Sample records for sugar cane agroindustry

  1. Sugar Cane Nutrient Distribution Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamboni, C. B.; da Silveira, M. A. G.; Gennari, R. F.; Garcia, I.; Medina, N. H.

    2011-08-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA), Molecular Absorption Spectrometry (UV-Vis), and Flame Photometry techniques were applied to measure plant nutrient concentrations of Br, Ca, Cl, K, Mn, N, Na and P in sugar-cane root, stalk and leaves. These data will be used to explore the behavior of element concentration in different parts of the sugar-cane to better understand the plant nutrient distribution during its development.

  2. Designing the Sugar Cane Charcoal Extruder

    E-print Network

    Ang, Dexter W

    2005-01-01

    The Sugar Cane Charcoal Extruder compresses carbonized sugar cane into charcoal briquettes. that are environmentally-friendly and comparable to wood charcoal in burn performance, cost, and durability. Originally developed ...

  3. Sugar Canes as Bioenergy Feedstocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sugar cane crops currently being grown in the South can play a role in helping the United States meet its need for both renewable transportation fuel and food and feed. Research being conducted at the USDA’s Agricultural Research Service’s Sugarcane Research Laboratory at Houma, Louisiana is g...

  4. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435... LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar...

  5. 7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.305 Section 1435... LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.305 State cane sugar...

  6. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435... LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar...

  7. 7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.305 Section 1435... LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.305 State cane sugar...

  8. 7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.305 Section 1435... LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.305 State cane sugar...

  9. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435... LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar...

  10. Improved molecular tools for sugar cane biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Kinkema, Mark; Geijskes, Jason; Delucca, Paulo; Palupe, Anthony; Shand, Kylie; Coleman, Heather D; Brinin, Anthony; Williams, Brett; Sainz, Manuel; Dale, James L

    2014-03-01

    Sugar cane is a major source of food and fuel worldwide. Biotechnology has the potential to improve economically-important traits in sugar cane as well as diversify sugar cane beyond traditional applications such as sucrose production. High levels of transgene expression are key to the success of improving crops through biotechnology. Here we describe new molecular tools that both expand and improve gene expression capabilities in sugar cane. We have identified promoters that can be used to drive high levels of gene expression in the leaf and stem of transgenic sugar cane. One of these promoters, derived from the Cestrum yellow leaf curling virus, drives levels of constitutive transgene expression that are significantly higher than those achieved by the historical benchmark maize polyubiquitin-1 (Zm-Ubi1) promoter. A second promoter, the maize phosphonenolpyruvate carboxylate promoter, was found to be a strong, leaf-preferred promoter that enables levels of expression comparable to Zm-Ubi1 in this organ. Transgene expression was increased approximately 50-fold by gene modification, which included optimising the codon usage of the coding sequence to better suit sugar cane. We also describe a novel dual transcriptional enhancer that increased gene expression from different promoters, boosting expression from Zm-Ubi1 over eightfold. These molecular tools will be extremely valuable for the improvement of sugar cane through biotechnology. PMID:24150836

  11. Sugar markers in aerosol particles from an agro-industrial region in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, R. C.; Alves, C. A.; Allen, A. G.; Cardoso, A. A.; Queiroz, M. E. C.; Campos, M. L. A. M.

    2014-06-01

    This work aimed to better understand how aerosol particles from sugar cane burning contribute to the chemical composition of the lower troposphere in an agro-industrial region of São Paulo State (Brazil) affected by sugar and ethanol fuel production. During a period of 21 months, we collected 105 samples and quantified 20 saccharides by GC-MS. The average concentrations of levoglucosan (L), mannosan (M), and galactosan (G) for 24-h sampling were 116, 16, and 11 ng m-3 respectively. The three anhydrosugars had higher and more variable concentrations in the nighttime and during the sugar cane harvest period, due to more intense biomass burning practices. The calculated L/M ratio, which may serve as a signature for sugar cane smoke particles, was 9 ± 5. Although the total concentrations of the anhydrosugars varied greatly among samples, the relative mass size distributions of the saccharides were reasonably constant. Emissions due to biomass burning were estimated to correspond to 69% (mass) of the sugars quantified in the harvest samples, whereas biogenic emissions corresponded to 10%. In the non-harvest period, these values were 44 and 27%, respectively, indicating that biomass burning is an important source of aerosol to the regional atmosphere during the whole year.

  12. Original article Simulation of the maximum yield of sugar cane

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Simulation of the maximum yield of sugar cane at different altitudes: effect - To minimize the production costs of sugar cane, for the diverse sites of production found in La Réunion. Existing mod- els simulate poorly the temperature-radiation interaction. A model of sugar cane growth has

  13. VIEW OF MILL FROM KEKAHA ROAD, WITH SUGAR BIN, CANE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF MILL FROM KEKAHA ROAD, WITH SUGAR BIN, CANE CLEANING PLANT AND CRUSHING MILL TO THE FORE. VIEW FROM THE EAST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  14. A study on the wear of sugar cane rolls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fernando Casanova; Yesid Aguilar

    2008-01-01

    Wear on sugar cane roll shells is costly maintenance problem for sugar cane mills. This research was conducted to understand the wear process in roll shells made of steel. In this process, sugarcane fiber – commonly called bagasse – is squeezed between grooved roll shells to extract sugar. A new test apparatus, based on the ASTM-G65 test machine, was built

  15. By-products of the cane sugar industry

    SciTech Connect

    Paturav, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    This book discussed the inroads made in the sugar trade by the increasing consumption of high fructose corn syrup and the rapidly decreasing U.S. sugar imports that have forced many cane sugar-producing countries to reconsider their development policy and give more attention to improved efficiency and a more productive utilization of cane sugar by-products. Changes in sugar technology are addressed and the general improvement of biotechnology is described.

  16. Cement replacement by sugar cane bagasse ash: CO2 emissions reduction and potential for carbon credits.

    PubMed

    Fairbairn, Eduardo M R; Americano, Branca B; Cordeiro, Guilherme C; Paula, Thiago P; Toledo Filho, Romildo D; Silvoso, Marcos M

    2010-09-01

    This paper presents a study of cement replacement by sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) in industrial scale aiming to reduce the CO(2) emissions into the atmosphere. SCBA is a by-product of the sugar/ethanol agro-industry abundantly available in some regions of the world and has cementitious properties indicating that it can be used together with cement. Recent comprehensive research developed at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro/Brazil has demonstrated that SCBA maintains, or even improves, the mechanical and durability properties of cement-based materials such as mortars and concretes. Brazil is the world's largest sugar cane producer and being a developing country can claim carbon credits. A simulation was carried out to estimate the potential of CO(2) emission reductions and the viability to issue certified emission reduction (CER) credits. The simulation was developed within the framework of the methodology established by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) for the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). The State of São Paulo (Brazil) was chosen for this case study because it concentrates about 60% of the national sugar cane and ash production together with an important concentration of cement factories. Since one of the key variables to estimate the CO(2) emissions is the average distance between sugar cane/ethanol factories and the cement plants, a genetic algorithm was developed to solve this optimization problem. The results indicated that SCBA blended cement reduces CO(2) emissions, which qualifies this product for CDM projects. PMID:20493626

  17. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...false Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are partially exempt from overtime...18 Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are partially...

  18. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...false Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are partially exempt from overtime...18 Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are partially...

  19. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and... Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling...

  20. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...false Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are partially exempt from overtime...18 Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are partially...

  1. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and... Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling...

  2. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and... Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling...

  3. Japanese Sugar Cane as a Forage Crop.

    E-print Network

    Leidigh, A. H. (Arthur Henry); McNess, George Thomas; Laude, H. H. (Hilmer Henry)

    1916-01-01

    not make ~eed except in a very warm country, where it may live for fourteen or fifteen minths mithout being set back by frost. As pointcd out previously, Japanese sugar cane has been under cultivation in this country for over thirty years. Seed... which is in the ground, if protected from frost and disease, will remain alive over winter and start growth again next year and may even be moved to a new location. This growth from the stubble comes from the buds or seed eyes at the base...

  4. 1. Straighton view looking S at sugar cane crushing machinery ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Straight-on view looking S at sugar cane crushing machinery showing three-roll cane mill, single reduction gear, flywheel and steam engine. - Hacienda Azucarera la Igualdad, Sugar Mill Ruins & Steam Engine, PR Route 332, Guanica, Guanica Municipio, PR

  5. Agriculture: Bioconversion of sugar cane molasses

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, P.

    1999-09-29

    Auxein Corporation is demonstrating for commercial use an organic acid phytochelate, derived from what would otherwise be a discarded portion of sugar cane, that could increase the domestic sugar industry's profit margin from near zero to 7%. Along with helping a struggling industry, the phytochelate will bring substantial improvements to crop and tree production and greatly reduce the environmental threat posed by nitrogen-based fertilizers. Currently, the amount of fertilizer used produces harmful levels of run-off that contaminates ground water with unwanted nitrogen. By utilizing organic acid phytochelates, which assist plant growth by unlocking minerals stored in soil, fertilizer use can be dramatically reduced. This would improve crop yields, remove environmental threats to ground water, and cut fertilizer costs by as much as 50%.

  6. Sensory differences between beet and cane sugar sources.

    PubMed

    Urbanus, Brittany L; Cox, Ginnefer O; Eklund, Emily J; Ickes, Chelsea M; Schmidt, Shelly J; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2014-09-01

    Research concerning the sensory properties of beet and cane sugars is lacking in the scientific literature. Therefore, the objectives of this research were to determine whether a sensory difference was perceivable between beet and cane sugar sources in regard to their (1) aroma-only, (2) aroma and taste without nose clips, and (3) taste-only with nose clips, and to characterize the difference between the sugar sources using descriptive analysis. One hundred panelists evaluated sugar samples using a tetrad test. A significant difference (P < 0.05) was identified between beet and cane sugar sources when evaluated by aroma-only and taste and aroma without nose clips. However, there was no difference when tasted with nose clips. To characterize the observed differences, ten trained panelists identified and quantified key sensory attributes of beet and cane sugars using descriptive analysis. Analysis of variance indicated significant differences (P < 0.05) between sugar samples for 8 of the 10 attributes including: off-dairy, oxidized, earthy, and barnyard aroma, fruity and burnt sugar aroma-by-mouth, sweet aftertaste, and burnt sugar aftertaste. The sensory profile of beet sugar was characterized by off-dairy, oxidized, earthy, and barnyard aromas and by a burnt sugar aroma-by-mouth and aftertaste, whereas cane sugar was characterized by a fruity aroma-by-mouth and sweet aftertaste. This study shows that beet and cane sugar sources can be differentiated by their aroma and provides a sensory profile characterizing the differences. As sugar is used extensively as a food ingredient, sensory differences between beet and cane sugar sources once incorporated into different product matrices should be studied as a next step. PMID:25124655

  7. Biocorrosion of stainless steel grade 304L (SS304L) in sugar cane juice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Durmoo; C. Richard; G. Beranger; Y. Moutia

    2008-01-01

    The main objective of this research study is to assess the behaviour of stainless steel AISI 304L in contact with sugar cane juice. Stainless steel grade 304L is largely used in the sugar cane industry but the acidic nature of sugar cane juice pose a serious challenge in maintaining the life span of vital components.Sugar cane juice is acid having

  8. SOSTENIBILIDAD DEL RECICLAJE DE RESIDUOS DE LA AGROINDUSTRIA AZUCARERA: UNA REVISIÓN SUSTAINABLE RECYCLING OF WASTE FROM SUGARCANE AGROINDUSTRY: A REVIEW

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Basanta; M. A. García Delgado; J. E. Cervantes Martínez; H. Mata Vázquez; G. Bustos Vázquez

    2007-01-01

    Sugar cane wastes and reuse strategies are a prior subject in sugar cane areas because of the new environmental standards and modern production systems. The overall goal of the present review is to analyze the environmental impact from sugar cane agroindustry and its recycling processes on the bases of a sustainable development planning. Literature review results consider that there are

  9. Clastogenicity of landfarming soil treated with sugar cane vinasse.

    PubMed

    da Silva Souza, Tatiana; Hencklein, Fabiana Aparecida; de Franceschi de Angelis, Dejanira; Fontanetti, Carmem Silvia

    2013-02-01

    The addition of nutrients and/or soil bulking agents is used in bioremediation to increase microbial activity in contaminated soils. For this purpose, some studies have assessed the effectiveness of vinasse in the bioremediation of soils contaminated with petroleum waste. The present study was aimed at investigating the clastogenic/aneugenic potential of landfarming soil from a petroleum refinery before and after addition of sugar cane vinasse using the Allium cepa bioassay. Our results show that the addition of sugar cane vinasse to landfarming soil potentiates the clastogenic effects of the latter probably due the release of metals that were previously adsorbed into the organic matter. These metals may have interacted synergistically with petroleum hydrocarbons present in the landfarming soil treated with sugar cane vinasse. We recommend further tests to monitor the effects of sugar cane vinasse on soils contaminated with organic wastes. PMID:22580848

  10. 40 CFR 409.20 - Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.20 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Crystalline Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.20...

  11. 40 CFR 409.20 - Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.20 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Crystalline Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.20...

  12. 40 CFR 409.70 - Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.70 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hawaiian Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.70...

  13. 40 CFR 409.80 - Applicability; description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.80 Section... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Puerto Rican Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.80...

  14. 40 CFR 409.30 - Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.30 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Liquid Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.30...

  15. 40 CFR 409.70 - Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.70 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hawaiian Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.70...

  16. 40 CFR 409.30 - Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.30 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Liquid Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.30...

  17. 40 CFR 409.70 - Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.70 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hawaiian Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.70...

  18. 40 CFR 409.40 - Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.40 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Louisiana Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.40...

  19. 40 CFR 409.20 - Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.20 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Crystalline Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.20...

  20. 40 CFR 409.30 - Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.30 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Liquid Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.30...

  1. 40 CFR 409.80 - Applicability; description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.80 Section... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Puerto Rican Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.80...

  2. 40 CFR 409.40 - Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.40 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Louisiana Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.40...

  3. 40 CFR 409.80 - Applicability; description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.80 Section... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Puerto Rican Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.80...

  4. 40 CFR 409.40 - Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.40 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Louisiana Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.40...

  5. Seasonal hydroclimatic impacts of Brazilian sugar cane expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgescu, M.; Lobell, D. B.; Field, C. B.; Mahalov, A.

    2012-12-01

    Brazil is the leading producer of sugar cane in the world with roughly half used for ethanol production. Because of suitable climatic growing conditions, the majority of biofuel production is derived from sugar plantations in southeastern states. Anticipated increases in global demand for biofuels are expected to lead to future sugar cane expansion extending into Brazilian pasturelands and native cerrado. Prior to undergoing large-scale expansion an evaluation of impacts on the region's hydroclimate is warranted. Using a suite of multi-year ensemble-based simulations with the WRF modeling system, we quantify hydroclimatic consequences of sugar cane expansion across portions of south-central Brazil. Conversion from current land use to sugar cane causes opposing seasonal impacts on near-surface temperature. Proggresively greater cooling is simulated during the course of the growing season, followed by an abrupt warming shift post-harvest. Although seasonal impacts on near-surface temperature are significant, with cooling of 1C occurring during the peak of the growing season followed by warming of similar magnitude, impacts are small when annually averaged. Ensemble mean differences between the imposed sugar cane expansion and non-expansion scenario are suggestive of a drying precipitation trend, yet large uncertainty among individual members precludes definitive statements about impacts on the region's rainfall.

  6. Sugar cane stillage: a potential source of natural antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Caderby, Emma; Baumberger, Stéphanie; Hoareau, William; Fargues, Claire; Decloux, Martine; Maillard, Marie-Noëlle

    2013-11-27

    Biorefinery of sugar cane is the first economic activity of Reunion Island. Some sugar cane manufactured products (juice, syrup, molasses) have antioxidant activities and are sources of both phenolic compounds and Maillard Reaction Products (MRP). The study aimed to highlight the global antioxidant activity of sugar cane stillage and understand its identity. Chromatographic fractionation on Sephadex LH-20 resin allowed the recovery of a MRP-rich fraction, responsible for 58 to 66% of the global antioxidant activity according to the nature of the sugar cane stillage (DPPH test), and a phenolic compounds-rich fraction for 37 to 59% of the activity. A good correlation was recorded between the antioxidant activity of the sugar cane stillage and its content in total reducing compounds amount (Folin-Ciocalteu assay), among them 2.8 to 3.9 g/L of phenolic compounds (in 5-caffeoylquinic acid equivalent). Preliminary experiments by HPLC-DAD-MS allowed to identify several free phenolic acids and gave clues to identify esters of quinic acids. PMID:24228787

  7. Root dynamics in plant and ratoon crops of sugar cane

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Ball-Coelho; E. V. S. B. Sampaio; H. Tiessen; J. W. B. Stewart

    1992-01-01

    The root system of a sugar cane crop on an Ultisol in northeastern Brazil was examined throughout the plant and first ratoon\\u000a crop cycles, using both coring and minirhizotron methods. Total root masses (living plus dead, 0.9–1.1 kg m-2) and live root lengths (14.0–17.5 km m-2) were greater during the ratoon cycle than at the end of the plant cane

  8. The influence of treatments upon the nutritive value of sugar cane residues

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    The influence of treatments upon the nutritive value of sugar cane residues F Ojeda Estacion, Matanzas, Cuba Cuba produces 108 ton/year of sugar cane residues i.e. top leaves and straws. However. Our study consisted in treating the sugar cane residues with urea-generated ammonia, and adding fresh

  9. Clarification properties of trash and stalk tissues from sugar cane.

    PubMed

    Eggleston, Gillian; Grisham, Michael; Antoine, April

    2010-01-13

    The effect of the U.S. and worldwide change from burnt to unburnt (green) sugar cane harvesting on processing and the use of sugar cane leaves and tops as a biomass source has not been fully characterized. Sugar cane whole-stalks were harvested from the first ratoon (repeat) crop of five commercial, Louisiana sugar cane varieties (LCP 85-384, HoCP 96-540, L 97-128, L 99-226, and L 99-233). Replicated sample tissues of brown, dry leaves (BL), green leaves (GL), growing point region (GPR), and stalk (S) were separated. Composite juice from each tissue type was clarified following a hot lime clarification process operated by most U.S. factories. Only GPR and GL juices foamed on heating and followed the normal settling behavior of factory sugar cane juice, although GL was markedly slower than GPR. GPR juice aided settling. S juice tended to thin out rather than follow normal settling and exhibited the most unwanted upward motion of flocs. Most varietal variation in settling, mud, and clarified juice (CJ) characteristics occurred for GL. The quality rather than the quantity of impurities in the different tissues mostly affected the volume of mud produced: After 30 min of settling, mud volume per unit tissue juice degrees Brix (% dissolved solids) varied markedly among the tissues (S 1.09, BL 11.3, GPR 3.0, and GL 3.1 mL/degrees Brix). Heat transfer properties of tissue juices and CJs are described. Clarification was unable to remove all BL cellulosic particles. GL and BL increased color, turbidity, and suspended particles in CJs with BL worse than GL. This will make the future attainment of very high pol (VHP) raw sugar in the U.S. more difficult. Although optimization of factory unit processes will alleviate extra trash problems, economical strategies to reduce the amount of green and brown leaves processed need to be identified and implemented. PMID:19994855

  10. Payback time for soil carbon and sugar-cane ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mello, Francisco F. C.; Cerri, Carlos E. P.; Davies, Christian A.; Holbrook, N. Michele; Paustian, Keith; Maia, Stoécio M. F.; Galdos, Marcelo V.; Bernoux, Martial; Cerri, Carlos C.

    2014-07-01

    The effects of land-use change (LUC) on soil carbon (C) balance has to be taken into account in calculating the CO2 savings attributed to bioenergy crops. There have been few direct field measurements that quantify the effects of LUC on soil C for the most common land-use transitions into sugar cane in Brazil, the world's largest producer . We quantified the C balance for LUC as a net loss (carbon debt) or net gain (carbon credit) in soil C for sugar-cane expansion in Brazil. We sampled 135 field sites to 1 m depth, representing three major LUC scenarios. Our results demonstrate that soil C stocks decrease following LUC from native vegetation and pastures, and increase where cropland is converted to sugar cane. The payback time for the soil C debt was eight years for native vegetation and two to three years for pastures. With an increasing need for biofuels and the potential for Brazil to help meet global demand, our results will be invaluable for guiding expansion policies of sugar-cane production towards greater sustainability.

  11. 40 CFR 409.50 - Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.50 Section... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Florida and Texas Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.50...

  12. 40 CFR 409.50 - Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.50 Section... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Florida and Texas Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.50...

  13. 40 CFR 409.50 - Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.50 Section... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Florida and Texas Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.50...

  14. Enhancing of sugar cane bagasse hydrolysis by Annulohypoxylon stygium glycohydrolases.

    PubMed

    Robl, Diogo; Costa, Patrícia dos Santos; Büchli, Fernanda; Lima, Deise Juliana da Silva; Delabona, Priscila da Silva; Squina, Fabio Marcio; Pimentel, Ida Chapaval; Padilla, Gabriel; Pradella, José Geraldo da Cruz

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a bioprocess for the production of ?-glucosidase and pectinase from the fungus Annulohypoxylon stygium DR47. Media optimization and bioreactor cultivation using citrus bagasse and soybean bran were explored and revealed a maximum production of 6.26 U/mL of pectinase at pH 4.0 and 10.13 U/mL of ?-glucosidase at pH 5.0. In addition, the enzymes extracts were able to replace partially Celluclast 1.5L in sugar cane bagasse hydrolysis. Proteomic analysis from A. stygium cultures revealed accessory enzymes, mainly belong to the families GH3 and GH54, that would support enhancement of commercial cocktail saccharification yields. This is the first report describing bioreactor optimization for enzyme production from A. stygium with a view for more efficient degradation of sugar cane bagasse. PMID:25496945

  15. Pattern recognition applied to mineral characterization of Brazilian coffees and sugar-cane spiritsB

    E-print Network

    Ferreira, Márcia M. C.

    Pattern recognition applied to mineral characterization of Brazilian coffees and sugar-cane spirits Aluminium, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb, S, Se, Si, Sn, Sr, and Zn were determined in coffee and sugar. Keywords: Coffee; Sugar-cane spirit; Chemometrics; Pattern recognition 1. Introduction Globalization has

  16. Screening for tolerance to saturated soil conditions for cane grown for sugar and biofuels production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Louisiana cane (Saccharum spp.) is often produced on heavy-textured soils which often remain saturated for extended periods during the growing and harvest season. The objective of this research was to identify commercial sugar cane and energy cane varieties that exhibit tolerance to periodic satura...

  17. A Staining Technique for detecting Ratoon Stunting Disease in Sugar Cane

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Antoine

    1958-01-01

    RATOON stunting, a virus disease of sugar cane, is difficult to diagnose since the macroscopic symptoms are ill defined. Several tests described for diagnosing virus diseases in plants, including one for sugar cane1, were tried but gave inconsistent results. Attempts were therefore made to develop a colour reaction for detecting the presence of the virus. The investigations were prompted by

  18. EVALUATION OF THE QUALITY OF DOMESTIC CACHAA (SUGAR-CANE SPIRITS) FROM MINAS GERAIS APPLYING PRINCIPAL

    E-print Network

    Ferreira, Márcia M. C.

    EVALUATION OF THE QUALITY OF DOMESTIC CACHA�A (SUGAR-CANE SPIRITS) FROM MINAS GERAIS APPLYING@iqm.unicamp.br The increasing in the consumption of sugar cane spirits ­ the cachaça ­ with good quality and the possibility

  19. Sugar cane bagasse: an alternative fuel in the Brazilian citrus industry

    SciTech Connect

    Guerra, J.L.; Steger, E.

    1988-05-01

    This article will briefly discuss the production of sugar cane bagasse and advantages for using it as an alternative fuel. In particular, this article will focus on how Citrosuco Paulista, (a multi-plant producer of citrus concentrates), modified its existing boilers and dryers to accommodate the new sugar cane bagasse fuel.

  20. How to manage sugar cane in the field and factory following damaging freezes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The exposure of sugar cane to damaging frosts occurs in approximately 25% of the sugar cane producing countries world-wide. A series of damaging freezes, -2.6, -3.3 and -2.1°C, occurred in Morocco on 4, 5 and 13 February 2012, respectively, only 2 weeks after the commencement of the harvest season....

  1. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report An Investigation into Sugar Cane versus Wood Fiber Paper

    E-print Network

    into Sugar Cane versus Wood Fiber Paper Ryan Carniato, Shariful Islam, Chun-Jiun Wang, Wilson Yeung Investigation into Sugar Cane versus Wood Fibre Paper Ryan Carniato Shariful Islam Chun-Jiun Wang Wilson Yeung method to compare wood fibre paper and sugar cane paper's economic, environmental, and social aspects

  2. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report An Investigation into Sugar Cane and Wood Fiber Paper at UBC

    E-print Network

    into Sugar Cane and Wood Fiber Paper at UBC Scott Gerun, Martin Rios, Scott Muscroft, Ahmed Almansour An Investigation into Sugar Cane and Wood Fiber Paper at UBC - FINAL REPORT - Group Members Scott Gerun Martin Rios, Supply Management is considering a shift to paper made from sugar canes utilizing TreeFrog as a sole

  3. Sensory differences between product matrices made with beet and cane sugar sources.

    PubMed

    Urbanus, Brittany L; Schmidt, Shelly J; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2014-11-01

    Although beet and cane sugar sources have nearly identical chemical compositions, the sugars differ in their volatile profiles, thermal behaviors, and minor chemical components. Scientific evidence characterizing the impact of these differences on product quality is lacking. The objective of this research was to determine whether panelists could identify a sensory difference between product matrices made with beet and cane sugar sources. Sixty-two panelists used the R-index by ranking method to discern whether there was a difference between 2 brands of beet and 2 brands of cane sugars in regard to their aroma and flavor, along with a difference in pavlova, simple syrup, sugar cookies, pudding, whipped cream, and iced tea made with beet and cane sugars. R-index values and Friedman's rank sum tests showed differences (P < 0.05) between beet and cane sugars in regard to their aroma and flavor. Significant differences between the sugar sources were also identified when incorporated into the pavlova and simple syrup. No difference was observed in the sugar cookies, pudding, whipped cream, and iced tea. Possible explanations for the lack of difference in these products include: (1) masking of beet and cane sensory differences by the flavor and complexity of the product matrix, (2) the relatively small quantity of sugar in these products, and (3) variation within these products being more influential than the sugar source. The findings from this research are relevant to sugar manufacturers and the food industry as a whole, because it identifies differences between beet and cane sugars and product matrices in which beet and cane sugars are not directly interchangeable. PMID:25308166

  4. Antiatherosclerotic function of Kokuto, Okinawan noncentrifugal cane sugar.

    PubMed

    Okabe, Takafumi; Toda, Takayoshi; Inafuku, Masashi; Wada, Koji; Iwasaki, Hironori; Oku, Hirosuke

    2009-01-14

    In the present study, we investigated the effect of phenolic compounds (PCs) and policosanol of Kokuto, Okinawan noncentrifugal cane sugar, on the development of atherosclerosis. A total of 67 male Japanese quail were divided into eight dietary groups in trial 1. The dietary groups were fed the atherosclerotic diet (AD) containing 5% corn oil, 2% cholesterol, and 30% sucrose or seven different types of Kokuto. Dietary intakes of Kokuto notably prevented the development of atherosclerosis. Furthermore, there was a significant negative correlation between the serum radical scavenging activity and the degree of atherosclerosis in the dietary groups. In trial 2, a total of 63 Japanese quail were fed AD with sucrose, Kokuto, PC extracts from Kokuto, wax extracts from sugar cane, octacosanol, vitamin C, and vitamin E. As a result, the supplementation of the diet with Kokuto and PCs significantly reduced the development of atherosclerosis as compared with the ingestion of AD with sucrose. In conclusion, these findings suggest that, among various components of Kokuto, PCs play a central role for the prevention of experimental atherosclerosis in Japanese quail. PMID:19072226

  5. Monitoring Freeze Injury and Evaluating Losingto Sugar-Cane Using RS and GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Zongkun; Ding, Meihua; Wang, Longhe; Yang, Xin; Ou, Zhaorong

    From Jan 12th to Feb 12th 2008, the most severity cold chilling and freeze injury weather took place during the last 50 years in the southern of China.Sugar-cane was suffered injury severity. However, the losing of sugar-cane which it was aroused by thisweather disaster had not been exactitude evaluated till on Apr 1st, 2008. It was not only affected the sugar-cane ordinary harvesting and crushing, but also affected reserving sugar-cane seed for planting. Freeze injury is common disaster for sugar-cane in southern of China and monitoring freeze injury using RS and GIS are of great economic significance but little research work about it has been done in China Freeze injuring is not only related to crop growth stage and the cold air intension from northern to southern and weather types, but also consanguineous related to land form and physiognomy and geographical latitude and height above sea level etc and crop planting spatial distribution. The case study of Guangxi province which is the biggest region of sugar-cane planting in China in this paper, the values of sugar-cane NDVI among the freeze injury occur former and after in early 2008 and without freeze injury occur in the same term 2007 were analyzed and compared based on the sugar-cane planting spatial distribution information which were carried out by using multi-phase EOS/MODIS data. The result showed that it was not only commendably reflected the spatial distribution of freeze injury but also reflected the sugarcane suffered from degree using the values of sugar-cane NDVIof freeze injury occur former and after. The field sample investigation data of using GPS was integrated with the NDVI, the evaluation of region sugar-cane suffer from freeze injury losing could quickly and exactly realize.

  6. The use of Lactobacillus species as starter cultures for enhancing the quality of sugar cane silage.

    PubMed

    Ávila, C L S; Carvalho, B F; Pinto, J C; Duarte, W F; Schwan, R F

    2014-02-01

    Sugar cane (Saccharum spp.) is a forage crop widely used in animal feed because of its high dry matter (DM) production (25 to 40 t/ha) and high energy concentration. The ensiling of sugar cane often incurs problems with the growth of yeasts, which leads to high losses of DM throughout the fermentative process. The selection of specific inoculants for sugar cane silage can improve the quality of the silage. The present study aimed to select strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from sugar cane silage and to assess their effects when used as additives on the same type of silage. The LAB strains were inoculated into sugar cane broth to evaluate their production of metabolites. The selected strains produced higher concentrations of acetic and propionic acids and resulted in better silage characteristics, such as low yeast population, lower ethanol content, and lesser DM loss. These data confirmed that facultative heterofermentative strains are not good candidates for sugar cane silage inoculation and may even worsen the quality of the silage fermentation by increasing DM losses throughout the process. Lactobacillus hilgardii strains UFLA SIL51 and UFLA SIL52 resulted in silage with the best characteristics in relation to DM loss, low ethanol content, higher LAB population, and low butyric acid content. Strains UFLA SIL51 and SIL52 are recommended as starter cultures for sugar cane silage. PMID:24359831

  7. Diets based on sugar cane treated with calcium oxide for lambs.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, G G P; Garcia, R; Pires, A J V; Silva, R R; Detmann, E; Filho, A Eustaquio; Ribeiro, L S O; Carvalho, L M

    2013-02-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the intake, nutrient apparent digestibility and the effect of total collection days (two and four days) on apparent digestibility estimates for lambs fed diets containing sugar cane treated with calcium oxide (CaO). Eight Santa Inês castrated male lambs with a 16.6±1.8 kg body weight were used. The lambs were distributed in two 4×4 Latin squares, with four experimental periods of 14 d each. The animals were kept in 1.2 m(2) individual pens, and the intake and digestibility evaluations were performed during the last four days of each period. The diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous, containing 14% crude protein (CP), and presenting 70% sugar cane treated with 0, 0.75, 1.5 or 2.25% of CaO (as-fed basis), corrected with 1% urea, and 30% concentrate. The sugar cane with added CaO was chopped, treated, and offered to the animals after 24 h of storage. The sugar cane with CaO increased the DM, OM, CP, NDF, NDFap, TC, NFCap and TDN intake (kg/d), when compared to natural sugar cane, and produced the same intake expressed as a percentage of body weight (% BW). The NFCap digestibility of the CaO-treated sugar cane was inferior to the NFCap digestibility in natural sugar cane. There was a linear increase in the DM intake with the CaO-added sugar cane, but the DM and NDF digestibility and the TDN content decreased linearly. The chemical treatment of sugar cane with CaO increases the intake but does not improve the nutrient digestibility. Two days of total fecal collection were found to be sufficient to estimate the total apparent digestibility in lambs. PMID:25049779

  8. Diets Based on Sugar Cane Treated with Calcium Oxide for Lambs

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, G. G. P.; Garcia, R.; Pires, A. J. V.; Silva, R. R.; Detmann, E.; Filho, A. Eustaquio; Ribeiro, L. S. O.; Carvalho, L. M.

    2013-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the intake, nutrient apparent digestibility and the effect of total collection days (two and four days) on apparent digestibility estimates for lambs fed diets containing sugar cane treated with calcium oxide (CaO). Eight Santa Inês castrated male lambs with a 16.6±1.8 kg body weight were used. The lambs were distributed in two 4×4 Latin squares, with four experimental periods of 14 d each. The animals were kept in 1.2 m2 individual pens, and the intake and digestibility evaluations were performed during the last four days of each period. The diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous, containing 14% crude protein (CP), and presenting 70% sugar cane treated with 0, 0.75, 1.5 or 2.25% of CaO (as-fed basis), corrected with 1% urea, and 30% concentrate. The sugar cane with added CaO was chopped, treated, and offered to the animals after 24 h of storage. The sugar cane with CaO increased the DM, OM, CP, NDF, NDFap, TC, NFCap and TDN intake (kg/d), when compared to natural sugar cane, and produced the same intake expressed as a percentage of body weight (% BW). The NFCap digestibility of the CaO-treated sugar cane was inferior to the NFCap digestibility in natural sugar cane. There was a linear increase in the DM intake with the CaO-added sugar cane, but the DM and NDF digestibility and the TDN content decreased linearly. The chemical treatment of sugar cane with CaO increases the intake but does not improve the nutrient digestibility. Two days of total fecal collection were found to be sufficient to estimate the total apparent digestibility in lambs. PMID:25049779

  9. Chemistry Based on Renewable Raw Materials: Perspectives for a Sugar Cane-Based Biorefinery

    PubMed Central

    Villela Filho, Murillo; Araujo, Carlos; Bonfá, Alfredo; Porto, Weber

    2011-01-01

    Carbohydrates are nowadays a very competitive feedstock for the chemical industry because their availability is compatible with world-scale chemical production and their price, based on the carbon content, is comparable to that of petrochemicals. At the same time, demand is rising for biobased products. Brazilian sugar cane is a competitive feedstock source that is opening the door to a wide range of bio-based products. This essay begins with the importance of the feedstock for the chemical industry and discusses developments in sugar cane processing that lead to low cost feedstocks. Thus, sugar cane enables a new chemical industry, as it delivers a competitive raw material and a source of energy. As a result, sugar mills are being transformed into sustainable biorefineries that fully exploit the potential of sugar cane. PMID:21637329

  10. Microwave modification of sugar cane to enhance juice extraction during milling.

    PubMed

    Brodie, Graham; Harris, Gerard; Jacob, Mohan V; Sheehan, Madoc; Yin, Ling

    2011-01-01

    Sugar extraction from cane requires shredding and crushing, both of which are energy intensive activities. Cane shredders account for almost 30% of the total power requirements for the juice extraction train in a sugar mill with four mills. Shredder hammers also wear quickly during the crushing season and need to be regularly maintained or replaced. Microwave pre-treatment of other plant based materials has resulted in significant reductions in total processing energy. This paper briefly reviews the underlying structure of sugar cane and how microwave pre-treatment may interact with sugar cane. Microwave treatment reduced the strength of sugar cane samples to 20% of its untreated value. This strength reduction makes it easier to crush the cane and leads to a 320% increase in juice yield compared with untreated cane when cane samples were crushed in a press. There was also a 68% increase in Brix %, a 58% increase in total dissolved solids, a 58% reduction in diffusion time, a 39% increase in Pol%, and a 7% increase in juice purity compared with the control samples after 60 minutes of diffusion in distilled water. PMID:24428107

  11. Ethanol from Sugar Cane: Flask Experiments Using the EX-FERM Technique

    PubMed Central

    Rolz, Carlos; de Cabrera, Sheryl

    1980-01-01

    Alcohol production at the laboratory scale from sugar cane pieces by the EX-FERM technique was studied with 37 strains of Saccharomyces spp. The EX-FERM process is novel in that it employs the simultaneous extraction and fermentation of the sucrose in a cane-water suspension. Two types of cane treatments were used: chips and shredded pith, either fresh or dried. A mother culture of the yeast was prepared in enriched cane juice and then added to the cane-water mixture. After static fermentation for 40 h at 30°C, the cane was removed, and fresh cane was added to the yeast-alcohol broth. After an additional 24 h, the cane was again removed and the liquor was analyzed. After the first 40-h cycle, sugar consumption was above 99% with 10 of the 37 yeast strains tested, and ethanol reached levels of 1.29 to 4.00 g per 100 ml, depending on the yeast strain. The final ethanol concentration reached 4.27 to 5.37 g per 100 ml, and sugar consumption was above 98% in three cases during a second EX-FERM cycle employing previously air-dried chips and pith. Product yields were within accepted values. Cane treatment did not appear to affect the results at this level. PMID:16345626

  12. Influence of gamma radiation on microbiological parameters of the ethanolic fermentation of sugar-cane must

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcarde, A. R.; Walder, J. M. M.; Horii, J.

    2003-04-01

    The influence of gamma radiation on reducing the population of some bacteria Bacillus and Lactobacillus that usually contaminate the sugar-cane must and its effects on acidity of the medium and viability of the yeast during fermentation were evaluated. The treatment with gamma radiation reduced the bacterial load of the sugar-cane must. Consequently, the volatile acidity produced during the fermentation of the must decreased and the viability of the yeast afterwards added increased.

  13. Environmental Evaluation of Metals in Sediments and Dragonflies Due to Sugar Cane Cultivation in Neotropical Streams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juliano José Corbi; Susana Trivinho-Strixino; Ademir dos Santos

    2008-01-01

    The use of fertilizers, containing different metals ions such as lead(II), chromium(III), cadmium(II), copper(II) and zinc(II),\\u000a in the soil, for sugar cane cultivation, may cause impacts on the hydric resources of the adjacent areas. The scope of this\\u000a study was to evaluate the impacts of sugar cane cultivation based on metal concentrations in sediments and dragonflies (Odonata).\\u000a The bioavailability of

  14. Biotechnological potential of agro-industrial residues. I: sugarcane bagasse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashok Pandey; Carlos R Soccol; Poonam Nigam; Vanete T Soccol

    2000-01-01

    Advances in industrial biotechnology offer potential opportunities for economic utilization of agro-industrial residues such as sugarcane bagasse. Sugarcane bagasse, which is a complex material, is the major by-product of the sugar cane industry. It contains about 50% cellulose, 25% hemicellulose and 25% lignin. Due to its abundant availability, it can serve as an ideal substrate for microbial processes for the

  15. Accumulation of recombinant cellobiohydrolase and endoglucanase in the leaves of mature transgenic sugar cane.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Mark D; Geijskes, Jason; Coleman, Heather D; Shand, Kylie; Kinkema, Mark; Palupe, Anthony; Hassall, Rachael; Sainz, Manuel; Lloyd, Robyn; Miles, Stacy; Dale, James L

    2011-10-01

    A major strategic goal in making ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass a cost-competitive liquid transport fuel is to reduce the cost of production of cellulolytic enzymes that hydrolyse lignocellulosic substrates to fermentable sugars. Current production systems for these enzymes, namely microbes, are not economic. One way to substantially reduce production costs is to express cellulolytic enzymes in plants at levels that are high enough to hydrolyse lignocellulosic biomass. Sugar cane fibre (bagasse) is the most promising lignocellulosic feedstock for conversion to ethanol in the tropics and subtropics. Cellulolytic enzyme production in sugar cane will have a substantial impact on the economics of lignocellulosic ethanol production from bagasse. We therefore generated transgenic sugar cane accumulating three cellulolytic enzymes, fungal cellobiohydrolase I (CBH I), CBH II and bacterial endoglucanase (EG), in leaves using the maize PepC promoter as an alternative to maize Ubi1 for controlling transgene expression. Different subcellular targeting signals were shown to have a substantial impact on the accumulation of these enzymes; the CBHs and EG accumulated to higher levels when fused to a vacuolar-sorting determinant than to an endoplasmic reticulum-retention signal, while EG was produced in the largest amounts when fused to a chloroplast-targeting signal. These results are the first demonstration of the expression and accumulation of recombinant CBH I, CBH II and EG in sugar cane and represent a significant first step towards the optimization of cellulolytic enzyme expression in sugar cane for the economic production of lignocellulosic ethanol. PMID:21356003

  16. Sugar Cane Bagasse Lignin in Resol-Type Resin: Alternative Application for Ligninphenol-Formaldehyde Resins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rogério S. J. Piccolo; Fernando Santos; Elisabete Frollini

    1997-01-01

    Lignin can be recovered from sugar cane bagasse, which is widely available in Brazil as a residue from sugar mills. Many reports can be found in the literature on the partial replacement of phenol by lignin in phenolic-type resins, but normally only their application as an adhesive is considered. This work is part of a study intended to look for

  17. Biological nitrogen fixation in sugar cane: A key to energetically viable biofuel production

    SciTech Connect

    Boddey, R.M. [Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Agrobiologia, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    1995-05-01

    The advantages of producing biofuels to replace fossil energy sources are derived from the fact that the energy accumulated in the biomass in captured directly from photosynthesis and is thus renewable, and that the cycle of carbon dioxide fixation by the crop, followed by burning of the fuel makes no overall contribution to atmospheric CO{sub 2} or, consequently, to global warming. However, these advantages are negated if large quantities of fossil fuels need to be used to grow or process the biofuel crop. In this regard, the Brazilian bioethanol program, based on the fermentation/distillation of sugar cane juice, is particularly favorable, not only because the crop is principally hand harvested, but also because of the low nitrogen fertilizer use on sugar cane in Brazil. Recent {sup 15}N and N balance studies have shown that in some Brazilian cane varieties, high yields are possible without N fertilization because the plants are able to obtain large contributions of nitrogen from plant-associated biological N{sub 2} fixation (BNF). The N{sub 2}-fixing acid-tolerant bacterium Acetobacter diazotrophicus was first found to occur within roots, stems, and leaves of sugar cane. Subsequently, two species of Herbaspirillum also have been found to occur within the interior of all sugar cane tissues. The discovery of these, and other N{sub 2}-fixing bacteria that survive poorly in soil but thrive within plant tissue (endophytic bacteria), may account for the high BNF contributions observed in sugar cane. Further study of this system should allow the gradual elimination of N fertilizer use on sugar cane, at least in Brazil, and opens up the possibility of the extension of this efficient N{sub 2}-fixing system to cereal and other crops with consequent immense potential benefits to tropical agriculture. 44 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Evaluation of cyclone gasifier performance for gasification of sugar cane residue—Part 1: gasification of bagasse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohamed Gabra; Esbjörn Pettersson; Rainer Backman; Björn Kjellström

    2001-01-01

    A method for avoiding excessive amount of alkali compounds and carryover particles in producer gas from gasification of sugar cane residue has been studied and evaluated. The cane sugar residue is gasified in a two-stage combustor at atmospheric pressure, where the first stage is a cyclone gasifier. The cyclone works as particle separator as well.This paper covers the results obtained

  19. Design and Installation of Irrigation System for the Expansion of Sugar cane- Industries in Ahvaz, IRAN.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afshari, E.; Afshari, S.

    2005-12-01

    This paper presents achievements of a twelve years ongoing project expansion of sugar cane- industries as a major agricultural development in Ahvaz, IRAN. The entire project is divided in to seven units and each unit provides irrigation water for 30,000 acres of sugar cane farms in Ahwaz. Absou Inc. is one of the consulting firms that is in charge of design and overseeing installation of irrigation system as well as the development of lands for sugar-cane cultivation at one of the units, called Farabi unit .In general, the mission of project is to Pump fresh water from Karoon River and direct it to the sugar cane farm for irrigation. In particular, the task of design and installation include, (1) build a pumping station at Karoon River with capacity of 1271 ft3/sec, (2) transfer water by main channel from Karoon rive to the farm site 19 miles (3) install a secondary pumping stations which direct water from main channel to drainage pipes and provides water for local farms (4) build a secondary channels which carries water with pipe lines with total length of 42 miles and diameter of 16 to 32 inch. (5) install drainage pump stations and collectors (6) level the ground surface and prepare it for irrigation (7) build railroad for carrying sugar canes (23 miles). Thus far, more than 15,000 acres of farm in Farabi unit is under sugar cane cultivation. The presentation will illustrate more details about different aspects of the project including design, installation and construction phases.

