Note: This page contains sample records for the topic sugar cane agroindustry from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Utilization of Sugar Cane and the By-Products of Its Agro-Industry for Animal Feeding.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper offers a series of alternatives for the use of sugar cane, its by-products and derivatives for animal feeding, taking as a basis the experience obtained in the Latin American and Caribbean region. The focus is mainly taken from the viewpoint of ...

H. N. Silverio

1991-01-01

2

Maufacture of raw cane sugar  

SciTech Connect

Procedures used at the Pepeekeo Sugar Factory in Hawaii for producing commercial sugar, molasses and bagasse from harvested sugar cane are described. The molasses is marketed, the sugar is refined elsewhere, and the bagasse is burned to produce steam and electric power for the Pepeekeo plant. (LCL)

Not Available

1980-01-01

3

Sugar Canes as Bioenergy Feedstocks  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The sugar cane crops currently being grown in the South can play a role in helping the United States meet its need for both renewable transportation fuel and food and feed. Research being conducted at the USDA’s Agricultural Research Service’s Sugarcane Research Laboratory at Houma, Louisiana is g...

4

Growing of sugar cane for energy  

SciTech Connect

The Brazilian alcohol program is reviewed and research into ways of increasing sugar cane yields discussed. Sugar cane varieties are being selected for their ''total sugars'' production. The effects of supplimentary applications of fertilizers and irrigations are being investigated. Time up to several months can be saved because in the growing of sugar cane for alcohol and cellulose it is not necessary to ripen the cane to convert most of the sugars to sucrose. The author feels that growing sugar cane for alcohol has a lot of potential for petroleum importing contries in the tropics. Smaller sugar mills, no longer economic for sugar production, can be economic for alcohol production as the energy requirements are far less.

Humbert, R.P.

1980-06-01

5

Agriculture: Bioconversion of sugar cane molasses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Auxein Corporation is demonstrating for commercial use an organic acid phytochelate, derived from what would otherwise be a discarded portion of sugar cane, that could increase the domestic sugar industry's profit margin from near zero to 7%. Along with h...

P. Simon

1999-01-01

6

7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435... LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar...

2013-01-01

7

7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.305 Section 1435... LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.305 State cane sugar...

2013-01-01

8

7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435... LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar...

2012-01-01

9

7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.305 Section 1435... LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.305 State cane sugar...

2010-01-01

10

7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.305 Section 1435... LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.305 State cane sugar...

2012-01-01

11

7 CFR 1435.306 - State cane sugar allotments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.306 Section 1435... LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.306 State cane sugar...

2009-01-01

12

SUGAR CANE BAGASSE DRYING - A REVIEW  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bagasse is the only fuel used in the sugar - alcohol industry in Brazil, the biggest producer of sugar cane in the world. The sugar - alcohol industry produces, by cogeneration, electric energy for its own use and for selling. The improvement of the use of bagasse in the furnaces is an important industrial strategy nowadays. This subject has

Juan H. Sosa-Arnao?; Fabiano Marquezi de Oliveira; Jefferson L. G. Corrêa

13

UPGRADING OF SUGAR CANE BAGASSE BY THERMAL PROCESSES. 4. COAL COPROCESSING USING SUGAR CANE BAGASSE OIL AS SOLVENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work, coal co-processing with sugar cane bagasse oil was studied for the first time. Sugar cane bagasse was chosen due to its great offer, since it is a residue in the process of a large project named PROALCOOL aiming the producing ethanolfrom sugarcane. In addition, the liquefaction of sugar cane bagasse with monoethanolamine was already developed in

Fernando M. Lanças; Rita M. B. Andrade

1995-01-01

14

The World's Cane Sugar Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

H. C. Prinsen Geerligs (b.1864) was a Dutch microbiologist and Director of the Sugar Experiment Station in Java, an important research centre at the heart of the sugar industry. A leading expert in the production of sugar and the workings of the international market, Geerligs presents a detailed and comprehensive history of the industry, from its ancient origins through to

H. C. Prinsen Geerligs

15

40 CFR 409.30 - Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining subcategory. 409...SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Liquid Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.30 Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining subcategory....

2012-07-01

16

VIEW OF MILL FROM KEKAHA ROAD, WITH SUGAR BIN, CANE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF MILL FROM KEKAHA ROAD, WITH SUGAR BIN, CANE CLEANING PLANT AND CRUSHING MILL TO THE FORE. VIEW FROM THE EAST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

17

Biological nitrogen fixation associated with sugar cane  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent15N dilution\\/N balance study confirmed that certain sugar cane varieties are capable of obtaining large contributions of nitrogen from plant-associated N2 fixation. It was estimated that up to 60 to 80% of plant N could be derived from this source, and under good conditions of water and mineral nutrient supply, it may be possible to dispense with N fertilization

R. M. Boddey; S. Urquiaga; V. Reis; J. Döbereiner

1991-01-01

18

Problems in breeding and cytology of sugar cane  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article a survey is given on sugar cane breeding, as it was performed in Java during a period of about fifty years. When in the eighties of the nineteenth century sugar cane was heavily affected by the sereh disease it was Soltwedel, the first director of the Sugar Experiment Station “Midden Java”, who tried to obtain sereh resistant

G. Bremer

1961-01-01

19

Cement replacement by sugar cane bagasse ash: CO2 emissions reduction and potential for carbon credits.  

PubMed

This paper presents a study of cement replacement by sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) in industrial scale aiming to reduce the CO(2) emissions into the atmosphere. SCBA is a by-product of the sugar/ethanol agro-industry abundantly available in some regions of the world and has cementitious properties indicating that it can be used together with cement. Recent comprehensive research developed at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro/Brazil has demonstrated that SCBA maintains, or even improves, the mechanical and durability properties of cement-based materials such as mortars and concretes. Brazil is the world's largest sugar cane producer and being a developing country can claim carbon credits. A simulation was carried out to estimate the potential of CO(2) emission reductions and the viability to issue certified emission reduction (CER) credits. The simulation was developed within the framework of the methodology established by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) for the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). The State of São Paulo (Brazil) was chosen for this case study because it concentrates about 60% of the national sugar cane and ash production together with an important concentration of cement factories. Since one of the key variables to estimate the CO(2) emissions is the average distance between sugar cane/ethanol factories and the cement plants, a genetic algorithm was developed to solve this optimization problem. The results indicated that SCBA blended cement reduces CO(2) emissions, which qualifies this product for CDM projects. PMID:20493626

Fairbairn, Eduardo M R; Americano, Branca B; Cordeiro, Guilherme C; Paula, Thiago P; Toledo Filho, Romildo D; Silvoso, Marcos M

2010-05-20

20

By-products of the cane sugar industry  

SciTech Connect

This book discussed the inroads made in the sugar trade by the increasing consumption of high fructose corn syrup and the rapidly decreasing U.S. sugar imports that have forced many cane sugar-producing countries to reconsider their development policy and give more attention to improved efficiency and a more productive utilization of cane sugar by-products. Changes in sugar technology are addressed and the general improvement of biotechnology is described.

Paturav, J.M.

1989-01-01

21

40 CFR 409.70 - Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409...PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hawaiian Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409...Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory....

2010-07-01

22

40 CFR 409.80 - Applicability; description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Puerto Rican Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409...Applicability; description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory....

2009-07-01

23

40 CFR 409.70 - Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409...PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hawaiian Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409...Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory....

2009-07-01

24

40 CFR 409.40 - Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409...PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Louisiana Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409...Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory....

2009-07-01

25

40 CFR 409.80 - Applicability; description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Puerto Rican Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409...Applicability; description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory....

2010-07-01

26

40 CFR 409.40 - Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409...PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Louisiana Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409...Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory....

2010-07-01

27

Kinetic study of the acid hydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic interest in xylitol production can be enhanced if the needed xylose solutions can be obtained from the hydrolysis of low-cost lignocellulosic wastes. Sugar cane bagasse is a renewable, cheap and widely available waste in tropical countries. The hydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse to obtain xylose solutions has a double consequence, the elimination of a waste and the generation of

R Aguilar; J. A Ram??rez; G Garrote; M Vázquez

2002-01-01

28

Histological Intestinal Recovery in Chickens Refed Dietary Sugar Cane Extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugar cane extract (SCE), the residue after removing glucose, fructose, and sucrose from sugar cane juice, has growth-promoting, antistress, and immunosti- mulation effects. The objective of this study was to investi- gate the effects of refeeding dietary SCE on recovery of BW and intestinal histology after withdrawing feed from chickens. Forty-eight male Sanuki Cochin chickens were assigned randomly to 6

K. Yamauchi; K. Koge; T. Ebashi

29

Anaerobic digestion of solid wastes of cane sugar industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cane sugar manufacturing industry generates large quantities of lignocellulosic solid wastes, namely bagasse and cachaza. Bagasse is the fibrous residue of the cane after extracting the juice. Cachaza is the filter cake of the precipitated insoluble sugars. This research investigates the feasibility of anaerobic digestion of a mixture of bagasse and cachaza to produce methane. Two rations of bagasse-cachaza

Dasgupta

1983-01-01

30

HAWAIIAN SUGAR CANE RAT CONTROL METHODS AND PROBLEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of rats in our Hawaiian sugar cane fields has been with us for a long time. Early records tell of heavy damage at various times on all the islands where sugar cane is grown. Many methods were tried to control these rats. Trapping was once used as a control measure, a bounty was used for a time, gangs

William R. Smythe

1964-01-01

31

21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and... Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling...

2013-04-01

32

29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services...Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services...of green leaf or cigar leaf tobacco, cotton, cottonseed, cotton ginning,...

2013-07-01

33

Agriculture: Bioconversion of sugar cane molasses  

SciTech Connect

Auxein Corporation is demonstrating for commercial use an organic acid phytochelate, derived from what would otherwise be a discarded portion of sugar cane, that could increase the domestic sugar industry's profit margin from near zero to 7%. Along with helping a struggling industry, the phytochelate will bring substantial improvements to crop and tree production and greatly reduce the environmental threat posed by nitrogen-based fertilizers. Currently, the amount of fertilizer used produces harmful levels of run-off that contaminates ground water with unwanted nitrogen. By utilizing organic acid phytochelates, which assist plant growth by unlocking minerals stored in soil, fertilizer use can be dramatically reduced. This would improve crop yields, remove environmental threats to ground water, and cut fertilizer costs by as much as 50%.

Simon, P.

1999-09-29

34

Maximizing the xylitol production from sugar cane bagasse hydrolysate by controlling the aeration rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Batch fermentations of sugar cane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate treated for removing the inhibitors of the fermentation\\u000a were performed byCandida guilliermondii FTI20037 for xylitol production. The fermentative parameters agitation and aeration rate were studied aiming the maximization\\u000a of xylitol production from this agroindustrial residue. The maximal xylitol volumetric productivity (0.87 g\\/L h) and yield\\u000a (0.67 g\\/g) were attained at 400\\/min and

Silvio S. Silva; JoÃo D. Ribeiro; Maria G. A. Felipe; Michelle Vitolo

1997-01-01

35

SOSTENIBILIDAD DEL RECICLAJE DE RESIDUOS DE LA AGROINDUSTRIA AZUCARERA: UNA REVISIÓN SUSTAINABLE RECYCLING OF WASTE FROM SUGARCANE AGROINDUSTRY: A REVIEW  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugar cane wastes and reuse strategies are a prior subject in sugar cane areas because of the new environmental standards and modern production systems. The overall goal of the present review is to analyze the environmental impact from sugar cane agroindustry and its recycling processes on the bases of a sustainable development planning. Literature review results consider that there are

R. Basanta; M. A. García Delgado; J. E. Cervantes Martínez; H. Mata Vázquez; G. Bustos Vázquez

2007-01-01

36

The water footprint of sweeteners and bio-ethanol from sugar cane, sugar beet and maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugar cane and sugar beet are used for sugar for human consumption. In the US, maize is used, amongst others,\\u000afor the sweetener High Fructose Maize Syrup (HFMS). Sugar cane, sugar beet and maize are also important for\\u000abio-ethanol production. The growth of crops requires water, a scarce resource. The aim of this study is to assess\\u000athe green, blue

P. W. Gerbens-Leenes; A. Y. Hoekstra

2009-01-01

37

40 CFR 409.50 - Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...true Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory...SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Florida and Texas Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory...50 Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing...

2010-07-01

38

40 CFR 409.50 - Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory...SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Florida and Texas Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory...50 Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing...

2009-07-01

39

40 CFR 409.80 - Applicability; description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.80 Section... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Puerto Rican Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.80...

2012-07-01

40

40 CFR 409.40 - Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.40 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Louisiana Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.40...

2012-07-01

41

40 CFR 409.20 - Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.20 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Crystalline Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.20...

2012-07-01

42

Sugar Cane: A Bitter-Sweet Legacy. A Study of the Disappearing African-American Worker on the Sugar Cane Plantations in Southern Louisiana.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This resource/study guide is designed to accompany the instructional video, "Sugar Cane: A Bitter-Sweet Legacy," which explores the significance of cultivating, harvesting, and refining sugar cane. It is also a brief study of the disappearing African-American workers on the sugar cane plantations in southern Louisiana. Seven main ideas are…

Jones, John A., Jr.; And Others

43

Composition of sugar cane, energy cane, and sweet sorghum suitable for ethanol production at Louisiana sugar mills  

Microsoft Academic Search

A challenge facing the biofuel industry is to develop an economically viable and sustainable biorefinery. The existing potential\\u000a biorefineries in Louisiana, raw sugar mills, operate only 3 months of the year. For year-round operation, they must adopt\\u000a other feedstocks, besides sugar cane, as supplemental feedstocks. Energy cane and sweet sorghum have different harvest times,\\u000a but can be processed for bio-ethanol using

Misook KimDonal; Donal F. Day

2011-01-01

44

Production of ethanol from sugar cane molasses by Zymomonas mobilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zymomonas mobilis strains were compared with each other and with a Saacharomyces cerevisiae strain for the production of ethanol from sugar cane molasses in batch fermentations. The effect of pH and temperature on ethanol production by Zymomonas was studied. The ability of Z. mobilis to produce ethanol from molasses varied from one strain to another. At low sugar concentrations Zymomonas

H. J. J. Vuuren; Lourine Meyer

1982-01-01

45

Methods of alcohol production available to the cane sugar refiner  

SciTech Connect

The three methods of fermenting sugar feedstocks, namely, batch, batch recycle and continuous culture are described. With the current emphasis on fuel alcohol from sugar cane products, new techniques for dealing with the effuent stillage are required. Other areas for improvement include the fermentation process itself and the various distillation methods. New technology in these areas together with the economic considerations involved are reviewed.

Bennett, M.C.

1981-11-01

46

The Effect of Sugar Cane Chewing on the Development of Dental Caries  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Tanzania, the effect of sugar cane chewing on the development of caries was investigated. Two groups were selected; those who had easy access to sugar cane (sugar cane cutters) and those who did not (sisal plant workers). These groups had a similar socio-economic background, had similar levels of fluoride in drinking water, consumed similar amounts of refined sugar per

J. E. Frencken; P. Rugarabamu; J. Mulder

1989-01-01

47

Cane production for sugar and electric power in Jamaica  

SciTech Connect

The principal conclusion of the report is that the Jamaican sugar industry can be made profitable. Although sugar has been grown in Jamaica for centuries, a combination of circumstances, including declining world sugar prices and a severe shortage of foreign exchange, have undermined the economic viability of the government-owned sugar estates. As a result, they have become a burden to the economy. With proper management, cane can become a highly attractive source of fuel for the generation of electricity while at the same time producing sugar and molasses.

Not Available

1984-10-01

48

Process Integration of Bioethanol from Sugar Cane and Hydrogen Production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study several alternatives for process integration of bioethanol from sugar cane and hydrogen production were evaluated. Bioethanol was produced above all in the fermentation of sweetened juice from sugar cane, stillage was removed. Stillage and bagasse are the process byproducts. The bioethanol steam reforming is an endothermic catalytic process when vaporized ethanol and steam are fed using a 1:6 molar ratio to reformer with a Ni-catalyst at atmospheric pressure and 350xC. Taking into account the processes properties mentioned above, it is possible to integrate the bioethanol production from sugar cane and its reforming by using byproducts like bagasse and stillage and to produce energy for steam reforming and bioethanol solution concentration by direct firing (for bagasse) or anaerobic digestion to get methane (for stillage).

Hernandez, L.; Kafarov, V.

49

Clarification properties of trash and stalk tissues from sugar cane.  

PubMed

The effect of the U.S. and worldwide change from burnt to unburnt (green) sugar cane harvesting on processing and the use of sugar cane leaves and tops as a biomass source has not been fully characterized. Sugar cane whole-stalks were harvested from the first ratoon (repeat) crop of five commercial, Louisiana sugar cane varieties (LCP 85-384, HoCP 96-540, L 97-128, L 99-226, and L 99-233). Replicated sample tissues of brown, dry leaves (BL), green leaves (GL), growing point region (GPR), and stalk (S) were separated. Composite juice from each tissue type was clarified following a hot lime clarification process operated by most U.S. factories. Only GPR and GL juices foamed on heating and followed the normal settling behavior of factory sugar cane juice, although GL was markedly slower than GPR. GPR juice aided settling. S juice tended to thin out rather than follow normal settling and exhibited the most unwanted upward motion of flocs. Most varietal variation in settling, mud, and clarified juice (CJ) characteristics occurred for GL. The quality rather than the quantity of impurities in the different tissues mostly affected the volume of mud produced: After 30 min of settling, mud volume per unit tissue juice degrees Brix (% dissolved solids) varied markedly among the tissues (S 1.09, BL 11.3, GPR 3.0, and GL 3.1 mL/degrees Brix). Heat transfer properties of tissue juices and CJs are described. Clarification was unable to remove all BL cellulosic particles. GL and BL increased color, turbidity, and suspended particles in CJs with BL worse than GL. This will make the future attainment of very high pol (VHP) raw sugar in the U.S. more difficult. Although optimization of factory unit processes will alleviate extra trash problems, economical strategies to reduce the amount of green and brown leaves processed need to be identified and implemented. PMID:19994855

Eggleston, Gillian; Grisham, Michael; Antoine, April

2010-01-13

50

21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SECONDARY...PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives...controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills....

2010-01-01

51

21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SECONDARY...PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives...controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills....

2009-04-01

52

MINLP APPROACH FOR ENERGY MINIMIZATION AT THE SUGAR CANE INDUSTRY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cost reduction in food processing plants can be achieved by coordinating the use of the manufacturing resources and operations. Heat exchange is widely employed in most of the processes and the efficiency of this operation highly depends on the maintenance policy. An adequate maintenance policy is critical in cases affected by rapid fouling, such as the processing of sugar cane

53

76 FR 50285 - Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION:...

2011-08-12

54

75 FR 50796 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION:...

2010-08-17

55

77 FR 57180 - Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...OFFICE OF THE TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION:...

2012-09-17

56

75 FR 53013 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-containing Products; Revision AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative....

2010-08-30

57

‘Subject to control’: shifting geographies of race and labour in US sugar agroindustry, 1930–1950  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyses how processes of racialization and place making converged in south Florida as the region's sugar agroindustry shifted from a southern US to a Caribbean labour market. The article engages theoretically at the intersection of the literatures on the geographies of race and labour, paying particular attention to ideas about the role of the state in each. I

Gail M. Hollander

2006-01-01

58

Chromatographic detection of sugar cane samples via polarimetry.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The combination of molecular exclusion cromatography with the laser polarimetry has become a powerful technique to separate and evaluate some carbohydrates of sugar cane plants. In the following work it has been obtained chromatograms of carbohydrates standards, which has been used as comparison patterns in the studies of the juice quality in different cane varieties of different physiological stadiums and stress conditions. By means of the employment of this technique, it has also been determined the influence of carbohydrates of medium molecular mass in the determination of the apparent sucrose in the routine sugar analysis. On the other hand, discreet determination of the fractions causes time consuming and a troublesome manipulation. In the present work some modifications to the system are shown, obtaining a small volume sample (less than 1 ml) and angular readings on line, avoiding the employment of fraction collectors.

López, Juan Carlos; Fajer, Victor; Rodríguez, Carlos W.; Naranjo, Salvador; Mora, Luis; Ravelo, Justo; Cossio, Gladys; Avila, Norma

2004-03-01

59

40 CFR 409.50 - Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.50 Section... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Florida and Texas Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.50...

2012-07-01

60

Fractionation of sugar cane with hot, compressed, liquid water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugar-cane bagasse and leaves (10--15 g oven-dry basis) were fractionated without size reduction by a rapid (45 s to 4 min), immersed percolation using only hot (190--230 C), compressed (P > P{sub sat}), liquid water (0.6--1.2 kg). Over 50% of the biomass could be solubilized. All of the hemicellulose, together with much of the acid-insoluble lignin in the bagasse (>60%),

Stephen Glen Allen; Lance Cameron Kam; Andreas Joseph Zemann; Michael Jerry Antal

1996-01-01

61

Pretreatment of sugar cane bagasse for enhanced ruminal digestion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crop residues, such as sugar cane bagasse (SCB), have been largely used for cattle feeding However, the close association\\u000a that exists among the three major plant cell-wall components, cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, limits the efficiency\\u000a by which ruminants can degrade these materials Previously, we have shown that pretreatment with 3% (w\\/w) phosphoric acid,\\u000a under relatively mild conditions, increased considerably the

Francisco C. Deschamps; Luiz P. Ramos; José D. Fontana

1996-01-01

62

Ethanol production from sugar cane segments in a high solids drum fermentor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A successful yeast fermentation for the production of relatively high concentration of ethanol (9% w\\/v) was carried out using sugar cane segments. Extraction of sugar from segments occurred simultaneously with ethanol formation. The beer produced was transferred to a fresh batch of sugar cane segments and the fermentation cycle was repeated successively three times with the same beer. A high

Z. Er-el; E. Battat; U. Shechter; I. Goldberg

1981-01-01

63

Bioconversion of phytosterols to androstanes by mycobacteria growing on sugar cane mud  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct sterol conversion of sugar cane mud (residue) by Mycobacterium sp. was demonstrated to be possible technologically, thus avoiding sugar cane oil extraction and further processes of extraction and purification of phytosterols from this oil. Indeed, mycobacterial cells were able to convert phytosterols from sugar cane mud into 4-androstene-dione (AD) and 1,4 androsta-diene-3,17-dione (ADD). For the various concentrations assayed, concomitant

C. Pérez; A. Falero; B. R. Hung; S. Tirado; Y. Balcinde

2005-01-01

64

Sugar cane bagasse: an alternative fuel in the Brazilian citrus industry  

SciTech Connect

This article will briefly discuss the production of sugar cane bagasse and advantages for using it as an alternative fuel. In particular, this article will focus on how Citrosuco Paulista, (a multi-plant producer of citrus concentrates), modified its existing boilers and dryers to accommodate the new sugar cane bagasse fuel.

Guerra, J.L.; Steger, E.

1988-05-01

65

Effects of sugar cane monocultures on origin and characteristics of dissolved organic matter in the Manguaba lagoon in northeast Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brazil has extensive sugar cane monocultures, which significantly alter hydrogeochemical material fluxes. We studied dissolved organic matter (OM) fluxes in the Manguaba lagoon–estuary system, which drains a sugar cane monoculture-dominated hinterland and discharges into the Atlantic coastal ocean. The OM fluxes into the lagoon originate from baseflow, field runoff and sugar cane factory effluents. In the study, dissolved organic carbon

Berit Brockmeyer; Alejandro Spitzy

2011-01-01

66

75 FR 22095 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments...Quota AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, USDA. ACTION: Notice...e-mail to angel.f.gonzalez@fas.usda.gov. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:...

2010-04-27

67

76 FR 20305 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw Sugar Tariff...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments...Quota AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, USDA. ACTION: Notice...e-mail to angel.f.gonzalez@fas.usda.gov. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:...

2011-04-12

68

75 FR 38764 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments...Quota AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, USDA. ACTION: Notice...e-mail to: angel.f.gonzalez@fas.usda.gov. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:...

2010-07-06

69

Chemistry Based on Renewable Raw Materials: Perspectives for a Sugar Cane-Based Biorefinery  

PubMed Central

Carbohydrates are nowadays a very competitive feedstock for the chemical industry because their availability is compatible with world-scale chemical production and their price, based on the carbon content, is comparable to that of petrochemicals. At the same time, demand is rising for biobased products. Brazilian sugar cane is a competitive feedstock source that is opening the door to a wide range of bio-based products. This essay begins with the importance of the feedstock for the chemical industry and discusses developments in sugar cane processing that lead to low cost feedstocks. Thus, sugar cane enables a new chemical industry, as it delivers a competitive raw material and a source of energy. As a result, sugar mills are being transformed into sustainable biorefineries that fully exploit the potential of sugar cane.

Villela Filho, Murillo; Araujo, Carlos; Bonfa, Alfredo; Porto, Weber

2011-01-01

70

Changes in quality of sugar-cane juice upon delayed extraction and storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quality of sugar-cane juice extracted from stored canes, as well as changes in quality of fresh juice stored at different temperatures, were studied. Cane stems were stored at 10±1°C, 85–88% relative humidity (RH) and 27±1°C, 55–85% RH, while fresh juice was stored at 5±1°C, 61–84% RH and 27±1°C, 55–85% RH. The physicochemical parameters evaluated were juice yield, juice colour,

S. Yusof; L. S. Shian; A. Osman

2000-01-01

71

Effect of leaf stripping on cane and sugar yield in sugarcane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of leaf stripping +2 levels at monthly intervals starting from August till December on cane yield and commercial cane\\u000a sugar (CCS) of sugarcane was studied under field conditions. Treatments comprised of whole leaf removal (WLR) and leaf blade\\u000a removal (LBR). Cane yield showed significant improvement when stripping was performed in the month of August and November\\u000a and the magnitude

Radha Jain; N. Kulshreshtha; H. N. Shahi; S. Solomon; A. Chandra

2010-01-01

72

Ethanol from Sugar Cane: Flask Experiments Using the EX-FERM Technique  

PubMed Central

Alcohol production at the laboratory scale from sugar cane pieces by the EX-FERM technique was studied with 37 strains of Saccharomyces spp. The EX-FERM process is novel in that it employs the simultaneous extraction and fermentation of the sucrose in a cane-water suspension. Two types of cane treatments were used: chips and shredded pith, either fresh or dried. A mother culture of the yeast was prepared in enriched cane juice and then added to the cane-water mixture. After static fermentation for 40 h at 30°C, the cane was removed, and fresh cane was added to the yeast-alcohol broth. After an additional 24 h, the cane was again removed and the liquor was analyzed. After the first 40-h cycle, sugar consumption was above 99% with 10 of the 37 yeast strains tested, and ethanol reached levels of 1.29 to 4.00 g per 100 ml, depending on the yeast strain. The final ethanol concentration reached 4.27 to 5.37 g per 100 ml, and sugar consumption was above 98% in three cases during a second EX-FERM cycle employing previously air-dried chips and pith. Product yields were within accepted values. Cane treatment did not appear to affect the results at this level.

Rolz, Carlos; de Cabrera, Sheryl

1980-01-01

73

Nitrogen-fixing bacteria of the genus Beijerinckia Derx in the rhizosphere of sugar cane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary and Conclusions The rhizosphere effect of sugar cane on nitrogen fixing bacteria of the genusBeijerinckia Derx was studied under field conditions, during two growing periods of the cane. Counts ofBeijerinckia in soil samples from the rhizosphere and from the rhizoplan (soil from root surface) showed an increase in this nitrogen fixer of up to 20 times in the rhizosphere

Johanna Dobereiner

1961-01-01

74

Semicontinuous ethanol fermentation of sugar cane blackstrap molasses by pressed yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A mathematical model is proposed to explain the influence of the volume fraction of inoculum on the fermentation time and ethanol productivity in semicontinuous ethanol fermentation of sugar cane blackstrap molasses by pressed yeast.

Walter Borzani; Haroldo Hiss; Teresinha W. de Santos; Marina L. R. Vairo

1992-01-01

75

Estimation of the Sugar Cane Cultivated Area from LANDSAT Images Using the Two Phase Sampling Method.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A two phase sampling method and the optimal sampling segment dimensions are developed for the estimation of the sugar cane cultivated area. This technique employs visual interpretations of LANDSAT images and panchromatic aerial photographs considered as t...

C. A. Cappelletti F. J. Mendonca D. C. L. Lee Y. E. Shimabukuro

1982-01-01

76

Diffusion of moisture in drying of sugar cane fibers and bundles  

SciTech Connect

Sugar cane fibers and arrangements of fibers in cylindrical bundles were dried in a thermoanalyzer and their diffusive coefficients were calculated using the slope method. The effect of temperature, moisture content as well as structural changes were analyzed. Diffusion coefficients changed nonlinearly with moisture content and followed an Arrhenius-like functionality with temperature. The analysis of these effects suggested a liquid diffusion transport mechanism of moisture transfer inside sugar cane fibers and bundles.

Rodriguez-Ramirez, J.; Quintana-Hernandez, P.A.; Mendez-Lagunas, L.; Martinez-Gonzalez, G.; Gonzalez-Alatorre, G.

2000-05-01

77

Use of green manures in increasing inputs of biologically fixed nitrogen to sugar cane  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study the contribution of biological N2 fixation (BNF) to several green manure crops used at planting of sugar cane, or in the inter-rows of the ratoon crop, was evaluated. The subsequent effects of these legumes on the N supply and yield of the sugar cane crop was also investigated. The experiment was conducted in an extremely sandy N-deficient

Alexander S. de Resende; Rogério P. Xavier; Diego M. Quesada; Segundo Urquiaga; Bruno J. R. Alves; Robert M. Boddey

2003-01-01

78

Influence of Sugar Cane Intake on Digestibility and Ruminal Fermentation in Crossbreed Steers Fed Stargrass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aranda, E., Mendoza, G.D., Bárcena, G.R., Ramos, J. and Castrejón, F. 2003. Influence of sugar cane intake on digestibility and ruminál fermentation in crossbreed steers fed stargrass. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 23: 153–160.An experiment was conducted to study effects of feeding different levels of sugar cane on ruminál fermentation and fiber digestion in crossbreed steers fed with stargrass mixtures when

E. Aranda; G. D. Mendoza; G. R. Bárcena; J. Ramos; F. Castrejón

2003-01-01

79

Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of four alternatives for using by-products of cane sugar production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cane sugar production by-products can be considered either as waste, affecting the environment, or as a resource when an appropriate valorization technology is implemented.This study is made with the objective of identifying and quantifying the aspects which have the largest environmental impact of four alternatives for using by-products and wastes from the cane sugar process and suggest improvements in the

Ana M. Contreras; Elena Rosa; Maylier Pérez; Herman Van Langenhove; Jo Dewulf

2009-01-01

80

Life-history of Neurospora intermedia in a sugar cane field  

Microsoft Academic Search

The life-history ofNeurospora in nature has remained largely unknown. The present study attempts to remedy this. The following conclusions are based on\\u000a observation ofNeurospora on fire-scorched sugar cane in agricultural fields, and reconstruction experiments using a colour mutant to inoculate sugar\\u000a cane burned in the laboratory. The fungus persists in soil as heat- resistant dormant ascospores. These are activated by

Alka Pandit; Ramesh Maheshwari

1996-01-01

81

78 FR 57445 - Fiscal Year 2014 WTO Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2014 WTO Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION:...

2013-09-18

82

Ethanol from sugar cane: flask experiments using the EX-FERM technique  

SciTech Connect

Alcohol production at the laboratory scale from sugar cane pieces by the EX-FERM technique was studied with 37 strains of Saccharomyces spp. The EX-FERM process is novel in that it employs the simultaneous extraction and fermentation of the sucrose in a cane-water suspension. The final ethanol concentration reached 4.27 to 5.37g per 100 ml, and sugar consumption was above 98% in three cases during a second EX-FERM cycle employing previously air-dried chips and pith. Product yields were within accepted values. Cane treatment did not appear to affect the results at this level.

Rolz, C.; Cabrera, S.

1980-09-01

83

PRODUCTION OF CAROTENOIDS BY RHODOTORULA RUBRA AND R. GLUTINIS IN CULTURE MEDIUM SUPPLEMENTED WITH SUGAR CANE JUICE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugar cane juice, an abundant agricultural product in Brazil, was investigated as the main substrate for the culture of Rhodotorula rubra and R. glutinis. In order to evaluate yeast growth and carotenoid production, an experimental factorial design (2) was used for the following variables: sugar concentration in the sugar cane juice, yeast extract concentration, absence or presence of peptone and

F. M. Squina; F. Yamashita; J. L. Pereira; A. Z. Mercadante

2002-01-01

84

Accumulation of recombinant cellobiohydrolase and endoglucanase in the leaves of mature transgenic sugar cane.  

PubMed

A major strategic goal in making ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass a cost-competitive liquid transport fuel is to reduce the cost of production of cellulolytic enzymes that hydrolyse lignocellulosic substrates to fermentable sugars. Current production systems for these enzymes, namely microbes, are not economic. One way to substantially reduce production costs is to express cellulolytic enzymes in plants at levels that are high enough to hydrolyse lignocellulosic biomass. Sugar cane fibre (bagasse) is the most promising lignocellulosic feedstock for conversion to ethanol in the tropics and subtropics. Cellulolytic enzyme production in sugar cane will have a substantial impact on the economics of lignocellulosic ethanol production from bagasse. We therefore generated transgenic sugar cane accumulating three cellulolytic enzymes, fungal cellobiohydrolase I (CBH I), CBH II and bacterial endoglucanase (EG), in leaves using the maize PepC promoter as an alternative to maize Ubi1 for controlling transgene expression. Different subcellular targeting signals were shown to have a substantial impact on the accumulation of these enzymes; the CBHs and EG accumulated to higher levels when fused to a vacuolar-sorting determinant than to an endoplasmic reticulum-retention signal, while EG was produced in the largest amounts when fused to a chloroplast-targeting signal. These results are the first demonstration of the expression and accumulation of recombinant CBH I, CBH II and EG in sugar cane and represent a significant first step towards the optimization of cellulolytic enzyme expression in sugar cane for the economic production of lignocellulosic ethanol. PMID:21356003

Harrison, Mark D; Geijskes, Jason; Coleman, Heather D; Shand, Kylie; Kinkema, Mark; Palupe, Anthony; Hassall, Rachael; Sainz, Manuel; Lloyd, Robyn; Miles, Stacy; Dale, James L

2011-02-28

85

Pozzolanic activity and filler effect of sugar cane bagasse ash in Portland cement and lime mortars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) is generated as a combustion by-product from boilers of sugar and alcohol factories. Composed mainly of silica, this by-product can be used as a mineral admixture in mortar and concrete. Several studies have shown that the use of SCBA as partial Portland cement replacement can improve some properties of cementitious materials. However, it is not

G. C. Cordeiro; R. D. Toledo Filho; L. M. Tavares; E. M. R. Fairbairn

2008-01-01

86

A PROCEDURE FOR PROCESSING MIXTURES OF SOIL, CEMENT, AND SUGAR CANE BAGASSE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two schemes for processing mixtures of soil, cement, and sugar cane bagasse have been investigated to determine the best way of processing house construction bricks for rural Africa. In one case, bagasse fibers were treated for removing sugar while untreated bagasse fibers were used in the other one. Processing house construction bricks from soil, cement, and untreated bagasse turned out

R. Medjo Eko; G. L. Riskowski

87

Evaluation of holocellulase production by plant-degrading fungi grown on agro-industrial residues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agaricus brasiliensis CS1, Pleurotus ostreatus H1 and Aspergillus flavus produced holocellulases when grown in solid and submerged liquid cultures containing agro-industrial residues, including\\u000a sugar cane bagasse and dirty cotton residue, as substrates. These isolates proved to be efficient producers of holocellulases\\u000a under the conditions used in this screening. Bromatological analysis of agro-industrial residues showed differences in protein,\\u000a fiber, hemicellulose, cellulose

Félix Gonçalves de Siqueira; Aline Gonçalves de Siqueira; Eliane Gonçalves de Siqueira; Marly Azevedo Carvalho; Beatriz Magalhães Pinto Peretti; Paula Marcela Duque Jaramillo; Ricardo Sposina Sobral Teixeira; Eustáquio Souza Dias; Carlos Roberto Félix; Edivaldo Ximenes Ferreira Filho

2010-01-01

88

Nitrogenase activity in the rhizosphere of sugar cane and some other tropical grasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Roots of sugar cane had considerable nitrogenase activity and produced up to 5 n moles ethylene\\/h\\/g root by the reduction of acetylene. The rhizosphere soil and soil mid-way between the cane rows also reduced acetylene.Beijerinckia indica was abundant on roots and in the soil. Nitrogenase activity was also associated with roots ofPanicum maximum,Pennisetum purpureum andCymbopogon citratus.

Johanna Döbereiner; J. M. Day; P. J. Dart

1972-01-01

89

Relationship of maximum aerobic power output to productivity and absenteeism of East African sugar cane workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Davies, C. T. M. (1973).British Journal of Industrial Medicine,30, 146-154. Relationship of maximum aerobic power output to productivity and absenteeism of East African sugar cane workers. The relationship of the physiological responses to laboratory exercise on an upright bicycle ergometer and predicted maximum aerobic power output (V?O2max) to daily and season output has been investigated in 78 cane cutters aged

C. T. M. Davies

1973-01-01

90

Study of the hydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse using phosphoric acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work, samples of sugar cane bagasse were hydrolysed with phosphoric acid under mild conditions (H3PO4 2–6%, time 0–300min and 122°C) to study the feasibility of using the liquid phase as fermentation media. Solid yield, sugar concentrations and decomposition product concentrations were measured. The composition of hydrolysates, their purity and the ratio sugars\\/inhibitors were analyzed. Kinetic models were

Sara Gámez; Juan Jose González-Cabriales; José Alberto Ramírez; Gil Garrote; Manuel Vázquez

2006-01-01

91

Computer simulation of combine harvesting and handling of sugar cane in Barbados  

SciTech Connect

The broad objective of this study was to improve the efficiency of combine harvesting of sugar cane in Barbados. The harvesting process was broken down into two subsystems: a field subsystem and a factory yard subsystem. Two computer simulation models structured in GASP IV simulation language, were developed to model the operations involved in these systems. Model FIELDOP simulated the activities involved in the harvesting and loading of cane in the field, and in its transportation to the factory for processing. Model FACYARD simulated the weighing and unloading activities performed on cane transport units at the factory. Output from the models included utilization factors for the various component machines, daily cane delivery from the field system, and daily amounts of cane handled by the factory yard system. This output was fed into a cost program which calculated unit harvesting costs and total annual cane delivery for the equipment combinations simulated. Results indicated that a second scale at the factory can reduce the factory residence time of transport units by 88%, increase combine harvester utilization efficiency by 50-60%, increase daily cane receipts at the factory by more than 30%, and eliminate milling lost time due to lack of cane. The economic analysis demonstrated that harvesting cost per tonne can be significantly reduced.

Harvey, W.O.

1983-01-01

92

Chemometric Characterization of Alembic and Industrial Sugar Cane Spirits from Cape Verde and Cear?, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Sugar cane spirits are some of the most popular alcoholic beverages consumed in Cape Verde. The sugar cane spirit industry in Cape Verde is based mainly on archaic practices that operate without supervision and without efficient control of the production process. The objective of this work was to evaluate samples of industrial and alembic sugar cane spirits from Cape Verde and Ceará, Brazil using principal component analysis. Thirty-two samples of spirits were analyzed, twenty from regions of the islands of Cape Verde and twelve from Ceará, Brazil. Of the samples obtained from Ceará, Brazil seven are alembic and five are industrial spirits. The components analyzed in these studies included the following: volatile organic compounds (n-propanol, isobutanol, isoamylic, higher alcohols, alcoholic grade, acetaldehyde, acetic acid, acetate); copper; and sulfates.

Pereira, Regina F. R.; Vidal, Carla B.; de Lima, Ari C. A.; Melo, Diego Q.; Dantas, Allan N. S.; Lopes, Gisele S.; do Nascimento, Ronaldo F.; Gomes, Clerton L.; da Silva, Maria Nataniela

2012-01-01

93

INAA and AAS of different products from sugar cane industry in Pakistan: Toxic trace elements for nutritional safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) have been used to determine As, Br, Hg, Sb and Se in combination with atomic\\u000a absorption spectrometry (AAS) as a complementary technique for the quantification of Cd and Pb in jaggery, brown sugar, white\\u000a sugar and molasses. All sugar cane products were collected from the local sugar cane industry of Pakistan. The highest concentration\\u000a of

S. Waheed; S. Rahman; K. P. Gill

2009-01-01

94

Case-control study of lung cancer among sugar cane farmers in India  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the risk of lung cancer among sugar cane farmers and sugar mill workers. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted based in six hospitals in the predominantly sugar cane farming districts of the province of Maharashtra in India. Newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed cases were identified from these hospitals between May 1996 and April 1998. Other cancers were chosen as controls and matched to cases by age, sex, district of residence, and timing of diagnosis. RESULTS: Adjusting for confounders, an increased risk of lung cancer was found for workers ever employed on a sugar cane farm (odds ratio (OR) 1.92, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.08 to 3.40). Increased risks were found for work involving preparation of the farm (OR 1.81, 95% CI 0.99 to 3.27) and burning of the farm after harvesting (OR 1.82, 95% CI 0.99 to 3.34). Non-significant increases in risks were found for harvesting the crop (OR 1.41, 95% CI 0.70 to 2.90) and processing the cane in the mills (OR 1.70, 95% CI 0.20 to 12.60). CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to fibres of biogenic amorphous silica (BAS) formed from silica absorbed from the soil and deposited in the leaves of the sugar cane crop or crystalline silica formed as a result of conversion of BAS to cristobalite at high temperatures may account for the increased risks of lung cancer among sugar cane farmers.  

