentrations in response to 2-40 mg Cuban sugar cane policosanol (SCP) mixtures\\/d. However, several animal and human trials conducted outside of Cuba that used non- Cubanmixtureshavefailedtoreproducetheefficacyofpolicosanols observed in earlier studies. Objective: The objective was to evaluate lipid-modulating actions of the authentic Cuban SCPs on plasma lipids in

Amira N Kassis; Peter JH Jones

89

Pretreatment of sugar cane bagasse hemicellulose hydrolysate for xylitol production by yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of six known xylitol-producing yeast strains were screened for production of xylitol from xylose.Candida sp. 11-2 proved to be the best producer. It was chosen to study its ability to produce xylitol from hemicellulose hydrolysate\\u000a derived from sugar cane bagasse. The hydrolysate was prepared by dilute sulfuric acid (2–3% [w\\/v]) hydrolysis, with a high-solid,\\u000a low-liquid ratio followed by

Jose M. Dominguez; Cheng S. Gong; George T. Tsao

1996-01-01

90

Acetic Acid Bacterial Biota of the Pink Sugar Cane Mealybug, Saccharococcus sacchari, and Its Environs  

PubMed Central

Saccharococcus sacchari is the primary colonizer of the developing “sterile” tissue between the leaf sheath and stem of sugar cane. The honeydew secreted by the mealybugs is acidic (about pH 3) and supports an atypical epiphytic microbiota dominated by acetobacter-like bacteria and acidophilic yeast species. However, Erwinia and Leuconostoc species predominate within the leaf sheath pocket region when the mealybugs die out. The unidentified acetobacters were readily isolated from S. sacchari throughout its life cycle and from other genera of mealybugs on sugar cane and various other plants, both above and below ground. No other insect present on sugar cane was a significant vector of acetic acid bacteria. The major factors restricting microbial diversity within the environs of mealybugs were considered to be yeast activity along with bacterial production of acetic acid, ketogluconic acids, and gamma-pyrones, in association with their lowering of pH. The microbial products may aid in suppressing the attack by the parasitic mold Aspergillus parasiticus on mealybugs but could act as attractants for the predatory fruit fly Cacoxenus perspicax.

Ashbolt, Nicholas J.; Inkerman, Peter A.

1990-01-01

91

An improved chemically inducible gene switch that functions in the monocotyledonous plant sugar cane.  

PubMed

Chemically inducible gene switches can provide precise control over gene expression, enabling more specific analyses of gene function and expanding the plant biotechnology toolkit beyond traditional constitutive expression systems. The alc gene expression system is one of the most promising chemically inducible gene switches in plants because of its potential in both fundamental research and commercial biotechnology applications. However, there are no published reports demonstrating that this versatile gene switch is functional in transgenic monocotyledonous plants, which include some of the most important agricultural crops. We found that the original alc gene switch was ineffective in the monocotyledonous plant sugar cane, and describe a modified alc system that is functional in this globally significant crop. A promoter consisting of tandem copies of the ethanol receptor inverted repeat binding site, in combination with a minimal promoter sequence, was sufficient to give enhanced sensitivity and significantly higher levels of ethanol inducible gene expression. A longer CaMV 35S minimal promoter than was used in the original alc gene switch also substantially improved ethanol inducibility. Treating the roots with ethanol effectively induced the modified alc system in sugar cane leaves and stem, while an aerial spray was relatively ineffective. The extension of this chemically inducible gene expression system to sugar cane opens the door to new opportunities for basic research and crop biotechnology. PMID:24142380

Kinkema, Mark; Geijskes, R Jason; Shand, Kylie; Coleman, Heather D; De Lucca, Paulo C; Palupe, Anthony; Harrison, Mark D; Jepson, Ian; Dale, James L; Sainz, Manuel B

2014-03-01

92

Including sugar cane in the agro-ecosystem model ORCHIDEE-STICS: calibration and validation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sugarcane is currently the most efficient bioenergy crop with regards to the energy produced per hectare. With approximately half the global bioethanol production in 2005, and a devoted land area expected to expand globally in the years to come, sugar cane is at the heart of the biofuel debate. Dynamic global vegetation models coupled with agronomical models are powerful and novel tools to tackle many of the environmental issues related to biofuels if they are carefully calibrated and validated against field observations. Here we adapt the agro-terrestrial model ORCHIDEE-STICS for sugar cane simulations. Observation data of LAI are used to evaluate the sensitivity of the model to parameters of nitrogen absorption and phenology, which are calibrated in a systematic way for six sites in Australia and La Reunion. We find that the optimal set of parameters is highly dependent on the sites' characteristics and that the model can reproduce satisfactorily the evolution of LAI. This careful calibration of ORCHIDEE-STICS for sugar cane biomass production for different locations and technical itineraries provides a strong basis for further analysis of the impacts of bioenergy-related land use change on carbon cycle budgets. As a next step, a sensitivity analysis is carried out to estimate the uncertainty of the model in biomass and carbon flux simulation due to its parameterization.

Valade, A.; Vuichard, N.; Ciais, P.; Viovy, N.

2011-12-01

93

Production of ethanol from sugar cane bagasse hemicellulose hydrolyzate by Pichia stipitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability ofPichia stipitis to fermentd-xylose andd-glucose in the acid-hydrolyzed hemicellulose component of sugar cane bagasse depends on the alkali used to neutralize the\\u000a hydrolyzate to pH 6.5. With NH4OH and NaOH no fermentation occurred, whereas neutralization with Ca(OH)2 gave the best results (Qpmax=0.25 g\\/L-h; Yp\\/s =0.38 g\\/g sugar). However, the volumetric productivity was still considerably less than observed in

Carina Van Zyl; Bernard A. Prior; James C. Du Preez

1988-01-01

94

Electric power from sugar cane in Costa Rica. A technical and economic analysis  

SciTech Connect

A team of specialists visited Costa Rica in May 1988 to analyze the potential for production and sale of electricity by the sugar-cane industry. Focusing on three sugar mills, the team made technical projections at four levels of investment, ranging from the simplest sale of surplus power to the installation of new turbogenerator systems. For each level, capital costs, electricity production and sales, and fuel options were estimated. Associated risks were assessed through sensitivity analyses to demonstrate the possible impacts of varying interest rates, fuel costs, and electricity sales prices. The team concluded that production and sale of electricity for the national grid could be an excellent investment opportunity for the sugar industry and would provide important economic benefits, including creation of additional jobs in rural areas, diversification of the sugar industry, and (in the short term) displacement of the need for imported fuels.

Tugwell, F.; Gowen, M.; Kenda, W.; Cohen, A.

1988-07-01

95

Power generation using sugar cane bagasse: A heat recovery analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sugar industry is facing the need to improve its performance by increasing efficiency and developing profitable by-products. An important possibility is the production of electrical power for sale. Co-generation has been practiced in the sugar industry for a long time in a very inefficient way with the main purpose of getting rid of the bagasse. The goal of this research was to develop a software tool that could be used to improve the way that bagasse is used to generate power. Special focus was given to the heat recovery components of the co-generation plant (economizer, air pre-heater and bagasse dryer) to determine if one, or a combination, of them led to a more efficient co-generation cycle. An extensive review of the state of the art of power generation in the sugar industry was conducted and is summarized in this dissertation. Based on this models were developed. After testing the models and comparing the results with the data collected from the literature, a software application that integrated all these models was developed to simulate the complete co-generation plant. Seven different cycles, three different pressures, and sixty-eight distributions of the flue gas through the heat recovery components can be simulated. The software includes an economic analysis tool that can help the designer determine the economic feasibility of different options. Results from running the simulation are presented that demonstrate its effectiveness in evaluating and comparing the different heat recovery components and power generation cycles. These results indicate that the economizer is the most beneficial option for heat recovery and that the use of waste heat in a bagasse dryer is the least desirable option. Quantitative comparisons of several possible cycle options with the widely-used traditional back-pressure turbine cycle are given. These indicate that a double extraction condensing cycle is best for co-generation purposes. Power generation gains between 40 and 100% are predicted for some cycles with the addition of optimum heat recovery systems.

Seguro, Jean Vittorio

96

Composting of sugar-cane waste by-products through treatment with microorganisms and subsequent vermicomposting.  

PubMed

The waste by-products of the sugar-cane industry, bagasse (b), pressmud (p) and trash (t) have been subjected to bioinoculation followed by vermicomposting to shorten stabilization time and improve product quality. Press-mud alone and in combination with other by-products of sugar processing industries was pre-decomposed for 30 days by inoculation with combination of Pleurotus sajorcaju, Trichoderma viridae, Aspergillus niger and Pseudomonas striatum. This treatment was followed by vermicomposting for 40 days with the native earthworm, Drawida willsi. The combination of both treatments reduced the overall time required for composting to 20 days and accelerated the degradation process of waste by-products of sugar processing industry, thereby producing a nutrient-enriched compost product useful for sustaining high crop yield, minimizing soil depletion and value added disposal of waste materials. PMID:20403689

Kumar, Rahul; Verma, Deepshikha; Singh, Bhanu L; Kumar, Umesh; Shweta

2010-09-01

97

Sugar Cane Water Foot Print for Brazilian Major Varietes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the water productivity (PA) into biomass, sugar and energy for 24 brazilian sugarcane varieties under drip irrigation, subjected to full and deficit irrigation treatments during growing stage. Two experiments were established under greenhouse conditions at the Biosystems Engineering Department, ESALQ/USP, Piracicaba, SP. Experiment 1: ten varieties on a clay soil (RB835054, RB855453, RB855536, RB925211, RB867515, SP89-1115, SP81-3250, CTC14, CTC8 e CTC6) and Experiment 2: fourteen varieties on a sandy-loam soil (RB925345, RB855156, RB966928, RB72454, RB92579, IACSP95-5000, Caiana, SP83-2847, SP90-3414, SP79-1011, CTC17, CTC15, CTC9 e CTC2). In both experiments it was adopted two irrigation treatments: T100 - full irrigation with 100% crop evapotranspiration replacement, maintaining soil moisture near field capacity, and T70 - irrigation with 70% of water depth applied to T100 treatment. Irrigation treatments were initiated at 101 days of crop cycle, corresponding to the end of tillering and the beginning of intense stalk growth phase (first ratoon). It was observed variation in the water productivity into fresh stalk biomass (PABFC) from 16.22 to 29.21 kg m-3, according of the varieties and irrigation treatments applied. The highest values were observed for varieties CTC6, CTC14, RB867515, SP81-3250 and RB92579, under full irrigation treatment (T100), and CTC6, CTC14 and SP90-3414, under deficit irrigation treatment (T70). Water productivity into sugar (PABATR) ranged from 1.95 to 3.84 kg m-3, highest values were observed for varieties CTC6 and RB92579 (T100), as well as RB835054 e RB966928 (T70). Water productivity into total energy (PAETOT) varied from 101.17 to 174.65 MJ m-3, with highest values for varieties:SP81-3250, CTC6, CTC17 and RB92579 (T100 treatment), as well as SP90-3414, SP81-3250 and CTC6 (T70 treatment).

Coelho, R. D.; Maschio, R.; Leal, D. P.; Barbosa, F. D.; Mauri, R.

2012-12-01

98

Improved Biorefinery for the Production of Ethanol, Chemicals, Animal Feed and Biomaterials from Sugar Cane. Report from April 1, 2004 through June 30, 2008.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Audubon Sugar Institute (ASI) of Louisiana State Universitys Agricultural Center (LSU AgCenter) and MBI International (MBI) sought to develop technologies that will lead to the development of a sugar-cane biorefinery, capable of supplying fuel ethanol...

D. Day

2008-01-01

99

Radium-226 in sugar cane, Saccharum officinarum, products in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the 226Ra concentrations in samples of sugar cane juice, which is sold for human consumption in the city of Recife, capital of the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. The sample collections were carried out in seventeen commercial establishments where high quantities of the juice are usually sold. The methodology used to determine the concentrations of 226Ra in the juice was based on 222Rn emanation classical technique. Concentrations of 226Ra in the samples varied from 18 to 89 mBqL(-1). PMID:18500415

Silva, C M; Amaral, R S; Santos Júnior, J A; Breckenfeld, M R O; Menezes, R S C

2008-05-01

100

Biofiltration of volatile ethanol using sugar cane bagasse inoculated with Candida utilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Candidautilis (C.utilis) growing on sugar cane bagasse complemented with a mineral salt solution was studied for gaseous ethanol removal in a biofilter. Ethanol loads from 93.7 to 511.9g\\/hm3 were used, by varying both inlet ethanol concentration (9.72 to 52.4g\\/m3) and air flow rate (1.59×10?3 to 2.86×10?3m3\\/h). At a loading rate of 93.7g\\/hm3, a steady-state was maintained for 300h. Ethanol removal

P. Christen; F. Domenech; G. Michelena; R. Auria; S. Revah

2002-01-01

101

Fermentation of sugar cane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate for xylitol production: Effect of pH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 was grown in sugar cane bagasse hydrolysate supplemented with (NH4)2SO4 2.0 g l?1, CaCl2 0.1 g l?1 and rice bran 20.0 g l?1, through 45-h batch tests (agitation of 200 min?1 and temperature of 30°C) with initial pH varying from 2.5 to 7.5. Under pH < 4.5 the consumption of glucose, xylose and arabinose as well

Maria G. A. Felipe; Michele Vitolo; Ismael M. Mancilha; Silva S. Silva

1997-01-01

102

Impact of cultivation and sugar-cane green trash management on carbon fractions and aggregate stability for a Chromic Luvisol in Queensland, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technological advances in sugar-cane harvesting and processing is bringing about rapid changes in production systems which could impact on soil physical conditions. An increasing incidence of soil structural decline and depletion of soil carbon levels has increased the risk of soil erosion and crop yield reductions. Soil carbon (C) and aggregate stability were studied on a sugar-cane (Saccharum officinarum L.)

Nelly Blair

2000-01-01

103

Optimizing the saccharification of sugar cane bagasse using dilute phosphoric acid followed by fungal cellulases.  

PubMed

A low level of phosphoric acid (1% w/w on dry bagasse basis, 160 degrees C and above, 10 min) was shown to effectively hydrolyze the hemicellulose in sugar cane bagasse into monomers with minimal side reactions and to serve as an effective pre-treatment for the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. Up to 45% of the remaining water-insoluble solids (WIS) was digested to sugar monomers by a low concentration of Biocellulase W (0.5 filter paper unit/gWIS) supplemented with beta-glucosidase, although much higher levels of cellulase (100-fold) were required for complete hydrolysis. After neutralization and nutrient addition, phosphoric acid syrups of hemicellulose sugars were fermented by ethanologenic Escherichia coli LY160 without further purification. Fermentation of these syrups was preceded by a lag that increased with increased pre-treatment temperature. Further improvements in organisms and optimization of steam treatments may allow the co-fermentation of sugars derived from hemicellulose and cellulose, eliminating need for liquid-solid separation, sugar purification, and separate fermentations. PMID:19880314

Geddes, C C; Peterson, J J; Roslander, C; Zacchi, G; Mullinnix, M T; Shanmugam, K T; Ingram, L O

2010-03-01

104

Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of a mixture of fatty acids isolated and purified from sugar cane wax oil.  

PubMed

The anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of FAM, a defined mixture of fatty acids isolated from sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.), was evaluated. Oral administration of this mixture showed anti-inflammatory activity in the cotton pellet granuloma assay and in the carrageenin-induced pleurisy test, both in rats, as well as in the peritoneal capillary permeability test in mice. In addition, FAM showed analgesic properties in the hot-plate model and in the acetic acid-induced writhings test, both in mice. In conclusion, these results provide evidence on the potential usefulness of the mixture of fatty acids from sugar cane wax oil in inflammatory disorders. PMID:12709906

Ledón, N; Casacó, A; Rodríguez, V; Cruz, J; González, R; Tolón, Z; Cano, M; Rojas, E

2003-04-01

105

Improved sugar cane juice clarification by understanding calcium oxide-phosphate-sucrose systems.  

PubMed

It is accepted that the efficiency of sugar cane clarification is closely linked with sugar juice composition (including suspended or insoluble impurities), the inorganic phosphate content, the liming condition and type, and the interactions between the juice components. These interactions are not well understood, particularly those between calcium, phosphate, and sucrose in sugar cane juice. Studies have been conducted on calcium oxide (CaO)/phosphate/sucrose systems in both synthetic and factory juices to provide further information on the defecation process (i.e., simple liming to effect impurity removal) and to identify an effective clarification process that would result in reduced scaling of sugar factory evaporators, pans, and centrifugals. Results have shown that a two-stage process involving the addition of lime saccharate to a set juice pH followed by the addition of sodium hydroxide to a final juice pH or a similar two-stage process where the order of addition of the alkalis is reversed prior to clarification reduces the impurity loading of the clarified juice compared to that of the clarified juice obtained by the conventional defecation process. The treatment process showed reductions in CaO (27% to 50%) and MgO (up to 20%) in clarified juices with no apparent loss in juice clarity or increase in residence time of the mud particles compared to those in the conventional process. There was also a reduction in the SiO2 content. However, the disadvantage of this process is the significant increase in the Na2O content. PMID:21322558

Doherty, William O S

2011-03-01

106

75 FR 60715 - Domestic Sugar Program-FY 2010 and FY 2011 Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...This applies to all domestic sugar marketed for human consumption in the United States from October 1, 2009, through...which apply to all domestic sugar marketed for human consumption in the United States from October 1, 2010,...

2010-10-01

107

Upgrading of sugar cane bagasse by thermal processes. 9: Catalytic liquefaction in ethanol  

SciTech Connect

This article presents the results of a study on the process of direct catalytic liquefaction of sugar cane bagasse, using ethanol as solvent. A systematic study with 12 different types of commercially available catalysts was accomplished. For each catalyst, the conversion yield of sugar cane bagasse into liquefied products, which are useful as liquid fuels and chemical feedstocks, was determined. The highest conversion yield was observed when a nickel catalyst on SiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was used. The liquefied products were fractionated into oils, asphaltenes, and asphaltols. The oil samples were separated and then fractionated into eight different chemical classes by preparative liquid chromatography. The highest proportion of light-oils (F1 to F5) was obtained with the potassium fluoride catalyst on silica gel. High proportions of resins (F6) were obtained with three types of catalysts: nickel on SiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, ruthenium, or platinum on activated carbon powder. The highest proportion of asphaltenes (F7) and of asphaltols (F8) were obtained with the niobium oxide catalyst.

Lancas, F.M.; Rezemini, A.L. [Univ. of Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Inst. of Chemistry; Donate, P.M. [Univ. of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

1999-05-01

108

Upgrading of sugar cane bagasse by thermal processes. 10: Catalytic liquefaction in aqueous medium  

SciTech Connect

This work presents the results of a study of a process of direct catalytic liquefaction of sugar cane bagasse, in aqueous medium, using different pH values. The experiments were conducted in the absence as well as in the presence of commercial catalysts. In the absence of catalyst, the results showed that the conversion of sugar cane bagasse into liquefied products is not influenced by the pH of the reaction mixture. An increase in the temperature augments the yield of liquefied products. The utilization of different commercial catalysts permits an increase in the yields of liquefied products up to 92.4%, obtained with 10% palladium on activated carbon powder as catalyst. The liquefied products were fractionated into eight different chemical classes by preparative liquid chromatography (PLC-8 method). In the absence of catalyst, high conversion yields into light-oils and resins (fractions F1 to F6) was observed only at pH = 9. When the catalysts were used (at pH = 9 and at 370 C), an important increase (from 29 to 78%) of resins (fraction F6) was observed. Under this condition, the proportion of asphaltenes and asphaltols (fractions F7 and F8) decreases from 70 to 20%.

Lancas, F.M.; Ruggiero, M.A. [Univ. of Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Inst. of Chemistry; Donate, P.M. [Univ. of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

1999-05-01

109

Rudimentary, low tech incinerators as a means to produce reactive pozzolan out of sugar cane straw  

SciTech Connect

The ashes of agricultural wastes from the processing of sugar cane are recognized as having pozzolanic properties. Burning of these wastes under controlled conditions, e.g. temperature and residence time results in significant improvement in reactivity. There are many reports of low-tech incinerators that have been successfully used to produce reactive rice husk ash in Asia. The paper presents the results of the evaluation of a rudimentary incinerator where sugar cane straw is burnt in order to obtain a reactive ash. The incinerator is designed and constructed according to state-of-the-art recommendations for this kind of device. Various burning trials were performed in order to obtain ash for the experiment. X-ray diffraction analysis performed on powdered ash shows significant presence of amorphous (glassy) material. Lime-pozzolana pastes were prepared. The pastes were subjected to X-ray diffraction, thermo-gravimetric analysis, chemical titration, and SEM observation, as a means to examine the pozzolanicity of the ash via the progress with time of calcium hydroxide consumption, and changes in the pore size distribution and strength. Calcium silicate hydrate phases are the main reaction product of the pozzolanic reaction. The long residence time of the ash in the burning chamber seems to be the reason for the fairly low reactivity of the ash; the reactivity of the ash was not significantly improved in comparison with that of the ash burnt in uncontrolled conditions in the open air.

Martirena, Fernando [Central University of las Villas, Santa Clara (Cuba)]. E-mail: f.martirena@enet.cu; Middendorf, Bernhard [Central University of las Villas, Santa Clara (Cuba); Department of Structural Materials, University of Kassel, Kassel (Germany); Day, Robert L. [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Gehrke, Matthias [Central University of las Villas, Santa Clara (Cuba); Department of Structural Materials, University of Kassel, Kassel (Germany); Roque, Pablo [Central University of las Villas, Santa Clara (Cuba); Martinez, Lesday [Central University of las Villas, Santa Clara (Cuba); Betancourt, Sergio [Central University of las Villas, Santa Clara (Cuba)

2006-06-15

110

Study of Sugar Cane Management Systems in Brazil Using Laser Induced Fluorescence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brazil is the largest producer of cane sugar, consequently, is a leader in the production of bio-ethanol, a clean and renewable energy that fits the model of sustainable economy as discussed and pursued by our society. Our state of São Paulo concentrates 60% of national production, representing a sizeable share in the range of world production. All this economic potential is closely monitored by the scientific community, which develops numerous studies seeking an improvement in production efficiency and reduced environmental impacts caused by the planting. However, the study of soil samples, in plantation areas, demands results about the content and structural forms of organic matter (OM). Also, the soil carbon stocks depend on the type of management. Our goal is to study OM of soil samples from four sugar cane management systems: (i) unburned cane harvest, (ii) preharvest burned, (iii) addition of sugarcane bagasse ash and (iv) addition of residue from the extraction of sucrose, using Laser Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy of solid state. All the emission spectra were acquired using the system called LIFS-405, which consists of a diode laser Coherent, model cube with excitation at 405 nm, maximum output power of 50mJ and a mini-spectrometer, Ocean Optics USB2000-high sensitivity, with range of 194-894 nm and a fiber-optic bundle design (six excitation fibers in a circular path and one central fiber the collect the fluorescence). In this work, we will present the preliminary results evolving the humification index (HLIFS) of soil OM and total carbon amount (TC) for the different types of management. HLIFS shows a close correlation with the humification index of humic acid in solution obtained by means 2D conventional fluorescence spectroscopy.

Cabral, Jader; Villas-Boas, Paulino; Carvalho, Camila; Corá, José Eduardo; Milori, Débora

2014-05-01

111

Evaluation of cyclone gasifier performance for gasification of sugar cane residue—Part 2: gasification of cane trash  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Part 1 of this two-part paper, results from gasification of bagasse in a cyclone gasifier have been reported. In this paper results from gasification of cane trash in the same cyclone gasifier are presented. The cane trash powder is injected into the cyclone with air as transport medium. The gasification tests were made with two feeding rates, 39 and

Mohamed Gabra; Esbjörn Pettersson; Rainer Backman; Björn Kjellström

2001-01-01

112

Bioaccessible arsenic in soils of former sugar cane plantations, Island of Hawaii.  

PubMed

Arsenical herbicides were used extensively for emergent weed control in Hawaiian sugar cane cultivation from 1913 to about 1950. As a result, surface soil arsenic concentrations average 280 mg kg(-1) across more than 60 km(2) of former sugar plantation land in the eastern portion of the Island of Hawaii. This study was conducted to elucidate the relationship between soil properties and arsenic bioaccessibility in the iron-rich volcanic soils. Soils are predominantly Andisols, formed by weathering of basaltic lava and tephra, with pedogenic solid phases consisting of short-range order iron oxyhydroxides, allophane-like aluminosilicates, and metal-humus compounds. These reactive solid phases strongly adsorb oxyanions, such as phosphate and arsenite/arsenate. High arsenic sorption capacity limits desorption and vertical migration within the soil column and prevents contamination of the underlying groundwater aquifer, despite high arsenic loading and precipitation rates. In vitro arsenic bioaccessibility, as measured by the SBRC gastric-phase test, ranges from 2% to 35% and averages 9% of total arsenic. Bioaccessible arsenic is higher in less weathered soils (Udifolists, Typic and Lithic Hydrudands) and lower in more weathered ash-dominant soils (Acrudoxic Hydrudands). Soil weathering indicators, such as reactive iron content, are strong predictors of arsenic bioaccessibility. Based on evidence from soil mineralogy, geochemistry and arsenic speciation, as well as limited soil arsenic bioavailability/bioaccessibility comparisons, risks to human health from direct contact (soil ingestion) are significantly reduced by low arsenic bioaccessibility. Nonetheless, some soils within former sugar cane cultivation areas contain bioaccessible arsenic concentrations exceeding Hawaii Department of Health risk-based action levels, and will require mitigating actions. Even higher levels of soil arsenic contamination have been identified at former pesticide storage and mixing areas, but are generally of localized extent. PMID:23178778

Cutler, William G; Brewer, Roger C; El-Kadi, Aly; Hue, Nguyen V; Niemeyer, Patrick G; Peard, John; Ray, Chittaranjan

2013-01-01

113

Radiation and NRSP effect on protein, filtration efficiency and crude fiber degradation after sugar cane bagasse fermentation by mushroom fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The upgrading of sugar cane bagasse with natural rubber waste by irradiation and three mushroom fungi was studied in order to produce economical animal feed and mushrooms. The protein concentrations changed a little at 0, 1% of NRSP but greatly increased at 5% NRSP concentration with irradiation and nonirradiation in liquid fermentation. The filtration rate decreased at 5% NRSP concentration

H.-S. Shin; J.-H. Lee; E.-J. Hwang; J.-S. Shon; G.-N. Kim; S. Matsuhashi; T. Kume

1998-01-01

114

A comparison of liquid hot water and steam pretreatments of sugar cane bagasse for bioconversion to ethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugar cane bagasse was pretreated with either liquid hot water (LHW) or steam using the same 25 l reactor. Solids concentration ranged from 1% to 8% for LHW pretreatment and was ?50% for steam pretreatment. Reaction temperature and time ranged from 170 to 230 °C and 1 to 46 min, respectively. Key performance metrics included fiber reactivity, xylan recovery, and

Mark Laser; Deborah Schulman; Stephen G Allen; Joseph Lichwa; Michael J Antal; Lee R Lynd

2002-01-01

115

Including sugar cane in the agro-ecosystem model ORCHIDEE-STICS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With 4 million ha currently grown for ethanol in Brazil only, approximately half the global bioethanol production in 2005 (Smeets 2008), and a devoted land area expected to expand globally in the years to come, sugar cane is at the heart of the biofuel debate. Indeed, ethanol made from biomass is currently the most widespread option for alternative transportation fuels. It was originally promoted as a carbon neutral energy resource that could bring energy independence to countries and local opportunities to farmers, until attention was drawn to its environmental and socio-economical drawbacks. It is still not clear to which extent it is a solution or a contributor to climate change mitigation. Dynamic Global Vegetation models can help address these issues and quantify the potential impacts of biofuels on ecosystems at scales ranging from on-site to global. The global agro-ecosystem model ORCHIDEE describes water, carbon and energy exchanges at the soil-atmosphere interface for a limited number of natural and agricultural vegetation types. In order to integrate agricultural management to the simulations and to capture more accurately the specificity of crops' phenology, ORCHIDEE has been coupled with the agronomical model STICS. The resulting crop-oriented vegetation model ORCHIDEE-STICS has been used so far to simulate temperate crops such as wheat, corn and soybean. As a generic ecosystem model, each grid cell can include several vegetation types with their own phenology and management practices, making it suitable to spatial simulations. Here, ORCHIDEE-STICS is altered to include sugar cane as a new agricultural Plant functional Type, implemented and parametrized using the STICS approach. An on-site calibration and validation is then performed based on biomass and flux chamber measurements in several sites in Australia and variables such as LAI, dry weight, heat fluxes and respiration are used to evaluate the ability of the model to simulate the specific phenology of sugar cane. The calibration of ORCHIDEE-STICS on several sites and for different technical itineraries provides a strong basis for further analysis of the impacts of land use change related to bioenergy crops.

Valade, A.; Vuichard, N.; Ciais, P.; Viovy, N.

2010-12-01

116

[Preliminary results of an herpetology investigation in sugar cane plantation in Democratic Republic of Congo].  

PubMed

Out of the 3,000 species of snakes described in the world, 163 are currently known from D.R. of Congo. We performed a systematic survey in sugar-cane plantations of the Sugar Company of Kwilu-Ngongo (Bas-Congo), located at 160 km South-West from Kinshasa and exploiting nearly 10,000 ha. The plantation is divided into 3 sectors in the middle of which we deposited barrels filled of formaldehyde. All the employees of the Sugar Company of Kwilu-Ngongo were requested to collect encountered snakes and put them in the nearest barrel. Between August 9th and September 21st, 2004, we collected 36 snakes in two different sites, revealing the presence of 3 families and 12 species. The most abundant species in Causus maculatus (47% in the first site--Point 8--and 29% in the second site--Point 13). The most poisonous and dangerous species were captured only in the first site--point 8, and were Dendroaspis jamesoni and Naja melanoleuca, both young. PMID:16402584

Malukisa, J; Collet, M; Bokata, S; Odio, W

2005-11-01

117

Morbidity due to Schistosoma mansoni among sugar-cane cutters in Zimbabwe.  

PubMed

Quantitative determination of Schistosoma mansoni infection was carried out on 1995 cane cutters of the Hippo Valley and Triangle Sugar Estates. A total of 315 cutters were chosen for the study on the basis of S. mansoni infection and lack of anti-schistosomal chemotherapy during the previous three years. Stool consistency and blood and mucus in stool were determined for all the infected cutters. Overt and occult blood in stool was detected in a significantly high number of infected people compared to the control subjects (chi 2 p less than 0.001). However, the blood loss was found to have no anaemia-producing effect as determined by haemoglobin and red blood cell counts. Watery stool was prevalent among people with egg output exceeding 500 eggs per gram of stool. Mucus in stool was found to be more prevalent among infected people compared to the control subjects but the difference was not significant (p greater than 0.05). Symmer's periportal fibrosis (PPF) of various degrees of severity was detected in 47% of the infected people and grade one liver fibrosis was found in 7.5% of the control subjects (p less than 0.0001). Some 54.5% of those infected complained of abdominal pains compared to 35% of uninfected controls (p less than 0.01). There was a significant difference in the rate of absenteeism from work due to abdominal pains and diarrhoea among the infected and uninfected cane cutters (p less than 0.02). PMID:1955265

Ndamba, J; Makaza, N; Kaondera, K C; Munjoma, M

1991-09-01

118

Binding Nickel and Zinc Ions with Activated Carbon Prepared from Sugar Cane Fibre (Saccharum officinarum L.)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Activated carbon was prepared from sugar cane fibre by carbonizing at 500°C for 30 min. This was followed by activation with ammonium chloride. The activated carbon was characterised in terms of pH, bulk density, ash content, surface area and surface charge. Equilibrium sorption of nickel and zinc ions by the activated carbon was studied using a range of metal ion concentrations. The sorption data was observed to have an adequate fit for the Langmuir isotherm equation. The level of metal ion uptake was found to be of the order: Ni2+ > Zn2+. The difference in the removal efficiency could be explained in terms of the hydration energy of the metal ions. The distribution coefficient for a range of metal ion concentration of the metal ions at the sorbent water interface is higher than the concentration in the continuous phase.

Ikhuoria, E. U.; Onojie, O. C.

119

Experimental variables effects on the direct liquefaction of lignin sugar cane bagasse  

SciTech Connect

Sugar cane bagasse lignin was submitted to a liquefaction process with the aim of obtaining light oils. In order to increase the yields of light oils a study of the influence of experimental variables in the liquefaction process was performed. A 2{sup 4} factorial design was used, involving two levels and four variables: temperature, pressure, solute/solvent ratio, and time. It was observed that the variables time, temperature, and solute/solvent ratio influenced an increase in yield, and the variable solute/solvent ratio was independent, while the second-order effect among t {times} T, t {times} P was observed, and third-order among T {times} t {times} P occurs.

Celeghini, R.M.S.; Lancas, F.M. [Univ. of Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos (Brazil). Inst. of Chemistry

1998-08-01

120

The effect of fire retardants on combustion and pyrolysis of sugar-cane bagasse.  

PubMed

Experiments were conducted by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and cone calorimetry to measure the affect of three fire retardants (ammonium sulphate, boric acid and borax) on the mass-loss rate and combustion characteristics of sugar-cane bagasse. Compared with untreated bagasse, bagasse impregnated with aqueous solutions of 0.1-0.5M fire retardants exhibited an increase in char mass production from 16% up to 41% when pyrolysed and up to a 41% reduction in total heat release (THR) during combustion. Char mass production was only a weak function of additive concentration over the range of concentrations (0.1-0.5M) used. Combining the additives did not show any synergistic effects for char production or heat release rate (HRR). Treatment of bagasse by these chemicals could be useful to enhance biochar yields in pyrolysis processes or to reduce flammability risk in composites containing bagasse. PMID:21680181

Griffin, G J

2011-09-01

121

Distribution of prokaryotic organisms in a tropical estuary influenced by sugar cane agriculture in northeast Brazil  

PubMed Central

In a joint Brazilian-German case study, distribution patterns of microorganisms were compared with environmental variables in the tropical coastal Manguaba lagoon in northeast Brazil, which is situated downstream of several sugar cane processing plants . 16S rDNA and 16S rRNA single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) gene fingerprinting were used to follow the composition and distribution of microorganisms throughout the salinity gradient of the lagoon. Potentially abundant microorganisms were identified by sequencing representative SSCP bands. It could be demonstrated that the distribution of microbes was in close relation to the physico-chemical environmental settings and followed a common scheme. In the in- and outlet areas of the lagoon rather transient microbial communities were found, whereas in the central part a stable, diverse community was encountered, that due to the long residence time of the water, had ample time for development and adaptation.

Wolf, Lars; Schwalger, Berit; Knoppers, Bastiaan A.; da Silva, Luiz Antonio Ferreira; Medeiros, Paulo Ricardo Petter; Pollehne, Falk

2010-01-01

122

Use of sugar cane vinasse to mitigate aluminum toxicity to Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

Owing to its toxicity, aluminum (Al), which is one of the most abundant metals, inhibits the productivity of many cultures and affects the microbial metabolism. The aim of this work was to investigate the capacity of sugar cane vinasse to mitigate the adverse effects of Al on cell growth, viability, and budding, as the likely result of possible chelating action. For this purpose, Fleischmann's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) was used in growth tests performed in 125-mL Erlenmeyer flasks containing 30 mL of YED medium (5.0 g/L yeast extract plus 20 g/L glucose) supplemented with the selected amounts of either vinasse or Al in the form of AlCl(3) . H(2)O. Without vinasse, the addition of increasing levels of Al up to 54 mg/L reduced the specific growth rate by 18%, whereas no significant reduction was observed in its presence. The toxic effect of Al on S. cerevisiae growth and the mitigating effect of sugar cane vinasse were quantified by the exponential model of Ciftci et al. (Biotechnol Bioeng 25:2007-2023, 1983). The cell viability decreased from 97.7% at the start to 84.0% at the end of runs without vinasse and to 92.3% with vinasse. On the other hand, the cell budding increased from 7.62% at the start to 8.84% at the end of runs without vinasse and to 17.8% with vinasse. These results demonstrate the ability of this raw material to stimulate cell growth and mitigate the toxic effect of Al. PMID:19184166

de Souza Oliveira, Ricardo Pinheiro; Rivas Torres, Beatriz; Zilli, Mario; de Araújo Viana Marques, Daniela; Basso, Luiz Carlos; Converti, Attilio

2009-10-01

123

Wastewater use in agriculture: irrigation of sugar cane with effluents from the Cañaveralejo wastewater treatment plant in Cali, Colombia.  

PubMed

In Valle del Cauca, south-west Colombia, surface and ground waters are used for sugar cane irrigation at a rate of 100 m3 of water per tonne of sugar produced. In addition large quantities of artificial fertilizers and pesticides are used to grow the crop. Preliminary experiments were undertaken to determine the feasibility of using effluents from the Cañaveralejo primary wastewater treatment plant in Cali. Sugar cane variety CC 8592 was planted in 18 box plots, each 0.5 m2. Six were irrigated with conventional primary effluent, six with chemically enhanced primary effluent and six with groundwater. For each set of six box plots, three contained local soil and three a 50:50 mixture of sand and rice husks. The three irrigation waters were monitored for 12 months, and immediately after harvest the sugar content of the sugar cane juice determined. All physico-chemical quality parameters for the three irrigation waters were lower than the FAO guideline values for irrigation water quality; on the basis of their sodium absorption ratios and electrical conductivity values, both wastewater effluents were in the USDA low-to-medium risk category C2S1. There was no difference in the sugar content of the cane juice irrigated with the three waters. However, the microbiological quality (E. coli and helminth numbers) of the two effluents did not meet the WHO guidelines and therefore additional human exposure control measures are required in order to minimize any resulting adverse health risks to those working in the wastewater-irrigated fields. PMID:19886425

Madera, C A; Silva, J; Mara, D D; Torres, P

2009-09-01

124

Produções agrícola e industrial de cana-de-açúcar submetida a doses de vinhaça1 Agricultural and industrial yields of sugar cane submitted to vinasse rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out to assess the influence of vinasse rates on the agricultural and industrial yields of sugar cane. The experiment was set up at the School Farm of the State University of Londrina, in \\

Aline Fagote Paulino; Cristiane de Conti Medina; Carla Renata; Pazotti Robaina; Raffael Alberto Laurani

125

Description of Gluconacetobacter sacchari sp. nov., a new species of acetic acid bacterium isolated from the leaf sheath of sugar cane and from the pink sugar-cane mealy bug.  