  20. Rapid screening for anthocyanins in cane sugars using ESR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Thamaphat, Kheamrutai; Goodman, Bernard A; Limsuwan, Pichet; Smith, Siwaporn Meejoo

    2015-03-15

    Anthocyanin, which is soluble in water and released into sugar steam during extraction, was investigated in this study. The anthocyanin content in refined sugar, plantation white sugar, soft brown sugar and raw sugar was determined using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, which was operated at room temperature, and compared with spectra from standard anthocyanin. The ESR spectra of red and violet anthocyanins was predominantly g ? 2.0055, which corresponded to an unpaired electron located in the pyrylium ring. Signals for Fe(III) and Mn(II), which naturally occur in plants, were found in raw sugar, soft brown sugar and standard anthocyanin but were absent from refined sugar and plantation white sugar due to the refining process. In addition, the ESR results were correlated with the apparent colour of the sugar, which was determined using the method of the International Commission for Uniform Methods of Sugar Analysis and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. PMID:25308651

  1. Dosimetric evaluation of sucrose and granulated cane sugar in the therapeutic dose range

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, Melanie T. M.; Jordan, Kevin J. [Department of Physics and Engineering, London Regional Cancer Program, London Health Sciences Centre, 790 Commissioners Rd. E, London, Ontario N6A 4L6 (Canada); Department of Physics and Engineering, London Regional Cancer Program, London Health Sciences Centre, 790 Commissioners Rd. E, London, Ontario N6A 4L6 (Canada) and Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5C1 (Canada)

    2009-04-15

    Granulated cane sugar has been used as a dosimetric material to report dose in high dose accidental irradiations. The purpose of this study was to assess whether clinical dosimetry is also plausible with such a commonly available material. The behavior of cane sugar was explored with respect to therapeutically relevant radiation quantities (dose, dose rate) and qualities (energy, radiation type) as well as under different temperature conditions. The stability of the signal postirradiation was also measured. Absorbed dose was measured by spectrophotometric readout of a ferrous ammonium sulfate xylenol orange (FX)-sugar solution in 10 cm path length cells. A visible color change was produced as a function of dose when the irradiated sugar samples were dissolved in FX solution (10% dilution by mass). A comparison of the optical absorbance spectra and dose response of cane sugar with analytical grade sucrose was done to establish a benchmark standard from which subsequent dosimetry measurements can be validated. The response of the sugar dosimeter read at 590 nm was found to be linear over the dose range of 100-2000 cGy, independent of energy (6-18 MV) and of the average dose rate (100-500 cGy/min). The readout of sugar samples irradiated with mixed photon and electron fields was also shown to be independent of radiation type (photons and electrons). Sugar temperature (20-40 degree sign C) during irradiation did not affect dose estimates, making it a promising dosimeter for in vivo dosimetry, particularly in cases where the dosimeter must remain in contact with the patient for an extended period of time. Sugar can be used as an integrating dosimeter, since it exhibits no fractionation effects. Granulated cane sugar is cost effective, safe, soft tissue equivalent, and can be used under various experimental conditions, making it a suitable dosimeter for some radiotherapy applications.

  2. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report An Investigation into the Economic Influence of Sugar Cane and Wheat Waste Paper on

    E-print Network

    into the Economic Influence of Sugar Cane and Wheat Waste Paper on Canadian Economy Daniel Khuu, David Wong, Ka Wang of a project/report". #12;An Investigation into the Economic Influence of Sugar Cane and Wheat Waste Paper, manufacturers and scientists have developed a more sustainable paper solution: the sugar cane and wheat waste

  3. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report An Investigation Into Sustainable Paper Alternatives for the UBC Campus (Sugar Cane

    E-print Network

    Into Sustainable Paper Alternatives for the UBC Campus (Sugar Cane Versus Wheat Waste Fibre) Andrew Crompton, Kyle of a project/report". #12;An Investigation Into Sustainable Paper Alternatives for the UBC Campus (Sugar Cane the economic, environmental and social aspects of two paper alternatives made from sugar cane and wheat waste

  4. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report An Investigation into 30% Recycled Wood Fiber Paper and Sugar Cane Paper

    E-print Network

    % Recycled Wood Fiber Paper and Sugar Cane Paper Yoon Ji Byun, Amelia Chan University of British Columbia Paper and Sugar Cane Paper Yoon Ji Byun, Amelia Chan University of British Columbia APSC 262 April 4, 2013 #12;2 An Investigation into 30% Recycled Wood Fibre Paper and Sugar Cane Paper Yoon Ji Byun Amelia

  5. 40 CFR 409.60 - Applicability; description of the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar processing subcategory... Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory...the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar processing...

  6. 40 CFR 409.60 - Applicability; description of the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar processing subcategory... Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory...the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar processing...

  7. 40 CFR 409.60 - Applicability; description of the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar processing subcategory... Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory...the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar processing...

  8. Firmicutes dominate the bacterial taxa within sugar-cane processing plants

    PubMed Central

    Sharmin, Farhana; Wakelin, Steve; Huygens, Flavia; Hargreaves, Megan

    2013-01-01

    Sugar cane processing sites are characterised by high sugar/hemicellulose levels, available moisture and warm conditions, and are relatively unexplored unique microbial environments. The PhyloChip microarray was used to investigate bacterial diversity and community composition in three Australian sugar cane processing plants. These ecosystems were highly complex and dominated by four main Phyla, Firmicutes (the most dominant), followed by Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Chloroflexi. Significant variation (p < 0.05) in community structure occurred between samples collected from ‘floor dump sediment’, ‘cooling tower water’, and ‘bagasse leachate’. Many bacterial Classes contributed to these differences, however most were of low numerical abundance. Separation in community composition was also linked to Classes of Firmicutes, particularly Bacillales, Lactobacillales and Clostridiales, whose dominance is likely to be linked to their physiology as ‘lactic acid bacteria’, capable of fermenting the sugars present. This process may help displace other bacterial taxa, providing a competitive advantage for Firmicutes bacteria. PMID:24177592

  9. Tribological aspects for the shafts and bearings of sugar cane mills

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. Rivas; J. J. Coronado; A. L. Gómez

    2006-01-01

    The high rate of wear on top roll shaft journals is an important problem for the Colombian sugar cane mills and it has shown a marked influence in the shaft reliability. The presence of mineral extraneous matter (MEM) added to a low hardness ratio between the shaft and bronze bearing (it was found to range between 1.27 and 4.29) causes

  10. A review of the 2006 International Society of Sugar Cane Technologists' Pathology Workshop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The International Society of Sugar Cane Technologists’ (ISSCT) Pathology Workshop was held on January 23-27, 2006, at the INRA Research Center in Petit Bourg, Guadeloupe, French West Indies and was hosted by CIRAD and organized by Jean Heinrich Daugrois and the CIRAD staff. There were 30 delegates ...

  11. Rudimentary, low tech incinerators as a means to produce reactive pozzolan out of sugar cane straw

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fernando. Martirena; Bernhard Middendorf; Robert L. Day; Matthias Gehrke; Pablo Roque; Lesday Martínez; Sergio Betancourt

    2006-01-01

    The ashes of agricultural wastes from the processing of sugar cane are recognized as having pozzolanic properties. Burning of these wastes under controlled conditions, e.g. temperature and residence time results in significant improvement in reactivity. There are many reports of low-tech incinerators that have been successfully used to produce reactive rice husk ash in Asia. The paper presents the results

  12. Sugar cane management with humic extract and organic and mineral fertilizer: impacts on Oxisol some physical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, M. C.; Campos, F. S.; Souza, Z. M.

    2012-04-01

    The present investigation has as objective to study the impact of cultive systems, humic extract and organic and mineral fertilizers on Oxisol some physical properties cultivated of sugar cane. It was developed in Aparecida do Taboado, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, in Manufactores Alcoolvale. The study was in sugar cane culture implanted on 3th and 4th cycle. The experimental design was at randomized blocks following scheme in zone with eight treatments and four replications. The two treatments in main zone were represented by cultivation systems (with and without chisel) and the subzone fertilization (T1-mineral, T2-mineral+sugar cane residue, T3-mineral+humic and fulvic acids and T4-mix of mineral, sugar cane residue and humic and fulvic acids). In three soil layers: 0.00-0.05; 0.10-0.20 and 0.20-0.40 m were studied the physical soil properties: macroporosity, microporosity, total porosity and soil bulk density. Also evaluate the technological quality of sugar cane. The conclusions are: the application of mineral fertilizer+sugar cane residue+humic extract (Humitec ®) and cropping system with chisel were more effective in improving soil physical; the system of crop of sugar cane ratton implanted in the 2th and 3th cycle, without the use of chisel was better in the recovery of soil physical properties; the crop system without the chisel and the combination of mineral fertilizer+sugar cane residue was promising to increase of Brix, Pol juice, Pol sugar cane and total recoverable sugars Pol.

  13. Spatial relationship between the productivity of cane sugar and soil electrical conductivity measured by electromagnetic induction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siqueira, Glecio; Silva, Jucicléia; Bezerra, Joel; Silva, Enio; Montenegro, Abelardo

    2013-04-01

    The cultivation of sugar cane in Brazil occupies a prominent place in national production chain, because the country is the main world producer of sugar and ethanol. Accordingly, studies are needed that allow an integrated production and technified, and especially that estimates of crops are consistent with the actual production of each region. The objective of this study was to determine the spatial relationship between the productivity of cane sugar and soil electrical conductivity measured by electromagnetic induction. The field experiment was conducted at an agricultural research site located in Goiana municipality, Pernambuco State, north-east of Brazil (Latitude 07 ° 34 '25 "S, Longitude 34 ° 55' 39" W). The surface of the studied field is 6.5 ha, and its mean height 8.5 m a.s.l. This site has been under sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum sp.) monoculture during the last 24 years and it was managed burning the straw each year after harvesting, renewal of plantation was performed every 7 years. Studied the field is located 10 km east from Atlantic Ocean and it is representative of the regional landscape lowlands, whose soils are affected by salinity seawater, sugarcane plantations with the main economical activity. Soil was classified an orthic the Podsol. The productivity of cane sugar and electrical conductivity were measured in 90 sampling points. The productivity of cane sugar was determined in each of the sampling points in plots of 9 m2. The Apparent soil electrical conductivity (ECa, mS m-1) was measured with an electromagnetic induction device EM38-DD (Geonics Limited). The equipment consists of two units of measurement, one in a horizontal dipole (ECa-H) to provide effective measurement distance of 1.5 m approximately and other one in vertical dipole (ECa-V) with an effective measurement depth of approximately 0.75 m. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and geostatistical tools. The results showed that productivity in the study area reached values above 200 t ha-1, with higher values of productivity are concentrated in the region northern terrain. The maps of soil electrical conductivity (ECa-V and ECa-H) showed behavior similar to the productivity of cane sugar. The linear correlation showed values of 0.74 (yield x ECa-H) and 0.85 (yield x ECa-V). The adjusted semivariograms showed no similarity in the spatial pattern of pairs of semivariance. The electrical conductivity measured by electromagnetic induction has been shown as an important tool for predicting the productivity of sugar cane, however more studies are needed to determine the magnitude of the differences between such attributes.

  14. Effect of acid hydrolysis and fungal biotreatment on agro-industrial wastes for obtainment of free sugars for bioethanol production

    PubMed Central

    El-Tayeb, T.S.; Abdelhafez, A.A.; Ali, S.H.; Ramadan, E.M.

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate selected chemical and microbiological treatments for the conversion of certain local agro-industrial wastes (rice straw, corn stalks, sawdust, sugar beet waste and sugarcane bagasse) to ethanol. The chemical composition of these feedstocks was determined. Conversion of wastes to free sugars by acid hydrolysis varied from one treatment to another. In single-stage dilute acid hydrolysis, increasing acid concentration from 1 % (v/v) to 5 % (v/v) decreased the conversion percentage of almost all treated agro-industrial wastes. Lower conversion percentages for some treatments were obtained when increasing the residence time from 90 to 120 min. The two-stage dilute acid hydrolysis by phosphoric acid (1.0 % v/v) followed by sulphuric acid (1.0 % v/v) resulted in the highest conversion percentage (41.3 % w/w) on treated sugar beet waste. This treatment when neutralized, amended with some nutrients and inoculated with baker’s yeast, achieved the highest ethanol concentration (1.0 % v/v). Formation of furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) were functions of type of acid hydrolysis, acid concentration, residence time and feedstock type. The highest bioconversion of 5 % wastes (37.8 % w/w) was recorded on sugar beet waste by Trichoderma viride EMCC 107. This treatment when followed by baker’s yeast fermentation, 0.41 % (v/v) ethanol and 8.2 % (v/w) conversion coefficient were obtained. PMID:24031984

  15. Briquetting of charcoal from sugar-cane bagasse fly ash (scbfa) as an alternative fuel.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, S R; Pena, A F V; Miguel, A G

    2010-05-01

    Brazil is the largest worldwide producer of alcohol and sugar from sugar-cane and has an extensive alternative program for car fuel which is unique. The objective of this work is to offer one management option of a solid residue produced by this industrial segment. The pressed sugar-cane bagasse is burned to produce steam and electricity by cogeneration. The combustion yields both bottom and fly ashes which contain high amounts of silicon oxide as a major component. Fly ash which contains a high volume (>30% by weight) of charcoal was used in this work. The ash was sieved to separate the thick charcoal from inorganic materials which are concentrated in the thinner fraction. The briquettes were hand pressed using charcoal mixed with a binder (starch) obtained from cassava flour (a tropical root). The results (density, mechanical resistance) obtained with 8% by weight of starch binder are presented here. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to characterize the ashes and the briquettes. The results show that sugar-cane bagasse fly ash (SCBFA) can be used to produce briquettes with an average density of 1.12gcm(-3) and an average calorific value of 25,551kJ/kg. PMID:20133118

  16. Congeners in sugar cane spirits aged in casks of different woods.

    PubMed

    Bortoletto, Aline M; Alcarde, André R

    2013-08-15

    The profile of volatile compounds and aging markers in sugar cane spirits aged for 36 months in casks made of 10 types of wood were studied. The ethanol content, volatile acidity, aldehydes, esters, higher alcohols, and methanol were determined. In addition, gallic, vanilic and syringic acids, siringaldehyde, coniferaldehyde, sinapaldehyde, vanillin, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and furfural were identified and quantified. The profile of volatile compounds characterised aging in each type of wood. The beverage aged in oak cask achieved the highest contents of maturation-related congeners. The Brazilian woods, similar to oak, were jequitibá rosa and cerejeira, which presented the highest contents of some maturation-related compounds, such as vanillin, vanilic acid, syringaldehyde and sinapaldehyde. Although oak wood conferred more chemical complexity to the beverage, Brazilian woods, singly or complementarily, present potential for spirit characterisation and for improving the quality of sugar cane spirits. PMID:23561163

  17. Preliminary statistical studies concerning the Campos RJ sugar cane area, using LANDSAT imagery and aerial photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (principal investigator); Costa, S. R. X.; Paiao, L. B. F.; Mendonca, F. J.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Duarte, V.

    1983-01-01

    The two phase sampling technique was applied to estimate the area cultivated with sugar cane in an approximately 984 sq km pilot region of Campos. Correlation between existing aerial photography and LANDSAT data was used. The two phase sampling technique corresponded to 99.6% of the results obtained by aerial photography, taken as ground truth. This estimate has a standard deviation of 225 ha, which constitutes a coefficient of variation of 0.6%.

  18. Estimation of the sugar cane cultivated area from LANDSAT images using the two phase sampling method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (principal investigator); Cappelletti, C. A.; Mendonca, F. J.; Lee, D. C. L.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.

    1982-01-01

    A two phase sampling method and the optimal sampling segment dimensions for the estimation of sugar cane cultivated area were developed. This technique employs visual interpretations of LANDSAT images and panchromatic aerial photographs considered as the ground truth. The estimates, as a mean value of 100 simulated samples, represent 99.3% of the true value with a CV of approximately 1%; the relative efficiency of the two phase design was 157% when compared with a one phase aerial photographs sample.

  19. An isotopic method for quantifying sweeteners derived from corn and sugar cane1-3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Hope Jahren; Christopher Saudek; Edwina H Yeung; Linda Kao; Rebecca A Kraft; Benjamin Caballero

    Background: Consumption of high-fructose corn syrup, as well as cane sugar, has been implicated in the rise of the obesity and diabetes epidemics. To date, however, no reliable biomarker for the con- sumption of these sweeteners is available. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the natural abundance stable-carbon-isotope signature of commonly consumed foods of plant origin. Design:

  20. Water flux through cellulose triacetate films produced from heterogeneous acetylation of sugar cane bagasse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guimes Rodrigues Filho; Sebastião Francelino da Cruz; Daniel Pasquini; Daniel Alves Cerqueira; Vanessa de Souza Prado; Rosana Maria Nascimento de Assunção

    2000-01-01

    In the present study the reaction of heterogeneous acetylation was applied to sugar cane bagasse. The product of heterogeneous acetylation was characterized using: (a) Fourier transformed infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy based on the presence of the C?O stretch band of the carbonyl group (around 1740cm?1), (b) wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) based on the presence of a maximum in the region

  1. Effect of the atmosphere on the classification of LANDSAT data. [Identifying sugar canes in Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (principal investigator); Morimoto, T.; Kumar, R.; Molion, L. C. B.

    1979-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. In conjunction with Turner's model for the correction of satellite data for atmospheric interference, the LOWTRAN-3 computer was used to calculate the atmospheric interference. Use of the program improved the contrast between different natural targets in the MSS LANDSAT data of Brasilia, Brazil. The classification accuracy of sugar canes was improved by about 9% in the multispectral data of Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo.

  2. Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of sugar cane renewable jet fuel.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Marcelo; Gurgel, Angelo C; Seabra, Joaquim E A

    2014-12-16

    This study evaluated the life cycle GHG emissions of a renewable jet fuel produced from sugar cane in Brazil under a consequential approach. The analysis included the direct and indirect emissions associated with sugar cane production and fuel processing, distribution, and use for a projected 2020 scenario. The CA-GREET model was used as the basic analytical tool, while Land Use Change (LUC) emissions were estimated employing the GTAP-BIO-ADV and AEZ-EF models. Feedstock production and LUC impacts were evaluated as the main sources of emissions, respectively estimated as 14.6 and 12 g CO2eq/MJ of biofuel in the base case. However, the renewable jet fuel would strongly benefit from bagasse and trash-based cogeneration, which would enable a net life cycle emission of 8.5 g CO2eq/MJ of biofuel in the base case, whereas Monte Carlo results indicate 21 ± 11 g CO2eq/MJ. Besides the major influence of the electricity surplus, the sensitivity analysis showed that the cropland-pasture yield elasticity and the choice of the land use factor employed to sugar cane are relevant parameters for the biofuel life cycle performance. Uncertainties about these estimations exist, especially because the study relies on projected performances, and further studies about LUC are also needed to improve the knowledge about their contribution to the renewable jet fuel life cycle. PMID:25419647

  3. An improved chemically inducible gene switch that functions in the monocotyledonous plant sugar cane.

    PubMed

    Kinkema, Mark; Geijskes, R Jason; Shand, Kylie; Coleman, Heather D; De Lucca, Paulo C; Palupe, Anthony; Harrison, Mark D; Jepson, Ian; Dale, James L; Sainz, Manuel B

    2014-03-01

    Chemically inducible gene switches can provide precise control over gene expression, enabling more specific analyses of gene function and expanding the plant biotechnology toolkit beyond traditional constitutive expression systems. The alc gene expression system is one of the most promising chemically inducible gene switches in plants because of its potential in both fundamental research and commercial biotechnology applications. However, there are no published reports demonstrating that this versatile gene switch is functional in transgenic monocotyledonous plants, which include some of the most important agricultural crops. We found that the original alc gene switch was ineffective in the monocotyledonous plant sugar cane, and describe a modified alc system that is functional in this globally significant crop. A promoter consisting of tandem copies of the ethanol receptor inverted repeat binding site, in combination with a minimal promoter sequence, was sufficient to give enhanced sensitivity and significantly higher levels of ethanol inducible gene expression. A longer CaMV 35S minimal promoter than was used in the original alc gene switch also substantially improved ethanol inducibility. Treating the roots with ethanol effectively induced the modified alc system in sugar cane leaves and stem, while an aerial spray was relatively ineffective. The extension of this chemically inducible gene expression system to sugar cane opens the door to new opportunities for basic research and crop biotechnology. PMID:24142380

  4. Electric power from sugar cane in Costa Rica. A technical and economic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Tugwell, F.; Gowen, M.; Kenda, W.; Cohen, A.

    1988-07-01

    A team of specialists visited Costa Rica in May 1988 to analyze the potential for production and sale of electricity by the sugar-cane industry. Focusing on three sugar mills, the team made technical projections at four levels of investment, ranging from the simplest sale of surplus power to the installation of new turbogenerator systems. For each level, capital costs, electricity production and sales, and fuel options were estimated. Associated risks were assessed through sensitivity analyses to demonstrate the possible impacts of varying interest rates, fuel costs, and electricity sales prices. The team concluded that production and sale of electricity for the national grid could be an excellent investment opportunity for the sugar industry and would provide important economic benefits, including creation of additional jobs in rural areas, diversification of the sugar industry, and (in the short term) displacement of the need for imported fuels.

  5. Wastewater use in agriculture: Irrigation of sugar cane with effluents from the Cañaveralejo wastewater treatment plant in Cali, Colombia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. Madera; J. Silva; D. D. Mara; P. Torres

    2009-01-01

    In Valle del Cauca, south?west Colombia, surface and ground waters are used for sugar cane irrigation at a rate of 100 m of water per tonne of sugar produced. In addition large quantities of artificial fertilizers and pesticides are used to grow the crop. Preliminary experiments were undertaken to determine the feasibility of using effluents from the Cañaveralejo primary wastewater

  6. Power generation using sugar cane bagasse: A heat recovery analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seguro, Jean Vittorio

    The sugar industry is facing the need to improve its performance by increasing efficiency and developing profitable by-products. An important possibility is the production of electrical power for sale. Co-generation has been practiced in the sugar industry for a long time in a very inefficient way with the main purpose of getting rid of the bagasse. The goal of this research was to develop a software tool that could be used to improve the way that bagasse is used to generate power. Special focus was given to the heat recovery components of the co-generation plant (economizer, air pre-heater and bagasse dryer) to determine if one, or a combination, of them led to a more efficient co-generation cycle. An extensive review of the state of the art of power generation in the sugar industry was conducted and is summarized in this dissertation. Based on this models were developed. After testing the models and comparing the results with the data collected from the literature, a software application that integrated all these models was developed to simulate the complete co-generation plant. Seven different cycles, three different pressures, and sixty-eight distributions of the flue gas through the heat recovery components can be simulated. The software includes an economic analysis tool that can help the designer determine the economic feasibility of different options. Results from running the simulation are presented that demonstrate its effectiveness in evaluating and comparing the different heat recovery components and power generation cycles. These results indicate that the economizer is the most beneficial option for heat recovery and that the use of waste heat in a bagasse dryer is the least desirable option. Quantitative comparisons of several possible cycle options with the widely-used traditional back-pressure turbine cycle are given. These indicate that a double extraction condensing cycle is best for co-generation purposes. Power generation gains between 40 and 100% are predicted for some cycles with the addition of optimum heat recovery systems.

  7. Sugar Cane Water Foot Print for Brazilian Major Varietes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coelho, R. D.; Maschio, R.; Leal, D. P.; Barbosa, F. D.; Mauri, R.

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the water productivity (PA) into biomass, sugar and energy for 24 brazilian sugarcane varieties under drip irrigation, subjected to full and deficit irrigation treatments during growing stage. Two experiments were established under greenhouse conditions at the Biosystems Engineering Department, ESALQ/USP, Piracicaba, SP. Experiment 1: ten varieties on a clay soil (RB835054, RB855453, RB855536, RB925211, RB867515, SP89-1115, SP81-3250, CTC14, CTC8 e CTC6) and Experiment 2: fourteen varieties on a sandy-loam soil (RB925345, RB855156, RB966928, RB72454, RB92579, IACSP95-5000, Caiana, SP83-2847, SP90-3414, SP79-1011, CTC17, CTC15, CTC9 e CTC2). In both experiments it was adopted two irrigation treatments: T100 - full irrigation with 100% crop evapotranspiration replacement, maintaining soil moisture near field capacity, and T70 - irrigation with 70% of water depth applied to T100 treatment. Irrigation treatments were initiated at 101 days of crop cycle, corresponding to the end of tillering and the beginning of intense stalk growth phase (first ratoon). It was observed variation in the water productivity into fresh stalk biomass (PABFC) from 16.22 to 29.21 kg m-3, according of the varieties and irrigation treatments applied. The highest values were observed for varieties CTC6, CTC14, RB867515, SP81-3250 and RB92579, under full irrigation treatment (T100), and CTC6, CTC14 and SP90-3414, under deficit irrigation treatment (T70). Water productivity into sugar (PABATR) ranged from 1.95 to 3.84 kg m-3, highest values were observed for varieties CTC6 and RB92579 (T100), as well as RB835054 e RB966928 (T70). Water productivity into total energy (PAETOT) varied from 101.17 to 174.65 MJ m-3, with highest values for varieties:SP81-3250, CTC6, CTC17 and RB92579 (T100 treatment), as well as SP90-3414, SP81-3250 and CTC6 (T70 treatment).

  8. Influence of sugar cane burning on aerosol soluble ion composition in Southeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, A. G.; Cardoso, A. A.; da Rocha, G. O.

    Seasonal variability in the major soluble ion composition of atmospheric particulate matter in the principal sugar cane growing region of central São Paulo State indicates that pre-harvest burning of sugar cane plants is an important influence on the regional scale aerosol chemistry. Samples of particulate matter were collected between April 1999 and February 2001 in coarse (>3.5?m) and fine (<3.5?m) fractions, and analysed for HCOO-, CH3COO-, C2O42-, SO42-, NO3-, Cl-, Na+, K+, NH4+, Mg and Ca. Results indicated that the principal sources of the aerosols investigated were local or regional in nature (scale of tens to a few hundreds of km), and that differences between air masses of varying origins were small. Fine particles were typically acidic, containing secondary nitrates, sulphates and organic species. Coarse fraction concentrations were mainly influenced by physical parameters (wind speed, movement of vehicles and surface condition) affecting rates of re-suspension, although secondary nitrate and sulphate were also present in the larger particles. Concentrations of all measured species except sodium and chloride were higher during the burning season. Although concentrations were lower than often found in polluted urban environments, the massive increases during much of the year, due to a single anthropogenic activity (sugar cane burning) are indicative of a very large perturbation of the lower troposphere in the region relative to the natural condition. These aerosols are suspected of promoting respiratory disease. They also represent an important mechanism for the tropospheric transport of species relevant to surface acidification (sulphates, nitrates, ammonium and organic acids) and soil nutrient status (potassium, nitrogen, ammonium, calcium), so their impact on fragile natural ecosystems (following deposition) needs to be considered.

  9. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report An Investigation Into the Technology Behind the Manufacturing of Sugar Cane and Wood

    E-print Network

    Into the Technology Behind the Manufacturing of Sugar Cane and Wood Fiber Paper: Final Report Tashfiq Alam, Andrew products. In 1984, over 65% of the paper consumed worldwide was derived from wood pulp and only 25. To compensate for the increasing demand in paper and wood fibre pulp, sugar cane paper, which uses bagasse, has

  10. IMPROVED BIOREFINERY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL, CHEMICALS, ANIMAL FEED AND BIOMATERIALS FROM SUGAR CANE

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Donal F. Day

    2009-01-29

    The Audubon Sugar Institute (ASI) of Louisiana State University’s Agricultural Center (LSU AgCenter) and MBI International (MBI) sought to develop technologies that will lead to the development of a sugar-cane biorefinery, capable of supplying fuel ethanol from bagasse. Technology development focused on the conversion of bagasse, cane-leaf matter (CLM) and molasses into high value-added products that included ethanol, specialty chemicals, biomaterials and animal feed; i.e. a sugar cane-based biorefinery. The key to lignocellulosic biomass utilization is an economically feasible method (pretreatment) for separating the cellulose and the hemicellulose from the physical protection provided by lignin. An effective pretreatment disrupts physical barriers, cellulose crystallinity, and the association of lignin and hemicellulose with cellulose so that hydrolytic enzymes can access the biomass macrostructure (Teymouri et al. 2004, Laureano-Perez, 2005). We chose to focus on alkaline pretreatment methods for, and in particular, the Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX) process owned by MBI. During the first two years of this program a laboratory process was established for the pretreatment of bagasse and CLM using the AFEX process. There was significant improvement of both rate and yield of glucose and xylose upon enzymatic hydrolysis of AFEX-treated bagasse and CLM compared with untreated material. Because of reactor size limitation, several other alkaline pretreatment methods were also co-investigated. They included, dilute ammonia, lime and hydroxy-hypochlorite treatments. Scale-up focused on using a dilute ammonia process as a substitute for AFEX, allowing development at a larger scale. The pretreatment of bagasse by an ammonia process, followed by saccharification and fermentation produced ethanol from bagasse. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) allowed two operations in the same vessel. The addition of sugarcane molasses to the hydrolysate/fermentation process yielded improvements beyond what was expected solely from the addition of sugar. In order to expand the economic potential for building a biorefinery, the conversion of enzyme hydrolysates of AFEX-treated bagasse to succinic acid was also investigated. This program established a solid basis for pre-treatment of bagasse in a manner that is feasible for producing ethanol at raw sugar mills.

  11. Calcium phosphate flocs and the clarification of sugar cane juice from whole of crop harvesting.

    PubMed

    Thai, Caroline C D; Moghaddam, Lalehvash; Doherty, William O S

    2015-02-11

    Sugar cane biomass is one of the most viable feedstocks for the production of renewable fuels and chemicals. Therefore, processing the whole of crop (WC) (i.e., stalk and trash, instead of stalk only) will increase the amount of available biomass for this purpose. However, effective clarification of juice expressed from WC for raw sugar manufacture is a major challenge because of the amounts and types of non-sucrose impurities (e.g., polysaccharides, inorganics, proteins, etc.) present. Calcium phosphate flocs are important during sugar cane juice clarification because they are responsible for the removal of impurities. Therefore, to gain a better understanding of the role of calcium phosphate flocs during the juice clarification process, the effects of impurities on the physicochemical properties of calcium phosphate flocs were examined using small-angle laser light scattering technique, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray powder diffraction. Results on synthetic sugar juice solutions showed that the presence of SiO2 and Na(+) ions affected floc size and floc structure. Starch and phosphate ions did not affect the floc structure; however, the former reduced the floc size, whereas the latter increased the floc size. The study revealed that high levels of Na(+) ions would negatively affect the clarification process the most, as they would reduce the amount of suspended particles trapped by the flocs. A complementary study on prepared WC juice using cold and cold/intermediate liming techniques was conducted. The study demonstrated that, in comparison to the one-stage (i.e., conventional) clarification process, a two-stage clarification process using cold liming removed more polysaccharides (?19%), proteins (?82%), phosphorus (?53%), and SiO2 (?23%) in WC juice but increased Ca(2+) (?136%) and sulfur (?200%). PMID:25574835

  12. Sugar cane vinasse in water bodies: impact assessed by liver histopathology in tilapia.

    PubMed

    Marinho, Júlia Fernanda Urbano; Correia, Jorge Evangelista; Marcato, Ana Claudia de Castro; Pedro-Escher, Janaína; Fontanetti, Carmem Silvia

    2014-12-01

    Aquatic ecosystems are the main receptors of toxic substances from human activities. With the increase in sugar cane production, vinasse - the main residue of ethanol production - is a potential contaminant of water resources, due to its high organic matter content. This study was aimed at evaluating the toxicity of vinasse by examining the liver of the fish Oreochromis niloticus exposed to different dilutions of sugar cane vinasse (1%, 2%, 5%, 5% and 10%) in laboratory bioassays. Portions of liver were collected and fixed for histological and histochemical techniques to detect total proteins, polysaccharides and lipids. In the histological analysis, the groups treated with vinasse exhibited significant alterations, such as loss of cytoplasmic integrity, loss of cell limit and tissue disorganization. Protein and lipid profiles were not altered. Higher accumulation of polysaccharides was detected in fish exposed to lower concentrations of vinasse, with a gradual decrease in animals treated with vinasse in higher concentrations. We concluded that vinasse has a dose-dependent toxic and cytotoxic potential in water bodies and that the liver is strongly affected when acutely exposed to this contaminant. PMID:25265025

  13. Ethanol/water pulps from sugar cane straw and their biobleaching with xylanase from Bacillus pumilus.

    PubMed

    Moriya, Regina Y; Gonçalves, Adilson R; Duarte, Marta C T

    2007-04-01

    The influence of independent variables (temperature and time) on the cooking of sugar cane straw with ethanol/water mixtures was studied to determine operating conditions that obtain pulp with high cellulose contents and a low lignin content. An experimental 2(2) design was applied for temperatures of 185 and 215 degrees C, and time of 1 and 2.5 h with the ethanol/water mixture concentration and constant straw-to-solvent ratio. The system was scaled-up at 200 degrees C cooking temperature for 2 h with 50% ethanol-water concentration, and 1:10 (w/v) straw-to-solvent ratio to obtain a pulp with 3.14 cP viscosity, 58.09 kappa-number, and the chemical composition of the pulps were 3.2% pentosan and 31.5% lignin. Xylanase from Bacillus pumilus was then applied at a loading of 5-150 IU/g dry pulp in the sugar cane straw ethanol/water pulp at 50 degrees C for 2 and 20 h. To ethanol/water pulps, the best enzyme dosage was found to be 20 IU/g dry pulp at 20 h, and a high enzyme dosage of 150 IU/g dry pulp did not decrease the kappa-number of the pulp. PMID:18478412

  14. Hydrolysis of Ammonia-pretreated Sugar Cane Bagasse with Cellulase, ?-Glucosidase, and Hemicellulase Preparations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prior, Bernard A.; Day, Donal F.

    Sugar cane bagasse consists of hemicellulose (24%) and cellulose (38%), and bioconversion of both fractions to ethanol should be considered for a viable process. We have evaluated the hydrolysis of pretreated bagasse with combinations of cellulase, ?-glucosidase, and hemicellulase. Ground bagasse was pretreated either by the AFEX process (2NH3: 1 biomass, 100 °C, 30 min) or with NH4OH (0.5 g NH4OH of a 28% [v/v] per gram dry biomass; 160 °C, 60 min), and composition analysis showed that the glucan and xylan fractions remained largely intact. The enzyme activities of four commercial xylanase preparations and supernatants of four laboratory-grown fungi were determined and evaluated for their ability to boost xylan hydrolysis when added to cellulase and ?-glucosidase (10 filter paper units [FPU]: 20 cellobiase units [CBU]/g glucan). At 1% glucan loading, the commercial enzyme preparations (added at 10% or 50% levels of total protein in the enzyme preparations) boosted xylan and glucan hydrolysis in both pretreated bagasse samples. Xylanase addition at 10% protein level also improved hydrolysis of xylan and glucan fractions up to 10% glucan loading (28% solids loading). Significant xylanase activity in enzyme cocktails appears to be required for improving hydrolysis of both glucan and xylan fractions of ammonia pretreated sugar cane bagasse.

  15. Ethanol/Water Pulps From Sugar Cane Straw and Their Biobleaching With Xylanase from Bacillus pumilus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriya, Regina Y.; Gonçalves, Adilson R.; Duarte, Marta C. T.

    The influence of independent variables (temperature and time) on the cooking of sugar cane straw with ethanol/water mixtures was studied to determine operating conditions that obtain pulp with high cellulose contents and a low lignin content. An experimental 22 design was applied for temperatures of 185 and 215°C, and time of 1 and 2.5 h with the ethanol/water mixture concentration and constant straw-to-solvent ratio. The system was scaled-up at 200°C cooking temperature for 2 h with 50% ethanol-water concentration, and 1?10 (w/v) straw-to-solvent ratio to obtain a pulp with 3.14 cP viscosity, 58.09 kappa-number, and the chemical composition of the pulps were 3.2% pentosan and 31.5% lignin. Xylanase from Bacillus pumilus was then applied at a loading of 5-150 IU/g dry pulp in the sugar cane straw ethanol/water pulp at 50°C for 2 and 20 h. To ethanol/water pulps, the best enzyme dosage was found to be 20 IU/g dry pulp at 20 h, and a high enzyme dosage of 150 IU/g dry pulp did not decrease the kappa-number of the pulp.

  16. Study of Sugar Cane Management Systems in Brazil Using Laser Induced Fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabral, Jader; Villas-Boas, Paulino; Carvalho, Camila; Corá, José Eduardo; Milori, Débora

    2014-05-01

    Brazil is the largest producer of cane sugar, consequently, is a leader in the production of bio-ethanol, a clean and renewable energy that fits the model of sustainable economy as discussed and pursued by our society. Our state of São Paulo concentrates 60% of national production, representing a sizeable share in the range of world production. All this economic potential is closely monitored by the scientific community, which develops numerous studies seeking an improvement in production efficiency and reduced environmental impacts caused by the planting. However, the study of soil samples, in plantation areas, demands results about the content and structural forms of organic matter (OM). Also, the soil carbon stocks depend on the type of management. Our goal is to study OM of soil samples from four sugar cane management systems: (i) unburned cane harvest, (ii) preharvest burned, (iii) addition of sugarcane bagasse ash and (iv) addition of residue from the extraction of sucrose, using Laser Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy of solid state. All the emission spectra were acquired using the system called LIFS-405, which consists of a diode laser Coherent, model cube with excitation at 405 nm, maximum output power of 50mJ and a mini-spectrometer, Ocean Optics USB2000-high sensitivity, with range of 194-894 nm and a fiber-optic bundle design (six excitation fibers in a circular path and one central fiber the collect the fluorescence). In this work, we will present the preliminary results evolving the humification index (HLIFS) of soil OM and total carbon amount (TC) for the different types of management. HLIFS shows a close correlation with the humification index of humic acid in solution obtained by means 2D conventional fluorescence spectroscopy.

  17. Bioaccessible arsenic in soils of former sugar cane plantations, Island of Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Cutler, William G; Brewer, Roger C; El-Kadi, Aly; Hue, Nguyen V; Niemeyer, Patrick G; Peard, John; Ray, Chittaranjan

    2013-01-01

    Arsenical herbicides were used extensively for emergent weed control in Hawaiian sugar cane cultivation from 1913 to about 1950. As a result, surface soil arsenic concentrations average 280 mg kg(-1) across more than 60 km(2) of former sugar plantation land in the eastern portion of the Island of Hawaii. This study was conducted to elucidate the relationship between soil properties and arsenic bioaccessibility in the iron-rich volcanic soils. Soils are predominantly Andisols, formed by weathering of basaltic lava and tephra, with pedogenic solid phases consisting of short-range order iron oxyhydroxides, allophane-like aluminosilicates, and metal-humus compounds. These reactive solid phases strongly adsorb oxyanions, such as phosphate and arsenite/arsenate. High arsenic sorption capacity limits desorption and vertical migration within the soil column and prevents contamination of the underlying groundwater aquifer, despite high arsenic loading and precipitation rates. In vitro arsenic bioaccessibility, as measured by the SBRC gastric-phase test, ranges from 2% to 35% and averages 9% of total arsenic. Bioaccessible arsenic is higher in less weathered soils (Udifolists, Typic and Lithic Hydrudands) and lower in more weathered ash-dominant soils (Acrudoxic Hydrudands). Soil weathering indicators, such as reactive iron content, are strong predictors of arsenic bioaccessibility. Based on evidence from soil mineralogy, geochemistry and arsenic speciation, as well as limited soil arsenic bioavailability/bioaccessibility comparisons, risks to human health from direct contact (soil ingestion) are significantly reduced by low arsenic bioaccessibility. Nonetheless, some soils within former sugar cane cultivation areas contain bioaccessible arsenic concentrations exceeding Hawaii Department of Health risk-based action levels, and will require mitigating actions. Even higher levels of soil arsenic contamination have been identified at former pesticide storage and mixing areas, but are generally of localized extent. PMID:23178778

  18. Habitat selection and coexistence of invasive cockroach species (Dictyoptera) in sugar-cane fields on Réunion island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, Stéphane; Rivault, Colette

    2006-01-01

    Selection of habitat has a profound influence on interactions among species and the assembly of ecological communities. We investigated habitat preferences to understand how different cockroach species coexist in sugar-cane fields on Réunion island. Cockroach populations belonging to a guild of seven species were surveyed during one annual cycle in eight sugar-cane fields that differed by several environmental factors, in order to investigate ecological features of cockroach species and their patterns of coexistence. Structure variations of the cockroach communities were analyzed at the field scale, at the sample unit scale, and according to variations of environmental conditions related to the annual sugar-cane growth cycle. A canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was used to elucidate relationships between species diversity, population abundance and environmental characteristics. The examination of partitioning at different spatial and temporal scales evidenced that each species occupied a particular type of habitat. The main factors influencing spatial habitat selection were at the sample unit scale: presence of ants, edge effect, soil moisture and granulometry, at the field scale: irrigation, annual rainfall, altitude and age of the field. Although a pair of species shared the same type of habitat, annual population peaks of each species did not coincide in time. This suggests that resource partitioning is based both on ecological factors and interspecific competition. Factors enhancing cockroach coexistence and factors favoring population outbursts are discussed as well as specific invasive capacities of these cockroaches and the role of the cockroach community in the sugar-cane trophic web.

  19. Including sugar cane in the agro-ecosystem model ORCHIDEE-STICS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valade, A.; Vuichard, N.; Ciais, P.; Viovy, N.

    2010-12-01

    With 4 million ha currently grown for ethanol in Brazil only, approximately half the global bioethanol production in 2005 (Smeets 2008), and a devoted land area expected to expand globally in the years to come, sugar cane is at the heart of the biofuel debate. Indeed, ethanol made from biomass is currently the most widespread option for alternative transportation fuels. It was originally promoted as a carbon neutral energy resource that could bring energy independence to countries and local opportunities to farmers, until attention was drawn to its environmental and socio-economical drawbacks. It is still not clear to which extent it is a solution or a contributor to climate change mitigation. Dynamic Global Vegetation models can help address these issues and quantify the potential impacts of biofuels on ecosystems at scales ranging from on-site to global. The global agro-ecosystem model ORCHIDEE describes water, carbon and energy exchanges at the soil-atmosphere interface for a limited number of natural and agricultural vegetation types. In order to integrate agricultural management to the simulations and to capture more accurately the specificity of crops' phenology, ORCHIDEE has been coupled with the agronomical model STICS. The resulting crop-oriented vegetation model ORCHIDEE-STICS has been used so far to simulate temperate crops such as wheat, corn and soybean. As a generic ecosystem model, each grid cell can include several vegetation types with their own phenology and management practices, making it suitable to spatial simulations. Here, ORCHIDEE-STICS is altered to include sugar cane as a new agricultural Plant functional Type, implemented and parametrized using the STICS approach. An on-site calibration and validation is then performed based on biomass and flux chamber measurements in several sites in Australia and variables such as LAI, dry weight, heat fluxes and respiration are used to evaluate the ability of the model to simulate the specific phenology of sugar cane. The calibration of ORCHIDEE-STICS on several sites and for different technical itineraries provides a strong basis for further analysis of the impacts of land use change related to bioenergy crops.

