Sample records for sugar cane agroindustry

  1. Designing the Sugar Cane Charcoal Extruder

    E-print Network

    Ang, Dexter W

    2005-01-01

    The Sugar Cane Charcoal Extruder compresses carbonized sugar cane into charcoal briquettes. that are environmentally-friendly and comparable to wood charcoal in burn performance, cost, and durability. Originally developed ...

  2. 7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.305 Section 1435... LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.305 State cane sugar...

  3. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435... LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar...

  4. 7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.305 Section 1435... LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.305 State cane sugar...

  5. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435... LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar...

  6. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435... LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar...

  7. 7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.305 Section 1435... LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.305 State cane sugar...

  8. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435... LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar...

  9. 7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.305 Section 1435... LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.305 State cane sugar...

  10. Cement replacement by sugar cane bagasse ash: CO 2 emissions reduction and potential for carbon credits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eduardo M. R. Fairbairn; Branca B. Americano; Guilherme C. Cordeiro; Thiago P. Paula; Romildo D. Toledo Filho; Marcos M. Silvoso

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a study of cement replacement by sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) in industrial scale aiming to reduce the CO2 emissions into the atmosphere. SCBA is a by-product of the sugar\\/ethanol agro-industry abundantly available in some regions of the world and has cementitious properties indicating that it can be used together with cement. Recent comprehensive research developed at

  11. Japanese Sugar Cane as a Forage Crop. 

    E-print Network

    Leidigh, A. H. (Arthur Henry); McNess, George Thomas; Laude, H. H. (Hilmer Henry)

    1916-01-01

    short. It stools or suckers much more freely than do the other varieties of sugar cane, single plants having as many as seventy-five stalks. In Texas, if the crop is not harvested, the above-ground growth is killed by freezes. The part of the stalk.... This flood necessitated the replanting of all ordinary crops. Japanese sugar cane did not have to be replanted. The newly planted cane was just coming up and the sprouts that had not emerged from the ground were killed but those already up were uninjured...

  12. Original article Simulation of the maximum yield of sugar cane

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Simulation of the maximum yield of sugar cane at different altitudes: effect - To minimize the production costs of sugar cane, for the diverse sites of production found in La Réunion. Existing mod- els simulate poorly the temperature-radiation interaction. A model of sugar cane growth has

  13. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...c) A sugar beet processor allocated a share of the beet sugar allotment may use only beet sugar to fill such allocation. A sugarcane processor allocated a share of the cane sugar allotment may use only cane sugar to fill such allocation. [67 FR...

  14. VIEW OF MILL FROM KEKAHA ROAD, WITH SUGAR BIN, CANE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF MILL FROM KEKAHA ROAD, WITH SUGAR BIN, CANE CLEANING PLANT AND CRUSHING MILL TO THE FORE. VIEW FROM THE EAST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  15. Cement replacement by sugar cane bagasse ash: CO2 emissions reduction and potential for carbon credits.

    PubMed

    Fairbairn, Eduardo M R; Americano, Branca B; Cordeiro, Guilherme C; Paula, Thiago P; Toledo Filho, Romildo D; Silvoso, Marcos M

    2010-09-01

    This paper presents a study of cement replacement by sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) in industrial scale aiming to reduce the CO(2) emissions into the atmosphere. SCBA is a by-product of the sugar/ethanol agro-industry abundantly available in some regions of the world and has cementitious properties indicating that it can be used together with cement. Recent comprehensive research developed at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro/Brazil has demonstrated that SCBA maintains, or even improves, the mechanical and durability properties of cement-based materials such as mortars and concretes. Brazil is the world's largest sugar cane producer and being a developing country can claim carbon credits. A simulation was carried out to estimate the potential of CO(2) emission reductions and the viability to issue certified emission reduction (CER) credits. The simulation was developed within the framework of the methodology established by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) for the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). The State of São Paulo (Brazil) was chosen for this case study because it concentrates about 60% of the national sugar cane and ash production together with an important concentration of cement factories. Since one of the key variables to estimate the CO(2) emissions is the average distance between sugar cane/ethanol factories and the cement plants, a genetic algorithm was developed to solve this optimization problem. The results indicated that SCBA blended cement reduces CO(2) emissions, which qualifies this product for CDM projects. PMID:20493626

  16. Production of ethanol from sugar cane

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, F.W.

    1982-04-20

    An integrated process is provided for producing ethanol from sugar cane. Harvested cane is chopped and shredded to provide a mass of fiber and juice which is digested in a first digester with a hemicellulase enzyme. Fibrous residue is separated by centrifuge and passed to a second digester for digestion with a mixed culture of a cellulase enzyme and an ethanol-producing culture. Fibrous residue from is pressed to provide a recycle juice extract and then burned to provide at least part of the heat energy requirement of the process. Juice extracts from digesters separated by centrifuges are combined, sterilized, flashed and passed to a fermentor for fermentation with an ethanol-producing microorganism. Ethanol is recovered from the process by separation utilizing a membrane.

  17. 76 FR 62339 - Domestic Sugar Program-2011-Crop Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and Company...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ...2011-Crop Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and Company Allocations AGENCY...the fiscal year (FY) 2012 State sugar marketing allotments and company allocations to...establishing, adjusting, or suspending sugar marketing allotments in the Federal...

  18. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services...Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services...of green leaf or cigar leaf tobacco, cotton, cottonseed, cotton ginning,...

  19. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services...Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services...of green leaf or cigar leaf tobacco, cotton, cottonseed, cotton ginning,...

  20. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services...Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services...of green leaf or cigar leaf tobacco, cotton, cottonseed, cotton ginning,...

  1. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services...Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services...of green leaf or cigar leaf tobacco, cotton, cottonseed, cotton ginning,...

  2. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services...Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services...of green leaf or cigar leaf tobacco, cotton, cottonseed, cotton ginning,...

  3. 1. Straighton view looking S at sugar cane crushing machinery ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Straight-on view looking S at sugar cane crushing machinery showing three-roll cane mill, single reduction gear, flywheel and steam engine. - Hacienda Azucarera la Igualdad, Sugar Mill Ruins & Steam Engine, PR Route 332, Guanica, Guanica Municipio, PR

  4. Clastogenicity of landfarming soil treated with sugar cane vinasse.

    PubMed

    da Silva Souza, Tatiana; Hencklein, Fabiana Aparecida; de Franceschi de Angelis, Dejanira; Fontanetti, Carmem Silvia

    2013-02-01

    The addition of nutrients and/or soil bulking agents is used in bioremediation to increase microbial activity in contaminated soils. For this purpose, some studies have assessed the effectiveness of vinasse in the bioremediation of soils contaminated with petroleum waste. The present study was aimed at investigating the clastogenic/aneugenic potential of landfarming soil from a petroleum refinery before and after addition of sugar cane vinasse using the Allium cepa bioassay. Our results show that the addition of sugar cane vinasse to landfarming soil potentiates the clastogenic effects of the latter probably due the release of metals that were previously adsorbed into the organic matter. These metals may have interacted synergistically with petroleum hydrocarbons present in the landfarming soil treated with sugar cane vinasse. We recommend further tests to monitor the effects of sugar cane vinasse on soils contaminated with organic wastes. PMID:22580848

  5. 40 CFR 409.40 - Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.40 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Louisiana Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.40...

  6. 40 CFR 409.40 - Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.40 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Louisiana Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.40...

  7. 40 CFR 409.70 - Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.70 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hawaiian Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.70...

  8. 40 CFR 409.40 - Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.40 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Louisiana Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.40...

  9. 40 CFR 409.70 - Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.70 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hawaiian Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.70...

  10. 40 CFR 409.20 - Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.20 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Crystalline Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.20...

  11. 40 CFR 409.30 - Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.30 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Liquid Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.30...

  12. 40 CFR 409.40 - Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.40 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Louisiana Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.40...

  13. 40 CFR 409.20 - Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.20 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Crystalline Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.20...

  14. 40 CFR 409.80 - Applicability; description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.80 Section... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Puerto Rican Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.80...

  15. 40 CFR 409.80 - Applicability; description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.80 Section... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Puerto Rican Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.80...

  16. 40 CFR 409.80 - Applicability; description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.80 Section... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Puerto Rican Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.80...

  17. 40 CFR 409.40 - Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.40 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Louisiana Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.40...

  18. 40 CFR 409.20 - Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.20 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Crystalline Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.20...

  19. 40 CFR 409.70 - Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.70 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hawaiian Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.70...

  20. 40 CFR 409.70 - Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.70 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hawaiian Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.70...

  1. 40 CFR 409.80 - Applicability; description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.80 Section... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Puerto Rican Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.80...

  2. 40 CFR 409.30 - Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.30 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Liquid Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.30...

  3. 40 CFR 409.80 - Applicability; description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.80 Section... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Puerto Rican Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.80...

  4. 40 CFR 409.30 - Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.30 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Liquid Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.30...

  5. 40 CFR 409.30 - Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.30 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Liquid Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.30...

  6. 40 CFR 409.20 - Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.20 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Crystalline Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.20...

  7. 40 CFR 409.30 - Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.30 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Liquid Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.30...

  8. 40 CFR 409.20 - Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.20 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Crystalline Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.20...

  9. 40 CFR 409.70 - Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.70 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hawaiian Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.70...

  10. Cyclic voltammetric analysis of antioxidant activity in cane sugars and palm sugars from Southeast Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jocelyn Sia; Hong-Ben Yee; José H. Santos; M. Khairul-Anwar Abdurrahman

    2010-01-01

    Fourteen commonly available types of cane and palm sugar were analysed for antioxidant activity using cyclic voltammetry. Five of the sugars, dissolved in phosphate buffer, showed anodic current peaks which were indicative of antioxidant activity. The rank order of these sugars was: gula anau>gula merah>China rock honey sugar>soft brown sugar>raw sugar. Gula anau is an unrefined palm sugar, while the

  11. Sugar Cane: A Bitter-Sweet Legacy. A Study of the Disappearing African-American Worker on the Sugar Cane Plantations in Southern Louisiana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, John A., Jr.; And Others

    This resource/study guide is designed to accompany the instructional video, "Sugar Cane: A Bitter-Sweet Legacy," which explores the significance of cultivating, harvesting, and refining sugar cane. It is also a brief study of the disappearing African-American workers on the sugar cane plantations in southern Louisiana. Seven main ideas are…

  12. 7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...reassigned as provided in § 1435.309, a processor may fill an allocation of a cane sugar allotment only with sugar processed from sugarcane grown in the State for which the allotment was established. [67 FR 54928, Aug. 26, 2002. Redesignated and...

  13. EVALUATION OF THE QUALITY OF DOMESTIC CACHAA (SUGAR-CANE SPIRITS) FROM MINAS GERAIS APPLYING PRINCIPAL

    E-print Network

    Ferreira, Márcia M. C.

    EVALUATION OF THE QUALITY OF DOMESTIC CACHAÇA (SUGAR-CANE SPIRITS) FROM MINAS GERAIS APPLYING@iqm.unicamp.br The increasing in the consumption of sugar cane spirits ­ the cachaça ­ with good quality and the possibility

  14. The influence of treatments upon the nutritive value of sugar cane residues

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    The influence of treatments upon the nutritive value of sugar cane residues F Ojeda Estacion, Matanzas, Cuba Cuba produces 108 ton/year of sugar cane residues i.e. top leaves and straws. However. Our study consisted in treating the sugar cane residues with urea-generated ammonia, and adding fresh

  15. Payback time for soil carbon and sugar-cane ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mello, Francisco F. C.; Cerri, Carlos E. P.; Davies, Christian A.; Holbrook, N. Michele; Paustian, Keith; Maia, Stoécio M. F.; Galdos, Marcelo V.; Bernoux, Martial; Cerri, Carlos C.

    2014-07-01

    The effects of land-use change (LUC) on soil carbon (C) balance has to be taken into account in calculating the CO2 savings attributed to bioenergy crops. There have been few direct field measurements that quantify the effects of LUC on soil C for the most common land-use transitions into sugar cane in Brazil, the world's largest producer . We quantified the C balance for LUC as a net loss (carbon debt) or net gain (carbon credit) in soil C for sugar-cane expansion in Brazil. We sampled 135 field sites to 1 m depth, representing three major LUC scenarios. Our results demonstrate that soil C stocks decrease following LUC from native vegetation and pastures, and increase where cropland is converted to sugar cane. The payback time for the soil C debt was eight years for native vegetation and two to three years for pastures. With an increasing need for biofuels and the potential for Brazil to help meet global demand, our results will be invaluable for guiding expansion policies of sugar-cane production towards greater sustainability.

  16. Simultaneous determination of aging markers in sugar cane spirits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francisco Wendel Batista de Aquino; Sueli Rodrigues; Ronaldo Ferreira do Nascimento; Antônio Renato Soares Casimiro

    2006-01-01

    In this work a method for simultaneous determination of 10 representative compounds in sugar cane spirits is reported. The low molecular weight phenolic compounds: gallic acid; vanillic acid; syringic acid; vanilin; syringaldehyde; coniferaldehyde; sinapaldehyde and coumarin; and the furanic aldehydes: 5-hydroxymethyl-furfural and furfural were simultaneously quantified by high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. These compounds, together with acids, aldehydes

  17. 77 FR 57180 - Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-17

    ...OFFICE OF THE TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION:...

  18. 75 FR 50796 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-17

    ...THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION:...

  19. 76 FR 50285 - Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ...THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION:...

  20. 75 FR 53013 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ...THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-containing Products; Revision AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative....

  1. 40 CFR 409.50 - Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.50 Section... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Florida and Texas Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.50...

  2. 40 CFR 409.50 - Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.50 Section... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Florida and Texas Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.50...

  3. 40 CFR 409.50 - Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.50 Section... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Florida and Texas Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.50...

  4. 40 CFR 409.50 - Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.50 Section... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Florida and Texas Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.50...

  5. 40 CFR 409.50 - Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.50 Section... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Florida and Texas Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.50...

  6. Fractionation of sugar cane with hot, compressed, liquid water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen Glen Allen; Lance Cameron Kam; Andreas Joseph Zemann; Michael Jerry Antal

    1996-01-01

    Sugar-cane bagasse and leaves (10--15 g oven-dry basis) were fractionated without size reduction by a rapid (45 s to 4 min), immersed percolation using only hot (190--230 C), compressed (P > P{sub sat}), liquid water (0.6--1.2 kg). Over 50% of the biomass could be solubilized. All of the hemicellulose, together with much of the acid-insoluble lignin in the bagasse (>60%),

  7. High pressure water jet cutting of sugar cane 

    E-print Network

    Valco, Thomas Donald

    1977-01-01

    : Agricultural Engineering HIGH PRESSURE WATER JET CUTTING OF SUGAR CANE A Thesis by THOMAS DONALD VALCO Approved as to style and content by: Dr. Charlie G. Coble (Chairman of Committee) Dr. Edward A. Haler (Head of Department) Mr. William H. Aldred... encourage- ment to test the idea. Two companies which were involved in the tests were: Flow Research, Inc. and McCartney Engineering. Both have developed industrial high pressure water jet cutting equipment. OBJECTIVES AND SCOPE The first objective...

  8. Pattern recognition applied to mineral characterization of Brazilian coffees and sugar-cane spiritsB

    E-print Network

    Ferreira, Márcia M. C.

    Pattern recognition applied to mineral characterization of Brazilian coffees and sugar-cane spirits Aluminium, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb, S, Se, Si, Sn, Sr, and Zn were determined in coffee and sugar. Keywords: Coffee; Sugar-cane spirit; Chemometrics; Pattern recognition 1. Introduction Globalization has

  9. Sugar cane as an energy resource for the Caribbean area

    SciTech Connect

    Lima, J.E.

    1982-09-01

    Sugar cane presents tremendous potential as a renewable energy source for the non-oil-producing, developing countries of the Caribbean basin. The analysis presented here, finds the overall energy balance to be extremely favorable. The economics are also favorable, even though capital investment requirements are high. Potential for improvement, in both the energy balance and the economic aspects, is very great. Such improvement is attainable by the development of new technology, which could be available in the short term and at moderate cost. (Refs. 8).

  10. How to manage sugar cane in the field and factory following damaging freezes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The exposure of sugar cane to damaging frosts occurs in approximately 25% of the sugar cane producing countries world-wide. A series of damaging freezes, -2.6, -3.3 and -2.1°C, occurred in Morocco on 4, 5 and 13 February 2012, respectively, only 2 weeks after the commencement of the harvest season....

  11. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report An Investigation into Sugar Cane versus Wood Fiber Paper

    E-print Network

    into Sugar Cane versus Wood Fiber Paper Ryan Carniato, Shariful Islam, Chun-Jiun Wang, Wilson Yeung Investigation into Sugar Cane versus Wood Fibre Paper Ryan Carniato Shariful Islam Chun-Jiun Wang Wilson Yeung method to compare wood fibre paper and sugar cane paper's economic, environmental, and social aspects

  12. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report An Investigation into Sugar Cane and Wood Fiber Paper at UBC

    E-print Network

    into Sugar Cane and Wood Fiber Paper at UBC Scott Gerun, Martin Rios, Scott Muscroft, Ahmed Almansour An Investigation into Sugar Cane and Wood Fiber Paper at UBC - FINAL REPORT - Group Members Scott Gerun Martin Rios, Supply Management is considering a shift to paper made from sugar canes utilizing TreeFrog as a sole

  13. 75 FR 26316 - Allocation of Additional Fiscal Year (FY) 2010 In-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ...FY) 2010 In-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade...tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar. DATES: Effective Date: May 11, 2010...TRQs for imports of raw cane and refined sugar. Section 404(d)(3) of the...

  14. 76 FR 21418 - Fiscal Year 2011 Allocation of Additional Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-15

    ...Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar and Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade...tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar and of country-by-country...

  15. Protective gloves on manual sugar cane cutting are really effective?

    PubMed

    Abrahão, R F; Gonzaga, M C; Braunbeck, O A

    2012-01-01

    Problems related to the use of personal protective equipment (PPE), specially the use of protective gloves for the manual sugar cane cutting, motivated this research, made possible by a tripartite negotiation involving the Ministry of Labor, the Union of Rural Workers and the Employer's Association of sugarcane agribusiness. The main objective was to evaluate, from an ergonomics perspective, the impact of use of the gloves during the manual cane sugar cutting, raising questions on safety, effectiveness and comfort. The research was carried in a sugarcane industry of São Paulo for two seasons involving 47 workers who made a qualitative analysis of acceptance of four models of protective gloves. The methodology included the use of semi-structured interviews, questionnaires and field observations and the experimental determination of the coefficient of static friction developed between the gloves and the surfaces of the machete handle. The main results indicate the general inadequacy of the gloves currently used forcing the employees to improvise. Workers found the glove of leather and nylon scraping the best reported for comfort in use. The overall results highlight the problem of detachment of test standards for the manufacture of PPE, ignoring users and the activity to be performed. PMID:22317487

  16. Thermophilic actinomycetes in cane sugar mills: an aeromicrobiologic and seroepidemiologic study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. U. Khan; Madhurama Gangwar; S. N. Gaur; H. S. Randhawa

    1995-01-01

    Aerial prevalence of clinically important thermophilic actinomycetes and occurrence of precipitating antibodies against them in sera of 153 exposed workers have been reported. The study was carried out in two cane sugar mills namely, the Upper Doab Sugar Mills and the Ramala Sugar Mills, located in north-west India. In both the sugar mills,T. sacchari was the predominant species, it accounted

  17. Chemistry Based on Renewable Raw Materials: Perspectives for a Sugar Cane-Based Biorefinery

    PubMed Central

    Villela Filho, Murillo; Araujo, Carlos; Bonfá, Alfredo; Porto, Weber

    2011-01-01

    Carbohydrates are nowadays a very competitive feedstock for the chemical industry because their availability is compatible with world-scale chemical production and their price, based on the carbon content, is comparable to that of petrochemicals. At the same time, demand is rising for biobased products. Brazilian sugar cane is a competitive feedstock source that is opening the door to a wide range of bio-based products. This essay begins with the importance of the feedstock for the chemical industry and discusses developments in sugar cane processing that lead to low cost feedstocks. Thus, sugar cane enables a new chemical industry, as it delivers a competitive raw material and a source of energy. As a result, sugar mills are being transformed into sustainable biorefineries that fully exploit the potential of sugar cane. PMID:21637329

  18. Direct determination of sugar cane quality parameters by X-ray spectrometry and multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Melquiades, F L; Bortoleto, G G; Marchiori, L F S; Bueno, M I M S

    2012-10-31

    Current methods for quality control of sugar cane are performed in extracted juice using several methodologies, often requiring appreciable time and chemicals (eventually toxic), making the methods not green and expensive. The present study proposes the use of X-ray spectrometry together with chemometric methods as an innovative and alternative technique for determining sugar cane quality parameters, specifically sucrose concentration, POL, and fiber content. Measurements in stem, leaf, and juice were performed, and those applied directly in stem provided the best results. Prediction models for sugar cane stem determinations with a single 60 s irradiation using portable X-ray fluorescence equipment allows estimating the % sucrose, % fiber, and POL simultaneously. Average relative deviations in the prediction step of around 8% are acceptable if considering that field measurements were done. These results may indicate the best period to cut a particular crop as well as for evaluating the quality of sugar cane for the sugar and alcohol industries. PMID:23039086

  19. Changes in quality of sugar-cane juice upon delayed extraction and storage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Yusof; L. S. Shian; A. Osman

    2000-01-01

    The quality of sugar-cane juice extracted from stored canes, as well as changes in quality of fresh juice stored at different temperatures, were studied. Cane stems were stored at 10±1°C, 85–88% relative humidity (RH) and 27±1°C, 55–85% RH, while fresh juice was stored at 5±1°C, 61–84% RH and 27±1°C, 55–85% RH. The physicochemical parameters evaluated were juice yield, juice colour,

  20. Biotechnological potential of agro-industrial residues. I: sugarcane bagasse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashok Pandey; Carlos R Soccol; Poonam Nigam; Vanete T Soccol

    2000-01-01

    Advances in industrial biotechnology offer potential opportunities for economic utilization of agro-industrial residues such as sugarcane bagasse. Sugarcane bagasse, which is a complex material, is the major by-product of the sugar cane industry. It contains about 50% cellulose, 25% hemicellulose and 25% lignin. Due to its abundant availability, it can serve as an ideal substrate for microbial processes for the

  1. Ethanol from sugar cane: flask experiments using the EX-FERM technique

    SciTech Connect

    Rolz, C.; Cabrera, S.

    1980-09-01

    Alcohol production at the laboratory scale from sugar cane pieces by the EX-FERM technique was studied with 37 strains of Saccharomyces spp. The EX-FERM process is novel in that it employs the simultaneous extraction and fermentation of the sucrose in a cane-water suspension. The final ethanol concentration reached 4.27 to 5.37g per 100 ml, and sugar consumption was above 98% in three cases during a second EX-FERM cycle employing previously air-dried chips and pith. Product yields were within accepted values. Cane treatment did not appear to affect the results at this level.

  2. Production, optimization and characterization of lactic acid by Lactobacillus delbrueckii NCIM 2025 from utilizing agro-industrial byproduct (cane molasses).

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Abhinay Kumar; Tripathi, Abhishek Dutt; Jha, Alok; Poonia, Amrita; Sharma, Nitya

    2015-06-01

    In the present work Lactobacillus delbrueckii was used to utilize agro-industrial byproduct (cane molasses) for lactic acid production under submerged fermentation process. Screening of LAB was done by Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy (FTIR). Effect of different amino acids (DL-Phenylalanine, L-Lysine and DL-Aspartic acid) on the fermentation process was done by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was used to optimize the levels of three parameters viz. tween 80, amino acid and cane molasses concentration during fermentative production of lactic acid. Under optimum condition lactic acid production was enhanced from 55.89 g/L to 84.50 g/L. Further, validation showed 81.50 g/L lactic acid production. Scale up was done on 7.5 L fermentor. Productivity was found to be 3.40 g/L/h which was higher than previous studies with reduced fermentation time from 24 h to 12 h. Further characterization of lactic acid was done by FTIR. PMID:26028739

  3. Changes in an Inceptisol of Mauritius after rock removal for sugar cane production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. R. Ng Cheong; K. F. Ng Kee Kwong; P. D. Ah Koon; C. C. Du Preez

    2009-01-01

    Sugar cane (Saccharum hybrid sp.) cropping in the rocky soils of Mauritius requires the prior removal of rocks to enable the implementation of mechanized operations, particularly harvesting. The effects of such operations on the soil are unknown, particularly the extent to which soil properties could be affected. A study was conducted at a sugar estate on the sub-humid western coast

  4. Biological nitrogen fixation in sugar cane: A key to energetically viable biofuel production

    SciTech Connect

    Boddey, R.M. [Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Agrobiologia, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    1995-05-01

    The advantages of producing biofuels to replace fossil energy sources are derived from the fact that the energy accumulated in the biomass in captured directly from photosynthesis and is thus renewable, and that the cycle of carbon dioxide fixation by the crop, followed by burning of the fuel makes no overall contribution to atmospheric CO{sub 2} or, consequently, to global warming. However, these advantages are negated if large quantities of fossil fuels need to be used to grow or process the biofuel crop. In this regard, the Brazilian bioethanol program, based on the fermentation/distillation of sugar cane juice, is particularly favorable, not only because the crop is principally hand harvested, but also because of the low nitrogen fertilizer use on sugar cane in Brazil. Recent {sup 15}N and N balance studies have shown that in some Brazilian cane varieties, high yields are possible without N fertilization because the plants are able to obtain large contributions of nitrogen from plant-associated biological N{sub 2} fixation (BNF). The N{sub 2}-fixing acid-tolerant bacterium Acetobacter diazotrophicus was first found to occur within roots, stems, and leaves of sugar cane. Subsequently, two species of Herbaspirillum also have been found to occur within the interior of all sugar cane tissues. The discovery of these, and other N{sub 2}-fixing bacteria that survive poorly in soil but thrive within plant tissue (endophytic bacteria), may account for the high BNF contributions observed in sugar cane. Further study of this system should allow the gradual elimination of N fertilizer use on sugar cane, at least in Brazil, and opens up the possibility of the extension of this efficient N{sub 2}-fixing system to cereal and other crops with consequent immense potential benefits to tropical agriculture. 44 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Fluoride bioaccumulation by hydroponic cultures of camellia (Camellia japonica spp.) and sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum spp.).

    PubMed

    Camarena-Rangel, Nancy; Rojas Velázquez, Angel Natanael; Santos-Díaz, María Del Socorro

    2015-10-01

    The ability of hydroponic cultures of camellia and sugar cane adult plants to remove fluoride was investigated. Plants were grown in a 50% Steiner nutrient solution. After an adaptation period to hydroponic conditions, plants were exposed to different fluoride concentrations (0, 2.5, 5 and 10mgL(-1)). Fluoride concentration in the culture medium and in tissues was measured. In sugar cane, fluoride was mainly located in roots, with 86% of it absorbed and 14% adsorbed. Sugar cane plants removed 1000-1200mg fluoride kg(-1) dry weight. In camellia plants the highest fluoride concentration was found in leaf. Roots accumulated fluoride mainly through absorption, which was 2-5 times higher than adsorption. At the end of the experiment, fluoride accumulation in camellia plants was 1000-1400mgkg(-1) dry weight. Estimated concentration factors revealed that fluoride bioaccumulation is 74-221-fold in camellia plants and 100-500-fold in sugar cane plants. Thus, the latter appear as a suitable candidate for removing fluoride from water due to their bioaccumulation capacity and vigorous growth rate; therefore, sugar cane might be used for phytoremediation. PMID:25930125

  6. Rapid screening for anthocyanins in cane sugars using ESR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Thamaphat, Kheamrutai; Goodman, Bernard A; Limsuwan, Pichet; Smith, Siwaporn Meejoo

    2015-03-15

    Anthocyanin, which is soluble in water and released into sugar steam during extraction, was investigated in this study. The anthocyanin content in refined sugar, plantation white sugar, soft brown sugar and raw sugar was determined using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, which was operated at room temperature, and compared with spectra from standard anthocyanin. The ESR spectra of red and violet anthocyanins was predominantly g ? 2.0055, which corresponded to an unpaired electron located in the pyrylium ring. Signals for Fe(III) and Mn(II), which naturally occur in plants, were found in raw sugar, soft brown sugar and standard anthocyanin but were absent from refined sugar and plantation white sugar due to the refining process. In addition, the ESR results were correlated with the apparent colour of the sugar, which was determined using the method of the International Commission for Uniform Methods of Sugar Analysis and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. PMID:25308651

  7. Dosimetric evaluation of sucrose and granulated cane sugar in the therapeutic dose range

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, Melanie T. M.; Jordan, Kevin J. [Department of Physics and Engineering, London Regional Cancer Program, London Health Sciences Centre, 790 Commissioners Rd. E, London, Ontario N6A 4L6 (Canada); Department of Physics and Engineering, London Regional Cancer Program, London Health Sciences Centre, 790 Commissioners Rd. E, London, Ontario N6A 4L6 (Canada) and Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5C1 (Canada)

    2009-04-15

    Granulated cane sugar has been used as a dosimetric material to report dose in high dose accidental irradiations. The purpose of this study was to assess whether clinical dosimetry is also plausible with such a commonly available material. The behavior of cane sugar was explored with respect to therapeutically relevant radiation quantities (dose, dose rate) and qualities (energy, radiation type) as well as under different temperature conditions. The stability of the signal postirradiation was also measured. Absorbed dose was measured by spectrophotometric readout of a ferrous ammonium sulfate xylenol orange (FX)-sugar solution in 10 cm path length cells. A visible color change was produced as a function of dose when the irradiated sugar samples were dissolved in FX solution (10% dilution by mass). A comparison of the optical absorbance spectra and dose response of cane sugar with analytical grade sucrose was done to establish a benchmark standard from which subsequent dosimetry measurements can be validated. The response of the sugar dosimeter read at 590 nm was found to be linear over the dose range of 100-2000 cGy, independent of energy (6-18 MV) and of the average dose rate (100-500 cGy/min). The readout of sugar samples irradiated with mixed photon and electron fields was also shown to be independent of radiation type (photons and electrons). Sugar temperature (20-40 degree sign C) during irradiation did not affect dose estimates, making it a promising dosimeter for in vivo dosimetry, particularly in cases where the dosimeter must remain in contact with the patient for an extended period of time. Sugar can be used as an integrating dosimeter, since it exhibits no fractionation effects. Granulated cane sugar is cost effective, safe, soft tissue equivalent, and can be used under various experimental conditions, making it a suitable dosimeter for some radiotherapy applications.

  8. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report An Investigation into the Economic Influence of Sugar Cane and Wheat Waste Paper on

    E-print Network

    into the Economic Influence of Sugar Cane and Wheat Waste Paper on Canadian Economy Daniel Khuu, David Wong, Ka Wang of a project/report". #12;An Investigation into the Economic Influence of Sugar Cane and Wheat Waste Paper, manufacturers and scientists have developed a more sustainable paper solution: the sugar cane and wheat waste

  9. 40 CFR 409.60 - Applicability; description of the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar processing subcategory... Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory...the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar processing...

  10. 40 CFR 409.60 - Applicability; description of the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar processing subcategory... Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory...the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar processing...

  11. 40 CFR 409.60 - Applicability; description of the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar processing subcategory... Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory...the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar processing...

  12. 40 CFR 409.60 - Applicability; description of the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar processing subcategory... Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory...the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar processing...

  13. 40 CFR 409.60 - Applicability; description of the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar processing subcategory... Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory...the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar processing...

  14. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report An Investigation into 30% Recycled Wood Fiber Paper and Sugar Cane Paper

    E-print Network

    % Recycled Wood Fiber Paper and Sugar Cane Paper Yoon Ji Byun, Amelia Chan University of British Columbia Paper and Sugar Cane Paper Yoon Ji Byun, Amelia Chan University of British Columbia APSC 262 April 4, 2013 #12;2 An Investigation into 30% Recycled Wood Fibre Paper and Sugar Cane Paper Yoon Ji Byun Amelia

  15. Structural and physicochemical characteristics of starch from sugar cane and sweet sorghum stalks.

    PubMed

    Alves, Fernanda Viginotti; Polesi, Luís Fernando; Aguiar, Cláudio Lima; Sarmento, Silene Bruder Silveira

    2014-10-13

    The starch present in sugar cane and sorghum juice has been considered a problem to the sugar industry. The objective of this work was to study the structural and physicochemical characteristics of the starch present in sugar cane and sweet sorghum. Sugar cane and sweet sorghum starches presented small granules (maximum 5.9 and 7.9 ?m), A-type diffraction pattern, high degree of relative crystallinity (44.4 and 42.0%), and low amylose content (17.5 and 16.4%), respectively. Sugar cane starch presented more uniformity in granule shape and size, more homogeneity in amylose chain length, higher number of long lateral chains of amylopectin, and higher susceptibility to enzymatic digestion. Besides being in higher amount in the juice, sweet sorghum starch presented lower values for thermal properties of gelatinization, as well as higher swelling factor, which can cause more problems during processing. Additional studies are needed to evaluate the variety and maturity influence on these properties. PMID:25037392

  16. The impact of stress on the health of sugar cane cutters

    PubMed Central

    Priuli, Roseana Mara Aredes; de Moraes, Maria Silvia; Chiaravalloti, Rafael Morais

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Evaluate the impact of stress on sugar cane cutters and the prevalence of physical and psychological symptoms before and after harvest. METHODS We studied 114 sugarcane cutters and 109 urban workers in the pre-harvest and 102 sugar cane cutters and 81 urban workers in the post-harvest period in the city of Mendonça, SP, Southeastern Brazil, in 2009. Data analysis was based on the frequency and percentage of the assessed symptoms of stress, using the Lipp-ISSL test (Symptoms of Stress for Adults). The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The Fisher Test was used to compare the variable of stress between pre- and post-harvest within the sugar cane cutter and urban worker groups. P values below 0.05 were considered significant. RESULTS Stress in sugar cane cutters increased after harvesting (34.2% pre-harvest and 46.1% post-harvest); in urban workers, stress decreased from 44.0% pre-harvest to 42.0% post-harvest. There was prevalence of the phase of resistance to stress for both groups with signs more apparent from the near-exhaustion and exhaustion phases for sugar cane cutters. After harvest, there was a tendency for the number of sugar cane cutters with symptoms of near-exhaustion (6.4%) and exhaustion (10.6%) to increase. After harvest there was a trend for the number of sugar cane cutters with physical symptoms (pre-harvest = 20.5%, post-harvest = 25.5%) and psychological symptoms (pre-harvest = 64.1%; post-harvest = 70.2%) to increase. For both groups, predominantly psychological symptoms occurred in both phases (70.2% versus 64.7%). CONCLUSIONS The work process of cutting cane can cause stress. Individual factors such as cognitive perception of the experience, self-efficacy beliefs and expectations of the employee regarding their performance can influence the understanding of the reactions in their body in face of the work. PMID:24897043

  17. Firmicutes dominate the bacterial taxa within sugar-cane processing plants.

    PubMed

    Sharmin, Farhana; Wakelin, Steve; Huygens, Flavia; Hargreaves, Megan

    2013-01-01

    Sugar cane processing sites are characterised by high sugar/hemicellulose levels, available moisture and warm conditions, and are relatively unexplored unique microbial environments. The PhyloChip microarray was used to investigate bacterial diversity and community composition in three Australian sugar cane processing plants. These ecosystems were highly complex and dominated by four main Phyla, Firmicutes (the most dominant), followed by Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Chloroflexi. Significant variation (p < 0.05) in community structure occurred between samples collected from 'floor dump sediment', 'cooling tower water', and 'bagasse leachate'. Many bacterial Classes contributed to these differences, however most were of low numerical abundance. Separation in community composition was also linked to Classes of Firmicutes, particularly Bacillales, Lactobacillales and Clostridiales, whose dominance is likely to be linked to their physiology as 'lactic acid bacteria', capable of fermenting the sugars present. This process may help displace other bacterial taxa, providing a competitive advantage for Firmicutes bacteria. PMID:24177592

  18. Characterization of poly(vinyl acetate)\\/sugar cane bagasse lignin blends and their photochemical degradation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. F. Silva; E. A. G. Pineda; A. A. W. Hechenleitner; D. M. Fernandes; M. K. Lima; P. R. S. Bittencourt

    The acetone-soluble lignin fraction (ASLF) of sugar cane bagasse, from a sugar and alcohol factory residue, was obtained after\\u000a extraction with formic acid and used to prepare blends with poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) by casting. PVAc and ASLF\\/PVAc blends\\u000a were irradiated with ultraviolet light (Hg lamp). Blend formation and the irradiation effects were examined through thermal\\u000a analysis (TG and DSC), scanning

  19. Effects of dry sugar cane yeast on the diet intake, digestibility and bovine rumen microbial populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D. Messana; T. T. Berchielli; P. B. Arcuri; R. A. Reis; E. B. Malheiros; A. R. Rivera; M. F. S. Queiroz

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of the dry sugar cane yeast (DSCY) protein addition on the intake, digestibility and rumen microbial population (bacteria, protozoa, and fungi) in zebu steers fed cotton seed processing residue (CSPR). Six Nellore steers, with rumen and duodenal cannulae were used. Data were analyzed according to a randomized block design, each

  20. Ethanol from sugar cane: a successful alternative energy strategy for Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. de Paula

    2008-01-01

    Pro-Alcool the National Alcohol Program began in 1975 and was a government financed program, developed on account of the petrol crisis of 1973, and fortified due to the second impact of 1979. This program aimed to substitute gasoline with ethanol from sugar cane on a grand scale, thereby reducing the dependence on imported petroleum. During the decades to follow, as

  1. Spatial relationship between the productivity of cane sugar and soil electrical conductivity measured by electromagnetic induction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siqueira, Glecio; Silva, Jucicléia; Bezerra, Joel; Silva, Enio; Montenegro, Abelardo

    2013-04-01

    The cultivation of sugar cane in Brazil occupies a prominent place in national production chain, because the country is the main world producer of sugar and ethanol. Accordingly, studies are needed that allow an integrated production and technified, and especially that estimates of crops are consistent with the actual production of each region. The objective of this study was to determine the spatial relationship between the productivity of cane sugar and soil electrical conductivity measured by electromagnetic induction. The field experiment was conducted at an agricultural research site located in Goiana municipality, Pernambuco State, north-east of Brazil (Latitude 07 ° 34 '25 "S, Longitude 34 ° 55' 39" W). The surface of the studied field is 6.5 ha, and its mean height 8.5 m a.s.l. This site has been under sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum sp.) monoculture during the last 24 years and it was managed burning the straw each year after harvesting, renewal of plantation was performed every 7 years. Studied the field is located 10 km east from Atlantic Ocean and it is representative of the regional landscape lowlands, whose soils are affected by salinity seawater, sugarcane plantations with the main economical activity. Soil was classified an orthic the Podsol. The productivity of cane sugar and electrical conductivity were measured in 90 sampling points. The productivity of cane sugar was determined in each of the sampling points in plots of 9 m2. The Apparent soil electrical conductivity (ECa, mS m-1) was measured with an electromagnetic induction device EM38-DD (Geonics Limited). The equipment consists of two units of measurement, one in a horizontal dipole (ECa-H) to provide effective measurement distance of 1.5 m approximately and other one in vertical dipole (ECa-V) with an effective measurement depth of approximately 0.75 m. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and geostatistical tools. The results showed that productivity in the study area reached values above 200 t ha-1, with higher values of productivity are concentrated in the region northern terrain. The maps of soil electrical conductivity (ECa-V and ECa-H) showed behavior similar to the productivity of cane sugar. The linear correlation showed values of 0.74 (yield x ECa-H) and 0.85 (yield x ECa-V). The adjusted semivariograms showed no similarity in the spatial pattern of pairs of semivariance. The electrical conductivity measured by electromagnetic induction has been shown as an important tool for predicting the productivity of sugar cane, however more studies are needed to determine the magnitude of the differences between such attributes.