PubMed

A new species of the genus Gluconacetobacter, for which the name Gluconacetobacter sacchari sp. nov. is proposed, was isolated from the leaf sheath of sugar cane and from the pink sugar-cane mealy bug, Saccharicoccus sacchari, found on sugar cane growing in Queensland and northern New South Wales, Australia. The nearest phylogenetic relatives in the alpha-subclass of the Proteobacteria are Gluconacetobacter liquefaciens and Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus, which have 98.8-99.3% and 97.9-98.5% 16S rDNA sequence similarity, respectively, to members of Gluconacetobacter sacchari. On the basis of the phylogenetic positioning of the strains, DNA reassociation studies, phenotypic tests and the presence of the Q10 ubiquinone, this new species was assigned to the genus Gluconacetobacter. No single phenotypic characteristic is unique to the species, but the species can be differentiated phenotypically from closely related members of the acetic acid bacteria by growth in the presence of 0.01% malachite green, growth on 30% glucose, an inability to fix nitrogen and an inability to grow with the L-amino acids asparagine, glycine, glutamine, threonine and tryptophan when D-mannitol was supplied as the sole carbon and energy source. The type strain of this species is strain SRI 1794T (= DSM 12717T). PMID:10555349

Franke, I H; Fegan, M; Hayward, C; Leonard, G; Stackebrandt, E; Sly, L I

1999-10-01

126

Co-firing of sugar cane bagasse with rice husk in a conical fluidized-bed combustor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents experimental results on co-firing of ‘as-received’ sugar cane bagasse and rice husk in a conical fluidized-bed combustor (FBC) using silica sand as the bed material. Axial temperature, O2, CO2, CO and NO concentration profiles in the conical FBC operated at 82.5–82.8kg\\/h fuel feed rate and various values of excess air (of about 40, 60, 80 and 100%)

V. I. Kuprianov; K. Janvijitsakul; W. Permchart

2006-01-01

127

Particle geometry affects differentially substrate composition and enzyme profiles by Pleurotus ostreatus growing on sugar cane bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth of Pleurotus ostreatus was analyzed on three particle sizes of sugar cane bagasse: 0.92mm and1.68mm in diameter, in addition to heterogeneous fibers (average 2.9mm in diameter). Specific growth rate on heterogeneous particles was lower (?=0.043h?1), although soluble protein production was maximal (809?g\\/g dry wt). Higher ? values were reached on the other two particles sizes (0.049–0.05h?1) with less

Isabel Membrillo; Carmen Sánchez; Marcos Meneses; Ernesto Favela; Octavio Loera

2011-01-01

128

Parameters-related uncertainty in modeling sugar cane yield with an agro-Land Surface Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agro-Land Surface Models (agro-LSM) have been developed from the coupling of specific crop models and large-scale generic vegetation models. They aim at accounting for the spatial distribution and variability of energy, water and carbon fluxes within soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum with a particular emphasis on how crop phenology and agricultural management practice influence the turbulent fluxes exchanged with the atmosphere, and the underlying water and carbon pools. A part of the uncertainty in these models is related to the many parameters included in the models' equations. In this study, we quantify the parameter-based uncertainty in the simulation of sugar cane biomass production with the agro-LSM ORCHIDEE-STICS on a multi-regional approach with data from sites in Australia, La Reunion and Brazil. First, the main source of uncertainty for the output variables NPP, GPP, and sensible heat flux (SH) is determined through a screening of the main parameters of the model on a multi-site basis leading to the selection of a subset of most sensitive parameters causing most of the uncertainty. In a second step, a sensitivity analysis is carried out on the parameters selected from the screening analysis at a regional scale. For this, a Monte-Carlo sampling method associated with the calculation of Partial Ranked Correlation Coefficients is used. First, we quantify the sensitivity of the output variables to individual input parameters on a regional scale for two regions of intensive sugar cane cultivation in Australia and Brazil. Then, we quantify the overall uncertainty in the simulation's outputs propagated from the uncertainty in the input parameters. Seven parameters are identified by the screening procedure as driving most of the uncertainty in the agro-LSM ORCHIDEE-STICS model output at all sites. These parameters control photosynthesis (optimal temperature of photosynthesis, optimal carboxylation rate), radiation interception (extinction coefficient), root uptake of water (root profile), and transpiration and respiration (stomatal conductance, growth and maintenance respiration coefficients). We find that the optimal carboxylation rate and optimal photosynthesis temperature parameters contribute most to the uncertainty in NPP and GPP simulations whereas stomatal conductance is the most sensitive parameter controlling SH, followed by optimal photosynthesis temperature and optimal carboxylation rate. The spatial variation of the ranked correlation between input parameters and output variables is well explained by rain and temperature drivers, suggesting that climate mediated regionally different sensitivities of modeled sugarcane yield to the model parameters, for Australia and Brazil.

Valade, A.; Ciais, P.; Vuichard, N.; Viovy, N.; Ruget, F.; Gabrielle, B.

2012-12-01

129

[Microbiological contamination and antimicrobial activity of cristalised cane sugar on some medically important microorganisms in Costa Rica].  

PubMed

Microbiological contamination and antimicrobial activity of cristalised cane sugar on some medically important microorganisms in Costa Rica. Unrefined cristalised cane sugar, obtained after the filtration and evaporation of sugar cane juice, is a nutritional product of traditional consumption in Costa Rica and other Neotropical countries. It has been used in the topic treatment of infected wounds, with satisfactory results even with some antibiotic-ressistant bacteria. We studied the microbiological quality of 50 commercial samples. The analyses included total aerobic and anaerobic bacteria plate count; aerobic and anaerobic spore count; mold and yeast count; total and fecal coliforms; and presence of Clostridium botulinum. The antimicrobial effect was tested for Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), S. epidermidis (UCR 2902), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 9027), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Salmonella enteritidis (ATCC 13076), Listeria monocytogenes (ATCC 19116) and Aspergillus niger (Asni 06). Most of the samples (76%) presented counts lower than 100 CFU/g especially for sporulated forms (90% lower than 20 CFU/g), the mold and yeast count was higher (38% higher than 10(2) CFU/g), demonstrating the importance of these microorganisms in the spoilage of the product; 76% of the samples presented fecal contamination; C. botulinum was not isolated with the methodology employed. No inhibitory effect was observed for A. niger, but all samples han an inhibitory effect over the other species, especially for P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. PMID:19256417

Pujol, Verónica; Diaz, Jendry; Rodríguez, Evelyn; Arias, María Laura

2008-06-01

130

Response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to cadmium and nickel stress: the use of the sugar cane vinasse as a potential mitigator.  

PubMed

Most of the metals released from industrial activity, among them are cadmium (Cd) and nickel (Ni), inhibit the productivity of cultures and affect microbial metabolism. In this context, the aim of this work was to investigate the capacity of sugar cane vinasse to mitigate the adverse effects of Cd and Ni on cell growth, viability, budding rate and trehalose content of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, likely because of adsorption and chelating action. For this purpose, the yeast was grown batch-wise in YED medium supplemented with selected amounts of vinasse and Cd or Ni. The negative effects of Cd and Ni on S. cerevisiae growth and the mitigating one of sugar cane vinasse were quantified by an exponential model. Without vinasse, the addition of increasing levels of Cd and Ni reduced the specific growth rate, whereas in its presence no reduction was observed. Consistently with the well-proved toxicity of both metals, cell viability and budding rate progressively decreased with increasing their concentration, but in the presence of vinasse the situation was remarkably improved. The trehalose content of S. cerevisiae cells followed the same qualitative behavior as cell viability, even though the negative effect of both metals on this parameter was stronger. These results demonstrate the ability of sugar cane vinasse to mitigate the toxic effects of Cd and Ni. PMID:21809054

Oliveira, Ricardo Pinheiro de Souza; Basso, Luiz Carlos; Junior, Adalberto Pessoa; Penna, Thereza Christina Vessoni; Del Borghi, Marco; Converti, Attilio

2012-01-01

131

Detection of added beet or cane sugar in maple syrup by the site-specific deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance (SNIF-NMR) method: collaborative study.  

PubMed

Results of a collaborative study are reported for the detection of added beet or cane sugar in maple syrup by the site-specific natural isotope fractionation-nuclear magnetic resonance (SNIF-NMR) method. The method is based on the fact that the deuterium content at specific positions of the sugar molecules is different in maple syrup from that in beet or cane sugar. The syrup is diluted with pure water and fermented; the alcohol is distilled with a quantitative yield and analyzed with a high-field NMR spectrometer fitted with a deuterium probe and fluorine lock. The proportion of ethanol molecules monodeuterated at the methyl site is recorded. This parameter (D/H)I is decreased when beet sugar is added and increased when cane sugar is added to the maple syrup. The precision of the method for measuring (D/H)I was found to be in good agreement with the values already published for the application of this method to fruit juice concentrates (AOAC Official Method 995.17). An excellent correlation was found between the percentage of added beet sugar and the (D/H)I isotopic ratio measured in this collaborative study. Consequently, all samples in which exogenous sugars were added were found to have a (D/H)I isotopic ratio significantly different from the normal value for an authentic maple syrup. By extension of what is known about plants having the C4 cycle, the method can be applied to corn sweeteners as well as to cane sugar. One limitation of the method is its reduced sensitivity when applied to specific blends of beet and cane sugars or corn sweeteners. In such case, the C13 ratio measurement (see AOAC Official Method 984.23, Corn Syrup and Cane Sugar in Maple Syrup) may be used in conjunction. PMID:11601471

Martin, Y L

2001-01-01

132

New antioxidative phenolic glycosides isolated from Kokuto non-centrifuged cane sugar.  

PubMed

Nine compounds, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethoxyphenyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1), beta-D-fructfuranosyl-alpha-D-(6-vanilloyl)-glucopyranoside (2), beta-D-fructfuranosyl-alpha-D-(6-syringyl)-glucopyranoside (3), 3-hydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-[4-(3-hydroxy-1-(E)-propenyl)-2-methoxyphenoxy]propyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (4), 3-hydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-[4-(3-hydroxy-1-(E)-propenyl)-2,6-dimethoxyphenoxy] propyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (5), dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol-9'-beta-D-glucopyranoside (6), 4-[ethane-2-[3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-propen]oxy]-2,6-dimethoxyphenyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (7), 4-[ethane-2-[3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-propen]oxy]-2-methoxyphenyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (8), and 3-hydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-[4-(3-hydroxy-1-(E)-propenyl)-2,6-dimethoxyphenoxy]propyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (9), were isolated from Kokuto non-centrifuged cane sugar. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic evidence, mainly based on the NMR technique. Among them, seven new glycosides were identified. The 2-deoxyribose oxidation method was used to measure their antioxidative activity. All of these compounds showed antioxidative activities. PMID:11866116

Takara, Kensaku; Matsui, Daigo; Wada, Koji; Ichiba, Toshio; Nakasone, Yoko

2002-01-01

133

Environmental repercussions of cane-sugar industries on the Chhoti Gandak river basin, Ganga Plain, India.  

PubMed

Chhoti Gandak river basin, situated in the Ganga Plain, is one of India's most productive cane-sugar industrial belts. Soil and groundwater samples were collected to investigate the impacts of these industries on the environment of the Chhoti Gandak river basin with special reference to soil and water. The results show that concentration of most metals are affected by industrial activities and surrounding agricultural practices. It is evidenced by increased heavy metal concentration in the soils as well as in the aquifers. Metals such as Pb, Cu, and Zn in the soil around the industrial sets are found significantly higher than their normal values in the soil. Metals like Fe and Mn in the groundwater are more than the permissible limit prescribed by the World Health Organization. In this study, an attempt was made to distinguish between the naturally occurring and anthropogenically induced metals in the soil. Analysis of geochemical properties, disposal of industrial wastes, inadequate application of agrochemicals, and their impact on environment indicate the sustainable implementation of integrated wastewater management plan in these industrial sets and also in similar situations. PMID:20041344

Bhardwaj, Vikram; Singh, Dhruv Sen; Singh, Abhay K

2010-12-01

134

Respiratory toxicity of repeated exposure to particles produced by traffic and sugar cane burning.  

PubMed

We compared the toxicity of subchronic exposure to equivalent masses of particles from sugar cane burning and traffic. BALB/c mice received 3 intranasal instillations/week during 1, 2 or 4 weeks of either distilled water (C1, C2, C4) or particles (15?g) from traffic (UP1, UP2, UP4) or biomass burning (BP1, BP2, BP4). Lung mechanics, histology and oxidative stress were analyzed 24h after the last instillation. In all instances UP and BP groups presented worse pulmonary elastance, airway and tissue resistance, alveolar collapse, bronchoconstriction and macrophage influx into the lungs than controls. UP4, BP2 and BP4 presented more alveolar collapse than UP1 and BP1, respectively. UP and BP had worse bronchial and alveolar lesion scores than their controls; BP4 had greater bronchial lesion scores than UP4. Catalase was higher in UP4 and BP4 than in C4. In conclusion, biomass particles were more toxic than those from traffic after repeated exposures. PMID:24280381

Mazzoli-Rocha, Flavia; Carvalho, Giovanna M C; Lanzetti, Manuella; Valença, Samuel S; Silva, Luiz F F; Saldiva, Paulo H N; Zin, Walter A; Faffe, Débora S

2014-01-15

135

[Effects of sugar cane molasses on the nutritive value of Canavalia ensiformis seeds for broiler chicks].  

PubMed

Three experiments were conducted to determine the efficacy of sugar cane molasses to improve performance of broiler chicks fed a diet containing 30% raw or autoclaved Canavalia ensiformis seeds (Jack beans). For this latter purpose, canavalia seeds were ground and autoclaved at 120 degrees C and 15 psi during 60 min. Day-old male chicks (Cobb x Cobb) were used throughout the study. In Experiment 1, adding 10% molasses to a control diet devoided of jack beans seeds significantly (p < 0.05) increased chick feed intake. However, neither the addition of 10% molasses nor of 5% glucose, sucrose, fructose, xylose or corn starch to the 30% raw canavalia ration allowed feed intakes similar to that shown by the control diet (Experiment 2). Broiler performance was evaluated in Experiment 3 in response to diets containing 30% raw or autoclaved jack bean meal. Ten-percent molasses was also added to both diets which along with the control diet were fed to chiks had free access to diets. Growth was depressed when the Jack bean containing diets were pair-fed to chicks. The results indicated that the use of molasses does not overcome the deleterious effects on chick performance due to the presence of 30% raw or autoclaved jack bean meal in the diets. PMID:9239297

Vargas, R E; Castillo, M; Michelangeli, C

1996-06-01

136

Changes in cholesterol kinetics following sugar cane policosanol supplementation: a randomized control trial  

PubMed Central

Background Sugar cane policosanols (SCP) have been shown to exert cholesterol-modulating properties in various studies conducted in Cuba by substantially reducing cholesterol synthesis. Independent research examining changes in cholesterol kinetics in response to SCP is limited to few studies, none of which was able to replicate findings of the original research. Moreover, no data are available on the effect of SCP on cholesterol absorption to date. The present study was undertaken to determine effects on cholesterol kinetics, namely synthesis and absorption, within hypercholesterolemic individuals consuming a SCP treatment. Twenty-one otherwise healthy hypercholesterolemic subjects participated in a randomized double-blind crossover study where they received 10 mg/day of policosanols or a placebo incorporated in margarine as an evening snack for a period of 28 days. The last week of the study phase, subjects were given 13C labelled cholesterol and deuterated water for the measurement of cholesterol absorption and synthesis respectively. Blood was collected on the first two and last five days of the trial. Cholesterol absorption and synthesis were determined by measuring red cell cholesterol 13C and deuterium enrichment, respectively. Results There was no significant change in LDL cholesterol levels as compared to control. In addition, the area under the curve for red cell cholesterol 13C enrichment across 96 hours was not significantly different in the SCP group as compared to control. Similarly, no difference was observed in the fractional rate of cholesterol synthesis over the period of 24 hours between the two treatment groups. Conclusion The findings of the present study fail to support previous research concerning efficacy and mechanism of action for policosanols.

Kassis, Amira N; Jones, Peter JH

2008-01-01

137

Optimization of process parameters for ethanol production from sugar cane molasses by Zymomonas mobilis using response surface methodology and genetic algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanol is a potential energy source and its production from renewable biomass has gained lot of popularity. There has been\\u000a worldwide research to produce ethanol from regional inexpensive substrates. The present study deals with the optimization\\u000a of process parameters (viz. temperature, pH, initial total reducing sugar (TRS) concentration in sugar cane molasses and fermentation\\u000a time) for ethanol production from sugar

Bodhisatta Maiti; Ankita Rathore; Saurav Srivastava; Mitali Shekhawat; Pradeep Srivastava

2011-01-01

138

Techno-economic evaluation of 2nd generation bioethanol production from sugar cane bagasse and leaves integrated with the sugar-based ethanol process  

PubMed Central

Background Bioethanol produced from the lignocellulosic fractions of sugar cane (bagasse and leaves), i.e. second generation (2G) bioethanol, has a promising market potential as an automotive fuel; however, the process is still under investigation on pilot/demonstration scale. From a process perspective, improvements in plant design can lower the production cost, providing better profitability and competitiveness if the conversion of the whole sugar cane is considered. Simulations have been performed with AspenPlus to investigate how process integration can affect the minimum ethanol selling price of this 2G process (MESP-2G), as well as improve the plant energy efficiency. This is achieved by integrating the well-established sucrose-to-bioethanol process with the enzymatic process for lignocellulosic materials. Bagasse and leaves were steam pretreated using H3PO4 as catalyst and separately hydrolysed and fermented. Results The addition of a steam dryer, doubling of the enzyme dosage in enzymatic hydrolysis, including leaves as raw material in the 2G process, heat integration and the use of more energy-efficient equipment led to a 37 % reduction in MESP-2G compared to the Base case. Modelling showed that the MESP for 2G ethanol was 0.97 US$/L, while in the future it could be reduced to 0.78 US$/L. In this case the overall production cost of 1G + 2G ethanol would be about 0.40 US$/L with an output of 102 L/ton dry sugar cane including 50 % leaves. Sensitivity analysis of the future scenario showed that a 50 % decrease in the cost of enzymes, electricity or leaves would lower the MESP-2G by about 20%, 10% and 4.5%, respectively. Conclusions According to the simulations, the production of 2G bioethanol from sugar cane bagasse and leaves in Brazil is already competitive (without subsidies) with 1G starch-based bioethanol production in Europe. Moreover 2G bioethanol could be produced at a lower cost if subsidies were used to compensate for the opportunity cost from the sale of excess electricity and if the cost of enzymes continues to fall.

2012-01-01

139

Analysis of sucrose accumulation in the sugar cane culm on the basis of in vitro kinetic data.  

PubMed Central

Sucrose accumulation in developing sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum) is accompanied by a continuous synthesis and cleavage of sucrose in the storage tissues. Despite numerous studies, the factors affecting sucrose accumulation are still poorly understood, and no consistent pattern has emerged which pinpoints certain enzyme activities as important controlling steps. Here, we develop an approach based on pathway analysis and kinetic modelling to assess the biochemical control of sucrose accumulation and futile cycling in sugar cane. By using the concept of elementary flux modes, all possible routes of futile cycling of sucrose were enumerated in the metabolic system. The available kinetic data for the pathway enzymes were then collected and assembled in a kinetic model of sucrose accumulation in sugar cane culm tissue. Although no data were fitted, the model agreed well with independent experimental results: in no case was the difference between calculated and measured fluxes and concentrations greater than 2-fold. The model thus validated was then used to assess different enhancement strategies for increasing sucrose accumulation. First, the control coefficient of each enzyme in the system on futile cycling of sucrose was calculated. Secondly, the activities of those enzymes with the numerically largest control coefficients were varied over a 5-fold range to determine the effect on the degree of futile cycling, the conversion efficiency from hexoses into sucrose, and the net sucrose accumulation rate. In view of the modelling results, overexpression of the fructose or glucose transporter or the vacuolar sucrose import protein, as well as reduction of cytosolic neutral invertase levels, appear to be the most promising targets for genetic manipulation. This offers a more directed improvement strategy than cumbersome gene-by-gene manipulation. The kinetic model can be viewed and interrogated on the World Wide Web at http://jjj.biochem.sun.ac.za.

Rohwer, J M; Botha, F C

2001-01-01

140

The Impact of Sugar Cane-Burning Emissions on the Respiratory System of Children and the Elderly  

PubMed Central

We analyzed the influence of emissions from burning sugar cane on the respiratory system during almost 1 year in the city of Piracicaba in southeast Brazil. From April 1997 through March 1998, samples of inhalable particles were collected, separated into fine and coarse particulate mode, and analyzed for black carbon and tracer elements. At the same time, we examined daily records of children (< 13 years of age) and elderly people (> 64 years of age) admitted to the hospital because of respiratory diseases. Generalized linear models were adopted with natural cubic splines to control for season and linear terms to control for weather. Analyses were carried out for the entire period, as well as for burning and nonburning periods. Additional models were built using three factors obtained from factor analysis instead of particles or tracer elements. Increases of 10.2 ?g/m3 in particles ? 2.5 ?m/m3 aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) and 42.9 ?g/m3 in PM10 were associated with increases of 21.4% [95% confidence interval (CI), 4.3–38.5] and 31.03% (95% CI, 1.25–60.21) in child and elderly respiratory hospital admissions, respectively. When we compared periods, the effects during the burning period were much higher than the effects during nonburning period. Elements generated from sugar cane burning (factor 1) were those most associated with both child and elderly respiratory admissions. Our results show the adverse impact of sugar cane burning emissions on the health of the population, reinforcing the need for public efforts to reduce and eventually eliminate this source of air pollution.

Cancado, Jose E.D.; Saldiva, Paulo H.N.; Pereira, Luiz A.A.; Lara, Luciene B.L.S.; Artaxo, Paulo; Martinelli, Luiz A.; Arbex, Marcos A.; Zanobetti, Antonella; Braga, Alfesio L.F.

2006-01-01

141

Analysis of genetic similarity detected by AFLP and coefficient of parentage among genotypes of sugar cane ( Saccharum spp.).  

PubMed

Despite the economical importance of sugar cane, until the present-date no studies have been carried out to determine the correlation of the molecular-based genetic similarity (GS) and the coefficient of parentage ( f)-estimates generated for cultivars. A comprehensive knowledge of the amount of genetic diversity in parental cultivars, could improve the effectiveness of breeding programmes. In this study, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and pedigree data were used to investigate the genetic relationship in a group of 79 cultivars (interspecific hybrids), used as parents in one of the Brazilian breeding programmes, and four species of Saccharum ( Saccharum sinense, Saccharum barberi and two of Saccharum officinarum). The objectives of this study were to assess the level of genetic similarity among the sugar-cane cultivars and to investigate the correlation between the AFLP-based GS and f, based on pedigree information. Twenty one primer combinations were used to obtain the AFLP molecular markers, generating a total of 2,331 bands, of which 1,121 were polymorphic, with a polymorphism rate, on average, of 50% per primer combination. GSs were determined using Jaccard's similarity coefficient, and a final dendrogram was constructed using an unweighted pair-group method using arithmetic average (UPGMA). AFLP-based GS ranged from 0.28 to 0.89, with a mean of 0.47, whereas f ranged from 0 to 0.503, with a mean of 0.057. Cluster analysis using GS divided the genotypes into related subgroups suggesting that there is important genetic relationship among the cultivars. AFLP-based GS and f were significantly correlated ( r= 0.42, P< 0.001), thus the significance of this r value suggests that the AFLP data may help to more-accurately quantify the degree of relationship among sugar-cane cultivars. PMID:12579425

Lima, M L A; Garcia, A A F; Oliveira, K M; Matsuoka, S; Arizono, H; De Souza, C L; De Souza, A P

2002-01-01

142

Diet of eared doves (Zenaida auriculata, Aves, Columbidae) in a sugar-cane colony in South-eastern Brazil.  

PubMed

Farmers in the Paranapanema Valley (São Paulo, Brazil) have reported problems with flocks of Eared Doves (Zenaida auriculata) eating sprouting soybeans. In this region these birds breed colonially in sugar-cane, and eat four crop seeds, using 70% of the dry weight, in the following order of importance: maize, wheat, rice, and soybeans. Three weeds (Euphorbia heterophylla, Brachiaria plantaginea, and Commelina benghalensis) were important. This information suggests that the doves adapted particularly well to the landscape created by the agricultural practices in the region, exploiting many available foods. PMID:12071322

Ranvaud, R; de Freitas, K C; Bucher, E H; Dias, H S; Avanzo, V C; Alberts, C C

2001-11-01

143

Effect of Different Pretreatment of Sugar Cane Bagasse on Cellulase and Xylanases Production by the Mutant Penicillium echinulatum 9A02S1 Grown in Submerged Culture  

PubMed Central

The main limitation to the industrial scale hydrolysis of cellulose is the cost of cellulase production. This study evaluated cellulase and xylanase enzyme production by the cellulolytic mutant Penicillium echinulatum 9A02S1 using pretreated sugar cane bagasse as a carbon source. Most cultures grown with pretreated bagasse showed similar enzymatic activities to or higher enzymatic activities than cultures grown with cellulose or untreated sugar cane bagasse. Higher filter paper activity (1.253 ± 0.147?U·mL?1) was detected in the medium on the sixth day of cultivation when bagasse samples were pretreated with sodium hydroxide, hydrogen peroxide, and anthraquinone. Endoglucanase enzyme production was also enhanced by pretreatment of the bagasse. Nine cultures grown with bagasse possessed higher ?-glucosidase activities on the sixth day than the culture grown with cellulose. The highest xylanase activity was observed in cultures with cellulose and with untreated sugar cane bagasse. These results indicate that pretreated sugar cane bagasse may be able to serve as a partial or total replacement for cellulose in submerged fermentation for cellulase production using P. echinulatum, which could potentially reduce future production costs of enzymatic complexes capable of hydrolyzing lignocellulosic residues to form fermented syrups.

Camassola, Marli; Dillon, Aldo J. P.

2014-01-01

144

Changes in the physicochemical characteristics, including flavour components and Maillard reaction products, of non-centrifugal cane brown sugar during storage.  

PubMed

Changes in the quality attributes of non-centrifugal cane brown sugar represented by physicochemical characteristics as well as flavour components and Maillard reaction products (MRPs) were monitored every 3 months over 1 year of storage. Stored cane brown sugar became darker, and its moisture content and water activity (a(w)) increased during storage. Fructose and glucose levels decreased as non-enzymatic browning via the Maillard reaction occurred in the stored sample, and a similar trend was also discovered in aconitic and acetic acids. Stored cane brown sugar lost its acidic and sulfuric odours (58.70-39.35% and 1.85-0.08%, respectively); subsequently, the nutty and roasted aroma increased from 26.52% to 38.59% due to the volatile MRPs. The browning rate of stored cane brown sugar was positively associated with the development of volatile MRPs (Pearson's coefficient = 0.860), whereas the amount of 3-deoxyglucosone, an intermediate product of the Maillard reaction, had a lower association with the brown colour due to its relatively slow degradation rate. PMID:24295691

Asikin, Yonathan; Kamiya, Asahiro; Mizu, Masami; Takara, Kensaku; Tamaki, Hajime; Wada, Koji

2014-04-15

145

Influence of Electron Beam Irradiation and Coupling Agents on the Thermal Stability of Sugar Cane Bagasse Fiber-Thermoplastics Scrape Composite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of blending of sugar cane bagasse with thermoplastics scrape as well as incorporation of some coupling agents has been conducted using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). In addition, the effect of electron beam preirradiation of low density polyethylene on the properties of the bagasse-LDPE composite was also studied. Simulation of TGA data reveals that the presence of bagasse fiber accelerates

H. A. Youssef; M. A. M. Ali; M. R. Ismail; A. H. Zahran

2007-01-01

146

Fermentation of sugar cane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate and sugar mixtures to ethanol by recombinant Escherichia coli KO11  

Microsoft Academic Search

Escherichia coli KO11, carrying the ethanol pathway genes pdc (pyruvate decarboxylase) and adh (alcohol dehydrogenase) from Zymomonas mobilis integrated into its chromosome, has the ability to metabolize pentoses and hexoses to ethanol, both in synthetic medium and\\u000a in hemicellulosic hydrolysates. In the fermentation of sugar mixtures simulating hemicellulose hydrolysate sugar composition\\u000a (10.0 g of glucose\\/l and 40.0 g of xylose\\/l)

Caroline Maki Takahashi; Katia Gianni de Carvalho Lima; Débora Fumie Takahashi; Flávio Alterthum

2000-01-01

147

Added Sugars  

MedlinePLUS

... sweetened milk); and other grains (cinnamon toast and honey-nut waffles). Too much sugar isn't so ... molasses, cane sugar, corn sweetener, raw sugar, syrup, honey or fruit juice concentrates. Learn more about reading ...

148

A Reduction in Rainfall Associated with Smoke from SugarCane Fires--An Inadvertent Weather Modification?  

Microsoft Academic Search

An examination of 60 years of rainfall during three months of the cane-harvesting season has shown a reduction of rainfall at inland stations coinciding with increasing cane production; no such reduction occurred at a `control' station upwind of smoke from the cane fires. The reduction is consistent with the hypothesis that through their activity as condensation nuclei the smoke particles

J. Warner

1968-01-01

149

Topochemical distribution of lignin and hydroxycinnamic acids in sugar-cane cell walls and its correlation with the enzymatic hydrolysis of polysaccharides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Lignin and hemicelluloses are the major components limiting enzyme infiltration into cell walls. Determination of the topochemical\\u000a distribution of lignin and aromatics in sugar cane might provide important data on the recalcitrance of specific cells. We\\u000a used cellular ultraviolet (UV) microspectrophotometry (UMSP) to topochemically detect lignin and hydroxycinnamic acids in\\u000a individual fiber, vessel and parenchyma cell walls of untreated and

Germano Siqueira; Adriane MF Milagres; Walter Carvalho; Gerald Koch; André Ferraz

2011-01-01

150

Cellulase production by Penicillium funiculosum and its application in the hydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse for second generation ethanol production by fed batch operation.  

PubMed

This study aimed to produce a cellulase blend and to evaluate its application in a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process for second generation ethanol production from sugar cane bagasse. The sugar cane bagasse was subjected to pretreatments (diluted acid and alkaline), as for disorganizing the ligocellulosic complex, and making the cellulose component more amenable to enzymatic hydrolysis. The residual solid fraction was named sugar cane bagasse partially delignified cellulignin (PDC), and was used for enzyme production and ethanol fermentation. The enzyme production was performed in a bioreactor with two inoculum concentrations (5 and 10% v/v). The fermentation inoculated with higher inoculum size reduced the time for maximum enzyme production (from 72 to 48). The enzyme extract was concentrated using tangential ultrafiltration in hollow fiber membranes, and the produced cellulase blend was evaluated for its stability at 37 °C, operation temperature of the simultaneous SSF process, and at 50 °C, optimum temperature of cellulase blend activity. The cellulolytic preparation was stable for at least 300 h at both 37 °C and 50 °C. The ethanol production was carried out by PDC fed-batch SSF process, using the onsite cellulase blend. The feeding strategy circumvented the classic problems of diffusion limitations by diminishing the presence of a high solid:liquid ratio at any time, resulting in high ethanol concentration at the end of the process (100 g/L), which corresponded to a fermentation efficiency of 78% of the maximum obtainable theoretically. The experimental results led to the ratio of 380 L of ethanol per ton of sugar cane bagasse PDC. PMID:23123260

Maeda, Roberto Nobuyuki; Barcelos, Carolina Araújo; Santa Anna, Lídia Maria Melo; Pereira, Nei

2013-01-10

151

Complete Genome Sequence of the Sugar Cane Endophyte Pseudomonas aurantiaca PB-St2, a Disease-Suppressive Bacterium with Antifungal Activity toward the Plant Pathogen Colletotrichum falcatum  

PubMed Central

The endophytic bacterium Pseudomonas aurantiaca PB-St2 exhibits antifungal activity and represents a biocontrol agent to suppress red rot disease of sugar cane. Here, we report the completely sequenced 6.6-Mb genome of P. aurantiaca PB-St2. The sequence contains a repertoire of biosynthetic genes for secondary metabolites that putatively contribute to its antagonistic activity and its plant-microbe interactions.

Bauer, Judith S.

2014-01-01

152

Pre-feasibility assessment of the potential of cane residues for cogeneration in the sugar industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study has shown that a significant increase is possible in power generation from residual fuels in sugar mills. Not only can the operation be self-sufficient with electricity - it is also possible to generate a large surplus for sale to the national ...

M. Gabra B. Kjellstroem

1995-01-01

153

An approach to the utilisation of CO2 as impregnating agent in steam pretreatment of sugar cane bagasse and leaves for ethanol production  

PubMed Central

Background The conditions for steam pretreatment of sugar cane bagasse and leaves were studied using CO2 as an impregnating agent. The following conditions were investigated: time (5 to 15 min) and temperature (190 to 220°C). The pretreatment was assessed in terms of glucose and xylose yields after enzymatic hydrolysis and inhibitor formation (furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural) in the pretreatment. Results from pretreatment using SO2 as impregnating agent was used as reference. Results For sugar cane bagasse, the highest glucose yield (86.6% of theoretical) was obtained after pretreatment at 205°C for 15 min. For sugar cane leaves the highest glucose yield (97.2% of theoretical) was obtained after pretreatment at 220°C for 5 min. The reference pretreatment, using impregnation with SO2 and performed at 190°C for 5 min, resulted in an overall glucose yield of 79.7% and 91.9% for bagasse and leaves, respectively. Conclusions Comparable pretreatment performance was obtained with CO2 as compared to when SO2 is used, although higher temperature and pressure were needed. The results are encouraging as some characteristics of CO2 are very attractive, such as high availability, low cost, low toxicity, low corrosivity and low occupational risk.

2010-01-01

154

75 FR 47258 - Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Sugar and Certain Sugars, Syrups and Molasses AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, USDA...MTRV for certain sugars, syrups, and molasses (collectively referred to as refined...sugar and certain sugars, syrups, and molasses that may be entered under the...

2010-08-05

155

Influence of sugar cane vinasse on the sorption and degradation of herbicides in soil under controlled conditions.  

PubMed

This study reports the influence of sugar cane vinasse on the persistence, sorption and leaching potential of diuron (3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea), hexazinone (3-cyclohexyl-6-(dimethylamino)-1-methyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-dione) and tebuthiuron (1-(5-tert-butyl-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)-1,3-dimethylurea) in both a clay and sandy soil from a tropical area of Brazil. The experiments were conducted out under controlled laboratory conditions. The addition of sugarcane vinasse to soil influenced the persistence and sorption of the herbicides in both the studied clay and sandy soils, with a considerable decrease in the diuron DT?? values in clay soil. The Ground Water Ubiquity Score (GUS) Index classifies the herbicides as leachers in both soils and treatments, with the exception of diuron, which is classified as a non-leacher in clay soil-vinasse and as a transient herbicide in sandy soil. These results suggest that special attention should be given to areas such as those where the sandy soil was collected in this study, which is a recharge area of the Guarani Aquifer and is likely to experience groundwater contamination due to the high leaching potential of the applied pesticides. PMID:22938579

Lourencetti, Carolina; De Marchi, Mary R R; Ribeiro, Maria L

2012-01-01

156

The utilization of sugar cane molasses with/without the presence of lignosulfonate for the production of bacterial cellulose.  

PubMed

Production of bacterial cellulose (BC) using sugar cane molasses (MO) with/without the presence of lignosulfonate (MOL) as a sole carbon source in a Hestrin-Schramm medium (HS) was investigated. Six strains of Acetobacter xylinum [American Type Culture Collection 10245 and Institute of Fermentation in Osaka (IFO) 13693, 13772, 13773, 14815, and 15237] were screened for their BC production. The yield of the BC among all the strains from both the MO and MOL media was much higher than that from the HS medium. Acetobacter xylinum IFO 13772 was the best BC producer for all media. Furthermore, physical properties of these BC from the HS, MO, and MOL media were studied using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometer, and cross polarization/magic angle spinning 13C nuclear magnetic resonance. There are no significant differences in the crystallinity and the recorded Ialpha fraction among the BC produced from the different media. A remarkable difference was only recorded in terms of viscosity. These results indicate that MO is a better carbon source than glucose for most of the strains investigated. PMID:16450110

Keshk, Sherif; Sameshima, Kazuhiko

2006-09-01

157

77 FR 55451 - Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Sugar and Certain Sugars, Syrups and Molasses; and the Fiscal Year 2013 Overall Allotment...MTRV for certain sugars, syrups, and molasses (collectively referred to as refined...sugar and certain sugars, syrups, and molasses that may be entered under the...

2012-09-10

158

Determination of trace elements of Egyptian cane sugar (Naga Hammady factories) by neutron activation, atomic absorption spectrophotometric and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometric analyses.  

PubMed

INAA, AAS and ICP-AES techniques are applied to the determination of trace amounts of Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Cd, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Dy, Eu, Fe, Ga, Hf, K, La, Li, Lu, Mg, Mn, Na, Nb, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sn, Sr, Ta, Th, Ti, U, V, W and Zn in the stalks of sugar cane plant after extracting juice, raw juice principal (mixed) juice, juice withdrawn from the successive stages of sugar industry, sirup, deposits from evaporators, molasse, A-? and B-sugar and in the soil samples (collected from the field supplying the factories by cane plants) taken from the immediate vicinity of the plant roots at surface, 30 and 60 cm depth. The results obtained are in a good agreement of the safety baselines of using juice as beverage, molasse derivatives (honey, sweets, ...) as diet for common people in the developed countries and in industry (methanol, ethanol, acetone & acetic acid, ...) and sugar sweeting for many purposes (in beverages, desserts, ...). Differences of trace elements concentrations in soil samples may be reasoned to geochemical and biogeochemical fractionation while those in juice may be due to the changes in the environmental conditions, chemical composition and botanic structures. Variations in trace element contents in the products formed during the successive stages of sugar industry may be a result of evaporation, filtration processes, chemical treatments or corrosion of vessels, containers or engines. Trace elements are very important where they are responsible for enzymatic and biochemical reactions, matabolism, health and diseases. PMID:6526566

Awadallah, R M; Sherif, M K; Mohamed, A E; Grass, F

1984-01-01

159

Fed-batch culture of Sacchoromyces cerevisiae in sugar-cane blackstrap molasses: invertase activity of intact cells in ethanol fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fed-batch cultures of Sacchoromyces cerevisiae were carried out in a 14 l fermenter (NBS, Microferm), containing sugar-cane blackstrap molasses supplemented with urea (0.5 g l?1) and penicillin V (500 ui\\/l), under the following conditions: 32(±1)°C; pH 4.5–5.0; N=200 min?1; inoculum and mash volume equal to 3.0 l and 7.0 l, respectively. The parameters varied were: filling time (T: 1, 2 or 3 h), time constant (K: 0,

O. F Echegaray; J. C. M Carvalho; A. N. R Fernandes; S Sato; E Aquarone; M Vitolo

2000-01-01

160

Agro-industry sugarcane residues disposal: the trends of their conversion into energy carriers in Cuba.  

PubMed

The goal of the present work was to carry out a review of the disposal practices for the agro-industry's sugarcane residue and the trends of energy use in Cuba. The lack of an alternative energy carrier to electricity with storage capability for use in off-season has to date been an unsolvable question. The improvement of cogeneration capacity via implementation of CEST or BIG/GTCC and the barriers for their implementation, the introduction of a medium size (3 ton/h) fast pyrolysis module (FPM3) as a solution for off-season energy demand in the agro-industry, and an assessment of the energy required to do so, were also analyzed. Bio-oil production from bagasse and sugarcane agriculture residues (SCAR) and their particularities at the sugar mill are treated. The influence of sugar facility production process configuration is analyzed. The fast pyrolysis products and the trends of their end uses in Cuba are presented. The production cost of a ton of Bio-oil for FPM3 conditions was calculated at 155 USD/ton and the payback time as a function of selling price between 160 and 110 USD/ton was estimated to be from 1.5 to 4 years. The economic feasibility of the FPM3 was estimated, comparing the added values for three scenarios: 1st case, currently-used sugar production, 16.5 USD/ton of cane; 2nd case, factoring in the cogeneration improvement, 27 USD/ton of cane; and 3rd case, with cogeneration improvement and Bio-oil production, 40 USD/ton of cane. The energy use of SCAR and the introduction of FPM3 in the sugar mill are promising improvements that could result in a potential surplus of 80 kWh(e)/ton of cane in-season, or 6 x 10(6)ton of Bio-oil (LHV=15 MJ/kg) for use off-season in a milling season of 4 million tons of raw sugar. PMID:16797957

Alonso Pippo, W; Garzone, P; Cornacchia, G

2007-01-01

161

Lidar observation campaign of sugar cane fires and industrial emissions in the State of São Paulo, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brazil has an important role in the biomass burning, with the detection of approximately 100,000 burning spots in a single year (2007). Most of these spots occur in the southern part of the Amazon basin during the dry season (from August to november) and these emissions reach the southeast of the country, a highly populated region and with serious urban air pollution problems. With the growing demand on biofuels, sugarcane is considerably expanding in the state of Sao Paulo, being a strong contributor to the bad air quality in this region. In the state of Sao Paulo, the main land use are pasture and sugarcane crop, that covers around 50% and 10% of the total area, respectively. Despite the aerosol from sugarcane burning having reduced atmospheric residence time, from a few days to some weeks, they might get together with those aerosol which spread over long distances (hundreds to thousands of kilometers). In the period of June through February 2010 a LIDAR observation campaign was carried in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, in order to observe and characterize optically the aerosols from two distinct sources, namely, sugar cane biomass burning and industrial emissions. For this purpose 2 LIDAR systems were available, one mobile and the other placed in a laboratory, both working in the visible (532 nm) and additionally the mobile system had a Raman channel available (607 nm). Also this campaign counted with a SODAR, a meteorological RADAR specially set up to detect aerosol "echoes" and gas-particle analyzers. To guarantee a good regional coverage 4 distinct sites were available to deploy the instruments, 2 in the near field of biomass burning activities (Rio Claro and Bauru), one for industrial emissions (Cubatao) and others from urban sources (Sao Paulo). The whole campaign provide the equivalent of 30 days of measurements which allowed us to get aerosol optical properties such as backscattering/extinction coefficients, scatter and LIDAR ratios, those were used to correlate with air quality and meteorological indicators and quantities. In this paper we should focus on the preliminary results of the Raman LIDAR system and its derived aerosol optical quantities.