  20. Improvement on sugar cane bagasse hydrolysis using enzymatic mixture designed cocktail.

    PubMed

    Bussamra, Bianca Consorti; Freitas, Sindelia; Costa, Aline Carvalho da

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this work was to study cocktail supplementation for sugar cane bagasse hydrolysis, where the enzymes were provided from both commercial source and microorganism cultivation (Trichoderma reesei and genetically modified Escherichia coli), followed by purification. Experimental simplex lattice mixture design was performed to optimize the enzymatic proportion. The response was evaluated through hydrolysis microassays validated here. The optimized enzyme mixture, comprised of T. reesei fraction (80%), endoglucanase (10%) and ?-glucosidase (10%), converted, theoretically, 72% of cellulose present in hydrothermally pretreated bagasse, whereas commercial Celluclast 1.5L converts 49.11%±0.49. Thus, a rational enzyme mixture designed by using synergism concept and statistical analysis was capable of improving biomass saccharification. PMID:25846188

  1. A novel alkaline oxidation pretreatment for spruce, birch and sugar cane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Kallioinen, Anne; Hakola, Maija; Riekkola, Tiina; Repo, Timo; Leskelä, Markku; von Weymarn, Niklas; Siika-aho, Matti

    2013-07-01

    Alkaline oxidation pretreatment was developed for spruce, birch and sugar cane bagasse. The reaction was carried out in alkaline water solution under 10 bar oxygen pressure and at mild reaction temperature of 120-140°C. Most of the lignin was solubilised by the alkaline oxidation pretreatment and an easily hydrolysable carbohydrate fraction was obtained. After 72 h hydrolysis with a 10 FPU/g enzyme dosage, glucose yields of 80%, 91%, and 97%, for spruce, birch and bagasse, respectively, were achieved. The enzyme dosage could be decreased to 4 FPU/g without a major effect in terms of the hydrolysis performance. Compared to steam explosion alkaline oxidation was found to be significantly better in the conditions tested, especially for the pretreatment of spruce. In hydrolysis and fermentation at 12% d.m. consistency an ethanol yield of 80% could be obtained with both bagasse and spruce in 1-3 days. PMID:23711947

  2. Selection of sugar cane full-sib families using mixed models and ISSR markers.

    PubMed

    Almeida, L M; Viana, A P; Gonçalves, G M; Entringer, G C

    2014-01-01

    In 2006, an experiment examining families belonging to the first selection stage of the Sugar Cane Breeding Program of Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro/Rede Interuniversitária para o Desenvolvimento do Setor Sucroalcooleiro was conducted. Families and plants within families were evaluated to select superior plants for subsequent stages of the breeding program. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design, in which progenies were grouped into 4 sets, each with 4 replicates and 100 seedlings per plot. The following traits were evaluated: average stem diameter, total plot weight, number of stems, Brix of the lower stem, and Brix of the upper stem. The study of families used the restricted maximum likelihood/best linear unbiased procedure mixed models. After selection, families were genotyped via inter-simple sequence repeat to assess the genetic distance of genotypes. This approach was found to be efficient for selecting new genotypes. PMID:25501142

  3. Effect of two commercial yeast cultures with Saccharomyces cerevisiae on ruminal fermentation and digestion in sheep fed sugar cane tops

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Arcos-Garc??a; F. A. Castrejón; G. D. Mendoza; E. P. Pérez-Gavilán

    2000-01-01

    A feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of two direct-fed microbial cultures containing Saccharomyces cerevisiae, on ruminal fermentation and digestibility of diets based on sugar cane tops. Three Suffolk ewes (30 kg BW) with ruminal cannula were used in a latin square design, where treatments were control group (CG); 3 g\\/day of Yea-Sacc1026 (YS, 1×108 CFU\\/g) and 1

  4. Combined removal of BTEX in air stream by using mixture of sugar cane bagasse, compost and GAC as biofilter media

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anil K. Mathur; C. B. Majumder; Shamba Chatterjee

    2007-01-01

    Biofiltration of air stream containing mixture of benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and o-xylene (BTEX) has been studied in a lab-scale biofilter packed with a mixture of compost, sugar cane bagasse and granulated activated carbon (GAC) in the ratio 55:30:15 by weight. Microbial acclimation was achieved in 30 days by exposing the system to average BTEX inlet concentration of 0.4194gm?3 at

  5. Detection of added beet or cane sugar in maple syrup by the site-specific deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance (SNIF-NMR) method: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Martin, Y L

    2001-01-01

    Results of a collaborative study are reported for the detection of added beet or cane sugar in maple syrup by the site-specific natural isotope fractionation-nuclear magnetic resonance (SNIF-NMR) method. The method is based on the fact that the deuterium content at specific positions of the sugar molecules is different in maple syrup from that in beet or cane sugar. The syrup is diluted with pure water and fermented; the alcohol is distilled with a quantitative yield and analyzed with a high-field NMR spectrometer fitted with a deuterium probe and fluorine lock. The proportion of ethanol molecules monodeuterated at the methyl site is recorded. This parameter (D/H)I is decreased when beet sugar is added and increased when cane sugar is added to the maple syrup. The precision of the method for measuring (D/H)I was found to be in good agreement with the values already published for the application of this method to fruit juice concentrates (AOAC Official Method 995.17). An excellent correlation was found between the percentage of added beet sugar and the (D/H)I isotopic ratio measured in this collaborative study. Consequently, all samples in which exogenous sugars were added were found to have a (D/H)I isotopic ratio significantly different from the normal value for an authentic maple syrup. By extension of what is known about plants having the C4 cycle, the method can be applied to corn sweeteners as well as to cane sugar. One limitation of the method is its reduced sensitivity when applied to specific blends of beet and cane sugars or corn sweeteners. In such case, the C13 ratio measurement (see AOAC Official Method 984.23, Corn Syrup and Cane Sugar in Maple Syrup) may be used in conjunction. PMID:11601471

  6. The Development of Snail Control Methods on an Irrigated Sugar-Cane Estate in Northern Tanzania*

    PubMed Central

    Fenwick, A.

    1970-01-01

    In an attempt to prevent the transmission of Schistosoma mansoni on an irrigated sugar-cane estate, molluscicide experiments were carried out to find the optimum methods for controlling the intermediate-host snails, Biomphalaria pfeifferi. The ease of application of N-tritylmorpholine led to its adoption as the molluscicide of choice for the two separate irrigation systems on the estate. Experiments on the frequency and duration of molluscicide treatments were carried out, and from these it was concluded that 5-day applications of N-tritylmorpholine at 0.025 ppm every 7 weeks might lead to a break in transmission by control of the snails. In another set of trials, drainage ditches were treated alternately with N-tritylmorpholine and niclosamide ethanolamine salt, and although the chemicals differed only slightly in their effect, the latter—being ovicidal—was chosen to be applied at approximately 4 ppm by knapsack sprayer every 8 weeks. Extra treatment of small pools with the same compound was carried out during the long rains when irrigation was unnecessary and most of the canals were dry. It is pointed out that the effect of the control methods on S. mansoni transmission will need to be evaluated by studying the incidence of the disease in the population. PMID:5310954

  7. Purification and properties of endoglucanase from a sugar cane bagasse hydrolyzing strain, Aspergillus glaucus XC9.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yi-Ming; Zhu, Xiang-Zhi; Huang, Jian-Zhong; Ma, Su-Juan; Wu, Xiao-Bing; Long, Min-Nan; Chen, Qing-Xi

    2010-05-26

    An endoglucanase (EG) from Aspergillus glaucus XC9 grown on 0.3% sugar cane bagasse as a carbon source was purified from the culture filtrate using ammonium sulfate, an anion exchange DEAE Sepharose fast flow column, and a Sephadex G-100 column, with a purification fold of 21.5 and a recovery of 22.3%. The ideal time for EG production is on the fourth day at 30 degrees C using bagasse as a substrate. Results obtained indicate that the enzyme was a monomer protein, and the molecular weight was determined to be 31 kDa. The optimum pH and temperature of EG for the hydrolysis of carboxymethylcellulose sodium (CMC-Na) were pH 4.0 and 50 degrees C, respectively. EG was stable over the pH range from 3.5 to 7.5 and at temperatures below 55 degrees C. Kinetic behavior of EG in the hydrolysis of CMC-Na followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics with constant K(m) of 5.0 mg/mL at pH 4.0 and 50 degrees C. The enzyme activity was stimulated by Fe(2+) and Mn(2+) but inhibited by Cd(2+), Pb(2+), and Cu(2+). The EDC chemical modification suggested that at least one carboxyl group probably acted as a proton donor in the enzyme active site. PMID:20415423

  8. Response of Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tepritidae) to white and brown cane, coconut, date, date jaggery and panela sugar solutions with varying degrees of fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We measured the EAG response of Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), the Caribbean fruit fly to six different sugars (white and brown cane, coconut, date, date jaggery and panela sugars). Wild and lab female flies of different physiological states (immature and mature) were tested in dry crystals and 10% su...

  9. Sugarcane for water-limited environments. Genetic variation in cane yield and sugar content in response to water stress.

    PubMed

    Basnayake, J; Jackson, P A; Inman-Bamber, N G; Lakshmanan, P

    2012-10-01

    Water limitation is a major production constraint for sugarcane worldwide. However, to date, there has been little investigation of patterns of genetic variation in the response to water stress in sugarcane. Field experiments were conducted over 3 years under fully irrigated and managed water stress conditions at two locations in Northern Queensland in Australia. Eighty-nine genetically diverse clones were evaluated for their yield performance and sugar attributes. Water stress treatments reduced cane yield [tonnes of cane per hectare (TCH)] and total dry matter (TDM) by 17-52% and 20-56%, respectively, compared with irrigated treatments in the same experiments. Nevertheless, there was little genotype×environment interaction variation for TCH, TDM, or commercial cane sugar (CCS), and hence high genetic correlations between the irrigated and water stress treatments across environments. Both commercial and unselected clones performed poorly under severe stress environments, while the commercial clones outperformed the unselected clones under mild and moderate stress conditions. The results presented here highlight the contribution of intrinsic potential yields (yield under well-irrigated conditions) of some selected and unselected clones to maintain relatively high productivity in a range of moderate stress conditions imposed. The physiological basis for the high genetic correlations is at present unclear, but some explanations are hypothesized. The choice of stress levels in selection trials would not appear to be a critical issue for sugarcane breeding programmes, at least for the early phases of selection, where similar ranking clones across a range of moderate water stresses may be expected. PMID:22996675

  10. A preliminary characterization of the mutagenicity of atmospheric particulate matter collected during sugar cane harvesting using the Salmonella/microsome microsuspension assay.

    PubMed

    de Aragão Umbuzeiro, Gisela; Franco, Alexandre; Magalhães, Dulce; de Castro, Francisco José Viana; Kummrow, Fábio; Rech, Célia Maria; Rothschild Franco de Carvalho, Lilian; de Castro Vasconcellos, Pérola

    2008-05-01

    During sugar cane harvesting season, which occurs from May to November of each year, the crops are burnt, cut, and transported to the mills. There are reports showing that mutagenic activity and PAH content increase during harvesting season in some areas of São Paulo State in comparison with nonharvesting periods. The objective of this work was to preliminarily characterize the mutagenic activity of the total organic extracts as well as corresponding organic fractions of airborne particulate matter (PM) collected twice from two cities, Araraquara (ARQ) and Piracicaba (PRB), during sugar cane harvesting season using the Salmonella/microsome microssuspension assay. One sample collected in São Paulo metropolitan area was also included. The mutagenicity of the total extracts ranged from 55 to 320 revertants per cubic meter without the addition of S9 and from not detected to 57 revertants per cubic meter in the presence of S9 in areas with sugar cane plantations. Of the three fractions analyzed, the most polar ones (nitro and oxy) were the most potent. A comparison of the response of TA98 with YG1041 and the increased potencies without S9 indicated that nitro compounds are causing the observed effect. More studies are necessary to verify the sources of the mutagenic activity such as burning of vegetal biomass and combustion of heavy duty vehicles used to transport the sugar cane to the mills. The Salmonella/microsome assay can be an important tool to monitor the atmosphere for mutagenicity during sugar cane harvesting season. PMID:18288717

  11. Techno-economic evaluation of 2nd generation bioethanol production from sugar cane bagasse and leaves integrated with the sugar-based ethanol process

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Bioethanol produced from the lignocellulosic fractions of sugar cane (bagasse and leaves), i.e. second generation (2G) bioethanol, has a promising market potential as an automotive fuel; however, the process is still under investigation on pilot/demonstration scale. From a process perspective, improvements in plant design can lower the production cost, providing better profitability and competitiveness if the conversion of the whole sugar cane is considered. Simulations have been performed with AspenPlus to investigate how process integration can affect the minimum ethanol selling price of this 2G process (MESP-2G), as well as improve the plant energy efficiency. This is achieved by integrating the well-established sucrose-to-bioethanol process with the enzymatic process for lignocellulosic materials. Bagasse and leaves were steam pretreated using H3PO4 as catalyst and separately hydrolysed and fermented. Results The addition of a steam dryer, doubling of the enzyme dosage in enzymatic hydrolysis, including leaves as raw material in the 2G process, heat integration and the use of more energy-efficient equipment led to a 37 % reduction in MESP-2G compared to the Base case. Modelling showed that the MESP for 2G ethanol was 0.97 US$/L, while in the future it could be reduced to 0.78 US$/L. In this case the overall production cost of 1G + 2G ethanol would be about 0.40 US$/L with an output of 102 L/ton dry sugar cane including 50 % leaves. Sensitivity analysis of the future scenario showed that a 50 % decrease in the cost of enzymes, electricity or leaves would lower the MESP-2G by about 20%, 10% and 4.5%, respectively. Conclusions According to the simulations, the production of 2G bioethanol from sugar cane bagasse and leaves in Brazil is already competitive (without subsidies) with 1G starch-based bioethanol production in Europe. Moreover 2G bioethanol could be produced at a lower cost if subsidies were used to compensate for the opportunity cost from the sale of excess electricity and if the cost of enzymes continues to fall. PMID:22502801

  12. The impact of sugar cane-burning emissions on the respiratory system of children and the elderly.

    PubMed

    Cançado, José E D; Saldiva, Paulo H N; Pereira, Luiz A A; Lara, Luciene B L S; Artaxo, Paulo; Martinelli, Luiz A; Arbex, Marcos A; Zanobetti, Antonella; Braga, Alfesio L F

    2006-05-01

    We analyzed the influence of emissions from burning sugar cane on the respiratory system during almost 1 year in the city of Piracicaba in southeast Brazil. From April 1997 through March 1998, samples of inhalable particles were collected, separated into fine and coarse particulate mode, and analyzed for black carbon and tracer elements. At the same time, we examined daily records of children (<13 years of age) and elderly people (>64 years of age) admitted to the hospital because of respiratory diseases. Generalized linear models were adopted with natural cubic splines to control for season and linear terms to control for weather. Analyses were carried out for the entire period, as well as for burning and nonburning periods. Additional models were built using three factors obtained from factor analysis instead of particles or tracer elements. Increases of 10.2 microg/m3 in particlessugar cane burning (factor 1) were those most associated with both child and elderly respiratory admissions. Our results show the adverse impact of sugar cane burning emissions on the health of the population, reinforcing the need for public efforts to reduce and eventually eliminate this source of air pollution. PMID:16675427

  13. Air pollution from biomass burning and asthma hospital admissions in a sugar cane plantation area in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Arbex, Marcos Abdo; Martins, Lourdes Conceição; de Oliveira, Regiani Carvalho; Pereira, Luiz Alberto Amador; Arbex, Flávio Ferlin; Cançado, José Eduardo Delfini; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Braga, Alfésio Luís Ferreira

    2007-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association between the total suspended particles (TSPs) generated from preharvest sugar cane burning and hospital admission due to asthma (asthma hospital admissions) in the city of Araraquara. Design An ecological time?series study. Total daily records of asthma hospital admissions (ICD 10th J15) were obtained from one of the main hospitals in Araraquara, São Paulo State, Brazil, from 23 March 2003 to 27 July 2004. The daily concentration of TSP (?g/m3) was obtained using Handi?vol equipment (Energética, Brazil) placed in downtown Araraquara. The local airport provided the daily mean figures of temperature and humidity. The daily number of asthma hospital admissions was considered as the dependent variable in Poisson's regression models and the daily concentration of TSP was considered the independent variable. The generalised linear model with natural cubic spline was adopted to control for long?time trend. Linear terms were used for weather variables. Results TSP had an acute effect on asthma admissions, starting 1?day after TSP concentrations increased and remaining almost unchanged for the next four days. A 10??g/m3 increase in the 5?day moving average (lag1–5) of TSP concentrations was associated with an increase of 11.6% (95% CI 5.4 to 17.7) in asthma hospital admissions. Conclusion Increases in TSP concentrations were definitely associated with asthma hospital admissions in Araraquara and, despite using sugar cane alcohol to reduce air pollution from automotive sources in large Brazilian urban centres, the cities where sugar cane is harvested pay a high toll in terms of public health. PMID:17435205

  14. The RpfCG two-component system negatively regulates the colonization of sugar cane stalks by Xanthomonas albilineans.

    PubMed

    Rott, Philippe; Fleites, Laura A; Mensi, Imène; Sheppard, Lauren; Daugrois, Jean-Heinrich; Dow, J Maxwell; Gabriel, Dean W

    2013-06-01

    The genome of Xanthomonas albilineans, the causal agent of sugar cane leaf scald, carries a gene cluster encoding a predicted quorum sensing system that is highly related to the diffusible signalling factor (DSF) systems of the plant pathogens Xylella fastidiosa and Xanthomonas campestris. In these latter pathogens, a cluster of regulation of pathogenicity factors (rpf) genes encodes the DSF system and is involved in control of various cellular processes. Mutation of Xanthomonas albilineans rpfF, encoding a predicted DSF synthase, in Florida strain XaFL07-1 resulted in a small reduction of disease severity (DS). Single-knockout mutations of rpfC and rpfG (encoding a predicted DSF sensor and regulator, respectively) had no effect on DS or swimming motility of the pathogen. However, capacity of the pathogen to cause disease was slightly reduced and swimming motility was severely affected when rpfG and rpfC were both deleted. Similar results were obtained when the entire rpfGCF region was deleted. Surprisingly, when the pathogen was mutated in rpfG or rpfC (single or double mutations) it was able to colonize sugar cane spatially more efficiently than the wild-type. Mutation in rpfF alone did not affect the degree of spatial invasion. We conclude that the DSF signal contributes to symptom expression but not to invasion of sugar cane stalks by Xanthomonas albilineans strain XaFL07-1, which is mainly controlled by the RpfCG two-component system. PMID:23538716

  15. Spectrofotometric determination of copper in sugar cane spirit using biquinoline in the presence of ethanol and Triton X-100.

    PubMed

    do Nascimento Rocha, Sarah Adriana; Dantas, Alaílson Falcão; Jaeger, Helena Valli; Costa, Antônio Celso Spínola; Leão, Elsimar dos Santos; Gonçalves, Mara Rúbia

    2008-12-15

    The present paper proposes a method for molecular spectrophotometric determination of copper in sugar cane spirits. The copper(I) reacts with biquinoline forming a pink complex with maximum absorption at 545 nm. The reaction occurs in the presence of hydroxylamine, ethanol and Triton X-100 tensioative. Determination of copper is possible in a linear range 0.2-20.0 mgL(-1) with a detection limit 0.05 mgL(-1). The great advantages of the proposed methodology are the elimination of liquid-liquid extraction step and the use of toxic organics solvents, like dioxane, to dissolve the reagent. PMID:18595772

  16. CO2 co-gasification of lower sulphur petroleum coke and sugar cane bagasse via TG-FTIR analysis technique.

    PubMed

    Edreis, Elbager M A; Luo, Guangqian; Li, Aijun; Chao, Chen; Hu, Hongyun; Zhang, Sen; Gui, Ben; Xiao, Li; Xu, Kai; Zhang, Pingan; Yao, Hong

    2013-05-01

    This study investigates the non-isothermal mechanism and kinetic behaviour of gasification of a lower sulphur petroleum coke, sugar cane bagasse and blends under carbon dioxide atmosphere conditions using the thermogravimetric analyser (TGA). The gas products were measured online with coupled Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The achieved results explored that the sugar cane bagasse and blend gasification happened in two steps: at (<500 °C) the volatiles are released, and at (>700 °C) char gasification occurred, whereas the lower sulphur petroleum coke presented only one char gasification stage at (>800 °C). Significant interactions were observed in the whole process. Some solid-state mechanisms were studied by the Coats-Redfern method in order to observe the mechanisms responsible for the gasification of samples. The results show that the chemical first order reaction is the best responsible mechanism for whole process. The main released gases are CO2, CO, CH4, HCOOH, C6H5OH and CH3COOH. PMID:23567736

  17. The hydrolysis of agro-industrial residues by holocellulose-degrading enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Leonora Rios de Souza; Ferreira, Gaspar Virgilio; Santos, Sheila Sousa Thurler; Ribeiro, Ana Paula Souza; Siqueira, Félix Gonçalves; Filho, Edivaldo Ximenes Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    Holocellulose structures from agro-industrial residues rely on main and side chain attacking enzymes with different specificities for complete hydrolysis. Combinations of crude enzymatic extracts from different fungal species, including Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma longibrachiatum, were applied to sugar cane bagasse, banana stem and dirty cotton residue to investigate the hydrolysis of holocellulose structures. A. terreus and A. oryzae were the best producers of FPase and xylanase activities. A combination of A. terreus and A. oryzae extracts in a 50% proportion provided optimal hydrolysis of dirty cotton residue and banana stem. For the hydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse, the best results were obtained with samples only containing A. terreus crude extract. PMID:24031857

  18. THE USE OF ION CHROMATOGRAPHY PROFILES AS A SCREENING TOOL TO DIFFERENTIATE CANE WHITE SUGAR FROM BEET WHITE SUGAR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently in Europe, there have been reports of illegal sugar trading in Serbia and Montenegro, whereby the origin of white, refined sugar could not be certified. Other countries in Europe and other parts of the world have also most likely suffered from illegal intermixing of less expensive to produ...

  19. PLANEJAMENTO DE UM SISTEMA INTEGRADO DE GESTÃO APLICADO EM USINAS DE CANA-DE-AÇÚCAR (PLANNING OF A INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT SYSTEM TO SUGAR CANE PLANTS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nelson Siqueira Neto; Antônio Pasqualetto

    To optimize the activities, services and products of a Sugar Cane Plant, the promising activity for Brazil's interior developmen t, reducing losses, adding value to the final product and minimizing risks, through a planning of an Integrated Management System (IMS) which integrates Quality, Environment, Health and Occupational Safety. The article encloses the planning of an IMS, giving basic emphasis to

  20. Fermentation of sugar cane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate and sugar mixtures to ethanol by recombinant Escherichia coli KO11

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caroline Maki Takahashi; Katia Gianni de Carvalho Lima; Débora Fumie Takahashi; Flávio Alterthum

    2000-01-01

    Escherichia coli KO11, carrying the ethanol pathway genes pdc (pyruvate decarboxylase) and adh (alcohol dehydrogenase) from Zymomonas mobilis integrated into its chromosome, has the ability to metabolize pentoses and hexoses to ethanol, both in synthetic medium and\\u000a in hemicellulosic hydrolysates. In the fermentation of sugar mixtures simulating hemicellulose hydrolysate sugar composition\\u000a (10.0 g of glucose\\/l and 40.0 g of xylose\\/l)

  1. Fossil energy savings potential of sugar cane bio-energy systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thu Lan T. Nguyen; John E. Hermansen; Masayuki Sagisaka

    2009-01-01

    One important rationale for bio-energy systems is their potential to save fossil energy. Converting a conventional sugar mill into a bio-energy process plant would contribute to fossil energy savings via the extraction of renewable electricity and ethanol substituting for fossil electricity and gasoline, respectively. This paper takes a closer look at the Thai sugar industry and examines two practical approaches

  2. Analysis of Mannitol, as Tracer of Bacterial Infections in Cane and Beet Sugar Factories

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mannitol, formed mainly by Leuconostoc mesenteroides bacteria, is a sensitive marker of sugarcane and sugarbeet deterioration that can predict multiple processing problems. The delivery of consignments of deteriorated sugarcane or sugar beets to factories can detrimentally affect multiple process un...

  3. PRODUCCIÓN ECONÓMICA DE ÁCIDO LÁCTICO UTILIZANDO RESIDUOS DE COSECHA Y JUGOS DE CAÑA DE AZÚCAR (Saccharum officinarum L.) Economical production of lactic acid using sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) wastes and juice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liliana Serna Cock; Aida Rodríguez de Stouvenel

    A B S T R A C T Sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) tops and leaves (JCG), and the juice extracted from this sugar cane, harvested with crop burning (JCL) and without crop burning (JCV), were tested as substrates for the discontinuous fermentative production of lactic acid. Anaerobic fermentations were carried out at 32°C, adjusting pH at 6.0, and using

  4. A Reduction in Rainfall Associated with Smoke from SugarCane Fires--An Inadvertent Weather Modification?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Warner

    1968-01-01

    An examination of 60 years of rainfall during three months of the cane-harvesting season has shown a reduction of rainfall at inland stations coinciding with increasing cane production; no such reduction occurred at a `control' station upwind of smoke from the cane fires. The reduction is consistent with the hypothesis that through their activity as condensation nuclei the smoke particles

  5. An approach to the utilisation of CO2 as impregnating agent in steam pretreatment of sugar cane bagasse and leaves for ethanol production

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The conditions for steam pretreatment of sugar cane bagasse and leaves were studied using CO2 as an impregnating agent. The following conditions were investigated: time (5 to 15 min) and temperature (190 to 220°C). The pretreatment was assessed in terms of glucose and xylose yields after enzymatic hydrolysis and inhibitor formation (furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural) in the pretreatment. Results from pretreatment using SO2 as impregnating agent was used as reference. Results For sugar cane bagasse, the highest glucose yield (86.6% of theoretical) was obtained after pretreatment at 205°C for 15 min. For sugar cane leaves the highest glucose yield (97.2% of theoretical) was obtained after pretreatment at 220°C for 5 min. The reference pretreatment, using impregnation with SO2 and performed at 190°C for 5 min, resulted in an overall glucose yield of 79.7% and 91.9% for bagasse and leaves, respectively. Conclusions Comparable pretreatment performance was obtained with CO2 as compared to when SO2 is used, although higher temperature and pressure were needed. The results are encouraging as some characteristics of CO2 are very attractive, such as high availability, low cost, low toxicity, low corrosivity and low occupational risk. PMID:20384996

  6. Wickerhamiella siamensis f.a., sp. nov., an endophytic and epiphytic yeast species isolated from sugar cane leaf.

    PubMed

    Khunnamwong, Pannida; Surussawadee, Janjira; Jindamorakot, Sasitorn; Limtong, Savitree

    2014-11-01

    Six strains representing a novel yeast species were isolated from tissue (DMKU-SE106(T), DMKU-SE110, DMKU-SE112 and DMKU-SE132) and the external surface (DMKU-SP335 and DMKU-SP406) of sugar cane leaves collected in Thailand. On the basis of morphological, biochemical, physiological and chemotaxonomic characteristics, and sequence analysis of the D1/D2 region of the LSU rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, the six strains were found to represent a single novel species of the genus Wickerhamiella although the formation of ascospores was not observed. The sequences of the D1/D2 region of the LSU rRNA gene and ITS region of the six strains differed from each other by 0-2 and 2-3 nt substitutions, respectively. The novel species was related most closely to Candida infanticola but with 4.5-4.6% nucleotide substitutions in the D1/D2 region of the LSU rRNA gene and 6.6-7.1% nucleotide substitutions in the ITS region. The name Wickerhamiella siamensis f.a., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is DMKU-SE106(T) (?=BCC 61185(T)?=NBRC 109697(T)?=CBS 13331(T)). PMID:25168613

  7. Influence of sugar cane vinasse on the sorption and degradation of herbicides in soil under controlled conditions.

    PubMed

    Lourencetti, Carolina; De Marchi, Mary R R; Ribeiro, Maria L

    2012-01-01

    This study reports the influence of sugar cane vinasse on the persistence, sorption and leaching potential of diuron (3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea), hexazinone (3-cyclohexyl-6-(dimethylamino)-1-methyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-dione) and tebuthiuron (1-(5-tert-butyl-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)-1,3-dimethylurea) in both a clay and sandy soil from a tropical area of Brazil. The experiments were conducted out under controlled laboratory conditions. The addition of sugarcane vinasse to soil influenced the persistence and sorption of the herbicides in both the studied clay and sandy soils, with a considerable decrease in the diuron DT?? values in clay soil. The Ground Water Ubiquity Score (GUS) Index classifies the herbicides as leachers in both soils and treatments, with the exception of diuron, which is classified as a non-leacher in clay soil-vinasse and as a transient herbicide in sandy soil. These results suggest that special attention should be given to areas such as those where the sandy soil was collected in this study, which is a recharge area of the Guarani Aquifer and is likely to experience groundwater contamination due to the high leaching potential of the applied pesticides. PMID:22938579

  8. Isolation and enzymic properties of levansucrase secreted by Acetobacter diazotrophicus SRT4, a bacterium associated with sugar cane.

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, L; Arrieta, J; Menendez, C; Vazquez, R; Coego, A; Suarez, V; Selman, G; Petit-Glatron, M F; Chambert, R

    1995-01-01

    Acetobacter diazotrophicus, a nitrogen-fixing bacterium associated with sugar cane, secretes a levansucrase (sucrose-2,6-beta-D-fructan 6-beta-D-fructosyltransferase; EC 2.4.1.10). This enzyme is constitutively expressed and represents more than 70% of the total proteins secreted by strain SRT4. The purified protein consists of a single 58 kDa polypeptide with an isoelectric point of 5.5. Its activity is optimal at pH 5.0. It catalyses transfructosylation from sucrose to a variety of acceptors including water (sucrose hydrolysis), glucose (exchange reaction), fructan (polymerase reaction) and sucrose (oligofructoside synthesis). In vivo the polymerase activity leads to synthesis of a high-molecular-mass fructan of the levan type. A. diazotrophicus levansucrase catalyses transfructosylation via a Ping Pong mechanism involving the formation of a transient fructosyl-enzyme intermediate. The catalytic mechanism is very similar to that of Bacillus subtilis levansucrase. The kinetic parameters of the two enzymes are of the same order of magnitude. The main difference between the two enzyme specificities is the high yield of oligofructoside, particularly 1-kestotriose and kestotetraose, accumulated by A. diazotrophicus levansucrase during sucrose transformation. We discuss the hypothesis that these catalytic features may serve the different biological functions of each enzyme. Images Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:7619044

  9. OLIGOSACCHARIDES IN CANE AND THEIR FORMATION ON CANE DETERIORATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cane deterioration in the field, factory storage pile, or during factory milling processes has become a major technical concern in recent years, especially in those areas where mechanical harvesting of billeted sugar cane has increased. Not all deterioration products advocated as cane deterioratio...

  10. Combined removal of BTEX in air stream by using mixture of sugar cane bagasse, compost and GAC as biofilter media.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Anil K; Majumder, C B; Chatterjee, Shamba

    2007-09-01

    Biofiltration of air stream containing mixture of benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and o-xylene (BTEX) has been studied in a lab-scale biofilter packed with a mixture of compost, sugar cane bagasse and granulated activated carbon (GAC) in the ratio 55:30:15 by weight. Microbial acclimation was achieved in 30 days by exposing the system to average BTEX inlet concentration of 0.4194 gm(-3) at an empty bed residence time (EBRT) of 2.3 min. Biofilter achieved maximum removal efficiency more than 99% of all four compounds for throughout its operation at an EBRT of 2.3 min for an inlet concentration of 0.681 gm(-3), which is quite significance than the values reported in the literature. The results indicate that when the influent BTEX loadings were less than 68 gm(-3)h(-1) in the biofilter, nearly 100% removal could be achieved. A maximum elimination capacity (EC) of 83.65 gm(-3)h(-1) of the biofilter was obtained at inlet BTEX load of 126.5 gm(-3)h(-1) in phase IV. Elimination capacities of BTEX increased with the increase in influent VOC loading, but an opposite trend was observed for the removal efficiency. The production of CO(2) in each phase (gm(-3)h(-1)) was also observed at steady state (i.e. at maximum removal efficiency). Moreover, the high concentrations of nitrogen in the nutrient solution may adversely affect the microbial activity possibly due to the presence of high salt concentrations. Furthermore, an attempt was also made to isolate the most profusely grown BTEX-degrading strain. A Gram-positive strain had a high BTEX-degrading activity and was identified as Bacillus sphaericus by taxonomical analysis, biochemical tests and 16S rDNA gene analysis methods. PMID:17397996

  11. Enzymatic digestion of alkaline-sulfite pretreated sugar cane bagasse and its correlation with the chemical and structural changes occurring during the pretreatment step.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Fernanda M; Laurito, Debora F; Bazzeggio, Mariana; Ferraz, André; Milagres, Adriane M F

    2013-01-01

    Sugar cane bagasse is recalcitrant to enzymatic digestion, which hinders the efficient conversion of its polysaccharides into fermentable sugars. Alkaline-sulfite pretreatment was used to overcome the sugar cane bagasse recalcitrance. Chemical and structural changes that occurred during the pretreatment were correlated with the efficiency of the enzymatic digestion of the polysaccharides. The first 30 min of pretreatment, which removed approximately half of the initial lignin and 30% of hemicellulose seemed responsible for a significant enhancement of the cellulose conversion level, which reached 64%. After the first 30 min of pretreatment, delignification increased slightly, and hemicellulose removal was not enhanced; however, acid groups continued to be introduced into the residual lignin. Water retention values were 145% to the untreated bagasse and 210% to the bagasse pretreated for 120 min and fiber widths increased from 10.4 to 30 ?m, respectively. These changes were responsible for an additional increase in the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulose, which reached 92% with the 120 min pretreated sample. PMID:23666781

  12. Agro-industry sugarcane residues disposal: the trends of their conversion into energy carriers in Cuba.

    PubMed

    Alonso Pippo, W; Garzone, P; Cornacchia, G

    2007-01-01

    The goal of the present work was to carry out a review of the disposal practices for the agro-industry's sugarcane residue and the trends of energy use in Cuba. The lack of an alternative energy carrier to electricity with storage capability for use in off-season has to date been an unsolvable question. The improvement of cogeneration capacity via implementation of CEST or BIG/GTCC and the barriers for their implementation, the introduction of a medium size (3 ton/h) fast pyrolysis module (FPM3) as a solution for off-season energy demand in the agro-industry, and an assessment of the energy required to do so, were also analyzed. Bio-oil production from bagasse and sugarcane agriculture residues (SCAR) and their particularities at the sugar mill are treated. The influence of sugar facility production process configuration is analyzed. The fast pyrolysis products and the trends of their end uses in Cuba are presented. The production cost of a ton of Bio-oil for FPM3 conditions was calculated at 155 USD/ton and the payback time as a function of selling price between 160 and 110 USD/ton was estimated to be from 1.5 to 4 years. The economic feasibility of the FPM3 was estimated, comparing the added values for three scenarios: 1st case, currently-used sugar production, 16.5 USD/ton of cane; 2nd case, factoring in the cogeneration improvement, 27 USD/ton of cane; and 3rd case, with cogeneration improvement and Bio-oil production, 40 USD/ton of cane. The energy use of SCAR and the introduction of FPM3 in the sugar mill are promising improvements that could result in a potential surplus of 80 kWh(e)/ton of cane in-season, or 6 x 10(6)ton of Bio-oil (LHV=15 MJ/kg) for use off-season in a milling season of 4 million tons of raw sugar. PMID:16797957

  13. Optimization of biodegradable plastic production on sugar cane molasses in Enterobacter sp. SEL2

    PubMed Central

    Naheed, Nighat; Jamil, Nazia

    2014-01-01

    Contaminated environments have a large number of bacteria which can accumulate PHA as their energy reserves. Out of 54 isolated bacterial strains from three groups of contaminated sites 48 were found PHA positive. The sites were grouped on the basis of the type of carbon sources i.e. sugars, fatty acids and much diverse type. Strains MFD5, MFD11, UML3, USL2, SEL2, SEL3, SEL10 and PFW1 produced 69.9 ± 0.29, 75.27 ± 0.45, 65.43 ± 0.1, 72.54 ± 0.27, 76.61 ± 0.28, 61.81 ± 0.05, 71.16 ± 0.09 and 74.92 ± 0.5 percent of PHA to their constant cell weight (CCW) respectively in PHA detection media supplemented with 2% glucose. Molasses, whey, crumbs hydrolysate and palm oil were checked as inexpensive carbon sources. Molasses alone could supply the required nutrients for growth and PHA production. Strain SEL2 produced 47.36 ± 0.45% PHA using 2% molasses at 37 °C and pH 7.0. Upon production optimization the best accumulation (80.95 ± 0.01%) was observed in PHA detection media with 0.2% nitrogen source, 3% molasses, pH 5.0 and 37 °C by the strain SEL2. The overall effect of the presence of increased molasses concentration in the media was positive it increased the accumulation period till 72 h. Enterobacter sp. SEL2 (JF901810) is first time being reported for PHA production. PMID:25242924

  14. Diurnal and nocturnal measurements of PAH, nitro-PAH, and oxy-PAH compounds in atmospheric particulate matter of a sugar cane burning region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, Kely F.; Carvalho, Lilian R. F.; Allen, Andrew G.; Cardoso, Arnaldo A.

    2014-02-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitro-PAHs, and oxy-PAHs were studied in the atmospheric particulate matter of a subtropical rural region (São Paulo State, Brazil) affected by emissions from sugar cane burning. Diurnal and nocturnal samples were collected from May to June of 2010. In general, average PAH concentrations were significantly higher at night, suggesting that the compounds were predominantly emitted to the atmosphere during biomass burning (which was mainly performed at night). The maximum average PAH concentration was found for benzo[b]fluoranthene at night (2.9 ± 5.4 ng m-3). Among the nitro-PAH compounds, the highest average concentrations were obtained for 9-nitrophenanthrene in diurnal and nocturnal samples (1.5 ± 1.2 and 1.3 ± 2.1 ng m-3, respectively). In contrast to the PAH and nitro-PAH compounds, the oxy-PAHs could not be directly associated with sugar cane burning. The most abundant oxy-PAH compound was benzanthrone (1.6 ± 1.3 ng m-3) at night, followed by 9,10-anthraquinone (1.1 ± 0.9 ng m-3) and 9-fluorenone (0.4 ± 0.1 ng m-3) during the day. A correlation matrix was used to explore the origins of the different compounds. The data suggested that during the daytime, direct emissions (mainly in vehicle exhaust) contributed to the presence of PAHs, nitro-PAHs, and oxy-PAHs in air. Photochemical production also appeared to be a source of the majority of nitro-PAHs and oxy-PAHs, while photolysis could have contributed to removal of the nitro-PAHs during the daytime. At night, sugar cane burning emissions were the primary source of the PAHs and nitro-PAHs, with additional sources also contributing to the levels of oxy-PAHs in the atmosphere.

  15. Utilization of molasses and sugar cane bagasse for production of fungal invertase in solid state fermentation using Aspergillus niger GH1

    PubMed Central

    Veana, F.; Martínez-Hernández, J.L.; Aguilar, C.N.; Rodríguez-Herrera, R.; Michelena, G.

    2014-01-01

    Agro-industrial wastes have been used as substrate-support in solid state fermentation for enzyme production. Molasses and sugarcane bagasse are by-products of sugar industry and can be employed as substrates for invertase production. Invertase is an important enzyme for sweeteners development. In this study, a xerophilic fungus Aspergillus niger GH1 isolated of the Mexican semi-desert, previously reported as an invertase over-producer strain was used. Molasses from Mexico and Cuba were chemically analyzed (total and reducer sugars, nitrogen and phosphorous contents); the last one was selected based on chemical composition. Fermentations were performed using virgin and hydrolyzate bagasse (treatment with concentrated sulfuric acid). Results indicated that, the enzymatic yield (5231 U/L) is higher than those reported by other A. niger strains under solid state fermentation, using hydrolyzate bagasse. The acid hydrolysis promotes availability of fermentable sugars. In addition, maximum invertase activity was detected at 24 h using low substrate concentration, which may reduce production costs. This study presents an alternative method for invertase production using a xerophilic fungus isolated from Mexican semi-desert and inexpensive substrates (molasses and sugarcane bagasse). PMID:25242918

  16. Use of Chemical Ecology for Control of the Cane Toad?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Andrew Hayes; Alexis Barrett; Paul F. Alewood; Gordon C. Grigg; Robert J. Capon

    In 1935, 101 cane toads, B. marinus, were introduced into north Queensland, Australia in an attempt to control the greyback cane beetle, Dermolepida albohirtum, a pest of sugar cane fields. The cane toad was, however, completely unable to control the beetles and itself became a successful\\u000a pest. Since their arrival, cane toads have been implicated in the population declines of

  17. Direct Zinc Determination in Brazilian Sugar Cane Spirit by Solid-Phase Extraction Using Moringa oleifera Husks in a Flow System with Detection by FAAS

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Vanessa N.; Borges, Simone S. O.; Coelho, Nivia M. M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports a method for the determination of zinc in Brazilian sugar cane spirit, (cachaça in Portuguese), using solid-phase extraction with a flow injection analysis system and detection by FAAS. The sorbent material used was activated carbon obtained from Moringa oleifera husks. Flow and chemical variables of the proposed system were optimized through multivariate designs. The factors selected were sorbent mass, sample pH, sample flow rate, and eluent concentration. The optimum extraction conditions were obtained using a sample pH of 4.0, a sample flow rate of 6.0?mL?min?1, 30.0?mg of sorbent mass, and 1.0?mol?L?1 HNO3 as the eluent at a flow rate of 4.0?mL?min?1. The limit of detection for zinc was 1.9??g?L?1, and the precision was below 0.82% (20.0??g?L?1, n = 7). The analytical curve was linear from 2 to 50??g?L?1, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9996. The method developed was successfully applied to spiked Brazilian sugar cane spirit, and accuracy was assessed through recovery tests, with results ranging from 83% to 100%. PMID:21785595

  18. Use of a new Trichoderma harzianum strain isolated from the Amazon rainforest with pretreated sugar cane bagasse for on-site cellulase production.

    PubMed

    Delabona, Priscila da Silva; Farinas, Cristiane Sanchez; da Silva, Mateus Ribeiro; Azzoni, Sindelia Freitas; Pradella, José Geraldo da Cruz

    2012-03-01

    The on-site production of cellulases is an important strategy for the development of sustainable second-generation ethanol production processes. This study concerns the use of a specific cellulolytic enzyme complex for hydrolysis of pretreated sugar cane bagasse. Glycosyl hydrolases (FPase, xylanase, and ?-glucosidase) were produced using a new strain of Trichoderma harzianum, isolated from the Amazon rainforest and cultivated under different conditions. The influence of the carbon source was first investigated using shake-flask cultures. Selected carbon sources were then further studied under different pH conditions using a stirred tank bioreactor. Enzymatic activities up to 121 FPU/g, 8000 IU/g, and 1730 IU/g of delignified steam-exploded bagasse+sucrose were achieved for cellulase, xylanase and ?-glucosidase, respectively. This enzymatic complex was used to hydrolyze pretreated sugar cane bagasse. A comparative evaluation, using an enzymatic extract from Trichoderma reesei RUTC30, indicated similar performance of the T. harzianum enzyme complex, being a potential candidate for on-site production of enzymes. PMID:22221990

  19. Filtered molasses concentrate from sugar cane: natural functional ingredient effective in lowering the glycaemic index and insulin response of high carbohydrate foods.

    PubMed

    Wright, Alison G; Ellis, Timothy P; Ilag, Leodevico L

    2014-12-01

    An aqueous filtered molasses concentrate (FMC) sourced from sugar cane was used as a functional ingredient in a range of carbohydrate-containing foods to reduce glycaemic response. When compared to untreated controls, postprandial glucose responses in the test products were reduced 5-20%, assessed by accredited glycaemic index (GI) testing. The reduction in glucose response in the test foods was dose-dependent and directly proportional to the ratio of FMC added to the amount of available carbohydrate in the test products. The insulin response to the foods was also reduced with FMC addition as compared to untreated controls. Inclusion of FMC in test foods did not replace any formulation ingredients; it was incorporated as an additional ingredient to existing formulations. Filtered molasses concentrate, made by a proprietary and patented process, contains many naturally occurring compounds. Some of the identified compounds are known to influence carbohydrate metabolism, and include phenolic compounds, minerals and organic acids. FMC, sourced from a by-product of sugar cane processing, shows potential as a natural functional ingredient capable of modifying carbohydrate metabolism and contributing to GI reduction of processed foods and beverages. PMID:25373842

  20. Initial analysis from a lidar observation campaign of sugar cane fires in the central and western portion of the São Paulo State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva Lopes, Fábio Juliano; Held, Gerhard; Nakaema, Walter M.; Rodrigues, Patricia F.; Bassan, Jose M.; Landulfo, Eduardo

    2011-11-01

    The central and western portion of the Sao Paulo State has large areas of sugar cane plantations, and due to the growing demand for biofuels, the production is increasing every year. During the harvest period some plantation areas are burnt a few hours before the manual cutting, causing significant quantities of biomass burning aerosol to be injected into the atmosphere. During August 2010, a field campaign has been carried out in Ourinhos, situated in the south-western region of Sao Paulo State. A 2-channel Raman Lidar system and two meteorological S-Band Doppler Radars are used to indentify and quantify the biomass burning plumes. In addiction, CALIPSO Satellite observations were used to compare the aerosol optical properties detected in that region with those retrieved by Raman Lidar system. Although the campaign yielded 30 days of measurements, this paper will be focusing only one case study, when aerosols released from nearby sugar cane fires were detected by the Lidar system during a CALIPSO overpass. The meteorological radar, installed in Bauru, approximately 110 km northeast from the experimental site, had recorded "echoes" (dense smoke comprising aerosols) from several fires occurring close to the Raman Lidar system, which also detected an intense load of aerosol in the atmosphere. HYSPLIT model forward trajectories presented a strong indication that both instruments have measured the same air masss parcels, corroborated with the Lidar Ratio values from the 532 nm elastic and 607 nm Raman N2 channel analyses and data retrieved from CALIPSO have indicated the predominance of aerosol from biomass burning sources.