Amre, D. K.; Infante-Rivard, C.; Dufresne, A.; Durgawale, P. M.; Ernst, P.

1999-01-01

95

New DTW-based method to similarity search in sugar cane regions represented by climate and remote sensing time series  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brazil is an important sugar cane producer, which is the main resource for ethanol production, a renewable source of energy. This agricultural commodity is important to the country economy, becoming fundamental to improve models that assist the crops monitoring process. Vegetation indexes originated from remote sensing images and agrometeorological indexes can be combined to represent sugar cane fields in a

Luciana A. S. Romani; R. R. V. Goncalves; Jurandir Zullo Jr.; Caetano Traina Jr.; Agma J. M. Traina

2010-01-01

96

Evaluation of cyclone gasifier performance for gasification of sugar cane residue—Part 1: gasification of bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for avoiding excessive amount of alkali compounds and carryover particles in producer gas from gasification of sugar cane residue has been studied and evaluated. The cane sugar residue is gasified in a two-stage combustor at atmospheric pressure, where the first stage is a cyclone gasifier. The cyclone works as particle separator as well.This paper covers the results obtained

Mohamed Gabra; Esbjörn Pettersson; Rainer Backman; Björn Kjellström

2001-01-01

97

Dosimetric evaluation of sucrose and granulated cane sugar in the therapeutic dose range  

SciTech Connect

Granulated cane sugar has been used as a dosimetric material to report dose in high dose accidental irradiations. The purpose of this study was to assess whether clinical dosimetry is also plausible with such a commonly available material. The behavior of cane sugar was explored with respect to therapeutically relevant radiation quantities (dose, dose rate) and qualities (energy, radiation type) as well as under different temperature conditions. The stability of the signal postirradiation was also measured. Absorbed dose was measured by spectrophotometric readout of a ferrous ammonium sulfate xylenol orange (FX)-sugar solution in 10 cm path length cells. A visible color change was produced as a function of dose when the irradiated sugar samples were dissolved in FX solution (10% dilution by mass). A comparison of the optical absorbance spectra and dose response of cane sugar with analytical grade sucrose was done to establish a benchmark standard from which subsequent dosimetry measurements can be validated. The response of the sugar dosimeter read at 590 nm was found to be linear over the dose range of 100-2000 cGy, independent of energy (6-18 MV) and of the average dose rate (100-500 cGy/min). The readout of sugar samples irradiated with mixed photon and electron fields was also shown to be independent of radiation type (photons and electrons). Sugar temperature (20-40 degree sign C) during irradiation did not affect dose estimates, making it a promising dosimeter for in vivo dosimetry, particularly in cases where the dosimeter must remain in contact with the patient for an extended period of time. Sugar can be used as an integrating dosimeter, since it exhibits no fractionation effects. Granulated cane sugar is cost effective, safe, soft tissue equivalent, and can be used under various experimental conditions, making it a suitable dosimeter for some radiotherapy applications.

Davidson, Melanie T. M.; Jordan, Kevin J. [Department of Physics and Engineering, London Regional Cancer Program, London Health Sciences Centre, 790 Commissioners Rd. E, London, Ontario N6A 4L6 (Canada); Department of Physics and Engineering, London Regional Cancer Program, London Health Sciences Centre, 790 Commissioners Rd. E, London, Ontario N6A 4L6 (Canada) and Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5C1 (Canada)

2009-04-15

98

Dosimetric evaluation of sucrose and granulated cane sugar in the therapeutic dose range.  

PubMed

Granulated cane sugar has been used as a dosimetric material to report dose in high dose accidental irradiations. The purpose of this study was to assess whether clinical dosimetry is also plausible with such a commonly available material. The behavior of cane sugar was explored with respect to therapeutically relevant radiation quantities (dose, dose rate) and qualities (energy, radiation type) as well as under different temperature conditions. The stability of the signal postirradiation was also measured. Absorbed dose was measured by spectrophotometric readout of a ferrous ammonium sulfate xylenol orange (FX)-sugar solution in 10 cm path length cells. A visible color change was produced as a function of dose when the irradiated sugar samples were dissolved in FX solution (10% dilution by mass). A comparison of the optical absorbance spectra and dose response of cane sugar with analytical grade sucrose was done to establish a benchmark standard from which subsequent dosimetry measurements can be validated. The response of the sugar dosimeter read at 590 nm was found to be linear over the dose range of 100-2000 cGy, independent of energy (6-18 MV) and of the average dose rate (100-500 cGy/min). The readout of sugar samples irradiated with mixed photon and electron fields was also shown to be independent of radiation type (photons and electrons). Sugar temperature (20-40 degrees C) during irradiation did not affect dose estimates, making it a promising dosimeter for in vivo dosimetry, particularly in cases where the dosimeter must remain in contact with the patient for an extended period of time. Sugar can be used as an integrating dosimeter, since it exhibits no fractionation effects. Granulated cane sugar is cost effective, safe, soft tissue equivalent, and can be used under various experimental conditions, making it a suitable dosimeter for some radiotherapy applications. PMID:19472641

Davidson, Melanie T M; Jordan, Kevin J

2009-04-01

99

40 CFR 409.60 - Applicability; description of the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409...Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409...Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar processing subcategory....

2010-07-01

100

40 CFR 409.60 - Applicability; description of the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar processing subcategory... Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory...the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar processing...

2009-07-01

101

Firmicutes dominate the bacterial taxa within sugar-cane processing plants.  

PubMed

Sugar cane processing sites are characterised by high sugar/hemicellulose levels, available moisture and warm conditions, and are relatively unexplored unique microbial environments. The PhyloChip microarray was used to investigate bacterial diversity and community composition in three Australian sugar cane processing plants. These ecosystems were highly complex and dominated by four main Phyla, Firmicutes (the most dominant), followed by Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Chloroflexi. Significant variation (p < 0.05) in community structure occurred between samples collected from 'floor dump sediment', 'cooling tower water', and 'bagasse leachate'. Many bacterial Classes contributed to these differences, however most were of low numerical abundance. Separation in community composition was also linked to Classes of Firmicutes, particularly Bacillales, Lactobacillales and Clostridiales, whose dominance is likely to be linked to their physiology as 'lactic acid bacteria', capable of fermenting the sugars present. This process may help displace other bacterial taxa, providing a competitive advantage for Firmicutes bacteria. PMID:24177592

Sharmin, Farhana; Wakelin, Steve; Huygens, Flavia; Hargreaves, Megan

2013-11-01

102

Composting of sugar-cane waste by-products through treatment with microorganisms and subsequent vermicomposting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The waste by-products of the sugar-cane industry, bagasse (b), pressmud (p) and trash (t) have been subjected to bioinoculation followed by vermicomposting to shorten stabilization time and improve product quality. Press-mud alone and in combination with other by-products of sugar processing industries was pre-decomposed for 30days by inoculation with combination of Pleurotus sajorcaju, Trichoderma viridae, Aspergillus niger and Pseudomonas striatum.

Rahul Kumar; Deepshikha Verma; Bhanu L. Singh; Umesh Kumar; Shweta

2010-01-01

103

Optimizing the saccharification of sugar cane bagasse using dilute phosphoric acid followed by fungal cellulases  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low level of phosphoric acid (1% w\\/w on dry bagasse basis, 160°C and above, 10min) was shown to effectively hydrolyze the hemicellulose in sugar cane bagasse into monomers with minimal side reactions and to serve as an effective pre-treatment for the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. Up to 45% of the remaining water-insoluble solids (WIS) was digested to sugar monomers

C. C. Geddes; J. J. Peterson; C. Roslander; G. Zacchi; M. T. Mullinnix; K. T. Shanmugam; L. O. Ingram

2010-01-01

104

Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of pretreated sugar cane leaves to ethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of pretreated sugar cane leaves to produce ethanol using a cellulolytic enzyme complex from Trichoderma reesei QM 9414 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae NRRL-Y-132 was optimized. Enzymic saccharification parameters were evaluated prior to SSF studies. A 92% conversion of 2·5% substrate (alkaline hydrogen peroxide pretreated) to sugars was achieved at 50°C and pH 4·5, using T.

S. Hari Krishna; K. Prasanthi; G. V. Chowdary; C. Ayyanna

1998-01-01

105

Direct impacts on local climate of sugar-cane expansion in Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increasing global demand for biofuels will require conversion of conventional agricultural or natural ecosystems. Expanding biofuel production into areas now used for agriculture reduces the need to clear natural ecosystems, leading to indirect climate benefits through reduced greenhouse-gas emissions and faster payback of carbon debts. Biofuel expansion may also cause direct, local climate changes by altering surface albedo and evapotranspiration, but these effects have been poorly documented. Here we quantify the direct climate effects of sugar-cane expansion in the Brazilian Cerrado, on the basis of maps of recent sugar-cane expansion and natural-vegetation clearance combined with remotely sensed temperature, albedo and evapotranspiration over a 1.9millionkm2 area. On a regional basis for clear-sky daytime conditions, conversion of natural vegetation to a crop/pasture mosaic warms the cerrado by an average of 1.55 (1.45-1.65)°C, but subsequent conversion of that mosaic to sugar cane cools the region by an average of 0.93 (0.78-1.07)°C, resulting in a mean net increase of 0.6°C. Our results indicate that expanding sugar cane into existing crop and pasture land has a direct local cooling effect that reinforces the indirect climate benefits of this land-use option.

Loarie, Scott R.; Lobell, David B.; Asner, Gregory P.; Mu, Qiaozhen; Field, Christopher B.

2011-05-01

106

Infection and Colonization of Sugar Cane and Other Graminaceous Plants by Endophytic Diazotrophs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agriculturally important grasses such as sugar cane (Saccharum sp.), rice (Oryza sativa), wheat (Triticum aestivum) sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), maize (Zea mays), Panicum maximum, Brachiaria spp., and Pennisetum purpureum contain numerous diazotrophic bacteria, such as, Acetobacter diazotrophicus, Herbaspirillum spp., Azospirillum spp. These bacteria do not usually cause disease symptoms in the plants with which they are associated and the more numerous

Euan K. James; Fábio L. Olivares

1998-01-01

107

Assessment of the Effects of Sugar Cane Plantation Burning on Daily Counts of Inhalation Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to evaluate the association between sugar cane plantation burning and hospital visits in Araraquara in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. From June 1 to August 31, 1995, the daily number of visits of patients who needed inhalation therapy in one of the main hospitals of the city was recorded and used as health impairment estimation.

Marcos A. Arbex; Gyorgy M. Böhm; Paulo H. N. Saldiva; Gleice M. S. Conceição; Arden C. Pope III; Alfesio L. F. Braga

2000-01-01

108

Increased estimates of air-pollution emissions from Brazilian sugar-cane ethanol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accelerating biofuel production has been promoted as an opportunity to enhance energy security, offset greenhouse-gas emissions and support rural economies. However, large uncertainties remain in the impacts of biofuels on air quality and climate. Sugar-cane ethanol is one of the most widely used biofuels, and Brazil is its largest producer. Here we use a life-cycle approach to produce spatially and temporally explicit estimates of air-pollutant emissions over the whole life cycle of sugar-cane ethanol in Brazil. We show that even in regions where pre-harvest field burning has been eliminated on half the croplands, regional emissions of air pollutants continue to increase owing to the expansion of sugar-cane growing areas, and burning continues to be the dominant life-cycle stage for emissions. Comparison of our estimates of burning-phase emissions with satellite estimates of burning in São Paulo state suggests that sugar-cane field burning is not fully accounted for in satellite-based inventories, owing to the small spatial scale of individual fires. Accounting for this effect leads to revised regional estimates of burned area that are four times greater than some previous estimates. Our revised emissions maps thus suggest that biofuels may have larger impacts on regional climate forcing and human health than previously thought.

Tsao, C.-C.; Campbell, J. E.; Mena-Carrasco, M.; Spak, S. N.; Carmichael, G. R.; Chen, Y.

2012-01-01

109

Post Sugar Cane Succession in Moist Alluvial Sites in Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugar cane cultivation spanned over two centuries in Puerto Rico, at one time covering 14% of the island's total area. The most productive plantations were located in alluvial valleys that were deforested before there was an opportunity to record the species composition and structural development of the original native forests. This has led to speculation about the nature of these

Oscar Abelleira Martínez; Ariel E. Lugo

110

Cost of the Electrical Energy Obtained by Cogeneration in the Sugar Cane Mills  

Microsoft Academic Search

In most sugar cane mills there are consumers of steam (process). They work with a very small pressure compared with the one obtained in the steam boilers, this pressure is increased even more if over heaters are used. In order to obtain this low operation pressure, it is necessary to pass the steam through a reducing valve. If this steam

J. J. S. Jimenez; M. D. Z. Izquierdo; J. S. B. Leon; A. M. del Sol; J. O. T. Valdes

2008-01-01

111

Semicontinuous alcoholic fermentation of sugar cane blackstrap molasses by pressed yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A third degree polynomial equation correlates the fermentation time and the volume fraction of inoculum in semicontinuous ethanol fermentation of sugar cane blackstrap molasses by pressed yeast. The volume of the inoculum varied from 40% to 92% of the reactor working volume. The highest ethanol productivity was obtained when the volume of the inoculum was 58% of the working

Teresinha W. de Santos; Marina L. R. Vairo; Haroldo Hiss; Walter Borzani

1992-01-01

112

Pyrolysis and gasification of pellets from sugar cane bagasse and wood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wood pellets have become a popular form of biomass for power generation and residential heating due to easier handling both for transportation and for feeders in the treatment units, improved conversion and storage possibilities. The research on wood pellets as fuel has also been intensified during the past decade. However, other biomass sorts in pellet form, such as sugar cane

Catharina Erlich; Emilia Björnbom; David Bolado; Marian Giner; Torsten H. Fransson

2006-01-01

113

A review of the 2006 International Society of Sugar Cane Technologists' Pathology Workshop  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The International Society of Sugar Cane Technologists’ (ISSCT) Pathology Workshop was held on January 23-27, 2006, at the INRA Research Center in Petit Bourg, Guadeloupe, French West Indies and was hosted by CIRAD and organized by Jean Heinrich Daugrois and the CIRAD staff. There were 30 delegates ...

114

Modelling decomposition of sugar cane surface residues with APSIM–Residue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since residues on the soil surface affect the soil hydrological and nitrogen cycles, cropping system models need to accurately predict the decomposition of surface residues through time. Recent field measurements of sugar cane residue decomposition have found that rates of residue decomposition are slower than those predicted by the agricultural productions systems simulator (APSIM) cropping system model. To improve predictions

Peter J. Thorburn; Mervyn E. Probert; Fiona A. Robertson

2001-01-01

115

Antioxidant Activity of Phenolics Compounds From Sugar Cane ( Saccharum officinarum L.) Juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenolic compounds in sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) juice were identified and quantified by analytical high performance liquid chromatography and photodiode array detection, showing the predominance of flavones (apigenin, luteolin and tricin derivatives), among flavonoids, and of hydroxycinnamic, caffeic and sinapic acids, among phenolic acids, representing a total content of around 160 mg\\/L. A tricin derivative was present in the highest

Joaquim Maurício Duarte-Almeida; Alexis Vidal Novoa; Adyary Fallarero Linares; Franco M. Lajolo; Maria Inés Genovese

2006-01-01

116

Production of xylanase by Thermoascus aurantiacus from sugar cane bagasse in an aerated growth fermentor  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, the use of xylanases has been adopted by many processing industries, such as pulp and paper, food and textile factories. This study demonstrates that Thermoascus aurantiacus ATCC 204492 is able to produce a high level of thermostable xylanase when sugar cane bagasse is used as a substrate. Fermentations were performed in a glass-column reactor with forced aeration.

A. M. F Milagres; E Santos; T Piovan; I. C Roberto

2004-01-01

117

Raising Cane in the 'Glades: The Global Sugar Trade and the Transformation of Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last century, the Everglades underwent a metaphorical and ecological transition from impenetrable swamp to endangered wetland. At the heart of this transformation lies the Florida sugar industry, which by the 1990s was at the center of the political storm over the multi-billion dollar ecological “restoration” of the Everglades. Raising Cane in the ’Glades is the first study to

Gail M. Hollander

2008-01-01

118

Pyrolysis of sugar cane bagasse in a wire-mesh reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improved experimental techniques are described, using a wire mesh reactor; for determining the pyrolysis yields of lignocellulosic materials. In this apparatus pyrolysis tars are rapidly swept from the hot zone of the reactor and quenched, secondary reactions are thereby greatly diminished. Particular emphasis is placed upon the measurement of the pyrolysis yields for sugar cane bagasse, an abundant agricultural waste

Ana-Rita F. Drummond; Ian W. Drummond

1996-01-01

119

Mechanical relaxation processes due to sugars in cane ( Arundo donax L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The storage modulus and the mechanical loss tangent of untreated, extracted, and sugar- impregnated canes (Arundo donax L.) were measured over a temperature range of ?150° to 0°C at low frequencies. Two relaxation processes, labeled ? and ?,\\u000a were detected in the ranges ?60° to 0°C and ?120° to ?100°C, respectively. The ? and ? processes shifted to lower temperatures

Eiichi Obataya; Misato Norimoto

1999-01-01

120

Biodegradation of heavy crude oil Maya using spent compost and sugar cane bagasse wastes.  

PubMed

Experiments were carried out to evaluate the use of some agroindustrial wastes as supports in solid state cultures for the biodegradation of crude oil Maya in static column reactors over 15-20 days periods. Spent compost and cane bagasse wastes showed superior qualities over peat moss waste as support candidates with the advantage that they contain appreciable densities of autochthonous microorganisms in the order of 10(2) cfu g(-1). Mercuric chloride (2%) was able to completely inhibit growth of these microfloras. Biodegradation was enhanced in the presence of the IMP consortium and highest when microflora from cane bagasse only was the bioaugmentation partner (180.7 mg kg(-1) day(-1)). Combination of these waste materials (3:1 ratio, respectively) was observed to significantly biodegrade the crude oil by approximately 40% in 15 days from an initial concentration of 10,000 mg kg(-1) with a four order of magnitude increase in microbial density during this period. Spent compost and cane bagasse wastes are veritable solid support candidates for use in the biodegradation of crude oil polluted systems. PMID:17395244

Trejo-Hernández, M R; Ortiz, A; Okoh, A I; Morales, D; Quintero, R

2007-03-28

121

Effect of acid hydrolysis and fungal biotreatment on agro-industrial wastes for obtainment of free sugars for bioethanol production.  

PubMed

This study was designed to evaluate selected chemical and microbiological treatments for the conversion of certain local agro-industrial wastes (rice straw, corn stalks, sawdust, sugar beet waste and sugarcane bagasse) to ethanol. The chemical composition of these feedstocks was determined. Conversion of wastes to free sugars by acid hydrolysis varied from one treatment to another. In single-stage dilute acid hydrolysis, increasing acid concentration from 1 % (v/v) to 5 % (v/v) decreased the conversion percentage of almost all treated agro-industrial wastes. Lower conversion percentages for some treatments were obtained when increasing the residence time from 90 to 120 min. The two-stage dilute acid hydrolysis by phosphoric acid (1.0 % v/v) followed by sulphuric acid (1.0 % v/v) resulted in the highest conversion percentage (41.3 % w/w) on treated sugar beet waste. This treatment when neutralized, amended with some nutrients and inoculated with baker's yeast, achieved the highest ethanol concentration (1.0 % v/v). Formation of furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) were functions of type of acid hydrolysis, acid concentration, residence time and feedstock type. The highest bioconversion of 5 % wastes (37.8 % w/w) was recorded on sugar beet waste by Trichoderma viride EMCC 107. This treatment when followed by baker's yeast fermentation, 0.41 % (v/v) ethanol and 8.2 % (v/w) conversion coefficient were obtained. PMID:24031984

El-Tayeb, T S; Abdelhafez, A A; Ali, S H; Ramadan, E M

2012-06-01

122

Analisis elemental de hoja de cana de azucar y suelos caneros de un CAI. (Basic analysis of sugar cane leaves and cane fields of an AIC).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The concentration of minor and trace elements in sugar cane leaves and soils samples from a cuban sugar factory were determine by means of thermal reactor neutron activation analysis (NAA) and X-ray Fluorescence Analysis (XRFA). The samples were taken acc...

O. Diaz Rizo M. Saunders E. Herrerra R. Rodriguez A. Mendoza

1991-01-01

123

Ultrafiltration: a means for decolorization of cane sugar solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Membrane ultrafiltration was used for clarification as well as for decolorization of raw brown sugar obtained from the Indian sugar industry. Experimental results were obtained using sugar solutions of 28 and 46°Brix and mineral membranes of 20 nm, 5 and 1 kDa molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) on an industrial size pilot plant under different operating conditions. It was found that,

M Hamachi; B. B Gupta; R Ben Aim

2003-01-01

124

Evaluation of holocellulase production by plant-degrading fungi grown on agro-industrial residues.  

PubMed

Agaricus brasiliensis CS1, Pleurotus ostreatus H1 and Aspergillus flavus produced holocellulases when grown in solid and submerged liquid cultures containing agro-industrial residues, including sugar cane bagasse and dirty cotton residue, as substrates. These isolates proved to be efficient producers of holocellulases under the conditions used in this screening. Bromatological analysis of agro-industrial residues showed differences in protein, fiber, hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin content. Maximal holocellulase activity (hemicellulase, cellulase and pectinase) was obtained using solid-state cultivation with 10% substrate concentration. In this case, remarkably high levels of xylanase and polygalacturonase activity (4,008 and 4,548 IU/l, respectively) were produced by A. flavus when grown in media containing corn residue, followed by P. ostreatus H1 with IU/l values of 1,900 and 3,965 when cultivated on 5% and 10% sugar cane bagasse, respectively. A. brasiliensis CS1 showed the highest reducing sugar yield (11.640 mg/ml) when grown on medium containing sugar cane bagasse. A. brasiliensis was also the most efficient producer of protein, except when cultivated on dirty cotton residue, which induced maximal production in A. flavus. Comparison of enzymatic hydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse and dirty cotton residue by crude extracts of A. brasiliensis CS1, P. ostreatus H1 and A. flavus showed that the best reducing sugar yield was achieved using sugar cane bagasse as a substrate. PMID:20221846

de Siqueira, Félix Gonçalves; de Siqueira, Aline Gonçalves; de Siqueira, Eliane Gonçalves; Carvalho, Marly Azevedo; Peretti, Beatriz Magalhães Pinto; Jaramillo, Paula Marcela Duque; Teixeira, Ricardo Sposina Sobral; Dias, Eustáquio Souza; Félix, Carlos Roberto; Filho, Edivaldo Ximenes Ferreira

2010-03-12

125

The future of sugar cane in (the) People’s Republic of China and India – Supply constraints and expansion potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

The last decade has seen a surging demand for biofuels in the wake of increasing oil prices and rising environmental concerns. The most common biofuel is bio-ethanol accounting for more than 90% of total biofuel usage. It is increasingly produced from sugar cane making cane a strategic crop for biofuels. Given the growing demand for “green” fuels, bio-ethanol production has

Genia Kostka; Christine Polzin; Jenny Scharrer

2009-01-01

126

75 FR 47258 - Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and Certain Sugars, Syrups and Molasses AGENCY: Office of the Secretary...quantity of the raw, as well as, refined and specialty sugar Tariff-Rate Quotas (TRQ) as required under...

2010-08-05

127

Effect of chopping and level of inclusion of whole sugar cane in the diet on intake and growth of goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 156 crossbred goats (F1 of India×Bachthao) with an initial weight of 10.2–11.9 kg and ages ranging between 3.5 and 4 months were used in studies to examine how physical form and inclusion level of sugar cane influenced intake. In the intake study whole sugar cane was divided into leaves, tops and stalks. The leaves were offered chopped

Nguyen Thi Mui; Inger Ledin; Dinh Van Binh

2000-01-01

128

Preliminary evaluation of organosolv pre-treatment of sugar cane bagasse for glucose production: Application of 2 3 experimental design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugar cane bagasse was submitted to ethanol organosolv pre-treatment using a 50L pilot scale reactor. The influence of catalyst type (H2SO4 or NaOH), catalyst concentration (1.25–1.50% w\\/w on dry fiber) and process time (60–90min) on total solid recovery and solid composition (glucan, xylan and lignin contents) was evaluated by performing a 23 full factorial experimental design. Pretreated sugar cane bagasse

Leyanis Mesa; Erenio González; Encarnación Ruiz; Inmaculada Romero; Cristóbal Cara; Fernando Felissia; Eulogio Castro

2010-01-01

129

Characterisation of sugar cane straw waste as pozzolanic material for construction: Calcining temperature and kinetic parameters  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on the influence of calcining temperature (800 and 1000 deg. C) on the pozzolanic activation of sugar cane straw (SCS). The reaction kinetics of SCS ash-lime mixtures were inferred from physicochemical characteristics (X-ray diffraction patterns and thermogravimetry analysis. The fitting of a kinetic-diffusive model to the experimental data (fixed lime versus time) allowed the computing of the kinetic parameters (reaction rate constant) of the pozzolanic reaction. Results obtained confirm that the sugar cane straw ash (SCSA) calcined at 800 and 1000 deg. C have properties indicative of very high pozzolanic activity. No influence of calcining temperature on the pozzolanic activity was observed. Also, no crystalline compounds during the pozzolanic reaction were identified up to 90 days of reaction. Environmental durability and strength of the consequential mortars remain to be assessed.

Frias, Moises [Eduardo Torroja Institute (CSIC), c/ Serrano Galvache 4, 28033 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: mfrias@ietcc.csic.es; Villar-Cocina, E.; Valencia-Morales, E. [Department of Physics, Central University of Las Villas, Santa Clara 54830 (Cuba)

2007-07-01

130

Congeners in sugar cane spirits aged in casks of different woods.  

PubMed

The profile of volatile compounds and aging markers in sugar cane spirits aged for 36 months in casks made of 10 types of wood were studied. The ethanol content, volatile acidity, aldehydes, esters, higher alcohols, and methanol were determined. In addition, gallic, vanilic and syringic acids, siringaldehyde, coniferaldehyde, sinapaldehyde, vanillin, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and furfural were identified and quantified. The profile of volatile compounds characterised aging in each type of wood. The beverage aged in oak cask achieved the highest contents of maturation-related congeners. The Brazilian woods, similar to oak, were jequitibá rosa and cerejeira, which presented the highest contents of some maturation-related compounds, such as vanillin, vanilic acid, syringaldehyde and sinapaldehyde. Although oak wood conferred more chemical complexity to the beverage, Brazilian woods, singly or complementarily, present potential for spirit characterisation and for improving the quality of sugar cane spirits. PMID:23561163

Bortoletto, Aline M; Alcarde, André R

2013-01-16

131

Lactic acid production from sugar-cane juice by a newly isolated Lactobacillus sp  

Microsoft Academic Search

A newly isolated sucrose-tolerant, lactic acid bacterium, Lactobacillus sp. strain FCP2, was grown on sugar-cane juice (125 g sucrose l?1, 8 g glucose l?1 and 6 g fructose l?1) for 5 days and produced 104 g lactic acid l?1 with 90% yield. A higher yield (96%) and productivity (2.8 g l?1 h?1) were obtained when strain FCP2 was cultured on 3% w\\/v (25 g sucrose l?1, 2 g glucose l?1 and 1 g fructose l?1) sugar-cane juice for 10 h. Various cheap nitrogen sources such as

Walaiporn Timbuntam; Klanarong Sriroth; Yutaka Tokiwa

2006-01-01

132

An isotopic method for quantifying sweeteners derived from corn and sugar cane1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Consumption of high-fructose corn syrup, as well as cane sugar, has been implicated in the rise of the obesity and diabetes epidemics. To date, however, no reliable biomarker for the con- sumption of these sweeteners is available. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the natural abundance stable-carbon-isotope signature of commonly consumed foods of plant origin. Design:

A Hope Jahren; Christopher Saudek; Edwina H Yeung; Linda Kao; Rebecca A Kraft; Benjamin Caballero

133

Sugar Cane Policosanols do not Reduce LDL Oxidation in Hypercholesterolemic Individuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugar cane policosanols (SCP) have been shown to exert antioxidant properties in various studies conducted in Cuba. Independent\\u000a studies have since reported no significant effect of SCP consumption on oxidized LDL levels. The objective of the present\\u000a study was to confirm the effects of Cuban SCP on LDL oxidation using a high-precision capture ELISA procedure in hypercholesterolemic\\u000a individuals. Twenty-one otherwise

Amira N. Kassis; Stan Kubow; Peter J. H. Jones

2009-01-01

134

Isolation of a high-specific-growth-rate mutant of Cellulomonas flavigena on sugar cane bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

By treatment of a wild-type strain of Cellulomonas flavigena with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine at 150 µg\\/ml, mutants PN-7 and PN-10 were obtained, which produce 1.38 and 1.5 times more carboxymethylcellulase than the wild strain when cultured in a batch system with sugar cane bagasse as the sole carbon source. These mutants also exhibited higher specific growth rates compared to the wild strain.

T. Ponce-Noyola; M. Torre

1995-01-01

135

Influence of start-up procedure on crossflow microfiltration of raw cane sugar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different start-up procedures have been applied on a crossflow microfiltration plant for the clarification of solutions from raw cane sugar. Compared to the abrupt start-up mode, a progressive setting-up of both transmembrane pressure and crossflow velocity allowed the permeate fluxes to increase significantly without any alteration of the clarifying effect. This result has been proved on three different lots of

M. Dornier; R. Petermann; Martine Decloux

1995-01-01

136

Environmental repercussions of cane-sugar industries on the Chhoti Gandak river basin, Ganga Plain, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chhoti Gandak river basin, situated in the Ganga Plain, is one of India’s most productive cane-sugar industrial belts. Soil\\u000a and groundwater samples were collected to investigate the impacts of these industries on the environment of the Chhoti Gandak\\u000a river basin with special reference to soil and water. The results show that concentration of most metals are affected by industrial\\u000a activities

Vikram Bhardwaj; Dhruv Sen Singh; Abhay K. Singh

2010-01-01

137

Including sugar cane in the agro-ecosystem model ORCHIDEE-STICS: calibration and validation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sugarcane is currently the most efficient bioenergy crop with regards to the energy produced per hectare. With approximately half the global bioethanol production in 2005, and a devoted land area expected to expand globally in the years to come, sugar cane is at the heart of the biofuel debate. Dynamic global vegetation models coupled with agronomical models are powerful and novel tools to tackle many of the environmental issues related to biofuels if they are carefully calibrated and validated against field observations. Here we adapt the agro-terrestrial model ORCHIDEE-STICS for sugar cane simulations. Observation data of LAI are used to evaluate the sensitivity of the model to parameters of nitrogen absorption and phenology, which are calibrated in a systematic way for six sites in Australia and La Reunion. We find that the optimal set of parameters is highly dependent on the sites' characteristics and that the model can reproduce satisfactorily the evolution of LAI. This careful calibration of ORCHIDEE-STICS for sugar cane biomass production for different locations and technical itineraries provides a strong basis for further analysis of the impacts of bioenergy-related land use change on carbon cycle budgets. As a next step, a sensitivity analysis is carried out to estimate the uncertainty of the model in biomass and carbon flux simulation due to its parameterization.

Valade, A.; Vuichard, N.; Ciais, P.; Viovy, N.

2011-12-01

138

Production of ethanol from sugar cane bagasse hemicellulose hydrolyzate by Pichia stipitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability ofPichia stipitis to fermentd-xylose andd-glucose in the acid-hydrolyzed hemicellulose component of sugar cane bagasse depends on the alkali used to neutralize the\\u000a hydrolyzate to pH 6.5. With NH4OH and NaOH no fermentation occurred, whereas neutralization with Ca(OH)2 gave the best results (Qpmax=0.25 g\\/L-h; Yp\\/s =0.38 g\\/g sugar). However, the volumetric productivity was still considerably less than observed in

Carina Van Zyl; Bernard A. Prior; James C. Du Preez

1988-01-01

139

Electric power from sugar cane in Costa Rica. A technical and economic analysis  

SciTech Connect

A team of specialists visited Costa Rica in May 1988 to analyze the potential for production and sale of electricity by the sugar-cane industry. Focusing on three sugar mills, the team made technical projections at four levels of investment, ranging from the simplest sale of surplus power to the installation of new turbogenerator systems. For each level, capital costs, electricity production and sales, and fuel options were estimated. Associated risks were assessed through sensitivity analyses to demonstrate the possible impacts of varying interest rates, fuel costs, and electricity sales prices. The team concluded that production and sale of electricity for the national grid could be an excellent investment opportunity for the sugar industry and would provide important economic benefits, including creation of additional jobs in rural areas, diversification of the sugar industry, and (in the short term) displacement of the need for imported fuels.

Tugwell, F.; Gowen, M.; Kenda, W.; Cohen, A.

1988-07-01

140

78 FR 56646 - Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2014 WTO Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Fiscal Year 2014 WTO Tariff- Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and Certain Sugars, Syrups and Molasses AGENCY: Office of the Secretary...2014) in-quota aggregate quantity of raw cane sugar at 1,117,195 metric tons raw value (MTRV)....

2013-09-13

141

Thermotolerance behavior in sugar cane syrup fermentations of wild type yeast strains selected under pressures of temperature, high sugar and added ethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The selected yeast strains were examined for their ability to grow, to retain cell viability and to ferment diluted sugar cane juice (15 % total sugar, w\\/v) to ethanol at 40°C. The degree of agitation (aeration) affects the thermotolerance while the method used for isolation of the strains appears to have no significant effect. The yeast isolated are aerobically fermentative

C. Laluce; C. L. Abud; W. Greenhalf; Peres M. F. Sanches

1993-01-01

142

Power generation using sugar cane bagasse: A heat recovery analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sugar industry is facing the need to improve its performance by increasing efficiency and developing profitable by-products. An important possibility is the production of electrical power for sale. Co-generation has been practiced in the sugar industry for a long time in a very inefficient way with the main purpose of getting rid of the bagasse. The goal of this research was to develop a software tool that could be used to improve the way that bagasse is used to generate power. Special focus was given to the heat recovery components of the co-generation plant (economizer, air pre-heater and bagasse dryer) to determine if one, or a combination, of them led to a more efficient co-generation cycle. An extensive review of the state of the art of power generation in the sugar industry was conducted and is summarized in this dissertation. Based on this models were developed. After testing the models and comparing the results with the data collected from the literature, a software application that integrated all these models was developed to simulate the complete co-generation plant. Seven different cycles, three different pressures, and sixty-eight distributions of the flue gas through the heat recovery components can be simulated. The software includes an economic analysis tool that can help the designer determine the economic feasibility of different options. Results from running the simulation are presented that demonstrate its effectiveness in evaluating and comparing the different heat recovery components and power generation cycles. These results indicate that the economizer is the most beneficial option for heat recovery and that the use of waste heat in a bagasse dryer is the least desirable option. Quantitative comparisons of several possible cycle options with the widely-used traditional back-pressure turbine cycle are given. These indicate that a double extraction condensing cycle is best for co-generation purposes. Power generation gains between 40 and 100% are predicted for some cycles with the addition of optimum heat recovery systems.

Seguro, Jean Vittorio

143

Composting of sugar-cane waste by-products through treatment with microorganisms and subsequent vermicomposting.  

PubMed

The waste by-products of the sugar-cane industry, bagasse (b), pressmud (p) and trash (t) have been subjected to bioinoculation followed by vermicomposting to shorten stabilization time and improve product quality. Press-mud alone and in combination with other by-products of sugar processing industries was pre-decomposed for 30 days by inoculation with combination of Pleurotus sajorcaju, Trichoderma viridae, Aspergillus niger and Pseudomonas striatum. This treatment was followed by vermicomposting for 40 days with the native earthworm, Drawida willsi. The combination of both treatments reduced the overall time required for composting to 20 days and accelerated the degradation process of waste by-products of sugar processing industry, thereby producing a nutrient-enriched compost product useful for sustaining high crop yield, minimizing soil depletion and value added disposal of waste materials. PMID:20403689

Kumar, Rahul; Verma, Deepshikha; Singh, Bhanu L; Kumar, Umesh; Shweta

2010-04-18

144

Control of Invertase Synthesis in Sugar Cane. Loci of Auxin and Glucose Effects  

PubMed Central

In tissue slices from rapidly expanding internodes of sugar cane the vacuolar invertase level is a function of the balance between synthesis and destruction. The enzyme is destroyed in the tissue at an approximately constant rate with a half time of 2 hours. Invertase synthesis is regulated by both auxin and glucose. From studies with inhibitors of protein and RNA synthesis we conclude that auxin alters the rate of synthesis and glucose increases the rate of destruction of messenger RNA required for the production of invertase.

Glasziou, K. T.; Waldron, J. C.; Bull, T. A.

1966-01-01

145

Cyclic AMP regulates the biosynthesis of cellobiohydrolase in Cellulomonas flavigena growing in sugar cane bagasse.  

PubMed

Cellulomonas flavigena produces a battery of cellulase components that act concertedly to degrade cellulose. The addition of cAMP to repressed C. flavigena cultures released catabolic repression, while addition of cAMP to induced C. flavigena cultures led to a cellobiohydrolase hyperproduction. Exogenous cAMP showed positive regulation on cellobiohydrolase production in C. flavigena grown on sugar cane bagasse. A C. flavigena cellobiohydrolase gene was cloned (named celA), which coded for a 71- kDa enzyme. Upstream, a repressor celR1, identified as a 38 kDa protein, was monitored by use of polyclonal antibodies. PMID:19701743

Herrera-Herrera, Jesús Antonio; Pérez-Avalos, Odilia; Salgado, Luis M; Ponce-Noyola, Teresa

2009-08-23

146

Environmental parameters affecting xylitol production from sugar cane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolyzate by Candida guilliermondii  

Microsoft Academic Search

  The bioconversion of xylose to xylitol by Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 cultivated in sugar cane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolyzate was influenced by cell inoculum level, age of inoculum\\u000a and hydrolyzate concentration. The maximum xylitol productivity (0.75?g?L?1?h?1) occurred in tests carried out with hydrolyzate containing 54.5?g?L?1 of xylose, using 3.0?g?L?1 of a 24-h-old inoculum. Xylitol productivity and cell concentration decreased with hydrolyzate

M G A Felipe; M Vitolo; I M Mancilha; S S Silva

1997-01-01

147

International Forum on Appropriate Industrial Technology Held at New Delhi/Anand, India on November 20-30, 1978. Cane Sugar Techniques in Developing Countries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The main physical constraints of cane sugar production are briefly described and the sugar production objectives to ensure socio-economic development are considered. Alternative methods of production are compared and possible solutions for the more effici...

J. M. Paturau

1978-01-01

148

Biofuel contribution to mitigate fossil fuel CO2 emissions: Comparing sugar cane ethanol in Brazil with corn ethanol and discussing land use for food production and deforestation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper compares the use of sugar cane and corn for the production of ethanol, with a focus on global warming and the current international debate about land use competition for food and biofuel production. The indicators used to compare the products are CO2 emissions, energy consumption, sugar cane coproducts, and deforestation. The life cycle emission inventory as a methodological

Luiz Pinguelli Rosa; Christiano Pires de Campos; Maria Silvia Muylaert de Araujo

2009-01-01

149

Optimizing the saccharification of sugar cane bagasse using dilute phosphoric acid followed by fungal cellulases.  