Landulfo, E.; Jorge, Maria Paulete M. P.; Held, Gerhard; Guardani, Roberto; Steffens, Juliana; Dos Anjos F. Pinto, Sergio; Andre, Iara R.; Garcia, Gilberto; Lopes, F. J. S.; Mariano, Glauber L.; da Costa, Renata F.; Rodrigues, Patricia F.

2010-10-01

162

Diurnal and nocturnal measurements of PAH, nitro-PAH, and oxy-PAH compounds in atmospheric particulate matter of a sugar cane burning region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitro-PAHs, and oxy-PAHs were studied in the atmospheric particulate matter of a subtropical rural region (São Paulo State, Brazil) affected by emissions from sugar cane burning. Diurnal and nocturnal samples were collected from May to June of 2010. In general, average PAH concentrations were significantly higher at night, suggesting that the compounds were predominantly emitted to the atmosphere during biomass burning (which was mainly performed at night). The maximum average PAH concentration was found for benzo[b]fluoranthene at night (2.9 ± 5.4 ng m-3). Among the nitro-PAH compounds, the highest average concentrations were obtained for 9-nitrophenanthrene in diurnal and nocturnal samples (1.5 ± 1.2 and 1.3 ± 2.1 ng m-3, respectively). In contrast to the PAH and nitro-PAH compounds, the oxy-PAHs could not be directly associated with sugar cane burning. The most abundant oxy-PAH compound was benzanthrone (1.6 ± 1.3 ng m-3) at night, followed by 9,10-anthraquinone (1.1 ± 0.9 ng m-3) and 9-fluorenone (0.4 ± 0.1 ng m-3) during the day.

Souza, Kely F.; Carvalho, Lilian R. F.; Allen, Andrew G.; Cardoso, Arnaldo A.

2014-02-01

163

ALTERNATIVES TO SUGAR CANE IN ST. KITTS: COMPETITIVENESS STUDIES OF 4 CROPS IN ST. KITTS\\/NEVIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sugar industry in the island of St. Kitts came to a close in 2005 and so too did a long period of monoculture and possibly a culture and lifestyle of a people that affectionately refer to their country as Sugar City. Sugar was cultivated on approximately 4,500 hectares and there is now a dire need for replacement commodities that

Allistair Edwards; Andrew Eliel Jacque

2007-01-01

164

Aproveitamento do melaço e vinhaça de cana-de-açúcar como substrato para produção de biomassa protéica e lipídica por leveduras e bactéria Use of sugar cane molasses and vinasse for proteic and lipidic biomass production by yeast and bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work evaluated the lipid and protein growth and synthesis capacity by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Rhodotoruda mucilaginosa, Candida lipolytica, a yeast isolated from vinasse lakes and Corynebacterium glutamicum in 10% molasses and sugar cane crude vinasse. All microorganisms grew both in molasses and vinasse. The highest growth in crude vinasse was performed by R. mucilaginosa (7.05 g\\/L), and in 10% molasses,

Marcia Luciana Cazetta; Maria Antonia

165

Social epidemiology of a large outbreak of chickenpox in the Colombian sugar cane producer region: a set theory-based analysis.  

PubMed

There are few social epidemiologic studies on chickenpox outbreaks, although previous findings suggested the important role of social determinants. This study describes the context of a large outbreak of chickenpox in the Cauca Valley region, Colombia (2003 to 2007), with an emphasis on macro-determinants. We explored the temporal trends in chickenpox incidence in 42 municipalities to identify the places with higher occurrences. We analyzed municipal characteristics (education quality, vaccination coverage, performance of health care services, violence-related immigration, and area size of planted sugar cane) through analyses based on set theory. Edwards-Venn diagrams were used to present the main findings. The results indicated that three municipalities had higher incidences and that poor quality education was the attribute most prone to a higher incidence. Potential use of set theory for exploratory outbreak analyses is discussed. It is a tool potentially useful to contrast units when only small sample sizes are available. PMID:21808823

Idrovo, Alvaro J; Albavera-Hernández, Cidronio; Rodríguez-Hernández, Jorge Martín

2011-07-01

166

Contribution of cane bagasse used as a fuel in the sugar industry to changes in outdoor and indoor air quality in middle Egypt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present one-year study is concerned with the degree of relationship between the changes in quantity and quality of outdoor and indoor settled dust in Abu Qurqas town in Middle Egypt and the combustion of cane bagasse in boiler furnaces in a sugar factory located in the same town. It can be suggested that this process is responsible for increasing the rate of outdoor and indoor deposition of combustible matter by 2-8 and 2-7 times, respectively, during the period of December-April. However, it can be suggested also that the same process has a limited role, as it is a source of ash content of both outdoor and indoor settled dust and is ineffective in polluting the two environments with calcium, chloride and sulphate ions and tar fraction. Indoor levels of settled dust and its constituents were found to be lowest during cold months. This causes the indoor levels of combustible matter resulting from the sugar factory to be lower than the outdoor levels by 41-45% during December-March and by 28% during April which is a relatively warm month in Middle Egypt.

Hindy, K. T.

167

Modeling sugar cane yield with a process-based model from site to continental scale: uncertainties arising from model structure and parameter values  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agro-Land Surface Models (agro-LSM) have been developed from the integration of specific crop processes into large-scale generic land surface models that allow calculating the spatial distribution and variability of energy, water and carbon fluxes within the soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum. When developing agro-LSM models, a particular attention must be given to the effects of crop phenology and management on the turbulent fluxes exchanged with the atmosphere, and the underlying water and carbon pools. A part of the uncertainty of Agro-LSM models is related to their usually large number of parameters. In this study, we quantify the parameter-values uncertainty in the simulation of sugar cane biomass production with the agro-LSM ORCHIDEE-STICS, using a multi-regional approach with data from sites in Australia, La Réunion and Brazil. In ORCHIDEE-STICS, two models are chained: STICS, an agronomy model that calculates phenology and management, and ORCHIDEE, a land surface model that calculates biomass and other ecosystem variables forced by STICS' phenology. First, the parameters that dominate the uncertainty of simulated biomass at harvest date are determined through a screening of 67 different parameters of both STICS and ORCHIDEE on a multi-site basis. Secondly, the uncertainty of harvested biomass attributable to those most sensitive parameters is quantified and specifically attributed to either STICS (phenology, management) or to ORCHIDEE (other ecosystem variables including biomass) through distinct Monte-Carlo runs. The uncertainty on parameter values is constrained using observations by calibrating the model independently at seven sites. In a third step, a sensitivity analysis is carried out by varying the most sensitive parameters to investigate their effects at continental scale. A Monte-Carlo sampling method associated with the calculation of Partial Ranked Correlation Coefficients is used to quantify the sensitivity of harvested biomass to input parameters on a continental scale across the large regions of intensive sugar cane cultivation in Australia and Brazil. Ten parameters driving most of the uncertainty in the ORCHIDEE-STICS modeled biomass at the 7 sites are identified by the screening procedure. We found that the 10 most sensitive parameters control phenology (maximum rate of increase of LAI) and root uptake of water and nitrogen (root profile and root growth rate, nitrogen stress threshold) in STICS, and photosynthesis (optimal temperature of photosynthesis, optimal carboxylation rate), radiation interception (extinction coefficient), and transpiration and respiration (stomatal conductance, growth and maintenance respiration coefficients) in ORCHIDEE. We find that the optimal carboxylation rate and photosynthesis temperature parameters contribute most to the uncertainty in harvested biomass simulations at site scale. The spatial variation of the ranked correlation between input parameters and modeled biomass at harvest is well explained by rain and temperature drivers, suggesting climate-mediated different sensitivities of modeled sugar cane yield to the model parameters, for Australia and Brazil. This study reveals the spatial and temporal patterns of uncertainty variability for a highly parameterized agro-LSM and calls for more systematic uncertainty analyses of such models.

Valade, A.; Ciais, P.; Vuichard, N.; Viovy, N.; Huth, N.; Marin, F.; Martiné, J.-F.

2014-01-01

168

Effects of D-003, a mixture of high-molecular-weight sugar cane wax acids, on lipid peroxidation markers in older individuals: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Aging is associated with increased lipid peroxidation (LP). D-003, a mixture of long-chain aliphatic primary acids purified from sugar cane wax, has been found to inhibit LP in experimental models and in healthy subjects.Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of D-003 on LP markers and the lipid profile of older individuals.Methods: This randomized, double-blind,

Yohani Pérez; Roberto Menéndez; José I. Ferrer; Ernesto Lopez; Gladys Castaño; Julio Fernández; Rosa M. Ferreiro; Lilia Fernández; Sarahí Mendoza; Rosa González; Melbis Mesa

2008-01-01

169

Saccharification and fermentation of sugar cane bagasse by Klebsiella oxytoca P2 containing chromosomally integrated genes encoding the Zymomonas mobilis ethanol pathway  

SciTech Connect

Pretreatment of sugar cane bagasse is essential for a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process which uses recombinant Klebsiella oxytoca strain P2 and Genencor Spezyme CE. Strain P2 has been genetically engineered to express Zymomonas mobilis genes encoding the ethanol pathway and retains the native ability to transport and metabolize cellobiose (minimizing the need for extracellular cellobiase). In SSF studies with this organism, both the rate of ethanol production and ethanol yield were limited by saccharification at 10 and 20 filter paper units (FPU) g[sup [minus]1] acid-treated bagasse. Dilute slurries of biomass were converted to ethanol more efficiently (over 72% of theoretical yield) in simple batch fermentations than slurries containing high solids, albeit with the production of lower levels of ethanol. With high solids (i.e., 160 g acid-treated bagasse L[sup [minus]1]), a combination of 20 FPU cellulase g[sup [minus]1] bagasse, preincubation under saccharification conditions, and additional grinding (to reduce particle size) were required to produce ca. 40 g ethanol L[sup [minus]1]. Alternatively, almost 40 g ethanol L[sup [minus]1] was produced with 10 FPU cellulase g[sup [minus]1] bagasse by incorporating a second saccharification step (no further enzyme addition) followed by a second inoculation and short fermentation. In this way, a theoretical ethanol yield of over 70% was achieved with the production of 20 g ethanol 800 FPU[sup [minus]1] of commercial cellulase.

Doran, J.B.; Aldrich, H.C.; Ingram, L.O. (Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Microbiology and Cell Science)

1994-06-20

170

Sugar Beet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beet sugar and cane sugar constitute 25% and 75%, respectively, of the world sucrose production of about 145×10 6 ty ear ?1 .S ugar beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris var. altissima Döll) is grown mainly in Europe, producing 28×10 6 t beet sugar (hereof 20×10 6 t in the EU), North America (4.0×10 6 t) and Asia (2.5×10 6 t).

M. Joersbo

171

78 FR 56646 - Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2014 WTO Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Sugar and Certain Sugars, Syrups and Molasses AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, USDA...quantity of certain sugars, syrups, and molasses (also referred to as refined sugar...sugar and certain sugars, syrups, and molasses that may be entered under the...

2013-09-13

172

Short term responses of nitrogen trace gas emissions to nitrogen fertilization in tropical sugar cane: Variations due to soils and management practices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nitrogen (N) fertilization of agricultural systems is thought to be a major source of the increase in atmospheric N2O; NO emissions from soils have also been shown to increase due to N fertilization. While N fertilizer use is increasing rapidly in the developing world and in the tropics, nearly all of our information on gas emissions is derived from studies of temperate zone agriculture. Using chambers, we measured fluxes of N2O and NO following urea fertilization in tropical sugar cane systems growing on a variety of soil types in the Hawaiian Islands, USA. On the island of Maui, where urea is applied in irrigation lines and soils are mollisols and inceptisols, N2O fluxes were elevated for a week or less following fertilization; maximum average fluxes were typically less than 30 ng cm(exp -2)/ h. NO fluxes were often an order of magnitude less than N2O. Together, N2O and NO represented from 0.01 - 0.5% of the applied N. In fields on the island of Hawaii, where urea is broadcast on the surface and soils are andisols, N2O fluxes were similar in magnitude to Maui but remained elevated for much longer periods after fertilization. NO emissions were 2-5 times higher than N2O through most of the sampling periods. Together the gases loss represented approximately 1. 1 - 3% of the applied N. Laboratory studies indicate that denitrification is a critical source of N2O in Maui, but that nitrification is more important in Hawaii. Experimental studies suggest that differences in the pattern of N2O/NO and the processes producing them are a result of both carbon availability and placement of fertilizer, and that the more information-intensive fertilizer management practice results in lower emissions.

Matson, P. A.; Billow, C.; Hall, S.; Zachariassen, J.

1994-01-01

173

Processing of total, close-spaced cane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Limited tests were conducted in Audubon Sugar Factory during Fall, 1976, to determine the processibility of the whole cane plant (tops and leaves included). Also tested was the processibility of cane grown under special, close-spaced (12 inch) conditions. These tests were part of the Energy from Crops program sponsored by the Energy Research and Development Administration and coordinated by the

J. A. Polack; H. S. Birkett

1977-01-01

174

Bioenergy systems report. Special issue: cane energy systems  

SciTech Connect

The report examines the use of cane to produce energy. It focuses primarily on two recent proposals for the production of electric power for the grid using cane residues and supplementary fuels. It also reviews use of cane juice or molasses to produce ethanol for blending with gasoline. In both types of cane energy systems, the objective is the production of energy as well as sugar or sugar products. The report is divided into sections on growing and harvesting biomass fuels in cane fields, producing power for the grid with these fuels, the uses of the cane juice produced in cane energy systems, the costs and revenues associated with these systems, and the national benefits derived from these systems.

Not Available

1986-03-01

175

o sup 14C como tracador do fluxo do carbono assimilado pelas plantas (milho, cana-de-acucar, feijao) e sua liberacao ao solo. ((14)C as tracer in the carbon flow assimilated by the plants (maize, sugar cane, bean) and it liberation to the soil).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The flow of carbon in three different crops, maize, beans and sugar cane was studied by use of (sup 14)V. The plants were exposed to an atmosphere with a constant concentration of the tracer for 12 hours in a biosynthesis chamber. The detection of the iso...

B. J. F. Paula Eduardo

1987-01-01

176

ECOSTATIC CANE PROCESSING SYSTEM PROTOTYPE PHASE  

EPA Science Inventory

The overall objective of this project was to demonstrate a systems environmental management approach, from field to final product, for the processing of raw cane sugar. Specific sub-systems which were to be developed and demonstrated as part of this systems approach were: (a) har...

177

Ecostatic Cane Processing System Prototype Phase.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The overall objective of this project was to demonstrate a systems environmental management approach, from field to final product, for the processing of raw cane sugar. Specific sub-systems which were to be developed and demonstrated as part of this syste...

R. T. Webb M. A. Goldman

1977-01-01

178

Sugar Sugar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Java applet is a game that challenges a student to solve problems by using logic and rudimentary engineering skills. The goal in each case is to create a conveyance that gets the required amount of sugar to pour into a mug or mugs. The game has 30 stages of increasing complexity.

Bonte, Bart

2012-01-01

179

Sugar crops for fuel alcohol  

SciTech Connect

The use of alcohol rather than petroleum as a fuel source would require a large amount of land and suitable crops. Acerage now in use for food crops and animal production in the USA is given. The author presents alternatives to present land use in order to free acreage for energy crops such as sorghum, sugar beets, and sugar cane. (DC)

Irvine, J.E.

1980-01-01

180

Glass-Ceramic Material from the SiO2-Al2O3-CaO System Using Sugar-Cane Bagasse Ash (SCBA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brazil is the world's largest producer of alcohol and sugar from sugarcane. Currently, sugarcane bagasse is burned in boilers to produce steam and electrical energy, producing a huge volume of ash. The major component of the ash is SiO2, and among the minor components there are some mineralizing agents or fluxing. Published works have shown the potential of transforming silicate-based residues into glass-ceramic products of great utility. This work reports the research results of SCBA use to produce glass-ceramics with wollastonite, rankinite and gehlenite as the major phases. These silicates have important applications as building industry materials, principally wollastonite, due to their special properties: high resistance to weathering, zero water absorption, and hardness among others. The glasses (frits) were prepared mixing ash, calcium carbonate and sodium or potassium carbonates as flux agents, in different concentrations. X-ray fluorescence was used to determine the chemical composition of the glasses and their crystallization was assessed by using thermal analysis (DTA/DSC/TGA) and X-ray diffraction. The crystallization kinetics was evaluated using the Kissinger method, giving activation energies ranging from 200 to 600 kJ/mol.

Teixeira, S. R.; Romero, M.; Ma Rincón, J.; Magalhães, R. S.; Souza, A. E.; Santos, G. T. A.; Silva, R. A.

2011-10-01

181

Sugar cane bagasse as a possible source of fermentable carbohydrates. I. Characterization of bagasse with regard to monosaccharide, hemicellulose, and amino acid composition  

SciTech Connect

Hemicellulose fractions of plant materials have recently attracted attention as a possible source of fermentable sugars to be used via fermentation for the production of liquid fuels, mainly ethanol. Individual monosaccharides present in bagasse hemicellulose were determined using HPLC and other chromatographic procedures. The presence of higher oligomers of the monosaccharides could also be determined. The pentosan fraction of bagasse was successfully hydrolyzed and extracted with 5% (m/v) HCl, and the rate of release of individual monosaccharides was determined. Xylose was the main component in the hydrolyzates, while glucose, arabinose, and galactose present in the side chains of the pentosans were initially released at a fast rate. This treatment resulted in obtaining 229 mg/g xylose (85% of theoretical maximum) and 44 mg/g glucose from bagasse. Only arabinose (2.8 mg/g) and galactose (0.75 mg/g) was also present in detectable quantities. A total of 309 mg monosaccharides were obtained from 1 g of bagasse by this treatment. The results indicated that hydrolysis conditions for specific plant materials depend on the composition of the specific material being utilized. A part of the pentosan fraction (77.1%) was hydrolyzed at a high rate, while 22.9% was more stable and hydrolyzed more slowly. Although 39.8% dry bagasse could be obtained in solution by treatment with dilute alkali, only about 72% of the available hemicelluloses could be extracted in this way if the bagasse was not delignified beforehand. Amino acids and peptides or proteins were also extracted to very much the same extent with the alkali.

du Toit, P.J.; Olivier, S.P.; van Biljon, P.L.

1984-01-01

182

Elevation of a cane-growing area of the state of Sao Paulo using LANDSAT data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Images at a scale of 1:250.000 were visually interpreted for identification and area estimates of sugar cane plantations in Sao Paulo. The basic criteria for crop identification were the spectral characteristics of channels 5 and 7 and their temporal variations observed from different LANDSAT passes. Using this technique, it was possible to map the sugar cane areas as well as the sugar cane already harvested. An area of 801,950 hectares was estimated within the study area. The confidence interval of correct classification ranged from 87.11% to 94.71%.

Dejesusparada, N. (principal investigator); Mendonca, F. J.; Lee, D. C. L.; Tardin, A. T.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Chen, S. C.; Lucht, L. A. M.; Moreira, M. A.; Delima, A. M.; Maia, F. C. S.

1981-01-01

183

Use of cane condensed molasses solubles in feeding broilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mean composition of condensed molasses solubles (vinasse or stillage) obtained from the three alcohol fermentation plants of the sugar cane industry including proximate constituents, inorganic components and amino acid composition was obtained. Mean solids content was 620 g kg?1. Vinasse found to be low in fat and fiber but high in ash and different carbohydrate contents. Potassium content of

K. N. Waliszewski; A. Romero; V. T. Pardio

1997-01-01

184

Long-term Effects of Pre-harvest Burning and Nitrogen and Vinasse Applications on Yield of Sugar Cane and Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Stockson a Plantation in Pernambuco, N.E. Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the 1970s the area under sugarcane in Brazil has increased from 2 million to over 5 million ha (M ha), and it is expected\\u000a to pass the 7 M ha mark in 2007. More than half of the cane is harvested to produce bioethanol as a fuel for light vehicles.\\u000a The distilleries produce approximately 13 L of distillery waste (vinasse) for

Alexander S. de Resende; Rogério P. Xavier; Octávio C. de Oliveira; Segundo Urquiaga; Bruno J. R. Alves; Robert M. Boddey

2006-01-01

185

A COMPETITIVIDADE DO COMPLEXO AGROINDUSTRIAL SUCROALCOOLEIRO NO BRASIL E NO PARANÁ: 1990\\/2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to analyze the competitive ness of the sugar cane industry in Brazil and in Paraná. The Paraná state occupies the second position in productivity and in the total production of the sector, reason why this paper ana lyzes the competitiveness of the complex and its evolution in Brazil and in Paraná between 1 990

JOÃO AMILCAR; RODRIGUES ANHESINI; MARCIA REGINA GABA; RDO DA CAMARA; VANDERLEI JOSÉ SEREIA

186

Pretreatment of AgroIndustrial Residues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem of management of agro-industrial residues complicate the farming economies. Agro-industrial residues are the most\\u000a abundant and renewable resources on earth. Accumulation of this biomass in large quantities every year results not only in\\u000a the deterioration of the environment, but also in the loss of potentially valuable material which can be processed to yield\\u000a a number of valuable added products,

Poonam Nigam; Nutan Gupta; Ashish Anthwal

187

China: An emerging sugar super power  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugarcane production in China has more than 3000 years of history. Prior to 1840 A.D., China dominated the world trade of\\u000a cane sugar but the sugar industry became very week since then due to long time of wars and unstable social conditions. It\\u000a has been developing rapidly again since early 1980s. China has become the third largest sugar producer in

Yang-rui Li

2004-01-01

188

Rock phosphate solubilization by Aspergillus niger grown on sugar-beet waste medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solubilization of rock phosphate by Aspergillus niger was studied in solid-state fermentation on sugar-beet waste. This combination was selected after testing three agroindustrial waste materials, namely rice hulls, sugar-beet waste and alperujo. Sugar-beet waste was the best substrate for fungal growth with 69% mineralization, followed by rice hulls and alperujo. The fungus was successfully cultivated on sugar-beet waste supplemented with

N. Vassilev; M. T. Baca; M. Vassileva; I. Franco; R. Azcon

1995-01-01

189

Active guidance towards proper cane usage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The usage of conventional assistive cane devices is critical in reducing the risk of falls, which are particularly detrimental to the elderly and disabled. Individuals that experience the greatest risks rely on cane devices for support of ambulation. Results of many studies, however, have shown that incorrect cane usage is prevalent among cane users. The original SmartCane assistive system has

Lawrence K. Au; Winston H. Wu; Maxim A. Batalin; William J. Kaiser

2008-01-01

190

Cogeneration in the Hawaiian sugar industry  

SciTech Connect

For nearly a century the Hawaiian sugar industry has produced most of the steam and electricity needed to process sugarcane and to power its factories and irrigation pumps. Judicious use of bagasse and cane trash has made the Hawaiian sugar industry among the most efficient in the world in converting biomass into electricity --- in comparison with typical worldwide cane-to-electricity productivities of {approximately}10 kWh per ton of cane, Hawaiian sugar factories today generate, on average, about 60 kWh per ton of cane and, in some factories, 100 kWh or more. Plantations in Hawaii produce about 800 million kWh annually, and, after satisfying virtually all of their internal power requirements, export roughly 400 million kWh to public utility companies. To attain world prominence in generating and exporting power from bagasse, Hawaiian sugar companies have had to address numerous technical, operational, regulatory, and contractual issues relating to the production and distribution of steam and electricity. Prior to 1970 the development of electricity generation in the Hawaiian sugar industry was shaped almost entirely by technical developments --- better utilization of the available biomass resources; consolidation of steam-generation facilities into fewer, larger, and more efficient units; and increased operating pressures and temperatures of steam and electrical generating units and better heat recovery to achieve higher thermal efficiency in the cogeneration plant. In more recent years, however, non-technical issues have influenced electricity generation and sale more than technical factors. 20 figs., 5 tabs.

Kinoshita, C.M.

1990-01-01

191

EXTRACELLULAR LIGNINOLYTIC ENZYMES PRODUCTION BY Pleurotus eryngii ON AGROINDUSTRIAL WASTES.  

PubMed

Pleurotus eryngii (DC.) Gillet (MCC58) was investigated for its ligninolytic ability to produce laccase (Lac), manganese peroxidase (MnP), aryl alcohol oxidase (AAO), and lignin peroxidase (LiP) enzymes through solid-state fermentation using apricot and pomegranate agroindustrial wastes. The reducing sugar, protein, lignin, and cellulose levels in these were studied. Also, the production of these ligninolytic enzymes was researched over the growth of the microorganism throughout 20 days, and the reducing sugar, protein, and nitrogen levels were recorded during the stationary cultivation at 28 ± 0.5°C. The highest Lac activity was obtained as 1618.5 ± 25 U/L on day 12 of cultivation using apricot. The highest MnP activity was attained as 570.82 ± 15 U/L on day 17 in pomegranate culture and about the same as apricot culture. There were low LiP activities in both cultures. The maximum LiP value detected was 16.13 ± 0.8 U/L in apricot cultures. In addition, AAO activities in both cultures showed similar trends up to day 17 of cultivation, with the highest AAO activity determined as 105.99 ± 6.3 U/L on day 10 in apricot cultures. Decolorization of the azo dye methyl orange was also achieved with produced ligninolytic enzymes by P. eryngii using apricot and pomegranate wastes. PMID:24279903

Akpinar, Merve; Urek, Raziye Ozturk

2014-11-17

192

Novel Crystalline SiO2 Nanoparticles via Annelids Bioprocessing of Agro-Industrial Wastes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The synthesis of nanoparticles silica oxide from rice husk, sugar cane bagasse and coffee husk, by employing vermicompost with annelids ( Eisenia foetida) is reported. The product ( humus) is calcinated and extracted to recover the crystalline nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) show that the biotransformation allows creating specific crystalline phases, since equivalent particles synthesized without biotransformation are bigger and with different crystalline structure.

Espíndola-Gonzalez, A.; Martínez-Hernández, A. L.; Angeles-Chávez, C.; Castaño, V. M.; Velasco-Santos, C.

2010-09-01

193

Novel Crystalline SiO2 Nanoparticles via Annelids Bioprocessing of Agro-Industrial Wastes  

PubMed Central

The synthesis of nanoparticles silica oxide from rice husk, sugar cane bagasse and coffee husk, by employing vermicompost with annelids (Eisenia foetida) is reported. The product (humus) is calcinated and extracted to recover the crystalline nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) show that the biotransformation allows creating specific crystalline phases, since equivalent particles synthesized without biotransformation are bigger and with different crystalline structure.

2010-01-01

194

The Greenhouse Gas Flux and Carbon Budget of Land Use Conversion from Pasture to Energy Cane Production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The United States is committed to produce 140 billion liters of ethanol by 2022. To meet this goal, and mitigate concerns about the "fuel versus food" conundrum, there is a pressing need for a second generation of sustainable biofuel feedstocks. Energy cane is a high yield, cold-tolerant C4 grass that can be efficiently used to produce bio-ethanol via existing cellulo-lignosic conversion technologies. There is exciting promise for Energy cane as an ethanol feedstock, however the climate implications of large-scale land use change from pasture (a significant use of land in the Southeastern USA) to production of an energy grass has not been fully explored. Furthermore, the soil type on which Energy cane will be grown will likely have a significant impact on greenhouse gases (GHG). We use DAYCENT, a process based biogeochemical model, to forecast how land use change from pasture to Energy cane production influences ecosystem level GHG flux and soil carbon flux. Because Energy cane is not widely cultivated, we use the available sugar cane literature to validate our in silico experiments. DAYCENT simulations suggest that soil type and fertilization rates have a strong control on the GHG and soil C dynamics after changing land from pasture to Energy cane. Our model results show net losses of ecosystem level C when Energy cane is grown on Histosols (organic matter rich soils), and a net gain of ecosystem C when that crop is grown on Spodosols (sandy soils). Respired CO2, N2O and total GHG efflux is significantly higher on Histosols compared to Spodosols in cane production. We conclude that the soil type on which Energy cane is grown determines the climatic impact of changing a landscape from pasture to Energy cane, and the greatest long-term climate benefit comes from growing cane on Spodosols.

Duval, B.; Davis, S. C.; Parton, W. J.; Long, S. P.; DeLucia, E. H.

2011-12-01

195

Status and trends of sugar industry in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sugar industry in China is becoming increasingly important both domestically and internationally because of its rapid\\u000a development. Significant progress has been achieved not only in sugar production, but also in the integrated utilization,\\u000a developments and as productions of sugar-based products cane by-products, and environment-friendly management of vinasse.\\u000a These developments are the result of the combined impact of governmental policies,

Yuan-An Wei; Yang-Rui Li

2006-01-01

196

Fiji's Sugar Woes: The Challenge of the Land Tenure System, Ethnicity and the Erosion of EU Sugar Preferences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The non-renewal of land leases since 1997 and the impending withdrawal of the European Union?'s sugar preferences in 2007 have created major uncertainties in Fiji?'s sugar industry. In the context of this troubled environment, this paper examines the impact of various socio-economic factors on the viability of the industry by focusing on farm efficiency in sugar cane production. It was

Renuka Mahadevan

2007-01-01

197

Sugar industry in China: R & D and policy initiatives to meet sugar and biofuel demand of future  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sugar industry in China is becoming increasingly important both domestically and internationally because of its rapid\\u000a development. Significant progress has been achieved not only in sugar production, but also in the integrated utilization,\\u000a developments such as productions of sugar-based products and cane by-products, and environment-friendly management of vinasse.\\u000a Production of luquid fuel (ethanol) from sugarcane is also gaining much

Yang-Rui Li; Yuan-An Wei

2006-01-01

198

Alkali-based AFEX pretreatment for the conversion of sugarcane bagasse and cane leaf residues to ethanol.  

PubMed

Sugarcane is one of the major agricultural crops cultivated in tropical climate regions of the world. Each tonne of raw cane production is associated with the generation of 130 kg dry weight of bagasse after juice extraction and 250 kg dry weight of cane leaf residue postharvest. The annual world production of sugarcane is approximately 1.6 billion tones, generating 279 MMT tones of biomass residues (bagasse and cane leaf matter) that would be available for cellulosic ethanol production. Here, we investigated the production of cellulosic ethanol from sugar cane bagasse and sugar cane leaf residue using an alkaline pretreatment: ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX). The AFEX pretreatment improved the accessibility of cellulose and hemicelluloses to enzymes during hydrolysis by breaking down the ester linkages and other lignin carbohydrate complex (LCC) bonds and the sugar produced by this process is found to be highly fermentable. The maximum glucan conversion of AFEX pretreated bagasse and cane leaf residue by cellulases was approximately 85%. Supplementation with hemicellulases during enzymatic hydrolysis improved the xylan conversion up to 95-98%. Xylanase supplementation also contributed to a marginal improvement in the glucan conversion. AFEX-treated cane leaf residue was found to have a greater enzymatic digestibility compared to AFEX-treated bagasse. Co-fermentation of glucose and xylose, produced from high solid loading (6% glucan) hydrolysis of AFEX-treated bagasse and cane leaf residue, using the recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae (424A LNH-ST) produced 34-36 g/L of ethanol with 92% theoretical yield. These results demonstrate that AFEX pretreatment is a viable process for conversion of bagasse and cane leaf residue into cellulosic ethanol. PMID:20521302

Krishnan, Chandraraj; Sousa, Leonardo da Costa; Jin, Mingjie; Chang, Linpei; Dale, Bruce E; Balan, Venkatesh

2010-10-15

199

Discrimination and classification of beet and cane inverts in honey by FT-Raman spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a natural product, honey has been prone to adulteration. Adulteration of honey by substituting with cheap invert sugars is a critical issue in the honey industry. Fourier Transform (FT) Raman Spectroscopy was used to detect adulterants such as cane and beet invert in honey. FT Ra man spectrum of adulterated samples were characterized and the region between 200 and

M. M Paradkar; J Irudayaraj

2002-01-01

200

13C-IRIS: an improved method to detect the addition of low levels of C4-derived sugars to juices.  

PubMed

A method to improve the detection of cane or corn sugar addition to fruit juices has been developed. This involves the isolation of the individual sugars and measurement of their carbon isotope ratios. Using the Isotopic Relations of Individual Sugars approach, the additions of cane sucrose or cane invert as low as 4% of the total sugars can be detected in orange juice. This method offers a significant improvement over the conventional carbon isotopic method that has a detection limit of about 10%. PMID:11417659

Day, M P; Correia, P; Hammond, D A

2001-01-01

201

Sugar Backgrounder.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The sugar title in the 2007 Farm Bill will determine how U.S. sugar policy is to be conducted. Currently, the U.S. sugar program uses domestic marketing allotments, price supports, and tariff-rate quotas to influence the amount of sugar available to the U...

M. Ali S. Haley

2007-01-01

202

FTIR characterization of Mexican honey and its adulteration with sugar syrups by using chemometric methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

A chemometric analysis of adulteration of Mexican honey by sugar syrups such as corn syrup and cane sugar syrup was realized. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to measure the absorption of a group of bee honey samples from central region of Mexico. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to process FTIR spectra to determine the adulteration of bee

M. A. Rios-Corripio; E. Rios-Leal; M. Rojas-López; R. Delgado-Macuil

2011-01-01

203

Dextran producing microorganisms from Mitr Phuveing Sugar Factory, Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dextran is a polysaccharide consisting of glucose monomers linked mainly by ?(1–6) bonds, produced by numerous microorganisms.\\u000a It is well known that dextran in cane detrimentally affects processing in the sugar industry. Many microorganisms have been\\u000a isolated from sugarcane juice during the milling process at Mitr Phuveing Sugar Factory. These organisms were screened for\\u000a their dextran producing property by selecting

N. Milintawisamai; C. Ngasan; U. Pliansinchai; P. Weerathaworn

2009-01-01

204

NON-STARCH, SOLUBLE POLYSACCHARIDES OF SUGA'R CANE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-starch polysaccharides of sugarcane include the cel­ lulose and hemicellulose fractions, and several water-soluble compounds: cellwall polysaccharides, indigenous sugarcane polysaccharide (I.S.P.), sarkaran and sarkaran-like polysac­ charides, and other glucans. Emphasis in this paper is on the soluble species. Structures of the compounds, including the recently identified low molecular weight glucan, are re­ viewed. Roles of the soluble polysaccharides in plant

FREDERICK W. PARRISH

205

The Penicillium echinulatum Secretome on Sugar Cane Bagasse  

PubMed Central

Plant feedstocks are at the leading front of the biofuel industry based on the potential to promote economical, social and environmental development worldwide through sustainable scenarios related to energy production. Penicillium echinulatum is a promising strain for the bioethanol industry based on its capacity to produce large amounts of cellulases at low cost. The secretome profile of P. echinulatum after grown on integral sugarcane bagasse, microcrystalline cellulose and three types of pretreated sugarcane bagasse was evaluated using shotgun proteomics. The comprehensive chemical characterization of the biomass used as the source of fungal nutrition, as well as biochemical activity assays using a collection of natural polysaccharides, were also performed. Our study revealed that the enzymatic repertoire of P. echinulatum is geared mainly toward producing enzymes from the cellulose complex (endogluganases, cellobiohydrolases and ?-glucosidases). Glycoside hydrolase (GH) family members, important to biomass-to-biofuels conversion strategies, were identified, including endoglucanases GH5, 7, 6, 12, 17 and 61, ?-glycosidase GH3, xylanases GH10 and GH11, as well as debranching hemicellulases from GH43, GH62 and CE2 and pectinanes from GH28. Collectively, the approach conducted in this study gave new insights on the better comprehension of the composition and degradation capability of an industrial cellulolytic strain, from which a number of applied technologies, such as biofuel production, can be generated.

Ribeiro, Daniela A.; Cota, Junio; Alvarez, Thabata M.; Bruchli, Fernanda; Bragato, Juliano; Pereira, Beatriz M. P.; Pauletti, Bianca A.; Jackson, George; Pimenta, Maria T. B.; Murakami, Mario T.; Camassola, Marli; Ruller, Roberto; Dillon, Aldo J. P.; Pradella, Jose G. C.; Paes Leme, Adriana F.; Squina, Fabio M.

2012-01-01

206

Sugar cane as an alternative energy source for Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The consumption of various energy resources in the world since the beginning of industrial revolution has changed due to several causes, such as the economy, availability, transportation and environmental effects as well as climate change phenomena. The use of fossil fuels has become rather harmful for the environment in which human beings live, especially in the urban areas of the

I. Kilicaslan; H. I. Sarac; E. Özdem; K. Erm

1999-01-01

207

Effect of Cane Length on Drop-Off Detection Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although individuals who are blind have used a stick or a cane for their independent travel since the early years of human history, designs for modern long canes did not appear until World War II, when the systematic long cane techniques were developed by Hoover (1962). Ergonomic factors, such as the length of the cane, may affect how well a cane

Kim, Dae Shik; Emerson, Robert Wall

2012-01-01

208

Combination of sugar analysis and stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry to detect the use of artificial sugars in royal jelly production.  