  1. Two-in-one fuel combining sugar cane with low rank coal and its CO? reduction effects in pulverized-coal power plants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Wook; Bae, Jong-Soo; Lee, Young-Joo; Park, Se-Joon; Hong, Jai-Chang; Lee, Byoung-Hwa; Jeon, Chung-Hwan; Choi, Young-Chan

    2013-02-01

    Coal-fired power plants are facing to two major independent problems, namely, the burden to reduce CO(2) emission to comply with renewable portfolio standard (RPS) and cap-and-trade system, and the need to use low-rank coal due to the instability of high-rank coal supply. To address such unresolved issues, integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) with carbon capture and storage (CCS) has been suggested, and low rank coal has been upgraded by high-pressure and high-temperature processes. However, IGCC incurs huge construction costs, and the coal upgrading processes require fossil-fuel-derived additives and harsh operation condition. Here, we first show a hybrid coal that can solve these two problems simultaneously while using existing power plants. Hybrid coal is defined as a two-in-one fuel combining low rank coal with a sugar cane-derived bioliquid, such as molasses and sugar cane juice, by bioliquid diffusion into coal intrapores and precarbonization of the bioliquid. Unlike the simple blend of biomass and coal showing dual combustion behavior, hybrid coal provided a single coal combustion pattern. If hybrid coal (biomass/coal ratio = 28 wt %) is used as a fuel for 500 MW power generation, the net CO(2) emission is 21.2-33.1% and 12.5-25.7% lower than those for low rank coal and designed coal, and the required coal supply can be reduced by 33% compared with low rank coal. Considering high oil prices and time required before a stable renewable energy supply can be established, hybrid coal could be recognized as an innovative low-carbon-emission energy technology that can bridge the gulf between fossil fuels and renewable energy, because various water-soluble biomass could be used as an additive for hybrid coal through proper modification of preparation conditions. PMID:23286316

  2. Lignocellulolytic enzyme production of Pleurotus ostreatus growth in agroindustrial wastes

    PubMed Central

    da Luz, José Maria Rodrigues; Nunes, Mateus Dias; Paes, Sirlaine Albino; Torres, Denise Pereira; de Cássia Soares da Silva, Marliane; Kasuya, Maria Catarina Megumi

    2012-01-01

    The mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus has nutritional and medicinal characteristics that depend on the growth substrate. In nature, this fungus grows on dead wood, but it can be artificially cultivated on agricultural wastes (coffee husks, eucalyptus sawdust, corncobs and sugar cane bagasse). The degradation of agricultural wastes involves some enzyme complexes made up of oxidative (laccase, manganese peroxidase and lignin peroxidase) and hydrolytic enzymes (cellulases, xylanases and tanases). Understanding how these enzymes work will help to improve the productivity of mushroom cultures and decrease the potential pollution that can be caused by inadequate discharge of the agroindustrial residues. The objective of this work was to assess the activity of the lignocellulolytic enzymes produced by two P. ostreatus strains (PLO 2 and PLO 6). These strains were used to inoculate samples of coffee husks, eucalyptus sawdust or eucalyptus bark add with or without 20 % rice bran. Every five days after substrate inoculation, the enzyme activity and soluble protein concentration were evaluated. The maximum activity of oxidative enzymes was observed at day 10 after inoculation, and the activity of the hydrolytic enzymes increased during the entire period of the experiment. The results show that substrate composition and colonization time influenced the activity of the lignocellulolytic enzymes. PMID:24031982

  3. Modeling sugar cane yield with a process-based model from site to continental scale: uncertainties arising from model structure and parameter values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valade, A.; Ciais, P.; Vuichard, N.; Viovy, N.; Huth, N.; Marin, F.; Martiné, J.-F.

    2014-01-01

    Agro-Land Surface Models (agro-LSM) have been developed from the integration of specific crop processes into large-scale generic land surface models that allow calculating the spatial distribution and variability of energy, water and carbon fluxes within the soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum. When developing agro-LSM models, a particular attention must be given to the effects of crop phenology and management on the turbulent fluxes exchanged with the atmosphere, and the underlying water and carbon pools. A part of the uncertainty of Agro-LSM models is related to their usually large number of parameters. In this study, we quantify the parameter-values uncertainty in the simulation of sugar cane biomass production with the agro-LSM ORCHIDEE-STICS, using a multi-regional approach with data from sites in Australia, La Réunion and Brazil. In ORCHIDEE-STICS, two models are chained: STICS, an agronomy model that calculates phenology and management, and ORCHIDEE, a land surface model that calculates biomass and other ecosystem variables forced by STICS' phenology. First, the parameters that dominate the uncertainty of simulated biomass at harvest date are determined through a screening of 67 different parameters of both STICS and ORCHIDEE on a multi-site basis. Secondly, the uncertainty of harvested biomass attributable to those most sensitive parameters is quantified and specifically attributed to either STICS (phenology, management) or to ORCHIDEE (other ecosystem variables including biomass) through distinct Monte-Carlo runs. The uncertainty on parameter values is constrained using observations by calibrating the model independently at seven sites. In a third step, a sensitivity analysis is carried out by varying the most sensitive parameters to investigate their effects at continental scale. A Monte-Carlo sampling method associated with the calculation of Partial Ranked Correlation Coefficients is used to quantify the sensitivity of harvested biomass to input parameters on a continental scale across the large regions of intensive sugar cane cultivation in Australia and Brazil. Ten parameters driving most of the uncertainty in the ORCHIDEE-STICS modeled biomass at the 7 sites are identified by the screening procedure. We found that the 10 most sensitive parameters control phenology (maximum rate of increase of LAI) and root uptake of water and nitrogen (root profile and root growth rate, nitrogen stress threshold) in STICS, and photosynthesis (optimal temperature of photosynthesis, optimal carboxylation rate), radiation interception (extinction coefficient), and transpiration and respiration (stomatal conductance, growth and maintenance respiration coefficients) in ORCHIDEE. We find that the optimal carboxylation rate and photosynthesis temperature parameters contribute most to the uncertainty in harvested biomass simulations at site scale. The spatial variation of the ranked correlation between input parameters and modeled biomass at harvest is well explained by rain and temperature drivers, suggesting climate-mediated different sensitivities of modeled sugar cane yield to the model parameters, for Australia and Brazil. This study reveals the spatial and temporal patterns of uncertainty variability for a highly parameterized agro-LSM and calls for more systematic uncertainty analyses of such models.

  4. The Manufacture of Cane Syrup.

    E-print Network

    Harrington, H. H. (Henry Hill)

    1903-01-01

    the best and latest improved sugar mills. A small syrup mill~would not extract more than 60 to 65 per cent. A ton of cane may be expected to yield from 16 to .20 gallons of finished syrup; say an average of 18 gallons and 25 tons of cane, we may espect...BULLETIN NO. 68. Chemical Section. - JULY, 1903. FIG. 4. A common type of syrup factory, consisting of mill, sulfur box, and evaporator. (Courtesy Louisiana Experiment Station.) THE MANUFACTURE OF CANE SYRUP. POSTOFFICE : COLLEGE STATIOPU...

  5. The effects of co-culturing non-Saccharomyces yeasts with S. cerevisiae on the sugar cane spirit (cachaça) fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Whasley Ferreira; Amorim, Juliana Cunha; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2013-01-01

    Twenty non-Saccharomyces strains were previously tested in pure culture for their ability to grow in 12 % ethanol, their ?-glucosidase activity, flocculation, glycerol, ethanol and acetic acid production, fermentation kinetics and their production of volatile compounds. Of these 20 strains, three strains, namely, Pichia anomala UFLA CAF70, P. anomala UFLA CAF119 and Pichia caribbica UFLA CAF733, were evaluated in co-culture with Saccharomyces cerevisiae UFLA CA11. Of the mixed inocula, the mixture of P. caribbica UFLA CAF733 and S. cerevisiae UFLA CA11 gave the highest ethanol concentration (75.37 g/L), the lowest levels of residual glucose (1.14 g/L) and fructose (19.92 g/L), and the highest volumetric productivity (Q (p)) of ethanol. Twenty-three minor volatile compounds were identified in the fermented sugar cane juice. The mixed culture of P. caribbica UFLA CAF733 and S. cerevisiae UFLA CA11 gave the highest concentration of volatile compounds with good sensory descriptors; these compounds included ethyl esters (290.13 ?g/L), acetates (715.21 ?g/L) and monoterpenic alcohols (195.56 ?g/L). This mixed culture also gave the lowest concentration of volatile acids (1774.46 ?g/L) and aldehydes (121.10 ?g/L). In principal component analysis, the mixed inoculum of UFLA CAF733 and UFLA CA11 was positively characterized by ethyl hexanoate, 2-phenylethanol, linalool, nonanoic acid, ethyl butyrate, phenylethyl acetate, diethylsuccinate, hexanoic acid, and geraniol. In conclusion, we found that clear improvements could be achieved in the fermentation process with mixed, rather than pure, S. cerevisiae culture. The use of the non-Saccharomyces strain P. caribbica UFLA CAF733 in co-culture with S. cerevisiae UFLA CA11 may therefore be an interesting means by which to improve the quality of cachaça. PMID:22911390

  6. Short term responses of nitrogen trace gas emissions to nitrogen fertilization in tropical sugar cane: Variations due to soils and management practices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matson, P. A.; Billow, C.; Hall, S.; Zachariassen, J.

    1994-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) fertilization of agricultural systems is thought to be a major source of the increase in atmospheric N2O; NO emissions from soils have also been shown to increase due to N fertilization. While N fertilizer use is increasing rapidly in the developing world and in the tropics, nearly all of our information on gas emissions is derived from studies of temperate zone agriculture. Using chambers, we measured fluxes of N2O and NO following urea fertilization in tropical sugar cane systems growing on a variety of soil types in the Hawaiian Islands, USA. On the island of Maui, where urea is applied in irrigation lines and soils are mollisols and inceptisols, N2O fluxes were elevated for a week or less following fertilization; maximum average fluxes were typically less than 30 ng cm(exp -2)/ h. NO fluxes were often an order of magnitude less than N2O. Together, N2O and NO represented from 0.01 - 0.5% of the applied N. In fields on the island of Hawaii, where urea is broadcast on the surface and soils are andisols, N2O fluxes were similar in magnitude to Maui but remained elevated for much longer periods after fertilization. NO emissions were 2-5 times higher than N2O through most of the sampling periods. Together the gases loss represented approximately 1. 1 - 3% of the applied N. Laboratory studies indicate that denitrification is a critical source of N2O in Maui, but that nitrification is more important in Hawaii. Experimental studies suggest that differences in the pattern of N2O/NO and the processes producing them are a result of both carbon availability and placement of fertilizer, and that the more information-intensive fertilizer management practice results in lower emissions.

  7. VIEW OF CANE CLEANING PLANT AS IT ENTERS THE MILL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF CANE CLEANING PLANT AS IT ENTERS THE MILL, BUMPER ROLLERS IN THE CENTER OF PHOTOGRAPH. VIEW FROM THE WEST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  8. Sugar and Other Sweeteners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godshall, Mary An

    Sugar and starch are among the most abundant plant products available, and large industries exist worldwide to extract and process them from agricultural sources. The world production of sugar (sucrose from cane and beet) in 2004/2005 was 142 million metric tons, raw value, 1 with 24.8 percent of that being beet sugar and 75.1 percent being cane sugar.2 The proportion of beet sugar to cane sugar has fallen steadily since about 1971, when it constituted 42.8 percent of total sugar production. The decline in total beet sugar proportion over the last ten years represents not so much a decline in beet production, which has remained in a range of 33-39 million metric tons, but rather a continued increase in cane sugar production from around 70 million metric tons in 1991 to 112 million metric tons.2 The production of total world sugar has also risen dramatically since 1971/72, when it was 71.7 million tons.3

  9. 32. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: End of mill into which cane was fed between top and bottom roll. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  10. Alkaline degradation of invert sugar from molasses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Byung Y. Yang; Rex Montgomery

    2007-01-01

    Sugar beet and sugar cane molasses have been shown to be suitable starting materials for producing de-icer preparations. The sucrose in the molasses is hydrolyzed to glucose and fructose by invertase. The reducing sugars are then degraded by NaOH, the alkali being neutralized by the sugar acids produced, resulting in an increase of the ionic strength and consequently depression of

  11. How to manage cane in the field and factory following damaging freezes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The exposure of sugar cane to damaging frosts occurs in approximately 25% of the sugar cane producing countries world-wide. A series of damaging freezes, -2.6, -3.3 and -2.1°C, occurred in Morocco on 4, 5 and 13 February 2012, respectively, only 2 weeks after the commencement of the harvest season. ...

  12. Sugar Sugar

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bart Bonte

    2012-01-01

    This interactive Java applet is a game that challenges a student to solve problems by using logic and rudimentary engineering skills. The goal in each case is to create a conveyance that gets the required amount of sugar to pour into a mug or mugs. The game has 30 stages of increasing complexity.

  13. ECOSTATIC CANE PROCESSING SYSTEM PROTOTYPE PHASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall objective of this project was to demonstrate a systems environmental management approach, from field to final product, for the processing of raw cane sugar. Specific sub-systems which were to be developed and demonstrated as part of this systems approach were: (a) har...

  14. 30. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill: oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill: one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1885-1870. View: Masonry-lined passage-way leading to the mill at the center of its circular masonry enclosure. The passageway permitted cane to be carried to the mill and cane trash (bagasse) to be carried away. Bridges over the passageways, no longer in place, permitted the mill animals to circle and power the mill from above. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  15. Glass-Ceramic Material from the SiO2-Al2O3-CaO System Using Sugar-Cane Bagasse Ash (SCBA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, S. R.; Romero, M.; Ma Rincón, J.; Magalhães, R. S.; Souza, A. E.; Santos, G. T. A.; Silva, R. A.

    2011-10-01

    Brazil is the world's largest producer of alcohol and sugar from sugarcane. Currently, sugarcane bagasse is burned in boilers to produce steam and electrical energy, producing a huge volume of ash. The major component of the ash is SiO2, and among the minor components there are some mineralizing agents or fluxing. Published works have shown the potential of transforming silicate-based residues into glass-ceramic products of great utility. This work reports the research results of SCBA use to produce glass-ceramics with wollastonite, rankinite and gehlenite as the major phases. These silicates have important applications as building industry materials, principally wollastonite, due to their special properties: high resistance to weathering, zero water absorption, and hardness among others. The glasses (frits) were prepared mixing ash, calcium carbonate and sodium or potassium carbonates as flux agents, in different concentrations. X-ray fluorescence was used to determine the chemical composition of the glasses and their crystallization was assessed by using thermal analysis (DTA/DSC/TGA) and X-ray diffraction. The crystallization kinetics was evaluated using the Kissinger method, giving activation energies ranging from 200 to 600 kJ/mol.

  16. Elevation of a cane-growing area of the state of Sao Paulo using LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (principal investigator); Mendonca, F. J.; Lee, D. C. L.; Tardin, A. T.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Chen, S. C.; Lucht, L. A. M.; Moreira, M. A.; Delima, A. M.; Maia, F. C. S.

    1981-01-01

    Images at a scale of 1:250.000 were visually interpreted for identification and area estimates of sugar cane plantations in Sao Paulo. The basic criteria for crop identification were the spectral characteristics of channels 5 and 7 and their temporal variations observed from different LANDSAT passes. Using this technique, it was possible to map the sugar cane areas as well as the sugar cane already harvested. An area of 801,950 hectares was estimated within the study area. The confidence interval of correct classification ranged from 87.11% to 94.71%.

  17. 2. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761899. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1899. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Top roll and one bottom roll, mill housing or cheeks, and spur pinion gears. The broken projection on the mill beside the bottom roll indicates the location of the cane tray. The cane juice crushed from the cane flowed into the juice tray below the bottom rolls. It then flowed into a wooden gutter and through a short tunnel in the mill's masonry enclosure and on to the boiling house for further processing. The opening at the base of the masency wall (In the photograph) is where the gutter ran from the mill to the boiling house. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  18. Using a cane

    MedlinePLUS

    ... firm grip on your cane. At the same time that you step forward with your weaker leg, swing the cane ... leg, and then your strong leg. Take the steps one at a time. When you reach the top, stop for a ...

  19. 12. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill: oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill: one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Historical view, 1934, T.T. Waterman Collection, Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Oahu, Hawaii. Masonry-lined passageway leading to the mill at the center of its circular masonry enclosure. The passageway permitted cane to be carried to the mill and cane trash (bagasse) to be carried away after milling. Bridges over the passageways, not in place, permitted the mill animals to circle and power the mill from above. View shows area prior to substantial overgrowth existing in 1978 views of the area. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  20. Analysis of sucrose from sugar beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sucrose is a disaccharide composed of the monosaccharides glucose and fructose. Sucrose is a product of photosynthesis and is a key carbohydrate resource for growth and metabolism in many organisms. Economic sources of sucrose include sugar cane and sugar beet, where fresh weight sucrose concentrati...

  1. Hummingbirds Fuel Hovering Flight with Newly Ingested Sugar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth C. Welch Jr.; Bradley Hartman Bakken; Carlos Martinez del Rio; Raul K. Suarez

    2006-01-01

    We sought to characterize the ability of hummingbirds to fuel their energetically expensive hovering flight using dietary sugar by a combination of respirometry and stable carbon isotope techniques. Broadtailed hummingbirds (Selasphorus platycercus) were maintained on a diet containing beet sugar with an isotopic composition characteristic of C3 plants. Hummingbirds were fasted and then offered a solution containing cane sugar with

  2. Report on the engineering and economics of an ethanol/gasohol joint-venture project with Caldwell Sugars Co-op, Inc. at Thibodaux, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-04-01

    The definitive availabilities and costs of the following feedstocks are assessed: sugar cane, sweet sorghum, cane, and molasses. The following are included: details of the project area in relation to the availability of nonstorable feedstocks; sugar cane availability and costs; sweet sorghum availability and costs; cane availability and costs, including identification of source of supply and byproduct marketing; molasses availability and costs, including local sources of supply and byproduct marketing, and net feedstocks costs of ethanol. Sugar cane, sweet sorghum, and molasses are investigated primarily as possible alternative local feedstocks to corn to meet the requirements of the Louisiana Gasohol Act.

  3. A General Overview of Agro-Industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonard Mizzi

    A b s t r a c t . Malta's agro-industrial sector cannot in any way be contrasted to the electrical machinery and textile sectors, but nevertheless still has an important role to play in Malta's industrial development. Membership in the EC will undoubtedly have significant implications on sectoral output and employment levels. Efforts have to be made to embark

  4. 17. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Boiling House, 1878. View: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Boiling House, 1878. View: Southwest corner of boiling house. The amimal-powered cane mill is located in the undergrowth in the right foreground, - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  5. Novel Crystalline SiO2 Nanoparticles via Annelids Bioprocessing of Agro-Industrial Wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espíndola-Gonzalez, A.; Martínez-Hernández, A. L.; Angeles-Chávez, C.; Castaño, V. M.; Velasco-Santos, C.

    2010-09-01

    The synthesis of nanoparticles silica oxide from rice husk, sugar cane bagasse and coffee husk, by employing vermicompost with annelids ( Eisenia foetida) is reported. The product ( humus) is calcinated and extracted to recover the crystalline nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) show that the biotransformation allows creating specific crystalline phases, since equivalent particles synthesized without biotransformation are bigger and with different crystalline structure.

  6. Novel Crystalline SiO2 Nanoparticles via Annelids Bioprocessing of Agro-Industrial Wastes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The synthesis of nanoparticles silica oxide from rice husk, sugar cane bagasse and coffee husk, by employing vermicompost with annelids (Eisenia foetida) is reported. The product (humus) is calcinated and extracted to recover the crystalline nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) show that the biotransformation allows creating specific crystalline phases, since equivalent particles synthesized without biotransformation are bigger and with different crystalline structure. PMID:20802789

  7. Production of Mushrooms Using AgroIndustrial Residues as Substrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonios N. Philippoussis

    Mushroom cultivation as a prominent biotechnological process for the valorization of agro-industrial residues generated as\\u000a a result of agro-forestry and agro-industrial production. A huge amount of lignocellulosic agricultural crop residues and\\u000a agro-industrial by-products are annually generated, rich in organiccompounds that are worthy of being recovered and transformed.\\u000a A number of these residues have been employed as feedstocks in solid state

  8. The Greenhouse Gas Flux and Carbon Budget of Land Use Conversion from Pasture to Energy Cane Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duval, B.; Davis, S. C.; Parton, W. J.; Long, S. P.; DeLucia, E. H.

    2011-12-01

    The United States is committed to produce 140 billion liters of ethanol by 2022. To meet this goal, and mitigate concerns about the "fuel versus food" conundrum, there is a pressing need for a second generation of sustainable biofuel feedstocks. Energy cane is a high yield, cold-tolerant C4 grass that can be efficiently used to produce bio-ethanol via existing cellulo-lignosic conversion technologies. There is exciting promise for Energy cane as an ethanol feedstock, however the climate implications of large-scale land use change from pasture (a significant use of land in the Southeastern USA) to production of an energy grass has not been fully explored. Furthermore, the soil type on which Energy cane will be grown will likely have a significant impact on greenhouse gases (GHG). We use DAYCENT, a process based biogeochemical model, to forecast how land use change from pasture to Energy cane production influences ecosystem level GHG flux and soil carbon flux. Because Energy cane is not widely cultivated, we use the available sugar cane literature to validate our in silico experiments. DAYCENT simulations suggest that soil type and fertilization rates have a strong control on the GHG and soil C dynamics after changing land from pasture to Energy cane. Our model results show net losses of ecosystem level C when Energy cane is grown on Histosols (organic matter rich soils), and a net gain of ecosystem C when that crop is grown on Spodosols (sandy soils). Respired CO2, N2O and total GHG efflux is significantly higher on Histosols compared to Spodosols in cane production. We conclude that the soil type on which Energy cane is grown determines the climatic impact of changing a landscape from pasture to Energy cane, and the greatest long-term climate benefit comes from growing cane on Spodosols.

  9. Sugar Beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is a significant industrial crop of the temperate zone, the worldwide production of which exceeded 240 million tons in 2000. Worldwide, sugar from sugar beet provides about a third of all sugar consumed. Used as a sweetener in foods, beverages and pharmaceuticals, sug...

  10. Green-cane harvest of sugarcane effects on biomass and energy yields and nutrient removal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane yields in Louisiana can approach 40 dry Mg ha-1, making sugarcane an attractive biofuel feedstock as well as a profitable sugar crop. Existing technology used in green-cane harvesting can be used to allow chopper harvester extractor fans to remove variable amounts of extraneous leaf materi...

  11. Added Sugars

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Learn more about reading food labels . Limit your consumption of foods with high amounts of added sugars, such as sugar-sweetened beverages. Just one 12-ounce can of regular soda contains eight teaspoons of sugar, or 130 calories and zero nutrition. How much is just right?

  12. 21 CFR 890.3075 - Cane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3075 Cane. (a) Identification. A cane is a device...

  13. 21 CFR 890.3075 - Cane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3075 Cane. (a) Identification. A cane is a device...

  14. 21 CFR 890.3075 - Cane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3075 Cane. (a) Identification. A cane is a device...

  15. 21 CFR 890.3075 - Cane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3075 Cane. (a) Identification. A cane is a device...

  16. 14. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Sorghum Pan. Manufactured by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Sorghum Pan. Manufactured by John Nott & Co., Honolulu, Hawaii, 1878. View: In the sorghum pan, heat was applied to the cane juice to clarify it, evaporate its water content, and concentrate the sugar crystals. The pan was set on a slope so that the juice would move through the compartments by gravity. The hand-lever sluice valves in the partition walls between the compartments permitted the sugar boiler to regulate the movement of batches of cane juice flowing through the pan. The metal fins projecting from the bottom of the pan imparted a circuitous route to the juice as it flowed through the pan--this made it flow over a much greater heated surface. The fins also supplemented the pan's heating surface by ... - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  17. Biophenols from agro-industrial wastes.

    PubMed

    Jamal, P; Alam, M Z; Suhani, F

    2008-07-01

    Large quantities of agro-based liquid wastes are produced every year and their disposal is often a problem for industries. In light of that, in this study prudent effort was done to screen the agro-industrial wastes - pineapple waste (PAW) and palm oil mill effluent (POME) for valuable biophenols product. Three different solvents; ethanol, acetone and distilled water were screened in order to enhance the process. All experiments were performed using fixed process conditions of solid to solvent ratio, temperatures, time and agitation speed. Effectiveness of extraction process to produce biophenol was based on high amount with more activity. POME was selected as potential source with biophenol content of 125.42 mg/L GAE. PMID:19025008

  18. Comparative material balances around pretreatment technologies for the conversion of switchgrass to soluble sugars

    E-print Network

    California at Riverside, University of

    for Applied Fundamentals and Innovation (CAFI): ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX), dilute sulfuric acid (DA), lime, liquid hot water (LHW), soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA), and sulfur dioxide (SO2). For each world-wide production is derived from starch-based (e.g. corn) or sugar-based materials (e.g. sugar cane

  19. The Penicillium echinulatum secretome on sugar cane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Daniela A; Cota, Júnio; Alvarez, Thabata M; Brüchli, Fernanda; Bragato, Juliano; Pereira, Beatriz M P; Pauletti, Bianca A; Jackson, George; Pimenta, Maria T B; Murakami, Mario T; Camassola, Marli; Ruller, Roberto; Dillon, Aldo J P; Pradella, Jose G C; Paes Leme, Adriana F; Squina, Fabio M

    2012-01-01

    Plant feedstocks are at the leading front of the biofuel industry based on the potential to promote economical, social and environmental development worldwide through sustainable scenarios related to energy production. Penicillium echinulatum is a promising strain for the bioethanol industry based on its capacity to produce large amounts of cellulases at low cost. The secretome profile of P. echinulatum after grown on integral sugarcane bagasse, microcrystalline cellulose and three types of pretreated sugarcane bagasse was evaluated using shotgun proteomics. The comprehensive chemical characterization of the biomass used as the source of fungal nutrition, as well as biochemical activity assays using a collection of natural polysaccharides, were also performed. Our study revealed that the enzymatic repertoire of P. echinulatum is geared mainly toward producing enzymes from the cellulose complex (endogluganases, cellobiohydrolases and ?-glucosidases). Glycoside hydrolase (GH) family members, important to biomass-to-biofuels conversion strategies, were identified, including endoglucanases GH5, 7, 6, 12, 17 and 61, ?-glycosidase GH3, xylanases GH10 and GH11, as well as debranching hemicellulases from GH43, GH62 and CE2 and pectinanes from GH28. Collectively, the approach conducted in this study gave new insights on the better comprehension of the composition and degradation capability of an industrial cellulolytic strain, from which a number of applied technologies, such as biofuel production, can be generated. PMID:23227186

  20. The Penicillium echinulatum Secretome on Sugar Cane Bagasse

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Daniela A.; Cota, Júnio; Alvarez, Thabata M.; Brüchli, Fernanda; Bragato, Juliano; Pereira, Beatriz M. P.; Pauletti, Bianca A.; Jackson, George; Pimenta, Maria T. B.; Murakami, Mario T.; Camassola, Marli; Ruller, Roberto; Dillon, Aldo J. P.; Pradella, Jose G. C.; Paes Leme, Adriana F.; Squina, Fabio M.

    2012-01-01

    Plant feedstocks are at the leading front of the biofuel industry based on the potential to promote economical, social and environmental development worldwide through sustainable scenarios related to energy production. Penicillium echinulatum is a promising strain for the bioethanol industry based on its capacity to produce large amounts of cellulases at low cost. The secretome profile of P. echinulatum after grown on integral sugarcane bagasse, microcrystalline cellulose and three types of pretreated sugarcane bagasse was evaluated using shotgun proteomics. The comprehensive chemical characterization of the biomass used as the source of fungal nutrition, as well as biochemical activity assays using a collection of natural polysaccharides, were also performed. Our study revealed that the enzymatic repertoire of P. echinulatum is geared mainly toward producing enzymes from the cellulose complex (endogluganases, cellobiohydrolases and ?-glucosidases). Glycoside hydrolase (GH) family members, important to biomass-to-biofuels conversion strategies, were identified, including endoglucanases GH5, 7, 6, 12, 17 and 61, ?-glycosidase GH3, xylanases GH10 and GH11, as well as debranching hemicellulases from GH43, GH62 and CE2 and pectinanes from GH28. Collectively, the approach conducted in this study gave new insights on the better comprehension of the composition and degradation capability of an industrial cellulolytic strain, from which a number of applied technologies, such as biofuel production, can be generated. PMID:23227186

  1. Sugar/Energy Canes as Feedstocks for the Biofuels Industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn is the principle feedstock used for the production of ethanol in the U.S. Yields of corn and the cost of production differ among regions of the U.S. with yields in the South generally being lower and cost of production higher. Hence, identification of alternative agronomic crops for the product...

  2. Developing Sugar Cane as a Dedicated Energy Crop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High yield with low inputs, resistance to diseases, insects, and drought, adaptation to a wide range of soils and climates, and biomass composition that is optimized for end use are identified as important traits for cellulosic biomass crops. Sugarcane is one of the most efficient grass species in c...

  3. Sugar cane as an alternative energy source for Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Kilicaslan; H. I. Sarac; E. Özdem; K. Erm

    1999-01-01

    The consumption of various energy resources in the world since the beginning of industrial revolution has changed due to several causes, such as the economy, availability, transportation and environmental effects as well as climate change phenomena. The use of fossil fuels has become rather harmful for the environment in which human beings live, especially in the urban areas of the

  4. High pressure water jet cutting of sugar cane

    E-print Network

    Valco, Thomas Donald

    1977-01-01

    for one factor and on the interaction of this factor with a second but has less statistical precision on the second factor (Snedecor and Cochran, 1967). While this approach sacrifices information regarding certain interactions, it does provide... knowledge concerning the main effects of the important factors and how these variables are affected by other $0 factors with which they are most likely to interact ~ With the split plot, the subplot treatments are not randomized. As a consequence...

  5. 10mes Journes Europennes Agro-Industrie et Mthodes Statistiques 55 Estimation de redondance

    E-print Network

    Verleysen, Michel

    10èmes Journées Européennes Agro-Industrie et Méthodes Statistiques 55 Estimation de redondance-apprentissage, à des problèmes de convergence, etc. #12;56 10èmes Journées Européennes Agro-Industrie et Méthodes

  6. Effect of Cane Length on Drop-Off Detection Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Dae Shik; Emerson, Robert Wall

    2012-01-01

    Although individuals who are blind have used a stick or a cane for their independent travel since the early years of human history, designs for modern long canes did not appear until World War II, when the systematic long cane techniques were developed by Hoover (1962). Ergonomic factors, such as the length of the cane, may affect how well a cane…

  7. Effects of seasonal variations of sugarcane stalk and extraneous matter quantity and quality as they affect recoverable sugar, starch, and fiber: Part 1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Raw sugar quality is dependent on the quality of the incoming cane supply across the processing season which, in turn, is greatly affected by the quantities and types of non-stalk tissues present. This study was undertaken to ascertain seasonal cane supply variations in juice quality parameters tha...

  8. 15. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Sorghum pan and boiling ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Sorghum pan and boiling range flue. Manufactured by John Nott & Co., Honolulu, Hawaii, 1878. View: North side of sorghum pan and boiling range flue, with furnace-end in background. In the sorghum pan heat was applied to the cane juice to clarify it, evaporate its water content, and concentrate the sugar crystals. Hot gasses moved through the flue underneath the entire copper bottom of the sorghum pan from the furnace end (in background) to the smokestack end (in foreground). After the hot cane juice moved through the separate compartments until it reached the final compartment (now missing two sides) where it was drawn out from the copper lip in the corner. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  9. Ethanol from sugar crops: a critical review

    SciTech Connect

    Lipinsky, E.S.; Allen, B.R.; Bose, A.; Kresovich, S.

    1981-01-01

    Due to the hardships resulting from rising oil prices and periodic production shortfalls, many developing countries, especially those with warm humid climates, have explored ethanol production from sugar crops. This critical review offers information on ethanol production for development planners. Two sugar crop-based ethanol systems, raw sugar facility retrofit and conventional juice extraction, are first examined. The agronomy of sugar crops (cane, beet, sorghum) is then described, as are the steps in crop processing (extraction, fermentation, distillation, stillage disposal). The costs of producing ethanol from a typical sugarcane processing plant and from a state-of-the-art molasses processing facility are presented, and the trade-offs between producing ethanol or raw sugar from sugarcane weighed. Finally, the properties of ethanol in automotive fuels are outlined, along with important storage, handling, and safety considerations. Three major problems are cited in ethanol production from sugar crops: adverse environmental effects (10 gallons of waste to 1 gallon of ethanol); the high cost of conventional milling equipment; and the loss of potential revenue from raw sugar sales. A future possibility of producing ethanol from fibrous residues (bagasse) is noted. Included are a 64-item bibliography (1936-1980) and 31 tables.

  10. Sweeteners - sugars

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and jellies. Enhance flavor in processed meats. Provide fermentation for breads and pickles. Add bulk to ice ... and galactose. Maltose (malt sugar) is produced during fermentation. It is found in beer and breads. Maple ...

  11. Sugar 101

    MedlinePLUS

    ... your local American Heart area Search by State SELECT YOUR LANGUAGE Español (Spanish) ???? (Traditional Chinese) ???? ( ... calories you need to meet your nutrient needs. Select low-fat and no-sugar-added foods to ...

  12. Sugar test

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Olivia Worland (Purdue University; Biological Sciences)

    2008-06-06

    Metabolism is the conversion or breakdown of a substance from one form to another by a living organism for energy. Yeast is an indicator of how much sugar is in food. Yeast releases carbon dioxide and is a direct indicator of the rate of metabolism. An indicator is an object, material, or organism that tells you if a specific substance is present. Cereals contain sugars, which are carbohydrates. Carbohydrates are chemicals that provide energy.

  13. Sugar Beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    World sugar production is around 160 Mt yearly with a per capita consumption of about 23 kg. Total utilization is increasing approximately 1.4% annually thanks to the improved standard of living in densely populated countries like China and India. About one-quarter of world production is extracted f...

  14. Cane River National Heritage Area

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Tucked away in the northwestern corner of Louisiana, the Cane River winds its way through a primarily rural and agricultural landscape. Over the past several hundred years, the many groups of people who have lived and worked by the river have transformed this landscape. Created by the National Park Service, in partnership with the Louisiana Division of Historic Preservation and the National Conference of State Historic Preservation Officers, this website serves as a virtual tour guide to the Cane River National Heritage Area. First-time visitors should click on the interactive map offered here, as they can get the â??lay of the landâ?, and also utilize this feature to learn about historic landmarks in the area, such as the Cherokee Plantation and Fort Jesup. Along with this mélange of photos, maps, and descriptive passages, visitors can also take a look at three concise essays that provide answers to such questions as â??Who are Louisianaâ??s Creoles?â?

  15. Feruloyl esterases as a tool for the release of phenolic compounds from agro-industrial by-products.

    PubMed

    Benoit, Isabelle; Navarro, David; Marnet, Nathalie; Rakotomanomana, Nnjara; Lesage-Meessen, Laurence; Sigoillot, Jean-Claude; Asther, Marcel; Asther, Michèle

    2006-08-14

    Agro-industrial by-products are a potential source of added-value phenolic acids with promising applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Here two purified feruloyl esterases from Aspergillus niger, FAEA and FAEB were tested for their ability to release phenolic acids such as caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid from coffee pulp, apple marc and wheat straw. Their hydrolysis activity was evaluated and compared with their action on maize bran and sugar beet pulp. The specificity of both enzymes against natural and synthetic substrates was evaluated; particular attention was paid to quinic esters and lignin monomers. The efficiency of both enzymes on model substrates was studied. We show the ability of these enzymes to hydrolyze quinic esters and ester linkages between phenolic acids and lignin monomer. PMID:16697997

  16. Sugar 1 2 3 Sugar 1 2 3

    E-print Network

    Banbara, Mutsunori

    . . . . . . Sugar 1 2 3 . . . .. . . Sugar 1 CSPSAT 2008 8 21 Sugar #12;. . . . . . Sugar 1 2 3 .. Sugar Sugar (CSP) (SAT ) (encode) SAT SAT order encoding direct encoding support encoding http://bach.istc.kobe-u.ac.jp/sugar/ .. Web Sugar #12;. . . . . . Sugar 1 2 3 .. Sugar SAT (COP) MAX-CSP International CSP Solver Competition

  17. 29. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Boilingrange furnace and clarifier ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Boiling-range furnace and clarifier position. View: In the boiling range all of the concentration, evaporation, and concentration of cane juice took place in open pans over the continous flue leaving this furnace. The furnace door through the exterior wall is at the end of the furnace. In the original installation two copper clarifiers, manufactured by John Nott & Co. occupied this space directly above the furnace. In the clarifier lime was added to the cane juice so that impurities would coagulate into a scum on top of the near-boiling juice. The clarifiers have been removed since the closing of the mill. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  18. 28. RW Sugar Mill: 18761889. Boilingrange Furnace and Clarifier position. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. RW Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Boiling-range Furnace and Clarifier position. View: In the boiling range all of the clarification, evaporation, and concentration of cane juice took place in open pans over the Continuous flue leading from this furnace. The furnace door through the exterior wall is at the end of the furnace. In the original installation, two copper clarifiers, manufactured by John Nott & Co. occupied this space directly above the furnace. In the clarifiers, lime was added to the cane juice so that impurities would coagulate into a scum on top of the near-boiling juice. The clarifiers have been removed since the closing of the mill. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  19. Biotechnological potential of agro-industrial residues. II: cassava bagasse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashok Pandey; Carlos R Soccol; Poonam Nigam; Vanete T Soccol; Luciana P. S Vandenberghe; Radjiskumar Mohan

    2000-01-01

    Advances in industrial biotechnology offer potential opportunities for economic utilization of agro-industrial residues such as cassava bagasse. Cassava bagasse, which is a fibrous material, is the by-product of the cassava-processing industry. It contains about 30–50% starch on dry weight basis. Due to its rich organic nature and low ash content, it can serve as an ideal substrate for microbial processes

  20. HoCP 00-950: an early maturing variety for the Louisiana sugar industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Agricultural Research Service of the United States Department of Agriculture, the Louisiana Agricultural Experiment Station of the Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, and the American Sugar Cane League of the U.S.A., Inc., working cooperatively to develop improved sugarcane varieties...

  1. Drop-Off Detection with the Long Cane: Effects of Different Cane Techniques on Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Dae Shik; Emerson, Robert Wall; Curtis, Amy

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the drop-off detection performance with the two-point touch and constant contact cane techniques using a repeated-measures design with a convenience sample of 15 cane users with visual impairments. The constant contact technique was superior to the two-point touch technique in the drop-off detection rate and the 50% detection…

  2. The Role of Universities in Supporting Local Agroindustry: The Case of the Piceno District in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavoletti, Ernesto

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses the role of universities in supporting local agroindustry using the case of the Piceno agroindustrial district in Italy. Emerging countries' comparative advantages, made stronger by increased international trade and the rediscovery of local traditions and typicality, do not signify that there will be a less knowledge-intensive…

  3. .. () B.Sc. (Agro-Industry Technology Management) 1. 31 2.2 16

    E-print Network

    Laksanacharoen, Sathaporn

    1-1 .. () B.Sc. (Agro-Industry Technology Management) 139 1. 31 2.2 16 1.1 322-102 2-326 Science, Technology and Society 3 850-111 Introductory Agro-Industry 1 890-102 Fundamental English Reading 2 850-327 Biomaterial Chemistry Lab. 1 853-341 Environment and Clean Technology 3 in Agro

  4. Partnership Sugar Beet Growers

    E-print Network

    1 Partnership of: Sugar Beet Growers Michigan Sugar Company Monitor Sugar Company Michigan State-Farm Sugar Beet Research and Demonstration Report". This type of research could not be conducted without the financial support of Michigan and Monitor Sugar Companies and their Growers. Research priorities

  5. A user interface for customizing cane layouts in Virtual Glass

    E-print Network

    Baldauf, Kimberly (Kimberly B.)

    2013-01-01

    Cane pulling is a technique used in glass blowing to build up intricate patterns which come out in the final piece. Virtual Glass was created to model the cane pulling process from start to finish. There are a variety of ...

  6. Cost-effective lignocellulolytic enzyme production by Trichoderma reesei on a cane molasses medium

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cane molasses, an important residue of the sugar industry, have the potential as a cost-effective carbon source that could serve as nutrients for industrial enzyme-producing microorganisms, especially filamentous fungi. However, the enzyme mixtures produced in such a complex medium are poorly characterized. In this study, the secretome of Trichoderma reesei grown on a cane molasses medium (CMM) as well as on a lactose-based conventional medium (LCM) were compared and analyzed by using proteomics. Results In this study we show that both the CMM and LCM can serve as excellent growth media for T. reesei. The enzyme expression patterns in the two media were similar and a considerable number of the identified proteins on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) gels were those involved in biomass degradation. The most abundant cellulolytic enzymes identified in both media were cellobiohydrolases (Cel7A/Cel6A) and endoglucanases (Cel7A/Cel5A) and were found to be more abundant in CMM. We also found that both media can serve as an inducer of xylanolytic enzymes. The main xylanases (XYNI/XYNIV) and xyloglucanase (Cel74A) were found at higher concentrations in the CMM than LCM. Conclusions We analyzed the prevalent proteins secreted by T. reesei in the CMM and LCM. Here, we show that hydrolytic enzymes are cost-effective and can be produced on cane molasses as a carbon source which can be used to digest lignocellulolytic biomass. PMID:24655817

  7. When a cane was the necessary complement of a physician.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, D

    1999-01-01

    Although Dr John Radcliffe's gold-headed cane, presented to the Royal College of Physicians in 1825, became well-known following the publication two years later of Dr William Macmichael's book, The gold-headed cane, little consideration has previously been given either to medical canes, or to the custom of cane-carrying by doctors in the 18th century. This article makes a brief assessment of medical canes within the social and historical framework of the period, and views Macmichael's book in its literary context, with mention of other relevant examples of books in this genre. PMID:10192077

  8. Ethanol from Sugar Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The world-wide impetus to produce alternatives to petroleum-based fuels and relatively low profit for sugar are putting pressure on the sugar industry to diversify for sustainability. Sugar crops, mainly sugarcane, sugar beet, and sweet sorghum, fit well into the emerging concept of a renewable car...

  9. The Science of Sugaring

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Nicholas Baer

    The sugar content and sap volume within and among trees speces can vary considerably. The introductory material describes the process of maple sugaring. The associated field exercise is intended to enhance students field experimental design, data collection, and analysis through examining the variability of trees sap volume and sugar content for sugar maple trees.

  10. 3. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Sorghum pan and boiling ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Sorghum pan and boiling range flue. Manufactured by John Nott & Co., Honolulu, Hawaii, 1878. View: South side of sorghum pan and boiling range flue. In the sorghum pan heat was applied to the cane juice to clarify it, evaporate its water content, and concentrate the sugar crystals. Hot gasses moved through the flue underneath the entire copper bottom of the sorghum pan from the furnace (east) end to the smokestack (west) end of the boiling range. The sorghum pan sides are of redwood. The flue is built of fire-brick, masonry, and portland cement. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  11. Quantitation of trans-aconitic acid in different stages of the sugar-manufacturing process.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Guillermo; Londono, July; Cortes, Paola; Izquierdo, Olga

    2014-08-20

    The sugar cane industry has seen how biomass production in sugar mills would be converted to a readily available source of molecules besides sugar. Properly managed, byproducts would be transformed into a sustainable source of renewable and environmentally friendly chemical products. As a principal and more abundant organic acid in sugar cane juice, trans-aconitic acid (TAA) has been studied for use as a plasticizer in the polymer industry. However, up to now no industrial-scale application has been reported. As a reasonable approach to recover TAA from a sugar mill, first, an analytical method to determine its presence in all stages of the sugar-manufacturing process is needed. A new modern method was developed to measure TAA in seven stages in a sugar mill located in Valle del Cauca, Colombia. The stages with higher content of TAA were syrup, with 3363.6 ± 589.3 mg/L, and honey (molasses), with 6110.05 ± 139.5 mg/L. PMID:25098840

  12. Bioprocessing of some agro-industrial residues for endoglucanase production by the new subsp.; Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus strain NEAE-J

    PubMed Central

    El-Naggar, Noura El-Ahmady; Abdelwahed, Nayera A.M.; Saber, Wesam I.A.; Mohamed, Asem A.