PubMed

A low level of phosphoric acid (1% w/w on dry bagasse basis, 160 degrees C and above, 10 min) was shown to effectively hydrolyze the hemicellulose in sugar cane bagasse into monomers with minimal side reactions and to serve as an effective pre-treatment for the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. Up to 45% of the remaining water-insoluble solids (WIS) was digested to sugar monomers by a low concentration of Biocellulase W (0.5 filter paper unit/gWIS) supplemented with beta-glucosidase, although much higher levels of cellulase (100-fold) were required for complete hydrolysis. After neutralization and nutrient addition, phosphoric acid syrups of hemicellulose sugars were fermented by ethanologenic Escherichia coli LY160 without further purification. Fermentation of these syrups was preceded by a lag that increased with increased pre-treatment temperature. Further improvements in organisms and optimization of steam treatments may allow the co-fermentation of sugars derived from hemicellulose and cellulose, eliminating need for liquid-solid separation, sugar purification, and separate fermentations. PMID:19880314

Geddes, C C; Peterson, J J; Roslander, C; Zacchi, G; Mullinnix, M T; Shanmugam, K T; Ingram, L O

2009-10-31

150

IMPROVED BIOREFINERY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL, CHEMICALS, ANIMAL FEED AND BIOMATERIALS FROM SUGAR CANE  

SciTech Connect

The Audubon Sugar Institute (ASI) of Louisiana State University’s Agricultural Center (LSU AgCenter) and MBI International (MBI) sought to develop technologies that will lead to the development of a sugar-cane biorefinery, capable of supplying fuel ethanol from bagasse. Technology development focused on the conversion of bagasse, cane-leaf matter (CLM) and molasses into high value-added products that included ethanol, specialty chemicals, biomaterials and animal feed; i.e. a sugar cane-based biorefinery. The key to lignocellulosic biomass utilization is an economically feasible method (pretreatment) for separating the cellulose and the hemicellulose from the physical protection provided by lignin. An effective pretreatment disrupts physical barriers, cellulose crystallinity, and the association of lignin and hemicellulose with cellulose so that hydrolytic enzymes can access the biomass macrostructure (Teymouri et al. 2004, Laureano-Perez, 2005). We chose to focus on alkaline pretreatment methods for, and in particular, the Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX) process owned by MBI. During the first two years of this program a laboratory process was established for the pretreatment of bagasse and CLM using the AFEX process. There was significant improvement of both rate and yield of glucose and xylose upon enzymatic hydrolysis of AFEX-treated bagasse and CLM compared with untreated material. Because of reactor size limitation, several other alkaline pretreatment methods were also co-investigated. They included, dilute ammonia, lime and hydroxy-hypochlorite treatments. Scale-up focused on using a dilute ammonia process as a substitute for AFEX, allowing development at a larger scale. The pretreatment of bagasse by an ammonia process, followed by saccharification and fermentation produced ethanol from bagasse. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) allowed two operations in the same vessel. The addition of sugarcane molasses to the hydrolysate/fermentation process yielded improvements beyond what was expected solely from the addition of sugar. In order to expand the economic potential for building a biorefinery, the conversion of enzyme hydrolysates of AFEX-treated bagasse to succinic acid was also investigated. This program established a solid basis for pre-treatment of bagasse in a manner that is feasible for producing ethanol at raw sugar mills.

Dr. Donal F. Day

2009-01-29

151

Rudimentary, low tech incinerators as a means to produce reactive pozzolan out of sugar cane straw  

SciTech Connect

The ashes of agricultural wastes from the processing of sugar cane are recognized as having pozzolanic properties. Burning of these wastes under controlled conditions, e.g. temperature and residence time results in significant improvement in reactivity. There are many reports of low-tech incinerators that have been successfully used to produce reactive rice husk ash in Asia. The paper presents the results of the evaluation of a rudimentary incinerator where sugar cane straw is burnt in order to obtain a reactive ash. The incinerator is designed and constructed according to state-of-the-art recommendations for this kind of device. Various burning trials were performed in order to obtain ash for the experiment. X-ray diffraction analysis performed on powdered ash shows significant presence of amorphous (glassy) material. Lime-pozzolana pastes were prepared. The pastes were subjected to X-ray diffraction, thermo-gravimetric analysis, chemical titration, and SEM observation, as a means to examine the pozzolanicity of the ash via the progress with time of calcium hydroxide consumption, and changes in the pore size distribution and strength. Calcium silicate hydrate phases are the main reaction product of the pozzolanic reaction. The long residence time of the ash in the burning chamber seems to be the reason for the fairly low reactivity of the ash; the reactivity of the ash was not significantly improved in comparison with that of the ash burnt in uncontrolled conditions in the open air.

Martirena, Fernando [Central University of las Villas, Santa Clara (Cuba)]. E-mail: f.martirena@enet.cu; Middendorf, Bernhard [Central University of las Villas, Santa Clara (Cuba); Department of Structural Materials, University of Kassel, Kassel (Germany); Day, Robert L. [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Gehrke, Matthias [Central University of las Villas, Santa Clara (Cuba); Department of Structural Materials, University of Kassel, Kassel (Germany); Roque, Pablo [Central University of las Villas, Santa Clara (Cuba); Martinez, Lesday [Central University of las Villas, Santa Clara (Cuba); Betancourt, Sergio [Central University of las Villas, Santa Clara (Cuba)

2006-06-15

152

Upgrading of sugar cane bagasse by thermal processes. 10: Catalytic liquefaction in aqueous medium  

SciTech Connect

This work presents the results of a study of a process of direct catalytic liquefaction of sugar cane bagasse, in aqueous medium, using different pH values. The experiments were conducted in the absence as well as in the presence of commercial catalysts. In the absence of catalyst, the results showed that the conversion of sugar cane bagasse into liquefied products is not influenced by the pH of the reaction mixture. An increase in the temperature augments the yield of liquefied products. The utilization of different commercial catalysts permits an increase in the yields of liquefied products up to 92.4%, obtained with 10% palladium on activated carbon powder as catalyst. The liquefied products were fractionated into eight different chemical classes by preparative liquid chromatography (PLC-8 method). In the absence of catalyst, high conversion yields into light-oils and resins (fractions F1 to F6) was observed only at pH = 9. When the catalysts were used (at pH = 9 and at 370 C), an important increase (from 29 to 78%) of resins (fraction F6) was observed. Under this condition, the proportion of asphaltenes and asphaltols (fractions F7 and F8) decreases from 70 to 20%.

Lancas, F.M.; Ruggiero, M.A. [Univ. of Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Inst. of Chemistry; Donate, P.M. [Univ. of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

1999-05-01

153

Hydrolysis of Ammonia-pretreated Sugar Cane Bagasse with Cellulase, ?-Glucosidase, and Hemicellulase Preparations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sugar cane bagasse consists of hemicellulose (24%) and cellulose (38%), and bioconversion of both fractions to ethanol should be considered for a viable process. We have evaluated the hydrolysis of pretreated bagasse with combinations of cellulase, ?-glucosidase, and hemicellulase. Ground bagasse was pretreated either by the AFEX process (2NH3: 1 biomass, 100 °C, 30 min) or with NH4OH (0.5 g NH4OH of a 28% [v/v] per gram dry biomass; 160 °C, 60 min), and composition analysis showed that the glucan and xylan fractions remained largely intact. The enzyme activities of four commercial xylanase preparations and supernatants of four laboratory-grown fungi were determined and evaluated for their ability to boost xylan hydrolysis when added to cellulase and ?-glucosidase (10 filter paper units [FPU]: 20 cellobiase units [CBU]/g glucan). At 1% glucan loading, the commercial enzyme preparations (added at 10% or 50% levels of total protein in the enzyme preparations) boosted xylan and glucan hydrolysis in both pretreated bagasse samples. Xylanase addition at 10% protein level also improved hydrolysis of xylan and glucan fractions up to 10% glucan loading (28% solids loading). Significant xylanase activity in enzyme cocktails appears to be required for improving hydrolysis of both glucan and xylan fractions of ammonia pretreated sugar cane bagasse.

Prior, Bernard A.; Day, Donal F.

154

Ethanol/Water Pulps From Sugar Cane Straw and Their Biobleaching With Xylanase from Bacillus pumilus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of independent variables (temperature and time) on the cooking of sugar cane straw with ethanol/water mixtures was studied to determine operating conditions that obtain pulp with high cellulose contents and a low lignin content. An experimental 22 design was applied for temperatures of 185 and 215°C, and time of 1 and 2.5 h with the ethanol/water mixture concentration and constant straw-to-solvent ratio. The system was scaled-up at 200°C cooking temperature for 2 h with 50% ethanol-water concentration, and 1?10 (w/v) straw-to-solvent ratio to obtain a pulp with 3.14 cP viscosity, 58.09 kappa-number, and the chemical composition of the pulps were 3.2% pentosan and 31.5% lignin. Xylanase from Bacillus pumilus was then applied at a loading of 5-150 IU/g dry pulp in the sugar cane straw ethanol/water pulp at 50°C for 2 and 20 h. To ethanol/water pulps, the best enzyme dosage was found to be 20 IU/g dry pulp at 20 h, and a high enzyme dosage of 150 IU/g dry pulp did not decrease the kappa-number of the pulp.

Moriya, Regina Y.; Gonçalves, Adilson R.; Duarte, Marta C. T.

155

Evaluation of cyclone gasifier performance for gasification of sugar cane residue—Part 2: gasification of cane trash  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Part 1 of this two-part paper, results from gasification of bagasse in a cyclone gasifier have been reported. In this paper results from gasification of cane trash in the same cyclone gasifier are presented. The cane trash powder is injected into the cyclone with air as transport medium. The gasification tests were made with two feeding rates, 39 and

Mohamed Gabra; Esbjörn Pettersson; Rainer Backman; Björn Kjellström

2001-01-01

156

76 FR 36512 - USDA Increases the Domestic Sugar Overall Allotment Quantity, Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary USDA Increases the Domestic Sugar Overall Allotment...Quota AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, USDA. ACTION: Notice...e-mail to angel.f.gonzalez@fas.usda.gov. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:...

2011-06-22

157

Bioaccessible arsenic in soils of former sugar cane plantations, Island of Hawaii.  

PubMed

Arsenical herbicides were used extensively for emergent weed control in Hawaiian sugar cane cultivation from 1913 to about 1950. As a result, surface soil arsenic concentrations average 280 mg kg(-1) across more than 60 km(2) of former sugar plantation land in the eastern portion of the Island of Hawaii. This study was conducted to elucidate the relationship between soil properties and arsenic bioaccessibility in the iron-rich volcanic soils. Soils are predominantly Andisols, formed by weathering of basaltic lava and tephra, with pedogenic solid phases consisting of short-range order iron oxyhydroxides, allophane-like aluminosilicates, and metal-humus compounds. These reactive solid phases strongly adsorb oxyanions, such as phosphate and arsenite/arsenate. High arsenic sorption capacity limits desorption and vertical migration within the soil column and prevents contamination of the underlying groundwater aquifer, despite high arsenic loading and precipitation rates. In vitro arsenic bioaccessibility, as measured by the SBRC gastric-phase test, ranges from 2% to 35% and averages 9% of total arsenic. Bioaccessible arsenic is higher in less weathered soils (Udifolists, Typic and Lithic Hydrudands) and lower in more weathered ash-dominant soils (Acrudoxic Hydrudands). Soil weathering indicators, such as reactive iron content, are strong predictors of arsenic bioaccessibility. Based on evidence from soil mineralogy, geochemistry and arsenic speciation, as well as limited soil arsenic bioavailability/bioaccessibility comparisons, risks to human health from direct contact (soil ingestion) are significantly reduced by low arsenic bioaccessibility. Nonetheless, some soils within former sugar cane cultivation areas contain bioaccessible arsenic concentrations exceeding Hawaii Department of Health risk-based action levels, and will require mitigating actions. Even higher levels of soil arsenic contamination have been identified at former pesticide storage and mixing areas, but are generally of localized extent. PMID:23178778

Cutler, William G; Brewer, Roger C; El-Kadi, Aly; Hue, Nguyen V; Niemeyer, Patrick G; Peard, John; Ray, Chittaranjan

2012-11-22

158

Citric acid production from sugar cane molasses by 2-deoxyglucose-resistant mutant strain of Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citric acid production from sugar cane molasses byAspergillus niger NIAB 280 was studied in a batch cultivation process. A maximum of 90 g\\/L total sugar was utilized in citric acid production\\u000a medium. From the parental strainA. niger, mutant strains showing resistance to 2-deoxyglucose in Vogal's medium containing molasses as a carbon source were induced\\u000a by ?-irradiation. Among the new series

S. Parvez; M. I. Rajoka; M. N. Ahmed; F. Latif; R. Shahid; K. A. Malik

1998-01-01

159

SUPPLEMENTATION OF SUGAR CANE\\/UREA FOR GROWING CATTLE: LEVELS OF MAIZE GRAIN AND A PROTEIN CONCENTRATE 3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were carried out to determine the effect on rate of growth and conversion of different levels of a protein supplement, with or without maize grain in basal diets of sugarcane\\/urea or sugar cane and molasses\\/urea given in separately feeders. In experiment 1 the levels of a 30% protein concentrate (compounded from soya bean, meat, maize gluten and alfalfa)

R Silvestre; N A MacLeod; T R Preston

160

Product inhibition during the feeding phasein fed-batch ethanol fermentation of sugar-cane blackstrap molasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following equations represent the influence of the ethanol concentration (E) on the specific growth rate of the yeast cells (µ) and on the specific production rate of ethanol (?) during the reactor filling phase in fed-batch fermentation of sugar-cane blackstrap molasses: µ = µ0 - k · E and v = v0 · K\\/(K +E)

Walter Borzani

1995-01-01

161

Use of Landsat data for automatic classification and area estimation of sugar-cane plantation in Sao Paulo state, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugar-cane (saccharum spp.) plantations in São Paulo State were classified automatically using an lmage-100 system and Landsat digital data. Ten segments of size 10 × 20 km were aerially photographed and used as training areas for automatic classification. The study area was covered by four Landsat paths, 235, 236, 237 and 238. The percentages of overall correct classification for these

FRANCISCO JOSÉ MENDONCA

1981-01-01

162

Prediction and spatial variability of soil dynamic properties in sugar cane fields of Sao Paulo State - Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work was to model and diagnose the spatial variability of soil load support capacity (SLSC) in sugar cane crop fields, as well as to evaluate the management impact on Sao Paulo State soil structure. The investigated variables were: pressure preconsolidation (?p), apparent cohesion () and internal friction angle (). The conclusions from the results were that

R. B. Silva; E. E. V. Miranda

163

Ammonium phosphate as a sole nutritional supplement for the fermentative production of 2,3-butanediol from sugar cane juice.  

PubMed

The production of 2,3-butanediol by Klebsiella pneumoniae from sugar cane juice supplemented with different salts was studied. This microorganism is able to degrade sucrose present in sugar cane juice containing ammonium phosphate as the sole nutritional supplement. With a sugar cane juice-based medium containing approximately 180 g sucrose/l and 8.0 g (NH4)2HPO4/l, over 70 g 2,3-butanediol plus acetoin/l were formed. This result is comparable to that achieved with a sugar cane juice-based medium containing several nutrients, although the kinetic profiles of these runs presented significant differences. With the ammonium phosphate-enriched medium, cell growth was initially favoured by both the strong oxygen supply and the higher water activity due to the lower concentration of nutrients. After 14 h, the limitation in some nutrients led to the interruption of cell growth, and decreasing rates for product formation and substrate consumption were observed. During the stationary phase of this run, sucrose was preferentially converted to product, and the substrate was completely depleted after 35 h of the process. With the complete medium, the substrate was totally consumed after 36 h of run. In this case, the higher initial concentration of nutrients reduced the overall process rate but sustained the cell growth for 27 h. Conversion yields of 0.40 g product/g sucrose and productivities close to 2.0 g/l x h were obtained under both conditions. PMID:11724383

Berbert-Molina, M A; Sato, S; Silveira, M M

164

Including sugar cane in the agro-ecosystem model ORCHIDEE-STICS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With 4 million ha currently grown for ethanol in Brazil only, approximately half the global bioethanol production in 2005 (Smeets 2008), and a devoted land area expected to expand globally in the years to come, sugar cane is at the heart of the biofuel debate. Indeed, ethanol made from biomass is currently the most widespread option for alternative transportation fuels. It was originally promoted as a carbon neutral energy resource that could bring energy independence to countries and local opportunities to farmers, until attention was drawn to its environmental and socio-economical drawbacks. It is still not clear to which extent it is a solution or a contributor to climate change mitigation. Dynamic Global Vegetation models can help address these issues and quantify the potential impacts of biofuels on ecosystems at scales ranging from on-site to global. The global agro-ecosystem model ORCHIDEE describes water, carbon and energy exchanges at the soil-atmosphere interface for a limited number of natural and agricultural vegetation types. In order to integrate agricultural management to the simulations and to capture more accurately the specificity of crops' phenology, ORCHIDEE has been coupled with the agronomical model STICS. The resulting crop-oriented vegetation model ORCHIDEE-STICS has been used so far to simulate temperate crops such as wheat, corn and soybean. As a generic ecosystem model, each grid cell can include several vegetation types with their own phenology and management practices, making it suitable to spatial simulations. Here, ORCHIDEE-STICS is altered to include sugar cane as a new agricultural Plant functional Type, implemented and parametrized using the STICS approach. An on-site calibration and validation is then performed based on biomass and flux chamber measurements in several sites in Australia and variables such as LAI, dry weight, heat fluxes and respiration are used to evaluate the ability of the model to simulate the specific phenology of sugar cane. The calibration of ORCHIDEE-STICS on several sites and for different technical itineraries provides a strong basis for further analysis of the impacts of land use change related to bioenergy crops.

Valade, A.; Vuichard, N.; Ciais, P.; Viovy, N.

2010-12-01

165

Contribution of sugar-cane harvesting season to atmospheric contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Araraquara city, Southeast Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Brazil, sugar-cane crops are burned to facilitate harvesting, and this causes environmental pollution from the large amounts of smoke and soot that are released into the atmosphere. The smoke and soot contain numerous organic compounds such as PAHs. In this study, PM 10 and PAH concentrations in the air of Araraquara (SE Brazil, with around 200,000 inhabitants and surrounded by sugar-cane plantations) were determined during the harvest and non-harvest seasons. The sampling strategy included two campaigns in each season, with 20 samples per season. PM 10 was collected using a Hi-vol sampler with Teflon™ - coated glass fiber filters. PM 10 ranged from 41 to 181 ?g m -3 during the harvest season, and from 12 to 47 ?g m -3 during the non-harvest season. The mean total concentration of PAHs was 2.5 ng m -3 (non-harvest season) and 11.6 ng m -3 (harvest season). In all sampling periods, the most abundant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were phenanthrene and fluoranthrene, and the least abundant was anthracene. The cluster analysis of the total PAH concentrations for each day of sampling and the corresponding meteorological data suggested that the atmospheric concentration of PAHs was independent of the differences in the weather between the seasons. For both sampling seasons, the statistical treatment (PCA, Varimax rotation and HCA) indicated the presence of vehicle sources (diesel, gasoline, and natural-gas engines); but for the harvest season, the main source was attributed to sugar-cane burning. The data generated by this study indicated the burning of sugar-cane as the main contributor to the high levels of PAHs detected in samples during the sugar-cane harvest season.

de Andrade, Sandro José; Cristale, Joyce; Silva, Flávio Soares; Julião Zocolo, Guilherme; Marchi, Mary R. R.

166

[Preliminary results of an herpetology investigation in sugar cane plantation in Democratic Republic of Congo].  

PubMed

Out of the 3,000 species of snakes described in the world, 163 are currently known from D.R. of Congo. We performed a systematic survey in sugar-cane plantations of the Sugar Company of Kwilu-Ngongo (Bas-Congo), located at 160 km South-West from Kinshasa and exploiting nearly 10,000 ha. The plantation is divided into 3 sectors in the middle of which we deposited barrels filled of formaldehyde. All the employees of the Sugar Company of Kwilu-Ngongo were requested to collect encountered snakes and put them in the nearest barrel. Between August 9th and September 21st, 2004, we collected 36 snakes in two different sites, revealing the presence of 3 families and 12 species. The most abundant species in Causus maculatus (47% in the first site--Point 8--and 29% in the second site--Point 13). The most poisonous and dangerous species were captured only in the first site--point 8, and were Dendroaspis jamesoni and Naja melanoleuca, both young. PMID:16402584

Malukisa, J; Collet, M; Bokata, S; Odio, W

2005-11-01

167

The effect of fire retardants on combustion and pyrolysis of sugar-cane bagasse.  

PubMed

Experiments were conducted by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and cone calorimetry to measure the affect of three fire retardants (ammonium sulphate, boric acid and borax) on the mass-loss rate and combustion characteristics of sugar-cane bagasse. Compared with untreated bagasse, bagasse impregnated with aqueous solutions of 0.1-0.5M fire retardants exhibited an increase in char mass production from 16% up to 41% when pyrolysed and up to a 41% reduction in total heat release (THR) during combustion. Char mass production was only a weak function of additive concentration over the range of concentrations (0.1-0.5M) used. Combining the additives did not show any synergistic effects for char production or heat release rate (HRR). Treatment of bagasse by these chemicals could be useful to enhance biochar yields in pyrolysis processes or to reduce flammability risk in composites containing bagasse. PMID:21680181

Griffin, G J

2011-05-27

168

Distribution of prokaryotic organisms in a tropical estuary influenced by sugar cane agriculture in northeast Brazil  

PubMed Central

In a joint Brazilian-German case study, distribution patterns of microorganisms were compared with environmental variables in the tropical coastal Manguaba lagoon in northeast Brazil, which is situated downstream of several sugar cane processing plants . 16S rDNA and 16S rRNA single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) gene fingerprinting were used to follow the composition and distribution of microorganisms throughout the salinity gradient of the lagoon. Potentially abundant microorganisms were identified by sequencing representative SSCP bands. It could be demonstrated that the distribution of microbes was in close relation to the physico-chemical environmental settings and followed a common scheme. In the in- and outlet areas of the lagoon rather transient microbial communities were found, whereas in the central part a stable, diverse community was encountered, that due to the long residence time of the water, had ample time for development and adaptation.

Wolf, Lars; Schwalger, Berit; Knoppers, Bastiaan A.; da Silva, Luiz Antonio Ferreira; Medeiros, Paulo Ricardo Petter; Pollehne, Falk

2010-01-01

169

Binding Nickel and Zinc Ions with Activated Carbon Prepared from Sugar Cane Fibre (Saccharum officinarum L.)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Activated carbon was prepared from sugar cane fibre by carbonizing at 500°C for 30 min. This was followed by activation with ammonium chloride. The activated carbon was characterised in terms of pH, bulk density, ash content, surface area and surface charge. Equilibrium sorption of nickel and zinc ions by the activated carbon was studied using a range of metal ion concentrations. The sorption data was observed to have an adequate fit for the Langmuir isotherm equation. The level of metal ion uptake was found to be of the order: Ni2+ > Zn2+. The difference in the removal efficiency could be explained in terms of the hydration energy of the metal ions. The distribution coefficient for a range of metal ion concentration of the metal ions at the sorbent water interface is higher than the concentration in the continuous phase.

Ikhuoria, E. U.; Onojie, O. C.

170

Pyrolysis of sugar cane bagasse in a wire-mesh reactor  

SciTech Connect

Improved experimental techniques are described, using a wire mesh reactor; for determining the pyrolysis yields of lignocellulosic materials. In this apparatus pyrolysis tars are rapidly swept from the hot zone of the reactor and quenched, secondary reactions are thereby greatly diminished. Particular emphasis is placed upon the measurement of the pyrolysis yields for sugar cane bagasse, an abundant agricultural waste product. The role of the important pyrolysis parameters, peak temperature and heating rate, in defining the ultimate tar yield is investigated, with the value for bagasse being 54.6% at 500 C and 1,000 C/s. The pyrolysis yields, under similar conditions, of another biomass material, silver birch, are also reported and compared to those of bagasse.

Drummond, A.R.F.; Drummond, I.W. [Univ. of London (United Kingdom)

1996-04-01

171

Dissolved organic carbon in rainwater from areas heavily impacted by sugar cane burning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work reports on rainwater dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from Ribeirão Preto (RP) and Araraquara over a period of 3 years. The economies of these two cities, located in São Paulo state (Brazil), are based on agriculture and related industries, and the region is strongly impacted by the burning of sugar cane foliage before harvesting. Highest DOC concentrations were obtained when air masses traversed sugar cane fields burned on the same day as the rain event. Significant increases in the DOC volume weighted means (VWM) during the harvest period, for both sites, and a good linear correlation ( r = 0.83) between DOC and K (a biomass burning marker) suggest that regional scale organic carbon emissions prevail over long-range transport. The DOC VWMs and standard deviations were 272 ± 22 ?mol L -1 ( n = 193) and 338 ± 40 ?mol L -1 ( n = 80) for RP and Araraquara, respectively, values which are at least two times higher than those reported for other regions influenced by biomass burning, such as the Amazon. These high DOC levels are discussed in terms of agricultural activities, particularly the large usage of biogenic fuels in Brazil, as well as the analytical method used in this work, which includes volatile organic carbon when reporting DOC values. Taking into account rainfall volume, estimated annual rainwater DOC fluxes for RP (4.8 g C m -2 yr -1) and Araraquara (5.4 g C m -2 yr -1) were close to that previously found for the Amazon region (4.8 g C m -2 yr -1). This work also discusses whether previous calculations of the global rainwater carbon flux may have been underestimated, since they did not consider large inputs from biomass combustion sources, and suffered from a possible analytical bias.

Coelho, C. H.; Francisco, J. G.; Nogueira, R. F. P.; Campos, M. L. A. M.

172

HDP for the Neutralized pH Value Control in the Clarifying Process of Sugar Cane Juice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutralizing pH value of sugar cane juice is the important craft in the control process in the clarifying process of sugar cane juice, which is the important factor to influence output and the quality of white sugar. On the one hand, it is an important content to control the neutralized pH value within a required range, which has the vital significance for acquiring high quality purified juice, reducing energy consumption and raising sucrose recovery. On the other hand, it is a complicated physical-chemistry process, which has the characteristics of strong non-linearity, time-varying, large time-delay, and multi-input. Therefore, there has not been a very good solution to control the neutralized pH value. Firstly, in this chapter, a neural network model for the clarifying process of sugar juice is established based on gathering 1200 groups of real-time sample data in a sugar factory. Then, the HDP (Heuristic Dynamic Programming) method is used to optimize and control the neutralized pH value in the clarifying process of sugar juice. Simulation results indicate that this method has good control effect. This will build a good foundation for stabilizing the clarifying process and enhancing the quality of the purified juice and lastly enhancing the quality of white sugar.

Lin, Xiaofeng; Yang, Jiaran

2009-05-01

173

SPATIO-TEMPORAL ANALYSIS OF THE SUGAR CANE OCCUPATION REGION IN THE LOW REGION OF THE SÃO JOSÉ DOS DOURADOS SP HYDROGRAPHIC BASIN USING GEOTECHNOLOGY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although Brazil is the largest sugar cane producer in the world its growing culture is still expanding due to the increasing de mand for biofuels. Such demand had led to a continuous growth of the planted cane area especially in the northeast region of the state of São Paulo. The aim of this work is to evaluate the growth of

Tânia Regina; Inácio Rodrigues; Archimedes Perez Filho

174

Engineering and economic analysis for the utilization of geothermal fluids in a cane sugar processing plant. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of geothermal resource utilization at the Puna Sugar Company cane sugar processing plant, located in Keaau, Hawaii. A proposed well site area was selected based on data from surface exploratory surveys. The liquid dominated well flow enters a binary thermal arrangement, which results in an acceptable quality steam for process use. Hydrogen sulfide in the well gases is incinerated, leaving sulfur dioxide in the waste gases. The sulfur dioxide in turn is recovered and used in the cane juice processing at the sugar factory. The clean geothermal steam from the binary system can be used directly for process requirements. It replaces steam generated by the firing of the waste fibrous product from cane sugar processing. The waste product, called bagasse, has a number of alternative uses, but an evaluation clearly indicated it should continue to be employed for steam generation. This steam, no longer required for process demands, can be directed to increased electric power generation. Revenues gained by the sale of this power to the utility, in addition to other savings developed through the utilization of geothermal energy, can offset the costs associated with hydrothermal utilization.

Humme, J.T.; Tanaka, M.T.; Yokota, M.H.; Furumoto, A.S.

1979-07-01

175

Effect of slow release urea supplementation on fattening of steers fed sugar cane tops ( Saccharum officinarum) and maize ( Zea mays): ruminal fermentation, feed intake and digestibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 60 Zebu steers were fattened for 120 days with feed supplemented with slow release urea, sugar cane tops (Saccharum officinarum) and maize (Zea mays). The treatments were as follows: treatment 1 (T1), fed 100% sugar cane tops (SCT) (n=20; 257±7 kg BW); treatment 2 (T2), diet of SCT supplemented with 1.8 kg dry matter (DM) of slow

M. A. Galina; F. Pérez-Gil; R. M. A Ortiz; J. D. Hummel; R. E. Ørskov

2003-01-01

176

Production of ethanol by a flocculent Saccharomyces sp. in a continuous upflow reactor using sucrose, sugar-cane juice, and molasses as the carbon source  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A flocculentSaccharomyces sp., isolated from spontaneously fermenting sugar-cane juice, was used to produce ethanol in a continuous upflow reactor. Media of different composition were tested using the same fermentation conditions. The best results were obtained fermenting either sugar-cane juice or molasses. The differences observed could be due to the influence of the medium composition on the growth rate and

C. M. Abate; D. A. S. Callieri; S. Acosta; M. de Vié

1987-01-01

177

Discrimination of newly planted and ratoon crops of sugar cane using multidate IRS-1C liss III data: A knowledge based approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

An advanced and accurate information of sugar cane production is an important component for the management of sugar cane industry.\\u000a Remote Sensing is most viable technique which can provide the above information well in advance. Stratified sampling technique\\u000a practiced in Crop Acreage and Production Estimation (CAPE) programme holds good for major crops with non-overlapping growth\\u000a stages. Discrimination of ratoon and

M Kudrat; K P Sharma; A K Tiwari; Pramod Kumar; B Prabhakaran; M L Manchanda

2000-01-01

178

Fattening Pelibuey lambs with sugar cane tops and corn complemented with or without slow intake urea supplement  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred and eighty Pelibuey lambs were fattened for 120 days with three treatments evaluating in situ DM disappearance, voluntary DM or OM intake, rumen degradation, rate of passage, NH3 and VFA concentration, apparent digestibility, ruminal pH, total fermentable carbohydrates and weight gains. The first diet (T1), 60 lambs (25.7±0.7kgBW) plus two cannulated sheep were fed 100% sugar cane tops

M. A. Galina; M. Guerrero; C. D. Puga

2007-01-01

179

Effect of two commercial yeast cultures with Saccharomyces cerevisiae on ruminal fermentation and digestion in sheep fed sugar cane tops  

Microsoft Academic Search

A feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of two direct-fed microbial cultures containing Saccharomyces cerevisiae, on ruminal fermentation and digestibility of diets based on sugar cane tops. Three Suffolk ewes (30 kg BW) with ruminal cannula were used in a latin square design, where treatments were control group (CG); 3 g\\/day of Yea-Sacc1026 (YS, 1×108 CFU\\/g) and 1

J. L. Arcos-Garc??a; F. A. Castrejón; G. D. Mendoza; E. P. Pérez-Gavilán

2000-01-01

180

Variation of the ethanol yield during oscillatory concentrations changes in undisturbed continuous ethanol fermentation of sugar-cane blackstrap molasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the oscillatory phase of an undisturbed continuous ethanol fermentation of sugar-cane blackstrap molasses, the relative ethanol yield oscillated between 70 and 92% of the theoretical value (0.511), while its actual value was 85.6%. The ethanol yield based on catabolic activity oscillated between 0.290 and 1.174 g\\/kcal, while its actual value was 0.686 g\\/kcal. The specific production rate of ethanol

Walter Borzani

2001-01-01

181

Invertase activity of intact cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae growing on sugar cane molasses. 1. Steady-state continuous culture tests  

SciTech Connect

During the steady-state continuous culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on sugar cane blackstrap molasses under different experimental conditions, oscillatory variations of the invertase activity of the intact yeast cells were observed. The continuous morphological changes of the cells wall and of the periplasmic space affecting the interaction between invertase and sucrose molecules could be responsible by the observed oscillatory phenomena. The average invertase activity at the steady state is linearly correlated to the cell's growth rate.

Vitolo, M.; Vairo, M.L.R.; Borzani, W.

1985-08-01

182

D-003, a potential antithrombotic compound isolated from sugar cane wax with effects on arachidonic acid metabolites  

Microsoft Academic Search

D-003 is a natural mixture of higher primary saturated aliphatic acids purified from sugar cane wax, whose main component is octacosanoic acid followed by triacontanoic, dotriacontanoic, and tetratriacontanoic acids. D-003 inhibits platelet aggregation and arterial thrombosis experimentally induced in a dose-dependent fashion. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of D-003 (25 and 200 mg\\/kg) in experimental models of

V. Molina; M. L. Arruzazabala; D. Carbajal; R. Más

2002-01-01

183

Strategies for the development of a side stream process for polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production from sugar cane molasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-stage process was developed to produce polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) from sugar cane molasses. The process includes (1) molasses acidogenic fermentation, (2) selection of PHA-accumulating cultures, (3) PHA batch accumulation using the enriched sludge and fermented molasses. In the fermentation step, the effect of pH (5–7) on the organic acids profile and productivity was evaluated. At higher pH, acetic and propionic

M. G. E. Albuquerque; M. Eiroa; C. Torres; B. R. Nunes; M. A. M. Reis

2007-01-01

184

The Development of Snail Control Methods on an Irrigated Sugar-Cane Estate in Northern Tanzania*  

PubMed Central

In an attempt to prevent the transmission of Schistosoma mansoni on an irrigated sugar-cane estate, molluscicide experiments were carried out to find the optimum methods for controlling the intermediate-host snails, Biomphalaria pfeifferi. The ease of application of N-tritylmorpholine led to its adoption as the molluscicide of choice for the two separate irrigation systems on the estate. Experiments on the frequency and duration of molluscicide treatments were carried out, and from these it was concluded that 5-day applications of N-tritylmorpholine at 0.025 ppm every 7 weeks might lead to a break in transmission by control of the snails. In another set of trials, drainage ditches were treated alternately with N-tritylmorpholine and niclosamide ethanolamine salt, and although the chemicals differed only slightly in their effect, the latter—being ovicidal—was chosen to be applied at approximately 4 ppm by knapsack sprayer every 8 weeks. Extra treatment of small pools with the same compound was carried out during the long rains when irrigation was unnecessary and most of the canals were dry. It is pointed out that the effect of the control methods on S. mansoni transmission will need to be evaluated by studying the incidence of the disease in the population.

Fenwick, A.

1970-01-01

185

Further observations on the interaction between sugar cane and Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus under laboratory and greenhouse conditions.  

PubMed

Sugar cane (Saccharum spp.) variety SP 70-1143 was inoculated with Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus strain PAL5 (ATCC 49037) in two experiments. In experiment 1 the bacteria were inoculated into a modified, low sucrose MS medium within which micropropagated plantlets were rooted. After 10 d there was extensive anatomical evidence of endophytic colonization by G. diazotrophicus, particularly in lower stems, where high numbers of bacteria were visible within some of the xylem vessels. The identity of the bacteria was confirmed by immunogold labelling with an antibody raised against G. diazotrophicus. On the lower stems there were breaks caused by the separation of the plantlets into individuals, and at these 'wounds' bacteria were seen colonizing the xylem and intercellular spaces. Bacteria were also occasionally seen entering leaves via damaged stomata, and subsequently colonizing sub-stomatal cavities and intercellular spaces. A localized host defence response in the form of fibrillar material surrounding the bacteria was associated with both the stem and leaf invasion. In experiment 2, stems of 5-week-old greenhouse-grown plants were inoculated by injection with a suspension of G. diazotrophicus containing 10(8) bacteria ml(-1). No hypersensitive response (HR) was observed, and no symptoms were visible on the leaves and stems for the duration of the experiment (7 d). Close to the point of inoculation, G. diazotrophicus cells were observed within the protoxylem and the xylem parenchyma, where they were surrounded by fibrillar material that stained light-green with toluidine blue. In leaf samples taken up to 4 cm from the inoculation points, G. diazotrophicus cells were mainly found within the metaxylem, where they were surrounded by a light green-staining material. The bacteria were growing in relatively low numbers adjacent to the xylem cell walls, and they were separated from the host-derived material by electron-transparent 'haloes' that contained material that reacted with the G. diazotrophicus antibody. PMID:11413211

James, E K; Olivares, F L; de Oliveira, A L; dos Reis, F B; da Silva, L G; Reis, V M

2001-04-01

186

Enterobacter sacchari sp. nov., a nitrogen-fixing bacterium associated with sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.).  

PubMed

Five nitrogen-fixing bacterial strains (SP1(T), NN143, NN144, NN208 and HX148) were isolated from stem, root or rhizosphere soil of sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) plants. Cells were Gram-negative, motile, rods with peritrichous flagella. DNA G+C content was 55.0 ± 0.5 mol%. Sequence determinations and phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene and rpoB indicated that the strains were affiliated with the genus Enterobacter and most closely related to E. radicincitans DSM 16656(T) and E. oryzae LMG 24251(T). Fluorimetric determination of thermal denaturation temperatures after DNA-DNA hybridization, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry differentiated the whole-genome, genotype and protein profiles from those of E. radicincitans and E. oryzae. The strains' cell fatty acid composition differentiated them from E. radicincitans and E. oryzae by containing a higher level of summed feature 2 (C16 : 1?7c and/or C16 : 1?6c) and a lower level of C17 : 0 cyclo. Their physiological and biochemical profiles differentiated them from E. radicincitans by being positive for methyl red test, ornithine decarboxylase and utilization of putrescine, D-arabitol, L-fucose and methyl ?-D-glucoside and being negative for arginine dihydrolase, and differentiated them from E. oryzae by being positive for aesculin hydrolysis and utilization of putrescine, D-arabitol and L-rhamnose and being negative for arginine dihydrolase, lysine decarboxylase and utilization of mucate. The five strains therefore represent a novel species, for which the name Enterobacter sacchari sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain SP1(T) ( = CGMCC 1.12102(T) = LMG 26783(T)). PMID:23291881

Zhu, Bo; Zhou, Qing; Lin, Li; Hu, Chunjin; Shen, Ping; Yang, Litao; An, Qianli; Xie, Guanlin; Li, Yangrui

2013-01-04

187

A preliminary characterization of the mutagenicity of atmospheric particulate matter collected during sugar cane harvesting using the Salmonella/microsome microsuspension assay.  

PubMed

During sugar cane harvesting season, which occurs from May to November of each year, the crops are burnt, cut, and transported to the mills. There are reports showing that mutagenic activity and PAH content increase during harvesting season in some areas of São Paulo State in comparison with nonharvesting periods. The objective of this work was to preliminarily characterize the mutagenic activity of the total organic extracts as well as corresponding organic fractions of airborne particulate matter (PM) collected twice from two cities, Araraquara (ARQ) and Piracicaba (PRB), during sugar cane harvesting season using the Salmonella/microsome microssuspension assay. One sample collected in São Paulo metropolitan area was also included. The mutagenicity of the total extracts ranged from 55 to 320 revertants per cubic meter without the addition of S9 and from not detected to 57 revertants per cubic meter in the presence of S9 in areas with sugar cane plantations. Of the three fractions analyzed, the most polar ones (nitro and oxy) were the most potent. A comparison of the response of TA98 with YG1041 and the increased potencies without S9 indicated that nitro compounds are causing the observed effect. More studies are necessary to verify the sources of the mutagenic activity such as burning of vegetal biomass and combustion of heavy duty vehicles used to transport the sugar cane to the mills. The Salmonella/microsome assay can be an important tool to monitor the atmosphere for mutagenicity during sugar cane harvesting season. PMID:18288717

de Aragão Umbuzeiro, Gisela; Franco, Alexandre; Magalhães, Dulce; de Castro, Francisco José Viana; Kummrow, Fábio; Rech, Célia Maria; Rothschild Franco de Carvalho, Lilian; de Castro Vasconcellos, Pérola

2008-05-01

188

Optimization of process parameters for ethanol production from sugar cane molasses by Zymomonas mobilis using response surface methodology and genetic algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanol is a potential energy source and its production from renewable biomass has gained lot of popularity. There has been\\u000a worldwide research to produce ethanol from regional inexpensive substrates. The present study deals with the optimization\\u000a of process parameters (viz. temperature, pH, initial total reducing sugar (TRS) concentration in sugar cane molasses and fermentation\\u000a time) for ethanol production from sugar

Bodhisatta Maiti; Ankita Rathore; Saurav Srivastava; Mitali Shekhawat; Pradeep Srivastava

2011-01-01

189

The RpfCG two-component system negatively regulates the colonization of sugar cane stalks by Xanthomonas albilineans.  

PubMed

The genome of Xanthomonas albilineans, the causal agent of sugar cane leaf scald, carries a gene cluster encoding a predicted quorum sensing system that is highly related to the diffusible signalling factor (DSF) systems of the plant pathogens Xylella fastidiosa and Xanthomonas campestris. In these latter pathogens, a cluster of regulation of pathogenicity factors (rpf) genes encodes the DSF system and is involved in control of various cellular processes. Mutation of Xanthomonas albilineans rpfF, encoding a predicted DSF synthase, in Florida strain XaFL07-1 resulted in a small reduction of disease severity (DS). Single-knockout mutations of rpfC and rpfG (encoding a predicted DSF sensor and regulator, respectively) had no effect on DS or swimming motility of the pathogen. However, capacity of the pathogen to cause disease was slightly reduced and swimming motility was severely affected when rpfG and rpfC were both deleted. Similar results were obtained when the entire rpfGCF region was deleted. Surprisingly, when the pathogen was mutated in rpfG or rpfC (single or double mutations) it was able to colonize sugar cane spatially more efficiently than the wild-type. Mutation in rpfF alone did not affect the degree of spatial invasion. We conclude that the DSF signal contributes to symptom expression but not to invasion of sugar cane stalks by Xanthomonas albilineans strain XaFL07-1, which is mainly controlled by the RpfCG two-component system. PMID:23538716

Rott, Philippe; Fleites, Laura A; Mensi, Imène; Sheppard, Lauren; Daugrois, Jean-Heinrich; Dow, J Maxwell; Gabriel, Dean W

2013-03-28

190

Air pollution from biomass burning and asthma hospital admissions in a sugar cane plantation area in Brazil  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the association between the total suspended particles (TSPs) generated from preharvest sugar cane burning and hospital admission due to asthma (asthma hospital admissions) in the city of Araraquara. Design An ecological time?series study. Total daily records of asthma hospital admissions (ICD 10th J15) were obtained from one of the main hospitals in Araraquara, São Paulo State, Brazil, from 23 March 2003 to 27 July 2004. The daily concentration of TSP (?g/m3) was obtained using Handi?vol equipment (Energética, Brazil) placed in downtown Araraquara. The local airport provided the daily mean figures of temperature and humidity. The daily number of asthma hospital admissions was considered as the dependent variable in Poisson's regression models and the daily concentration of TSP was considered the independent variable. The generalised linear model with natural cubic spline was adopted to control for long?time trend. Linear terms were used for weather variables. Results TSP had an acute effect on asthma admissions, starting 1?day after TSP concentrations increased and remaining almost unchanged for the next four days. A 10??g/m3 increase in the 5?day moving average (lag1–5) of TSP concentrations was associated with an increase of 11.6% (95% CI 5.4 to 17.7) in asthma hospital admissions. Conclusion Increases in TSP concentrations were definitely associated with asthma hospital admissions in Araraquara and, despite using sugar cane alcohol to reduce air pollution from automotive sources in large Brazilian urban centres, the cities where sugar cane is harvested pay a high toll in terms of public health.