  2. Determination of Fe, Cu and Zn in sugar-cane spirits commercialized in Southeastern Brazil by TXRF

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Cunha e Silva; E. Almeida; E. P. E. Valencia; V. F. Nascimento Filho

    2004-01-01

    Total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) was used to determine simultaneously the concentration of Cu, Fe and Zn in seven\\u000a sugar-cane spirit samples (“aguardente”), a processed alcoholic beverage made from the fermentation and distillation of sugar-cane\\u000a juice. The limits of detection ranged from 35 to 8 ng.ml-1 for V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As and Se. Excluding Fe,

  3. 76 FR 36512 - USDA Increases the Domestic Sugar Overall Allotment Quantity, Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ...by law. Upon review of the domestic sugarcane processors' sugar marketing allocations...sugar supplies, CCC determined that all sugarcane processors had surplus allocation. Therefore, all sugarcane states' sugar marketing allotments...

  4. Effect of calcination temperature on the pozzolanic activity of sugar cane bagasse ash

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. C. Cordeiro; R. D. Toledo Filho; E. M. R. Fairbairn

    2009-01-01

    This work presents the results of the processing of sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) under controlled calcination conditions in order to obtain materials with optimum pozzolanic activity. Bagasse samples were burnt in an aired electric oven with a heating rate of 10°C\\/min, at 350°C for 3h, and at different temperatures ranging from 400 to 800°C for another 3h. For all

  5. Effect of the atmosphere on the classification of LANDSAT data. [Identifying sugar canes in Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (principal investigator); Morimoto, T.; Kumar, R.; Molion, L. C. B.

    1979-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. In conjunction with Turner's model for the correction of satellite data for atmospheric interference, the LOWTRAN-3 computer was used to calculate the atmospheric interference. Use of the program improved the contrast between different natural targets in the MSS LANDSAT data of Brasilia, Brazil. The classification accuracy of sugar canes was improved by about 9% in the multispectral data of Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo.

  6. Estimation of the sugar cane cultivated area from LANDSAT images using the two phase sampling method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (principal investigator); Cappelletti, C. A.; Mendonca, F. J.; Lee, D. C. L.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.

    1982-01-01

    A two phase sampling method and the optimal sampling segment dimensions for the estimation of sugar cane cultivated area were developed. This technique employs visual interpretations of LANDSAT images and panchromatic aerial photographs considered as the ground truth. The estimates, as a mean value of 100 simulated samples, represent 99.3% of the true value with a CV of approximately 1%; the relative efficiency of the two phase design was 157% when compared with a one phase aerial photographs sample.

  7. Production of ethanol from sugar cane bagasse hemicellulose hydrolyzate by Pichia stipitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carina Van Zyl; Bernard A. Prior; James C. Du Preez

    1988-01-01

    The ability ofPichia stipitis to fermentd-xylose andd-glucose in the acid-hydrolyzed hemicellulose component of sugar cane bagasse depends on the alkali used to neutralize the\\u000a hydrolyzate to pH 6.5. With NH4OH and NaOH no fermentation occurred, whereas neutralization with Ca(OH)2 gave the best results (Qpmax=0.25 g\\/L-h; Yp\\/s =0.38 g\\/g sugar). However, the volumetric productivity was still considerably less than observed in

  8. Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of sugar cane renewable jet fuel.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Marcelo; Gurgel, Angelo C; Seabra, Joaquim E A

    2014-12-16

    This study evaluated the life cycle GHG emissions of a renewable jet fuel produced from sugar cane in Brazil under a consequential approach. The analysis included the direct and indirect emissions associated with sugar cane production and fuel processing, distribution, and use for a projected 2020 scenario. The CA-GREET model was used as the basic analytical tool, while Land Use Change (LUC) emissions were estimated employing the GTAP-BIO-ADV and AEZ-EF models. Feedstock production and LUC impacts were evaluated as the main sources of emissions, respectively estimated as 14.6 and 12 g CO2eq/MJ of biofuel in the base case. However, the renewable jet fuel would strongly benefit from bagasse and trash-based cogeneration, which would enable a net life cycle emission of 8.5 g CO2eq/MJ of biofuel in the base case, whereas Monte Carlo results indicate 21 ± 11 g CO2eq/MJ. Besides the major influence of the electricity surplus, the sensitivity analysis showed that the cropland-pasture yield elasticity and the choice of the land use factor employed to sugar cane are relevant parameters for the biofuel life cycle performance. Uncertainties about these estimations exist, especially because the study relies on projected performances, and further studies about LUC are also needed to improve the knowledge about their contribution to the renewable jet fuel life cycle. PMID:25419647

  9. Acetic Acid Bacterial Biota of the Pink Sugar Cane Mealybug, Saccharococcus sacchari, and Its Environs

    PubMed Central

    Ashbolt, Nicholas J.; Inkerman, Peter A.

    1990-01-01

    Saccharococcus sacchari is the primary colonizer of the developing “sterile” tissue between the leaf sheath and stem of sugar cane. The honeydew secreted by the mealybugs is acidic (about pH 3) and supports an atypical epiphytic microbiota dominated by acetobacter-like bacteria and acidophilic yeast species. However, Erwinia and Leuconostoc species predominate within the leaf sheath pocket region when the mealybugs die out. The unidentified acetobacters were readily isolated from S. sacchari throughout its life cycle and from other genera of mealybugs on sugar cane and various other plants, both above and below ground. No other insect present on sugar cane was a significant vector of acetic acid bacteria. The major factors restricting microbial diversity within the environs of mealybugs were considered to be yeast activity along with bacterial production of acetic acid, ketogluconic acids, and gamma-pyrones, in association with their lowering of pH. The microbial products may aid in suppressing the attack by the parasitic mold Aspergillus parasiticus on mealybugs but could act as attractants for the predatory fruit fly Cacoxenus perspicax. PMID:16348144

  10. Sugar Cane Water Foot Print for Brazilian Major Varietes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coelho, R. D.; Maschio, R.; Leal, D. P.; Barbosa, F. D.; Mauri, R.

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the water productivity (PA) into biomass, sugar and energy for 24 brazilian sugarcane varieties under drip irrigation, subjected to full and deficit irrigation treatments during growing stage. Two experiments were established under greenhouse conditions at the Biosystems Engineering Department, ESALQ/USP, Piracicaba, SP. Experiment 1: ten varieties on a clay soil (RB835054, RB855453, RB855536, RB925211, RB867515, SP89-1115, SP81-3250, CTC14, CTC8 e CTC6) and Experiment 2: fourteen varieties on a sandy-loam soil (RB925345, RB855156, RB966928, RB72454, RB92579, IACSP95-5000, Caiana, SP83-2847, SP90-3414, SP79-1011, CTC17, CTC15, CTC9 e CTC2). In both experiments it was adopted two irrigation treatments: T100 - full irrigation with 100% crop evapotranspiration replacement, maintaining soil moisture near field capacity, and T70 - irrigation with 70% of water depth applied to T100 treatment. Irrigation treatments were initiated at 101 days of crop cycle, corresponding to the end of tillering and the beginning of intense stalk growth phase (first ratoon). It was observed variation in the water productivity into fresh stalk biomass (PABFC) from 16.22 to 29.21 kg m-3, according of the varieties and irrigation treatments applied. The highest values were observed for varieties CTC6, CTC14, RB867515, SP81-3250 and RB92579, under full irrigation treatment (T100), and CTC6, CTC14 and SP90-3414, under deficit irrigation treatment (T70). Water productivity into sugar (PABATR) ranged from 1.95 to 3.84 kg m-3, highest values were observed for varieties CTC6 and RB92579 (T100), as well as RB835054 e RB966928 (T70). Water productivity into total energy (PAETOT) varied from 101.17 to 174.65 MJ m-3, with highest values for varieties:SP81-3250, CTC6, CTC17 and RB92579 (T100 treatment), as well as SP90-3414, SP81-3250 and CTC6 (T70 treatment).

  11. Biofiltration of volatile ethanol using sugar cane bagasse inoculated with Candida utilis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Christen; F. Domenech; G. Michelena; R. Auria; S. Revah

    2002-01-01

    Candidautilis (C.utilis) growing on sugar cane bagasse complemented with a mineral salt solution was studied for gaseous ethanol removal in a biofilter. Ethanol loads from 93.7 to 511.9g\\/hm3 were used, by varying both inlet ethanol concentration (9.72 to 52.4g\\/m3) and air flow rate (1.59×10?3 to 2.86×10?3m3\\/h). At a loading rate of 93.7g\\/hm3, a steady-state was maintained for 300h. Ethanol removal

  12. IMPROVED BIOREFINERY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL, CHEMICALS, ANIMAL FEED AND BIOMATERIALS FROM SUGAR CANE

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Donal F. Day

    2009-01-29

    The Audubon Sugar Institute (ASI) of Louisiana State University’s Agricultural Center (LSU AgCenter) and MBI International (MBI) sought to develop technologies that will lead to the development of a sugar-cane biorefinery, capable of supplying fuel ethanol from bagasse. Technology development focused on the conversion of bagasse, cane-leaf matter (CLM) and molasses into high value-added products that included ethanol, specialty chemicals, biomaterials and animal feed; i.e. a sugar cane-based biorefinery. The key to lignocellulosic biomass utilization is an economically feasible method (pretreatment) for separating the cellulose and the hemicellulose from the physical protection provided by lignin. An effective pretreatment disrupts physical barriers, cellulose crystallinity, and the association of lignin and hemicellulose with cellulose so that hydrolytic enzymes can access the biomass macrostructure (Teymouri et al. 2004, Laureano-Perez, 2005). We chose to focus on alkaline pretreatment methods for, and in particular, the Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX) process owned by MBI. During the first two years of this program a laboratory process was established for the pretreatment of bagasse and CLM using the AFEX process. There was significant improvement of both rate and yield of glucose and xylose upon enzymatic hydrolysis of AFEX-treated bagasse and CLM compared with untreated material. Because of reactor size limitation, several other alkaline pretreatment methods were also co-investigated. They included, dilute ammonia, lime and hydroxy-hypochlorite treatments. Scale-up focused on using a dilute ammonia process as a substitute for AFEX, allowing development at a larger scale. The pretreatment of bagasse by an ammonia process, followed by saccharification and fermentation produced ethanol from bagasse. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) allowed two operations in the same vessel. The addition of sugarcane molasses to the hydrolysate/fermentation process yielded improvements beyond what was expected solely from the addition of sugar. In order to expand the economic potential for building a biorefinery, the conversion of enzyme hydrolysates of AFEX-treated bagasse to succinic acid was also investigated. This program established a solid basis for pre-treatment of bagasse in a manner that is feasible for producing ethanol at raw sugar mills.

  13. Long-term prospects for the environmental profile of advanced sugar cane ethanol.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Cinthia R U; Franco, Henrique Coutinho Junqueira; Junqueira, Tassia Lopes; van Oers, Lauran; van der Voet, Ester; Seabra, Joaquim E A

    2014-10-21

    This work assessed the environmental impacts of the production and use of 1 MJ of hydrous ethanol (E100) in Brazil in prospective scenarios (2020-2030), considering the deployment of technologies currently under development and better agricultural practices. The life cycle assessment technique was employed using the CML method for the life cycle impact assessment and the Monte Carlo method for the uncertainty analysis. Abiotic depletion, global warming, human toxicity, ecotoxicity, photochemical oxidation, acidification, and eutrophication were the environmental impacts categories analyzed. Results indicate that the proposed improvements (especially no-til farming-scenarios s2 and s4) would lead to environmental benefits in prospective scenarios compared to the current ethanol production (scenario s0). Combined first and second generation ethanol production (scenarios s3 and s4) would require less agricultural land but would not perform better than the projected first generation ethanol, although the uncertainties are relatively high. The best use of 1 ha of sugar cane was also assessed, considering the displacement of the conventional products by ethanol and electricity. No-til practices combined with the production of first generation ethanol and electricity (scenario s2) would lead to the largest mitigation effects for global warming and abiotic depletion. For the remaining categories, emissions would not be mitigated with the utilization of the sugar cane products. However, this conclusion is sensitive to the displaced electricity sources. PMID:25275890

  14. Upgrading of sugar cane bagasse by thermal processes. 9: Catalytic liquefaction in ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Lancas, F.M.; Rezemini, A.L. [Univ. of Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Inst. of Chemistry; Donate, P.M. [Univ. of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    1999-05-01

    This article presents the results of a study on the process of direct catalytic liquefaction of sugar cane bagasse, using ethanol as solvent. A systematic study with 12 different types of commercially available catalysts was accomplished. For each catalyst, the conversion yield of sugar cane bagasse into liquefied products, which are useful as liquid fuels and chemical feedstocks, was determined. The highest conversion yield was observed when a nickel catalyst on SiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was used. The liquefied products were fractionated into oils, asphaltenes, and asphaltols. The oil samples were separated and then fractionated into eight different chemical classes by preparative liquid chromatography. The highest proportion of light-oils (F1 to F5) was obtained with the potassium fluoride catalyst on silica gel. High proportions of resins (F6) were obtained with three types of catalysts: nickel on SiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, ruthenium, or platinum on activated carbon powder. The highest proportion of asphaltenes (F7) and of asphaltols (F8) were obtained with the niobium oxide catalyst.

  15. Upgrading of sugar cane bagasse by thermal processes. 10: Catalytic liquefaction in aqueous medium

    SciTech Connect

    Lancas, F.M.; Ruggiero, M.A. [Univ. of Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Inst. of Chemistry; Donate, P.M. [Univ. of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    1999-05-01

    This work presents the results of a study of a process of direct catalytic liquefaction of sugar cane bagasse, in aqueous medium, using different pH values. The experiments were conducted in the absence as well as in the presence of commercial catalysts. In the absence of catalyst, the results showed that the conversion of sugar cane bagasse into liquefied products is not influenced by the pH of the reaction mixture. An increase in the temperature augments the yield of liquefied products. The utilization of different commercial catalysts permits an increase in the yields of liquefied products up to 92.4%, obtained with 10% palladium on activated carbon powder as catalyst. The liquefied products were fractionated into eight different chemical classes by preparative liquid chromatography (PLC-8 method). In the absence of catalyst, high conversion yields into light-oils and resins (fractions F1 to F6) was observed only at pH = 9. When the catalysts were used (at pH = 9 and at 370 C), an important increase (from 29 to 78%) of resins (fraction F6) was observed. Under this condition, the proportion of asphaltenes and asphaltols (fractions F7 and F8) decreases from 70 to 20%.

  16. Hydrolysis of Ammonia-pretreated Sugar Cane Bagasse with Cellulase, ?-Glucosidase, and Hemicellulase Preparations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prior, Bernard A.; Day, Donal F.

    Sugar cane bagasse consists of hemicellulose (24%) and cellulose (38%), and bioconversion of both fractions to ethanol should be considered for a viable process. We have evaluated the hydrolysis of pretreated bagasse with combinations of cellulase, ?-glucosidase, and hemicellulase. Ground bagasse was pretreated either by the AFEX process (2NH3: 1 biomass, 100 °C, 30 min) or with NH4OH (0.5 g NH4OH of a 28% [v/v] per gram dry biomass; 160 °C, 60 min), and composition analysis showed that the glucan and xylan fractions remained largely intact. The enzyme activities of four commercial xylanase preparations and supernatants of four laboratory-grown fungi were determined and evaluated for their ability to boost xylan hydrolysis when added to cellulase and ?-glucosidase (10 filter paper units [FPU]: 20 cellobiase units [CBU]/g glucan). At 1% glucan loading, the commercial enzyme preparations (added at 10% or 50% levels of total protein in the enzyme preparations) boosted xylan and glucan hydrolysis in both pretreated bagasse samples. Xylanase addition at 10% protein level also improved hydrolysis of xylan and glucan fractions up to 10% glucan loading (28% solids loading). Significant xylanase activity in enzyme cocktails appears to be required for improving hydrolysis of both glucan and xylan fractions of ammonia pretreated sugar cane bagasse.

  17. Bioaccessible arsenic in soils of former sugar cane plantations, Island of Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Cutler, William G; Brewer, Roger C; El-Kadi, Aly; Hue, Nguyen V; Niemeyer, Patrick G; Peard, John; Ray, Chittaranjan

    2013-01-01

    Arsenical herbicides were used extensively for emergent weed control in Hawaiian sugar cane cultivation from 1913 to about 1950. As a result, surface soil arsenic concentrations average 280 mg kg(-1) across more than 60 km(2) of former sugar plantation land in the eastern portion of the Island of Hawaii. This study was conducted to elucidate the relationship between soil properties and arsenic bioaccessibility in the iron-rich volcanic soils. Soils are predominantly Andisols, formed by weathering of basaltic lava and tephra, with pedogenic solid phases consisting of short-range order iron oxyhydroxides, allophane-like aluminosilicates, and metal-humus compounds. These reactive solid phases strongly adsorb oxyanions, such as phosphate and arsenite/arsenate. High arsenic sorption capacity limits desorption and vertical migration within the soil column and prevents contamination of the underlying groundwater aquifer, despite high arsenic loading and precipitation rates. In vitro arsenic bioaccessibility, as measured by the SBRC gastric-phase test, ranges from 2% to 35% and averages 9% of total arsenic. Bioaccessible arsenic is higher in less weathered soils (Udifolists, Typic and Lithic Hydrudands) and lower in more weathered ash-dominant soils (Acrudoxic Hydrudands). Soil weathering indicators, such as reactive iron content, are strong predictors of arsenic bioaccessibility. Based on evidence from soil mineralogy, geochemistry and arsenic speciation, as well as limited soil arsenic bioavailability/bioaccessibility comparisons, risks to human health from direct contact (soil ingestion) are significantly reduced by low arsenic bioaccessibility. Nonetheless, some soils within former sugar cane cultivation areas contain bioaccessible arsenic concentrations exceeding Hawaii Department of Health risk-based action levels, and will require mitigating actions. Even higher levels of soil arsenic contamination have been identified at former pesticide storage and mixing areas, but are generally of localized extent. PMID:23178778

  18. 75 FR 39612 - Allocation of Second Additional Fiscal Year (FY) 2010 In-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-09

    ...raw cane and refined sugar. Section 404(d) (3) of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act (19 U.S.C. 3601(d)(3)) authorizes...committed pursuant to the World Trade Organization (WTO) Uruguay Round Agreements (1,117,195 MTRV) and the previous...

  19. 76 FR 42160 - Allocation of Additional Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 In-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ...raw cane and refined sugar. Section 404(d)(3) of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act (19 U.S.C. 3601(d)(3)) authorizes...committed pursuant to the World Trade Organization (WTO) Uruguay Round Agreements (1,117,195 MTRV). Based on...

  20. 75 FR 14479 - Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2010 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ...raw cane and refined sugar. Section 404(d)(3) of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act (19 U.S.C. 3601(d)(3)) authorizes...committed to pursuant to the World Trade Organization (WTO) Uruguay Round Agreements (1,117,195 metric tons raw value...

  1. 77 FR 25012 - Fiscal Year 2012 Allocation of Additional Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-26

    ...raw cane and refined sugar. Section 404(d)(3) of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act (19 U.S.C. 3601(d)(3)) authorizes...committed to pursuant to the World Trade Organization (WTO) Uruguay Round Agreements (1,117,195 MTRV, as announced by...

  2. Soil chemical and physical properties as indicators of sustainable land management under sugar cane in Papua New Guinea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alfred E. Hartemink

    1998-01-01

    The sustainability of land management was assessed for a sugar cane plantation using soil chemical and physical properties as indicators. The plantation (6000 ha) was established in 1979 on a broad alluvial plain and the majority of the soils are classified as Eutric and Mollic Fluvisols (73%) and Eutric Vertisols (23%). Average annual rainfall is about 2000 mm with a

  3. Habitat selection and coexistence of invasive cockroach species (Dictyoptera) in sugar-cane fields on Réunion island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, Stéphane; Rivault, Colette

    2006-01-01

    Selection of habitat has a profound influence on interactions among species and the assembly of ecological communities. We investigated habitat preferences to understand how different cockroach species coexist in sugar-cane fields on Réunion island. Cockroach populations belonging to a guild of seven species were surveyed during one annual cycle in eight sugar-cane fields that differed by several environmental factors, in order to investigate ecological features of cockroach species and their patterns of coexistence. Structure variations of the cockroach communities were analyzed at the field scale, at the sample unit scale, and according to variations of environmental conditions related to the annual sugar-cane growth cycle. A canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was used to elucidate relationships between species diversity, population abundance and environmental characteristics. The examination of partitioning at different spatial and temporal scales evidenced that each species occupied a particular type of habitat. The main factors influencing spatial habitat selection were at the sample unit scale: presence of ants, edge effect, soil moisture and granulometry, at the field scale: irrigation, annual rainfall, altitude and age of the field. Although a pair of species shared the same type of habitat, annual population peaks of each species did not coincide in time. This suggests that resource partitioning is based both on ecological factors and interspecific competition. Factors enhancing cockroach coexistence and factors favoring population outbursts are discussed as well as specific invasive capacities of these cockroaches and the role of the cockroach community in the sugar-cane trophic web.

  4. A comparison of liquid hot water and steam pretreatments of sugar cane bagasse for bioconversion to ethanol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Laser; Deborah Schulman; Stephen G Allen; Joseph Lichwa; Michael J Antal; Lee R Lynd

    2002-01-01

    Sugar cane bagasse was pretreated with either liquid hot water (LHW) or steam using the same 25 l reactor. Solids concentration ranged from 1% to 8% for LHW pretreatment and was ?50% for steam pretreatment. Reaction temperature and time ranged from 170 to 230 °C and 1 to 46 min, respectively. Key performance metrics included fiber reactivity, xylan recovery, and

  5. [Preliminary results of an herpetology investigation in sugar cane plantation in Democratic Republic of Congo].

    PubMed

    Malukisa, J; Collet, M; Bokata, S; Odio, W

    2005-11-01

    Out of the 3,000 species of snakes described in the world, 163 are currently known from D.R. of Congo. We performed a systematic survey in sugar-cane plantations of the Sugar Company of Kwilu-Ngongo (Bas-Congo), located at 160 km South-West from Kinshasa and exploiting nearly 10,000 ha. The plantation is divided into 3 sectors in the middle of which we deposited barrels filled of formaldehyde. All the employees of the Sugar Company of Kwilu-Ngongo were requested to collect encountered snakes and put them in the nearest barrel. Between August 9th and September 21st, 2004, we collected 36 snakes in two different sites, revealing the presence of 3 families and 12 species. The most abundant species in Causus maculatus (47% in the first site--Point 8--and 29% in the second site--Point 13). The most poisonous and dangerous species were captured only in the first site--point 8, and were Dendroaspis jamesoni and Naja melanoleuca, both young. PMID:16402584

  6. Genetic diversity analysis with RAPD linked to sex identification in the sugar cane borer Diatraea saccharalis.

    PubMed

    Heideman, C; Munhoz, R E F; Pattaro Júnior, J R; Fernandez, M A

    2010-01-01

    Diatraea saccharalis is an insect that causes considerable losses in the sugar cane crop. Our aim was to contribute to the knowledge of the biology of D. saccharalis, with the report of DNA fragments involved in the differentiation between the male and female of this species using the RAPD sex molecular marker GyakuU-13, which is specific for the W chromosome of Bombyx mori. Another point evaluated in this study was the genetic diversity of a D. saccharalis population maintained by inbreeding in a laboratory culture. The profile of sex-specific fragments was analyzed, and the genetic variability of this population was estimated. An analysis of the molecular markers showed only one fragment, of approximately 700 bp, that could be considered as a female sex marker in D. saccharalis. PMID:21128215

  7. Wastewater use in agriculture: irrigation of sugar cane with effluents from the Cañaveralejo wastewater treatment plant in Cali, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Madera, C A; Silva, J; Mara, D D; Torres, P

    2009-09-01

    In Valle del Cauca, south-west Colombia, surface and ground waters are used for sugar cane irrigation at a rate of 100 m3 of water per tonne of sugar produced. In addition large quantities of artificial fertilizers and pesticides are used to grow the crop. Preliminary experiments were undertaken to determine the feasibility of using effluents from the Cañaveralejo primary wastewater treatment plant in Cali. Sugar cane variety CC 8592 was planted in 18 box plots, each 0.5 m2. Six were irrigated with conventional primary effluent, six with chemically enhanced primary effluent and six with groundwater. For each set of six box plots, three contained local soil and three a 50:50 mixture of sand and rice husks. The three irrigation waters were monitored for 12 months, and immediately after harvest the sugar content of the sugar cane juice determined. All physico-chemical quality parameters for the three irrigation waters were lower than the FAO guideline values for irrigation water quality; on the basis of their sodium absorption ratios and electrical conductivity values, both wastewater effluents were in the USDA low-to-medium risk category C2S1. There was no difference in the sugar content of the cane juice irrigated with the three waters. However, the microbiological quality (E. coli and helminth numbers) of the two effluents did not meet the WHO guidelines and therefore additional human exposure control measures are required in order to minimize any resulting adverse health risks to those working in the wastewater-irrigated fields. PMID:19886425

  8. Reactivity of sugar cane bagasse as a natural solid phase extractor for selective removal of Fe(III) and heavy-metal ions from natural water samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ezzat M. Soliman; Salwa A. Ahmed; Aliaa A. Fadl

    2011-01-01

    This work introduces the feasibility of using sugar cane bagasse (SCB) – a sugar cane industry waste – as a selective solid phase extractor for Fe(III). The order of metal uptake capacities in ?molg?1 for the extraction of six tested metal ions from aqueous solution using static technique is Fe(III)>Cu(II)>Pb(II)>Zn(II)>Cd(II)>Co(II). Since SCB exhibits remarkable binding characteristics for Fe(III), special interest

  9. Description of Gluconacetobacter sacchari sp. nov., a new species of acetic acid bacterium isolated from the leaf sheath of sugar cane and from the pink sugar-cane mealy bug.

    PubMed

    Franke, I H; Fegan, M; Hayward, C; Leonard, G; Stackebrandt, E; Sly, L I

    1999-10-01

    A new species of the genus Gluconacetobacter, for which the name Gluconacetobacter sacchari sp. nov. is proposed, was isolated from the leaf sheath of sugar cane and from the pink sugar-cane mealy bug, Saccharicoccus sacchari, found on sugar cane growing in Queensland and northern New South Wales, Australia. The nearest phylogenetic relatives in the alpha-subclass of the Proteobacteria are Gluconacetobacter liquefaciens and Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus, which have 98.8-99.3% and 97.9-98.5% 16S rDNA sequence similarity, respectively, to members of Gluconacetobacter sacchari. On the basis of the phylogenetic positioning of the strains, DNA reassociation studies, phenotypic tests and the presence of the Q10 ubiquinone, this new species was assigned to the genus Gluconacetobacter. No single phenotypic characteristic is unique to the species, but the species can be differentiated phenotypically from closely related members of the acetic acid bacteria by growth in the presence of 0.01% malachite green, growth on 30% glucose, an inability to fix nitrogen and an inability to grow with the L-amino acids asparagine, glycine, glutamine, threonine and tryptophan when D-mannitol was supplied as the sole carbon and energy source. The type strain of this species is strain SRI 1794T (= DSM 12717T). PMID:10555349

  10. Parameters-related uncertainty in modeling sugar cane yield with an agro-Land Surface Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valade, A.; Ciais, P.; Vuichard, N.; Viovy, N.; Ruget, F.; Gabrielle, B.

    2012-12-01

    Agro-Land Surface Models (agro-LSM) have been developed from the coupling of specific crop models and large-scale generic vegetation models. They aim at accounting for the spatial distribution and variability of energy, water and carbon fluxes within soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum with a particular emphasis on how crop phenology and agricultural management practice influence the turbulent fluxes exchanged with the atmosphere, and the underlying water and carbon pools. A part of the uncertainty in these models is related to the many parameters included in the models' equations. In this study, we quantify the parameter-based uncertainty in the simulation of sugar cane biomass production with the agro-LSM ORCHIDEE-STICS on a multi-regional approach with data from sites in Australia, La Reunion and Brazil. First, the main source of uncertainty for the output variables NPP, GPP, and sensible heat flux (SH) is determined through a screening of the main parameters of the model on a multi-site basis leading to the selection of a subset of most sensitive parameters causing most of the uncertainty. In a second step, a sensitivity analysis is carried out on the parameters selected from the screening analysis at a regional scale. For this, a Monte-Carlo sampling method associated with the calculation of Partial Ranked Correlation Coefficients is used. First, we quantify the sensitivity of the output variables to individual input parameters on a regional scale for two regions of intensive sugar cane cultivation in Australia and Brazil. Then, we quantify the overall uncertainty in the simulation's outputs propagated from the uncertainty in the input parameters. Seven parameters are identified by the screening procedure as driving most of the uncertainty in the agro-LSM ORCHIDEE-STICS model output at all sites. These parameters control photosynthesis (optimal temperature of photosynthesis, optimal carboxylation rate), radiation interception (extinction coefficient), root uptake of water (root profile), and transpiration and respiration (stomatal conductance, growth and maintenance respiration coefficients). We find that the optimal carboxylation rate and optimal photosynthesis temperature parameters contribute most to the uncertainty in NPP and GPP simulations whereas stomatal conductance is the most sensitive parameter controlling SH, followed by optimal photosynthesis temperature and optimal carboxylation rate. The spatial variation of the ranked correlation between input parameters and output variables is well explained by rain and temperature drivers, suggesting that climate mediated regionally different sensitivities of modeled sugarcane yield to the model parameters, for Australia and Brazil.

  11. Deposition and leaching of tebuthiuron on sugar cane straw applied with and without alkyl polyglycoside adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Negrisoli, Eduardo; da Costa, Eduardo Antonio Drolhe; Velini, Edivaldo Domingues; Cavenaghi, Anderson Luis; Tofoli, Gustavo Radomille

    2005-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was carried out aiming to study the effects of an alkyl polyglycoside adjuvant (APG) on deposition and leaching of the herbicide tebuthiuron applied on sugar cane straw. Tebuthiuron, at concentration of 1200 mg L(-1), was applied separately and in tank mix with the APG adjuvant, at concentrations of 0.07 and 0.09% (wt v(-1)), using a spraying volume of 204 L ha(-1). A precipitation equivalent to 20 mm of rain was simulated, 24 h after the applications, to evaluate the herbicide leaching. The quantification of tebuthiuron was carried out by the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). It was observed that the addition of APG adjuvant at 0.07% (wt v(-1)) provided an increase of 11.5% in the deposition of tebuthiuron on straw, reduction of 50.4% in the drift of the herbicide and it did not affect significantly the leached amount (68.5%), when compared with the treatment where tebuthiuron was applied alone (70.8%). At the concentration of 0.09% (wt v(-1)), the APG adjuvant caused an increase of 22.7% in the deposition; it reduced the drift of the herbicide by 99.9% and reduced the leached amount by 7.6% thereby increasing the retention of the herbicide by straw. PMID:15656183

  12. 75 FR 38764 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ...by law. Upon review of the domestic sugarcane processors' sugar marketing allocations...sugar supplies, CCC determined that all sugarcane processors had surplus allocation. Therefore, all sugarcane States' sugar marketing allotments...

  13. 76 FR 20305 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw Sugar Tariff...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ...by law. Upon review of the domestic sugarcane processors' sugar marketing allocations...sugar supplies, CCC determined that all sugarcane processors had surplus allocation. Therefore, all sugarcane states' sugar marketing allotments...

  14. 75 FR 22095 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ...by law. Upon review of the domestic sugarcane processors' sugar marketing allocations...sugar supplies, CCC determined that all sugarcane processors had surplus allocation. Therefore, all sugarcane states' sugar marketing allotments...

  15. Response of Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tepritidae) to white and brown cane, coconut, date, date jaggery and panela sugar solutions with varying degrees of fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We measured the EAG response of Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), the Caribbean fruit fly to six different sugars (white and brown cane, coconut, date, date jaggery and panela sugars). Wild and lab female flies of different physiological states (immature and mature) were tested in dry crystals and 10% su...

  16. Further observations on the interaction between sugar cane and Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus under laboratory and greenhouse conditions.