PubMed

The effects of feeding bees artificial sugars and/or proteins on the sugar compositions and (13)C isotopic measurements of royal jellies (RJs) were evaluated. The sugars fed to the bees were two C4 sugars (cane sugar and maize hydrolysate), two C3 sugars (sugar beet, cereal starch hydrolysate), and honey. The proteins fed to them were pollen, soybean, and yeast powder proteins. To evaluate the influence of the sugar and/or protein feeding over time, samples were collected during six consecutive harvests. (13)C isotopic ratio measurements of natural RJs gave values of around -25 ‰, which were also seen for RJs obtained when the bees were fed honey or C3 sugars. However, the RJs obtained when the bees were fed cane sugar or corn hydrolysate (regardless of whether they were also fed proteins) gave values of up to -17 ‰. Sugar content analysis revealed that the composition of maltose, maltotriose, sucrose, and erlose varied significantly over time in accordance with the composition of the syrup fed to the bees. When corn and cereal starch hydrolysates were fed to the bees, the maltose and maltotriose contents of the RJs increased up to 5.0 and 1.3 %, respectively, compared to the levels seen in authentic samples (i.e., samples obtained when the bees were fed natural food: honey and pollen) that were inferior to 0.2% and not detected, respectively. The sucrose and erlose contents of natural RJs were around 0.2 %, whereas those in RJs obtained when the bees were fed cane or beet sugar were as much as 4.0 and 1.3 %, respectively. The combination of sugar analysis and (13)C isotopic ratio measurements represents a very efficient analytical methodology for detecting (from early harvests onward) the use of C4 and C3 artificial sugars in the production of RJ. PMID:22451177

Wytrychowski, Marine; Daniele, Gaëlle; Casabianca, Hervé

2012-05-01

209

Thermal conductivity of cane fiberboard  

SciTech Connect

The thermal conductivity of cane fiberboard was measured in two planes; parallel to the surface and perpendicular to the surface of the manufactured sheet. The information was necessary to better understand the thermal response of a loaded shipping container. The tests demonstrated that the thermal conductivity of cane fiberboard in the plane parallel to the surface of the sheet was nearly twice as great as the conductivity of the same material in a plane perpendicular to the sheet. There was no significant difference in the conductivity in different directions within the plane parallel to the surface, and the presence of glue between layers of fiberboard did not significantly change the conductivity of the assembly. The tests revealed that the thermal conductivity measured in a direction perpendicular to the plane of the surface of a stack of cane fiberboard sheets not bonded together, decreases with an increase in the mean temperature. This was determined to be the result of air gaps between the sheets of fiberboard, and not related to the properties of the material itself

Leader, D.R.

1995-05-01

210

Recycling of agro-industrial sludge through vermitechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work illustrates the feasibility of vermitechnology to stabilize sludge from an agro-industry. To achieve the goal, industrial sludge (IS) was mixed with three different bulky agents, i.e. cow dung (CD), biogas plant slurry (BGS) and wheat straw (WS), in different ratios to produce nine different feed mixtures for earthworm Eisenia fetida. Vermicomposting bedding material was analyzed for its different

Surindra Suthar

2010-01-01

211

Managing your blood sugar  

MedlinePLUS

Hyperglycemia - control; Hypoglycemia - control; Diabetes - blood sugar control ... how to: Recognize and treat low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) Recognize and treat high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) Plan ...

212

How to Use Crutches, Canes and Walkers  

MedlinePLUS

... foot, you may have to use crutches. Proper Positioning The top of your crutches should reach between ... also help you to keep living independently. Proper Positioning The top of your cane should reach to ...

213

29. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Boilingrange furnace and clarifier ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

29. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Boiling-range furnace and clarifier position. View: In the boiling range all of the concentration, evaporation, and concentration of cane juice took place in open pans over the continous flue leaving this furnace. The furnace door through the exterior wall is at the end of the furnace. In the original installation two copper clarifiers, manufactured by John Nott & Co. occupied this space directly above the furnace. In the clarifier lime was added to the cane juice so that impurities would coagulate into a scum on top of the near-boiling juice. The clarifiers have been removed since the closing of the mill. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

214

28. RW Sugar Mill: 18761889. Boilingrange Furnace and Clarifier position. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

28. RW Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Boiling-range Furnace and Clarifier position. View: In the boiling range all of the clarification, evaporation, and concentration of cane juice took place in open pans over the Continuous flue leading from this furnace. The furnace door through the exterior wall is at the end of the furnace. In the original installation, two copper clarifiers, manufactured by John Nott & Co. occupied this space directly above the furnace. In the clarifiers, lime was added to the cane juice so that impurities would coagulate into a scum on top of the near-boiling juice. The clarifiers have been removed since the closing of the mill. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

215

Drop-Off Detection with the Long Cane: Effects of Different Cane Techniques on Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared the drop-off detection performance with the two-point touch and constant contact cane techniques using a repeated-measures design with a convenience sample of 15 cane users with visual impairments. The constant contact technique was superior to the two-point touch technique in the drop-off detection rate and the 50% detection…

Kim, Dae Shik; Emerson, Robert Wall; Curtis, Amy

2009-01-01

216

Use of wastes of the sugar industry as pozzolana in lime-pozzolana binders: Study of the reaction  

SciTech Connect

Mineralogical studies of different wastes of the sugar industry, mainly sugar cane bagasse ash and sugar cane straw ash, have shown that such by-products are likely to be pozzolanic. Their use in lime-pozzolana binders could become an interesting alternative for developing countries. This paper presents a study that was aimed at monitoring the reaction between lime and wastes of the sugar industry having pozzolanic properties by evaluating (1) content of calcium hydroxide, dependent on time; (2) development of the pore structure, dependent on time; (3) study on the reaction products at different stages; and (4) mechanical properties of hardened pastes. The presence of calcium hydroxide was confirmed by x-ray diffraction analysis and thermogravimetric analysis of powder from samples of hydrated lime-pozzolana pastes. The reaction products in hydrated pastes were observed in a scanning electron microscope, and the pore structure was assessed using a mercury intrusion porosimeter. The results of the study show that sugar cane bagasse ash does not act like a reactive pozzolana, mainly due to the presence of unburned material and carbon, whereas sugar cane straw ash shows good pozzolanic activity comparable to that of rice husk ash.

Hernandez, J.F.M. [Univ. Central de las Villas, Santa Clara (Cuba); Middendorf, B.; Gehrke, M.; Budelmann, H. [Univ. of Kassel (Germany). Dept. of Structural Materials

1998-11-01

217

Bacterial Keratinases: Useful Enzymes for Bioprocessing Agroindustrial Wastes and Beyond  

Microsoft Academic Search

Keratin-rich wastes in the form of feathers, hair, nails, and horn are highly available as byproducts of agroindustrial processing.\\u000a The increased needs for energy conserving and recycling, summed with the huge increase in poultry industry, have strongly\\u000a stimulated the search for alternatives for the management of recalcitrant keratinous wastes. Keratinases, which are produced\\u000a by several bacteria that have been often

Adriano Brandelli

2008-01-01

218

Detection of honey adulteration with beet sugar using stable isotope methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A usual aspect of our work involves the analysis of honey samples for later sale, following current Spanish legislation. Such analyses essentially consist of studying pollen sediments, and sensory and physicochemical analyses. With this background, it seemed appropriate to investigate possible adulterations due to the addition of sugar (beet and cane). To do this, we selected 49 samples of honey

I González Mart??n; E Marqués Mac??as; J Sánchez Sánchez; B González Rivera

1998-01-01

219

Volatile constituents of fermented sugar baits and their attraction to lepidopteran species.  

PubMed

The volatile compounds emanating from four fermented sugar baits, palm sugar, golden cane syrup, port wine, and molasses, were isolated by headspace sampling and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Three classes of compounds including esters, alcohols, and aromatic compounds were identified in the headspace of the four fermented sugar baits. There was a high degree of qualitative similarity between the headspace contents of the four fermented sugar baits, although quantitatively they varied considerably. Ethyl acetate, 3-methylbutanol, ethyl hexanoate, 2-phenylethanol, ethyl octanoate, ethyl (E)-4-decenoate, ethyl decanoate, and ethyl dodecanoate were the major compounds identified in the headspace of the four fermented sugar baits. The efficacy of the four fermented sugar baits was investigated in field trapping experiments. Fermented palm sugar and golden cane syrup were superior in attracting significant numbers of moths as compared to port wine and molasses. Fermented molasses was the least attractive among the four baits. Over 90% of the insects caught were noctuids with Graphania mutans and Tmetolophota spp. being the main noctuids captured (over 55%) in the four fermented sugar baits. Male and female G. mutans were equally attracted to the four sugar baits. A number of tortricid species were also trapped. PMID:15713004

El-Sayed, A M; Heppelthwaite, V J; Manning, L M; Gibb, A R; Suckling, D M

2005-02-23

220

Environmental view across Cane River Lake to the Roque House, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Environmental view across Cane River Lake to the Roque House, looking from the northeast (note Front Street in background) - Roque House, Between Front Street & Cane River, Natchitoches, Natchitoches Parish, LA

221

The Role of Universities in Supporting Local Agroindustry: The Case of the Piceno District in Italy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper analyses the role of universities in supporting local agroindustry using the case of the Piceno agroindustrial district in Italy. Emerging countries' comparative advantages, made stronger by increased international trade and the rediscovery of local traditions and typicality, do not signify that there will be a less knowledge-intensive…

Tavoletti, Ernesto

2008-01-01

222

Method for processing whole cane and sweet sorghum into fuel alcohol and electric power  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for fermenting whole cane in situ to ethanol, rather than extracting the sugar and fermenting it separately. An energy efficient way of obtaining dehydrated ethanol is the employment of a molecular sieve using bagasse as a desicant. The remaining bagasse is recovered and dried prior to gasification. The producer gas is used to fuel a spark ignition engine which may be geared either to a generating unit or a hydraulic pump. The economics of the process are discussed briefly. (Refs. 3).

le Grand, F.

1983-10-01

223

Cane Technique: Modifying the Touch Technique for Full Path Coverage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Measurements of height of cane hand, cane length, step size, and forearm length of 17 cane using blind (14-21 years old) Ss were taken for the purpose of testing the hypothesis that the touch technique does not provide 100 percent path coverage. (Author)

Uslan, Mark M.

1978-01-01

224

Human Factor Analysis of Long Cane Design: Weight and Length  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a series of experiments, canes of different lengths, weights, and weight distributions were assessed to determine the effect of these characteristics on various performance measures. The results indicate that the overall weight of a cane and the distribution of weight along a cane's shaft do not affect a person's performance, but accuracy does…

Rodgers, Mark D.; Emerson, Robert Wall

2005-01-01

225

Forage and sugar in dairy calves' starter diet and their interaction on performance, weaning age and rumen fermentation.  

PubMed

The effects of sugar and forage inclusion in calves' starter and their interaction on animal performance and rumen fermentation parameters were investigated. Twenty-eight neonatal Holstein male calves 3 days of age with average body weights of 42 ± 4 kg were allocated to four different treatments. All calves were fed a similar basal diet consisting of milk and concentrate. The experimental treatments were: (i) basal diet with no supplementation (Control, hereafter designated by C), (ii) basal diet plus 5% granular sugar cane (Sugar, designated by S), (iii) basal diet plus 5% forage (Forage, designated by F) and (iv) basal diet plus 5% forage with 5% granular sugar cane (F × S). Supplement ingredients were used on a dry matter (DM) basis. Rumen fluid parameters were measured twice on days 35 and 70 of the study period. The calves were weaned when they could consume 1 kg of starter for three consecutive days. The results show that starter intake was not affected by treatment; however, the lowest ADG was observed with calves in the sugar treatment. Weaning age was affected by treatments, and forage showed to reduce milk consumption period down to its shortest. Forage-sugar interaction was found to have no effects on animal performance. The structural body indices as well as the health status of the calves were similar in different treatments. Rumen pH did not differ among the treatment groups. Among the rumen parameters, total VFA concentration and molar proportions of butyrate and propionate did not exhibit any significant differences among the treatments. However, ruminal acetate concentration decreased in calves that fed sugar cane during the early weeks of the study period. Comparison of forage and sugar included in the starter diets revealed that forage reduced weaning age, while sugar cane had a negative effect on calves' performance. PMID:23796063

Beiranvand, H; Ghorbani, G R; Khorvash, M; Kazemi-Bonchenari, M

2014-06-01

226

Cost-effective lignocellulolytic enzyme production by Trichoderma reesei on a cane molasses medium  

PubMed Central

Background Cane molasses, an important residue of the sugar industry, have the potential as a cost-effective carbon source that could serve as nutrients for industrial enzyme-producing microorganisms, especially filamentous fungi. However, the enzyme mixtures produced in such a complex medium are poorly characterized. In this study, the secretome of Trichoderma reesei grown on a cane molasses medium (CMM) as well as on a lactose-based conventional medium (LCM) were compared and analyzed by using proteomics. Results In this study we show that both the CMM and LCM can serve as excellent growth media for T. reesei. The enzyme expression patterns in the two media were similar and a considerable number of the identified proteins on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) gels were those involved in biomass degradation. The most abundant cellulolytic enzymes identified in both media were cellobiohydrolases (Cel7A/Cel6A) and endoglucanases (Cel7A/Cel5A) and were found to be more abundant in CMM. We also found that both media can serve as an inducer of xylanolytic enzymes. The main xylanases (XYNI/XYNIV) and xyloglucanase (Cel74A) were found at higher concentrations in the CMM than LCM. Conclusions We analyzed the prevalent proteins secreted by T. reesei in the CMM and LCM. Here, we show that hydrolytic enzymes are cost-effective and can be produced on cane molasses as a carbon source which can be used to digest lignocellulolytic biomass.

2014-01-01

227

Efficient production of l-lactic acid using co-feeding strategy based on cane molasses/glucose carbon sources.  

PubMed

L-Lactic acid is an important platform chemical, which ought to be produced under cost control to meet its huge demand. Cane molasses, a waste from sugar manufacturing processes, is hopeful to be utilized as a cheap carbon source for L-lactic acid fermentation. Considering that cane molasses contains nutrients and hazardous substances, efficient production of L-lactic acid was developed by using a co-feeding strategy based on the utilization of cane molasses/glucose carbon sources. Based on the medium optimization with response surface method, 168.3g/L L-lactic acid was obtained by a Bacillus coagulans strain H-1 after 78h fed-batch fermentation, with a productivity of 2.1g/Lh and a yield of 0.88g/g. Since cane molasses is a feasible carbon source, the co-feeding fermentation might be a promising alternative for the economical production of L-lactic acid. PMID:24333698

Xu, Ke; Xu, Ping

2014-02-01

228

The Science of Sugaring  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The sugar content and sap volume within and among trees speces can vary considerably. The introductory material describes the process of maple sugaring. The associated field exercise is intended to enhance students field experimental design, data collection, and analysis through examining the variability of trees sap volume and sugar content for sugar maple trees.

Baer, Nicholas

229

Effect of sugar industry wastes on K status and nutrient availability of a newly reclaimed loamy sandy soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate the effect of sugar cane industry wastes on K status and its availability in a newly reclaimed loamy sand soil, as well as their influence on some chemical soil properties and soil macro- (N and P) and micronutrients (Fe, Zn, Mn, and Cu) availability to wheat plants. The applied treatments were mineral K

Adel Rabie Ahmed Usman; Mohsen Abdo-Elmenem Gameh

2008-01-01

230

Inulinase Production by AgroIndustrial Residues: Optimization of Pretreatment of Substrates and Production Medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, production of inulinase was studied. Media formulation was optimized by experimental design and response surface\\u000a techniques, as well as the pretreatment of the agro-industry residues used in the formulation of fermentation medium. Two\\u000a agro-industry residues were investigated: sugarcane molasses (SCM) and corn steep liquor (CSL). Pretreatment with sulfuric\\u000a acid was the most effective for clarification of SCM

Carla Sguarezi; Carine Longo; Gustavo Ceni; Gabriela Boni; Marceli F. Silva; Marco Di Luccio; Marcio A. Mazutti; Francisco Maugeri; Maria Isabel Rodrigues; Helen Treichel

2009-01-01

231

Possibilities of the use of vinasses in the control of fungi phytopathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research was to study the biocide effect of three agroindustrial subproducts, concretely sugar beet, sugar cane and wine vinasse.Results from in vitro testing determined that wine vinasse is what shows a 100% capacity to suppress fungal growth with concentrations between 5% and 7% for Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. melonis race 0 and 1, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Pythium aphanidermatum

M. Santos; F. Diánez; M. de Cara; J. C. Tello

2008-01-01

232

Hyperactivity and sugar  

MedlinePLUS

... more likely to be hyperactive if they eat sugar, artificial sweeteners, or certain food colorings. Other experts ... Some people claim that eating sugar (such as sucrose), aspartame (NutraSweet), ... and other behavior problems in children. They argue ...

233

Home blood sugar testing  

MedlinePLUS

Check your blood sugar level as often as instructed by your health care provider. Write down the results. This will tell you how ... everyone with diabetes needs to check their blood sugar every day. And some people need to check ...

234

High blood sugar  

MedlinePLUS

High blood sugar occurs when your body makes too little insulin or when your body is not able to use insulin ... a hormone that helps the body use glucose (sugar) for energy. Insulin is made by the pancreas. ...

235

Hydrophobic sugar holograms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sugar matrix is used to record of phase holograms; it was modified with the purpose of obtaining a hydrophobic material to improve the stability of the registered image and to stimulate the photosensitivity of the sugar. The new material is formed by a sugar, pectin and vanillin dissolution. The diffraction efficiency parameter increases in comparison with only the sugar matrix, obtaining already of 10%.

Mejias-Brizuela, N. Y.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Páez-Trujillo, G.; Hernández-Garay, M. P.; Fontanilla-Urdaneta, R.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

2008-03-01

236

Improved characterization of the botanical origin of sugar by carbon-13 SNIF-NMR applied to ethanol.  

PubMed

Until now, no analytical method, not even isotopic ones, had been able to differentiate between sugars coming from C4-metabolism plants (cane, maize, etc.) and some crassulacean acid metabolism plants (e.g., pineapple, agave) because in both cases the isotope distributions of the overall carbon-13/carbon-12 and site-specific deuterium/hydrogen isotope ratios are very similar. Following recent advances in the field of quantitative isotopic carbon-13 NMR measurements, a procedure for the analysis of the positional carbon-13/carbon-12 isotope ratios of ethanol derived from the sugars of pineapples and agave using the site-specific natural isotopic fractionation-nuclear magnetic resonance (SNIF-NMR) method is presented. It is shown that reproducible results can be obtained when appropriate analytical conditions are used. When applied to pineapple juice, this new method demonstrates a unique ability to detect cane and maize sugar, which are major potential adulterants, with a detection limit in the order of 15% of the total sugars, which provides an efficient mean of controlling the authenticity of juices made from this specific fruit. When applied to tequila products, this new method demonstrates a unique ability to unambiguously differentiate authentic 100% agave tequila, as well as misto tequila (made from at least 51% agave), from products made from a larger proportion of cane or maize sugar and therefore not complying with the legal definition of tequila. PMID:21028824

Thomas, Freddy; Randet, Celia; Gilbert, Alexis; Silvestre, Virginie; Jamin, Eric; Akoka, Serge; Remaud, Gerald; Segebarth, Nicolas; Guillou, Claude

2010-11-24

237

Sugar and Salt Solutions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What happens when sugar and salt are added to water? Pour in sugar, shake in salt, and evaporate water to see the effects on concentration and conductivity. Zoom in to see how different sugar and salt compounds dissolve. Zoom in again to explore the role of water.

Simulations, Phet I.; Lancaster, Kelly; Reid, Sam; Moore, Emily; Chamberlain, Julia; Loeblein, Trish

2011-10-12

238

Association of ?13C in Fingerstick Blood with Added Sugars and Sugar-sweetened Beverage Intake  

PubMed Central

A reliance on self-reported dietary intake measures is a common research limitation, thus the need for dietary biomarkers. Added sugar intake may play a role in the development and progression of obesity and related co-morbidities; common sweeteners include corn and sugar cane derivatives. These plants contain a high amount of 13C, a naturally-occurring stable carbon isotope. Consumption of these sweeteners, of which sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) are the primary dietary source, may be reflected in the ?13C value of blood. Fingerstick blood represents an ideal substrate for bioassay due to its ease of acquisition. The objective of this investigation was to determine if the ?13C value of fingerstick blood is a potential biomarker of added sugar and SSB intake. Individuals aged ?21 years (n=60) were recruited to attend three laboratory visits; assessments completed at each visit depended upon a randomly assigned sequence (sequence one or two). The initial visit included assessment of height, weight, and dietary intake (sequence one: beverage intake questionnaire [BEVQ], sequence two: four-day food intake record [FIR]). Sequence one participants completed an FIR at visit two, and non-fasting blood samples were obtained via routine finger sticks at visits one and three. Sequence two participants completed a BEVQ at visit two, and provided fingerstick blood samples at visits two and three. Samples were analyzed for ?13C value using natural abundance stable isotope mass spectrometry. ?13C value was compared to dietary outcomes in all participants, as well as among those in the highest and lowest tertile of added sugar intake. Reported mean added sugar consumption was 66±5g/day, and SSB consumption was 330±53g/day and 134±25 kcal/day. Mean fingerstick ?13C value was ?19.94±0.10‰, which differed by BMI status. ?13C value was associated (all p<0.05) with intake of total added sugars (g, r=0.37; kcal, r=0.37), soft drinks (g, r=0.26; kcal, r=0.27), and total SSB (g, r=0.28; kcal, r=0.35). The ?13C value in the lowest and the highest added sugar intake tertiles were significantly different (mean difference = ?0.48‰, p=0.028). Even though there are several potential dietary sources for blood carbon, the ?13C value of fingerstick blood shows promise as a non-invasive biomarker of added sugar and SSB intake based on these findings.

Davy, Brenda M.; Jahren, A. Hope; Hedrick, Valisa E.; Comber, Dana L.

2011-01-01

239

Sharing the Arts of the Blue Ridge Mountains. Caning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module on chair caning is one of eight modules designed to provide instruction on authentic Blue Ridge Mountain crafts to adult basic education students at a low cost. Contents include notes on the history of caning; process used, including equipment and materials, as well as method described narratively and graphically; and the followup,…

Holman, Martha; Gailey, Lamar

240

Older Homebound Women: Negotiating Reliance on a Cane or Walker  

PubMed Central

Canes and walkers are commonly characterized as assistive devices and as devices that serve the same purpose, as walking aides. These general views were reappraised and tempered in this descriptive phenomenological study with 40 older women (aged 85-98) who were unable to leave their homes without help. The purpose was to describe the phenomena of negotiating reliance on canes and walkers as walking devices and the lifeworld context underlying each phenomenon. Relative to lifeworld, there were differences between coming to terms with using a cane and coming to terms with using a walker. Data revealed similarities and distinctions between the basic intentions of relying on canes and on walkers and the associated purposes served by canes and walkers. Participants did not view either device as consistently assistive. Findings evoke opportunities for dialogue among older persons, scholars, practitioners, and designers of these devices about coming to terms with such devices and relying on them.

Porter, Eileen J.; Benson, Jacquelyn J.; Matsuda, Sandy

2012-01-01

241

Analysis of adulteration in honey with standard sugar solutions and syrups using attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and multivariate methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR–FTIR) spectroscopy and multivariate analysis were used to study honey intentionally adulterated with standard sugar solutions (glucose, fructose and sucrose), and also with cheap syrups (corn, inverted and cane sugar). By using the principal component analysis (PCA) method on pure and adulterated (0–100%) honey samples, the determination of the type of adulterant was realized in

M. A. Rios-Corripio; M. Rojas-López; R. Delgado-Macuil

2012-01-01

242

20. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Boiling House Interior, 1878. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Boiling House Interior, 1878. View: Remains of south wall. The molasses storage pits are below the floor in the foreground. The remaining piece of floor indicates the form of the entire floor. The sorghum pan and boiling range flue slope from left to right (east to west) and permitted batches of cane juice to flow through the boiling pan by gravity. The beams, joists, truss work are built of northwest pine. The sides and floor boards are built of redwood. The boiling range flue is built of fire-brick, masonry, and portland cement. The corrugated roof appears to be a later addition, not contemporary with mill operation. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

243

Haiti: energy efficiency in the sugar and manufacturing industries  

SciTech Connect

A review of energy use in Haiti, aimed at identifying possible projects to complement current A.I.D. support for institution building and energy planning within the Ministry of Mines and Energy Resources (MMRE), is presented. Key findings are that: (1) the sugar and manufacturing industries rely heavily on biomass fuels - wood, charcoal, and bagasse (sugar cane residue); and (2) demand for commercial energy and for electricity is growing rapidly despite supply constraints. The report calls for A.I.D. to: initiate a program to reduce biomass consumption (which is causing severe soil erosion and deforestation), especially in the small distilleries called guildives; collaborate with MMRE and the World Bank to develop a detailed workplan to promote energy efficiency in the guildives, focusing on technology development; help MMRE and the private sector to project Haiti's industrial energy and electricity needs through the year 2000; and sponsor a program of energy audits and efficiency improvements in the manufacturing sector.

Streicher, A.

1985-03-28

244

Electricity generation potential of Thai sugar mills  

SciTech Connect

At present, the total installed electricity generating capacity of Thailand is 7500 MW. Because this level of investment will take an unacceptable large part of total foreign borrowing, the government plans to encourage participation of the private sector in electricity generation. Among the various technology options for power production, cogeneration appears to be the most promising technology due to its very high effectiveness of fuel utilization. Therefore, in the first phase of private power generation, the Thai government is encouraging cogeneration systems. This paper discusses sugar mills, where expertise and equipment for electricity generation already exist, appear to be in a particularly advantageous position to participate in the private power generation program. At present, there are 46 sugar mills in Thailand with a total capacity of 338,000 tons of cane per day. The fiber part delivered from the milling of sugarcane, bagasse, is normally used to produce steam for the process heat and electricity generation. The investment and operating costs for each of these alternatives have been evaluated. The internal rate of return is used to indicate the benefit of each alternative.

Therdyothin, A.; Bhattacharaya, S.C.; Chirarattananon, S. (Asian Inst. of Tech., Bangkok (Thailand))

1992-10-01

245

EVALUACION DEL CRECIMIENTO DE CRISTALES DE AZUCAR Y DETERMINACION DEL FACTOR DE FORMA DE AREA SUPERFICIAL EVALUATION OF SUGAR CRYSTAL GROWTH AND DETERMINATION OF SURFACE AREA SHAPE FACTOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crystallization, as industrial separation process, has been used widely in recent years because its low energy requirements. It has been observed that cooling profiles, agitation rates and process time are important variables to determine the characteristics of the crystalline product. In this work sugar cane crystal surface areas are calculated, as function of time, from experimental results using three different

P. A. Quintana-Hernández; D. A. Moncada-Abaunza; E. Bolaños-Reynoso; A. García Cubas

2005-01-01

246

Economical production of poly(?-l-lysine) and poly(l-diaminopropionic acid) using cane molasses and hydrolysate of streptomyces cells by Streptomyces albulus PD-1.  

PubMed

Poly(?-l-lysine) (?-PL) and poly(l-diaminopropionic acid) (PDAP) co-production by Streptomyces albulus PD-1 from cane molasses and hydrolysate of strepyomyces cells (HSC) was investigated for the first time in this study. The optimal initial total sugar concentration of the cane molasses pretreated with sulfuric acid was determined to be 20gL(-1), and HSC could substitute for yeast extract for ?-PL and PDAP co-production. When fed-batch fermentation was performed in 1t fermentor with pretreated cane molasses and HSC, 20.6±0.5gL(-1) of ?-PL and 5.2±0.6gL(-1) of PDAP were obtained. The amount of strepyomyces cells obtained in one fed-batch fermentation is sufficient to prepare the HSC to satisfy the demand of subsequent fermentations, thus the self-cycling of organic nitrogen source becomes available. These results suggest that the low-cost cane molasses and HSC can be used for the economical production of ?-PL and PDAP by S. albulus PD-1. PMID:24861999

Xia, Jun; Xu, Zhaoxian; Xu, Hong; Liang, Jinfeng; Li, Sha; Feng, Xiaohai

2014-07-01

247

Sugar Crystal Challenge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson focuses on surface area and how the shape of sugar crystals may differ as they are grown from sugars of different coarseness. Learners explore surface area, nanostructures, and work in teams and participate in hands-on activities. Safety: need an adult to handle the very hot water.

Ieee

2013-02-25

248

Effects of olive mill wastewater addition in composting of agroindustrial and urban wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to study the suitability of olive mill wastewater (OMW) for composting, thisliquid waste was added to two different mixtures of agroindustrial and urban wastesand the composting process was compared with two other piles of similar composition,but without OMW. These four piles were studied in a pilot plant using the Rutgers staticpile system. The addition of OMW produced a

C. Paredes; M. P. Bernal; A. Roig; J. Cegarra

2001-01-01

249

The potential of agro-industrial residues for production of biogas and electricity in Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives an overview of the energy demands in Tanzania, and highlights the current serious shortage of electricity. Government strategy to alleviate the problem include exploitation of the country's big natural gas reserves for power generation, and utilization of the renewable energies such as solar, wind and biogas. Important agro-industrial residues with a large potential for anaerobic conversion into

Amelia K. Kivaisi; M. S. T. Rubindamayugi

1996-01-01

250

Reforms, agricultural risks and agro-industrial diversification in rural China: Evidence from Chinese Provinces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the implementation of the economic reforms in 1978, there is a remarkable diversification trend in rural China characterized by an impressive development of rural enterprises. The main objective of this paper is to understand the forces driving this agro-industrial diversification which has important impact on the employment, incomes and welfare of rural residents. A particular attention has been paid

Weiyong YANG

2003-01-01

251

Substituting energy crops with organic wastes and agro-industrial residues for biogas production  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, industrial and agro-industrial by-products and residues (BRs), animal manures (AMs), and various types of organic wastes (OWs) were analyzed to evaluate their suitability as substitutes for energy crops (ECs) in biogas production. A comparison between the costs of the volume of biogas that can be produced from each substrate was presented with respect to the prices of

Andrea Schievano; Giuliana D'Imporzano; Fabrizio Adani

2009-01-01

252

Use of an agro-industry treatment plant sludge on iceberg lettuce growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the presented study, potential use of treatment plant sludge in agriculture is investigated. Sludge generated from an agro-industry (vegetable processing) is applied to pots at different loadings (0–100% sludge mixtures) for iceberg lettuce cultivation and the impacts of the sludge on plant growth are assessed by counting growing plants and leaves and weighing roots green and main parts of

Deniz Dolgen; M. Necdet Alpaslan; Nafiz Delen

2004-01-01

253

The work and health process in the sugarcane agroindustry in Franca, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to discuss the interrelation between social determinants and the health conditions of workers in the sugarcane agroindustry in the region of Franca, in the countryside of São Paulo State, Brazil, from 2005 to 2006, considering the present socio-economic, historical, political and cultural conditions.

Edvânia Ângela de Souza Lourenço; Iris Fenner Bertani

2011-01-01

254

Bio-concentration of vinasse from the alcoholic fermentation of sugar cane molasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

A concentration-incineration process of vinasse has been in use for several years in order to deal with pollution resulting from the industrial production of ethanol by fermentation and distillation. However, as vinasse concentration has a high energy demand, a bio-concentration method with no energy consumption is reported in this paper. Vinasses was used instead of water in the preparation of

A. R Navarro; M del C. Sepúlveda; M. C Rubio

2000-01-01

255

High productivity and good nutritive values of cellulolytic bacteria grown on sugar cane bagasse. [Cellulomonas sp  

SciTech Connect

The fermentation of cellulosic wastes by cellulolytic bacteria shows promise as a process for obtaining new low-cost protein sources; at the same time, it solves a problem of waste disposal. At present, many problems remain to be solved before making this process economically profitable. The low productivity due to poor cell density attained, and low nutritive value of the biomass produced stand out as two of them. Humphrey et al. have pointed out that the critical question in the microbial degradation of cellulose is how to optimize the cell yield in order to achieve nearly total cellulose degradation. Belamy calculated that the rate of cellulose utilization should be at least 1-5 g/l/h for the process to be profitable. The work described here deals with how increases of cell concentration and productivity change the media concentration of a fermentation process using Cellulomonas sp., and the determination of the nutritive value of the product. (Refs. 12).

Enriquez, A.; Rodriguez, H.

1983-03-01

256

Enhancement of enzymatic hydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse by steam explosion pretreatment  

SciTech Connect

In this study, the possibility of applying a steam explosion pretreatment process to sugarcane bagasse was investigated, and the effectiveness of the pretreatment in terms of hemicellulose solubilization and enhancement of enzymatic hydrolysis was determined. The steam requirement for the pretreatment was also investigated at the pilot-plant scale, and these results are presented.

Kling, S.H.; Neto, C.C.; Ferrara, M.A.; Torres, J.C.R.; Magalhaes, D.B.; Ryu, D.D.Y.

1987-01-01

257

Production of cellulase on sugar cane bagasse by fungal mixed culture solid substrate fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trichoderma reesei LM-UC4 and its mutant LM-UC4E1 were co-cultured with Aspergillus phoenicis QM329 for cellu-lase production on bagasse by mixed culture solid substrate fermentation. A mutual synergism was observed between the parent Trichoderma strain and the Aspergillus, resulting in enhanced combined biomass production and corresponding increased in cellulase, endoglucanase and b-glucosidase activities. Such synergism was absent with the mutant Trichoderma

Marcel Gutierrez-Correa; Robert P. Tengerdy

1997-01-01

258

FACTORS INFLUENCING THE VIABILITY AND SUSTAINABILITY OF SMALLHOLDER SUGAR CANE PRODUCTION IN UMBUMBULU  

Microsoft Academic Search

The raising of cash crops has been regarded by many as a solution to poor productivity, land degradation, unemployment and poverty in the subsistence agricultural areas of South Africa. The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of this thesis and thereby identify the requirements for viable and sustainable land management in these areas. The study was carried

E. M. MAKHANYA

1997-01-01

259

Canasate - Mapeamento DA Cana-de-Acucar Por Satelite (Canasate: Sugar Cane Mapping by Satellite).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The CANASATE Project, sugarcane mapping by satellite, has the objective of obtaining the spatial distribution and area estimation of sugarcane plantations, at national level, using remote sensing techniques. To achieve this objective, Brazil was divided i...

F. J. Mendonca

1986-01-01

260

Influence of the alkaline delignification on the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of sugar cane bagasse.  

PubMed

Ethanol production from steam explosion alkaline delignified bagasse was investigated by saccharification and simultaneous fermentation. Non delignified bagasse (ND) contained 25% lignin, and after alkaline delignification, materials with 6% (D1 - NaOH 1% w/v) and 12% (D05 - NaOH 0.5% w/v) lignin, respectively, were obtained. Ethanol production increased 450% and 733% in relation to ND, when D05 and D1 material, respectively, were used. Higher productivity and EtOH/bagasse were observed for D1. However, higher enzymatic convertibility of cellulose was obtained with 0.5% w/v NaOH. Alkaline delignification increased the ethanol production despite decreased cellulose. PMID:24025853

Soares, Mariana Lucena; Gouveia, Ester Ribeiro

2013-11-01

261

Identification and Structural Characterization of Novel Cyclotide with Activity against an Insect Pest of Sugar Cane*  

PubMed Central

Cyclotides are a family of plant-derived cyclic peptides comprising six conserved cysteine residues connected by three intermolecular disulfide bonds that form a knotted structure known as a cyclic cystine knot (CCK). This structural motif is responsible for the pronounced stability of cyclotides against chemical, thermal, or proteolytic degradation and has sparked growing interest in this family of peptides. Here, we isolated and characterized a novel cyclotide from Palicourea rigida (Rubiaceae), which was named parigidin-br1. The sequence indicated that this peptide is a member of the bracelet subfamily of cyclotides. Parigidin-br1 showed potent insecticidal activity against neonate larvae of Lepidoptera (Diatraea saccharalis), causing 60% mortality at a concentration of 1 ?m but had no detectable antibacterial effects. A decrease in the in vitro viability of the insect cell line from Spodoptera frugiperda (SF-9) was observed in the presence of parigidin-br1, consistent with in vivo insecticidal activity. Transmission electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy of SF-9 cells after incubation with parigidin-br1 or parigidin-br1-fluorescein isothiocyanate, respectively, revealed extensive cell lysis and swelling of cells, consistent with an insecticidal mechanism involving membrane disruption. This hypothesis was supported by in silico analyses, which suggested that parigidin-br1 is able to complex with cell lipids. Overall, the results suggest promise for the development of parigidin-br1 as a novel biopesticide.

Pinto, Michelle F. S.; Fensterseifer, Isabel C. M.; Migliolo, Ludovico; Sousa, Daniel A.; de Capdville, Guy; Arboleda-Valencia, Jorge W.; Colgrave, Michelle L.; Craik, David J.; Magalhaes, Beatriz S.; Dias, Simoni C.; Franco, Octavio L.

2012-01-01

262

Identification and structural characterization of novel cyclotide with activity against an insect pest of sugar cane.  

PubMed

Cyclotides are a family of plant-derived cyclic peptides comprising six conserved cysteine residues connected by three intermolecular disulfide bonds that form a knotted structure known as a cyclic cystine knot (CCK). This structural motif is responsible for the pronounced stability of cyclotides against chemical, thermal, or proteolytic degradation and has sparked growing interest in this family of peptides. Here, we isolated and characterized a novel cyclotide from Palicourea rigida (Rubiaceae), which was named parigidin-br1. The sequence indicated that this peptide is a member of the bracelet subfamily of cyclotides. Parigidin-br1 showed potent insecticidal activity against neonate larvae of Lepidoptera (Diatraea saccharalis), causing 60% mortality at a concentration of 1 ?m but had no detectable antibacterial effects. A decrease in the in vitro viability of the insect cell line from Spodoptera frugiperda (SF-9) was observed in the presence of parigidin-br1, consistent with in vivo insecticidal activity. Transmission electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy of SF-9 cells after incubation with parigidin-br1 or parigidin-br1-fluorescein isothiocyanate, respectively, revealed extensive cell lysis and swelling of cells, consistent with an insecticidal mechanism involving membrane disruption. This hypothesis was supported by in silico analyses, which suggested that parigidin-br1 is able to complex with cell lipids. Overall, the results suggest promise for the development of parigidin-br1 as a novel biopesticide. PMID:22074926

Pinto, Michelle F S; Fensterseifer, Isabel C M; Migliolo, Ludovico; Sousa, Daniel A; de Capdville, Guy; Arboleda-Valencia, Jorge W; Colgrave, Michelle L; Craik, David J; Magalhães, Beatriz S; Dias, Simoni C; Franco, Octávio L

2012-01-01

263

Sugar Substitutes: Aspartame  

MedlinePLUS

... sugar substitute. It is a combination of 2 amino acids, aspartic acid and phenylalanine. It is about 220 ... bodies are unable to metabolize one of the amino acids in aspartame, phenylalanine. Benefits of aspartame Does not ...

264

5. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Two sugar coolers ca. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Two sugar coolers ca. 1880. View: After the concentrated syrup flowed out of the sorghum pan, it cooled and crystallized in these iron sugar coolers. After the sugar syrup was granulated and cooled it was dug out of the coolers and fed into the centrifugals. The Meyer Mill purchased twelve coolers between 1878 and 1881 costing between $35 and $45 each. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

265

Solid-state fermentation for the synthesis of citric acid by Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid-state fermentation was carried out to evaluate three different agro-industrial wastes, sugar cane bagasse, coffee husk and cassava bagasse for their efficiency in production of citric acid by a culture of Aspergillus niger. Cassava bagasse best supported the mould's growth, giving the highest yield of citric acid among the tested substrates. Results showed the fungal strain had good adaptation to

Luciana P. S Vandenberghe; Carlos R Soccol; Ashok Pandey; J.-M Lebeault

2000-01-01

266

Overview of applied solid-state fermentation in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review discusses the history and evolution of solid-state fermentation (SSF) in Brazil in the last 15 years. SSF processes and applications are presented here pointing out the advantages and perspectives for the use of this technique. Brazilian economy is strongly dependent on the various kinds of agro-industrial production such as coffee, sugar cane, soybean, etc., which also generates huge

Carlos R Soccol; Luciana P. S Vandenberghe

2003-01-01

267

FTIR characterization of Mexican honey and its adulteration with sugar syrups by using chemometric methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A chemometric analysis of adulteration of Mexican honey by sugar syrups such as corn syrup and cane sugar syrup was realized. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to measure the absorption of a group of bee honey samples from central region of Mexico. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to process FTIR spectra to determine the adulteration of bee honey. In addition to that, the content of individual sugars from honey samples: glucose, fructose, sucrose and monosaccharides was determined by using PLS-FTIR analysis validated by HPLC measurements. This analytical methodology which is based in infrared spectroscopy and chemometry can be an alternative technique to characterize and also to determine the purity and authenticity of nutritional products as bee honey and other natural products.