Arbex, Marcos Abdo; Martins, Lourdes Conceicao; de Oliveira, Regiani Carvalho; Pereira, Luiz Alberto Amador; Arbex, Flavio Ferlin; Cancado, Jose Eduardo Delfini; Saldiva, Paulo Hilario Nascimento; Braga, Alfesio Luis Ferreira

2007-01-01

191

Fed-batch alcoholic fermentation of sugar cane blackstrap molasses: influence of the feeding rate on yeast yield and productivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fed-batch ethanol fermentation tests of sugar cane blackstrap molasses were carried out at 32° C and ph 4.5–5.0, using pressed yeast as inoculum, and with no air supply. Two values of the fermentor filling-up time were adopted: 5 h and 7 h. The feeding rates obeyed equation F=F0·-K·t, with K equal to 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 h-1. The

João Carlos M. Carvalho; Eugênio Aquarone; Sunao Sato; Milton L. Brazzach; Dante A. Moraes; Walter Borzani

1993-01-01

192

Classification of similar productivity zones in the sugar cane culture using clustering of SOM component planes based on the SOM distance matrix  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique called component planes is commonly used to visualize variables behavior with Self Organizing Map (SOM). A methodology to clustering the component planes based on the SOM distance matrix is presented. This methodology is used in order to classify zones with similar agro-ecological conditions in the sugar cane culture. Analyzing the obtained groups it was possible to extract new

Miguel A. Barreto; Andres Perez-Uribe

2007-01-01

193

Metal levels in sugar cane (Saccharum spp.) samples from an area under the influence of a municipal landfill and a medical waste treatment system in Brazil.  

PubMed

In July 2003, duplicated samples of roots, stems and leaves of sugar cane (Saccharum spp.) were collected in 25 points of an area under direct influence of the municipal landfill site (MLS) and medical waste treatment system (MWTS) of Ribeirao Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. Cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The following concentrations (mg/kg) were found in roots: Cd, 0.22+/-0.12; Cr, 64.3+/-48.7; Cu, 140.6+/-27.7; Hg, 0.04+/-0.02; Mn, 561.6+/-283.3; Pb, 7.9+/-2.1 and Zn, 177.4+/-64.9. For some metals, these levels are higher than the concentrations previously reported for different plants, reaching, in some cases, values that might be considered toxic for vegetables. Metal levels in stems were 80-90% of those found in roots, while the concentrations detected in leaves were significantly lower than those in roots. The present results suggest that MLS and MWTS activities might have been increasing metal concentrations in edible tissues of sugar cane grown in the area under their influence. Moreover, the traditional agricultural practices in the production of sugar cane could be also another determinant factor to reach the current metal levels. The results of this study indicate that sugar cane is a crop that is able to grow in areas where metals in soils are accumulated. PMID:15990169

Segura-Muñoz, S I; da Silva Oliveira, A; Nikaido, M; Trevilato, T M B; Bocio, A; Takayanagui, A M M; Domingo, J L

2005-06-28

194

An approach to the utilisation of CO2 as impregnating agent in steam pretreatment of sugar cane bagasse and leaves for ethanol production  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The conditions for steam pretreatment of sugar cane bagasse and leaves were studied using CO2 as an impregnating agent. The following conditions were investigated: time (5 to 15 min) and temperature (190 to 220°C). The pretreatment was assessed in terms of glucose and xylose yields after enzymatic hydrolysis and inhibitor formation (furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural) in the pretreatment. Results from

Viridiana Ferreira-Leitão; Clarissa Cruz Perrone; Joice Rodrigues; Ana Paula Machado Franke; Stefano Macrelli; Guido Zacchi

2010-01-01

195

The Results of Field Trials Conducted to Evaluate Varying Methods of Reducing the Amount of Non-cane Material in Combine Harvested Deliveries to Louisiana Sugar Mills  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

For nearly fifty years, the Louisiana sugar industry harvested its crop of erect growing varieties with an ever-improving whole-stalk harvester. This method of harvest was low-cost and in most cases delivered relatively high quality cane to the mill. With the release of a recumbent high-yielding va...

196

Fossil energy savings potential of sugar cane bio-energy systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

One important rationale for bio-energy systems is their potential to save fossil energy. Converting a conventional sugar mill into a bio-energy process plant would contribute to fossil energy savings via the extraction of renewable electricity and ethanol substituting for fossil electricity and gasoline, respectively. This paper takes a closer look at the Thai sugar industry and examines two practical approaches

Thu Lan T. Nguyen; John E. Hermansen; Masayuki Sagisaka

2009-01-01

197

PRODUCCIÓN ECONÓMICA DE ÁCIDO LÁCTICO UTILIZANDO RESIDUOS DE COSECHA Y JUGOS DE CAÑA DE AZÚCAR (Saccharum officinarum L.) Economical production of lactic acid using sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) wastes and juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

A B S T R A C T Sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) tops and leaves (JCG), and the juice extracted from this sugar cane, harvested with crop burning (JCL) and without crop burning (JCV), were tested as substrates for the discontinuous fermentative production of lactic acid. Anaerobic fermentations were carried out at 32°C, adjusting pH at 6.0, and using

Liliana Serna Cock; Aida Rodríguez de Stouvenel

198

Topochemical distribution of lignin and hydroxycinnamic acids in sugar-cane cell walls and its correlation with the enzymatic hydrolysis of polysaccharides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Lignin and hemicelluloses are the major components limiting enzyme infiltration into cell walls. Determination of the topochemical\\u000a distribution of lignin and aromatics in sugar cane might provide important data on the recalcitrance of specific cells. We\\u000a used cellular ultraviolet (UV) microspectrophotometry (UMSP) to topochemically detect lignin and hydroxycinnamic acids in\\u000a individual fiber, vessel and parenchyma cell walls of untreated and

Germano Siqueira; Adriane MF Milagres; Walter Carvalho; Gerald Koch; André Ferraz

2011-01-01

199

Regulation of cellulases and xylanases from a derepressed mutant of Cellulomonas flavigena growing on sugar-cane bagasse in continuous culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

When the wild type Cellulomonas flavigena was grown on glycerol, xylose or cellobiose, it produced basal levels of carboxy-methyl-cellulase (CMCase), filter-paperase (FPase) and xylanase activities. By comparison, a catabolic derepressed mutant strain of the same organism produced markedly higher levels of these enzymes when grown on the same carbon sources. Sugar-cane bagasse induced both the wild type and the mutant

Teresa Ponce-Noyola; Mayra de la Torre

2001-01-01

200

Hydropyrolysis of sugar cane bagasse: effect of sample configuration on bio-oil yields and structures from two bench-scale reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wire-mesh reactor, with the capability of virtually eliminating secondary reactions, has been used as base-case in the study of product yields and structures from the pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis of a sample of sugar cane bagasse in a fixed-bed `hot-rod' reactor. Results from the two reactors have been compared to determine how best to assess bench-scale data which might be

R. V. Pindoria; I. N. Chatzakis; J.-Y. Lim; A. A. Herod; D. R. Dugwell; R. Kandiyoti

1999-01-01

201

Production of Microbial Transglutaminase on Media Made from Sugar Cane Molasses and Glycerol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Transglutaminase is an enzyme that catalyses an acyl transfer reaction between g-car- boxamide groups of glutaminyl residues and lysine residues in proteins. Due to this prop- erty, this enzyme is used for enhancing textural properties of protein-rich food. The trans- glutaminase used as food additive is obtained by microorganisms, mainly by Streptoverti- cillium ladakanum. On the other hand, sugar

Oscar M. Portilla-Rivera; Simón J. Téllez-Luis; José A. Ramírez de León; Manuel Vázquez

202

Appropriate Industrial Technology for Sugar.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Issues and considerations--(Note by the secretariat of UNIDO and report of the Working Group); Selected background papers--(Appropriate technology in cane-sugar production, technological choices in sugar processing, cane-sugar production techniq...

1980-01-01

203

Use of the UASB reactor for the anaerobic treatment of stillage from sugar cane molasses  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of applying the UASB concept for the anaerobic treatment of stillage of distilleries in the sugar producing area of Argentina was subject to study. Results obtained in a 100-l UASB reactor treating stillages with COD values between 35 and 100 g COD/l are presented. Loading rates of up to 24 g COD/l/day, were applied with an average COD removal of 75% and a biogas production of more than 9 l/l/day, with an average methane content of 58%. The settling velocity distribution of sludge particles would indicate a good formation of biomass pellets. System interruptions of months without feed and at ambient temperature (20-24/sup 0/C) were well tolerated.

Sanchez Riera, F.; Cordoba, P.; Sineriz, F.

1985-12-01

204

Quantification of natural populations of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus and Herbaspirillum spp. In sugar cane (Saccharum spp.) Using differente polyclonal antibodies  

PubMed Central

The species Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus, Herbaspirillum seropedicae and H. rubrisubalbicans are endophytic N2-fixing [diazotrophic] bacteria which colonise not only roots, but also the aerial tissue of sugar cane. However, the technique most commonly used to quantify the populations of these microbes in plants is by culturing serial dilutions of macerates of plant tissues in N free semi-solid media which are only semi-selective for the species/genera [the Most Probable Number (MPN) Technique] and each culture must be further subjected to several tests to identify the isolates at the species level. The use of species-specific polyclonal antibodies with the indirect ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) can be an alternative which is rapid and specific to quantify these populations of bacteria. This study was performed to investigate the viability of adapting the indirect ELISA technique to quantify individually the populations of these three species of diazotroph within the root and shoot tissues of sugarcane. The results showed that species-specific polyclonal antibodies could be obtained by purifying sera in protein-A columns which removed non-specific immuno-globulins. It was possible to quantify the three bacterial species in the Brazilian sugarcane variety SP 70-1143 in numbers above 105 cells per g fresh weight in roots, rhizomes and leaves. The numbers of the different bacterial species evaluated using the ELISA technique were found to be higher than when the same populations were evaluated using the MPN technique, reaching 1400 times greater for G. diazotrophicus and 225 times greater for Herbaspirillum spp. These results constitute the first quantification of Herbaspirillum using immunological techniques.

da Silva-Froufe, Lucia Gracinda; Boddey, Robert Michael; Reis, Veronica Massena

2009-01-01

205

Enzymatic digestion of alkaline-sulfite pretreated sugar cane bagasse and its correlation with the chemical and structural changes occurring during the pretreatment step.  

PubMed

Sugar cane bagasse is recalcitrant to enzymatic digestion, which hinders the efficient conversion of its polysaccharides into fermentable sugars. Alkaline-sulfite pretreatment was used to overcome the sugar cane bagasse recalcitrance. Chemical and structural changes that occurred during the pretreatment were correlated with the efficiency of the enzymatic digestion of the polysaccharides. The first 30 min of pretreatment, which removed approximately half of the initial lignin and 30% of hemicellulose seemed responsible for a significant enhancement of the cellulose conversion level, which reached 64%. After the first 30 min of pretreatment, delignification increased slightly and hemicellulose removal was not enhanced, however, acid groups continued to be introduced into the residual lignin. Water retention values were 145% to the untreated bagasse and 210% to the bagasse pretreated for 120-min and fiber widths increased from 10.4 µm to 30 µm, respectively. These changes were responsible for an additional increase in the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulose, which reached 92% with the 120-min pretreated sample. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2013. PMID:23576284

Mendes, Fernanda M; Laurito, Debora F; Bazzeggio, Mariana; Ferraz, André; Milagres, Adriane M F

2013-04-11

206

Enzymatic digestion of alkaline-sulfite pretreated sugar cane bagasse and its correlation with the chemical and structural changes occurring during the pretreatment step.  

PubMed

Sugar cane bagasse is recalcitrant to enzymatic digestion, which hinders the efficient conversion of its polysaccharides into fermentable sugars. Alkaline-sulfite pretreatment was used to overcome the sugar cane bagasse recalcitrance. Chemical and structural changes that occurred during the pretreatment were correlated with the efficiency of the enzymatic digestion of the polysaccharides. The first 30 min of pretreatment, which removed approximately half of the initial lignin and 30% of hemicellulose seemed responsible for a significant enhancement of the cellulose conversion level, which reached 64%. After the first 30 min of pretreatment, delignification increased slightly, and hemicellulose removal was not enhanced; however, acid groups continued to be introduced into the residual lignin. Water retention values were 145% to the untreated bagasse and 210% to the bagasse pretreated for 120 min and fiber widths increased from 10.4 to 30 ?m, respectively. These changes were responsible for an additional increase in the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulose, which reached 92% with the 120 min pretreated sample. PMID:23666781

Mendes, Fernanda M; Laurito, Debora F; Bazzeggio, Mariana; Ferraz, André; Milagres, Adriane M F

2013-05-11

207

Lidar observation campaign of sugar cane fires and industrial emissions in the State of São Paulo, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brazil has an important role in the biomass burning, with the detection of approximately 100,000 burning spots in a single year (2007). Most of these spots occur in the southern part of the Amazon basin during the dry season (from August to november) and these emissions reach the southeast of the country, a highly populated region and with serious urban air pollution problems. With the growing demand on biofuels, sugarcane is considerably expanding in the state of Sao Paulo, being a strong contributor to the bad air quality in this region. In the state of Sao Paulo, the main land use are pasture and sugarcane crop, that covers around 50% and 10% of the total area, respectively. Despite the aerosol from sugarcane burning having reduced atmospheric residence time, from a few days to some weeks, they might get together with those aerosol which spread over long distances (hundreds to thousands of kilometers). In the period of June through February 2010 a LIDAR observation campaign was carried in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, in order to observe and characterize optically the aerosols from two distinct sources, namely, sugar cane biomass burning and industrial emissions. For this purpose 2 LIDAR systems were available, one mobile and the other placed in a laboratory, both working in the visible (532 nm) and additionally the mobile system had a Raman channel available (607 nm). Also this campaign counted with a SODAR, a meteorological RADAR specially set up to detect aerosol "echoes" and gas-particle analyzers. To guarantee a good regional coverage 4 distinct sites were available to deploy the instruments, 2 in the near field of biomass burning activities (Rio Claro and Bauru), one for industrial emissions (Cubatao) and others from urban sources (Sao Paulo). The whole campaign provide the equivalent of 30 days of measurements which allowed us to get aerosol optical properties such as backscattering/extinction coefficients, scatter and LIDAR ratios, those were used to correlate with air quality and meteorological indicators and quantities. In this paper we should focus on the preliminary results of the Raman LIDAR system and its derived aerosol optical quantities.

Landulfo, E.; Jorge, Maria Paulete M. P.; Held, Gerhard; Guardani, Roberto; Steffens, Juliana; Dos Anjos F. Pinto, Sergio; Andre, Iara R.; Garcia, Gilberto; Lopes, F. J. S.; Mariano, Glauber L.; da Costa, Renata F.; Rodrigues, Patricia F.

2010-10-01

208

Physical vapor deposited thin films of lignins extracted from sugar cane bagasse: morphology, electrical properties, and sensing applications.  

PubMed

The concern related to the environmental degradation and to the exhaustion of natural resources has induced the research on biodegradable materials obtained from renewable sources, which involves fundamental properties and general application. In this context, we have fabricated thin films of lignins, which were extracted from sugar cane bagasse via modified organosolv process using ethanol as organic solvent. The films were made using the vacuum thermal evaporation technique (PVD, physical vapor deposition) grown up to 120 nm. The main objective was to explore basic properties such as electrical and surface morphology and the sensing performance of these lignins as transducers. The PVD film growth was monitored via ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption spectroscopy and quartz crystal microbalance, revealing a linear relationship between absorbance and film thickness. The 120 nm lignin PVD film morphology presented small aggregates spread all over the film surface on the nanometer scale (atomic force microscopy, AFM) and homogeneous on the micrometer scale (optical microscopy). The PVD films were deposited onto Au interdigitated electrode (IDE) for both electrical characterization and sensing experiments. In the case of electrical characterization, current versus voltage (I vs V) dc measurements were carried out for the Au IDE coated with 120 nm lignin PVD film, leading to a conductivity of 3.6 × 10(-10) S/m. Using impedance spectroscopy, also for the Au IDE coated with the 120 nm lignin PVD film, dielectric constant of 8.0, tan ? of 3.9 × 10(-3), and conductivity of 1.75 × 10(-9) S/m were calculated at 1 kHz. As a proof-of-principle, the application of these lignins as transducers in sensing devices was monitored by both impedance spectroscopy (capacitance vs frequency) and I versus time dc measurements toward aniline vapor (saturated atmosphere). The electrical responses showed that the sensing units are sensible to aniline vapor with the process being reversible. AFM images conducted directly onto the sensing units (Au IDE coated with 120 nm lignin PVD film) before and after the sensing experiments showed a decrease in the PVD film roughness from 5.8 to 3.2 nm after exposing to aniline. PMID:21766835

Volpati, Diogo; Machado, Aislan D; Olivati, Clarissa A; Alves, Neri; Curvelo, Antonio A S; Pasquini, Daniel; Constantino, Carlos J L

2011-07-28

209

Modulation of low-temperature-induced biochemical changes in bud and root band zones of sugar cane sets by potassium, zinc, and Ethrel for improving sprouting.  

PubMed

Low-temperature-induced biochemical changes in bud and root band zone of the sugar cane set suppress sprouting, which is responsible for drastic yield decline in ratoon crops. This study was undertaken to modulate these low-temperature-induced biochemical changes using potassium, zinc, and Ethrel to enhance the sprouting of buds at 5 and 10 degrees C. Potassium, zinc, and Ethrel led to 80, 50, and 40% improvement in bud sprouting at 5 degrees C, respectively. An increase in reducing sugars and a decrease in sucrose contents were recorded with treatment of potassium, zinc, and Ethrel. Acid invertase, adenosine triphosphatase, indoleacetic acid oxidase, and nitrate reductase in vivo activities were also enhanced. However, treatments led to a significant decline in indoleacetic acid, total phenols, and superoxide dismutase activity, which rendered the in situ toxicity buildup in sets at low temperatures. PMID:19035660

Rai, Rama Kant; Singh, Pushpa; Shrivastava, A K; Suman, Archna

2008-12-24

210

Direct Zinc Determination in Brazilian Sugar Cane Spirit by Solid-Phase Extraction Using Moringa oleifera Husks in a Flow System with Detection by FAAS  

PubMed Central

This paper reports a method for the determination of zinc in Brazilian sugar cane spirit, (cachaça in Portuguese), using solid-phase extraction with a flow injection analysis system and detection by FAAS. The sorbent material used was activated carbon obtained from Moringa oleifera husks. Flow and chemical variables of the proposed system were optimized through multivariate designs. The factors selected were sorbent mass, sample pH, sample flow rate, and eluent concentration. The optimum extraction conditions were obtained using a sample pH of 4.0, a sample flow rate of 6.0?mL?min?1, 30.0?mg of sorbent mass, and 1.0?mol?L?1 HNO3 as the eluent at a flow rate of 4.0?mL?min?1. The limit of detection for zinc was 1.9??g?L?1, and the precision was below 0.82% (20.0??g?L?1, n = 7). The analytical curve was linear from 2 to 50??g?L?1, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9996. The method developed was successfully applied to spiked Brazilian sugar cane spirit, and accuracy was assessed through recovery tests, with results ranging from 83% to 100%.

Alves, Vanessa N.; Borges, Simone S. O.; Coelho, Nivia M. M.

2011-01-01

211

Use of a new Trichoderma harzianum strain isolated from the Amazon rainforest with pretreated sugar cane bagasse for on-site cellulase production.  

PubMed

The on-site production of cellulases is an important strategy for the development of sustainable second-generation ethanol production processes. This study concerns the use of a specific cellulolytic enzyme complex for hydrolysis of pretreated sugar cane bagasse. Glycosyl hydrolases (FPase, xylanase, and ?-glucosidase) were produced using a new strain of Trichoderma harzianum, isolated from the Amazon rainforest and cultivated under different conditions. The influence of the carbon source was first investigated using shake-flask cultures. Selected carbon sources were then further studied under different pH conditions using a stirred tank bioreactor. Enzymatic activities up to 121 FPU/g, 8000 IU/g, and 1730 IU/g of delignified steam-exploded bagasse+sucrose were achieved for cellulase, xylanase and ?-glucosidase, respectively. This enzymatic complex was used to hydrolyze pretreated sugar cane bagasse. A comparative evaluation, using an enzymatic extract from Trichoderma reesei RUTC30, indicated similar performance of the T. harzianum enzyme complex, being a potential candidate for on-site production of enzymes. PMID:22221990

Delabona, Priscila da Silva; Farinas, Cristiane Sanchez; da Silva, Mateus Ribeiro; Azzoni, Sindelia Freitas; Pradella, José Geraldo da Cruz

2011-12-17

212

In vitro production of entomopathogenic fungi paecilomyces farinosus (hotmskiold) and paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom.) samson using byproducts of sugar industry and other agro-industrial byproducts and wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mass production of entomopathogenic fungi,Paecilomyces farinosus (Hotmskiold) andPaecilomyces lilacinus (Thom.) Samson on sugarcane molasses, spent wash and other agro-industrial wastes was evaluated. The suitability of the medium\\u000a was assessed based on specific parameters like radial growth, biomass production and spore production. Among the concentrations\\u000a of molasses tested,P. farinosus recorded significantly greater diameter of growth circle (5.03 cm) on 4% molasses

M. Daisy Leena; S. Easwaramoorthy; R. Nirmala

2003-01-01

213

The Measurement of Dextran in Raw Sugars Using H NMR  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the cane sugar industry the purchase price of raw cane sugar, the product of sugar cane processing, is determined by polarimetric measurement of sucrose content in raw sugar solutions, expressed as Pol. Raw sugar generally contains more than 96% sucrose, but also contains other saccharides and non-sugars which can contribute to Pol. Dextrans, one class of polysaccharides often found

Les A. Edye; Shaoxiong Wu; Margaret A. Clarke

1995-01-01

214

Screening for endophytic nitrogen-fixing bacteria in Brazilian sugar cane varieties used in organic farming and description of Stenotrophomonas pavanii sp. nov.  

PubMed

A Gram-negative, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming and nitrogen-fixing bacterium, designated ICB 89(T), was isolated from stems of a Brazilian sugar cane variety widely used in organic farming. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain ICB 89(T) belonged to the genus Stenotrophomonas and was most closely related to Stenotrophomonas maltophilia LMG 958(T), Stenotrophomonas rhizophila LMG 22075(T), Stenotrophomonas nitritireducens L2(T), [Pseudomonas] geniculata ATCC 19374(T), [Pseudomonas] hibiscicola ATCC 19867(T) and [Pseudomonas] beteli ATCC 19861(T). DNA-DNA hybridization together with chemotaxonomic data and biochemical characteristics allowed the differentiation of strain ICB 89(T) from its nearest phylogenetic neighbours. Therefore, strain ICB 89(T) represents a novel species, for which the name Stenotrophomonas pavanii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is ICB 89(T) (?=?CBMAI 564(T) ?=?LMG 25348(T)). PMID:20495025

Ramos, Patrícia L; Van Trappen, Stefanie; Thompson, Fabiano L; Rocha, Rafael C S; Barbosa, Heloiza R; De Vos, Paul; Moreira-Filho, Carlos A

2010-05-21

215

Initial analysis from a lidar observation campaign of sugar cane fires in the central and western portion of the São Paulo State, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The central and western portion of the Sao Paulo State has large areas of sugar cane plantations, and due to the growing demand for biofuels, the production is increasing every year. During the harvest period some plantation areas are burnt a few hours before the manual cutting, causing significant quantities of biomass burning aerosol to be injected into the atmosphere. During August 2010, a field campaign has been carried out in Ourinhos, situated in the south-western region of Sao Paulo State. A 2-channel Raman Lidar system and two meteorological S-Band Doppler Radars are used to indentify and quantify the biomass burning plumes. In addiction, CALIPSO Satellite observations were used to compare the aerosol optical properties detected in that region with those retrieved by Raman Lidar system. Although the campaign yielded 30 days of measurements, this paper will be focusing only one case study, when aerosols released from nearby sugar cane fires were detected by the Lidar system during a CALIPSO overpass. The meteorological radar, installed in Bauru, approximately 110 km northeast from the experimental site, had recorded "echoes" (dense smoke comprising aerosols) from several fires occurring close to the Raman Lidar system, which also detected an intense load of aerosol in the atmosphere. HYSPLIT model forward trajectories presented a strong indication that both instruments have measured the same air masss parcels, corroborated with the Lidar Ratio values from the 532 nm elastic and 607 nm Raman N2 channel analyses and data retrieved from CALIPSO have indicated the predominance of aerosol from biomass burning sources.

da Silva Lopes, Fábio Juliano; Held, Gerhard; Nakaema, Walter M.; Rodrigues, Patricia F.; Bassan, Jose M.; Landulfo, Eduardo

2011-10-01

216

A novel strategy for preparing calibration standards for the analysis of plant materials by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: A case study with pellets of sugar cane leaves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calibration is still a challenging task when dealing with the direct analysis of solids. This is particularly true for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry/mass spectrometry, when the calibrations are matrix-dependent and/or appropriate certified reference materials are generally not available. Looking at the analysis of plant materials in the form of pressed pellets by LIBS, a new method to overcome and/or minimize this difficulty is proposed by keeping the matrix constant in order to produce matrix-matched calibration pellets. To achieve this goal and to test this novel approach, ground sugar cane leaves were chosen and submitted to acid extractions for obtaining the corresponding blank or a material containing very low concentrations of the analytes. The resulting dried solid material was used either as a blank or a low concentration standard, and also homogeneously mixed with the original plant material at appropriate ratios as well. The corresponding pellets were used as calibration standards and ablated at 30 different sites by applying 25 laser pulses per site with a Q-switched Nd:YAG at 1064 nm. The plasma emission collected by lenses was directed through an optical fiber towards a spectrometer equipped with Echelle optics and intensified charge-coupled device. Delay time and integration time gate were fixed at 2.0 and 5.0 ?s, respectively. This calibration strategy was tested for the determination of Ca, Mg, K, P, Cu, Mn, and Zn by LIBS in pellets of leaves from 17 varieties of sugar cane and good correlations were obtained with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry results in the corresponding acid digests. The proposed approach was also useful to estimate the limits of detection based on measurements of blanks, as recommended by IUPAC, or with the aid of a low concentration standard.

da Silva Gomes, Marcos; de Carvalho, Gabriel Gustinelli Arantes; Santos, Dário, Junior; Krug, Francisco José

2013-08-01

217

Lignocellulolytic enzyme production of Pleurotus ostreatus growth in agroindustrial wastes  

PubMed Central

The mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus has nutritional and medicinal characteristics that depend on the growth substrate. In nature, this fungus grows on dead wood, but it can be artificially cultivated on agricultural wastes (coffee husks, eucalyptus sawdust, corncobs and sugar cane bagasse). The degradation of agricultural wastes involves some enzyme complexes made up of oxidative (laccase, manganese peroxidase and lignin peroxidase) and hydrolytic enzymes (cellulases, xylanases and tanases). Understanding how these enzymes work will help to improve the productivity of mushroom cultures and decrease the potential pollution that can be caused by inadequate discharge of the agroindustrial residues. The objective of this work was to assess the activity of the lignocellulolytic enzymes produced by two P. ostreatus strains (PLO 2 and PLO 6). These strains were used to inoculate samples of coffee husks, eucalyptus sawdust or eucalyptus bark add with or without 20 % rice bran. Every five days after substrate inoculation, the enzyme activity and soluble protein concentration were evaluated. The maximum activity of oxidative enzymes was observed at day 10 after inoculation, and the activity of the hydrolytic enzymes increased during the entire period of the experiment. The results show that substrate composition and colonization time influenced the activity of the lignocellulolytic enzymes.

da Luz, Jose Maria Rodrigues; Nunes, Mateus Dias; Paes, Sirlaine Albino; Torres, Denise Pereira; de Cassia Soares da Silva, Marliane; Kasuya, Maria Catarina Megumi

2012-01-01

218

Lignocellulolytic enzyme production of Pleurotus ostreatus growth in agroindustrial wastes.  

PubMed

The mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus has nutritional and medicinal characteristics that depend on the growth substrate. In nature, this fungus grows on dead wood, but it can be artificially cultivated on agricultural wastes (coffee husks, eucalyptus sawdust, corncobs and sugar cane bagasse). The degradation of agricultural wastes involves some enzyme complexes made up of oxidative (laccase, manganese peroxidase and lignin peroxidase) and hydrolytic enzymes (cellulases, xylanases and tanases). Understanding how these enzymes work will help to improve the productivity of mushroom cultures and decrease the potential pollution that can be caused by inadequate discharge of the agroindustrial residues. The objective of this work was to assess the activity of the lignocellulolytic enzymes produced by two P. ostreatus strains (PLO 2 and PLO 6). These strains were used to inoculate samples of coffee husks, eucalyptus sawdust or eucalyptus bark add with or without 20 % rice bran. Every five days after substrate inoculation, the enzyme activity and soluble protein concentration were evaluated. The maximum activity of oxidative enzymes was observed at day 10 after inoculation, and the activity of the hydrolytic enzymes increased during the entire period of the experiment. The results show that substrate composition and colonization time influenced the activity of the lignocellulolytic enzymes. PMID:24031982

da Luz, José Maria Rodrigues; Nunes, Mateus Dias; Paes, Sirlaine Albino; Torres, Denise Pereira; de Cássia Soares da Silva, Marliane; Kasuya, Maria Catarina Megumi

2012-06-01

219

Avaliacao Do Desempenho DA Classificacao E Estimativa DA Proporcao DA Cultura DA Cana-de-Acucar Pelo Procedimento-Inpe, Utilizando Dados Do Landsat (Evaluation of Classification Performance and Proportion Estimate of the Sugar Cane Crop Through Procedure-INPE Utilizing Landsat Data).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective was to determine the effect of crop density, satellite data acquisition period and the number of spectral bands on the classification performance and proportion estimate of sugar cane in sampling segments (9 x 11 km approximately). Multitemp...

B. F. T. Rudorff G. Teixeirabatista

1989-01-01

220

ANÁLISIS COMPARATIVO DE ECUACIONES CINÉTICAS TIPO LEY DE POTENCIA Y DIFUSIÓN-INTEGRACIÓN EN LA CRISTALIZACIÓN POR ENFRIAMIENTO DE AZÚCAR DE CAÑA COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF POWER LAW TYPE AND DIFFUSION INTEGRATION KINETIC EQUATIONS IN BATCH COOLING OF SUGAR CANE  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, the sugar cane cooling crystallization process is analyzed. Simulation results obtained with different kinetic equations (power-law type, PLT and diffusion-integration equations, DIE) are compared against experimental results. The crystallization process is modeled by a set of algebraic-integral-differential equations that represent the mass, energy and population balances; and it is solved using the method of lines. The results

P. A. Quintana-Hernández; B. Uribe-Martínez; V. Rico-Ramírez; E. Bolaños-Reynoso; Antonio García

2008-01-01

221

Influence of exponentially decreasing feeding rates on fed-batch ethanol fermentation of sugar cane blackstrap molasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The ethanol yield was not affected and the ethanol productivity was increased when exponentially decreasing feeding rates were used instead of constant feeding rates in fed batch ethanol fermentations. The influences of the initial sugar feeding rate on the ethanol productivity, on the constant ethanol production rate during the feeding phase and on the initial ethanol production specific rate

J. C. M. de Carvalho; E. Aquarone; S. Sato; M. L. Brazzach; K. A. Almeida; W. Borzani

1990-01-01

222

Simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation of crystalline cellulose and sugar cane bagasse hemicellulose hydrolysate to lactate by a thermotolerant acidophilic Bacillus sp.  

PubMed

Polylactides produced from renewable feedstocks, such as corn starch, are being developed as alternatives to plastics derived from petroleum. In addition to corn, other less expensive biomass resources can be readily converted to component sugars (glucose, xylose, etc.) by enzyme and/or chemical treatment for fermentation to optically pure lactic acid to reduce the cost of lactic acid. Lactic acid bacteria used by the industry lack the ability to ferment pentoses (hemicellulose-derived xylose and arabinose), and their growth and fermentation optima also differ from the optimal conditions for the activity of fungal cellulases required for depolymerization of cellulose. To reduce the overall cost of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of cellulose, we have isolated bacterial biocatalysts that can grow and ferment all sugars in the biomass at conditions that are also optimal for fungal cellulases. SSF of Solka Floc cellulose by one such isolate, Bacillus sp. strain 36D1, yielded l(+)-lactic acid at an optical purity higher than 95% with cellulase (Spezyme CE; Genencor International) added at about 10 FPU/g cellulose, with a product yield of about 90% of the expected maximum. Volumetric productivity of SSF to lactic acid was optimal between culture pH values of 4.5 and 5.5 at 50 degrees C. At a constant pH of 5.0, volumetric productivity of lactic acid was maximal at 55 degrees C. Strain 36D1 also co-fermented cellulose-derived glucose and sugar cane bagasse hemicellulose-derived xylose simultaneously (SSCF). In a batch SSCF of 40% acid-treated hemicellulose hydrolysate (over-limed) and 20 g/L Solka Floc cellulose, strain 36D1 produced about 35 g/L lactic acid in about 144 h with 15 FPU of Spezyme CE/g cellulose. The maximum volumetric productivity of lactic acid in this SSCF was 6.7 mmol/L (h). Cellulose-derived lactic acid contributed to about 30% of this total lactic acid. These results show that Bacillus sp. strain 36D1 is well-suited for simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation of all of the biomass-derived sugars to lactic acid. PMID:16209550

Patel, Milind A; Ou, Mark S; Ingram, Lonnie O; Shanmugam, K T

223

Sugar (sucrose) holograms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer holograms made with sugar crystals are reported. This material is well known as a good sweetener; the sugar from sugar cane or sugar beet (sucrose). These sweetener can be applied as honey “water and diluted sugar” easily on any substrate such as plastics or glasses without critical conditions for developed process. This step corresponds only to the cured sucrose

E. L Ponce-Lee; A. Olivares-Perez; I. Fuentes-Tapia

2004-01-01

224

Saccharification and fermentation of sugar cane bagasse by Klebsiella oxytoca P2 containing chromosomally integrated genes encoding the Zymomonas mobilis ethanol pathway  

SciTech Connect

Pretreatment of sugar cane bagasse is essential for a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process which uses recombinant Klebsiella oxytoca strain P2 and Genencor Spezyme CE. Strain P2 has been genetically engineered to express Zymomonas mobilis genes encoding the ethanol pathway and retains the native ability to transport and metabolize cellobiose (minimizing the need for extracellular cellobiase). In SSF studies with this organism, both the rate of ethanol production and ethanol yield were limited by saccharification at 10 and 20 filter paper units (FPU) g[sup [minus]1] acid-treated bagasse. Dilute slurries of biomass were converted to ethanol more efficiently (over 72% of theoretical yield) in simple batch fermentations than slurries containing high solids, albeit with the production of lower levels of ethanol. With high solids (i.e., 160 g acid-treated bagasse L[sup [minus]1]), a combination of 20 FPU cellulase g[sup [minus]1] bagasse, preincubation under saccharification conditions, and additional grinding (to reduce particle size) were required to produce ca. 40 g ethanol L[sup [minus]1]. Alternatively, almost 40 g ethanol L[sup [minus]1] was produced with 10 FPU cellulase g[sup [minus]1] bagasse by incorporating a second saccharification step (no further enzyme addition) followed by a second inoculation and short fermentation. In this way, a theoretical ethanol yield of over 70% was achieved with the production of 20 g ethanol 800 FPU[sup [minus]1] of commercial cellulase.

Doran, J.B.; Aldrich, H.C.; Ingram, L.O. (Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Microbiology and Cell Science)

1994-06-20

225

Integrated Production of Organomineral Biofertiliser (BIOFOM ® ) Using By-products from the Sugar and Ethanol Agro-industry, Associated with the Cogeneration of Energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brazilian bioethanol and sugar production generates large amounts of vinasse, filter cake and boiler ashes (originated from\\u000a biomass combustion). On the other hand, the distribution of these by-products in the field is usually inadequate, considering\\u000a the environmental aspects and the best use of nutrients and organic material present in these by-products. This work presents\\u000a a study for reprocessing of these

José Luiz Olivério; Fernando C. Boscariol; Paulo E. Mantelatto; Antônio Rogério P. César; João Rafael Perroni Ciambelli; Marcílio N. do Amaral Gurgel; Renata Torres Gomes De Souza

2011-01-01

226

Sugar Beet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beet sugar and cane sugar constitute 25% and 75%, respectively, of the world sucrose production of about 145×10 6 ty ear ?1 .S ugar beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris var. altissima Döll) is grown mainly in Europe, producing 28×10 6 t beet sugar (hereof 20×10 6 t in the EU), North America (4.0×10 6 t) and Asia (2.5×10 6 t).

M. Joersbo

227

[The energetic utilization of rations with dried concentrates, potatoes, sugar beets, apple pectin and cane sugar by growing, intact and ileorectostomized swine. 2. Comparison of results].  

PubMed

Results of the measuring of the total metabolism of growing intact pigs (INT) and pigs with ileorectal anastomoses (IRA) are compared. The 16 comparisons are based on studies with rations of dried feedstuffs and rations containing between 30 and 50% of the DM raw or steamed potatoes and sugar beets, sucrose and apple pectin. On an average of all comparisons the relative values for the digestibility of energy, DM and the organic matter as well as for the metabolizability of the energy were between 81 and 82% (values measured at INT animals = 100). The comparison also refers to the crude nutrients, the water-soluble carbohydrates, the starch and the pectin. As a tendency, the IRA utilized the metabolizable energy better than the INT animals. The energy maintenance requirement of the IRA animals was--by 15%--significantly higher than that of the INT animals. There is not yet an answer to the question in how far comparative studies of INT and IRA animals make verified statements with regard to the differences in the energetic utilization of the precaecally and postileally digested nutrients possible. For this, further experiments will be necessary. PMID:2053838

Jentsch, W; Herrmann, U; Beyer, M; Hoffmann, L; Souffrant, W B; Hennig, U; Wünsche, J

1991-02-01

228

Effects of D-003, a mixture of high molecular weight aliphatic acids from sugar cane wax, on bones from ovariectomized rats.  

PubMed

Bisphosphonates inhibit bone resorption through mechanisms involving the metabolic pathway from mevalonate to cholesterol. Mevalonate is a precursor of the lipoids required for osteoclast activity and thus inhibition of its synthesis affects bone metabolism. Inhibitors of hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA (HMGCoA) reductase might increase experimentally new bone formation through a mevalonate-dependent effect. D-003 is a mixture of high molecular weight fatty acids isolated from sugar cane wax, which inhibits cholesterol biosynthesis through indirect regulation of HMGCoA reductase activity. This study was undertaken to determine whether D-003 could prevent bone loss in ovariectomized rats. Sprague Dawley female rats were ovariectomized or sham operated and were randomly distributed into five groups: a control ovariectomized and a sham (false-operated) group receiving Tween/H2O vehicle, a group treated with alendronate (3 mg/kg/day) and two groups treated with D-003 (50 and 200 mg/kg/day). Treatments were administered for 3 months. At sacrifice, bones were removed and histological variables of bone resorption and formation were studied by histomorphometry. Ovariectomy diminished trabecular number and thickness and increased trabecular gap, osteoclast number and surface. Alendronate and D-003 prevented a decrease in trabecular number and thickness as well as increases in trabecular separation, osteoclast number and surface compared with ovariectomized controls, thus preventing the bone loss and decreased bone resorption induced by ovariectomy, but failed to increase osteoblast surface compared with control ovariectomized rats. In conclusion, D-003 (50 and 200 mg/kg/day) prevented bone loss and decreased bone resorption in ovariectomized rats, which suggests that this substance could be promising in preventing or treating osteoporosis. PMID:15134389

Noa, M; Más, R; Mendoza, S; Gámez, R; Mendoza, N

2004-01-01

229

VIEW OF CANE CLEANING PLANT AS IT ENTERS THE MILL, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF CANE CLEANING PLANT AS IT ENTERS THE MILL, BUMPER ROLLERS IN THE CENTER OF PHOTOGRAPH. VIEW FROM THE WEST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

230

Census of Manufactures, 1987. Industry Series: Sugar and Confectionery Products. Industries 2061, 2062, 2063, 2064, 2066, 2067, and 2068.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report shows 1987 Census of Manufactures statistics for establishments classified in each of the following industries: Raw Cane Sugar; Cane Sugar Refining; Beet Sugar; Candy and Other Confectionery Products; Chocolate and Cocoa Products; Chewing Gum; ...