    PubMed

    James, E K; Olivares, F L; de Oliveira, A L; dos Reis, F B; da Silva, L G; Reis, V M

    2001-04-01

    Sugar cane (Saccharum spp.) variety SP 70-1143 was inoculated with Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus strain PAL5 (ATCC 49037) in two experiments. In experiment 1 the bacteria were inoculated into a modified, low sucrose MS medium within which micropropagated plantlets were rooted. After 10 d there was extensive anatomical evidence of endophytic colonization by G. diazotrophicus, particularly in lower stems, where high numbers of bacteria were visible within some of the xylem vessels. The identity of the bacteria was confirmed by immunogold labelling with an antibody raised against G. diazotrophicus. On the lower stems there were breaks caused by the separation of the plantlets into individuals, and at these 'wounds' bacteria were seen colonizing the xylem and intercellular spaces. Bacteria were also occasionally seen entering leaves via damaged stomata, and subsequently colonizing sub-stomatal cavities and intercellular spaces. A localized host defence response in the form of fibrillar material surrounding the bacteria was associated with both the stem and leaf invasion. In experiment 2, stems of 5-week-old greenhouse-grown plants were inoculated by injection with a suspension of G. diazotrophicus containing 10(8) bacteria ml(-1). No hypersensitive response (HR) was observed, and no symptoms were visible on the leaves and stems for the duration of the experiment (7 d). Close to the point of inoculation, G. diazotrophicus cells were observed within the protoxylem and the xylem parenchyma, where they were surrounded by fibrillar material that stained light-green with toluidine blue. In leaf samples taken up to 4 cm from the inoculation points, G. diazotrophicus cells were mainly found within the metaxylem, where they were surrounded by a light green-staining material. The bacteria were growing in relatively low numbers adjacent to the xylem cell walls, and they were separated from the host-derived material by electron-transparent 'haloes' that contained material that reacted with the G. diazotrophicus antibody. PMID:11413211

  17. Production of fuel ethanol at high temperature from sugar cane juice by a newly isolated Kluyveromyces marxianus.

    PubMed

    Limtong, Savitree; Sringiew, Chutima; Yongmanitchai, Wichien

    2007-12-01

    Kluyveromyces marxianus DMKU 3-1042, isolated by an enrichment technique in a sugar cane juice medium supplemented with 4% (w/v) ethanol at 35 degrees C, produced high concentrations of ethanol at both 40 and 45 degrees C. Ethanol production by this strain in shaking flask cultivation in sugar cane juice media at 37 degrees C was highest in a medium containing 22% total sugars, 0.05% (NH(4))(2)SO(4), 0.05% KH(2)PO(4), and 0.15% MgSO(4).7H(2)O and having a pH of 5.0; the ethanol concentration reached 8.7% (w/v), productivity 1.45 g/l/h and yield 77.5% of theoretical yield. At 40 degrees C, a maximal ethanol concentration of 6.78% (w/v), a productivity of 1.13 and a yield 60.4% of theoretical yield were obtained from the same medium, except that the pH was adjusted to 5.5. In a study on ethanol production in a 5l jar fermenter with an agitation speed of 300 rpm and an aeration rate of 0.2 vvm throughout the fermentation, K. marxianus DMKU 3-1042 yielded a final ethanol concentration of 6.43% (w/v), a productivity of 1.3g/l/h and a yield of 57.1% of theoretical yield. PMID:17537627

  18. Analysis of sucrose accumulation in the sugar cane culm on the basis of in vitro kinetic data.

    PubMed

    Rohwer, J M; Botha, F C

    2001-09-01

    Sucrose accumulation in developing sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum) is accompanied by a continuous synthesis and cleavage of sucrose in the storage tissues. Despite numerous studies, the factors affecting sucrose accumulation are still poorly understood, and no consistent pattern has emerged which pinpoints certain enzyme activities as important controlling steps. Here, we develop an approach based on pathway analysis and kinetic modelling to assess the biochemical control of sucrose accumulation and futile cycling in sugar cane. By using the concept of elementary flux modes, all possible routes of futile cycling of sucrose were enumerated in the metabolic system. The available kinetic data for the pathway enzymes were then collected and assembled in a kinetic model of sucrose accumulation in sugar cane culm tissue. Although no data were fitted, the model agreed well with independent experimental results: in no case was the difference between calculated and measured fluxes and concentrations greater than 2-fold. The model thus validated was then used to assess different enhancement strategies for increasing sucrose accumulation. First, the control coefficient of each enzyme in the system on futile cycling of sucrose was calculated. Secondly, the activities of those enzymes with the numerically largest control coefficients were varied over a 5-fold range to determine the effect on the degree of futile cycling, the conversion efficiency from hexoses into sucrose, and the net sucrose accumulation rate. In view of the modelling results, overexpression of the fructose or glucose transporter or the vacuolar sucrose import protein, as well as reduction of cytosolic neutral invertase levels, appear to be the most promising targets for genetic manipulation. This offers a more directed improvement strategy than cumbersome gene-by-gene manipulation. The kinetic model can be viewed and interrogated on the World Wide Web at http://jjj.biochem.sun.ac.za. PMID:11513743

  19. Spectrofotometric determination of copper in sugar cane spirit using biquinoline in the presence of ethanol and Triton X-100

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    do Nascimento Rocha, Sarah Adriana; Dantas, Alaílson Falcão; Jaeger, Helena Valli; Costa, Antônio Celso Spínola; Leão, Elsimar dos Santos; Gonçalves, Mara Rúbia

    2008-12-01

    The present paper proposes a method for molecular spectrophotometric determination of copper in sugar cane spirits. The copper(I) reacts with biquinoline forming a pink complex with maximum absorption at 545 nm. The reaction occurs in the presence of hydroxylamine, ethanol and Triton X-100 tensioative. Determination of copper is possible in a linear range 0.2-20.0 mg L -1 with a detection limit 0.05 mg L -1. The great advantages of the proposed methodology are the elimination of liquid-liquid extraction step and the use of toxic organics solvents, like dioxane, to dissolve the reagent.

  20. CO2 co-gasification of lower sulphur petroleum coke and sugar cane bagasse via TG-FTIR analysis technique.

    PubMed

    Edreis, Elbager M A; Luo, Guangqian; Li, Aijun; Chao, Chen; Hu, Hongyun; Zhang, Sen; Gui, Ben; Xiao, Li; Xu, Kai; Zhang, Pingan; Yao, Hong

    2013-05-01

    This study investigates the non-isothermal mechanism and kinetic behaviour of gasification of a lower sulphur petroleum coke, sugar cane bagasse and blends under carbon dioxide atmosphere conditions using the thermogravimetric analyser (TGA). The gas products were measured online with coupled Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The achieved results explored that the sugar cane bagasse and blend gasification happened in two steps: at (<500 °C) the volatiles are released, and at (>700 °C) char gasification occurred, whereas the lower sulphur petroleum coke presented only one char gasification stage at (>800 °C). Significant interactions were observed in the whole process. Some solid-state mechanisms were studied by the Coats-Redfern method in order to observe the mechanisms responsible for the gasification of samples. The results show that the chemical first order reaction is the best responsible mechanism for whole process. The main released gases are CO2, CO, CH4, HCOOH, C6H5OH and CH3COOH. PMID:23567736

  1. The hydrolysis of agro-industrial residues by holocellulose-degrading enzymes.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Leonora Rios de Souza; Ferreira, Gaspar Virgilio; Santos, Sheila Sousa Thurler; Ribeiro, Ana Paula Souza; Siqueira, Félix Gonçalves; Filho, Edivaldo Ximenes Ferreira

    2012-04-01

    Holocellulose structures from agro-industrial residues rely on main and side chain attacking enzymes with different specificities for complete hydrolysis. Combinations of crude enzymatic extracts from different fungal species, including Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma longibrachiatum, were applied to sugar cane bagasse, banana stem and dirty cotton residue to investigate the hydrolysis of holocellulose structures. A. terreus and A. oryzae were the best producers of FPase and xylanase activities. A combination of A. terreus and A. oryzae extracts in a 50% proportion provided optimal hydrolysis of dirty cotton residue and banana stem. For the hydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse, the best results were obtained with samples only containing A. terreus crude extract. PMID:24031857

  2. Added Sugars

    MedlinePLUS

    ... sweetened milk); and other grains (cinnamon toast and honey-nut waffles). Too Much Sugar Isn't So ... molasses, cane sugar, corn sweetener, raw sugar, syrup, honey or fruit juice concentrates. Learn more about reading ...

  3. Effect of different pretreatment of sugar cane bagasse on cellulase and xylanases production by the mutant Penicillium echinulatum 9A02S1 grown in submerged culture.

    PubMed

    Camassola, Marli; Dillon, Aldo J P

    2014-01-01

    The main limitation to the industrial scale hydrolysis of cellulose is the cost of cellulase production. This study evaluated cellulase and xylanase enzyme production by the cellulolytic mutant Penicillium echinulatum 9A02S1 using pretreated sugar cane bagasse as a carbon source. Most cultures grown with pretreated bagasse showed similar enzymatic activities to or higher enzymatic activities than cultures grown with cellulose or untreated sugar cane bagasse. Higher filter paper activity (1.253 ± 0.147 U · mL(-1)) was detected in the medium on the sixth day of cultivation when bagasse samples were pretreated with sodium hydroxide, hydrogen peroxide, and anthraquinone. Endoglucanase enzyme production was also enhanced by pretreatment of the bagasse. Nine cultures grown with bagasse possessed higher ? -glucosidase activities on the sixth day than the culture grown with cellulose. The highest xylanase activity was observed in cultures with cellulose and with untreated sugar cane bagasse. These results indicate that pretreated sugar cane bagasse may be able to serve as a partial or total replacement for cellulose in submerged fermentation for cellulase production using P. echinulatum, which could potentially reduce future production costs of enzymatic complexes capable of hydrolyzing lignocellulosic residues to form fermented syrups. PMID:24967394

  4. Compressive strength and interfacial transition zone of sugar cane bagasse ash concrete: A comparison to the established pozzolans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, Asma Abd Elhameed; Shafiq, Nasir; Nuruddin, Muhd Fadhil

    2015-05-01

    Agricultural and industrial by-products are commonly used in concrete production as cement replacement materials (CRMs) or as admixtures to enhance both fresh and hardened properties of concrete as well as to save the environment from the negative effects caused by their disposal. Sugar Cane Bagasse Ash (SCBA) is one of the promising CRMs, it is used as a partial replacement of cement for producing concrete; properties of such concrete depend on the chemical composition, fineness, and burning temperature of SCBA. Approximately 1500 Million tons of sugarcane are annually produced over all the world which leave about 40-45% bagasse after juice crushing for sugar industry giving an average annual production of about 600 Million tons of bagasse as a waste material. This paper presents some findings on the effect of SCBA on workability, compressive strength and microstructure of interfacial zone of concrete and its performance is compared to some of the established CRMs namely Densified Silica Fume, Fly Ash and Microwave Incinerated Rice Husk Ash.

  5. PRODUCCIÓN ECONÓMICA DE ÁCIDO LÁCTICO UTILIZANDO RESIDUOS DE COSECHA Y JUGOS DE CAÑA DE AZÚCAR (Saccharum officinarum L.) Economical production of lactic acid using sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) wastes and juice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liliana Serna Cock; Aida Rodríguez de Stouvenel

    A B S T R A C T Sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) tops and leaves (JCG), and the juice extracted from this sugar cane, harvested with crop burning (JCL) and without crop burning (JCV), were tested as substrates for the discontinuous fermentative production of lactic acid. Anaerobic fermentations were carried out at 32°C, adjusting pH at 6.0, and using

  6. Cellulases and xylanases production by Penicillium echinulatum grown on sugar cane bagasse in solid-state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Camassola, Marli; Dillon, Aldo J P

    2010-11-01

    To investigate the production of cellulases and xylanases from Penicillium echinulatum 9A02S1, solid-state fermentation (SSF) was performed by using different ratios of sugar cane bagasse (SCB) and wheat bran (WB). The greatest filter paper activity obtained was 45.82?±?1.88 U gdm(-1) in a culture containing 6SCB/4WB on the third day. The greatest ?-glucosidase activities were 40.13?±?5.10 U gdm(-1) obtained on the third day for the 0SCB/10WB culture and 29.17?±?1.06 U gdm(-1) for the 2SCB/8WB culture. For endoglucanase, the greatest activities were 290.47?±?43.57 and 276.84?±?15.47 U gdm(-1), for the culture 6SCB/4WB on the fourth and fifth days of cultivation, respectively. The greatest xylanase activities were found on the third day for the cultures 6SCB/4WB (36.38?±?5.38 U gdm(-1)) and 4SCB/6WB (37.87?±?2.26 U gdm(-1)). In conclusion, the results presented in this article showed that it was possible to obtain large amounts of cellulases and xylanases enzymes using low-cost substrates, such as SCB and WB. PMID:20397060

  7. OLIGOSACCHARIDES IN CANE AND THEIR FORMATION ON CANE DETERIORATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cane deterioration in the field, factory storage pile, or during factory milling processes has become a major technical concern in recent years, especially in those areas where mechanical harvesting of billeted sugar cane has increased. Not all deterioration products advocated as cane deterioratio...

  8. Quantification of natural populations of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus and Herbaspirillum spp. In sugar cane (Saccharum spp.) Using differente polyclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    da Silva-Froufe, Lúcia Gracinda; Boddey, Robert Michael; Reis, Veronica Massena

    2009-10-01

    The species Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus, Herbaspirillum seropedicae and H. rubrisubalbicans are endophytic N2-fixing [diazotrophic] bacteria which colonise not only roots, but also the aerial tissue of sugar cane. However, the technique most commonly used to quantify the populations of these microbes in plants is by culturing serial dilutions of macerates of plant tissues in N free semi-solid media which are only semi-selective for the species/genera [the Most Probable Number (MPN) Technique] and each culture must be further subjected to several tests to identify the isolates at the species level. The use of species-specific polyclonal antibodies with the indirect ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) can be an alternative which is rapid and specific to quantify these populations of bacteria. This study was performed to investigate the viability of adapting the indirect ELISA technique to quantify individually the populations of these three species of diazotroph within the root and shoot tissues of sugarcane. The results showed that species-specific polyclonal antibodies could be obtained by purifying sera in protein-A columns which removed non-specific immuno-globulins. It was possible to quantify the three bacterial species in the Brazilian sugarcane variety SP 70-1143 in numbers above 10(5) cells per g fresh weight in roots, rhizomes and leaves. The numbers of the different bacterial species evaluated using the ELISA technique were found to be higher than when the same populations were evaluated using the MPN technique, reaching 1400 times greater for G. diazotrophicus and 225 times greater for Herbaspirillum spp. These results constitute the first quantification of Herbaspirillum using immunological techniques. PMID:24031435

  9. Optimization of process parameters for ethanol production from sugar cane molasses by Zymomonas mobilis using response surface methodology and genetic algorithm.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Bodhisatta; Rathore, Ankita; Srivastava, Saurav; Shekhawat, Mitali; Srivastava, Pradeep

    2011-04-01

    Ethanol is a potential energy source and its production from renewable biomass has gained lot of popularity. There has been worldwide research to produce ethanol from regional inexpensive substrates. The present study deals with the optimization of process parameters (viz. temperature, pH, initial total reducing sugar (TRS) concentration in sugar cane molasses and fermentation time) for ethanol production from sugar cane molasses by Zymomonas mobilis using Box-Behnken experimental design and genetic algorithm (GA). An empirical model was developed through response surface methodology to analyze the effects of the process parameters on ethanol production. The data obtained after performing the experiments based on statistical design was utilized for regression analysis and analysis of variance studies. The regression equation obtained after regression analysis was used as a fitness function for the genetic algorithm. The GA optimization technique predicted a maximum ethanol yield of 59.59 g/L at temperature 31 °C, pH 5.13, initial TRS concentration 216 g/L and fermentation time 44 h. The maximum experimental ethanol yield obtained after applying GA was 58.4 g/L, which was in close agreement with the predicted value. PMID:21336926

  10. Optimization of biodegradable plastic production on sugar cane molasses in Enterobacter sp. SEL2

    PubMed Central

    Naheed, Nighat; Jamil, Nazia

    2014-01-01

    Contaminated environments have a large number of bacteria which can accumulate PHA as their energy reserves. Out of 54 isolated bacterial strains from three groups of contaminated sites 48 were found PHA positive. The sites were grouped on the basis of the type of carbon sources i.e. sugars, fatty acids and much diverse type. Strains MFD5, MFD11, UML3, USL2, SEL2, SEL3, SEL10 and PFW1 produced 69.9 ± 0.29, 75.27 ± 0.45, 65.43 ± 0.1, 72.54 ± 0.27, 76.61 ± 0.28, 61.81 ± 0.05, 71.16 ± 0.09 and 74.92 ± 0.5 percent of PHA to their constant cell weight (CCW) respectively in PHA detection media supplemented with 2% glucose. Molasses, whey, crumbs hydrolysate and palm oil were checked as inexpensive carbon sources. Molasses alone could supply the required nutrients for growth and PHA production. Strain SEL2 produced 47.36 ± 0.45% PHA using 2% molasses at 37 °C and pH 7.0. Upon production optimization the best accumulation (80.95 ± 0.01%) was observed in PHA detection media with 0.2% nitrogen source, 3% molasses, pH 5.0 and 37 °C by the strain SEL2. The overall effect of the presence of increased molasses concentration in the media was positive it increased the accumulation period till 72 h. Enterobacter sp. SEL2 (JF901810) is first time being reported for PHA production. PMID:25242924

  11. Use of a new Trichoderma harzianum strain isolated from the Amazon rainforest with pretreated sugar cane bagasse for on-site cellulase production.

    PubMed

    Delabona, Priscila da Silva; Farinas, Cristiane Sanchez; da Silva, Mateus Ribeiro; Azzoni, Sindelia Freitas; Pradella, José Geraldo da Cruz

    2012-03-01

    The on-site production of cellulases is an important strategy for the development of sustainable second-generation ethanol production processes. This study concerns the use of a specific cellulolytic enzyme complex for hydrolysis of pretreated sugar cane bagasse. Glycosyl hydrolases (FPase, xylanase, and ?-glucosidase) were produced using a new strain of Trichoderma harzianum, isolated from the Amazon rainforest and cultivated under different conditions. The influence of the carbon source was first investigated using shake-flask cultures. Selected carbon sources were then further studied under different pH conditions using a stirred tank bioreactor. Enzymatic activities up to 121 FPU/g, 8000 IU/g, and 1730 IU/g of delignified steam-exploded bagasse+sucrose were achieved for cellulase, xylanase and ?-glucosidase, respectively. This enzymatic complex was used to hydrolyze pretreated sugar cane bagasse. A comparative evaluation, using an enzymatic extract from Trichoderma reesei RUTC30, indicated similar performance of the T. harzianum enzyme complex, being a potential candidate for on-site production of enzymes. PMID:22221990

  12. Use of glutaraldehyde and benzalkonium chloride for minimizing post-harvest physio-chemical and microbial changes responsible for sucrose losses in sugar cane.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pushpa; Arya, Namita; Tiwari, Priyanka; Suman, Archna; Rai, R K; Shrivastava, A K; Solomon, S

    2008-08-27

    Sugar cane is sensitive to enormous sucrose losses induced by physio-chemical and microbial changes, the severity being increased during the time lag between harvest and crushing in the mills. Minimization of the sucrose losses in the field is essential for better sugar recovery and prevention of sucrose losses. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of glutaraldehyde and benzalkonium chloride for their effects on the microbial counts and physio-chemical changes responsible for sucrose losses. Glutaraldehyde and benzalkonium chloride (1000 + 250 ppm) reduced the losses in sucrose content to 7.1% as compared to the 30.8% loss in the control, thus improving the performance by 76.9%. The application of chemicals reduced the acid invertase activity (by 60%), lowered weight loss, titrable acidity, reducing sugars content, dextran, ethanol, and ethylene production and respiration rates. The application led to the reduction in the total bacterial, fungal, Leuconostoc, and yeast counts by 67.92, 51.3%, 26.08, and 51.2%, respectively. PMID:18662009

  13. 29 CFR 780.819 - Production must be of unrefined sugar or syrup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...sugar that is produced by melting sugar, purifying the melted sugar solution through a carbon medium process and the recrystallization of the sugar from this solution. Nor does the exemption apply to the processing of cane syrup into refined...

  14. 29 CFR 780.819 - Production must be of unrefined sugar or syrup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...sugar that is produced by melting sugar, purifying the melted sugar solution through a carbon medium process and the recrystallization of the sugar from this solution. Nor does the exemption apply to the processing of cane syrup into refined...

  15. 32. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: End of mill into which cane was fed between top and bottom roll. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  16. 17. Photocopy of c. 1922 photograph of cane field tractor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photocopy of c. 1922 photograph of cane field tractor developed and patented by Mr. Arsenaud of Laurel Valley Plantation; Claiborne Toups, overseer, is standing on the left. - Laurel Valley Sugar Plantation, State Route 308, Thibodaux, Lafourche Parish, LA

  17. Glass-Ceramic Material from the SiO2Al2O3CaO System Using SugarCane Bagasse Ash (SCBA)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. R. Teixeira; M. Romero; J. Ma Rincón; R. S. Magalhães; A. E. Souza; G. T. A. Santos; R. A. Silva

    2011-01-01

    Brazil is the world's largest producer of alcohol and sugar from sugarcane. Currently, sugarcane bagasse is burned in boilers to produce steam and electrical energy, producing a huge volume of ash. The major component of the ash is SiO2, and among the minor components there are some mineralizing agents or fluxing. Published works have shown the potential of transforming silicate-based

  18. Sugar crops for fuel alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Irvine, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    The use of alcohol rather than petroleum as a fuel source would require a large amount of land and suitable crops. Acerage now in use for food crops and animal production in the USA is given. The author presents alternatives to present land use in order to free acreage for energy crops such as sorghum, sugar beets, and sugar cane. (DC)

  19. Sugar-Sweetened Beverages--The Facts Whatisasugar-sweetenedbeverage?

    E-print Network

    Rosen, Jay

    diet drinks are low in calories but have little if any nutritional value.They're a good alternative,dextrose,fruit juice concentrates,glucose,honey,invert sugar, molasses,sucrose,syrup or cane sugar and juices,and blended coffee drinks contain a lot of sugar.You can get 16 teaspoons of sugar in a single 20

  20. 2. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761899. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1899. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Top roll and one bottom roll, mill housing or cheeks, and spur pinion gears. The broken projection on the mill beside the bottom roll indicates the location of the cane tray. The cane juice crushed from the cane flowed into the juice tray below the bottom rolls. It then flowed into a wooden gutter and through a short tunnel in the mill's masonry enclosure and on to the boiling house for further processing. The opening at the base of the masency wall (In the photograph) is where the gutter ran from the mill to the boiling house. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  1. Potential production of energy cane for fuel in the Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Samuels, G.

    1984-12-01

    Sugarcane presents a tremendous potential as a renewable energy source for the non-oil producing countries of the Caribbean. The energy cane concept is sugarcane managed for maximum dry matter (total fermentable solids for alcohol fuel and combustible solids for electricity) rather than sucrose. The use of sugarcane as a renewable energy source can provide a solution, either partial or total, to the Caribbean energy problem. Sugar cane production and the use of this crop as a renewable energy source are described.

  2. Analysis of sucrose from sugar beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sucrose is a disaccharide composed of the monosaccharides glucose and fructose. Sucrose is a product of photosynthesis and is a key carbohydrate resource for growth and metabolism in many organisms. Economic sources of sucrose include sugar cane and sugar beet, where fresh weight sucrose concentrati...

  3. Hummingbirds Fuel Hovering Flight with Newly Ingested Sugar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth C. Welch Jr.; Bradley Hartman Bakken; Carlos Martinez del Rio; Raul K. Suarez

    2006-01-01

    We sought to characterize the ability of hummingbirds to fuel their energetically expensive hovering flight using dietary sugar by a combination of respirometry and stable carbon isotope techniques. Broadtailed hummingbirds (Selasphorus platycercus) were maintained on a diet containing beet sugar with an isotopic composition characteristic of C3 plants. Hummingbirds were fasted and then offered a solution containing cane sugar with

  4. Use of cane condensed molasses solubles in feeding broilers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. N. Waliszewski; A. Romero; V. T. Pardio

    1997-01-01

    The mean composition of condensed molasses solubles (vinasse or stillage) obtained from the three alcohol fermentation plants of the sugar cane industry including proximate constituents, inorganic components and amino acid composition was obtained. Mean solids content was 620 g kg?1. Vinasse found to be low in fat and fiber but high in ash and different carbohydrate contents. Potassium content of

  5. Energy cane as a multiple-products alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, A.G.

    1984-01-01

    CANE SUGAR planting as it was formerly known is in serious and essentially irreversible trouble. Diversification of sugarcane to alternative farm crops is indicated in some instances. Yet, for the most part, the more logical alternative is an internal diversification to a multiple-products biomass commodity. Sometimes termed the energy cane approach, its keystones are the management of sugarcane as a quantitative rather than qualitative entity, and the inclusion of certain tropical-grass relatives to assist cane in its year-round supply of biomass to industrial consumers. Managed in this way, absolute tonnages of whole cane are increased materially beyond what is possible from sugar-crop management. Juice quality declines but sugar yields are significant as a function of high biomass tonnages per acre. Usage of the lignocellulose can range from low-quality humid boiler fuel in furnaces designed for refuse incineration, to higher-quality fuels in more efficient boilers, to proprietary fuels and chemical products, and to lignocellulose supply as the feedstock for primary chemicals production. The latter might include, for example, synthesis gas and petrochemicals in tropical regions lacking natural gas, naphtha, or coal as starting materials. Diversification of sugarcane to completely new farm commodities is opposed in favor of internal diversification to a high-growth, multiple-products commodity. Decisive issues here are as much educational as they are technical. The energy cane concept maintains that sugarcane is a future resource of enormous national and international value. It should develop accordingly where decision-taking is by persons who respect the cane plant and who have done their homework on its alternative-use potentials. 35 references, 5 figures, 6 tables.

  6. Microbial solubilization of rock phosphate on media containing agro-industrial wastes and effect of the resulting products on plant growth and P uptake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Vassilev; A. Medina; R. Azcon; M. Vassileva

    2006-01-01

    Four agro-industrial wastes were assayed as substrates for microbial solubilization of rock phosphate (RP). Sugar beet wastes (SB), olive cake (OC) and olive mill wastewaters (OMWW) were treated by Aspergillus niger, and dry olive cake (DOC) was treated by Phanerochaete chrysosporium. In conditions of solid-state fermentation 46% of SB and 21% of OC were mineralized by A. niger while 16%

  7. Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus, a sugar cane endosymbiont, produces a bacteriocin against Xanthomonas albilineans, a sugar cane pathogen.

    PubMed

    Piñón, Dolores; Casas, Mario; Blanch, María; Fontaniella, Blanca; Blanco, Yolanda; Vicente, Carlos; Solas, María-Teresa; Legaz, María-Estrella

    2002-01-01

    Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus in liquid culture secretes proteins into the medium. Both medium containing Gluconacetobacter protein and a solution of this protein after acetone precipitation appeared to inhibit the growth of Xanthomonas albilineans in solid culture. This apparent inhibition of bacterial growth has, in fact, been revealed to be lysis of bacterial cells, as demonstrated by transmission electron microscopy. Fractionation of the Gluconacetobacter protein mixture in size-exclusion chromatography reveals a main fraction with lysozyme-like activity which produces lysis of both living bacteria and isolated cell walls. PMID:12234008

  8. Phosphorus speciation in agro-industrial byproducts: sequential fractionation, solution (31)P NMR, and P K- and L(2,3)-edge XANES spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Negassa, Wakene; Kruse, Jens; Michalik, Dirk; Appathurai, Narayana; Zuin, Lucia; Leinweber, Peter

    2010-03-15

    Little is known about P species in agro-industrial byproducts from developing countries, which may be either pollutants or valuable soil amendments. The present study speciated P in dry (COD) and wet (COW) coffee, sisal (SIS), barley malt (BEB) and sugar cane processing (FIC) byproducts, and filter cakes of linseed (LIC) and niger seed (NIC)with sequential fractionation, solution (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and P K- and L(2,3)-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The sequential P fractionation recovered 59% to almost 100% of total P (P(t)), and more than 50% of P(t) was extracted by H(2)O and NaHCO(3) in five out of seven samples. Similarly, the NaOH + EDTA extraction for solution (31)P NMR recovered 48-94% of P(t). The (31)P NMR spectra revealed orthophosphate (6-81%), pyrophosphate (0-10%), and orthophosphate monoesters (6-94%). Orthophosphate predominated in COD, COW, SIS, and FIC, whereas BEB, UC, and NIC were rich in orthophosphate monoesters. The concentrations of P(i), and P(o) determined in the sequential and NaOH + EDTA extractions and (31)P NMR spectra were strongly and positively correlated (r = 0.88-1.00). Furthermore, the P K- and L(2,3)-edge XANES confirmed the H(2)SO(4)--P(i) detected in the sequential fractionation by unequivocal identification of Ca--P phases in a few samples. The results indicate that the combined use of all four analytical methods is crucial for comprehensive P speciation in environmental samples and the application of these byproducts to soil. PMID:20146464

  9. 17. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Boiling House, 1878. View: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Boiling House, 1878. View: Southwest corner of boiling house. The amimal-powered cane mill is located in the undergrowth in the right foreground, - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  10. Sugar Beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is a significant industrial crop of the temperate zone, the worldwide production of which exceeded 240 million tons in 2000. Worldwide, sugar from sugar beet provides about a third of all sugar consumed. Used as a sweetener in foods, beverages and pharmaceuticals, sug...

  11. Vermicomposting of AgroIndustrial Processing Waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. K. Garg; Renuka Gupta

    Agro-industrial wastes- wastes from agriculture, food processing or any cellulose based industries- remain largely unutilized\\u000a and often cause environmental problems like dispersing foul odors, occupying vast areas, ground and surface water pollution\\u000a etc. These wastes could be converted into potential renewable source of energy, if managed sustainably and scientifically.\\u000a In the last few decades, vermicomposting technology has been arising as

  12. Blood Sugar

    MedlinePLUS

    Blood sugar, or glucose, is the main sugar found in your blood. It comes from the food you eat, and is your body's main source of energy. Your blood carries glucose to all of your body's cells to use ...

  13. Microbial solubilization of rock phosphate on media containing agro-industrial wastes and effect of the resulting products on plant growth and P uptake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Vassilev; A. Medina; R. Azcon; M. Vassileva

    Four agro-industrial wastes were assayed as substrates for microbial solubilization of rock phosphate (RP). Sugar beet wastes\\u000a (SB), olive cake (OC) and olive mill wastewaters (OMWW) were treated by Aspergillus niger, and dry olive cake (DOC) was treated by Phanerochaete chrysosporium. In conditions of solid-state fermentation 46% of SB and 21% of OC were mineralized by A. niger while 16%

  14. Sugar Beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    World-wide demand for sugar approaches 140Mt each year, and is supplied by only two plants, once of which is the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris, L.). A team of international researchers were assembled by the editor to review the body of literature on sugar beet production and assemble it into an accessi...

  15. Stevia: The herbal sugar of 21 st century

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. D. Singh; G. P. Rao

    2005-01-01

    Stevia is the new emerging alternative source of calorie free sweetener having no carbohydrate and fat. It is 20 to 30 times sweet\\u000a than cane and beet sugar, highly nutritious, delicious, non-toxic and non-additive sugar. It also enhances the flavour, helpful\\u000a in digestion, weight reduction, anti oxidant, prevent dental caries and having antimicrobial and anti-plaque properties, increases\\u000a mental alertness, increase

  16. 21 CFR 890.3075 - Cane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3075 Cane. (a) Identification. A cane is a device...

  17. 21 CFR 890.3075 - Cane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3075 Cane. (a) Identification. A cane is a device...

  18. 21 CFR 890.3075 - Cane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3075 Cane. (a) Identification. A cane is a device...

  19. 21 CFR 890.3075 - Cane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3075 Cane. (a) Identification. A cane is a device...

  20. 21 CFR 890.3075 - Cane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3075 Cane. (a) Identification. A cane is a device...

  1. Sugar cane as an alternative energy source for Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Kilicaslan; H. I. Sarac; E. Özdem; K. Erm

    1999-01-01

    The consumption of various energy resources in the world since the beginning of industrial revolution has changed due to several causes, such as the economy, availability, transportation and environmental effects as well as climate change phenomena. The use of fossil fuels has become rather harmful for the environment in which human beings live, especially in the urban areas of the

  2. Concentration of xylose reaction liquor by nanofiltration for the production of xylitol sugar alcohol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. S. Murthy; S. Sridhar; M. Shyam Sunder; B. Shankaraiah; M. Ramakrishna

    2005-01-01

    Xylitol, a five-carbon sugar alcohol, is used commercially as a natural sweetener in several food products including soft drinks and confectionery. Xylitol is produced by catalytic dehydrogenation of xylose, an intermediate sugar compound, which is extracted from sugar cane bagasse, corncobs or rice husk. The reaction liquor of xylose contains 1.5–2% of d-xylose besides water as the major constituent. The

  3. Big Sugar in southern Africa: rural development and the perverted potential of sugar/ethanol exports.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Ben

    2010-01-01

    This paper asks how investment in large-scale sugar cane production has contributed, and will contribute, to rural development in southern Africa. Taking a case study of the South African company Illovo in Zambia, the argument is made that the potential for greater tax revenue, domestic competition, access to resources and wealth distribution from sugar/ethanol production have all been perverted and with relatively little payoff in wage labour opportunities in return. If the benefits of agro-exports cannot be so easily assumed, then the prospective 'balance sheet' of biofuels needs to be re-examined. In this light, the paper advocates smaller-scale agrarian initiatives. PMID:20873031

  4. Sweeteners - sugars

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and jellies. Enhance flavor in processed meats. Provide fermentation for breads and pickles. Add bulk to ice ... and galactose. Maltose (malt sugar) is produced during fermentation. It is found in beer and breads. Maple ...

  5. Ethanol from sugar crops: a critical review

    SciTech Connect

    Lipinsky, E.S.; Allen, B.R.; Bose, A.; Kresovich, S.

    1981-01-01

    Due to the hardships resulting from rising oil prices and periodic production shortfalls, many developing countries, especially those with warm humid climates, have explored ethanol production from sugar crops. This critical review offers information on ethanol production for development planners. Two sugar crop-based ethanol systems, raw sugar facility retrofit and conventional juice extraction, are first examined. The agronomy of sugar crops (cane, beet, sorghum) is then described, as are the steps in crop processing (extraction, fermentation, distillation, stillage disposal). The costs of producing ethanol from a typical sugarcane processing plant and from a state-of-the-art molasses processing facility are presented, and the trade-offs between producing ethanol or raw sugar from sugarcane weighed. Finally, the properties of ethanol in automotive fuels are outlined, along with important storage, handling, and safety considerations. Three major problems are cited in ethanol production from sugar crops: adverse environmental effects (10 gallons of waste to 1 gallon of ethanol); the high cost of conventional milling equipment; and the loss of potential revenue from raw sugar sales. A future possibility of producing ethanol from fibrous residues (bagasse) is noted. Included are a 64-item bibliography (1936-1980) and 31 tables.

  6. Effect of Cane Length on Drop-Off Detection Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Dae Shik; Emerson, Robert Wall

    2012-01-01

    Although individuals who are blind have used a stick or a cane for their independent travel since the early years of human history, designs for modern long canes did not appear until World War II, when the systematic long cane techniques were developed by Hoover (1962). Ergonomic factors, such as the length of the cane, may affect how well a cane

  7. Managing your blood sugar

    MedlinePLUS

    Hyperglycemia - control; Hypoglycemia - control; Diabetes - blood sugar control ... Know how to: Recognize and treat low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) Recognize and treat high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) ...

  8. Biodiesel production from microalgae: co-location with sugar mills.

    PubMed

    Lohrey, Christian; Kochergin, Vadim

    2012-03-01

    Co-location of algae production facilities with cane sugar mills can be a technically advantageous path towards production of biodiesel. Algal biodiesel production was integrated with cane sugar production in the material and energy balance simulation program Sugars™. A model was developed that allowed comparison of production scenarios involving dewatering the algae to 20% ds (dry solids) or 30% ds prior to thermal drying. The net energy ratio, E(R) (energy produced/energy consumed) of the proposed process was found to be 1.5. A sensitivity analysis showed that this number ranged from 0.9 to 1.7 when the range of values for oil content, CO(2) utilization, oil conversion, and harvest density reported in the literature were evaluated. By utilizing available waste-resources from a 10,000 ton/d cane sugar mill, a 530 ha algae farm can produce 5.8 million L of biodiesel/yr and reduce CO(2) emissions of the mill by 15% without the need for fossil fuels. PMID:22265980

  9. Sugar Beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    World sugar production is around 160 Mt yearly with a per capita consumption of about 23 kg. Total utilization is increasing approximately 1.4% annually thanks to the improved standard of living in densely populated countries like China and India. About one-quarter of world production is extracted f...

  10. 29. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Boilingrange furnace and clarifier ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Boiling-range furnace and clarifier position. View: In the boiling range all of the concentration, evaporation, and concentration of cane juice took place in open pans over the continous flue leaving this furnace. The furnace door through the exterior wall is at the end of the furnace. In the original installation two copper clarifiers, manufactured by John Nott & Co. occupied this space directly above the furnace. In the clarifier lime was added to the cane juice so that impurities would coagulate into a scum on top of the near-boiling juice. The clarifiers have been removed since the closing of the mill. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  11. 28. RW Sugar Mill: 18761889. Boilingrange Furnace and Clarifier position. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. RW Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Boiling-range Furnace and Clarifier position. View: In the boiling range all of the clarification, evaporation, and concentration of cane juice took place in open pans over the Continuous flue leading from this furnace. The furnace door through the exterior wall is at the end of the furnace. In the original installation, two copper clarifiers, manufactured by John Nott & Co. occupied this space directly above the furnace. In the clarifiers, lime was added to the cane juice so that impurities would coagulate into a scum on top of the near-boiling juice. The clarifiers have been removed since the closing of the mill. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  12. Waste heat recovery systems in the sugar industry: An Indian perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Madnaik, S.D.; Jadhav, M.G. [Walchand Inst. of Tech., Maharashtra (India)

    1996-04-01

    This article identifies the key role of the sugar industry in the rural development of developing countries. The Indian sugar industry, already second largest among the country`s processing industries, shows even greater potential, according to the Plan Documents (shown in a table). The potential of waste heat in sugar processing plants, which produce white crystal sugar using the double sulphitation clarification process, is estimated at 5757.9 KJ/kg of sugar. Efficient waste heat recovery (WHR) systems could help arrest the trend of increasing production costs. This would help the sugar industry not only in India, but in many other countries as well. The innovative methods suggested and discussed briefly in this article include dehydration of prepared cane, bagasse drying, and juice heating using waste heat. These methods can reduce the cost of energy in sugar production by at least 10% and improve efficiency and productivity.