Rios-Corripio, M. A.; Rios-Leal, E.; Rojas-López, M.; Delgado-Macuil, R.

2011-01-01

268

Use of the C-5 Laser Cane by School Age Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of the Laser Cane with four blind students attending public school is discussed with emphasis on modifications in technique needed to integrate the cane's use into each student's travel system. (Author)

Goldie, Dorothy

1977-01-01

269

3 CFR 8307 - Proclamation 8307 of October 13, 2008. White Cane Safety Day, 2008  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Proclamation 8307 of October 13, 2008. White Cane Safety Day, 2008 8307 Proclamation...8307 of October 13, 2008 Proc. 8307 White Cane Safety Day, 2008By the President...able to participate fully in society. The white cane allows many of our citizens who...

2009-01-01

270

Production of thermo-alkali-stable xylanase by a novel polyextremophilic Bacillus halodurans TSEV1 in cane molasses medium and its applicability in making whole wheat bread.  

PubMed

A high titre of thermo-alkali-stable xylanase was attained in cane molasses medium. When the culture variables for endoxylanase production were optimized [cane molasses 7 %, soluble alkaline extract of wheat bran (SAE-WB) 37 % and ammonium chloride 0.30 %], a 4.5-fold enhancement in xylanase production (69 U ml(-1)) was achieved as compared to that in the unoptimized medium (15 U ml(-1)). The enzyme titre attained in shake flasks could be sustained in a 7-l laboratory bioreactor. An activity band corresponding to 40 kDa was visualized on SDS-PAGE zymogram analysis. The enzyme has broad range of pH and temperature for activity with optima at 9.0 and 80 °C, and stable between pH 4.0 and 11.0 with 85 % retention of activity. It has T 1/2 of 40 and 15 min at 70 and 80 °C. The enzyme is halotolerant since it displays activity in the presence of salt up to 15 %, and remains 100 % active in the absence of salt. The supplementation of whole wheat dough with xylanase improves antistaling property, reducing sugar content, bread volume with prebiotic xylooligosaccharides in bread. This is the first report on xylanase production in cane molasses medium with SAE-WB as the inducer and its applicability in whole wheat bread making that improves human health. PMID:24297158

Kumar, Vikash; Satyanarayana, T

2014-06-01

271

Anaerobic treatability and biogas production potential studies of different agro-industrial wastewaters in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anaerobic treatability and methane generation potential of the wastewaters of the three important agro-industries in Turkey, namely, cheese-making, poultry breeding and the olive-oil mill industries were studied. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) experiments were conducted for different initial chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentrations. The results indicate that anaerobic treatment was possible for all the wastewaters studied and the biogas produced

Göksel N. Demirer; Metin Duran; Engin Güven; Örgen Ugurlu; Ulas Tezel; Tuba H. Ergüder

2000-01-01

272

Biodegradation of agro-industrial orange waste under solid state fermentation and natural environmental conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluation of the possibility of the re-use of agro-industrial orange peel and pulp wastes under solid state fermentation and natural environmental condition as a source of enzymes production (? & ? amylase, cellulase, pectinase(s), lipase(s), esterase(s) and peroxidase(s)) the physiological enzymes of lysis and total protein. Different microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria and yeast which were charged of waste analyse

Shahera H. Attyia; Sanaa M. Ashour

273

Protease production byAspergillus oryzae in solid-state fermentation using agroindustrial substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: An inexpensive and readily available agroindustrial substrate such as rice bran can be used to produce cheap commercial enzymes by solid-state fermentation. This work investigates the production of food-grade proteases by solid-state fermentation using readily available Thai rice bran. RESULTS: A local strain of Aspergillus oryzae (Ozykat-1) was used to produce proteases. Rice bran used alone proved to have

Jarun Chutmanop; Sinsupha Chuichulcherm; Yusuf Chisti; Penjit Srinophakun

2008-01-01

274

A methodology for optimising feed composition for anaerobic co-digestion of agro-industrial wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

An optimisation protocol for maximising methane production by anaerobic co-digestion of several wastes was carried out. A linear programming method was utilised to set up different blends aimed at maximising the total substrate biodegradation potential (L CH4\\/kg substrate) or the biokinetic potential (L CH4\\/kg substrate d). In order to validate the process, three agro-industrial wastes were considered: pig manure, tuna

J. A. Álvarez; L. Otero; J. M. Lema

2010-01-01

275

Evaluation of Thai agro-industrial wastes for bio-ethanol production by Zymomonas mobilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zymomonas mobilis is one of several microorganisms whose role in bio-ethanol production has been increasing in importance. Complex nutritional source for Z. mobilis could be substituted by many Thai agro-industrial wastes which are readily and inexpensively available. Their potentials as a yeast extract replacement were evaluated through the growth kinetics information. At equivalent level of total nitrogen (TN) (1.09gTNl?1), ami-ami

Vasimon Ruanglek; Damrongdech Maneewatthana; Sudarut Tripetchkul

2006-01-01

276

Monitoring Blood Sugar: The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels  

MedlinePLUS

... sick days gain a better understanding of the impact of food, exercise, and medications on the blood sugar levels When and How Often How often you should test your child's blood sugar levels each day — and ...

277

Formulation of an alginate-vineyard pruning waste composite as a new eco-friendly adsorbent to remove micronutrients from agroindustrial effluents.  

PubMed

The cellulosic fraction of vineyard pruning waste (free of hemicellulosic sugars) was entrapped in calcium alginate beads and evaluated as an eco-friendly adsorbent for the removal of different nutrients and micronutrients (Mg, P, Zn, K, N-NH4, SO4, TN, TC and PO4) from an agroindustrial effluent (winery wastewater). Batch adsorption studies were performed by varying the amounts of cellulosic adsorbent (0.5-2%), sodium alginate (1-5%) and calcium chloride (0.05-0.9M) included in the biocomposite. The optimal formulation of the adsorbent composite varied depending on the target contaminant. Thus, for the adsorption of cationic contaminants (Mg, Zn, K, N-NH4 and TN), the best mixture comprised 5% sodium alginate, 0.05M calcium chloride and 0.5% cellulosic vineyard pruning waste, whereas for removal of anionic compounds (P, SO4 and PO4), the optimal mixture comprised 1% sodium alginate, 0.9M calcium chloride and 0.5% cellulosic vineyard pruning waste. To remove TC from the winery wastewater, the optimal mixture comprised 3% of sodium alginate, 0.475M calcium chloride and 0.5% cellulosic vineyard pruning waste. PMID:24997896

Vecino, X; Devesa-Rey, R; Moldes, A B; Cruz, J M

2014-09-01

278

The Maple Sugar Festival  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describing the Iroquoi's Maple Sugar Festival, this article details the symbolism of renewal, becoming, and regeneration celebrated by the Iroquoi as the sap from the maple trees begins to flow each year. The symbolic role of woman, the sweet sap itself, and man's fellow creatures are described. (JC)

Johnston, Basil

1978-01-01

279

Ethanol production from cane juice by Zymomonas mobilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zymomonas mobilis Z 7 fermented 100 to 200 g.l- 1 sucrose in cane juice to ethanol without addition of cofactors or mineral salts in 1 ltr laboratory and 100 ltr pilot plant fermenters. Ethanol yields (Eyield) were from 60 to 88% with fermentation times of 20 to 29 h at 35 °C.

E. Lyness; H. W. Doelle

1981-01-01

280

Structured Discovery in Cane Travel: Constructivism in Action  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a general sense today that constructivist teaching is not up to the task of preparing students for high-stakes exams. In this article, the authors describe a highly effective constructivist approach used to teach students in a learning situation that takes the meaning of "high stakes" to another level. They talk about teachers of "cane

Maurer, Matthew M.; Bell, Edward C.; Woods, Eric; Allen, Roland

2006-01-01

281

Ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass of energy cane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanol produced from lignocellulosic biomass is a renewable alternative to diminishing petroleum based liquid fuels. The release of many new sugarcane varieties by the United States Department of Agriculture to be used as energy crops is a promising feedstock alternative. Energy cane produces large amounts of biomass that can be easily transported, and production does not compete with food supply

Sara Shields; Raj Boopathy

2011-01-01

282

Assessing the Potential Impact of Cane Toads on Australian Snakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cane toads (Bufo marinus) are large, highly toxic anurans that were introduced into Australia in 1937. Anecdotal reports suggest that the invasion of toads into an area is followed by dramatic declines in the abundance of terrestrial native frog-eating predators, but quantitative studies have been restricted to nonpredator taxa or aquatic predators and have generally reported minimal impacts. Will toads

BEN L. PHILLIPS; GREGORY P. BROWN; RICHARD SHINE

2003-01-01

283

Selected Articles on Sugar Beet.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Scientific and technical progress in beet growing; Structure of sugar beet root under a different mineral nutrition regime; Characteristics of growth and cell division in high-sugar and high-yielding strains of sugar beet; Intake of root nutriti...

1976-01-01

284

High Blood Sugar (in Type 1 Diabetes)  

MedlinePLUS

... Control and Management / High Blood Sugar High Blood Sugar Definition and Symptoms High blood sugar, or hyperglycemia, ... PDF version > What to Do About High Blood Sugar Levels The following recommendations are general treatments for ...

285

Utilization of Agro-industrial Wastes for the Simultaneous Production of Amylase and Xylanase by Thermophilic Actinomycetes  

PubMed Central

Agro-industrial wastes such as sugarcane bagasse, wheat bran, rice bran, corn cob and wheat straw are cheapest and abundantly available natural carbon sources. The present study was aimed to production of amylase and xylanase simultaneously using agro-industrial waste as the sole carbon source. Seven thermophilic strains of actinomycete were isolated from the mushroom compost. Among of these, strain designated MSC702 having high potential to utilize agro-industrial wastes for the production of amylase and xylanase. Strain MSC702 was identified as novel species of Streptomyces through morphological characterization and 16S rRNA gene sequence. Enzyme production was determined using 1% (w/v) of various agro-industrial waste in production medium containing (g/100mL): K2HPO4 (0.1), (NH4)2SO4 (0.1), NaCl (0.1), MgSO4 (0.1) at pH 7.0 after incubation of 48 h at 50°C. The amylase activity (373.89 IU/mL) and xylanase activity (30.15 IU/mL) was maximum in rice bran. The decreasing order of amylase and xylanase activity in different type of agro-industrial wastes were found rice bran (RB) > corn cob (CC) > wheat bran (WB) > wheat straw (WS) > sugarcane bagasse (SB) and rice bran (RB) > wheat bran (WB) > wheat straw (WS) > sugarcane bagasse (SB) > corn cob (CC), respectively. Mixed effect of different agro-industrial wastes was examined in different ratios. Enzyme yield of amylase and xylanase was ~1.3 and ~2.0 fold higher with RB: WB in 1:2 ratio.

Singh, Renu; Kapoor, Vishal; Kumar, Vijay

2012-01-01

286

The behavioral ecology of cannibalism in cane toads ( Bufo marinus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory studies show that predatory cane toads (Bufo marinus) exhibit specialized toe-luring behavior that attracts smaller conspecifics, but field surveys of toad diet rarely record\\u000a cannibalism. Our data resolve this paradox, showing that cannibalism is common under specific ecological conditions. In the\\u000a wet–dry tropics of Australia, desiccation risk constrains recently metamorphosed toads to the edges of the natal pond. Juvenile

Lígia Pizzatto; Richard Shine

2008-01-01

287

Stilbenoid profiles of canes from Vitis and Muscadinia species.  

PubMed

We present stilbenoid profiles of canes from 16 grapevines. Fifteen stilbenoids were obtained through isolation and structure identification using MS, NMR, and [?](D) or as commercial standards. An HPLC-UV method for the simultaneous quantification of nine of these stilbenoids was developed and applied to canes of Vitis amurensis, Vitis arizonica, Vitis berlandieri, Vitis betulifolia, Vitis cinerea, Vitis × champini, Vitis × doaniana, Vitis labrusca, Vitis candicans (syn. Vitis mustangensis), Vitis riparia, Vitis rupestris, Vitis vinifera, Muscadinia rotundifolia, and a V. vinifera × M. rotundifolia hybrid. In these species, E-ampelopsin E, E-amurensin B, E-piceid, E-piceatannol, E-resveratrol, E-resveratroloside, E-?-viniferin, E-?-viniferin, and E-vitisin B were quantified, when found in sufficient amounts. Total concentrations ranged from ~2.2 to 19.5 g/kg of dry weight. Additional stilbenoids, E-3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene 2-C-glucoside, Z-ampelopsin E, Z-trans-miyabenol C, E-trans-miyabenol C, scirpusin A, and Z-vitisin B, were identified but not quantified. Our results indicate that canes, particularly those of non-vinifera species, have substantial quantities of valuable, health-promoting stilbenoids. PMID:23270496

Pawlus, Alison D; Sahli, Ramla; Bisson, Jonathan; Rivière, Céline; Delaunay, Jean-Claude; Richard, Tristan; Gomès, Eric; Bordenave, Louis; Waffo-Téguo, Pierre; Mérillon, Jean-Michel

2013-01-23

288

Growth of ornamental plants in two composts prepared from agroindustrial wastes.  

PubMed

Two composts prepared from agroindustrial wastes were assayed as substrates: C1 from brewing waste (yeast and malt) plus lemon tree prunings; and C2 from the solid fraction of olive mill wastewater plus olive leaves. Sixteen substrates were prepared by combining each compost with Sphagnum peat or a commercial substrate (CS) in different proportions. The nutrients (N and K) provided by the composts, which acted as slow-release fertilisers, influenced especially the development of calendula, although the physical and physico-chemical properties such as total pore space and electrical conductivity (EC) were also relevant. On the other hand, in the salt-sensitive calceolaria hybrid, EC and chloride concentration were the main factors influencing growth. Adequate substrates for the development of calendula can be prepared by mixing C1 at up to 75% with peat or at up to 50% with CS, and C2 at up to 50% with peat or CS. For calceolaria, the substrate should have a lower proportion of compost, C1 at up to 50% and C2 at up to 25%, both mixed with peat or CS. Therefore, composts of agroindustrial origin such as these can be used as an alternative to peat and CSs for growing ornamental plants. provided the mixture contains at least 25% peat or CS. PMID:12056495

Garcia-Gomez, A; Bernal, M P; Roig, A

2002-06-01

289

Study of calendula and Gaillardia growth in two composts prepared from agroindustrial wastes.  

PubMed

Two composts prepared from agroindustrial wastes were assayed as substrates: C1 from brewing waste (yeast and malt) plus lemon tree pruning and C2 from the solid fraction of olive mill wastewater plus olive leaves. Sixteen substrates were prepared by combining each compost with Sphagnum peat or a Commercial Substrate (CS) in different proportions. The nutrients (N and K) provided by the composts, which acted as slow-release fertilizers, influenced especially the development of calendula, although the physical and physicochemical properties such as total pore space and Electrical Conductivity (EC) were also relevant. On the other hand, in the salt-sensitive Gaillardia hybrid, EC and chloride concentration were the main factors influencing growth. The best results were found in substrates prepared by mixing C1 at up to 75% with peat, or at up to 50% with CS, or by mixing C2 at up to 50% with peat or CS, for calendula. For salt-sensitive species such as Gaillardia, adequate substrates for plant development were found for C1 at up to 50% with peat or CS, but the use of C2 should be limited to 25% in mixtures with peat or CS. Therefore, composts of agroindustrial origin such as these can be used as an alternative to peat and CSs for growing ornamental plants, provided the mixture contains at least 25% peat or CS. PMID:19069954

Roudsari, O Nouri; Akbari, B

2007-05-01

290

Technical viability of the production, partial purification and characterisation of inulinase using pretreated agroindustrial residues.  

PubMed

The present work aimed to study the viability of the use of sugarcane molasses and corn steep liquor (CSL) in a sequential inulinase production performing an up-stream pretreatment of these agroindustrial residues. A sequential strategy was used applying three central composite rotatable designs (CCRDs) to optimise medium composition, followed by a down-stream step. The medium containing 150 g L(-1) molasses, 50 g L(-1) CSL and 6 g L(-1) yeast extract, yielded a maximum inulinase production of 1,294 +/- 7 U mL(-1), after 72 h of fermentation. A down-stream evaluation was carried out using an expanded bed of Streamline DAE resin (Pharmacia), with and without the up-stream treatment. The results showed that the enzyme could not be recovered from the non-pretreated medium, whereas a yield of 91% was obtained in the adsorption stage from the medium prepared with the up-stream treatment, showing the viability of producing the enzyme inulinase from agroindustrial residues using the integrated process. PMID:18820951

Treichel, Helen; Mazutti, Marcio A; Maugeri Filho, Francisco; Rodrigues, Maria Isabel

2009-06-01

291

Characterisation of agroindustrial solid residues as biofuels and potential application in thermochemical processes.  

PubMed

In the present work, selected agroindustrial solid residues from Brazil - biosolids from meat processing wastewater treatment and mixture of sawdust with these biosolids; residues from apple and orange juice industries; sugarcane bagasse; açaí kernels (Euterpe oleracea) and rice husk - were characterised as solid fuels and an evaluation of their properties, including proximate and ultimate composition, energy content, thermal behaviour, composition and fusibility of the ashes was performed. The lower heating value of the biomasses ranged from 14.31 MJkg(-1) to 29.14 MJkg(-1), on a dry and ash free basis (daf), all presenting high volatile matter content, varying between 70.57 wt.% and 85.36 wt.% (daf) what improves the thermochemical conversion of the solids. The fouling and slagging tendency of the ashes was predicted based on the fuel ash composition and on the ash fusibility correlations proposed in the literature, which is important to the project and operation of biomass conversion systems. The potential for application of the Brazilian agroindustrial solid residues studied as alternative energy sources in thermochemical processes has been identified, especially concerning direct combustion for steam generation. PMID:22699005

Virmond, Elaine; De Sena, Rennio F; Albrecht, Waldir; Althoff, Christine A; Moreira, Regina F P M; José, Humberto J

2012-10-01

292

Industry and Trade Summary: Sugar.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides a summary of the U.S. sugar market, covering the basic factors affecting trends in consumption, production, and trade, as well as those bearing on the competitiveness of U.S. industry in domestic and foreign markets. Sugar and its pro...

2001-01-01

293

Using Math With Maple Sugaring.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggest several math activities using the simple technique of tapping a sugar maple tree for sap. Information and activities presented are useful in tapping one or two trees on school property, helping students who tap trees at home, or leading a field trip to a nearby maple sugaring site. (ERB)

Christenson, Gary

1984-01-01

294

Biotechnology Applications for Sugar Beet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is an important industrial crop, being one of only two plant sources from which sucrose (i.e., sugar) can be economically produced. Despite its relatively short period of cultivation (ca. 200 years), its yield and quality parameters have been significantly improved by conventional breeding methods. However, during the last two decades or so, advanced in vitro

Ekrem Gurel; Songul Gurel; Peggy G. Lemaux

2008-01-01

295

Usual Intake of Added sugars  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Added sugars Table A40. Added sugars: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 teaspoons3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 9.4 (0.31) 3.1 (0.17) 4.1

296

1963 Sugar Beet Feasibility Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 1963 study had the broad objectives of determining the feasibility of growing sugar beets on selected soils in Central New York and to determine the extent of resources available in this proposed sugar beet growing area. More specific objectives relat...

N. C. Brady

1964-01-01

297

Hypoglycemia (Low Blood Sugar) in Diabetes Mellitus  

MedlinePLUS

... Hypoglycemia Patient information Patient information: Hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) in diabetes mellitus (Beyond the Basics) Author David ... Find Print Contents of this article LOW BLOOD SUGAR OVERVIEW WHY DO I GET LOW BLOOD SUGAR? ...

298

SURVEY OF FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEMS: CANE RUN STATION, LOUISVILLE GAS AND ELECTRIC COMPANY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a survey of operational flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems on coal-fired utility boilers in the U.S. The FGD systems installed on Units 4, 5, and 6 at the Cane Run Station are described in terms of design and performance. The Cane Run No. 4 FGD sys...

299

34. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

34. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Side view of mill. Vertical drive shaft lying on ground in foreground. When drive-shaft was in upright position its bevel gear was meshed with the bevel gear of the top roll, transmitting the animals'circular motion around the drive shaft to the horizontal rolls. The foundation is of portland cement. The heavy timber mill bed, between the mill and the portland cement foundation has rolled away. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

300

Effect of cation exchange resin treatment and addition on sugar as anti-caking agent on retention of nutritional and sensory quality of lemon juice powder during storage.  

PubMed

Lemon juices clarified with enzymatic treatment with and without cation exchange resin treatment were concentrated to 60(o) Brix in a vacuum evaporator and converted into powders by foam mat drying technique. Powders obtained from cation exchange resin treated juice were better in quality with respect to acidity, glucose, fructose, sugars, and ascorbic acid contents as compared to those prepared form non treated juice. Further, during 9 months storage, the powders suffered slight loss of acidity, and increase in reducing sugars i.e. glucose and fructose and considerable loss (31-55%) in vitamin C contents. Storage conditions did not bring about any significant change in the ash and hesperidin content of the product. But some losses were registered in the total phenols (23.69%) and sensory quality (from 7.72 to 7.26) of the powders. Further, the powders prepared from cation exchange resin treated juice and those pulverized with cane sugar suffered overall lesser changes in most of the quality parameters during 9 months of storage, thus indicating that, the treatment of lemon juice with cation exchange resin is beneficial for better initial product quality and pulverization of prepared powder with cane sugar is beneficial in reducing the hygroscopicity and retention of quality in a better way. PMID:23572750

Sharma, Satish K; Kaushal, B B L; Sharma, P C

2011-06-01

301

Carbonization of Forestal Agricultural and Agro-Industrial Waste as Well as of Organic Municipal Waste and Practical Utilization of the Recovered Products (Char, Gas, Pyrolysis Oil).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The object of the project was to obtain detailed information on the energy utilization of organic waste from forest, agriculture, agro-industry and municipalities by carbonization. The goals of the research program were: to obtain precise figures about th...

H. Reger

1985-01-01

302

Wastewater management in a cane molasses distillery involving bioresource recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste management involving bioresource recovery in a cane molasses-based distillery engaged in the manufacture of rectified spirit (alcohol) is described. The spentwash generated from the distillation of fermenter wash is highly acidic (pH 4·0–4·3) with high rates of biochemical and chemical oxygen demand (BOD: 52–58, COD: 92–100kg\\/m3) and suspended solids (2·0–2·5kg\\/m3). Biogas is recovered from high strength raw spentwash through

Tapas Nandy; Sunita Shastry; S. N. Kaul

2002-01-01

303

Influence of Mahanarva fimbriolata (Stål) (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) injury on the quality of cane juice.  

PubMed

Mahanarva fimbriolata (Stål) is an important pest in Latin America and causes significant reduction in sugarcane productivity. There is no information regarding the effect of this pest on the quality of cane juice used for sugar and alcohol production. This work aimed at evaluating the quality of sugarcane juice from plants attacked by spittlebugs. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with 15 replications, and comprised two treatments: control and chemical treatment with thiamethoxam. An average of 9.2 +/- 4.44 spittlebug nymphs m-1 were found in the plots prior to insecticide application. Nymphs were counted 18, 35, 55, and 82 days after the initial sampling (december/2003). During the mid growing season (July 2004), the juice was extracted from stalks and analyzed for Brix, Pol, RS, pH, fiber, purity, TRS, dextran, starch, and total phenolic compounds. Stalk yield was also measured. Chemical treatment was efficient in reducing spittlebug population, and elevated both stalk yield and juice pH. The accumulated infestation expressed as insect-days was significantly and negatively correlated to yield, Pol, pH, and purity. The concentration of phenolic compounds increased with pest infestation, while dextran and starch levels were not affected. The infestation of 2.4 and 7.3 nymphs m-1 day-1 caused reductions of 8.3% and 29.8% in yield; 1.9% and 5.8% in Pol; 0.4% and 1.1% in pH and 0.4% and 1.2% in purity, respectively, in comparison to areas where the pest population was extremely low (< 0.1 nymphs m-1). PMID:18368252

Madaleno, Leonardo L; Ravaneli, Gisele C; Presotti, Leandro E; Mutton, Miguel A; Fernandes, Odair A; Mutton, Márcia J R

2008-01-01

304

Immobilized Sclerotinia sclerotiorum invertase to produce invert sugar syrup from industrial beet molasses by-product.  

PubMed

The fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum produces invertase activity during cultivation on many agroindustrial residues. The molasses induced invertase was purified by DEAE-cellulose chromatography. The molecular mass of the purified enzyme was estimated at 48 kDa. Optimal temperature was determined at 60 °C and thermal stability up to 65 °C. The enzyme was stable between pH 2.0 and 8.0; optimum pH was about 5.5. Apparent K(m) and V(max) for sucrose were estimated to be respectively 5.8 mM and 0.11 ?mol/min. The invertase was activated by ?-mercaptoethanol. Free enzyme exhibited 80 % of its original activity after two month's storage at 4 °C and 50 % after 1 week at 25 °C. In order to investigate an industrial application, the enzyme was immobilized on alginate and examined for invert sugar production by molasses hydrolysis in a continuous bioreactor. The yield of immobilized invertase was about 78 % and the activity yield was 59 %. Interestingly the immobilized enzyme hydrolyzed beet molasses consuming nearly all sucrose. It retained all of its initial activity after being used for 4 cycles and about 65 % at the sixth cycle. Regarding productivity; 20 g/l of molasses by-product gave the best invert sugar production 46.21 g/day/100 g substrate related to optimal sucrose conversion of 41.6 %. PMID:24142426

Mouelhi, Refka; Abidi, Ferid; Galai, Said; Marzouki, M Nejib

2014-03-01

305

Partial Optimization of Endo-1, 4-?-Xylanase Production by Aureobasidium pullulans Using Agro-Industrial Residues  

PubMed Central

Objective(s) : Although bacteria and molds are the pioneering microorganisms for production of many enzymes, yet yeasts provide safe and reliable sources of enzymes with applications in food and feed. Materials and Methods: Single xylanase producer yeast was isolated from plant residues based on formation of transparent halo zones on xylan agar plates. The isolate showed much greater endo-1, 4-?-xylanase activity of 2.73 IU/ml after optimization of the initial extrinsic conditions. It was shown that the strain was also able to produce ?-xylosidase (0.179 IU/ml) and ?-arabinofuranosidase (0.063 IU/ml). Identification of the isolate was carried out and the endo-1, 4-?-xylanaseproduction by feeding the yeast cells on agro-industrial residues was optimized using one factor at a time approach. Results: The enzyme producer strain was identified as Aureobasidiumpullulans. Based on the optimization approach, an incubation time of 48 hr at 27°C, inoculum size of 2% (v/v), initial pH value of 4 and agitation rate of 90 rpm were found to be the optimal conditions for achieving maximum yield of the enzyme. Xylan, containing agricultural residues, was evaluated as low-cost alternative carbon source for production of xylanolytic enzymes. The production of xylanase enzyme in media containing wheat bran as the sole carbon source was very similar to that of the medium containing pure beechwoodxylan. Conclusion:This finding indicates the feasibility of growing of A. pullulans strain SN090 on wheat bran as an alternate economical substrate in order for reducing the costs of enzyme production and using this fortified agro-industrial byproduct in formulation of animal feed.

Nasr, Shaghayegh; Soudi, Mohammad Reza; Hatef Salmanian, Ali; Ghadam, Parinaz

2013-01-01

306

Partial Optimization of Endo-1, 4-?-Xylanase Production by Aureobasidium pullulans Using Agro-Industrial Residues.  

PubMed

Objective(s) : Although bacteria and molds are the pioneering microorganisms for production of many enzymes, yet yeasts provide safe and reliable sources of enzymes with applications in food and feed. Materials and Methods: Single xylanase producer yeast was isolated from plant residues based on formation of transparent halo zones on xylan agar plates. The isolate showed much greater endo-1, 4-?-xylanase activity of 2.73 IU/ml after optimization of the initial extrinsic conditions. It was shown that the strain was also able to produce ?-xylosidase (0.179 IU/ml) and ?-arabinofuranosidase (0.063 IU/ml). Identification of the isolate was carried out and the endo-1, 4-?-xylanaseproduction by feeding the yeast cells on agro-industrial residues was optimized using one factor at a time approach. Results: The enzyme producer strain was identified as Aureobasidiumpullulans. Based on the optimization approach, an incubation time of 48 hr at 27°C, inoculum size of 2% (v/v), initial pH value of 4 and agitation rate of 90 rpm were found to be the optimal conditions for achieving maximum yield of the enzyme. Xylan, containing agricultural residues, was evaluated as low-cost alternative carbon source for production of xylanolytic enzymes. The production of xylanase enzyme in media containing wheat bran as the sole carbon source was very similar to that of the medium containing pure beechwoodxylan. Conclusion: This finding indicates the feasibility of growing of A. pullulans strain SN090 on wheat bran as an alternate economical substrate in order for reducing the costs of enzyme production and using this fortified agro-industrial byproduct in formulation of animal feed. PMID:24570830

Nasr, Shaghayegh; Soudi, Mohammad Reza; Hatef Salmanian, Ali; Ghadam, Parinaz

2013-12-01

307

Smashing Bubbles and Vanishing Sugar.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Science activities with soap bubbles for primary school children are described in this article. Another activity involves children in determining the whereabouts of sugar as it dissolves in water. (SA)

Ward, Alan

1979-01-01

308

Know Your Blood Sugar Numbers  

MedlinePLUS

... Numbers If you have diabetes, keeping your blood glucose (sugar) numbers in your target range can help ... a lab test that measures your average blood glucose level over the last 2 to 3 months. ...

309

Background for 1990 Farm Legislation: Sugar.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The sugar support program and rapid adoption of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) played important roles in transforming the U.S. sugar industry in the 1980s. While sugar output and productivity increased, consumption of sugar fell dramatically as HFCS disp...

R. D. Barry L. Angelo P. J. Buzzanell F. Gray

1990-01-01

310

Valorization of Residual Agroindustrial Cakes by Fungal Production of Multienzyme Complexes and Their Use in Cold Hydrolysis of Raw Starch  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work four agroindustrial cakes were used as raw material both for production of enzyme pools containing amylases and\\u000a accessory hydrolases by solid-state fermentation (SSF) and for cold starch hydrolysis. Eight fungal strains from the genera\\u000a Aspergillus and Penicillium were screened for enzyme production, and their enzyme extracts were then evaluated in the hydrolysis of raw cakes. Babassu\\u000a cake

Aline Machado de CastroThiago; Thiago Vetter de Andréa; Daniele Fernandes Carvalho; Mariana Martins Pereira Teixeira; Leda dos Reis Castilho; Denise Maria Guimarães Freire

2011-01-01

311

Sugar cane bagasse as a possible source of fermentable carbohydrates. II. Optimization of the xylose isomerase reaction for isomerization of xylose as well as sugar cane bagasse hydrolyzate to xylulose in laboratory-scale units  

SciTech Connect

Both the forward and backward reactions of xylose isomerase (Sweetzyme Q) with xylose and glucose as substrates have been studied in terms of kinetics and thermodynamics. The relationship between the two reactions can thus be determined. Much attention has been given to the reaction with xylose as substrate. The optimal conditions of the xylose reaction in terms of pH, buffer, metal ions, substrate concentration, temperature, and ionic strength have been determined. These findings did not differ much from those reported for the glucose reaction. Equilibrium constants for the aldose to ketose conversion were more favorable in the case of glucose. The results obtained with continuous isomerization of xylose in columns packed with either Sweetzyme Q or Taka-Sweet were very similar to those obtained from batch isomerization processes. Particle size had a definite effect on reaction rate, which indicates that diffusion limitations do occur with the immobilized enzyme particles. Heat stability of Sweetzyme Q was good with t 1/2 of 118, 248, and 1200 h at 70, 55, and 40 degrees C, respectively. A novel method for the separation of xylose-xylulose mixtures with water as eluant on a specially prepared Dowex 1 x 8 column was developed. This technique has the capability of producing pure xylulose for industrial or research applications. A writ for a patent regarding this technique is at present prepared. 62 references.

Olivier, S.P.; du Toit, P.J.

1986-05-01

312

Methods for dehydration of sugars and sugar alcohols  

DOEpatents

The invention includes a method of dehydration of a sugar using a dehydration catalyst and a co-catalyst within a reactor. A sugar is introduced and H.sub.2 is flowed through the reactor at a pressure of less than or equal to about 300 psig to convert at least some of the sugar into an anhydrosugar product. The invention includes a process for producing isosorbide. A starting material comprising sorbitol is flowed into a reactor. H.sub.2 is counter flowed through the reactor. The starting material is exposed to a catalyst in the presence of a co-catalyst which comprises at least one metal. The exposing is conducted at a hydrogen pressure of less than or equal to 300 psig within the reactor and the hydrogen removes at least some of any water present during the exposing and inhibits formation of colored byproducts.

Holladay, Johnathan E [Kennewick, WA; Hu, Jianli [Kennewick, WA; Zhang, Xinjie [Burlington, MA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA

2010-08-10

313

Stable isotope ratio measurements of royal jelly samples for controlling production procedures: impact of sugar feeding.  

PubMed

The carbon and nitrogen stable ratios of royal jelly (RJ) samples from various origins are determined using an elemental analyser linked online to an isotope ratio mass spectrometer to evaluate authenticity and adulteration. The (13)C/(12)C and (15)N/(14)N stable isotope ratios are measured in more than 500 RJs (domestic, imported and derived from feeding experiments) in order to obtain isotopic measurements that take into account seasonal, botanical and geographical effects. Authenticity intervals are established for traditional beekeeping practices, without feeding, in the range -22.48 to -27.90‰ for ?(13)C. For these samples, the ?(15)N values range from -1.58 to 7.98‰, depending on the plant sources of pollen and nectar. The ?(13)C values of the commercial samples vary from -18.54 to -26.58‰. High ?(13)C values are typical of sugar cane or corn syrups which have distinctive isotopic (13)C signatures because both plants use the C4 photosynthetic cycle, in contrast to most RJs which are derived from C3 plants. These differences in the (13)C-isotopic composition allow the detection of the addition of such sugars. RJs from traditional sources and from industrial production by sugar feeding are thus successfully distinguished. PMID:21698675

Daniele, Gaëlle; Wytrychowski, Marine; Batteau, Magali; Guibert, Sylvie; Casabianca, Hervé

2011-07-30

314

One-pot conversions of raffinose into furfural derivatives and sugar alcohols by using heterogeneous catalysts.  

PubMed

Inedible and/or waste biomass reserves are being strongly focused upon as a suitable new energy and chemical source. Raffinose, which is an indigestible trisaccharide composed of glucose, galactose, and fructose, is found abundantly in beet molasses, sugar cane, and seeds of many leguminous plants. Herein, we demonstrate the one-pot synthesis of furan derivatives and sugar alcohols from raffinose by using heterogeneous acid, base, and/or metal-supported catalysts. The combination of Amberlyst-15 and hydrotalcite (HT) showed a high activity (37% yield) for 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (HMF) through continuous hydrolysis, isomerization, and dehydration reactions. In addition, the use of a hydrotalcite-supported ruthenium catalyst (Ru/HT) successfully afforded 2,5-diformylfuran (DFF, 27% yield) from HMF produced by raffinose, directly. Moreover, the hydrogenation of hexoses obtained by raffinose hydrolysis into sugar alcohols (galactitol, mannitol, sorbitol) was also achieved in a high yield (91%) with Amberlyst-15 and Ru/HT catalysts. Thus, we suggest that raffinose has great potential for the synthesis of important industrial intermediates under mild reaction conditions. PMID:24193816

Dabral, Saumya; Nishimura, Shun; Ebitani, Kohki

2014-01-01

315

Wastewater management in a cane molasses distillery involving bioresource recovery.  

PubMed

Waste management involving bioresource recovery in a cane molasses-based distillery engaged in the manufacture of rectified spirit (alcohol) is described. The spentwash generated from the distillation of fermenter wash is highly acidic (pH 4.0-4.3) with high rates of biochemical and chemical oxygen demand (BOD: 52-58, COD: 92-100 kg/m3) and suspended solids (2.0-2.5 kg/m3). Biogas is recovered from high strength raw spentwash through the full-scale application of a biomethanation system as pretreatment option, comprising anaerobic fixed film reactors. This, combined with subsequent concentration through multiple effect evaporators (MEE), and utilization of concentrated effluent for biocomposting of pressmud (another by-product of the industry) for production of biomanure contributes to the elimination of effluent discharges. PMID:12173420

Nandy, Tapas; Shastry, Sunita; Kaul, S N

2002-05-01

316

Evaluation of sugar-cane vinasse treated with Pleurotus sajor-caju utilizing aquatic organisms as toxicological indicators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxicity tests with aquatic organisms constitute an effective tool in the evaluation, prediction and detection of the potential effect of pollutants from environmental samples in living organisms. Vinasse, a highly colored effluent, is a sub-product rich in nutrients, mainly organic matter, with high pollutant potential when disposed in the environment. Assays for vinasse decolorization were performed using the fungus Pleurotus

Luiz F. Romanholo Ferreira; Mario M. Aguiar; Tamara G. Messias; Georgia B. Pompeu; Ana M. Queijeiro Lopez; Daniel P. Silva; Regina T. Monteiro

2011-01-01

317

Evaluation of sugar-cane vinasse treated with Pleurotus sajor-caju utilizing aquatic organisms as toxicological indicators.  

PubMed

Toxicity tests with aquatic organisms constitute an effective tool in the evaluation, prediction and detection of the potential effect of pollutants from environmental samples in living organisms. Vinasse, a highly colored effluent, is a sub-product rich in nutrients, mainly organic matter, with high pollutant potential when disposed in the environment. Assays for vinasse decolorization were performed using the fungus Pleurotus sajor-caju CCB020 in vinasse biodegradation study, were occurred reductions of 82.8% in COD, 75.3% in BOD, 99.2% in the coloration and 99.7% in turbidity. The vinasse toxicity reduction was determined by the exposition to the following organisms: Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, Daphnia magna, Daphnia similis and Hydra attenuata. This work concluded that the systematic combination of P. sajor-caju and vinasse can be applied in the bioprocess of color reduction and degradation of complex vinasse compounds, with reduction in the toxicity and improving its physical-chemical properties. PMID:20843550

Ferreira, Luiz F Romanholo; Aguiar, Mario M; Messias, Tamara G; Pompeu, Georgia B; Lopez, Ana M Queijeiro; Silva, Daniel P; Monteiro, Regina T

2011-01-01

318

Thermal analysis and devolatilization kinetics of cotton stalk, sugar cane bagasse and shea meal under nitrogen and air atmospheres  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal degradation, reactivity and kinetics for biomass materials cotton stalk (CS), sugarcane bagasse 1 (SB1), sugarcane bagasse 2 (SB2) and shea meal (SM) have been evaluated under pyrolysis (N2) and oxidising (dry air) conditions, using a non-isothermal thermogravimetric method (TGA). In the cases of CS and SB1 the peak temperatures were 51°C higher for pyrolysis compared with oxidative degradation, whereas

S. Munir; S. S. Daood; W. Nimmo; A. M. Cunliffe; B. M. Gibbs

2009-01-01

319

CANASATE - Mapeamento DA Cana-DA-Acucar Por Satelite - Area 3 (CANASATE: Sugar Cane Mapping by Satellite, Area 3).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The CANASATE Project, Sugarcane Mapping by Satellite, has the objective of obtaining the spatial distribution and area estimations of sugarcane plantations, at national level, using remote sensing techniques. To achieve this objective, Brazil was divided ...