    2014-01-01

    The use of low cost agro-industrial residues for the production of industrial enzymes is one of the ways to reduce significantly production costs. Cellulase producing actinomycetes were isolated from soil and decayed agricultural wastes. Among them, a potential culture, strain NEAE-J, was selected and identified on the basis of morphological, cultural, physiological and chemotaxonomic properties, together with 16S rDNA sequence. It is proposed that strain NEAE-J should be included in the species Streptomyces albogriseolus as a representative of a novel sub-species, Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus strain NEAE-J and sequencing product was deposited in the GenBank database under accession number JN229412. This organism was tested for its ability to produce endoglucanase and release reducing sugars from agro-industrial residues as substrates. Sugarcane bagasse was the most suitable substrate for endoglucanase production. Effects of process variables, namely incubation time, temperature, initial pH and nitrogen source on production of endoglucanase by submerged fermentation using Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus have been studied. Accordingly optimum conditions have been determined. Incubation temperature of 30 °C after 6 days, pH of 6.5, 1% sugarcane bagasse as carbon source and peptone as nitrogen source were found to be the optimum for endoglucanase production. Optimization of the process parameters resulted in about 2.6 fold increase in the endoglucanase activity. Therefore, Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus coud be potential microorganism for the intended application. PMID:25242966

  13. Risk of boron and heavy metal pollution from agro-industrial wastes applied for plant nutrition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Müzeyyen Seçer; ?afak Ceylan; Ömer Lütfü Elmaci; Hüseyin Akdemir

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the effects of various agro-industrial wastes were investigated when applied to soil alone or in combination\\u000a with chemical fertilizers, regarding the risks of boron and heavy metal pollution of soils and plants. Nine combinations of\\u000a production residues from various agro-industries, urban wastes, and mineral fertilizers were applied to potatoes in a field\\u000a experiment. The content of available

  14. Multiple applications of ion chromatography oligosaccharide fingerprint profiles to solve a variety of sugar and sugar-biofuel industry problems.

    PubMed

    Eggleston, Gillian; Borges, Eduardo

    2015-03-25

    Sugar crops contain a broad variety of carbohydrates used for human consumption and the production of biofuels and bioproducts. Ion chromatography with integrated pulsed amperometric detection (IC-IPAD) can be used to simultaneously detect mono-, di-, and oligosaccharides, oligosaccharide isomers, mannitol, and ethanol in complex matrices from sugar crops. By utilizing a strong NaOH/NaOAc gradient method over 45 min, oligosaccharides of at least 2-12 dp can be detected. Fingerprint IC oligosaccharide profiles are extremely selective, sensitive, and reliable and can detect deterioration product metabolites from as low as 100 colony-forming units/mL lactic acid bacteria. The IC fingerprints can also be used to (i) monitor freeze deterioration, (ii) optimize harvesting methods and cut-to-crush times, (iii) differentiate between white refined sugar from sugar cane and from sugar beets, (iv) verify the activities of carbohydrate enzymes, (v) select yeasts for ethanol fermentations, and (vi) isolate and diagnose infections and processing problems in sugar factories. PMID:25708094

  15. High blood sugar

    MedlinePLUS

    High blood sugar occurs when your body makes too little insulin or when your body is not able to use insulin ... a hormone that helps the body use glucose (sugar) for energy. Insulin is made by the pancreas. ...

  16. Hyperactivity and sugar

    MedlinePLUS

    ... more likely to be hyperactive if they eat sugar, artificial sweeteners, or certain food colorings. Other experts ... Some people claim that eating sugar (such as sucrose), aspartame (NutraSweet), ... and other behavior problems in children. They argue ...

  17. Home blood sugar testing

    MedlinePLUS

    Check your blood sugar level as often as instructed by your health care provider. Write down the results. This will tell you how ... everyone with diabetes needs to check their blood sugar every day. And some people need to check ...

  18. Manage your blood sugar (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... bedtime. Your blood sugar meter may have computer software to help you track your blood sugar level. ... bedtime. Your blood sugar meter may have computer software to help you track your blood sugar level. ...

  19. Partnership Sugar Beet Growers

    E-print Network

    production decisions that will improve profitability of your sugar beet enterprise. In spite of the driest, we expect our sugar industry profits will continue to improve. As you study the 2001 research. Hilleshog has provided the last two years sugar analysis at no charge. We are certainly appreciative of our

  20. Association of ?13C in Fingerstick Blood with Added Sugars and Sugar-sweetened Beverage Intake

    PubMed Central

    Davy, Brenda M.; Jahren, A. Hope; Hedrick, Valisa E.; Comber, Dana L.

    2011-01-01

    A reliance on self-reported dietary intake measures is a common research limitation, thus the need for dietary biomarkers. Added sugar intake may play a role in the development and progression of obesity and related co-morbidities; common sweeteners include corn and sugar cane derivatives. These plants contain a high amount of 13C, a naturally-occurring stable carbon isotope. Consumption of these sweeteners, of which sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) are the primary dietary source, may be reflected in the ?13C value of blood. Fingerstick blood represents an ideal substrate for bioassay due to its ease of acquisition. The objective of this investigation was to determine if the ?13C value of fingerstick blood is a potential biomarker of added sugar and SSB intake. Individuals aged ?21 years (n=60) were recruited to attend three laboratory visits; assessments completed at each visit depended upon a randomly assigned sequence (sequence one or two). The initial visit included assessment of height, weight, and dietary intake (sequence one: beverage intake questionnaire [BEVQ], sequence two: four-day food intake record [FIR]). Sequence one participants completed an FIR at visit two, and non-fasting blood samples were obtained via routine finger sticks at visits one and three. Sequence two participants completed a BEVQ at visit two, and provided fingerstick blood samples at visits two and three. Samples were analyzed for ?13C value using natural abundance stable isotope mass spectrometry. ?13C value was compared to dietary outcomes in all participants, as well as among those in the highest and lowest tertile of added sugar intake. Reported mean added sugar consumption was 66±5g/day, and SSB consumption was 330±53g/day and 134±25 kcal/day. Mean fingerstick ?13C value was ?19.94±0.10‰, which differed by BMI status. ?13C value was associated (all p<0.05) with intake of total added sugars (g, r=0.37; kcal, r=0.37), soft drinks (g, r=0.26; kcal, r=0.27), and total SSB (g, r=0.28; kcal, r=0.35). The ?13C value in the lowest and the highest added sugar intake tertiles were significantly different (mean difference = ?0.48‰, p=0.028). Even though there are several potential dietary sources for blood carbon, the ?13C value of fingerstick blood shows promise as a non-invasive biomarker of added sugar and SSB intake based on these findings. PMID:21616200

  1. The Influence of Phosphorus and Potassium Fertilization on the Quality of Sugar of Two Sugarcane Varieties Grown on Three Soil Series of Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elamin, E. A.; El-Tilib, M. A.; Elnasikh, M. H.; Ibrahim, S. H.; Elsheikh, M. A.; Babiker, E. E.

    A filed experiment was conducted at the Farm of Northwest Sennar Sugar Company, Sudan (latitude 13° 33'N and longitude 33° 37'E) to examine the effects of potassium and phosphorous fertilization on the quality of two sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) varieties (Co 6806 and Co 527) and their first ratoons grown on three soil series (Dinder, Hagu and Nasr) of Sudan. Three levels of both potassium (0, 86 and 172 kg K2O ha-1) and phosphorous (TSP) (0, 64.5 and 129 kg P2O5 ha-1) were used. The quality parameters of both plant cane and ratoons were evaluated in terms of contents of fiber, moisture, sugar content (polarization %), purity of the juice and brix (TSS). The results revealed that potassium and phosphorous fertilizers did not significantly affect the fiber content of the plant cane and the moisture content was significantly affected by potassium fertilization. Phosphorus treatments significantly affected the sugar content (polarization %) and purity of the juice (%). The brix percent of cane decreased by the end of the season as a response to phosphorus treatment, while the ratoon was slightly affected. On the other hand, the effect of potassium application on brix percent was insignificant in both plant cane and ratoon. The effect of variety on brix percent was noted to be significant in both plant cane and ratoon before harvest.

  2. Indigenous brown sugar processing technology in nigeria : past and on-going research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Gbabo; A. C. Wada; T. O. Akinsanya

    2004-01-01

    The effort to develop brown sugar processing technology in Nigeria was initiated by the Federal Government in 1986 through\\u000a the Federal Ministry of Industries. The first prototype plant of 2 tons per day cane - crushing capacity was designed, fabricated\\u000a and tested by the National Cereals Research Institute, Badeggi in 1988. Since then several research activities have been carried\\u000a out

  3. Hummingbirds fuel hovering flight with newly ingested sugar.

    PubMed

    Welch, Kenneth C; Bakken, Bradley Hartman; Martinez del Rio, Carlos; Suarez, Raul K

    2006-01-01

    We sought to characterize the ability of hummingbirds to fuel their energetically expensive hovering flight using dietary sugar by a combination of respirometry and stable carbon isotope techniques. Broadtailed hummingbirds (Selasphorus platycercus) were maintained on a diet containing beet sugar with an isotopic composition characteristic of C3 plants. Hummingbirds were fasted and then offered a solution containing cane sugar with an isotopic composition characteristic of C4 plants. By monitoring the rates of CO2 production and O2 consumption, as well as the stable carbon isotope composition of expired CO2, we were able to estimate the relative contributions of carbohydrate and fat, as well as the absolute rate at which dietary sucrose was oxidized during hovering. The combination of respirometry and carbon isotope analysis revealed that hummingbirds initially oxidized endogenous fat following a fast and then progressively oxidized proportionately more carbohydrates. The contribution from dietary sources increased with each feeding bout, and by 20 min after the first meal, dietary sugar supported approximately 74% of hovering metabolism. The ability of hummingbirds to satisfy the energetic requirements of hovering flight mainly with recently ingested sugar is unique among vertebrates. Our finding provides an example of evolutionary convergence in physiological and biochemical traits among unrelated nectar-feeding animals. PMID:17041873

  4. 20. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Boiling House Interior, 1878. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Boiling House Interior, 1878. View: Remains of south wall. The molasses storage pits are below the floor in the foreground. The remaining piece of floor indicates the form of the entire floor. The sorghum pan and boiling range flue slope from left to right (east to west) and permitted batches of cane juice to flow through the boiling pan by gravity. The beams, joists, truss work are built of northwest pine. The sides and floor boards are built of redwood. The boiling range flue is built of fire-brick, masonry, and portland cement. The corrugated roof appears to be a later addition, not contemporary with mill operation. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  5. Evaluation of new energy cane varieties for Louisiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Renewed interest in U.S bioenergy markets may offer an alternative source of income for Louisiana sugarcane growers. High-fiber sugarcane or energy cane varieties are currently being developed. As with traditional sugarcane varieties, energy-cane varieties need to be evaluated across the sugarca...

  6. Sharing the Arts of the Blue Ridge Mountains. Caning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holman, Martha; Gailey, Lamar

    This module on chair caning is one of eight modules designed to provide instruction on authentic Blue Ridge Mountain crafts to adult basic education students at a low cost. Contents include notes on the history of caning; process used, including equipment and materials, as well as method described narratively and graphically; and the followup,…

  7. Rotating cross arm trellis and cane training for brambles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the combination of primocane training and cane positioning techniques using a rotatable cross-arm (RCA) trellis system and covering plants in winter to protect buds and canes from freezing temperatures in 'Apache', 'Boysenberry', 'Siskiyou', and 'Triple Crown' blackberry. After tying p...

  8. Older Homebound Women: Negotiating Reliance on a Cane or Walker

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Eileen J.; Benson, Jacquelyn J.; Matsuda, Sandy

    2012-01-01

    Canes and walkers are commonly characterized as assistive devices and as devices that serve the same purpose, as walking aides. These general views were reappraised and tempered in this descriptive phenomenological study with 40 older women (aged 85-98) who were unable to leave their homes without help. The purpose was to describe the phenomena of negotiating reliance on canes and walkers as walking devices and the lifeworld context underlying each phenomenon. Relative to lifeworld, there were differences between coming to terms with using a cane and coming to terms with using a walker. Data revealed similarities and distinctions between the basic intentions of relying on canes and on walkers and the associated purposes served by canes and walkers. Participants did not view either device as consistently assistive. Findings evoke opportunities for dialogue among older persons, scholars, practitioners, and designers of these devices about coming to terms with such devices and relying on them. PMID:21041520

  9. SAT CSP Sugar Modeling Summary SAT CSP Sugar Modeling Summary

    E-print Network

    Banbara, Mutsunori

    SAT CSP Sugar Modeling Summary . ...... SAT , , 2013 7 24 SAT #12;SAT CSP Sugar Modeling Summary .. ...1 SAT SAT SAT SAT ...2 SAT (CSP) ...3 SAT Sugar Copris ...4 Copris ...5 SAT #12;SAT CSP Sugar Modeling Summary .. SAT SAT SAT #12;SAT CSP Sugar Modeling Summary .. SAT . ...... SAT (Boolean

  10. Community values for environmental protection in a cane farming catchment in northern Australia: a choice modelling study.

    PubMed

    Mallawaarachchi, T; Blamey, R K; Morrison, M D; Johnson, A K; Bennett, J W

    2001-07-01

    Choice modelling is an emerging approach to estimating the non-use values of environmental services with multiple attributes. In this paper, results are reported of a choice modelling study conducted in the Herbert River District of North Queensland to estimate the value placed on the protection of natural vegetation in areas suitable for cane production by the local community. Resource use options that vary in the level of environmental protection and the level of agricultural production were presented as a series of choice sets and respondents were asked to choose among a set of three discrete alternatives in a given choice set. The alternatives in each choice set were described by four attributes, pertaining to the area of teatree woodlands, the area of vegetation along rivers and in wetlands, regional income from cane production, and an environmental levy. The responses were analysed together with socio-economic data using a nested-logit discrete-choice model to estimate the community willingness-to-pay for the protection of natural vegetation. The results indicate that the environmental values of wetlands are comparable to returns from commercial production of sugar cane and that the values of teatree woodlands are comparable to returns from extensive grazing. It is argued that land allocation policies should recognise these values in tandem with commercial benefits of production to ensure that resources are used more efficiently. PMID:11475087

  11. Trade and agroindustrialization in developing countries: trends and policy impacts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eugenio D??az-Bonilla; Lucio Reca

    2000-01-01

    There have been important changes in the international trade of processed and high-value added food products from developing countries over the past several decades. One of them has been the emergence of oilseeds and fruits and vegetables, replacing traditional products such as sugar, coffee, and cocoa as the main exports from developing countries. Another trend has been the collapse of

  12. SAT Sugar Scala SAT ( ) SAT

    E-print Network

    Banbara, Mutsunori

    1 28 (2011 ) SAT Sugar Scala SAT ( ) SAT SAT SAT Sugar Scala SAT Sugar SAT MiniSat SAT Copris DSL (Domain-Specific Language) Scala Sugar 1 (CSP; Constraint Satisfaction Prob- lem) (COP; Constraint (constraint solver) A SAT-based Constraint Solver Sugar and its Scala Interface. Naoyuki Tamura, , In

  13. Quantitative analysis of the effect of selection history on sugar yield adaptation of sugarcane clones.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, B L; Cooper, M; Mullins, R T

    1994-01-01

    An objective of the CSR sugarcane breeding programme in Australia was to assess the scope for broadening the genetic base of the commercial sugarcane germ plasm through interspecific hybridization with Saccharum spontaneum clones. The contribution of both selection history and S. spontaneum to sugar yield and its components was investigated in the germ plasm pool assembled. The analysis was conducted on a data-set of 256 clones, consisting of parents and full-sib families generated from 32 biparental crosses, tested in six environments. The minimum number of generations back to S. spontaneum ancestor in the clone's pedigree was used as a germ plasm score. The geographical origin and selection history of each parent and their use in the biparental crosses were used to develop a selection history score for parents and offspring. The variation for seven attributes, cane yield, commercial cane sugar %, sugar yield, stalk number per stool, stalk weight, fibre % and ash % juice was partitioned according to the germ plasm and selection history scores. Significant (P<0.05) clone variation and clone x environment interaction for all attributes was present. The germ plasm scores accounted for a significant (P<0.05) component of the clone variation for all of the attributes except cane yield. There was an increase in sugar yield with an increase in the minimum number of generations back to a S. spontaneum clone. The selection history groups accounted for a high proportion of the variation among parental clones for all of the attributes except cane yield. This suggested that parents were the outcome of strong selection pressure for the commercial cane attributes. However, the selection history groups for the offspring produced by random mating of parents did not account for a high proportion of the variation for the attributes. Using the mixture method of classification we partitioned the 256 clones into five groups for patterns of performance for the seven attributes across the six environments. The five groups emphasized major differences in the patterns of performance for the seven attributes across environments. The distribution of germ plasm and selection history scores in each of the five groups indicated that their patterns of performance were associated with selection history and minimum generations to S. spontaneum. Therefore, both the analysis on selection history and germ plasm scores (extrinsic classification) and the analysis on the mixture method of classification (intrinsic classification) emphasized the influence of selection history on the sugar yield of sugarcane. PMID:24190405

  14. CSP Cream Sugar Copris CSP Cream Sugar Copris

    E-print Network

    Banbara, Mutsunori

    CSP Cream Sugar Copris : 2011 6 6 2011 8 22 2012 6 24 2014 5 19 : #12;CSP Cream Sugar Copris 1 2 3 Cream Java OpenOffice.org Calc 4 Sugar SAT Scala : #12;CSP Cream Sugar Copris : #12;CSP Cream Sugar (unsatisfiable) : #12;CSP Cream Sugar Copris 4 X = {q0, q1, q2, q3} D(qi ) = {1, 2, 3, 4} (i = 0, 1, 2, 3) C

  15. Sugars as signaling molecules

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jen Sheen; Li Zhou; Jyun-Chyun Jang

    1999-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that, in a manner similar to classical plant hormones, sugars can act as signaling molecules that control gene expression and developmental processes in plants. Crucial evidence includes uncoupling glucose signaling from its metabolism, identification of glucose sensors, and isolation and characterization of mutants and other regulatory components in plant sugar signal transduction pathways. The emerging scenario points

  16. Sugar Crystal Challenge

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-02-25

    This lesson focuses on surface area and how the shape of sugar crystals may differ as they are grown from sugars of different coarseness. Learners explore surface area, nanostructures, and work in teams and participate in hands-on activities. Safety: need an adult to handle the very hot water.

  17. Low-cost documentation of traditional agro-industrial buildings by close-range photogrammetry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Arias; C. Ordóñez; H. Lorenzo; J. Herraez; J. Armesto

    2007-01-01

    Traditional agro-industrial buildings are an important part of the heritage of Galicia (northwest of Spain), but these buildings are now in danger of disappearing. In order to preserve it, an exhaustive and rigorous work of documentation should be undertaken, as well as other actions.This paper is about the graphic and metric documentation put together by the authors in relation to

  18. Total sugars in atmospheric aerosols: An alternative tracer for biomass burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scaramboni, C.; Urban, R. C.; Lima-Souza, M.; Nogueira, R. F. P.; Cardoso, A. A.; Allen, A. G.; Campos, M. L. A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Ambient aerosols were collected in an agro-industrial region of São Paulo State (Brazil) between May 2010 and February 2012 (n = 87). The atmosphere of the study region is highly affected by the emissions of gases and particles from sugar and fuel ethanol production, because part of the area planted with sugarcane is still burned before manual harvesting. This work proposes the quantification of total sugars as an alternative chemical tracer of biomass burning, instead of levoglucosan. The quantification of total sugars requires a small area of a filter sample and a simple spectrophotometer, in contrast to the determination of levoglucosan, which is much more complex and time-consuming. Total sugars concentrations in the aerosol ranged from 0.28 to 12.5 ?g m-3, and (similarly to levoglucosan) the emissions were significantly higher at night and during the sugarcane harvest period, when most agricultural fires occur. The linear correlation between levoglucosan and total sugars (r = 0.612) was stronger than between levoglucosan and potassium (r = 0.379), which has previously been used as a biomass burning tracer. In the study region, potassium is used in fertilizers, and this, together with substantial soil dust resuspension, makes potassium unsuitable for use as a tracer. On average, ca. 40% of the total sugars was found in particles smaller than 0.49 ?m. By including data from previous work, it was possible to identify from 35 to 42% of the total sugars, with biomass burning making the largest contribution. The high solubility in water of these sugars means that determination of their concentrations could also provide important information concerning the hydrophilic properties of atmospheric aerosols.

  19. 75 FR 64619 - White Cane Safety Day, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ...October 15, 2010, as White Cane Safety Day. I call upon all public officials, business and community leaders, educators, librarians, and Americans to observe this day with appropriate ceremonies, activities, and programs. IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I...

  20. 10. Side view of cane mill looking NW with steam ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Side view of cane mill looking NW with steam engine in background. - Hacienda Azucarera La Esperanza, Steam Engine & Mill, 2.65 Mi. N of PR Rt. 2 Bridge over Manati River, Manati, Manati Municipio, PR

  1. Sugar substitutes during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Eliza; Koren, Gideon; Bozzo, Pina

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Question I have a pregnant patient who regularly consumes sugar substitutes and she asked me if continuing their use would affect her pregnancy or child. What should I tell her, and are there certain options that are better for use during pregnancy? Answer Although more research is required to fully determine the effects of in utero exposure to sugar substitutes, the available data do not suggest adverse effects in pregnancy. However, it is recommended that sugar substitutes be consumed in moderate amounts, adhering to the acceptable daily intake standards set by regulatory agencies. PMID:25392440

  2. 4. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Furnace doer for sugar ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Furnace doer for sugar boiling range. Manufactured by Honolulu Iron Works, Honolulu, 1879. Cost: $15.30. View: the furnace for the sugar boiling range was stoked from outside of the east wall of the boiling house. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  3. 5. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Two sugar coolers ca. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Two sugar coolers ca. 1880. View: After the concentrated syrup flowed out of the sorghum pan, it cooled and crystallized in these iron sugar coolers. After the sugar syrup was granulated and cooled it was dug out of the coolers and fed into the centrifugals. The Meyer Mill purchased twelve coolers between 1878 and 1881 costing between $35 and $45 each. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  4. Sugar Substitutes: Aspartame

    MedlinePLUS

    ... sugar substitute. It is a combination of 2 amino acids: aspartic acid and phenylalanine. It is about 200 ... to metabolize phenylalanine, which is one of the amino acids in aspartame. If you are concerned that consuming ...

  5. THE TASTE OF SUGARS

    PubMed Central

    McCaughey, Stuart A.

    2008-01-01

    Sugars evoke a distinctive perceptual quality (“sweetness” in humans) and are generally highly preferred. The neural basis for these phenomena is reviewed for rodents, in which detailed electrophysiological measurements have been made. A receptor has been identified that binds sweeteners and activates G-protein-mediated signaling in taste receptor cells, which leads to changes in neural firing rates in the brain, where perceptions of taste quality, intensity, and palatability are generated. Most cells in gustatory nuclei are broadly-tuned, so quality perception presumably arises from patterns of activity across neural populations. However, some manipulations affect only the most sugar-oriented cells, making it useful to consider them as a distinct neural subtype. Quality perception may also arise partly due to temporal patterns of activity to sugars, especially within sugar-oriented cells that give large but delayed responses. Non-specific gustatory neurons that are excited by both sugars and unpalatable stimuli project to ventral forebrain areas, where neural responses provide a closer match with behavioral preferences. This transition likely involves opposing excitatory and inhibitory influences by different subgroups of gustatory cells. Sweeteners are generally preferred over water, but the strength of this preference can vary across time or between individuals, and higher preferences for sugars are often associated with larger taste-evoked responses. PMID:18499254

  6. FTIR characterization of Mexican honey and its adulteration with sugar syrups by using chemometric methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rios-Corripio, M. A.; Rios-Leal, E.; Rojas-López, M.; Delgado-Macuil, R.

    2011-01-01

    A chemometric analysis of adulteration of Mexican honey by sugar syrups such as corn syrup and cane sugar syrup was realized. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to measure the absorption of a group of bee honey samples from central region of Mexico. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to process FTIR spectra to determine the adulteration of bee honey. In addition to that, the content of individual sugars from honey samples: glucose, fructose, sucrose and monosaccharides was determined by using PLS-FTIR analysis validated by HPLC measurements. This analytical methodology which is based in infrared spectroscopy and chemometry can be an alternative technique to characterize and also to determine the purity and authenticity of nutritional products as bee honey and other natural products.

  7. Biological Nitrogen Fixation in Sugar Cane: A Key to Energetically Viable Biofuel Production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert M. Boddey

    1995-01-01

    The advantages of producing biofuels to replace fossil energy sources are derived from the fact that the energy accumulated in the biomass is captured directly from photosynthesis and is thus renewable, and that the cycle of carbon dioxide fixation by the crop, followed by burning of the fuel makes no overall contribution to atmospheric CO2 or, consequently, to global warming.

  8. Biological nitrogen fixation in sugar cane: A key to energetically viable biofuel production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Boddey

    1995-01-01

    The advantages of producing biofuels to replace fossil energy sources are derived from the fact that the energy accumulated in the biomass in captured directly from photosynthesis and is thus renewable, and that the cycle of carbon dioxide fixation by the crop, followed by burning of the fuel makes no overall contribution to atmospheric COâ or, consequently, to global warming.

  9. Effects of Glyphosate Ripener Timing and Rate on Cane and Sugar Yields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Louisiana sugarcane industry is dependent on the use of glyphosate ripener applications to increase sucrose levels. Initially these applications began in late-August and were limited to the second-ratoon crop harvested at the start of the growing season. Currently, applications have been exten...

  10. Influence of the alkaline delignification on the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of sugar cane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Soares, Mariana Lucena; Gouveia, Ester Ribeiro

    2013-11-01

    Ethanol production from steam explosion alkaline delignified bagasse was investigated by saccharification and simultaneous fermentation. Non delignified bagasse (ND) contained 25% lignin, and after alkaline delignification, materials with 6% (D1 - NaOH 1% w/v) and 12% (D05 - NaOH 0.5% w/v) lignin, respectively, were obtained. Ethanol production increased 450% and 733% in relation to ND, when D05 and D1 material, respectively, were used. Higher productivity and EtOH/bagasse were observed for D1. However, higher enzymatic convertibility of cellulose was obtained with 0.5% w/v NaOH. Alkaline delignification increased the ethanol production despite decreased cellulose. PMID:24025853

  11. Edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus production on cellulosic biomass of sugar cane

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Aguilar-Rivera; J. De Jesús-Merales

    2010-01-01

    Sugarcane lignocellulosic biomass (trash, depithed bagasse, whole bagasse from mills) and wheat straw were evaluated as substrates\\u000a in five treatments for the edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus cultivation. Sugarcane substrates were characterized according to TAPPI and AOAC methods to determine their chemical composition.\\u000a The substrate mixture were sterilized and placed in polyethylene bags before being inoculated with the Pleurotus ostreatus spawn.

  12. Enhanced s-triazine Degradation and Sugar Cane Weed Control Options

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil borne bacteria on all continents except Antarctica have developed the ability to rapidly degrade the herbicide atrazine. Reduced residual weed control with atrazine in soils exhibiting enhanced degradation was confirmed under Mississippi Delta corn production and is expected to be occurring in...

  13. Banded applications are highly effective in minimising herbicide migration from furrow-irrigated sugar cane.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Danielle P; Anderson, Jenny S; Davis, Aaron; Lewis, Stephen; Brodie, Jon; Kookana, Rai

    2014-01-01

    Runoff from farm fields is a common source of herbicide residues in surface waters in many agricultural industries around the world. In Queensland, Australia, the runoff of PSII inhibitor herbicides (in particular diuron and atrazine) is a major concern due to their potential impact on the Great Barrier Reef. This study compared the conventional practice of broadcast application of herbicides in sugarcane production across the whole field with the banded application of particular herbicides onto raised beds only using a shielded sprayer. This study found that the application of two moderately soluble herbicides, diuron and atrazine, to only the raised beds decreased the average total load of both herbicides moving off-site by >90% compared with the conventional treatment. This was despite the area being covered with the herbicides by the banded application being only 60% less than with the conventional treatment. The average total amount of atrazine in drainage water was 7.5% of the active ingredient applied in the conventional treatment compared with 1.8% of the active ingredient applied in the banded application treatment. Similarly, the average total amount of diuron in drainage water was 4.6% of that applied in the conventional treatment compared with 0.9% of that applied in the banded application treatment. This study demonstrates that the application of diuron and atrazine to raised beds only is a highly effective way of minimising migration of these herbicides in drainage water from furrow irrigated sugarcane. PMID:23973548

  14. Bio-concentration of vinasse from the alcoholic fermentation of sugar cane molasses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. R Navarro; M del C. Sepúlveda; M. C Rubio

    2000-01-01

    A concentration-incineration process of vinasse has been in use for several years in order to deal with pollution resulting from the industrial production of ethanol by fermentation and distillation. However, as vinasse concentration has a high energy demand, a bio-concentration method with no energy consumption is reported in this paper. Vinasses was used instead of water in the preparation of

  15. Direct impacts on local climate of sugar-cane expansion in Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott R. Loarie; David B. Lobell; Gregory P. Asner; Qiaozhen Mu; Christopher B. Field

    2011-01-01

    The increasing global demand for biofuels will require conversion of conventional agricultural or natural ecosystems. Expanding biofuel production into areas now used for agriculture reduces the need to clear natural ecosystems, leading to indirect climate benefits through reduced greenhouse-gas emissions and faster payback of carbon debts. Biofuel expansion may also cause direct, local climate changes by altering surface albedo and

  16. Identification and Structural Characterization of Novel Cyclotide with Activity against an Insect Pest of Sugar Cane*

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Michelle F. S.; Fensterseifer, Isabel C. M.; Migliolo, Ludovico; Sousa, Daniel A.; de Capdville, Guy; Arboleda-Valencia, Jorge W.; Colgrave, Michelle L.; Craik, David J.; Magalhães, Beatriz S.; Dias, Simoni C.; Franco, Octávio L.

    2012-01-01

    Cyclotides are a family of plant-derived cyclic peptides comprising six conserved cysteine residues connected by three intermolecular disulfide bonds that form a knotted structure known as a cyclic cystine knot (CCK). This structural motif is responsible for the pronounced stability of cyclotides against chemical, thermal, or proteolytic degradation and has sparked growing interest in this family of peptides. Here, we isolated and characterized a novel cyclotide from Palicourea rigida (Rubiaceae), which was named parigidin-br1. The sequence indicated that this peptide is a member of the bracelet subfamily of cyclotides. Parigidin-br1 showed potent insecticidal activity against neonate larvae of Lepidoptera (Diatraea saccharalis), causing 60% mortality at a concentration of 1 ?m but had no detectable antibacterial effects. A decrease in the in vitro viability of the insect cell line from Spodoptera frugiperda (SF-9) was observed in the presence of parigidin-br1, consistent with in vivo insecticidal activity. Transmission electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy of SF-9 cells after incubation with parigidin-br1 or parigidin-br1-fluorescein isothiocyanate, respectively, revealed extensive cell lysis and swelling of cells, consistent with an insecticidal mechanism involving membrane disruption. This hypothesis was supported by in silico analyses, which suggested that parigidin-br1 is able to complex with cell lipids. Overall, the results suggest promise for the development of parigidin-br1 as a novel biopesticide. PMID:22074926

  17. 21 CFR 890.3790 - Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3790 Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads. (a) Identification. Cane, crutch,...

  18. Use of the C-5 Laser Cane by School Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldie, Dorothy

    1977-01-01

    The use of the Laser Cane with four blind students attending public school is discussed with emphasis on modifications in technique needed to integrate the cane's use into each student's travel system. (Author)

  19. Sugar receptors in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Slone, Jesse; Daniels, Joseph; Amrein, Hubert

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY Detection and discrimination of chemical compounds in potential foods are essential sensory processes when animals feed. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster employs 68 different gustatory receptors (GRs) for the detection of mostly non-volatile chemicals that include sugars, a diverse group of toxic compounds present in many inedible plants and spoiled foods, and pheromones [1–6]. With the exception of a trehalose (GR5a) and a caffeine (GR66a) receptor [7–9], the functions of GRs involved in feeding are unknown. Here, we show that the Gr64 genes encode receptors for numerous sugars. We generated a fly strain that contained a deletion for all six Gr64 genes (?Gr64) and showed that these flies exhibit no or a significantly diminished proboscis extension reflex (PER) response when stimulated with glucose, maltose, sucrose and several other sugars. The only considerable response was detected when Gr64 mutant flies were stimulated with fructose. Interestingly, response to trehalose is also abolished in these flies, even though they contain a functional Gr5a gene, which has been previously shown to encode a receptor for this sugar [8, 9]. This observation indicates that two or more Gr genes are necessary for trehalose detection, suggesting that GRs function as multimeric receptor complexes. Finally, we present evidence that some members of the Gr64 gene family are transcribed as a polycistronic mRNA, providing a mechanism for co-expression of multiple sugar receptors in the same taste neurons. PMID:17919910

  20. Metabolic engineering of sugars and simple sugar derivatives in plants.

    PubMed

    Patrick, John W; Botha, Frikkie C; Birch, Robert G

    2013-02-01

    Carbon captured through photosynthesis is transported, and sometimes stored in plants, as sugar. All organic compounds in plants trace to carbon from sugars, so sugar metabolism is highly regulated and integrated with development. Sugars stored by plants are important to humans as foods and as renewable feedstocks for industrial conversion to biofuels and biomaterials. For some purposes, sugars have advantages over polymers including starches, cellulose or storage lipids. This review considers progress and prospects in plant metabolic engineering for increased yield of endogenous sugars and for direct production of higher-value sugars and simple sugar derivatives. Opportunities are examined for enhancing export of sugars from leaves. Focus then turns to manipulation of sugar metabolism in sugar-storing sink organs such as fruits, sugarcane culms and sugarbeet tubers. Results from manipulation of suspected 'limiting' enzymes indicate a need for clearer understanding of flux control mechanisms, to achieve enhanced levels of endogenous sugars in crops that are highly selected for this trait. Outcomes from in planta conversion to novel sugars and derivatives range from severe interference with plant development to field demonstration of crops accumulating higher-value sugars at high yields. The differences depend on underlying biological factors including the effects of the novel products on endogenous metabolism, and on biotechnological fine-tuning including developmental expression and compartmentation patterns. Ultimately, osmotic activity may limit the accumulation of sugars to yields below those achievable using polymers; but results indicate the potential for increases above current commercial sugar yields, through metabolic engineering underpinned by improved understanding of plant sugar metabolism. PMID:23043616

  1. Detection of adulteration in honey samples added various sugar syrups with 13C/12C isotope ratio analysis method.

    PubMed

    Tosun, Murat

    2013-06-01

    Honey can be adulterated in various ways. One of the adulteration methods is the addition of different sugar syrups during or after honey production. Starch-based sugar syrups, high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), glucose syrup (GS) and saccharose syrups (SS), which are produced from beet or canes, can be used for adulterating honey. In this study, adulterated honey samples were prepared with the addition of HFCS, GS and SS (beet sugar) at a ratio of 0%, 10%, 20%, 40% and 50% by weight. (13)C/(12)C analysis was conducted on these adulterated honey samples using an isotope ratio mass spectrometer in combination with an elemental analyser (EA-IRMS). As a result, adulteration using C(4) sugar syrups (HFCS and GS) could be detected to a certain extent while adulteration of honey using C(3) sugar syrups (beet sugar) could not be detected. Adulteration by using SS (beet sugar) still has a serious detection problem, especially in countries in which beet is used in manufacturing sugar. For this reason, practice and analysis methods are needed to meet this deficit and to detect the adulterations precisely in the studies that will be conducted. PMID:23411291

  2. Anaerobic treatability and biogas production potential studies of different agro-industrial wastewaters in Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Göksel N. Demirer; Metin Duran; Engin Güven; Örgen Ugurlu; Ulas Tezel; Tuba H. Ergüder

    2000-01-01

    The anaerobic treatability and methane generation potential of the wastewaters of the three important agro-industries in Turkey, namely, cheese-making, poultry breeding and the olive-oil mill industries were studied. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) experiments were conducted for different initial chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentrations. The results indicate that anaerobic treatment was possible for all the wastewaters studied and the biogas produced

  3. Monitoring Blood Sugar: The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels

    MedlinePLUS

    The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels Besides helping to keep blood sugar levels (also known as blood glucose levels ) under control, checking them according to the diabetes management plan will ...

  4. What is sugar?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Exploratorium

    2004-01-01

    This reading, part of a site about the science of cooking, provides general scientific information about sucrose (white table sugar) together with explanations of the science behind some candy-making procedures. The general information includes the chemical formula of sucrose and a ball-and-stick model that illustrates that sucrose is made of fructose and glucose. Regarding candy, the reading describes how heating a sugar solution produces a supersaturated solution. A discussion about common techniques used to prevent sucrose from crystallizing follows. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

  5. Membrane filtration of agro-industrial wastewaters and isolation of organic compounds with high added values.

    PubMed

    Zagklis, Dimitris P; Paraskeva, Christakis A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was the exploitation of agro-industrial wastes or by-products such as olive mill wastewater (OMW) and defective wines. A cost-effective system for their maximum exploitation is suggested, using a combined process of membrane filtration and other physicochemical processes. Wastewaters are first treated in a membrane system (prefiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, and reverse osmosis) where pure water and other organic fractions (by-products) are obtained. Organic fractions, called hereafter byproducts and not wastes, are further treated for the separation of organic compounds and isolation of high added value products. Experiments were performed with OMW and defective wines as characteristic agro-industrial wastewaters. Profit from the exploitation of agro-industrial wastewaters can readily help the depreciation of the indeed high cost process of membrane filtration. The simple phenolic fraction of the OMW was successfully isolated from the rest of the waste, and problems occurring during winemaking, such as high volatile acidity and odours, were tackled. PMID:24434988

  6. 1. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill: oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill: one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Historical view, 1934, from T.T. Waterman collection, Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association. Large rectangular piece lying in front of the mill is the top of the mill frame appearing in its proper place in 1928 views. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  7. Converting sugars to sugar alcohols by aqueous phase catalytic hydrogenation

    DOEpatents

    Elliott, Douglas C. (Richland, WA); Werpy, Todd A. (West Richland, WA); Wang, Yong (Richland, WA); Frye, Jr., John G. (Richland, WA)

    2003-05-27

    The present invention provides a method of converting sugars to their corresponding sugar alcohols by catalytic hydrogenation in the aqueous phase. It has been found that surprisingly superior results can be obtained by utilizing a relatively low temperature (less than 120.degree. C.), selected hydrogenation conditions, and a hydrothermally stable catalyst. These results include excellent sugar conversion to the desired sugar alcohol, in combination with long life under hydrothermal conditions.

  8. Future sustainability of the sugar and sugar-ethanol industries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Like many other food and chemical industries, the sugar and sugar-ethanol industries are facing important sustainability issues. The relatively low and fluctuating profit for sugar, the world-wide impetus to produce alternatives to petroleum-based fuels and reduce green house gases, and water- and ...

  9. Frequently Asked Questions about Sugar

    MedlinePLUS

    ... allowance come from added sugars. For most American women, this is no more than 100 calories per ... sugars. Average daily consumption for men: 335 calories, women: 230 calories, boys: 362 calories, girls: 282 calories. ...

  10. Sugars tied to the spot 

    E-print Network

    Flitsch, Sabine L; Ulijn, Rein V

    2003-01-16

    The interactions of sugars and proteins underlie many biological processes, and cataloguing them is a daunting task. A technique for attaching sugars to microarrays offers a promising, high-throughput solution.

  11. Carbohydrates, Sugar, and Your Child

    MedlinePLUS

    ... are absorbed into the bloodstream. As the sugar level rises, the pancreas releases the hormone insulin, which is ... are easily broken down and cause blood sugar levels to rise quickly. Complex carbs (found in whole grains), on ...

  12. Production of thermo-alkali-stable xylanase by a novel polyextremophilic Bacillus halodurans TSEV1 in cane molasses medium and its applicability in making whole wheat bread.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vikash; Satyanarayana, T

    2014-06-01

    A high titre of thermo-alkali-stable xylanase was attained in cane molasses medium. When the culture variables for endoxylanase production were optimized [cane molasses 7 %, soluble alkaline extract of wheat bran (SAE-WB) 37 % and ammonium chloride 0.30 %], a 4.5-fold enhancement in xylanase production (69 U ml(-1)) was achieved as compared to that in the unoptimized medium (15 U ml(-1)). The enzyme titre attained in shake flasks could be sustained in a 7-l laboratory bioreactor. An activity band corresponding to 40 kDa was visualized on SDS-PAGE zymogram analysis. The enzyme has broad range of pH and temperature for activity with optima at 9.0 and 80 °C, and stable between pH 4.0 and 11.0 with 85 % retention of activity. It has T 1/2 of 40 and 15 min at 70 and 80 °C. The enzyme is halotolerant since it displays activity in the presence of salt up to 15 %, and remains 100 % active in the absence of salt. The supplementation of whole wheat dough with xylanase improves antistaling property, reducing sugar content, bread volume with prebiotic xylooligosaccharides in bread. This is the first report on xylanase production in cane molasses medium with SAE-WB as the inducer and its applicability in whole wheat bread making that improves human health. PMID:24297158

  13. SUGAR BEET QUALITY IMPROVEMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    More than one third of the sucrose (sugar) consumed by humans is obtained from sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.). Sucrose extraction begins with the production of a dark opaque juice from strips of sugarbeet. This juice is purified with lime and carbon dioxide, thickened by evaporation, and crystallize...

  14. Managing your blood sugar

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and the foods you eat to manage your blood sugar during exercise and on sick days You should also live ... check with your doctor before starting any new exercise plans. Follow your meal plan. Take your medicines the way your doctor or nurse recommends.

  15. Sugar beet traditional breeding.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With rapidly changing agricultural practices, target environments, and biotic and abiotic stresses, plant breeders face the task of continually selecting plants with desirable traits with the goal to assemble advantageous combinations of genes in new varieties. Sugar beet has been selectively bred s...

  16. 19 CFR 151.30 - Sugar closets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sugar closets. 151.30 Section 151.30 Customs...EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.30 Sugar closets. Sugar closets for...

  17. 19 CFR 151.30 - Sugar closets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sugar closets. 151.30 Section 151.30 Customs...EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.30 Sugar closets. Sugar closets for...

  18. 19 CFR 151.30 - Sugar closets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sugar closets. 151.30 Section 151.30 Customs...EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.30 Sugar closets. Sugar closets for...

  19. 19 CFR 151.30 - Sugar closets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sugar closets. 151.30 Section 151.30 Customs...EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.30 Sugar closets. Sugar closets for...

  20. 19 CFR 151.30 - Sugar closets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sugar closets. 151.30 Section 151.30 Customs...EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.30 Sugar closets. Sugar closets for...

  1. Molecular Mobility in Sugar Glasses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dries van den I. J

    2000-01-01

    Glasses are liquids that exhibit solid state behavior as a result of their extremely high viscosity. Regarding their application to foods, glasses play a role in the preservation of foods, due to their high viscosity and the concomitant low molecular mobility. This thesis focuses on sugar glasses. Sugar glasses are relevant as model systems for foods that contain sugars and

  2. Know Your Blood Sugar Numbers

    MedlinePLUS

    Know Your Blood Sugar Numbers If you have diabetes, keeping your blood sugar (glucose) numbers in your target range can help you feel ... Prevention There are two ways to measure blood sugar. 1 The A1C is a lab test that ...

  3. SCIENTIFIC NAME Acer saccharum (sugar),

    E-print Network

    Aukema, Brian

    1 LIFE FORM Tree PART USED Sap SCIENTIFIC NAME Acer saccharum (sugar), Acer saccharinum (silver de arce MAPLE SYRUP S & S(Saps & Syrups)SPRING Above: Sugar bush, family style. Below left, Maine, Wisconsin and Pennsylvania. Maple sap is used to produce syrup, cream and sugar. HARVEST

  4. Infection of raspberry leaves by Botrytis cinerea in relation to leaf and cane age.

    PubMed

    Xu, X M; Wedgwood, E; Berrie, A M; O'Neill, T

    2009-01-01

    Botrytis cinerea Pers, ex Fr. can cause diseases on both cane and fruit on raspberry. Previous observations in field crops led to formulation of the hypothesis that infection of canes arose from invasion by mycelium from the petioles of infected leaves and that only mature and old leaves are susceptible. Inoculation studies in protected crops were conducted to investigate infection of raspberry leaves and canes by B. cinerea with a particular emphasis on determining the timing of cane infection in relation to leaf infection. The results obtained in protected crops indicated that cane age rather than the leaf age per se influences the susceptibility of leaves; leaves on young canes were less susceptible to botrytis infection than those on old canes. On older canes, leaves of all ages, ranging from young expanding to old senescent, were equally susceptible. The overall incidence of cane infection from inoculation of leaves was very low; most of cane infection was likely to have resulted from the direct infection of canes and not through invasion via the petioles of infected leaves. PMID:20222562

  5. 7, 57695803, 2007 sugar-alcohols in

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 7, 5769­5803, 2007 Sugars and sugar-alcohols in ambient aerosols in Norway K. E. Yttri et al Chemistry and Physics Discussions Ambient aerosol concentrations of sugars and sugar-alcohols at four Sugars and sugar-alcohols in ambient aerosols in Norway K. E. Yttri et al. Title Page Abstract

  6. Harnessing International Finance to Manage the Amazon AgroIndustrial Explosion? The Case of International Finance Corporation Loans to Grupo Maggi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudia M. Stickler; Oriana T. Almeida

    2008-01-01

    One of the major global trends linked to the process of globalization is the expansion of agro-industry into the humid tropics. Although agro-industry is an important source of income for Brazil, it is also leading to the displacement of local populations and extensive clearing of native vegetation. In this context, we focus on a second trend resulting from globalization in

  7. Smoking, caning, and delinquency in a secondary modern school.

    PubMed

    Palmer, J W

    2015-02-01

    This study was designed in 1962 to investigate the reformative effect of a particular punishment (caning) for a particular offence (smoking by schoolboys). In 1964, in the course of a larger study of juvenile offences, delinquency records were obtained from the police, and the relationship between smoking and delinquency is also discussed in this paper. PMID:25599693

  8. Mechanical planter update: 2007 Bayou Teche test plant cane results

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mechanization of cane planting has been somewhat limited, due to the fact that the entire 4-5 ft stalk must be planted horizontally in the seedbed. Several modifications were made to mechanical planters by a grower cooperator. To test the modifications, a replicated field trial was planted on Augus...