  13. Phytotoxicity evaluation and response of wheat to agro-industrial waste composts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dev Raj; Rajinder Singh Antil

    2012-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted in loamy sand soil to compare the effects of agro-industrial waste composts on yield and nutrient uptake by wheat. The raw materials of agro-industrial wastes and chemical fertilizers were used as controls. The yields were significantly higher with agro-industrial waste composts compared with their raw materials. Compost-fertilized grain yields were increased by 118% with poultry

  14. Phytotoxicity evaluation and response of wheat to agro-industrial waste composts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dev Raj; Rajinder Singh Antil

    2011-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted in loamy sand soil to compare the effects of agro-industrial waste composts on yield and nutrient uptake by wheat. The raw materials of agro-industrial wastes and chemical fertilizers were used as controls. The yields were significantly higher with agro-industrial waste composts compared with their raw materials. Compost-fertilized grain yields were increased by 118% with poultry

  15. Partnership Sugar Beet Growers

    E-print Network

    1 Partnership of: Sugar Beet Growers Michigan Sugar Company Monitor Sugar Company Michigan State-Farm Sugar Beet Research and Demonstration Report". This type of research could not be conducted without the financial support of Michigan and Monitor Sugar Companies and their Growers. Research priorities

  16. Partnership Sugar Beet Growers

    E-print Network

    Partnership of: Sugar Beet Growers Michigan Sugar Company Monitor Sugar Company Michigan State University Agribusiness The Sugarbeet Advancement Committee is pleased to provide the fifth On-Farm Sugar production decisions that will improve profitability of your sugar beet enterprise. In spite of the driest

  17. Biotechnological potential of agro-industrial residues. II: cassava bagasse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashok Pandey; Carlos R Soccol; Poonam Nigam; Vanete T Soccol; Luciana P. S Vandenberghe; Radjiskumar Mohan

    2000-01-01

    Advances in industrial biotechnology offer potential opportunities for economic utilization of agro-industrial residues such as cassava bagasse. Cassava bagasse, which is a fibrous material, is the by-product of the cassava-processing industry. It contains about 30–50% starch on dry weight basis. Due to its rich organic nature and low ash content, it can serve as an ideal substrate for microbial processes

  18. Drop-Off Detection with the Long Cane: Effects of Different Cane Techniques on Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Dae Shik; Emerson, Robert Wall; Curtis, Amy

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the drop-off detection performance with the two-point touch and constant contact cane techniques using a repeated-measures design with a convenience sample of 15 cane users with visual impairments. The constant contact technique was superior to the two-point touch technique in the drop-off detection rate and the 50% detection…

  19. The Science of Sugaring

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Nicholas Baer

    The sugar content and sap volume within and among trees speces can vary considerably. The introductory material describes the process of maple sugaring. The associated field exercise is intended to enhance students field experimental design, data collection, and analysis through examining the variability of trees sap volume and sugar content for sugar maple trees.

  20. Ethanol from Sugar Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The world-wide impetus to produce alternatives to petroleum-based fuels and relatively low profit for sugar are putting pressure on the sugar industry to diversify for sustainability. Sugar crops, mainly sugarcane, sugar beet, and sweet sorghum, fit well into the emerging concept of a renewable car...

  1. Human Factor Analysis of Long Cane Design: Weight and Length

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Mark D.; Emerson, Robert Wall

    2005-01-01

    In a series of experiments, canes of different lengths, weights, and weight distributions were assessed to determine the effect of these characteristics on various performance measures. The results indicate that the overall weight of a cane and the distribution of weight along a cane's shaft do not affect a person's performance, but accuracy does…

  2. Sugar 1 2 3 Sugar 1 2 3

    E-print Network

    Banbara, Mutsunori

    XCSP 2.1 (5000 ) SAT MiniSat, PicoSAT Cygwin Windows XP CSP Lisp 3 International CSP Solver Competition .. Web Sugar Windows Cygwin .. Web Sugar #12;. . . . . . Sugar 1 2 3 .. Sugar (1) .. Web ( ) . .. . (bool

  3. Bioprocessing of some agro-industrial residues for endoglucanase production by the new subsp.; Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus strain NEAE-J

    PubMed Central

    El-Naggar, Noura El-Ahmady; Abdelwahed, Nayera A.M.; Saber, Wesam I.A.; Mohamed, Asem A.

    2014-01-01

    The use of low cost agro-industrial residues for the production of industrial enzymes is one of the ways to reduce significantly production costs. Cellulase producing actinomycetes were isolated from soil and decayed agricultural wastes. Among them, a potential culture, strain NEAE-J, was selected and identified on the basis of morphological, cultural, physiological and chemotaxonomic properties, together with 16S rDNA sequence. It is proposed that strain NEAE-J should be included in the species Streptomyces albogriseolus as a representative of a novel sub-species, Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus strain NEAE-J and sequencing product was deposited in the GenBank database under accession number JN229412. This organism was tested for its ability to produce endoglucanase and release reducing sugars from agro-industrial residues as substrates. Sugarcane bagasse was the most suitable substrate for endoglucanase production. Effects of process variables, namely incubation time, temperature, initial pH and nitrogen source on production of endoglucanase by submerged fermentation using Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus have been studied. Accordingly optimum conditions have been determined. Incubation temperature of 30 °C after 6 days, pH of 6.5, 1% sugarcane bagasse as carbon source and peptone as nitrogen source were found to be the optimum for endoglucanase production. Optimization of the process parameters resulted in about 2.6 fold increase in the endoglucanase activity. Therefore, Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus coud be potential microorganism for the intended application. PMID:25242966

  4. Bioprocessing of some agro-industrial residues for endoglucanase production by the new subsp.; Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus strain NEAE-J.

    PubMed

    El-Naggar, Noura El-Ahmady; Abdelwahed, Nayera A M; Saber, Wesam I A; Mohamed, Asem A

    2014-01-01

    The use of low cost agro-industrial residues for the production of industrial enzymes is one of the ways to reduce significantly production costs. Cellulase producing actinomycetes were isolated from soil and decayed agricultural wastes. Among them, a potential culture, strain NEAE-J, was selected and identified on the basis of morphological, cultural, physiological and chemotaxonomic properties, together with 16S rDNA sequence. It is proposed that strain NEAE-J should be included in the species Streptomyces albogriseolus as a representative of a novel sub-species, Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus strain NEAE-J and sequencing product was deposited in the GenBank database under accession number JN229412. This organism was tested for its ability to produce endoglucanase and release reducing sugars from agro-industrial residues as substrates. Sugarcane bagasse was the most suitable substrate for endoglucanase production. Effects of process variables, namely incubation time, temperature, initial pH and nitrogen source on production of endoglucanase by submerged fermentation using Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus have been studied. Accordingly optimum conditions have been determined. Incubation temperature of 30 °C after 6 days, pH of 6.5, 1% sugarcane bagasse as carbon source and peptone as nitrogen source were found to be the optimum for endoglucanase production. Optimization of the process parameters resulted in about 2.6 fold increase in the endoglucanase activity. Therefore, Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus coud be potential microorganism for the intended application. PMID:25242966

  5. What is SmartCane ? SmartCane device is an electronic mobility aid which fits on the top fold of the white

    E-print Network

    Banerjee, Subhashis

    of the white cane. It serves as an enhancement to white cane and overcomes its limitations by detecting knee SmartCane device is very beneficial. It protects me from a lot of upper body injuries which I earlier

  6. Low blood sugar

    MedlinePLUS

    ... blood sugar may be caused by: Drinking alcohol Insulinoma - a rare tumor in the pancreas that produces ... If low blood sugar is caused by an insulinoma (insulin-releasing tumor), surgery to remove the tumor ...

  7. High blood sugar

    MedlinePLUS

    High blood sugar occurs when your body makes too little insulin or when your body is not able to use insulin ... a hormone that helps the body use glucose (sugar) for energy. Insulin is made by the pancreas. ...

  8. Transport of Sugars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Q. Chen; L. S. Cheung; L. Feng; W. Tanner; W. B. Frommer

    2015-01-01

    Soluble sugars serve five main purposes in multicellular organisms: as sources of carbon skeletons, osmolytes, signals, and transient energy storage and as transport molecules. Most sugars are derived from photosynthetic organisms, particularly plants. In multicellular organisms, some cells specialize in providing sugars to other cells (e.g., intestinal and liver cells in animals, photosynthetic cells in plants), whereas others depend completely

  9. Association of ?13C in Fingerstick Blood with Added Sugars and Sugar-sweetened Beverage Intake

    PubMed Central

    Davy, Brenda M.; Jahren, A. Hope; Hedrick, Valisa E.; Comber, Dana L.

    2011-01-01

    A reliance on self-reported dietary intake measures is a common research limitation, thus the need for dietary biomarkers. Added sugar intake may play a role in the development and progression of obesity and related co-morbidities; common sweeteners include corn and sugar cane derivatives. These plants contain a high amount of 13C, a naturally-occurring stable carbon isotope. Consumption of these sweeteners, of which sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) are the primary dietary source, may be reflected in the ?13C value of blood. Fingerstick blood represents an ideal substrate for bioassay due to its ease of acquisition. The objective of this investigation was to determine if the ?13C value of fingerstick blood is a potential biomarker of added sugar and SSB intake. Individuals aged ?21 years (n=60) were recruited to attend three laboratory visits; assessments completed at each visit depended upon a randomly assigned sequence (sequence one or two). The initial visit included assessment of height, weight, and dietary intake (sequence one: beverage intake questionnaire [BEVQ], sequence two: four-day food intake record [FIR]). Sequence one participants completed an FIR at visit two, and non-fasting blood samples were obtained via routine finger sticks at visits one and three. Sequence two participants completed a BEVQ at visit two, and provided fingerstick blood samples at visits two and three. Samples were analyzed for ?13C value using natural abundance stable isotope mass spectrometry. ?13C value was compared to dietary outcomes in all participants, as well as among those in the highest and lowest tertile of added sugar intake. Reported mean added sugar consumption was 66±5g/day, and SSB consumption was 330±53g/day and 134±25 kcal/day. Mean fingerstick ?13C value was ?19.94±0.10‰, which differed by BMI status. ?13C value was associated (all p<0.05) with intake of total added sugars (g, r=0.37; kcal, r=0.37), soft drinks (g, r=0.26; kcal, r=0.27), and total SSB (g, r=0.28; kcal, r=0.35). The ?13C value in the lowest and the highest added sugar intake tertiles were significantly different (mean difference = ?0.48‰, p=0.028). Even though there are several potential dietary sources for blood carbon, the ?13C value of fingerstick blood shows promise as a non-invasive biomarker of added sugar and SSB intake based on these findings. PMID:21616200

  10. ioCane: A Smart-Phone and Sensor-Augmented Mobility Aid for the Blind

    E-print Network

    Han, Richard Y.

    ioCane: A Smart-Phone and Sensor-Augmented Mobility Aid for the Blind Ben Leduc-Mills, Halley, the ioCane is the first sensor-based mobility assistance system to integrate natively with a mobile phoneCane, a mobility aid for blind cane users that uses de- tachable cane-mounted ultrasonic sensors connected to a cir

  11. Hummingbirds fuel hovering flight with newly ingested sugar.

    PubMed

    Welch, Kenneth C; Bakken, Bradley Hartman; Martinez del Rio, Carlos; Suarez, Raul K

    2006-01-01

    We sought to characterize the ability of hummingbirds to fuel their energetically expensive hovering flight using dietary sugar by a combination of respirometry and stable carbon isotope techniques. Broadtailed hummingbirds (Selasphorus platycercus) were maintained on a diet containing beet sugar with an isotopic composition characteristic of C3 plants. Hummingbirds were fasted and then offered a solution containing cane sugar with an isotopic composition characteristic of C4 plants. By monitoring the rates of CO2 production and O2 consumption, as well as the stable carbon isotope composition of expired CO2, we were able to estimate the relative contributions of carbohydrate and fat, as well as the absolute rate at which dietary sucrose was oxidized during hovering. The combination of respirometry and carbon isotope analysis revealed that hummingbirds initially oxidized endogenous fat following a fast and then progressively oxidized proportionately more carbohydrates. The contribution from dietary sources increased with each feeding bout, and by 20 min after the first meal, dietary sugar supported approximately 74% of hovering metabolism. The ability of hummingbirds to satisfy the energetic requirements of hovering flight mainly with recently ingested sugar is unique among vertebrates. Our finding provides an example of evolutionary convergence in physiological and biochemical traits among unrelated nectar-feeding animals. PMID:17041873

  12. SAT CSP Sugar Modeling Summary SAT CSP Sugar Modeling Summary

    E-print Network

    Banbara, Mutsunori

    SAT CSP Sugar Modeling Summary . ...... SAT , , 2013 7 24 SAT #12;SAT CSP Sugar Modeling Summary .. ...1 SAT SAT SAT SAT ...2 SAT (CSP) ...3 SAT Sugar Copris ...4 Copris ...5 SAT #12;SAT CSP Sugar Modeling Summary .. SAT SAT SAT #12;SAT CSP Sugar Modeling Summary .. SAT . ...... SAT (Boolean

  13. Electricity generation potential of Thai sugar mills

    SciTech Connect

    Therdyothin, A.; Bhattacharaya, S.C.; Chirarattananon, S. (Asian Inst. of Tech., Bangkok (Thailand))

    1992-10-01

    At present, the total installed electricity generating capacity of Thailand is 7500 MW. Because this level of investment will take an unacceptable large part of total foreign borrowing, the government plans to encourage participation of the private sector in electricity generation. Among the various technology options for power production, cogeneration appears to be the most promising technology due to its very high effectiveness of fuel utilization. Therefore, in the first phase of private power generation, the Thai government is encouraging cogeneration systems. This paper discusses sugar mills, where expertise and equipment for electricity generation already exist, appear to be in a particularly advantageous position to participate in the private power generation program. At present, there are 46 sugar mills in Thailand with a total capacity of 338,000 tons of cane per day. The fiber part delivered from the milling of sugarcane, bagasse, is normally used to produce steam for the process heat and electricity generation. The investment and operating costs for each of these alternatives have been evaluated. The internal rate of return is used to indicate the benefit of each alternative.

  14. Transport of sugars.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Qing; Cheung, Lily S; Feng, Liang; Tanner, Widmar; Frommer, Wolf B

    2015-06-01

    Soluble sugars serve five main purposes in multicellular organisms: as sources of carbon skeletons, osmolytes, signals, and transient energy storage and as transport molecules. Most sugars are derived from photosynthetic organisms, particularly plants. In multicellular organisms, some cells specialize in providing sugars to other cells (e.g., intestinal and liver cells in animals, photosynthetic cells in plants), whereas others depend completely on an external supply (e.g., brain cells, roots and seeds). This cellular exchange of sugars requires transport proteins to mediate uptake or release from cells or subcellular compartments. Thus, not surprisingly, sugar transport is critical for plants, animals, and humans. At present, three classes of eukaryotic sugar transporters have been characterized, namely the glucose transporters (GLUTs), sodium-glucose symporters (SGLTs), and SWEETs. This review presents the history and state of the art of sugar transporter research, covering genetics, biochemistry, and physiology-from their identification and characterization to their structure, function, and physiology. In humans, understanding sugar transport has therapeutic importance (e.g., addressing diabetes or limiting access of cancer cells to sugars), and in plants, these transporters are critical for crop yield and pathogen susceptibility. PMID:25747398

  15. SAT Sugar Scala SAT ( ) SAT

    E-print Network

    Banbara, Mutsunori

    1 28 (2011 ) SAT Sugar Scala SAT ( ) SAT SAT SAT Sugar Scala SAT Sugar SAT MiniSat SAT Copris DSL (Domain-Specific Language) Scala Sugar 1 (CSP; Constraint Satisfaction Prob- lem) (COP; Constraint (constraint solver) A SAT-based Constraint Solver Sugar and its Scala Interface. Naoyuki Tamura, , In

  16. Genotypic variations in non-structural carbohydrate and cell-wall components of the stem in rice, sorghum, and sugar vane.

    PubMed

    Arai-Sanoh, Yumiko; Ida, Masashi; Zhao, Rui; Yoshinaga, Satoshi; Takai, Toshiyuki; Ishimaru, Tsutomu; Maeda, Hideo; Nishitani, Kazuhiko; Terashima, Yoshifumi; Gau, Mitsuru; Kato, Naoki; Matsuoka, Makoto; Kondo, Motohiko

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated genetic variations in the non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) and the cell-wall components of stem in rice, sorghum, and sugar cane to assess the potential suitability of these gramineous crops for bioethanol production. For NSC, the maximum soluble sugar concentration was highest in sugar cane, followed by sorghum with sucrose. The major NSC in rice was starch, but there were wide variations in the starch to soluble sugar ratios among the cultivars. The total concentration of cell-wall components was negatively correlated with the NSC concentration, indicating competition for carbon sources. Among the cell-wall components, lignin was relatively stable within each group. The major sugar species composing hemicellulose was xylose in all crop groups, but there were differences in composition, with a higher fraction of arabinose and glucose in rice as compared to the other crops. In rice, there was less lignin than in sorghum or sugar cane; this might be advantageous for the efficient saccharification of cellulose. PMID:21670528

  17. CSP Cream Sugar Copris CSP Cream Sugar Copris

    E-print Network

    Banbara, Mutsunori

    CSP Cream Sugar Copris : 2011 6 6 2011 8 22 2012 6 24 2014 5 19 : #12;CSP Cream Sugar Copris 1 2 3 Cream Java OpenOffice.org Calc 4 Sugar SAT Scala : #12;CSP Cream Sugar Copris : #12;CSP Cream Sugar (unsatisfiable) : #12;CSP Cream Sugar Copris 4 X = {q0, q1, q2, q3} D(qi ) = {1, 2, 3, 4} (i = 0, 1, 2, 3) C

  18. Plantain fibre bundles isolated from Colombian agro-industrial residues.

    PubMed

    Gañán, Piedad; Zuluaga, Robin; Restrepo, Adriana; Labidi, Jalel; Mondragon, Iñaki

    2008-02-01

    Comestible fruit production from Musaceas plants is an important economical activity in developing countries like Colombia. However, it generates a large amount of agro-industrial residues. Some of them are a potential resource of natural fibres, which can be used as reinforcement for composite materials. In this work, a series of commercial plantain (Musa AAB, cv "Dominico Harton") fibre bundles extracted from pseudostem, leaf sheath and rachis agricultural wastes were analyzed. Mechanical decortication and biological retting processes were used during fiber extraction. No significant differences in composition of vascular bundles were observed for both extraction processes. Gross morphological characteristics and mechanical behavior have been evaluated. Conducting tissues with spiral-like arrangement are observed attached to fibre bundles. This fact suggests a big amount of these tissues in commercial plantain plants. Both used extraction methods are not enough to remove them. Pseudostem fibre bundles have higher specific strength and modulus and lower strain at break than leaf sheath and rachis fibre bundles, having values comparable to other lignocellulosic fibres bundles. PMID:17350832

  19. Hawaii's Sugar Islands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Aiea, HI.

    A warm and sunny subtropical climate helps make Hawaii an important sugar producer. History records that sugarcane was already present when Captain James Cook discovered the islands in 1778, and that the first successful sugarcane plantation was started in 1835 by Ladd and Company at Koloa. The first recorded export of Hawaiian sugar was in 1837,…

  20. Sugar Crystal Challenge

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-02-25

    This lesson focuses on surface area and how the shape of sugar crystals may differ as they are grown from sugars of different coarseness. Learners explore surface area, nanostructures, and work in teams and participate in hands-on activities. Safety: need an adult to handle the very hot water.

  1. Sugars as signaling molecules

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jen Sheen; Li Zhou; Jyun-Chyun Jang

    1999-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that, in a manner similar to classical plant hormones, sugars can act as signaling molecules that control gene expression and developmental processes in plants. Crucial evidence includes uncoupling glucose signaling from its metabolism, identification of glucose sensors, and isolation and characterization of mutants and other regulatory components in plant sugar signal transduction pathways. The emerging scenario points

  2. Evaluation of new energy cane varieties for Louisiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Renewed interest in U.S bioenergy markets may offer an alternative source of income for Louisiana sugarcane growers. High-fiber sugarcane or energy cane varieties are currently being developed. As with traditional sugarcane varieties, energy-cane varieties need to be evaluated across the sugarca...

  3. Invasive Cane Toads have been featured prominently in

    E-print Network

    Jawitz, James W.

    Invasive Cane Toads have been featured prominently in the news this summer, and were responsible failed. Experts believe that the invasive Cane Toads found in Florida today were introduced when a shipment of 100 toads from Colombia, intended for the pet trade, escaped at the Miami Air- port in 1955

  4. Can high quality cane be delivered to the mill economically

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cane quality is becoming increasingly important to the Louisiana sugarcane industry, with some processors offering premiums for high quality cane. Using a Cameco® 3500, we tested ground speeds of 2.5, 3.0, and 3.5 mph and fan speeds of 650, 850, and 1050 rpm. Ground speed had no effect on can...

  5. Haygrazers and Canes for South Texas 

    E-print Network

    Livingston, Stephen; Bade, David H.; Dorsett, Donald J.

    2001-02-22

    after emergence. Grazers may also be planted in the fall for quick forage production. Hybrid Selection. ?Redtop Cane: This is a sorghum-cross also known as Early Sumac. It provides lots of bulk and is moderately fast in growth, but it has prussic acid... lots of bulk with very fast production. Sorghum Almum is basically an annual, but it is a very weak perennial in growth habit and has limited rhizomes. ?Hybrid Pearl Millet: This hybrid will resist yellowing (more iron-efficient plant), while being...

  6. 4. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Furnace doer for sugar ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Furnace doer for sugar boiling range. Manufactured by Honolulu Iron Works, Honolulu, 1879. Cost: $15.30. View: the furnace for the sugar boiling range was stoked from outside of the east wall of the boiling house. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  7. Lightweight Acoustic Classification for Cane-Toad Thanh Dang and Nirupama Bulusu

    E-print Network

    Bulusu, Nirupama

    Lightweight Acoustic Classification for Cane-Toad Monitoring Thanh Dang and Nirupama Bulusu.hu@csiro.au Abstract--We propose a light weight algorithm to classify cane- toads, a non-native invasive amphibian application motivating our work is the detection of cane-toads in northern Australia. The cane-toad, a non

  8. Sugars as Affinity Ligands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Posettihalli R. Satish; Avadhesha Surolia

    \\u000a Protein-carbohydrate recognition is reported to be involved in an array of molecular events encompassing the subcellular,\\u000a cellular and extracellular levels, in both general physiology and pathology [1]. Among proteins that interact with carbohydrates, the ones with their sugar-binding sites located in deep clefts form the\\u000a Group I family of carbohydrate-binding proteins (CBPs). Enzymes which act on sugars as substrates, carbohydrate-specific

  9. Facts and myths about sugar.

    PubMed

    Anderson, G H

    1991-09-01

    There is now considerable evidence that the concern about sugar consumption as reflected by the media in the 1970s was misplaced. Knowledge of sugar consumption has led to the conclusion that current consumption levels are consistent with the achievement of healthful diets. The myths surrounding sugar and health, including the myth that sugar causes hyperactivity, are slow to disappear. Because these myths are misleading and harmful, nutrition educators need to continue to place sugar in the diet in perspective. PMID:1807277

  10. Application of membrane and ozonation technologies to remove color from agro-industry effluents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Koyuncu; M. F. Sevimli; I. Ozturk; A. F. Aydin

    The results of membrane and ozonation experiments carried out on various agro-industry effluents including fermentation (baker's yeast), corrugated board, opium alkaloid and textile dying industries are presented. The experiments were performed using lab-scale membrane and ozonation reactors. Color removals were in the range of 80 to 99% for the membrane treatment studies. Ozonation experiments have shown that color removals in

  11. Single cell oil production by Gordonia sp. DG using agro-industrial wastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mona K. Gouda; Sanaa H. Omar; Linda M. Aouad

    2008-01-01

    Lipid accumulation by Gordonia sp. DG using sodium gluconate as carbon source in comparison with Rhodococcus opacus PD630 was studied. Maximum lipid content 80% was observed at the beginning of the stationary phase for R. opacus and 72% at the end of stationary phase for Gordonia sp. Different agro-industrial wastes were used as carbon source. The cells of the two

  12. The potential of agro-industrial residues for production of biogas and electricity in Tanzania

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amelia K. Kivaisi; M. S. T. Rubindamayugi

    1996-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the energy demands in Tanzania, and highlights the current serious shortage of electricity. Government strategy to alleviate the problem include exploitation of the country's big natural gas reserves for power generation, and utilization of the renewable energies such as solar, wind and biogas. Important agro-industrial residues with a large potential for anaerobic conversion into

  13. Potential production of energy cane for fuel in the Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Samuels, G.

    1984-08-01

    Sugarcane grown as energy cane presents a new potential to the Caribbean countries to provide their own energy needs and to reduce or eliminate fuel oil imports. The use of proper agronomic techniques can convert conventional sugarcane growing to a crop capable of giving energy feedstocks in the form of fiber for boiler fuel for electricity and fermentable solids for alcohol for motor fuel. Sugarcane can still be obtained from the energy cane for domestic consumption and export if desired. The aerable land now devoted to sugarcane can utilized for energy-cane production without causing any serious imbalance in food crop production.

  14. FTIR characterization of Mexican honey and its adulteration with sugar syrups by using chemometric methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rios-Corripio, M. A.; Rios-Leal, E.; Rojas-López, M.; Delgado-Macuil, R.

    2011-01-01

    A chemometric analysis of adulteration of Mexican honey by sugar syrups such as corn syrup and cane sugar syrup was realized. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to measure the absorption of a group of bee honey samples from central region of Mexico. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to process FTIR spectra to determine the adulteration of bee honey. In addition to that, the content of individual sugars from honey samples: glucose, fructose, sucrose and monosaccharides was determined by using PLS-FTIR analysis validated by HPLC measurements. This analytical methodology which is based in infrared spectroscopy and chemometry can be an alternative technique to characterize and also to determine the purity and authenticity of nutritional products as bee honey and other natural products.

  15. 10. Side view of cane mill looking NW with steam ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Side view of cane mill looking NW with steam engine in background. - Hacienda Azucarera La Esperanza, Steam Engine & Mill, 2.65 Mi. N of PR Rt. 2 Bridge over Manati River, Manati, Manati Municipio, PR

  16. Biological nitrogen fixation in sugar cane: A key to energetically viable biofuel production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Boddey

    1995-01-01

    The advantages of producing biofuels to replace fossil energy sources are derived from the fact that the energy accumulated in the biomass in captured directly from photosynthesis and is thus renewable, and that the cycle of carbon dioxide fixation by the crop, followed by burning of the fuel makes no overall contribution to atmospheric COâ or, consequently, to global warming.

  17. Enhancement of enzymatic hydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse by steam explosion pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Kling, S.H.; Neto, C.C.; Ferrara, M.A.; Torres, J.C.R.; Magalhaes, D.B.; Ryu, D.D.Y.

    1987-01-01

    In this study, the possibility of applying a steam explosion pretreatment process to sugarcane bagasse was investigated, and the effectiveness of the pretreatment in terms of hemicellulose solubilization and enhancement of enzymatic hydrolysis was determined. The steam requirement for the pretreatment was also investigated at the pilot-plant scale, and these results are presented.

  18. A simple rule for bioenergy conversion plant size optimisation: Bioethanol from sugar cane and sweet sorghum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. H. Nguyen; R. G. H. Prince

    1996-01-01

    Fuel ethanol from agricultural crops, “bioethanol”, is more expensive than petrol. Here we consider ways to reduce ethanol costs, by using mixed crops to extend the processing season and by optimising plant capacity. We derive a simple model of general applicability by balancing crop transport costs (which increase with plant size) against the (decreasing) production costs. We show that at

  19. [Influence of substrate concentration on PHA production using fermented sugar cane as substrate].

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi-Qiang; Deng, Yi; Huang, Long; Wen, Qin-Xue; Guo, Zi-Rui

    2013-06-01

    PHA was a kind of biodegradable polymer produced by mixed microorganisms. In recent years, 3-stage PHA synthesis process (including substrate hydrolysis, culture selection, and PHA synthesis) was commonly used for PHA production. In this kind of process, culture selection is the key stage, which directly affects the PHA production efficiency. In order to deal with sludge bulking occurred in the culture selection system, this paper analyzes the influence of substrate concentration on culture selection efficiency as well as operation stability. Under different influent substrate concentrations of 560 mg x L(-1), 1 120 mg x L(-1) and 1 680 mg x L(-1), we confirmed that influent substrate concentration (COD) of 1 120 mg x L(-1) is the most suitable parameter for the bacteria enriching process after a long period of time under short SRT. After 94 days of cultivation, we achieved 50% of PHA content, 0.7145 COD/COD of PHA conversion rate and 0.191 2 mg x (mg x h)(-1) of specific PHA storage rate at the end of batch tests with nutrient starvation. The study also confirmed that glycogen level in cells has a close relationship with its PHA synthesis ability, which shows its potential to predict the enrichment efficiency. PMID:23947047

  20. Photolysis of Atrazine and Ametryne Herbicides in Barbados Sugar Cane Plantation Soils and Water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dena W. McMartin; John V. Headley; Beverley P. Wood; Jon A. Gillies

    2003-01-01

    The photodegradation kinetics of atrazine (2?chloro?6?(ethylamino)?4?isopropylamino?1,3,5?triazine) and ametryne (2?methylthio?4?ethylamino?6?isopropylamino?s?triazine), in fresh and coastal salt water from Barbados, were measured under irradiation with artificial solar and UV254?radiation. The first?order rate constants were greater for ametryne than for atrazine, and the rates were reduced in seawater relative to fresh water, and in soil slurries relative to fresh water. However, rates were accelerated

  1. 1. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill: oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill: one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Historical view, 1934, from T.T. Waterman collection, Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association. Large rectangular piece lying in front of the mill is the top of the mill frame appearing in its proper place in 1928 views. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  2. Converting sugars to sugar alcohols by aqueous phase catalytic hydrogenation

    DOEpatents

    Elliott, Douglas C. (Richland, WA); Werpy, Todd A. (West Richland, WA); Wang, Yong (Richland, WA); Frye, Jr., John G. (Richland, WA)

    2003-05-27

    The present invention provides a method of converting sugars to their corresponding sugar alcohols by catalytic hydrogenation in the aqueous phase. It has been found that surprisingly superior results can be obtained by utilizing a relatively low temperature (less than 120.degree. C.), selected hydrogenation conditions, and a hydrothermally stable catalyst. These results include excellent sugar conversion to the desired sugar alcohol, in combination with long life under hydrothermal conditions.

  3. Detection of adulteration in honey samples added various sugar syrups with 13C/12C isotope ratio analysis method.

    PubMed

    Tosun, Murat

    2013-06-01

    Honey can be adulterated in various ways. One of the adulteration methods is the addition of different sugar syrups during or after honey production. Starch-based sugar syrups, high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), glucose syrup (GS) and saccharose syrups (SS), which are produced from beet or canes, can be used for adulterating honey. In this study, adulterated honey samples were prepared with the addition of HFCS, GS and SS (beet sugar) at a ratio of 0%, 10%, 20%, 40% and 50% by weight. (13)C/(12)C analysis was conducted on these adulterated honey samples using an isotope ratio mass spectrometer in combination with an elemental analyser (EA-IRMS). As a result, adulteration using C(4) sugar syrups (HFCS and GS) could be detected to a certain extent while adulteration of honey using C(3) sugar syrups (beet sugar) could not be detected. Adulteration by using SS (beet sugar) still has a serious detection problem, especially in countries in which beet is used in manufacturing sugar. For this reason, practice and analysis methods are needed to meet this deficit and to detect the adulterations precisely in the studies that will be conducted. PMID:23411291

  4. Low blood sugar symptoms (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nervousness and irritability are signs that a person's blood sugar is getting dangerously low. A person showing any of these symptoms should check their blood sugar. If the level is low (70 mg/dl), ...

  5. Sugars tied to the spot 

    E-print Network

    Flitsch, Sabine L; Ulijn, Rein V

    2003-01-16

    The interactions of sugars and proteins underlie many biological processes, and cataloguing them is a daunting task. A technique for attaching sugars to microarrays offers a promising, high-throughput solution.

  6. Sugar beet traditional breeding.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With rapidly changing agricultural practices, target environments, and biotic and abiotic stresses, plant breeders face the task of continually selecting plants with desirable traits with the goal to assemble advantageous combinations of genes in new varieties. Sugar beet has been selectively bred s...

  7. The Maple Sugar Festival

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Basil

    1978-01-01

    Describing the Iroquoi's Maple Sugar Festival, this article details the symbolism of renewal, becoming, and regeneration celebrated by the Iroquoi as the sap from the maple trees begins to flow each year. The symbolic role of woman, the sweet sap itself, and man's fellow creatures are described. (JC)

  8. 19 CFR 151.30 - Sugar closets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sugar closets. 151.30 Section 151.30 Customs...EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.30 Sugar closets. Sugar closets for...

  9. 19 CFR 151.30 - Sugar closets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sugar closets. 151.30 Section 151.30 Customs...EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.30 Sugar closets. Sugar closets for...

  10. 19 CFR 151.30 - Sugar closets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sugar closets. 151.30 Section 151.30 Customs...EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.30 Sugar closets. Sugar closets for...

  11. 19 CFR 151.30 - Sugar closets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sugar closets. 151.30 Section 151.30 Customs...EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.30 Sugar closets. Sugar closets for...

  12. SCIENTIFIC NAME Acer saccharum (sugar),

    E-print Network

    Aukema, Brian

    1 LIFE FORM Tree PART USED Sap SCIENTIFIC NAME Acer saccharum (sugar), Acer saccharinum (silver de arce MAPLE SYRUP S & S(Saps & Syrups)SPRING Above: Sugar bush, family style. Below left, Maine, Wisconsin and Pennsylvania. Maple sap is used to produce syrup, cream and sugar. HARVEST

  13. 7, 57695803, 2007 sugar-alcohols in

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 7, 5769­5803, 2007 Sugars and sugar-alcohols in ambient aerosols in Norway K. E. Yttri et al Chemistry and Physics Discussions Ambient aerosol concentrations of sugars and sugar-alcohols at four Sugars and sugar-alcohols in ambient aerosols in Norway K. E. Yttri et al. Title Page Abstract

  14. Pilot-scale study of efficient vermicomposting of agro-industrial wastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vaidyanathan Vinoth Kumar; M. Shanmugaprakash; J. Aravind; S. Karthick Raja Namasivayam

    2012-01-01

    Pilot-scale vermicomposting was explored using Eudrilus eugeniae for 90 days with 45 days preliminary decomposition using different agro-industrial wastes as substrates. Spent wash and pressmud were mixed together (referred to as PS) and then combined with cow dung (CD) at five different ratios of PS:CD, namely, 25:75 (T1), 50:50 (T2), 75:25 (T3), 85:15 (T4) and 100 (T5), with two replicates

  15. Efficient Feature Selection for PTR-MS Fingerprinting of Agroindustrial Products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pablo M. Granitto; Franco Biasioli; Cesare Furlanello; Flavia Gasperi

    2008-01-01

    We recently introduced the Random Forest - Recursive Feature Elimination (RF-RFE) algorithm for feature selection. In this\\u000a paper we apply it to the identification of relevant features in the spectra (fingerprints) produced by Proton Transfer Reaction\\u000a - Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) analysis of four agro-industrial products (two datasets with cultivars of Berries and other two\\u000a with typical cheeses, all from North

  16. Chemistry of pseudo-sugars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tetsuo Suami

    “Pseudo-sugar” is the name of a class of compounds in which a ring-oxygen of a hexopyranoid sugar is replaced by a methylene\\u000a group. There are thirty-two theoretically possible stereoisomers in the pseudo-sugar family, including anomer-like compounds.\\u000a The first pseudo-sugar was synthesized by G. E. McCasland and his coworkers in 1966. The most accessible starting material\\u000a for the synthesis of pseudo-sugars

  17. Formulation of an alginate-vineyard pruning waste composite as a new eco-friendly adsorbent to remove micronutrients from agroindustrial effluents.