F. J. Mendonca D. A. Rosenthal K. Defaria M. Covre R. Dossantos

1986-01-01

320

Effects of organic and conventional management of sugar cane crop on soil physicochemical characteristics and phosphomonoesterase activity.  

PubMed

Soil enzymes play an important role in agriculture and particularly in nutrient cycling. They are also involved in the degradation, transformation, and mineralization of organic matter and availability of nutrients in soil. It is believed that organic agriculture causes fewer losses to soil quality and is less aggressive to the environment than conventional management. In this study, the effects of conventional (CM) and organic management (OM) on phosphomonoesterases, an important enzyme for soil fertility, were evaluated and compared to those results from native Cerrado (Brazilian Savanna) soil (NS), because they are the most common phosphatases in soils. The results showed that there were both acid (AcP) and alkaline (AkP) phosphatases in all soils tested and that AcP activity was higher than that of AkP. In contrast to AkP, AcP had its activity affected by land use. In the cultivated areas there was a reduction of almost 50% of AcP activity respect to native unexploited soils and there was no significant difference between organic and CM, demonstrating that independent of the management chosen, there was an impact of land use on AcP activity. Principal component analysis indicated that characteristics related to pH such as alkali saturation (V%), aluminum saturation (M%), Al(3+), soil total acidity (H+Al), and Ca(2+) are the main factors that permit distinguishing NS from OM and CM. PMID:24475929

Purcena, Luiza L A; Di Medeiros, Maria Carolina B; Leandro, Wilson M; Fernandes, Kátia F

2014-02-19

321

Impacts of introducing a new tool for the manual harvesting of sugar cane: the ergonomic analysis contribution.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of introduction a new work tool on health and productivity of manual harvesting sugarcane workers. In this study it was performed aErgonomic Work Analysis (EWA) to analyze the work tool changes.The study included sugarcane workers, drivers, fiscals, and technical's safety at work.During the analysis process, 134 questionnaires were applied,aimed to identify the constraints that such workers are submitted,to evaluate the tool introduced, in order to propose modifications to improve it.The results showed a decrease in perceived exertion and discomfort, without compromising the cut quality. The main contributions of Ergonomic Work Analysis were the possibility of bringing the logic of the worker, in order to understand the inherent real work characteristics, to the process of developing the new tool. Besides, it was also noted that this methodology, based on the analysis workers activity in a real usage, as an application tool in design projects, providing innovations from the workers perspective. PMID:22317488

Souza, C D R; Filho, A B G J; Silva, R A V

2012-01-01

322

Cane River Creole National Historical Park Magnolia Plantation. Gin Barn Historic Structure Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Much of the historical information in this report is found in research compiled by Cane River Creole National Historical Park since 1994. Most important have been Dr. Ann Malone Rose's historical overview and Dr. Bennie Keel's archaeological investigation...

2004-01-01

323

Synthesis of the Sugar Moieties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biological activity of the anthracycline antibiotics, which have found wide application in clinical oncology, is strongly related to their glycosidic structure. Modification or switch of the saccharide moiety became an important line of new drug discovery and study of their mechanism of action. Natural glycons (sugar moieties) of the anthracycline antibiotics belong to the 2,6-dideoxypyranose family and their principal representative, daunosamine, is 3-amino-2,3,6-trideoxy- l-lyxo-pyranose. Some newer chemical syntheses of this sugar, from a chiral pool as well as from achiral starting materials, are presented and their capability for scale-up and process development are commented upon. Rational sugar structural modifications, which are either useful for synthetic purposes or offer advantages in experimental therapy of cancer, are discussed from the chemical point of view.

Grynkiewicz, Grzegorz; Szeja, Wieslaw

324

Z and W sex chromosomes in the cane toad ( Bufo marinus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cane toad (Bufo marinus) is one of the most notorious animal pests encountered in Australia. Members of the genus Bufo historically have been regarded as having genotypic sex determination with male homogamety\\/female heterogamety. Nevertheless,\\u000a as with many toads, karyotypic analyses of the cane toad have so far failed to identify heteromorphics sex chromosomes. In\\u000a this study, we used comparative

John Abramyan; Tariq Ezaz; Jennifer A. Marshall Graves; Peter Koopman

2009-01-01

325

Study of Fall Detection Using Intelligent Cane Based on Sensor Fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-wheeled omni-directional cane robot is designed for aiding the elderly walking. A new human fall detection method is proposed based on fusing sensory information from a vision system and a laser ranger finder (LRF). This method plays an important role in the fall-prevention for the cane robot. The human fall model is represented in a 2D space, where the

Jian Huang; Pei Di; K. Wakita; T. Fukuda; K. Sekiyama

2008-01-01

326

Life cycle assessment of fuel ethanol from cane molasses in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim and scope  After China and India, Thailand is considered another emerging market for fuel ethanol in Asia. At present, ethanol in the\\u000a country is mainly a fermentation\\/distillery product of cane molasses, although cassava and cane juice are considered other\\u000a potential raw materials for the fuel. This study aims to evaluate the environmental impacts of substituting conventional gasoline\\u000a (CG) with

Thu Lan T. Nguyen; Shabbir H. Gheewala

2008-01-01

327

Production of sugar and sugar derivatives by pyrolysis of biomass  

SciTech Connect

Thermochemical conversion of biomass to sugar and sugar derivatives is hindered by the inhomogeneity of the substrate and the low specificity of the pyrolytic reactions. Recent analysis and investigation of these reactions have shown that they could be controlled and catalyzed to minimize the side reactions and increase the yield of individual compounds. These compounds include levoglucosan which could be obtained in high yields within the temperature range of 350-400/sup 0/C when the substrate has undergone previous acid treatment or a trace amount of acid is present. This phenomenon has been used for production of sugars from softwood and hardwood based on prehydrolysis and subsequent pyrolysis to a tar that could be posthydrolyzed to sugars. Acid-catalyzed pyrolysis of cellulosic materials, particularly waste paper, gives a pyrolyzate containing mainly levoglucosenone which has proved to be a highly reactive compound for production of a variety of carbohydrate derivatives. Pyrolysis of carbohydrates also provides several other furan and pyran derivatives that could be used as synthetic intermediates. 28 references, 22 figures, 11 tables.

Shafizadeh, F.

1983-01-01

328

Pigment production by filamentous fungi on agro-industrial byproducts: an eco-friendly alternative.  

PubMed

The search for new sources of natural pigments has increased, mainly because of the toxic effects caused by synthetic dyes used in food, pharmaceutical, textile, and cosmetic industries. Fungi provide a readily available alternative source of natural pigments. In this context, the fungi Penicillium chrysogenum IFL1 and IFL2, Fusarium graminearum IFL3, Monascus purpureus NRRL 1992, and Penicillium vasconiae IFL4 were selected as pigments producers. The fungal identification was performed using ITS and part of the ?-tubulin gene sequencing. Almost all fungi were able to grow and produce water-soluble pigments on agro-industrial residues, with the exception of P. vasconiae that produced pigments only on potato dextrose broth. The production of yellow pigments was predominant and the two strains of P. chrysogenum were the largest producers. In addition, the production of pigments and mycotoxins were evaluated in potato dextrose agar using TOF-MS and TOF-MS/MS. Metabolites as roquefortine C, chrysogine were found in both extracts of P. chrysogenum, as well fusarenone X, diacetoxyscirpenol, and neosolaniol in F. graminearum extract. In the M. purpureus extract, the pigments monascorubrin, rubropunctatin, and the mycotoxin citrinin were found. The crude filtrates have potential to be used in the textile industry; nevertheless, additional pigment purification is required for food and pharmaceutical applications. PMID:23873642

Lopes, Fernanda Cortez; Tichota, Deise Michele; Pereira, Jamile Queiroz; Segalin, Jéferson; Rios, Alessandro de Oliveira; Brandelli, Adriano

2013-10-01

329

Utilization of agroindustrial residues for lipase production by solid-state fermentation  

PubMed Central

The aim of this work was to produce lipases by solid-state fermentation (SSF) using, as substrate, agroindustrial residue supplemented with by-products from corn oil refining process or olive oil. For a group of ten fungi strains selected in the first steps, the lipase activity obtained by SSF varied from 7.7 to 58.6 U/g of dry substrate (gds). Among the evaluated strains, the Aspergillus niger mutant 11T53A14 was selected by presenting the best enzymatic production. For the fermentation tests, two substrates were also investigated: wheat bran and corn cob, both supplemented with olive oil. The best results were obtained with wheat bran. Additionally, three industrial by-products from corn oil refining (soapstock, stearin and fatty acids) were evaluated as substitutes to the olive oil in the function of lipases production inducer. Among them, soapstock and stearin were the best inducers, whereas fatty acids presented an inhibitor effect. The highest lipase activities using soapstock, stearin and fatty acids were 62.7 U/gds, 37.7 U/gds and 4.1 U/gds, respectively.

Damaso, Monica Caramez Triches; Passianoto, Moises Augusto; de Freitas, Sidinea Cordeiro; Freire, Denise Maria Guimaraes; Lago, Regina Celi Araujo; Couri, Sonia

2008-01-01

330

Agricultural Biotechnology in crops, forestry, livestock, fisheries and agro-industry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations provides this Website about the role and impact of biotechnology in food and agriculture in developing countries. Features of the site include FAO's Statement on Biotechnology (including a discussion of genetically modified organisms), an overview of FAO's activities (such as providing advice and assistance to member countries, disseminating information, and monitoring new developments concerning biotechnology in food and agriculture), as well as an introduction to biotechnology in the agro-industry, crop, fisheries, forestry, and livestock sectors with links to FAO publications (most may be read online). Other highlights of the site include meeting news, a glossary of terms and acronyms currently used in the field of biotechnology, a member list for the FAO Inter-Departmental Working Group on Biotechnology, and links. The FAO Electronic Forum on Biotechnology in Food and Agriculture (reviewed in the May 26, 2000 Scout Report) is a series of moderated email conferences concerning agricultural biotechnology and developing countries. The Website is available in English, Arabic, Chinese, French, and Spanish.

331

Kojic Acid production from agro-industrial by-products using fungi.  

PubMed

A total of 278 different isolates of filamentous fungi were screened using synthetic medium for respective ability to produce kojic acid. Nineteen, six, and five isolates proved to be low, moderate, and high kojic acid producers, respectively. Levels of kojic acid produced were generally increased when shaking cultivation was used rather than those obtained using static cultivation. A trial for the utilization of 15 agro-industrial wastes or by-products for kojic acid production by the five selected higher kojic acid producer isolates was made. The best by-product medium recorded was molasses for kojic acid. A. flavus numbers 7 and 24 were able to grow and produce kojic acid on only 12 out of 15 wastes or by-products media. The best medium used for kojic acid production by A. flavus number 7 was rice fragments followed by molasses, while the best medium used for kojic acid production by A. flavus number 24 was the molasses followed by orange, pea, and rice fragments. An attempt for production of kojic acid using a 1.5?L laboratory fermentor has been made. Aspergillus flavus number 7 was used and grown on molasses medium; maximum level (53.5?g/L) of kojic acid was obtained after eight days of incubation. PMID:24778881

El-Kady, Ismael A; Zohri, Abdel Naser A; Hamed, Shimaa R

2014-01-01

332

Green Conversion of Agroindustrial Wastes into Chitin and Chitosan by Rhizopus arrhizus and Cunninghamella elegans Strains.  

PubMed

This article sets out a method for producing chitin and chitosan by Cunninghamella elegans and Rhizopus arrhizus strains using a green metabolic conversion of agroindustrial wastes (corn steep liquor and molasses). The physicochemical characteristics of the biopolymers and antimicrobial activity are described. Chitin and chitosan were extracted by alkali-acid treatment, and characterized by infrared spectroscopy, viscosity and X-ray diffraction. The effectiveness of chitosan from C. elegans and R. arrhizus in inhibiting the growth of Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli and Yersinia enterocolitica were evaluated by determining the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC). The highest production of biomass (24.60 g/L), chitin (83.20 mg/g) and chitosan (49.31 mg/g) was obtained by R. arrhizus. Chitin and chitosan from both fungi showed a similar degree of deacetylation, respectively of 25% and 82%, crystallinity indices of 33.80% and 32.80% for chitin, and 20.30% and 17.80% for chitosan. Both chitin and chitosan presented similar viscosimetry of 3.79-3.40 cP and low molecular weight of 5.08 × 103 and 4.68 × 103 g/mol. They both showed identical MIC and MBC for all bacteria assayed. These results suggest that: agricultural wastes can be produced in an environmentally friendly way; chitin and chitosan can be produced economically; and that chitosan has antimicrobial potential against pathogenic bacteria. PMID:24853288

Berger, Lúcia Raquel Ramos; Stamford, Thayza Christina Montenegro; Stamford-Arnaud, Thatiana Montenegro; de Alcântara, Sergio Roberto Cabral; da Silva, Antonio Cardoso; da Silva, Adamares Marques; do Nascimento, Aline Elesbão; de Campos-Takaki, Galba Maria

2014-01-01

333

Kojic Acid Production from Agro-Industrial By-Products Using Fungi  

PubMed Central

A total of 278 different isolates of filamentous fungi were screened using synthetic medium for respective ability to produce kojic acid. Nineteen, six, and five isolates proved to be low, moderate, and high kojic acid producers, respectively. Levels of kojic acid produced were generally increased when shaking cultivation was used rather than those obtained using static cultivation. A trial for the utilization of 15 agro-industrial wastes or by-products for kojic acid production by the five selected higher kojic acid producer isolates was made. The best by-product medium recorded was molasses for kojic acid. A. flavus numbers 7 and 24 were able to grow and produce kojic acid on only 12 out of 15 wastes or by-products media. The best medium used for kojic acid production by A. flavus number 7 was rice fragments followed by molasses, while the best medium used for kojic acid production by A. flavus number 24 was the molasses followed by orange, pea, and rice fragments. An attempt for production of kojic acid using a 1.5?L laboratory fermentor has been made. Aspergillus flavus number 7 was used and grown on molasses medium; maximum level (53.5?g/L) of kojic acid was obtained after eight days of incubation.

El-Kady, Ismael A.; Zohri, Abdel Naser A.; Hamed, Shimaa R.

2014-01-01

334

A methodology for optimising feed composition for anaerobic co-digestion of agro-industrial wastes.  

PubMed

An optimisation protocol for maximising methane production by anaerobic co-digestion of several wastes was carried out. A linear programming method was utilised to set up different blends aimed at maximising the total substrate biodegradation potential (L CH(4)/kg substrate) or the biokinetic potential (L CH(4)/kg substrate d). In order to validate the process, three agro-industrial wastes were considered: pig manure, tuna fish waste and biodiesel waste, and the results obtained were validated by experimental studies in discontinuous assays. The highest biodegradation potential (321 L CH(4)/kg COD) was reached with a mixture composed of 84% pig manure, 5% fish waste and 11% biodiesel waste, while the highest methane production rate (16.4 L CH(4)/kg COD d) was obtained by a mixture containing 88% pig manure, 4% fish waste and 8% biodiesel waste. Linear programming was proved to be a powerful, useful and easy-to-use tool to estimate methane production in co-digestion units where different substrates can be fed. PMID:19833510

Alvarez, J A; Otero, L; Lema, J M

2010-02-01

335

Green Conversion of Agroindustrial Wastes into Chitin and Chitosan by Rhizopus arrhizus and Cunninghamella elegans Strains  

PubMed Central

This article sets out a method for producing chitin and chitosan by Cunninghamella elegans and Rhizopus arrhizus strains using a green metabolic conversion of agroindustrial wastes (corn steep liquor and molasses). The physicochemical characteristics of the biopolymers and antimicrobial activity are described. Chitin and chitosan were extracted by alkali-acid treatment, and characterized by infrared spectroscopy, viscosity and X-ray diffraction. The effectiveness of chitosan from C. elegans and R. arrhizus in inhibiting the growth of Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli and Yersinia enterocolitica were evaluated by determining the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC). The highest production of biomass (24.60 g/L), chitin (83.20 mg/g) and chitosan (49.31 mg/g) was obtained by R. arrhizus. Chitin and chitosan from both fungi showed a similar degree of deacetylation, respectively of 25% and 82%, crystallinity indices of 33.80% and 32.80% for chitin, and 20.30% and 17.80% for chitosan. Both chitin and chitosan presented similar viscosimetry of 3.79–3.40 cP and low molecular weight of 5.08 × 103 and 4.68 × 103 g/mol. They both showed identical MIC and MBC for all bacteria assayed. These results suggest that: agricultural wastes can be produced in an environmentally friendly way; chitin and chitosan can be produced economically; and that chitosan has antimicrobial potential against pathogenic bacteria.

Berger, Lucia Raquel Ramos; Stamford, Thayza Christina Montenegro; Stamford-Arnaud, Thatiana Montenegro; de Alcantara, Sergio Roberto Cabral; da Silva, Antonio Cardoso; da Silva, Adamares Marques; do Nascimento, Aline Elesbao; de Campos-Takaki, Galba Maria

2014-01-01

336

Probing protein-sugar interactions.  

PubMed Central

We have investigated the partial specific volumes (2) (ml/g), hydration, and cosolvent interactions of rabbit muscle aldolase by equilibrium sedimentation in the analytical ultracentrifuge and by direct density increment (partial differential/partial differentialc(2))(mu) measurements over a range of sugar concentrations and temperature. In a series of sugars increasing in size, glucose, sucrose, raffinose, and alpha-cyclodextrin, (partial differential/ partial differentialc(2))(mu) decreases linearly with the solvent density rho(0). These sugar cosolvents do not interact with the protein; however, the interaction parameter B(1) (g water/g protein) mildly increases with increasing sugar size. The experimental B(1) values are smaller than values calculated by excluded volume (rolling ball) considerations. B(1) relates to hydration in this and in other instances studied. It decreases with increasing temperature, leading to an increase in (2) due to reduced water of hydration electrostriction. The density increments (partial differential/ partial differentialc(2))(mu), however, decrease in concave up form in the case of glycerol and in concave down form for trehalose, leading to more complex behavior in the case of carbohydrates playing a biological role as osmolytes and antifreeze agents. A critical discussion, based on the thermodynamics of multicomponent solutions, is presented.

Ebel, C; Eisenberg, H; Ghirlando, R

2000-01-01

337

Sugar recognition by human galactokinase  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Galactokinase catalyses the first committed step of galactose catabolism in which the sugar is phosphorylated at the expense of MgATP. Recent structural studies suggest that the enzyme makes several contacts with galactose – five side chain and two main chain hydrogen bonds. Furthermore, it has been suggested that inhibition of galactokinase may help sufferers of the genetic disease classical

David J Timson; Richard J Reece

2003-01-01

338

Health Tip: Cut Down on Sugar  

MedlinePLUS

... please enable JavaScript. Health Tip: Cut Down on Sugar Watch how much you eat and drink (*this ... Kohnle Friday, February 21, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Page Carbohydrates (HealthDay News) -- Too much sugar in your diet ...

339

Keeping Track of Your Blood Sugar  

MedlinePLUS

... Center > Treatment & Prevention > Keeping Track of Your Blood Sugar Print A A A Text Size What's in ... prevent future problems, you have to keep blood sugar levels in a healthy range. To do that, ...

340

ConcepTest: Sugar-Rock Analogy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Water containing dissolved sugar evaporates to leave a deposit of sugar in the bottom of a glass. This could be seen as an analog for the formation of a type of a. igneous rock b. metamorphic rock c. sedimentary ...

341

When Blood Sugar Is Too Low  

MedlinePLUS

... Levels Treated? Can You Prevent Low Blood Sugar? Hypoglycemia (say: hi-po-gly-SEE-me-uh) is ... Back Continue Can You Prevent Low Blood Sugar? Hypoglycemia might sound a little scary, so you might ...

342

Dangers of High and Low Blood Sugar  

MedlinePLUS

... Dangers of High and Low Blood Sugar Hyperglycemia Hypoglycemia Sick Days Most of the time, good diabetes ... the timing of insulin shots. Back to top Hypoglycemia When blood sugar levels are too low, this ...

343

The Sugar Industry's Structure, Pricing and Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The structure, pricing, and performance of the U.S. sugar industry were studied with special emphasis on the industry's performance during the recent years of economic stress. The major causes of high U.S. sugar prices in 1974 were tight world sugar suppl...

R. Bohall F. Hulse C. Powe L. Angelo F. Gray

1977-01-01

344

Reducing Sugar in Children's Diets: Why? How?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maintains that sugar intake should be reduced in young children's diets because of its link to dental cavities, poor nutrition, and obesity. Reducing the focus on sweetness, limiting sugar consumption, and using natural sources of sweetness and other treats are ways to help reduce sugar intake. (BB)

Rogers, Cosby S.; Morris, Sandra S.

1986-01-01

345

Sugar Alcohols and Diabetes:A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many foods sweetened with sugar alcohols (also known as polyols), such as isomalt, lactitol, maltitol, mannitol, sorbitol and xylitol, are available today. Because of concerns about possible harmful effects, we reviewed government regula- tions and scientific literature on sugar alcohols. Although some sugar alcohols do not raise plasma glucose (PG), no long-term benefits regarding their ingestion have been estab- lished

Thomas M. S. Wolever; Ana Piekarz; Marjorie Hollands; Katherine Younker; Ontario Toronto

2002-01-01

346

Sugar Substitutes: What You Need To Know  

MedlinePLUS

... in foods include: Erythritol – 0.2 calories per gram and 60% to 80% as sweet as sugar Isomalt - 2 calories per gram and 45% to 65% as sweet as sugar Lactitol – 2 calories per gram and 30% to 40% as sweet at sugar ...

347

Saccharification of recalcitrant biomass and integration options for lignocellulosic sugars from Catchlight Energy's sugar process (CLE Sugar)  

PubMed Central

Background Woody biomass is one of the most abundant biomass feedstocks, besides agriculture residuals in the United States. The sustainable harvest residuals and thinnings alone are estimated at about 75 million tons/year. These forest residuals and thinnings could produce the equivalent of 5 billion gallons of lignocellulosic ethanol annually. Softwood biomass is the most recalcitrant biomass in pretreatment before an enzymatic hydrolysis. To utilize the most recalcitrant lignocellulosic materials, an efficient, industrially scalable and cost effective pretreatment method is needed. Results Obtaining a high yield of sugar from recalcitrant biomass generally requires a high severity of pretreatment with aggressive chemistry, followed by extensive conditioning, and large doses of enzymes. Catchlight Energy’s Sugar process, CLE Sugar, uses a low intensity, high throughput variation of bisulfite pulping to pretreat recalcitrant biomass, such as softwood forest residuals. By leveraging well-proven bisulfite technology and the rapid progress of enzyme suppliers, CLE Sugar can achieve a high yield of total biomass carbohydrate conversion to monomeric lignocellulosic sugars. For example, 85.8% of biomass carbohydrates are saccharified for un-debarked Loblolly pine chips (softwood), and 94.0% for debarked maple chips (hardwood). Furan compound formation was 1.29% of biomass feedstock for Loblolly pine and 1.10% for maple. At 17% solids hydrolysis of pretreated softwood, an enzyme dose of 0.075 g Sigma enzyme mixture/g dry pretreated (unwashed) biomass was needed to achieve 8.1% total sugar titer in the hydrolysate and an overall prehydrolysate liquor plus enzymatic hydrolysis conversion yield of 76.6%. At a much lower enzyme dosage of 0.044 g CTec2 enzyme product/g dry (unwashed) pretreated softwood, hydrolysis at 17% solids achieved 9.2% total sugar titer in the hydrolysate with an overall sugar yield of 85.0% in the combined prehydrolysate liquor and enzymatic hydrolysate. CLE Sugar has been demonstrated to be effective on hardwood and herbaceous biomass, making it truly feedstock flexible. Conclusions Different options exist for integrating lignocellulosic sugar into sugar-using operations. A sugar conversion plant may be adjacent to a CLE Sugar plant, and the CLE Sugar can be concentrated from the initial 10% sugar as needed. Concentrated sugars, however, can be shipped to remote sites such as ethanol plants or other sugar users. In such cases, options for shipping a dense form of sugars include (1) pretreated biomass with enzyme addition, (2) lignocellulosic sugar syrup, and (3) lignocellulosic sugar solid. These could provide the advantage of maximizing the use of existing assets.

2013-01-01

348

Do invasive cane toads affect the parasite burdens of native Australian frogs??  

PubMed Central

One of the most devastating impacts of an invasive species is the introduction of novel parasites or diseases to native fauna. Invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina) in Australia contain several types of parasites, raising concern that the toads may increase rates of parasitism in local anuran species. We sampled cane toads and sympatric native frogs (Limnodynastes peronii, Litoria latopalmata, and Litoria nasuta) at the southern invasion front of cane toads in north-eastern New South Wales (NSW). We dissected and swabbed these anurans to score the presence and abundance of nematodes (Rhabdias lungworms, and gastric encysting nematodes), myxozoans, and chytrid fungus. To determine if cane toad invasion influences rates of parasitism in native frogs, we compared the prevalence and intensity of parasites in frogs from areas with toads, to frogs from areas without toads. Contrary to the situation on the (rapidly-expanding) tropical invasion front, cane toads on the slowly-expanding southern front were heavily infected with rhabditoid lungworms. Toads also contained gastric-encysting nematodes, and one toad was infected by chytrid fungus, but we did not find myxozoans in any toads. All parasite groups were recorded in native frogs, but were less common in areas invaded by toads than in nearby yet to be invaded areas. Contrary to our predictions, toad invasion was associated with a reduced parasite burden in native frogs. Thus, cane toads do not appear to transfer novel parasites to native frog populations, or act as a reservoir for native parasites to ‘spill-back’ into native frogs. Instead, cane toads may reduce frog-parasite numbers by taking up native parasites that are then killed by the toad’s immune defences.

Lettoof, Damian C.; Greenlees, Matthew J.; Stockwell, Michelle; Shine, Richard

2013-01-01

349

Do invasive cane toads affect the parasite burdens of native Australian frogs?  

PubMed

One of the most devastating impacts of an invasive species is the introduction of novel parasites or diseases to native fauna. Invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina) in Australia contain several types of parasites, raising concern that the toads may increase rates of parasitism in local anuran species. We sampled cane toads and sympatric native frogs (Limnodynastes peronii, Litoria latopalmata, and Litoria nasuta) at the southern invasion front of cane toads in north-eastern New South Wales (NSW). We dissected and swabbed these anurans to score the presence and abundance of nematodes (Rhabdias lungworms, and gastric encysting nematodes), myxozoans, and chytrid fungus. To determine if cane toad invasion influences rates of parasitism in native frogs, we compared the prevalence and intensity of parasites in frogs from areas with toads, to frogs from areas without toads. Contrary to the situation on the (rapidly-expanding) tropical invasion front, cane toads on the slowly-expanding southern front were heavily infected with rhabditoid lungworms. Toads also contained gastric-encysting nematodes, and one toad was infected by chytrid fungus, but we did not find myxozoans in any toads. All parasite groups were recorded in native frogs, but were less common in areas invaded by toads than in nearby yet to be invaded areas. Contrary to our predictions, toad invasion was associated with a reduced parasite burden in native frogs. Thus, cane toads do not appear to transfer novel parasites to native frog populations, or act as a reservoir for native parasites to 'spill-back' into native frogs. Instead, cane toads may reduce frog-parasite numbers by taking up native parasites that are then killed by the toad's immune defences. PMID:24533330

Lettoof, Damian C; Greenlees, Matthew J; Stockwell, Michelle; Shine, Richard

2013-12-01

350

Invasive Cane Toads: Social Facilitation Depends upon an Individual's Personality  

PubMed Central

Individual variation in behavioural traits (including responses to social cues) may influence the success of invasive populations. We studied the relationship between sociality and personality in invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina) from a recently established population in tropical Australia. In our field experiments, we manipulated social cues (the presence of a feeding conspecific) near a food source. We captured and compared toads that only approached feeding sites where another toad was already present, with conspecifics that approached unoccupied feeding sites. Subsequent laboratory trials showed correlated personality differences (behavioural syndromes) between these two groups of toads. For example, toads that approached already-occupied rather than unoccupied feeding sites in the field, took longer to emerge from a shelter-site in standardized trials, suggesting these individuals are ‘shy’ (whereas toads that approached unoccupied feeding stations tended to be ‘bold’). Manipulating hunger levels did not abolish this difference. In feeding trials, a bold toad typically outcompeted a shy toad under conditions of low prey availability, but the outcome was reversed when multiple prey items were present. Thus, both personality types may be favored under different circumstances. This invasive population of toads contains individuals that exhibit a range of personalities, hinting at the existence of a wide range of social dynamics in taxa traditionally considered to be asocial.

Gonzalez-Bernal, Edna; Brown, Gregory P.; Shine, Richard

2014-01-01

351

Production of clean pyrolytic sugars for fermentation.  

PubMed

This study explores the separate recovery of sugars and phenolic oligomers produced during fast pyrolysis with the effective removal of contaminants from the separated pyrolytic sugars to produce a substrate suitable for fermentation without hydrolysis. The first two stages from a unique recovery system capture "heavy ends", mostly water-soluble sugars and water-insoluble phenolic oligomers. The differences in water solubility can be exploited to recover a sugar-rich aqueous phase and a phenolic-rich raffinate. Over 93?wt?% of the sugars is removed in two water washes. These sugars contain contaminants such as low-molecular-weight acids, furans, and phenols that could inhibit successful fermentation. Detoxification methods were used to remove these contaminants from pyrolytic sugars. The optimal candidate is NaOH overliming, which results in maximum growth measurements with the use of ethanol-producing Escherichia coli. PMID:24706373

Rover, Marjorie R; Johnston, Patrick A; Jin, Tao; Smith, Ryan G; Brown, Robert C; Jarboe, Laura

2014-06-01

352

Finding the Carbon in Sugar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity about combustion and energy, learners observe a burning candle in a sealed jar and the burning of white sugar. The first part of the activity (candle burning) should be conducted as a demonstration. The second part may be conducted by learners working in groups of 2-4 or as a demonstration. This activity guide includes background information, questions for learners to think about, and bilingual (English/Spanish) handouts.

Moreno, Nancy P.; Tharp, Barbara Z.; Dresden, Judith

2011-01-01

353

DEMONSTRATION OF EQUIVALENCY OF CANE AND SOFTWOOD BASED CELOTEX FOR MODEL 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGES  

SciTech Connect

Cane-based Celotex{trademark} has been used extensively in various Department of Energy (DOE) packages as a thermal insulator and impact absorber. Cane-based Celotex{trademark} fiberboard was only manufactured by Knight-Celotex Fiberboard at their Marrero Plant in Louisiana. However, Knight-Celotex Fiberboard shut down their Marrero Plant in early 2007 due to impacts from hurricane Katrina and other economic factors. Therefore, cane-based Celotex{trademark} fiberboard is no longer available for use in the manufacture of new shipping packages requiring the material as a component. Current consolidation plans for the DOE Complex require the procurement of several thousand new Model 9975 shipping packages requiring cane-based Celotex{trademark} fiberboard. Therefore, an alternative to cane-based Celotex{trademark} fiberboard is needed. Knight-Celotex currently manufactures Celotex{trademark} fiberboard from other cellulosic materials, such as hardwood and softwood. A review of the relevant literature has shown that softwood-based Celotex{trademark} meets all parameters important to the Model 9975 shipping package.

Watkins, R; Jason Varble, J

2008-05-27

354

Evolutionary Responses to Invasion: Cane Toad Sympatric Fish Show Enhanced Avoidance Learning  

PubMed Central

The introduced cane toad (Bufo marinus) poses a major threat to biodiversity due to its lifelong toxicity. Several terrestrial native Australian vertebrates are adapting to the cane toad’s presence and lab trials have demonstrated that repeated exposure to B. marinus can result in learnt avoidance behaviour. Here we investigated whether aversion learning is occurring in aquatic ecosystems by comparing cane toad naïve and sympatric populations of crimson spotted rainbow fish (Melanotaenia duboulayi). The first experiment indicated that fish from the sympatric population had pre-existing aversion to attacking cane toad tadpoles but also showed reduced attacks on native tadpoles. The second experiment revealed that fish from both naïve and sympatric populations learned to avoid cane toad tadpoles following repeated, direct exposure. Allopatric fish also developed a general aversion to tadpoles. The aversion learning abilities of both groups was examined using an experiment involving novel distasteful prey items. While both populations developed a general avoidance of edible pellets in the presence of distasteful pellets, only the sympatric population significantly reduced the number of attacks on the novel distasteful prey item. These results indicate that experience with toxic prey items over multiple generations can enhance avoidance leaning capabilities via natural selection.

Caller, Georgina; Brown, Culum

2013-01-01

355

Ground Water Nitrate Reduction in Giant Cane and Forest Riparian Buffer Zones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ground water contamination by excess nitrate leaching in row-crop fields is an important issue in intensive agricultural areas of the United States and abroad. Giant cane and forest riparian buffer zones were monitored to determine each cover type's ability to reduce ground water nitrate concentrations. Ground water was sampled at varying distances from the field edge to determine an effective width for maximum nitrate attenuation. Ground water samples were analyzed for nitrate concentrations as well as chloride concentrations, which were used as a conservative ion to assess dilution or concentration effects within the riparian zone. Significant nitrate reductions occurred in both the cane and the forest riparian buffer zones within the first 3.3 m, a relatively narrow width. In this first 3.3 m, the cane and forest buffer reduced ground water nitrate levels by 90 percent and 61 percent, respectively. Approximately 40 percent of the observed 99 percent nitrate reduction over the 10 m cane buffer could be attributed to dilution by upwelling ground water. Neither ground water dilution nor concentration was observed in the forest buffer. The ground water nitrate attenuation capabilities of the cane and forest riparian zones were not statistically different. During the spring, both plant assimilation and denitrification were probably important nitrate loss mechanisms, while in the summer nitrate was more likely lost via denitrification since the water table dropped below the rooting zone.

Schoonover, Jon E.; Williard, Karl W. J.

2003-04-01

356

Rhabdias pseudosphaerocephala infection in Bufo marinus: lung nematodes reduce viability of metamorph cane toads.  

PubMed

Cane toads (Bufo marinus) were introduced to Australia in 1935 and have since spread widely over the continent, generating concern regarding ecological impacts on native predators. Most Australian cane toad populations are infected with lung nematodes Rhabdias pseudosphaerocephala, a parasite endemic to New World (native-range) cane toad populations; presumably introduced to Australia with its toad host. Considering the high intensities and prevalence reached by this parasite in Australian toad populations, and public ardour for developing a control plan for the invasive host species, the lack of experimental studies on this host-parasite system is surprising. To investigate the extent to which this lungworm influences cane toad viability, we experimentally infected metamorph toads (the smallest and presumably most vulnerable terrestrial phase of the anuran life cycle) with the helminth. Infected toads exhibited reduced survival and growth rates, impaired locomotor performance (both speed and endurance), and reduced prey intake. In summary, R. pseudosphaerocephala can substantially reduce the viability of metamorph cane toads. PMID:19523249

Kelehear, C; Webb, J K; Shine, R

2009-07-01

357

Affinity chemiresistor sensor for sugars.  

PubMed

In this work, a non-enzymatic chemiresistive sugar sensor has been developed by combining a synthetic receptor with aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) device. Briefly, boronic acid as a multivalent sugar receptor was immobilized on carbon nanotubes through amide bond formation. The interaction between three common sugars (d-glucose, d-fructose and sucrose) and boronic acid modified SWNTs device was studied. The effect of pH on the receptor-ligand binding was examined and highest response was observed at pH 9. The chemiresistive sensor exhibited specific and reproducible detection with sensitivity over the concentration range of 1-20mM, 1-25mM, and 1-30mM for fructose, glucose, and sucrose, respectively. The sensor showed no interference from common electroactive compounds such as citric acid, uric acid, and ascorbic acid. Furthermore, the sensor retained 97.4% of the initial value after five regeneration cycles with an acidic buffer at pH 5, thus ensuring good reusability. PMID:25059188

Tlili, Chaker; Badhulika, Sushmee; Tran, Thien-Toan; Lee, Ilkeun; Mulchandani, Ashok

2014-10-01

358

Pyrolytic sugars from cellulosic biomass.  

PubMed

Depolymerization of cellulose offers the prospect of inexpensive sugars from biomass. Breaking the glycosidic bonds of cellulose to liberate glucose has usually been pursued by acid or enzymatic hydrolysis although a purely thermal depolymerization route to sugars is also possible. Fast pyrolysis of pure cellulose yields primarily the anhydrosugar levoglucosan (LG) whereas the presence of naturally occurring alkali and alkaline earth metals (AAEMs) in biomass strongly catalyzes ring-breaking reactions that favor formation of light oxygenates. Here, we show a method of significantly increasing the yield of sugars from biomass by purely thermal means through infusion of certain mineral acids (phosphoric and sulfuric acid) into the biomass to convert the AAEMs into thermally stable salts (particularly potassium sulfates and phosphates). These salts not only passivate AAEMs that normally catalyze fragmentation of pyranose rings, but also buffer the system at pH levels that favor glycosidic bond breakage. It appears that AAEM passivation contributes to 80?% of the enhancement in LG yield while the buffering effect of the acid salts contributes to the balance of the enhancement. PMID:22976992

Kuzhiyil, Najeeb; Dalluge, Dustin; Bai, Xianglan; Kim, Kwang Ho; Brown, Robert C

2012-11-01

359

Fermentation of hemicellulosic sugars and sugar mixtures by Candida shehatae  

SciTech Connect

In the experiments described here, batchwise fermentations were employed with Candida shehatae cells induced by growth on either glucose or xylose, and fermentation kinetic constants were determined. Results show that ethanol production rates were higher with xylose-grown inocula than with glucose-grown inocula. This comparison held true for all of the combinations of glucose and xylose tested. The ethanol production rate was highest for a fermentation of 6% xylose supplemented with 3% glucose by xylose-grown inoculum. The next highest rates were obtained with the fermentation of pure glucose and the glucose-xylose mixture by xylose-grown inoculum. Ethanol yields did not appear to be greatly affected by the sugars tested. The rates of mannose, glucose, xylose, galactose, and L-arabinose utilization by xylose-grown inocula were determined in a separate experiment. Mannose (6%) was used at a higher rate than any of the other sugars tested. Mannose also showed the highest rate of ethanol production. Most of the mannose taken up, however, could not be accounted for in the ethanol produced, so it is possible that significant amounts of mannitol were formed. The D-galactose was fermented at a significantly lower rate than glucose, xylose, or mannose. The L-arabinose was not consumed. The ethanol fermentation rate observed was much lower with an autoclaved acid hydrolysate than with the conditioned hydrolysate or a mixture of individual sugars. Contacting the hydrolysate with cells for an extended period of time prior to autoclaving greatly improved fermentability, but this strain of C. shehatae was still very susceptible to inhibition by components in the hydrolysate (Table III).

Jeffries, T.W.; Sreenath, H.K.

1988-04-05

360

Exploiting intraspecific competitive mechanisms to control invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina).  