  9. Acetylation of Sugars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. D. Nicholas; F. Smith

    1948-01-01

    THE acetylation of sugars has hitherto involved the use of acetic anhydride and a catalyst such as sodium acetate1, zinc chloride2, sulphuric acid3 or pyridine4. We have shown that glucose may be acetylated rapidly by means of a mixture of acetic anhydride and acetic acid if a small amount of perchloric acid is added to act as a catalyst5. No

  10. Starches, Sugars and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Aller, Erik E. J. G.; Abete, Itziar; Astrup, Arne; Martinez, J. Alfredo; van Baak, Marleen A.

    2011-01-01

    The rising prevalence of obesity, not only in adults but also in children and adolescents, is one of the most important public health problems in developed and developing countries. As one possible way to tackle obesity, a great interest has been stimulated in understanding the relationship between different types of dietary carbohydrate and appetite regulation, body weight and body composition. The present article reviews the conclusions from recent reviews and meta-analyses on the effects of different starches and sugars on body weight management and metabolic disturbances, and provides an update of the most recent studies on this topic. From the literature reviewed in this paper, potential beneficial effects of intake of starchy foods, especially those containing slowly-digestible and resistant starches, and potential detrimental effects of high intakes of fructose become apparent. This supports the intake of whole grains, legumes and vegetables, which contain more appropriate sources of carbohydrates associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular and other chronic diseases, rather than foods rich in sugars, especially in the form of sugar-sweetened beverages. PMID:22254101

  11. Pyrolysis of Table Sugar

    PubMed Central

    Karagöz, Selhan

    2013-01-01

    Table sugars were pyrolyzed at different temperatures (300, 400, and 500°C) in a fixed-bed reactor. The effect of pyrolysis temperature on yields of liquid, solid, and gaseous products was investigated. As expected the yield of liquid products gradually increased and the yield of solid products gradually decreased when the pyrolysis temperature was raised. The yield of liquid products was greatest (52?wt%) at 500°C. The composition of bio-oils extracted with diethyl ether was identified by means of gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The following compounds were observed in bio-oils produced from the pyrolysis of table sugar at 500°C: 1,4:3,6-dianhydro-?-d-glucopyranose, 5-(hydroxymethyl) furfural, 5-acetoxymethyl-2-furaldehyde, and cyclotetradecane liquid product. The relative concentration of 5-(hydroxymethyl) furfural was the highest in bio-oils obtained from pyrolysis of table sugars at 500°C. PMID:24223500

  12. San Sebastián: the social and political effects of sugar mill closure in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Powell, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    Mexico's sugar mills face an uncertain future: the closure of San Sebastián may well presage others if the climate for sugar production on national and international levels does not improve. While the continued squeezing of small cane producers reflects processes affecting peasant agriculture generally in Mexico, and indeed beyond, the fate of the mill workers made redundant when the mill closed similarly mirrors broad tendencies in labor in both the developed and developing world under neoliberalism. Former workers fell back upon personal, family, and community resources by migrating to the U.S. or locally reconstructing livelihoods characterized by a reduction in income, security, and access to social benefits. This article reports on the impact of the mill closure on the livelihoods of former mill worker families in the community of San Sebastián and offers some observations on their responses to the situation. PMID:17434857

  13. Free sugar profile in cycads.

    PubMed

    Marler, Thomas E; Lindström, Anders J

    2014-01-01

    The sugars fructose, glucose, maltose, and sucrose were quantified in seven tissues of Zamia muricata Willd. to determine their distribution throughout various organs of a model cycad species, and in lateral structural roots of 18 cycad species to determine the variation in sugar concentration and composition among species representing every cycad genus. Taproot and lateral structural roots contained more sugars than leaf, stem, female strobilus, or coralloid roots. For example, taproot sugar concentration was 6.4-fold greater than stem sugar concentration. The dominant root sugars were glucose and fructose, and the only detected stem sugar was sucrose. Sucrose also dominated the sugar profile for leaflet and coralloid root tissue, and fructose was the dominant sugar in female strobilus tissue. Maltose was a minor constituent of taproot, leaflet, and female strobilus tissue, but absent in other tissues. The concentration of total free sugars and each of the four sugars did not differ among genera or families. Stoichiometric relationships among the sugars, such as the quotient hexoses/disaccharides, differed among organs and families. Although anecdotal reports on cycad starch have been abundant due to its historical use as human food and the voluminous medical research invested into cycad neurotoxins, this is the first report on the sugar component of the non-structural carbohydrate profile of cycads. Fructose, glucose, and sucrose are abundant in cycad tissues, with their relative abundance highly contrasting among organs. Their importance as forms of carbon storage, messengers of information, or regulators of cycad metabolism have not been determined to date. PMID:25339967

  14. Characterisation of agroindustrial solid residues as biofuels and potential application in thermochemical processes.

    PubMed

    Virmond, Elaine; De Sena, Rennio F; Albrecht, Waldir; Althoff, Christine A; Moreira, Regina F P M; José, Humberto J

    2012-10-01

    In the present work, selected agroindustrial solid residues from Brazil - biosolids from meat processing wastewater treatment and mixture of sawdust with these biosolids; residues from apple and orange juice industries; sugarcane bagasse; açaí kernels (Euterpe oleracea) and rice husk - were characterised as solid fuels and an evaluation of their properties, including proximate and ultimate composition, energy content, thermal behaviour, composition and fusibility of the ashes was performed. The lower heating value of the biomasses ranged from 14.31 MJkg(-1) to 29.14 MJkg(-1), on a dry and ash free basis (daf), all presenting high volatile matter content, varying between 70.57 wt.% and 85.36 wt.% (daf) what improves the thermochemical conversion of the solids. The fouling and slagging tendency of the ashes was predicted based on the fuel ash composition and on the ash fusibility correlations proposed in the literature, which is important to the project and operation of biomass conversion systems. The potential for application of the Brazilian agroindustrial solid residues studied as alternative energy sources in thermochemical processes has been identified, especially concerning direct combustion for steam generation. PMID:22699005

  15. Application of lipase from Burkholderia cepacia in the degradation of agro-industrial effluent.

    PubMed

    Mello Bueno, Pabline Rafaella; de Oliveira, Tatianne Ferreira; Castiglioni, Gabriel Luis; Soares Júnior, Manoel Soares; Ulhoa, Cirano Jose

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the physical and chemical characteristics of Amano PS commercial lipase - Burkholderia cepacia and lipase produced by Burkholderia cepacia strain ATCC 25416, in addition to studying the hydrolysis of agro-industrial effluent collected in a fried potato industry. The optimum temperature for increasing lipase activity was 37 °C. The temperature increase caused a decrease in thermostability of lipase, and the commercial lipase was less stable, with values of 10.5, 4.6 and 4.9%, respectively, lower than those obtained by lipase from strain ATCC 25416, at temperatures of 40, 50 and 60 °C. The enzymatic activity was higher in alkaline conditions, achieving better results at pH 8.0. The pH was the variable that most influenced the hydrolysis of triacylglycerides of the agro-industrial effluent, followed by enzyme concentration, and volume of gum arabic used in the reaction medium. Thus, it can be observed that the enzymatic hydrolytic process of the studied effluent presents a premising contribution to reduction of environmental impacts of potato chip processing industries. PMID:25860696

  16. Effect of canopy manipulation on cane and fruit Botrytis in protected raspberry.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, T; Berrie, A M; Wedgwood, E; Allen, J; Xu, X M

    2009-01-01

    Botrytis cinerea causes disease on both the fruit and cane of raspberry. The incidence of latent and post-harvest fruit botrytis was examined in 19 commercial open-field and protected crops. Many samples showed a high incidence of infected fruit (>50%), even on protected crops sprayed with fungicides. Differences between open-field and protected crops, between sprayed and unsprayed crops and between two varieties (GLen Ample and Tulameen) were not statistically significant. The incidence of latent infection by B. cinerea in unripe fruit did not correlate with the incidence of botrytis fruit rot developing on ripe fruit. Experiments were conducted in two commercial crops to investigate whether the removal of Lateral Leaves and thinning of primocanes during the flowering and fruiting period could reduce the incidence of fruit and cane infection by B. cinereo. Canopy manipulation resulted in considerable decreases in humidity inside the canopy at one site, where the original cane density was very high, (20 canes/m) and not at the second site where cane density was lower (10 canes/m). Canopy thinning did not significantly reduce the incidence of fruit botrytis at either site but reduced the incidence of leaf and cane infection in the dense crop. Results suggest that a significant reduction of cane infection by canopy manipulation can be realised for situations where cane density and disease pressure are high. The present studies suggest that in dense canopies in a protected crop, cane Lesions are more likely to result from direct infection of canes by the pathogen, although the pathogen can readily invade wounds on canes, including de-leafing wounds. PMID:20222545

  17. Utilization of agro-industrial and municipal waste materials as potential adsorbents for water treatment—A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amit Bhatnagar; Mika Sillanpää

    2010-01-01

    Adsorption process has been proven one of the best water treatment technologies around the world and activated carbon is undoubtedly considered as universal adsorbent for the removal of diverse types of pollutants from water. However, widespread use of commercial activated carbon is sometimes restricted due to its higher costs. Attempts have been made to develop inexpensive adsorbents utilizing numerous agro-industrial

  18. The behavioral ecology of cannibalism in cane toads ( Bufo marinus )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lígia Pizzatto; Richard Shine

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory studies show that predatory cane toads (Bufo marinus) exhibit specialized toe-luring behavior that attracts smaller conspecifics, but field surveys of toad diet rarely record\\u000a cannibalism. Our data resolve this paradox, showing that cannibalism is common under specific ecological conditions. In the\\u000a wet–dry tropics of Australia, desiccation risk constrains recently metamorphosed toads to the edges of the natal pond. Juvenile

  19. Stilbenoid profiles of canes from Vitis and Muscadinia species.

    PubMed

    Pawlus, Alison D; Sahli, Ramla; Bisson, Jonathan; Rivière, Céline; Delaunay, Jean-Claude; Richard, Tristan; Gomès, Eric; Bordenave, Louis; Waffo-Téguo, Pierre; Mérillon, Jean-Michel

    2013-01-23

    We present stilbenoid profiles of canes from 16 grapevines. Fifteen stilbenoids were obtained through isolation and structure identification using MS, NMR, and [?](D) or as commercial standards. An HPLC-UV method for the simultaneous quantification of nine of these stilbenoids was developed and applied to canes of Vitis amurensis, Vitis arizonica, Vitis berlandieri, Vitis betulifolia, Vitis cinerea, Vitis × champini, Vitis × doaniana, Vitis labrusca, Vitis candicans (syn. Vitis mustangensis), Vitis riparia, Vitis rupestris, Vitis vinifera, Muscadinia rotundifolia, and a V. vinifera × M. rotundifolia hybrid. In these species, E-ampelopsin E, E-amurensin B, E-piceid, E-piceatannol, E-resveratrol, E-resveratroloside, E-?-viniferin, E-?-viniferin, and E-vitisin B were quantified, when found in sufficient amounts. Total concentrations ranged from ~2.2 to 19.5 g/kg of dry weight. Additional stilbenoids, E-3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene 2-C-glucoside, Z-ampelopsin E, Z-trans-miyabenol C, E-trans-miyabenol C, scirpusin A, and Z-vitisin B, were identified but not quantified. Our results indicate that canes, particularly those of non-vinifera species, have substantial quantities of valuable, health-promoting stilbenoids. PMID:23270496

  20. Usual Intake of Added sugars

    Cancer.gov

    Usual Intake of Added sugars Table A40. Added sugars: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 teaspoons3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 9.4 (0.31) 3.1 (0.17) 4.1

  1. Biotechnology Applications for Sugar Beet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ekrem Gurel; Songul Gurel; Peggy G. Lemaux

    2008-01-01

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is an important industrial crop, being one of only two plant sources from which sucrose (i.e., sugar) can be economically produced. Despite its relatively short period of cultivation (ca. 200 years), its yield and quality parameters have been significantly improved by conventional breeding methods. However, during the last two decades or so, advanced in vitro

  2. When Blood Sugar Is Too Low

    MedlinePLUS

    ... right after an insulin shot Continue Signs That Blood Sugar Levels Are Low There are a bunch of symptoms ... so you start feeling better. How Are Low Blood Sugar Levels Treated? When blood sugar levels are low, the ...

  3. 7 CFR 58.934 - Sugars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sugars. 58.934 Section 58.934 Agriculture ...Quality Specifications for Raw Materials § 58.934 Sugars. Any sugar used in the manufacture of sweetened condensed or...

  4. When Blood Sugar is Too High

    MedlinePLUS

    ... balancing act. Continue The Causes of High Blood Sugar In general, higher than normal blood glucose levels ... in your diabetes treatment plan. Signs That Blood Sugar Levels Are High People with high blood sugar ...

  5. 7 CFR 58.934 - Sugars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sugars. 58.934 Section 58.934 Agriculture ...Quality Specifications for Raw Materials § 58.934 Sugars. Any sugar used in the manufacture of sweetened condensed or...

  6. 7 CFR 58.934 - Sugars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sugars. 58.934 Section 58.934 Agriculture ...Quality Specifications for Raw Materials § 58.934 Sugars. Any sugar used in the manufacture of sweetened condensed or...

  7. 7 CFR 58.934 - Sugars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sugars. 58.934 Section 58.934 Agriculture ...Quality Specifications for Raw Materials § 58.934 Sugars. Any sugar used in the manufacture of sweetened condensed or...

  8. 7 CFR 58.934 - Sugars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sugars. 58.934 Section 58.934 Agriculture ...Quality Specifications for Raw Materials § 58.934 Sugars. Any sugar used in the manufacture of sweetened condensed or...

  9. High Blood Sugar (in Type 1 Diabetes)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Child or Teen Live with Type 1 Diabetes Insulin Delivery Methods Effects of Exercise, Illness, Stress, and Growth on Blood Sugar Levels What is Glucagon? Checking Blood Sugar Levels High Blood Sugar Low ...

  10. Hydrogen isotopic profile in the characterization of sugars. Influence of the metabolic pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ben-Li; Billault, Isabelle; Li, Xiaobao; Mabon, Françoise; Remaud, Gérald; Martin, Maryvonne L

    2002-03-13

    The site-specific natural hydrogen isotope ratios of plant metabolites determined by 2H nuclear magnetic resonance (SNIF-NMR method) can provide powerful criteria for inferring mechanistic and environmental effects on biosynthetic pathways. This work examines the potential of isotopic profiles for the main constituents of carbohydrates, glucose and fructose, to distinguish different photosynthetic pathways. An appropriate analytical strategy, involving three suitable isotopic probes, has been elaborated with a view to measuring simultaneously, in conditions devoid of isotopic perturbations, all (or nearly all) of the carbon-bound hydrogen isotope ratios. It is shown that the type of photosynthetic metabolism, either C3 (sugar beet, orange, and grape), C4 (maize and sugar cane), or CAM (pineapple), and the physiological status of the precursor plant exert strong influences on the deuterium distribution in the sugar molecules. Consequently, this isotopic fingerprint may be a rich source of information for the comparison of mechanisms in metabolic pathways. In addition, it can provide complementary criteria to ethanol as a probe for the origin of sugars. PMID:11879039

  11. 35. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Bevel gear at lower end of vertical drive shaft in foreground turned bevel gear of top roll when the vertical drive shaft was in place in the brass-bearing socket in the middle ground of the photograph. The bolts above the top roll and at the side of the two bottom rolls adjusted the pressure and position of the rolls' brass bearings. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  12. 34. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Side view of mill. Vertical drive shaft lying on ground in foreground. When drive-shaft was in upright position its bevel gear was meshed with the bevel gear of the top roll, transmitting the animals'circular motion around the drive shaft to the horizontal rolls. The foundation is of portland cement. The heavy timber mill bed, between the mill and the portland cement foundation has rolled away. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  13. 31. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill: oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill: one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: View down at the mill from top of the mill's circular masonry enclosure. Mill animals circling above the mill, on top of the enclosure, dragged booms radiating from the drive shaft to power the mill. The drive-shaft is no longer in its upright positon but is lying next to the mill in the foreground. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  14. 33. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: From above the mill showing the three 15' x 22' horizontal rolls, mill frame or cheeks, portland cement foundation, and lower part of vertical drive shaft lying next mill in foreground. The loose metal piece resting on top of the mill frame matched the indented portion of the upper frame to form a bracket and bearing for the drive shaft when it was in its proper upright position. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  15. Optimisation of biogas production from anaerobic digestion of agro-industrial waste streams in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Boncz, M A; Bezerra, L Pinheiro; Ide, C Nobuyoshi; Paulo, P Loureiro

    2008-01-01

    The important Brazilian agro-industry produces significant amounts of wastewater with high concentrations of biodegradable compounds. A lot can be gained if wastewater treatment would take place using anaerobic reactors instead of the anaerobic lagoons generally used now. Apart from preventing methane emissions to the atmosphere this would permit the use of the biogas as a source of energy. To facilitate implementation of this technology also in small and intermediate sized companies a system requiring only minimal maintenance is needed. The need for maintenance by skilled labour can be reduced using an automated process control system, which is being developed. Cassava (manioc, tapioca) processing wastewater has been treated in a lab scale UASB reactor equipped with an on-line monitoring system, to test a control strategy based mainly on pH control. Good results have been obtained treating not only pre-acidified but also treating raw (diluted) cassava processing wastewater. PMID:19001722

  16. Organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticide residues in raw buffalo milk from agroindustrial areas in Assiut, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Shaker, Eman M; Elsharkawy, Eman E

    2015-01-01

    Raw buffalo milk samples from the agroindustrial zone in upper Egypt were analyzed for the presence of organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Five organochlorine pesticides namely, alachlor, dieldrin, hexachlorobenzene, lindane and methoxychlor and three organophosphorus pesticides chlorpyrifos, malathion, and parathion-methyl were detected in the milk samples. In 44% of the samples, the concentrations of lindane and malathion residues exceeded tolerance levels set by the European Commission (EC) in 2008. In addition, the concentrations of chlorpyrifos, methoxychlor, and hexachlorobenzene residues exceeded the 2008 EC maximum residual limits (MRLs) by 33, 66, and 88% of the examined samples, respectively. However, the levels of alachlor, dieldrin, and parathion-methyl residues were below EC MRLs. The results of this study confirm the risks of pesticide residues exposure that threaten consumer health in Egypt. Thus, we recommend that pesticide residue monitoring programs be instituted in all the developing countries. PMID:25575291

  17. Immobilized Sclerotinia sclerotiorum invertase to produce invert sugar syrup from industrial beet molasses by-product.

    PubMed

    Mouelhi, Refka; Abidi, Ferid; Galai, Said; Marzouki, M Nejib

    2014-03-01

    The fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum produces invertase activity during cultivation on many agroindustrial residues. The molasses induced invertase was purified by DEAE-cellulose chromatography. The molecular mass of the purified enzyme was estimated at 48 kDa. Optimal temperature was determined at 60 °C and thermal stability up to 65 °C. The enzyme was stable between pH 2.0 and 8.0; optimum pH was about 5.5. Apparent K(m) and V(max) for sucrose were estimated to be respectively 5.8 mM and 0.11 ?mol/min. The invertase was activated by ?-mercaptoethanol. Free enzyme exhibited 80 % of its original activity after two month's storage at 4 °C and 50 % after 1 week at 25 °C. In order to investigate an industrial application, the enzyme was immobilized on alginate and examined for invert sugar production by molasses hydrolysis in a continuous bioreactor. The yield of immobilized invertase was about 78 % and the activity yield was 59 %. Interestingly the immobilized enzyme hydrolyzed beet molasses consuming nearly all sucrose. It retained all of its initial activity after being used for 4 cycles and about 65 % at the sixth cycle. Regarding productivity; 20 g/l of molasses by-product gave the best invert sugar production 46.21 g/day/100 g substrate related to optimal sucrose conversion of 41.6 %. PMID:24142426

  18. SURVEY OF FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEMS: CANE RUN STATION, LOUISVILLE GAS AND ELECTRIC COMPANY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a survey of operational flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems on coal-fired utility boilers in the U.S. The FGD systems installed on Units 4, 5, and 6 at the Cane Run Station are described in terms of design and performance. The Cane Run No. 4 FGD sys...

  19. Materials Testing in Long Cane Design: Sensitivity, Flexibility, and Transmission of Vibration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Mark D.; Emerson, Robert Wall

    2005-01-01

    Different materials that are used in manufacturing long cane shafts were assessed for their ability to transmit vibration and their sensitivity to tactile information, flexibility, and durability. It was found that the less flexible a cane shaft is, the better it transmits vibrations that are useful for discriminating surface textures and that…

  20. Museum material reveals a frog parasite emergence after the invasion of the cane toad in Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashlie Hartigan; David N Phalen; Jan Šlapeta

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A parasite morphologically indistinguishable from Myxidium immersum (Myxozoa: Myxosporea) found in gallbladders of the invasive cane toad (Bufo marinus) was identified in Australian frogs. Because no written record exists for such a parasite in Australian endemic frogs in 19th and early 20th century, it was assumed that the cane toad introduced this parasite. While we cannot go back in

  1. Knowledge of and Preferences for Long Cane Components: A Qualitative and Quantitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambrose-Zaken, Grace

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on the various components of long canes and reports on a study of the knowledge and preferences of 100 adults with visual impairments regarding the various components and types of canes. Results indicated that the terrain of a route, weather conditions, mobility demand, and purpose of an outing are important…

  2. Fishes of the Cane Creek Watershed in Southeast Missouri and Northeast Arkansas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOHN K. BEADLES

    Asurvey of the fishes of Cane Creek in southeast Missouri and northeast Arkansas was made between 25 August 1974 and 16 July 1975. Field collections, literature records, fisherman reports, and museum specimens showed the fishes of Cane Creek to be composed of 90species distributed among 20 families. Records of Lampetra aepyptera (Abbott), Hiodon alosoides (Rafinesque), Etheostoma histrio Jordan and Gilbert,

  3. Variables of the Touch Technique that Influence the Safety of Cane Walkers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bongers, Raoul M.; Schellingerhout, Roelef; van Grinswen, Roland; Smitsman, Ad W.

    2002-01-01

    This study evaluated variables that determined the safety of 15 cane users who were using the touch technique. The results showed that none of the walkers used a touch technique as described and recommended in the literature, that the detection of obstacles was related mainly to the height of the cane tip during the sweep, and that the early…

  4. Cane-toad Monitoring in Kakadu National Park Using Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-print Network

    Bulusu, Nirupama

    importance to Australia because cane toads are endanger- ing native species and the ecosystem. We comment is an application of tremendous im- portance to Australia because cane toads are endangering native species and has application, economic, and net- working/technology objectives. 1. Zone Division and Classification: Division

  5. Partial Optimization of Endo-1, 4-?-Xylanase Production by Aureobasidium pullulans Using Agro-Industrial Residues

    PubMed Central

    Nasr, Shaghayegh; Soudi, Mohammad Reza; Hatef Salmanian, Ali; Ghadam, Parinaz

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s) : Although bacteria and molds are the pioneering microorganisms for production of many enzymes, yet yeasts provide safe and reliable sources of enzymes with applications in food and feed. Materials and Methods: Single xylanase producer yeast was isolated from plant residues based on formation of transparent halo zones on xylan agar plates. The isolate showed much greater endo-1, 4-?-xylanase activity of 2.73 IU/ml after optimization of the initial extrinsic conditions. It was shown that the strain was also able to produce ?-xylosidase (0.179 IU/ml) and ?-arabinofuranosidase (0.063 IU/ml). Identification of the isolate was carried out and the endo-1, 4-?-xylanaseproduction by feeding the yeast cells on agro-industrial residues was optimized using one factor at a time approach. Results: The enzyme producer strain was identified as Aureobasidiumpullulans. Based on the optimization approach, an incubation time of 48 hr at 27°C, inoculum size of 2% (v/v), initial pH value of 4 and agitation rate of 90 rpm were found to be the optimal conditions for achieving maximum yield of the enzyme. Xylan, containing agricultural residues, was evaluated as low-cost alternative carbon source for production of xylanolytic enzymes. The production of xylanase enzyme in media containing wheat bran as the sole carbon source was very similar to that of the medium containing pure beechwoodxylan. Conclusion:This finding indicates the feasibility of growing of A. pullulans strain SN090 on wheat bran as an alternate economical substrate in order for reducing the costs of enzyme production and using this fortified agro-industrial byproduct in formulation of animal feed. PMID:24570830

  6. Smashing Bubbles and Vanishing Sugar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Alan

    1979-01-01

    Science activities with soap bubbles for primary school children are described in this article. Another activity involves children in determining the whereabouts of sugar as it dissolves in water. (SA)

  7. The Ups and Downs of Blood Sugar

    E-print Network

    13090 60 180 The Ups and Downs of Blood Sugar You need just the right amount of sugar in your their blood sugar under control. l Whenyoufirstwakeupinthemorning,beforeyoueat breakfast,yourbloodsugarshouldbebetween90 and 30. l Try to keep your blood sugar between 90 and 30 as much of the time as possible. #12

  8. Energy Expenditure During Cane-Assisted Gait in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Anamaria; Alves, Ana Claudia Monteiro; de Oliveira, Leda Magalhães; Saad, Marcelo; Natour, Jamil

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare the energy expenditure in patients with unilateral knee osteoarthritis while walking with canes of different lengths. METHODS A quasi-experimental study (single-group) was carried out on thirty patients with unilateral knee osteoarthritis. An adjustable aluminum cane was used, and three different cane lengths were determined for each subject: C1 – length from the floor to the greater trochanter; C2 – length from the floor to the distal wrist crease; and C3 – length obtained by the formula: height x 0.45 + 0.87 m. Resting and walking heart rates were measured with a Polar hear rate meter. Walking speed was calculated by the time required for the patient to walk 10 m. Gait energy cost was estimated using the physiological cost index, and results were compared. RESULTS The sample consisted of 25 women and five men (average age of 68 years). Statistically significant differences in physiological cost index measurements were observed between unassisted walking and assisted walking with a cane of any length (p<0.001), as well as between walking with a C2-length cane and unassisted walking, and walking with a C1-length cane and walking with a C3-length cane (p=0.001; p = 0.037; p=0.001; respectively). CONCLUSION These data demonstrate that small alterations in the length of canes used for weight-bearing ambulation in patients with unilateral knee osteoarthritis increase the energy expenditure measured by the physiological cost index during walking. Further studies are needed for a more precise quantification of the increase in energy expenditure during cane-assisted gait and an assessment of the effectiveness of cane use in relieving pain and improving function in patients with knee osteoarthritis. PMID:18438573

  9. Sugar Competition Results Discussion Future Sugar: A SAT-based CSP Solver

    E-print Network

    Banbara, Mutsunori

    Sugar Competition Results Discussion Future . . . .. . . Sugar: A SAT-based CSP Solver --Results Kobe University, Japan April 1, 2009 Naoyuki Tamura, Tomoya Tanjo, Mutsunori Banbara Sugar: A SAT-based CSP Solver --Results summary of #12;Sugar Competition Results Discussion Future Outline .. Sugar CSP

  10. Techno-economic assessment of integrating methanol or Fischer-Tropsch synthesis in a South African sugar mill.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Abdul M; Farzad, Somayeh; Görgens, Johann F

    2015-05-01

    This study considered an average-sized sugar mill in South Africa that crushes 300 wet tonnes per hour of cane, as a host for integrating methanol and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, through gasification of a combined flow of sugarcane trash and bagasse. Initially, it was shown that the conversion of biomass to syngas is preferably done by catalytic allothermal gasification instead of catalytic autothermal gasification. Thereafter, conventional and advanced synthesis routes for both Methanol and Fischer-Tropsch products were simulated with Aspen Plus® software and compared by technical and economic feasibility. Advanced FT synthesis satisfied the overall energy demands, but was not economically viable for a private investment. Advanced methanol synthesis is also not viable for private investment since the internal rate of return was 21.1%, because it could not provide the steam that the sugar mill required. The conventional synthesis routes had less viability than the corresponding advanced synthesis routes. PMID:25727762

  11. Valorization of Residual Agroindustrial Cakes by Fungal Production of Multienzyme Complexes and Their Use in Cold Hydrolysis of Raw Starch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aline Machado de CastroThiago; Thiago Vetter de Andréa; Daniele Fernandes Carvalho; Mariana Martins Pereira Teixeira; Leda dos Reis Castilho; Denise Maria Guimarães Freire

    2011-01-01

    In this work four agroindustrial cakes were used as raw material both for production of enzyme pools containing amylases and\\u000a accessory hydrolases by solid-state fermentation (SSF) and for cold starch hydrolysis. Eight fungal strains from the genera\\u000a Aspergillus and Penicillium were screened for enzyme production, and their enzyme extracts were then evaluated in the hydrolysis of raw cakes. Babassu\\u000a cake

  12. Production of carotenoids by strains of Rhodotorula glutinis cultured in raw materials of agro-industrial origin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pietro Buzzini; Alessandro Martini

    2000-01-01

    The production of carotenoids by strains of Rhodotorula glutinis on different raw materials of agro-industrial origin (grape must, glucose syrup, beet molasses, soybean flour extract, maize flour extract) was investigated. Maximum yield (5.95 mg\\/l of total carotenoids culture fluid, 630 ?g\\/g dry cell weight) was obtained with a particular strain of Rhodotorula glutinis after a batch culture of 120 h

  13. Methods for dehydration of sugars and sugar alcohols

    DOEpatents

    Holladay, Johnathan E [Kennewick, WA; Hu, Jianli [Kennewick, WA; Zhang, Xinjie [Burlington, MA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA

    2010-08-10

    The invention includes a method of dehydration of a sugar using a dehydration catalyst and a co-catalyst within a reactor. A sugar is introduced and H.sub.2 is flowed through the reactor at a pressure of less than or equal to about 300 psig to convert at least some of the sugar into an anhydrosugar product. The invention includes a process for producing isosorbide. A starting material comprising sorbitol is flowed into a reactor. H.sub.2 is counter flowed through the reactor. The starting material is exposed to a catalyst in the presence of a co-catalyst which comprises at least one metal. The exposing is conducted at a hydrogen pressure of less than or equal to 300 psig within the reactor and the hydrogen removes at least some of any water present during the exposing and inhibits formation of colored byproducts.

  14. Sugar-Sweetened Beverages--The Facts Whatisasugar-sweetenedbeverage?

    E-print Network

    Rosen, Jay

    Sugar-Sweetened Beverages--The Facts Whatisasugar-sweetenedbeverage? A sugar-sweetened beverage is a drink with sugar added.Sugar has many names.To find out if a drink contains sugar,look for any of these words on the list of ingredients:sugar,high-fructose corn syrup, brown sugar,corn sweetener,corn syrup

  15. Synthesis of the Sugar Moieties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grynkiewicz, Grzegorz; Szeja, Wieslaw

    Biological activity of the anthracycline antibiotics, which have found wide application in clinical oncology, is strongly related to their glycosidic structure. Modification or switch of the saccharide moiety became an important line of new drug discovery and study of their mechanism of action. Natural glycons (sugar moieties) of the anthracycline antibiotics belong to the 2,6-dideoxypyranose family and their principal representative, daunosamine, is 3-amino-2,3,6-trideoxy- l-lyxo-pyranose. Some newer chemical syntheses of this sugar, from a chiral pool as well as from achiral starting materials, are presented and their capability for scale-up and process development are commented upon. Rational sugar structural modifications, which are either useful for synthetic purposes or offer advantages in experimental therapy of cancer, are discussed from the chemical point of view.

  16. Vector transmission studies of Maize Dwarf Mosaic Virus (MDMV) with the yellow sugar-cane aphid, Sipha flava (Forbes)

    E-print Network

    Su, Shu-Hua

    1972-01-01

    ~bh'* h' H 1 R d. ~Ahis gosslt2ii Glov. ~H * 1 1'h ~Ath t h R'* H Carolinaia ~c eri Ainslie ~N* R t H 1* 8. Green sowthistle aphid ~AH h * bt D* tl d 9. Oleander and milk- weed aphid ~A his nerii Boyer de Fonscolombe 10. Brown ambrosia... t V' by h b tk- d ht tl Phtd (~D ambrosiae Thos. ) . Plant Dis. Reptr. 48:636-639. 73. Zummo, N. and L. J. Charpentier. 1965. Vector-virus relation- ship of Sugarcane Mosaic Virus: Transmission of Sugarcane Mosaic V by h D I I phtd, ~hh I t h tdf...

  17. Effects of some chemical substances on germination, root development, and growth of the stem cuttings of sugar cane

    E-print Network

    Khan, Mohammad Abdullah

    1953-01-01

    ether. Curtis (14.) and Chadwick (6) conducted studies on plant propagation in Taxus cuspidata. Ligustrum vulgare. and Ilex verticillata. They found that both sucrose and potassium permanganate were effective in increasing the formation and growth...

  18. The Impact of Sugar Cane–Burning Emissions on the Respiratory System of Children and the Elderly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José E. D. Cançado; Paulo H. N. Saldiva; Luiz A. A. Pereira; Luciene B. L. S. Lara; Paulo Artaxo; Luiz A. Martinelli; Marcos A. Arbex; Antonella Zanobetti; Alfesio L. F. Braga

    2006-01-01

    10.2 µg\\/m 3 in particles ? 2.5 µm\\/m 3 aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) and 42.9 µg\\/m 3 in PM10 were associated with increases of 21.4% (95% confidence interval (CI), 4.3-38.5) and 31.03% (95% CI, 1.25-60.21) in child and elderly respiratory hospital admissions, respectively. When we compared periods, the effects during the burning period were much higher than the effects during nonburning

  19. EFFECTS OF SUGAR CANE MECHANICAL HARVESTING FOLLOWED BY NO-TILLAGE CROP SYSTEMS ON LEACHING OF TRIAZINE HERBICIDES IN BRAZIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Both a field experiment and a soil column leaching study were conducted to determine the movement of triazines where mechanical sugarcane harvesting has been followed by no-till (NT) and conventional-till (CT) peanuts production. Although not all the triazines are necessarily used at same level on a...

  20. Acceleration of the Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Corn Stover and Sugar Cane Bagasse Celluloses by Low Intensity Uniform Ultrasound

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cost-competitive production of bio-ethanol and other biofuels is currently impeded, mostly by high cost and low efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of feedstock biomass and especially plant celluloses. Despite substantial reduction in the cost of production of cellulolytic enzymes in recent times...

  1. Pyrolytic sugars from cellulosic biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzhiyil, Najeeb

    Sugars are the feedstocks for many promising advanced cellulosic biofuels. Traditional sugars derived from starch and sugar crops are limited in their availability. In principle, more plentiful supply of sugars can be obtained from depolymerization of cellulose, the most abundant form of biomass in the world. Breaking the glycosidic bonds between the pyranose rings in the cellulose chain to liberate glucose has usually been pursued by enzymatic hydrolysis although a purely thermal depolymerization route to sugars is also possible. Fast pyrolysis of pure cellulose yields primarily levoglucosan, an anhydrosugar that can be hydrolyzed to glucose. However, naturally occurring alkali and alkaline earth metals (AAEM) in biomass are strongly catalytic toward ring-breaking reactions that favor formation of light oxygenates over anhydrosugars. Removing the AAEM by washing was shown to be effective in increasing the yield of anhydrosugars; but this process involves removal of large amount of water from biomass that renders it energy intensive and thereby impractical. In this work passivation of the AAEM (making them less active or inactive) using mineral acid infusion was explored that will increase the yield of anhydrosugars from fast pyrolysis of biomass. Mineral acid infusion was tried by previous researchers, but the possibility of chemical reactions between infused acid and AAEM in the biomass appears to have been overlooked, possibly because metal cations might be expected to already be substantially complexed to chlorine or other strong anions that are found in biomass. Likewise, it appears that previous researchers assumed that as long as AAEM cations were in the biomass, they would be catalytically active regardless of the nature of their complexion with anions. On the contrary, we hypothesized that AAEM can be converted to inactive or less active salts using mineral acids. Various biomass feedstocks were infused with mineral (hydrochloric, nitric, sulfuric and phosphoric acids) and organic acids (formic and acetic acids) followed by analytical pyrolysis on a micropyrolyzer/GC/MS/FID system. It was found that sulfuric and phosphoric acids are very effective in passivating the AAEM thereby increasing the yield of anhydrosugars. An excellent correlation was discovered between the amount of acid required to obtain the maximum yield of anhydrosugars and the amount of AAEM contained in the biomass feedstock. In the micro-scale studies, up to 56% of the cellulose contained in the biomass was converted into anhydrosugars which is close to the 57% conversion obtained from pure cellulose pyrolysis. It is known that LG polymerization and subsequent charring occur at temperatures above 275°C depending on the vapor pressure of LG in the gas stream. A study of pyrolysis of acid-infused biomass feedstocks at various temperatures revealed that LG recovery is best at lower temperatures than the conventional pyrolysis temperature range of 450-500°C. Pyrolysis of acid-infused biomass failed in a continuous fluidized bed reactor due to clogging of the bed. The feedstock formed vitreous material along with the fluidizing sand that was formed from poor pyrolysis of lignin. However, more investigation of this phenomenon is a subject for future work. Pyrolysis experiments on an auger type reactor were successful in producing bio-oils with unprecedented amounts of sugars. Though there was increase in charring when compared to the control feedstock, pyrolysis of red oak infused with 0.4 wt% of sulfuric acid produced bio-oil with 18wt% of sugars. One of the four fractions of bio-oil collected contained most of the sugars, which shows significant potential for separating the sugars from bio-oil using simple means. This work points towards a new pathway for making advanced biofuels viz. upgrading pyrolytic sugars from biomass that could compete with enzymatic sugars from biomass.

  2. Agro-industrial waste materials and wastewater sludge for rhizobial inoculant production: a review.

    PubMed

    Ben Rebah, F; Prévost, D; Yezza, A; Tyagi, R D

    2007-12-01

    Inoculating legumes with commercial rhizobial inoculants is a common agriculture practice. Generally, inoculants are sold in liquid or in solid forms (mixed with carrier). The production of inoculants involves a step in which a high number of cells are produced, followed by the product formulation. This process is largely governed by the cost related to the medium used for rhizobial growth and by the availability of a carrier source (peat) for production of solid inoculant. Some industrial and agricultural by-products (e.g. cheese whey, malt sprouts) contain growth factors such as nitrogen and carbon, which can support growth of rhizobia. Other agro-industrial wastes (e.g. plant compost, filtermud, fly-ash) can be used as a carrier for rhizobial inoculant. More recently, wastewater sludge, a worldwide recyclable waste, has shown good potential for inoculant production as a growth medium and as a carrier (dehydrated sludge). Sludge usually contains nutrient elements at concentrations sufficient to sustain rhizobial growth and heavy metals are usually below the recommended level. In some cases, growth conditions can be optimized by a sludge pre-treatment or by the addition of nutrients. Inoculants produced in wastewater sludge are efficient for nodulation and nitrogen fixation with legumes as compared to standard inoculants. This new approach described in this review offers a safe environmental alternative for both waste treatment/disposal and inoculant production. PMID:17336515

  3. Pigment production by filamentous fungi on agro-industrial byproducts: an eco-friendly alternative.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Fernanda Cortez; Tichota, Deise Michele; Pereira, Jamile Queiroz; Segalin, Jéferson; Rios, Alessandro de Oliveira; Brandelli, Adriano

    2013-10-01

    The search for new sources of natural pigments has increased, mainly because of the toxic effects caused by synthetic dyes used in food, pharmaceutical, textile, and cosmetic industries. Fungi provide a readily available alternative source of natural pigments. In this context, the fungi Penicillium chrysogenum IFL1 and IFL2, Fusarium graminearum IFL3, Monascus purpureus NRRL 1992, and Penicillium vasconiae IFL4 were selected as pigments producers. The fungal identification was performed using ITS and part of the ?-tubulin gene sequencing. Almost all fungi were able to grow and produce water-soluble pigments on agro-industrial residues, with the exception of P. vasconiae that produced pigments only on potato dextrose broth. The production of yellow pigments was predominant and the two strains of P. chrysogenum were the largest producers. In addition, the production of pigments and mycotoxins were evaluated in potato dextrose agar using TOF-MS and TOF-MS/MS. Metabolites as roquefortine C, chrysogine were found in both extracts of P. chrysogenum, as well fusarenone X, diacetoxyscirpenol, and neosolaniol in F. graminearum extract. In the M. purpureus extract, the pigments monascorubrin, rubropunctatin, and the mycotoxin citrinin were found. The crude filtrates have potential to be used in the textile industry; nevertheless, additional pigment purification is required for food and pharmaceutical applications. PMID:23873642

  4. Production and immobilization of enzymes by solid-state fermentation of agroindustrial waste.

    PubMed

    Romo Sánchez, Sheila; Gil Sánchez, Irene; Arévalo-Villena, María; Briones Pérez, Ana

    2015-03-01

    The recovery of by-products from agri-food industry is currently one of the major challenges of biotechnology. Castilla-La Mancha produces around three million tons of waste coming from olive oil and wine industries, both of which have a pivotal role in the economy of this region. For this reason, this study reports on the exploitation of grape skins and olive pomaces for the production of lignocellulosic enzymes, which are able to deconstruct the agroindustrial waste and, therefore, reuse them in future industrial processes. To this end, solid-state fermentation was carried out using two local fungal strains (Aspergillus niger-113 N and Aspergillus fumigatus-3). In some trials, a wheat supplementation with a 1:1 ratio was used to improve the growth conditions, and the particle size of the substrates was altered through milling. Separate fermentations were run and collected after 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 15 days to monitor enzymatic activity (xylanase, cellulase, ?-glucosidase, pectinase). The highest values were recorded after 10 and 15 days of fermentation. The use of A. niger on unmilled grape skin yielded the best outcomes (47.05 U xylanase/g by-product). The multi-enzymatic extracts obtained were purified, freeze dried, and immobilized on chitosan by adsorption to assess the possible advantages provided by the different techniques. PMID:25300855

  5. Microbial enhance of chitosan production by Rhizopus arrhizus using agroindustrial substrates.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Antonio; Lins, Clarissa Izabel M; dos Santos, Ednaldo Ramos; Freitas Silva, Marta C; Campos-Takaki, Galba M

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the potential of Rhizopus arrhizus UCP 402 for producing chitosan using corn steep liquor and honey as agroindustrial nitrogen and carbon sources. A complete factorial design was used to assess the improved biomass and chitosan production. The results were evaluated using Pareto charts (Statistica 7.0 software). The chitosan obtained was characterized by X-ray diffraction. The cristallinity index (I(C)), and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to evaluate the degree of deacetylation (DD %). The morphological aspects of the R. arrhizus were evaluated by measuring the diameter of the colonies by light microscopy. The results obtained showed higher biomass and chitosan yields (20.61 g/L and 29.3 mg/g), respectively, in the selected assays. The characterization of the macromolecular arrangement of chitosan showed a crystallinity index compatible with the literature, and the infrared peaks confirmed a degree of 86%. The experimental data obtained suggest that adding honey to corn steep liquor is a promising way to improve microbiological chitosan production. PMID:22543505

  6. Characterization of the carbonaceous materials obtained from different agro-industrial wastes.

    PubMed

    Ensuncho-Muñoz, A E; Carriazo, J G

    2015-03-01

    This paper reports the preparation and characterization of carbonaceous materials obtained from three types of vegetable wastes provided by agricultural industries. Soft carbonization (280°C) and H3PO4-activation procedures were used to convert the agricultural wastes to carbon powders with high adsorbent capacities. This process is excellent for eliminating and exploiting the huge masses (many tons) of vegetable residues remaining after each harvest every year in several Colombian agro-industries. The powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), IR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and N2-adsorption isotherms. XRD and IR verified the formation of carbons, and SEM showed small particles (20-500?µm) with characteristic morphology for each type of residue used and abundant cavities of different sizes. The N2-adsorption analyses showed that the carbons had high adsorption capacities with important surface area values and large pore volumes. The use of the activated carbonaceous materials as adsorbent of azo dyes (allura red and sunset yellow) from aqueous solutions was evaluated. The results showed a good adsorption capacity indicating the potentiality of these materials as pollutant adsorbents in food industry wastewaters. These results indicate that these powders can be used as potential adsorbents for different gaseous or liquid pollutants. PMID:25189634

  7. Green Conversion of Agroindustrial Wastes into Chitin and Chitosan by Rhizopus arrhizus and Cunninghamella elegans Strains

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Lúcia Raquel Ramos; Stamford, Thayza Christina Montenegro; Stamford-Arnaud, Thatiana Montenegro; de Alcântara, Sergio Roberto Cabral; da Silva, Antonio Cardoso; da Silva, Adamares Marques; do Nascimento, Aline Elesbão; de Campos-Takaki, Galba Maria

    2014-01-01

    This article sets out a method for producing chitin and chitosan by Cunninghamella elegans and Rhizopus arrhizus strains using a green metabolic conversion of agroindustrial wastes (corn steep liquor and molasses). The physicochemical characteristics of the biopolymers and antimicrobial activity are described. Chitin and chitosan were extracted by alkali-acid treatment, and characterized by infrared spectroscopy, viscosity and X-ray diffraction. The effectiveness of chitosan from C. elegans and R. arrhizus in inhibiting the growth of Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli and Yersinia enterocolitica were evaluated by determining the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC). The highest production of biomass (24.60 g/L), chitin (83.20 mg/g) and chitosan (49.31 mg/g) was obtained by R. arrhizus. Chitin and chitosan from both fungi showed a similar degree of deacetylation, respectively of 25% and 82%, crystallinity indices of 33.80% and 32.80% for chitin, and 20.30% and 17.80% for chitosan. Both chitin and chitosan presented similar viscosimetry of 3.79–3.40 cP and low molecular weight of 5.08 × 103 and 4.68 × 103 g/mol. They both showed identical MIC and MBC for all bacteria assayed. These results suggest that: agricultural wastes can be produced in an environmentally friendly way; chitin and chitosan can be produced economically; and that chitosan has antimicrobial potential against pathogenic bacteria. PMID:24853288

  8. Kojic Acid Production from Agro-Industrial By-Products Using Fungi

    PubMed Central

    El-Kady, Ismael A.; Zohri, Abdel Naser A.; Hamed, Shimaa R.