    PubMed

    Vecino, X; Devesa-Rey, R; Moldes, A B; Cruz, J M

    2014-09-01

    The cellulosic fraction of vineyard pruning waste (free of hemicellulosic sugars) was entrapped in calcium alginate beads and evaluated as an eco-friendly adsorbent for the removal of different nutrients and micronutrients (Mg, P, Zn, K, N-NH4, SO4, TN, TC and PO4) from an agroindustrial effluent (winery wastewater). Batch adsorption studies were performed by varying the amounts of cellulosic adsorbent (0.5-2%), sodium alginate (1-5%) and calcium chloride (0.05-0.9M) included in the biocomposite. The optimal formulation of the adsorbent composite varied depending on the target contaminant. Thus, for the adsorption of cationic contaminants (Mg, Zn, K, N-NH4 and TN), the best mixture comprised 5% sodium alginate, 0.05M calcium chloride and 0.5% cellulosic vineyard pruning waste, whereas for removal of anionic compounds (P, SO4 and PO4), the optimal mixture comprised 1% sodium alginate, 0.9M calcium chloride and 0.5% cellulosic vineyard pruning waste. To remove TC from the winery wastewater, the optimal mixture comprised 3% of sodium alginate, 0.475M calcium chloride and 0.5% cellulosic vineyard pruning waste. PMID:24997896

  18. Sediment-transport characteristics of Cane Creek, Lauderdale County, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carey, W.P.

    1993-01-01

    An investigation of the sediment-transport characteristics of Cane Creek in Lauderdale County, Tennessee, was conducted from 1985-88 to evaluate the potential for channel erosion induced by modifications (realignment and enlargement) and the potential ability of different flows to move bed and bank stabilizing material. Frequently occurring flows in Cane Creek are capable of moving sand-size material (0.0625 - 4.0 millimeters). During floods that equal or exceed the 2-year flood, Cane Creek is capable of moving very coarse gravel (32 - 64 millimeters). Boundary-shear values at bridges, where flow contractions occur, correspond to critical diameters in excess of 100 millimeters. Thus, the areas near bridges, where channel stability is most critical, are the areas where erosive power is greatest. Deepening and widening of Cane Creek has exposed large areas of channel boundary that are a significant source of raindrop-detached sediment during the early stages of a storm before stream flow increases signifi- cantly. This causes suspended-sediment concentration to peak while the flow hydrograph is just beginning to rise. For basins like Cane Creek, where runoff events commonly last less than a day and where variation in discharge and sediment concentrations are large, an estimate of sediment yield based on periodic observations of instantaneous values is subject to considerable uncertainty.

  19. Pyrolysis of Table Sugar

    PubMed Central

    Karagöz, Selhan

    2013-01-01

    Table sugars were pyrolyzed at different temperatures (300, 400, and 500°C) in a fixed-bed reactor. The effect of pyrolysis temperature on yields of liquid, solid, and gaseous products was investigated. As expected the yield of liquid products gradually increased and the yield of solid products gradually decreased when the pyrolysis temperature was raised. The yield of liquid products was greatest (52?wt%) at 500°C. The composition of bio-oils extracted with diethyl ether was identified by means of gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The following compounds were observed in bio-oils produced from the pyrolysis of table sugar at 500°C: 1,4:3,6-dianhydro-?-d-glucopyranose, 5-(hydroxymethyl) furfural, 5-acetoxymethyl-2-furaldehyde, and cyclotetradecane liquid product. The relative concentration of 5-(hydroxymethyl) furfural was the highest in bio-oils obtained from pyrolysis of table sugars at 500°C. PMID:24223500

  20. Starches, Sugars and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Aller, Erik E. J. G.; Abete, Itziar; Astrup, Arne; Martinez, J. Alfredo; van Baak, Marleen A.

    2011-01-01

    The rising prevalence of obesity, not only in adults but also in children and adolescents, is one of the most important public health problems in developed and developing countries. As one possible way to tackle obesity, a great interest has been stimulated in understanding the relationship between different types of dietary carbohydrate and appetite regulation, body weight and body composition. The present article reviews the conclusions from recent reviews and meta-analyses on the effects of different starches and sugars on body weight management and metabolic disturbances, and provides an update of the most recent studies on this topic. From the literature reviewed in this paper, potential beneficial effects of intake of starchy foods, especially those containing slowly-digestible and resistant starches, and potential detrimental effects of high intakes of fructose become apparent. This supports the intake of whole grains, legumes and vegetables, which contain more appropriate sources of carbohydrates associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular and other chronic diseases, rather than foods rich in sugars, especially in the form of sugar-sweetened beverages. PMID:22254101

  1. Cane-toad Monitoring in Kakadu National Park Using Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-print Network

    Bulusu, Nirupama

    Cane-toad Monitoring in Kakadu National Park Using Wireless Sensor Networks Saurabh Shukla School This paper considers the problem of monitoring cane toads in Kakadu National Park using a large scale wireless sen- sor network deployment. Cane toads were mistakenly intro- duced in Australia in 1935

  2. Travelling waves for the cane toads equation with bounded traits. Emeric Bouin

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Travelling waves for the cane toads equation with bounded traits. Emeric Bouin Vincent Calvez-diffusion-mutation model describing the invasion of cane toads in Australia [28]. The population of toads is structured phenomena in a model for the invasion of cane toads in Australia, proposed in [4]. It is a structured

  3. Assessment of Virally Vectored Autoimmunity as a Biocontrol Strategy for Cane Toads

    E-print Network

    Gray, Matthew

    Assessment of Virally Vectored Autoimmunity as a Biocontrol Strategy for Cane Toads Jackie A Background: The cane toad, Bufo (Chaunus) marinus, is one of the most notorious vertebrate pests introduced, but carried a gene to disrupt the cane toad life cycle in a species specific manner. Methodology

  4. Design and Evaluation of a Hybrid Sensor Network for Cane Toad Monitoring

    E-print Network

    Bulusu, Nirupama

    4 Design and Evaluation of a Hybrid Sensor Network for Cane Toad Monitoring WEN HU Commonwealth the populations of native frogs and the invasive introduced species, the cane toad. This is a challenging on improving the lifetime of the sensor network for cane toad monitoring through harvesting-aware sensor duty

  5. The Design and Evaluation of a Hybrid Sensor Network For Cane-toad Monitoring

    E-print Network

    Bulusu, Nirupama

    The Design and Evaluation of a Hybrid Sensor Network For Cane-toad Monitoring Wen Hu, Van Nghia frogs and the invasive introduced species, the Cane Toad (see Fig. 1). This is a challenging application complexity. Fig. 1. The Cane Toad and its 2003 Australian distribution. I. INTRODUCTION This paper explores

  6. Demo Abstract: A Hybrid Sensor Network for Cane-toad Nirupama Bulusu

    E-print Network

    Bulusu, Nirupama

    Demo Abstract: A Hybrid Sensor Network for Cane-toad Monitoring Wen Hu Nirupama Bulusu Chun Tung frogs and the invasive in- troduced species, the Cane Toad (see Fig. 1). This is a challenging, Design, Experimentation Keywords: Sensor Networks, Hybrid, Application Figure 1: The Cane Toad and its

  7. Travelling waves for the cane toads equation with bounded traits. Emeric Bouin

    E-print Network

    Calvez, Vincent

    Travelling waves for the cane toads equation with bounded traits. Emeric Bouin Vincent Calvez June describing the invasion of cane toads in Australia [30]. The population of toads is structured by a space phenomena in a model for the invasion of cane toads in Australia, proposed in [5]. It is a structured

  8. San Sebastián: the social and political effects of sugar mill closure in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Powell, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    Mexico's sugar mills face an uncertain future: the closure of San Sebastián may well presage others if the climate for sugar production on national and international levels does not improve. While the continued squeezing of small cane producers reflects processes affecting peasant agriculture generally in Mexico, and indeed beyond, the fate of the mill workers made redundant when the mill closed similarly mirrors broad tendencies in labor in both the developed and developing world under neoliberalism. Former workers fell back upon personal, family, and community resources by migrating to the U.S. or locally reconstructing livelihoods characterized by a reduction in income, security, and access to social benefits. This article reports on the impact of the mill closure on the livelihoods of former mill worker families in the community of San Sebastián and offers some observations on their responses to the situation. PMID:17434857

  9. Utilization of Agro-industrial Wastes for the Simultaneous Production of Amylase and Xylanase by Thermophilic Actinomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Renu; Kapoor, Vishal; Kumar, Vijay

    2012-01-01

    Agro-industrial wastes such as sugarcane bagasse, wheat bran, rice bran, corn cob and wheat straw are cheapest and abundantly available natural carbon sources. The present study was aimed to production of amylase and xylanase simultaneously using agro-industrial waste as the sole carbon source. Seven thermophilic strains of actinomycete were isolated from the mushroom compost. Among of these, strain designated MSC702 having high potential to utilize agro-industrial wastes for the production of amylase and xylanase. Strain MSC702 was identified as novel species of Streptomyces through morphological characterization and 16S rRNA gene sequence. Enzyme production was determined using 1% (w/v) of various agro-industrial waste in production medium containing (g/100mL): K2HPO4 (0.1), (NH4)2SO4 (0.1), NaCl (0.1), MgSO4 (0.1) at pH 7.0 after incubation of 48 h at 50°C. The amylase activity (373.89 IU/mL) and xylanase activity (30.15 IU/mL) was maximum in rice bran. The decreasing order of amylase and xylanase activity in different type of agro-industrial wastes were found rice bran (RB) > corn cob (CC) > wheat bran (WB) > wheat straw (WS) > sugarcane bagasse (SB) and rice bran (RB) > wheat bran (WB) > wheat straw (WS) > sugarcane bagasse (SB) > corn cob (CC), respectively. Mixed effect of different agro-industrial wastes was examined in different ratios. Enzyme yield of amylase and xylanase was ~1.3 and ~2.0 fold higher with RB: WB in 1:2 ratio. PMID:24031986

  10. A hybrid sensor network for cane-toad monitoring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wen Hu; Nirupama Bulusu; Chun Tung Chou; Sanjay Jha; Andrew Taylor; Van Nghia Tran

    2005-01-01

    This demonstration shows a wireless, acoustic sensor network application--- monitoring amphibian populations in the monsoonal woodlands of northern Australia. Our system uses automatic recognition of animal vocalizations to census the populations of native frogs and the invasive introduced species, the Cane Toad (see Fig. 1). This is a challenging application because it requires high frequency acoustic sampling, complex signal processing

  11. Assessing the Potential Impact of Cane Toads on Australian Snakes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BEN L. PHILLIPS; GREGORY P. BROWN; RICHARD SHINE

    2003-01-01

    Cane toads (Bufo marinus) are large, highly toxic anurans that were introduced into Australia in 1937. Anecdotal reports suggest that the invasion of toads into an area is followed by dramatic declines in the abundance of terrestrial native frog-eating predators, but quantitative studies have been restricted to nonpredator taxa or aquatic predators and have generally reported minimal impacts. Will toads

  12. Active reliable multicast on CANEs: a case study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Sanders; M. Keaton; S. Bhattacharjee; K. Calvert; S. Zabele; E. Zegura

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a case study in implementing a moderately complex, useful service on an active network platform. The active application is reliable multicast with congestion control; the platform comprises the Bowman Node Operating System and the Composable Active Network Elements (CANEs) Execution Environment. The importance of the work stems from the lessons it provides about the design and implementation

  13. Mechanical planter update: 2007 Bayou Teche test plant cane results

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mechanization of cane planting has been somewhat limited, due to the fact that the entire 4-5 ft stalk must be planted horizontally in the seedbed. Several modifications were made to mechanical planters by a grower cooperator. To test the modifications, a replicated field trial was planted on Augus...

  14. 'SMART' CANE FOR THE VISUALLY IMPAIRED: TECHNOLOGICAL SOLUTIONS FOR DETECTING

    E-print Network

    Banerjee, Subhashis

    'SMART' CANE FOR THE VISUALLY IMPAIRED: TECHNOLOGICAL SOLUTIONS FOR DETECTING KNEE-ABOVE OBSTACLES detection range, and (ii) User-triggered bus identification and homing system using radio-frequency (RF. User-Triggered Bus Identification and Homing System This device consists of two modules: (i) User

  15. Structured Discovery in Cane Travel: Constructivism in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maurer, Matthew M.; Bell, Edward C.; Woods, Eric; Allen, Roland

    2006-01-01

    There is a general sense today that constructivist teaching is not up to the task of preparing students for high-stakes exams. In this article, the authors describe a highly effective constructivist approach used to teach students in a learning situation that takes the meaning of "high stakes" to another level. They talk about teachers of "cane

  16. Smoking, caning, and delinquency in a secondary modern school.

    PubMed

    Palmer, J W

    2015-02-01

    This study was designed in 1962 to investigate the reformative effect of a particular punishment (caning) for a particular offence (smoking by schoolboys). In 1964, in the course of a larger study of juvenile offences, delinquency records were obtained from the police, and the relationship between smoking and delinquency is also discussed in this paper. PMID:25599693

  17. Mechanism study of sugar and sugar alcohol hydrogenolysis using 1,3-diol model compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keyi Wang; Martin C. Hawley; Todd D. Furney

    1995-01-01

    Knowledge of the bond cleavage mechanism governing sugar and sugar alcohol hydrogenolysis is important to control of the selectivity of sugar and sugar alcohol hydrogenolysis. Previous work by others has resulted in the suggestion of a variety of mechanisms to explain the C{single_bond}C cleavage in sugar and sugar alcohol hydrogenolysis, and has not provided any definitive evidence to elucidate either

  18. Biotechnology Applications for Sugar Beet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ekrem Gurel; Songul Gurel; Peggy G. Lemaux

    2008-01-01

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is an important industrial crop, being one of only two plant sources from which sucrose (i.e., sugar) can be economically produced. Despite its relatively short period of cultivation (ca. 200 years), its yield and quality parameters have been significantly improved by conventional breeding methods. However, during the last two decades or so, advanced in vitro

  19. Usual Intake of Added sugars

    Cancer.gov

    Usual Intake of Added sugars Table A40. Added sugars: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 teaspoons3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 9.4 (0.31) 3.1 (0.17) 4.1

  20. Using Math With Maple Sugaring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christenson, Gary

    1984-01-01

    Suggest several math activities using the simple technique of tapping a sugar maple tree for sap. Information and activities presented are useful in tapping one or two trees on school property, helping students who tap trees at home, or leading a field trip to a nearby maple sugaring site. (ERB)

  1. 7 CFR 58.934 - Sugars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sugars. 58.934 Section 58.934 Agriculture ...Quality Specifications for Raw Materials § 58.934 Sugars. Any sugar used in the manufacture of sweetened condensed or...

  2. 7 CFR 58.934 - Sugars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sugars. 58.934 Section 58.934 Agriculture ...Quality Specifications for Raw Materials § 58.934 Sugars. Any sugar used in the manufacture of sweetened condensed or...

  3. 7 CFR 58.934 - Sugars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sugars. 58.934 Section 58.934 Agriculture ...Quality Specifications for Raw Materials § 58.934 Sugars. Any sugar used in the manufacture of sweetened condensed or...

  4. 7 CFR 58.934 - Sugars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sugars. 58.934 Section 58.934 Agriculture ...Quality Specifications for Raw Materials § 58.934 Sugars. Any sugar used in the manufacture of sweetened condensed or...

  5. 7 CFR 58.934 - Sugars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sugars. 58.934 Section 58.934 Agriculture ...Quality Specifications for Raw Materials § 58.934 Sugars. Any sugar used in the manufacture of sweetened condensed or...

  6. Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Kagami, Hiroyo; Kurata, Masayuki; Matsuhira, Hiroaki; Taguchi, Kazunori; Mikami, Tetsuo; Tamagake, Hideto; Kubo, Tomohiko

    2015-01-01

    Creating transgenic plants is invaluable for the genetic analysis of sugar beet and will be increasingly important as sugar beet genomic technologies progress. A protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of sugar beet is described in this chapter. Our protocol is optimized for a sugar beet genotype that performs exceptionally well in tissue culture, including the steps of dedifferentiation, callus proliferation, and regeneration. Because of the infrequent occurrence of such a genotype in sugar beet populations, our protocol includes an in vitro propagation method for germplasm preservation. The starting materials for transgenic experiments are aseptic shoots grown from surface-sterilized seed balls. Callus is induced from leaf explants and subsequently infected with Agrobacterium. Plantlets are regenerated from transgenic callus and vernalized for flowering, if necessary. The efficiency of transformation was quite high; in our laboratory, the culture of only ten leaf explants, on average, generated one transgenic plant. PMID:25300853

  7. 35. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Bevel gear at lower end of vertical drive shaft in foreground turned bevel gear of top roll when the vertical drive shaft was in place in the brass-bearing socket in the middle ground of the photograph. The bolts above the top roll and at the side of the two bottom rolls adjusted the pressure and position of the rolls' brass bearings. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  8. Methods for documenting historical agro-industrial buildings: a comparative study and a simple photogrammetric method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Arias; C. Ordóñez; H. Lorenzo; J. Herraez

    2006-01-01

    As an important element in the cultural heritage of a people, traditional rural constructions need to be conserved over time. Graphic and metric documentation methods play a key role in the preservation of cultural heritage. In this paper different existing methods of graphic and metric documentation are analysed in order to select the most suitable for the documentation of agro-industrial

  9. Cultivation of filamentous cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) in agro-industrial wastes and wastewaters: A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giorgos Markou; Dimitris Georgakakis

    2011-01-01

    Recently research interest has focused on the production of biofuel from microalgae. Microalgae are photosynthetic microorganisms that grow utilizing solar energy, nevertheless, the quantities of fertilizers that should be used for their production are enormous. One alternative to the use of synthetic fertilizers is to employ wastes and wastewaters (W&WWs), especially from the agro-industrial sector which are rich in inorganic

  10. Regulating the Oil Palm Boom: Assessing the Effectiveness of Environmental Governance Approaches to Agroindustrial Pollution in Indonesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOHN MCCARTHY; ZAHARI ZEN

    2010-01-01

    The large environmental impacts associated with agro-industrial development in Indonesia are both striking and increasingly important, especially with increased demand for biofuels and the rapid extension of oil palm plantations. Recently, Indonesia has also seen a series of transformations in the regulatory regime for pollution control with decentralization and a shift towards new environmental policy instruments. This article considers the

  11. Efficiency of ammonia and phosphorus removal from a colombian agroindustrial wastewater by the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus dimorphus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luz Estela González; Rosa Olivia Cañizares; Sandra Baena

    1997-01-01

    The ammonia and phosphorus removal efficiencies of the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus dimorphus, during biotreatment of secondary effluent from an agroindustrial wastewater of a dairy industry and pig farming, were evaluated. The microalgae were isolated from a wastewater stabilization pond near Santafé de Bogotá, Colombia. Batch cultures were made using both species in 4-1 cylindrical glass bioreactors each containing

  12. Monitoring Blood Sugar: The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the diabetes management team to see patterns and trends. This will help you and your child better understand the link between food, exercise, and blood sugar levels, and also help you and the health ...

  13. The Ups and Downs of Blood Sugar

    E-print Network

    13090 60 180 The Ups and Downs of Blood Sugar You need just the right amount of sugar in your their blood sugar under control. l Whenyoufirstwakeupinthemorning,beforeyoueat breakfast,yourbloodsugarshouldbebetween90 and 30. l Try to keep your blood sugar between 90 and 30 as much of the time as possible. #12

  14. Dehydration Processes of Sugar Glasses and Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Jeong-Ah; Kwon, Hyun-Joung; Kim, Hyung Kook; Hwang, Yoon-Hwae

    2006-05-01

    The dehydration processes of sugar glasses and sugar crystals were studied by using Thermogravimetry — Differential Thermal Analysis method. We used three monosaccharide sugars (fructose, galactose, and glucose) and three disaccharide sugars (sucrose, maltose and trehalose). It was found that a trehalose showed different dehydration process compared to the other sugars. The amount of mass reductions in sugar glasses is larger than that in sugar crystals. However, in the case of trehalose, the amount of mass reduction in trehalose glasses is smaller than that in trehalose crystals. It seems to be possible that this unique dehydration property of trehalose glasses maybe relate to the cell protection ability during an anhydrobiosis process.

  15. Sugar Competition Results Discussion Future Sugar: A SAT-based CSP Solver

    E-print Network

    Banbara, Mutsunori

    Sugar Competition Results Discussion Future . . . .. . . Sugar: A SAT-based CSP Solver --Results Kobe University, Japan April 1, 2009 Naoyuki Tamura, Tomoya Tanjo, Mutsunori Banbara Sugar: A SAT-based CSP Solver --Results summary of #12;Sugar Competition Results Discussion Future Outline .. Sugar CSP

  16. Partial Optimization of Endo-1, 4-?-Xylanase Production by Aureobasidium pullulans Using Agro-Industrial Residues

    PubMed Central

    Nasr, Shaghayegh; Soudi, Mohammad Reza; Hatef Salmanian, Ali; Ghadam, Parinaz

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s) : Although bacteria and molds are the pioneering microorganisms for production of many enzymes, yet yeasts provide safe and reliable sources of enzymes with applications in food and feed. Materials and Methods: Single xylanase producer yeast was isolated from plant residues based on formation of transparent halo zones on xylan agar plates. The isolate showed much greater endo-1, 4-?-xylanase activity of 2.73 IU/ml after optimization of the initial extrinsic conditions. It was shown that the strain was also able to produce ?-xylosidase (0.179 IU/ml) and ?-arabinofuranosidase (0.063 IU/ml). Identification of the isolate was carried out and the endo-1, 4-?-xylanaseproduction by feeding the yeast cells on agro-industrial residues was optimized using one factor at a time approach. Results: The enzyme producer strain was identified as Aureobasidiumpullulans. Based on the optimization approach, an incubation time of 48 hr at 27°C, inoculum size of 2% (v/v), initial pH value of 4 and agitation rate of 90 rpm were found to be the optimal conditions for achieving maximum yield of the enzyme. Xylan, containing agricultural residues, was evaluated as low-cost alternative carbon source for production of xylanolytic enzymes. The production of xylanase enzyme in media containing wheat bran as the sole carbon source was very similar to that of the medium containing pure beechwoodxylan. Conclusion:This finding indicates the feasibility of growing of A. pullulans strain SN090 on wheat bran as an alternate economical substrate in order for reducing the costs of enzyme production and using this fortified agro-industrial byproduct in formulation of animal feed. PMID:24570830

  17. Techno-economic assessment of integrating methanol or Fischer-Tropsch synthesis in a South African sugar mill.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Abdul M; Farzad, Somayeh; Görgens, Johann F

    2015-05-01

    This study considered an average-sized sugar mill in South Africa that crushes 300 wet tonnes per hour of cane, as a host for integrating methanol and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, through gasification of a combined flow of sugarcane trash and bagasse. Initially, it was shown that the conversion of biomass to syngas is preferably done by catalytic allothermal gasification instead of catalytic autothermal gasification. Thereafter, conventional and advanced synthesis routes for both Methanol and Fischer-Tropsch products were simulated with Aspen Plus® software and compared by technical and economic feasibility. Advanced FT synthesis satisfied the overall energy demands, but was not economically viable for a private investment. Advanced methanol synthesis is also not viable for private investment since the internal rate of return was 21.1%, because it could not provide the steam that the sugar mill required. The conventional synthesis routes had less viability than the corresponding advanced synthesis routes. PMID:25727762

  18. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section...Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup...sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. Under the...

  19. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section...Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup...sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. Under the...

  20. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section...Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup...sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. Under the...

  1. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section...Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup...sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. Under the...

  2. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section...Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup...sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. Under the...

  3. Microbiological Spoilage of High-Sugar Products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sterling Thompson

    \\u000a The high-sugar products discussed in this chapter are referred to as chocolate, sugar confectionery (non-chocolate), liquid\\u000a sugars, sugar syrups, and honey. Products grouped in the sugar confectionery category include hard candy, soft\\/gummy candy,\\u000a caramel, toffee, licorice, marzipan, creams, jellies, and nougats. A common intrinsic parameter associated with high-sugar\\u000a products is their low water activity (a\\u000a w), which is known to

  4. SURVEY OF FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEMS: CANE RUN STATION, LOUISVILLE GAS AND ELECTRIC COMPANY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a survey of operational flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems on coal-fired utility boilers in the U.S. The FGD systems installed on Units 4, 5, and 6 at the Cane Run Station are described in terms of design and performance. The Cane Run No. 4 FGD sys...

  5. A wireless ranging system as an embedded sensor module for the long cane

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Gao; Xiaofeng Cai

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of a ultrasound-based wireless ranging system that is suited for integration into the shaft of a conventional long cane to serve as a travel aid for the blind. The new cane provides distance and height information on overhanging obstacles in the travel path ahead of the user. The system consists of three ultrasonic

  6. Knowledge of and Preferences for Long Cane Components: A Qualitative and Quantitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambrose-Zaken, Grace

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on the various components of long canes and reports on a study of the knowledge and preferences of 100 adults with visual impairments regarding the various components and types of canes. Results indicated that the terrain of a route, weather conditions, mobility demand, and purpose of an outing are important…

  7. Modelling species distributions without using species distributions: the cane toad in Australia under current and future climates

    E-print Network

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    Modelling species distributions without using species distributions: the cane toad in Australia this approach with a major invasive species, the cane toad Bufo marinus in Australia, assessing the direct predictions of the potential for cane toads to expand their range under current and future climate scenarios

  8. One-pot conversions of raffinose into furfural derivatives and sugar alcohols by using heterogeneous catalysts.

    PubMed

    Dabral, Saumya; Nishimura, Shun; Ebitani, Kohki

    2014-01-01

    Inedible and/or waste biomass reserves are being strongly focused upon as a suitable new energy and chemical source. Raffinose, which is an indigestible trisaccharide composed of glucose, galactose, and fructose, is found abundantly in beet molasses, sugar cane, and seeds of many leguminous plants. Herein, we demonstrate the one-pot synthesis of furan derivatives and sugar alcohols from raffinose by using heterogeneous acid, base, and/or metal-supported catalysts. The combination of Amberlyst-15 and hydrotalcite (HT) showed a high activity (37% yield) for 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (HMF) through continuous hydrolysis, isomerization, and dehydration reactions. In addition, the use of a hydrotalcite-supported ruthenium catalyst (Ru/HT) successfully afforded 2,5-diformylfuran (DFF, 27% yield) from HMF produced by raffinose, directly. Moreover, the hydrogenation of hexoses obtained by raffinose hydrolysis into sugar alcohols (galactitol, mannitol, sorbitol) was also achieved in a high yield (91%) with Amberlyst-15 and Ru/HT catalysts. Thus, we suggest that raffinose has great potential for the synthesis of important industrial intermediates under mild reaction conditions. PMID:24193816

  9. Stable carbon isotopic composition of the wine and CO2 bubbles of sparkling wines: detecting C4 sugar additions.

    PubMed

    Martinelli, Luiz A; Moreira, Marcelo Z; Ometto, Jean P H B; Alcarde, André R; Rizzon, Luiz A; Stange, Erik; Ehleringer, James R

    2003-04-23

    Sparkling wines have become a popular beverage in recent years, and the production of these wines is subject to adulteration during fermentation. This study investigated the stable carbon isotopic composition (expressed as delta(13)C) of the wine and of the CO(2) bubbles produced during the second fermentation for a number of sparkling wines produced in different countries around the world. Carbon isotope ratio analyses were used to estimate the addition of sugar obtained from C(4) plants (sugar cane or corn). The average delta(13)C values of the Brazilian brut, demi-sec, and doux sparkling wines were -20.5 +/- 1.2 per thousand (n = 18), -18.1 +/- 1.3 per thousand (n = 9), and -15.8 per thousand (n = 1), respectively. These values were statistically heavier (more positive carbon isotope ratio values) than the average delta(13)C of sparkling wines produced in other parts of South America (Argentina and Chile, -26.1 +/- 1.6 per thousand, n = 5) and Europe (France, Germany, Italy, Portugal, and Spain, -25.5 +/- 1.2 per thousand, n = 12), but not statistically different from sparkling wines produced in the United States or Australia. The most likely explanation for differences in the carbon isotope ratios of wines from these different regions is the addition of C(4) sugar during the production of some sparkling wines from Australia, Brazil, and the United States. The isotopic composition of the CO(2) bubbles (delta(13)C-CO(2)) followed similar trends. The average delta(13)C-CO(2) of most of the Brazilian and Argentine sparkling wines was -10.8 +/- 1.2 per thousand (n = 23), indicating that the likely source of carbon for the second fermentation was sugar cane. Conversely, the average delta(13)C-CO(2) of most of the sparkling wines produced in Chile and Europe was -22.0 +/- 1.2 per thousand (n = 13), suggesting that a different sugar (most likely sugar beet) was most used in the second fermentation. It was concluded that in many cases, the carbon isotope ratios of sparkling wine and CO(2) bubbles can provide valuable information about the sugar sources. PMID:12696948

  10. Mark A. Cane Receives 2013 Maurice Ewing Medal: Citation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philander, S. George

    2014-01-01

    Mark Cane started his career when theories for the ocean circulation were "dreamlike" (in the words of Henry Stommel). He made major contributions to a complete change in those perceptions by producing theoretical results that explain and by developing computer models that simulate realistically the variability of the complex system of tropical currents, undercurrents, and countercurrents. His results served as the basis for the design of several international field programs in the three tropical oceans whose different dimensions and different surface winds provide stringent tests for the results concerning the interactions between the waves and currents that determine how the oceans adjust to changing winds.

  11. Pyrolytic sugars from cellulosic biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzhiyil, Najeeb

    Sugars are the feedstocks for many promising advanced cellulosic biofuels. Traditional sugars derived from starch and sugar crops are limited in their availability. In principle, more plentiful supply of sugars can be obtained from depolymerization of cellulose, the most abundant form of biomass in the world. Breaking the glycosidic bonds between the pyranose rings in the cellulose chain to liberate glucose has usually been pursued by enzymatic hydrolysis although a purely thermal depolymerization route to sugars is also possible. Fast pyrolysis of pure cellulose yields primarily levoglucosan, an anhydrosugar that can be hydrolyzed to glucose. However, naturally occurring alkali and alkaline earth metals (AAEM) in biomass are strongly catalytic toward ring-breaking reactions that favor formation of light oxygenates over anhydrosugars. Removing the AAEM by washing was shown to be effective in increasing the yield of anhydrosugars; but this process involves removal of large amount of water from biomass that renders it energy intensive and thereby impractical. In this work passivation of the AAEM (making them less active or inactive) using mineral acid infusion was explored that will increase the yield of anhydrosugars from fast pyrolysis of biomass. Mineral acid infusion was tried by previous researchers, but the possibility of chemical reactions between infused acid and AAEM in the biomass appears to have been overlooked, possibly because metal cations might be expected to already be substantially complexed to chlorine or other strong anions that are found in biomass. Likewise, it appears that previous researchers assumed that as long as AAEM cations were in the biomass, they would be catalytically active regardless of the nature of their complexion with anions. On the contrary, we hypothesized that AAEM can be converted to inactive or less active salts using mineral acids. Various biomass feedstocks were infused with mineral (hydrochloric, nitric, sulfuric and phosphoric acids) and organic acids (formic and acetic acids) followed by analytical pyrolysis on a micropyrolyzer/GC/MS/FID system. It was found that sulfuric and phosphoric acids are very effective in passivating the AAEM thereby increasing the yield of anhydrosugars. An excellent correlation was discovered between the amount of acid required to obtain the maximum yield of anhydrosugars and the amount of AAEM contained in the biomass feedstock. In the micro-scale studies, up to 56% of the cellulose contained in the biomass was converted into anhydrosugars which is close to the 57% conversion obtained from pure cellulose pyrolysis. It is known that LG polymerization and subsequent charring occur at temperatures above 275°C depending on the vapor pressure of LG in the gas stream. A study of pyrolysis of acid-infused biomass feedstocks at various temperatures revealed that LG recovery is best at lower temperatures than the conventional pyrolysis temperature range of 450-500°C. Pyrolysis of acid-infused biomass failed in a continuous fluidized bed reactor due to clogging of the bed. The feedstock formed vitreous material along with the fluidizing sand that was formed from poor pyrolysis of lignin. However, more investigation of this phenomenon is a subject for future work. Pyrolysis experiments on an auger type reactor were successful in producing bio-oils with unprecedented amounts of sugars. Though there was increase in charring when compared to the control feedstock, pyrolysis of red oak infused with 0.4 wt% of sulfuric acid produced bio-oil with 18wt% of sugars. One of the four fractions of bio-oil collected contained most of the sugars, which shows significant potential for separating the sugars from bio-oil using simple means. This work points towards a new pathway for making advanced biofuels viz. upgrading pyrolytic sugars from biomass that could compete with enzymatic sugars from biomass.

  12. BIOLISTIC TRANSFORMATION OF SUGAR BEET CELL SUSPENSIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nonproprietary sugar beet transformation methods are plagued by low transformation frequencies and lack of reproducibility. In efforts to optimize the methods, we established highly embryogenic sugar beet cell suspension cultures for transformation by the particle bombardment method. Callus obtain...

  13. Carbohydrates: Sucrose p. Carbon Metabolism, Carbohydrates & Sugars

    E-print Network

    Constabel, Peter

    Carbohydrates: Sucrose p. Carbon Metabolism, Carbohydrates & Sugars 1. Introduction and overview on carbohydrate and sugars (handout) Carbohydrate [CHO] = polyhydroxyketones and polyhydroxyaldehydes - two types reducing power - integrated with sucrose and starch synthesis #12;Carbohydrates: Sucrose p. 2 2 Sucrose

  14. ConcepTest: Sugar-Rock Analogy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Water containing dissolved sugar evaporates to leave a deposit of sugar in the bottom of a glass. This could be seen as an analog for the formation of a type of a. igneous rock b. metamorphic rock c. sedimentary ...

  15. Carbohydrates, Sugar, and Your Child

    MedlinePLUS

    ... tend to also be high in calories and low in other valuable nutrients. As a result, a high-sugar diet is often linked with obesity. Eating too many ... Making sure that kids get a balanced, nutritious diet isn't as hard as it may ... fruits, veggies, and low-fat milk and dairy products), stock your home ...

  16. 19 CFR 151.24 - Unlading facilities for bulk sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... false Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. 151.24 Section 151.24 Customs...SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.24 Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. When dutiable sugar is to be...

  17. 19 CFR 151.24 - Unlading facilities for bulk sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... false Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. 151.24 Section 151.24 Customs...SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.24 Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. When dutiable sugar is to be...

  18. 19 CFR 151.24 - Unlading facilities for bulk sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... false Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. 151.24 Section 151.24 Customs...SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.24 Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. When dutiable sugar is to be...

  19. 19 CFR 151.24 - Unlading facilities for bulk sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... false Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. 151.24 Section 151.24 Customs...SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.24 Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. When dutiable sugar is to be...

  20. Reducing Sugar in Children's Diets: Why? How?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Cosby S.; Morris, Sandra S.

    1986-01-01

    Maintains that sugar intake should be reduced in young children's diets because of its link to dental cavities, poor nutrition, and obesity. Reducing the focus on sweetness, limiting sugar consumption, and using natural sources of sweetness and other treats are ways to help reduce sugar intake. (BB)

  1. 27 CFR 24.317 - Sugar record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sugar record. 24.317 Section 24.317...WINE Records and Reports § 24.317 Sugar record. A proprietor who receives, stores, or uses sugar shall maintain a record of receipt...

  2. Original article Nectar sugar production and honeybee

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Nectar sugar production and honeybee foraging activity in 3 species of onion; Nectar sugar content and solute concentration in the nectar of 3 Allium species were determined to assess and A cepa fistulosum there was resorption of nectar sugars after 72 and 144 h of flower opening, whereas

  3. 27 CFR 24.317 - Sugar record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sugar record. 24.317 Section 24.317...WINE Records and Reports § 24.317 Sugar record. A proprietor who receives, stores, or uses sugar shall maintain a record of receipt...

  4. 27 CFR 24.317 - Sugar record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sugar record. 24.317 Section 24.317...WINE Records and Reports § 24.317 Sugar record. A proprietor who receives, stores, or uses sugar shall maintain a record of receipt...

  5. THE SHEARING BEHAVIOUR OF A SUGAR AGGREGATE

    E-print Network

    Bolton, Malcolm

    THE SHEARING BEHAVIOUR OF A SUGAR AGGREGATE Catherine A. Davy1 , M. D. Bolton2 , N. A. Fleck2, UK #12;Abstract To better understand the behaviour of sugar within industrial centrifuges or silos, drained triaxial tests were performed on loose, dry or moist sugar aggregates under low confining

  6. Resugaring: Lifting Evaluation Sequences through Syntactic Sugar

    E-print Network

    Krishnamurthi, Shriram

    Resugaring: Lifting Evaluation Sequences through Syntactic Sugar Justin Pombrio Brown University justinpombrio@cs.brown.edu Shriram Krishnamurthi Brown University sk@cs.brown.edu Abstract Syntactic sugar-specific lan- guages; and even to let programmers extend their language. Un- fortunately, syntactic sugar

  7. Chemical biology Antibacterial sugar-tipped

    E-print Network

    Davis, Ben G.