PubMed

If invasive species use chemical weapons to suppress the viability of conspecifics, we may be able to exploit those species-specific chemical cues for selective control of the invader. Cane toads (Rhinella marina) are spreading through tropical Australia, with negative effects on native species. The tadpoles of cane toads eliminate intraspecific competitors by locating and consuming newly laid eggs. Our laboratory trials show that tadpoles find those eggs by searching for the powerful bufadienolide toxins (especially, bufogenins) that toads use to deter predators. Using those toxins as bait, funnel-traps placed in natural waterbodies achieved near-complete eradication of cane toad tadpoles with minimal collateral damage (because most native (non-target) species are repelled by the toads' toxins). More generally, communication systems that have evolved for intraspecific conflict provide novel opportunities for invasive-species control. PMID:22696528

Crossland, Michael R; Haramura, Takashi; Salim, Angela A; Capon, Robert J; Shine, Richard

2012-09-01

361

Biotechnological Potential of Agro-Industrial Wastes as a Carbon Source to Thermostable Polygalacturonase Production in Aspergillus niveus  

PubMed Central

Agro-industrial wastes are mainly composed of complex polysaccharides that might serve as nutrients for microbial growth and production of enzymes. The aim of this work was to study polygalacturonase (PG) production by Aspergillus niveus cultured on liquid or solid media supplemented with agro-industrial wastes. Submerged fermentation (SbmF) was tested using Czapeck media supplemented with 28 different carbon sources. Among these, orange peel was the best PG inducer. On the other hand, for solid state fermentation (SSF), lemon peel was the best inducer. By comparing SbmF with SSF, both supplemented with lemon peel, it was observed that PG levels were 4.4-fold higher under SSF. Maximum PG activity was observed at 55°C and pH 4.0. The enzyme was stable at 60°C for 90?min and at pH 3.0–5.0. The properties of this enzyme, produced on inexpensive fermentation substrates, were interesting and suggested several biotechnological applications.

Maller, Alexandre; Damasio, Andre Ricardo Lima; da Silva, Tony Marcio; Jorge, Joao Atilio; Terenzi, Hector Francisco; Polizeli, Maria de Lourdes Teixeira de Moraes

2011-01-01

362

Nitrous oxide emissions in giant cane in the Cache River watershed, southern Illinois  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large stands of Arundinaria gigantea (Walt.) Muhl, called canebrakes, were vital to wildlife and lowland ecosystem functions and historically covered millions of acres in the southeastern United States. Since European settlement, human disturbances (e.g., clearing for agriculture and fire suppression) have caused giant cane to decline to approximately 2% of its historic range. Cane's ecological importance has led to an increased interest in canebrake restoration in riparian zones. Giant cane is a good candidate to include in multispecies riparian buffers designs, as it promotes infiltration of surface runoff and deposition of sediment and associated nutrients through its high density culms and extensive shallow rooting network. In addition, nitrous oxide is produced naturally in the soil during the microbial processes of nitrification and denitrification. To examine the role that cane plays in nutrient cycling, we have designed a research strategy to determine physical and chemical properties of existing riparian stands of native giant cane and their associated soils. We collected data on soil carbon/nitrogen ratios and monthly nitrous oxide release in both canebrakes and nearby forested riparian areas. Soil in the canebrakes had significantly higher C:N ratios (10.9) than that in cropfields (9.8), but showed no significant difference than that in the forest (10.8). Nitrous oxide emissions had a strong correlation with soil water content (r2 = 24%), but no relation with soil temperature (p > 0.05). There were no significant differences in N2O releases between forest and cane, nor among the monthly samples.

Nelson, A. M.; Williard, K. W.; Schoonover, J.

2013-12-01

363

Establishment of a Food-Processing Department at Jampro, Jamaica. Technical Report: The Agro-Industry System of Fruits and Vegetables. Analysis and Recommendations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The expert report on the agro-industry system of fruit and vegetables in Jamaica covers: (1) project background; (2) regulation by short-term, atomized markets; variability in levels of prices, mainly as results of seasonal differences; marketing; (3) glo...

D. Perraud

1991-01-01

364

CANE FIBERBOARD DEGRADATION WITHIN THE 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE DURING LONG-TERM STORAGE APPLICATION  

SciTech Connect

The 9975 shipping package is used as part of the configuration for long-term storage of special nuclear materials in the K Area Complex at the Savannah River Site. The cane fiberboard overpack in the 9975 package provides thermal insulation, impact absorption and criticality control functions relevant to this application. The Savannah River National Laboratory has conducted physical, mechanical and thermal tests on aged fiberboard samples to identify degradation rates and support the development of aging models and service life predictions in a storage environment. This paper reviews the data generated to date, and preliminary models describing degradation rates of cane fiberboard in elevated temperature – elevated humidity environments.

Daugherty, W.; Dunn, K.; Hackney, B.

2013-06-19

365

AGING MODEL FOR CANE FIBERBOARD OVERPACK IN THE 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE  

SciTech Connect

Many radioactive material shipping packages incorporate a cane fiberboard overpack for thermal insulation and impact resistance. Mechanical, thermal and physical properties have been measured on cane fiberboard following thermal aging in several temperature/humidity environments. Several of the measured properties change significantly over time in the more severe environments, while other properties are relatively constant. Changes in each of the properties have been fit to a model to allow predictions of degradation under various storage scenarios. Additional data continue to be collected to provide for future refinements to the model.

Daugherty, W.; Harris, S.

2010-03-05

366

Sugar-free medicines are counterproductive.  

PubMed

Sugar in food and drinks is responsible for the poor dental health of many children and adults. On the other hand, there is no evidence that the small amount of sugar in medicines has been responsible for any dental problems. A recent British Heart Foundation survey found that nearly one in three UK children are eating sweets, chocolate and crisps three or more times a day. Hence it is futile administering sugar-free medicine to a child consuming lot of sweets. Moreover, sugar in medicines makes them palatable and bitter medicines inevitably affect compliance with the prescribed treatment. Poor compliance leads to inadequate treatment of illness and consequently increases the risk of complications from illness. Hence sugar-free medicines promoted as a public health policy could have actually caused more harm than any meaningful net benefit. There is an urgent need for a healthy debate and a fresh look at the policy of promoting sugar-free medicines. PMID:22955756

Sundar, S

2012-09-01

367

Plastid transformation in sugar beet: Beta vulgaris.  

PubMed

Chloroplast biotechnology has assumed great importance in the past 20 years and, thanks to the numerous advantages as compared to conventional transgenic technologies, has been applied in an increasing number of plant species but still very much limited. Hence, it is of utmost importance to extend the range of species in which plastid transformation can be applied. Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is an important industrial crop of the temperate zone in which chloroplast DNA is not transmitted trough pollen. Transformation of the sugar beet genome is performed in several research laboratories; conversely sugar beet plastome genetic transformation is far away from being considered a routine technique. We describe here a method to obtain transplastomic sugar beet plants trough biolistic transformation. The availability of sugar beet transplastomic plants should avoid the risk of gene flow between these cultivated genetic modified sugar beet plants and the wild-type plants or relative wild species. PMID:24599867

De Marchis, Francesca; Bellucci, Michele

2014-01-01

368

So Sweet: Predict Sugar Content in Food  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners will predict how much sugar is in familiar cereals and then use Nutrition Fact Labels to find out. Which cereals are the healthiest? Which has the least sugar? Learners also discuss whether advertisers are likely to tout or hide the amount of sugar in their foods. Variations include trying this basic activity with different foods and with salty snacks. Available as a web page and downloadable pdf.

Terc

2010-01-01

369

RIPARIAN SILVER MAPLE AND UPLAND SUGAR MAPLE TREES SAP SUGAR PARAMETERS IN SOUTHERN ILLINOIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty two upland sugar maple trees and 59 riparian silver maples were tapped in 2003 to characterize their sap sugar parameters within the southern Illinois region. The mean sap sugar concentration (SSC) among all sugar maple trees was 2.03 percent (1.53 to 3.18 percent range) and the mean sap volume was 133.7 liters per tree or 44.6 liters per tap.

M. L. Crum; J. J. Zaczek; A. D. Carver; K. W. J. Williard; J. K. Buchheit; J. E. Preece; J. C. Mangun

370

Scientists Discover Sugar in Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The prospects for life in the Universe just got sweeter, with the first discovery of a simple sugar molecule in space. The discovery of the sugar molecule glycolaldehyde in a giant cloud of gas and dust near the center of our own Milky Way Galaxy was made by scientists using the National Science Foundation's 12 Meter Telescope, a radio telescope on Kitt Peak, Arizona. "The discovery of this sugar molecule in a cloud from which new stars are forming means it is increasingly likely that the chemical precursors to life are formed in such clouds long before planets develop around the stars," said Jan M. Hollis of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD. Hollis worked with Frank J. Lovas of the University of Illinois and Philip R. Jewell of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank, WV, on the observations, made in May. The scientists have submitted their results to the Astrophysical Journal Letters. "This discovery may be an important key to understanding the formation of life on the early Earth," said Jewell. Conditions in interstellar clouds may, in some cases, mimic the conditions on the early Earth, so studying the chemistry of interstellar clouds may help scientists understand how bio-molecules formed early in our planet's history. In addition, some scientists have suggested that Earth could have been "seeded" with complex molecules by passing comets, made of material from the interstellar cloud that condensed to form the Solar System. Glycolaldehyde, an 8-atom molecule composed of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen, can combine with other molecules to form the more-complex sugars Ribose and Glucose. Ribose is a building block of nucleic acids such as RNA and DNA, which carry the genetic code of living organisms. Glucose is the sugar found in fruits. Glycolaldehyde contains exactly the same atoms, though in a different molecular structure, as methyl formate and acetic acid, both of which were detected previously in interstellar clouds. Glycolaldehyde is a simpler molecular cousin to table sugar, the scientists say. The sugar molecule was detected in a large cloud of gas and dust some 26,000 light-years away, near the center of our Galaxy. Such clouds, often many light-years across, are the material from which new stars are formed. Though very rarified by Earth standards, these interstellar clouds are the sites of complex chemical reactions that occur over hundreds of thousands or millions of years. So far, about 120 different molecules have been discovered in these clouds. Most of these molecules contain a small number of atoms, and only a few molecules with eight or more atoms have been found in interstellar clouds. The 12 Meter Telescope "Finding glycolaldehyde in one of these interstellar clouds means that such molecules can be formed even in very rarified conditions," said Hollis. "We don't yet understand how it could be formed there," he added. "A combination of more astronomical observations and theoretical chemistry work will be required to resolve the mystery of how this molecule is formed in space." "We hope this discovery inspires renewed efforts to find even more kinds of molecules, so that, with a better idea of the total picture, we may be able to deduce the details of the prebiotic chemistry taking place in interstellar clouds," Hollis said. The discovery was made by detecting faint radio emission from the sugar molecules in the interstellar cloud. Molecules rotate end-for-end, and as they change from one rotational energy state to another, they emit radio waves at precise frequencies. The "family" of radio frequencies emitted by a particular molecule forms a unique "fingerprint" that scientists can use to identify that molecule. The scientists identified glycolaldehyde by detecting six frequencies of radio emission in what is termed the millimeter-wavelength region of the electromagnetic spectrum -- a region between more-familiar microwaves and infrared radiation. The NRAO 12 Meter Telescop

2000-06-01

371

Single-mode quantum cascade lasers employing a candy-cane shaped Fabry-Perot cavity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single-mode Quantum Cascade lasers employing a candy-cane shaped Fabry-Perot cavity are demonstrated. Single-mode emission with ~25 dB side mode suppression is achieved up to ~500 mA above threshold current in pulsed operation.

Peter Q. Liu; Kamil Sladek; Xiaojun Wang; Jen-Yu Fan; Claire F. Gmachl

2011-01-01

372

Cane Toads on Cowpats: Commercial Livestock Production Facilitates Toad Invasion in Tropical Australia  

PubMed Central

Habitat disturbance and the spread of invasive organisms are major threats to biodiversity, but the interactions between these two factors remain poorly understood in many systems. Grazing activities may facilitate the spread of invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina) through tropical Australia by providing year-round access to otherwise-seasonal resources. We quantified the cane toad’s use of cowpats (feces piles) in the field, and conducted experimental trials to assess the potential role of cowpats as sources of prey, water, and warmth for toads. Our field surveys show that cane toads are found on or near cowpats more often than expected by chance. Field-enclosure experiments show that cowpats facilitate toad feeding by providing access to dung beetles. Cowpats also offer moist surfaces that can reduce dehydration rates of toads and are warmer than other nearby substrates. Livestock grazing is the primary form of land use over vast areas of Australia, and pastoral activities may have contributed substantially to the cane toad’s successful invasion of that continent.

Gonzalez-Bernal, Edna; Greenlees, Matthew; Brown, Gregory P.; Shine, Richard

2012-01-01

373

Assessment of Virally Vectored Autoimmunity as a Biocontrol Strategy for Cane Toads  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe cane toad, Bufo (Chaunus) marinus, is one of the most notorious vertebrate pests introduced into Australia over the last 200 years and, so far, efforts to identify a naturally occurring B. marinus-specific pathogen for use as a biological control agent have been unsuccessful. We explored an alternative approach that entailed genetically modifying a pathogen with broad host specificity so

Jackie A. Pallister; Damien C. T. Halliday; Anthony J. Robinson; Daryl Venables; Rhonda D. Voysey; Donna G. Boyle; Thayalini Shanmuganathan; Christopher M. Hardy; Nicole A. Siddon; Alex D. Hyatt; Pedro R. Lowenstein

2011-01-01

374

Cane toads on cowpats: commercial livestock production facilitates toad invasion in tropical australia.  

PubMed

Habitat disturbance and the spread of invasive organisms are major threats to biodiversity, but the interactions between these two factors remain poorly understood in many systems. Grazing activities may facilitate the spread of invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina) through tropical Australia by providing year-round access to otherwise-seasonal resources. We quantified the cane toad's use of cowpats (feces piles) in the field, and conducted experimental trials to assess the potential role of cowpats as sources of prey, water, and warmth for toads. Our field surveys show that cane toads are found on or near cowpats more often than expected by chance. Field-enclosure experiments show that cowpats facilitate toad feeding by providing access to dung beetles. Cowpats also offer moist surfaces that can reduce dehydration rates of toads and are warmer than other nearby substrates. Livestock grazing is the primary form of land use over vast areas of Australia, and pastoral activities may have contributed substantially to the cane toad's successful invasion of that continent. PMID:23145158

González-Bernal, Edna; Greenlees, Matthew; Brown, Gregory P; Shine, Richard

2012-01-01

375

Accidental fatal poisoning of a dog by Dieffenbachia picta (dumb cane).  

PubMed

A single case of accidental fatal poisoning by Dieffenbachia picta, (dumb cane) (Araceae) in a 9-y-old female Poodle is described. Clinical signs included severe, locally extensive erosive/ulcerative glossitis accompanied by marked dyspnea of acute onset. The animal did not respond to emergency procedures to relieve severe respiratory distress; fatal asphyxiation ensued from edema of the glottis a few hours after the first clinical signs were observed. According to the owner, the dog had access to a tall, potted dumb cane plant and chewed the thick stem of the plant intensely. The owner did not authorize a necropsy of the animal. The diagnosis of Dieffenbachia picta poisoning was based on the history of accidental consumption of dumb cane and clinical signs. A comparison of this single case with other reports of dumb cane poisoning suggests that dogs poisoned by Dieffenbachia species usually recover uneventfully with conservative management and that death from asphyxiation is a rare but possible consequence of this intoxication. Severe edematous swelling of the glottis with occlusion of the larynx airway passage can occur in those cases in which large amounts of sap are quickly squeezed from the plant during intense chewing. Death would occur if owners do not seek veterinary care immediately and if emergency procedures are not instituted on time. PMID:14513888

Loretti, Alexandre Paulino; da Silva Ilha, Marcia Regina; Ribeiro, Rita Elaine Streda

2003-10-01

376

Pretreatment of cane bagasse with alkaline hydrogen peroxide for enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose and ethanol fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pretreatment of the agrocellulosic waste, cane bagasse with alkaline hydrogen peroxide greatly enhances its susceptibility to enzymatic cellulolysis and thus the ethanol production from it. Various process conditions have been studied to optimize the enzymate effectiveness. These conditions include the contact time, the hydrogen peroxide concentration and the pretreatment temperature. Results obtained show, that about 50% of lignin and most

A. M. Azzam

1989-01-01

377

Teaching the Use of a Long Cane Step by Step: Suggestions for Progressive, Methodical Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A fundamental part of the orientation and mobility curriculum is the acquisition and retention of skills in using a long cane automatically and proficiently to detect and negotiate obstacles and drop-offs. Using practitioners' experiences and the principles of learning theory, instructors can monitor students' advancement and adapt teaching…

Sauerburger, Dona; Bourquin, Eugene

2010-01-01

378

WHITE PAPER: DEMONSTRATION OF EQUIVALENCY OF CANE AND SOFTWOOD BASED CELOTEX FOR 9975 PACKAGING  

SciTech Connect

Cane-based Celotex{trademark} has been used extensively in various DOE packages as a thermal insulator and impact absorber. Cane-based Celotex{trademark} for the 9975 was manufactured by Knight-Celotex Fiberboard at their Marrero Plant in Louisiana. However, Knight-Celotex Fiberboard shut down their Marrero Plant in early 2007 due to impacts from hurricane Katrina and other economic factors. Therefore, cane-based Celotex{trademark} is no longer available for use in the manufacture of new 9975 packages. Knight-Celotex Fiberboard has Celotex{trademark} manufacturing plants in Danville, VA and Sunbury, PA that use softwood and hardwood, respectively, as a raw material in the manufacturing of Celotex{trademark}. The purpose of this White Paper is to demonstrate that softwood-based Celotex{trademark} from the Knight-Celotex Danville Plant has performance equivalent to cane-based Celotex{trademark} from the Knight-Celotex Marrero Plant for transportation in a 9975 package.

Varble, J

2007-11-20

379

Production of compost with bagasse and vinasses for cane crop in Brazil  

SciTech Connect

Recent laboratory experiments have shown that a mixture of bagasse, animal manure and vinasse can be transformed into compost suitable for agriculture. The factors necessary for good composting are discussed, these include the carbon-nitrogen ratio, moisture, aeration and temperature. A mixture of 300 kg cane bagasse and 38 kg poultry manure moistened with vinasse gave the best results.

Park, Y.K.; Castro Gomez, R.J.H.

1982-10-01

380

PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF THE POTENTIAL OF ARTIFICIAL STIMULATION OF RAINFALL IN THE NATAL CANE BELT  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of rainfall stimulation was made with the aim of assessing its economic potential for the Natal cane belt. High variability of precipitation in both space and time makes the determination of requirements and effects of large scale seeding programmes very difficult. Evaluation of field and laboratory tests have, however, identified two conditions under which seeding could increase precipitation

B. E. KELBE

381

Measuring Energetics and Behaviour Using Accelerometry in Cane Toads Bufo marinus  

PubMed Central

Cane toads Bufo marinus were introduced to Australia as a control agent but now have a rapidly progressing invasion front and damage new habitats they enter. Predictive models that can give expansion rates as functions of energy supply and feeding ground distribution could help to maximise control efficiency but to date no study has measured rates of field energy expenditure in an amphibian. In the present study we used the accelerometry technique to generate behavioural time budgets and, through the derivation of ODBA (overall dynamic body acceleration), to obtain estimates of energetics in free ranging cane toads. This represents the first time that accelerometers have been used to not only quantify the behaviour of animals but also assign to those behaviours rates of energy expenditure. Firstly, laboratory calibrations between ODBA and metabolic rate were obtained and used to generate a common prediction equation for the subject toads (R2?=?0.74). Furthermore, acceleration data recorded during different behaviours was studied to ascertain threshold values for objectively defining behaviour categories. Importantly, while subsequent accelerometer field deployments were relatively short they agreed with previous studies on the proportion of time that cane toads locomote yet suggest that the metabolic rate of cane toads in the wild may sometimes be considerably higher than might be assumed based on data for other species.

Halsey, Lewis G.; White, Craig R.

2010-01-01

382

The design and evaluation of a hybrid sensor network for cane-toad monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates a wireless, acoustic sensor network application — monitoring amphibian populations in the monsoonal woodlands of northern Australia. Our goal is to use automatic recognition of animal vocalizations to census the populations of native frogs and the invasive introduced species, the Cane Toad (see Fig. 1). This is a challenging application because it requires high frequency acoustic sampling,

Wen Hu; Van Nghia Tran; Nirupama Bulusu; Chun Tung Chou; Sanjay Jha; Andrew Taylor

2005-01-01

383

Background for 1995 Farm Legislation: Sugar.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Current U.S. sugar price support programs have their origin in 1981 legislation. The price support program has resulted in significant expansion of the industry in the last decade. Beet sugar production has expanded in many regions, but has contracted in ...

R. Lord

1995-01-01

384

Simple Potentiometric Determination of Reducing Sugars  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article a potentiometric method for reducing sugar quantification is described. Copper(II) ion reacts with the reducing sugar (glucose, fructose, and others), and the excess is quantified using a copper wire indicator electrode. In order to accelerate the kinetics of the reaction, working conditions such as pH and temperature must be…

Moresco, Henry; Sanson, Pedro; Seoane, Gustavo

2008-01-01

385

Sugar profiles of Spanish unifloral honeys  

Microsoft Academic Search

The levels of various sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose, maltose, maltulose, kojibiose, isomaltose, raffinose, erlöse and melezitose) as well as the glucose\\/fructose and glucose\\/water ratios were determined in different Spanish unifloral honey types (rosemary, orange blossom, lavender, sunflower, eucalyptus, heather, honeydew). Sugars were determined by gas chromatography of the trimethylsilyloxime derivatives. There were significant differences among the honey types in relation

Rufino Mateo; Francisco Bosch-Reig

1997-01-01

386

Maple Sugar Harvesting/Wild Rice Harvesting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comprised of two separate booklets, this resource unit assists elementary teachers in explaining how the Ojibwe people harvest maple sugar and wild rice. The first booklet explains the procedure of tapping the maple trees for sap, preparation for boiling the sap, and the three forms the sugar is made into (granulated, "molded," and "taffy"). The…

Minneapolis Public Schools, MN.

387

Natural Product Sugar Biosynthesis and Enzymatic Glycodiversification**  

PubMed Central

Many biologically active small molecule natural products produced by microorganisms derive their activities from sugar substituents. Changing the structures of these sugars can have a profound impact on the biological properties of the parent compounds. This realization has inspired attempts to derivatize the sugar moieties of these natural products through exploitation of the sugar biosynthetic machinery. This approach requires an understanding of the biosynthetic pathway of each target sugar and detailed mechanistic knowledge of the key enzymes. Scientists have begun to unravel the biosynthetic logic behind the assembly of many glycosylated natural products, and have found that a core set of enzyme activities is mixed and matched to synthesize the diverse sugar structures observed in nature. Remarkably, many of these sugar biosynthetic enzymes and glycosyltransferases also exhibit relaxed substrate specificity. The promiscuity of these enzymes has prompted efforts to modify the sugar structures and/or alter the glycosylation patterns of natural products via metabolic pathway engineering and/or enzymatic glycodiversification. In applied biomedical research, these studies will enable the development of new glycosylation tools and generate novel glycoforms of secondary metabolites with useful biological activity.

Thibodeaux, Christopher J.; Melancon, Charles E.; Liu, Hung-wen

2009-01-01

388

Usual Intake of Energy from added sugars  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Energy from added sugars Table A41. Energy from added sugars: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 kilocalories Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 150.2

389

Epidemiology of rhizomania disease of sugar beet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rhizomania disease of sugar beet is caused by beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV). The virus is transmitted by the soil-borne fungus Polymyxa betae. The disease can cause severe losses in sugar yield, depending on the level of infestation in the soil, the environmental conditions during the growing season and the susceptibility of the beet cultivar. Several aspects of the

G. Tuitert

1994-01-01

390

Impacts of energy cane expansion on ecosystem services: A Florida case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a rising demand for sustainable and secure sources of energy. This demand is driving the development of second-generation biofuel crops across the United States. However, in a changing climate the capability of these crops to meet energy demands are uncertain. Additionally, the impacts of energy crop adoption on biophysical and biochemical ecosystem services need to be refined. Central Florida has been identified as a test bed for energy cane in anticipation of increased investment for energy crop production in the southeastern United States. Currently, the land cover in this region is characterized by pasturelands with relatively low rates of productivity and evapotranspiration. By replacing these lands with highly productive and irrigated energy cane significant perturbations to the local and regional budgets of water, energy, and carbon are anticipated. In this study, we extend the Agro-IBIS LSM with a mechanistic multilayer canopy model of biofuel crops to simulate inter-canopy fluxes of energy, moisture, and carbon. We validate the model using published leaf area, surface flux, and yield observations taken from studies that encompassed variable soil types, climatic conditions, and management decisions. This extended Agro-IBIS model is used to simulate the growth of energy cane in central Florida. Using this model we assess the potential impacts of large-scale changes in land cover on future ecosystem services for the region. In particular, we focus on how changes in atmospheric CO2 and temperature influence energy cane's regulation of surface fluxes and storage. Using a series of simulations that represent a range of climatic regimes we test how increased atmospheric carbon concentrations may enhance or diminish stresses associated with changes in regional climate, and how the physiological plant responses feedback on fluxes between the land surface and the atmosphere. This allows us to quantitatively evaluate how large-scale energy cane production will impact regional budgets of water, energy, and carbon.

Bagley, J. E.; VanLoocke, A.; Jaiswal, D.; Bernacchi, C. J.; Long, S.

2012-12-01

391

15 CFR 2011.203 - Issuance of specialty sugar certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Issuance of specialty sugar certificates. 2011.203 Section 2011...ALLOCATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA ON IMPORTED SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.203 Issuance of specialty...

2010-01-01

392

15 CFR 2011.203 - Issuance of specialty sugar certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Issuance of specialty sugar certificates. 2011.203 Section 2011...ALLOCATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA ON IMPORTED SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.203 Issuance of specialty...

2009-01-01

393

7 CFR 457.109 - Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions. 457.109 Section...CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.109 Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions. The Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions for the 1998...

2010-01-01

394

7 CFR 457.109 - Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions. 457.109 Section...CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.109 Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions. The Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions for the 1998...

2009-01-01

395

Decolorization of synthetic dyes by crude laccase from a newly isolated Trametes trogii strain cultivated on solid agro-industrial residue  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new dye-decolorizing white-rot fungus was isolated and identified as Trametes trogii based on its ITS-5.8S rRNA gene sequence analysis and morphological characteristics. Laccase was the only lignolytic enzyme produced by this strain during solid substrate fermentation (SSF) in soybean cake, a solid agro-industrial residue used for the first time in enzyme production. The extracellular crude enzyme from T. trogii

Xiangkang Zeng; Yujie Cai; Xiangru Liao; Xianglong Zeng; Wenxiu Li; Dabing Zhang

2011-01-01

396

TryEngineering: Sugar Crystal Challenge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an inquiry-based lesson plan that explores how nanostructures can influence surface area, as students work in teams to grow crystals from sugars of different grades of coarseness. The driving question of the lesson: If you dissolve sugars of different coarseness (granulated, powdered, cubes) in water and then grow sugar crystals, will the resulting crystals appear the same under a microscope, or will there still be a difference in appearance based on the initial coarseness of the sugar? The lesson follows a module format that includes objectives and learner outcomes, problem sets, student guides, recommended reading, illustrated procedures, worksheets, and background information about the engineering connections. This collection is part of TryEngineering.org, a website maintained by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).

2012-12-27

397

Diabetes - low blood sugar - self-care  

MedlinePLUS

... by mistake Not eating enough during meals or snacks after you have taken insulin or diabetes medicine ... your blood sugar levels. Make sure you have snacks with you. Ask your doctor or nurse if ...

398

19 CFR 151.30 - Sugar closets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...to serve. They shall be provided by the owner of the premises on which they are located and shall be so situated that sugar, sirup, and molasses stored therein shall not be subjected to extremes of temperature or...

2013-04-01

399

Conversion of Cellulosic Materials to Sugar.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A process is claimed for the production of sugar, mainly glucose, by the enzymatic degradation of cellulosic materials, particularly cellulosic wastes, which comprises hydrolyzing the cellulosic material in the presence of cellulase enzyme to produce a su...

C. R. Wilke G. Mitra

1976-01-01

400

Sugar beet cellulose nanofibril-reinforced composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cellulose was isolated from sugar beet chips, a by-product of sugar production, by wet chemistry. Further processing of the\\u000a cellulose with a high-pressure homogeniser led to the disruption of cell walls into nanofibrils. Cellulose sheets obtained\\u000a by casting and slow evaporation of water showed higher strength and stiffness when homogenised cellulose was used compared\\u000a to unhomogenised cellulose. These cellulose sheets

Johannes Leitner; Barbara Hinterstoisser; Marnik Wastyn; Jozef Keckes; Wolfgang Gindl

2007-01-01

401

Arundo donax cane as a precursor for activated carbons preparation by phosphoric acid activation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canes from Arundo donax, a herbaceous rapid-growing plant, were used as precursor for activated carbon preparation by phosphoric acid activation under a self-generated atmosphere. The influence of the carbonization temperature in the range 400–550 °C and of the weight ratio phosphoric acid to precursor (R=1.5–2.5) on the developed porous structure of the resulting carbons was studied for 1 h of

T Vernersson; P. R Bonelli; E. G Cerrella; A. L Cukierman

2002-01-01

402

The enduring toxicity of road-killed cane toads ( Rhinella marina )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary ecological impact of invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina) in Australia is mediated by their powerful toxins, which are fatal to many native species. Toads use roads as invasion corridors\\u000a and feeding sites, resulting in frequent road-kills. The flattened, desiccated toad carcasses remain highly toxic despite\\u000a being heated daily to >40°C for many months during the tropical dry-season. In

Michael Crossland; Gregory Brown; Richard Shine

403

Sugar substitutes: Health controversy over perceived benefits.  

PubMed

Sugar is an inseparable part of the food we consume. But too much sugar is not ideal for our teeth and waistline. There have been some controversial suggestions that excessive sugar may play an important role in certain degenerative diseases. So artificial sweeteners or artificially sweetened products continue to attract consumers. A sugar substitute (artificial sweetener) is a food additive that duplicates the effect of sugar in taste, but usually has less food energy. Besides its benefits, animal studies have convincingly proven that artificial sweeteners cause weight gain, brain tumors, bladder cancer and many other health hazards. Some kind of health related side effects including carcinogenicity are also noted in humans. A large number of studies have been carried out on these substances with conclusions ranging from "safe under all conditions" to "unsafe at any dose". Scientists are divided in their views on the issue of artificial sweetener safety. In scientific as well as in lay publications, supporting studies are often widely referenced while the opposing results are de-emphasized or dismissed. So this review aims to explore the health controversy over perceived benefits of sugar substitutes. PMID:22025850

Tandel, Kirtida R

2011-10-01

404

Agroclimatic Zoning of Sugar Beets in Western Siberia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One of the primary tasks in sugar-beet production is to study the natural resources for the purpose of introducing sugar-beet growing in new areas and to increase the yield and sugar content of the beets. This especially concerns Siberia where sugar beet ...

L. S. Kelchevskaya

1965-01-01

405

Preheating and incubation of cane juice prior to liming: a comparison of intermediate and cold lime clarification.  

PubMed

In the U.S., cold lime clarification remains the clarification process of choice in raw sugar manufacturing. A comparative study of cold vs intermediate lime clarification was undertaken at a factory that operated intermediate liming (approximately 30% mixed juice (MJ) of pH 5.2 +/- 0.3 was preheated to 87-93 degrees C to help maintain clean limed juice heaters, incubated at approximately 54 degrees C, and then limed) but still had the pipes to revert to cold liming (MJ incubated and limed at approximately 40 degrees C) for this study. Hourly samples were collected over a 6 h sampling period across cold and intermediate clarification processes on two consecutive days, respectively, and this was repeated three times across the 1999 grinding season. A total of 1.57% less sucrose was lost to inversion reactions across intermediate rather than cold liming. In intermediate liming, which required approximately 4.6% less lime, preheating of only 30% of the MJ markedly removed color (-29%), dextran (-10%), and starch (-24%) and caused large flocs to form that settled faster in the clarifiers. Faster settling led to an impressive 4.6% (season average) more turbidity removal across the clarifiers in intermediate rather than cold liming. Intermediate clarified juice (CJ) turbidity (season average 2028 ICU +/- 675) was approximately half of cold CJ turbidity (average 3952 ICU +/- 1450) with over 2-fold more CJ turbidity control. Subsequent turbidity values and control were significantly improved in the final evaporator syrup samples too. For both processes, juice incubation caused approximately 10% color removal, but this was offset by color formation on liming, because of the alkaline degradation of invert; however, overall, more color was removed than formed in intermediate liming. Starch was reduced in the incubator tank, for both processes, because added filtrate reduced the acidity enabling natural diastase from the cane to degrade starch. Some dextran occasionally formed in the incubator tank, in both processes. Summed across measured parameters, intermediate liming appears to offer several advantages over cold liming. PMID:11804517

Eggleston, Gillian; Monge, Adrian; Pepperman, Armand

2002-01-30

406

Wearable Gait Measurement System with an Instrumented Cane for Exoskeleton Control  

PubMed Central

In this research we introduce a wearable sensory system for motion intention estimation and control of exoskeleton robot. The system comprises wearable inertial motion sensors and shoe-embedded force sensors. The system utilizes an instrumented cane as a part of the interface between the user and the robot. The cane reflects the motion of upper limbs, and is used in terms of human inter-limb synergies. The developed control system provides assisted motion in coherence with the motion of other unassisted limbs. The system utilizes the instrumented cane together with body worn sensors, and provides assistance for start, stop and continuous walking. We verified the function of the proposed method and the developed wearable system through gait trials on treadmill and on ground. The achievement contributes to finding an intuitive and feasible interface between human and robot through wearable gait sensors for practical use of assistive technology. It also contributes to the technology for cognitively assisted locomotion, which helps the locomotion of physically challenged people.

Hassan, Modar; Kadone, Hideki; Suzuki, Kenji; Sankai, Yoshiyuki

2014-01-01

407

Abatement of Ground Water Phosphate in Giant Cane and Forest Riparian Buffers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest and grass riparian buffers have been shown to be effective best management practices for controlling nonpoint source pollution. However, little research has been conducted on giant cane [Arundinaria gigantea (Walt. Muhl.)], a formerly common bamboo species, native to the lower midwestern and southeastern United States, and its ability to reduce nutrient loads to streams. From May 2002 through May 2003, orthophosphate or dissolved reactive phosphate (DRP) concentrations in ground water were measured at successive distances from the field edge through 12 m of riparian buffers of both giant cane and mixed hardwood forest along three streams draining agricultural land in the Cache River watershed in southern Illinois. Giant cane and mixed hardwood forest did not differ in their DRP sequestration abilities. Ground water DRP concentrations were significantly reduced (14 percent) in the first 1.5 m of the buffers, and there was an overall 28 percent reduction in DRP concentration by 12 m from the field edge. The relatively low DRP reductions compared to other studies could be attributed to high DRP input levels, narrow (12 m) buffer lengths, and/or mature (28 to 48 year old) riparian vegetation.

Blattel, Christopher R.; Williard, Karl W. J.; Baer, Sara G.; Zaczek, James J.

2005-04-01

408

Influence of Ammonium Salts and Cane Molasses on Growth of Alcaligenes eutrophus and Production of Polyhydroxybutyrate  

PubMed Central

The production of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) by Alcaligenes eutrophus DSM 545 was studied in a synthetic medium with 3% glucose at pH 7.0 supplemented with several ammonium substrates and cane molasses. Growth was measured by dry cell weight, and the PHB content was measured by gas chromatography. The effects of ammonium sources such as sulfate, nitrate, phosphate, and chloride salts and those of different ammonium sulfate concentrations were evaluated. The best growth and PHB production were obtained with ammonium sulfate; however, NH(inf4)(sup+) concentrations between 0.5 and 1.5 g/liter showed no significant difference. Ammonium sulfate was therefore used as the sole source of NH(inf4)(sup+) for experiments with cane molasses as the growth activator. Optimal growth and PHB production were obtained with 0.3% molasses. However, the yields of biomass (39 to 48%) and PHB (17 to 26%) varied significantly among the different ammonium substrates and cane molasses concentrations.

Beaulieu, M.; Beaulieu, Y.; Melinard, J.; Pandian, S.; Goulet, J.

1995-01-01

409

Biocatalytic potential of an alkalophilic and thermophilic dextranase as a remedial measure for dextran removal during sugar manufacture.  

PubMed

The present study is focused on dextranase from Streptomyces sp. NK458 with potential to remove dextran formed during sugar manufacture. The dextranase had molecular weight of 130 kDa and hydrolyzed 15-25 and 410 kDa dextran. Dextranase production was optimized using statistical designs and the enzyme was purified 1.8-fold with 55.5% recovery. It displayed maximum activity at pH 9.0 and 60°C and was stable over a wide range of pH from 5.0 to 10.0. The k(m) and V(max) values were 3.05 mM and 17.97 mmol/ml/h, respectively. Ten units of dextranase could reduce dextran content by 67% in 24h and 56% in 72 h from sugarcane juice of cane variety CoS 86032. The enzyme was stable up to 3 days at 30°C beyond which its activity decreased and dextran removal could be retained by supplementation of 5 U of dextranase. These properties make it a promising biocatalyst for sugar industry. PMID:22277209

Purushe, Shweta; Prakash, Divya; Nawani, Neelu N; Dhakephalkar, Prashant; Kapadnis, Balasaheb

2012-07-01

410

Pomegranate juice sugar fraction reduces macrophage oxidative state, whereas white grape juice sugar fraction increases it.  

PubMed

The antiatherogenic properties of pomegranate juice (PJ) were attributed to its antioxidant potency and to its capacity to decrease macrophage oxidative stress, the hallmark of early atherogeneis. PJ polyphenols and sugar-containing polyphenolic anthocyanins were shown to confer PJ its antioxidant capacity. In the present study, we questioned whether PJ simple or complex sugars contribute to the antioxidative properties of PJ in comparison to white grape juice (WGJ) sugars. Whole PJ decreased cellular peroxide levels in J774A.1 macrophage cell-line by 23% more than PJ polyphenol fraction alone. Thus, we next determined the contribution of the PJ sugar fraction to the decrease in macrophage oxidative state. Increasing concentrations of the PJ sugar fraction resulted in a dose-dependent decrement in macrophage peroxide levels, up to 72%, compared to control cells. On the contrary, incubation of the cells with WGJ sugar fraction at the same concentrations resulted in a dose-dependent increment in peroxide levels by up to 37%. The two sugar fractions from PJ and from WGJ showed opposite effects (antioxidant for PJ and pro-oxidant for WGJ) also in mouse peritoneal macrophages (MPM) from control as well as from streptozotocin-induced diabetic Balb/C mice. PJ sugar consumption by diabetic mice for 10 days resulted in a small but significant decrement in their peritoneal macrophage total peroxide levels and an increment in cellular glutathione content, compared to MPM harvested from control diabetic mice administrated with water. In contrast, WGJ sugar consumption by diabetic mice resulted in a 22% increment in macrophage total peroxide levels and a 45% decrement in cellular glutathione content. Paraoxonase 2 activity in macrophages increases under oxidative stress conditions. Indeed, macrophage paraoxonase 2 activity was decreased after PJ sugars supplementation, but increased after WGJ sugars supplementation. We conclude that PJ sugar fraction, unlike WGJ sugar fraction, decreases macrophage oxidative state under normal and under diabetic conditions. These antioxidant/antiatherogenic effects could be due to the presence of unique complex sugars and/or phenolic sugars in PJ. PMID:16332370

Rozenberg, Orit; Howell, Amy; Aviram, Michael

2006-09-01

411

29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section 780.815 Labor...Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup; Exemption From Overtime...sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. Under the second part of section...

2009-07-01

412

29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section 780.815 Labor...Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup; Exemption From Overtime...sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. Under the second part of section...