1990-01-01

231

Bioenergy systems report. Special issue: cane energy systems  

SciTech Connect

The report examines the use of cane to produce energy. It focuses primarily on two recent proposals for the production of electric power for the grid using cane residues and supplementary fuels. It also reviews use of cane juice or molasses to produce ethanol for blending with gasoline. In both types of cane energy systems, the objective is the production of energy as well as sugar or sugar products. The report is divided into sections on growing and harvesting biomass fuels in cane fields, producing power for the grid with these fuels, the uses of the cane juice produced in cane energy systems, the costs and revenues associated with these systems, and the national benefits derived from these systems.

Not Available

1986-03-01

232

PLANT INTRODUCTION NEEDS OF THE HAWAIIAN SUGAR INDUSTRY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hawaiian sugar industry has introduced plants for three major purposes: 1) expansion of the genetic base from which new sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum) cultivars are developed, 2) protection of water- sheds from erosion, and 3) development of new crops to supplement sugar plantation income. New, higher-yielding and disease-resistant cultivars of sugar cane were initially developed as a result of

Robert V. Osgood; Robert D. Wiemer

233

Supply optimization for the production of raw sugar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on a case study from Venezuela, the production of raw sugar is investigated. Ideally, sugar mills operate at a constant production rate. However, safety stocks of the raw material cannot be maintained as sugar cane quality deteriorates very rapidly. Sugar cane is therefore continuously sourced in diverse quantities and qualities from hundreds of geographically dispersed haciendas and supplied to

M. Grunow; H.-O. Günther; R. Westinner

2007-01-01

234

How combine harvesting of green cane billets with different levels of trash affects production and processing. Part II: Pilot plant processing to sugar  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

New refineries in Louisiana, USA are requesting Louisiana sugarcane factories to deliver very high pol/very low color (VHP/VLC) raw sugar with low ash concentrations. This higher quality raw sugar will allow both growers and factory processors to share economic premiums from the new refineries. A ...

235

32. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

32. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: End of mill into which cane was fed between top and bottom roll. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

236

The family II carbohydrate-binding module of xylanase CflXyn11A from Cellulomonas flavigena increases the synergy with cellulase TrCel7B from Trichoderma reesei during the hydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse.  

PubMed

Synergy between Cellulomonas flavigena xylanase CflXyn11A and Trichoderma reesei endoglucanase TrCel7B was assessed during hydrolysis of alkaline pretreated sugar cane bagasse (SCB) after 12-48 h, applying the individual enzymes and mixtures of the enzymes. A high degree of synergy (6.3) between CflXyn11A and TrCel7B in hydrolysis of SCB was observed after 12h in the equimolar mixture. A threefold decrease in the degree of synergy was observed with TrCel7B and the catalytic module of CflXyn11A; suggesting an important role played by the carbohydrate-binding module of CflXyn11A (CflXyn11A-CBM) in the observed synergy. Affinity electrophoresis and binding assays showed that CflXyn11A-CBM binds to xylans and to a lesser extent to cellulose. Our results suggest that synergy is more pronounced at early stages of hydrolysis. Furthermore, for the first time it is described that a CBM carried by a xylanase significantly enhances the synergy with a cellulase (threefold increase in synergy). PMID:22169213

Pavón-Orozco, Patricia; Santiago-Hernández, Alejandro; Rosengren, Anna; Hidalgo-Lara, María Eugenia; Stålbrand, Henrik

2011-11-25

237

ECOSTATIC CANE PROCESSING SYSTEM PROTOTYPE PHASE  

EPA Science Inventory

The overall objective of this project was to demonstrate a systems environmental management approach, from field to final product, for the processing of raw cane sugar. Specific sub-systems which were to be developed and demonstrated as part of this systems approach were: (a) har...

238

Alkaline degradation of invert sugar from molasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugar beet and sugar cane molasses have been shown to be suitable starting materials for producing de-icer preparations. The sucrose in the molasses is hydrolyzed to glucose and fructose by invertase. The reducing sugars are then degraded by NaOH, the alkali being neutralized by the sugar acids produced, resulting in an increase of the ionic strength and consequently depression of

Byung Y. Yang; Rex Montgomery

2007-01-01

239

Sugar Sugar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Java applet is a game that challenges a student to solve problems by using logic and rudimentary engineering skills. The goal in each case is to create a conveyance that gets the required amount of sugar to pour into a mug or mugs. The game has 30 stages of increasing complexity.

Bonte, Bart

2012-01-01

240

30. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill: oneton ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

30. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill: one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1885-1870. View: Masonry-lined passage-way leading to the mill at the center of its circular masonry enclosure. The passageway permitted cane to be carried to the mill and cane trash (bagasse) to be carried away. Bridges over the passageways, no longer in place, permitted the mill animals to circle and power the mill from above. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

241

New yeast strains for alcoholic fermentation at higher sugar concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary New yeast strains for alcoholic fermentation were isolated from samples collected from Brazilian alcohol factories at the end of the sugar cane crop season. They were selected by their capacity of fermenting concentrated sugar cane syrup as well as high sucrose concentrations in synthetic medium with a conversion efficiency of 89–92%. The strains were identified asSaccharomycescerevisiae.

M. C. Bertolini; J. R. Ernandes; C. Laluce

1991-01-01

242

Bioethanol production from grape and sugar beet pomaces by solid-state fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A suitable alternative to replace fossil fuels is the production of bioethanol from agroindustrial waste. Grape pomace is the most abundant residue in San Juan and sugar beet pomace could be important in the region. Solid-State Fermentation (SSF) is a technology that allows transforming agroindustrial waste into many valuable bioproducts, like ethanol. This work reports a laboratory scale SSF to

L. A. Rodríguez; M. E. Toro; F. Vazquez; M. L. Correa-Daneri; S. C. Gouiric; M. D. Vallejo

2010-01-01

243

[The energetic utilization of rations with dried concentrates, potatoes, sugar beets, apple pectin and cane sugar by growing, intact and ileorectostomized swine. 1. Results in swine with ileorectal anastomoses].  

PubMed

Rations with dried feedstuffs and rations with between 30 and 50% raw potatoes in the dry matter as well as steamed potatoes and sugar beets, sucrose and apple pectin were tested in measurings of the total metabolism in growing pigs with ileo-rectal anastomoses. The prececal digestibility of the energy of the rations ranged between 42% (rations with raw potatoes) and 79% (rations with sucrose). The digestibility of the rations with a 50% quota of steamed potatoes was better by 30%--units than that of rations with raw potatoes. In addition to crude nutrient digestibility, data are given on the digestibility of starch, water soluble carbohydrates and pectin. The wide variation in the N retention of 6-25 g/animal.day can only be partly connected with energy retention. Urine energy amounted to between 2.5 and 5% of gross energy. The average utilization of metabolizable energy amounted to 69.4%. A connection is to be seen with the value of energy maintenance requirement of 646 kJ retention energy/kg LW0.62.d. PMID:2053837

Jentsch, W; Herrmann, U; Schiemann, R; Wünsche, J; Hennig, U; Wittenburg, H

1991-02-01

244

Evaluation of green-cane harvesting and crop management with a trash-blanket  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the feasibility of green-cane harvest at San Carlos Sugar Mill in Ecuador, the agronomic parameters that may be\\u000a affected when changing from burned to green-cane harvest were evaluated. Two sites were harvested green by hand and compared\\u000a with two adjacent sites that were also harvested manually but burned. Manual, green-cane harvesting was found to be not feasible\\u000a for

Oscar Núñez; Egbert Spaans

2008-01-01

245

Effects of D-003, a mixture of very long chain fatty acids purified from sugar cane wax, at 5 and 10 mg/day on platelet aggregation in healthy volunteers.  

PubMed

D-003 is a mixture of high molecular weight aliphatic primary acids purified from sugar cane wax with antiplatelet and cholesterol-lowering effects. Previous studies showed that D-003 (10-20 mg/day) administered for a short time inhibits platelet aggregation, 14 days being the longest duration investigated. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of D-003 (5 and 10 mg/day) for 30 days on platelet aggregation in normocholesterolemic subjects. This report shows the effects of D-003 on platelet aggregation to arachidonic acid (AA) (1.5 mM), collagen (2 microg/ml) and adenosine 5'-diphosphate ADP (2 microM) assessed at baseline and at treatment completion. Fifty-four subjects were randomized to placebo or D-003 (5 or 10 mg/day) for 30 days. Platelet aggregation to AA, collagen and ADP were assessed. D-003 at the lowest dose (5 mg/day) significantly but modestly inhibited (p < 0.01) platelet aggregation to AA (5.0%) and (p < 0.01) to collagen (7.5%). D-003 at 10 mg/day inhibited (p < 0.001) platelet aggregation to AA and collagen (p < 0.01) by 20.3% and 14.7%, respectively. ADP-induced aggregation, however, was unchanged. D-003 at 10 mg/day, but not at 5 mg/day, lowered (p < 0.01) plasma fibrinogen. D-003 (5 and 10 mg/day) reduced low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) by 17.7% and 26.4%, respectively, and total cholesterol (TC) by 14.5% and 18.5%, while at 10 mg/day, but not at 5 mg/day, it increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) by 9.6%. Triglycerides, however, were unchanged with D-003. No disturbances in safety indicators were induced with D-003. One subject (D-003 5 mg/day) discontinued the study and four patients (three taking D-003 and one taking placebo) reported adverse effects (AE) (headache in two patients taking D-003 and one patient taking placebo, and polyphagia in one patient taking D-003). In conclusion, D-003 (5-10 mg/day) for 30 days inhibited platelet aggregation to AA and collagen but not to ADP Therefore, the antiplatelet effect was present with the longer treatment, even at a dose of 5 mg/day. The cholesterol-lowering effects of D-003 were consistent with those expected for such a short treatment. In addition, D-003 at 10 mg/day significantly lowered plasma fibrinogen. The treatment was well tolerated. PMID:15868655

Arruzazabala, M L; Molina, V; Carbajal, D; Fernández, L; Mas, R; Castaño, G; Illnait, J; Mendoza, S; Ferna?dez, J

2005-01-01

246

Free-Standing Canes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A precane device, called the "free-standing cane," was developed to help children with blindness along with other disabilities. The cane detects obstacles; guides the user's hands into a relaxed, static position in front of the hips; facilitates postural security and control; and offers tactile and kinesthetic feedback. (JDD)|

Ehresman, Paul

1995-01-01

247

Decolorization of molasses' wastewater using activated carbon prepared from cane bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The decolorization of synthetic melanoidin was studied using activated carbon from cane bagasse obtained from Thailand and Brazil. Melanoidin, a nitrogenous brown polymer present in molasses' wastewater, is formed on the interaction between amino acids and carbohydrates. Bagasse, another by-product in the sugar industry, is a cheap material suitable for the preparation of activated carbon.Samples of cane bagasse were carbonized

E. C. Bernardo; R. Egashira; J. Kawasaki

1997-01-01

248

2. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761899. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1899. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Top roll and one bottom roll, mill housing or cheeks, and spur pinion gears. The broken projection on the mill beside the bottom roll indicates the location of the cane tray. The cane juice crushed from the cane flowed into the juice tray below the bottom rolls. It then flowed into a wooden gutter and through a short tunnel in the mill's masonry enclosure and on to the boiling house for further processing. The opening at the base of the masency wall (In the photograph) is where the gutter ran from the mill to the boiling house. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

249

76 FR 46267 - Increase in Fiscal Year 2011 Specialty Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota; Determination of Total Amounts of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Secretary Increase in Fiscal Year 2011 Specialty Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota; Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and Certain Sugars, Syrups and Molasses; and Extension of Entry...

2011-08-02

250

Fuels from sugar crops: systems study for sugarcane, sweet sorghum, and sugar beets  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extensive analysis is made of the technical and economic feasibility of producing fuels and chemicals from the sugar crops (sugar cane, sweet sorghum, and sugar beets). It is concluded that ethanol and ammonia are the most promising products. Ethanol produced by fermentation on juice or molasses is close to economic competitiveness. The ammonia cost is not yet competitive but

Nathan

1978-01-01

251

Pretreatment of AgroIndustrial Residues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem of management of agro-industrial residues complicate the farming economies. Agro-industrial residues are the most\\u000a abundant and renewable resources on earth. Accumulation of this biomass in large quantities every year results not only in\\u000a the deterioration of the environment, but also in the loss of potentially valuable material which can be processed to yield\\u000a a number of valuable added products,

Poonam Nigam; Nutan Gupta; Ashish Anthwal

252

Life cycle assessment of Australian sugarcane products with a focus on cane processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  This work generates attributional life cycle assessment (LCA) results for products produced from Australian sugarcane—raw\\u000a sugar, molasses, electricity (from bagasse combustion), and ethanol (from molasses). It focuses on cane processing in sugar\\u000a mills and is a companion to the work presented in (Renouf et al. 2010), where the focus is on cane growing. This work also examines the preferred approach

Marguerite Anne Renouf; Robert J. Pagan; Malcolm K. Wegener

2011-01-01

253

"Cane" as Blues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cane...represents the apotheosis of one man's attempt to bear witness to the reality and the power of an idea . . . that the Negro is not an apprentice to equality but a journeyman in suffering." (Author)

McKeever, Benjamin F.

1970-01-01

254

12. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill: oneton ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill: one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Historical view, 1934, T.T. Waterman Collection, Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Oahu, Hawaii. Masonry-lined passageway leading to the mill at the center of its circular masonry enclosure. The passageway permitted cane to be carried to the mill and cane trash (bagasse) to be carried away after milling. Bridges over the passageways, not in place, permitted the mill animals to circle and power the mill from above. View shows area prior to substantial overgrowth existing in 1978 views of the area. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

255

Analysis of sucrose from sugar beet  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sucrose is a disaccharide composed of the monosaccharides glucose and fructose. Sucrose is a product of photosynthesis and is a key carbohydrate resource for growth and metabolism in many organisms. Economic sources of sucrose include sugar cane and sugar beet, where fresh weight sucrose concentrati...

256

Chemical composition of grape canes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, chemical composition of canes which were sampled from ten different grape cultivars was investigated. For the determination of total phenolics, total flavanols and total flavonol contents, canes were analyzed spectrophotometrically. The phenolic compositions of the canes, including caffeic acid, catechin, p-coumaric acid, epicatechin, gallic acid, luteolin and trans-resveratrol were detected by HPLC. The anthron method was used

Emine Sema Çetin; Duygu Altinöz; Ecehan Tarçan; Nilgün Göktürk Baydar

2011-01-01

257

Energy cane as a multiple-products alternative  

SciTech Connect

CANE SUGAR planting as it was formerly known is in serious and essentially irreversible trouble. Diversification of sugarcane to alternative farm crops is indicated in some instances. Yet, for the most part, the more logical alternative is an internal diversification to a multiple-products biomass commodity. Sometimes termed the energy cane approach, its keystones are the management of sugarcane as a quantitative rather than qualitative entity, and the inclusion of certain tropical-grass relatives to assist cane in its year-round supply of biomass to industrial consumers. Managed in this way, absolute tonnages of whole cane are increased materially beyond what is possible from sugar-crop management. Juice quality declines but sugar yields are significant as a function of high biomass tonnages per acre. Usage of the lignocellulose can range from low-quality humid boiler fuel in furnaces designed for refuse incineration, to higher-quality fuels in more efficient boilers, to proprietary fuels and chemical products, and to lignocellulose supply as the feedstock for primary chemicals production. The latter might include, for example, synthesis gas and petrochemicals in tropical regions lacking natural gas, naphtha, or coal as starting materials. Diversification of sugarcane to completely new farm commodities is opposed in favor of internal diversification to a high-growth, multiple-products commodity. Decisive issues here are as much educational as they are technical. The energy cane concept maintains that sugarcane is a future resource of enormous national and international value. It should develop accordingly where decision-taking is by persons who respect the cane plant and who have done their homework on its alternative-use potentials. 35 references, 5 figures, 6 tables.

Alexander, A.G.

1984-01-01

258

World Sugar and Molasses Situation and Outlook, May 1987.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

World centrifugal sugar production is forecast at a record 102.4 million tons (raw value) for 1987/88, 1 percent above 1986/87, and 3 percent more than 1985/86. World Production of sugar from cane is forecast at 65.4 million tons, up 3 percent; sugar from...

1987-01-01

259

Report on the engineering and economics of an ethanol/gasohol joint-venture project with Caldwell Sugars Co-op, Inc. at Thibodaux, Louisiana  

SciTech Connect

The definitive availabilities and costs of the following feedstocks are assessed: sugar cane, sweet sorghum, cane, and molasses. The following are included: details of the project area in relation to the availability of nonstorable feedstocks; sugar cane availability and costs; sweet sorghum availability and costs; cane availability and costs, including identification of source of supply and byproduct marketing; molasses availability and costs, including local sources of supply and byproduct marketing, and net feedstocks costs of ethanol. Sugar cane, sweet sorghum, and molasses are investigated primarily as possible alternative local feedstocks to corn to meet the requirements of the Louisiana Gasohol Act.

Not Available

1982-04-01

260

China: An emerging sugar super power  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugarcane production in China has more than 3000 years of history. Prior to 1840 A.D., China dominated the world trade of\\u000a cane sugar but the sugar industry became very week since then due to long time of wars and unstable social conditions. It\\u000a has been developing rapidly again since early 1980s. China has become the third largest sugar producer in

Yang-rui Li

2004-01-01

261

Vermicomposting of AgroIndustrial Processing Waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agro-industrial wastes- wastes from agriculture, food processing or any cellulose based industries- remain largely unutilized\\u000a and often cause environmental problems like dispersing foul odors, occupying vast areas, ground and surface water pollution\\u000a etc. These wastes could be converted into potential renewable source of energy, if managed sustainably and scientifically.\\u000a In the last few decades, vermicomposting technology has been arising as

V. K. Garg; Renuka Gupta

262

Novel Crystalline SiO2 Nanoparticles via Annelids Bioprocessing of Agro-Industrial Wastes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The synthesis of nanoparticles silica oxide from rice husk, sugar cane bagasse and coffee husk, by employing vermicompost with annelids ( Eisenia foetida) is reported. The product ( humus) is calcinated and extracted to recover the crystalline nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) show that the biotransformation allows creating specific crystalline phases, since equivalent particles synthesized without biotransformation are bigger and with different crystalline structure.

Espíndola-Gonzalez, A.; Martínez-Hernández, A. L.; Angeles-Chávez, C.; Castaño, V. M.; Velasco-Santos, C.

2010-09-01

263

Economical succinic acid production from cane molasses by Actinobacillus succinogenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, production of succinic acid by Actinobacillus succinogenes CGMCC1593 using cane molasses as a low cost carbon source was developed. In anaerobic bottles fermentation, succinic acid concentration of 50.6±0.9gl?1 was attained at 60h using an optimum medium containing molasses pretreated with sulfuric acid, resulting in a succinic acid yield of 79.5±1.1% and sugar utilization of 97.1±0.6%. When batch

Yu-Peng Liu; Pu Zheng; Zhi-Hao Sun; Ye Ni; Jin-Jun Dong; Lei-Lei Zhu

2008-01-01

264

17. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Boiling House, 1878. View: ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Boiling House, 1878. View: Southwest corner of boiling house. The amimal-powered cane mill is located in the undergrowth in the right foreground, - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

265

STUDY OF MORPHOLOGY OF SUGAR CRYSTALS BY IMAGE ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cane sugar is one of the oldest and most important economical assets in Brazil, especially in the North-East region. Sugar classification is based on its granulometry, color and morphology, which have a strong influence on the physical properties such as strength, flow and transport, as well as on product aspect. If the formation of large agglomerates is reduced, the particles

Mauricio da Motta; Marie-Noëlle Pons

266

Sugar and Sweeteners Outlook, June 2012.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Examines world and U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for beet and cane sugar, and high fructose corn syrup. U.S. deliveries of total sweeteners for human food and beverage use for 2011 are estimated at 20.381 million tons, almost the...

S. Haley

2012-01-01

267

MINIMIZATION OF SUCROSE LOSSES IN SUGAR INDUSTRY BY pH AND TEMPERATURE OPTIMIZATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invert sugar has several disadvantage properties that play an important role in many food applications. It has a high affinity for water and is the cause of making products retain moisture.Invert sugar also affects the caramelization process , producing a browning effect. In this study, the possibility of minimization of sucrose inversion during the industrial production of sugar cane was

Wasna Jaturonrusmee; Withawat Mingvanish; Chantana Nuntiwattanawong; Kittisak Santudrob

268

Cauliflower waste incorporation into cane molasses improves ethanol production using Saccharomyces cerevisiae MTCC 178  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diluted cane molasses having total sugar and reducing sugar content of 9.60 and 3.80% (w\\/v) respectively was subjected to\\u000a ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae MTCC 178. Incorporation of dried Cauliflower Waste (CW) in molasses at the level of 15 % increased ethanol production by\\u000a nearly 36 % compared to molasses alone. Addition of 0.2 % yeast extract improved ethanol production

Gurpreet Singh Dhillon; Sunil Bansal; Harinder Singh Oberoi

2007-01-01

269

Full chain energy analysis of fuel ethanol from cane molasses in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of energy performance and supply potential was performed to evaluate molasses utilization for fuel ethanol in Thailand. The Thai government recently has set up a production target of 1.925 million litres a day of sugar-based ethanol. The molasses-based ethanol (MoE) system involves three main segments: sugar cane cultivation, molasses generation, and ethanol conversion. Negative net energy value found

Thu Lan T. Nguyen; Shabbir H. Gheewala; Savitri Garivait

2008-01-01

270

THE DIRECT DETERMINATION OF LACTIC ACID IN CANE MOLASSES BY GAS-LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for the direct determination of lactic acid in cane molasses by gas-liquid chromatography is described. Data has been presented to show that the method is both precise and accurate. The method overcomes the lengthy ion-exchange separation of lactic acid, currently in use. The quantification of lactic acid in molasses is important as a means of determining sugar losses

T. A. CHORN

271

Novel supplements enhance the ethanol production in cane molasses fermentation by recycling yeast cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Eight alcohol producing yeast strains were screened for their sedimentation rates and it was found thatS.cerevisiae NCIM 3526 was a better flocculant strain. This strain was employed in cane molasses fermentation with yeast recycle, supplemented with skim milk, chitin and fungal mycelium individually or in combination, at 30°C, using fermentable sugars 15%. On the completion of ten 16 h

S. G. Patil; D. V. Gokhale; B. G. Patil

1989-01-01

272

Fiji's Sugar Woes: The Challenge of the Land Tenure System, Ethnicity and the Erosion of EU Sugar Preferences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The non-renewal of land leases since 1997 and the impending withdrawal of the European Union?'s sugar preferences in 2007 have created major uncertainties in Fiji?'s sugar industry. In the context of this troubled environment, this paper examines the impact of various socio-economic factors on the viability of the industry by focusing on farm efficiency in sugar cane production. It was

Renuka Mahadevan

2007-01-01

273

Sugar industry in China: R & D and policy initiatives to meet sugar and biofuel demand of future  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sugar industry in China is becoming increasingly important both domestically and internationally because of its rapid\\u000a development. Significant progress has been achieved not only in sugar production, but also in the integrated utilization,\\u000a developments such as productions of sugar-based products and cane by-products, and environment-friendly management of vinasse.\\u000a Production of luquid fuel (ethanol) from sugarcane is also gaining much

Yang-Rui Li; Yuan-An Wei

2006-01-01

274

Adsorptive separation of fructose and glucose from an agroindustrial waste of cashew industry.  

PubMed

Nearly all agroindustrial wastes have appreciable sugar content including cashew apples (Anacardium occidentale, L.), which are an important sub-utilized biomass source in Northeastern Brazil. Adsorption in fixed bed, both in batch and continuous modes, is a low-cost separation technique, which has been widely used in the concentration, separation and purification of bioproducts, such as sugars. The present work is an experimental study aimed at measuring responses in fixed bed, needed for design purposes. Two commercial ion-exchange resins were studied: DOWEX Monosphere 99/Ca and DIAION UBK555. The adsorbents showed linear isotherms for both sugars with marked selectivity for fructose (2.2 for DOWEX and 1.5 for DIAION). A mathematical model was used to estimate kinetic parameters and predict breakthrough behaviour of binary solutions and complex feeds. The kinetics of mass transfer was well described by a linear driving force approximation (LDF) and estimated kinetic constants were around 1 min(-1). The results indicate that the use of independent experiments with synthetic monocomponent solutions leads to reliable parameters, and the model is capable to foresee reasonably well the breakthrough curve of the sugars present in the juice, under different purification conditions. The use of complex feeds led to overshoot behaviour, possibly due to the irreversible adsorption of oligosaccharides. PMID:17600702

Luz, D A; Rodrigues, A K O; Silva, F R C; Torres, A E B; Cavalcante, C L; Brito, E S; Azevedo, D C S

2007-06-27

275

Sweeteners - sugars  

MedlinePLUS

... for type 2 diabetes , metabolic syndrome , and high blood pressure . Sugar alcohols such as sorbitol, mannitol, and xylitol may have ... and beverages containing sugar, and to check your blood sugar levels ... alcohols may have fewer calories, read labels carefully for ...

276

21 CFR 168.130 - Cane sirup.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Cane sirup is the liquid food derived by concentration and heat treatment of the juice of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum...ingredients that may be used in cane sirup are: (1) Salt. (2) Preservatives. (3) Defoaming agents. (c)...

2013-04-01

277

21 CFR 890.3075 - Cane.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3075 Cane. (a) Identification. A cane is a device intended for medical purposes that is...

2013-04-01

278

Sugar Backgrounder.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The sugar title in the 2007 Farm Bill will determine how U.S. sugar policy is to be conducted. Currently, the U.S. sugar program uses domestic marketing allotments, price supports, and tariff-rate quotas to influence the amount of sugar available to the U...

M. Ali S. Haley

2007-01-01

279

Fast detection of anionic components in sugar and wine samples using a novel device based on capillary zone electrophoresis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quality of sugar and wine are dependent on the processing steps that are involved to remove extraneous components of starting materials, sugar canes, sugar beets and grapes. Many of the residual components present in the final product such as organic acids (malate, oxalate, formate, acetate, pyroglutamate, etc.) and inorganic ions (nitrate, nitrite, chloride, sulfate, sodium, potassium, calcium, etc.) may

Brian O'Flaherty; Wei-Ping Yang; S Sengupta; A. L Cholli

2001-01-01

280

Fuels from sugar crops. First quarterly report  

SciTech Connect

The primary objectives of the present study are to evaluate the feasibility of reducing the costs of fermentable sugars derived from sugar crops and to increase their availability for the following methods: (1) close space of sugar crops; (2) production of sweet sorghum varieties high in fermentable sugar, regardless of table sugar prospects; and (3) harvesting and processing of the entire aerial part of sugarcane and/or sweet sorghum. Close row spacing of sugarcane is under investigation in Florida and Louisiana. Preliminary research indicates that the cost of this sugarcane may be approximately 30 percent less than that of conventional cane. In addition, tests have shown that the close-spaced sugarcane has virtually the same content of fermentable sugars as does conventional cane. Close-spacing of sweet sorghum is being studied in Louisiana and Texas with record yields being obtained in field tests. The material and energy balances of a facility to process 8,200 metric tons/day of sugarcane into ethanol, stillage, and electricity leads to the preliminary conclusion that more than enough biomass will be available to make the facility energy self-sufficient. The mechanical difficulties of a novel rind/pith separation system have been corrected and an economic analysis of the systems is being made. (JSR)

Lipinsky, E.S.; Kresovich, S.; McClure, T.A.; Lawhon, W.T.

1977-07-29

281

Effect of Cane Length on Drop-Off Detection Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although individuals who are blind have used a stick or a cane for their independent travel since the early years of human history, designs for modern long canes did not appear until World War II, when the systematic long cane techniques were developed by Hoover (1962). Ergonomic factors, such as the length of the cane, may affect how well a cane

Kim, Dae Shik; Emerson, Robert Wall

2012-01-01

282

The Penicillium echinulatum secretome on sugar cane bagasse.  

PubMed

Plant feedstocks are at the leading front of the biofuel industry based on the potential to promote economical, social and environmental development worldwide through sustainable scenarios related to energy production. Penicillium echinulatum is a promising strain for the bioethanol industry based on its capacity to produce large amounts of cellulases at low cost. The secretome profile of P. echinulatum after grown on integral sugarcane bagasse, microcrystalline cellulose and three types of pretreated sugarcane bagasse was evaluated using shotgun proteomics. The comprehensive chemical characterization of the biomass used as the source of fungal nutrition, as well as biochemical activity assays using a collection of natural polysaccharides, were also performed. Our study revealed that the enzymatic repertoire of P. echinulatum is geared mainly toward producing enzymes from the cellulose complex (endogluganases, cellobiohydrolases and ?-glucosidases). Glycoside hydrolase (GH) family members, important to biomass-to-biofuels conversion strategies, were identified, including endoglucanases GH5, 7, 6, 12, 17 and 61, ?-glycosidase GH3, xylanases GH10 and GH11, as well as debranching hemicellulases from GH43, GH62 and CE2 and pectinanes from GH28. Collectively, the approach conducted in this study gave new insights on the better comprehension of the composition and degradation capability of an industrial cellulolytic strain, from which a number of applied technologies, such as biofuel production, can be generated. PMID:23227186

Ribeiro, Daniela A; Cota, Júnio; Alvarez, Thabata M; Brüchli, Fernanda; Bragato, Juliano; Pereira, Beatriz M P; Pauletti, Bianca A; Jackson, George; Pimenta, Maria T B; Murakami, Mario T; Camassola, Marli; Ruller, Roberto; Dillon, Aldo J P; Pradella, Jose G C; Paes Leme, Adriana F; Squina, Fabio M

2012-12-05

283

Studies on continuous ethanol fermentation of sugar cane molasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new laboratory system for continuous fermentation is described. It is well suited for fermenting concentrated substrates such as moderately dilute molasses. A rotating microporous filter, which is annexed to the fermentor vessel, allows the free escape of metabolic products while retaining yeast in the fermentor.

Åke Haraldson; Carl-Gustaf Rosén

1982-01-01

284

Studies on continuous ethanol fermentation of sugar cane molasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuous fermentation of concentrated molasses to ethanol with simultaneous product removal has been studied in a series of week-long continuous experiments. Influence of oxygen tension on ethanol yield and yeast growth has been studied for two different yeast strains, one Saccharomyces cerevisiae and one Schizosaccharomyces pombe. As expected, ethanol yield showed a steady decline for increasing oxygen tension. Yeast growth

Åke Haraldson; Carl-Gustaf Rosén

1982-01-01

285

Economic Census 1997: Manufacturing, Industry Series. Cane Sugar Refining.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 1997 Economic Census - Manufacturing covers all manufacturing establishments with one or more paid employees. Manufacturing is defined as the mechanical, physical, or chemical transformation of materials or substances into new products. The assembly o...

1999-01-01

286

. SAFETY OF ENSILING POULTRY LITTER WITH SUGAR CANE TOPS  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was conducted to consider the possibility of ensiling sugarcane tops with or without poultry litter. Sugarcane top was ensiled alone or with poultry litter in the ratio of 100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30 and 40:60, dry basis, respectively. Each mixture was prepared by weighing known amount of each component for the respective mixture. Silos were prepared by firmly packing

S. M. Chaudhry; Z. Naseerb

2008-01-01

287

Developing Sugar Cane as a Dedicated Energy Crop  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

High yield with low inputs, resistance to diseases, insects, and drought, adaptation to a wide range of soils and climates, and biomass composition that is optimized for end use are identified as important traits for cellulosic biomass crops. Sugarcane is one of the most efficient grass species in c...

288

14. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Sorghum Pan. Manufactured by ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Sorghum Pan. Manufactured by John Nott & Co., Honolulu, Hawaii, 1878. View: In the sorghum pan, heat was applied to the cane juice to clarify it, evaporate its water content, and concentrate the sugar crystals. The pan was set on a slope so that the juice would move through the compartments by gravity. The hand-lever sluice valves in the partition walls between the compartments permitted the sugar boiler to regulate the movement of batches of cane juice flowing through the pan. The metal fins projecting from the bottom of the pan imparted a circuitous route to the juice as it flowed through the pan--this made it flow over a much greater heated surface. The fins also supplemented the pan's heating surface by ... - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

289

Fermentation of molasses by Zymomonas mobilis: Effects of temperature and sugar concentration on ethanol production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fermentations utilizing strains of Zymomonas mobilis, in place of the traditional yeasts, have been proposed due their ethanol yields being close to theoretical. Ethanol production from sugar cane molasses was analyzed under different culture conditions using Z. mobilis in batch fermentation. The total reducing sugars (TRS) concentrations in the molasses, temperature, agitation and culture time effects were studied simultaneously through

M. L. Cazetta; M. A. P. C. Celligoi; J. B. Buzato; I. S. Scarmino

2007-01-01

290

Co-composting of filter cake and bagasse; by-products from a sugar mill  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thailand has nearly 2 million tonnes of filter cake waste containing 1.8% total N from the sugar cane industry to dispose of annually. Compost studies were conducted to determine how rapidly this material can be converted to a stable product that may be useful in crop production, and to characterize the N transformations. Two kinds of sugar mill by-products were

Sompong Meunchang; Supamard Panichsakpatana; Richard W. Weaver

2005-01-01

291

Pilot-scale multi-stage multi-feeding continuous ethanol fermentation using non-sterile cane molasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Non-aseptic fermentation of a 28 brix cane molasses solution was successfully carried out in a pilot-scale 5-stage multi-feeding continuous system for 30 days. The effluent ethanol concentration, overall volumetric productivity and sugar conversion yield averaged 8.54 % (v\\/v), 5.35 g\\/L-hr and 92.4 % of theoretical, respectively.

H. C. Chen; D. G. Mou

1990-01-01

292

The Fermentation of Beet Sugar Syrup to Produce Bioethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

J. Inst. Brew. 112(2), 122-133, 2006 Fermentation of sugar or starch-containing substrates by yeast to produce ethanol for use as a liquid fuel has been an accepted technology for many years. Currently, the most popular sub- strates are sugar cane molasses and starch from maize or wheat. Interest in renewable liquid fuels is growing and other substrates are now being

Kenneth A. Leiper; Cornelia Schlee; Ian Tebble; Graham G. Stewart

293

The Preschool Blind Child Can Be a Cane User.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article proposes the teaching of long cane mobility skills to blind preschool-age children. Traditional arguments against early cane use are refuted and possible advantages of early use identified. Strategies and techniques for cane introduction are specified. (DB)|

Pogrund, R. L.; Rosen, S. J.

1989-01-01

294

Ergonomic Factors Related to Drop-Off Detection With the Long Cane: Effects of Cane Tips and Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study examined the effect of cane tips and cane techniques on drop-off detection with the long cane.Background: Blind pedestrians depend on a long cane to detect drop-offs. Missing a drop-off may result in falls or collision with moving vehicles in the street. Although cane tips appear to affect a cane user’s ability to detect drop-offs, few experimental studies

Dae Shik Kim; Robert S. Wall Emerson; Amy B. Curtis

2010-01-01

295

The use of tamarind waste to improve ethanol production from cane molasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

  Tamarind wastes such as tamarind husk, pulp, seeds, fruit and the effluent generated during tartaric acid extraction were\\u000a used as supplements to evaluate their effects on alcohol production from cane molasses using yeast cultures. Small amounts\\u000a of these additives enhanced the rate of ethanol production in batch fermentations. Tamarind fruit increased ethanol production\\u000a (9.7%, w\\/v) from 22.5% reducing sugars of

B G Patil; D V Gokhale; K B Bastawde; S G Patil

1998-01-01

296

Purification of Fructose Syrups Produced from Cane Molasses Media Using Ultrafiltration Membranes and Activated Carbon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purification of fructose syrups produced from sugar cane molasses media using ultrafiltration membranes, activated carbon, and ion?exchange resins was studied. Polyethersulfone (PES) membrane (10 kDa MWCO) and a thin film composite (TFC) membrane (1 kDa MWCO) were used for decolorization of fructose syrups. When activated carbon (Darco G?60) was used to remove colorants from the broth containing fructose, a color removal

Hasan K. Atiyeh; Zdravko Duvnjak

2005-01-01

297

Combination of sugar analysis and stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry to detect the use of artificial sugars in royal jelly production.  

PubMed

The effects of feeding bees artificial sugars and/or proteins on the sugar compositions and (13)C isotopic measurements of royal jellies (RJs) were evaluated. The sugars fed to the bees were two C4 sugars (cane sugar and maize hydrolysate), two C3 sugars (sugar beet, cereal starch hydrolysate), and honey. The proteins fed to them were pollen, soybean, and yeast powder proteins. To evaluate the influence of the sugar and/or protein feeding over time, samples were collected during six consecutive harvests. (13)C isotopic ratio measurements of natural RJs gave values of around -25 ‰, which were also seen for RJs obtained when the bees were fed honey or C3 sugars. However, the RJs obtained when the bees were fed cane sugar or corn hydrolysate (regardless of whether they were also fed proteins) gave values of up to -17 ‰. Sugar content analysis revealed that the composition of maltose, maltotriose, sucrose, and erlose varied significantly over time in accordance with the composition of the syrup fed to the bees. When corn and cereal starch hydrolysates were fed to the bees, the maltose and maltotriose contents of the RJs increased up to 5.0 and 1.3 %, respectively, compared to the levels seen in authentic samples (i.e., samples obtained when the bees were fed natural food: honey and pollen) that were inferior to 0.2% and not detected, respectively. The sucrose and erlose contents of natural RJs were around 0.2 %, whereas those in RJs obtained when the bees were fed cane or beet sugar were as much as 4.0 and 1.3 %, respectively. The combination of sugar analysis and (13)C isotopic ratio measurements represents a very efficient analytical methodology for detecting (from early harvests onward) the use of C4 and C3 artificial sugars in the production of RJ. PMID:22451177

Wytrychowski, Marine; Daniele, Gaëlle; Casabianca, Hervé

2012-03-27

298

Concentration of xylose reaction liquor by nanofiltration for the production of xylitol sugar alcohol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Xylitol, a five-carbon sugar alcohol, is used commercially as a natural sweetener in several food products including soft drinks and confectionery. Xylitol is produced by catalytic dehydrogenation of xylose, an intermediate sugar compound, which is extracted from sugar cane bagasse, corncobs or rice husk. The reaction liquor of xylose contains 1.5–2% of d-xylose besides water as the major constituent. The

G. S. Murthy; S. Sridhar; M. Shyam Sunder; B. Shankaraiah; M. Ramakrishna

2005-01-01

299

REDUCTION OF SUGAR LOSS DUE TO 'CUT-TO-MILL' DELAY BY THE APPLICATION OF A UNIQUE NEW CHEMICAL COMPOSITION CALLED SUCROGUARD  

Microsoft Academic Search

In India, the loss of sucrose content in cane as a result of 'cut-to-mill' delays can be extremely high during the summer months. A novel chemical formulation, Sucroguard, developed and patented in India, was tested to determine its effectiveness in controlling post-harvest cane deterioration. Results showed that a 10 ppm dose reduced invert sugars and tiratable sugars in primary juice,

V M KULKARNI; D WARNE

300

15. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Sorghum pan and boiling ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Sorghum pan and boiling range flue. Manufactured by John Nott & Co., Honolulu, Hawaii, 1878. View: North side of sorghum pan and boiling range flue, with furnace-end in background. In the sorghum pan heat was applied to the cane juice to clarify it, evaporate its water content, and concentrate the sugar crystals. Hot gasses moved through the flue underneath the entire copper bottom of the sorghum pan from the furnace end (in background) to the smokestack end (in foreground). After the hot cane juice moved through the separate compartments until it reached the final compartment (now missing two sides) where it was drawn out from the copper lip in the corner. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

301

Cane River National Heritage Area  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Tucked away in the northwestern corner of Louisiana, the Cane River winds its way through a primarily rural and agricultural landscape. Over the past several hundred years, the many groups of people who have lived and worked by the river have transformed this landscape. Created by the National Park Service, in partnership with the Louisiana Division of Historic Preservation and the National Conference of State Historic Preservation Officers, this website serves as a virtual tour guide to the Cane River National Heritage Area. First-time visitors should click on the interactive map offered here, as they can get the Âlay of the landÂ, and also utilize this feature to learn about historic landmarks in the area, such as the Cherokee Plantation and Fort Jesup. Along with this mélange of photos, maps, and descriptive passages, visitors can also take a look at three concise essays that provide answers to such questions as ÂWho are LouisianaÂs Creoles?Â

302

Production of Organic Acids from AgroIndustrial Residues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the chapters in this book include information on the variety of agricultural wastes, agro-industrial by-products and\\u000a residues produced globally and the authors of some of these chapters also have presented data on the annual yield of these\\u000a renewable resources. Hence, not to repeat this information again here, this chapter deals with the utilization of these bio-resources\\u000a for organic

Poonam Nigam

303

Anaerobic Treatment of Solid AgroIndustrial Residues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid agro-industrial wastes can be recycled in a cheaper eco-friendly bioconversion way using the anaerobic treatment method.\\u000a With the depletion of fossil fuels the identification of bio-renewable fuel replacements is well underway. Biomethane derived\\u000a from Biogas is one possible answer to this dilemma. Biogas production technology has been used for decades in developing countries\\u000a for cheap production of fuel for

Michael Ward; Poonam Singh nee’ Nigam

304

Biotechnological potential of agro-industrial residues. II: cassava bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in industrial biotechnology offer potential opportunities for economic utilization of agro-industrial residues such as cassava bagasse. Cassava bagasse, which is a fibrous material, is the by-product of the cassava-processing industry. It contains about 30–50% starch on dry weight basis. Due to its rich organic nature and low ash content, it can serve as an ideal substrate for microbial processes

Ashok Pandey; Carlos R Soccol; Poonam Nigam; Vanete T Soccol; Luciana P. S Vandenberghe; Radjiskumar Mohan

2000-01-01

305

“An almost necessary good”: sugar consumption, politics and industry in the Kingdom of Naples during the revolutionary and Napoleonic age  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the late modern age, sugar moved from being a luxury to a necessary good. The Napoleonic era is an excellent point of view to examine this process. Indeed, the Napoleonic Wars interrupted the supply of cane sugar in Europe, determining reactions on the part of consumers but even from politicians and savants interested in promoting and finding out an

Daniela Ciccolella

2004-01-01

306

Sugar test  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Metabolism is the conversion or breakdown of a substance from one form to another by a living organism for energy. Yeast is an indicator of how much sugar is in food. Yeast releases carbon dioxide and is a direct indicator of the rate of metabolism. An indicator is an object, material, or organism that tells you if a specific substance is present. Cereals contain sugars, which are carbohydrates. Carbohydrates are chemicals that provide energy.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)

2008-06-06

307

How to Use Crutches, Canes and Walkers  

MedlinePLUS

... foot, you may have to use crutches. Proper Positioning The top of your crutches should reach between ... also help you to keep living independently. Proper Positioning The top of your cane should reach to ...