    Chemical biology Antibacterial sugar-tipped trees J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 4750­4751 (2004) Enzymes proteins in the bacterial cell walls, which bind to sugar (galactose) molecules. Rendle et al. figured on the proteases. Dendrons with two, three or four sugar tips give the enzyme a secure hold, with two tips being

  8. 12 Maple Syrup Digest SUGAR PROFILES

    E-print Network

    Hayden, Nancy J.

    12 Maple Syrup Digest SUGAR PROFILES OF MAPLE SYRUP GRADES Abby van den Berg, Timothy Perkins it is generally accepted that the amount of invert sugar increases with decreasing syrup light transmission (from lighter to darker grades), the composition of sugars within different grades has not been adequately

  9. 27 CFR 24.317 - Sugar record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sugar record. 24.317 Section 24.317...WINE Records and Reports § 24.317 Sugar record. A proprietor who receives, stores, or uses sugar shall maintain a record of receipt...

  10. 27 CFR 24.317 - Sugar record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sugar record. 24.317 Section 24.317...WINE Records and Reports § 24.317 Sugar record. A proprietor who receives, stores, or uses sugar shall maintain a record of receipt...

  11. Acceleration of the Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Corn Stover and Sugar Cane Bagasse Celluloses by Low Intensity Uniform Ultrasound

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cost-competitive production of bio-ethanol and other biofuels is currently impeded, mostly by high cost and low efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of feedstock biomass and especially plant celluloses. Despite substantial reduction in the cost of production of cellulolytic enzymes in recent times...

  12. Effects of some chemical substances on germination, root development, and growth of the stem cuttings of sugar cane 

    E-print Network

    Khan, Mohammad Abdullah

    1953-01-01

    ' u ?H u a) (2 O rH i?1 3 ^ O 11) rH ?H cC & cC 05 ?H O -H c X O

  13. 75 FR 47258 - Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-05

    ...amount to which the United States is committed under the WTO Uruguay Round Agreements. I have further determined that an aggregate...000 MTRV minimum level necessary to comply with U.S. WTO Uruguay Round commitments, of which 1,656 MTRV is reserved for...

  14. 77 FR 55451 - Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ...amount to which the United States is committed under the WTO Uruguay Round Agreements. I have further determined that an aggregate...000 MTRV minimum level necessary to comply with U.S. WTO Uruguay Round commitments, of which 1,656 MTRV is reserved for...

  15. Effects of some chemical substances on germination, root development, and growth of the stem cuttings of sugar cane

    E-print Network

    Khan, Mohammad Abdullah

    1953-01-01

    ! C T3 S 0}8 ?H ?H ?P ?H a) TJ a O?H 6 X> a 6 o oo CV 1-3 \\ T3 a a ? f-i PL,? . J3 o $ ao ?H aVCtO -P -P... ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? CP\\ CP\\ ?P ? ? CO CO o o O -4- ^ CV CMO be CO ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?O ?H 6 -4 in > so vO '4- in m\\X! (D o H v? rH v? rH v? H rH v? CO K g ?H 4-5 cd o O O O o O o O O c- C- CO o c - CO C'- c - 0} o ___ 1 -p >>v? X cfl Go CQ a> G bo O...

  16. Vector transmission studies of Maize Dwarf Mosaic Virus (MDMV) with the yellow sugar-cane aphid, Sipha flava (Forbes) 

    E-print Network

    Su, Shu-Hua

    1972-01-01

    VECTOR TRANSMISSION STUDIES OF MAIZE DWARF MOSAIC VIRUS (MDMV) WITH THE YELLOW SUGARCANE APHID, SIPHA FLAVA (FORBES) . A Thesis by SHU-HUA SU Submi. tted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1972 Major Subject: Plant Pathology VECTOR TRANSMISSION STUDIES OF MAIZE DWARF MOSAIC VIRUS (MDMV) WITH THE YELLOW SUGARCANE APHID, SIPHA FLAVA (FORBES) . A Thesis by SHU-HUA SU Approved...

  17. Production of clean pyrolytic sugars for fermentation.

    PubMed

    Rover, Marjorie R; Johnston, Patrick A; Jin, Tao; Smith, Ryan G; Brown, Robert C; Jarboe, Laura

    2014-06-01

    This study explores the separate recovery of sugars and phenolic oligomers produced during fast pyrolysis with the effective removal of contaminants from the separated pyrolytic sugars to produce a substrate suitable for fermentation without hydrolysis. The first two stages from a unique recovery system capture "heavy ends", mostly water-soluble sugars and water-insoluble phenolic oligomers. The differences in water solubility can be exploited to recover a sugar-rich aqueous phase and a phenolic-rich raffinate. Over 93?wt?% of the sugars is removed in two water washes. These sugars contain contaminants such as low-molecular-weight acids, furans, and phenols that could inhibit successful fermentation. Detoxification methods were used to remove these contaminants from pyrolytic sugars. The optimal candidate is NaOH overliming, which results in maximum growth measurements with the use of ethanol-producing Escherichia coli. PMID:24706373

  18. Kojic Acid Production from Agro-Industrial By-Products Using Fungi

    PubMed Central

    El-Kady, Ismael A.; Zohri, Abdel Naser A.; Hamed, Shimaa R.

    2014-01-01

    A total of 278 different isolates of filamentous fungi were screened using synthetic medium for respective ability to produce kojic acid. Nineteen, six, and five isolates proved to be low, moderate, and high kojic acid producers, respectively. Levels of kojic acid produced were generally increased when shaking cultivation was used rather than those obtained using static cultivation. A trial for the utilization of 15 agro-industrial wastes or by-products for kojic acid production by the five selected higher kojic acid producer isolates was made. The best by-product medium recorded was molasses for kojic acid. A. flavus numbers 7 and 24 were able to grow and produce kojic acid on only 12 out of 15 wastes or by-products media. The best medium used for kojic acid production by A. flavus number 7 was rice fragments followed by molasses, while the best medium used for kojic acid production by A. flavus number 24 was the molasses followed by orange, pea, and rice fragments. An attempt for production of kojic acid using a 1.5?L laboratory fermentor has been made. Aspergillus flavus number 7 was used and grown on molasses medium; maximum level (53.5?g/L) of kojic acid was obtained after eight days of incubation. PMID:24778881

  19. Production and immobilization of enzymes by solid-state fermentation of agroindustrial waste.

    PubMed

    Romo Sánchez, Sheila; Gil Sánchez, Irene; Arévalo-Villena, María; Briones Pérez, Ana

    2015-03-01

    The recovery of by-products from agri-food industry is currently one of the major challenges of biotechnology. Castilla-La Mancha produces around three million tons of waste coming from olive oil and wine industries, both of which have a pivotal role in the economy of this region. For this reason, this study reports on the exploitation of grape skins and olive pomaces for the production of lignocellulosic enzymes, which are able to deconstruct the agroindustrial waste and, therefore, reuse them in future industrial processes. To this end, solid-state fermentation was carried out using two local fungal strains (Aspergillus niger-113 N and Aspergillus fumigatus-3). In some trials, a wheat supplementation with a 1:1 ratio was used to improve the growth conditions, and the particle size of the substrates was altered through milling. Separate fermentations were run and collected after 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 15 days to monitor enzymatic activity (xylanase, cellulase, ?-glucosidase, pectinase). The highest values were recorded after 10 and 15 days of fermentation. The use of A. niger on unmilled grape skin yielded the best outcomes (47.05 U xylanase/g by-product). The multi-enzymatic extracts obtained were purified, freeze dried, and immobilized on chitosan by adsorption to assess the possible advantages provided by the different techniques. PMID:25300855

  20. Green Conversion of Agroindustrial Wastes into Chitin and Chitosan by Rhizopus arrhizus and Cunninghamella elegans Strains

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Lúcia Raquel Ramos; Stamford, Thayza Christina Montenegro; Stamford-Arnaud, Thatiana Montenegro; de Alcântara, Sergio Roberto Cabral; da Silva, Antonio Cardoso; da Silva, Adamares Marques; do Nascimento, Aline Elesbão; de Campos-Takaki, Galba Maria

    2014-01-01

    This article sets out a method for producing chitin and chitosan by Cunninghamella elegans and Rhizopus arrhizus strains using a green metabolic conversion of agroindustrial wastes (corn steep liquor and molasses). The physicochemical characteristics of the biopolymers and antimicrobial activity are described. Chitin and chitosan were extracted by alkali-acid treatment, and characterized by infrared spectroscopy, viscosity and X-ray diffraction. The effectiveness of chitosan from C. elegans and R. arrhizus in inhibiting the growth of Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli and Yersinia enterocolitica were evaluated by determining the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC). The highest production of biomass (24.60 g/L), chitin (83.20 mg/g) and chitosan (49.31 mg/g) was obtained by R. arrhizus. Chitin and chitosan from both fungi showed a similar degree of deacetylation, respectively of 25% and 82%, crystallinity indices of 33.80% and 32.80% for chitin, and 20.30% and 17.80% for chitosan. Both chitin and chitosan presented similar viscosimetry of 3.79–3.40 cP and low molecular weight of 5.08 × 103 and 4.68 × 103 g/mol. They both showed identical MIC and MBC for all bacteria assayed. These results suggest that: agricultural wastes can be produced in an environmentally friendly way; chitin and chitosan can be produced economically; and that chitosan has antimicrobial potential against pathogenic bacteria. PMID:24853288

  1. Agricultural Biotechnology in crops, forestry, livestock, fisheries and agro-industry

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations provides this Website about the role and impact of biotechnology in food and agriculture in developing countries. Features of the site include FAO's Statement on Biotechnology (including a discussion of genetically modified organisms), an overview of FAO's activities (such as providing advice and assistance to member countries, disseminating information, and monitoring new developments concerning biotechnology in food and agriculture), as well as an introduction to biotechnology in the agro-industry, crop, fisheries, forestry, and livestock sectors with links to FAO publications (most may be read online). Other highlights of the site include meeting news, a glossary of terms and acronyms currently used in the field of biotechnology, a member list for the FAO Inter-Departmental Working Group on Biotechnology, and links. The FAO Electronic Forum on Biotechnology in Food and Agriculture (reviewed in the May 26, 2000 Scout Report) is a series of moderated email conferences concerning agricultural biotechnology and developing countries. The Website is available in English, Arabic, Chinese, French, and Spanish.

  2. Shifting Sugars and Shifting Paradigms

    PubMed Central

    Siegal, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    No organism lives in a constant environment. Based on classical studies in molecular biology, many have viewed microbes as following strict rules for shifting their metabolic activities when prevailing conditions change. For example, students learn that the bacterium Escherichia coli makes proteins for digesting lactose only when lactose is available and glucose, a better sugar, is not. However, recent studies, including three PLOS Biology papers examining sugar utilization in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, show that considerable heterogeneity in response to complex environments exists within and between populations. These results join similar recent results in other organisms that suggest that microbial populations anticipate predictable environmental changes and hedge their bets against unpredictable ones. The classical view therefore represents but one special case in a range of evolutionary adaptations to environmental changes that all organisms face. PMID:25688600

  3. Concentrate This! Sugar or Salt...

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-03-20

    Students investigate the property dependence between concentrations and boiling point. First, they investigate the boiling point of various liquid solutions. Then they analyze data collected from the entire class to generate two boiling point curves, one for salt solutions and one for sugar solutions. Finally, students use the data they have analyzed to design cost-effective solutions with particular boiling points---similar to the everyday work of chemical engineers.

  4. Concentrate This! Sugar or Salt...

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    CREAM GK-12 Program, Engineering Education Research Center, College of Engineering and Architecture,

    Students investigate the property dependence between concentrations and boiling point. In section 1, students first investigate the boiling point of various liquid solutions. In section 2, they analyze data collected by the entire class to generate two boiling point curves, one for salt solutions and one for sugar solutions. Finally, in section 3, students use the data they have analyzed to determine how to create a solution that has a particular boiling point and is a cost-effective design.

  5. Finding the Carbon in Sugar

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Nancy P. Moreno

    2011-01-01

    In this activity about combustion and energy, learners observe a burning candle in a sealed jar and the burning of white sugar. The first part of the activity (candle burning) should be conducted as a demonstration. The second part may be conducted by learners working in groups of 2-4 or as a demonstration. This activity guide includes background information, questions for learners to think about, and bilingual (English/Spanish) handouts.

  6. 7 CFR 1435.302 - Establishment of allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...cane sugar allotments, State cane sugar allotments, and allocations for processors marketing sugar domestically processed from sugarcane, sugar beets, or in-process beet sugar, whether the sugar beets or in-process beet sugar is domestically produced...

  7. 7 CFR 1435.302 - Establishment of allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...cane sugar allotments, State cane sugar allotments, and allocations for processors marketing sugar domestically processed from sugarcane, sugar beets, or in-process beet sugar, whether the sugar beets or in-process beet sugar is domestically produced...

  8. 7 CFR 1435.302 - Establishment of allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...cane sugar allotments, State cane sugar allotments, and allocations for processors marketing sugar domestically processed from sugarcane, sugar beets, or in-process beet sugar, whether the sugar beets or in-process beet sugar is domestically produced...

  9. Sugar, opioids and binge eating.

    PubMed

    Fullerton, D T; Getto, C J; Swift, W J; Carlson, I H

    1985-06-01

    There is evidence that endogenous opiates are involved in the control of feeding in experimental animals. Several types of experimental obesity are associated with increased opiate production and/or increased numbers and sensitivity of opiate receptors. Research with experimental animals suggests that nutrients, particularly sugar, have an effect on feeding behavior that is mediated by opiates. For instance, the obesity-producing effect of a palatable diet in rodents is blocked by opiate antagonists. Stress induced feeding in rodents leads to preferential sucrose ingestion and is blocked by opiate antagonists and beta-endorphin. The effect of nutrients on the endogenous opiate system of humans is less clear. Clinical experience suggest that carbohydrates (sugar in particular) play a role in binge eating and obesity. Many binge eaters preferentially eat sweets during a binge. Many obese individuals consume more than half of their total daily calories as carbohydrates. Sweet snacking is a frequent behavior at times of stress. Recent evidence suggests that sugar can lead to increased beta-endorphin production in obese subjects. PMID:3161588

  10. Affinity chemiresistor sensor for sugars.

    PubMed

    Tlili, Chaker; Badhulika, Sushmee; Tran, Thien-Toan; Lee, Ilkeun; Mulchandani, Ashok

    2014-10-01

    In this work, a non-enzymatic chemiresistive sugar sensor has been developed by combining a synthetic receptor with aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) device. Briefly, boronic acid as a multivalent sugar receptor was immobilized on carbon nanotubes through amide bond formation. The interaction between three common sugars (d-glucose, d-fructose and sucrose) and boronic acid modified SWNTs device was studied. The effect of pH on the receptor-ligand binding was examined and highest response was observed at pH 9. The chemiresistive sensor exhibited specific and reproducible detection with sensitivity over the concentration range of 1-20mM, 1-25 mM, and 1-30 mM for fructose, glucose, and sucrose, respectively. The sensor showed no interference from common electroactive compounds such as citric acid, uric acid, and ascorbic acid. Furthermore, the sensor retained 97.4% of the initial value after five regeneration cycles with an acidic buffer at pH 5, thus ensuring good reusability. PMID:25059188

  11. Mechanism study of sugar and sugar alcohol hydrogenolysis using 1,3-diol model compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, K.; Hawley, M.C.; Furney, T.D. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1995-11-01

    Knowledge of the bond cleavage mechanism governing sugar and sugar alcohol hydrogenolysis is important to control of the selectivity of sugar and sugar alcohol hydrogenolysis. Previous work by others has resulted in the suggestion of a variety of mechanisms to explain the C{single_bond}C cleavage in sugar and sugar alcohol hydrogenolysis, and has not provided any definitive evidence to elucidate either the C{single_bond}C or C{single_bond}O cleavage mechanism. In this work, the authors present a mechanism study carried out using 1,3-diol model compounds. Experimental results indicate that cleavage of the C{single_bond}C and C{single_bond}O bonds in hydrogenolysis is through retro-aldolization and dehydration of a {beta}-hydroxyl carbonyl, respectively. The structure of this {beta}-hydroxyl carbonyl is already contained in an open-chain sugar molecule, and is generated from the sugar alcohol molecule by dehydrogenation. The intermediates from both C{single_bond}C and C{single_bond}O cleavage are subsequently hydrogenated to yield alcohols or polyols. This mechanism of sugar and sugar alcohol hydrogenolysis provides a good background to understand factors that control the selectivity in sugar and sugar alcohol hydrogenolysis. Based on this understanding, a rational approach to control of the selectivity of sugar and sugar alcohol hydrogenolysis may be developed.

  12. Potential of sugarcane bagasse (agro-industrial waste) for the production of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis.

    PubMed

    Poopathi, S; Mani, C; Rajeswari, G

    2013-09-01

    Sugarcane bagasse is a renewable resource that can be used to produce biopesticide for the control of mosquito vectors. In the present study, we demonstrated that cane processed bagasse could be used to produce Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis (Bti) for control of mosquito vectors viz: Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti. Biochemical studies indicated that the Bti spore/crystal toxins produced from the test culture medium (Bagasse, BG + Soybean, SB) are higher than that from the conventional medium (Nutrient Yeast Extract Salt Medium, NYSM). The bacteria produced in these media (NYSM, BG, SB, BG+SB) were bioassayed against the mosquito species and the toxic effect was found to be effective. Cost-effective analysis indicates that the use of BG and SB, as bacterial culture medium, is successful and economical, for production of this mosquito pathogenic bacillus. PMID:24189680

  13. Travelling waves for the cane toads equation with bounded traits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouin, Emeric; Calvez, Vincent

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we study propagation in a non-local reaction-diffusion-mutation model describing the invasion of cane toads in Australia (Phillips et al 2006 Nature 439 803). The population of toads is structured by a space variable and a phenotypical trait and the space diffusivity depends on the trait. We use a Schauder topological degree argument for the construction of some travelling wave solutions of the model. The speed c* of the wave is obtained after solving a suitable spectral problem in the trait variable. An eigenvector arising from this eigenvalue problem gives the flavour of the profile at the edge of the front. The major difficulty is to obtain uniform L? bounds despite the combination of non-local terms and a heterogeneous diffusivity.

  14. Diet composition of the invasive cane toad (Chaunus marinus) on Rota, Northern Mariana Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, R.N.; Bakkegard, K.A.; Desy, G.E.; Plentovich, S.M.

    2007-01-01

    The cane or marine toad (Chaunus marinus, formerly Bufo marinus) was introduced to the Northern Mariana Islands starting in the 1930s. The effects of this exotic predator on native vertebrates (especially lizards) are largely unknown. We analysed the stomach contents of 336 cane toads collected from the island of Rota, with the goal of estimating the level of toad predation on native vertebrates. Beetles, ants, millipedes, and grasshoppers/crickets comprised the majority of prey classes consumed by toads. The introduced Brahminy blindsnake (Ramphotyphlops braminus; N = 6) and conspecific cane toads (N = 4) were the vertebrates most commonly found in toad stomachs. Skinks (Emoia; N = 2) were the only native vertebrates represented in our sample. The small numbers of nocturnal terrestrial vertebrates native to Rota likely translates to relatively low rates of predation by cane toads on native vertebrates.

  15. 21 CFR 890.3790 - Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3790 Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads. (a)...

  16. 21 CFR 890.3790 - Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3790 Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads. (a)...

  17. 21 CFR 890.3790 - Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3790 Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads. (a)...

  18. 21 CFR 890.3790 - Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3790 Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads. (a)...

  19. 21 CFR 890.3790 - Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3790 Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads. (a)...

  20. Life cycle assessment of fuel ethanol from cane molasses in Thailand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thu Lan T. Nguyen; Shabbir H. Gheewala

    2008-01-01

    Background, aim and scope  After China and India, Thailand is considered another emerging market for fuel ethanol in Asia. At present, ethanol in the\\u000a country is mainly a fermentation\\/distillery product of cane molasses, although cassava and cane juice are considered other\\u000a potential raw materials for the fuel. This study aims to evaluate the environmental impacts of substituting conventional gasoline\\u000a (CG) with

  1. Conversion of Grazed Pastures to Energy Cane as a Biofuel Feedstock Alters Soil GHG Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Casanovas, N.; DeLucia, N.; Bernacchi, C.; DeLucia, E. H.

    2013-12-01

    Changes in land use profoundly affect climate through variations in soil Greenhouse Gas (GHG) exchange. The need for alternative energies is accelerating land use change as marginal land or managed ecosystems are being converted to highly productive second-generation bioenergy crops such as energy cane (Saccharum spp. L). Although the deployment of energy cane is a promising strategy to meet global bioenergy industry demands, few studies have investigated soil GHG fluxes in these crops and sub-tropical low-intensity grazing pasture (bahiagrass, Paspalum notatum L., as forage for cattle, Bos taurus L.) with which they are competing for land. Here, we showed that soil N2O fluxes in bioenergy crops were higher (>250%) than those observed in pastures following fertilization when soil moisture and temperature were high. In the absence of recent fertilization, the N2O source strength in energy cane and pasture sites was similar. Under drier and cooler soil conditions, both pastures and bioenergy crops were weak sources of N2O even when energy cane plots were recently fertilized. Soils on grazed pastures were sources of CH4 during the wet season but became sinks under drier, colder conditions. Energy cane plantations were weak sources of CH4 over a complete wet-dry seasonal cycle. The heterotrophic component of soil respiration was larger (139-155%) in pastures than in energy cane crops, suggesting lower decomposition of SOC in bioenergy crops. In terms of global warming potential, grazed pastures were stronger (120-150%) soil GHG emitters than energy cane crops over a complete wet-dry seasonal cycle. Moreover, pastures became a substantial source of GHG emitters when including estimates of CH4 flux from cattle. Our results suggest that the conversion of pasture to energy cane will be beneficial in relation to GHGs emitted from soils and cattle. Improved understanding of land use impact on soil GHG dynamics will provide valuable information for decision makers debating sustainable bioenergy policies.

  2. Utilization of agro-industrial residues for pectinase production by the novel strain Pseudozyma sp. SPJ under solid state cultivation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sampriya Sharma; Rishi Pal Mandhan; Jitender Sharma

    Production of high titers of an alkaline, extracellular and thermo-tolerant pectinase by a newly isolated yeast Pseudozyma sp. SPJ was carried out in solid state fermentation (SSF). Among all the agro-industrial residues used as substrate, citrus\\u000a peel was found to be the best. Maximum pectinase production was observed after 72 h of incubation at 32°C. The moistening\\u000a agent containing MgSO4?7H2O, KH2PO4

  3. Slipping cane and crutch tips. Part I--static performance of current devices.

    PubMed

    Bennett, L; Murphy, E F

    1977-01-01

    A variety of commercially available cane and crutch tips were tested on surfaces of ice and soapy tile under varying axial (thrust) loads. The output measurement consisted of the angle between the vertical and the cane axis at which slip occurred. It was learned that: 1. From the viewpoint of a user, a minimal slip angle of roughly 25 deg is desirable. 2. On ice-rink ice, a number of cane tips approach the desired slip angle under conditions of low temperature; fewer appear safe at elevated air temperatures. Only one of the tested devices appears truly safe under any ice condition. 3. On rough tile flooded with soapy water, some cane tips offer adequate performance. However, no tested cane tip offers acceptable performance on slick tile flooded with soapy water. 4. There appears to be no simple relationship between the slip performance of a cane tip on ice-rink ice and that developed on soapy wet tiles. 5. No simple relationship between thrust load and slip angle emerged. Similarly, no simple relationship between contact area and slip appeared in the data. PMID:615654

  4. The potential of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) for the estimation of agroindustrial compost quality.

    PubMed

    Galvez-Sola, L; Moral, R; Perez-Murcia, M D; Perez-Espinosa, A; Bustamante, M A; Martinez-Sabater, E; Paredes, C

    2010-02-15

    Composting is an environmentally friendly alternative for the recycling of organic wastes and its use is increasing in recent years. An exhaustive monitoring of the composting process and of the final compost characteristics is necessary to certify that the values of compost characteristics are within the limits established by the legislation in order to obtain a safe and marketable product. The analysis of these parameters on each composting batch in the commercial composting plant is time-consuming and expensive. So, their estimation in the composting facilities based on the use of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) could be an interesting approach in order to monitor compost quality. In this study, more than 300 samples from 20 different composting procedures were used to calibrate and validate the NIRS estimation of compost properties (pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total organic matter (TOM), total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN) and C/N ratio, macronutrient contents (N, P, K) and potentially pollutant element concentrations (Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn)). The composts used were elaborated using different organic wastes from agroindustrial activities (GS: grape stalk; EGM: exhausted grape marc; GM: grape marc; V: vinasse; CJW: citrus juice waste; Alpeorujo: olive-oil waste; AS: almond skin; EP: exhausted peat; TSW: tomato soup waste; SMS: spent mushroom substrate) co-composted with manures (CM: cattle manure; PM: poultry manure) or urban wastes (SS: sewage sludge) The estimation results showed that the NIRS technique needs to be fitted to each element and property, using specific spectrum transformations, in order to achieve an acceptable accuracy in the prediction. However, excellent prediction results were obtained for TOM and TOC, successful calibrations for pH, EC, Fe and Mn, and moderately successful estimations for TN, C/N ratio, P, K, Cu and Zn. PMID:20061002

  5. Clay Cane is a New York City-based, award-winning writer and media consultant. His work covers various topics such as pop culture, sexuality, race, religion, social net-

    E-print Network

    Miami, University of

    Clay Cane Clay Cane is a New York City-based, award-winning writer and media consultant. His work social commen- tary website, www.ClayCane. net, a 2007 and 2008 Black Weblog Awards nominee. The College

  6. Modeling of water activity, oxygen solubility and density of sugar and sugar alcohol solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peijun Ji; Wei Feng; Tianwei Tan; Danxing Zheng

    2007-01-01

    Water activity, oxygen solubility and density of aqueous solutions of sugar and sugar alcohols have been modeled with the statistical associating fluid theory (SAFT). The modeling is accomplished by extending the previously developed method to determine the SAFT parameters for sugar and sugar alcohols. For the aqueous solutions of sorbitol\\/water, xylitol\\/water, mannitol\\/water, xylitol\\/sorbitol\\/water and xylitol\\/mannitol\\/water, the water activity has been

  7. Ambient aerosol concentrations of sugars and sugar-alcohols at four different sites in Norway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. E. Yttri; C. Dye; G. Kiss

    2007-01-01

    Sugars and sugar-alcohols are demonstrated to be important constituents of the ambient aerosol water-soluble organic carbon fraction, and to be tracers for primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP). In the present study, levels of four sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose, trehalose) and three sugar-alcohols (arabitol, inositol, mannitol) in ambient aerosols have been quantified using a novel HPLC\\/HRMS-TOF (High Performance Liquid Chromatography in

  8. SUGAR VERSION 1.01 MANUAL (still under construction)

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Page 1 SUGAR VERSION 1.01 MANUAL (still under construction) 1. INTRODUCTION SUGAR v1 implemented. 2. NETLIST PRIMER Basically, the netlist is your MEMS device. It tells Sugar how it's constructed with the beam. (2) Sugar does rotations in the order of {y, z, then x}. To better understand Sugar rotations

  9. Checking Your Blood Sugar The only way to be sure your blood sugar is "just right" is to

    E-print Network

    Checking Your Blood Sugar The only way to be sure your blood sugar is "just right" is to check it. Your blood sugar can be high and you may feel fine. If your blood sugar is high, it is damaging your blood vessels and hurting your body, even if you feel fine. #12; How can you check your blood sugar? One

  10. Do invasive cane toads affect the parasite burdens of native Australian frogs??

    PubMed Central

    Lettoof, Damian C.; Greenlees, Matthew J.; Stockwell, Michelle; Shine, Richard

    2013-01-01

    One of the most devastating impacts of an invasive species is the introduction of novel parasites or diseases to native fauna. Invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina) in Australia contain several types of parasites, raising concern that the toads may increase rates of parasitism in local anuran species. We sampled cane toads and sympatric native frogs (Limnodynastes peronii, Litoria latopalmata, and Litoria nasuta) at the southern invasion front of cane toads in north-eastern New South Wales (NSW). We dissected and swabbed these anurans to score the presence and abundance of nematodes (Rhabdias lungworms, and gastric encysting nematodes), myxozoans, and chytrid fungus. To determine if cane toad invasion influences rates of parasitism in native frogs, we compared the prevalence and intensity of parasites in frogs from areas with toads, to frogs from areas without toads. Contrary to the situation on the (rapidly-expanding) tropical invasion front, cane toads on the slowly-expanding southern front were heavily infected with rhabditoid lungworms. Toads also contained gastric-encysting nematodes, and one toad was infected by chytrid fungus, but we did not find myxozoans in any toads. All parasite groups were recorded in native frogs, but were less common in areas invaded by toads than in nearby yet to be invaded areas. Contrary to our predictions, toad invasion was associated with a reduced parasite burden in native frogs. Thus, cane toads do not appear to transfer novel parasites to native frog populations, or act as a reservoir for native parasites to ‘spill-back’ into native frogs. Instead, cane toads may reduce frog-parasite numbers by taking up native parasites that are then killed by the toad’s immune defences. PMID:24533330

  11. Sugar profiles of Spanish unifloral honeys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rufino Mateo; Francisco Bosch-Reig

    1997-01-01

    The levels of various sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose, maltose, maltulose, kojibiose, isomaltose, raffinose, erlöse and melezitose) as well as the glucose\\/fructose and glucose\\/water ratios were determined in different Spanish unifloral honey types (rosemary, orange blossom, lavender, sunflower, eucalyptus, heather, honeydew). Sugars were determined by gas chromatography of the trimethylsilyloxime derivatives. There were significant differences among the honey types in relation

  12. Changes in sugars during storage of sausages.

    PubMed

    Mendiolea, R; Guerrero, I; Taylor, A J

    1995-01-01

    The shelf-life of fresh British sausages is determined by the production of off-odours and colour changes due to microflora in the sausage. From work on meat, and in pure culture, it is known that the carbon source of the principal spoilage microorganism (Brochothrix thermosphacta) can affect its metabolism and change the nature of the secondary metabolic products. The sugar content of sausages was determined immediately after manufacture and during storage at 4°C. Reducing-sugar content (measured by dinitrophenol phenolate, or DNP) increased in the first few days after manufacture, then decreased. The apparent increase in reducing sugar was due to hydrolysis of rusk components (oligo- or polysaccharides) either by meat or microbial enzymes. Thus, the amounts and types of sugar available for microbial growth change during storage. The effect of sulphite on the sugar assay and on sugar utilisation was also measured. Sulphite affected the DNP reducing sugar assay and caused a small increase in the absorbance at 510 nm. Addition of sulphite to the sausage formulation also caused some changes in the reducing-sugar content during storage at 4°C. PMID:22059873

  13. Microbiological Spoilage of High-Sugar Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Sterling

    The high-sugar products discussed in this chapter are referred to as chocolate, sugar confectionery (non-chocolate), liquid sugars, sugar syrups, and honey. Products grouped in the sugar confectionery category include hard candy, soft/gummy candy, caramel, toffee, licorice, marzipan, creams, jellies, and nougats. A common intrinsic parameter associated with high-sugar products is their low water activity (a w), which is known to inhibit the growth of most spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. However, spoilage can occur as a result of the growth of osmophilic yeasts and xerophilic molds (Von Richter, 1912; Anand & Brown, 1968; Brown, 1976). The a w range for high-sugar products is between 0.20 and 0.80 (Banwart, 1979; Richardson, 1987; Lenovich & Konkel, 1992; ICMSF, 1998; Jay, Loessner, & Golden, 2005). Spoilage of products, such as chocolate-covered cherries, results from the presence of yeasts in the liquid sugar brine or the cherry. Generally, the spoiled product will develop leakers. The chocolate covering the cherry would not likely be a source of yeast contamination.

  14. Unusual sugar biosynthesis and natural product glycodiversification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher J. Thibodeaux; Charles E. Melançon; Hung-Wen Liu

    2007-01-01

    The enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of carbohydrates and the attachment of sugar units to biological acceptor molecules catalyse an array of chemical transformations and coupling reactions. In prokaryotes, both common sugar precursors and their enzymatically modified derivatives often become substituents of biologically active natural products through the action of glycosyltransferases. Recently, researchers have begun to harness the power of

  15. Maple Sugar Harvesting/Wild Rice Harvesting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minneapolis Public Schools, MN.

    Comprised of two separate booklets, this resource unit assists elementary teachers in explaining how the Ojibwe people harvest maple sugar and wild rice. The first booklet explains the procedure of tapping the maple trees for sap, preparation for boiling the sap, and the three forms the sugar is made into (granulated, "molded," and "taffy"). The…

  16. Holograms recorded in dichromated with simple sugars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejias-Brizuela, N. Y.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Grande-Grande, A.

    2011-01-01

    Sugars as glucose and fructose can be used to holographic record. These materials have the advantage to mix very well with K2Cr2O7.Holographic gratings recorded in sugars, were made by a lineal setup to producing interference pattern using a wavelength at 473 nm. These materials have the ability to register information in real time.

  17. Simple Potentiometric Determination of Reducing Sugars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moresco, Henry; Sanson, Pedro; Seoane, Gustavo

    2008-01-01

    In this article a potentiometric method for reducing sugar quantification is described. Copper(II) ion reacts with the reducing sugar (glucose, fructose, and others), and the excess is quantified using a copper wire indicator electrode. In order to accelerate the kinetics of the reaction, working conditions such as pH and temperature must be…

  18. Usual Intake of Energy from added sugars

    Cancer.gov

    Usual Intake of Energy from added sugars Table A41. Energy from added sugars: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 kilocalories Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 150.2

  19. Fermentable sugars by chemical hydrolysis of biomass

    E-print Network

    Raines, Ronald T.

    Fermentable sugars by chemical hydrolysis of biomass Joseph B. Binder and Ronald T. Raines1 of carbon for a scalable biorefinery. biofuel carbohydrate ethanol fermentation ionic liquid, diluted with water, and heated was trans- formed into a fermentable sugar (17, 18). The concentrated acid

  20. Sugar Ester Compounds for Arthropod Control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugar esters, also known as acyl sugars or polyol esters, are a class of compounds that are internationally recognized as food additives. They are commonly used in bakery goods, drugs, cosmetics, food packaging plastics, and in other applications because of their surfactant and emulsifying properti...

  1. OVERALL VIEW OF THE MILL WITH SUGAR BIN LEFT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERALL VIEW OF THE MILL WITH SUGAR BIN LEFT OF CENTER, CLEANING PLANT TO RIGHT, SEED TREATMENT PLANT TO LEFT. VIEW FROM THE EAST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  2. VIEW OF UNLOADING STATION THAT WAS ADDED IN 1997. SUGAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF UNLOADING STATION THAT WAS ADDED IN 1997. SUGAR BIN AND MILL IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. VIEW FROM THE NORTHEAST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  3. 4. View of castiron sugar kettle with mill ruins in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View of cast-iron sugar kettle with mill ruins in background, looking S. - Laurel Valley Sugar Plantation, Sugar Mill, 2 miles South of Thibodaux on State Route 308, Thibodaux, Lafourche Parish, LA

  4. SUGAR BIN WITH EAST WALL OF CRUSHING MILL TO ITS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SUGAR BIN WITH EAST WALL OF CRUSHING MILL TO ITS RIGHT. CONVEYOR FROM BOILING HOUSE ABOVE. VIEW FROM THE NORTHEAST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  5. 15 CFR 2011.204 - Entry of specialty sugars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012-01-01 false Entry of specialty sugars. 2011.204 Section 2011.204 Commerce...ALLOCATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA ON IMPORTED SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.204 Entry of specialty...

  6. 7 CFR 1435.603 - Eligible sugar seller.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eligible sugar seller. 1435.603 Section 1435...LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Feedstock Flexibility Program § 1435.603 Eligible sugar seller. (a) To be considered an...

  7. 15 CFR 2011.203 - Issuance of specialty sugar certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Issuance of specialty sugar certificates. 2011.203 Section 2011...ALLOCATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA ON IMPORTED SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.203 Issuance of specialty...

  8. 19 CFR 151.25 - Mixing classes of sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Mixing classes of sugar. 151.25 Section 151.25 Customs...SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.25 Mixing classes of sugar. No regulations relative to the...