2010-07-01

413

Museum material reveals a frog parasite emergence after the invasion of the cane toad in Australia  

PubMed Central

Background A parasite morphologically indistinguishable from Myxidium immersum (Myxozoa: Myxosporea) found in gallbladders of the invasive cane toad (Bufo marinus) was identified in Australian frogs. Because no written record exists for such a parasite in Australian endemic frogs in 19th and early 20th century, it was assumed that the cane toad introduced this parasite. While we cannot go back in time ourselves, we investigated whether material at the museum of natural history could be used to retrieve parasites, and whether they were infected at the time of their collection (specifically prior to and after the cane toad translocation to Australia in 1935). Results Using the herpetological collection at the Australian Museum we showed that no myxospores were found in any animals (n = 115) prior to the cane toad invasion (1879-1935). The green and golden bell frog (Litoria aurea), the Peron's tree frog (Litoria peronii), the green tree frog (Litoria caerulea) and the striped marsh frog (Limnodynastes peronii) were all negative for the presence of the parasite using microscopy of the gallbladder content and its histology. These results were sufficient to conclude that the population was free from this disease (at the expected minimum prevalence of 5%) at 99.7% confidence level using the 115 voucher specimens in the Australian Museum. Similarly, museum specimens (n = 29) of the green and golden bell frog from New Caledonia, where it was introduced in 19th century, did not show the presence of myxospores. The earliest specimen positive for myxospores in a gallbladder was a green tree frog from 1966. Myxospores were found in eight (7.1%, n = 112) frogs in the post cane toad introduction period. Conclusion Australian wildlife is increasingly under threat, and amphibian decline is one of the most dramatic examples. The museum material proved essential to directly support the evidence of parasite emergence in Australian native frogs. This parasite can be considered one of the luckiest parasites, because it has found an empty niche in Australia. It now flourishes in > 20 endemic and exotic frog species, but its consequences are yet to be fully understood.

2010-01-01

414

Sugar Alcohol Sweeteners as Alternatives to Sugar with Special Consideration of Xylitol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Dental caries is a diet-associated disease which continues to be a serious health problem in most industrialized and developing countries. Strategies to maximize caries prevention should automatically consider the use of sugar substitutes. It is important that public health authorities are made cognizant of the availability of new polyol-type sugar substitutes. Review Summary: Clinical studies have shown that xylitol,

Kauko K. Mäkinen

2011-01-01

415

Optimal concentration for sugar transport in plants  

PubMed Central

Vascular plants transport energy in the form of sugars from the leaves where they are produced to sites of active growth. The mass flow of sugars through the phloem vascular system is determined by the sap flow rate and the sugar concentration. If the concentration is low, little energy is transferred from source to sink. If it is too high, sap viscosity impedes flow. An interesting question is therefore at which concentration is the sugar flow optimal. Optimization of sugar flow and transport efficiency predicts optimal concentrations of 23.5 per cent (if the pressure differential driving the flow is independent of concentration) and 34.5 per cent (if the pressure is proportional to concentration). Data from more than 50 experiments (41 species) collected from the literature show an average concentration in the range from 18.2 per cent (all species) to 21.1 per cent (active loaders), suggesting that the phloem vasculature is optimized for efficient transport at constant pressure and that active phloem loading may have developed to increase transport efficiency.

Jensen, Kaare H.; Savage, Jessica A.; Holbrook, N. Michele

2013-01-01

416

An analysis of diurnal cycles in the mass of ambient aerosols derived from biomass burning and agro-industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

diurnal cycles in ambient aerosol mass were observed in a rural region of Southeast Brazil where the trace composition of the lower troposphere is governed mainly by emissions from agro-industry. An optical particle counter was used to record size-segregated aerosol number concentrations between 13 May 2010 and 15 March 2011. The data were collected every 10 min and used to calculate aerosol mass concentrations. Aerosol samples were also collected onto filters during daytime (10:00-16:00 local time) and nighttime (20:00-06:00) periods, for subsequent analysis of soluble ions and water-soluble organic carbon. Biomass burning aerosols predominated during the dry winter, while secondary aerosols were most important in the summer rainy season. In both seasons, diurnal cycles in calculated aerosol mass concentrations were due to the uptake of water by the aerosols and, to a lesser extent, to emissions and secondary aerosol formation. In neither season could the observed mass changes be explained by changes in the depth of the boundary layer. In the summer, nighttime increases in aerosol mass ranged from 2.7-fold to 81-fold, depending on particle size, while in the winter, the range was narrower, from 2.2-fold to 9.5-fold, supporting the possibility that the presence of particles derived from biomass burning reduced the overall ability of the aerosols to absorb water.

Caetano-Silva, L.; Allen, A. G.; Lima-Souza, M.; Cardoso, A. A.; Campos, M. L. A. M.; Nogueira, R. F. P.

2013-08-01

417

Use of farming and agro-industrial wastes as versatile barriers in reducing pesticide leaching through soil columns.  

PubMed

Increased interest has been recently focused on assessing the influence of the addition of organic wastes related to movement of pesticides in soils of low organic matter (OM) content. This study reports the effect of two different amendments, animal manure (composted sheep manure) and agro-industrial waste (spent coffee grounds) on the mobility of 10 pesticides commonly used for pepper protection on a clay-loam soil (OM = 0.22%). The tested compounds were azoxystrobin, cyprodinil, fludioxonil, hexaconazole, kresoxim-methyl, pyrimethanil, tebuconazole, and triadimenol (fungicides), pirimicarb (insecticide), and propyzamide (herbicide). Breakthrough curves were obtained from disturbed soil columns. Cumulative curves obtained from unamended soil show a leaching of all pesticides although in different proportions (12-65% of the total mass of compound applied), showing triadimenol and pirimicarb the higher leachability. Significant correlation (r = 0.93, p<0.01) was found between the observed and bibliographical values of GUS index. The addition of the amendments used drastically reduced the movement of the studied pesticides. Only two pesticides were found in leachates from amended soils, pyrimethanil (<1%) for both, and pirimicarb (44%) in the soil amended with spent coffee grounds. A decrease in pesticide leaching was observed with the increase in dissolved organic matter (DOM) of leachates. The results obtained point to the interest in the use of organic wastes in reducing the pollution of groundwater by pesticide drainage. PMID:21282003

Fenoll, J; Ruiz, E; Flores, P; Vela, N; Hellín, P; Navarro, S

2011-03-15

418

Production of thermostable invertases by Aspergillus caespitosus under submerged or solid state fermentation using agroindustrial residues as carbon source  

PubMed Central

The filamentous fungus Aspergillus caespitosus was a good producer of intracellular and extracellular invertases under submerged (SbmF) or solid-state fermentation (SSF), using agroindustrial residues, such as wheat bran, as carbon source. The production of extracellular enzyme under SSF at 30°C, for 72h, was enhanced using SR salt solution (1:1, w/v) to humidify the substrate. The extracellular activity under SSF using wheat bran was around 5.5-fold higher than that obtained in SbmF (Khanna medium) with the same carbon source. However, the production of enzyme with wheat bran plus oat meal was 2.2-fold higher than wheat bran isolated. The enzymatic production was affected by supplementation with nitrogen and phosphate sources. The addition of glucose in SbmF and SSF promoted the decreasing of extracellular activity, but the intracellular form obtained in SbmF was enhanced 3-5-fold. The invertase produced in SSF exhibited optimum temperature at 50°C while the extra- and intracellular enzymes produced in SbmF exhibited maximal activities at 60°C. All enzymatic forms exhibited maximal activities at pH 4.0-6.0 and were stable up to 1 hour at 50°C.

Alegre, Ana Claudia Paiva; de Lourdes Teixeira de Moraes Polizeli, Maria; Terenzi, Hector Francisco; Jorge, Joao Atilio; Guimaraes, Luis Henrique Souza

2009-01-01

419

Analysis of the stability of high-solids anaerobic digestion of agro-industrial waste and sewage sludge.  

PubMed

The pilot-scale high-solids anaerobic digestion (HS-AD) of agro-industrial wastes and sewage sludge was analysed in terms of stability by monitoring the most common parameters used to check the performance of anaerobic digesters, i.e. Volatile Fatty Acids (VFA), ammonia nitrogen, pH, alkalinity and methane production. The results reflected similar evolution for the parameters analysed, except for an experiment that presented an unsuccessful start-up. The rest of the experiments ran successfully, although the threshold values proposed in the literature for the detection of an imbalance in wet processes were exceeded, proving the versatility of HS-AD to treat different wastes. The results evidence the need for understanding the dynamics of a high-solids system so as to detect periods of imbalance and to determine inhibitory levels for different compounds formed during anaerobic decomposition. Moreover, the findings presented here could be useful in developing an experimental basis to construct new control strategies for HS-AD. PMID:23859986

Aymerich, E; Esteban-Gutiérrez, M; Sancho, L

2013-09-01

420

Production of Trametes pubescens Laccase under Submerged and Semi-Solid Culture Conditions on Agro-Industrial Wastes  

PubMed Central

Laccases are copper-containing enzymes involved in the degradation of lignocellulosic materials and used in the treatment of phenol-containing wastewater. In this study we investigated the effect of culture conditions, i.e. submerged or semi-solid, and copper supplementation on laccase production by Trametespubescens grown on coffee husk, soybean pod husk, or cedar sawdust. The highest specific laccase activity was achieved when the culture was conducted under submerged conditions supplemented with copper (5 mM), and using coffee husk as substrate. The crude extracts presented two laccase isoforms with molecular mass of 120 (Lac1) and 60 kDa (Lac2). Regardless of the substrate, enzymatic crude extract and purified fractions behaved similarly at different temperatures and pHs, most of them presented the maximum activity at 55 °C and a pH range between 2 and 3. In addition, they showed similar stability and electro-chemical properties. At optimal culture conditions laccase activity was 7.69±0.28 U mg-1 of protein for the crude extract, and 0.08±0.001 and 2.86±0.05 U mg-1 of protein for Lac1 and Lac2, respectively. In summary, these results show the potential of coffee husk as an important and economical growth medium to produce laccase, offering a new alternative use for this common agro-industrial byproduct.

Rodriguez, Alexander; Osma, Johann F.; Almeciga-Diaz, Carlos J.; Sanchez, Oscar F.

2013-01-01

421

Reconciliation of opposing views on membrane-sugar interactions  

PubMed Central

It is well established that small sugars exert different types of stabilization of biomembranes both in vivo and in vitro. However, the essential question of whether sugars are bound to or expelled from membrane surfaces, i.e., the sign and size of the free energy of the interaction, remains unresolved, and this prevents a molecular understanding of the stabilizing mechanism. We have used small-angle neutron scattering and thermodynamic measurements to show that sugars may be either bound or expelled depending on the concentration of sugar. At low concentration, small sugars bind quite strongly to a lipid bilayer, and the accumulation of sugar at the interface makes the membrane thinner and laterally expanded. Above ?0.2 M the sugars gradually become expelled from the membrane surface, and this repulsive mode of interaction counteracts membrane thinning. The dual nature of sugar–membrane interactions offers a reconciliation of conflicting views in earlier reports on sugar-induced modulations of membrane properties.

Andersen, Heidi D.; Wang, Chunhua; Arleth, Lise; Peters, Gunther H.; Westh, Peter

2011-01-01

422

Sugar Transport and Metabolism in Thermotoga  

SciTech Connect

The work conducted under this grant demonstrated that the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga neapolitana carries out glucose and lactose transport in a sodium-dependent manner and that energization of anaerobic cells is required to observe transport. We also demonstrated that Thermotoga maritima carries out maltose and glucose transport using periplasmic sugar binding proteins. We began defining patterns of expression of genes encoding sugar transport and catabolic functions in both T. maritima and T. neapolitana. We began a collaborative effort to identify all the genes regulated at the transcriptional level in response to sugars substrates. These funds also allowed us to begin an examination of the functions of several periplasmic substrate binding proteins encoded in the genome of T. maritima.

Noll, Kenneth M.; Romano, Antonio H.

2003-02-11

423

Stellar Populations and Structural Properties of Ultra Faint Dwarf Galaxies, Canes Venatici I, Boötes I, Canes Venatici II, and Leo IV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We take deep images of four ultra faint dwarf (UFD) galaxies, Canes Venatici I (CVn I), Boötes I (Boö I), Canes Venatici II (CVn II), and Leo IV, using the Suprime-Cam on the Subaru Telescope. Color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) extend below main-sequence turnoffs (MSTOs) and yield measurements of the ages of stellar populations. The stellar populations of three faint galaxies, the Boö I, CVn II, and Leo IV dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs), are estimated to be as old as the Galactic globular cluster M92. We confirm that Boö I dSph has no intrinsic color spread in the MSTO and no spatial difference in the CMD morphology, which indicates that Boö I dSph is composed of an old single stellar population. One of the brightest UFDs, CVn I dSph, shows a relatively younger age (~12.6 Gyr) with respect to Boö I, CVn II, and Leo IV dSphs, and the distribution of red horizontal branch (HB) stars is more concentrated toward the center than that of blue HB stars, suggesting that the galaxy contains complex stellar populations. Boö I and CVn I dSphs show the elongated and distorted shapes. CVn II dSph has the smallest tidal radius of a Milky Way satellite and has a distorted shape, while Leo IV dSph shows a less concentrated spherical shape. The simple stellar population of faint UFDs indicates that the gases in their progenitors were removed more effectively than those of brighter dSphs at the occurrence of their initial star formation. This is reasonable if the progenitors of UFDs belong to less massive halos than those of brighter dSphs. Based on data collected at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

Okamoto, Sakurako; Arimoto, Nobuo; Yamada, Yoshihiko; Onodera, Masato

2012-01-01

424

Testosterone secretion and pharmacological spermatozoal recovery in the cane toad (Bufo marinus).  

PubMed

The cane toad (Bufo marinus) was used as a model to study male anuran reproductive endocrinology and to develop a protocol for non-invasive sperm recovery. Circulating testosterone concentrations in 6-hourly samples did not vary significantly (P < 0.05) over a 24 h period although there was a tendency (P = 0.06) for testosterone to be elevated at 19:00 h relative to other times of the day, which may be related to the nocturnal activity pattern of this species. Testosterone secretion after intraperitoneal (IP) injection of either a GnRH agonist (5 microg IP) or hCG (1000 IU) was also examined. While the GnRH agonist did not produce a significant increase above basal plasma testosterone (0.29, 95% C.I. of 0.05-1.10 ng/ml), injection of hCG resulted in an increase (P < 0.01) of plasma testosterone with peak concentrations at approximately 120 min (4.17, 95% C.I. of 2.69-7.44 ng/ml) after injection. Non-invasive pharmaceutical sperm recovery was attempted following IP injection of graded doses of GnRH agonist, hCG or FSH. Urine was collected at 3, 6 and 12 h after treatment to assess sperm quality and quantity. The optimal protocol for sperm recovery in cane toads was injection of either 1000 or 2000 IU hCG; there was no significant difference in the quality of the spermic urine samples obtained using either dose of hCG or with respect to collection time. The findings indicated that hCG can be used to assess testicular steroidogenic status and also to induce sperm recovery in the cane toad. The hCG protocols developed in this study will have application in studies on the reproductive biology of rare and endangered male anurans. PMID:16257605

Iimori, E; D'Occhio, M J; Lisle, A T; Johnston, S D

2005-11-01

425

Potential of Trichoderma species on Helminthosporium causing leaf spot on cane palm, Chrysalidocarpus lutescens.  

PubMed

The cane palm, Chrysalidocarpus lutescens is one among the plant material of the export industries in Sri Lanka. The export quality of C. lutescens was declined due to the repeated occurrence of a leaf spot caused by Helminthosporium. Widespread occurrence of the leaf spot affected the cane palm production and succumb it to a huge setback in the floriculture industry in Sri Lanka. Being an export industry eco-friendly means of disease control was the prime focus for a better management of such vulnerable disease. Trichoderma is a potential bio agent, which has definite role in suppressing the inoculum of Helminthosporium sp. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of Trichoderma species to control naturally established leaf spot in cane palm under field conditions. Three isolates of T. viride and two isolates of T. harzianum were evaluated. All the Trichoderma species performed significantly in reducing the disease incidence. T. viride + T. harzianum combination (1 x 10(10) cfu/ml) was the best compared to chemical in decreasing the mean disease severity index and improving the frequency of healthy plants. The colour of the leaves regained due to the application of Trichoderma sp. The results revealed that leaf spot incidence was lowered significantly in cane palms treated with Trichoderma species followed by treatment with combination of Trichoderma sp. and fungicides. The fungicide mixture (hexaconozole 50 g/l + Isoprothiolane 400 g/l) failed to lower the disease incidence and had no effect in suppressing the inocula of Helminthosporium, although recommended. Mixing of Trichoderma species with fungicide did not exhibit any additive effect. The combination of different species of Trichoderma would target species of Helminthosporium that exist as a complex group under field conditions. The results also proved that the existence of heterogeneity in Helminthosporium that could be tackled and effectively controlled by a combination of different species of the bio-agent, if available, to broaden the selectivity of the pathogens. The use of Trichoderma species had claimed not only to reduce the incidence of Helminthosporium but also to sustain the growth and vigor of the C. lutescens to most fit for exporting. PMID:19226758

Jegathambigai, V; Karunaratne, M D S D; Svinningen, A; Mikunthan, G

2008-01-01

426

Bioethanol production from fermentable sugar juice.  

PubMed

Bioethanol production from renewable sources to be used in transportation is now an increasing demand worldwide due to continuous depletion of fossil fuels, economic and political crises, and growing concern on environmental safety. Mainly, three types of raw materials, that is, sugar juice, starchy crops, and lignocellulosic materials, are being used for this purpose. This paper will investigate ethanol production from free sugar containing juices obtained from some energy crops such as sugarcane, sugar beet, and sweet sorghum that are the most attractive choice because of their cost-effectiveness and feasibility to use. Three types of fermentation process (batch, fed-batch, and continuous) are employed in ethanol production from these sugar juices. The most common microorganism used in fermentation from its history is the yeast, especially, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, though the bacterial species Zymomonas mobilis is also potentially used nowadays for this purpose. A number of factors related to the fermentation greatly influences the process and their optimization is the key point for efficient ethanol production from these feedstocks. PMID:24715820

Zabed, Hossain; Faruq, Golam; Sahu, Jaya Narayan; Azirun, Mohd Sofian; Hashim, Rosli; Boyce, Amru Nasrulhaq

2014-01-01

427

Green chemistry: Biodiesel made with sugar catalyst  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The production of diesel from vegetable oil calls for an efficient solid catalyst to make the process fully ecologically friendly. Here we describe the preparation of such a catalyst from common, inexpensive sugars. This high-performance catalyst, which consists of stable sulphonated amorphous carbon, is recyclable and its activity markedly exceeds that of other solid acid catalysts tested for `biodiesel' production.

Toda, Masakazu; Takagaki, Atsushi; Okamura, Mai; Kondo, Junko N.; Hayashi, Shigenobu; Domen, Kazunari; Hara, Michikazu

2005-11-01

428

Green chemistry: biodiesel made with sugar catalyst.  

PubMed

The production of diesel from vegetable oil calls for an efficient solid catalyst to make the process fully ecologically friendly. Here we describe the preparation of such a catalyst from common, inexpensive sugars. This high-performance catalyst, which consists of stable sulphonated amorphous carbon, is recyclable and its activity markedly exceeds that of other solid acid catalysts tested for 'biodiesel' production. PMID:16281026

Toda, Masakazu; Takagaki, Atsushi; Okamura, Mai; Kondo, Junko N; Hayashi, Shigenobu; Domen, Kazunari; Hara, Michikazu

2005-11-10

429

Glycosylation reaction of unprotected sugars with hydroxyalkylthymine.  

PubMed

Under mild conditions (Lewis acid/solvent/room temperature), the reaction of unprotected glucose, deoxyribose or xylose with hydroxylalkylthymine gives selectively nucleoside analogs with a spacer arm between sugar and base moiety. Experimental conditions (Lewis acid, solvent) for this new strategy leading to nucleoside analogs synthesis are discussed. PMID:15281363

Zerrouki, Rachida; Billard, Luc; Granet, Robert; Krausz, Pierre

2004-05-01

430

Enzymatic saccharification of sugar-beet pulp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nine commercial enzymatic preparations have been tested for their ability to release ferulic acid, rhamnose, arabinose, and galacturonic acid from sugar-beet pulp. SP 584, SP 585, and SP 342 from Novo Nordisk gave the highest release of ferulic acid, arabinose, and rhamnose. SP 584 and SP 585 degraded the pulp more rapidly than SP 342. Only SP 342 released free

V. Micard; C. M. G. C. Renard; J.-F. Thibault

1996-01-01

431

Storage Requirements for Sugar Maple Seeds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sugar maple seeds, collected from three trees in northern Vermont, were stored at four temperatures (18, 7, 2 and -10C) in combination with four seed moisture contents (35, 25, 17, and 10 percent). Seed moisture content and storage temperature significant...

C. M. Carl H. W. Yawney

1974-01-01

432

Diabetes: Monitoring Your Blood Sugar Level  

MedlinePLUS

... glucose monitor (also called a home blood sugar meter, a glucometer, or a glucose meter) and know how to use it. Your doctor ... U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved meters that work without pricking your finger. But these ...

433

Saving energy at U. S. Sugar Corporation  

SciTech Connect

It is reported that the U.S. Sugar Corporation of Florida has saved the purchase of three million gallons of fuel oil by burning sugarcane bagasse to fuel electrical generators. The company has also entered into a joint venture with Savannah Foods and Industry Inc.; whereby each company will commit $1 million for research on conversion of bagasse to alcohol for gasohol.

Not Available

1980-12-01

434

Mapping sugar beet pectin acetylation pattern.  

PubMed

Homogalacturonan-derived partly methylated and/or acetylated oligogalacturonates were recovered after enzymatic hydrolysis (endo-polygalacturonase+pectin methyl esterase+side-chain degrading enzymes) of sugar beet pectin followed by anion-exchange and size exclusion chromatography. Around 90% of the GalA and 75% of the acetyl groups present in the initial sugar beet pectin were recovered as homogalacturonan-derived oligogalacturonates, the remaining GalA and acetyl belonging to rhamnogalacturonic regions. Around 50% of the acetyl groups present in sugar beet homogalacturonans were recovered as partly methylated and/or acetylated oligogalacturonates of degree of polymerisation 5 whose structures were determined by electrospray ionization ion trap mass spectrometry (ESI-IT-MSn). 2-O-acetyl- and 3-O-acetyl-GalA were detected in roughly similar amounts but 2,3-di-O-acetylation was absent. Methyl-esterified GalA residues occurred mainly upstream 2-O-acetyl GalA. Oligogalacturonates containing GalA residues that are at once methyl- and acetyl-esterified were recovered in very limited amounts. A tentative mapping of the distribution of acetyl and methyl esters within sugar beet homogalacturonans is proposed. Unsubstituted GalA residues are likely to be present in limited amounts (approximately 10% of total GalA residues), due to the fact that methyl and acetyl groups are assumed to be most often not carried by the same residues. PMID:16024056

Ralet, Marie-Christine; Cabrera, Juan Carlos; Bonnin, Estelle; Quéméner, Bernard; Hellìn, Pilar; Thibault, Jean-François

2005-08-01

435

SUGAR METABOLISM AND PATHOGENICITY OF SPIROPLASMA CITRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Spiroplasma citri is a plant-pathogenic mollicute, phy- logenetically related to Gram-positive bacteria. Spiro- plasma cells are restricted to the phloem sieve elements and are transmitted by leafhopper vectors. Recent re- search has allowed depicting a unique scenario in S. citri pathogenicity, where sugar metabolism plays a major role. In vitro S. citri uses fructose, glucose, and trehalose, which are

J. Renaudin

2006-01-01

436

Effects of Sugar (Sucrose) on Children's Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined effects of sugar on behavior of 45 preschool and elementary school children. Provided all children with basic breakfast that included drink containing either 50 g of sucrose, a comparably sweet placebo, or very little sucrose. Found some small behavior changes in high-sucrose group. All effects were small in magnitude and not considered…

Rosen, Lee A.; And Others

1988-01-01

437

Sugar: World Markets and Trade, May 2011.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sugar production, raw value, for the 2011/12 marketing year is forecast at 168 million metric tons (MMT), up 8 MMT over the previous year. Changes in world production are highlighted by higher production in Brazil, China, India, Russia, and Thailand. Unit...

2011-01-01

438

Ferricyanide Reduction Method for Reducing Sugars  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE ferricyanide reduction method and its modifications1-3 for the determination of reducing sugars are among the more commonly used techniques for this purpose. They depend on the spectrophotometric measurement of the amount of prussian blue formed when excess ferric iron is added to the reactant mixture.

Richard I. Mateles

1960-01-01

439

Moisture and Shelf Life in Sugar Confections  

Microsoft Academic Search

From hardening of marshmallow to graining of hard candies, moisture plays a critical role in determining the quality and shelf life of sugar-based confections. Water is important during the manufacturing of confections, is an important factor in governing texture, and is often the limiting parameter during storage that controls shelf life. Thus, an understanding of water relations in confections is

R. Ergun; R. Lietha; R. W. Hartel

2010-01-01

440

Analysis of Biomass Sugars Using a Novel HPLC Method  

SciTech Connect

The precise quantitative analysis of biomass sugars is a very important step in the conversion of biomass feedstocks to fuels and chemicals. However, the most accurate method of biomass sugar analysis is based on the gas chromatography analysis of derivatized sugars either as alditol acetates or trimethylsilanes. The derivatization method is time consuming but the alternative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method cannot resolve most sugars found in biomass hydrolysates. We have demonstrated for the first time that by careful manipulation of the HPLC mobile phase, biomass monomeric sugars (arabinose, xylose, fructose, glucose, mannose, and galactose) can be analyzed quantitatively and there is excellent baseline resolution of all the sugars. This method was demonstrated for standard sugars, pretreated corn stover liquid and solid fractions. Our method can also be used to analyze dimeric sugars (cellobiose and sucrose).

Agblevor, F. A.; Hames, B. R.; Schell, D.; Chum, H. L.

2007-01-01

441

Measurements of particulate sugars at urban and forested suburban sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutral sugars (arabinose, fucose, galactose, glucose, mannose, rhamnose, and xylose) in fine and coarse aerosols were measured at urban and forested suburban sites in Japan. The most dominant compound in the sugar group was glucose at both sites. Size partitioning of the sugars generally showed dominance in the fine mode range but shifted toward the coarse mode range in summer. Seasonal trends in the sugar concentrations in the fine and coarse mode ranges were opposite: higher concentrations of fine mode sugars were found in winter, although coarse mode sugars increased in summer. Fine mode glucose consisted dominantly of the combined form, whereas free glucose increased in the coarse mode range. Although the sources of the sugars in the aerosols remain largely uncertain, primary biogenic particles can be considered as candidates of main sources of the sugars in both coarse and fine mode ranges.

Tominaga, Sae; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Kaneyasu, Naoki; Shigihara, Ado; Katono, Koichi; Igawa, Manabu

2011-04-01

442

UDP-sugar pyrophosphorylase controls the activity of proceeding sugar-1-kinases enzymes  

PubMed Central

Plant cell wall synthesis requires a number of different nucleotide sugars which provide the building blocks of the different polymers. These nucleotide sugars are mainly provided by de novo synthesis but recycling pathways also contribute to the pools. The last enzyme of the recycling pathway is UDP-sugar pyrophosphorylase (USP), a single copy gene in Arabidopsis, of which a knockout is lethal for pollen development. Here we analyze the dependency between USP enzyme activity and the upstream glucuronokinase. Gene silencing of USP by miRNA cause a concomitant reduction of USP and of glucuronokinase activity presumably to prevent the accumulation of sugar-1-phosphates interfering with normal metabolism and depleting the phosphate pool of the cell.

Geserick, Claudia; Tenhaken, Raimund

2013-01-01

443

Sugar effects on early seedling development in Arabidopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugars affect a broad variety of processes, from growth and development to gene expression. Although it has already been shown\\u000a that sugars act as signaling molecules, little is known about the mechanisms by which plants respond to them. Much progress\\u000a has been made on understanding sugar sensing and signaling thanks to the analysis of mutants with abnormal sugar response.\\u000a Some

Sara Rognoni; Sheng Teng; Laura Arru; Sjef C. M. Smeekens; Pierdomenico Perata

2007-01-01

444

Counter-current extraction of sweet sorghum sugar for fermentation  

SciTech Connect

A small counter-current extractor in the form of a heated inclined screw was tested to remove residual sugar from the bagasse after sweet sorghum was passed through one roller mill. Roller milling alone recovered only 45% of total sugar. Combined efficiency of milling and extraction was 95%. Combined pressed juice (17% sugar) and extract (10% sugar) produces a 12.5% solids juice for fermentation.

Toledo, R.T.

1985-01-01

445

The mechanism of sugar uptake by sugarcane suspension cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugarcane cell suspensions took up sugar from the medium at rates comparable to or greater than sugarcane tissue slices or plants in the field. This system offers an opportunity for the study of kinetic and energetic mechanisms of sugar transport in storage parenchyma-like cells in the absence of heterogeneity introduced by tissues. The following results were obtained: (a) The sugar

E. Komor; M. Thorn; A. Maretzki

1981-01-01

446

Integrated production of biodegradable plastic, sugar and ethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poly 3-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) and related copolymers can be advantageously produced when integrated into a sugarcane mill. In this favorable scenario, the energy necessary for the production process is provided by biomass. Carbon dioxide emissions to the environment are photosynthetically assimilated by the sugarcane crop and wastes are recycled to the cane fields. The polymer can be produced at low

R. Nonato; P. Mantelatto; C. Rossell

2001-01-01

447

Louisiana Air Quality - Using ASTER, Landsat 5, and MODIS to Assess the Impact of Sugar Cane and Marsh Burning Practices on Local Air Quality  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biomass burning is an event that occurs globally and encompasses both human-initiated and naturally-occurring fires. It is estimated that 3 billion metric tons of biomass are burned every year worldwide (Curtis 2002). Societies have used these burning techniques for cooking and heating, clearing land for agricultural use, and removing excess biomass from grazing and croplands (Levine 1991). Our study focuses on the state of Louisiana and its commonly occurring methods of sugarcane and marsh biomass burning (LSU Ag.Center 2000; Nyman and Chabreck 1995). Over the centuries, the sugarcane industry in this state has steadily grown to surpass all other agriculture commodities. To promote efficiency within this large industry, burning excess biomass takes place throughout the harvesting period (LSU Ag.Center 2000). In addition to sugarcane, Louisiana contains 30% of the total coastal marsh of the United States (LSU Ag.Center 2000). The periodic burning of such marshes is an ecologically important management tool that is practiced throughout the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts (Nyman and Chabreck 1995). In most biomass burning instances, the leading by-product is particulate matter that is less than 10 microns in diameter (PM10). Through past research, this fine material has been shown to have negative health effects on surrounding populations (Boopathy2001). While burning guidelines have been set into place by the Louisiana Department of Agriculture and Forestry (LDAF) to reduce health effects, the guidelines are voluntary (LDAF 2000). To help quantify emission estimates, we will focus on Iberia Parish for sugarcane burning and Cameron Parish for marsh burning. Through analysis of ASTER, Landsat 5 TM, and MODIS data, our goal is to determine the amount and location of land area burned for the years 2008 and 2009 due to these practices. With emissions algorithms from Seiler and Crutzen, 1980, total acreage burned can be used to estimate emissions. This information will help to document the impact of these smoke plumes on local populations for the improvement of biomass burning policies in Louisiana.

Clark, Robert; Reahard, Ross; Robin, Chad; Zeringue, Jared

2010-01-01

448

Optimizing peracetic acid pretreatment conditions for improved simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) of sugar cane bagasse to ethanol fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of several lignocellulosic materials for ethanol fuel production has been studied exhaustively in the U.S.A.. Strong environmental legislation has been driving efforts by enterprises, state agencies, and universities to make ethanol from biomass economically viable. Production costs for ethanol from biomass have been decreasing year by year as a consequence of this massive effort. Pretreatment, enzyme recovery, and

Lincoln C. Teixeira; James C. Linden; Herbert A. Schroeder

1999-01-01

449

Effects of vinasse accumulation ponds and decantation reservoirs of water used for washing cane sugar in water resources in Dobrada municipality, Sao Paulo State, Brazil.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This work shows the results of a monitoring carried out in an area of about 21 km(sup 2), Dobrada Municipality, central west region of the state of Sao Paulo (Brazil), where the impacts in ground water and surface water were evaluated by the infiltration ...

J. A. B. Sabadia A. C. Reboucas

1996-01-01

450

Short-term soil CO 2 emission after conventional and reduced tillage of a no-till sugar cane area in southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of tillage systems on soil CO2 emission is a complex issue as different soil types are managed in various ways, from no-till to intensive land preparation. In southern Brazil, the adoption of a new management option has arisen most recently, with no-tillage as well as no burning of crops residues left on soil surface after harvesting, especially in

N. La Scala; D. Bolonhezi; G. T. Pereira

2006-01-01

451

SUGAR CANE GROWING AND CATTLE GRAZING AS DRIVERS TO WETLAND DEGRADATION IN UGANDA: A case of upper river Ruizi and Iguluibi catchments Lake Victoria basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction: This study was conducted with in the framework of the VLIR-OI project with the aim of making contributions to the Diagnosis and Remediation of Land Degradation Processes in the Riparian Zone of Lake Victoria Uganda in view of reducing sediment pollution of the Lake Waters with a special focus on the upper river Ruiz and Iguluibi catchments. The study seeks to investigate Sugarcane growing and cattle grazing as drivers to wetland degradation in light of the current farming systems and practices and their contributions to land degradation and pollution of the Lake Victoria waters. Vegetation especially wetlands improves the resistance to erosion. The removal of riparian vegetation tends to accelerate surface erosion as a result of human activities. Increased erosion with in the catchments due to clearing of wetlands for sugarcane growing and cattle grazing has caused adverse increased sedimentation, degraded the water quality, and reduced the water productivity of the Lake Victoria Basin. Methods: We conducted a qualitative and quantitative study to investigate Sugarcane growing and cattle grazing as drivers to wetland degradation in Uganda in light of the current farming systems and practices and their socio-economic contributions to wetland degradation and pollution of the Lake Victoria waters. Focus group discussions, key informant interviews, semi structured interviews and observations were undertaken with the relevant stakeholders in the community. Results: Findings reveal that in Iguluibi catchment, sugarcane growing is now a major activity indicating land use change since the 1990s. Community members said when planting sugarcane all vegetations including all trees are cut leaving the land bare to allow the tractor to clear the land for cultivation. This has left the land bare without any natural vegetation with increased erosion hence eventually loss of soil fertility and increased sediment pollution to the Lake Victoria waters. As a result of land loosing fertility upland, due to erosion and runoff, most community members have resorted to wetlands for agricultural practices with in the catchment and this has hardly left any natural vegetation to protect the soil and increased runoff to Lake Victoria hence sediment pollution of the lake waters. In the Ruizi catchment, many valleys, the natural vegetation has been cut and the land has been turned into pastureland. The massive expansion of livestock keeping into the low lands mainly covered by wetlands is relatively new (over the last 20 years). Burning of rangelands is a common practice and seasonal swamps are grazed during the dry season This change of land use as far as farming practice is concerned has had a big impact on the water levels of the River Ruizi systems in a number of ways for example: the wetland filter system for sediments and sediment fixed nutrients is compromised; lowering of the water storage capacity of the papyrus swamps as a consequence of drainage, hence surface lowering; river bank erosion of the Ruizi by livestock coming into the river for drinking; pollution of the River Ruizi by livestock defecating into the water while drinking. Due to overstocking of the steep slopes by livestock, the low lands are overgrazed which has resulted in soil erosion, that is, mainly sheet and rill erosion, mass movement below cattle tracks, and stone movement by cattle trampling. The steep slope grazing area has generated substantial runoff, the concentrated flow of which causes gullies that cut through the banana groves. Conclusion Vegetation management of riparian areas especially wetlands in Uganda should conserve and maintain adequate ecological balance of the Lake by reducing on nutrient-loaded fluxes from the riparian zone into the Lake Victoria basin.

Nakiyemba Were, Alice; Isabirye, Moses; Mathijs, Erik; Deckers, Jozef; Poesen, Jean

2010-05-01

452

SUGAR CANE GROWING AND CATTLE GRAZING AS DRIVERS TO WETLAND DEGRADATION IN UGANDA: A case of upper river Ruizi and Iguluibi catchments Lake Victoria basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: This study was conducted with in the framework of the VLIR-OI project with the aim of making contributions to the Diagnosis and Remediation of Land Degradation Processes in the Riparian Zone of Lake Victoria Uganda in view of reducing sediment pollution of the Lake Waters with a special focus on the upper river Ruiz and Iguluibi catchments. The study

Alice Nakiyemba Were; Moses Isabirye; Erik Mathijs; Jozef Deckers; Jean Poesen

2010-01-01

453

Managing Hyperglycemia (High Blood Sugar) in the Hospital: a Patient's Guide  

MedlinePLUS

... Hospital Is there a risk for low blood sugar? Low blood sugar (defined as a blood sugar ... after your hospital stay. What are the blood sugar targets in the hospital? Health care providers want ...

454

40 CFR 409.10 - Applicability; description of the beet sugar processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Applicability; description of the beet sugar processing subcategory. 409...SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beet Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.10 Applicability; description of the beet sugar processing subcategory....

2009-07-01

455

40 CFR 409.10 - Applicability; description of the beet sugar processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...true Applicability; description of the beet sugar processing subcategory. 409...SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beet Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.10 Applicability; description of the beet sugar processing subcategory....

2010-07-01

456

Larger Body Size at Metamorphosis Enhances Survival, Growth and Performance of Young Cane Toads (Rhinella marina)  

PubMed Central

Body size at metamorphosis is a key trait in species (such as many anurans) with biphasic life-histories. Experimental studies have shown that metamorph size is highly plastic, depending upon larval density and environmental conditions (e.g. temperature, food supply, water quality, chemical cues from conspecifics, predators and competitors). To test the hypothesis that this developmental plasticity is adaptive, or to determine if inducing plasticity can be used to control an invasive species, we need to know whether or not a metamorphosing anuran’s body size influences its subsequent viability. For logistical reasons, there are few data on this topic under field conditions. We studied cane toads (Rhinella marina) within their invasive Australian range. Metamorph body size is highly plastic in this species, and our laboratory studies showed that larger metamorphs had better locomotor performance (both on land and in the water), and were more adept at catching and consuming prey. In mark-recapture trials in outdoor enclosures, larger body size enhanced metamorph survival and growth rate under some seasonal conditions. Larger metamorphs maintained their size advantage over smaller siblings for at least a month. Our data support the critical but rarely-tested assumption that all else being equal, larger body size at metamorphosis is likely to enhance an individual’s long term viability. Thus, manipulations to reduce body size at metamorphosis in cane toads may help to reduce the ecological impact of this invasive species.

Cabrera-Guzman, Elisa; Crossland, Michael R.; Brown, Gregory P.; Shine, Richard

2013-01-01

457

Immune Response Varies with Rate of Dispersal in Invasive Cane Toads (Rhinella marina)  

PubMed Central

What level of immunocompetence should an animal maintain while undertaking long-distance dispersal? Immune function (surveillance and response) might be down-regulated during prolonged physical exertion due to energy depletion, and/or to avoid autoimmune reactions arising from damaged tissue. On the other hand, heightened immune vigilance might be favored if the organism encounters novel pathogens as it enters novel environments. We assessed the links between immune defense and long-distance movement in a population of invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina) in Australia. Toads were radio-tracked for seven days to measure their activity levels and were then captured and subjected to a suite of immune assays. Toads that moved further showed decreased bacteria-killing ability in their plasma and decreased phagocytic ac