    2014-01-01

    A total of 278 different isolates of filamentous fungi were screened using synthetic medium for respective ability to produce kojic acid. Nineteen, six, and five isolates proved to be low, moderate, and high kojic acid producers, respectively. Levels of kojic acid produced were generally increased when shaking cultivation was used rather than those obtained using static cultivation. A trial for the utilization of 15 agro-industrial wastes or by-products for kojic acid production by the five selected higher kojic acid producer isolates was made. The best by-product medium recorded was molasses for kojic acid. A. flavus numbers 7 and 24 were able to grow and produce kojic acid on only 12 out of 15 wastes or by-products media. The best medium used for kojic acid production by A. flavus number 7 was rice fragments followed by molasses, while the best medium used for kojic acid production by A. flavus number 24 was the molasses followed by orange, pea, and rice fragments. An attempt for production of kojic acid using a 1.5?L laboratory fermentor has been made. Aspergillus flavus number 7 was used and grown on molasses medium; maximum level (53.5?g/L) of kojic acid was obtained after eight days of incubation. PMID:24778881

  9. Agricultural Biotechnology in crops, forestry, livestock, fisheries and agro-industry

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations provides this Website about the role and impact of biotechnology in food and agriculture in developing countries. Features of the site include FAO's Statement on Biotechnology (including a discussion of genetically modified organisms), an overview of FAO's activities (such as providing advice and assistance to member countries, disseminating information, and monitoring new developments concerning biotechnology in food and agriculture), as well as an introduction to biotechnology in the agro-industry, crop, fisheries, forestry, and livestock sectors with links to FAO publications (most may be read online). Other highlights of the site include meeting news, a glossary of terms and acronyms currently used in the field of biotechnology, a member list for the FAO Inter-Departmental Working Group on Biotechnology, and links. The FAO Electronic Forum on Biotechnology in Food and Agriculture (reviewed in the May 26, 2000 Scout Report) is a series of moderated email conferences concerning agricultural biotechnology and developing countries. The Website is available in English, Arabic, Chinese, French, and Spanish.

  10. Evaluation of maturity and stability parameters of composts prepared from agro-industrial wastes.

    PubMed

    Raj, Dev; Antil, R S

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in physical, chemical and biological parameters to assess the maturity and stability of composts prepared from mixture of different farm and agro-industrial wastes over a period of 150 days. All the composts appeared granular, dark grey in color without foul odor and attained an ambient temperature at 120 days of composting indicating the stable nature of composts. Correlation analysis showed that the optimal values of the selected parameters for our experimental conditions are as follows: organic matter loss >42%, C:N ratio <15, water soluble organic carbon (C(w)):organic N (N(org)) ratio <0.55, humic acid (HA):fulvic acid (FA) ratio >1.9, humification index (HI) >30%, cation exchange capacity (CEC):total organic carbon (TOC) ratio >1.7 and germination index (GI) >70%. Compost enriched with sewage sludge, pressmud and poultry waste matured earlier compared to composts either enriched with distillery effluent or un-enriched. PMID:21075622

  11. Green conversion of agroindustrial wastes into chitin and chitosan by Rhizopus arrhizus and Cunninghamella elegans strains.

    PubMed

    Berger, Lúcia Raquel Ramos; Stamford, Thayza Christina Montenegro; Stamford-Arnaud, Thatiana Montenegro; de Alcântara, Sergio Roberto Cabral; da Silva, Antonio Cardoso; da Silva, Adamares Marques; do Nascimento, Aline Elesbão; de Campos-Takaki, Galba Maria

    2014-01-01

    This article sets out a method for producing chitin and chitosan by Cunninghamella elegans and Rhizopus arrhizus strains using a green metabolic conversion of agroindustrial wastes (corn steep liquor and molasses). The physicochemical characteristics of the biopolymers and antimicrobial activity are described. Chitin and chitosan were extracted by alkali-acid treatment, and characterized by infrared spectroscopy, viscosity and X-ray diffraction. The effectiveness of chitosan from C. elegans and R. arrhizus in inhibiting the growth of Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli and Yersinia enterocolitica were evaluated by determining the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC). The highest production of biomass (24.60 g/L), chitin (83.20 mg/g) and chitosan (49.31 mg/g) was obtained by R. arrhizus. Chitin and chitosan from both fungi showed a similar degree of deacetylation, respectively of 25% and 82%, crystallinity indices of 33.80% and 32.80% for chitin, and 20.30% and 17.80% for chitosan. Both chitin and chitosan presented similar viscosimetry of 3.79-3.40 cP and low molecular weight of 5.08×10³ and 4.68×10³ g/mol. They both showed identical MIC and MBC for all bacteria assayed. These results suggest that: agricultural wastes can be produced in an environmentally friendly way; chitin and chitosan can be produced economically; and that chitosan has antimicrobial potential against pathogenic bacteria. PMID:24853288

  12. Utilization of agroindustrial residues for lipase production by solid-state fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Damaso, Mônica Caramez Triches; Passianoto, Moisés Augusto; de Freitas, Sidinéa Cordeiro; Freire, Denise Maria Guimarães; Lago, Regina Celi Araujo; Couri, Sonia

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work was to produce lipases by solid-state fermentation (SSF) using, as substrate, agroindustrial residue supplemented with by-products from corn oil refining process or olive oil. For a group of ten fungi strains selected in the first steps, the lipase activity obtained by SSF varied from 7.7 to 58.6 U/g of dry substrate (gds). Among the evaluated strains, the Aspergillus niger mutant 11T53A14 was selected by presenting the best enzymatic production. For the fermentation tests, two substrates were also investigated: wheat bran and corn cob, both supplemented with olive oil. The best results were obtained with wheat bran. Additionally, three industrial by-products from corn oil refining (soapstock, stearin and fatty acids) were evaluated as substitutes to the olive oil in the function of lipases production inducer. Among them, soapstock and stearin were the best inducers, whereas fatty acids presented an inhibitor effect. The highest lipase activities using soapstock, stearin and fatty acids were 62.7 U/gds, 37.7 U/gds and 4.1 U/gds, respectively. PMID:24031288

  13. Studies on the production of nigerloxin using agro-industrial residues by solid-state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Chakradhar, Dasagrandhi; Javeed, Saleem; Sattur, Avinash P

    2009-09-01

    Nigerloxin, a new and potent lipoxygenase inhibitor, was discovered in our laboratory through solid-state fermentation of wheat bran by Aspergillus niger V. Teigh (MTCC-5166). The aim of this study is to investigate the possibility of using different agro-industrial residues as nutritional supplements along with wheat bran to enhance the production of nigerloxin. Nigerloxin produced by SSF was quantified spectrophotometrically at 292 nm. The results indicate that the inhibitor production was influenced by the type of solid substrate supplemented, moisture content, pH and size of the inoculum. Individually optimized supplements were tested in different combinations to determine their effects on nigerloxin production. A twofold increase in the production of nigerloxin (4.9 +/- 0.3 mg gds(-1)) was achieved by supplementing wheat bran with 10% w/w sweet lemon peel and 5% v/w methanol at optimized process parameters, that is, an initial moisture content of 65% v/w and incubation period of 6 days with an initial inoculum size of 2 ml (8 x 10(5) spores gds(-1)). Nigerloxin production was stable between pH of 4 and 5. PMID:19504138

  14. Distances to five resolved galaxies in the Canes Venatici cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karachentsev, I. D.; Drozdovsky, I. O.

    1998-07-01

    We present results of CCD imaging in B, V of five late-type galaxies with radial velocities V_0 < 350 km/s in the Canes Venatici cloud. Based on the photometry of their brightest blue stars we derived the following distances to the galaxies: 9.7 Mpc for NGC 4144, 4.5 Mpc for NGC 4244, 4.2 Mpc for NGC 4395, 2.9 Mpc for NGC 4449, and 8.2 Mpc for UGC 8331. Tables 3 to 7 are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

  15. 21 CFR 890.3790 - Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3790 Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads. (a)...

  16. 21 CFR 890.3790 - Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3790 Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads. (a)...

  17. 21 CFR 890.3790 - Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3790 Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads. (a)...

  18. CLIMATE CHANGE DURING & AFTER THE ROMAN EMPIRE Michael McCormick, Ulf Bntgen, Mark A. Cane,

    E-print Network

    in Ecology and the Environment, X (2012), 14­19. Mark A. Cane is G. Unger Vetlesen Professor of Earth Smith Professor of Classical Archaeology and Director of the Malcolm and Carolyn Wiener Laboratory

  19. Diet composition of the invasive cane toad (Chaunus marinus) on Rota, Northern Mariana Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, R.N.; Bakkegard, K.A.; Desy, G.E.; Plentovich, S.M.

    2007-01-01

    The cane or marine toad (Chaunus marinus, formerly Bufo marinus) was introduced to the Northern Mariana Islands starting in the 1930s. The effects of this exotic predator on native vertebrates (especially lizards) are largely unknown. We analysed the stomach contents of 336 cane toads collected from the island of Rota, with the goal of estimating the level of toad predation on native vertebrates. Beetles, ants, millipedes, and grasshoppers/crickets comprised the majority of prey classes consumed by toads. The introduced Brahminy blindsnake (Ramphotyphlops braminus; N = 6) and conspecific cane toads (N = 4) were the vertebrates most commonly found in toad stomachs. Skinks (Emoia; N = 2) were the only native vertebrates represented in our sample. The small numbers of nocturnal terrestrial vertebrates native to Rota likely translates to relatively low rates of predation by cane toads on native vertebrates.

  20. Salt and Sugar in Kids' Meals

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... the lower right-hand corner of the player. Salt and Sugar in Kids' Meals HealthDay February 2, ... many pre-packaged kids’ meals contain too much salt or sugar. The researchers looked at the nutrition ...

  1. ConcepTest: Sugar-Rock Analogy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Water containing dissolved sugar evaporates to leave a deposit of sugar in the bottom of a glass. This could be seen as an analog for the formation of a type of a. igneous rock b. metamorphic rock c. sedimentary ...

  2. Carbohydrates: Sucrose p. Carbon Metabolism, Carbohydrates & Sugars

    E-print Network

    Constabel, Peter

    Carbohydrates: Sucrose p. Carbon Metabolism, Carbohydrates & Sugars 1. Introduction and overview on carbohydrate and sugars (handout) Carbohydrate [CHO] = polyhydroxyketones and polyhydroxyaldehydes - two types reducing power - integrated with sucrose and starch synthesis #12;Carbohydrates: Sucrose p. 2 2 Sucrose

  3. BIOLISTIC TRANSFORMATION OF SUGAR BEET CELL SUSPENSIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nonproprietary sugar beet transformation methods are plagued by low transformation frequencies and lack of reproducibility. In efforts to optimize the methods, we established highly embryogenic sugar beet cell suspension cultures for transformation by the particle bombardment method. Callus obtain...

  4. Probing protein-sugar interactions.

    PubMed

    Ebel, C; Eisenberg, H; Ghirlando, R

    2000-01-01

    We have investigated the partial specific volumes (2) (ml/g), hydration, and cosolvent interactions of rabbit muscle aldolase by equilibrium sedimentation in the analytical ultracentrifuge and by direct density increment (partial differential/partial differentialc(2))(mu) measurements over a range of sugar concentrations and temperature. In a series of sugars increasing in size, glucose, sucrose, raffinose, and alpha-cyclodextrin, (partial differential/ partial differentialc(2))(mu) decreases linearly with the solvent density rho(0). These sugar cosolvents do not interact with the protein; however, the interaction parameter B(1) (g water/g protein) mildly increases with increasing sugar size. The experimental B(1) values are smaller than values calculated by excluded volume (rolling ball) considerations. B(1) relates to hydration in this and in other instances studied. It decreases with increasing temperature, leading to an increase in (2) due to reduced water of hydration electrostriction. The density increments (partial differential/ partial differentialc(2))(mu), however, decrease in concave up form in the case of glycerol and in concave down form for trehalose, leading to more complex behavior in the case of carbohydrates playing a biological role as osmolytes and antifreeze agents. A critical discussion, based on the thermodynamics of multicomponent solutions, is presented. PMID:10620302

  5. Investigation on the occurrence of Phaeomoniella chlamydospora in canes of rootstock mother vines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. H. Fourie; F. Halleen

    2002-01-01

    The presence of Phaeomoniella chlamydospora and Phaeoacremonium spp., the causal organisms of Petri disease of grapevine, in canes of rootstock vines in four mother blocks was determined\\u000a monthly by means of isolations from the basal and fourth internodes. The canes were generally free from fungal, yeast and\\u000a bacterial infection with only 2.4% of the total number of isolated xylem segments

  6. Conversion of Grazed Pastures to Energy Cane as a Biofuel Feedstock Alters Soil GHG Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Casanovas, N.; DeLucia, N.; Bernacchi, C.; DeLucia, E. H.

    2013-12-01

    Changes in land use profoundly affect climate through variations in soil Greenhouse Gas (GHG) exchange. The need for alternative energies is accelerating land use change as marginal land or managed ecosystems are being converted to highly productive second-generation bioenergy crops such as energy cane (Saccharum spp. L). Although the deployment of energy cane is a promising strategy to meet global bioenergy industry demands, few studies have investigated soil GHG fluxes in these crops and sub-tropical low-intensity grazing pasture (bahiagrass, Paspalum notatum L., as forage for cattle, Bos taurus L.) with which they are competing for land. Here, we showed that soil N2O fluxes in bioenergy crops were higher (>250%) than those observed in pastures following fertilization when soil moisture and temperature were high. In the absence of recent fertilization, the N2O source strength in energy cane and pasture sites was similar. Under drier and cooler soil conditions, both pastures and bioenergy crops were weak sources of N2O even when energy cane plots were recently fertilized. Soils on grazed pastures were sources of CH4 during the wet season but became sinks under drier, colder conditions. Energy cane plantations were weak sources of CH4 over a complete wet-dry seasonal cycle. The heterotrophic component of soil respiration was larger (139-155%) in pastures than in energy cane crops, suggesting lower decomposition of SOC in bioenergy crops. In terms of global warming potential, grazed pastures were stronger (120-150%) soil GHG emitters than energy cane crops over a complete wet-dry seasonal cycle. Moreover, pastures became a substantial source of GHG emitters when including estimates of CH4 flux from cattle. Our results suggest that the conversion of pasture to energy cane will be beneficial in relation to GHGs emitted from soils and cattle. Improved understanding of land use impact on soil GHG dynamics will provide valuable information for decision makers debating sustainable bioenergy policies.

  7. 19 CFR 151.24 - Unlading facilities for bulk sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... false Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. 151.24 Section 151.24 Customs...SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.24 Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. When dutiable sugar is to be...

  8. 19 CFR 151.24 - Unlading facilities for bulk sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... false Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. 151.24 Section 151.24 Customs...SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.24 Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. When dutiable sugar is to be...

  9. 19 CFR 151.24 - Unlading facilities for bulk sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... false Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. 151.24 Section 151.24 Customs...SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.24 Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. When dutiable sugar is to be...

  10. 19 CFR 151.24 - Unlading facilities for bulk sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... false Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. 151.24 Section 151.24 Customs...SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.24 Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. When dutiable sugar is to be...

  11. 19 CFR 151.24 - Unlading facilities for bulk sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... false Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. 151.24 Section 151.24 Customs...SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.24 Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. When dutiable sugar is to be...

  12. Sugar feeding in adult stable flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adult stable flies, (Stomoxys calcitrans (L.)), are known to feed readily on sugars in the laboratory. However, little is known concerning the extent of stable fly sugar feeding in wild populations. We examined the frequency of sugar feeding in stable flies in rural and urban environments. In additi...

  13. 27 CFR 24.317 - Sugar record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sugar record. 24.317 Section 24.317...WINE Records and Reports § 24.317 Sugar record. A proprietor who receives, stores, or uses sugar shall maintain a record of receipt...

  14. Resugaring: Lifting Evaluation Sequences through Syntactic Sugar

    E-print Network

    Krishnamurthi, Shriram

    Resugaring: Lifting Evaluation Sequences through Syntactic Sugar Justin Pombrio Brown University justinpombrio@cs.brown.edu Shriram Krishnamurthi Brown University sk@cs.brown.edu Abstract Syntactic sugar-specific lan- guages; and even to let programmers extend their language. Un- fortunately, syntactic sugar

  15. 27 CFR 24.317 - Sugar record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sugar record. 24.317 Section 24.317...WINE Records and Reports § 24.317 Sugar record. A proprietor who receives, stores, or uses sugar shall maintain a record of receipt...

  16. 27 CFR 24.317 - Sugar record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sugar record. 24.317 Section 24.317...WINE Records and Reports § 24.317 Sugar record. A proprietor who receives, stores, or uses sugar shall maintain a record of receipt...

  17. THE SHEARING BEHAVIOUR OF A SUGAR AGGREGATE

    E-print Network

    Bolton, Malcolm

    THE SHEARING BEHAVIOUR OF A SUGAR AGGREGATE Catherine A. Davy1 , M. D. Bolton2 , N. A. Fleck2, UK #12;Abstract To better understand the behaviour of sugar within industrial centrifuges or silos, drained triaxial tests were performed on loose, dry or moist sugar aggregates under low confining

  18. 12 Maple Syrup Digest SUGAR PROFILES

    E-print Network

    Hayden, Nancy J.

    12 Maple Syrup Digest SUGAR PROFILES OF MAPLE SYRUP GRADES Abby van den Berg, Timothy Perkins it is generally accepted that the amount of invert sugar increases with decreasing syrup light transmission (from lighter to darker grades), the composition of sugars within different grades has not been adequately

  19. 27 CFR 24.317 - Sugar record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sugar record. 24.317 Section 24.317...WINE Records and Reports § 24.317 Sugar record. A proprietor who receives, stores, or uses sugar shall maintain a record of receipt...

  20. 27 CFR 24.317 - Sugar record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sugar record. 24.317 Section 24.317...WINE Records and Reports § 24.317 Sugar record. A proprietor who receives, stores, or uses sugar shall maintain a record of receipt...

  1. Chemical biology Antibacterial sugar-tipped

    E-print Network

    Davis, Ben G.

    Chemical biology Antibacterial sugar-tipped trees J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 4750­4751 (2004) Enzymes proteins in the bacterial cell walls, which bind to sugar (galactose) molecules. Rendle et al. figured on the proteases. Dendrons with two, three or four sugar tips give the enzyme a secure hold, with two tips being

  2. Original article Nectar sugar production and honeybee

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Nectar sugar production and honeybee foraging activity in 3 species of onion; Nectar sugar content and solute concentration in the nectar of 3 Allium species were determined to assess and A cepa fistulosum there was resorption of nectar sugars after 72 and 144 h of flower opening, whereas

  3. Horizontal drilling potential of the Cane Creek Shale, Paradox Formation, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, C.D.; Chidsey, T.C. (Utah Geological and Mineral Survey, Salt Lake City (United States))

    1991-06-01

    The Cane Creek shale of the Pennsylvanian Paradox Formation is a well-defined target for horizontal drilling. This unit is naturally fractures and consists of organic-rich marine shale with interbedded dolomitic siltstone and anhydrite. Six fields have produced oil from the Cane Creek shale in the Paradox basin fold-and-fault belt. The regional structural trend is north-northwest with productive fractures occurring along the crest and flanks of both the larger and more subtle smaller anticlines. The Long Canyon, Cane Creek, Bartlett Flat, and Shafer Canyon fields are located on large anticlines, while Lion Mesa and Wilson Canyon fields produce from subtle structural noses. The Cane Creek shale is similar to the highly productive Bakken Shale in the Williston basin. Both are (1) proven producers of high-gravity oil, (2) highly fractured organic-rich source rocks, (3) overpressured, (4) regionally extensive, and (5) solution-gas driven with little or no associated water. Even though all production from the Cane Creek shale has been from conventional vertical wells, the Long Canyon 1 well has produced nearly 1 million bbl of high-gravity, low-sulfur oil. Horizontal drilling may result in the development of new fields, enhance recovery in producing fields, and revive production in abandoned fields. In addition, several other regionally extensive organic-rich shale beds occur in the Paradox Formation. The Gothic and Chimney Rock shales for example, offer additional potential lying above the Cane Creek shale.

  4. Saccharification of recalcitrant biomass and integration options for lignocellulosic sugars from Catchlight Energy’s sugar process (CLE Sugar)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Woody biomass is one of the most abundant biomass feedstocks, besides agriculture residuals in the United States. The sustainable harvest residuals and thinnings alone are estimated at about 75 million tons/year. These forest residuals and thinnings could produce the equivalent of 5 billion gallons of lignocellulosic ethanol annually. Softwood biomass is the most recalcitrant biomass in pretreatment before an enzymatic hydrolysis. To utilize the most recalcitrant lignocellulosic materials, an efficient, industrially scalable and cost effective pretreatment method is needed. Results Obtaining a high yield of sugar from recalcitrant biomass generally requires a high severity of pretreatment with aggressive chemistry, followed by extensive conditioning, and large doses of enzymes. Catchlight Energy’s Sugar process, CLE Sugar, uses a low intensity, high throughput variation of bisulfite pulping to pretreat recalcitrant biomass, such as softwood forest residuals. By leveraging well-proven bisulfite technology and the rapid progress of enzyme suppliers, CLE Sugar can achieve a high yield of total biomass carbohydrate conversion to monomeric lignocellulosic sugars. For example, 85.8% of biomass carbohydrates are saccharified for un-debarked Loblolly pine chips (softwood), and 94.0% for debarked maple chips (hardwood). Furan compound formation was 1.29% of biomass feedstock for Loblolly pine and 1.10% for maple. At 17% solids hydrolysis of pretreated softwood, an enzyme dose of 0.075 g Sigma enzyme mixture/g dry pretreated (unwashed) biomass was needed to achieve 8.1% total sugar titer in the hydrolysate and an overall prehydrolysate liquor plus enzymatic hydrolysis conversion yield of 76.6%. At a much lower enzyme dosage of 0.044 g CTec2 enzyme product/g dry (unwashed) pretreated softwood, hydrolysis at 17% solids achieved 9.2% total sugar titer in the hydrolysate with an overall sugar yield of 85.0% in the combined prehydrolysate liquor and enzymatic hydrolysate. CLE Sugar has been demonstrated to be effective on hardwood and herbaceous biomass, making it truly feedstock flexible. Conclusions Different options exist for integrating lignocellulosic sugar into sugar-using operations. A sugar conversion plant may be adjacent to a CLE Sugar plant, and the CLE Sugar can be concentrated from the initial 10% sugar as needed. Concentrated sugars, however, can be shipped to remote sites such as ethanol plants or other sugar users. In such cases, options for shipping a dense form of sugars include (1) pretreated biomass with enzyme addition, (2) lignocellulosic sugar syrup, and (3) lignocellulosic sugar solid. These could provide the advantage of maximizing the use of existing assets. PMID:23356449

  5. Oxidation rate and turnover of ingested sugar in hovering Anna's (Calypte anna) and rufous (Selasphorus rufus) hummingbirds.

    PubMed

    Welch, Kenneth C; Suarez, Raul K

    2007-06-01

    Hummingbirds obtain most of their dietary calories from floral nectar ingested during hovering flight. Despite the importance of dietary sugar to hummingbird metabolism, the turnover of newly ingested carbon in the pool of actively metabolized substrates has not been adequately characterized in hovering hummingbirds. By combining respirometry with stable carbon isotope analysis of respired breath, we show that in rufous (Selasphorus rufus) and Anna's (Calypte anna) hummingbirds at high foraging frequencies, utilization of newly ingested sugars increased over a period of 30-45 min until it accounted for virtually 100% of the fuel oxidized. This newly ingested sugar disappears from the actively metabolized pool of substrates over a similar time course. These results demonstrate that turnover of carbon in the pool of actively metabolized substrates is rapid; carbon from ingested sucrose is available for oxidation for 30-45 min before being cleared. By monitoring expired CO2 for the appearance and disappearance of the signature characteristic of newly ingested sugar and then calculating energy budgets using video recordings of hummingbird activity, we estimated the proportion of recently ingested sugar used to fuel ongoing metabolism as well as the proportion devoted to energy storage. Consistent differences between species in the percentage of ingested cane sugar oxidized during the 2 h experimental periods suggest that individuals of each species adopted energy intake patterns appropriate to their needs. This approach provides a means by which to examine the partitioning of dietary carbon intake between energy expenditure and storage using non-invasive, field-compatible techniques. PMID:17562889

  6. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780... Employment in Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or...

  7. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780... Employment in Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or...

  8. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780... Employment in Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or...

  9. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780... Employment in Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or...

  10. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780... Employment in Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or...

  11. Production of clean pyrolytic sugars for fermentation.

    PubMed

    Rover, Marjorie R; Johnston, Patrick A; Jin, Tao; Smith, Ryan G; Brown, Robert C; Jarboe, Laura

    2014-06-01

    This study explores the separate recovery of sugars and phenolic oligomers produced during fast pyrolysis with the effective removal of contaminants from the separated pyrolytic sugars to produce a substrate suitable for fermentation without hydrolysis. The first two stages from a unique recovery system capture "heavy ends", mostly water-soluble sugars and water-insoluble phenolic oligomers. The differences in water solubility can be exploited to recover a sugar-rich aqueous phase and a phenolic-rich raffinate. Over 93?wt?% of the sugars is removed in two water washes. These sugars contain contaminants such as low-molecular-weight acids, furans, and phenols that could inhibit successful fermentation. Detoxification methods were used to remove these contaminants from pyrolytic sugars. The optimal candidate is NaOH overliming, which results in maximum growth measurements with the use of ethanol-producing Escherichia coli. PMID:24706373

  12. The potential of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) for the estimation of agroindustrial compost quality.

    PubMed

    Galvez-Sola, L; Moral, R; Perez-Murcia, M D; Perez-Espinosa, A; Bustamante, M A; Martinez-Sabater, E; Paredes, C

    2010-02-15

    Composting is an environmentally friendly alternative for the recycling of organic wastes and its use is increasing in recent years. An exhaustive monitoring of the composting process and of the final compost characteristics is necessary to certify that the values of compost characteristics are within the limits established by the legislation in order to obtain a safe and marketable product. The analysis of these parameters on each composting batch in the commercial composting plant is time-consuming and expensive. So, their estimation in the composting facilities based on the use of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) could be an interesting approach in order to monitor compost quality. In this study, more than 300 samples from 20 different composting procedures were used to calibrate and validate the NIRS estimation of compost properties (pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total organic matter (TOM), total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN) and C/N ratio, macronutrient contents (N, P, K) and potentially pollutant element concentrations (Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn)). The composts used were elaborated using different organic wastes from agroindustrial activities (GS: grape stalk; EGM: exhausted grape marc; GM: grape marc; V: vinasse; CJW: citrus juice waste; Alpeorujo: olive-oil waste; AS: almond skin; EP: exhausted peat; TSW: tomato soup waste; SMS: spent mushroom substrate) co-composted with manures (CM: cattle manure; PM: poultry manure) or urban wastes (SS: sewage sludge) The estimation results showed that the NIRS technique needs to be fitted to each element and property, using specific spectrum transformations, in order to achieve an acceptable accuracy in the prediction. However, excellent prediction results were obtained for TOM and TOC, successful calibrations for pH, EC, Fe and Mn, and moderately successful estimations for TN, C/N ratio, P, K, Cu and Zn. PMID:20061002

  13. Solid state cultivation--an efficient method to use toxic agro-industrial residues.

    PubMed

    Leifa, F; Pandey, A; Soccol, C R

    2000-01-01

    Studies were carried out to screen twelve strains of Lentinus edodes for their efficiency to grow on toxic agro-industrial residues of coffee industry in solid state cultivation (SSC). Based on best mycelial growth (7.57 mm/day) and biomass production (48.78 mg/plate in 12 days at 24 degrees C) in coffee husk extract medium, a strain, L. edodes LPB 02 was selected for mushroom cultivation in SSC on coffee husk (treated and untreated), coffee spent ground, and a mixed-substrate comprising coffee husk and coffee spent ground (1:1). SSC was carried out under different conditions of moisture and spawn rate. Spawn rate of 10% and moisture level of 55-60% was found suitable for all the substrates. Treatment of the coffee husk with hot water was found useful for its utilization by the fungus. Results showed that there was an increase in the protein content and decrease in the fibre content of the substrates after SSC. Fruiting bodies were obtained from the treated coffee husk, spent ground and mixed-substrate, and the biological efficiency achieved was 85.8, 88.6 and 78.4% for these substrates, respectively. However, no fruiting body was obtained with raw coffee husk was used as the substrate. Results showed that after SSC, there was a decrease of about 27, 40 and 24% in caffeine and about 18, 49 and 12% in tannin contents in the treated coffee husk, coffee spent ground and mixed substrate, respectively. No caffeine or, tannins were found in fruiting body indicating their degradation by the fungal strain. PMID:10957960

  14. Shifting sugars and shifting paradigms.

    PubMed

    Siegal, Mark L

    2015-02-01

    No organism lives in a constant environment. Based on classical studies in molecular biology, many have viewed microbes as following strict rules for shifting their metabolic activities when prevailing conditions change. For example, students learn that the bacterium Escherichia coli makes proteins for digesting lactose only when lactose is available and glucose, a better sugar, is not. However, recent studies, including three PLOS Biology papers examining sugar utilization in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, show that considerable heterogeneity in response to complex environments exists within and between populations. These results join similar recent results in other organisms that suggest that microbial populations anticipate predictable environmental changes and hedge their bets against unpredictable ones. The classical view therefore represents but one special case in a range of evolutionary adaptations to environmental changes that all organisms face. PMID:25688600

  15. Shifting Sugars and Shifting Paradigms

    PubMed Central

    Siegal, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    No organism lives in a constant environment. Based on classical studies in molecular biology, many have viewed microbes as following strict rules for shifting their metabolic activities when prevailing conditions change. For example, students learn that the bacterium Escherichia coli makes proteins for digesting lactose only when lactose is available and glucose, a better sugar, is not. However, recent studies, including three PLOS Biology papers examining sugar utilization in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, show that considerable heterogeneity in response to complex environments exists within and between populations. These results join similar recent results in other organisms that suggest that microbial populations anticipate predictable environmental changes and hedge their bets against unpredictable ones. The classical view therefore represents but one special case in a range of evolutionary adaptations to environmental changes that all organisms face. PMID:25688600

  16. Finding the Carbon in Sugar

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-09-19

    In this activity about combustion and energy, learners observe a burning candle in a sealed jar and the burning of white sugar. The first part of the activity (candle burning) should be conducted as a demonstration. The second part may be conducted by learners working in groups of 2-4 or as a demonstration. This activity guide includes background information, questions for learners to think about, and bilingual (English/Spanish) handouts.

  17. Concentrate This! Sugar or Salt...

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    CREAM GK-12 Program, Engineering Education Research Center, College of Engineering and Architecture,

    Students investigate the property dependence between concentrations and boiling point. In section 1, students first investigate the boiling point of various liquid solutions. In section 2, they analyze data collected by the entire class to generate two boiling point curves, one for salt solutions and one for sugar solutions. Finally, in section 3, students use the data they have analyzed to determine how to create a solution that has a particular boiling point and is a cost-effective design.

  18. Concentrate This! Sugar or Salt...

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-03-20

    Students investigate the property dependence between concentrations and boiling point. First, they investigate the boiling point of various liquid solutions. Then they analyze data collected from the entire class to generate two boiling point curves, one for salt solutions and one for sugar solutions. Finally, students use the data they have analyzed to design cost-effective solutions with particular boiling points---similar to the everyday work of chemical engineers.

  19. Ecological sustainability of energy cane as a biofuel feedstock Assess the ecological sustainability of deploying energy cane on land previously used for

    E-print Network

    DeLucia, Evan H.

    Ecological sustainability of energy cane as a biofuel feedstock Objective Assess the ecological to the ecological sustainability of the wide-scale deployment of biofuel feedstocks. Key among these issues are how replacing current land use with biofuel feedstocks will affect the fluxes of greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N20

  20. Production of Protein-Enriched Feed Using AgroIndustrial Residues as Substrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Obeta Ugwuanyi; Brian McNeil; Linda M. Harvey

    Agricultural and food industry residues, refuse and wastes constitute a significant proportion (estimated to amount to over\\u000a 30%) of world wide agricultural productivity. These wastes, include lignocellulosic materials, fruit and vegetable wastes,\\u000a sugar industry wastes as well as animal and fisheries operations refuse and wastes. They represent valuable biomass and potential\\u000a solutions to problems of animal nutrition and world wide

  1. Acceptance of sugar reduction in flavored yogurt.

    PubMed

    Chollet, M; Gille, D; Schmid, A; Walther, B; Piccinali, P

    2013-09-01

    To investigate what level of sugar reduction is accepted in flavored yogurt, we conducted a hedonic test focusing on the degree of liking of the products and on optimal sweetness and aroma levels. For both flavorings (strawberry and coffee), consumers preferred yogurt containing 10% added sugar. However, yogurt containing 7% added sugar was also acceptable. On the just-about-right scale, yogurt containing 10% sugar was more often described as too sweet compared with yogurt containing 7% sugar. On the other hand, the sweetness and aroma intensity for yogurt containing 5% sugar was judged as too low. A second test was conducted to determine the effect of flavoring concentration on the acceptance of yogurt containing 7% sugar. Yogurts containing the highest concentrations of flavoring (11% strawberry, 0.75% coffee) were less appreciated. Additionally, the largest percentage of consumers perceived these yogurts as "not sweet enough." These results indicate that consumers would accept flavored yogurts with 7% added sugar instead of 10%, but 5% sugar would be too low. Additionally, an increase in flavor concentration is undesirable for yogurt containing 7% added sugar. PMID:23871368

  2. Which type of cane is the most efficient, based on oxygen consumption and balance capacity, in chronic stroke patients?

    PubMed

    Jeong, Yeon-Gyu; Jeong, Yeon-Jae; Myong, Jun-Pyo; Koo, Jung-Wan

    2015-02-01

    Canes are widely prescribed as walking aids, but little is known about the effects of canes on the physiological cost of walking. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in oxygen consumption associated with the gaits of hemiplegic patients in terms of balance capacity according to the type of cane used. Twenty-nine patients with chronic stroke were divided into poor-balance (n=15) and relatively-better-balance groups (n=14) based on a cutoff score of 49 on the Berg balance scale (BBS). Each patient completed three consecutive days of walking with a randomly assigned singlepoint cane, quad cane, or hemi-walker. We measured the oxygen expenditure and oxygen cost using a portable gas analyzer and heart rate during a 6-min walk test (6MWT) and a 10-m walk test (10MWT). The oxygen expenditure, gait endurance, and gait velocity were higher with the single-point cane (p<0.01) than with any of the other cane types, and the oxygen costs were lower (p<0.01) with the single-point cane among the patients with relatively better balance. The oxygen cost for the quad cane was lower (p<0.01) than that found for any the other cane types among the patients with relatively poor balance. Our study revealed that single-point canes require less oxygen use at a given speed and permits greater speed at the same oxygen consumption for hemiplegic patients with good balance. Walking aids with a greater base support may be more suitable than those with a smaller base support for patients with relatively poor balance. However, our conclusions are only preliminary because of the small sample size (KCT0001076). PMID:25533049

  3. Exploiting the self-sourcing Cane Creek zone of the paradox formation with horizontal wells

    SciTech Connect

    Grummon, M. (Coastal Oil Gas Corp., Denver, CO (United States))

    1993-08-01

    The Cane Creek zone of the Paradox Formation produces oil and gas from fracture-induced permeability and porosity in the Big Flat/Lisbon area of the Paradox basin. Only one of approximately 110 vertical wildcats has been a commercial Cane Creek success, having recovered more than 900,000 bbl oil. Horizontal drilling significantly improves a wildcat success rate by increasing well-bore contact with near-vertical fractures. Six horizontal Cane Creek wells resulted in three discoveries, each with initial flow rates in excess of 1000 BOPD and potential reserves in excess of 500,000 bbl of oil per well. The Cane Creek Shale is the thickest and most productive of the 29 clastic intervals in the Paradox Formation. The reservoir is self-sourced from interbedded black sapropellic dolomites with up to 28% total organic carbon. Micro- and macrofractures, along with some matrix porosity, contribute to reservoir storage capacity, although the relative importance of each remains undetermined. Matrix permeability is very low. Overlying and underlying salt beds provide very effective seals. Well-bore communication with a network of natural fractures is essential to establishing commercial hydrocarbon production. Silty and sandy carbonates are the most fracture-prone lithofacies. The middle silty carbonate zone of the Cane Creek is the primary target for horizontal drilling because of the relative thickness of fracture-prone lithologies, the absence of interbedded anhydrites, and the presence of the best source-rock facies.

  4. Antioxidant effects of grape vine cane extracts from different Chinese grape varieties on edible oils.

    PubMed

    Min, Zhuo; Guo, Zemei; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Ang; Li, Hua; Fang, Yulin

    2014-01-01

    This study involved the determination of the peroxide value (POV) as a measure of the resistance of the oxidation of edible oil with grape vine cane additives to assess their antioxidation potential. The study demonstrated that grape extracts of canes could effectively inhibit the lipid oxidation of edible oils and that this ability varied significantly due to the different extraction solvents employed, as well as to the different varieties of canes used. Lipid oxidation of edible oils was significantly reduced under an accelerated storage condition of 70 ± 1 °C in the presence of Vitamin C (VC), which was chosen as a synergist of grape vine cane extract. A 4:1 ratio of Victoria Blanc-ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) and VC led to a significant lowering of the peroxide value and indicated a better antioxidant effect. Thus, these results indicated that some varieties of grape vine cane extracts could be applied as natural antioxidants for elevation of the quality of edible oils in the food industry. PMID:25251191

  5. DEMONSTRATION OF EQUIVALENCY OF CANE AND SOFTWOOD BASED CELOTEX FOR MODEL 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGES

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, R; Jason Varble, J

    2008-05-27

    Cane-based Celotex{trademark} has been used extensively in various Department of Energy (DOE) packages as a thermal insulator and impact absorber. Cane-based Celotex{trademark} fiberboard was only manufactured by Knight-Celotex Fiberboard at their Marrero Plant in Louisiana. However, Knight-Celotex Fiberboard shut down their Marrero Plant in early 2007 due to impacts from hurricane Katrina and other economic factors. Therefore, cane-based Celotex{trademark} fiberboard is no longer available for use in the manufacture of new shipping packages requiring the material as a component. Current consolidation plans for the DOE Complex require the procurement of several thousand new Model 9975 shipping packages requiring cane-based Celotex{trademark} fiberboard. Therefore, an alternative to cane-based Celotex{trademark} fiberboard is needed. Knight-Celotex currently manufactures Celotex{trademark} fiberboard from other cellulosic materials, such as hardwood and softwood. A review of the relevant literature has shown that softwood-based Celotex{trademark} meets all parameters important to the Model 9975 shipping package.

  6. Plastid transformation in sugar beet: Beta vulgaris.

    PubMed

    De Marchis, Francesca; Bellucci, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Chloroplast biotechnology has assumed great importance in the past 20 years and, thanks to the numerous advantages as compared to conventional transgenic technologies, has been applied in an increasing number of plant species but still very much limited. Hence, it is of utmost importance to extend the range of species in which plastid transformation can be applied. Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is an important industrial crop of the temperate zone in which chloroplast DNA is not transmitted trough pollen. Transformation of the sugar beet genome is performed in several research laboratories; conversely sugar beet plastome genetic transformation is far away from being considered a routine technique. We describe here a method to obtain transplastomic sugar beet plants trough biolistic transformation. The availability of sugar beet transplastomic plants should avoid the risk of gene flow between these cultivated genetic modified sugar beet plants and the wild-type plants or relative wild species. PMID:24599867

  7. Soil Erosion in agro-industrially used Landscapes between High and Anti-Atlas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter, K. D.; Ries, J. B.; Marzolff, I.; d'Oleire-Oltmanns, S.

    2012-04-01

    The Souss basin is characterised by high population dynamics and changing land use. Extensive plantations of citrus fruits, bananas and vegetables in monocropping, mainly for the European market, replace the traditional mixed agriculture with small-area olive orchards and cereal fields. A precipitation of around 200 mm enforces the irrigation of cultivation by deep wells. The spatial vicinity of highly engineered irrigation areas, which are often created by land-levelling measures, and housing estates with highly active gully systems and rapid badland development presents a risk to both the agro-industrial land use and the population settlements. It is investigated whether the levelling measures influence surface runoff and soil erosion and thereby affect the further gully development. The influences of surface characteristics on runoff and soil erosion are analysed. Therefore 91 rainfall simulation experiments using a small portable rainfall simulator and 33 infiltrations by means of a single ring infiltrometer are carried out on seven test sites nearby the city of Taroudant. The rainfall simulations (30 minutes, 40 mm h-1) show an average runoff coefficient of between 54 and 59 % on test sites with land-levelling measures and average runoff coefficients ranging between 36 and 48 % on mostly non-levelled test sites. The average of soil erosion lies on levelled test sites between 52.1 and 81.8 g m-2, on non-levelled test-sites between 13.2 und 23.2 g m-2 per 30 minutes. Accordingly, all the test sites have a rather low infiltration capacity. This can also be confirmed by the low average infiltration depth of only 15.5 cm on levelled test sites. There is often a clear borderline at horizons with a high bulk density caused by compaction. In contrast, on non-levelled test sites, the average infiltration depth reaches 22.2 cm. Reinforcing factors for runoff and soil erosion are slope and soil crusts. Vegetation cover has a reducing influence on surface process activity. Medium rock fragment cover shows high rates of runoff and soil erosion. Hitherto collected data show an explicit difference between levelled and non-levelled test sites. Land-levelling measures clearly influence the generation of surface runoff and soil erosion and consequently, advance the further gully development.

  8. So Sweet: Predict Sugar Content in Food

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    TERC

    2010-01-01

    In this activity, learners will predict how much sugar is in familiar cereals and then use Nutrition Fact Labels to find out. Which cereals are the healthiest? Which has the least sugar? Learners also discuss whether advertisers are likely to tout or hide the amount of sugar in their foods. Variations include trying this basic activity with different foods and with salty snacks. Available as a web page and downloadable pdf.

  9. Dietary Sugar and Ischaemic Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Howell, R. W.; Wilson, D. G.

    1969-01-01

    Comparison of the sugar intake of 1,158 men believed to be free of ischaemic heart disease failed to establish any real difference in intake when compared with 170 men with confirmed or possible ischaemic heart disease. In neither group was mere any significant correlation between sugar intake and serum cholesterol, white blood cell count, haemoglobin, E.S.R., ?-lipoprotein, or uric add; nor was there any correlation between total sugar intake and weight gain after the age of 25 years. These results suggest that considerably more confirmation is required before acceptance of Yudkm's hypothesis that high sugar intake is the chief dietary factor causing ischaemic heart disease. PMID:5792912

  10. Modification of the Potassium Ferricyanide Reducing Sugar Test for Sugars from Extracts of Cotton Fiber

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald E. Brushwood

    For many years the potassium ferricyanide (K3Fe(CN)6) standard sugar test-also known as the Perkins test-has been used by the textile industry to quantify the content of sticky sugars on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) lint. This test, however, is a reducing sugar test and does not detect non-reducing sugars, which are known to contribute to the stickiness potential of the lint.