  9. 19 CFR 151.25 - Mixing classes of sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Mixing classes of sugar. 151.25 Section 151.25 Customs...SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.25 Mixing classes of sugar. No regulations relative to the...

  10. 15 CFR 2011.203 - Issuance of specialty sugar certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Issuance of specialty sugar certificates. 2011.203 Section 2011...ALLOCATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA ON IMPORTED SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.203 Issuance of specialty...

  11. 15 CFR 2011.204 - Entry of specialty sugars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2014-01-01 false Entry of specialty sugars. 2011.204 Section 2011.204 Commerce...ALLOCATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA ON IMPORTED SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.204 Entry of specialty...

  12. 15 CFR 2011.204 - Entry of specialty sugars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 false Entry of specialty sugars. 2011.204 Section 2011.204 Commerce...ALLOCATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA ON IMPORTED SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.204 Entry of specialty...

  13. 19 CFR 151.25 - Mixing classes of sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Mixing classes of sugar. 151.25 Section 151.25 Customs...SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.25 Mixing classes of sugar. No regulations relative to the...

  14. 15 CFR 2011.203 - Issuance of specialty sugar certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Issuance of specialty sugar certificates. 2011.203 Section 2011...ALLOCATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA ON IMPORTED SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.203 Issuance of specialty...

  15. 7 CFR 1435.401 - CCC sugar inventory disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false CCC sugar inventory disposition. 1435.401 ...LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Disposition of CCC Inventory § 1435.401 CCC sugar inventory disposition. (a)...

  16. 15 CFR 2011.203 - Issuance of specialty sugar certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Issuance of specialty sugar certificates. 2011.203 Section 2011...ALLOCATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA ON IMPORTED SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.203 Issuance of specialty...

  17. 19 CFR 151.25 - Mixing classes of sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Mixing classes of sugar. 151.25 Section 151.25 Customs...SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.25 Mixing classes of sugar. No regulations relative to the...

  18. 15 CFR 2011.203 - Issuance of specialty sugar certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Issuance of specialty sugar certificates. 2011.203 Section 2011...ALLOCATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA ON IMPORTED SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.203 Issuance of specialty...

  19. 15 CFR 2011.204 - Entry of specialty sugars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2011-01-01 false Entry of specialty sugars. 2011.204 Section 2011.204 Commerce...ALLOCATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA ON IMPORTED SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.204 Entry of specialty...

  20. 15 CFR 2011.204 - Entry of specialty sugars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2013-01-01 false Entry of specialty sugars. 2011.204 Section 2011.204 Commerce...ALLOCATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA ON IMPORTED SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.204 Entry of specialty...

  1. Fructose-Containing Sugars and Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Rippe, James M; Angelopoulos, Theodore J

    2015-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the single largest cause of mortality in the United States and worldwide. Numerous risk factors have been identified for CVD, including a number of nutritional factors. Recently, attention has been focused on fructose-containing sugars and their putative link to risk factors for CVD. In this review, we focus on recent studies related to sugar consumption and cardiovascular risk factors including lipids, blood pressure, obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes, and the metabolic syndrome. We then examine the scientific basis for competing recommendations for sugar intake. We conclude that although it appears prudent to avoid excessive consumption of fructose-containing sugars, levels within the normal range of human consumption are not uniquely related to CVD risk factors with the exception of triglycerides, which may rise when simple sugars exceed 20% of energy per day, particularly in hypercaloric settings. PMID:26178027

  2. Progress in the Chemistry of the Aminodeoxy-Sugars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. I. Veksler

    1964-01-01

    CONTENTS I. Introduction 424 II. Synthesis of aminodeoxy-sugars and aminodeoxy-sugar alcohols 425 III. Aminodeoxy-sugars of natural origin 430 IV. Chemical reactions and preparation of derivatives of aminodeoxy-sugars 432 V. Practical application of aminodeoxy-sugars and aminodeoxy-sugar alcohols 433 Bibtex entry for this abstract Preferred format for this abstract (see Preferences) Find Similar Abstracts: Use: Authors Title Abstract Text Return: Query Results

  3. Sugar feeding in adult stable flies.

    PubMed

    Taylor, David B; Berkebile, Dennis R

    2008-06-01

    Adult stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans L.) are known to feed readily on sugars in the laboratory. However, little is known concerning the extent of stable fly sugar feeding in wild populations. We examined the frequency of sugar feeding in stable flies collected on Alsynite sticky traps in rural and urban environments. In addition, stable flies were visually examined to determine whether blood was present in the gut. In laboratory studies, sugars were detectable with the anthrone technique in stable flies for approximately 3 d after being imbibed, and blood could be visually detected in the gut for 24-48 h after feeding. Twelve percent of the field-collected flies had detectable sugar with a higher percentage of the urban flies having sugar fed than the rural flies, 21 and 8%, respectively. Female flies sugar fed at a slightly higher rate than males, 13 versus 11%, respectively. Less than 1% of the field-collected flies had blood in their guts. The frequency of observable blood was slightly higher in flies collected in an urban environment compared with those collected in a rural environment and did not differ between male and female flies. The number of flies with both blood and sugar was slightly higher than would be expected based on the frequencies of each alone. Seasonal patterns of both sugar feeding and blood feeding were similar in the rural and urban environments; both peaked in the early summer, May to mid-June, and dropped through the summer and fall. Sugar feeding in the urban environment increased again in October. PMID:18559167

  4. Evolutionary Responses to Invasion: Cane Toad Sympatric Fish Show Enhanced Avoidance Learning

    PubMed Central

    Caller, Georgina; Brown, Culum

    2013-01-01

    The introduced cane toad (Bufo marinus) poses a major threat to biodiversity due to its lifelong toxicity. Several terrestrial native Australian vertebrates are adapting to the cane toad’s presence and lab trials have demonstrated that repeated exposure to B. marinus can result in learnt avoidance behaviour. Here we investigated whether aversion learning is occurring in aquatic ecosystems by comparing cane toad naïve and sympatric populations of crimson spotted rainbow fish (Melanotaenia duboulayi). The first experiment indicated that fish from the sympatric population had pre-existing aversion to attacking cane toad tadpoles but also showed reduced attacks on native tadpoles. The second experiment revealed that fish from both naïve and sympatric populations learned to avoid cane toad tadpoles following repeated, direct exposure. Allopatric fish also developed a general aversion to tadpoles. The aversion learning abilities of both groups was examined using an experiment involving novel distasteful prey items. While both populations developed a general avoidance of edible pellets in the presence of distasteful pellets, only the sympatric population significantly reduced the number of attacks on the novel distasteful prey item. These results indicate that experience with toxic prey items over multiple generations can enhance avoidance leaning capabilities via natural selection. PMID:23372788

  5. DEMONSTRATION OF EQUIVALENCY OF CANE AND SOFTWOOD BASED CELOTEX FOR MODEL 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGES

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, R; Jason Varble, J

    2008-05-27

    Cane-based Celotex{trademark} has been used extensively in various Department of Energy (DOE) packages as a thermal insulator and impact absorber. Cane-based Celotex{trademark} fiberboard was only manufactured by Knight-Celotex Fiberboard at their Marrero Plant in Louisiana. However, Knight-Celotex Fiberboard shut down their Marrero Plant in early 2007 due to impacts from hurricane Katrina and other economic factors. Therefore, cane-based Celotex{trademark} fiberboard is no longer available for use in the manufacture of new shipping packages requiring the material as a component. Current consolidation plans for the DOE Complex require the procurement of several thousand new Model 9975 shipping packages requiring cane-based Celotex{trademark} fiberboard. Therefore, an alternative to cane-based Celotex{trademark} fiberboard is needed. Knight-Celotex currently manufactures Celotex{trademark} fiberboard from other cellulosic materials, such as hardwood and softwood. A review of the relevant literature has shown that softwood-based Celotex{trademark} meets all parameters important to the Model 9975 shipping package.

  6. Development of a force-sensing cane instrumented within a treadmill-based virtual reality locomotor system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claire Perez; Alison Oates; Lucinda Hughey; Joyce Fung

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a novel cane device to be used in conjunction with a treadmill-based virtual reality (VR) locomotor system. The instrumentation of such a cane device is described and results examining its use and feasibility as a proof of principle are provided in this preliminary study involving five persons with stroke and 5 healthy participants. Average walking speeds with

  7. Beware of Invasive Cane Toads: Huge Toad is a Dog and Koi Killer Doug Caldwell, Ph.D. U.F. Commercial Landscape Horticulture Extension, Collier County

    E-print Network

    Florida, University of

    Beware of Invasive Cane Toads: Huge Toad is a Dog and Koi Killer Doug Caldwell, Ph.D. U.F. Commercial Landscape Horticulture Extension, Collier County Toxic CaneToads are Everywhere! Be careful when supervision. Especially at night! They may find a toxic Cane Toad. This toad defends itself using chemical

  8. Sugar Industry Influence on the Scientific Agenda of the National Institute of Dental Research’s 1971 National Caries Program: A Historical Analysis of Internal Documents

    PubMed Central

    Kearns, Cristin E.; Glantz, Stanton A.; Schmidt, Laura A.

    2015-01-01

    Background In 1966, the National Institute of Dental Research (NIDR) began planning a targeted research program to identify interventions for widespread application to eradicate dental caries (tooth decay) within a decade. In 1971, the NIDR launched the National Caries Program (NCP). The objective of this paper is to explore the sugar industry’s interaction with the NIDR to alter the research priorities of the NIDR NCP. Methods and Findings We used internal cane and beet sugar industry documents from 1959 to 1971 to analyze industry actions related to setting research priorities for the NCP. The sugar industry could not deny the role of sucrose in dental caries given the scientific evidence. They therefore adopted a strategy to deflect attention to public health interventions that would reduce the harms of sugar consumption rather than restricting intake. Industry tactics included the following: funding research in collaboration with allied food industries on enzymes to break up dental plaque and a vaccine against tooth decay with questionable potential for widespread application, cultivation of relationships with the NIDR leadership, consulting of members on an NIDR expert panel, and submission of a report to the NIDR that became the foundation of the first request for proposals issued for the NCP. Seventy-eight percent of the sugar industry submission was incorporated into the NIDR’s call for research applications. Research that could have been harmful to sugar industry interests was omitted from priorities identified at the launch of the NCP. Limitations are that this analysis relies on one source of sugar industry documents and that we could not interview key actors. Conclusions The NCP was a missed opportunity to develop a scientific understanding of how to restrict sugar consumption to prevent tooth decay. A key factor was the alignment of research agendas between the NIDR and the sugar industry. This historical example illustrates how industry protects itself from potentially damaging research, which can inform policy makers today. Industry opposition to current policy proposals—including a World Health Organization guideline on sugars proposed in 2014 and changes to the nutrition facts panel on packaged food in the US proposed in 2014 by the US Food and Drug Administration—should be carefully scrutinized to ensure that industry interests do not supersede public health goals. PMID:25756179

  9. An introduced pentastomid parasite (Raillietiella frenata) infects native cane toads (Rhinella marina) in Panama.

    PubMed

    Kelehear, Crystal; Saltonstall, Kristin; Torchin, Mark E

    2015-04-01

    The pentastomid parasite, Raillietiella frenata, is native to Asia where it infects the Asian House gecko, Hemidactylus frenatus. This gecko has been widely introduced and recently R. frenata was found in introduced populations of cane toads (Rhinella marina) in Australia, indicating a host-switch from introduced geckos to toads. Here we report non-native adult R. frenata infecting the lungs of native cane toads in Panama. Eight of 64 toads were infected (median = 2·5, range = 1-80 pentastomids/toad) and pentastomid prevalence was positively associated with the number of buildings at a site, though further sampling is needed to confirm this pattern. We postulate that this pattern is likely due to a host shift of this parasite from an urban-associated introduced gecko. This is the first record of this parasite infecting cane toads in their native range, and the first instance of this parasite occurring in Central America. PMID:25394910

  10. Exploiting intraspecific competitive mechanisms to control invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina)

    PubMed Central

    Crossland, Michael R.; Haramura, Takashi; Salim, Angela A.; Capon, Robert J.; Shine, Richard

    2012-01-01

    If invasive species use chemical weapons to suppress the viability of conspecifics, we may be able to exploit those species-specific chemical cues for selective control of the invader. Cane toads (Rhinella marina) are spreading through tropical Australia, with negative effects on native species. The tadpoles of cane toads eliminate intraspecific competitors by locating and consuming newly laid eggs. Our laboratory trials show that tadpoles find those eggs by searching for the powerful bufadienolide toxins (especially, bufogenins) that toads use to deter predators. Using those toxins as bait, funnel-traps placed in natural waterbodies achieved near-complete eradication of cane toad tadpoles with minimal collateral damage (because most native (non-target) species are repelled by the toads' toxins). More generally, communication systems that have evolved for intraspecific conflict provide novel opportunities for invasive-species control. PMID:22696528

  11. How Much Sugar Is in Bubble Gum?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    Some of the flavoring in bubble gum is due to the sugar or other sweetener it contains. As gum is chewed, the sugar dissolves and is swallowed. After a piece of gum loses its sweetness, it can be left to dry at room temperature and then the difference between its initial (unchewed) mass and its chewed mass can be used to calculate the percentage of sugar in the gum. This demonstration experiment is used to generate new questions about gums and their ingredients, and students can then design and execute new experiments based on their own questions.

  12. Dilute Sulfuric Acid Pretreatment of Agricultural and Agro-Industrial Residues for Ethanol Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Carlos; Alriksson, Björn; Sjöde, Anders; Nilvebrant, Nils-Olof; Jönsson, Leif J.

    The potential of dilute-acid prehydrolysis as a pretreatment method for sugarcane bagasse, rice hulls, peanut shells, and cassava stalks was investigated. The prehydrolysis was performed at 122°C during 20, 40, or 60 min using 2% H2SO4 at a solid-to-liquid ratio of 1?10. Sugar formation increased with increasing reaction time. Xylose, glucose, arabinose, and galactose were detected in all of the prehydrolysates, whereas mannose was found only in the prehydrolysates of peanut shells and cassava stalks. The hemicelluloses of bagasse were hydrolyzed to a high-extent yielding concentrations of xylose and arabinose of 19.1 and 2.2 g/L, respectively, and a xylan conversion of more than 80%. High-glucose concentrations (26-33.5 g/L) were found in the prehydrolysates of rice hulls, probably because of hydrolysis of starch of grain remains in the hulls. Peanut shells and cassava stalks rendered low amounts of sugars on prehydrolysis, indicating that the conditions were not severe enough to hydrolyze the hemicelluloses in these materials quantitatively. All prehydrolysates were readily fermentable by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The dilute-acid prehydrolysis resulted in a 2.7-to 3.7-fold increase of the enzymatic convertibility of bagasse, but was not efficient for improving the enzymatic hydrolysis of peanut shells, cassava stalks, or rice hulls.

  13. Nitrous oxide emissions in giant cane in the Cache River watershed, southern Illinois

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, A. M.; Williard, K. W.; Schoonover, J.

    2013-12-01

    Large stands of Arundinaria gigantea (Walt.) Muhl, called canebrakes, were vital to wildlife and lowland ecosystem functions and historically covered millions of acres in the southeastern United States. Since European settlement, human disturbances (e.g., clearing for agriculture and fire suppression) have caused giant cane to decline to approximately 2% of its historic range. Cane's ecological importance has led to an increased interest in canebrake restoration in riparian zones. Giant cane is a good candidate to include in multispecies riparian buffers designs, as it promotes infiltration of surface runoff and deposition of sediment and associated nutrients through its high density culms and extensive shallow rooting network. In addition, nitrous oxide is produced naturally in the soil during the microbial processes of nitrification and denitrification. To examine the role that cane plays in nutrient cycling, we have designed a research strategy to determine physical and chemical properties of existing riparian stands of native giant cane and their associated soils. We collected data on soil carbon/nitrogen ratios and monthly nitrous oxide release in both canebrakes and nearby forested riparian areas. Soil in the canebrakes had significantly higher C:N ratios (10.9) than that in cropfields (9.8), but showed no significant difference than that in the forest (10.8). Nitrous oxide emissions had a strong correlation with soil water content (r2 = 24%), but no relation with soil temperature (p > 0.05). There were no significant differences in N2O releases between forest and cane, nor among the monthly samples.

  14. Sugar regulation of SUGAR TRANSPORTER PROTEIN 1 (STP1) expression in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Cordoba, Elizabeth; Aceves-Zamudio, Denise Lizeth; Hernández-Bernal, Alma Fabiola; Ramos-Vega, Maricela; León, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Sugars regulate the expression of many genes at the transcriptional level. In Arabidopsis thaliana, sugars induce or repress the expression of >1800 genes, including the STP1 (SUGAR TRANSPORTER PROTEIN 1) gene, which encodes an H+/monosaccharide cotransporter. STP1 transcript levels decrease more rapidly after the addition of low concentrations of sugars than the levels of other repressed genes, such as DIN6 (DARK-INDUCED 6). We found that this regulation is exerted at the transcriptional level and is initiated by phosphorylatable sugars. Interestingly, the sugar signal that modulates STP1 expression is transmitted through a HEXOKINASE 1-independent signalling pathway. Finally, analysis of the STP1 5? regulatory region allowed us to delimit a region of 309bp that contains the cis elements implicated in the glucose regulation of STP1 expression. Putative cis-acting elements involved in this response were identified. PMID:25281700

  15. Utilization of biogas produced by anaerobic digestion of agro-industrial waste: Energy, economic and environmental effects.

    PubMed

    Hublin, Andrea; Schneider, Daniel Rolph; Džodan, Janko

    2014-06-24

    Anaerobic digestion of agro-industrial waste is of significant interest in order to facilitate a sustainable development of energy supply. Using of material and energy potentials of agro-industrial waste, in the framework of technical, economic, and ecological possibilities, contributes in increasing the share of energy generated from renewable energy sources. The paper deals with the benefits arising from the utilization of biogas produced by co-digestion of whey and cow manure. The advantages of this process are the profitability of the plant and the convenience in realizing an anaerobic digestion plant to produce biogas that is enabled by the benefits from the sale of electric energy at favorable prices. Economic aspects are related to the capital cost (€ 2,250,000) of anaerobic digestion treatment in a biogas plant with a 300 kW power and 510 kW heating unit in a medium size farm (450 livestock units). Considering the optimum biogas yield of 20.7 dm(3) kg(-1) of wet substrate and methane content in the biogas obtained of 79%, the anaerobic process results in a daily methane production of 2,500 kg, with the maximum power generation of 2,160,000 kWh y(-1) and heat generation of 2,400,000 kWh y(-1). The net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR) and payback period for implementation of profitable anaerobic digestion process is evaluated. Ecological aspects related to carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emission reduction are assessed. PMID:24963093

  16. Knoevenagel Reaction of Unprotected Sugars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherrmann, Marie-Christine

    The Knoevenagel reaction of unprotected sugars was investigated in the 1950s using zinc chloride as promoter. The so-called Garcia Gonzalez reaction had been almost forgotten for 50 years, until the emergence of new water tolerant catalysts having Lewis acid behavior. The reaction was thus reinvestigated and optimal conditions have been found to prepare trihydroxylated furan derivatives from pentose or ?-tetrahydrofuranylfuran from hexoses with non-cyclic ?-keto ester or ?-diketones. Other valuable compounds such as ?-linked tetrahydrobenzofuranyl glycosides or hydroxyalkyl-3,3,6,6,-tetramethyl-3,4,5,6,7,9-hexahydro-1H-xanthene-1,8(2H)-dione can be obtained using cyclic ?-dicarbonylic derivatives. Apart from one report in the 1950s, the Knoevenagel reaction of unprotected carbohydrate in basic condition has been studied only in the mid-1980s to prepare C-glycosyl barbiturates from barbituric acids and, later on, from non-cyclic ?-diketones, ?-C-glycosidic ketones. The efficient method exploited to prepare such compounds has found an industrial development in cosmetics.

  17. Maltoporin: sugar for physics and biology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    An Ranquin; Patrick Van Gelder

    2004-01-01

    Maltoporin has been studied for over 50 years. This trimeric bacterial outer membrane channel allows permeation of sugars such as maltodextrins. Its structure is described and functional studies resulting in a mechanistic transport model are critically discussed.

  18. Diabetes - low blood sugar - self-care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... diabetes medicine Not eating enough during meals or snacks after you have taken insulin or diabetes medicine ... your blood sugar levels. Make sure you have snacks with you. Talk to your doctor about reducing ...

  19. Treatment of biomass to obtain fermentable sugars

    SciTech Connect

    Dunson, Jr., James B. (Newark, DE); Tucker, Melvin (Lakewood, CO); Elander, Richard (Evergreen, CO); Hennessey, Susan M. (Avondale, PA)

    2011-04-26

    Biomass is pretreated using a low concentration of aqueous ammonia at high biomass concentration. Pretreated biomass is further hydrolyzed with a saccharification enzyme consortium. Fermentable sugars released by saccharification may be utilized for the production of target chemicals by fermentation.

  20. Syntheses and biological activities of daunorubicin analogs with uncommon sugars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lizhi Zhu; Xianhua Cao; Wenlan Chen; Guisheng Zhang; Duxin Sun; Peng George Wang

    2005-01-01

    To study the effects of the sugar structure on the activity of anthracycline against cancer cells, six daunorubicin analogs containing different uncommon sugars were synthesized. Their cytotoxicities were tested against colon cancer cells by MTS assay. The results showed that the aglycon without sugar moiety has 70–100-fold lower activity against cancer cells than daunorubicin derivatives with various uncommon sugars. It

  1. 21 CFR 172.585 - Sugar beet extract flavor base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...585 Sugar beet extract flavor base. Sugar beet extract flavor base may be safely used in food in...a) Sugar beet extract flavor base is the concentrated residue of...from which sugar and glutamic acid have been recovered, and...

  2. 21 CFR 172.585 - Sugar beet extract flavor base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...585 Sugar beet extract flavor base. Sugar beet extract flavor base may be safely used in food in...a) Sugar beet extract flavor base is the concentrated residue of...from which sugar and glutamic acid have been recovered, and...

  3. 21 CFR 172.585 - Sugar beet extract flavor base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...585 Sugar beet extract flavor base. Sugar beet extract flavor base may be safely used in food in...a) Sugar beet extract flavor base is the concentrated residue of...from which sugar and glutamic acid have been recovered, and...

  4. 21 CFR 172.585 - Sugar beet extract flavor base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...585 Sugar beet extract flavor base. Sugar beet extract flavor base may be safely used in food in...a) Sugar beet extract flavor base is the concentrated residue of...from which sugar and glutamic acid have been recovered, and...

  5. January 2013 BEE CULTURE 23 Revisiting Powdered Sugar For

    E-print Network

    Delaplane, Keith S.

    January 2013 BEE CULTURE 23 Revisiting Powdered Sugar For Varroa Control On Honey Bees (Apis dust bees with powder sugar as a means of removing mites. Dusting with powder sugar was also gaining conducted a study which examined the efficacy of powder sugar and found it did not help in controlling

  6. ORIGINAL PAPER Pollen dispersal in sugar beet production fields

    E-print Network

    ORIGINAL PAPER Pollen dispersal in sugar beet production fields Henri Darmency Æ Etienne K. Klein Æ and for breeders and farmers' activities. In sugar beet production fields, a few sugar beet bolters can produce to describe pollen dispersal from a small her- bicide-resistant sugar beet source towards male sterile target

  7. Weed Control Research in Sugar Beets. 

    E-print Network

    Wiese, A. F.; Scott, P. R.; Lavake, D. E.; Winter, S. R.; Owen, D. F.

    1975-01-01

    BULLETIN ' THE TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION1 J. E. Miller, Director1 Texas A&M University1 College Station, Texas r B-1158 November 1975 WEED CONTROL RESEARCH IN SUGAR BEETS A. F. Wiese, P. R. Scott, D. E. Lavake, S. R. Winter and D... in 1964. the Panhandle. : Ineffective weed control methods and high hoeing ' costs, excessive nitrogen fertilization, and leaf spot Preplant Incorporation I disease have created problems for sugar beet The effectiveness of preplant herbicides...

  8. How combine harvesting of green cane billets with different levels of trash affects production and processing. Part I. Field yields and delivered cane quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New refineries in Louisiana, USA are requesting Louisiana sugarcane factories to deliver very high pol/very low color (VHP/VLC) raw sugar with low ash concentrations. This higher quality raw sugar will allow both growers and factory processors to share economic premiums from the new refineries. A ...

  9. Sugar Intake, Obesity, and Diabetes in India

    PubMed Central

    Gulati, Seema; Misra, Anoop

    2014-01-01

    Sugar and sweet consumption have been popular and intrinsic to Indian culture, traditions, and religion from ancient times. In this article, we review the data showing increasing sugar consumption in India, including traditional sources (jaggery and khandsari) and from sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). Along with decreasing physical activity, this increasing trend of per capita sugar consumption assumes significance in view of the high tendency for Indians to develop insulin resistance, abdominal adiposity, and hepatic steatosis, and the increasing “epidemic” of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular diseases. Importantly, there are preliminary data to show that incidence of obesity and T2DM could be decreased by increasing taxation on SSBs. Other prevention strategies, encompassing multiple stakeholders (government, industry, and consumers), should target on decreasing sugar consumption in the Indian population. In this context, dietary guidelines for Indians show that sugar consumption should be less than 10% of total daily energy intake, but it is suggested that this limit be decreased. PMID:25533007

  10. Effect on Caries of Restricting Sugars Intake

    PubMed Central

    Moynihan, P.J.; Kelly, S.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    A systematic review of studies in humans was conducted to update evidence on the association between the amount of sugars intake and dental caries and on the effect of restricting sugars intake to < 10% and < 5% energy (E) on caries to inform the updating of World Health Organization guidelines on sugars consumption. Data sources included MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Database, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang, and South African Department of Health. Eligible studies reported the absolute amount of sugars and dental caries, measured as prevalence, incidence, or severity. The review was conducted and reported in accordance with the PRISMA statement, and the evidence was assessed according to GRADE Working Group guidelines. From 5,990 papers identified, 55 studies were eligible – 3 intervention, 8 cohort, 20 population, and 24 cross-sectional. Data variability limited meta-analysis. Of the studies, 42 out of 50 of those in children and 5 out of 5 in adults reported at least one positive association between sugars and caries. There is evidence of moderate quality showing that caries is lower when free-sugars intake is < 10% E. With the < 5% E cut-off, a significant relationship was observed, but the evidence was judged to be of very low quality. The findings are relevant to minimizing caries risk throughout the life course. PMID:24323509

  11. Sugar substitutes: Health controversy over perceived benefits

    PubMed Central

    Tandel, Kirtida R.

    2011-01-01

    Sugar is an inseparable part of the food we consume. But too much sugar is not ideal for our teeth and waistline. There have been some controversial suggestions that excessive sugar may play an important role in certain degenerative diseases. So artificial sweeteners or artificially sweetened products continue to attract consumers. A sugar substitute (artificial sweetener) is a food additive that duplicates the effect of sugar in taste, but usually has less food energy. Besides its benefits, animal studies have convincingly proven that artificial sweeteners cause weight gain, brain tumors, bladder cancer and many other health hazards. Some kind of health related side effects including carcinogenicity are also noted in humans. A large number of studies have been carried out on these substances with conclusions ranging from “safe under all conditions” to “unsafe at any dose”. Scientists are divided in their views on the issue of artificial sweetener safety. In scientific as well as in lay publications, supporting studies are often widely referenced while the opposing results are de-emphasized or dismissed. So this review aims to explore the health controversy over perceived benefits of sugar substitutes. PMID:22025850

  12. Pectinase Activity Determination: An Early Deceleration in the Release of Reducing Sugars Throws a Spanner in the Works!

    PubMed Central

    Biz, Alessandra; Farias, Fernanda Cardoso; Motter, Francine Aline; de Paula, Diogo Henrique; Richard, Peter; Krieger, Nadia; Mitchell, David Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Recently, it has been suggested that pectinases could be used to hydrolyze pectin in biorefineries based on pectin-rich agro-industrial wastes. However, for this to be viable, the cost of their production would need to be lowered significantly. In fact, over the last few decades, there have been many attempts to improve pectinase production by existing strains or to screen for new strains from environmental isolates. In these studies, it is necessary to measure pectinase activities. Many researchers use single-time-point assays that involve incubation of pectinolytic extracts with pectic substrates for a fixed time, followed by determination of the liberated reducing sugars. However, different researchers use quite different conditions for this assay. Furthermore, no attention has been given to the reaction profile during the assay. In the current work, we show, for the first time, that a significant deceleration of the rate of liberation of reducing sugars occurs over the first ten minutes of the reaction. As a consequence, the incubation time used in a single-time-point assay has a large effect on the value obtained for the activity. In fact, we demonstrate that, depending on the particular combination of incubation time, pectin concentration and reaction temperature, the same extract could be reported to have activities that differ by an order of magnitude. In addition, we show that the relative activities obtained with polygalacturonic acid do not correlate with those obtained with pectin. We conclude that it is currently impossible to make meaningful comparisons between pectinase activities reported in the literature by workers who have used different assay conditions. Therefore there is an urgent need for the development of a standardized assay for evaluating the saccharification potential of pectinase complexes. PMID:25337712

  13. Pectinase activity determination: an early deceleration in the release of reducing sugars throws a spanner in the works!

    PubMed

    Biz, Alessandra; Farias, Fernanda Cardoso; Motter, Francine Aline; de Paula, Diogo Henrique; Richard, Peter; Krieger, Nadia; Mitchell, David Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Recently, it has been suggested that pectinases could be used to hydrolyze pectin in biorefineries based on pectin-rich agro-industrial wastes. However, for this to be viable, the cost of their production would need to be lowered significantly. In fact, over the last few decades, there have been many attempts to improve pectinase production by existing strains or to screen for new strains from environmental isolates. In these studies, it is necessary to measure pectinase activities. Many researchers use single-time-point assays that involve incubation of pectinolytic extracts with pectic substrates for a fixed time, followed by determination of the liberated reducing sugars. However, different researchers use quite different conditions for this assay. Furthermore, no attention has been given to the reaction profile during the assay. In the current work, we show, for the first time, that a significant deceleration of the rate of liberation of reducing sugars occurs over the first ten minutes of the reaction. As a consequence, the incubation time used in a single-time-point assay has a large effect on the value obtained for the activity. In fact, we demonstrate that, depending on the particular combination of incubation time, pectin concentration and reaction temperature, the same extract could be reported to have activities that differ by an order of magnitude. In addition, we show that the relative activities obtained with polygalacturonic acid do not correlate with those obtained with pectin. We conclude that it is currently impossible to make meaningful comparisons between pectinase activities reported in the literature by workers who have used different assay conditions. Therefore there is an urgent need for the development of a standardized assay for evaluating the saccharification potential of pectinase complexes. PMID:25337712

  14. Ambient aerosol concentrations of sugars and sugar-alcohols at four different sites in Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yttri, K. E.; Dye, C.; Kiss, G.

    2007-04-01

    Sugars and sugar-alcohols are demonstrated to be important constituents of the ambient aerosol water-soluble organic carbon fraction (WSOC), and to be tracers for primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP). In the present study, levels of four sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose, trehalose) and three sugar-alcohols (arabitol, inositol, mannitol) in ambient aerosols have been quantified using a novel HPLC/HRMS-TOF (High Performance Liquid Chromatography in combination with High Resolution Mass Spectrometry - Time of Flight) method to assess the contribution of PBAP to PM10 and PM2.5. Samples were collected at four sites in Norway at different times of the year in order to reflect the various contributing sources and the spatial and seasonal variation of the selected compounds. Sugars and sugar-alcohols were present at all sites investigated, underlining the ubiquity of these highly polar organic compounds. The highest concentrations were reported for sucrose, reaching a maximum concentration of 320 ng m-3 in PM10 and 55 ng m-3 in PM2.5. The mean concentration of sucrose was up to 10 times higher than fructose, glucose and trehalose. The mean concentrations of the sugar-alcohols were typically lower, or equal, to that of the monomeric sugars and trehalose. Peak concentrations of arabitol and mannitol did not exceed 30 ng m-3 in PM10, and for PM2.5 all concentrations were below 6 ng m-3. Sugars and sugar-alcohols were associated primarily with coarse aerosols except during wintertime at the suburban site in Elverum, where a shift towards sub micron aerosols was observed. It is proposed that this shift was due to the intensive use of wood burning for residential heating at this site during winter, confirmed by high concurrent concentrations of levoglucosan. Elevated concentrations of sugars in PM2.5 were observed during spring and early summer at the rural background site Birkenes. It is hypothesized that this was due to ruptured pollen.

  15. TESTING FOR A TRAIL FOLLOWING PHEROMONE ON THE SILKY CANE WEEVIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The silky cane weevil (SCW), Metamasius hemipterus sericeus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a pest of sugarcane, and palms, and was introduced into Florida in the mid-1980s. In laboratory tests it was observed that weevils followed tracks already walked by other co-specifics and experiments...

  16. Production of compost with bagasse and vinasses for cane crop in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Y.K.; Castro Gomez, R.J.H.

    1982-10-01

    Recent laboratory experiments have shown that a mixture of bagasse, animal manure and vinasse can be transformed into compost suitable for agriculture. The factors necessary for good composting are discussed, these include the carbon-nitrogen ratio, moisture, aeration and temperature. A mixture of 300 kg cane bagasse and 38 kg poultry manure moistened with vinasse gave the best results.

  17. Design and evaluation of a hybrid sensor network for cane toad monitoring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wen Hu; Nirupama Bulusu; Chun Tung Chou; Sanjay Jha; Andrew Taylor; Van Nghia Tran

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates a wireless acoustic sensor network application—monitoring amphibian populations in the monsoonal woodlands of northern Australia. Our goal is to use automatic recognition of animal vocalizations to census the populations of native frogs and the invasive introduced species, the cane toad. This is a challenging application because it requires high frequency acoustic sampling, complex signal processing, wide area

  18. Demo Abstract: A Hybrid Sensor Network for Cane-toad Monitoring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wen Hu; Nirupama Bulusu; Chun Tung Chou; Sanjay Jha; Andrew Taylor

    This demonstration shows a wireless, acoustic sensor net- work application — monitoring amphibian populations in the monsoonal woodlands of northern Australia. Our sys- tem uses automatic recognition of animal vocalizations to census the populations of native frogs and the invasive in- troduced species, the Cane Toad (see Fig. 1). This is a challenging application because it requires high frequency acoustic

  19. The design and evaluation of a hybrid sensor network for cane-toad monitoring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wen Hu; Van Nghia Tran; Nirupama Bulusu; Chun Tung Chou; Sanjay Jha; Andrew Taylor

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates a wireless, acoustic sensor network application — monitoring amphibian populations in the monsoonal woodlands of northern Australia. Our goal is to use automatic recognition of animal vocalizations to census the populations of native frogs and the invasive introduced species, the Cane Toad (see Fig. 1). This is a challenging application because it requires high frequency acoustic sampling,

  20. Use of the Sonicguide and Laser Cane in Obtaining or Keeping Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, William H.; Smith, Tom E. C.

    1983-01-01

    Owners of laser canes and Sonicguides were surveyed to determine whether these devices were used in employment settings. Of the 94 respondents, 74 were still using their electronic travel aids: 36 percent used the devices to travel to and from work, and 49 percent used them on the job. (SEW)

  1. Production of energy cane and elephantgrass on marginal soils using winter covers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumacher) and energy cane (Saccharum sp.) are tall tropical bunch grasses that produce very high biomass yields and are considered an excellent bio-energy feedstock for the lower South. However, previous studies have shown that production is not sustainable wit...