308

Biodiesel production from microalgae: co-location with sugar mills.  

PubMed

Co-location of algae production facilities with cane sugar mills can be a technically advantageous path towards production of biodiesel. Algal biodiesel production was integrated with cane sugar production in the material and energy balance simulation program Sugars™. A model was developed that allowed comparison of production scenarios involving dewatering the algae to 20% ds (dry solids) or 30% ds prior to thermal drying. The net energy ratio, E(R) (energy produced/energy consumed) of the proposed process was found to be 1.5. A sensitivity analysis showed that this number ranged from 0.9 to 1.7 when the range of values for oil content, CO(2) utilization, oil conversion, and harvest density reported in the literature were evaluated. By utilizing available waste-resources from a 10,000 ton/d cane sugar mill, a 530 ha algae farm can produce 5.8 million L of biodiesel/yr and reduce CO(2) emissions of the mill by 15% without the need for fossil fuels. PMID:22265980

Lohrey, Christian; Kochergin, Vadim

2011-12-17

309

Agroindustrialization of the global agrifood economy: bridging development economics and agribusiness research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the agroindustrialization process from two supposedly disparate views: development economics and agribusiness research. The evolution of conceptual and methodological approaches emanating from these fields is explored and general observations are made concerning farm economic interdependence, institutional and organizational change, differing scopes of interest, the causes of agroindustrialization, orientation, and the choice of microanalytic tools, terminology, and unit

Michael L. Cook; Fabio R. Chaddad

2000-01-01

310

The Role of Universities in Supporting Local Agroindustry: The Case of the Piceno District in Italy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper analyses the role of universities in supporting local agroindustry using the case of the Piceno agroindustrial district in Italy. Emerging countries' comparative advantages, made stronger by increased international trade and the rediscovery of local traditions and typicality, do not signify that there will be a less knowledge-intensive…

Tavoletti, Ernesto

2008-01-01

311

Spore production in Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom.) samson strains on agro-industrial residues  

PubMed Central

Paecilomyces lilacinus has potential for pests control. We aimed to analyze mycelial growth and spore production in P. lilacinus strains in several agro-industrial residues and commercial media. This study suggests alternative nutrient sources for fungi production and that the biotechnological potential of agro-industrial refuses could be employed in byproducts development.

Robl, Diogo; Sung, Letizia B.; Novakovich, Joao Henrique; Marangoni, Paulo R.D.; Zawadneak, Maria Aparecida C.; Dalzoto, Patricia R.; Gabardo, Juarez; Pimentel, Ida Chapaval

2009-01-01

312

Drop-Off Detection with the Long Cane: Effects of Different Cane Techniques on Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study compared the drop-off detection performance with the two-point touch and constant contact cane techniques using a repeated-measures design with a convenience sample of 15 cane users with visual impairments. The constant contact technique was superior to the two-point touch technique in the drop-off detection rate and the 50% detection…

Kim, Dae Shik; Emerson, Robert Wall; Curtis, Amy

2009-01-01

313

Managing your blood sugar  

MedlinePLUS

Hyperglycemia - control; Hypoglycemia - control; Diabetes - blood sugar control ... Know how to: Recognize and treat low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) Recognize and treat high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) ...

314

28. RW Sugar Mill: 18761889. Boilingrange Furnace and Clarifier position. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

28. RW Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Boiling-range Furnace and Clarifier position. View: In the boiling range all of the clarification, evaporation, and concentration of cane juice took place in open pans over the Continuous flue leading from this furnace. The furnace door through the exterior wall is at the end of the furnace. In the original installation, two copper clarifiers, manufactured by John Nott & Co. occupied this space directly above the furnace. In the clarifiers, lime was added to the cane juice so that impurities would coagulate into a scum on top of the near-boiling juice. The clarifiers have been removed since the closing of the mill. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

315

Environmental view across Cane River Lake to the Roque House, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Environmental view across Cane River Lake to the Roque House, looking from the northeast (note Front Street in background) - Roque House, Between Front Street & Cane River, Natchitoches, Natchitoches Parish, LA

316

Use of wastes of the sugar industry as pozzolana in lime-pozzolana binders: Study of the reaction  

SciTech Connect

Mineralogical studies of different wastes of the sugar industry, mainly sugar cane bagasse ash and sugar cane straw ash, have shown that such by-products are likely to be pozzolanic. Their use in lime-pozzolana binders could become an interesting alternative for developing countries. This paper presents a study that was aimed at monitoring the reaction between lime and wastes of the sugar industry having pozzolanic properties by evaluating (1) content of calcium hydroxide, dependent on time; (2) development of the pore structure, dependent on time; (3) study on the reaction products at different stages; and (4) mechanical properties of hardened pastes. The presence of calcium hydroxide was confirmed by x-ray diffraction analysis and thermogravimetric analysis of powder from samples of hydrated lime-pozzolana pastes. The reaction products in hydrated pastes were observed in a scanning electron microscope, and the pore structure was assessed using a mercury intrusion porosimeter. The results of the study show that sugar cane bagasse ash does not act like a reactive pozzolana, mainly due to the presence of unburned material and carbon, whereas sugar cane straw ash shows good pozzolanic activity comparable to that of rice husk ash.

Hernandez, J.F.M. [Univ. Central de las Villas, Santa Clara (Cuba); Middendorf, B.; Gehrke, M.; Budelmann, H. [Univ. of Kassel (Germany). Dept. of Structural Materials

1998-11-01

317

The potential of protein- and sugar-based baits to enhance predatory ant activity and reduce termite damage to maize in Uganda  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional farmers’ practices of using dead animals, meat bones and sugar cane husks to “poison” Macrotermes mounds were adapted to develop baits for ant species predatory on termites. The impact of sugar and protein-based baits on activity of ants in maize fields was evaluated in trials both on-station and in farmers’ fields over three cropping seasons. Powdered fish, broadcast or

B Sekamatte; M Latigo; A Russell-Smith

2001-01-01

318

Bioenergy Systems Report. Special Issue: Cane Energy Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report examines the use of cane to produce energy. It focuses primarily on two recent proposals for the production of electric power for the grid using cane residues and supplementary fuels. It also reviews use of cane juice or molasses to produce eth...

1986-01-01

319

Human Factor Analysis of Long Cane Design: Weight and Length  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a series of experiments, canes of different lengths, weights, and weight distributions were assessed to determine the effect of these characteristics on various performance measures. The results indicate that the overall weight of a cane and the distribution of weight along a cane's shaft do not affect a person's performance, but accuracy does…

Rodgers, Mark D.; Emerson, Robert Wall

2005-01-01

320

The effects of sugar on subsequent eating and mood in obese and non-obese women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of a sucrose drink (160 kcals\\/40 g cane sugar) on subsequent eating and mood state (Profile of Mood States) were examined in 45 obese and 45 non-obese women in a between-subjects, blind design, using saccharin and water as two alternative placebos. After sugar, lunch was delayed a mean of 54 minutes relative to normal eating times, and this

M. Reid; R. Hammersley

1998-01-01

321

Waste heat recovery systems in the sugar industry: An Indian perspective  

SciTech Connect

This article identifies the key role of the sugar industry in the rural development of developing countries. The Indian sugar industry, already second largest among the country`s processing industries, shows even greater potential, according to the Plan Documents (shown in a table). The potential of waste heat in sugar processing plants, which produce white crystal sugar using the double sulphitation clarification process, is estimated at 5757.9 KJ/kg of sugar. Efficient waste heat recovery (WHR) systems could help arrest the trend of increasing production costs. This would help the sugar industry not only in India, but in many other countries as well. The innovative methods suggested and discussed briefly in this article include dehydration of prepared cane, bagasse drying, and juice heating using waste heat. These methods can reduce the cost of energy in sugar production by at least 10% and improve efficiency and productivity.

Madnaik, S.D.; Jadhav, M.G. [Walchand Inst. of Tech., Maharashtra (India)

1996-04-01

322

Butyric acid fermentation in a fibrous bed bioreactor with immobilized Clostridium tyrobutyricum from cane molasses.  

PubMed

Butyrate fermentation by immobilized Clostridium tyrobutyricum was successfully carried out in a fibrous bed bioreactor using cane molasses. Batch fermentations were conducted to investigate the influence of pH on the metabolism of the strain, and the results showed that the fermentation gave a highest butyrate production of 26.2 g l(-1) with yield of 0.47 g g(-1) and reactor productivity up to 4.13 g l(-1)h(-1) at pH 6.0. When repeated-batch fermentation was carried out, long-term operation with high butyrate yield, volumetric productivity was achieved. Several cane molasses pretreatment techniques were investigated, and it was found that sulfuric acid treatment gave better results regarding butyrate concentration (34.6+/-0.8 g l(-1)), yield (0.58+/-0.01 g g(-1)), and sugar utilization (90.8+/-0.9%). Also, fed-batch fermentation from cane molasses pretreated with sulfuric acid was performed to further increase the concentration of butyrate up to 55.2 g l(-1). PMID:19297150

Jiang, Ling; Wang, Jufang; Liang, Shizhong; Wang, Xiaoning; Cen, Peilin; Xu, Zhinan

2009-03-17

323

Drop-off Detection with the Long Cane: Effects of Different Cane Techniques on Performance  

PubMed Central

This study compared the drop-off detection performance with the two-point touch and constant contact cane techniques using a repeated-measures design with a convenience sample of 15 cane users with visual impairments. The constant contact technique was superior to the two-point touch technique in the drop-off detection rate and the 50% detection threshold. The findings may help an orientation and mobility instructor select an appropriate technique for a particular client or training situation.

Kim, Dae Shik; Emerson, Robert Wall; Curtis, Amy

2010-01-01

324

Augmented white cane with multimodal haptic feedback  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes an instrumented handle with multimodal augmented haptic feedback, which can be integrated into a conventional white cane to extend the haptic exploration range of visually impaired users. The information extracted from the environment through a hybrid range sensor is conveyed to the user in an intuitive manner over two haptic feedback systems. The first renders impulses that

S. Gallo; D. Chapuis; L. Santos-Carreras; Y. Kim; P. Retornaz; H. Bleuler; R. Gassert

2010-01-01

325

3. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Sorghum pan and boiling ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Sorghum pan and boiling range flue. Manufactured by John Nott & Co., Honolulu, Hawaii, 1878. View: South side of sorghum pan and boiling range flue. In the sorghum pan heat was applied to the cane juice to clarify it, evaporate its water content, and concentrate the sugar crystals. Hot gasses moved through the flue underneath the entire copper bottom of the sorghum pan from the furnace (east) end to the smokestack (west) end of the boiling range. The sorghum pan sides are of redwood. The flue is built of fire-brick, masonry, and portland cement. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

326

Effect of sugar industry wastes on K status and nutrient availability of a newly reclaimed loamy sandy soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate the effect of sugar cane industry wastes on K status and its availability in a newly reclaimed loamy sand soil, as well as their influence on some chemical soil properties and soil macro- (N and P) and micronutrients (Fe, Zn, Mn, and Cu) availability to wheat plants. The applied treatments were mineral K

Adel Rabie Ahmed Usman; Mohsen Abdo-Elmenem Gameh

2008-01-01

327

Ergonomic Factors Related to Drop-Off Detection With the Long Cane: Effects of Cane Tips and Techniques  

PubMed Central

Objective This study examined the effect of cane tips and cane techniques on drop-off detection with the long cane. Background Blind pedestrians depend on a long cane to detect drop-offs. Missing a drop-off may result in falls or collision with moving vehicles in the street. Although cane tips appear to affect a cane user’s ability to detect drop-offs, few experimental studies have examined such effect. Method A repeated-measures design with block randomization was used for the study. Participants were 17 adults who were legally blind and had no other disabilities. Participants attempted to detect the drop-offs of varied depths using different cane tips and cane techniques. Results Drop-off detection rates were similar between the marshmallow tip (77.0%) and the marshmallow roller tip (79.4%) when both tips were used with the constant contact technique, p = .294. However, participants detected drop-offs at a significantly higher percentage when they used the constant contact technique with the marshmallow roller tip (79.4%) than when they used the two-point touch technique with the marshmallow tip (63.2%), p < .001. Conclusion The constant contact technique used with a marshmallow roller tip (perceived as a less advantageous tip) was more effective than the two-point touch technique used with a marshmallow tip (perceived as a more advantageous tip) in detecting drop-offs. Application The findings of the study may help cane users and orientation and mobility specialists select appropriate cane techniques and cane tips in accordance with the cane user’s characteristics and the nature of the travel environment.

Kim, Dae Shik; Wall Emerson, Robert S.; Curtis, Amy B.

2010-01-01

328

Plantain fibre bundles isolated from Colombian agro-industrial residues.  

PubMed

Comestible fruit production from Musaceas plants is an important economical activity in developing countries like Colombia. However, it generates a large amount of agro-industrial residues. Some of them are a potential resource of natural fibres, which can be used as reinforcement for composite materials. In this work, a series of commercial plantain (Musa AAB, cv "Dominico Harton") fibre bundles extracted from pseudostem, leaf sheath and rachis agricultural wastes were analyzed. Mechanical decortication and biological retting processes were used during fiber extraction. No significant differences in composition of vascular bundles were observed for both extraction processes. Gross morphological characteristics and mechanical behavior have been evaluated. Conducting tissues with spiral-like arrangement are observed attached to fibre bundles. This fact suggests a big amount of these tissues in commercial plantain plants. Both used extraction methods are not enough to remove them. Pseudostem fibre bundles have higher specific strength and modulus and lower strain at break than leaf sheath and rachis fibre bundles, having values comparable to other lignocellulosic fibres bundles. PMID:17350832

Gañán, Piedad; Zuluaga, Robin; Restrepo, Adriana; Labidi, Jalel; Mondragon, Iñaki

2007-03-12

329

Ethanol from Sugar Crops  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The world-wide impetus to produce alternatives to petroleum-based fuels and relatively low profit for sugar are putting pressure on the sugar industry to diversify for sustainability. Sugar crops, mainly sugarcane, sugar beet, and sweet sorghum, fit well into the emerging concept of a renewable car...

330

Conidia production of Beauveria sp. by solid-state fermentation for biocontrol of Ilex paraguariensis caterpillars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conidia production ofBeauveria sp. strain LAG by solid-state fermentation (SSF) using blends of agro-industrial residues (residual potatoes and sugar-cane\\u000a bagasse) was optimized with respect to cultivation conditions and the composition of substrate mixture in Erlenmeyer flasks\\u000a and column-type bioreactor. With a blend of 60 % residual potatoes and 40 % sugar-cane bagasse the optimum conditions achieved\\u000a were: incubation temperature 26

H. S. Dalla Santa; N. J. Sousa; D. Brand; O. R. Dalla Santa; A. Pandey; M. Sobotka; J. Páca; C. R. Soccol

2004-01-01

331

Rotating cross arm trellis and cane training for brambles  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We evaluated the combination of primocane training and cane positioning techniques using a rotatable cross-arm (RCA) trellis system and covering plants in winter to protect buds and canes from freezing temperatures in 'Apache', 'Boysenberry', 'Siskiyou', and 'Triple Crown' blackberry. After tying p...

332

Sugar and sugar substitutes. Comparisons and indications.  

PubMed

Public confusion and concern about the use of sugar and sugar substitutes are widespread. Physicians must be prepared to answer patients' inquiries about these substances. Some population groups should avoid certain sugar substitutes. In particular, pregnant women and young children should avoid saccharin, and phenylketonuric homozygous persons should avoid aspartame. In a varied, balanced diet, the use of aspartame and saccharin is one safe way for the general population to enjoy sweet foods with fewer calories and less cariogenic potential. Sugar substitutes may be helpful in dietary compliance for overweight and diabetic patients. PMID:3615316

Alfin-Slater, R B; Pi-Sunyer, F X

1987-08-01

333

Shrinkage of cane ( Arundo donax ) I. Irregular shrinkage of green cane due to the collapse of parenchyma cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shrinkage of green cane ( Arundo donax L.) was measured during air-drying at room temperature. The cane began to shrink at 150% moisture content due to a remarkable collapse of parenchyma cells. The collapse recovered after boiling in water, but more serious collapse (recollapse) was induced by the following drying. On the other hand, the collapse recovered almost completely after

Eiichi Obataya; Joseph Gril; Bernard Thibaut

2004-01-01

334

Assessment of canes used by older adults in senior living communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this cross-sectional study is to provide basic but essential information about how older cane users obtain their canes and how they use these canes for their daily mobility, since there is still lack of information on these areas. Ninety-three older (?65 years old) subjects who use canes for daily activities were recruited from four assisted living facilities

Joshua Eaves; Wen Wang; Jill Womack; Paige Bullock

2011-01-01

335

Home blood sugar testing  

MedlinePLUS

Check your blood sugar level as often as instructed by your health care provider. Write down the results. This will tell you how ... everyone with diabetes needs to check their blood sugar every day. And some people need to check ...

336

Hyperactivity and sugar  

MedlinePLUS

... more likely to be hyperactive if they eat sugar, artificial sweeteners, or certain food colorings. This article focuses on the possible controversial link between sugar and hyperactivity in children. See also: Attention-deficit ...

337

High blood sugar  

MedlinePLUS

High blood sugar occurs when your body makes too little insulin or when your body is not able to use insulin ... a hormone that helps the body use glucose (sugar) for energy. Insulin is made by the pancreas. ...

338

Low blood sugar - newborns  

MedlinePLUS

... longer period of time. If the low blood sugar continues, in rare cases the baby may also receive medication to increase blood sugar levels. In very rare cases, newborns with very severe hypoglycemia who don' ...

339

Evaluation of maturity and stability parameters of composts prepared from agro-industrial wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in physical, chemical and biological parameters to assess the maturity and stability of composts prepared from mixture of different farm and agro-industrial wastes over a period of 150days. All the composts appeared granular, dark grey in color without foul odor and attained an ambient temperature at 120days of composting indicating the

Dev Raj; R. S. Antil

2011-01-01

340

The potential of agro-industrial residues for production of biogas and electricity in Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives an overview of the energy demands in Tanzania, and highlights the current serious shortage of electricity. Government strategy to alleviate the problem include exploitation of the country's big natural gas reserves for power generation, and utilization of the renewable energies such as solar, wind and biogas. Important agro-industrial residues with a large potential for anaerobic conversion into

Amelia K. Kivaisi; M. S. T. Rubindamayugi

1996-01-01

341

Mapping and quantification of organic agro-industrial residues in East Africa.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The East-African agro-industries generate very large quantities of organic residues from production and processing of different crops. These residues form a major contribution to the pollution of air, soil and water ways, but, at the same time they consti...

G. Jungersen A. Kivaisi M. Rubindamayugi

1998-01-01

342

Substituting energy crops with organic wastes and agro-industrial residues for biogas production  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, industrial and agro-industrial by-products and residues (BRs), animal manures (AMs), and various types of organic wastes (OWs) were analyzed to evaluate their suitability as substitutes for energy crops (ECs) in biogas production. A comparison between the costs of the volume of biogas that can be produced from each substrate was presented with respect to the prices of

Andrea Schievano; Giuliana D'Imporzano; Fabrizio Adani

2009-01-01

343

Biotechnological solubilization of rock phosphate on media containing agro-industrial wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rock phosphate (RP) is an important natural material traditionally used for the production of phosphorus (P) fertilizers. Compared with chemical treatment, microbial solubilization of RP is an alternative environmentally mild approach. An overview of biotechnological techniques, mainly based on solubilization processes involving agro-industrial residues, is presented. Potential advantages of composting, solid-state fermentation, and liquid submerged fermentation employing free and immobilized

N. Vassilev; M. Vassileva

2003-01-01

344

Association of ?13C in Fingerstick Blood with Added Sugars and Sugar-sweetened Beverage Intake  

PubMed Central

A reliance on self-reported dietary intake measures is a common research limitation, thus the need for dietary biomarkers. Added sugar intake may play a role in the development and progression of obesity and related co-morbidities; common sweeteners include corn and sugar cane derivatives. These plants contain a high amount of 13C, a naturally-occurring stable carbon isotope. Consumption of these sweeteners, of which sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) are the primary dietary source, may be reflected in the ?13C value of blood. Fingerstick blood represents an ideal substrate for bioassay due to its ease of acquisition. The objective of this investigation was to determine if the ?13C value of fingerstick blood is a potential biomarker of added sugar and SSB intake. Individuals aged ?21 years (n=60) were recruited to attend three laboratory visits; assessments completed at each visit depended upon a randomly assigned sequence (sequence one or two). The initial visit included assessment of height, weight, and dietary intake (sequence one: beverage intake questionnaire [BEVQ], sequence two: four-day food intake record [FIR]). Sequence one participants completed an FIR at visit two, and non-fasting blood samples were obtained via routine finger sticks at visits one and three. Sequence two participants completed a BEVQ at visit two, and provided fingerstick blood samples at visits two and three. Samples were analyzed for ?13C value using natural abundance stable isotope mass spectrometry. ?13C value was compared to dietary outcomes in all participants, as well as among those in the highest and lowest tertile of added sugar intake. Reported mean added sugar consumption was 66±5g/day, and SSB consumption was 330±53g/day and 134±25 kcal/day. Mean fingerstick ?13C value was ?19.94±0.10‰, which differed by BMI status. ?13C value was associated (all p<0.05) with intake of total added sugars (g, r=0.37; kcal, r=0.37), soft drinks (g, r=0.26; kcal, r=0.27), and total SSB (g, r=0.28; kcal, r=0.35). The ?13C value in the lowest and the highest added sugar intake tertiles were significantly different (mean difference = ?0.48‰, p=0.028). Even though there are several potential dietary sources for blood carbon, the ?13C value of fingerstick blood shows promise as a non-invasive biomarker of added sugar and SSB intake based on these findings.

Davy, Brenda M.; Jahren, A. Hope; Hedrick, Valisa E.; Comber, Dana L.

2011-01-01

345

Energy expenditure and physiological performance of Sudanese cane cutters.  

PubMed Central

The thermal and exercise tolerances of 165 Sudanese cane cutters were measured in the laboratory and related to work performance and productivity in the cane fields. The results showed that the amount of cane cut per minute in the field was significantly correlated with changes in body weight (r = +0-53) during the third hour of work, aerobic energy expenditure (r = + 0-43), and cardiac frequency during work. These variables in turn were associated with predicted maximal power output (VO2 max) measured in the laboratory. The average energy expenditure during cane cutting was 1-66 +/- 0-33 1/min-1 (34-9 kJ/min-1) which represents approximately 60% of the workers predicted VO2 max. This rate of energy expenditure was sustained in the cane fields for at least three hours without significant pauses for rest. The sweat losses measured in 32 cane cutters during the two and three hours of work averaged 637 +/- 221 and 770 +/- 282 g/h-1 respectively, while the mean urine temperature immediately on cessation of effort was 37-74 +/- 0-46 degrees C. Despite the additional environmental heat load of the tropics, it would seem that cane cutters performing a self-paced task demanding heavy physical effort, are able to sustain work levels well in excess of those recommended for most European factory workers without obvious signs of fatigue or heat stress.

Davies, C T; Brotherhood, J R; Collins, K J; Dore, C; Imms, F; Musgrove, J; Weiner, J S; Amin, M A; Ismail, H M; El Karim, M; Omer, A H; Sukkar, M Y

1976-01-01

346

Sugar and Salt Solutions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What happens when sugar and salt are added to water? Pour in sugar, shake in salt, and evaporate water to see the effects on concentration and conductivity. Zoom in to see how different sugar and salt compounds dissolve. Zoom in again to explore the role of water.

Simulations, Phet I.; Lancaster, Kelly; Reid, Sam; Moore, Emily; Chamberlain, Julia; Loeblein, Trish

2011-10-12

347

Sugars – The Arch Criminal?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous lines of evidence have conclusively established the role of sugars in caries etiology and the importance of sugars as the principal dietary substrate that drives the caries process has not been scientifically challenged. While sugars appear to differ little in acidogenic potential, sucrose has been given special importance, as the sole substrate for synthesis of extracellular glucans. Water-insoluble glucans

D. T. Zero

2004-01-01

348

Sugar and Sugar Beet Policy Reforms in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The translog cost function is applied to analyze input demand in Turkey sugar beet production from 1975 to 2003. Sugar and sugar beet production became an important issue after the sugar act changed in 2001. Although the political aspects of sugar beet production have been studied extensively, few studies are available on the quantitative aspects of sugar beet production in

Yasar Akcay; Meral Uzunoz

2006-01-01

349

Frequently Asked Questions about Sugar  

MedlinePLUS

... are added sugars? Added sugars are sugars and syrups that are added to foods or beverages during processing or preparation. They do not include naturally occurring sugars such as those found in milk (lactose) and fruits (fructose). Added sugars (or added ... is the difference between added sugars and ...

350

Sugar, ethics and legislation.  

PubMed

There are serious ethical and legal issues concerning the sale of sugar products, especially to children, yet one cannot address children's consumption without addressing consumption across society. The ethical principles are not even controversial. However, sugar has been insufficiently scrutinised, probably because sweetness is popular and plays a prominent, but dispensable, cultural role. Sugar is both addictive and toxic, although it is a very mild, very slow-working poison. Yet, over time, its effects can be quite serious. The social and health problems have proved grave and intractable. Given the nature of sugar, it should be regulated like alcohol and tobacco, if not more stringently, given its greater social and cultural penetration across all ages. That is, sales of sugar products at school canteens should be banned, advertising severely limited, full disclosure of sugar content made mandatory, warnings placed on certain products, and sugar itself should be taxed. PMID:20552941

Azize, Joseph

2010-05-01

351

EVALUACION DEL CRECIMIENTO DE CRISTALES DE AZUCAR Y DETERMINACION DEL FACTOR DE FORMA DE AREA SUPERFICIAL EVALUATION OF SUGAR CRYSTAL GROWTH AND DETERMINATION OF SURFACE AREA SHAPE FACTOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crystallization, as industrial separation process, has been used widely in recent years because its low energy requirements. It has been observed that cooling profiles, agitation rates and process time are important variables to determine the characteristics of the crystalline product. In this work sugar cane crystal surface areas are calculated, as function of time, from experimental results using three different

P. A. Quintana-Hernández; D. A. Moncada-Abaunza; E. Bolaños-Reynoso; A. García Cubas

2005-01-01

352

Biomass energy for Hawaii. Volume 1 - Summary and background. Volume 2 - Sugar operations. Volume 3 - Mixed municipal refuse. Volume 4 - Terrestrial and marine plantations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conversion of biomass resources into energy, fuels and by-products is discussed, with attention given to programs in Hawaii involving terrestrial and marine biomass plantations, energy recovery from municipal refuse treatment plants and uses for sugar cane harvesting wastes. Biomass conversion processes to increase the available energy supply in Hawaii, such as direct combustion, pyrolysis anaerobic digestion or fermentation, are

A. Gill; C. Beck; K. Salvesen; L. Chun; C. Yang; D. Murata; M. Keller

1977-01-01

353

20. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Boiling House Interior, 1878. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Boiling House Interior, 1878. View: Remains of south wall. The molasses storage pits are below the floor in the foreground. The remaining piece of floor indicates the form of the entire floor. The sorghum pan and boiling range flue slope from left to right (east to west) and permitted batches of cane juice to flow through the boiling pan by gravity. The beams, joists, truss work are built of northwest pine. The sides and floor boards are built of redwood. The boiling range flue is built of fire-brick, masonry, and portland cement. The corrugated roof appears to be a later addition, not contemporary with mill operation. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

354

Fructose induced lipogenesis: from sugar to fat to insulin resistance.  

PubMed

Increasing consumption of sugars is one of the contributing factors to the obesity epidemic. Both cane sugar and high-fructose corn syrup contain glucose and fructose. Fructose, in contrast to glucose, is known to potently stimulate lipogenesis, but the mechanisms responsible are not yet fully known. This paper reviews several possible pathways that might be involved, such as activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase, and transcriptional activation of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c by key regulators such as peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-? co-activator 1? and the splice variant of X-box binding protein 1. Together, these pathways might establish a feed forward cycle that can rapidly increase hepatic lipogenesis. As a result, dietary fructose might promote the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, which in and of itself, can result in hepatic insulin resistance, a key feature of type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:21067942

Samuel, Varman T

2010-11-09

355

Walking cane use in prison: a medical and cultural analysis.  

PubMed

This study examined the diagnosis, race, age, and conviction offenses of those using walking canes at California Medical Facility through a random review of 40 charts and 40 conviction folders. Motivating factors were concern about the potential for misuse of canes as weapons and a desire to further understand the clinical challenges faced by patients. Findings suggest that walking canes are most often prescribed for neurological or musculoskeletal problems, sometimes are prescribed with no apparent indication, and are more readily prescribed to violent offenders. Beyond their weight-bearing medical function, it is possible that canes bear cultural significance in prison culture, perhaps symbolizing pugnacious independence. The anthropological literature on aggression, interpersonal violence, and weapon use is explored to help understand the racial variation in use of fighting accoutrements in prison settings. PMID:21278316

Anderson, Scott T; Capozzoli, Nicholas

2011-01-01

356

Factors associated with cane use among community dwelling older adults.  

PubMed

Guided by the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), this study examined factors associated with cane use among community dwelling older adults. Data were collected in a cross-sectional survey of a convenience sample of 106 community residing older adults in Ottawa, Canada. Using a stepwise discriminant analysis, subjective norms, attitudes, and age surfaced as the key variables associated with cane use in this sample. The discriminant function accounted for 67% of the variance in cane use and correctly classified 91% of cases (Wilks's lambda = 0.33, lambda2 = 110.12, df = 3, p < 0.0001). The findings provide evidence for the utility of the TPB in its application to understanding cane use behaviors of older persons and have important implications for the design of theory-based fall prevention interventions to enhance the acceptance and effective use of mobility aids. PMID:11115146

Aminzadeh, F; Edwards, N

357

Impact of invasive cane toads on Australian birds.  

PubMed

The cane toad (Bufo marinus), a large, toxic, American anuran, was introduced to Australia in 1935. Populations of many of Australia's reptiles (snakes, varanid lizards, crocodiles) and carnivorous mammals (dasyurid marsupials) have declined because these predators are killed by the toad's powerful toxins. In contrast to these well-studied species, little is known about the cane toads impacts on Australian birds. We reviewed published and unpublished data on behavioral interactions between Australian avian predators and cane toads and collated distributional and dietary information to identify avian taxa potentially at risk from cane toad invasion. Cane toads are sympatric with 172 frog-eating bird species in Australia, and an additional 8 bird species overlap with the predicted future range of the toad. Although many bird species thus are potentially at risk, behavioral observations suggest the risk level is generally low. Despite occasional reports of Australian birds being killed when they ingest cane toads, most birds either ignore toads or survive the predation event. The apparently higher tolerance of Australian birds to toad toxins, compared with Australian reptiles and marsupials, may reflect genetic exchange between Australian birds and Asian populations that encounter other bufonid species regularly and hence have evolved the capacity to recognize or tolerate this toxic prey. PMID:19508674

Beckmann, Christa; Shine, Richard

2009-06-08

358

Pilot-scale study of efficient vermicomposting of agro-industrial wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pilot-scale vermicomposting was explored using Eudrilus eugeniae for 90 days with 45 days preliminary decomposition using different agro-industrial wastes as substrates. Spent wash and pressmud were mixed together (referred to as PS) and then combined with cow dung (CD) at five different ratios of PS:CD, namely, 25:75 (T1), 50:50 (T2), 75:25 (T3), 85:15 (T4) and 100 (T5), with two replicates

Vaidyanathan Vinoth Kumar; M. Shanmugaprakash; J. Aravind; S. Karthick Raja Namasivayam

2012-01-01

359

Anaerobic treatability and biogas production potential studies of different agro-industrial wastewaters in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anaerobic treatability and methane generation potential of the wastewaters of the three important agro-industries in Turkey, namely, cheese-making, poultry breeding and the olive-oil mill industries were studied. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) experiments were conducted for different initial chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentrations. The results indicate that anaerobic treatment was possible for all the wastewaters studied and the biogas produced

Göksel N. Demirer; Metin Duran; Engin Güven; Örgen Ugurlu; Ulas Tezel; Tuba H. Ergüder

2000-01-01

360

Pullulan content of the ethanol precipitate from fermented agro-industrial wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanol-precipitated substances after fermentation of various agro-industrial wastes by Aureobasidium pullulans were examined for their pullulan content. Grape skin pulp extract, starch waste, olive oil waste effluents and molasses served\\u000a as substrates for the fermentation. A glucose-based defined medium was used for comparison purposes. Samples were analysed\\u000a by an enzyme-coupled assay method and by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric

C. J. Israilides; A. Smith; J. E. Harthill; C. Barnett; G. Bambalov; B. Scanlon

1998-01-01

361

Biodegradation of agro-industrial orange waste under solid state fermentation and natural environmental conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluation of the possibility of the re-use of agro-industrial orange peel and pulp wastes under solid state fermentation and natural environmental condition as a source of enzymes production (? & ? amylase, cellulase, pectinase(s), lipase(s), esterase(s) and peroxidase(s)) the physiological enzymes of lysis and total protein. Different microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria and yeast which were charged of waste analyse

Shahera H. Attyia; Sanaa M. Ashour

362

Sugars as signaling molecules  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies indicate that, in a manner similar to classical plant hormones, sugars can act as signaling molecules that control gene expression and developmental processes in plants. Crucial evidence includes uncoupling glucose signaling from its metabolism, identification of glucose sensors, and isolation and characterization of mutants and other regulatory components in plant sugar signal transduction pathways. The emerging scenario points

Jen Sheen; Li Zhou; Jyun-Chyun Jang

1999-01-01

363

Hawaii's Sugar Islands.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A warm and sunny subtropical climate helps make Hawaii an important sugar producer. History records that sugarcane was already present when Captain James Cook discovered the islands in 1778, and that the first successful sugarcane plantation was started in 1835 by Ladd and Company at Koloa. The first recorded export of Hawaiian sugar was in 1837,…

Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Aiea, HI.

364

Hawaii's Sugar Islands.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A warm and sunny subtropical climate helps make Hawaii an important sugar producer. History records that sugarcane was already present when Captain James Cook discovered the islands in 1778, and that the first successful sugarcane plantation was started in 1835 by Ladd and Company at Koloa. The first recorded export of Hawaiian sugar was in 1837,…

Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Aiea, HI.

365

21 CFR 890.3790 - Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3790 Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads. (a) Identification. Cane, crutch,...

2013-04-01

366

Biological nitrogen fixation associated with sugar cane and rice: Contributions and prospects for improvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

15N isotope and N balance studies performed over the last few years have shown that several Brazilian varieties of sugarcane are capable of obtaining over 60% of their nitrogen (-1 year-1) from biological nitrogen fixation (BNF). This may be due to the fact that this crop in Brazil has been systematically bred for high yields with low fertilizer N inputs.

R. M. Boddey; O. C. Oliveira; S. Urquiaga; V. M. Reis; F. L. Olivares; V. L. D. Baldani; J. Döbereiner

1995-01-01

367

High productivity and good nutritive values of cellulolytic bacteria grown on sugar cane bagasse. [Cellulomonas sp  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fermentation of cellulosic wastes by cellulolytic bacteria shows promise as a process for obtaining new low-cost protein sources; at the same time, it solves a problem of waste disposal. At present, many problems remain to be solved before making this process economically profitable. The low productivity due to poor cell density attained, and low nutritive value of the biomass

A. Enriquez; H. Rodriguez

1983-01-01

368

SOURCES OF ATMOSPHERIC PARTICULATE MATTER: THE EMISSION PROFILE OF A SUGAR CANE FOLIAGE BURNING  

Microsoft Academic Search

The particulate matter (PM) suspended in the atmosphere can have its origins in natural or anthropogenic sources. The profile of sources in a particular site is dependent on local, regional or even long range emission sites or areas, which makes them very difficult to identify. Moreover, the identification of a given source and the quantification of its contribution for the

Simone Andréa Pozza; Ricardo Luiz Bruno; Júlia Exaltação Trevisan; Mariane Giroto Tazinassi; José Antonio; Silveira Gonçalves; José Renato Coury

369

Bio-concentration of vinasse from the alcoholic fermentation of sugar cane molasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

A concentration-incineration process of vinasse has been in use for several years in order to deal with pollution resulting from the industrial production of ethanol by fermentation and distillation. However, as vinasse concentration has a high energy demand, a bio-concentration method with no energy consumption is reported in this paper. Vinasses was used instead of water in the preparation of

A. R Navarro; M del C. Sepúlveda; M. C Rubio

2000-01-01

370

Lipid accumulation in Rhodotorula glutinis on sugar cane molasses in single-stage continuous culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial lipids produced byRhodotorula glutinis grown in continuous culture with molasses under nitrogen-limiting conditions were evaluated and the effects of growth rate on fatty acid composition were studied. As the growth rate decreased, cell biomass, lipid content and lipid yield gradually increased. The maximum lipid content recorded was 39% (w\\/w) of dry cell biomass at a dilution rate of 0.04

R. M. Alvarez; B. Rodríguez; J. M. Romano; A. O. Díaz; E. Gómez; D. Miró; L. Navarro; G. Saura; J. L. García

1992-01-01

371

Data Mining by Decision Tree for Object Oriented Classification of the Sugar Cane Cut Kinds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brazil is the world's largest sugarcane producer with almost 9 million ha of cultivated area in 2008. Great part of the harvested area is manually cut using the practice of burning the dry leaves prior to the stalk harvest. This practice cause atmospheric pollution and damage to public health, in particular, to local inhabitants. In Sa¿o Paulo State an environmental

Elizabeth Goltz; Gustavo Arcoverde; Daniel Alves Aguiar; Bernardo Rudorff; Eduardo Maeda

2009-01-01

372

High productivity and good nutritive values of cellulolytic bacteria grown on sugar cane bagasse. [Cellulomonas sp  

SciTech Connect

The fermentation of cellulosic wastes by cellulolytic bacteria shows promise as a process for obtaining new low-cost protein sources; at the same time, it solves a problem of waste disposal. At present, many problems remain to be solved before making this process economically profitable. The low productivity due to poor cell density attained, and low nutritive value of the biomass produced stand out as two of them. Humphrey et al. have pointed out that the critical question in the microbial degradation of cellulose is how to optimize the cell yield in order to achieve nearly total cellulose degradation. Belamy calculated that the rate of cellulose utilization should be at least 1-5 g/l/h for the process to be profitable. The work described here deals with how increases of cell concentration and productivity change the media concentration of a fermentation process using Cellulomonas sp., and the determination of the nutritive value of the product. (Refs. 12).

Enriquez, A.; Rodriguez, H.

1983-03-01

373

Photolysis of atrazine and ametryne herbicides in Barbados sugar cane plantation soils and water.  

PubMed

The photodegradation kinetics of atrazine (2-chloro-6-(ethylamino)-4-isopropylamino-1,3,5-triazine) and ametryne (2-methylthio-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine), in fresh and coastal salt water from Barbados, were measured under irradiation with artificial solar and UV254-radiation. The first-order rate constants were greater for ametryne than for atrazine, and the rates were reduced in seawater relative to fresh water, and in soil slurries relative to fresh water. However, rates were accelerated in the presence of iron(III) at pH 3 due to photo-Fenton type processes. This rate enhancement was reduced at ambient pH values (pH 7-7.5) representative of surface water in Barbados. These results have important implications for the relative persistence of these contaminants in aquatic environments in tropical areas. PMID:12716047

McMartin, Dena W; Headley, John V; Wood, Beverley P; Gillies, Jon A

2003-05-01

374

[Influence of substrate concentration on PHA production using fermented sugar cane as substrate].  