  11. Pretreatment of cane bagasse with alkaline hydrogen peroxide for enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose and ethanol fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Azzam, A.M. (National Research Centre, Cairo (Egypt))

    1989-01-01

    Pretreatment of the agrocellulosic waste, cane bagasse with alkaline hydrogen peroxide greatly enhances its susceptibility to enzymatic cellulolysis and thus the ethanol production from it. Various process conditions have been studied to optimize the enzymate effectiveness. These conditions include the contact time, the hydrogen peroxide concentration and the pretreatment temperature. Results obtained show, that about 50% of lignin and most of hemicellulose content of can bagasse was solubilized, by 2% alkaline hydrogen peroxide at 30{sup 0}C within 8 h. The cellulose content was consequently increased from 42% in the original cane bagasse to 75% in the oxidized pulp. Saccharification of this pulp residue with cellulase from Trichorderma viride at 45{sup 0}C for 24 h, yielded glucose with 95% efficiency. The efficiency of ethanol production from the insoluble fraction with S. cervisiae was 90% compared to about 50% for untreated cane bagasse.

  12. SUGAR VERSION 1.01 MANUAL (still under construction)

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Page 1 SUGAR VERSION 1.01 MANUAL (still under construction) 1. INTRODUCTION SUGAR v1 implemented. 2. NETLIST PRIMER Basically, the netlist is your MEMS device. It tells Sugar how it's constructed with the beam. (2) Sugar does rotations in the order of {y, z, then x}. To better understand Sugar rotations

  13. Survey on some contaminants in white sugar from Serbian sugar beet refineries.

    PubMed

    Skrbi?, Biljana; Gyura, Julianna

    2006-01-01

    Refined white sugar is a very pure food product, even though it contains very small amounts of soluble and insoluble impurities. The content of these impurities has nutritional significance and determines the usefulness of sugar for various industrial applications. The main quality criteria used to indicate the content of these impurities are ash and colour. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the quality according to the EU sugar market regime and the content of iron, copper and zinc in white sugar samples from Serbian sugar beet refineries during the 2003 campaign. A total of 166 samples representative of the production of four Serbian sugar refineries were investigated. After wet digestion the concentrations of iron, copper and zinc were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The mean content of iron, copper and zinc in sugar samples was 0.37 mg/kg, 0.06 mg/kg and 0.02 mg/kg and was significantly different from the average content 0.28 mg/kg, 0.09 mg/kg and 0.07 mg/kg respectively in the analysed European sugar factories. The data were also compared with literature values for commercial white sugar samples from European sugar beet refineries and European legislation set for copper and zinc. Furthermore, the quality of produced sugar was evaluated according to the standards of the European Union indicating that 76% of all investigated Serbian samples belonged to the second sugar quality category. PMID:16393812

  14. Nitrous oxide emissions in giant cane in the Cache River watershed, southern Illinois

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, A. M.; Williard, K. W.; Schoonover, J.

    2013-12-01

    Large stands of Arundinaria gigantea (Walt.) Muhl, called canebrakes, were vital to wildlife and lowland ecosystem functions and historically covered millions of acres in the southeastern United States. Since European settlement, human disturbances (e.g., clearing for agriculture and fire suppression) have caused giant cane to decline to approximately 2% of its historic range. Cane's ecological importance has led to an increased interest in canebrake restoration in riparian zones. Giant cane is a good candidate to include in multispecies riparian buffers designs, as it promotes infiltration of surface runoff and deposition of sediment and associated nutrients through its high density culms and extensive shallow rooting network. In addition, nitrous oxide is produced naturally in the soil during the microbial processes of nitrification and denitrification. To examine the role that cane plays in nutrient cycling, we have designed a research strategy to determine physical and chemical properties of existing riparian stands of native giant cane and their associated soils. We collected data on soil carbon/nitrogen ratios and monthly nitrous oxide release in both canebrakes and nearby forested riparian areas. Soil in the canebrakes had significantly higher C:N ratios (10.9) than that in cropfields (9.8), but showed no significant difference than that in the forest (10.8). Nitrous oxide emissions had a strong correlation with soil water content (r2 = 24%), but no relation with soil temperature (p > 0.05). There were no significant differences in N2O releases between forest and cane, nor among the monthly samples.

  15. Scientists Discover Sugar in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-06-01

    The prospects for life in the Universe just got sweeter, with the first discovery of a simple sugar molecule in space. The discovery of the sugar molecule glycolaldehyde in a giant cloud of gas and dust near the center of our own Milky Way Galaxy was made by scientists using the National Science Foundation's 12 Meter Telescope, a radio telescope on Kitt Peak, Arizona. "The discovery of this sugar molecule in a cloud from which new stars are forming means it is increasingly likely that the chemical precursors to life are formed in such clouds long before planets develop around the stars," said Jan M. Hollis of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD. Hollis worked with Frank J. Lovas of the University of Illinois and Philip R. Jewell of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank, WV, on the observations, made in May. The scientists have submitted their results to the Astrophysical Journal Letters. "This discovery may be an important key to understanding the formation of life on the early Earth," said Jewell. Conditions in interstellar clouds may, in some cases, mimic the conditions on the early Earth, so studying the chemistry of interstellar clouds may help scientists understand how bio-molecules formed early in our planet's history. In addition, some scientists have suggested that Earth could have been "seeded" with complex molecules by passing comets, made of material from the interstellar cloud that condensed to form the Solar System. Glycolaldehyde, an 8-atom molecule composed of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen, can combine with other molecules to form the more-complex sugars Ribose and Glucose. Ribose is a building block of nucleic acids such as RNA and DNA, which carry the genetic code of living organisms. Glucose is the sugar found in fruits. Glycolaldehyde contains exactly the same atoms, though in a different molecular structure, as methyl formate and acetic acid, both of which were detected previously in interstellar clouds. Glycolaldehyde is a simpler molecular cousin to table sugar, the scientists say. The sugar molecule was detected in a large cloud of gas and dust some 26,000 light-years away, near the center of our Galaxy. Such clouds, often many light-years across, are the material from which new stars are formed. Though very rarified by Earth standards, these interstellar clouds are the sites of complex chemical reactions that occur over hundreds of thousands or millions of years. So far, about 120 different molecules have been discovered in these clouds. Most of these molecules contain a small number of atoms, and only a few molecules with eight or more atoms have been found in interstellar clouds. The 12 Meter Telescope "Finding glycolaldehyde in one of these interstellar clouds means that such molecules can be formed even in very rarified conditions," said Hollis. "We don't yet understand how it could be formed there," he added. "A combination of more astronomical observations and theoretical chemistry work will be required to resolve the mystery of how this molecule is formed in space." "We hope this discovery inspires renewed efforts to find even more kinds of molecules, so that, with a better idea of the total picture, we may be able to deduce the details of the prebiotic chemistry taking place in interstellar clouds," Hollis said. The discovery was made by detecting faint radio emission from the sugar molecules in the interstellar cloud. Molecules rotate end-for-end, and as they change from one rotational energy state to another, they emit radio waves at precise frequencies. The "family" of radio frequencies emitted by a particular molecule forms a unique "fingerprint" that scientists can use to identify that molecule. The scientists identified glycolaldehyde by detecting six frequencies of radio emission in what is termed the millimeter-wavelength region of the electromagnetic spectrum -- a region between more-familiar microwaves and infrared radiation. The NRAO 12 Meter Telescop

  16. CANE FIBERBOARD DEGRADATION WITHIN THE 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE DURING LONG-TERM STORAGE APPLICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.; Dunn, K.; Hackney, B.

    2013-06-19

    The 9975 shipping package is used as part of the configuration for long-term storage of special nuclear materials in the K Area Complex at the Savannah River Site. The cane fiberboard overpack in the 9975 package provides thermal insulation, impact absorption and criticality control functions relevant to this application. The Savannah River National Laboratory has conducted physical, mechanical and thermal tests on aged fiberboard samples to identify degradation rates and support the development of aging models and service life predictions in a storage environment. This paper reviews the data generated to date, and preliminary models describing degradation rates of cane fiberboard in elevated temperature – elevated humidity environments.

  17. AGING MODEL FOR CANE FIBERBOARD OVERPACK IN THE 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.; Harris, S.

    2010-03-05

    Many radioactive material shipping packages incorporate a cane fiberboard overpack for thermal insulation and impact resistance. Mechanical, thermal and physical properties have been measured on cane fiberboard following thermal aging in several temperature/humidity environments. Several of the measured properties change significantly over time in the more severe environments, while other properties are relatively constant. Changes in each of the properties have been fit to a model to allow predictions of degradation under various storage scenarios. Additional data continue to be collected to provide for future refinements to the model.

  18. Fungal invertase as an aid for fermentation of cane molasses into ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Y.K.; Sato, H.H.

    1982-10-01

    Comparative studies of the fermentation of cane molasses into ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the presence or absence of fungal invertase were performed. When cane molasses was fermented by the yeast at 30 degrees Centigrade and pH 5.0, the presence of the enzyme had no effect on ethanol production. At pH 3.4, ethanol production was increased by the addition of invertase. At 40 degrees C, the addition of invertase increased ethanol production by 5.5% at pH 5.0 and by 20.9% at pH 3.5. (Refs. 8).

  19. Checking Your Blood Sugar The only way to be sure your blood sugar is "just right" is to

    E-print Network

    Checking Your Blood Sugar The only way to be sure your blood sugar is "just right" is to check it. Your blood sugar can be high and you may feel fine. If your blood sugar is high, it is damaging your blood vessels and hurting your body, even if you feel fine. #12; How can you check your blood sugar? One

  20. Strategic Sugar Beet Germplasm Resource Development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Smooth-root varieties (SR) have been recognized as desirable since the 1940’s for their potential to reduce soil tare at harvest and at the factory. Until the 1990’s this germplasm had low sugar and was unacceptable. Since 2000, USDA-ARS SR germplasm releases increased sugar content to acceptable le...

  1. Sugar Ester Compounds for Arthropod Control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugar esters, also known as acyl sugars or polyol esters, are a class of compounds that are internationally recognized as food additives. They are commonly used in bakery goods, drugs, cosmetics, food packaging plastics, and in other applications because of their surfactant and emulsifying properti...

  2. DIRECT GENE TRANSFER TO SUGAR BEET LEAVES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugar beet transformation methods in the public domain are not readily reproducible and yield low transformation frequencies. These methods utilize sugar beet cotyledons, shoot basal tissues, and hypocotyl callus generated in tissue culture for gene transfer experiments. We developed a particle bo...

  3. Usual Intake of Energy from added sugars

    Cancer.gov

    Usual Intake of Energy from added sugars Table A41. Energy from added sugars: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 kilocalories Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 150.2

  4. Maple Sugar Harvesting/Wild Rice Harvesting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minneapolis Public Schools, MN.

    Comprised of two separate booklets, this resource unit assists elementary teachers in explaining how the Ojibwe people harvest maple sugar and wild rice. The first booklet explains the procedure of tapping the maple trees for sap, preparation for boiling the sap, and the three forms the sugar is made into (granulated, "molded," and "taffy"). The…

  5. Simple Potentiometric Determination of Reducing Sugars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moresco, Henry; Sanson, Pedro; Seoane, Gustavo

    2008-01-01

    In this article a potentiometric method for reducing sugar quantification is described. Copper(II) ion reacts with the reducing sugar (glucose, fructose, and others), and the excess is quantified using a copper wire indicator electrode. In order to accelerate the kinetics of the reaction, working conditions such as pH and temperature must be…

  6. Natural Product Sugar Biosynthesis and Enzymatic Glycodiversification**

    PubMed Central

    Thibodeaux, Christopher J.; Melançon, Charles E.; Liu, Hung-wen

    2009-01-01

    Many biologically active small molecule natural products produced by microorganisms derive their activities from sugar substituents. Changing the structures of these sugars can have a profound impact on the biological properties of the parent compounds. This realization has inspired attempts to derivatize the sugar moieties of these natural products through exploitation of the sugar biosynthetic machinery. This approach requires an understanding of the biosynthetic pathway of each target sugar and detailed mechanistic knowledge of the key enzymes. Scientists have begun to unravel the biosynthetic logic behind the assembly of many glycosylated natural products, and have found that a core set of enzyme activities is mixed and matched to synthesize the diverse sugar structures observed in nature. Remarkably, many of these sugar biosynthetic enzymes and glycosyltransferases also exhibit relaxed substrate specificity. The promiscuity of these enzymes has prompted efforts to modify the sugar structures and/or alter the glycosylation patterns of natural products via metabolic pathway engineering and/or enzymatic glycodiversification. In applied biomedical research, these studies will enable the development of new glycosylation tools and generate novel glycoforms of secondary metabolites with useful biological activity. PMID:19058170

  7. Keeping Track of Your Blood Sugar

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this can help you adjust your food choices. Exercise also can make your blood sugar levels fluctuate, so test them regularly when you' ... let you input information in addition to your blood sugar test results, like your food intake and daily exercise. If you like to keep track of your ...

  8. CHARACTERIZATION OF ARABIDOPSIS UDP-SUGAR PYROPHOSPHORYLASE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    UDP-sugars are critical substrates for synthesis of cell wall polysaccharides in plants. We used a bioinformatics approach to clone and characterize an UDP-sugar pyrophosphorylase from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtUSP) that has high activity with UDP-glucuronic acid (UDP-GlcA). AtUSP is predicted to be a...

  9. M&M's in Different Sugar Solutions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    James H. Kessler

    2007-01-01

    In this activity, learners investigate whether having sugar already dissolved in water affects the speed of dissolving and the movement of sugar and color through the water. Learners design their own experiment and identify and control variables. This activity is a follow-up to the activity "Racing M&M Colors" (see related resources).

  10. Holograms recorded in dichromated with simple sugars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejias-Brizuela, N. Y.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Grande-Grande, A.

    2011-01-01

    Sugars as glucose and fructose can be used to holographic record. These materials have the advantage to mix very well with K2Cr2O7.Holographic gratings recorded in sugars, were made by a lineal setup to producing interference pattern using a wavelength at 473 nm. These materials have the ability to register information in real time.

  11. 19 CFR 151.25 - Mixing classes of sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Mixing classes of sugar. 151.25 Section 151.25 Customs...SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.25 Mixing classes of sugar. No regulations relative to the...

  12. 15 CFR 2011.204 - Entry of specialty sugars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2011-01-01 false Entry of specialty sugars. 2011.204 Section 2011.204 Commerce...ALLOCATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA ON IMPORTED SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.204 Entry of specialty...

  13. 7 CFR 457.109 - Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions. 457.109...COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.109 Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions. The Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions for...

  14. 7 CFR 457.109 - Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions. 457.109...COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.109 Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions. The Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions for...

  15. 15 CFR 2011.204 - Entry of specialty sugars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 false Entry of specialty sugars. 2011.204 Section 2011.204 Commerce...ALLOCATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA ON IMPORTED SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.204 Entry of specialty...

  16. 15 CFR 2011.203 - Issuance of specialty sugar certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Issuance of specialty sugar certificates. 2011.203 Section 2011...ALLOCATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA ON IMPORTED SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.203 Issuance of specialty...

  17. OVERALL VIEW OF THE MILL WITH SUGAR BIN LEFT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERALL VIEW OF THE MILL WITH SUGAR BIN LEFT OF CENTER, CLEANING PLANT TO RIGHT, SEED TREATMENT PLANT TO LEFT. VIEW FROM THE EAST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  18. 15 CFR 2011.204 - Entry of specialty sugars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2014-01-01 false Entry of specialty sugars. 2011.204 Section 2011.204 Commerce...ALLOCATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA ON IMPORTED SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.204 Entry of specialty...

  19. 15 CFR 2011.204 - Entry of specialty sugars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012-01-01 false Entry of specialty sugars. 2011.204 Section 2011.204 Commerce...ALLOCATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA ON IMPORTED SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.204 Entry of specialty...

  20. 7 CFR 457.109 - Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions. 457.109...COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.109 Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions. The Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions for...

  1. 7 CFR 1435.603 - Eligible sugar seller.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eligible sugar seller. 1435.603 Section 1435...LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Feedstock Flexibility Program § 1435.603 Eligible sugar seller. (a) To be considered an...

  2. 15 CFR 2011.204 - Entry of specialty sugars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2013-01-01 false Entry of specialty sugars. 2011.204 Section 2011.204 Commerce...ALLOCATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA ON IMPORTED SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.204 Entry of specialty...

  3. 15 CFR 2011.203 - Issuance of specialty sugar certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Issuance of specialty sugar certificates. 2011.203 Section 2011...ALLOCATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA ON IMPORTED SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.203 Issuance of specialty...

  4. SUGAR BIN WITH EAST WALL OF CRUSHING MILL TO ITS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SUGAR BIN WITH EAST WALL OF CRUSHING MILL TO ITS RIGHT. CONVEYOR FROM BOILING HOUSE ABOVE. VIEW FROM THE NORTHEAST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  5. 19 CFR 151.25 - Mixing classes of sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Mixing classes of sugar. 151.25 Section 151.25 Customs...SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.25 Mixing classes of sugar. No regulations relative to the...

  6. 7 CFR 1435.401 - CCC sugar inventory disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false CCC sugar inventory disposition. 1435.401 ...LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Disposition of CCC Inventory § 1435.401 CCC sugar inventory disposition. (a)...

  7. VIEW OF UNLOADING STATION THAT WAS ADDED IN 1997. SUGAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF UNLOADING STATION THAT WAS ADDED IN 1997. SUGAR BIN AND MILL IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. VIEW FROM THE NORTHEAST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  8. 7 CFR 457.109 - Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions. 457.109...COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.109 Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions. The Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions for...

  9. 15 CFR 2011.203 - Issuance of specialty sugar certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Issuance of specialty sugar certificates. 2011.203 Section 2011...ALLOCATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA ON IMPORTED SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.203 Issuance of specialty...

  10. 19 CFR 151.25 - Mixing classes of sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Mixing classes of sugar. 151.25 Section 151.25 Customs...SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.25 Mixing classes of sugar. No regulations relative to the...

  11. 15 CFR 2011.203 - Issuance of specialty sugar certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Issuance of specialty sugar certificates. 2011.203 Section 2011...ALLOCATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA ON IMPORTED SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.203 Issuance of specialty...

  12. 4. View of castiron sugar kettle with mill ruins in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View of cast-iron sugar kettle with mill ruins in background, looking S. - Laurel Valley Sugar Plantation, Sugar Mill, 2 miles South of Thibodaux on State Route 308, Thibodaux, Lafourche Parish, LA

  13. 15 CFR 2011.203 - Issuance of specialty sugar certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Issuance of specialty sugar certificates. 2011.203 Section 2011...ALLOCATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA ON IMPORTED SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.203 Issuance of specialty...

  14. 19 CFR 151.25 - Mixing classes of sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Mixing classes of sugar. 151.25 Section 151.25 Customs...SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.25 Mixing classes of sugar. No regulations relative to the...

  15. Moisture sorption curves of fruit and nut cereal bar prepared with sugar and sugar substitutes.

    PubMed

    Pallavi, Byrappa Vasu; Chetana, Ramakrishna; Ravi, Ramaswamy; Reddy, Sunkireddy Yella

    2015-03-01

    Low sugar, low fat, dry fruit and nut cereal bars without sugar were prepared using cereals, nuts, and sugar substitutes. The sorption characteristics of the bars prepared with sugar substitutes in comparison with that of sugar were studied by keeping the bars at water activity (aw) from 0.1 to 0.9. The sorption isotherms of low sugar bars were practically identical below aw of 0.5 but above aw of 0.5, a clear differentiation in the isotherms could be observed compared to that of sugar counterpart. A sharp increase in moisture content was observed in the bars prepared with alternative sweeteners, above aw 0.6, whereas a gradual increase in aw was observed in the case of bar prepared with sugar. The ERH (Equilibrium relative humidity) value for bar with sugar was 50 %, and for bars prepared with alternative sweeteners, it was about 60 %. Low sugar cereal bar prepared with sorbitol + maltitol (SM) syrup scored higher sensory quality compared to other product prepared with sorbitol + nutriose (SN) as the former retained softness and chewiness on storage. Thus, it was observed that bars with alternative sweeteners will be more stable as their ERH is closer to normal ambient conditions compared to that prepared with sugar. PMID:25745238

  16. Equilibrium dialysis using chromophoric sugar derivatives.

    PubMed

    Hatakeyama, Tomomitsu

    2014-01-01

    Equilibrium dialysis has been used to examine the binding affinity of ligands to proteins. It is a simple and reliable method, which requires only inexpensive equipment. For analysis of lectin-sugar interactions, the lectin and sugar are placed in the individual chambers separated by the membrane to allow the sugar to diffuse into the lectin chamber. After equilibrium has been reached, the concentrations of the sugar in both chambers are determined to evaluate the sugar-binding affinity of lectin. In this chapter, an example of the equilibrium dialysis experiment using the chromophoric derivatives of galactose and N-acetylgalactosamine is demonstrated, which reveals the difference in the affinity as well as specificities of two different carbohydrate-binding sites present in the B-chains of the plant lectin ricin. PMID:25117234

  17. Improved detection of sugar addition to maple syrup using malic acid as internal standard and in 13C isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS).

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Patrice; Paquin, Réal

    2007-01-24

    Stable carbon isotope ratio mass spectrometry (delta13C IRMS) was used to detect maple syrup adulteration by exogenous sugar addition (beet and cane sugar). Malic acid present in maple syrup is proposed as an isotopic internal standard to improve actual adulteration detection levels. A lead precipitation method has been modified to isolate quantitatively malic acid from maple syrup using preparative reversed-phase liquid chromatography. The stable carbon isotopic ratio of malic acid isolated from this procedure shows an excellent accuracy and repeatability of 0.01 and 0.1 per thousand respectively, confirming that the modified lead precipitation method is an isotopic fractionation-free process. A new approach is proposed to detect adulteration based on the correlation existing between the delta13Cmalic acid and the delta13Csugars-delta13Cmalic acid (r = 0.704). This technique has been tested on a set of 56 authentic maple syrup samples. Additionally, authentic samples were spiked with exogeneous sugars. The mean theoretical detection level was statistically lowered using this technique in comparison with the usual two-standard deviation approach, especially when maple syrup is adulterated with beet sugar : 24 +/- 12% of adulteration detection versus 48 +/- 20% (t-test, p = 7.3 x 10-15). The method was also applied to published data for pineapple juices and honey with the same improvement. PMID:17227042

  18. R&D priorities in the field of sustainable remediation and purification of agro-industrial and municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Miksch, Korneliusz; Cema, Grzegorz; Corvini, Philippe F-X; Felis, Ewa; Sochacki, Adam; Surmacz-Górska, Joanna; Wiszniowski, Jaros?aw; Zabczynski, Sebastian

    2015-01-25

    This article was presented as a position paper during the Environmental Biotechnology and Microbiology Conference in Bologna, Italy in April 2012. It indicates major and emerging environmental biotechnology research and development (R&D) priorities for EU members in the field of sustainable remediation and purification of agro-industrial and municipal wastewater. The identified priorities are: anaerobic/aerobic microbial treatment, combination of photochemical and biological treatment, phytoremediation and algae-based remediation, as well as innovative technologies currently investigated, such as enzyme-based treatment, bioelectrochemical treatment and recovery of nutrients and reuse of cleaned water. State of the art, research needs and prospective development in these domains are crucially discussed. As a result, goals of the future development of bioremediation and purification processes are defined and the way to achieve them is proposed. PMID:24284044

  19. Utilization of biogas produced by anaerobic digestion of agro-industrial waste: Energy, economic and environmental effects.

    PubMed

    Hublin, Andrea; Schneider, Daniel Rolph; Džodan, Janko

    2014-06-24

    Anaerobic digestion of agro-industrial waste is of significant interest in order to facilitate a sustainable development of energy supply. Using of material and energy potentials of agro-industrial waste, in the framework of technical, economic, and ecological possibilities, contributes in increasing the share of energy generated from renewable energy sources. The paper deals with the benefits arising from the utilization of biogas produced by co-digestion of whey and cow manure. The advantages of this process are the profitability of the plant and the convenience in realizing an anaerobic digestion plant to produce biogas that is enabled by the benefits from the sale of electric energy at favorable prices. Economic aspects are related to the capital cost (€ 2,250,000) of anaerobic digestion treatment in a biogas plant with a 300 kW power and 510 kW heating unit in a medium size farm (450 livestock units). Considering the optimum biogas yield of 20.7 dm(3) kg(-1) of wet substrate and methane content in the biogas obtained of 79%, the anaerobic process results in a daily methane production of 2,500 kg, with the maximum power generation of 2,160,000 kWh y(-1) and heat generation of 2,400,000 kWh y(-1). The net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR) and payback period for implementation of profitable anaerobic digestion process is evaluated. Ecological aspects related to carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emission reduction are assessed. PMID:24963093

  20. Teaching the Use of a Long Cane Step by Step: Suggestions for Progressive, Methodical Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauerburger, Dona; Bourquin, Eugene

    2010-01-01

    A fundamental part of the orientation and mobility curriculum is the acquisition and retention of skills in using a long cane automatically and proficiently to detect and negotiate obstacles and drop-offs. Using practitioners' experiences and the principles of learning theory, instructors can monitor students' advancement and adapt teaching…

  1. EXISTENCE OF A TRAIL FOLLOWING PHEROMONE ON THE SILKY CANE WEEVIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ABSTRACT The silky cane weevil (SCW), Metamasius hemipterus sericeus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a pest of sugarcane, and palms, and was introduced into Florida in the mid-1980s. In laboratory tests it was observed that weevils followed tracks already walked by other co-specifics and ex...

  2. Comparative analyses of stilbenoids in canes of major Vitis vinifera L. cultivars.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Carole; Richard, Tristan; Renouf, Elodie; Bisson, Jonathan; Waffo-Téguo, Pierre; Bordenave, Louis; Ollat, Nathalie; Mérillon, Jean-Michel; Cluzet, Stéphanie

    2013-11-27

    Grapevine canes are rich in resveratrol and its complex derivatives. These compounds have many biological activities and are needed mainly for health purposes. Canes, which are often wasted, can be used to produce these high-value compounds at low cost. We studied sixteen Vitis vinifera L. cultivars among the most widely cultivated ones worldwide. Polyphenols were extracted from their canes and identified by liquid chromatography-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. We accurately determined the content of E-?-viniferin, E-resveratrol, E-piceatannol, and vitisin B and, for the first time, that of hopeaphenol and miyabenol C. The canes did not contain these major stilbene compounds in similar proportions, and their abundance and order of abundance varied according to the cultivar. For instance, Pinot noir has very high levels of E-resveratrol and E-?-viniferin; Gewurztraminer has very high levels of vitisin B, and Carignan and Riesling have very high levels of hopeaphenol. These findings suggest that the right cultivar should be used to obtain the highest yield of a polyphenol of interest. PMID:24171397

  3. Invasive cane toads ( Bufo marinus) cause mass mortality of freshwater crocodiles ( Crocodylus johnstoni) in tropical Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mike Letnic; Jonathan K. Webb; Richard Shine

    2008-01-01

    Invasive species are frequently blamed for faunal declines, but there is little direct evidence about the pathways, magnitude and size-selectivity of mortality induced by invaders. Top predators are of particular interest in this context, because their removal can generate substantial cascades of secondary effects on community composition. Cane toads (Bufo marinus) are large South American anurans currently spreading rapidly through

  4. Biomechanical Movements in Experienced Cane Users with and without Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Robert S.; Ashmead, Daniel H.

    2002-01-01

    Travelers with visual impairments and orientation and mobility (O&M) instructors were assessed in their performance of the two-point touch cane technique. Both groups deviated similarly from classical stipulations of the technique, having wider arc widths and hand positions off of midline. Measures of body coverage and rhythm were less than ideal.…

  5. TESTING FOR A TRAIL FOLLOWING PHEROMONE ON THE SILKY CANE WEEVIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The silky cane weevil (SCW), Metamasius hemipterus sericeus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a pest of sugarcane, and palms, and was introduced into Florida in the mid-1980s. In laboratory tests it was observed that weevils followed tracks already walked by other co-specifics and experiments...

  6. WHITE PAPER: DEMONSTRATION OF EQUIVALENCY OF CANE AND SOFTWOOD BASED CELOTEX FOR 9975 PACKAGING

    SciTech Connect

    Varble, J

    2007-11-20

    Cane-based Celotex{trademark} has been used extensively in various DOE packages as a thermal insulator and impact absorber. Cane-based Celotex{trademark} for the 9975 was manufactured by Knight-Celotex Fiberboard at their Marrero Plant in Louisiana. However, Knight-Celotex Fiberboard shut down their Marrero Plant in early 2007 due to impacts from hurricane Katrina and other economic factors. Therefore, cane-based Celotex{trademark} is no longer available for use in the manufacture of new 9975 packages. Knight-Celotex Fiberboard has Celotex{trademark} manufacturing plants in Danville, VA and Sunbury, PA that use softwood and hardwood, respectively, as a raw material in the manufacturing of Celotex{trademark}. The purpose of this White Paper is to demonstrate that softwood-based Celotex{trademark} from the Knight-Celotex Danville Plant has performance equivalent to cane-based Celotex{trademark} from the Knight-Celotex Marrero Plant for transportation in a 9975 package.

  7. ORAL PRESENTATION ABSTRACT Design of a User Interface for Smart Cane

    E-print Network

    Haykin, Simon

    ORAL PRESENTATION ABSTRACT Design of a User Interface for Smart Cane by Piragath Mahalingam. The hardware design of the user interface, the algorithm of signal processing, and the experimental data interface between the input and user is a vital part in communicating information to the user. The spatial

  8. Measuring Energetics and Behaviour Using Accelerometry in Cane Toads Bufo marinus

    PubMed Central

    Halsey, Lewis G.; White, Craig R.

    2010-01-01

    Cane toads Bufo marinus were introduced to Australia as a control agent but now have a rapidly progressing invasion front and damage new habitats they enter. Predictive models that can give expansion rates as functions of energy supply and feeding ground distribution could help to maximise control efficiency but to date no study has measured rates of field energy expenditure in an amphibian. In the present study we used the accelerometry technique to generate behavioural time budgets and, through the derivation of ODBA (overall dynamic body acceleration), to obtain estimates of energetics in free ranging cane toads. This represents the first time that accelerometers have been used to not only quantify the behaviour of animals but also assign to those behaviours rates of energy expenditure. Firstly, laboratory calibrations between ODBA and metabolic rate were obtained and used to generate a common prediction equation for the subject toads (R2?=?0.74). Furthermore, acceleration data recorded during different behaviours was studied to ascertain threshold values for objectively defining behaviour categories. Importantly, while subsequent accelerometer field deployments were relatively short they agreed with previous studies on the proportion of time that cane toads locomote yet suggest that the metabolic rate of cane toads in the wild may sometimes be considerably higher than might be assumed based on data for other species. PMID:20422048

  9. Sugar Industry Influence on the Scientific Agenda of the National Institute of Dental Research’s 1971 National Caries Program: A Historical Analysis of Internal Documents

    PubMed Central

    Kearns, Cristin E.; Glantz, Stanton A.; Schmidt, Laura A.

    2015-01-01

    Background In 1966, the National Institute of Dental Research (NIDR) began planning a targeted research program to identify interventions for widespread application to eradicate dental caries (tooth decay) within a decade. In 1971, the NIDR launched the National Caries Program (NCP). The objective of this paper is to explore the sugar industry’s interaction with the NIDR to alter the research priorities of the NIDR NCP. Methods and Findings We used internal cane and beet sugar industry documents from 1959 to 1971 to analyze industry actions related to setting research priorities for the NCP. The sugar industry could not deny the role of sucrose in dental caries given the scientific evidence. They therefore adopted a strategy to deflect attention to public health interventions that would reduce the harms of sugar consumption rather than restricting intake. Industry tactics included the following: funding research in collaboration with allied food industries on enzymes to break up dental plaque and a vaccine against tooth decay with questionable potential for widespread application, cultivation of relationships with the NIDR leadership, consulting of members on an NIDR expert panel, and submission of a report to the NIDR that became the foundation of the first request for proposals issued for the NCP. Seventy-eight percent of the sugar industry submission was incorporated into the NIDR’s call for research applications. Research that could have been harmful to sugar industry interests was omitted from priorities identified at the launch of the NCP. Limitations are that this analysis relies on one source of sugar industry documents and that we could not interview key actors. Conclusions The NCP was a missed opportunity to develop a scientific understanding of how to restrict sugar consumption to prevent tooth decay. A key factor was the alignment of research agendas between the NIDR and the sugar industry. This historical example illustrates how industry protects itself from potentially damaging research, which can inform policy makers today. Industry opposition to current policy proposals—including a World Health Organization guideline on sugars proposed in 2014 and changes to the nutrition facts panel on packaged food in the US proposed in 2014 by the US Food and Drug Administration—should be carefully scrutinized to ensure that industry interests do not supersede public health goals. PMID:25756179

  10. Impacts of energy cane expansion on ecosystem services: A Florida case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagley, J. E.; VanLoocke, A.; Jaiswal, D.; Bernacchi, C. J.; Long, S.

    2012-12-01

    There is a rising demand for sustainable and secure sources of energy. This demand is driving the development of second-generation biofuel crops across the United States. However, in a changing climate the capability of these crops to meet energy demands are uncertain. Additionally, the impacts of energy crop adoption on biophysical and biochemical ecosystem services need to be refined. Central Florida has been identified as a test bed for energy cane in anticipation of increased investment for energy crop production in the southeastern United States. Currently, the land cover in this region is characterized by pasturelands with relatively low rates of productivity and evapotranspiration. By replacing these lands with highly productive and irrigated energy cane significant perturbations to the local and regional budgets of water, energy, and carbon are anticipated. In this study, we extend the Agro-IBIS LSM with a mechanistic multilayer canopy model of biofuel crops to simulate inter-canopy fluxes of energy, moisture, and carbon. We validate the model using published leaf area, surface flux, and yield observations taken from studies that encompassed variable soil types, climatic conditions, and management decisions. This extended Agro-IBIS model is used to simulate the growth of energy cane in central Florida. Using this model we assess the potential impacts of large-scale changes in land cover on future ecosystem services for the region. In particular, we focus on how changes in atmospheric CO2 and temperature influence energy cane's regulation of surface fluxes and storage. Using a series of simulations that represent a range of climatic regimes we test how increased atmospheric carbon concentrations may enhance or diminish stresses associated with changes in regional climate, and how the physiological plant responses feedback on fluxes between the land surface and the atmosphere. This allows us to quantitatively evaluate how large-scale energy cane production will impact regional budgets of water, energy, and carbon.

  11. How Much Sugar Is in Bubble Gum?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    Some of the flavoring in bubble gum is due to the sugar or other sweetener it contains. As gum is chewed, the sugar dissolves and is swallowed. After a piece of gum loses its sweetness, it can be left to dry at room temperature and then the difference between its initial (unchewed) mass and its chewed mass can be used to calculate the percentage of sugar in the gum. This demonstration experiment is used to generate new questions about gums and their ingredients, and students can then design and execute new experiments based on their own questions.

  12. Removal of malachite green dye from aqueous solution by adsorption using agro-industry waste: a case study of Prosopis cineraria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. K Garg; Rakesh Kumar; Renuka Gupta

    2004-01-01

    Adsorbents prepared from Prosopis Cineraria sawdust—an agro-industry waste—were successfully used to remove the malachite green from an aqueous solution in a batch reactor. The adsorbents included formaldehyde-treated sawdust (PCSD) and sulphuric acid-treated sawdust (PCSDC). The effects of adsorbent surface change, initial pH, initial dye concentration, adsorbent mass and contact time on dye removal have been determined. Similar experiments were carried

  13. Biological treatment of chemically flocculated agro-industrial waste from the wool scouring industry by an aerobic process without sludge recycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew J Poole; Ralf Cord-Ruwisch; F. William Jones

    1999-01-01

    A new agro-industrial effluent known as Sirolan CF effluent is the aqueous phase remaining after the chemical flocculation of wool scouring effluent by the Sirolan CF process. This effluent has been characterized, and shown to be effectively treated by biological degradation. It has a high concentration of organic material (5750mg\\/L COD), with a low BOD5\\/COD ratio (0.29). Aerobic biological treatment

  14. Extracellular ligninolytic enzymes by Lentinus polychrous Lév. under solid-state fermentation of potential agro-industrial wastes and their effectiveness in decolorization of synthetic dyes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rakrudee Sarnthima; Saranyu Khammuang; Jisnuson Svasti

    2009-01-01

    Six agro-industrial wastes were evaluated as a support for ligninolytic enzyme production by the white-rot fungus Lentinus polychrous Lév. under solid-state fermentation. Enzyme production was markedly different according to the substrate used. Rice bran\\u000a (RB) yielded the highest laccase activity of 1,449 U\\/L (after 21 days of culture) with specific activity of 4.4 U\\/g substrate.\\u000a Rice bran supplemented with rice

  15. Sugar regulation of SUGAR TRANSPORTER PROTEIN 1 (STP1) expression in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Cordoba, Elizabeth; Aceves-Zamudio, Denise Lizeth; Hernández-Bernal, Alma Fabiola; Ramos-Vega, Maricela; León, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Sugars regulate the expression of many genes at the transcriptional level. In Arabidopsis thaliana, sugars induce or repress the expression of >1800 genes, including the STP1 (SUGAR TRANSPORTER PROTEIN 1) gene, which encodes an H(+)/monosaccharide cotransporter. STP1 transcript levels decrease more rapidly after the addition of low concentrations of sugars than the levels of other repressed genes, such as DIN6 (DARK-INDUCED 6). We found that this regulation is exerted at the transcriptional level and is initiated by phosphorylatable sugars. Interestingly, the sugar signal that modulates STP1 expression is transmitted through a HEXOKINASE 1-independent signalling pathway. Finally, analysis of the STP1 5' regulatory region allowed us to delimit a region of 309bp that contains the cis elements implicated in the glucose regulation of STP1 expression. Putative cis-acting elements involved in this response were identified. PMID:25281700

  16. Sugar regulation of SUGAR TRANSPORTER PROTEIN 1 (STP1) expression in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Cordoba, Elizabeth; Aceves-Zamudio, Denise Lizeth; Hernández-Bernal, Alma Fabiola; Ramos-Vega, Maricela; León, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Sugars regulate the expression of many genes at the transcriptional level. In Arabidopsis thaliana, sugars induce or repress the expression of >1800 genes, including the STP1 (SUGAR TRANSPORTER PROTEIN 1) gene, which encodes an H+/monosaccharide cotransporter. STP1 transcript levels decrease more rapidly after the addition of low concentrations of sugars than the levels of other repressed genes, such as DIN6 (DARK-INDUCED 6). We found that this regulation is exerted at the transcriptional level and is initiated by phosphorylatable sugars. Interestingly, the sugar signal that modulates STP1 expression is transmitted through a HEXOKINASE 1-independent signalling pathway. Finally, analysis of the STP1 5? regulatory region allowed us to delimit a region of 309bp that contains the cis elements implicated in the glucose regulation of STP1 expression. Putative cis-acting elements involved in this response were identified. PMID:25281700

  17. Knoevenagel Reaction of Unprotected Sugars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherrmann, Marie-Christine

    The Knoevenagel reaction of unprotected sugars was investigated in the 1950s using zinc chloride as promoter. The so-called Garcia Gonzalez reaction had been almost forgotten for 50 years, until the emergence of new water tolerant catalysts having Lewis acid behavior. The reaction was thus reinvestigated and optimal conditions have been found to prepare trihydroxylated furan derivatives from pentose or ?-tetrahydrofuranylfuran from hexoses with non-cyclic ?-keto ester or ?-diketones. Other valuable compounds such as ?-linked tetrahydrobenzofuranyl glycosides or hydroxyalkyl-3,3,6,6,-tetramethyl-3,4,5,6,7,9-hexahydro-1H-xanthene-1,8(2H)-dione can be obtained using cyclic ?-dicarbonylic derivatives. Apart from one report in the 1950s, the Knoevenagel reaction of unprotected carbohydrate in basic condition has been studied only in the mid-1980s to prepare C-glycosyl barbiturates from barbituric acids and, later on, from non-cyclic ?-diketones, ?-C-glycosidic ketones. The efficient method exploited to prepare such compounds has found an industrial development in cosmetics.

  18. Comparative Evaluation of Agroindustrial Byproducts for the Production of Alkaline Protease by Wild and Mutant Strains of Bacillus subtilis in Submerged and Solid State Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Haq, Ikramul

    2013-01-01

    The present study describes the screening of different agroindustrial byproducts for enhanced production of alkaline protease by a wild and EMS induced mutant strain of Bacillus subtilis IH-72EMS8. During submerged fermentation, different agro-industrial byproducts were tested which include defatted seed meals of rape, guar, sunflower, gluten, cotton, soybean, and gram. In addition to these meals, rice bran, wheat bran, and wheat flour were also evaluated for protease production. Of all the byproducts tested, soybean meal at a concentration of 20?g/L gave maximum production of the enzyme, that is, 5.74??±??0.26?U/mL from wild and 11.28??±??0.45?U/mL from mutant strain, during submerged fermentation. Different mesh sizes (coarse, medium, and fine) of the soybean meal were also evaluated, and a finely ground soybean meal (fine mesh) was found to be the best. In addition to the defatted seed meals, their alkali extracts were also tested for the production of alkaline protease by Bacillus subtilis, but these were proved nonsignificant for enhanced production of the enzyme. The production of the enzyme was also studied in solid state fermentation, and different agro-industrial byproducts were also evaluated for enzyme production. Wheat bran partially replaced with guar meal was found as the best substrate for maximum enzyme production under solid state fermentation conditions. PMID:24294129

  19. Comparative evaluation of agroindustrial byproducts for the production of alkaline protease by wild and mutant strains of Bacillus subtilis in submerged and solid state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Mukhtar, Hamid; Haq, Ikramul

    2013-01-01

    The present study describes the screening of different agroindustrial byproducts for enhanced production of alkaline protease by a wild and EMS induced mutant strain of Bacillus subtilis IH-72(EMS8). During submerged fermentation, different agro-industrial byproducts were tested which include defatted seed meals of rape, guar, sunflower, gluten, cotton, soybean, and gram. In addition to these meals, rice bran, wheat bran, and wheat flour were also evaluated for protease production. Of all the byproducts tested, soybean meal at a concentration of 20?g/L gave maximum production of the enzyme, that is, 5.74??±??0.26?U/mL from wild and 11.28??±??0.45?U/mL from mutant strain, during submerged fermentation. Different mesh sizes (coarse, medium, and fine) of the soybean meal were also evaluated, and a finely ground soybean meal (fine mesh) was found to be the best. In addition to the defatted seed meals, their alkali extracts were also tested for the production of alkaline protease by Bacillus subtilis, but these were proved nonsignificant for enhanced production of the enzyme. The production of the enzyme was also studied in solid state fermentation, and different agro-industrial byproducts were also evaluated for enzyme production. Wheat bran partially replaced with guar meal was found as the best substrate for maximum enzyme production under solid state fermentation conditions. PMID:24294129

  20. Enhancement of dibenzothiophene desulfurization by Gordonia alkanivorans strain 1B using sugar beet molasses as alternative carbon source.

    PubMed

    Alves, Luís; Paixão, Susana M

    2014-03-01

    There are several problems limiting an industrial application of fossil fuel biodesulfurization, and one of them is the cost of culture media used to grow the microorganisms involved in the process. In this context, the utilization of alternative carbon sources resulting from agro-industrial by-products could be a strategy to reduce the investment in the operating expenses of a future industrial application. Recently, Gordonia alkanivorans 1B was described as a fructophilic desulfurizing bacterium, and this characteristic opens a new interest in alternative carbon sources rich in fructose. Thus, the goal of this study was to evaluate the utilization of sugar beet molasses (SBM) in the dibenzothiophene (DBT) desulfurization process using strain 1B. SBM firstly treated with 0.25% BaCl2 (w/v) was used after sucrose acidic hydrolysis or in a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process with a Zygosaccharomyces bailii Talf1 invertase (1%), showing promising results. In optimal conditions, strain 1B presented a ? max of 0.0795 h(-1), and all DBT was converted to 2-hydroxybiphenyl (250 ?M) within 48 h with a maximum production rate of 7.78 ?M h(-1). Our results showed the high potential of SBM to be used in a future industrial fossil fuel biodesulfurization process using strain 1B. PMID:24519629