  2. Thermal characterization of foam–cane (Quseab) as an insulant material

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. H. Kodah; M. A. Jarrah; N. S. Shanshal

    1999-01-01

    An experimental investigation is made to characterize the thermal insulation properties of different compounds of local natural low cost reinforcements with polyurethane foam forming the matrix (foam only, foam and hay, foam and cane). Several rectangular enclosures were produced with walls made from this composite material. Heat was transferred mainly by natural convection and radiation from the heat source inside

  3. PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF THE POTENTIAL OF ARTIFICIAL STIMULATION OF RAINFALL IN THE NATAL CANE BELT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. E. KELBE

    A study of rainfall stimulation was made with the aim of assessing its economic potential for the Natal cane belt. High variability of precipitation in both space and time makes the determination of requirements and effects of large scale seeding programmes very difficult. Evaluation of field and laboratory tests have, however, identified two conditions under which seeding could increase precipitation

  4. Cane toads on cowpats: commercial livestock production facilitates toad invasion in tropical australia.

    PubMed

    González-Bernal, Edna; Greenlees, Matthew; Brown, Gregory P; Shine, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Habitat disturbance and the spread of invasive organisms are major threats to biodiversity, but the interactions between these two factors remain poorly understood in many systems. Grazing activities may facilitate the spread of invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina) through tropical Australia by providing year-round access to otherwise-seasonal resources. We quantified the cane toad's use of cowpats (feces piles) in the field, and conducted experimental trials to assess the potential role of cowpats as sources of prey, water, and warmth for toads. Our field surveys show that cane toads are found on or near cowpats more often than expected by chance. Field-enclosure experiments show that cowpats facilitate toad feeding by providing access to dung beetles. Cowpats also offer moist surfaces that can reduce dehydration rates of toads and are warmer than other nearby substrates. Livestock grazing is the primary form of land use over vast areas of Australia, and pastoral activities may have contributed substantially to the cane toad's successful invasion of that continent. PMID:23145158

  5. Adapting to an invasive species: Toxic cane toads induce morphological change in Australian snakes

    E-print Network

    Shine, Rick

    Adapting to an invasive species: Toxic cane toads induce morphological change in Australian snakes October 27, 2004 (received for review August 31, 2004) The arrival of invasive species can devastate, invasive species, habitat removal, overharvesting, and altered biogeochemical cycles (1­3). These changes

  6. Removal of malachite green dye from aqueous solution by adsorption using agro-industry waste: a case study of Prosopis cineraria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. K Garg; Rakesh Kumar; Renuka Gupta

    2004-01-01

    Adsorbents prepared from Prosopis Cineraria sawdust—an agro-industry waste—were successfully used to remove the malachite green from an aqueous solution in a batch reactor. The adsorbents included formaldehyde-treated sawdust (PCSD) and sulphuric acid-treated sawdust (PCSDC). The effects of adsorbent surface change, initial pH, initial dye concentration, adsorbent mass and contact time on dye removal have been determined. Similar experiments were carried

  7. Biological treatment of chemically flocculated agro-industrial waste from the wool scouring industry by an aerobic process without sludge recycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew J Poole; Ralf Cord-Ruwisch; F. William Jones

    1999-01-01

    A new agro-industrial effluent known as Sirolan CF effluent is the aqueous phase remaining after the chemical flocculation of wool scouring effluent by the Sirolan CF process. This effluent has been characterized, and shown to be effectively treated by biological degradation. It has a high concentration of organic material (5750mg\\/L COD), with a low BOD5\\/COD ratio (0.29). Aerobic biological treatment

  8. Effect of Various Sugars and Sugar Substitutes on Dental Caries in Hamsters and Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GORAN FROSTELL; PAUL H. KEYES; ANDRACHEL H. LARSON

    Two series of experiments, one in hamsters the other in rats, were conducted to compare the dental caries conduciveness of sucrose with that of several other sugars and carbohydrates. Hamsters and albino rats fed a diet containing 56% sucrose in the form of confectionery sugar developed highly active carious lesions in their molar teeth. The lesions were located on \\

  9. Survey on some contaminants in white sugar from Serbian sugar beet refineries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Biljana Škrbi?; Julianna Gyura

    2006-01-01

    Refined white sugar is a very pure food product, even though it contains very small amounts of soluble and insoluble impurities. The content of these impurities has nutritional significance and determines the usefulness of sugar for various industrial applications. The main quality criteria used to indicate the content of these impurities are ash and colour. The aim of this paper

  10. [Prophylaxis of dental caries using sugar substitutes].

    PubMed

    Eberle, G

    1984-12-01

    Among the three measures, which are capable of producing a preventive effect against caries only when applied combined, i.e. adequate fluoride supply, proper mouth hygiene and healthy nutrition, the latter is dealt with in greater detail. The use of sugar substitutes is discussed under the aspects of caries prevention, substitute composition and production technology as well as from a medical point of view. Among the presently available sugar substitutes with nutritive value are mentioned Xylite, Lycasine, Mannite, Sorbite, Palatinite, the non-calorific substitutes such as the natural Aspartame as well as the synthetic sweetening agents Saccharine and Cyclamate. The possibilities and limitations of using these sugar substitutes in the prevention of caries in adults and children are presented. PMID:6532015

  11. Fermentable sugars by chemical hydrolysis of biomass

    PubMed Central

    Binder, Joseph B.; Raines, Ronald T.

    2010-01-01

    Abundant plant biomass has the potential to become a sustainable source of fuels and chemicals. Realizing this potential requires the economical conversion of recalcitrant lignocellulose into useful intermediates, such as sugars. We report a high-yielding chemical process for the hydrolysis of biomass into monosaccharides. Adding water gradually to a chloride ionic liquid-containing catalytic acid leads to a nearly 90% yield of glucose from cellulose and 70–80% yield of sugars from untreated corn stover. Ion-exclusion chromatography allows recovery of the ionic liquid and delivers sugar feedstocks that support the vigorous growth of ethanologenic microbes. This simple chemical process, which requires neither an edible plant nor a cellulase, could enable crude biomass to be the sole source of carbon for a scalable biorefinery. PMID:20194793

  12. Microbiological aspects of some caloric sugar substitutes.

    PubMed

    Birkhed, D; Kalfas, S; Svensäter, G; Edwardsson, S

    1985-03-01

    Several caloric sugar substitutes are available today, e.g. maltitol, Lycasin, sorbitol, xylitol, palatinit, sorbose, coupling sugar, palatinose, fructose and invert sugar. When evaluating the cariogenicity of these sugar substitutes from a bacteriological point of view, different analytical procedures should be considered. In vitro studies on the capacity of pure oral bacterial strains and dental plaque material to decompose the substitute to acid. Studies on the catabolism of the substitute. Possible adaptation of the oral microflora to metabolize the substitute in vivo as well as in vitro. Studies on any inhibitory effect of the substitute on the microbial activities in dental plaque and on the oral microflora. The capacity of oral bacteria, e.g. Streptococcus mutans, to induce caries in animal experiments should also be considered. Results from such microbiological studies make it possible to classify the caloric sugar substitutes into different groups. The first, most suitable, group seems to consist of xylitol and sorbose. These substitutes are fermented by few oral bacteria and no negative adaptation of the oral flora has been observed. A reducing effect upon dental plaque formation and on acid production from glucose has been reported. A second group consists of maltitol, palatinite, palatinose, sorbitol and Lycasin. These substitutes are fermented by certain groups of organisms within the oral genera Actinomyces, Lactobacillus and Streptococcus. Adaptation of oral bacteria to palatinose and to sorbitol, resulting in a more pronounced acid production, has been observed. No inhibitory effects have been reported. The results from experimental studies suggest that these sugar substitutes have no or little cariogenic action in rodents inoculated with S. mutans.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3858233

  13. Countercurrent Conversion of Biomass to Sugars 

    E-print Network

    Brooks, Heather Lauren

    2014-09-26

    pretreatment; raw biomass slurry was “shocked” by a controlled gas explosion, thereby breaking up the biomass and increasing its digestibility. The enzymes CTec 3 and HTec 3 were used to break down the biomass and turn it into sugar. Enzymes were added..., fresh solids and liquids were inserted at opposite ends of a 16-bottle system and flow in countercurrent. They exit at opposite ends as liquid product (sugars) and waste solids. The solid we used was shock-pretreated corn stover. We added biomass...

  14. Sugar amino acids in designing new molecules.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Tushar Kanti; Srinivasu, Pothukanuri; Tapadar, Subhasish; Mohan, Bajjuri Krishna

    2005-03-01

    Emulating the basic principles followed by nature to build its vast repertoire of biomolecules, organic chemists are developing many novel multifunctional building blocks and using them to create 'nature-like' and yet unnatural organic molecules. Sugar amino acids constitute an important class of such polyfunctional scaffolds where the carboxyl, amino and hydroxyl termini provide an excellent opportunity to organic chemists to create structural diversities akin to Nature's molecular arsenal. This article describes some of our works on various sugar amino acids and many other related building blocks, like furan amino acids, pyrrole amino acids etc. used in wide-ranging peptidomimetic studies. PMID:16133829

  15. Ambient aerosol concentrations of sugars and sugar-alcohols at four different sites in Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yttri, K. E.; Dye, C.; Kiss, G.

    2007-08-01

    Sugars and sugar-alcohols are demonstrated to be important constituents of the ambient aerosol water-soluble organic carbon fraction, and to be tracers for primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP). In the present study, levels of four sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose, trehalose) and three sugar-alcohols (arabitol, inositol, mannitol) in ambient aerosols have been quantified using a novel HPLC/HRMS-TOF (High Performance Liquid Chromatography in combination with High Resolution Mass Spectrometry - Time of Flight) method to assess the contribution of PBAP to PM>sub>10 and PM2.5. Samples were collected at four sites in Norway at different times of the year in order to reflect the various contributing sources and the spatial and seasonal variation of the selected compounds. Sugars and sugar-alcohols were present at all sites investigated, underlining the ubiquity of these highly polar organic compounds. The highest concentrations were reported for sucrose, reaching a maximum concentration of 320 ng m-3 in PM10 and 55 ng m-3 in PM2.5. The mean concentration of sucrose was up to 10 times higher than fructose, glucose and the dimeric sugar trehalose. The mean concentrations of the sugar-alcohols were typically lower, or equal, to that of the monomeric sugars and trehalose. Peak concentrations of arabitol and mannitol did not exceed 30 ng m-3 in PM10, and for PM2.5 all concentrations were below 6 ng m-3. Sugars and sugar-alcohols were associated primarily with coarse aerosols except during wintertime at the suburban site in Elverum, where a shift towards sub micron aerosols was observed. It is proposed that this shift was due to the intensive use of wood burning for residential heating at this site during winter, confirmed by high concurrent concentrations of levoglucosan. Elevated concentrations of sugars in PM2.5 were observed during spring and early summer at the rural background site Birkenes. It is hypothesized that this was due to ruptured pollen.

  16. New energy crop giant cane (Arundo donax L.) can substitute traditional energy crops increasing biogas yield and reducing costs.

    PubMed

    Luca, Corno; Pilu, Roberto; Tambone, Fulvia; Scaglia, Barbara; Adani, Fabrizio

    2015-09-01

    Giant cane is a promising non-food crop for biogas production. Giant cane and corn silages coming from full-scale fields were tested, in mixtures with pig slurry, for biomethane production by a continuous stirred tank lab-scale-reactor (CSTR) approach. Results indicated that giant cane produced less biomethane than corn, i.e. 174±10Nm(3)CH4Mg(-1)TS(-1) and 245±26Nm(3) CH4Mg(-1)TS(-1), respectively. On the other hand, because of its high field biomass production, the biogas obtainable per Ha was higher for giant cane than for corn, i.e. 12,292Nm(3) CH4Ha(-1) and 4549Nm(3)CH4Ha(-1), respectively. Low energetic and agronomic inputs for giant cane cultivation led to a considerable reduction in the costs of producing both electricity and biomethane, i.e. 0.50€Nm(-3)CH4(-1) and 0.81€Nm(-3)CH4(-1), and 0.10€kWhEE(-1) and 0.19€kWhEE(-1) for biomethane and electricity production, and for giant cane and corn mixtures respectively. PMID:25997008

  17. 7 CFR 1435.604 - Eligible sugar buyer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Program § 1435.604 Eligible sugar buyer. (a) To be considered an eligible sugar buyer, the bioenergy producer must produce bioenergy products, including fuel grade ethanol or other biofuels. (b)...

  18. NORTH WALL OF ELECTRIC SHOP, SUGAR BIN IS RIGHTOFCENTER, OFFICE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTH WALL OF ELECTRIC SHOP, SUGAR BIN IS RIGHT-OF-CENTER, OFFICE AND LABORATORY AT FAR RIGHT. VIEW FROM THE NORTHEAST - Lihue Plantation Company, Sugar Mill Building, Haleko Road, Lihue, Kauai County, HI

  19. BOILING HOUSE, GROUND FLOOR, ABANDONED SUGAR BIN IN CENTER. IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BOILING HOUSE, GROUND FLOOR, ABANDONED SUGAR BIN IN CENTER. IN BACKGROUND, THE ELEVATOR AND STAIRS GOING UP. VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST - Lihue Plantation Company, Sugar Mill Building, Haleko Road, Lihue, Kauai County, HI

  20. Production of Trametes pubescens Laccase under Submerged and Semi-Solid Culture Conditions on Agro-Industrial Wastes

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Alexander; Osma, Johann F.; Alméciga-Díaz, Carlos J.; Sánchez, Oscar F.

    2013-01-01

    Laccases are copper-containing enzymes involved in the degradation of lignocellulosic materials and used in the treatment of phenol-containing wastewater. In this study we investigated the effect of culture conditions, i.e. submerged or semi-solid, and copper supplementation on laccase production by Trametespubescens grown on coffee husk, soybean pod husk, or cedar sawdust. The highest specific laccase activity was achieved when the culture was conducted under submerged conditions supplemented with copper (5 mM), and using coffee husk as substrate. The crude extracts presented two laccase isoforms with molecular mass of 120 (Lac1) and 60 kDa (Lac2). Regardless of the substrate, enzymatic crude extract and purified fractions behaved similarly at different temperatures and pHs, most of them presented the maximum activity at 55 °C and a pH range between 2 and 3. In addition, they showed similar stability and electro-chemical properties. At optimal culture conditions laccase activity was 7.69±0.28 U mg-1 of protein for the crude extract, and 0.08±0.001 and 2.86±0.05 U mg-1 of protein for Lac1 and Lac2, respectively. In summary, these results show the potential of coffee husk as an important and economical growth medium to produce laccase, offering a new alternative use for this common agro-industrial byproduct. PMID:24019936

  1. Analysis of the stability of high-solids anaerobic digestion of agro-industrial waste and sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Aymerich, E; Esteban-Gutiérrez, M; Sancho, L

    2013-09-01

    The pilot-scale high-solids anaerobic digestion (HS-AD) of agro-industrial wastes and sewage sludge was analysed in terms of stability by monitoring the most common parameters used to check the performance of anaerobic digesters, i.e. Volatile Fatty Acids (VFA), ammonia nitrogen, pH, alkalinity and methane production. The results reflected similar evolution for the parameters analysed, except for an experiment that presented an unsuccessful start-up. The rest of the experiments ran successfully, although the threshold values proposed in the literature for the detection of an imbalance in wet processes were exceeded, proving the versatility of HS-AD to treat different wastes. The results evidence the need for understanding the dynamics of a high-solids system so as to detect periods of imbalance and to determine inhibitory levels for different compounds formed during anaerobic decomposition. Moreover, the findings presented here could be useful in developing an experimental basis to construct new control strategies for HS-AD. PMID:23859986

  2. Production of Trametes pubescens laccase under submerged and semi-solid culture conditions on agro-industrial wastes.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Juan C; Medina, Sandra C; Rodriguez, Alexander; Osma, Johann F; Alméciga-Díaz, Carlos J; Sánchez, Oscar F

    2013-01-01

    Laccases are copper-containing enzymes involved in the degradation of lignocellulosic materials and used in the treatment of phenol-containing wastewater. In this study we investigated the effect of culture conditions, i.e. submerged or semi-solid, and copper supplementation on laccase production by Trametespubescens grown on coffee husk, soybean pod husk, or cedar sawdust. The highest specific laccase activity was achieved when the culture was conducted under submerged conditions supplemented with copper (5 mM), and using coffee husk as substrate. The crude extracts presented two laccase isoforms with molecular mass of 120 (Lac1) and 60 kDa (Lac2). Regardless of the substrate, enzymatic crude extract and purified fractions behaved similarly at different temperatures and pHs, most of them presented the maximum activity at 55 °C and a pH range between 2 and 3. In addition, they showed similar stability and electro-chemical properties. At optimal culture conditions laccase activity was 7.69 ± 0.28 U mg(-1) of protein for the crude extract, and 0.08 ± 0.001 and 2.86 ± 0.05 U mg(-1) of protein for Lac1 and Lac2, respectively. In summary, these results show the potential of coffee husk as an important and economical growth medium to produce laccase, offering a new alternative use for this common agro-industrial byproduct. PMID:24019936

  3. Disposal of agro-industrial by-products by organic cultivation of the culinary and medicinal mushroom Hypsizygus marmoreus.

    PubMed

    Akavia, E; Beharav, A; Wasser, S P; Nevo, E

    2009-05-01

    Organic mushroom cultivation is one of the fastest growing segments of agriculture. At the core of the organic philosophy lies a ban on the use of synthetic fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides, in addition to such tenets as animal welfare, energy efficiency, and social justice. Hypsizygus marmoreus (HM) is a highly praised cultivated culinary and medicinal mushroom. The objective of this paper was to assess the suitability of different spawn media and then the potential of various cultivation substrates to support HM mushroom production compatible with organic standards. This objective was met through the setup of a low-cost cultivation infrastructure. First, seven types of spawn media were tested; then we tested 24 substrates made from organic by-products for their biological efficiency (BE) with strain HM 830, using the liquid inoculation method. The best substrate in terms of BE was corn cob with bran and olive press cake, with a BE of 85.6%. The BE of the same composition but without olive press cake was only 67.5%. The next best substrates were cotton straw combinations with a BE of 31.5-53%. The spent mushroom substrate provides a good method for the disposal of solid waste. The guidance provided in this research complies with organic mushroom cultivation standards and can be used to produce certified organic mushrooms. In addition, it allows responsible and beneficial disposal of a large amount of solid agro-industrial waste. PMID:19131235

  4. Preheating and incubation of cane juice prior to liming: a comparison of intermediate and cold lime clarification.

    PubMed

    Eggleston, Gillian; Monge, Adrian; Pepperman, Armand

    2002-01-30

    In the U.S., cold lime clarification remains the clarification process of choice in raw sugar manufacturing. A comparative study of cold vs intermediate lime clarification was undertaken at a factory that operated intermediate liming (approximately 30% mixed juice (MJ) of pH 5.2 +/- 0.3 was preheated to 87-93 degrees C to help maintain clean limed juice heaters, incubated at approximately 54 degrees C, and then limed) but still had the pipes to revert to cold liming (MJ incubated and limed at approximately 40 degrees C) for this study. Hourly samples were collected over a 6 h sampling period across cold and intermediate clarification processes on two consecutive days, respectively, and this was repeated three times across the 1999 grinding season. A total of 1.57% less sucrose was lost to inversion reactions across intermediate rather than cold liming. In intermediate liming, which required approximately 4.6% less lime, preheating of only 30% of the MJ markedly removed color (-29%), dextran (-10%), and starch (-24%) and caused large flocs to form that settled faster in the clarifiers. Faster settling led to an impressive 4.6% (season average) more turbidity removal across the clarifiers in intermediate rather than cold liming. Intermediate clarified juice (CJ) turbidity (season average 2028 ICU +/- 675) was approximately half of cold CJ turbidity (average 3952 ICU +/- 1450) with over 2-fold more CJ turbidity control. Subsequent turbidity values and control were significantly improved in the final evaporator syrup samples too. For both processes, juice incubation caused approximately 10% color removal, but this was offset by color formation on liming, because of the alkaline degradation of invert; however, overall, more color was removed than formed in intermediate liming. Starch was reduced in the incubator tank, for both processes, because added filtrate reduced the acidity enabling natural diastase from the cane to degrade starch. Some dextran occasionally formed in the incubator tank, in both processes. Summed across measured parameters, intermediate liming appears to offer several advantages over cold liming. PMID:11804517

  5. Moisture and Shelf Life in Sugar Confections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Ergun; R. Lietha; R. W. Hartel

    2010-01-01

    From hardening of marshmallow to graining of hard candies, moisture plays a critical role in determining the quality and shelf life of sugar-based confections. Water is important during the manufacturing of confections, is an important factor in governing texture, and is often the limiting parameter during storage that controls shelf life. Thus, an understanding of water relations in confections is

  6. Changes in sugars during storage of sausages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reyna Mendiolea; Isabel Guerrero; Andrew J. Taylor

    1995-01-01

    The shelf-life of fresh British sausages is determined by the production of off-odours and colour changes due to microflora in the sausage. From work on meat, and in pure culture, it is known that the carbon source of the principal spoilage microorganism (Brochothrix thermosphacta) can affect its metabolism and change the nature of the secondary metabolic products. The sugar content

  7. Introduction Proper irrigation timing can maximize sugar-

    E-print Network

    O'Laughlin, Jay

    Introduction Proper irrigation timing can maximize sugar- beet yields while minimizing disease- cially with furrow irrigation. Root diseases such as rhizomania and rhizoctonia root and crown rots will be reduced. Unnecessary irrigations can be reduced if grow- ers use information on water status at deeper

  8. Sweet solution: sugars to the rescue.

    PubMed

    Freeze, Hudson H

    2002-08-19

    Sugar pills are usually placebos, but Smith et al. (2002, this issue) use one to rescue designer mice unable to make GDP-Fucose. Dietary fucose enters a salvage pathway and spares the mice. Sound simple? Not so. Unknown genetic factors determine life or death. PMID:12186848

  9. TRANSFORMATION OF SUGAR BEET CELL SUSPENSION CULTURES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A sugar beet transformation method was developed using particle bombardment of short-term suspension cultures of a breeding line FC607. Highly embryogenic suspension cultures derived from leaf callus were bombarded with the uidA (GUS) reporter gene under the control of either the osmotin or protein...

  10. Rhizoctonia seedling disease on sugar beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia seedling damping-off can cause losses in sugar beet as well as providing inoculum for later root rot. The disease is caused by Rhizoctonia solani. The pathogen has several subgroups, anastomosis groups (AG), of which AG-4 has historically been associated with damping-off, while AG-2-2 is...

  11. When Blood Sugar is Too High

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the body gets desperate for a source of fuel. The body wants to use glucose (sugar). But without insulin, that glucose stays stuck in the blood — and isn't available to the cells — so the body uses fat instead. But that ...

  12. Green chemistry: Biodiesel made with sugar catalyst

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masakazu Toda; Atsushi Takagaki; Mai Okamura; Junko N. Kondo; Shigenobu Hayashi; Kazunari Domen; Michikazu Hara

    2005-01-01

    The production of diesel from vegetable oil calls for an efficient solid catalyst to make the process fully ecologically friendly. Here we describe the preparation of such a catalyst from common, inexpensive sugars. This high-performance catalyst, which consists of stable sulphonated amorphous carbon, is recyclable and its activity markedly exceeds that of other solid acid catalysts tested for `biodiesel' production.

  13. Keeping Track of Your Blood Sugar

    MedlinePLUS

    ... strips are the most expensive part of monitoring blood sugar levels). Size. Chances are you'll be using the glucose meter on the go, so you might want one that's light, portable, and easy to fit into your backpack or bag (and that still leaves room for your cell ...

  14. Aerosol Chemistry of Furfural and Sugars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Srithawirat; P. Brimblecombe

    2008-01-01

    Furfural and sugars (as levoglucosan equivalent) are derived from biomass burning and contribute to aerosol composition. This study examined the potential of furfural and levoglucosan to be tracers of biomass burning. Furfural is likely to be oxidized quickly so comparison with levoglucosan may give a sense of the age of the aerosols in forest fire smoke. However, few furfural emissions

  15. Ice, pins, or sugar to reduce paraphimosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin Mackway-Jones; Stewart Teece

    2004-01-01

    A short cut review was carried out to establish which of the ice glove technique, the multiple puncture technique, or the application of sugar was the best approach for paraphimosis reduction. Thirty three papers were found using the reported search, of which three presented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The author, date and country of publication, patient

  16. American Crystal Sugar: Genetically Enhanced Sugarbeets?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheryl S. DeVuyst; Cheryl J. Wachenheim

    2005-01-01

    Biotechnology affords new risks and opportunities for food processing firms. This decision case involves a cooperative that is considering whether to allow members to grow sugarbeet varieties that are genetically enhanced for herbicide tolerance. Sugarbeet farmer-members of American Crystal Sugar Company support the use of genetically enhanced (GE) varieties. However, there are risks for the cooperative, especially related to market

  17. HISTORY OF SUGAR BEET PRODUCTION AND USAGE.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beets (Beta vulgaris L.) were originally domesticated in classical times. Early Greek and Roman texts refer to beets as a leafy pot herb, and it was not until the Middle Ages that the root was used both as a vegetable and medicinal herb. Sugar beet is a relatively new crop, and is unique among foo...

  18. Counter-current extraction of sweet sorghum sugar for fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Toledo, R.T.

    1985-01-01

    A small counter-current extractor in the form of a heated inclined screw was tested to remove residual sugar from the bagasse after sweet sorghum was passed through one roller mill. Roller milling alone recovered only 45% of total sugar. Combined efficiency of milling and extraction was 95%. Combined pressed juice (17% sugar) and extract (10% sugar) produces a 12.5% solids juice for fermentation.

  19. Managing Hyperglycemia (High Blood Sugar) in the Hospital: a Patient's Guide

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Hospital Is there a risk for low blood sugar? Low blood sugar (defined as a blood sugar ... after your hospital stay. What are the blood sugar targets in the hospital? Health care providers want ...

  20. Role of sugar and sugar substitutes in dental caries: a review.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Prahlad; Gupta, Nidhi; Pawar, Atish Prakash; Birajdar, Smita Shrishail; Natt, Amanpreet Singh; Singh, Harkanwal Preet

    2013-01-01

    Dental caries is a chronic disease which can affect us at any age. The term "caries" denotes both the disease process and its consequences, that is, the damage caused by the disease process. Dental caries has a multifactorial aetiology in which there is interplay of three principal factors: the host (saliva and teeth), the microflora (plaque), and the substrate (diet), and a fourth factor: time. The role of sugar (and other fermentable carbohydrates such as highly refined flour) as a risk factor in the initiation and progression of dental caries is overwhelming. Whether this initial demineralization proceeds to clinically detectable caries or whether the lesion is remineralized by plaque minerals depends on a number of factors, of which the amount and frequency of further sugars consumption are of utmost importance. This paper reviews the role of sugar and sugar substitutes in dental caries. PMID:24490079

  1. Sugar in Moderation: Variable Sugar Diets Affect Short-Term Parasitoid Behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The biological control potential of parasitic wasps in the field is expected to increase with provisioning of sugar sources, which increase longevity and replenish carbohydrate reserves. Apanteles aristoteliae Viereck is an important parasitoid of Argyrotaenia franciscana (Walsingham), the orange to...

  2. Detection of Sugar-Lectin Interactions by Multivalent Dendritic Sugar Functionalized Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    E-print Network

    Vasu, K S; Bagul, R S; Jayaraman, N; Sood, A K; 10.1063/1.4739793

    2012-01-01

    We show that single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) decorated with sugar functionalized poly (propyl ether imine) (PETIM) dendrimer is a very sensitive platform to quantitatively detect carbohydrate recognizing proteins, namely, lectins. The changes in electrical conductivity of SWNT in field effect transistor device due to carbohydrate - protein interactions form the basis of present study. The mannose sugar attached PETIM dendrimers undergo charge - transfer interactions with the SWNT. The changes in the conductance of the dendritic sugar functionalized SWNT after addition of lectins in varying concentrations were found to follow the Langmuir type isotherm, giving the concanavalin A (Con A) - mannose affinity constant to be 8.5 x 106 M-1. The increase in the device conductance observed after adding 10 nM of Con A is same as after adding 20 \\muM of a non - specific lectin peanut agglutinin, showing the high specificity of the Con A - mannose interactions. The specificity of sugar-lectin interactions was chara...

  3. Invader immunology: invasion history alters immune system function in cane toads (Rhinella marina) in tropical Australia.

    PubMed

    Brown, Gregory P; Phillips, Benjamin L; Dubey, Sylvain; Shine, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Because an individual's investment into the immune system may modify its dispersal rate, immune function may evolve rapidly in an invader. We collected cane toads (Rhinella marina) from sites spanning their 75-year invasion history in Australia, bred them, and raised their progeny in standard conditions. Evolved shifts in immune function should manifest as differences in immune responses among the progeny of parents collected in different locations. Parental location did not affect the offspring's cell-mediated immune response or stress response, but blood from the offspring of invasion-front toads had more neutrophils, and was more effective at phagocytosis and killing bacteria. These latter measures of immune function are negatively correlated with rate of dispersal in free-ranging toads. Our results suggest that the invasion of tropical Australia by cane toads has resulted in rapid genetically based compensatory shifts in the aspects of immune responses that are most compromised by the rigours of long-distance dispersal. PMID:25399668

  4. Solubility of sugars and sugar alcohols in ionic liquids: measurement and PC-SAFT modeling.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Aristides P; Held, Christoph; Rodríguez, Oscar; Sadowski, Gabriele; Macedo, Eugénia A

    2013-08-29

    Biorefining processes using ionic liquids (ILs) require proper solubility data of biomass-based compounds in ILs, as well as an appropriate thermodynamic approach for the modeling of such data. Carbohydrates and their derivatives such as sugar alcohols represent a class of compounds that could play an important role in biorefining. Thus, in this work, the pure IL density and solubility of xylitol and sorbitol in five different ILs were measured between 288 and 339 K. The ILs under consideration were 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide ([bmim][DCA]), Aliquat dicyanamide, trihexyltetradecylphosphonium dicyanamide, and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoroacetate. Comparison with the literature data was performed, showing good agreement. With the exception of [bmim][DCA], the solubility of these sugar alcohols in the other ILs is presented for the first time. The measured data as well as previously published solubility data of glucose and fructose in these ILs were modeled by means of PC-SAFT using a molecular-based associative approach for ILs. PC-SAFT was used in this work as it has shown to be applicable to model the solubility of xylitol and sorbitol in ILs (Paduszy?ski; et al. J. Phys. Chem. B 2013, 117, 7034-7046). For this purpose, three pure IL parameters were fitted to pure IL densities, activity coefficients of 1-propanol at infinite dilution in ILs, and/or xylitol solubility in ILs. This approach allows accurate modeling of the pure IL data and the mixture data with only one binary interaction parameter k(ij) between sugar and the IL or sugar alcohol and the IL. In cases where only the pure IL density and activity coefficients of 1-propanol at infinite dilution in ILs were used for the IL parameter estimation, the solubility of the sugars and sugar alcohols in the ILs could be predicted (k(ij) = 0 between sugar and the IL or sugar alcohol and the IL) with reasonable accuracy. PMID:23952078

  5. Effect of Sugars on Retrogradation of Waxy Maize Starch-Sugar Extrudates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. A. Farhat; J. M. V. Blanshard; M. Descamps; J. R. Mitchell

    2000-01-01

    Cereal Chem. 77(2):202-208 The effect of sucrose, fructose, and xylose on the retrogradation of waxy maize starch extrudates at relatively low moisture contents (20-50 g of water\\/ 100 g of dry solid) at 277-353 K was investigated using X-ray diffraction and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxometry. The role of the sugar depended on the type of sugar and its

  6. A Single Amino Acid Change Converts the Sugar Sensor SGLT3 into a Sugar Transporter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura Bianchi; Ana Díez-Sampedro; Mel B. Feany

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundSodium-glucose cotransporter proteins (SGLT) belong to the SLC5A family, characterized by the cotransport of Na+ with solute. SGLT1 is responsible for intestinal glucose absorption. Until recently the only role described for SGLT proteins was to transport sugar with Na+. However, human SGLT3 (hSGLT3) does not transport sugar but causes depolarization of the plasma membrane when expressed in Xenopus oocytes. For

  7. Effect of fungicides on sugar beet yield and quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    More than half of the US sugar beet, Beta vulgaris, crop is produced in North Dakota and Minnesota . The objective of this research was to determine the effect of fungicides on sugar beet yield and quality in the absence of disease. Sugar beet was planted at Prosper, North Dakota in 2005, 2006 and...

  8. The mechanism of sugar uptake by sugarcane suspension cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Komor; M. Thorn; A. Maretzki

    1981-01-01

    Sugarcane cell suspensions took up sugar from the medium at rates comparable to or greater than sugarcane tissue slices or plants in the field. This system offers an opportunity for the study of kinetic and energetic mechanisms of sugar transport in storage parenchyma-like cells in the absence of heterogeneity introduced by tissues. The following results were obtained: (a) The sugar

  9. PECTIN ACETYLESTERASE - ANALYSIS AND APPLICATION FOR SUGAR BEET PECTIN UTILIZATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sustainable technologies are being sought to provide new and higher-value coproducts from sugar beet pulp. Pectin is a complex plant cell wall polysaccharide that represents a major fraction of sugar beet pulp. One distinguishing feature of sugar beet pectin is a high content of C2 and C3 acetyl e...

  10. USDA DATABASE FOR THE ADDED SUGARS CONTENT OF SELECTED FOODS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The database contains carbohydrate, total sugar, and added sugar values for 2,038 foods. Values for total carbohydrate by difference and total sugar were taken from the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 18 (SR18). Values contain the same number of decimal places as tho...

  11. Sugar-Mineral Interactions and the Origins of Life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. M. Kubista; H. J. Cleaves

    2007-01-01

    Sugars may have been necessary for the origin of life, specifically in the initial abiological synthesis of RNA. One possible mechanism sugars could have formed on the primitive Earth is the formose reaction, the base-catalyzed polymerization of HCHO. This reaction provides a plethora of sugar products, none of them in particularly high yield relative to the others. Ribose, and its

  12. Ethanol production in fermentation of mixed sugars containing xylose

    DOEpatents

    Viitanen, Paul V. (West Chester, PA); Mc Cutchen, Carol M. (Wilmington, DE); Li; Xu (Newark, DE); Emptage, Mark (Wilmington, DE); Caimi, Perry G. (Kennett Square, PA); Zhang, Min (Lakewood, CO); Chou, Yat-Chen (Lakewood, CO); Franden, Mary Ann (Centennial, CO)

    2009-12-08

    Xylose-utilizing Z. mobilis strains were found to have improved ethanol production when grown in medium containing mixed sugars including xylose if sorbitol or mannitol was included in the medium. The effect was seen in concentrations of mixed sugars where no growth lag period occurs, as well as in higher sugars concentrations.

  13. PECTIN ACETYLESTERASE - ANALYSIS AND APPLICATION FOR SUGAR BEET PECTIN UTILIZATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sustainable technologies are being sought to provide new and higher-value coproducts from sugar beet pulp. Pectin is a complex plant cell wall polysaccharide that represents a major fraction of sugar beet pulp. One distinguishing feature of sugar beet pectin is a high content of C2 and C3 ace...

  14. NOTES AND COMMENTS Revisiting powdered sugar for varroa control on

    E-print Network

    Delaplane, Keith S.

    NOTES AND COMMENTS Revisiting powdered sugar for varroa control on honey bees (Apis mellifera L, accepted for publication 1 September 2012. Keywords: Varroa destructor, IPM, powdered sugar, dusts Journal sugar has been examined as a remedial control for Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman (varroa). Two

  15. 19 CFR 151.22 - Estimated duties on raw sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Estimated duties on raw sugar. 151.22 Section 151.22 Customs...SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.22 Estimated duties on raw sugar. Estimated duties shall be taken...

  16. Chemical Organizations in the Central Sugar Metabolism of Escherichia Coli

    E-print Network

    Dittrich, Peter

    1 Chemical Organizations in the Central Sugar Metabolism of Escherichia Coli Florian Centler represent po- tential steady state compositions of the system. When applied to a model of sugar metabolism, network analysis, stoichiometry, systems biology, sugar metabolism, Escherichia coli 1.1 Introduction

  17. NECTAR SUGAR PRODUCTION AND FLOWER VISITORS OF THE BRAMBLE,

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    NECTAR SUGAR PRODUCTION AND FLOWER VISITORS OF THE BRAMBLE, RUBUS ELLIPTICUS SMITH (ROSACEAE of Horticulture and Forestry, College of Horticulture, Nauni, Solan, India - 173230 SUMMARY Nectar sugar production in flowers of Rubus ellipticus averaged 6.93 mg/flower at 24 h and the accumulation of the sugar

  18. 19 CFR 151.22 - Estimated duties on raw sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Estimated duties on raw sugar. 151.22 Section 151.22 Customs...SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.22 Estimated duties on raw sugar. Estimated duties shall be taken...

  19. Safety Analysis of Sugar Cataract Development Using Stochastic Hybrid Systems

    E-print Network

    Koutsoukos, Xenofon D.

    Safety Analysis of Sugar Cataract Development Using Stochastic Hybrid Systems Derek Riley continuous dynamics [6]. In this paper we model Sugar Cataract Development (SCD) as a SHS, and we present a probabilistic verification method for computing the probability of sugar cataract formation for different

  20. Lignin content in natural Populus variants affects sugar release

    E-print Network

    California at Riverside, University of

    Lignin content in natural Populus variants affects sugar release Michael H. Studera,b,1 , Jaclyn D fuels from lignocel- lulosic biomass is a plant's recalcitrance to releasing sugars bound in the cell and guaiacyl units (S/G ratio). This subset was tested for total sugar release through enzymatic hydrolysis