PubMed

PHA was a kind of biodegradable polymer produced by mixed microorganisms. In recent years, 3-stage PHA synthesis process (including substrate hydrolysis, culture selection, and PHA synthesis) was commonly used for PHA production. In this kind of process, culture selection is the key stage, which directly affects the PHA production efficiency. In order to deal with sludge bulking occurred in the culture selection system, this paper analyzes the influence of substrate concentration on culture selection efficiency as well as operation stability. Under different influent substrate concentrations of 560 mg x L(-1), 1 120 mg x L(-1) and 1 680 mg x L(-1), we confirmed that influent substrate concentration (COD) of 1 120 mg x L(-1) is the most suitable parameter for the bacteria enriching process after a long period of time under short SRT. After 94 days of cultivation, we achieved 50% of PHA content, 0.7145 COD/COD of PHA conversion rate and 0.191 2 mg x (mg x h)(-1) of specific PHA storage rate at the end of batch tests with nutrient starvation. The study also confirmed that glycogen level in cells has a close relationship with its PHA synthesis ability, which shows its potential to predict the enrichment efficiency. PMID:23947047

Chen, Zhi-Qiang; Deng, Yi; Huang, Long; Wen, Qin-Xue; Guo, Zi-Rui

2013-06-01

375

Influence of the alkaline delignification on the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of sugar cane bagasse.  

PubMed

Ethanol production from steam explosion alkaline delignified bagasse was investigated by saccharification and simultaneous fermentation. Non delignified bagasse (ND) contained 25% lignin, and after alkaline delignification, materials with 6% (D1 - NaOH 1% w/v) and 12% (D05 - NaOH 0.5% w/v) lignin, respectively, were obtained. Ethanol production increased 450% and 733% in relation to ND, when D05 and D1 material, respectively, were used. Higher productivity and EtOH/bagasse were observed for D1. However, higher enzymatic convertibility of cellulose was obtained with 0.5% w/v NaOH. Alkaline delignification increased the ethanol production despite decreased cellulose. PMID:24025853

Soares, Mariana Lucena; Gouveia, Ester Ribeiro

2013-08-26

376

Estimation of fruit weight by cane traits for eight American blackberries (Rubus fructicosus L.) cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 values) in MRA were found to be Black Satin (99.40%), Ness (99.16%), Navaho (96.46%), Dirksen Thornless (96.22%), Chester Thornless (91.92%), and Cv. Jumbo (91.26%), which meant that most (almost 100%) variation in fruit weight for these cultivars was explained by the number of cane, cane height, cane diameter, and cane yield. However, corresponding values for Arapaho and Cherokee cultivars

S. Peral Eyduran; Ecevit Eyduran; Y. Sabit Agaoglu

2008-01-01

377

4. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Furnace doer for sugar ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Furnace doer for sugar boiling range. Manufactured by Honolulu Iron Works, Honolulu, 1879. Cost: $15.30. View: the furnace for the sugar boiling range was stoked from outside of the east wall of the boiling house. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

378

5. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Two sugar coolers ca. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Two sugar coolers ca. 1880. View: After the concentrated syrup flowed out of the sorghum pan, it cooled and crystallized in these iron sugar coolers. After the sugar syrup was granulated and cooled it was dug out of the coolers and fed into the centrifugals. The Meyer Mill purchased twelve coolers between 1878 and 1881 costing between $35 and $45 each. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

379

Sugar Policies and Marketing Channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is important to discuss national sugar policies because of the impact they have on the international sugar trade. The high level of support and protection it receives in many countries has made sugar one of the most distorted agricultural sectors in the world. There are several methods to control the sugar market which are used differently, regarding the goals

Marcos Fava Neves

380

Utilization of Agro-industrial Wastes for the Simultaneous Production of Amylase and Xylanase by Thermophilic Actinomycetes.  

PubMed

Agro-industrial wastes such as sugarcane bagasse, wheat bran, rice bran, corn cob and wheat straw are cheapest and abundantly available natural carbon sources. The present study was aimed to production of amylase and xylanase simultaneously using agro-industrial waste as the sole carbon source. Seven thermophilic strains of actinomycete were isolated from the mushroom compost. Among of these, strain designated MSC702 having high potential to utilize agro-industrial wastes for the production of amylase and xylanase. Strain MSC702 was identified as novel species of Streptomyces through morphological characterization and 16S rRNA gene sequence. Enzyme production was determined using 1% (w/v) of various agro-industrial waste in production medium containing (g/100mL): K2HPO4 (0.1), (NH4)2SO4 (0.1), NaCl (0.1), MgSO4 (0.1) at pH 7.0 after incubation of 48 h at 50°C. The amylase activity (373.89 IU/mL) and xylanase activity (30.15 IU/mL) was maximum in rice bran. The decreasing order of amylase and xylanase activity in different type of agro-industrial wastes were found rice bran (RB) > corn cob (CC) > wheat bran (WB) > wheat straw (WS) > sugarcane bagasse (SB) and rice bran (RB) > wheat bran (WB) > wheat straw (WS) > sugarcane bagasse (SB) > corn cob (CC), respectively. Mixed effect of different agro-industrial wastes was examined in different ratios. Enzyme yield of amylase and xylanase was ~1.3 and ~2.0 fold higher with RB: WB in 1:2 ratio. PMID:24031986

Singh, Renu; Kapoor, Vishal; Kumar, Vijay

2012-06-01

381

The use of cane molasses for the manufacture of motor fuels as experienced in the early 1920s  

SciTech Connect

During the years 1919-1923 alcohol motor fuel was manufactured from sugar cane molasses in British Guiana. This alcohol motor fuel, known by the trade name of Alcolene, consisted of a mixture of about 63% ethyl alcohol, 35% ethyl ether, and 1% gas oil and pyridine. It was produced by fermenting cane molasses for the production of ethyl alcohol and afterwards manufacturing ethyl ether by treating a part of the ethyl alcohol with sulphuric acid in special distillation equipment manufactured by Walter E. Lummus., Boston, Massachusetts which mixed the alcohol and ether during the manufacturing process. No refrigeration was required. This Alcolene Motor Fuel was sold on the market in British Guiana for several years and used successfully in many types of gasolene engines with very little adjustment of the engines. Alcolene gave about 20 miles per US gallon as compared with 22.5 miles per gallon of gasolene. The motor engines remained in perfect condition when using this alcohol motor fuel.

Freeland, E.C.

1980-12-01

382

The effect of cane use method on center of mass displacement during stair ascent.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to examine the effect of forward and lateral cane placement on displacement of whole body center of mass (COM) and spatial relationship between COM and the cane during stair ascent (SA) in healthy adults. The data were obtained using three-dimensional motion analysis while ascending stairs non-reciprocally with following methods: (1) dominant foot stepped up first, then the opposite foot without a cane (NC); (2) forward placement of a quadricane followed by the ipsilateral foot, then contralateral foot (FCI); (3) forward cane placement followed by the contralateral foot, then ipsilateral foot (FCC); (4) ipsilateral foot stepping up first, followed by the contralateral foot, then the cane (LCI); (5) contralateral foot stepping up, followed by the ipsilateral foot, then the cane (LCC). The results indicated that the cane placement had significant effect on the medial-lateral (ML) COM displacement and the kinematics of the trunk. Lateral cane placement requires greater trunk extension and side-flexion. The major differences between ipsilateral and contralateral cane use are the motions at frontal and transverse planes in which the COM displacement in ML direction is larger in ipsilateral cane use. The COM displacement in ML direction is larger in ipsilateral use of cane (LCI and FCI). The results of this study may help clinicians better understand the possible nature of balance control in patients who ascend stairs with a cane, and suggest that the method of cane placement should be taken into consideration by clinicians when teaching the cane user to ascend stairs. PMID:20800489

Hsue, Bih-Jen; Su, Fong-Chin

2010-08-25

383

Assessing the Potential Impact of Cane Toads on Australian Snakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cane toads (Bufo marinus) are large, highly toxic anurans that were introduced into Australia in 1937. Anecdotal reports suggest that the invasion of toads into an area is followed by dramatic declines in the abundance of terrestrial native frog-eating predators, but quantitative studies have been restricted to nonpredator taxa or aquatic predators and have generally reported minimal impacts. Will toads

BEN L. PHILLIPS; GREGORY P. BROWN; RICHARD SHINE

2003-01-01

384

65 FR 62989 - White Cane Safety Day, 2000  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...2000 White Cane Safety Day, 2000 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Last month at the Olympic Games in Sydney, American runner Marla Runyan made history in the women's 1500- meter race. She was not considered...

2000-10-19

385

Structured Discovery in Cane Travel: Constructivism in Action  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a general sense today that constructivist teaching is not up to the task of preparing students for high-stakes exams. In this article, the authors describe a highly effective constructivist approach used to teach students in a learning situation that takes the meaning of "high stakes" to another level. They talk about teachers of "cane

Maurer, Matthew M.; Bell, Edward C.; Woods, Eric; Allen, Roland

2006-01-01

386

Ethanolic fermentation of cane molasses by a highly flocculent yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A study of the comparative kinetics of standardS.uvarum ATCC 26602 withS.cerevisiae Y-10 (an isolate) and a highly flocculent strain ofS.uvarum in batch mode has shown that both the isolate and the highly flocculentS.uvarum strain have more desirable characteristics than the standard strains for ethanol production from cane molasses.

R. Raghav; H. Sivaraman; D. V. Gokhale; B. Seetarama Rao

1989-01-01

387

Mechanical planter update: 2007 Bayou Teche test plant cane results  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mechanization of cane planting has been somewhat limited, due to the fact that the entire 4-5 ft stalk must be planted horizontally in the seedbed. Several modifications were made to mechanical planters by a grower cooperator. To test the modifications, a replicated field trial was planted on Augus...

388

MULTIPLE CHALLENGES OF GREEN-CANE HARVESTING IN LOUISIANA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

With the widespread adoption of the chopper harvester system in Louisiana, producers are concerned about the effects of different ground and extractor fan speeds on cane yield, quality, losses, and profit, therefore an experiment was conducted to address these concerns. We tested ground speeds of 2...

389

Detection of adulteration in honey samples added various sugar syrups with 13C/12C isotope ratio analysis method.  

PubMed

Honey can be adulterated in various ways. One of the adulteration methods is the addition of different sugar syrups during or after honey production. Starch-based sugar syrups, high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), glucose syrup (GS) and saccharose syrups (SS), which are produced from beet or canes, can be used for adulterating honey. In this study, adulterated honey samples were prepared with the addition of HFCS, GS and SS (beet sugar) at a ratio of 0%, 10%, 20%, 40% and 50% by weight. (13)C/(12)C analysis was conducted on these adulterated honey samples using an isotope ratio mass spectrometer in combination with an elemental analyser (EA-IRMS). As a result, adulteration using C(4) sugar syrups (HFCS and GS) could be detected to a certain extent while adulteration of honey using C(3) sugar syrups (beet sugar) could not be detected. Adulteration by using SS (beet sugar) still has a serious detection problem, especially in countries in which beet is used in manufacturing sugar. For this reason, practice and analysis methods are needed to meet this deficit and to detect the adulterations precisely in the studies that will be conducted. PMID:23411291

Tosun, Murat

2012-11-24

390

Intestinal sugar transport.  

PubMed

Carbohydrates are an important component of the diet. The carbohydrates that we ingest range from simple monosaccharides (glucose, fructose and galactose) to disaccharides (lactose, sucrose) to complex polysaccharides. Most carbohydrates are digested by salivary and pancreatic amylases, and are further broken down into monosaccharides by enzymes in the brush border membrane (BBM) of enterocytes. For example, lactase-phloridzin hydrolase and sucrase-isomaltase are two disaccharidases involved in the hydrolysis of nutritionally important disaccharides. Once monosaccharides are presented to the BBM, mature enterocytes expressing nutrient transporters transport the sugars into the enterocytes. This paper reviews the early studies that contributed to the development of a working model of intestinal sugar transport, and details the recent advances made in understanding the process by which sugars are absorbed in the intestine. PMID:16586532

Drozdowski, Laurie A; Thomson, Alan B R

2006-03-21

391

Metabolic engineering of sugars and simple sugar derivatives in plants.  

PubMed

Carbon captured through photosynthesis is transported, and sometimes stored in plants, as sugar. All organic compounds in plants trace to carbon from sugars, so sugar metabolism is highly regulated and integrated with development. Sugars stored by plants are important to humans as foods and as renewable feedstocks for industrial conversion to biofuels and biomaterials. For some purposes, sugars have advantages over polymers including starches, cellulose or storage lipids. This review considers progress and prospects in plant metabolic engineering for increased yield of endogenous sugars and for direct production of higher-value sugars and simple sugar derivatives. Opportunities are examined for enhancing export of sugars from leaves. Focus then turns to manipulation of sugar metabolism in sugar-storing sink organs such as fruits, sugarcane culms and sugarbeet tubers. Results from manipulation of suspected 'limiting' enzymes indicate a need for clearer understanding of flux control mechanisms, to achieve enhanced levels of endogenous sugars in crops that are highly selected for this trait. Outcomes from in planta conversion to novel sugars and derivatives range from severe interference with plant development to field demonstration of crops accumulating higher-value sugars at high yields. The differences depend on underlying biological factors including the effects of the novel products on endogenous metabolism, and on biotechnological fine-tuning including developmental expression and compartmentation patterns. Ultimately, osmotic activity may limit the accumulation of sugars to yields below those achievable using polymers; but results indicate the potential for increases above current commercial sugar yields, through metabolic engineering underpinned by improved understanding of plant sugar metabolism. PMID:23043616

Patrick, John W; Botha, Frikkie C; Birch, Robert G

2012-10-08

392

Risk of boron and heavy metal pollution from agro-industrial wastes applied for plant nutrition.  

PubMed

In this study, the effects of various agro-industrial wastes were investigated when applied to soil alone or in combination with chemical fertilizers, regarding the risks of boron and heavy metal pollution of soils and plants. Nine combinations of production residues from various agro-industries, urban wastes, and mineral fertilizers were applied to potatoes in a field experiment. The content of available boron in the soil differed significantly (p < 0.05) among the applications. Generally, B values were found to be slightly higher when soapstock, prina, and blood were used alone or in combination. Although total Co, Cd, and Pb contents of soils showed no significant differences between the applications, Cr content differed significantly (p < 0.05). No pollution risk was observed in soil in respect to total Co, Cd, Pb, and Cr contents. The amount of boron and heavy metals in leaves showed no significant differences among the applications. Cobalt, Cd, and Pb in leaves were at normal levels whereas Cr was slightly above normal but well under the critical level. Boron was low in tubers and varied significantly between applications such as Co and Cd. The Co content of tubers was high, Cd and Cr contents were below average, and Pb content was between the given values. Some significant correlations were found between soil characteristics and the boron and heavy metal content of soil, leaves, and tubers. PMID:19680756

Seçer, Müzeyyen; Ceylan, Safak; Elmaci, Omer Lütfü; Akdemir, Hüseyin

2009-08-13

393

Study of calendula and Gaillardia growth in two composts prepared from agroindustrial wastes.  

PubMed

Two composts prepared from agroindustrial wastes were assayed as substrates: C1 from brewing waste (yeast and malt) plus lemon tree pruning and C2 from the solid fraction of olive mill wastewater plus olive leaves. Sixteen substrates were prepared by combining each compost with Sphagnum peat or a Commercial Substrate (CS) in different proportions. The nutrients (N and K) provided by the composts, which acted as slow-release fertilizers, influenced especially the development of calendula, although the physical and physicochemical properties such as total pore space and Electrical Conductivity (EC) were also relevant. On the other hand, in the salt-sensitive Gaillardia hybrid, EC and chloride concentration were the main factors influencing growth. The best results were found in substrates prepared by mixing C1 at up to 75% with peat, or at up to 50% with CS, or by mixing C2 at up to 50% with peat or CS, for calendula. For salt-sensitive species such as Gaillardia, adequate substrates for plant development were found for C1 at up to 50% with peat or CS, but the use of C2 should be limited to 25% in mixtures with peat or CS. Therefore, composts of agroindustrial origin such as these can be used as an alternative to peat and CSs for growing ornamental plants, provided the mixture contains at least 25% peat or CS. PMID:19069954

Roudsari, O Nouri; Akbari, B

2007-05-01

394

Interaction Effects of the Amount of Practice, Preferred Cane Technique, and Type of Cane Technique Used on Drop-Off Detection Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the interaction effects of the amount of practice and the cane technique used in drop-off detection with a sample of 32 adults who were blind. The advantage of the constant contact technique over the two-point touch technique was significantly greater for the less experienced cane users than for the more experienced ones.…

Kim, Dae Shik; Emerson, Robert Wall; Curtis, Amy

2010-01-01

395

Interaction Effects of the Amount of Practice, Preferred Cane Technique, and Type of Cane Technique Used on Drop-off Detection Performance  

PubMed Central

This study examined the interaction effects of the amount of practice and the cane technique used in drop-off detection with a sample of 32 adults who were blind. The advantage of the constant contact technique over the two-point touch technique was significantly greater for the less experienced cane users than for the more experienced ones.

Kim, Dae Shik; Emerson, Robert Wall; Curtis, Amy

2010-01-01

396

Use of farming and agro-industrial wastes as versatile barriers in reducing pesticide leaching through soil columns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased interest has been recently focused on assessing the influence of the addition of organic wastes related to movement of pesticides in soils of low organic matter (OM) content. This study reports the effect of two different amendments, animal manure (composted sheep manure) and agro-industrial waste (spent coffee grounds) on the mobility of 10 pesticides commonly used for pepper protection

J. Fenoll; E. Ruiz; P. Flores; N. Vela; P. Hellín; S. Navarro

2011-01-01

397

Utilization of agro-industrial and municipal waste materials as potential adsorbents for water treatment—A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adsorption process has been proven one of the best water treatment technologies around the world and activated carbon is undoubtedly considered as universal adsorbent for the removal of diverse types of pollutants from water. However, widespread use of commercial activated carbon is sometimes restricted due to its higher costs. Attempts have been made to develop inexpensive adsorbents utilizing numerous agro-industrial

Amit Bhatnagar; Mika Sillanpää

2010-01-01

398

The Liquid Glass Transition in Sugars and Sugar Mixtures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The liquid-glass transition in sugars and sugar mixtures was studied with calorimetry, Brillouin scattering, and dielectric spectroscopy. Sugars are particular interest among other glass forming materials because sugars are main constitution of the biological system and sugar glasses play an important role in preservation and protection of biological cells. We studied a number of sugars and sugar mixtures including glucose, galactose, sucrose, maltose, trehalose, glucose/sucrose, sucrose/trehalose, using calorimetry (DTA and DSC), Brillouin scattering, and dielectric spectroscopy. We found the following: (1) Brillouin scattering technique can be used to determine the glass transition temperature. (2) In sugar mixtures, the volume compression effect from the molecule size and shape played an important role in the glass transition temperature. (3) The origin of the secondary relaxation in glucose-water mixtures maybe relate to the rotation-translation coupling constant in the schematic mode coupling theory.

Seo, Jeong-Ah; Oh, Jiyoung; Kwon, Hyun-Joung; Kim, Hyung Kook; Hwang, Yoon-Hwae

2006-05-01

399

Converting sugars to sugar alcohols by aqueous phase catalytic hydrogenation  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a method of converting sugars to their corresponding sugar alcohols by catalytic hydrogenation in the aqueous phase. It has been found that surprisingly superior results can be obtained by utilizing a relatively low temperature (less than 120.degree. C.), selected hydrogenation conditions, and a hydrothermally stable catalyst. These results include excellent sugar conversion to the desired sugar alcohol, in combination with long life under hydrothermal conditions.

Elliott, Douglas C. (Richland, WA); Werpy, Todd A. (West Richland, WA); Wang, Yong (Richland, WA); Frye, Jr., John G. (Richland, WA)

2003-05-27

400

1. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill: oneton ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill: one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Historical view, 1934, from T.T. Waterman collection, Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association. Large rectangular piece lying in front of the mill is the top of the mill frame appearing in its proper place in 1928 views. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

401

Sugar metabolism of hyperthermophiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years a number of hyperthermophiles with the ability to utilize sugars as source for carbon and energy have been isolated. Analysis of their central metabolism may reveal adaptations to the extreme environment, or give information about the evolution of the primary pathways involved. The best studied representative is Pyrococcus furiosus, which has become the model organism of the

Servé W. M. Kengen; Alfons J. M. Stams; Willem M. de Vos

1996-01-01

402

The taste of sugars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugars evoke a distinctive perceptual quality (“sweetness” in humans) and are generally highly preferred. The neural basis for these phenomena is reviewed for rodents, in which detailed electrophysiological measurements have been made. A receptor has been identified that binds sweeteners and activates G-protein-mediated signaling in taste receptor cells, which leads to changes in neural firing rates in the brain, where

Stuart A. McCaughey

2008-01-01

403

Sugar-beet Seed  

Microsoft Academic Search

AT a recent meeting of the Sigma Xi Society of the University of Colorado Dr. W. W. Robbins, botanist to the Great Western Sugar Co., read a paper on beet-seed production. Dr. Robbins related that so early as 1909 Mr. Hans Mendelson, a German in the employ of the company, undertook to grow beet-seed in Montana. In those days all

T. D. A. Cockerell

1920-01-01

404

Carbohydrates, Sugar, and Your Child  

MedlinePLUS

... refined carbs (refined sugars found in foods and beverages like candy and soda, and refined grains like ... is to eliminate soda and other sugar-sweetened beverages, which can cause erosion of tooth enamel from ...

405

Manage your blood sugar (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Checking your blood sugar levels often and writing down the results will tell you how well you are managing your diabetes so you ... possible. The best times to check your blood sugar are before meals and at bedtime. Your blood ...

406

Low blood sugar symptoms (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... nervousness and irritability are signs that a person's blood sugar is getting dangerously low. A person showing any of these symptoms should check their blood sugar. If the level is low (70 mg/dl), ...

407

Selected Articles on Sugar Beet.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Scientific and technical progress in beet growing; Structure of sugar beet root under a different mineral nutrition regime; Characteristics of growth and cell division in high-sugar and high-yielding strains of sugar beet; Intake of root nutriti...

1976-01-01

408

UTILIZZO DEL TRAMADOLO PER VIA EPIDURALE NEL CANE: CASE REPORT  

Microsoft Academic Search

RIASSUNTO In questo lavoro è stato impiegato e descritto l'utilizzo del Tramadolo per via epidurale durante l'anestesia in un cane che affronta, in successione, tre interventi nella stessa seduta operatoria; il primo in regione perineale seguito da orchiectomia e successivamente l'exeresi di una grossa neoformazione sul gomito. La somministrazione epidurale lombo-sacrale effettuata con Tramadolo a 2mg\\/kg diluito 1:1 in soluzione

Pierre MELANIE

409

The behavioral ecology of cannibalism in cane toads ( Bufo marinus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory studies show that predatory cane toads (Bufo marinus) exhibit specialized toe-luring behavior that attracts smaller conspecifics, but field surveys of toad diet rarely record\\u000a cannibalism. Our data resolve this paradox, showing that cannibalism is common under specific ecological conditions. In the\\u000a wet–dry tropics of Australia, desiccation risk constrains recently metamorphosed toads to the edges of the natal pond. Juvenile

Lígia Pizzatto; Richard Shine

2008-01-01

410

A New Milky Way Dwarf Satellite in Canes Venatici  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this Letter, we announce the discovery of a new dwarf satellite of the Milky Way, located in the constellation Canes Venatici. It was found as a stellar overdensity in the north Galactic cap using Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 5 (SDSS DR5). The satellite's color-magnitude diagram shows a well-defined red giant branch as well as a horizontal branch.

V. Belokurov; N. W. Evans; M. I. Wilkinson; T. Sivarani; S. Hodgkin; D. M. Bramich; J. M. Irwin; G. Gilmore; B. Willman; S. Vidrih; M. Fellhauer; P. C. Hewett; T. C. Beers; E. F. Bell; E. K. Grebel; D. P. Schneider; H. J. Newberg; R. F. G. Wyse; C. M. Rockosi; B. Yanny; R. Lupton; J. A. Smith; J. C. Barentine; H. Brewington; J. Brinkmann; M. Harvanek; S. J. Kleinman; J. Krzesinski; D. Long; A. Nitta; S. A. Snedden

2006-01-01

411

EXPRESSION OF MEMBRANE TRANSPORTERS IN CANE TOAD BUFO MARINUS OOCYTES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Membrane transport proteins (transporters and ion channels) have been extensively expressed in amphibian oocytes. The aims of this study were to determine whether oocytes from the cane toad Bufo marinus could be used as an alternative expression system to the broadly used Xenopus laevis oocytes. mRNAs encoding plasma membrane transporters NaSi-1 and sat-1 (sulphate transporters), NaDC-1 (dicarboxylate transporter), SGLT- 1

DANIEL MARKOVICH; RALF R. REGEER

412

19 CFR 151.30 - Sugar closets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sugar closets. 151.30 Section 151.30 Customs...EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.30 Sugar closets. Sugar closets for...

2013-04-01

413

Stilbenoid profiles of canes from Vitis and Muscadinia species.  

PubMed

We present stilbenoid profiles of canes from 16 grapevines. Fifteen stilbenoids were obtained through isolation and structure identification using MS, NMR, and [?](D) or as commercial standards. An HPLC-UV method for the simultaneous quantification of nine of these stilbenoids was developed and applied to canes of Vitis amurensis, Vitis arizonica, Vitis berlandieri, Vitis betulifolia, Vitis cinerea, Vitis × champini, Vitis × doaniana, Vitis labrusca, Vitis candicans (syn. Vitis mustangensis), Vitis riparia, Vitis rupestris, Vitis vinifera, Muscadinia rotundifolia, and a V. vinifera × M. rotundifolia hybrid. In these species, E-ampelopsin E, E-amurensin B, E-piceid, E-piceatannol, E-resveratrol, E-resveratroloside, E-?-viniferin, E-?-viniferin, and E-vitisin B were quantified, when found in sufficient amounts. Total concentrations ranged from ~2.2 to 19.5 g/kg of dry weight. Additional stilbenoids, E-3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene 2-C-glucoside, Z-ampelopsin E, Z-trans-miyabenol C, E-trans-miyabenol C, scirpusin A, and Z-vitisin B, were identified but not quantified. Our results indicate that canes, particularly those of non-vinifera species, have substantial quantities of valuable, health-promoting stilbenoids. PMID:23270496

Pawlus, Alison D; Sahli, Ramla; Bisson, Jonathan; Rivière, Céline; Delaunay, Jean-Claude; Richard, Tristan; Gomès, Eric; Bordenave, Louis; Waffo-Téguo, Pierre; Mérillon, Jean-Michel

2013-01-11

414

Optimisation of biogas production from anaerobic digestion of agro-industrial waste streams in Brazil.  

PubMed

The important Brazilian agro-industry produces significant amounts of wastewater with high concentrations of biodegradable compounds. A lot can be gained if wastewater treatment would take place using anaerobic reactors instead of the anaerobic lagoons generally used now. Apart from preventing methane emissions to the atmosphere this would permit the use of the biogas as a source of energy. To facilitate implementation of this technology also in small and intermediate sized companies a system requiring only minimal maintenance is needed. The need for maintenance by skilled labour can be reduced using an automated process control system, which is being developed. Cassava (manioc, tapioca) processing wastewater has been treated in a lab scale UASB reactor equipped with an on-line monitoring system, to test a control strategy based mainly on pH control. Good results have been obtained treating not only pre-acidified but also treating raw (diluted) cassava processing wastewater. PMID:19001722

Boncz, M A; Bezerra, L Pinheiro; Ide, C Nobuyoshi; Paulo, P Loureiro

2008-01-01

415

Utilization of Molasses Sugar for Lactic Acid Production by Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii Mutant Uc-3 in Batch Fermentation?  

PubMed Central

Efficient lactic acid production from cane sugar molasses by Lactobacillus delbrueckii mutant Uc-3 in batch fermentation process is demonstrated. Lactic acid fermentation using molasses was not significantly affected by yeast extract concentrations. The final lactic acid concentration increased with increases of molasses sugar concentrations up to 190 g/liter. The maximum lactic acid concentration of 166 g/liter was obtained at a molasses sugar concentration of 190 g/liter with a productivity of 4.15 g/liter/h. Such a high concentration of lactic acid with high productivity from molasses has not been reported previously, and hence mutant Uc-3 could be a potential candidate for economical production of lactic acid from molasses at a commercial scale.

Dumbrepatil, Arti; Adsul, Mukund; Chaudhari, Shivani; Khire, Jayant; Gokhale, Digambar

2008-01-01

416

San Sebastián: the social and political effects of sugar mill closure in Mexico.  

PubMed

Mexico's sugar mills face an uncertain future: the closure of San Sebastián may well presage others if the climate for sugar production on national and international levels does not improve. While the continued squeezing of small cane producers reflects processes affecting peasant agriculture generally in Mexico, and indeed beyond, the fate of the mill workers made redundant when the mill closed similarly mirrors broad tendencies in labor in both the developed and developing world under neoliberalism. Former workers fell back upon personal, family, and community resources by migrating to the U.S. or locally reconstructing livelihoods characterized by a reduction in income, security, and access to social benefits. This article reports on the impact of the mill closure on the livelihoods of former mill worker families in the community of San Sebastián and offers some observations on their responses to the situation. PMID:17434857

Powell, Kathy

2007-01-01

417

Considerations Relative to the Use of Canes by Blind Travelers in Air Carrier Aircraft Cabins.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results are presented of specific areas of study; i.e.: (1) passenger evacuation time lapses with and without the presence of canes; (2) emergency exiting advantages and disadvantages with and without the presence of canes; (3) the utility of surrogate ca...

R. F. Chandler J. D. Garner D. L. Lowrey J. G. Blethrow J. A. Anderson

1980-01-01

418

Analysis of Return on Investment of the Consolidated Afloat Networks and Enterprise Services (CANES) Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this thesis is to calculate a value for the return on investment (ROI) of the Consolidated Afloat Networks and Enterprise Services (CANES). The research examines previous work performed by the CANES team in the development of a business cas...

A. B. Rognlie

2010-01-01

419

SURVEY OF FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEMS: CANE RUN STATION, LOUISVILLE GAS AND ELECTRIC COMPANY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a survey of operational flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems on coal-fired utility boilers in the U.S. The FGD systems installed on Units 4, 5, and 6 at the Cane Run Station are described in terms of design and performance. The Cane Run No. 4 FGD sys...

420

White Paper: Demonstration of Equivalency of Cane and Softwood Based Celotex (Trade Name) for 9975 Packaging.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this White Paper is to demonstrate that softwood-based Celotex from the Knight-Celotex Danville Plant has performance equivalent to cane-based Celotex from the Knight-Celotex Marrero Plant for transportation in a 9975 package. Cane-based Ce...

J. L. Varble

2007-01-01

421

Walking Speed of Older Pedestrians Who Use Canes or Walkers for Mobility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Findings are presented of a follow-up study conducted in Winnipeg, Canada, to investigate the walking speed of older pedestrians who use walkers or canes for mobility. The results are from research conducted to understand the differences between the normal and the crossing walking speeds of older pedestrians who use walkers or canes for mobility at signalized intersections. This walking speed

Jorge Arango; Jeannette Montufar

2008-01-01

422

Materials Testing in Long Cane Design: Sensitivity, Flexibility, and Transmission of Vibration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Different materials that are used in manufacturing long cane shafts were assessed for their ability to transmit vibration and their sensitivity to tactile information, flexibility, and durability. It was found that the less flexible a cane shaft is, the better it transmits vibrations that are useful for discriminating surface textures and that…

Rodgers, Mark D.; Emerson, Robert Wall

2005-01-01

423

Agroindustrial waste ‘wheat bran’ for the biosorptive remediation of selenium through continuous up-flow fixed-bed column  

Microsoft Academic Search

Present study deals with the utilization of an agro-industrial waste wheat bran for the remediation of selenium species, Se(IV) and Se(VI) by continuous up-flow fixed-bed column system. Laboratory-scale column tests were performed to determine potentiality of wheat bran at various bed height, flow rates and initial metal ion concentration and it was found to be very potential biosorbent as it

S. H. Hasan; D. Ranjan; M. Talat

2010-01-01

424

Wastewater management in a cane molasses distillery involving bioresource recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste management involving bioresource recovery in a cane molasses-based distillery engaged in the manufacture of rectified spirit (alcohol) is described. The spentwash generated from the distillation of fermenter wash is highly acidic (pH 4·0–4·3) with high rates of biochemical and chemical oxygen demand (BOD: 52–58, COD: 92–100kg\\/m3) and suspended solids (2·0–2·5kg\\/m3). Biogas is recovered from high strength raw spentwash through

Tapas Nandy; Sunita Shastry; S. N. Kaul

2002-01-01

425

Antimicrobial effect of sugar osazones and anhydro sugars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antimicrobial effect of 14 sugar osazones and anhydro sugars was studied with model strains ofMicrococcus luteus, Bacillus licheniformis, Escherichia coli and strainsStaphylococcus aureus andPseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from clinical material. The relationship between the structure of these compounds, their solubility in water and\\u000a 1-octanol and antimicrobial effect was investigated.

J. Zemek; K. Linbk; B. Kadle?íková; Š. Ku?ár; L. Somogyi

1985-01-01

426

Interaction of methylparaben preservative with selected sugars and sugar alcohols.  

PubMed

The interaction of methylparaben preservative with selected sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose, lactose, maltose, cellobiose) and sugar alcohols (lactitol, maltitol) were demonstrated in this study. It was observed that the formation of transesterification reaction products between methylparaben and the selected sugars occurred only under mild reaction conditions (e.g., pH 7.4 at 50 degrees C ), which were confirmed by HPLC-UV studies and mass spectrometry. On the other hand, under alkaline conditions and high temperature, degradation of the sugars predominated. Because sugars could easily undergo many possible degradation reactions and isomerization including on-column anomerization, the chromatograms of the reaction products were more complicated than those obtained from sugar alcohols. Sucrose, a nonreducing sugar, was much more stable than other selected sugars. The chromatogram of the transesterification reaction products of methylparaben with sucrose clearly showed eight peaks, which were likely to correspond to the same number of hydroxyl groups of sucrose. To compare the rate of the transesterification reaction of methylparaben with sucrose to that with sorbitol, kinetic studies were carried out. Similar rate constants were observed: 5.4 x 10(-7) L mol(-1) s(-1) and 4.9 x 10(-7) L mol(-1) s(-1) for sucrose and sorbitol, respectively. PMID:12115834

Ma, Minhui; Lee, Tony; Kwong, Elizabeth

2002-07-01

427

Hydrogen isotopic profile in the characterization of sugars. Influence of the metabolic pathway.  

PubMed

The site-specific natural hydrogen isotope ratios of plant metabolites determined by 2H nuclear magnetic resonance (SNIF-NMR method) can provide powerful criteria for inferring mechanistic and environmental effects on biosynthetic pathways. This work examines the potential of isotopic profiles for the main constituents of carbohydrates, glucose and fructose, to distinguish different photosynthetic pathways. An appropriate analytical strategy, involving three suitable isotopic probes, has been elaborated with a view to measuring simultaneously, in conditions devoid of isotopic perturbations, all (or nearly all) of the carbon-bound hydrogen isotope ratios. It is shown that the type of photosynthetic metabolism, either C3 (sugar beet, orange, and grape), C4 (maize and sugar cane), or CAM (pineapple), and the physiological status of the precursor plant exert strong influences on the deuterium distribution in the sugar molecules. Consequently, this isotopic fingerprint may be a rich source of information for the comparison of mechanisms in metabolic pathways. In addition, it can provide complementary criteria to ethanol as a probe for the origin of sugars. PMID:11879039

Zhang, Ben-Li; Billault, Isabelle; Li, Xiaobao; Mabon, Françoise; Remaud, Gérald; Martin, Maryvonne L

2002-03-13

428

Decomposition of Reintroduced Native Cane in a Restored Stream Channel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stream restorations are often coupled with efforts to restore riparian zones. Native plants are often used in restored riparian areas but their effects on the streams (e.g. as a carbon subsidy) are not often assessed as part of a restoration evaluation. A channelized reach of Wilson Creek (Kentucky, USA) was relocated using natural channel design techniques and its new riparian zone was planted with a variety of native species including the river cane, Arundinaria gigantean, which was once a common riparian species in Kentucky. We installed decomposition packs containing stems or leaves of the cane at five locations in the restored section of Wilson Creek, one in an unrestored upstream site and at two locations in two unrestored reference streams to assess mass loss, N dynamics and fungal colonization. Initial results indicate that regardless of site leaf mass loss was faster in Wilson Creek than in the two reference streams (0.019% per day vs. 0.007%); stalk mass losses show similar trends to date. Research is continuing at Wilson to assess the performance of native vegetation at the site and to understand the role of riparian zone species in the success or failure of stream restorations.

Pirkle, R. S.; Word, D. A.; Carper, S.; Jack, J. D.

2005-05-01

429

Industry and Trade Summary: Sugar.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides a summary of the U.S. sugar market, covering the basic factors affecting trends in consumption, production, and trade, as well as those bearing on the competitiveness of U.S. industry in domestic and foreign markets. Sugar and its pro...

2001-01-01

430

Biotechnology Applications for Sugar Beet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is an important industrial crop, being one of only two plant sources from which sucrose (i.e., sugar) can be economically produced. Despite its relatively short period of cultivation (ca. 200 years), its yield and quality parameters have been significantly improved by conventional breeding methods. However, during the last two decades or so, advanced in vitro

Ekrem Gurel; Songul Gurel; Peggy G. Lemaux

2008-01-01

431

Biomass deconstruction to sugars.  

PubMed

The production of biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass relies on the depolymerization of its polysaccharide content into fermentable sugars. Accomplishing this requires pretreatment of the biomass to reduce its size, and chemical or physical alteration of the biomass polymers to enhance the susceptibility of their glycosidic linkages to enzymatic or acid catalyzed cleavage. Well-studied approaches include dilute and concentrated acid pretreatment and catalysis, and the dissolution of biomass in organic solvents. These and recently developed approaches, such as solubilization in ionic liquids, are reviewed in terms of the chemical and physical changes occurring in biomass pretreatment. As pretreatment represents one of the major costs in converting biomass to fuels, the factors that contribute to pretreatments costs, and their impact on overall process economics, are described. PMID:21834132

Blanch, Harvey W; Simmons, Blake A; Klein-Marcuschamer, Daniel

2011-08-10

432

Mechanism study of sugar and sugar alcohol hydrogenolysis using 1,3-diol model compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of the bond cleavage mechanism governing sugar and sugar alcohol hydrogenolysis is important to control of the selectivity of sugar and sugar alcohol hydrogenolysis. Previous work by others has resulted in the suggestion of a variety of mechanisms to explain the C{single_bond}C cleavage in sugar and sugar alcohol hydrogenolysis, and has not provided any definitive evidence to elucidate either

Keyi Wang; Martin C. Hawley; Todd D. Furney

1995-01-01

433

7 CFR 58.934 - Sugars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sugars. 58.934 Section 58.934 Agriculture ...Quality Specifications for Raw Materials § 58.934 Sugars. Any sugar used in the manufacture of sweetened condensed or...

2013-01-01

434

Hypoglycemia (Low Blood Sugar) in Diabetes Mellitus  

MedlinePLUS

... Hypoglycemia Patient information Patient information: Hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) in diabetes mellitus (Beyond the Basics) Author David ... Find Print Contents of this article LOW BLOOD SUGAR OVERVIEW WHY DO I GET LOW BLOOD SUGAR? ...

435

When Blood Sugar Is Too Low  

MedlinePLUS

... an insulin shot Continue Signs That Blood Sugar Levels Are Low There are a bunch of symptoms ... start feeling better. How Are Low Blood Sugar Levels Treated? When blood sugar levels are low, the ...

436

A Cane Improves Postural Recovery From an Unpracticed Slip During Walking in People With Parkinson Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about the effects of use of a cane on balance during perturbed gait or whether people with Parkinson disease (PD) benefit from using a cane. Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of cane use on postural recovery from a slip due to repeated surface perturbations in individuals with PD compared with age- and sex-matched individuals who were healthy. Design This was a prospective study with 2 groups of participants. Methods Fourteen individuals with PD (PD group) and 11 individuals without PD (control group) walked across a platform that translated 15 cm rightward at 30 cm/s during the single-limb support phase of the right foot. Data from 15 trials in 2 conditions (ie, with and without an instrumented cane in the right hand) were collected in random order. Outcome measures included lateral displacement of body center of mass (COM) due to the slip and compensatory step width and length after the perturbation. Results Cane use improved postural recovery from the first untrained slip, characterized by smaller lateral COM displacement, in the PD group but not in the control group. The beneficial effect of cane use, however, occurred only during the first perturbation, and those individuals in the PD group who demonstrated the largest COM displacement without a cane benefited the most from use of a cane. Both PD and control groups gradually decreased lateral COM displacement across slip exposures, but a slower learning rate was evident in the PD group participants, who required 6, rather than 3, trials for adapting balance recovery. Limitations Future studies are needed to examine the long-term effects of repeated slip training in people with PD. Conclusions Use of a cane improved postural recovery from an unpracticed slip in individuals with PD. Balance in people with PD can be improved by training with repeated exposures to perturbations.

Saengsirisuwan, Vitoon; Carlson-Kuhta, Patricia; Horak, Fay B.

2012-01-01

437

Pigment production by filamentous fungi on agro-industrial byproducts: an eco-friendly alternative.  

PubMed

The search for new sources of natural pigments has increased, mainly because of the toxic effects caused by synthetic dyes used in food, pharmaceutical, textile, and cosmetic industries. Fungi provide a readily available alternative source of natural pigments. In this context, the fungi Penicillium chrysogenum IFL1 and IFL2, Fusarium graminearum IFL3, Monascus purpureus NRRL 1992, and Penicillium vasconiae IFL4 were selected as pigments producers. The fungal identification was performed using ITS and part of the ?-tubulin gene sequencing. Almost all fungi were able to grow and produce water-soluble pigments on agro-industrial residues, with the exception of P. vasconiae that produced pigments only on potato dextrose broth. The production of yellow pigments was predominant and the two strains of P. chrysogenum were the largest producers. In addition, the production of pigments and mycotoxins were evaluated in potato dextrose agar using TOF-MS and TOF-MS/MS. Metabolites as roquefortine C, chrysogine were found in both extracts of P. chrysogenum, as well fusarenone X, diacetoxyscirpenol, and neosolaniol in F. graminearum extract. In the M. purpureus extract, the pigments monascorubrin, rubropunctatin, and the mycotoxin citrinin were found. The crude filtrates have potential to be used in the textile industry; nevertheless, additional pigment purification is required for food and pharmaceutical applications. PMID:23873642

Lopes, Fernanda Cortez; Tichota, Deise Michele; Pereira, Jamile Queiroz; Segalin, Jéferson; de Oliveira Rios, Alessandro; Brandelli, Adriano

2013-07-20

438

Evaluation of maturity and stability parameters of composts prepared from agro-industrial wastes.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in physical, chemical and biological parameters to assess the maturity and stability of composts prepared from mixture of different farm and agro-industrial wastes over a period of 150 days. All the composts appeared granular, dark grey in color without foul odor and attained an ambient temperature at 120 days of composting indicating the stable nature of composts. Correlation analysis showed that the optimal values of the selected parameters for our experimental conditions are as follows: organic matter loss >42%, C:N ratio <15, water soluble organic carbon (C(w)):organic N (N(org)) ratio <0.55, humic acid (HA):fulvic acid (FA) ratio >1.9, humification index (HI) >30%, cation exchange capacity (CEC):total organic carbon (TOC) ratio >1.7 and germination index (GI) >70%. Compost enriched with sewage sludge, pressmud and poultry waste matured earlier compared to composts either enriched with distillery effluent or un-enriched. PMID:21075622

Raj, Dev; Antil, R S

2010-10-23

439

Utilization of agroindustrial residues for lipase production by solid-state fermentation  

PubMed Central

The aim of this work was to produce lipases by solid-state fermentation (SSF) using, as substrate, agroindustrial residue supplemented with by-products from corn oil refining process or olive oil. For a group of ten fungi strains selected in the first steps, the lipase activity obtained by SSF varied from 7.7 to 58.6 U/g of dry substrate (gds). Among the evaluated strains, the Aspergillus niger mutant 11T53A14 was selected by presenting the best enzymatic production. For the fermentation tests, two substrates were also investigated: wheat bran and corn cob, both supplemented with olive oil. The best results were obtained with wheat bran. Additionally, three industrial by-products from corn oil refining (soapstock, stearin and fatty acids) were evaluated as substitutes to the olive oil in the function of lipases production inducer. Among them, soapstock and stearin were the best inducers, whereas fatty acids presented an inhibitor effect. The highest lipase activities using soapstock, stearin and fatty acids were 62.7 U/gds, 37.7 U/gds and 4.1 U/gds, respectively.

Damaso, Monica Caramez Triches; Passianoto, Moises Augusto; de Freitas, Sidinea Cordeiro; Freire, Denise Maria Guimaraes; Lago, Regina Celi Araujo; Couri, Sonia

2008-01-01

440

Utilization of agroindustrial residues for lipase production by solid-state fermentation.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to produce lipases by solid-state fermentation (SSF) using, as substrate, agroindustrial residue supplemented with by-products from corn oil refining process or olive oil. For a group of ten fungi strains selected in the first steps, the lipase activity obtained by SSF varied from 7.7 to 58.6 U/g of dry substrate (gds). Among the evaluated strains, the Aspergillus niger mutant 11T53A14 was selected by presenting the best enzymatic production. For the fermentation tests, two substrates were also investigated: wheat bran and corn cob, both supplemented with olive oil. The best results were obtained with wheat bran. Additionally, three industrial by-products from corn oil refining (soapstock, stearin and fatty acids) were evaluated as substitutes to the olive oil in the function of lipases production inducer. Among them, soapstock and stearin were the best inducers, whereas fatty acids presented an inhibitor effect. The highest lipase activities using soapstock, stearin and fatty acids were 62.7 U/gds, 37.7 U/gds and 4.1 U/gds, respectively. PMID:24031288

Damaso, Mônica Caramez Triches; Passianoto, Moisés Augusto; de Freitas, Sidinéa Cordeiro; Freire, Denise Maria Guimarães; Lago, Regina Celi Araujo; Couri, Sonia

2008-12-01

441

A methodology for optimising feed composition for anaerobic co-digestion of agro-industrial wastes.  

PubMed

An optimisation protocol for maximising methane production by anaerobic co-digestion of several wastes was carried out. A linear programming method was utilised to set up different blends aimed at maximising the total substrate biodegradation potential (L CH(4)/kg substrate) or the biokinetic potential (L CH(4)/kg substrate d). In order to validate the process, three agro-industrial wastes were considered: pig manure, tuna fish waste and biodiesel waste, and the results obtained were validated by experimental studies in discontinuous assays. The highest biodegradation potential (321 L CH(4)/kg COD) was reached with a mixture composed of 84% pig manure, 5% fish waste and 11% biodiesel waste, while the highest methane production rate (16.4 L CH(4)/kg COD d) was obtained by a mixture containing 88% pig manure, 4% fish waste and 8% biodiesel waste. Linear programming was proved to be a powerful, useful and easy-to-use tool to estimate methane production in co-digestion units where different substrates can be fed. PMID:19833510

Alvarez, J A; Otero, L; Lema, J M

2009-10-14

442

Pilot-scale study of efficient vermicomposting of agro-industrial wastes.  

PubMed

Pilot-scale vermicomposting was explored using Eudrilus eugeniae for 90 days with 45 days preliminary decomposition using different agro-industrial wastes as substrates. Spent wash and pressmud were mixed together (referred to as PS) and then combined with cow dung (CD) at five different ratios of PS:CD, namely, 25:75 (T1), 50:50 (T2), 75:25 (T3), 85:15 (T4) and 100 (T5), with two replicates for each treatment. All vermibeds expressed a significant decrease in pH (11.4-14.8%), organic carbon (4.2-30.5%) and an increase in total nitrogen (6-29%), AP (5-29%), exchangeable potash (6-21%) and turnover rate (52-66%). Maximum mortality (18.10%) of worms was recorded in T5 treatment. A high manurial value and a matured product was achieved in T3 treatment. The data reveal that pressmud mixed with spent wash can be decomposed through vermicomposting and can help to enhance the quality of vermicompost. PMID:22720423

Kumar, Vaidyanathan Vinoth; Shanmugaprakash, M; Aravind, J; Namasivayam, S Karthick Raja

443

33. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

33. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: From above the mill showing the three 15' x 22' horizontal rolls, mill frame or cheeks, portland cement foundation, and lower part of vertical drive shaft lying next mill in foreground. The loose metal piece resting on top of the mill frame matched the indented portion of the upper frame to form a bracket and bearing for the drive shaft when it was in its proper upright position. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

444

35. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

35. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Bevel gear at lower end of vertical drive shaft in foreground turned bevel gear of top roll when the vertical drive shaft was in place in the brass-bearing socket in the middle ground of the photograph. The bolts above the top roll and at the side of the two bottom rolls adjusted the pressure and position of the rolls' brass bearings. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

445

31. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill: oneton ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

31. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill: one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: View down at the mill from top of the mill's circular masonry enclosure. Mill animals circling above the mill, on top of the enclosure, dragged booms radiating from the drive shaft to power the mill. The drive-shaft is no longer in its upright positon but is lying next to the mill in the foreground. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

446

Sugar cane bagasse as a possible source of fermentable carbohydrates. II. Optimization of the xylose isomerase reaction for isomerization of xylose as well as sugar cane bagasse hydrolyzate to xylulose in laboratory-scale units.  

PubMed

Both the forward and backward reactions of xylose isomerase (Sweetzyme Q) with xylose and glucose as substrates have been studied in terms of kinetics and thermodynamics. The relationship between the two reactions can thus be determined. Much attention has been given to the reaction with xylose as substrate. The optimal conditions of the xylose reaction in terms of pH, buffer, metal ions, substrate concentration, temperature, and ionic strength have been determined. These findings did not differ much from those reported for the glucose reaction. Equilibrium constants for the aldose to ketose conversion were more favorable in the case of glucose. The results obtained with continuous isomerization of xylose in columns packed with either Sweetzyme Q or Taka-Sweet were very similar to those obtained from batch isomerization processes. Particle size had a definite effect on reaction rate, which indicates that diffusion limitations do occur with the immobilized enzyme particles. Heat stability of Sweetzyme Q was good with t(1/2) of 118, 248, and 1200 h at 70, 55, and 40 degrees C, respectively. A novel method for the separation of xylose-xylulose mixtures with water as eluant on a specially prepared Dowex 1 x 8 column was developed. This technique has the capability of producing pure xylulose for industrial or research applications. A writ for a patent regarding this technique is at present prepared. PMID:18555380

Olivier, S P; du Toit, P J

1986-05-01

447

Distances to five resolved galaxies in the Canes Venatici cloud  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results of CCD imaging in B, V of five late-type galaxies with radial velocities V_0 < 350 km/s in the Canes Venatici cloud. Based on the photometry of their brightest blue stars we derived the following distances to the galaxies: 9.7 Mpc for NGC 4144, 4.5 Mpc for NGC 4244, 4.2 Mpc for NGC 4395, 2.9 Mpc for NGC 4449, and 8.2 Mpc for UGC 8331. Tables 3 to 7 are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Karachentsev, I. D.; Drozdovsky, I. O.

1998-07-01

448

Wastewater management in a cane molasses distillery involving bioresource recovery.  

PubMed

Waste management involving bioresource recovery in a cane molasses-based distillery engaged in the manufacture of rectified spirit (alcohol) is described. The spentwash generated from the distillation of fermenter wash is highly acidic (pH 4.0-4.3) with high rates of biochemical and chemical oxygen demand (BOD: 52-58, COD: 92-100 kg/m3) and suspended solids (2.0-2.5 kg/m3). Biogas is recovered from high strength raw spentwash through the full-scale application of a biomethanation system as pretreatment option, comprising anaerobic fixed film reactors. This, combined with subsequent concentration through multiple effect evaporators (MEE), and utilization of concentrated effluent for biocomposting of pressmud (another by-product of the industry) for production of biomanure contributes to the elimination of effluent discharges. PMID:12173420

Nandy, Tapas; Shastry, Sunita; Kaul, S N

2002-05-01

449

History of sugar maple decline  

Treesearch

Sugar maple ecology and health: proceedings of an international symposium; ... compaction, drought, impeded soil water availability, or toxic effects of road deicing salt. ... In the past two decades, freezing of roots associated with periods of ...

450

Know Your Blood Sugar Numbers  

MedlinePLUS

... Numbers If you have diabetes, keeping your blood glucose (sugar) numbers in your target range can help you ... a lab test that measures your average blood glucose level over the last 2 to 3 months. ...

451

History of sugar maple decline  

Treesearch

Sugar maple ecology and health: proceedings of an international ... major decline episodes In eastern Canada and northern New England and New York. ... by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.

452

Fungal invertase as an aid for fermentation of cane molasses into ethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparative studies of the fermentation of cane molasses into ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the presence or absence of fungal invertase were performed. When cane molasses was fermented by the yeast at 30 degrees Centigrade and pH 5.0, the presence of the enzyme had no effect on ethanol production. At pH 3.4, ethanol production was increased by the addition of

Y. K. Park; H. H. Sato

1982-01-01

453

Utilization of agro-industrial residues for pectinase production by the novel strain Pseudozyma sp. SPJ under solid state cultivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of high titers of an alkaline, extracellular and thermo-tolerant pectinase by a newly isolated yeast Pseudozyma sp. SPJ was carried out in solid state fermentation (SSF). Among all the agro-industrial residues used as substrate, citrus\\u000a peel was found to be the best. Maximum pectinase production was observed after 72 h of incubation at 32°C. The moistening\\u000a agent containing MgSO4?7H2O, KH2PO4

Sampriya Sharma; Rishi Pal Mandhan; Jitender Sharma

454

Sugarcane Bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in industrial biotechnology offer potential opportunities for economic utilization of agro-industrial residues. Sugarcane\\u000a bagasse is the major by-product of the sugar cane industry. It contains about 50% cellulose, 25% hemicellulose and 25% lignin.\\u000a Due to its abundant availability, it can serve as an ideal substrate for microbial processes for the production of value-added\\u000a products such as protein enriched animal

Binod Parameswaran

455

Abiotic Stress in Sugar Beet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is often limited by environmental conditions that cause decreased rates of photosynthesis, canopy expansion, root growth\\u000a and sucrose accumulation. These conditions include insufficient water, heat, freezing temperatures and salinity. Compared\\u000a to other crops such as cereals, harvestable sugar yields can be obtained even under harsh growing conditions. However, the\\u000a realization of maximum

Eric S. Ober; Abazar Rajabi

2010-01-01

456

History of Sugar Maple Decline  

Microsoft Academic Search

Only a few episodes of sugar maple dieback or decline were recorded during the first half of the 20th Century. In coritrast, the last 50 years have provided nume!ous reports of both urban and forest diebackideciine. In the late 1950s. a defoliation-triggered decline. termed rnaple blight, that occurred in Wisconsin prompted the first compreherrsive, multidiscipl~rrary study of a sugar maple

Sugar Maple Dectines

457

DNA Bending and Sugar Switching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using high frequency antiphase NMR spectroscopy and computer simulations of the antiphase spectra, we studied the equlibria in the sugar conformations in the DNA duplex 11-mer containing the AAA tract surrounded by cytosines. We demonstrate that at the 3?-end of the A-tract, the sugar switches from the common S-conformer (B-like form) to the N-conformer (A-like form) with the probability of

Shantaram Kamath; Mukti H. Sarma; Victor B. Zhurkin; Christopher J. Turner; Ramaswamy H. Sarma

2000-01-01

458

Slipping cane and crutch tips. Part I--static performance of current devices.  

PubMed

A variety of commercially available cane and crutch tips were tested on surfaces of ice and soapy tile under varying axial (thrust) loads. The output measurement consisted of the angle between the vertical and the cane axis at which slip occurred. It was learned that: 1. From the viewpoint of a user, a minimal slip angle of roughly 25 deg is desirable. 2. On ice-rink ice, a number of cane tips approach the desired slip angle under conditions of low temperature; fewer appear safe at elevated air temperatures. Only one of the tested devices appears truly safe under any ice condition. 3. On rough tile flooded with soapy water, some cane tips offer adequate performance. However, no tested cane tip offers acceptable performance on slick tile flooded with soapy water. 4. There appears to be no simple relationship between the slip performance of a cane tip on ice-rink ice and that developed on soapy wet tiles. 5. No simple relationship between thrust load and slip angle emerged. Similarly, no simple relationship between contact area and slip appeared in the data. PMID:615654

Bennett, L; Murphy, E F

1977-01-01

459

Background for 1990 Farm Legislation: Sugar.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The sugar support program and rapid adoption of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) played important roles in transforming the U.S. sugar industry in the 1980s. While sugar output and productivity increased, consumption of sugar fell dramatically as HFCS disp...

F. Gray L. Angelo P. J. Buzzanell R. D. Barry

1990-01-01

460

Dangers of High and Low Blood Sugar  

MedlinePLUS

... On Track Dangers of High and Low Blood Sugar Dangers of High and Low Blood Sugar htmDiab1OnTrack_Dangers Illness, insulin, food and exercise all can affect blood sugar. When these elements get out of balance, sugar ...

461

Ethanol from sugar crops: a critical review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the hardships resulting from rising oil prices and periodic production shortfalls, many developing countries, especially those with warm humid climates, have explored ethanol production from sugar crops. This critical review offers information on ethanol production for development planners. Two sugar crop-based ethanol systems, raw sugar facility retrofit and conventional juice extraction, are first examined. The agronomy of sugar

E. S. Lipinsky; B. R. Allen; A. Bose; S. Kresovich

1981-01-01

462

Feeding of Lablab purpureus forage with molasses blocks or sugar cane stalks to rabbit fryers in subtropical south Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the lesser-developed countries, pelleted commercial feeds for rabbits are generally not available or are cost prohibitive to most farmers. The development of high quality, forage-based diets with simple supplements is a high priority research area. A 35-day feeding experiment was conducted involving 60 rabbit fryers to evaluate lablab forage (fresh or hay) in combination with an energy supplement (molasses

S. S Linga; S. D Lukefahr; M. J Lukefahr

2003-01-01

463

Influence of linearly decreasing feeding rates on fed-batch ethanol fermentation of sugar-cane blackstrap molasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The ethanol yield was not affected and the ethanol productivity increased (˜10%) when linearly decreasing feeding rates were used instead of constant feeding rates in fed-batch ethanol fermentations.

Margareth Krauter; E. Aquarone; S. Sato; L. Perego Jr; W. Borzani

1987-01-01

464

Solid state fermentation for extracellular polysaccharide production by Lactobacillus confusus with coconut water and sugar cane juice as renewable wastes.  

PubMed

Extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) production by Lactobacillus confusus in liquid and solid state fermentation was carried out using coconut water and sugarcane juice as renewable wastes. High concentrations of EPS of 62 (sugarcane juice) and 18 g/l of coconut water were produced in solid state fermentation when nitrogen sources were reduced 5-fold from the original medium. PMID:20139601

Seesuriyachan, Phisit; Techapun, Charin; Shinkawa, Hidenori; Sasaki, Ken

2010-02-07

465

Production of curdlan using sucrose or sugar cane molasses by two-step fed-batch cultivation of Agrobacterium species  

Microsoft Academic Search

  Maltose and sucrose were efficient carbon sources for the production of curdlan by a strain of Agrobacterium sp. A two-step, fed-batch operation was designed in which biomass was first produced, followed by curdlan production which\\u000a was stimulated by nitrogen limitation. There exists an optimal timing for nitrogen limitation for curdlan production in the\\u000a two-step, fed-batch operation. Maximum curdlan production (60?g?L?1)

I-Y Lee; W T Seo; G J Kim; M K Kim; C S Park; Y H Park

1997-01-01

466

Comparison of the Kinetics of Photosynthetic Carbon Dioxide Fixation in Maize, Sugar Cane and Tobacco, and its Relation to Photorespiration  

Microsoft Academic Search

MOST plants exhibit the phenomenon of photorespiration : that is to say they give out a certain amount of carbon dioxide in the light. This effect is usually masked by the occurrence of photosynthesis which takes up carbon dioxide at a greater rate than photorespiration releases it. Photorespiration can, however, usually be demonstrated by allowing leaves to photosynthesize in an

A. Goldsworthy

1968-01-01

467

Sugar Cane Industry as a Source of Water Pollution – Case Study on the Situation in Ipojuca River, Pernambuco, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ipojuca river, a river in Northeast Brazil extending from west to east, is situated in the semiarid interior and rainy\\u000a coastal zone of Pernambuco state. The river basin covers an area of 3,514 km2, with a total river length of 215 km. The water flow regime is characterized by the annual change from dry to rainy season\\u000a as well as periodically

Günter Gunkel; Jan Kosmol; Maria Sobral; Hendryk Rohn; Suzana Montenegro; Joana Aureliano

2007-01-01

468

The Impact of Sugar Cane–Burning Emissions on the Respiratory System of Children and the Elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

10.2 µg\\/m 3 in particles ? 2.5 µm\\/m 3 aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) and 42.9 µg\\/m 3 in PM10 were associated with increases of 21.4% (95% confidence interval (CI), 4.3-38.5) and 31.03% (95% CI, 1.25-60.21) in child and elderly respiratory hospital admissions, respectively. When we compared periods, the effects during the burning period were much higher than the effects during nonburning

José E. D. Cançado; Paulo H. N. Saldiva; Luiz A. A. Pereira; Luciene B. L. S. Lara; Paulo Artaxo; Luiz A. Martinelli; Marcos A. Arbex; Antonella Zanobetti; Alfesio L. F. Braga

2006-01-01

469

Iron, copper and zinc in white sugar from Serbian sugar beet refineries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small amounts of soluble and insoluble impurities such as iron, copper and zinc in refined white sugar determine the usefulness of sugar for various industrial applications. The content of iron, copper and zinc was evaluated in 166 white sugar samples from four Serbian beet sugar refineries during the campaign of 2003. The production of the chosen sugar factories is accounted

B. Škrbi?; J. Gyura

2007-01-01

470

Stable isotope ratio measurements of royal jelly samples for controlling production procedures: impact of sugar feeding.  

PubMed

The carbon and nitrogen stable ratios of royal jelly (RJ) samples from various origins are determined using an elemental analyser linked online to an isotope ratio mass spectrometer to evaluate authenticity and adulteration. The (13)C/(12)C and (15)N/(14)N stable isotope ratios are measured in more than 500 RJs (domestic, imported and derived from feeding experiments) in order to obtain isotopic measurements that take into account seasonal, botanical and geographical effects. Authenticity intervals are established for traditional beekeeping practices, without feeding, in the range -22.48 to -27.90‰ for ?(13)C. For these samples, the ?(15)N values range from -1.58 to 7.98‰, depending on the plant sources of pollen and nectar. The ?(13)C values of the commercial samples vary from -18.54 to -26.58‰. High ?(13)C values are typical of sugar cane or corn syrups which have distinctive isotopic (13)C signatures because both plants use the C4 photosynthetic cycle, in contrast to most RJs which are derived from C3 plants. These differences in the (13)C-isotopic composition allow the detection of the addition of such sugars. RJs from traditional sources and from industrial production by sugar feeding are thus successfully distinguished. PMID:21698675

Daniele, Gaëlle; Wytrychowski, Marine; Batteau, Magali; Guibert, Sylvie; Casabianca, Hervé

2011-07-30

471

Leishmania UDP-sugar Pyrophosphorylase  

PubMed Central

The Leishmania parasite glycocalyx is rich in galactose-containing glycoconjugates that are synthesized by specific glycosyltransferases that use UDP-galactose as a glycosyl donor. UDP-galactose biosynthesis is thought to be predominantly a de novo process involving epimerization of the abundant nucleotide sugar UDP-glucose by the UDP-glucose 4-epimerase, although galactose salvage from the environment has been demonstrated for Leishmania major. Here, we present the characterization of an L. major UDP-sugar pyrophosphorylase able to reversibly activate galactose 1-phosphate into UDP-galactose thus proving the existence of the Isselbacher salvage pathway in this parasite. The ordered bisubstrate mechanism and high affinity of the enzyme for UTP seem to favor the synthesis of nucleotide sugar rather than their pyrophosphorolysis. Although L. major UDP-sugar pyrophosphorylase preferentially activates galactose 1-phosphate and glucose 1-phosphate, the enzyme is able to act on a variety of hexose 1-phosphates as well as pentose 1-phosphates but not hexosamine 1-phosphates and hence presents a broad in vitro specificity. The newly identified enzyme exhibits a low but significant homology with UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylases and conserved in particular is the pyrophosphorylase consensus sequence and residues involved in nucleotide and phosphate binding. Saturation transfer difference NMR spectroscopy experiments confirm the importance of these moieties for substrate binding. The described leishmanial enzyme is closely related to plant UDP-sugar pyrophosphorylases and presents a similar substrate specificity suggesting their common origin.

Damerow, Sebastian; Lamerz, Anne-Christin; Haselhorst, Thomas; Fuhring, Jana; Zarnovican, Patricia; von Itzstein, Mark; Routier, Francoise H.

2010-01-01

472

Synthesis of the Sugar Moieties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biological activity of the anthracycline antibiotics, which have found wide application in clinical oncology, is strongly related to their glycosidic structure. Modification or switch of the saccharide moiety became an important line of new drug discovery and study of their mechanism of action. Natural glycons (sugar moieties) of the anthracycline antibiotics belong to the 2,6-dideoxypyranose family and their principal representative, daunosamine, is 3-amino-2,3,6-trideoxy- l-lyxo-pyranose. Some newer chemical syntheses of this sugar, from a chiral pool as well as from achiral starting materials, are presented and their capability for scale-up and process development are commented upon. Rational sugar structural modifications, which are either useful for synthetic purposes or offer advantages in experimental therapy of cancer, are discussed from the chemical point of view.

Grynkiewicz, Grzegorz; Szeja, Wieslaw

473

Soil Erosion in agro-industrially used Landscapes between High and Anti-Atlas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Souss basin is characterised by high population dynamics and changing land use. Extensive plantations of citrus fruits, bananas and vegetables in monocropping, mainly for the European market, replace the traditional mixed agriculture with small-area olive orchards and cereal fields. A precipitation of around 200 mm enforces the irrigation of cultivation by deep wells. The spatial vicinity of highly engineered irrigation areas, which are often created by land-levelling measures, and housing estates with highly active gully systems and rapid badland development presents a risk to both the agro-industrial land use and the population settlements. It is investigated whether the levelling measures influence surface runoff and soil erosion and thereby affect the further gully development. The influences of surface characteristics on runoff and soil erosion are analysed. Therefore 91 rainfall simulation experiments using a small portable rainfall simulator and 33 infiltrations by means of a single ring infiltrometer are carried out on seven test sites nearby the city of Taroudant. The rainfall simulations (30 minutes, 40 mm h-1) show an average runoff coefficient of between 54 and 59 % on test sites with land-levelling measures and average runoff coefficients ranging between 36 and 48 % on mostly non-levelled test sites. The average of soil erosion lies on levelled test sites between 52.1 and 81.8 g m-2, on non-levelled test-sites between 13.2 und 23.2 g m-2 per 30 minutes. Accordingly, all the test sites have a rather low infiltration capacity. This can also be confirmed by the low average infiltration depth of only 15.5 cm on levelled test sites. There is often a clear borderline at horizons with a high bulk density caused by compaction. In contrast, on non-levelled test sites, the average infiltration depth reaches 22.2 cm. Reinforcing factors for runoff and soil erosion are slope and soil crusts. Vegetation cover has a reducing influence on surface process activity. Medium rock fragment cover shows high rates of runoff and soil erosion. Hitherto collected data show an explicit difference between levelled and non-levelled test sites. Land-levelling measures clearly influence the generation of surface runoff and soil erosion and consequently, advance the further gully development.

Peter, K. D.; Ries, J. B.; Marzolff, I.; d'Oleire-Oltmanns, S.

2012-04-01

474

Process for the production of invert liquid sugar  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A process for the production of liquid sugar by forming a sugar solution of water and natural sugar containing juice, adjusting the pH of a sugar solution to the range of from 1.0 to 2.0 to obtain an inverted juice, filtering the inverted juice, decolorizing the inverted juice to obtain sugar syrup, demineralizing the sugar syrup, evaporating the demineralized sugar syrup, and cooling the sugar syrup to form the liquid sugar.

Granguillhome; Enrique R. Cardenas (Monterrey, MX); Barranon; Jose Angel Cardenas (Monterrey, MX); Garza; Juan Jose Gonzalez (Monterrey, MX)

2005-07-12

475

Evolutionary responses to invasion: cane toad sympatric fish show enhanced avoidance learning.  

PubMed

The introduced cane toad (Bufo marinus) poses a major threat to biodiversity due to its lifelong toxicity. Several terrestrial native Australian vertebrates are adapting to the cane toad's presence and lab trials have demonstrated that repeated exposure to B. marinus can result in learnt avoidance behaviour. Here we investigated whether aversion learning is occurring in aquatic ecosystems by comparing cane toad naïve and sympatric populations of crimson spotted rainbow fish (Melanotaenia duboulayi). The first experiment indicated that fish from the sympatric population had pre-existing aversion to attacking cane toad tadpoles but also showed reduced attacks on native tadpoles. The second experiment revealed that fish from both naïve and sympatric populations learned to avoid cane toad tadpoles following repeated, direct exposure. Allopatric fish also developed a general aversion to tadpoles. The aversion learning abilities of both groups was examined using an experiment involving novel distasteful prey items. While both populations developed a general avoidance of edible pellets in the presence of distasteful pellets, only the sympatric population significantly reduced the number of attacks on the novel distasteful prey item. These results indicate that experience with toxic prey items over multiple generations can enhance avoidance leaning capabilities via natural selection. PMID:23372788

Caller, Georgina; Brown, Culum

2013-01-23

476

Detection of tissue-specific sugar chains by two-dimensional HPLC sugar mapping of pyridylaminated sugar chains  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to detect sugar chains specific to a tissue or a disease, we introduced the differential display of glycans using pyridylaminated (PA) sugar chains combined with two-dimensional HPLC sugar mapping. The method is fairly sensitive, and 2 mg of freeze-dried tissue was enough to detect the peaks due to PA-N-linked sugar chains, without any pretreatment of the tissue. The

Shin-ichi Nakakita; Kazuhiro Ikenaka; Sumihiro Hase

2001-01-01

477

A divergent strategy for constructing a sugar library containing 2,6-dideoxy sugars and uncommon sugars with 4-substitution  

Microsoft Academic Search

A practical strategy has been developed for delivering 2,6-dideoxy sugars and uncommon sugars with 4-substitution. This strategy employed Ferrier rearrangement reaction and BF3·OEt2-induced peroxidation to construct key intermediates 2,3-unsaturated glycosides and ?,?-unsaturated lactones from peracetyl rhamnal. After further derivatization, four uncommon sugars with 4-substitution and eight uncommon sugar units with 3,4-disubstitution were successfully synthesized.

Guisheng Zhang; Lei Shi; Qingfeng Liu; Jingmei Wang; Lu Li; Xiaobing Liu

2007-01-01

478

Seed Mapping of Sugar Beet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual plant care may well become embodied in precision farming in the future and will lead to new opportunities in agricultural crop management. The objective of this project was to develop and evaluate a data logging system attached to a precision seeder to enable high accuracy seed position mapping of a field of sugar beet. A Real Time Kinematic Global

H. W. Griepentrog; M. Nørremark; H. Nielsen; B. S. Blackmore

2005-01-01

479

SUGAR Volt: One Possible Future  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA partnered with the Boeing Company, among others, to come up with designs for possible future aircraft that meet our goals of significant reductions in noise, fuel use and emissions. In this video, Boeing reveals how they created one of their ideas -- the SUGAR Volt. › Read More About NextGen Aircraft

Christopher O

2012-05-17

480

ConcepTest: Sugar-Rock Analogy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Water containing dissolved sugar evaporates to leave a deposit of sugar in the bottom of a glass. This could be seen as an analog for the formation of a type of a. igneous rock b. metamorphic rock c. sedimentary ...

481

Exploiting intraspecific competitive mechanisms to control invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina).  

PubMed

If invasive species use chemical weapons to suppress the viability of conspecifics, we may be able to exploit those species-specific chemical cues for selective control of the invader. Cane toads (Rhinella marina) are spreading through tropical Australia, with negative effects on native species. The tadpoles of cane toads eliminate intraspecific competitors by locating and consuming newly laid eggs. Our laboratory trials show that tadpoles find those eggs by searching for the powerful bufadienolide toxins (especially, bufogenins) that toads use to deter predators. Using those toxins as bait, funnel-traps placed in natural waterbodies achieved near-complete eradication of cane toad tadpoles with minimal collateral damage (because most native (non-target) species are repelled by the toads' toxins). More generally, communication systems that have evolved for intraspecific conflict provide novel opportunities for invasive-species control. PMID:22696528

Crossland, Michael R; Haramura, Takashi; Salim, Angela A; Capon, Robert J; Shine, Richard

2012-06-13

482

Exploiting intraspecific competitive mechanisms to control invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina)  

PubMed Central

If invasive species use chemical weapons to suppress the viability of conspecifics, we may be able to exploit those species-specific chemical cues for selective control of the invader. Cane toads (Rhinella marina) are spreading through tropical Australia, with negative effects on native species. The tadpoles of cane toads eliminate intraspecific competitors by locating and consuming newly laid eggs. Our laboratory trials show that tadpoles find those eggs by searching for the powerful bufadienolide toxins (especially, bufogenins) that toads use to deter predators. Using those toxins as bait, funnel-traps placed in natural waterbodies achieved near-complete eradication of cane toad tadpoles with minimal collateral damage (because most native (non-target) species are repelled by the toads' toxins). More generally, communication systems that have evolved for intraspecific conflict provide novel opportunities for invasive-species control.

Crossland, Michael R.; Haramura, Takashi; Salim, Angela A.; Capon, Robert J.; Shine, Richard

2012-01-01

483

Pretreatment of cane bagasse with alkaline hydrogen peroxide for enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose and ethanol fermentation  

SciTech Connect

Pretreatment of the agrocellulosic waste, cane bagasse with alkaline hydrogen peroxide greatly enhances its susceptibility to enzymatic cellulolysis and thus the ethanol production from it. Various process conditions have been studied to optimize the enzymate effectiveness. These conditions include the contact time, the hydrogen peroxide concentration and the pretreatment temperature. Results obtained show, that about 50% of lignin and most of hemicellulose content of can bagasse was solubilized, by 2% alkaline hydrogen peroxide at 30{sup 0}C within 8 h. The cellulose content was consequently increased from 42% in the original cane bagasse to 75% in the oxidized pulp. Saccharification of this pulp residue with cellulase from Trichorderma viride at 45{sup 0}C for 24 h, yielded glucose with 95% efficiency. The efficiency of ethanol production from the insoluble fraction with S. cervisiae was 90% compared to about 50% for untreated cane bagasse.

Azzam, A.M. (National Research Centre, Cairo (Egypt))

1989-01-01

484

The Sugar Industry's Structure, Pricing and Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The structure, pricing, and performance of the U.S. sugar industry were studied with special emphasis on the industry's performance during the recent years of economic stress. The major causes of high U.S. sugar prices in 1974 were tight world sugar suppl...

R. Bohall F. Hulse C. Powe L. Angelo F. Gray

1977-01-01

485

27 CFR 24.317 - Sugar record.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sugar record. 24.317 Section 24.317...WINE Records and Reports § 24.317 Sugar record. A proprietor who receives, stores, or uses sugar shall maintain a record of receipt...

2013-04-01

486

Reducing Sugar in Children's Diets: Why? How?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Maintains that sugar intake should be reduced in young children's diets because of its link to dental cavities, poor nutrition, and obesity. Reducing the focus on sweetness, limiting sugar consumption, and using natural sources of sweetness and other treats are ways to help reduce sugar intake. (BB)|

Rogers, Cosby S.; Morris, Sandra S.

1986-01-01

487

The Rocky Mountain Sugar Growers' Cooperative: “Sweet” or “Sugar-Coated” Visions of the Future?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In late 2001, sugarbeet producers in Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, and Nebraska were contemplating the formation of a new generation cooperative to purchase sugarbeet processing facilities from Tate and Lyle North American Sugars, Inc. The U.S. sugar industry critically depends upon U.S. sugar policy. In recent years, sugar and sugarbeet prices have been relatively low. This case examines the competitive, strategic,

Gary W. Brester; Michael A. Boland

2004-01-01

488

Reform in the EU Sugar Regime: Impact on the Global Sugar Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ongoing trade negotiations, unilateral trade concessions and obligations under the WTO are pushing the EU sugar regime to undertake reforms. These reforms will alter the positions of developing countries in the global sugar markets. A complete unilateral liberalisation of the EU sugar sector is simulated to depict the winners and losers in the global sugar markets if no preferences

Ellen Huan-Niemi; Leena Kerkela

2005-01-01

489

19 CFR 151.24 - Unlading facilities for bulk sugar.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. 151.24 Section 151.24 Customs...SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.24 Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. When dutiable sugar is to be...

2013-04-01

490

[Sugar characterization of mini-watermelon and rapid sugar determination by near infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy].  

PubMed

In the present paper, the distribution of sugar level within the mini-watermelon was studied, a new sugar characterization method of mini-watermelon using average sugar level, the highest sugar level and the lowest sugar level index is proposed. Feasibility of nondestructive determination of mini-watermenlon sugar level using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy information was investigated by an experiment. PLS models for measuring the 3 sugar levels were established. The results obtained by near infrared spectroscopy agreed with that of the new method established above. PMID:23156764

Wang, Shuo; Yuan, Hong-fu; Song, Chun-feng; Xie, Jin-chun; Li, Xiao-yu; Feng, Le-ping

2012-08-01

491

Fungal invertase as an aid for fermentation of cane molasses into ethanol  

SciTech Connect

Comparative studies of the fermentation of cane molasses into ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the presence or absence of fungal invertase were performed. When cane molasses was fermented by the yeast at 30 degrees Centigrade and pH 5.0, the presence of the enzyme had no effect on ethanol production. At pH 3.4, ethanol production was increased by the addition of invertase. At 40 degrees C, the addition of invertase increased ethanol production by 5.5% at pH 5.0 and by 20.9% at pH 3.5. (Refs. 8).

Park, Y.K.; Sato, H.H.

1982-10-01

492

Oxoester oxidoreductase activities in new isolates of Pichia anomala from apple, grape and cane juices.  

PubMed

Thirty-nine yeasts isolated from apple, grape and cane juices were screened for their oxidoreductase activity. The two strains of Pichia, one isolated from apple and one from cane juices, appear to be promising strains for oxidoreductase activity on alpha-oxoesters. They showed similar high yields in converting ethyl pyruvate to ethyl lactate as Saccharomyces spp. (86.6% and 85.3% versus 86.6%), and higher yields in the reduction of alpha-oxocarboxylic esters (ketopantolactone to pantolactone: 74% and 73.3%, respectively) compared to Saccharomyces spp. (yield 60%). PMID:15780669

Pérez-Mendoza, Francisco; Ruiz-Terán, Francisco; Abarca, Blanca Escudero; Navarro-Ocaña, Arturo; Aguilar-Uscanga, Guadalupe; Valerio-Alfaro, Gerardo

2005-04-01

493

Effects of sugars and sugar alcohols on thermal transition and cold stability of corn starch gel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various sugars and sugar alcohols (ribose, xylose, glucose, fructose, mannose, sucrose, maltose, isomaltose, trehalose, xylitol, mannitol, and sorbitol) were compared in their effects on thermal transitions and cold-storage stability of a corn starch–sugar gel (40% starch, starch:sugar=10:1 or 10:3 dry solids basis) using a differential scanning calorimetry. As the molar concentration of sugar increased, the onset temperature and enthalpy for

M. H Baek; B Yoo; S.-T Lim

2004-01-01

494

29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780... Employment in Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or...

2013-07-01

495

29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780... Employment in Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or...

2009-07-01

496

29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780... Employment in Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or...

2010-07-01

497

Concentrate This! Sugar or Salt...  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students investigate the property dependence between concentrations and boiling point. First, they investigate the boiling point of various liquid solutions. Then they analyze data collected from the entire class to generate two boiling point curves, one for salt solutions and one for sugar solutions. Finally, students use the data they have analyzed to design cost-effective solutions with particular boiling points---similar to the everyday work of chemical engineers.

Culturally Relevant Engineering Application in Mathematics GK-12 Program,

498

Concentrate This! Sugar or Salt...  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students investigate the property dependence between concentrations and boiling point. In Section 1, students first investigate the boiling point of various liquid solutions. In Section 2 they analyze data collected from the entire class to generate two boiling point curves (one for salt solutions and one for sugar solutions). Finally, in Section 3, students will use the data they have analyzed to determine how to create a solution that has a particular boiling point and is a cost effective design.

Culturally Relevant Engineering Application In Mathematics Program

499

Furanose-specific Sugar Transport  

PubMed Central

The widespread utilization of sugars by microbes is reflected in the diversity and multiplicity of cellular transporters used to acquire these compounds from the environment. The model bacterium Escherichia coli has numerous transporters that allow it to take up hexoses and pentoses, which recognize the more abundant pyranose forms of these sugars. Here we report the biochemical and structural characterization of a transporter protein YtfQ from E. coli that forms part of an uncharacterized ABC transporter system. Remarkably the crystal structure of this protein, solved to 1.2 Å using x-ray crystallography, revealed that YtfQ binds a single molecule of galactofuranose in its ligand binding pocket. Selective binding of galactofuranose over galactopyranose was also observed using NMR methods that determined the form of the sugar released from the protein. The pattern of expression of the ytfQRTyjfF operon encoding this transporter mirrors that of the high affinity galactopyranose transporter of E. coli, suggesting that this bacterium has evolved complementary transporters th